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Sample records for m-type barium hexaferrite

  1. Ce3+ incorporated structural and magnetic properties of M type barium hexaferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawar, R. A.; Desai, S. S.; Tamboli, Q. Y.; Shirsath, Sagar E.; Patange, S. M.

    2015-03-01

    M type barium hexaferrites BaCexFe12-xO19 (0≤x≤0.3) (BCFO) were synthesized by the sol-gel auto combination method. Optimum annealing temperature of hexagonal phase was determined by using the TGA analysis. The annealing temperature form the TGA is 1000 °C samples annealed 1000 °C for 5 h to produce M type hexaferrites. X-ray diffraction data run to full Prof Program (Winploter 2010) pattern indicate that samples are single phase hexagonal structure with space group P63/mmc. Lattice parameter 'a' and 'c' increase with increase in Ce content x. Results of field emission scanning electron microscope show that the grains are regular hexagonal platelets with sizes from 0.3 to 1.4 μm. It is observed that from M-H curve value of the saturation magnetization and coercivity decreases with increasing x. Curie temperature from magnetization with temperature plot is found to decrease with Ce3+ substitution x due to decreases in magnetic interaction.

  2. Structural and magnetic properties of Cu-V substituted M-type barium hexaferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood, Sami H.; Awadallah, Ahmad; Maswadeh, Yazan; Bsoul, Ibrahim

    2015-10-01

    In search of magnetic materials with improved magnetic characteristics for practical applications, M-type barium hexaferrites with Fe3+ ions partially substituted by a mixture of Cu and V ions were prepared by ball milling and sintering at 1200° C. The structural analyses of the prepared BaFe12-2xCuxVxO19 samples (x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4) revealed the presence of BaM phase, in addition to α-Fe2O3, Ba3V2O8, and BaFe2O4 nonmagnetic phases which evolved as x increased. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging demonstrated the presence of different phases in the substituted samples, and a general trend of particle-size growth with increasing x. Energy dispersive spectroscopy was used to examine the local stoichiometry of the samples, and confirmed the different phases identified by XRD analysis. The saturation magnetization was found to be high for low substitution level (72 emu/g for the sample with x = 0.1 sintered for 2 h, and 65 emu/g for the sample sintered for 10 h), while it decreased significantly with increasing the substitution level. The coercivity (Hc) for the samples sintered for 2 h was found to decrease sharply with increasing x, even at low substitution levels (x < 0.2), where it decreased from about 3.5 kOe for the un-substituted sample down to about 1.6 kOe for the sample with x = 0.1, and down to below 0.3 kOe at higher substitution levels. The coercivity of the sample with x = 0.1 sintered for 10 h reduced further, down to about 677 Oe, demonstrating properties demanded for magnetic recording applications. Further, washing with HCl was found to remove some of the nonmagnetic phases, and increase the yield of the BaM phase.

  3. Mössbauer and X-ray diffraction study of Co2+-Si4+ substituted M-type barium hexaferrite BaFe12-2хСохSiхO19±γ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solovyova, E. D.; Pashkova, E. V.; Ivanitski, V. P.; V‧yunov, O. I.; Belous, A. G.

    2013-03-01

    Using X-ray powder diffractions, Mössbauer spectroscopy, and magnetic measurements, the effect of dopants (Co2++Si4+) on the fine structure and magnetic properties of M-type barium hexaferrite prepared by hydroxide and carbonate precipitations has been studied. It has been shown that the magnetic properties of M-type barium hexaferrite can be controlled by heterovalent substitution 2Fe3+→Со2++Sі4+.

  4. Microwave absorption properties of Al- and Cr-substituted M-type barium hexaferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Jianxun; Gu, Mingyuan; Shen, Haigen

    2005-09-01

    Aluminum- and chromium-substituted barium ferrite particles with single magnetic domain were prepared using self-propagating combustion method. The crystalline structure, size, coercivity and microwave absorption property of the particles were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometry and vector network analyzer. The results show that the crystalline structure of BaFe 12-xAl xO 19 is still hexagonal. But when the chromium substitution amount y exceeds 0.6, the extra chromium ions cannot enter the lattice of BaFe 12-yCr yO 19. After Fe 3+ is partly substituted with Al 3+ and Cr 3+, the microwave absorption properties of barium ferrite are improved. The maximum absorption reaches 34.76 dB. The ferromagnetic resonance is an important channel of barium ferrite to absorb microwaves with high frequency. Aluminum and chromium substitutions change the ferromagnetic resonant frequency of barium ferrite. The multipeak phenomenon of the ferromagnetic resonance increases the microwave absorption capability of barium ferrite.

  5. Structural, magnetic and dielectrical properties of Al-Cr Co-substituted M-type barium hexaferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alange, R. C.; Khirade, Pankaj P.; Birajdar, Shankar D.; Humbe, Ashok V.; Jadhav, K. M.

    2016-02-01

    Al3+ and Cr3+ co-substituted barium hexaferrite BaCrxAlxFe12-2xO19 (x = 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0) nanoparticles were prepared by using sol-gel auto combustion method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed the formation of M-type hexagonal crystal structure with some additional peaks of Fe2O3. Various structural parameters such as lattice constants (a and c), unit cell volume (V), X-ray density (ρx), bulk density (ρm) and porosity (P) were determined using XRD data. The lattice constant (a), X-ray density (ρx) and porosity (P) decreases with increase in Fe content x. The grain size determined from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images is in the nanometer range. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the formation of hexagonal ferrite structure for all the calcined samples. The M-H curves recorded at room temperature using pulse field hysteresis loop tracer technique exhibited typical hysteresis loop indicating that the sample exhibits ferromagnetic nature. The large coercivity (Hc) values indicate the nanocrystalline nature of the present samples. The coercivity (Hc), saturation magnetization (Ms), remanence magnetization (Mr) and magneton number (nB) decreases with increase in Al-Cr content x. The dielectric parameters such as dielectric constant (ɛ‧), dielectric loss (ɛ″) and loss tangent (tan δ) were measured at room temperature in the frequency range 50 Hz to 5 MHz. All the dielectrical parameters show compositional as a function of frequency dependences. At lower frequencies, it is observed that the dielectric constant (ɛ‧), dielectric loss (ɛ″) and loss tangent (tan δ) are high.

  6. Magnetic study of M-type doped barium hexaferrite nanocrystalline particles

    SciTech Connect

    Alsmadi, A. M.; Bsoul, I.; Mahmood, S. H.; Alnawashi, G.; Prokeš, K.; Siemensmeyer, K.; Klemke, B.; Nakotte, H.

    2013-12-28

    Co-Ti and Ru-Ti substituted barium ferrite nanocrystalline particles BaFe{sub 12−2x}Co{sub x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 19} with (0≤x≤1) and BaFe{sub 12−2x}Ru{sub x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 19} with (0≤x≤0.6) were prepared by ball milling method, and their magnetic properties and their temperature dependencies were studied. The zero-field-cooled (ZFC) and field-cooled (FC) processes were recorded at low magnetic fields and the ZFC curves displayed a broad peak at a temperature T{sub M}. In all samples under investigation, a clear irreversibility between the ZFC and FC curves was observed below room temperature, and this irreversibility disappeared above room temperature. These results were discussed within the framework of random particle assembly model and associated with the magnetic domain wall motion. The resistivity data showed some kind of a transition from insulator to perfect insulator around T{sub M}. At 2 K, the saturation magnetization slightly decreased and the coercivity dropped dramatically with increasing the Co-Ti concentration x. With Ru-Ti substitution, the saturation magnetization showed small variations, while the coercivity decreased monotonically, recording a reduction of about 73% at x = 0.6. These results were discussed in light of the single ion anisotropy model and the cationic distributions based on previously reported neutron diffraction data for the CoTi substituted system, and the results of our Mössbauer spectroscopy data for the RuTi substituted system.

  7. Structural and magnetic properties of Vanadium Doped M- Type Barium Hexaferrite (BaFe12-xVxO19)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awadallah, Ahmad; Mahmood, Sami H.; Maswadeh, Yazan; Bsoul, Ibrahim; Aloqaily, Aynour

    2015-10-01

    Precursor powders of barium hexaferrite doped with vanadium, BaFe12-xVxO19 with (x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5), were prepared using the ball milling technique and then sintered at different temperatures for 2 h. The structural properties of the prepared samples were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), while the magnetic properties were examined by the vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). XRD and SEM studies of the samples sintered at 1100° C indicated the presence of Ba3V2O8 and α-Fe2O3 non-magnetic oxide phases in addition to BaM hexaferrite phase. The fractions of the nonmagnetic oxide phases were found to increase with increasing x, and sintering the samples at temperatures higher than 1100° C was found to reduce the amounts of these non-magnetic phases only slightly. However, the addition of barium in excess of the stoichiometric ratio was found to remove the α-Fe2O3 oxide, and improve the saturation magnetization of the samples significantly. In addition, washing these samples with HCl was found to improve the saturation magnetization further. The effect of sintering the samples at higher temperatures was also found to reduce the coercivity due to growth of the particle size. However, the coercivity of all samples remained high enough for potential permanent magnet and magnetic recording applications.

  8. Synthesis of M-type hexaferrites from steel pickling liquors (ID 109)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufour, J.; Latorre, R.; Alcalá, E. M.; Negro, C.; Formoso, A.; López-Mateos, F.

    1996-05-01

    The recovery of steel pickling liquors is one of the main environmental aspects that the steelmaking industry must resolve. We propose the synthesis of barium M-type hexaferrite from these liquors as a recovery treatment. Two methods of synthesis have been studied: a variation of the ceramic method, and an oxicoprecipitation process. Products with excellent magnetic properties have been obtained.

  9. Physical Property of Magnesium Doped Barium Hexaferrite Particles By Citrate Precursor Route In Presence Of Surfactants

    SciTech Connect

    Paladiya, Snehal; Chauhan, C. C.; Jotania, R. B.

    2010-12-01

    M-type Barium Magnesium hexaferrite with the composition BaMg{sub 2}Fe{sub 10}O{sub 19} was successfully prepared with and without surfactant by using a citrate precursor route. The obtained precursors were calcined at various temperatures. The crystalline structure, phase analysis and particle size were investigated by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) techniques. It is observed that the surfactant addition controls the microstructure of the formed Barium Magnesium hexaferrite particles and the type of surfactant plays a crucial role in deciding the morphology of particles.

  10. Structural and magnetic properties of barium-gadolinium hexaferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litsardakis, G.; Manolakis, I.; Serletis, C.; Efthimiadis, K. G.

    A series of Gd-substituted M-type barium hexaferrites has been prepared by the ceramic route, according to the formula (Ba 1-xGd x)O·5.25Fe 2O 3 ( x=0-0.30). XRD analysis revealed that all the samples present primarily an M-type structure. Samples x=0 and x=0.05 are single-phase. Hematite (Fe 2O 3) and GdFeO 3 were detected in the remaining samples. Coercivity ( Hc) shows remarkably high values, ˜293 kA/m for x=0.20 and 0.30 with a maximum of 322 kA/m for x=0.25. Specific saturation magnetization ( σsat) of the samples presents a small increase up to x=0.10. The microstructure examination indicates that Gd may act as a grain growth inhibitor.

  11. Designed microstructures in textured barium hexaferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovis, David Brian

    It is a fundamental principle of materials science that the microstructure of a material defines its properties and ultimately its performance for a given application. A prime example of this can be found in the large conch shell Strombus gigas, which has an intricate microstructure extending across five distinct length scales. This microstructure gives extraordinary damage tolerance to the shell. The structure of Strombus gigas cannot be replicated in a modern engineering ceramic with any existing processing technique, so new processing techniques must be developed to apply this structure to a model material. Barium hexaferrite was chosen as a model material to create microstructures reminiscent of Strombus gigas and evaluate its structure-property relations. This work describes novel processing methods to produce textured barium hexaferrite with no coupling between the sample geometry and the texture direction. This technique, combining magnetic field-assisted gelcasting with templated grain growth, also allows multilayer samples to be fabricated with different texture directions in adjacent layers. The effects of adding either B2O3 or excess BaCO 3 on the densification and grain growth of barium hexaferrite was studied. The texture produced using this technique was assessed using orientation imaging microscopy (OIM) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These measurements showed peak textures as high as 60 MRD and sharp interfaces between layers cast with different texture directions. The effect of oxygen on the quality of gelcasting is also discussed, and it is shown that with proper mold design, it is possible to gelcast multiple layers with differing texture directions without delamination. Monolithic and multilayer samples were produced and tested in four point bending to measure the strength and work of fracture. Modulus measurements, made with the ultrasonic pulse-echo technique, show clear signs of microcracking in both the isotropic and textured samples

  12. Barium hexaferrite ferrofluids - preparation and physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, R.; Hiergeist, R.; Steinmetz, H.; Ayoub, N.; Fujisaki, M.; Schüppel, W.

    1999-07-01

    Barium hexaferrite BaFe 12-2 xTi xCo xO 19 ferrofluids have been prepared for the first time using oleic acid as surfactant and Isopar M ® as carrier liquid. The initial susceptibility versus temperature for zero-field cooling of the ferrofluid was obtained by a vibrating sample magnetometer. TEM pictures of the fluid show isolated particles and only small agglomerates and a mean particle diameter of approx. 8 nm. Numerical calculations of the magneto-viscous effect, based on the local-equilibrium magnetic state model, clearly show the benefit for Ba-ferrite ferrofluids resulting from the high uniaxial anisotropy compared to magnetite ferrofluids. Rheological measurements were performed with a rotational-type viscometer with magnetic field perpendicular to the hydrodynamic vortex axis.

  13. Magnetic studies of cobalt doped barium hexaferrite nanoparticles prepared by modified sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalini, M. Govindaraj; Sahoo, Subasa C.

    2016-05-01

    M-type barium hexaferrite (BaFe12O19) and cobalt doped barium hexaferrite (BaFe11CoO19) nanopowders were synthesized by modified sol-gel auto-combustion technique and were annealed at 900°C in air for 4 hours. The annealed powders were studied in the present work and X-ray diffraction studies showed pure phase formation after annealing. The average grain size in the nanopowder sample was decreased after doping. Magnetization value of 60 emu/g was observed at 300K for the barium hexaferrite and was reduced to 54 emu/g after doping. The coercivity of 5586 Oe was observed at 300K for the undoped sample and was found to be decreased in the doped sample. As the measurement temperature was decreased from 300K to 60K, magnetization value was increased in both the samples compared to those at 300K. The coercivity of the undoped sample was found to decrease whereas it was increased for the doped sample at 60K. The observed magnetic properties may be understood on the basis of modified exchange interaction and anisotropy in the doped sample compared to that of pure barium hexaferrite.

  14. Preparation of barium hexaferrite powders using oxidized steel scales waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Septiani, Ardita; Idayanti, Novrita; Kristiantoro, Tony

    2016-02-01

    Research on preparation of barium hexaferrite powders has been done using Hot Strip Mill scales as raw materials. Hot Strip Mill scales are oxidized steel scales waste from steel industrial process. The method used for preparing the barium hexaferrite powders was solid state reaction method. Oxidized steel scales were milled using ball mill for 10 hours, then screened through a 250 mesh sieve to obtain powders with maximum size of 63 µm. Powders were roasted at 600°C temperature for 4 hours to obtain hematite (Fe2O3) phase. Roasted powders were then mixed with barium carbonate, and were subsequently milled for 16 hours. After mixing, powders were calcined with an increasing rate of 10°C/min and maintained at 1100°C for 3 hours. Calcination process was performed to acquire barium hexaferrite phase. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) characterization in conjunction with RIR analysis showed that 85 wt. % of barium hexaferrite is formed. The magnetic properties of powders were characterized using Permagraph. It is found the value of remanent induction is 1.09 kG, coercivity of 2.043 kOe, and the maximum energy product of 0.25 MGOe.

  15. Spherical barium ferrite nanoparticles and hexaferrite single crystals for information data storage and RF devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalli, Jeevan Prasad

    circulators and isolators. Traditional RF devices using spinel or garnets are disadvantageous in the millimeter range frequencies, since they require a strong external bias field provided by external permanent magnets. A promising approach to circumvent this problem is to use the high crystalline anisotropy field in the hexaferrites. Single crystals of M and Y-type hexaferrites show promising results with their low microwave losses and excellent magnetic and physical properties. In this dissertation efforts to grow, high-quality bulk M and Y-type single crystals with the aim to study and improve their magnetic and microwave properties with respect to different cation dopant elements is reported. Also, a liquid phase epitaxial technique was developed to grow thick barium ferrite films onto semiconductor substrates. Finally, magnetic domain patterns on bulk M-type single crystals was studied by using a magnetic force microscopy technique.

  16. Fabrication of flexible magnetic papers based on bacterial cellulose and barium hexaferrite with improved mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Guh-Hwan; Lee, Jooyoung; Kwon, Nayoung; Bok, Shingyu; Sim, Hwansu; Moon, Kyoung-Seok; Lee, Sang-Eui; Lim, Byungkwon

    2016-08-01

    We report on a simple approach to fabricate mechanically robust magnetic cellulose papers containing M-type barium hexaferrite (BaFe12O19) nanoplates. BaFe12O19 nanoplates were synthesized by a hydrothermal method and then chemically functionalized by using a silane coupling agent. The magnetic cellulose papers prepared with the silane-treated BaFe12O19 nanoplates exhibited improved mechanical properties with tensile strength of 58.5 MPa and Young's modulus of 2.95 GPa. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  17. Improvement of the thermal properties of a polystyrene via inclusion of barium hexaferrite particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemeda, O. M.; El-Sayed, Adly H.; Tawfik, A.; Hamad, Mahmoud A.

    2016-07-01

    M-type barium hexaferrite (BaM) particles–polystyrene (PS) composite has been successfully synthesized. Fourier transform infrared spectra confirm the synthesis of the BaM–PS composite. Scanning electron microscopy shows that BaM particles are attached rather well to the PS matrix and have variable sizes and shapes. Differential and thermogravimetric analysis indicate that PS chains are well coupled within the BaM powder and the thermal stability of PS is enhanced by incorporating BaM in the PS matrix.

  18. The structural properties of barium cobalt hexaferrite powder prepared by a simple heat treatment method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, Chetna; Jotania, Rajshree

    2016-05-01

    The W-type barium hexaferrite was prepared using a simple heat treatment method. The precursor was calcinated at 650°C for 3 hours and then slowly cooled to room temperature in order to obtain barium cobalt hexaferrite powder. The prepared powder was characterised by different experimental techniques like XRD, FTIR and SEM. The X-ray diffractogram of the sample shows W-and M phases. The particle size calculated by Debye Scherrer formula. The FTIR spectra of the sample was taken at room temperature by using KBr pallet method which confirms the formation of hexaferrite phase. The morphological study on the hexaferrite powder was carried out by SEM analysis.

  19. Magnetic and structural investigations on barium hexaferrite ferrofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, R.; Hiergeist, R.; Gawalek, W.; Hoell, A.; Wiedenmann, A.

    2002-11-01

    Barium hexaferrite BaFe 12-2 xTi xCo xO 19 ferrofluids have been prepared using oleic acid as surfactant and Isopar M ® or dodecane as carrier liquid. The ferrite particles were prepared by glass crystallization. Hysteresis parameters, the initial susceptibility versus temperature and the magnetic particle size were obtained by VSM. Ferrofluids with a partly deuterated carrier liquid were investigated by small angle neutron scattering (SANS). SANS curves lead to a bimodal size distribution consisting of single magnetic particles with an organic shell and aggregated particles with an incomplete organic layer.

  20. Brillouin function characteristics for La-Co substituted barium hexaferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chuanjian; Yu, Zhong; Yang, Yan; Sun, Ke; Guo, Rongdi; Jiang, Xiaona; Lan, Zhongwen

    2015-09-01

    La-Co substituted barium hexaferrites with the chemical formula of Ba1-xLaxFe12-xCoxO19 (x = 0.0, 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5), prepared by a conventional ceramic method, were systematically investigated by Raman spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Rietveld refinement of X-ray diffraction patterns, and vibrating sample magnetometer. The result manifests that all the compounds are crystallized in magnetoplumbite hexagonal structure. Trivalent cobalt ions prevailingly occupy the 2a, 4f1, and 12k sites. According to Néel model of collinear-spin ferrimagnetism, the molecular-field coefficients ωbf2, ωkf1, ωaf1, ωkf2, and ωbk of La-Co substituted barium hexaferrites have been calculated using the nonlinear fitting method, and the magnetic moment of five sublattices (2a, 2b, 4f1, 4f2, and 12k) versus temperature T has been also investigated. The fitting results are coincided well with the experimental data. Moreover, with the increase of La-Co substitution amount x, the molecular-field coefficients ωbf2 and ωaf1 decrease constantly, while the molecular-field coefficients ωkf1, ωkf2, and ωbk show a slight change.

  1. First observation of magnetoelectric effect in M-type hexaferrite thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Mohebbi, Marjan; Ebnabbasi, Khabat; Vittoria, Carmine

    2013-05-07

    The magnetoelectric (ME) effect in M-type hexaferrite thin films is reported. Prior to this work, the ME effect in hexaferrite materials was observed only in bulk polycrystalline materials. Thin films of SrCo{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}Fe{sub 8}O{sub 19} were grown on sapphire (0001) using pulsed laser deposition. The thin films were characterized by X-ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer, and ferromagnetic resonance. We measured saturation magnetization of 1250 G, g-factor of 2.66, and coercive field of 20 Oe for these magnetoelectric M-type hexaferrite thin films. The magnetoelectric effect was confirmed by monitoring the change rate in remanence magnetization with the application of DC voltage at room temperature and it gave rise to changes in remanence in the order of 12.8% with the application of only 1 V (DC voltage). We deduced a magnetoelectric coupling, {alpha}, of 6.07 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9} s m{sup -1} in SrCo{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}Fe{sub 8}O{sub 19} thin films.

  2. Effect of pb on the magnetic interactions of the M-type hexaferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero, A. L.; Mirabal-García, M.; Palomares-Sánchez, S. A.; Martínez, J. R.

    2016-02-01

    This work reports the magnetic interactions of M-type lead hexaferrites. The samples were prepared using the solid state reaction method varying the lead concentration and compensating its lost by thermal treatment in order to obtain pure phases. The structural characterization was made through X-ray diffraction and the Rietveld refinement method. The morphology and grain-growth analysis were carried out using scanning electron microscopy. The magnetic interactions were studied through isothermal remanence (IRM) and DC demagnetization (DCD) remanence curves and through the construction of Henkel plots. By analyzing deviations from the Stoner-Wohlfarth model for non-interacting particles, it was determined the way in which lead modifies the interaction state in the hexaferrites. The experimental results show that the demagnetizing interactions prevail in systems with high lead content, and as lead concentration diminishes the intensity of magnetic interactions also decreases giving rise to magnetizing interactions

  3. Influence of Barium Hexaferrite on Magnetic Properties of Hydroxyapatite Ceramics.

    PubMed

    Jarupoom, P; Jaita, P

    2015-11-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) powders was derived from natural bovine bone by sequence of thermal processes. The barium hexaferrite (BF) find magnetic powders were added into HA powders in ratio of 1-3 vol.%. The HA-BF ceramics were prepared by a solid state reaction method and sintered at 1250 degrees C for 2 h. Effects of BF additive on structural, physical and magnetic properties of HA ceramics were investigated. X-ray diffraction revealed that all HA-BF samples showed a main phase of high purity hydroxyapatite [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2] with calcium and phosphate molar ratio of 1.67. The addition of BF into HA inhibited grain growth and caused an improvement of mechanical properties. The M-H hysteresis loops also showed an improvement in magnetic behavior for higher content of BF. Moreover, in vitro bioactivity test indicated that the 2-3 vol.% sample may be suitable for biological applications. PMID:26726671

  4. Brillouin function characteristics for La-Co substituted barium hexaferrites

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Chuanjian E-mail: ksun@uestc.edu.cn; Yu, Zhong; Sun, Ke E-mail: ksun@uestc.edu.cn; Guo, Rongdi; Jiang, Xiaona; Lan, Zhongwen; Yang, Yan

    2015-09-14

    La-Co substituted barium hexaferrites with the chemical formula of Ba{sub 1−x}La{sub x}Fe{sub 12−x}Co{sub x}O{sub 19} (x = 0.0, 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5), prepared by a conventional ceramic method, were systematically investigated by Raman spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Rietveld refinement of X-ray diffraction patterns, and vibrating sample magnetometer. The result manifests that all the compounds are crystallized in magnetoplumbite hexagonal structure. Trivalent cobalt ions prevailingly occupy the 2a, 4f{sub 1}, and 12k sites. According to Néel model of collinear-spin ferrimagnetism, the molecular-field coefficients ω{sub bf2}, ω{sub kf1}, ω{sub af1}, ω{sub kf2}, and ω{sub bk} of La-Co substituted barium hexaferrites have been calculated using the nonlinear fitting method, and the magnetic moment of five sublattices (2a, 2b, 4f{sub 1}, 4f{sub 2}, and 12k) versus temperature T has been also investigated. The fitting results are coincided well with the experimental data. Moreover, with the increase of La-Co substitution amount x, the molecular-field coefficients ω{sub bf2} and ω{sub af1} decrease constantly, while the molecular-field coefficients ω{sub kf1}, ω{sub kf2}, and ω{sub bk} show a slight change.

  5. Damage of M-type baryum hexaferrites induced by GeV-heavy ion irradiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costantini, J. M.; Brisard, F.; Meftah, A.; Toulemonde, M.; Studer, F.

    1995-12-01

    The damage induced in single crystals of M-type baryum hexaferrites (BaFe 12O 19 and BaFe 12- x-yCo xTi yO 19 with x ˜- 1.4; y ˜- 1.5) by 3.8 GeV 129Xe and 6.0 GeV 208Pb ion irradiations has been monitored with room temperature (RT) 57Fe Mössbauer spectrometry. The damage cross sections deduced from the former data are compared with our previous results on polycrystalline samples. The effects of amorphous track formation on the RT ac magnetic permeability and Mössbauer spectra are studied. Comparison is also made with our previous results on another (ferri) magnetic insulator, namely Y 3Fe 5O 12, regarding the effects of disorder and track-induced strain field on the magnetic properties.

  6. Synthesis and magnetic properties of Co-Ti-Bi codoped M-type barium ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Lijun; Zhang, Huaiwu; Yin, Shuiming; Bai, Feiming; Liu, Baoyuan; Wen, Qiye; Shen, Jian

    2011-04-01

    The effects of Co2+, Ti4+, and Bi3+ substitution on the microstructures and properties of low-temperature fired M-type barium hexaferrites have been studied in order to adapt the development of low-temperature cofired ferrites technology and produce gyromagnetic devices with a multilayer process. It is found that Bi3+ ions can enter into the 2a sublattice and consequently enhance the grain growth and densification due to the activation of the lattice, which in turn first lead to an increase and then a decrease of Ms. The substitution of Bi3+ ions is beneficial to forming the M phase and lowers the sintering temperature to about 900 °C, which is ideal for cofiring with silver paste. Scanning electron microscope and x-ray diffraction analysis have shown that the samples have excellent crystalline grains with a uniform size about 1-2 μm. Moreover, nonmagnetic Ti4+ ions prefer to enter the 4fVI octahedral sites, giving rise to the weakening of the strong 12k-4fVI superexchange path and thus the isotropic exchange energy approaches the other second-order terms on the magnetic Hamiltonian, such as the antisymmetric interaction or even the magnetocrystalline anisotropy. With increasing the substitution content, some Co2+ ions, which locate in octahedral 12k sites, give a strong planar contribution to the anisotropy. Therefore, Ms and Hc decrease with the Co-Ti-substitution.

  7. Effect of sintering temperature on structural property of X-type barium-zinc hexaferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagdi, Amrin; Solanki, Neha; Jotania, Rajshree B.

    2016-05-01

    X-type Barium-Zinc hexaferrite powder with chemical composition Ba2Zn2Fe28O46 has been prepared using citrate gel auto combustion technique. The combusted powder waspre-heated at 550 °C for 4 hours followed by final calcinations of 1100 °C and 1250 °C for 5 hoursrespectively. Prepared hexaferrite samples were characterizedusingdifferent instrumental techniques such as FTIR and XRD. XRD analysis of the sample calcined at 1250 °C revealed formation of mono phase of X-type hexaferrite; while the sample calcined at 1100 °C shows multiphases of M, W and X-type hexaferrites. FTIR spectra of both samples show stretching of metal-oxide bands.

  8. Site occupancy and magnetic properties of Al-substituted M-type strontium hexaferrite

    SciTech Connect

    Dixit, Vivek; Nandadasa, Chandani N.; Kim, Seong-Gon; Kim, Sungho; Park, Jihoon; Hong, Yang-Ki; Liyanage, Laalitha S. I.; Moitra, Amitava

    2015-06-28

    We use first-principles total-energy calculations based on density functional theory to study the site occupancy and magnetic properties of Al-substituted M-type strontium hexaferrite SrFe{sub 12−x}Al{sub x}O{sub 19} with x = 0.5 and x = 1.0. We find that the non-magnetic Al{sup 3+} ions preferentially replace Fe{sup 3+} ions at two of the majority spin sites, 2a and 12k, eliminating their positive contribution to the total magnetization causing the saturation magnetization M{sub s} to be reduced as Al concentration x is increased. Our formation probability analysis further provides the explanation for increased magnetic anisotropy field when the fraction of Al is increased. Although Al{sup 3+} ions preferentially occupy the 2a sites at a low temperature, the occupation probability of the 12k site increases with the rise of the temperature. At a typical annealing temperature (>700 °C) Al{sup 3+} ions are much more likely to occupy the 12k site than the 2a site. Although this causes the magnetocrystalline anisotropy K{sub 1} to be reduced slightly, the reduction in M{sub s} is much more significant. Their combined effect causes the anisotropy field H{sub a} to increase as the fraction of Al is increased, consistent with recent experimental measurements.

  9. Site occupancy and magnetic properties of Al-substituted M-type strontium hexaferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixit, Vivek; Nandadasa, Chandani N.; Kim, Seong-Gon; Kim, Sungho; Park, Jihoon; Hong, Yang-Ki; Liyanage, Laalitha S. I.; Moitra, Amitava

    2015-06-01

    We use first-principles total-energy calculations based on density functional theory to study the site occupancy and magnetic properties of Al-substituted M-type strontium hexaferrite SrFe12-xAlxO19 with x = 0.5 and x = 1.0. We find that the non-magnetic Al3+ ions preferentially replace Fe3+ ions at two of the majority spin sites, 2a and 12k, eliminating their positive contribution to the total magnetization causing the saturation magnetization Ms to be reduced as Al concentration x is increased. Our formation probability analysis further provides the explanation for increased magnetic anisotropy field when the fraction of Al is increased. Although Al3+ ions preferentially occupy the 2a sites at a low temperature, the occupation probability of the 12k site increases with the rise of the temperature. At a typical annealing temperature (>700 °C) Al3+ ions are much more likely to occupy the 12k site than the 2a site. Although this causes the magnetocrystalline anisotropy K1 to be reduced slightly, the reduction in Ms is much more significant. Their combined effect causes the anisotropy field Ha to increase as the fraction of Al is increased, consistent with recent experimental measurements.

  10. Synthesis and magnetic properties of Co-Ti-Bi codoped M-type barium ferrite

    SciTech Connect

    Jia Lijun; Zhang Huaiwu; Yin Shuiming; Bai Feiming; Liu Baoyuan; Wen Qiye; Shen Jian

    2011-04-01

    The effects of Co{sup 2+}, Ti{sup 4+}, and Bi{sup 3+} substitution on the microstructures and properties of low-temperature fired M-type barium hexaferrites have been studied in order to adapt the development of low-temperature cofired ferrites technology and produce gyromagnetic devices with a multilayer process. It is found that Bi{sup 3+} ions can enter into the 2a sublattice and consequently enhance the grain growth and densification due to the activation of the lattice, which in turn first lead to an increase and then a decrease of M{sub s}. The substitution of Bi{sup 3+} ions is beneficial to forming the M phase and lowers the sintering temperature to about 900 deg. C, which is ideal for cofiring with silver paste. Scanning electron microscope and x-ray diffraction analysis have shown that the samples have excellent crystalline grains with a uniform size about 1-2 {mu}m. Moreover, nonmagnetic Ti{sup 4+} ions prefer to enter the 4f{sub VI} octahedral sites, giving rise to the weakening of the strong 12k-4f{sub VI} superexchange path and thus the isotropic exchange energy approaches the other second-order terms on the magnetic Hamiltonian, such as the antisymmetric interaction or even the magnetocrystalline anisotropy. With increasing the substitution content, some Co{sup 2+} ions, which locate in octahedral 12k sites, give a strong planar contribution to the anisotropy. Therefore, M{sub s} and H{sub c} decrease with the Co-Ti-substitution.

  11. Properties of Cr-substituted M-type barium ferrites prepared by nitrate citrate gel-autocombustion process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ounnunkad, S.; Winotai, P.

    2006-06-01

    The Cr-substituted M-type barium hexaferrites, BaFe 12-xCr xO 19, with x=0.0-0.8 have been successfully prepared by nitrate-citrate auto-combustion process using citric acid as a fuel/reductant and nitrates as oxidants. The resulting precursors were calcined at 1100 °C for 1 h and followed by sintering at 1200 °C for 12 h in oxygen atmosphere. The ferrites were systematically investigated by using powder X-ray diffractometer (XRD), magnetic hysteresis recorder, Mössbauer spectrometer, and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The XRD data show the formation of pure magnetoplumbite phase without any other impurity phases. Both a and c lattice parameters calculated by the Rietveld method systematically decrease with increasing Cr content. The effects of Cr 3+ ions on the barium ferrites were reported and discussed in detail. The site preference of Cr 3+ and magnetic properties of the ferrites have been studied using Mössbauer spectra and hystereses. The results show that the magnetic properties are closely related to the distributions of Cr 3+ ions on the five crystallographic sites. The saturation magnetization systematically decreases, however, the coercivity increases with Cr concentration. The magnetization and Mössbauer results indicate that the Cr 3+ ions preferentially occupy the 2a, 12k, and 4f VI sites. The average size of hexagonal platelets obtained by SEM photographs tends to decrease with respect to Cr content.

  12. Magnetic Properties of a Highly Textured Barium Hexa-Ferrite Quasi-Single Crystal and Its Application in Low-Field Biased Circulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Junliang; Zeng, Yanwei; Su, Zhijuan; Geiler, Michael; Chen, Yajie; Harris, Vincent G.

    2016-06-01

    A highly textured M-type barium hexa-ferrite (BaM) quasi-single crystal was fabricated by a magnetic forming plus liquid participation sintering technique. Its grain orientation degree was determined to be 97.3% with the tile angle no more that 5°. The magnetization behavior from its angular magnetic hysteresis loops was very similar to that of a BaM single crystal. Moreover, the feasibility of practical utilization of the as-fabricated BaM quasi-single crystal in low-field biased circulators was certificated by a simulation method.

  13. Structural and magnetic properties of conventional and microwave treated Ni-Zr doped barium strontium hexaferrite

    SciTech Connect

    Kanagesan, S.; Jesurani, S.; Velmurugan, R.; Prabu, S.; Kalaivani, T.

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Saturation magnetization increases whereas the coercivity decreases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The transition from hard phase to soft phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Therefore, it is used for high-density magnetic recording applications. -- Abstract: M-type hexaferrites of component B{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 12-2x}Ni{sub x}Zr{sub x}O{sub 19} were investigated. The XRD patterns show single phase of the magnetoplumbite barium strontium ferrite and no other phases were present. Significant increase in line broadening of the XRD patterns was observed indicating a decrease of grain size. The samples exhibit well defined crystallization; all of them are hexagonal platelet grains. As the substitution level increased x = 0.2-0.8 mol%, the grains are agglomerated and the average diameter increased. The H{sub c} decreases remarkably with increasing Ni and Zr ions content. It was found that the particle size could be effectively decreased and coercivity H{sub c} could easily be controlled by varying the concentration (x) without significantly decreasing saturation magnetization. In particular, Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 12-2x}Ni{sub x}Zr{sub x}O{sub 19} with x = 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 mol% has suitable magnetic characteristics with particle size small enough for high-density magnetic recording applications.

  14. Structural and magnetic properties of an anisotropic M-type LaCo-substituted strontium hexaferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyrman, Muriel; Pasko, Alexandre; De La Barrière, Olivier; Mazaleyrat, Frédéric

    2015-11-01

    Rare-earth-free permanent magnets returned to the forefront of scientific and technological concerns about the environmental and economical issues. The emergence of new markets, control of costs and availability of raw materials encourage to look for alternative materials containing much less, or no, rare earth elements selected from the most common and most available. The hexaferrite doped with lanthanum and cobalt present interesting properties to succeed the rare-earth magnets. The structural and magnetic properties of a strontium hexaferrite are presented in this paper, and two models are developed in order to correlate structural and magnetic properties. Contribution to the topical issue "Electrical Engineering Symposium (SGE 2014)", edited by Adel Razek

  15. Spin-phonon coupling in BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} M-type hexaferrite

    SciTech Connect

    Silva Júnior, Flávio M.; Paschoal, Carlos W. A.

    2014-12-28

    The spin-phonon coupling in magnetic materials is due to the modulation of the exchange integral by lattice vibrations. BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} M-type hexaferrite, which is the most used magnetic material as permanent magnet, transforms into ferrimagnet at high temperatures, but no spin-phonon coupling was previously observed at this transition. In this letter, we investigated the temperature-dependent Raman spectra of polycrystalline BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} M-type hexaferrite from room temperature up to 780 K to probe spin-phonon coupling at the ferrimagnetic transition. An anomaly was observed in the position of the phonon attributed to the Fe{sup (4)}O{sub 6}, Fe{sup (5)}O{sub 6}, and Fe{sup (1)}O{sub 6} octahedra, evidencing the presence of a spin-phonon coupling in BaM in the ferrimagnetic transition at 720 K. The results also confirmed the spin-phonon coupling is different for each phonon even when they couple with the same spin configuration.

  16. Effects of Heat-Treatment Temperature on the Microstructure, Electrical and Dielectric Properties of M-Type Hexaferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Ihsan; Islam, M. U.; Awan, M. S.; Ahmad, Mukhtar

    2014-02-01

    M-type hexaferrite BaCr x Ga x Fe12-2 x O19 ( x = 0.2) powders have been synthesized by use of a sol-gel autocombustion method. The powder samples were pressed into 12-mm-diameter pellets by cold isostatic pressing at 2000 bar then heat treated at 700°C, 800°C, 900°C, and 1000°C. X-ray diffraction patterns of the powder sample heat treated at 1000°C confirmed formation of the pure M-type hexaferrite phase. The electrical resistivity at room temperature was significantly enhanced by increasing the temperature of heat treatment and approached 5.84 × 109 Ω cm for the sample heat treated at 1000°C. Dielectric constant and dielectric loss tangent decreased whereas conductivity increased with increasing applied field frequency in the range 1 MHz-3 GHz. The dielectric properties and ac conductivity were explained on the basis of space charge polarization in accordance with the Maxwell-Wagner two-layer model and Koop's phenomenological theory. The single-phase synthesized materials may be useful for high-frequency applications, for example reduction of eddy current losses and radar absorbing waves.

  17. Enhancement of Curie temperature of barium hexaferrite by dense electronic excitations

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Manju; Kashyap, Subhash C.; Gupta, Hem C.; Dimri, Mukesh C.; Asokan, K.

    2014-07-15

    Curie temperature of polycrystalline barium hexaferrite (BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}), prepared by conventional solid state technique, is anomalously and significantly enhanced (by nearly 15%) by energetic heavy ion irradiation (150 MeV, Ag{sup 12+}) at ambient temperature due to dense electronic excitations Moderate fluence (1 × 10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2}) induces structural defects giving rise to above enhancement. As established by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Raman studies, higher fluence (1 × 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}) has structurally transformed the sample to amorphous phase with marginal change in magnetization and Curie temperature.

  18. Composite nanoplatelets combining soft-magnetic iron oxide with hard-magnetic barium hexaferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Primc, D.; Makovec, D.

    2015-01-01

    supersaturation of the precipitating species was enabled by the controlled release of the Fe3+ ions from the nitrate complex with urea ([Fe((H2N)2C&z.dbd;O)6](NO3)3) and by using Mg(OH)2 as a solid precipitating agent. The platelet Ba-hexaferrite nanoparticles of different sizes were used as the cores. The controlled coating resulted in an exclusively heterogeneous nucleation and the topotactic growth of the spinel layers on both basal surfaces of the larger hexaferrite nanoplatelets. The direct magnetic coupling between the core and the shell resulted in a strong increase of the energy product |BH|max. Ultrafine core nanoparticles reacted with the precipitating species and homogeneous product nanoparticles were formed, which differ in terms of the structure and composition compared to any other compound in the BaO-Fe2O3 system. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Synthesis (ESI #1) and properties (ESI #2) of the barium hexaferrite core nanoparticles, TEM of the nanoparticles synthesized under an excessive supersaturation (ESI #3), and magnetic properties of physical mixtures of the hard-magnetic hexaferrite and the soft-magnetic spinel ferrite (ESI #4). See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr05854b

  19. Barium hexaferrite/graphene oxide: controlled synthesis and characterization and investigation of its magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddahfar, Mahnaz; Ramezani, Majid; Mostafa Hosseinpour-Mashkani, S.

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, barium hexaferrite nanocrystals (BaFe12O19) were successfully synthesized through the two-step sol-gel method in an aqueous solution in the presence of barium nitrate and iron (III) nitrate. Besides, the effect of the molar ratio of graphene oxide on the particle size and magnetic properties of final product was investigated. In this research, glucose plays a role as capping and chelating agent in the synthesis of BaFe12O19/graphene oxide. Moreover, it was found that the size, morphology, and magnetic properties of the final products could be greatly influenced by the molar ratio of graphene oxide. BaFe12O19/graphene oxide was characterized by using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer, and energy-dispersive spectrometry.

  20. The mechanically induced structural disorder in barium hexaferrite, BaFe12O19, and its impact on magnetism.

    PubMed

    Sepelák, V; Myndyk, M; Witte, R; Röder, J; Menzel, D; Schuster, R H; Hahn, H; Heitjans, P; Becker, K-D

    2014-01-01

    The response of the structure of the M-type barium hexaferrite (BaFe12O19) to mechanical action through high-energy milling and its impact on the magnetic behaviour of the ferrite are investigated. Due to the ability of the (57)Fe Mössbauer spectroscopic technique to probe the environment of the Fe nuclei, a valuable insight on a local atomic scale into the mechanically induced changes in the hexagonal structure of the material is obtained. It is revealed that the milling of BaFe12O19 results in the deformation of its constituent polyhedra (FeO6 octahedra, FeO4 tetrahedra and FeO5 triangular bi-pyramids) as well as in the mechanically triggered transition of the Fe(3+) cations from the regular 12k octahedral sites into the interstitial positions provided by the magnetoplumbite structure. The response of the hexaferrite to the mechanical treatment is found to be accompanied by the formation of a non-uniform nanostructure consisting of an ordered crystallite surrounded/separated by a structurally disordered surface shell/interface region. The distorted polyhedra and the non-equilibrium cation distribution are found to be confined to the amorphous near-surface layers of the ferrite nanoparticles with the thickness extending up to about 2 nm. The information on the mechanically induced short-range structural disorder in BaFe12O19 is complemented by an investigation of its magnetic behaviour on a macroscopic scale. It is demonstrated that the milled ferrite nanoparticles exhibit a pure superparamagnetism at room temperature. As a consequence of the far-from-equilibrium structural disorder in the surface shell of the nanoparticles, the mechanically treated BaFe12O19 exhibits a reduced magnetization and an enhanced coercivity. PMID:25406482

  1. Influence of sintering temperature on structural, morphological and magnetic properties of barium hexaferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafqat, M. Burhan; Arif, Omer; Atiq, Shahid; Saleem, Murtaza; Ramay, Shahid M.; Mahmood, Asif; Naseem, Shahzad

    2016-07-01

    Barium hexaferrite nanoparticles are attractive for modern data storage and microwave devices due to their unique properties. Single phase synthesis of barium hexaferrite using sol-gel auto-combustion route was optimized by varying sintering temperature and time. X-ray diffraction confirmed single phase hexagonal crystal structure of the sample sintered at 1100∘C for 2 h. Crystallite size, as determined using Scherrer’s formula, was increased with the increase in sintering temperature while the porosity remained nearly unchanged. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) revealed that grain size was increased from nanometers to micrometers by rising the sintering temperature and the shape of particles was platelet-like hexagonal at 900∘C. Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) exhibited that saturation magnetization and coercivity increased with the increase of sintering temperature. Maximum saturation magnetization and coercivity values were 36.80 emu/g and 5365 Oe, respectively, for the sample sintered at 1100∘C for 2 h.

  2. Monolithic Magneto-Optical Nanocomposites of Barium Hexaferrite Platelets in PMMA

    PubMed Central

    Ferk, Gregor; Krajnc, Peter; Hamler, Anton; Mertelj, Alenka; Cebollada, Federico; Drofenik, Miha; Lisjak, Darja

    2015-01-01

    The incorporation of magnetic barium hexaferrite nanoparticles in a transparent polymer matrix of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) is reported for the first time. The barium hexaferrite nanoplatelets doped with Sc3+, i.e., BaSc0.5Fe11.5O12 (BaHF), having diameters in the range 20 to 130 nm and thicknesses of approximately 5 nm, are synthesized hydrothermally and stabilized in 1-butanol with dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid. This method enables the preparation of monolithic nanocomposites by admixing the BaHF suspension into a liquid monomer, followed by in-situ, bulk free-radical polymerization. The PMMA retains its transparency for loadings of BaHF nanoparticles up to 0.27 wt.%, meaning that magnetically and optically anisotropic, monolithic nanocomposites can be synthesized when the polymerization is carried out in a magnetic field. The excellent dispersion of the magnetic nanoparticles, coupled with a reasonable control over the magnetic properties achieved in this investigation, is encouraging for the magneto-optical applications of these materials. PMID:26066069

  3. Structure refinement and dielectric relaxation of M-type Ba, Sr, Ba-Sr, and Ba-Pb hexaferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashima; Sanghi, Sujata; Agarwal, Ashish; Reetu; Ahlawat, Neetu; Monica

    2012-07-01

    M-type hexaferrites with compositions BaFe12O19 (BFO), SrFe12O19 (SFO), Ba0.5Sr0.5Fe12O19 (BSFO), and Ba0.5Pb0.5Fe12O19 (BPFO) were synthesized by commercial solid state reaction method. The Rietveld refinement of x-ray powder diffraction revealed a single hexagonal phase with space group P63/mmc for BFO, SFO, and BSFO samples, whereas BPFO sample contains hematite (α-Fe2O3) phase with space group R3c along with the M-type main phase. All the samples show dispersion in dielectric constant (ɛ') and dielectric loss (tan δ) values with frequency. The values of ɛ' and tan δ increase with increase in temperature due to increase in the number of charge carriers and their mobilities, which are thermally activated. The reciprocal temperature dependence of conductivity (σac) and the most probable relaxation time (τM″) satisfies the Arrhenius relation. A perfect overlapping of the normalized plots of modulus isotherms on a single "super curve" for all the studied temperatures reveals a temperature independence of dynamic processes involved in conduction and for relaxation. Further, the complex plots of M* (M″ vs M') indicate that dc conductivity dominates in the region below the M″max point. Above M″max, the variations follow Jonscher power law (σ = Aωs) implying that ac conductivity is dominating in this region. Among the prepared samples, SFO hexaferrite has lowest values of σac, ɛ', and tan δ making it suitable for use in microwave devices.

  4. Effect of aluminum substitution on microwave absorption properties of barium hexaferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Jianxun; Zhang, Qiguo; Gu, Mingyuan; Shen, Haigen

    2005-11-01

    Aluminum substituted barium hexaferrites were prepared by the self-propagating combustion method and subsequent calcination at 850 °C. The crystalline structure, complex permittivity, complex permeability, and hyperfine parameters of BaFe12-xAlxO19 (x varies from 1.5 to 2.3 in steps of 0.2) were measured with x-ray diffraction (XRD), vector network analyzer and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The XRD results show that all Al3+ ions enter into the lattice of hexagonal barium ferrite. The substitution of Al3+ ions can greatly affect the complex permittivity and permeability of barium ferrite. With increasing substitution, the real part of complex permittivity increases gradually, and the peaks of the imaginary part of complex permeability shift into higher frequency band. When the substitution amount x is 1.9, the largest movement of the peaks is 1.95 GHz, which indicates that the ferromagnetic resonant frequency of barium ferrite increases by 1.95 GHz. The Al3+ ions preferentially occupy the 4f2, 2a, 4f1, and 12k sites in the subcrystalline structure up to x =1.9, and then the Al3+ ions mainly occupy 12k sites. This change also results in 2b sites with a large quadrupole splitting. These occupations lead to a variable magnetocrystalline anisotropy field.

  5. Millimeter-Wave Absorption as a Quality Control Tool for M-Type Hexaferrite Nanopowders

    SciTech Connect

    McCloy, John S.; Korolev, Konstantin A.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Afsar, Mohammed N.

    2013-01-01

    Millimeter wave (MMW) absorption measurements have been conducted on commercial samples of large (micrometer-sized) and small (nanometer-sized) particles of BaFe12O19 and SrFe12O19 using a quasi-optical MMW spectrometer and a series of backwards wave oscillators encompassing the 30-120 GHz range. Effective anisotropy of the particles calculated from the resonant absorption frequency indicates lower overall anisotropy in the nano-particles. Due to their high magnetocrystalline anisotropy, both BaFe12O19 and SrFe12O19 are expected to have spin resonances in the 45-55 GHz range. Several of the sampled BaFe12O19 powders did not have MMW absorptions, so they were further investigated by DC magnetization and x-ray diffraction to assess magnetic behavior and structure. The samples with absent MMW absorption contained primarily iron oxides, suggesting that MMW absorption could be used for quality control in hexaferrite powder manufacture.

  6. Atomic scale study of magnetic phase transitions in (Co,Ti;Sc) substituted nanosize barium hexaferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krezhov, Kiril

    BaFe12O19 and related isostructural (M-type) hexaferrites derived by single or double cation substitution for Fe3+ with preservation of the formal valence are a recognized group of oxides for their remarkable properties. The magnetic interactions may be tuned by suitable substitutions resulting in notable magnetic properties utilized extensively for permanent magnets, microwave devices and perpendicular recording media. We report on the magnetic structure evolution accompanying the magnetic anisotropy change, from a combined magnetic (SQUID), x-ray and neutron diffraction, and magnetic field dependent 57Fe Mössbauer study on BaFe12O19 at selected cation substitutions. The short and long range atomic and magnetic order in powder samples of nanosize particles prepared by soft chemistry routes were studied and compared with own and literature data for the parent BaFe12O19 compound prepared by solid state reaction. Refinements based on diffraction data show that the magnetic structures of BaFe12-xXxO19 (X=Co,Ti; Sc) hexaferrites are largely temperature and substitution dependent. Between 200 and 300K the (Co,Ti)-hexaferrites (x=0.4, 0.7, 0.8, 0.85) display ferrimagnetic structures where the canting of the magnetic moments depends on the substitution rate. When lowering the temperature the magnetic structure for x=0.45 remains ferrimagnetic down to 10 K, while for x=0.7 and x=0.8 a complex conical magnetic structures is finally established. For x=0.85 significant distortions in the local oxygen surrounding of ferric cation sites were established, while the grain-size effect on the structural parameters was considerably smaller. The thermal expansion coefficient exhibits a strong anisotropy. The refined magnetic moments are considerably lower than the theoretical spin only moments, especially for the 4e and 12k sites, indicating a local noncollinearity with short-range ordering. The five-cation sublattice collinear ferrimagnetic structure of uniaxial type known as

  7. Magnetic and Microwave Properties of Barium Hexaferrite Ceramics Doped with Gd and Nd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamalian, Majid; Ghasemi, Ali; Pourhosseini Asl, Mohammad Javad

    2015-08-01

    Substituted barium hexaferrite nanoparticles with the chemical formula BaFe12- x (GdNd) x/2O19 ( x = 0-2, in steps of 0.5) were prepared by a co-precipitation method. Phase identification and crystal structure of the nanoparticles were investigated by x-ray diffraction. The morphology of the nanopowders was investigated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy. Results from Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy enabled identification of stretching and bending modes. Magnetic properties were measured by use of a vibrating sample magnetometer. The results revealed that saturation magnetization and coercivity decreased as x increased. Investigation of microwave-absorption properties, by use of a vector network analyzer, revealed that the maximum reflection loss of substituted Ba-ferrite of thickness 1.6 mm reached -41.8 dB at a frequency of 4.3 GHz and a bandwidth of 7.5 GHz, with reflection loss being >-20 dB. From these results it was concluded that the composites had good potential as absorbers in the gigahertz frequency range.

  8. Influence of the preparation methods on the structure and magnetic properties of nanosized Al-substituted barium hexaferrite powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peneva, P.; Koutzarova, T.; Kolev, S.; Ghelev, Ch.; Vertruyen, B.; Henrist, C.; Closet, R.; Cloots, R.; Zaleski, A.

    2016-03-01

    We report studies on the correlation between the method of preparation, microstructure and magnetic properties of nanosized monodomain Al-substituted barium hexaferrite (BaAlFe11O19) powders. The powders were obtained by the co-precipitation and single microemulsion methods. The particles in the samples had a size between 80 nm and 135 nm depending on the synthesis conditions. The value of the saturation magnetization Ms measured was very high, namely, 66.12 emu/g. The hysteresis loop was very narrow, with the coercivity Hc being 163 Oe, which indicated that the particles were in a near-superparamagnetic state.

  9. Electron spin resonance (ESR) of magnetic sublattices in Sc-substituted barium hexaferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Pardo, Rebeca; Bierlich, Silvia; Töpfer, Jörg; Monjaras, Raúl Valenzuela

    2016-05-01

    The partial substitution of Fe3+ by Sc3+ in barium hexaferrite has shown to be an effective method to tailor anisotropy for many novel microwave applications. Some basic studies have revealed that this substitution leads to unusual interactions among the magnetic sublattices of the ferrite. In order to investigate these interactions, samples with formula BaScxFe12-xO19 (1 ≤x ≤ 2) were prepared by sintering (1300°C, 6h). After structural characterization by x-ray diffraction, their ferromagnetic resonance spectra were measured in the X-band (9.4 GHz), in the 100-500 K temperature range. For x = 2, a single, broad resonance peak was observed at the low temperatures (103 K), exhibiting a progressive splitting into two peaks for increasing T, to finally coalesce again into a single (paramagnetic) narrow peak at 473 K. These results are interpreted in terms of a substitution of Fe3+ by Sc3+ ions in the 4fvi and 2b sublattices; the diamagnetic cations disrupt the superexchange interactions and produce a splitting of the 12k sublattice (which interacts directly with the 4fvi sublattice) into two sublattices with different canting angles, and different thermal dependence. As a result, the fraction of the 12k sublattices that are nearest neighbours of substituted 4fvi sites can behave as an independent sublattice for some temperature ranges. A similar behavior is observed for all the compositions with varying degrees of amplitude, but it is more evident for x = 2. A deconvolution of peaks has been attempted, in order to shed more light into this behavior.

  10. Rare-Earth-Free Permanent Magnets for Electrical Vehicle Motors and Wind Turbine Generators: Hexagonal Symmetry Based Materials Systems Mn-Bi and M-type Hexaferrite

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Yang-Ki; Haskew, Timothy; Myryasov, Oleg; Jin, Sungho; Berkowitz, Ami

    2014-06-05

    The research we conducted focuses on the rare-earth (RE)-free permanent magnet by modeling, simulating, and synthesizing exchange coupled two-phase (hard/soft) RE-free core-shell nano-structured magnet. The RE-free magnets are made of magnetically hard core materials (high anisotropy materials including Mn-Bi-X and M-type hexaferrite) coated by soft shell materials (high magnetization materials including Fe-Co or Co). Therefore, our research helps understand the exchange coupling conditions of the core/shell magnets, interface exchange behavior between core and shell materials, formation mechanism of core/shell structures, stability conditions of core and shell materials, etc.

  11. Composite nanoplatelets combining soft-magnetic iron oxide with hard-magnetic barium hexaferrite.

    PubMed

    Primc, D; Makovec, D

    2015-02-14

    By coupling two different magnetic materials inside a single composite nanoparticle, the shape of the magnetic hysteresis can be engineered to meet the requirements of specific applications. Sandwich-like composite nanoparticles composed of a hard-magnetic Ba-hexaferrite (BaFe12O19) platelet core in between two soft-magnetic spinel iron oxide maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) layers were synthesized using a new, simple and inexpensive method based on the co-precipitation of Fe(3+)/Fe(2+) ions in an aqueous suspension of hexaferrite core nanoparticles. The required close control of the supersaturation of the precipitating species was enabled by the controlled release of the Fe(3+) ions from the nitrate complex with urea ([Fe((H2N)2C=O)6](NO3)3) and by using Mg(OH)2 as a solid precipitating agent. The platelet Ba-hexaferrite nanoparticles of different sizes were used as the cores. The controlled coating resulted in an exclusively heterogeneous nucleation and the topotactic growth of the spinel layers on both basal surfaces of the larger hexaferrite nanoplatelets. The direct magnetic coupling between the core and the shell resulted in a strong increase of the energy product |BH|max. Ultrafine core nanoparticles reacted with the precipitating species and homogeneous product nanoparticles were formed, which differ in terms of the structure and composition compared to any other compound in the BaO-Fe2O3 system. PMID:25583312

  12. Electromagnetic and microwave absorption properties of (Co2+-Si4+) substituted barium hexaferrites and its polymer composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, S. M.; Chatterjee, R.; Dixit, A. K.; Kumar, A. V. R.; Goel, T. C.

    2007-04-01

    The electromagnetic (EM) and microwave absorption properties of (Co2+-Si4+) substituted barium hexaferrite compositions BaCox2+Fey+2Six+y4+Fe12-2x-2y+3O19 (x =0.9 and y =0.0, 0.05, and 0.2) and its polymer composites prepared from hexaferrite, polyaniline, and carbon powders dispersed in polyurethane matrix have been investigated at the microwave frequency range of the X band (8.2-12.4GHz). The hexaferrite compositions were synthesized by solid-state reaction technique, whereas polyaniline, by chemical route. The permeabilities of a ferrite are drastically reduced at higher gigahertz frequencies. The permittivities, however, can be enhanced by appropriate choice of composition and processing temperature. In the present ferrite composition, silicon content is taken in excess so as to convert some of the Fe3+ ions to Fe2+ ions. This conversion has been shown to enhance EM and absorption properties. Mössbauer spectroscopy on the samples establishes that addition of excess Si4+ converts some of the Fe3+ to Fe2+. The sintered ferrites have shown resonance phenomena, but the composites do not. The EM parameters ɛ', ɛ″, μ', and μ″ were measured using a vector network analyzer (Agilent, model PNA E8364B). These measured EM parameters were used to determine the absorption spectra at different sample thicknesses based on a model of a single layered plane wave absorber backed by a perfect conductor. The sintered ferrite composition (x =0.9 and y =0.05) showed the best absorption properties [a minimum reflection loss of -17.7to-14.3dB over the whole frequency range of the X band (8.2-12.4) for a sample thickness of just 0.8mm], and it is used in the composite absorbers in powder form along with other constituents. The optimized composite absorber has shown dielectric constant ɛ'˜11.5, dielectric loss ɛ″˜2.3, and a minimum reflection loss of -29dB at 10.97GHz with the -20dB bandwidth over the frequency range of 9.7-12.2GHz for a sample thickness of 2.0mm. The

  13. Synthesis and structural characterization of nonstoichiometric barium hexaferrite materials with Fe:Ba ratio of 11.5 - 16.16

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maswadeh, Yazan; Mahmood, Sami H.; Awadallah, Ahmad; Aloqaily, Aynour N.

    2015-10-01

    Synthesis of barium hexaferrites BaFe12O19 (BaM) is often accompanied by the presence of secondary nonmagnetic phases. The coexistence of these phases reduces the yield of the desired BaM magnetic phase and screens its intrinsic magnetic properties such as the saturation magnetization, and impacts the magnetic properties of the sample negatively. Therefore, assessment of the abundance of these phases and investigating their effect on the structural properties of the sample is of fundamental and practical importance. In this work, BaM hexaferrites were prepared by ball milling and sintering powder precursors with Fe:Ba molar ratios varying from 11.5 to 16.16. The structural properties of the phases in the samples were investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD). The weight ratios of the different phases, as well as their refined structural parameters were determined using Rietveld analysis. XRD patterns revealed the development of α-Fe2O3 (hematite) phase with increasing relative diffracted intensity as the Fe:Ba molar ratio increased. The evolution of the intensity of this phase was used to monitor the weight ratio of the secondary hematite phase in the sample, and a relation between the its weight ratio and the Fe:Ba ratio was established. The optimal Fe:Ba ratio required to synthesis a pure barium hexaferrite phase was then determined, and found to be 11.7.

  14. Fabrication and characterization of magnetically tunable metal-semiconductor schottky diode using barium hexaferrite thin film on gold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Jotinder; Sharma, Vinay; Sharma, Vipul; Veerakumar, V.; Kuanr, Bijoy K.

    2016-05-01

    Barium Hexaferrite (BaM) is an extensively studied magnetic material due to its potential device application. In this paper, we study Schottky junction diodes fabricated using gold and BaM and demonstrate the function of a spintronic device. Gold (50 nm)/silicon substrate was used to grow the BaM thin films (100-150 nm) using pulsed laser deposition. I-V characteristics were measured on the Au/BaM structure sweeping the voltage from ±5 volts. The forward and reverse bias current-voltage curves show diode like rectifying characteristics. The threshold voltage decreases while the output current increases with increase in the applied external magnetic field showing that the I-V characteristics of the BaM based Schottky junction diodes can be tuned by external magnetic field. It is also demonstrated that, the fabricated Schottky diode can be used as a half-wave rectifier, which could operate at high frequencies in the range of 1 MHz compared to the regular p-n junction diodes, which rectify below 10 kHz. In addition, it is found that above 1 MHz, Au/BaM diode can work as a rectifier as well as a capacitor filter, making the average (dc) voltage much larger.

  15. Structural, magnetic and microwave properties of barium hexaferrite thick films with different Fe/Ba mole ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Samiksha; Dhawan, S. K.; Paesano, Andrea; Pandey, O. P.; Sharma, Puneet

    2015-12-01

    Barium hexaferrite (BaFe12O19) thick films (∼60 μm) with different BaO·xFe2O3 mole ratio (x=5.0-6.0) were prepared by screen printing method. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the formation of single phase BaFe12O19 (BaM). Preferential site occupation of Fe3+ ion at five different crystallographic sites, with varied mole ratio was measured by Mössbauer spectroscopy. Vacancy fraction found to be higher at 4f1, 4f2 and 2b sites for mole ratio 5.5 and 5.0 respectively. Magnetic measurement shows that the magnetization (M) and magnetocrystalline anisotropy field (Ha) depends upon mole ratio. M and Ha are found to be maximum for mole ratio 5.5, while the coercivity (Hc) remains constant. Reflection losses (RL) in the frequency range of 12-18 GHz were also studied. Present investigation demonstrates the effect of mole ratio on structural, magnetic and microwave absorption properties of BaM thick films for microwave device applications.

  16. Synthesis of nanocrystalline barium-hexaferrite from nanocrystalline goethite using the hydrothermal method: Particle size evolution and magnetic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Penn, R.L.; Banfield, J.F.; Voigt, J.

    1997-03-01

    To characterize particle size/magnetic property relationships, 9 to 50 nm in diameter barium hexaferrite, BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} (BHF), particles were prepared using a new synthesis route. By replacing the conventional 50 to 100 nm particles of goethite with nanocrystalline goethite produced via the microwave anneal method of Knight and Sylva, nanocrystalline BHF was synthesized using the hydrothermal method. Evolution of particle size and morphology with respect to concentration and heat treatment time is reported. Hysteresis properties, including coercivity (0.2--1.0 kOe), magnetization saturation (0.1--33.4 emu/g), and magnetization remanence (0.004--22.5 emu/g) are discussed as a function of particle size. The magnetization saturation and remanence of the 7 nm particles is nearly zero, suggesting the superparamagnetic threshold size for BHF is around this size. In addition, the equilibrium morphology of BHF crystals was calculated to be truncated hexagonal prisms which was verified by experiment, and the isoelectric point, pH of 4.1, was measured for 18 nm BHF particles.

  17. Study of electrical properties of W-type barium hexaferrite for high frequency application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Parul; Thakur, Atul; Thakur, Preeti

    2016-05-01

    Hexaplana W-type barium ferrite of nominal composition BaZn1.5Co0.5Fe16O27 was prepared by a co-precipitation method. The structural and electrical properties were studied at different sintering temperatures. The average crystallite size was found to be in the range 46 ‒ 57 nm calculated by Scherrer formula, which means crystallite size increases with an increase in sintering temperature. Fourier transform spectroscopy reveals the ferrite peaks in the range 577.19 cm-1 ‒ 595.48 cm-1 confirming the hexagonal structure of ferrites. Metal-Semiconductor transition temperature was found to be decrease as the sintering temperature increases, whereas the trend for activation energy was found to be increasing.

  18. Effects of magnetic pre-alignment of nano-powders on formation of high textured barium hexa-ferrite quasi-single crystals via a magnetic forming and liquid participation sintering route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Junliang; Zeng, Yanwei; Zhang, Xingkai; Zhang, Ming

    2015-05-01

    Highly textured barium hexa-ferrite quasi-single crystal with narrow ferromagnetic resonance line-width is believed to be a potential gyromagnetic material for self-biased microwave devices. To fabricate barium hexa-ferrite quasi-single crystal with a high grain orientation degree, a magnetic forming and liquid participation sintering route has been developed. In this paper, the effects of the pre-alignment of the starting nano-powders on the formation of barium quasi-single crystal structures have been investigated. The results indicated that: the crystallites with large sizes and small specific surfaces were easily aligned for they got higher driving forces and lower resistances during magnetic forming. The average restricting magnetic field was about 4.647 kOe to overcome the average friction barrier between crystallites. The pre-aligned crystallites in magnetic forming acted as the "crystal seeds" for oriented growth of the un-aligned crystallites during liquid participation sintering to achieve a high grain orientation. To effectively promote the grain orientation degrees of the sintered pellets, the grain orientation degrees of the green compacts must be higher than a limited value of 15.0%. Barium hexa-ferrite quasi-single crystal with a high grain orientation degree of 98.6% was successfully fabricated after sintering the green compact with its grain orientation degree of 51.1%.

  19. Effect of Mg2+ and Ti4+ dopants on the structural, magnetic and high-frequency ferromagnetic properties of barium hexaferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shams, Mohammad H.; Rozatian, Amir S. H.; Yousefi, Mohammad H.; Valíček, Jan; Šepelák, Vladimir

    2016-02-01

    The doped barium hexaferrite, BaFe12-x(Mg0.5Ti0.5)xO19 with 1≤x≤5, is synthesized by a solid state ceramic method. Its crystalline structure, morphology, as well as static and dynamic magnetic properties are investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), vibrating sample magnetometry, and vector network analysis, respectively. The cation distribution of Mg2+ and Ti4+ in the hexagonal structure of BaFe12-x(Mg0.5Ti0.5)xO19 is investigated by 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. The effect of Mg2+ and Ti4+ dopants on static and high-frequency magnetic properties of the ferrite is studied.

  20. Synthesis and magnetic properties of barium-calcium hexaferrite particles prepared by sol-gel and microemulsion techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jotania, R. B.; Khomane, R. B.; Chauhan, C. C.; Menon, S. K.; Kulkarni, B. D.

    The preparation of W-type hexaferrite particles with the composition BaCa 2Fe 16O 27 by microemulsion and a stearic acid sol-gel method with and without surfactant has been investigated at various sintering temperatures. The structural and magnetic characteristics have been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) techniques. The effect of sintering temperature on the properties of BaCa 2Fe 16O 27 hexaferrites has been studied. The value of saturation magnetization ( Ms) depends on types of surfactant used. The sample prepared in the presence of polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleat (Tween 80) shows low saturation magnetization ( Ms=15.10 emu/g), whereas the other sample prepared in the presence of a surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) exhibits high saturation magnetization ( Ms=24.60 emu/g) compared to the normal sample.

  1. LTCC processed CoTi substituted M-type barium ferrite composite with BBSZ glass powder additives for microwave device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu; Liu, Yingli; Li, Jie; Liu, Qian; Zhang, Huaiwu; Harris, Vincent. G.

    2016-05-01

    Hexagonal magnetoplumbite ferrites typically have sintering temperatures above 1100∘C in order to stabilize a single phase compound, which is much higher than the melting point of silver leading to device fabrication challenges. Application of low temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) technologies may prove effective in decreasing the sintering temperature of hexagonal ferrites. Ferrite powders combined with glass frit powder is an effective pathway to lowering the sintering temperature. Here, hexagonal M-type barium ferrite (i.e., Ba(CoTi)1.5Fe9O19) ceramics, combined with BBSZ glass powder as a sintering aid were synthesized. Co and Ti ions where used to substitute for Fe cations in order to modify the magnetic anisotropy field. The density, microstructure, magnetic properties and complex permeability are reported. The BBSZ glass addition was shown to improve the densification and magnetic properties of the barium ferrite. The densification of the BaM ferrite Ba(CoTi)1.5Fe9O19 was further enhanced by the glass additive at low firing temperatures of below 900∘C because of the formation of a liquid phase. Complex permeability of ferrites sintered at 900∘C was also influenced by the BBSZ addition and the resonance frequency was shown to decrease with increased amounts of the glass modifier.

  2. Magnetic properties of in-plane oriented barium hexaferrite thin films prepared by direct current magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xiaozhi; Yue, Zhenxing Meng, Siqin; Yuan, Lixin

    2014-12-28

    In-plane c-axis oriented Ba-hexaferrite (BaM) thin films were prepared on a-plane (112{sup ¯}0) sapphire (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) substrates by DC magnetron sputtering followed by ex-situ annealing. The DC magnetron sputtering was demonstrated to have obvious advantages over the traditionally used RF magnetron sputtering in sputtering rate and operation simplicity. The sputtering power had a remarkable influence on the Ba/Fe ratio, the hematite secondary phase, and the grain morphology of the as-prepared BaM films. Under 80 W of sputtering power, in-plane c-axis highly oriented BaM films were obtained. These films had strong magnetic anisotropy with high hysteresis loop squareness (M{sub r}/M{sub s} of 0.96) along the in-plane easy axis and low M{sub r}/M{sub s} of 0.03 along the in-plane hard axis. X-ray diffraction patterns and pole figures revealed that the oriented BaM films grew via an epitaxy-like growth process with the crystallographic relationship BaM (101{sup ¯}0)//α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}(112{sup ¯}0)//Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(112{sup ¯}0)

  3. Dielectric and magnetic properties of Zn-substituted Co2Y barium hexaferrite prepared by sol-gel auto combustion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odeh, I.; El Ghanem, H. M.; Mahmood, S. H.; Azzam, S.; Bsoul, I.; Lehlooh, A.-F.

    2016-08-01

    This work describes the synthesis, structural, dielectric, and magnetic properties of Y-type Ba2Co2-xZnxFe12O22 hexaferrites prepared by the sol-gel n method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results revealed a structure of the Zn-substituted samples consistent with the standard patterns for Y-type hexaferrites. The saturation magnetization at room temperature increased with Zn-substitution. Further, the coercive field for the sample with x=2.0 was found to have the lowest value. The results of the dielectric measurements indicated that all samples are insulators, and that the ac conductivity decreased with increasing zinc content. However, the ac conductivity increased with increasing dc bias. The effect of the dc bias was more pronounced on samples with low zinc content. The real part of the dielectric constant decreased markedly with increasing frequency at constant applied bias voltage. Further, the activation energy for the prepared samples depends strongly on the Zn concentration.

  4. Substantial enhancement in intrinsic coercivity on M-type strontium hexaferrite through the increase in magneto-crystalline anisotropy by co-doping of group-V and alkali elements

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, Kyunghan Ryu, Byungki; Korolev, Dmitry; Jae Kang, Young

    2013-12-09

    The effect of d{sup 1} impurity doping in Sr-hexaferrite (SrM) on the magnetic anisotropy is investigated. First-principles calculations revealed that group-V elements (V, Nb) are stabilized with co-doping of alkali elements. Na{sup 1+}/K{sup 1+} doping at Sr{sup 2+}-site is found to be critical to form the d{sup 1} impurities at Fe-site. Experimentally, Na–V doped SrM shows the intrinsic coercivity of ∼5.4 kOe, which is ∼300% enhancement compared to undoped SrM and comparable value to La–Co co-doped SrM. Finally, the spin-orbit coupling from non-vanishing angular momentum of d{sup 1} impurity in SrM should be a main factor for such a substantial improvement of intrinsic coercivity.

  5. Effect of calcination temperature on microstructure, dielectric, magnetic and optical properties of Ba0.7La0.3Fe11.7Co0.3O19 hexaferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Talwinder; Kaur, Barjinder; Bhat, Bilal H.; Kumar, Sachin; Srivastava, A. K.

    2015-01-01

    M-type barium hexaferrite Ba0.7La0.3Fe11.7Co0.3O19 (BaLCM) powder, synthesized using sol gel auto combustion method, heat treated at 700, 900, 1100 and 1200 °C. X ray diffraction (XRD) powder patterns of heat treated samples show the formation of pure phase of M-type hexaferrite after 700 °C. Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) reveals that the weight loss of BaLCM becomes constant after 680 °C. The presence of two prominent peaks, at 432 cm-1 and 586 cm-1 in Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectra, gives the idea of formation of M-type hexaferrites. The M-H curve obtained from Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) were used to calculate saturation magnetization (MS), retentivity (Mr), squareness ration (SR) and coercivity (Hc). The maximum value of coercivity (5602 Oe) is found at 900 °C. The band gap dependency on temperature was studied using UV-vis NIR spectroscopy. The dielectric constant has been found to be high at low frequency but it decreases with increase in frequency. Such kind of dielectric behavior is explained on the basis of Koop's phenomenological theory and Maxwell Wagner theory.

  6. Subterahertz excitations and magnetoelectric effects in hexaferrite-piezoelectric bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Ustinov, Alexey B.; Srinivasan, G.

    2008-10-06

    A frequency-agile hexaferrite-piezoelectric composite for potential device applications at subterahertz frequencies is studied. The bilayer is composed of aluminum substituted barium hexagonal ferrite (BaAl{sub 2}Fe{sub 10}O{sub 19}) and lead zirconate titanate (PZT). A dc electric field applied to PZT results in mechanical deformation of the ferrite, leading to a frequency shift in ferromagnetic resonance. The bilayer demonstrates magnetoelectric interaction coefficient of about 0.37 Oe cm/kV.

  7. An investigation on the microstructures and magnetic properties of the Sr0.35-xBaxCa0.30La0.35Fe11.71Co0.29O19 hexaferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yujie; Liu, Xiansong

    2014-11-01

    M-type hexaferrite Sr0.35-xBaxCa0.30La0.35Fe11.71Co0.29O19 (0≤x≤0.35) magnetic powders and magnets were prepared by the solid-state reaction. The phase compositions of the magnetic powders were investigated by X-ray diffraction. X-ray diffraction patterns show that the hexagonal single phase is obtained in all samples. The micrographs of the magnets were observed by a field emission scanning electron microscopy. All magnets have formed hexagonal structures and the particles are distributed evenly. Magnetic properties of the magnets were measured by a magnetic properties test instrument. The remanence, intrinsic coercivity, magnetic induction coercivity and maximum energy product of the magnets continuously decrease with increasing barium content (x).

  8. Magnetism and magneto-optics of hexaferrite layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerber, R.; Atkinson, R.; Šimša, Z.

    1997-11-01

    Recent contributions to research in magnetism and magneto-optics of hexaferrite layers, resulting from the collaboration between the above-mentioned institutions, are comprehensively reviewed. The pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique is described and its main features, relying on the plume diagnostics and correct oxygen pressure, both being important for the deposition of hexaferrites of complex stoichiometry, are highlighted. The fabricated layers were investigated structurally and it was found that they are highly textured with the c-axis perpendicular to the film plane. Their magnetization was measured over a wide temperature range, 4.2-300 K, and in fields up to 12 T. Its dependence upon the cobalt content x in BaFe 12- x- yCo xTi yO 19 was also determined in the interval 0 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.8. The results were interpreted in terms of Néel theory and this, when combined with our results of Mössbauer spectra measurements, led to the formulation of a consistent model for the cation distribution in CoTi-substituted barium hexaferrites. The hysteresis-loop measurements provided data for obtaining values of anisotropy, which are in agreement with those of the bulk materials. The domain structure of thin hexaferrite layers was also studied, particularly the domain period dependence upon the sample thickness and cobalt content. The domain period dependence was found to be in very good agreement with theoretical micromagnetic calculations. Ellipsometry, reflectance photometry and Kerr/Faraday polarimetry were used to determine the optical and magneto-optical properties of hexaferrite platelets and thin layers. The complex refractive index and magneto-optic parameter were determined over the spectral range 350-850 nm and the reliability of the data was tested by comparison with photometric measurements of reflectance. The Faraday rotation and absorption spectra of substituted hexaferrite thin layers were measured in the 500-2000 nm wavelength range at room temperature

  9. Barium enema

    MedlinePlus

    ... series; Colorectal cancer - lower GI series; Colorectal cancer - barium enema; Crohn disease - lower GI series; Crohn disease - barium enema; Intestinal blockage - lower GI series; Intestinal blockage - ...

  10. The Microscopic Magnetic Properties of W-type Hexaferrite Powder Prepared by A Sol-Gel Route

    SciTech Connect

    Jotania, Rajshree; Chauhan, Chetna; Sharma, Pooja

    2010-12-01

    Magnetic particles of W-type barium-calcium hexaferrite (BaCa{sub 2}Fe{sub 16}O{sub 27}) have been synthesized using a Stearic acid gel route. The gel precursors were dried at 100 deg. C for 2 hrs and then calcinated at 650 deg. C, 750 deg. C, 850 deg. C and 950 deg. C for 4 hrs in a furnace and slowly cooled to room temperature in order to obtain barium-calcium hexaferrite particles. The microscopic magnetic properties of prepared samples studying using Moessbauer spectroscopy. Moessbauer spectra of all samples were recorded at room temperature. Mossbauer parameters like Isomer shift, Quadruple splitting etc. were calculated with respect to iron foil. Barium calcium hexaferrite samples heated at 650 deg. C, 750 deg. C, 850 deg. C show relaxation type Moessbauer spectra along with paramagnetic doublet. The intensity of paramagnetic doublet increases with temperature confirm the presence of ferrous ions in the samples, where as sample calcinated at 950 deg. C confirm the presence of ferrimagnetic phase with partial super paramagnetic nature of prepared hexaferrite sample.

  11. Magnetic characterization of Ca substituted Ba and Sr hexaferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asti, G.; Carbucicchio, M.; Deriu, A.; Lucchini, E.; Slokar, G.

    1980-04-01

    A magnetic characterization has been worked out for the solid solution from Ba and Sr hexaferrites (BaFe 1 2O 1 9, SrFe 1 2O 1 9) towards CaO- xFe 2O 3 (2 ⪕ x ⪕5.5). Measurements of Curie temperature, saturation magnetization, magnetic anisotropy, together with Mössbauer characterization indicate that the intrinsic properties of the studied compounds do not change appreciably with increasing Ca content. These results, together with the X-ray data, are consistent with the formation of an undistorted M-type cell with a low content of iron and oxygen vacancies.

  12. Hexaferrite particles by coprecipitation and lyophilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calleja, A.; Tijero, E.; Martínez, B.; Piñol, S.; Sandiumenge, F.; Obradors, X.

    1999-05-01

    Fine strontium hexaferrite particles were prepared by lyophilization (known as freeze-drying) and coprecipitation of nitrates and chloride salts, respectively. The resulting powders were calcined at different temperatures between 700°C and 1100°C. As concluded from the measured hysteresis loops at 300 K, the freeze-dried hexaferrite showed good magnetic characteristics, the coercivity being as high as 5690 Oe. However, coprecipitated hexaferrite displayed poor coercivity values, around 1300 Oe at best.

  13. Barium Sulfate

    MedlinePlus

    Barium sulfate is used to help doctors examine the esophagus (tube that connects the mouth and stomach), ... dimensional pictures of the inside of the body). Barium sulfate is in a class of medications called ...

  14. Al doped Ba hexaferrite (BaAlxFe12-xO19) thin films on Pt using metallo-organic decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harward, I.; Nie, Yan; Gardner, A.; Reisman, L.; Celinski, Z.

    2012-04-01

    We grew a series of aluminum-substituted M-type barium hexaferrite (BaAlxFe12-xO19) thin films on a Pt (111) template and Si wafer using metallo-organic decomposition technique. We varied the composition from x = 0 to x = 2 with 0.25 step increments. X-ray diffraction patterns confirm highly textured c-axis polycrystalline films while atomic force microscope measurements allow us to estimate the lateral grain sizes which range from 0.2-1 micron depending on Al content. The microwave properties of these films were studied using a broadband ferromagnetic resonance spectrometer from 35 to 70 GHz. The measured out of plane effective anisotropy field increases in a nearly linear fashion with increasing Al concentration, between 12.8 kOe for x = 0 and 25 kOe for x = 2. The measured ferromagnetic resonance linewidths were relatively low, on the order of 150-300 Oe for compositions below x = 1, increasing significantly up to 800 Oe for x = 2. The easy axis magnetic hysteresis loops exhibit high squareness.

  15. Synthesis and orientation of barium hexaferrite ceramics by magnetic alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Autissier, Denis

    1990-01-01

    Particles of Ba 2Mn xZn 2- xFe 12O 22 with planar structure were prepared by chemical precipitation. They were processed by sleep casting in presence of a magnetic field. The degree of alignment was improved by a special sintering treatment. By this procedure an alignment as high as 99.9% is obtained.

  16. Effects of Gd substitution on the structural and magnetic properties of strontium hexaferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litsardakis, G.; Manolakis, I.; Serletis, C.; Efthimiadis, K. G.

    2007-09-01

    The effect of Gd substitution in M-type strontium hexaferrites has been examined in two series of samples, (Sr1-xGdx)O·5.25Fe2O3 and Sr1-xGdxFe12-xCoxO19, both prepared by the ceramic method, where x=0-0.40. The samples have been characterized by XRD, VSM and SEM-EDAX techniques. All substituted samples present primarily the hexaferrite structure. Sample (Sr0.95Gd)O·5.25Fe2O3 is single phase. Formation of impurity phases is affected by stoichiometry and presence of Co. In Sr-Gd samples, coercivity showed a maximum value of 305 kA/m (3.8 kOe) for x=0.20, while remanence and saturation magnetization did not decrease. Coercivity and magnetization in the Sr-Gd-Co series decreased steadily with substitution degree.

  17. Complex electrical transport behavior in low temperature sintered M-type hexaferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Long; Li, Lezhong; Tu, Xiaoqiang; Wang, Rui; Hu, Yun; Zhong, Xiaoxi

    2016-03-01

    Temperature dependence of resistivity from room temperature to 750 °C at different frequency for the low temperature sintered Sr1-xLaxFe12-xCoxO19 (x=0-0.3) ferrites was investigated, and a theory model based on a hybrid grain structure was established to explain the observed complex electrical transport behavior. It indicates that the formation of surface phase associated with non-uniform La3+-Co2+ substitution is crucial to the hybrid grain structure, which consists of body phase, surface phase, and interface. The abnormal double metal-semiconductor (M-S) transitions in La3+-Co2+ substituted ferrites are suggested to arise from the competition of lattice vibration scattering effect and thermal excitation of different conduction electrons strongly correlated with the hopping of electrons between Fe2+ and Fe3+ at octahedral sites in body phase and surface phase.

  18. Magnetic and microwave absorption properties of BaMgx/2Mnx/2CoxTi2xFe12-4xO19 hexaferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shams Alam, Reza; Moradi, Mahmood; Nikmanesh, Hossein; Ventura, Joao; Rostami, Mohammad

    2016-03-01

    Substituted barium hexaferrite nanoparticles with nominal composition of BaMgx/2Mnx/2CoxTi2xFe12-4xO19 (x=0-0.5) were synthesized by a co-precipitation method. Then, the structural, magnetic and microwave characteristics of the representative samples were examined by employing X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and vector network analyzer (VNA). The XRD, along with FTIR evaluations confirmed the successful substitution of Mg, Mn, Co and Ti cations in the barium hexaferrite lattice. The microstructure evaluations also proved that the mean particle size decreases and typical morphologies are gradually varying from almost platelet (x=0) to irregular shapes (x=0.5) with increasing dopant concentration. Hysteresis loops revealed that the saturation magnetization increased up to substitution level of x=0.2, and then decreased abruptly. In addition, the coercivity exhibited a decreasing trend from 3669 Oe to 708 Oe with increasing amount of substitution. Finally, microwave measurement showed that the substituted barium hexaferrite sample with x=0.5 could be used as an efficient microwave absorption material with an appropriate absorption bandwidth of 6 GHz in the 10-16 GHz frequency range.

  19. Barium cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Barium cyanide ; CASRN 542 - 62 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  20. First principles investigation of substituted strontium hexaferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixit, Vivek

    This dissertation investigates how the magnetic properties of strontium hexaferrite change upon the substitution of foreign atoms at the Fe sites. Strontium hexaferrite, SrFe12O19, is a commonly used hard magnetic material and is produced in large quantities (around 500,000 tons per year). For different applications of strontium hexaferrite, its magnetic properties can be tuned by a proper substitution of the foreign atoms. Experimental screening for a proper substitution is a cost-intensive and time-consuming process, whereas computationally it can be done more efficiently. We used the 'density functional theory' a first principles based method to study substituted strontium hexaferrite. The site occupancies of the substituted atoms were estimated by calculating the substitution energies of different configurations. The formation probabilities of configurations were used to calculate the magnetic properties of substituted strontium hexaferrite. In the first study, Al-substituted strontium hexaferrite, SrFe12-x AlxO19 with x=0.5 and x=1.0 were investigated. It was found that at the annealing temperature the non-magnetic Al +3 ions preferentially replace Fe+3 ions from the 12 k and 2a sites. We found that the magnetization decreases and the magnetic anisotropy field increases as the fraction, x of the Al atoms increases. In the second study, SrFe12-xGaxO19 and SrFe12-xInxO19 with x=0.5 and x=1.0 were investigated. In the case of SrFe12-xGaxO19, the sites where Ga+3 ions prefer to enter are: 12 k, 2a, and 4f1. For SrFe12-xInxO19, In+3 ions most likely to occupy the 12k, 4f1 , and 4f2 sites. In both cases the magnetization was found to decrease slightly as the fraction of substituted atom increases. The magnetic anisotropy field increased for SrFe12-xGaxO 19, and decreased for SrFe12-xInxO19 as the concentration of substituted atoms increased. In the third study, 23 elements (M) were screened for their possible substitution in strontium hexaferrite, SrFe12-xMxO 19

  1. Innovative methodology for the synthesis of Ba-M hexaferrite BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, M.A.; Helmy, N.; El-Dek, S.I.

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: Transmission electron microscope images for the BaFe12O19. - Highlights: • BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}nanoparticles were prepared in single-phase from organometallic precursors. • BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} possesses small size 65 nm, H{sub C} = 3695 Oe and M{sub s} = 58 emu/g. • This method of preparation could be extended in the synthesis of other metal oxide nanoparticles. - Abstract: In this piece of work, high quality and homogeneity, barium hexaferrite (BaM) BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} nanoparticles were prepared from organometallic precursors for the 1st time. This method is based on the formation of supramolecular crystal structure of Ba[Fe(H{sub 3}NCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}NH{sub 3})]Cl{sub 7}·8H{sub 2}O. The crystal structure, morphology and magnetic properties of BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} at two different annealing temperatures namely 1000 °C and 1200 °C were investigated using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope TEM and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). The results show that monophasic nanoparticles of hexaferrites were obtained. Nanoparticles of crystallite size 40–50 nm distinguished by narrow distribution and excellent homogeneity were obtained with superior magnetic properties which suggested single-domain particles of Ba-M hexaferrite.

  2. Magnetic properties of Ni substituted Y-type barium ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Won, Mi Hee; Kim, Chul Sung

    2014-05-01

    Y-type barium hexaferrite is attractive material for various applications, such as high frequency antennas and RF devices, because of its interesting magnetic properties. Especially, Ni substituted Y- type hexaferrites have higher magnetic ordering temperature than other Y-type. We have investigated macroscopic and microscopic properties of Y-type barium hexaferrite. Ba2Co2-xNixFe12O22 (x = 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0) samples are prepared by solid-state reaction method and studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometer, and Mössbauer spectroscopy, as well as a network analyzer for high frequency characteristics. The XRD pattern is analyzed by Rietveld refinement method and confirms the hexagonal structure with R-3m. The hysteresis curve shows ferrimagnetic behavior. Saturation magnetization (Ms) decreases with Ni contents. Ni2+, which preferentially occupies the octahedral site with up-spin sub-lattice, has smaller spin value S of 1 than Co2+ having S = 3/2. The zero-field-cooled (ZFC) measurement of Ba2Co1.5Ni0.5Fe12O22 shows that Curie and spin transition temperatures are found to be 718 K and 209 K, respectively. The Curie temperature TC is increased with Ni contents, while TS is decreased with Ni. The Mössbauer spectra were measured at various temperatures and fitted by using a least-squares method with six sextet of six Lorentzian lines for Fe sites, corresponding to the 3bVI, 6cIV*, 6cVI, 18hVI, 6cIV, and 3aIV sites at below TC. From Mössbauer measurements, we confirmed the spin state of Fe ion to be Fe3+ and obtained the isomer shift (δ), magnetic hyperfine field (Hhf), and the occupancy ratio of Fe ions at six sub-lattices. The complex permeability and permittivity are measured between 100 MHz and 4 GHz, suggesting that Y-type barium hexaferrite is promising for antenna applications in UHF band.

  3. Magnetic properties of Ni substituted Y-type barium ferrite

    SciTech Connect

    Won, Mi Hee; Kim, Chul Sung

    2014-05-07

    Y-type barium hexaferrite is attractive material for various applications, such as high frequency antennas and RF devices, because of its interesting magnetic properties. Especially, Ni substituted Y- type hexaferrites have higher magnetic ordering temperature than other Y-type. We have investigated macroscopic and microscopic properties of Y-type barium hexaferrite. Ba{sub 2}Co{sub 2−x}Ni{sub x}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 22} (x = 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0) samples are prepared by solid-state reaction method and studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometer, and Mössbauer spectroscopy, as well as a network analyzer for high frequency characteristics. The XRD pattern is analyzed by Rietveld refinement method and confirms the hexagonal structure with R-3m. The hysteresis curve shows ferrimagnetic behavior. Saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) decreases with Ni contents. Ni{sup 2+}, which preferentially occupies the octahedral site with up-spin sub-lattice, has smaller spin value S of 1 than Co{sup 2+} having S = 3/2. The zero-field-cooled (ZFC) measurement of Ba{sub 2}Co{sub 1.5}Ni{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 22} shows that Curie and spin transition temperatures are found to be 718 K and 209 K, respectively. The Curie temperature T{sub C} is increased with Ni contents, while T{sub S} is decreased with Ni. The Mössbauer spectra were measured at various temperatures and fitted by using a least-squares method with six sextet of six Lorentzian lines for Fe sites, corresponding to the 3b{sub VI}, 6c{sub IV}*, 6c{sub VI}, 18h{sub VI}, 6c{sub IV}, and 3a{sub IV} sites at below T{sub C}. From Mössbauer measurements, we confirmed the spin state of Fe ion to be Fe{sup 3+} and obtained the isomer shift (δ), magnetic hyperfine field (H{sub hf}), and the occupancy ratio of Fe ions at six sub-lattices. The complex permeability and permittivity are measured between 100 MHz and 4 GHz, suggesting that Y-type barium hexaferrite is promising for antenna

  4. Hexaferrites and phase relations in the iron-rich part of the system Sr-La-Co-Fe-O

    SciTech Connect

    Langhof, N.; Goebbels, M.

    2009-10-15

    The iron rich part of the system was examined in the temperature range of 1200-1380 deg. C in air, with focus on the solid solutions of M-type hexaferrites. Samples of suitable compositions were studied by electronprobe microanalysis (EPMA). Substituted Sr-hexaferrites in the system Sr-La-Co-Fe-O do not follow the 1:1 substitution mechanism of La/Co in M-type ferrites. Due to the presence and limited Co{sup 2+}-incorporation Fe{sup 3+}-ions are reduced to Fe{sup 2+} within the crystal lattice to obtain charge balance. In all examined M-type ferrites divalent iron is formed, even at 1200 deg. C. The substitution principle Sr{sup 2+}+Fe{sup 3+}reversibleLa{sup 3+}+(Fe{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}) yields to the general substitution formula for the M-type hexaferrite Sr{sup 2+}{sub 1-x}La{sup 3+}{sub x}Fe{sup 2+}{sub x-y}Co{sup 2+}{sub y}Fe{sup 3+}{sub 12-x}O{sup 19} (0<=x<=1 and 0<=y<=x). In addition Sr/La-perovskite{sub SS} ({sub SS}=solid solution), Co/Fe-spinel{sub SS}, hematite and magnetite are formed. Sr-hexaferrite exhibits at 1200 deg. C a limited solid solution with small amounts of Fe{sup 2+} (SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}reversibleSr{sub 0.3}La{sub 0.7}Co{sub 0.5}Fe{sup 2+}{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 11.3}O{sub 19}). At 1300 and 1380 deg. C a continuous solid solution series of the M-type hexaferrite is stable. SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} and LaCo{sub 0.4}Fe{sup 2+}{sub 0.6}Fe{sub 11}O{sub 19} are the end members at 1300 deg. C. The maximum Fe{sup 2+}O content is about 13 mol% in the M-type ferrite at 1380 deg. C (LaCo{sub 0.1}Fe{sup 2+}{sub 0.9}Fe{sub 11}O{sub 19}). - Graphical abstract: M-type hexaferrite solid solution series Sr{sub 1-x}La{sub x}Fe{sup 2+}{sub x-y}Co{sup 2+}{sub y}Fe{sup 3+}{sub 12-x}O{sup 19} (0<=x<=1 and 0<=y<=0.40) at 1300 deg. C; M-type contains significant amounts of FeO even at 1200 deg. C; blue=data from electronprobe microanalyses; SF{sub 6}=SrFe{sup 3+}{sub 12}O{sub 19}; LCoFf{sub 6}=LaCo{sub 0.4}Fe{sup 2+}{sub 0.6}Fe{sup 3+}{sub 11}O{sub 19}; S=SrO; L=La{sub 2

  5. Magnetoelectric sensor excitations in hexaferrite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zare, Saba; Rabinowitz, Jake; Izadkhah, Hessam; Somu, Sivasubramanian; Vittoria, Carmine

    2015-05-01

    We developed techniques for H- and E-field sensors utilizing single phase magnetoelectric (ME) hexaferrite thin films in the frequency range of 1 kHz to 10 MHz. The technique incorporating solenoid coils and multi-capacitors bank was developed to probe the physics and properties of ME hexaferrite film and explore ME effects for sensor detections and tunable device applications. For H-field sensing, we obtained sensitivity of 4 × 10-4 V/Gm and for E-field sensing the sensitivity was 10-3 Gm/V. Tunability of up to 6% was achieved for tunable inductor applications. The proposed fabrication designs lend themselves to significant (˜106) improvements in sensitivity and tunability.

  6. BARIUM RECOVERY PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Blanco, R.E.

    1959-07-21

    A method of separating barium from nuclear fission products is described. In accordance with the invention, barium may be recovered from an acidic solution of neutron-irradiated fissionable material by carrying ihe barium cut of solution as a sulfate with lead as a carrier and then dissolving the barium-containing precipitate in an aqueous solution of an aliphatic diamine chelating reagent. The barium values together with certain other metallic values present in the diamine solution are then absorbed onto a cation exchange resin and the barium is selectively eluted from the resin bed with concentrated nitric acid.

  7. Crystal structure refinement, dielectric and magnetic properties of Ca/Pb substituted SrFe12O19 hexaferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooda, Ashima; Sanghi, Sujata; Agarwal, Ashish; Dahiya, Reetu

    2015-08-01

    SrFe12O19 (SFO), Sr0.5Ca0.5Fe12O19 (SCFO) and Sr0.5Pb0.5Fe12O19 (SPFO) hexaferrites have been synthesized by a conventional solid state reaction technique. Powder X-ray diffraction and Rietveld refinement confirm the presence of M-type hexagonal phase in prepared samples. However in SCFO, secondary phase was also present with main phase. Analysis of Nyquist's plots of SFO hexaferrite revealed the contribution of many electrically active regions corresponding to bulk mechanism, distribution of grain boundaries and electrode processes also. Both conductivity and electric modulus formalisms have been employed to study the relaxation dynamics of charge carriers. A perfect overlapping of the normalized plots of modulus isotherms on a single 'super curve' for all the studied temperatures reveals a temperature independence of dynamic processes involved in conduction and for relaxation. In SPFO sample coercivity is reduced effectively but accompanied with increase in magnetization, which is requirement for hexaferrites to be used as magnetic recording media.

  8. High coercivity Gd-substituted Ba hexaferrites, prepared by chemical coprecipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litsardakis, G.; Manolakis, I.; Serletis, C.; Efthimiadis, K. G.

    2008-04-01

    A series of Gd-substituted Ba hexaferrites with nominal formula (Ba1-xGdx)Oṡ5.25 Fe2O3 (x=0-0.30) were prepared by the chemical coprecipitation method from nitrate precursors and heating at T =800-1200°C for 2h. The samples have been examined by x-ray diffraction, vibrating-sample magnetometer, and scanning electron microscopy methods. Gd substituted samples form single phase materials with the M-type hexaferrite structure at all heating temperatures, in the range of x ⩽0.10-0.20. The saturation magnetization (at 1.8T) varies slightly with x in most cases and, for x =0.05-0.10, it increases up to 66.7Am2/kg, exceeding the value of the unsubstituted hexaferrite. A strong enhancement of the coercivity is observed for all substituted samples, with maximum values Hc=457kA/m for the single-phase x =0.10 sample annealed at 1000°C and Hc=477kA/m for the x =0.25 sample annealed at 1100°C which contains Fe2O3 and GdFeO3 impurities. As the variation of coercivity with either substitution rate (x ) or annealing temperature is not monotonic, three different factors may account for the high coercivities that are obtained: (a) an inhibition of grain growth due to the presence of Gd, (b) a possible inherent effect on magnetocrystalline anisotropy, especially for single phase samples, and (c) a microstructural effect of secondary phases.

  9. Barium enema (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A barium enema is performed to examine the walls of the colon. During the procedure, a well lubricated enema tube is inserted gently into the rectum. The barium, a radiopaque (shows up on X-ray) contrast ...

  10. Hard magnetic properties of nanosized Sr(Fe,Al)12O19 hexaferrites obtained by Pechini method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrera, V.; Betancourt, I.

    2016-06-01

    In this work, we report the magnetic properties of isotropic M-type SrFe12-xAlxO19 (x=0.0,1.5) hexaferrites synthesized by means of Pechini method. A polycrystalline distribution of fine grains was verified by Transmission Electron Microscopy for both compositions, with average sizes below 60 nm. Remarkable coercivity values within the range 500-850 kA/m were attained as a consequence of a combined effect of grain size refinement together with an enhancement of the anisotropy field afforded by the incorporation of the Al3+ cations into the hexagonal crystal structure.

  11. Magnetoelectric hexaferrite thin film growth on oxide conductive layer for applications at low voltages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zare, Saba; Izadkhah, Hessam; Vittoria, Carmine

    2016-08-01

    Magnetoelectric (ME) M-type hexaferrite thin films were deposited on conductive oxide layer of Indium-Tin Oxide (ITO) in order to lower applied voltages to observe ME effects at room temperature. The thin film of ME hexaferrites, SrCo2Ti2Fe8O19/ITO buffer layer, were deposited on sapphire substrate using Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) technique. The film exhibited ME effects as confirmed by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) in voltages as low as 0.5 V. Without the oxide conductive layer the required voltages to observe ME effects were typically 500 V and higher. The thin films were characterized by X-ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer, and ferromagnetic resonance. We measured saturation magnetization of 1064 G, and coercive field of 20 Oe for these thin films. The change rate in remanence magnetization was measured with the application of DC voltage at room temperature and it gave rise to changes in remanence in the order of 15% with the application of only 0.5 V (DC voltage). We deduced a ME coupling, α, of 5×10-10 s m-1 in SrCo2Ti2Fe8O19 thin films.

  12. Synthesis and magnetic characterization of Sr-based Ni{sub 2}X-type hexaferrite

    SciTech Connect

    Kamishima, K. Mashiko, T.; Kakizaki, K.; Sakai, M.; Watanabe, K.; Abe, H.

    2015-10-15

    We have investigated the synthesis conditions, and the magnetic properties of the Sr{sub 2}Ni{sub 2}X-type hexagonal ferrite, Sr{sub 2}Ni{sub 2}Fe{sub 28}O{sub 46}. The Sr{sub 2}Ni{sub 2}X-type hexaferrite was synthesized at 1240{sup ∘}C. The spontaneous magnetization at 5 K was 44.2 μ{sub B}/f.u., suggesting that most of the Ni{sup 2+} ions are at the up-spin octahedral sites in the spinel-structure blocks within the model of a Néel-type collinear ferrimagnetic structure. The Curie temperature of the Sr{sub 2}Ni{sub 2}X-type hexaferrite was estimated to be T{sub C}[Sr{sub 2}Ni{sub 2}X] = 472{sup ∘}C. This is consistent with the difference of the block stacking structures of SrM-type, Sr{sub 2}Ni{sub 2}X-type, SrNi{sub 2}W-type, and nickel spinel ferrites.

  13. Temperature dependent spin structures in Hexaferrite crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Y. C.; Lin, J. G.; Chun, S. H.; Kim, K. H.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the Hexaferrite Ba0.5Sr1.5Zn2Fe12O22 (BSZFO) is studied due to its interesting characteristics of long-wavelength spin structure. Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) is used to probe the magnetic states of BSZFO single crystal and its temperature dependence behavior is analyzed by decomposing the multiple lines of FMR spectra into various phases. Distinguished phase transition is observed at 110 K for one line, which is assigned to the ferro(ferri)-magnetic transition from non-collinear to collinear spin state.

  14. Magnetoelectric sensor excitations in hexaferrite slabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zare, Saba; Izadkhah, Hessam; Somu, Sivasubramanian; Vittoria, Carmine

    2015-06-01

    We developed techniques for H- and E-field sensors utilizing single phase magnetoelectric (ME) hexaferrite slabs in the frequency range of 100 Hz to 10 MHz. Novel circuit designs incorporating both spiral and solenoid coils and single and multi-capacitor banks were developed to probe the physics and properties of ME hexaferrites and explore ME effects for sensor detections. Fundamental measurements of the anisotropic tensor elements of the magneto-electric coupling parameter were performed using these novel techniques. In addition, for H-field sensing experiments we measured sensitivity of about 3000 Vm-1/G using solenoid coils and 8000 Vm-1/G using spiral coils. For E-field, sensing the sensitivity was 10-4 G/Vm-1 and using single capacitor detector. Sensitivity for multi-capacitor detectors was measured to be in the order of 10-3 G/Vm-1 and frequency dependent exhibiting a maximum value at ˜1 MHz. Tunability of 0.1%-90% was achieved for tunable inductor applications using both single and multi-capacitors excitation. We believe that significant (˜106) improvements in sensitivity and tunability are feasible with simple modifications of the fabrication process.

  15. Structural, AC conductivity and dielectric properties of Sr-La hexaferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, A.; Narang, S. B.; Singh, K.; Sharma, P.; Pandey, O. P.

    2006-03-01

    A series of M-type hexaferrite samples with composition Sr{1-x}La{x}Fe{12}O{19} (x = 0.00, 0.05, 0.15 and 0.25) were prepared by standard ceramic technique. AC electrical conductivity measurements were carried out at different frequencies (20 Hz 1 MHz) and at different temperatures. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss tangent were measured in the same range of frequencies. The experimental results indicate that AC electrical conductivity increases on increasing the frequency as well as the temperature, indicating magnetic semiconductor behavior of the samples. The increase in AC electrical conductivity with frequency and temperature has been explained on the basis of Koops Model whereas dielectric constant and dielectric loss tangent has been explained with the Maxwell Wagner type interfacial polarization in agreement with the Koops phenomenological theory.

  16. Magnetic and microwave properties of U-type hexaferrite films with high remanence and low ferromagnetic resonance linewidth

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Zhijuan; Bennett, Steven; Hu, Bolin; Chen, Yajie Harris, Vincent G.

    2014-05-07

    U-type barium hexaferrite films (Ba{sub 4}Ni{sub 1.4}Co{sub 0.6}Fe{sub 36}O{sub 60}) were deposited on (0001) sapphire substrates by pulsed laser deposition. Microstructure and magnetic properties of the films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry. Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) measurements were performed at X-band. The results indicate an anisotropy field of ∼8 kOe, and the saturation magnetization (4πM{sub s}) of ∼3.6 kG. An optimal post-deposition annealing of films results in a strong (0 0 n) crystallographic texture and a high hysteresis loop squareness (M{sub r}/M{sub s} = 92%) leading to self biased properties. Furthermore, the highly self-biased ferrite films exhibited an FMR linewidth of ∼200 Oe. The U-type hexaferrite films having low microwave loss, low magnetic anisotropy field, and high squareness are a suitable alternative to Sc or In doped BaM ferrites that have been the choice material for self-biased microwave devices at X-band frequencies.

  17. Single crystal growth, structural characteristics and magnetic properties of chromium substituted M-type ferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shlyk, L.; Vinnik, D. A.; Zherebtsov, D. A.; Hu, Z.; Kuo, C.-Y.; Chang, C.-F.; Lin, H.-J.; Yang, L.-Y.; Semisalova, A. S.; Perov, N. S.; Langer, T.; Pöttgen, R.; Nemrava, S.; Niewa, R.

    2015-12-01

    Two different types of fluxes, namely sodium based and chloride based fluxes were used to grow Cr substituted barium and strontium hexaferrite ferrite crystals, (Sr,Ba)Fe12 - xCrxO19 at comparatively low temperatures of about 1300 °C. The sodium based flux led to growth of larger crystals up to 5 mm, but with only minor Cr contents x ≤ 0.07. From the chloride based flux the obtained Cr contents are significantly higher with x = 5.7 (Sr) and x = 3.4 (Ba), however, crystals reach only sizes in the sub-mm range. X-ray absorption spectroscopy data support exclusively isovalent substitution of Fe3+ by Cr3+ even for very low Cr contents. 57Fe Mößbauer spectroscopy reveals Cr to preferentially occupy the six-fold by oxygen coordinated site at 12k and, to a lower degree, 2a and 4f2 in space group P63/mmc. All characteristic magnetic properties drop upon Cr substitution, e. g., the Curie temperature from 728 K for pure BaFe12O19 to 465 K for BaFe8.6Cr3.4O19, the saturation magnetization from 71 emu/g to 29.7 emu/g and the coercive field from 363 Oe to 45 Oe.

  18. Barium release system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, B. W.; Stokes, C. S.; Smith, E. W.; Murphy, W. J. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A chemical system is described for releasing a good yield of free barium neutral atoms and barium ions in the upper atmosphere and interplanetary space for the study of the geophysical properties of the medium. The barium is released in the vapor phase so that it can be ionized by solar radiation and also be excited to emit resonance radiation in the visible range. The ionized luminous cloud of barium becomes a visible indication of magnetic and electrical characteristics in space and allows determination of these properties over relatively large areas at a given time.

  19. Mechanism and microstructural evolution of polyol mediated synthesis of nanostructured M-type SrFe12O19

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenorio Gonzalez, F. N.; Bolarín Miró, A. M.; Sánchez De Jesús, F.; Cortés Escobedo, C. A.; Ammar, S.

    2016-06-01

    The synthesis mechanism of nanostructured M-type strontium hexaferrite SrFe12O19 with high coercivity (5.7 kOe) obtained by a polyol process and annealing is proposed. The results show that the hexaferrite is synthesized through the formation of a complex with diethylene glycol during the hydrolysis and solvation stage, followed by the condensation of magnetite and strontium oxide. The results of the monitoring of the process by X-ray diffraction (XRD) of synthesized powders, magnetization hysteresis loops and micromorphology are presented and discussed. The proposed mechanism suggests the intermediate formation of the magnetite phase, which shows coercivity near zero at room temperature and confirms the nanoscale of the particles. Results of thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis indicate that this phase is followed by the formation of the hematite phase after a heat treatment up to 543 °C in an oxidizing atmosphere. Finally, the hexagonal phase is obtained after application of annealing at 836 °C through the reaction between hematite and strontium oxide.

  20. Polarimetry of M-type asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil-Hutton, R.

    2007-03-01

    Aims:Results of a polarimetric program at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (Casleo), San Juan, Argentina are presented. The aim of this campaign is to estimate the polarimetric properties of asteroids belonging to the X taxonomic class. In this paper results of the campaign for M-type objects are presented. Methods: The data have been obtained with Casprof and Torino polarimeters at the 2.15 m telescope. The Casprof polarimeter is a two-hole aperture polarimeter with rapid modulation and the Torino polarimeter is an instrument that allows simultaneous measurement of polarization in the U-, B-, V-, R-, and I-bands. Results: The campaign began in 2000, and data on a sample of 26 M-type asteroids were obtained. Most of these objects were polarimetricaly observed for the first time. Combining these data with those available in the literature, an estimate of the polarimetric parameters and albedo for 12 objects is presented. Furthermore, the data show that asteroids 21 Lutetia and 77 Frigga have a large inversion angle and 441 Bathilde a deep polarization minimum, implying a controversial taxonomic classification as M-type for these objects. Also, the polarimetric parameters estimated for the M-type asteroids showing in their spectra the 3 μm band and classified as W-type by Rivkin et al. (1995, Icarus, 117, 90; 2000, ApJ, 145, 351) could be different from those without that feature. Based on observations carried out at the Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito, operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina, and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba and San Juan.

  1. Magnetic and Dielectric Investigations of Mn-Doped Ba Hexaferrite Nanoparticles by Hydrothermal Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeela, N.; Khan, U.; Iqbal, M.; Riaz, S.; Ali, H.; Maaz, K.; Naseem, S.

    2016-07-01

    A hydrothermal method followed by heat treatment was used to synthesize Mn-substituted Ba2Co2-x Mn x Fe12O22 nanoparticles with a nominal chemical composition of 0 ≤ x < 1 and step gap of 0.3. In this study, the effect of Mn substitution on Co2Y-type barium hexaferrite is investigated after employing x-ray diffraction for crystal structure, field emission scanning electron microscopy for morphology, energy dispersive analysis of x-ray spectroscopy for elemental composition, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to confirm bond modes, and vibrating sample magnetometry for magnetic measurements. It was found that the sample at x = 0.9 is of particular interest due to its large coercivity and anisotropy. Later on, for x = 0.9, temperature-dependent magnetic analyses including hysteresis loops, zero-field-cooled, and field-cooled at a particular field of 100 Oe were performed. The decreasing trend in saturation magnetization with increase in temperature was estimated. On the other hand, first an increase and then decrease in coercivity values were observed. These loops also revealed dependence of coercivity on magneto-crystalline anisotropy and average crystallite size of nanoparticles. Dielectric measurements at x = 0.9 make it suitable for high frequency applications.

  2. The influence of Nd-Co substitution on the magnetic properties of non-stoichiometric strontium hexaferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bercoff, P. G.; Herme, C.; Jacobo, S. E.

    2009-07-01

    Non-stoichiometric Nd-Co substituted hexaferrites of composition Sr 1-xNd xFe 12(1-x)Co xO 19 ( x=0-0.4) were prepared by the self-propagating combustion method and subsequent heat treatments. Structural characterization of samples showed that the M-type hexagonal structure can be maintained for substitutions x<0.4 without the segregation of secondary phases on samples calcined at 1100 °C. The crystallites sizes range between 50 and 70 nm. Mössbauer spectroscopy results indicate that the iron vacancies are not evenly distributed over the lattice and that Co/Fe substitution mainly takes place in site 4f2. Magnetic measurements reveal that values of saturation magnetization MS increased from 72 to 76 Am 2/kg ( x=0-0.2), while coercivity Hc increased from 26.40 to 58.70 A/m ( x=0-0.3). Nd-Co substitutions enhance magnetic properties in deficient iron Sr hexaferrites.

  3. Structural and magnetic properties of Sn-Zn doped BaCo2Z-type hexaferrite powders prepared by citrate precursor method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasly, M.; Rashad, M. M.

    2013-07-01

    Polycrystalline Sn-Zn substituted barium Z-type hexagonal ferrites powders Ba3Co2SnxZnxFe24-2XO41 (0≤X≤0.1) have been synthesized using the citrate precursor method. The effect of synthesis conditions on crystal structure, crystallite size, microstructure and magnetic properties was systematically studied. The results revealed that two steps annealing; pre-annealing of the hexaferrite citrate precursor at 600 °C for 4 h then post-annealed at 1250 °C for 5 h was required to form single Co2Z-type phase. Moreover, the critical Sn-Zn concentration, that was not destroy the symmetry of the hexagonal lattice, was found to be X=0.08. The crystallite size of the produced Sn-Zn doped Co2Z-type hexaferrite powders was in the range between 70 and 85 nm. Additionally, the lattice parameters, unit cell volume and the porosity were increased whereas the X-ray and bulk densities were decreased with increasing Sn-Zn concentration. The microstructure of the ferrite powders appeared as a hexagonal platelet-like structure. The saturation magnetization of Sn-Zn substituted Co2Z type hexaferrite was reached the maximum value (Ms=47.8 emu/g) at X=0.06 whereas it was reached the minimum value (Ms=43.4 emu/g) at X=0.1. Meanwhile, the coercivity and the squareness ratio were increased as X value increasing.

  4. Cation distribution in Co-Ti-substituted barium hexaferrites: a consistent model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šimša, Z.; Lego, S.; Gerber, R.; Pollert, E.

    1995-02-01

    A consistent model of cation distribution in single-crystal and polycrystalline samples of BaCo xTi yFe 12- x- yO 19 for x and y in the range 0-0.8 was deduced from the Mössbauer spectra, magnetic moments and magneto-optical measurements.

  5. Co and Sn substituted barium M-hexaferrites: single crystal growth and magnetic characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solé, R.; Ruiz, X.; Cabré, R.; Aguiló, M.; Díaz, F.; Nikolov, V.

    1996-09-01

    In this work, single crystals with a BaFe 12 - ( x + y) Sn xCo yO 19, 0 ≤ x ≤ 2, 0 ≤ y ≤ 2 composition, were grown by slow cooling and the TSSG technique, using a mixture of 0.4Na 2O-0.6B 2O 3 as solvent. Taking into account previous results about primary crystallization regions, saturation temperatures, physical properties of the solutions, digital simulations and several previous growth experiments, suitable growth conditions were proposed and used. Crystals grown under these conditions were characterized from the point of view of their perfection and compositional homogeneity. Magnetic properties were also investigated and their evolution as a function of the level of substitution stated.

  6. Growth and interface phase stability of barium hexaferrite films on SiC(0001)

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarov, V. K.; Hasnip, P. J.; Cai, Z.; Ziemer, K. S.; Yoshida, K.

    2011-04-01

    We have studied interface phase stability of the BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} (BaM) thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy on SiC(0001). The films were epitaxially grown with the following crystallographic relation: BaM(0001) parallel SiC(0001) and BaM(11-20) parallel SiC(11-20). High resolution TEM reveals the existence of two interfacial bands with different structure than BaM. The first band close to SiC is SiO{sub x} while the second has spinel structure and chemically corresponds to Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. These findings suggest that at initial growth stages Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} is more favorable than BaM. Density functional theory modeling of the phase stability of BaM compared to Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} shows that BaM is only stable at high oxygen partial pressures.

  7. Combinatorial bulk ceramic magnetoelectric composite libraries of strontium hexaferrite and barium titanate.

    PubMed

    Pullar, Robert C

    2012-07-01

    Bulk ceramic combinatorial libraries were produced via a novel, high-throughput (HT) process, in the form of polycrystalline strips with a gradient composition along the length of the library. Step gradient ceramic composite libraries with 10 mol % steps of SrFe12O19-BaTiO3 (SrM-BT) were made and characterized using HT methods, as a proof of principle of the combinatorial bulk ceramic process, and sintered via HT thermal processing. It was found that the SrM-BT libraries sintered at 1175 °C had the optimum morphology and density. The compositional, electrical and magnetic properties of this library were analyzed, and it was found that the SrM and BT phases did not react and remained discrete. The combinatorial synthesis method produced a relatively linear variation in composition. The magnetization of the library followed the measured compositions very well, as did the low frequency permittivity values of most compositions in the library. However, with high SrM content of ≥80 mol %, the samples became increasingly conductive, and no reliable dielectric measurements could be made. Such conductivity would also greatly inhibit any ferroelectricity and magnetoelectric coupling with these composites with high levels of the SrM hexagonal ferrite. PMID:22676556

  8. Size effects on gamma radiation response of magnetic properties of barium hexaferrite powders

    SciTech Connect

    McCloy, John; Kukkadapu, Ravi; Crum, Jarrod; Johnson, Brad; Droubay, Tim

    2011-12-01

    Little is currently known about the effects of gamma-ray irradiation on oxide magnet materials. In particular, the effect of particle size on radiation susceptibility was investigated. Two commercial powders of BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} were thoroughly characterized, then exposed to 1 MGy of gamma radiation from a {sup 60}Co source. AC susceptibility and DC magnetometry and Moessbauer spectroscopy were performed after irradiation and compared to pre-irradiated measurements. DC magnetization and AC susceptibility decreased for both samples with the relative change of DC magnetization being larger for the micrometer-sized particles and the relative change of the AC susceptibility being larger for the nanometer-sized particles. Moessbauer spectroscopy indicated a decrease in both the hyperfine fields and in their distribution for each Fe site, particularly in the larger particle sample. Decreases in susceptibility are believed to be due to radiation-induced amorphization at the particle surfaces as well as amorphization and nucleation of new crystallites at internal crystallite boundaries, resulting in overall reduction in the particle magnetic moment. This radiation damage mechanism is different than that seen in previous studies of neutron and heavy ion irradiation of BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}.

  9. Structural and magnetic properties of Ca-substituted barium W-type hexagonal hexaferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Kai; Liu, Xiansong; Feng, Shuangjiu; Zhang, Zhanjun; Yu, Jiangying; Niu, Xiaofei; Lv, Farui; Huang, Xing

    2015-04-01

    A series of W-type hexagonal ferrites with the composition Ba1-xCaxCo2Fe16O27 (x=0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5) were synthesized using a sol-gel method. The effects of doping on structural and magnetic properties are studied by X-ray diffraction, thermal analyzer, scanning electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer and vector network analyzer, respectively. The X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the samples belong to the W-type hexagonal ferrite. The lattice constants a and c decreases as Ca contents increases. The grains exhibit well defined hexagonal shape. The saturation magnetization and the intrinsic coercive force increases with the increase of the Ca substitution amount. The real part of complex permittivity (ε‧) and imaginary part (ε″) increase with more addition of Ca2+ amount. The imaginary part of complex permittivity (μ‧) increases and the real part (μ‧‧) goes down after Ca2+ is doped. Furthermore, the Ca2+ ions doped in the ferrite improved microwave absorbency.

  10. Microwave absorption properties of double-layer absorber based on carbonyl iron/barium hexaferrite composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Xiaohu; Fan, Huiqing; Cheng, Yankui

    2016-05-01

    The microwave absorption properties of BaCo0.4Zn1.6Fe16O27 ferrite and carbonyl iron powder with single-layer and double-layer composite absorbers were investigated based on the electromagnetic transmission line theory in the frequency range from 1 to 14 GHz. XRD was used to characterize the structure of prepared absorbing particles. SEM was used to examine the micromorphology of the particles and composites. The complex permittivity and permeability of composites were measured by using a vector network analyzer. The reflection loss of the single-layer and double-layer absorbers with different thicknesses and orders was investigated. The results show that double-layer absorbers have better microwave absorption properties than single-layer absorbers. The microwave absorption properties of the double-layer structure are influenced by the coupling interactions between the matching and absorption layers. As the pure ferrite used as matching layer and the composite of BF-5CI used as absorption, the minimum RL of absorber can achieve to -55.4 dB and the bandwidth of RL <-10 dB ranged from 5.6 to 10.8 GHz when the thicknesses of matching layer and absorption layer were 0.9 and 1.4 mm, respectively.

  11. Observed Barium Emission Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Wescott, E. M.; Hallinan, T. J.

    1993-01-01

    The barium releases from the CRRES satellite have provided an opportunity for verifying theoretically calculated barium ion and neutral emission rates. Spectra of the five Caribbean releases in the summer of 1991 were taken with a spectrograph on board a U.S. Air Force jet aircraft. Because the line of sight release densities are not known, only relative rates could be obtained. The observed relative rates agree well with the theoretically calculated rates and, together with other observations, confirm the earlier detailed theoretical emission rates. The calculated emission rates can thus with good accuracy be used with photometric observations. It has been postulated that charge exchange between neutral barium and oxygen ions represents a significant source for ionization. If so. it should be associated with emissions at 4957.15 A and 5013.00 A, but these emissions were not detected.

  12. Aspiration of Barium Contrast

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes Santos, Cristina; Steen, Bárbara

    2014-01-01

    The aspiration of barium contrast is a rare complication that may occur during studies of the digestive tract. Barium is an inert material that can cause anywhere from an asymptomatic mechanical obstruction to serious symptoms of respiratory distress that can result in patient death. We present the case of a 79-year-old male patient in whom we observed the presence of contrast medium residue in the lung parenchyma as an incidental finding during hospitalization. When the patient's medical file was reviewed, images were found of a barium swallow study that the patient had undergone months earlier, and we were able to observe the exact moment of the aspiration of the contrast material. The patient had been asymptomatic since the test. PMID:25309769

  13. Structural and dielectric properties of La and Ni-doped M-type BaFe12O19 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Poorva; Kumar, Ashwini; Dube, Avinash; Li, Qi; Varshney, Dinesh

    2016-05-01

    BaFe12O19 and Ba0.98La0.02Fe12-xNixO19 (x = 0.02, 0.05) samples synthesized using solid-state reaction route crystallizes in hexagonal structure with space group P63/mmc as revealed from X-ray diffraction. A Raman spectrum shows seven strong and sharp modes at 291.9 (A1g), 410.4 (E2g), 496.09 (A1g), 611.3 (E2g), 681(A1g), 1048.0 (A1g+A1g) and 1313.3 cm-1 (A1g+E2g), identifying the presence of barium hexaferrite phase. The higher values of the dielectric constant at lower frequency and lower values at higher frequency indicate the dispersion due to interfacial polarization. Dielectric constant decreases as the doping concentration of Ni increases due to increase in band gap. A resonance peak has been observed in all three sample and is attributed to the fact that hopping frequency of charge carrier matches well with the frequency of the applied field. Henceforth, Ba0.98La0.02Fe12-xNixO19 (x = 0.02, 0.05) is suitable novel materials for microwave application with low dielectric constant and dielectric loss values.

  14. Magnetic and structural characterization of nanosized BaCoxZn2-xFe16O27 hexaferrite in the vicinity of spin reorientation transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasko, A.; Mazaleyrat, F.; LoBue, M.; Loyau, V.; Basso, V.; Küpferling, M.; Sasso, C. P.; Bessais, L.

    2011-07-01

    Numerous applications of hexagonal ferrites are related to their easy axis or easy plane magnetocrystalline anisotropy configurations. Certain W-type ferrites undergo spin reorientation transitions (SRT) between different anisotropy states on magnetic field or temperature variation. The transition point can be tuned by modifying the chemical composition, which suggests a potential application of hexaferrites in room temperature magnetic refrigeration. Here we present the results of structural and magnetic characterization of BaCoxZn2-xFe16O27 (0.7 <= x <= 2) doped barium ferrites. Fine powders were prepared using a sol-gel citrate precursor method. Crystal structures and particle size distributions were examined by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The optimal synthesis temperature ensuring complete formation of single W-phase with limited grain growth has been determined. Spin reorientation transitions were revealed by thermomagnetic analysis and AC susceptibility measurements.

  15. Effects of Gd-Substitutions on the Microstructure, Electrical and Electromagnetic Behavior of M-Type Hexagonal Ferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Ishtiaq; Ahmad, Mahmood; Ali, Ihsan; Kanwal, M.; Awan, M. S.; Mustafa, Ghulam; Ahmad, Mukhtar

    2015-07-01

    A series of Gd-substituted Ba-Co-based (M-type) hexaferrites having the chemical compositions of Ba0.5Co0.5Gd x Fe12- x O19 ( x = 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0) were prepared by co-precipitation method. The pellets formed by co-precipitated powder were calcined at a temperature of 1200°C for 20 h. Final sintering was done at 1320°C for 4 h. From the x-ray diffraction analysis, it was revealed that all the samples showed M-type hexagonal structure as a major phase. The scanning electron microscope was used to examine the morphology of the sintered ferrites. The average grain size estimated by the line intercept method was found to be in the range of 2.8-1.0 μm. The room temperature DC resistivity increases with increasing Gd-contents to make these ferrites useful for high frequency applications and microwave devices. Lower values of coercivity ( H c) and higher saturation magnetization ( M s) may be suitable to enhance the permeability of these ferrites, which is favorable for impedance matching in microwave absorption. In addition, reflection coefficients for a sample was also measured from a frequency of 1 MHz to 3 GHz and a reflection peak was observed at about 2.2 GHz.

  16. Substitutional effect of magnetic behaviour in calcium hexaferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, C. S.; Nanoti, V. M.; Kulkarni, D. K.; Rao, G. M.

    1995-02-01

    Three hexaferrites CaFe 4Me 8O 19 (Me  Al, Cr, or Co) are prepared and found to have M-structure. The substitution of Al +3 or Cr +3 ions in the lattice reduces the magnetization, whereas Co +3 enhances it with higher Curie temperature. These differences are explained on the basis of exchange interactions within the sub-lattices. Static electrical resistivity of the samples is also studied and results show that they are semiconductors.

  17. Structural properties of ultrafine Ba-hexaferrite nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Makovec, Darko; Primc, Darinka; Sturm, Saso; Kodre, Alojz; Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova ulica 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana ; Hanzel, Darko; Drofenik, Miha; Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova ulica 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana

    2012-12-15

    Crystal structure of ultrafine Ba-hexaferrite (BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}) nanoparticles was studied using X-ray diffractometry (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS), X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS), and Moessbauer spectroscopy (MS), to be compared to the structure of larger nanoparticles and the bulk. The nanoparticles were synthesized with hydrothermal treatment of an appropriate suspension of Ba and Fe hydroxides in the presence of a large excess of OH{sup -}. The ultrafine nanoparticles were formed in a discoid shape, {approx}10 nm wide and only {approx}3 nm thick, comparable to the size of the hexagonal unit cell in the c-direction. The HRTEM image analysis confirmed the hexaferrite structure, whereas EDXS showed the composition matching the BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} formula. XAFS and MS analyses showed considerable disorder of the structure, most probably responsible for the low magnetization. - Graphical abstract: Left: HREM image of an ultrafine Ba-hexaferrite nanoparticle (inset: TEM image of the nanoparticles); Right: the experimental HRTEM image is compared with calculated image and corresponding atomic model. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crystal structure of ultrafine Ba-hexaferrite (BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}) nanoparticles was compared to the structure of the bulk. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thickness the discoid nanoparticles was comparable to the size of the hexagonal unit cell in the c-direction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Considerable disorder of the nanoparticles' structure is most probably responsible for their low magnetization.

  18. Barium and Compounds

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Barium and Compounds ; CASRN 7440 - 39 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinog

  19. Epitaxy barium ferrite thin films on LiTaO3 substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, H. C.; Ong, C. K.; Xu, S. Y.; Tan, K. L.; Lim, S. L.; Li, Y.; Liu, J. M.

    1999-08-01

    Barium hexaferrite (BaM) thin films were deposited on (0001) LiTaO3 substrates by pulsed laser deposition. Effects of the substrate temperature and oxygen gas pressure on the formation and quality of these films were studied. Films deposited at a substrate temperature of 800 °C and an oxygen pressure around 0.23 mbar showed the best c axis normal to the film plane with locked in-plane orientation. The saturation magnetization Ms and anisotropy field Ha measured by vibrating sample magnetometer were almost the same as those reported on bulk barium ferrite. Decreasing oxygen pressure hinders the formation of the Ba layer in BaM magnetoplumbite structure and gives rise to the spinel phase, which greatly decreases coercivity Hc of the films and finally destroys the whole BaM structure. Effects of the lattice mismatch and substrate-induced strains on the film structure were also studied. It was found that barium ferrite thin films grown on LiTaO3 substrates tend to choose a matching mode with compressional strains rather than shear strains.

  20. Crystal structure, magnetic properties and advances in hexaferrites: A brief review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jotania, Rajshree

    2014-10-01

    Hexaferrites are hard magnetic materials and specifically ferri-magnetic oxides with hexagonal magnetoplumbite type crystallographic structure. Hexagonal ferrites are used as permanent magnets, high-density perpendicular and magneto-optical recording media, and microwave devices like resonance isolators, filters, circulators, phase shifters because of their high magnetic permeability, high electrical resistivity and moderable permittivity. In addition to these; hexagonal ferrites have excellent chemical stability, mechanical hardness and low eddy current loss at high frequencies. The preparation of hexaferrites is a complicated process. Various experimental techniques like standard ceramic techniques, solvent free synthesis route, co precipitation, salt-melt, ion exchange, sol-gel, citrate synthesis, hydrothermal synthesis, spray drying, water-in-oil microemulsion, reverse micelle etc are used to prepare hexaferrite materials. Structural, dielectric and magnetic properties, crystallite size of hexaferrites depend upon nature of substituted ions, method of preparation, sintering temperature and time. The recent interest is nanotechnology, the development of hexaferrite fibres and composites with carbon nano tubes (CNT). Magnetic properties of some doped and un-doped hexaferrites are discussed here. Recent advances in hexaferrites also highlighted in present paper.

  1. Room temperature optical and dielectric properties of Ca and Ni doped barium ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Shraddha; Parveen, Azra; Azam, Ameer

    2016-05-01

    The citrate sol gel combustion method has been used to synthesize (Ba0.9Ca0.1) (Fe0.8 Ni0.2)12O19 hexaferrites. Microstructural analyses were carried out by XRD and FTIR. Optical properties were studied by UV-visible technique in the range of 300-800 nm. The energy band gap was calculated with the help of Tauc relationship shows increases in band gap. Ca and Ni doped barium ferrite annealed at 850°C exhibit significant dispersion in complex permeability. The dispersion in complex dielectric constant can be explained on the basis of Koop's theory based on Maxwell-Wagner two layer models in studied nanoparticles.

  2. High quality Y-type hexaferrite thick films for microwave applications by an economical and environmentally benign crystal growth technique

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Bolin; Chen, Yajie Gillette, Scott; Su, Zhijuan; Harris, Vincent G.; Wolf, Jason; McHenry, Michael E.

    2014-02-17

    Thick barium hexaferrite Ba{sub 2}Zn{sub 2}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 22} (i.e., Zn{sub 2}Y) films having thicknesses of ∼100 μm were epitaxially grown on MgO (111) substrates using an environmentally benign ferrite-salt mixture by vaporizing the salt. X-ray diffraction pole figure analyses showed (00l) crystallographic alignment with little in plane dispersion confirming epitaxial growth. Saturation magnetization, 4πM{sub s}, was measured for as-grown films to be 2.51 ± 0.1 kG with an out of plane magnetic anisotropy field H{sub A} of 8.9 ± 0.1 kOe. Ferromagnetic resonance linewidth, as the peak-to-peak power absorption derivative at 9.6 GHz, was measured to be 62 Oe. These properties demonstrate a rapid, convenient, cost-effective, and nontoxic method of growing high quality thick crystalline ferrite films which could be used widely for microwave device applications.

  3. Dynamical investigations of multiferroics: hexagonal manganites and a hexaferrite.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talbayev, Diyar

    2010-03-01

    The electrodynamic response of magnetoelectric multiferroics can provide significant insight in the microscopic origin of multiferroicity. Hexagonal manganite HoMnO3 is a robust room temperature ferroelectric with frustrated triangular antiferromagnetic order of Mn spins setting in at 72 K. Strong magnetoelectric effects were observed in HoMnO3 and related hexa-manganites, the most intriguing of which is the control of magnetization by an applied electric field. The magnetic exchange interaction between the Ho and Mn ions was identified as a possible mechanism responsible for the observation, even though the detailed knowledge about this interaction was lacking. To fill this void, we studied magnetic excitations in HoMnO3 by far-infrared spectroscopy and elucidated the ferromagnetic nature of the rare-earth/Mn exchange. Hexaferrites that display room-temperature magnetic order are also good candidates for room temperature multiferroics. We present a study of magnetic excitations in the hexaferrite Ba0.6Sr1.4Zn2Fe12O22 using optical pump-probe spectroscopy. Pump-probe spectroscopy is known as an excellent tool for manipulating and probing magnons and phonons and for studying dynamic magnetoelectric effects. In Ba0.6Sr1.4Zn2Fe12O22, we have observed a magnetic resonance using time domain pump-probe reflectance spectroscopy, revealing a modulation of the dielectric tensor by magnetization precession. The magnetic motion in the hexaferrite modifies the dielectric constant at visible wavelengths, providing a novel manifestation of the dynamic magnetoelectric coupling and a new way of detecting magnetic motion in multiferroics. Our results highlight that magnetoelectric dynamics manifests from the far-infrared through the visible and that both time-integrated and time-resolved spectroscopy are important tools in elucidating the microscopic properties of multiferroics.

  4. Ferrimagnetic resonance and magnetoelastic excitations in magnetoelectric hexaferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vittoria, Carmine

    2015-08-01

    Static field properties of magnetoelectric hexaferrites have been explored extensively in the past five years. In this paper, dynamic properties of magnetoelectric hexaferrites are being explored. In particular, effects of the linear magnetoelectric coupling (α ) on ferrimagnetic resonance (FMR) and magnetoelastic excitations are being investigated. A magnetoelastic free energy which includes Landau-Lifshitz mathematical description of a spin spiral configuration is proposed to calculate FMR and magnetoelastic excitations in magnetoelectric hexaferrites. It is predicted that the ordinary uniform precession FMR mode contains resonance frequency shifts that are proportional to magnetoelectric static and dynamic fields. The calculated FMR fields are in agreement with experiments. Furthermore, it is predicted at low frequencies (approximately megahertz ranges), near zero magnetic field FMR frequencies, there is an extra uniform precession FMR mode besides the ordinary FMR mode which can only be accounted by dynamic magnetoelectric fields. Whereas the FMR frequency shifts in the ordinary FMR mode due to the α coupling scale as α , the shifts in the new discovered FMR mode scale as α2. Also, magnetoelastic dispersions were calculated, and it is predicted that the effect of the α coupling are the following: (1) The strength of admixture of modes and splitting in energy between spin waves and transverse acoustic waves is proportional to α . (2) The degeneracy of the two transverse acoustic wave modes is lifted even for relatively low values of α . Interestingly, at low frequencies near zero field FMR frequencies, the surface spin wave mode branch flip-flops with the volume spin wave branch whereby one branch assumes real values of the propagation constant and the other purely imaginary upon the application of a static electric field.

  5. Magnetoelectric excitations in hexaferrites utilizing solenoid coil for sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zare, Saba; Izadkhah, Hessam; Somu, Sivasubramanian; Vittoria, Carmine

    2015-11-01

    We have developed techniques for H- and E-field sensors utilizing single phase magnetoelectric hexaferrite materials in the frequency range of 100 Hz to 10 MHz. Novel excitation method incorporating solenoid coils and single and multi-capacitor banks were developed and tested for sensor detections. For H-field sensing we obtained sensitivity of about 3000 V/mG and for E-field sensing the sensitivity was 10-4 G/Vm-1. Tunability of about 0.1% was achieved for tunable inductor applications. However, the proposed designs lend themselves to significant (~106) improvements in sensitivity and tunability.

  6. Barium Peritonitis in Small Animals

    PubMed Central

    KO, Jae Jin; MANN, F. A. (Tony)

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Barium peritonitis is extremely rare, but is difficult to treat and may be life-threatening. Barium suspension leakage from the gastrointestinal tract into the abdominal cavity has a time-dependent and synergistically deleterious effect in patients who have generalized bacterial peritonitis. The severity of barium peritonitis is dependent on the quantity of barium in the abdominal cavity. Barium sulfate leakage results in hypovolemia and hypoproteinemia by worsening the exudation of extracellular fluid and albumin. Abdominal fluid analysis is a useful and efficient method to diagnose barium peritonitis. Serial radiographs may not be a reliable or timely diagnostic technique. Initial aggressive fluid resuscitation and empirical broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment should be instituted promptly, followed quickly by celiotomy. During exploratory surgical intervention, copious irrigation and direct wiping with gauze are employed to remove as much barium as possible. Omentectomy should be considered when needed to expedite barium removal. Despite aggressive medical and surgical treatments, postoperative prognosis is guarded to poor due to complications, such as acute vascular shock, sepsis, diffuse peritonitis, hypoproteninemia, electrolyte imbalance, cardiac arrest, small bowel obstruction related to progression of granulomas and adhesions in the abdominal cavity. Therefore, intensive postoperative monitoring and prompt intervention are necessary to maximize chances for a positive outcome. For those that do survive, small bowel obstruction is a potential consequence due to progression of abdominal adhesions. PMID:24430662

  7. Barium uranyl diphosphonates

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Anna-Gay D.; Alekseev, Evgeny V.; Ewing, Rodney C.; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.

    2012-08-15

    Three Ba{sup 2+}/UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} methylenediphosphonates have been prepared from mild hydrothermal treatment of uranium trioxide, methylendiphosphonic acid (C1P2) with barium hydroxide octahydrate, barium iodate monohydrate, and small aliquots of HF at 200 Degree-Sign C. These compounds, Ba[UO{sub 2}[CH{sub 2}(PO{sub 3}){sub 2}]{center_dot}1.4H{sub 2}O (Ba-1), Ba{sub 3}[(UO{sub 2}){sub 4}(CH{sub 2}(PO{sub 3}){sub 2}){sub 2}F{sub 6}]{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O (Ba-2), and Ba{sub 2}[(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}(CH{sub 2}(PO{sub 3}){sub 2})F{sub 4}]{center_dot}5.75H{sub 2}O (Ba-3) all adopt layered structures based upon linear uranyl groups and disphosphonate molecules. Ba-2 and Ba-3 are similar in that they both have UO{sub 5}F{sub 2} pentagonal bipyramids that are bridged and chelated by the diphosphonate moiety into a two-dimensional zigzag anionic sheet (Ba-2) and a one-dimensional ribbon anionic chain (Ba-3). Ba-1, has a single crystallographically unique uranium metal center where the C1P2 ligand solely bridges to form [UO{sub 2}[CH{sub 2}(PO{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sup 2-} sheets. The interlayer space of the structures is occupied by Ba{sup 2+}, which, along with the fluoride ion, mediates the structure formed and maintains overall charge balance. - Graphical abstract: Illustration of the stacking of the layers in Ba{sub 3}[(UO{sub 2}){sub 4}(CH{sub 2}(PO{sub 3}){sub 2}){sub 2})F{sub 6}]{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O viewed along the c-axis. The structure is constructed from UO{sub 7} pentagonal bipyramidal units, U(1)O{sub 7}=gray, U(2)O{sub 7}=yellow, barium=blue, phosphorus=magenta, fluorine=green, oxygen=red, carbon=black, and hydrogen=light peach. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The polymerization of the UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} sites to form uranyl dimers leads to structural variations in compounds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Barium cations stitch uranyl diphosphonate anionic layers together, and help mediate structure formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HF acts as both a

  8. Microstructure and magnetic properties of Ca-substituted M-type SrLaCo hexagonal ferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xin; Liu, Xiansong; Yang, Yujie; Huang, Kai; Niu, Xiaofei; Jin, Dali; Gao, Shang; Ma, Yuqi; Huang, Feng; Lv, Farui; Feng, Shuangjiu

    2015-03-01

    M-type strontium hexaferrites with chemical composition of Sr0.80-xCaxLa0.20Fe11.85Co0.15O19 (x=0-0.15) were prepared by the ceramic process. The samples were sintered at temperatures of 1175, 1185 and 1195 °C for 2 h in air. Effects of the substituted amount x of Ca2+ on the ferrites microstructure and magnetic properties have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and B-H hysteresis curve measurements. As a result, at x≤0.12, all samples are single phase after the Ca substitution. At x=0.15, another phase of hematite (α-Fe2O3) is present. In addition, the maximum values of the remanence (Br) and maximum energy product ((BH)max) for the magnets have been obtained at x=0.08 for sintering temperature=1185 °C. The maximum value of the intrinsic coercive force (Hcj) for the magnets has been obtained at x=0.12 when the magnets were sintered at 1185 °C.

  9. Barium uranyl diphosphonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Anna-Gay D.; Alekseev, Evgeny V.; Ewing, Rodney C.; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.

    2012-08-01

    Three Ba2+/UO22+ methylenediphosphonates have been prepared from mild hydrothermal treatment of uranium trioxide, methylendiphosphonic acid (C1P2) with barium hydroxide octahydrate, barium iodate monohydrate, and small aliquots of HF at 200 °C. These compounds, Ba[UO2[CH2(PO3)2]·1.4H2O (Ba-1), Ba3[(UO2)4(CH2(PO3)2)2F6]·6H2O (Ba-2), and Ba2[(UO2)2(CH2(PO3)2)F4]·5.75H2O (Ba-3) all adopt layered structures based upon linear uranyl groups and disphosphonate molecules. Ba-2 and Ba-3 are similar in that they both have UO5F2 pentagonal bipyramids that are bridged and chelated by the diphosphonate moiety into a two-dimensional zigzag anionic sheet (Ba-2) and a one-dimensional ribbon anionic chain (Ba-3). Ba-1, has a single crystallographically unique uranium metal center where the C1P2 ligand solely bridges to form [UO2[CH2(PO3)2]2- sheets. The interlayer space of the structures is occupied by Ba2+, which, along with the fluoride ion, mediates the structure formed and maintains overall charge balance.

  10. Synthesis, Structures, and Multiferroic Properties of Strontium Hexaferrite Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Guolong; Chen, Xiuna

    2013-05-01

    Simultaneous occurrence of large ferroelectricity and strong ferromagnetism has been observed in strontium hexaferrite (SrFe12O19) ceramics. Strontium hexaferrite powders with hexagonal crystal structures have been successfully synthesized through the co-precipitation precursor method using strontium nitrate and ferric nitrate as starting materials. The powders were pressed into pellets and then sintered into ceramics at a temperature range of at 1000°C to 1100°C for 1 h. The structure and morphology of the ceramics were determined using x-ray diffraction and field-emission scanning electron microscopy techniques. Clear ferroelectric hysteresis loops demonstrated large spontaneous polarization in the SrFe12O19 ceramics at room temperature. The maximum remnant polarization of the SrFe12O19 ceramic was estimated to be approximately 15 μC/cm2. The FeO6 octahedron in its perovskite-like hexagonal unit cell and the displacement of Fe3+ off the center of the octahedron are proposed to be the origin of electric polarization in SrFe12O19. In our experimental observations, the SrFe12O19 ceramic also revealed strong ferromagnetism at room temperature.

  11. On Barium Oxide Solubility in Barium-Containing Chloride Melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaeva, Elena V.; Zakiryanova, Irina D.; Bovet, Andrey L.; Korzun, Iraida V.

    2016-08-01

    Oxide solubility in chloride melts depends on temperature and composition of molten solvent. The solubility of barium oxide in the solvents with barium chloride content is essentially higher than that in molten alkali chlorides. Spectral data demonstrate the existence of oxychloride ionic groupings in such melts. This work presents the results of the BaO solubility in two molten BaCl2-NaCl systems with different barium chloride content. The received data together with earlier published results revealed the main regularities of BaO solubility in molten BaO-BaCl2-MCl systems.

  12. CH Stars and Barium Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, H.; Sion, E.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The classical barium (or `Ba II') stars are RED GIANT STARS whose spectra show strong absorption lines of barium, strontium and certain other heavy elements, as well as strong features due to carbon molecules. Together with the related class of CH stars, the Ba II stars were crucial in establishing the existence of neutron-capture reactions in stellar interiors that are responsible for the synt...

  13. First order reversal curves analysis of the temperature effect on magnetic interactions in barium ferrite with La-Co addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliva, Marcos I.; Bercoff, Paula G.; Bertorello, Héctor R.

    2009-10-01

    First order reversal curves (FORCs) distributions are a powerful tool for investigating hysteresis and interactions in magnetic systems and have been widely applied. La-Co substitution in barium hexaferrites has also been extensively studied. The most effective substitution to improve the magnetic properties (coercive field and energy product) is given by x=y=0.2 in the formula Ba1-xLaxFe12-yCoyO19. In this work, this stoichiometry is initially used to obtain a state where more than one phase is present. The magnetic behavior as a function of temperature was studied in order to have an insight into the magnetic interactions that originate a decrease in the magnetic performance of Ba hexaferrite magnets. The sample was structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and magnetically studied in a SQUID magnetometer. FORC distributions were used to study the dependence of the magnetic interactions with the temperature. FORC diagrams performed on the sample at different temperatures exhibit similar characteristics, such as the spread in the hc-hu plane and a spread out of the hc-axes. These features are interpreted in terms of exchange-interacting particles and dipolar interactions, respectively. As the temperature decreases, stronger interactions are noticed among hard and soft phases.

  14. Rare-earth substitutions in Z-type hexaferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacquiod, Catherine; Autissier, Denis

    1992-02-01

    Z-type hexaferrite (Ba 3Co 2Fe 24O 41) presents a gyromagnetic permeability whose resonance frequency stands around 2 GHz. The damping coefficient α is less than 0.1. The influence on the damping coefficient of doping this ferrite by a rare-earth (La) has been studied. Powders have been synthesized by carbonate coprecipitation, dried and calcined at different temperatures. Different phases have been characterized by X-ray diffraction and magnetization measurements. Solubility in the range of weak concentrations has been verified. The synthesized powders were processed by slip casting in the presence of a magnetic field in order to align the particles. The microstructural and hyperfrequency characteristics have been evaluated. The influence of the substitution on anisotropy fields and damping are studied in comparison with pure Co 2Z, whose processing and properties have been optimized as a reference.

  15. Dielectric dispersion of Y-type hexaferrites at low frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abo El Ata, A. M.; Attia, S. M.

    2003-02-01

    A series of polycrystalline Y-type hexaferrites with composition Ba 2Ni 2- xZn xFe 12O 22 (where 0.0⩽ x⩽2.0) were prepared by the standard ceramic method to study the effect of the frequency, temperature and composition on their AC electrical conductivity σ' AC, and dielectric properties. It was found that, the AC conductivity shows dispersion at high frequencies. This dispersion was attributed to the interfacial polarization arising from the inhomogeneous structure of the material. At low frequencies the dielectric constant, ɛ', is abnormally high and decreases rapidly with increasing frequency. Dielectric relaxation peaks were observed on the tan δ( F) curves. The results of the dielectric constant and dielectric loss were explained on the basis of the assumption that the mechanism of dielectric polarization is similar to that of the conduction process.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of polyaniline-hexaferrite composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khursheed, Tooba; Islam, M. U.; Asif Iqbal, M.; Ali, Irshad; Shakoor, Abdul; Awan, M. S.; Iftikhar, Aisha; Azhar Khan, Muhammad; Naeem Ashiq, Muhammad

    2015-11-01

    Polyaniline was synthesized by chemical polymerization using aniline as monomer, and Y-type hexaferrite with composition (Co2Mn2Sr1.66Nd0.4Fe10O22) was prepared by co-precipitation assisted by surfactant. Three composites of Polyaniline with different ferrite ratios were prepared by mechanical blending. The synthesized samples were characterized by X-Ray diffraction, Scanning electron microscopy and electrical measurements. The XRD analysis reveals that no second phase was observed in Y-type hexagonal ferrite. In PANI-Ferrite composites, significant changes in resistivity, real and imaginary part of complex permittivity were observed with the increase of ferrite in the polyaniline matrix. At low frequencies the magnitude of dielectric constant and complex permittivity is high with few relaxation peaks. AC conductivity of PANI-Ferrite composites increase with the increase of frequency following Jonscher law. The resistivity and activation energy were found to show similar behavior.

  17. Barium light source method and apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curry, John J. (Inventor); MacDonagh-Dumler, Jeffrey (Inventor); Anderson, Heidi M. (Inventor); Lawler, James E. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Visible light emission is obtained from a plasma containing elemental barium including neutral barium atoms and barium ion species. Neutral barium provides a strong green light emission in the center of the visible spectrum with a highly efficient conversion of electrical energy into visible light. By the selective excitation of barium ionic species, emission of visible light at longer and shorter wavelengths can be obtained simultaneously with the green emission from neutral barium, effectively providing light that is visually perceived as white. A discharge vessel contains the elemental barium and a buffer gas fill therein, and a discharge inducer is utilized to induce a desired discharge temperature and barium vapor pressure therein to produce from the barium vapor a visible light emission. The discharge can be induced utilizing a glow discharge between electrodes in the discharge vessel as well as by inductively or capacitively coupling RF energy into the plasma within the discharge vessel.

  18. Uniaxial ferroelectric quantum criticality in multiferroic hexaferrites BaFe12O19 and SrFe12O19.

    PubMed

    Rowley, S E; Chai, Yi-Sheng; Shen, Shi-Peng; Sun, Young; Jones, A T; Watts, B E; Scott, J F

    2016-01-01

    BaFe12O19 is a popular M-type hexaferrite with a Néel temperature of 720 K and is of enormous commercial value ($3 billion/year). It is an incipient ferroelectric with an expected ferroelectric phase transition extrapolated to lie at 6 K but suppressed due to quantum fluctuations. The theory of quantum criticality for such uniaxial ferroelectrics predicts that the temperature dependence of the electric susceptibility χ diverges as 1/T(3), in contrast to the 1/T(2) dependence found in pseudo-cubic materials such as SrTiO3 or KTaO3. In this paper we present evidence of the susceptibility varying as 1/T(3), i.e. with a critical exponent γ = 3. In general γ = (d + z - 2)/z, where the dynamical exponent for a ferroelectric z = 1 and the dimension is increased by 1 from deff = 3 + z to deff = 4 + z due to the effect of long-range dipole interactions in uniaxial as opposed to multiaxial ferroelectrics. The electric susceptibility of the incipient ferroelectric SrFe12O19, which is slightly further from the quantum phase transition is also found to vary as 1/T(3). PMID:27185343

  19. Uniaxial ferroelectric quantum criticality in multiferroic hexaferrites BaFe12O19 and SrFe12O19

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowley, S. E.; Chai, Yi-Sheng; Shen, Shi-Peng; Sun, Young; Jones, A. T.; Watts, B. E.; Scott, J. F.

    2016-05-01

    BaFe12O19 is a popular M-type hexaferrite with a Néel temperature of 720 K and is of enormous commercial value ($3 billion/year). It is an incipient ferroelectric with an expected ferroelectric phase transition extrapolated to lie at 6 K but suppressed due to quantum fluctuations. The theory of quantum criticality for such uniaxial ferroelectrics predicts that the temperature dependence of the electric susceptibility χ diverges as 1/T3, in contrast to the 1/T2 dependence found in pseudo-cubic materials such as SrTiO3 or KTaO3. In this paper we present evidence of the susceptibility varying as 1/T3, i.e. with a critical exponent γ = 3. In general γ = (d + z – 2)/z, where the dynamical exponent for a ferroelectric z = 1 and the dimension is increased by 1 from deff = 3 + z to deff = 4 + z due to the effect of long-range dipole interactions in uniaxial as opposed to multiaxial ferroelectrics. The electric susceptibility of the incipient ferroelectric SrFe12O19, which is slightly further from the quantum phase transition is also found to vary as 1/T3.

  20. Synthesis and magnetic properties of (Eu-Ni) substituted Y-type hexaferrite by surfactant assisted co-precipitation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Irshad; Islam, M. U.; sadiq, Imran; Karamat, Nazia; Iftikhar, Aisha; khan, M. Azhar; Shah, Afzal; Athar, Muhammad; Shakir, Imran; Ashiq, Muhammad Naeem

    2015-07-01

    A series of (Eu-Ni) substituted Y-type hexaferrite with composition Sr2Co(2-x)NixEuyFe(12-y)O22 (x=0.0-1, Y=0.0-0.1) were prepared by the surfactant assisted co-precipitation method. The present samples were sintered at 1050 °C for 8 h. The shape of the particles is plate-like which is very advantageous for various applications and the grain size varies from 73 to 269 nm. The values of saturation magnetization (Ms), remanent magnetization (Mr) and magnetic moment (nB) were found to decrease which are attributed to the weakening of super exchange interactions. The values of in-plane Squareness ratios (Mr/Ms) ranging from 0.41 to 0.65 whereas in case of out of plane measurement it varies from 0.30 to 0.62.The investigated samples can be used in perpendicular recording media (PRM) due to high value of coercivity 2300 Oe which is analogous to the those of M-type and W-type hard magnetic.

  1. Uniaxial ferroelectric quantum criticality in multiferroic hexaferrites BaFe12O19 and SrFe12O19

    PubMed Central

    Rowley, S. E.; Chai, Yi-Sheng; Shen, Shi-Peng; Sun, Young; Jones, A. T.; Watts, B. E.; Scott, J. F.

    2016-01-01

    BaFe12O19 is a popular M-type hexaferrite with a Néel temperature of 720 K and is of enormous commercial value ($3 billion/year). It is an incipient ferroelectric with an expected ferroelectric phase transition extrapolated to lie at 6 K but suppressed due to quantum fluctuations. The theory of quantum criticality for such uniaxial ferroelectrics predicts that the temperature dependence of the electric susceptibility χ diverges as 1/T3, in contrast to the 1/T2 dependence found in pseudo-cubic materials such as SrTiO3 or KTaO3. In this paper we present evidence of the susceptibility varying as 1/T3, i.e. with a critical exponent γ = 3. In general γ = (d + z – 2)/z, where the dynamical exponent for a ferroelectric z = 1 and the dimension is increased by 1 from deff = 3 + z to deff = 4 + z due to the effect of long-range dipole interactions in uniaxial as opposed to multiaxial ferroelectrics. The electric susceptibility of the incipient ferroelectric SrFe12O19, which is slightly further from the quantum phase transition is also found to vary as 1/T3. PMID:27185343

  2. New Results on Hydration in M-Type Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landsman, Zoe A.; Campins, Humberto; Pinilla-Alonso, Noemí; Emery, Joshua P.; Lorenzi, Vania

    2014-11-01

    The M-type asteroids are a taxonomic group considered to be a candidate source of iron meteorites due to spectral and albedo similarities; however, because the spectra of M-type asteroids lack strong diagnostic absorption features in the near-infrared (NIR), their composition is difficult to constrain. High-resolution NIR spectroscopy and radar studies have shown that a metallic interpretation is unlikely to be valid for the majority of M-types. Many show weak absorption features attributed to mafic silicates (Hardersen et al. 2005, 2011; Ockert-Bell et al. 2010; Fornasier et al. 2010). Radar results show evidence for elevated metal content on the surfaces of most M-type asteroids, but few are likely to be entirely metal (Shepard et al. 2010). Surprisingly, spectrophotometric studies in the 3-μm region have indicated that hydrated minerals are relatively common among the M-type population, confounding interpretations of M-types as highly thermally processed (Rivkin et al. 1995, 2000). The shape of the 3-μm band, diagnostic of hydrated and hydroxylated minerals, is relevant to an asteroid’s thermal history (Rivkin et al. 2002, Takir & Emery 2012). To characterize this region, we have conducted a 2 - 4 μm spectroscopic study of six M-type asteroids using SpeX at NASA’s Infrared Telescope Facility. In its LXD mode, SpeX allows us to investigate the 3-μm band at spectral resolutions unavailable during previously published studies. We report the presence of a 3-μm feature on all six asteroids, indicating hydrated minerals on the asteroids’ surfaces. We have also detected rotational variability of the 3-μm feature in asteroid (216) Kleopatra, which, interestingly, had been interpreted as “dry” in previous work (Rivkin et al. 2000). On all of our target asteroids, the 3-μm band depths are < 10%, and there is apparent variation in the shape of the feature among them. We discuss the impact of our results on interpretations of M-type asteroid composition.

  3. On the surface composition of the M-type asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupishko, D. F.; Belskaya, I. N.

    1989-04-01

    Photometric and polarimetric observations of the largest M-type asteroids conducted over the period 1978-1986 are presently interpreted in view of results from laboratory photometric and polarimetric measurements of meteoritic, terrestrial silicate, and metallic samples. The samples, including among its 13 meteorites suitable representatives of iron, chondrite, and achondrite types, are of similar structure, with grain sizes smaller than 50 microns. An analysis of all data extant indicate that the surfaces of the largest M-type asteroids, namely 16, 21, 22, 69, and 110, cannot consist of pure metal; they must instead include silicate componentlike stony-iron and enstatite chondrite meteorites.

  4. Interaction between Barium Oxide and Barium Containing Chloride Melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaeva, Elena V.; Zakiryanova, Irina D.; Korzun, Iraida V.; Bovet, Andrey L.; Antonov, Boris D.

    2015-05-01

    Thermal analysis was applied to determine the liquidus temperatures in the NaCl-KCl-BaCl2-BaO system, with BaO concentration varied from 0 to 6 mole%. The temperature dependence of the BaO solubility in the NaCl-KCl-BaCl2 eutectic melt was investigated; the thermodynamic parameters of BaO dissolution were calculated. The caloric effects of melting of the NaCl-KCl-BaCl2 eutectic with barium oxide and barium oxychloride additions were studied. The type, morphology, and composition of oxychloride ionic groupings in the melt were determined in situ using Raman spectroscopy.

  5. Low-loss Z-type hexaferrite (Ba3Co2Fe24O41) for GHz antenna applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Woncheol; Hong, Yang-Ki; Park, Jihoon; LaRochelle, Gatlin; Lee, Jaejin

    2016-09-01

    We report a low magnetic loss Ba3Co2Fe24O41 (Co2Z) hexaferrite for use in gigahertz (GHz) antennas. Acid-etching was very effective in removal of unwanted Y-type hexaferrite (Ba2Co2Fe12O22) from calcined Co2Z powder. It is found that the calcined and acid etched (AE) Co2Z hexaferrite shows a low magnetic loss tangent (tan δμ) of 0.012 and 0.037 at 1 and 2 GHz, respectively. These low tan δμ are attributed to removal of Y-type hexaferrite, which possesses a lower anisotropy field (Hk) than W-type hexaferrite (BaCo2Fe16O27). The figure of merit (FOM) of the AE Co2Z hexaferrite is 141.7 and 48.7 at 1 and 2 GHz, respectively. These FOM are much higher than the FOM of previously reported low-loss magnetic materials. Therefore, the AE Co2Z hexaferrite can be a good candidate for GHz antenna application in the ultra-high frequency (UHF) band.

  6. Improvement of high-frequency characteristics of Z-type hexaferrite by dysprosium doping

    SciTech Connect

    Mu Chunhong; Liu Yingli; Song Yuanqiang; Wang Liguo; Zhang Huaiwu

    2011-06-15

    Z-type hexaferrite has great potential applications as anti-EMI material for magnetic devices in the GHz region. In this work, Dy-doped Z-type hexaferrites with nominal stoichiometry of Ba{sub 3}Co{sub 2}Dy{sub x}Fe{sub 24-x}O{sub 41} (x 0.0, 0.05, 0.5, 1.0) were prepared by an improved solid-state reaction method. The effects of rare earth oxide (Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3}) addition on the phase composition, microstructure and electromagnetic properties of the ceramics were investigated. Structure and micromorphology characterizations indicate that certain content of Dy doping will cause the emergence of the second phase Dy{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} at the grain boundaries of the majority phase Z-type hexaferrite, due to which the straightforward result is the grain refinement during the successive sintering process. Permeability spectra measurements show that the initial permeability reaches its maximum of 17 at 300 MHz with x = 0.5, while the cutoff frequency keeps above 800 MHz. The apparent specific anisotropy field H{sub K} of Dy-doped Z-type hexaferrites decreases with x increasing. The relationships among phase composition, grain size, permeability spectra, and anisotropy are theoretically investigated, and according to the analysis, Dy doping effects on its magnetic properties can be well explained and understood.

  7. Magnetoelectric Effects and Related Phenomena in Spin-spiral Hexaferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Tsuyoshi

    2012-02-01

    Among various multiferroics, extensive studies of ferroelectrics originating from magnetic orders, i.e., magnetically-induced ferroelectrics in which the inversion simmetry breaking and resultant ferroelectricity are induced by complex magnetic orders, have been triggered almost a decade ago by the discovery of multiferroic nature in a perovskite-type rare-earh manganites TbMnO3. The magnetically-induced ferroelectrics often show giant magnetoelectric effects, remarkable changes in electric polarization in response to a magnetic field, since the origin of their ferroelectricity is driven by magnetism which sensitively responds to an applied magnetic field. Though a large number of new magnetically-induced ferroelectrics have been reported in the past decade, so far there has been no practical application employing the magnetoelectric effect of the magnetically-induced ferroelectrics. This is partly because none of the existing magnetically-induced ferroelectrics have combined large and robust electric and magnetic polarizations at room temperature until quite recently. The situation is changed by the discoveries of magnetoelectricity in hexagonal ferrites (hexaferrites) with spin-spiral structures.ootnotetextT. Kimura, G. Lawes, and A. P. Ramirez, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 137201 (2005).^,ootnotetextY. Kitagawa et al., Nature Mater. 9, 797 (2010).^,ootnotetextK. Okumura et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 212504 (2011). In this presentation, I show our recent studies on magnetoelectric effects and related phenomena in the new series of magnetically-induced ferroelectrics which are promising candidates for multiferroics operating at room temperature and low fields. This work has been done in collaboration with Y. Hiraoka, T. Ishikura, K. Okumura, Y. Kitagawa, H. Nakamura, Y. Wakabayashi, M. Soda, T. Asaka, and Y. Tanaka.

  8. The problem of the barium stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohm-Vitense, E.; Nemec, J.; Proffitt, C.

    1984-01-01

    Ultraviolet observations of barium stars and other cool stars with peculiar element abundances are reported. Those observations attempted to find hot white dwarf companions. Among six real barium stars studied, only Zeta Cap was found to have a white dwarf companion. Among seven mild, or marginal, barium stars studied, at least three were found to have hot subluminous companions. It is likely that all of them have white dwarf companions.

  9. Barium Depletion in Hollow Cathode Emitters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polk, James E.; Capece, Angela M.; Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira

    2009-01-01

    The effect of tungsten erosion, transport and redeposition on the operation of dispenser hollow cathodes was investigated in detailed examinations of the discharge cathode inserts from an 8200 hour and a 30,352 hour ion engine wear test. Erosion and subsequent re-deposition of tungsten in the electron emission zone at the downstream end of the insert reduces the porosity of the tungsten matrix, preventing the ow of barium from the interior. This inhibits the interfacial reactions of the barium-calcium-aluminate impregnant with the tungsten in the pores. A numerical model of barium transport in the internal xenon discharge plasma shows that the barium required to reduce the work function in the emission zone can be supplied from upstream through the gas phase. Barium that flows out of the pores of the tungsten insert is rapidly ionized in the xenon discharge and pushed back to the emitter surface by the electric field and drag from the xenon ion flow. This barium ion flux is sufficient to maintain a barium surface coverage at the downstream end greater than 0.6, even if local barium production at that point is inhibited by tungsten deposits. The model also shows that the neutral barium pressure exceeds the equilibrium vapor pressure of the impregnant decomposition reaction over much of the insert length, so the reactions are suppressed. Only a small region upstream of the zone blocked by tungsten deposits is active and supplies the required barium. These results indicate that hollow cathode failure models based on barium depletion rates in vacuum dispenser cathodes are very conservative.

  10. Processing science of barium titanate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aygun, Seymen Murat

    Barium titanate and barium strontium titanate thin films were deposited on base metal foils via chemical solution deposition and radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The films were processed at elevated temperatures for densification and crystallization. Two unifying research goals underpin all experiments: (1) To improve our fundamental understanding of complex oxide processing science, and (2) to translate those improvements into materials with superior structural and electrical properties. The relationships linking dielectric response, grain size, and thermal budget for sputtered barium strontium titanate were illustrated. (Ba 0.6Sr0.4)TiO3 films were sputtered on nickel foils at temperatures ranging between 100-400°C. After the top electrode deposition, the films were co-fired at 900°C for densification and crystallization. The dielectric properties were observed to improve with increasing sputter temperature reaching a permittivity of 1800, a tunability of 10:1, and a loss tangent of less than 0.015 for the sample sputtered at 400°C. The data can be understood using a brick wall model incorporating a high permittivity grain interior with low permittivity grain boundary. However, this high permittivity value was achieved at a grain size of 80 nm, which is typically associated with strong suppression of the dielectric response. These results clearly show that conventional models that parameterize permittivity with crystal diameter or film thickness alone are insufficiently sophisticated. Better models are needed that incorporate the influence of microstructure and crystal structure. This thesis next explores the ability to tune microstructure and properties of chemically solution deposited BaTiO3 thin films by modulation of heat treatment thermal profiles and firing atmosphere composition. Barium titanate films were deposited on copper foils using hybrid-chelate chemistries. An in-situ gas analysis process was developed to probe the organic removal and the

  11. Barium granuloma of the transverse colon.

    PubMed Central

    McKee, P. H.; Cameron, C. H.

    1978-01-01

    A case of barium sulphate granuloma of the transverse colon following gunshot wounds to the abdomen has been described. Scanning electron microscopy with electron probe microanalysis was used to confirm the presence of barium sulphate and the absence of lead or other elements related to the gunshot wounds. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:740599

  12. The thermal stability range and magnetic properties of U-type hexaferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisjak, Darja; Drofenik, Miha

    2004-05-01

    Single-phase polycrystalline U-hexaferrites with the composition Ba4A2Fe36O60 (A=Co, Ni, Zn) were prepared by solid-state reaction synthesis employing high-energy milling or topotactic reaction and calcination at 1200-1300°C. The Curie temperature and saturation magnetization of the samples were influenced by the composition, while the coercivity was more strongly influenced by the preparation conditions.

  13. Protocol for the synthesis of Ba-hexaferrites with prefixed coercivities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufour, J.; Latorre, R.; Negro, C.; Alcalá, E. M.; Formoso, A.; López-Mateos, F.

    1997-08-01

    The ferrite industry is one of the largest consumers of iron oxides, usually in the form of hematite from the roasting of steel pickling liquors or from mineral sources. In previous papers we have tested an oxidation process for obtaining magnetite and goethite from steel pickling liquors and two mathematical models have been proposed for synthesizing these two iron oxides. In this paper, the characteristics of magnetite and goethite are related with the coercivity of hexaferrites synthesized when the former are used as raw materials. Constant conditions were used for the ceramic method. Using goethite, Ba-hexaferrite is obtained only when the goethite is precipitated at the lowest oxidizer flow. When magnetite is used, a protocol with a statistically validated correlation is proposed for synthesizing hexaferrites with coercive fields between 230 and 450 kA/m. This correlation is valid for an oxidation process carried out at stirring speed of 1000 rev/min and with an air flow between 7.5 and 101/min. A second empirical correlation is proposed for obtaining final coercivities between 450 and 525 kA/m, for which it is necessary to increase the calcination time.

  14. Effect of annealing temperature on structural and magnetic properties of strontium hexaferrite nanoparticles synthesized by sol-gel auto-combustion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roohani, Ebrahim; Arabi, Hadi; Sarhaddi, Reza; Sudkhah, Saeedeh; Shabani, Ameneh

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, strontium hexaferrite nanoparticles were synthesized by the sol-gel auto-combustion method. Effect of annealing temperature on crystal structure, morphology and magnetic properties of nanoparticles was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Also, the thermal decomposition of as-synthesized powdered samples has been studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The XRD patterns confirmed the formation of single phase M-type hexagonal crystal structure for powders annealed above 950∘C, whereas the presence of hematite (α-Fe2O3) as secondary phase was also observed for sample annealed at 900∘C. Furthermore, the crystallinity along with the crystallite size were augmented with annealing temperature. Comparison of the FT-IR spectra of the samples before and after annealing treatment showed the existence of metal-oxygen stretching modes after annealing. The thermogravimetric analysis confirmed the thermal decomposition of as-burnt powders happened in three-stage degradation process. The TEM images showed the nanoparticles like hexagonal-shaped platelets as the size of nanoparticles increases by increasing the annealing temperature. With increasing annealing temperature, the magnetic saturation and the coercivity were increased to the maximum value of 74.26 emu/g and 5.67 kOe for sample annealed at 1000∘C and then decreased.

  15. Effect of Substitution of Mn, Cu, and Zr on the Structural, Magnetic, and Ku-Band Microwave-Absorption Properties of Strontium Hexaferrite Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rostami, Mohammad; Moradi, Mahmood; Alam, Reza Shams; Mardani, Reza

    2016-08-01

    The ferrites with the compositions of SrMn x Cu x Zr2 x Fe(12-4 x)O19 ( x = 0.0, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5) are synthesized by the coprecipitation method. The formation of M-type hexaferrite is confirmed by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analyses. The morphology of the samples is shown by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) microscopy. Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) analysis has been used for the investigation of the magnetic properties, and the reason for the changes in the magnetic properties as a result of doping, are expressed. The values of coercivity decrease by increasing the amount of substitution, which could be related to the modification of anisotropy form the c-axis toward the c-plane. Finally, we have used vector network analysis to investigate the microwave absorption properties. We find that the samples with the composition of SrMn0.4Cu0.4Zr0.8Fe10.4O19 have the largest reflection loss and the widest bandwidth among these samples.

  16. Mössbauer and magnetic study of nanocrystalline strontium hexaferrite prepared by an ionic coordination reaction technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Araújo, J. H.; Soares, J. M.; Ginani, M. F.; Machado, F. L. A.; da Cunha, J. B. M.

    2013-10-01

    Hard-magnetic nanocrystalline strontium hexaferrites SrFe12O19 were synthesized using an ionic coordination reaction technique. In this sample preparation technique the biopolymer chitosan was used as a nanoreactor. The obtained precursor powders were calcined at temperatures in the range 600-900 °C. The samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Mössbauer spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry. A complementary study of X-ray Rietveld refinement and Mössbauer spectroscopy shown that the hexaferrite phase formation is accompanied by formation of maghemite and hematite as intermediate phases. It was found that hexaferrite is present in the samples calcined at and above 600 °C but it is fully developed at 900 °C. For this sample the average particle size was found to be 41.6 nm. Magnetization measurements yielded squared hysteresis loops with a magnetization ratio (Mr/Ms) of 0.58 and a coercive field of 6.48 kOe. The overall results indicated that the particles in these samples are in the single domain regime and that the magnetization reversal in these particles is mainly due to coherent rotation. Hard-magnetic hexaferrites were synthesized using an ionic reaction technique. The hexaferrite formation is accompanied by formation of maghemite and hematite. How much more absorption of the sites spin up time is higher net magnetic moment.

  17. Radium/Barium Waste Project

    SciTech Connect

    McDowell, Allen K.; Ellefson, Mark D.; McDonald, Kent M.

    2015-06-25

    The treatment, shipping, and disposal of a highly radioactive radium/barium waste stream have presented a complex set of challenges requiring several years of effort. The project illustrates the difficulty and high cost of managing even small quantities of highly radioactive Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)-regulated waste. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) research activities produced a Type B quantity of radium chloride low-level mixed waste (LLMW) in a number of small vials in a facility hot cell. The resulting waste management project involved a mock-up RCRA stabilization treatment, a failed in-cell treatment, a second, alternative RCRA treatment approach, coordinated regulatory variances and authorizations, alternative transportation authorizations, additional disposal facility approvals, and a final radiological stabilization process.

  18. Formation of a magnetic composite by reduction of Co-Nd doped strontium hexaferrite in a hydrogen gas flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herme, C. A.; Bercoff, P. G.; Jacobo, S. E.

    2012-08-01

    Co-Nd strontium hexaferrite nanoparticles synthesized by the self-combustion method were treated in a hydrogen flow at different temperatures and times. The samples were characterized structurally by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction and magnetically with a vibrating sample magnetometer. Phase identification showed decomposition of the hexaferrite structure into Fe3O4 and different strontium mixed oxides. The sample treated at 500 °C for 30 minutes shows good magnetic properties due to the formation of a magnetite/hexaferrite composite. In this case magnetization is very close to the original sample while the coercivity slightly diminishes. The hexagonal phase is almost completely transformed into different oxides at a reducing temperature of 500 °C for 120 minutes. The obtained results are analyzed in terms of the phase composition and of the magnetic susceptibility of the studied samples.

  19. Barium Isotopes in Single Presolar Grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellin, M. J.; Davis, A. M.; Savina, M. R.; Kashiv, Y.; Clayton, R. N.; Lewis, R. S.; Amari, S.

    2001-01-01

    Barium isotopic compositions of single presolar grains were measured by laser ablation laser resonant ionization mass spectrometry and the implications of the data for stellar processes are discussed. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  20. Effects of aluminum substitution on the crystal structure and magnetic properties in Zn{sub 2}Y-type hexaferrites

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Wenfei; Yang, Jing E-mail: xdtang@sist.ecnu.edu.cn; Bai, Wei; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Tang, Kai; Duan, Chun-gang; Chu, Junhao; Tang, Xiaodong E-mail: xdtang@sist.ecnu.edu.cn

    2015-05-07

    Crystal structure and magnetic properties of multiferroic Y-type hexaferrites Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 1.5}Zn{sub 2}(Fe{sub 1−x}Al{sub x}){sub 12}O{sub 22} (x = 0, 0.04, 0.08, and 0.12) were investigated. The Z- and M-type impurity phases decrease with increasing Al content, and the pure phase samples can be obtained by modulating Al-doping. Lattice distortion exists in Al-doped samples due to the different radius of Al ion (0.535 Å) and Fe ion (0.645 Å). The microstructural morphologies show that the hexagonal shape grains can be observed in all the samples, and grain size decreases with increasing Al content. As for magnetic properties of Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 1.5}Zn{sub 2}(Fe{sub 1−x}Al{sub x}){sub 12}O{sub 22}, there exist rich thermal- and field-driven magnetic phase transitions. Temperature dependence of zero-field cooling magnetization curves from 5 K to 800 K exhibit three magnetic phase transitions involving conical spin phase, proper-screw spin phase, ferromagnetic phase, and paramagnetic phase, which can be found in all the samples. Furthermore, the phase-transition temperatures can be modulated by varying Al content. In addition, four kinds of typical hysteresis loops are observed in pure phase sample at different temperatures, which reveal different magnetization processes of above-motioned magnetic spin structures. Typically, triple hysteresis loops in low magnetic field range from 0 to 0.5 T can be observed at 5 K, which suggests low-field driven magnetic phase transitions from conical spin order to proper-screw spin order and further to ferrimagnetic spin order occur. Furthermore, the coercive field (H{sub C}) and the saturation magnetization (M{sub S}) enhance with increasing Al content from x = 0 to 0.08, and drop rapidly at x = 0.12, which could be attribute to that in initial Al-doped process the pitch of spin helix increases and therefore magnetization enhances, but conical spin phase eventually collapses in higher

  1. Effects of aluminum substitution on the crystal structure and magnetic properties in Zn2Y-type hexaferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wenfei; Yang, Jing; Bai, Wei; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Tang, Kai; Duan, Chun-gang; Tang, Xiaodong; Chu, Junhao

    2015-05-01

    Crystal structure and magnetic properties of multiferroic Y-type hexaferrites Ba0.5Sr1.5Zn2(Fe1-xAlx)12O22 (x = 0, 0.04, 0.08, and 0.12) were investigated. The Z- and M-type impurity phases decrease with increasing Al content, and the pure phase samples can be obtained by modulating Al-doping. Lattice distortion exists in Al-doped samples due to the different radius of Al ion (0.535 Å) and Fe ion (0.645 Å). The microstructural morphologies show that the hexagonal shape grains can be observed in all the samples, and grain size decreases with increasing Al content. As for magnetic properties of Ba0.5Sr1.5Zn2(Fe1-xAlx)12O22, there exist rich thermal- and field-driven magnetic phase transitions. Temperature dependence of zero-field cooling magnetization curves from 5 K to 800 K exhibit three magnetic phase transitions involving conical spin phase, proper-screw spin phase, ferromagnetic phase, and paramagnetic phase, which can be found in all the samples. Furthermore, the phase-transition temperatures can be modulated by varying Al content. In addition, four kinds of typical hysteresis loops are observed in pure phase sample at different temperatures, which reveal different magnetization processes of above-motioned magnetic spin structures. Typically, triple hysteresis loops in low magnetic field range from 0 to 0.5 T can be observed at 5 K, which suggests low-field driven magnetic phase transitions from conical spin order to proper-screw spin order and further to ferrimagnetic spin order occur. Furthermore, the coercive field (HC) and the saturation magnetization (MS) enhance with increasing Al content from x = 0 to 0.08, and drop rapidly at x = 0.12, which could be attribute to that in initial Al-doped process the pitch of spin helix increases and therefore magnetization enhances, but conical spin phase eventually collapses in higher-concentration Al-doping.

  2. Thermochemical hydrogen production via a cycle using barium and sulfur - Reaction between barium sulfide and water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ota, K.; Conger, W. L.

    1977-01-01

    The reaction between barium sulfide and water, a reaction found in several sulfur based thermochemical cycles, was investigated kinetically at 653-866 C. Gaseous products were hydrogen and hydrogen sulfide. The rate determining step for hydrogen formation was a surface reaction between barium sulfide and water. An expression was derived for the rate of hydrogen formation.

  3. Crystal growth of hexaferrite architecture for magnetoelectrically tunable microwave semiconductor integrated devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Bolin

    Hexaferrites (i.e., hexagonal ferrites), discovered in 1950s, exist as any one of six crystallographic structural variants (i.e., M-, X-, Y-, W-, U-, and Z-type). Over the past six decades, the hexaferrites have received much attention owing to their important properties that lend use as permanent magnets, magnetic data storage materials, as well as components in electrical devices, particularly those operating at RF frequencies. Moreover, there has been increasing interest in hexaferrites for new fundamental and emerging applications. Among those, electronic components for mobile and wireless communications especially incorporated with semiconductor integrated circuits at microwave frequencies, electromagnetic wave absorbers for electromagnetic compatibility, random-access memory (RAM) and low observable technology, and as composite materials having low dimensions. However, of particular interest is the magnetoelectric (ME) effect discovered recently in the hexaferrites such as SrScxFe12-xO19 (SrScM), Ba2--xSrxZn 2Fe12O22 (Zn2Y), Sr4Co2Fe 36O60 (Co2U) and Sr3Co2Fe 24O41 (Co2Z), demonstrating ferroelectricity induced by the complex internal alignment of magnetic moments. Further, both Co 2Z and Co2U have revealed observable magnetoelectric effects at room temperature, representing a step toward practical applications using the ME effect. These materials hold great potential for applications, since strong magnetoelectric coupling allows switching of the FE polarization with a magnetic field (H) and vice versa. These features could lead to a new type of storage devices, such as an electric field-controlled magnetic memory. A nanoscale-driven crystal growth of magnetic hexaferrites was successfully demonstrated at low growth temperatures (25--40% lower than the temperatures required often for crystal growth). This outcome exhibits thermodynamic processes of crystal growth, allowing ease in fabrication of advanced multifunctional materials. Most importantly, the

  4. Sulphate removal from sodium sulphate-rich brine and recovery of barium as a barium salt mixture.

    PubMed

    Vadapalli, Viswanath R K; Zvimba, John N; Mulopo, Jean; Motaung, Solly

    2013-01-01

    Sulphate removal from sodium sulphate-rich brine using barium hydroxide and recovery of the barium salts has been investigated. The sodium sulphate-rich brine treated with different dosages of barium hydroxide to precipitate barium sulphate showed sulphate removal from 13.5 g/L to less than 400 mg/L over 60 min using a barium to sulphate molar ratio of 1.1. The thermal conversion of precipitated barium sulphate to barium sulphide achieved a conversion yield of 85% using coal as both a reducing agent and an energy source. The recovery of a pure mixture of barium salts from barium sulphide, which involved dissolution of barium sulphide and reaction with ammonium hydroxide resulted in recovery of a mixture of barium carbonate (62%) and barium hydroxide (38%), which is a critical input raw material for barium salts based acid mine drainage (AMD) desalination technologies. Under alkaline conditions of this barium salt mixture recovery process, ammonia gas is given off, while hydrogen sulfide is retained in solution as bisulfide species, and this provides basis for ammonium hydroxide separation and recovery for reuse, with hydrogen sulfide also recoverable for further industrial applications such as sulfur production by subsequent stripping. PMID:23485244

  5. Magnetic and electrical properties of Z-type hexaferrites sintered in different atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xiaozhi; Yue, Zhenxing Meng, Siqin; Peng, Bin; Yuan, Lixin

    2015-05-15

    Graphical abstract: Oxygen atmosphere played an important role in inhibiting electrons hopping between Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} and reducing both of magnetic and dielectric losses of Ba{sub 3}Co{sub 2}Fe{sub 24}O{sub 41}, which is favorable in view of antenna substrate applications. - Highlights: • Co{sub 2}Z-type hexaferrites were sintered in different atmospheres. • The losses of the sample sintered in O{sub 2} were reduced effectively without additive. • A 3RC equivalent circuit model was put forward in the impedance analysis. - Abstract: Co{sub 2}Z-type hexaferrites with stoichiometric composition of Ba{sub 3}Co{sub 2}Fe{sub 24}O{sub 41} were fabricated by using a conventional solid–state reaction method. The influence of sintering atmosphere, namely air, O{sub 2} and N{sub 2}, on magnetic and electrical properties of the hexaferrites was systematically investigated. This work reveals that O{sub 2} played an important role in inhibiting the formation of Fe{sup 2+} and thus reducing magnetic and dielectric losses. The Co{sub 2}Z specimen sintered at 1300 °C in O{sub 2} atmosphere showed promising magneto-dielectric properties. Specifically, the magnetic and dielectric losses were less than 0.05 and 0.005 in the frequency range of 30–300 MHz, respectively. Impedance spectra were performed to reveal the underlying mechanisms for the different electrical properties of the Co{sub 2}Z ceramics sintered in different atmospheres.

  6. Chemical abundances and kinematics of barium stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Castro, D. B.; Pereira, C. B.; Roig, F.; Jilinski, E.; Drake, N. A.; Chavero, C.; Silva, J. V. Sales

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we present an homogeneous analysis of photospheric abundances based on high-resolution spectroscopy of a sample of 182 barium stars and candidates. We determined atmospheric parameters, spectroscopic distances, stellar masses, ages, luminosities and scale height, radial velocities, abundances of the Na, Al, alpha-elements, iron-peak elements, and s-process elements Y, Zr, La, Ce, and Nd. We employed the local-thermodynamic-equilibrium model atmospheres of Kurucz and the spectral analysis code MOOG. We found that the metallicities, the temperatures and the surface gravities for barium stars can not be represented by a single gaussian distribution. The abundances of alpha-elements and iron peak elements are similar to those of field giants with the same metallicity. Sodium presents some degree of enrichment in more evolved stars that could be attributed to the NeNa cycle. As expected, the barium stars show overabundance of the elements created by the s-process. By measuring the mean heavy-element abundance pattern as given by the ratio [s/Fe], we found that the barium stars present several degrees of enrichment. We also obtained the [hs/ls] ratio by measuring the photospheric abundances of the Ba-peak and the Zr-peak elements. Our results indicated that the [s/Fe] and the [hs/ls] ratios are strongly anti-correlated with the metallicity. Our kinematical analysis showed that 90% of the barium stars belong to the thin disk population. Based on their luminosities, none of the barium stars are luminous enough to be an AGB star, nor to become self-enriched in the s-process elements. Finally, we determined that the barium stars also follow an age-metallicity relation.

  7. Chemical abundances and kinematics of barium stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Castro, D. B.; Pereira, C. B.; Roig, F.; Jilinski, E.; Drake, N. A.; Chavero, C.; Sales Silva, J. V.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we present an homogeneous analysis of photospheric abundances based on high-resolution spectroscopy of a sample of 182 barium stars and candidates. We determined atmospheric parameters, spectroscopic distances, stellar masses, ages, luminosities and scaleheight, radial velocities, abundances of the Na, Al, α-elements, iron-peak elements, and s-process elements Y, Zr, La, Ce, and Nd. We employed the local thermodynamic equilibrium model atmospheres of Kurucz and the spectral analysis code MOOG. We found that the metallicities, the temperatures and the surface gravities for barium stars cannot be represented by a single Gaussian distribution. The abundances of α-elements and iron peak elements are similar to those of field giants with the same metallicity. Sodium presents some degree of enrichment in more evolved stars that could be attributed to the NeNa cycle. As expected, the barium stars show overabundance of the elements created by the s-process. By measuring the mean heavy-element abundance pattern as given by the ratio [s/Fe], we found that the barium stars present several degrees of enrichment. We also obtained the [hs/ls] ratio by measuring the photospheric abundances of the Ba-peak and the Zr-peak elements. Our results indicated that the [s/Fe] and the [hs/ls] ratios are strongly anticorrelated with the metallicity. Our kinematical analysis showed that 90 per cent of the barium stars belong to the thin disc population. Based on their luminosities, none of the barium stars are luminous enough to be an asymptotic giant branch star, nor to become self-enriched in the s-process elements. Finally, we determined that the barium stars also follow an age-metallicity relation.

  8. Constraining the oceanic barium cycle with stable barium isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Zhimian; Siebert, Christopher; Hathorne, Ed C.; Dai, Minhan; Frank, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The distribution of barium (Ba) concentrations in seawater resembles that of nutrients and Ba has been widely used as a proxy of paleoproductivity. However, the exact mechanisms controlling the nutrient-like behavior, and thus the fundamentals of Ba chemistry in the ocean, have not been fully resolved. Here we present a set of full water column dissolved Ba (DBa) isotope (δ137BaDBa) profiles from the South China Sea and the East China Sea that receives large freshwater inputs from the Changjiang (Yangtze River). We find pronounced and systematic horizontal and depth dependent δ137BaDBa gradients. Beyond the river influence characterized by generally light signatures (0.0 to + 0.3 ‰), the δ137BaDBa values in the upper water column are significantly higher (+ 0.9 ‰) than those in the deep waters (+ 0.5 ‰). Moreover, δ137BaDBa signatures are essentially constant in the entire upper 100 m, in which dissolved silicon isotopes are fractionated during diatom growth resulting in the heaviest isotopic compositions in the very surface waters. Combined with the decoupling of DBa concentrations and δ137BaDBa from the concentrations of nitrate and phosphate this implies that the apparent nutrient-like fractionation of Ba isotopes in seawater is primarily induced by preferential adsorption of the lighter isotopes onto biogenic particles rather than by biological utilization. The subsurface δ137BaDBa distribution is dominated by water mass mixing. The application of stable Ba isotopes as a proxy for nutrient cycling should therefore be considered with caution and both biological and physical processes need to be considered. Clearly, however, Ba isotopes show great potential as a new tracer for land-sea interactions and ocean mixing processes.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of nanostructured strontium hexaferrite thin films by the sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoudpanah, S. M.; Seyyed Ebrahimi, S. A.

    2012-07-01

    Nanostructured single phase strontium hexaferrite, SrFe12O19, thin films have been synthesized on the (100) silicon substrate using a spin coating sol-gel process. The thin films with various Fe/Sr molar ratios of 8-12 were calcined at different temperatures from 500 to 900 °C. The composition, microstructure and magnetic properties of the SrFe12O19 thin films were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential thermal analysis, thermogravimetry, X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer. The results showed that the optimum molar ratio for Fe/Sr was 10 at which the lowest calcination temperature to obtain the single phase strontium hexaferrite thin film was 800 °C. The magnetic measurements revealed that the sample with Fe/Sr molar ratio of 10, exhibited higher saturation magnetization (267.5 emu/cm3) and coercivity (4290 Oe) in comparison with those synthesized under other Fe/Sr molar ratios.

  10. Structural, Magnetic, and Electrical Properties of Microwave-Sintered Cr3+-Doped Sr Hexaferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praveena, K.; Bououdina, M.; Penchal Reddy, M.; Srinath, S.; Sandhya, R.; Katlakunta, Sadhana

    2015-01-01

    SrCr x Fe12- x O19 ( x = 0.0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 0.9) hexaferrites were prepared by a microwave-hydrothermal method and subsequently sintered at 950°C for 90 min using the microwave sintering method. The results show that, with increasing Cr3+ content, the lattice parameters changed anisotropically. The average grain sizes of sintered samples were in the range of 280 nm to 660 nm. The saturation magnetization systematically decreased with increasing Cr3+ doping, but the coercivity values increased. The electrical resistivity (log ρ) decreased linearly with increasing temperature up to a certain temperature known as the transition temperature ( T c), and T c decreased with further increase ( x > 0.5) of the Cr3+ content. This decrease in log ρ and the activation energy ( E g) is due to electron hopping and occupancy of doped ions at different lattice sites. We found that the dielectric constant and dielectric loss for all the samples decreased with the Cr3+ content. The structural, magnetic, and electrical properties of Cr3+-doped SrFe12O19 hexaferrites have thus been investigated.

  11. Nonvolatile electric-field control of magnetization in a Y-type hexaferrite

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Shipeng; Chai, Yisheng; Sun, Young

    2015-01-01

    The magnetoelectric effects in multiferroic materials enable the mutual control of electric polarization by a magnetic field and magnetization by an electric field. Nonvolatile electric-field control of magnetization is extremely important for information storage applications, but has been rarely realized in single-phase multiferroic materials. Here we demonstrate the prominent direct and converse magnetoelectric effects in the Y-type hexaferrite BaSrCoZnFe11AlO22 single crystal. The electric polarization due to conical magnetic structure can be totally reversed by a small magnetic field, giving rise to large magnetoelectric coefficients of 6000 and 4000 ps/m at 100 and 200 K, respectively. The ab-plane magnetization can be controlled by electric fields with a large hysteresis, leading to nonvolatile change of magnetization. In addition, the reversal of magnetization by electric fields is also realized at 200 K. These diverse magnetoelectric effects with large coefficients highlight the promise of hexaferrites as potential multiferroic materials. PMID:25653008

  12. 40 CFR 721.10011 - Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Barium calcium manganese strontium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10011 Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as barium...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10011 - Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Barium calcium manganese strontium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10011 Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as barium...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10011 - Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Barium calcium manganese strontium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10011 Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as barium...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10011 - Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Barium calcium manganese strontium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10011 Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as barium...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10011 - Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Barium calcium manganese strontium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10011 Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as barium...

  17. The Effect of High Energy Milling on the SR-HEXAFERRITE Nanocrystalline Powder Synthesized by a Sol-Gel Autocombustion Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi-Niaraki, S.; Seyyed Ebrahim, S. A.; Raygan, Sh.

    In this research SrFe12O19 nanocrystalline synthesized by sol-gel auto-combustion method and subsequent annealing at 1000°C for 1h subjected to mechanochemical treatment in a high-energy ball mill and then re-annealing. A planetary ball mill (Fritsch Pulveristte 6) was used to mill the strontium hexaferrite powder at 300 rpm in air for 10, 20 and 40 hours. The process was studied by X-ray diffraction technique and scanning electron microscopy. The X-ray study showed that SrFe12O19 phase was decomposed by milling. Strontium hexaferrite and α-Fe2O3 were obtained with 10 hours milling. There were α-Fe2O3 and strontium hexaferrite in XRD patterns of 20 hours milled sample. With increasing of the milling time to 40 hours, strontium hexaferrite was decomposed completely. The annealing of the 20 and 40 h milled powders at 900°C for 1h led to the formation of single phase strontium hexaferrite with smaller crystallite size compare to that of the hexaferrite powder before milling and subsequent annealing.

  18. 75 FR 19657 - Barium Chloride From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ... Commission found that the domestic interested party group response to its notice of institution (74 FR 31757... COMMISSION Barium Chloride From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice of Commission determination to conduct a full five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on...

  19. 75 FR 20625 - Barium Chloride From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ... established a schedule for the conduct of this review (74 FR 62587, November 30, 2010). Subsequently, counsel... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Barium Chloride From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION:...

  20. A catalog of M-type star candidates in the LAMOST data release 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Jing; Lépine, Sébastien; Li, Jing; Chen, Li; Hou, Jinliang

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we present a set of M-type star candidates selected from the LAMOST DR1. A discrimination method with the spectral index diagram is used to separate M giants and M dwarfs. Then, we have successfully assembled a set of M giants templates from M0 to M6, using the spectra identified from the LAMOST spectral database. After combining the M dwarf templates in Zhong et al. (2015a) and the new created M giant templates, we use the M-type spectral library to perform the template-fit method to classify and identify M-type stars in the LAMOST DR1. A catalog of M-type star candidates including 8639 M giants and 101690 M dwarfs/subdwarfs is provided. As an additional results, we also present other fundamental parameters like proper motion, photometry, radial velocity and spectroscopic distance.

  1. Preparation of strontium hexaferrite film by pulsed laser deposition with in situ heating and post annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoudpanah, S. M.; Seyyed Ebrahimi, S. A.; Ong, C. K.

    2012-09-01

    Strontium hexaferrite (SrFe12O19) films have been fabricated by pulsed laser deposition on Si(1 0 0) substrate with Pt(1 1 1) underlayer through in situ and post annealing heat treatments. C-axis perpendicular oriented SrFe12O19 films have been confirmed by X-ray diffraction patterns for both of the in situ heated and post annealed films. The cluster-like single domain structures are recognized by magnetic force microscopy. Higher coercivity in perpendicular direction than that for the in-plane direction shows that the films have perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. High perpendicular coercivity, around 3.8 kOe, has been achieved after post annealing at 500 °C. Higher coercivity of the post annealed SrFe12O19 films was found to be related to nanosized grain of about 50-80 nm.

  2. Magnetic properties of strontium hexaferrite films prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoudpanah, S. M.; Seyyed Ebrahimi, S. A.; Ong, C. K.

    2012-08-01

    The magnetic properties of strontium hexaferrite (SrFe12O19) films fabricated by pulsed laser deposition on the Si(100) substrate with Pt(111) underlayer have been studied as a function of film thickness (50-700 nm). X-ray diffraction patterns confirm that the films have c-axis perpendicular orientation. The coercivities in perpendicular direction are higher than those for in-plane direction which indicates the films have perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. The coercivity was found to decrease with increasing of thickness, due to the increasing of the grain size and relaxation in lattice strain. The 200 nm thick film exhibits hexagonal shape grains of 150 nm and optimum magnetic properties of Ms=298 emu/cm3 and Hc=2540 Oe.

  3. Synthesis of coprecipitated strontium hexaferrite nanoparticles in the presence of polyvinyl alcohol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davoodi, A.; Hashemi, B.; Yousefi, M. H.

    2011-12-01

    Strontium hexaferrite (SrFe12O19) nanoparticles were synthesized by the chemical coprecipitation method and using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a protective agent. The synthesized samples were characterized by differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, particle size analyzer, sedimentation test and vibrating sample magnetometer. In the presence of PVA, the single-phase SrFe12O19 nanoparticles were obtained at low temperature of 650 °C. The average particle size of SrFe12O19 precursor was 15 nm, which increased to 61 nm after calcination at 650 °C. The magnetic measurements indicated that PVA decreased coercivity from 4711 to 3216 Oe with particle size reduction. The results showed that PVA as a protective agent could be effective in decreasing the particle size, calcination temperature and coercivity of SrFe12O19 nanoparticles.

  4. Microwave-assisted synthesis of SrFe 12O 19 hexaferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhanyong, Wang; Liuming, Zhong; Jieli, Lv; Huichun, Qian; Yuli, Zheng; Yongzheng, Fang; Minglin, Jin; Jiayue, Xu

    2010-09-01

    Ultra-fine and homogeneous SrFe 12O 19 hexaferrites were synthesized by a microwave-assisted calcination route. The calcined precursors were prepared by a sol-gel auto-combustion method using Fe(NO 3) 3·9H 2O, Sr(NO 3) 2 and citric acid as starting materials. The structures, powder morphology and magnetic properties of the products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope and vibrating sample magnetometer. The results showed that microwaves are helpful to reduce the calcination temperature and shorten the calcination time. The ferrites with saturation magnetization, remanence and intrinsic coercivity of 54.80 emu/g, 29.52 emu/g and 5261 Oe, respectively, were obtained in samples calcined at 800 °C for 80 min.

  5. Rare-Earth-Free Nanostructure Magnets: Rare-Earth-Free Permanent Magnets for Electric Vehicle Motors and Wind Turbine Generators: Hexagonal Symmetry Based Materials Systems Mn-Bi and M-type Hexaferrite

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    REACT Project: The University of Alabama is developing new iron- and manganese-based composite materials for use in the electric motors of EVs and renewable power generators that will demonstrate magnetic properties superior to today’s best rare-earth-based magnets. Rare earths are difficult and expensive to refine. EVs and renewable power generators typically use rare earths to make their electric motors smaller and more powerful. The University of Alabama has the potential to improve upon the performance of current state-of-the-art rare-earth-based magnets using low-cost and more abundant materials such as manganese and iron. The ultimate goal of this project is to demonstrate improved performance in a full-size prototype magnet at reduced cost.

  6. The effect of precursor types on the magnetic properties of Y-type hexa-ferrite composite

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Chin Mo; Na, Eunhye; Kim, Ingyu; An, Sung Yong; Seo, Jung-wook; Hur, Kangheon; Kim, Hakkwan

    2015-05-07

    With magnetic composite including uniform magnetic particles, we expect to realize good high-frequency soft magnetic properties. We produced needle-like (α-FeOOH) nanoparticles with nearly uniform diameter and length of 20 and 500 nm. Zn-doped Y-type hexa-ferrite samples were prepared by solid state reaction method using the uniform goethite and non-uniform hematite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) with size of <1 μm, respectively. The micrographs observed by scanning electron microscopy show that more uniform hexagonal plates are observed in ZYG-sample (Zn-doped Y-type hexa-ferrite prepared with non-uniform hematite) than in ZYH-sample (Zn-doped Y-type hexa-ferrite prepared with uniform goethite). The permeability (μ′) and loss tangent (δ) at 2 GHz are 2.31 and 0.07 in ZYG-sample and 2.0 and 0.07 in ZYH sample, respectively. We can observe that permeability and loss tangent are strongly related to the particle size and uniformity based on the nucleation, growth, and two magnetizing mechanisms: spin rotation and domain wall motion. The complex permeability spectra also can be numerically separated into spin rotational and domain wall resonance components.

  7. The effect of precursor types on the magnetic properties of Y-type hexa-ferrite composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chin Mo; Na, Eunhye; Kim, Ingyu; An, Sung Yong; Seo, Jung-wook; Hur, Kangheon; Kim, Hakkwan

    2015-05-01

    With magnetic composite including uniform magnetic particles, we expect to realize good high-frequency soft magnetic properties. We produced needle-like (α-FeOOH) nanoparticles with nearly uniform diameter and length of 20 and 500 nm. Zn-doped Y-type hexa-ferrite samples were prepared by solid state reaction method using the uniform goethite and non-uniform hematite (Fe2O3) with size of <1 μm, respectively. The micrographs observed by scanning electron microscopy show that more uniform hexagonal plates are observed in ZYG-sample (Zn-doped Y-type hexa-ferrite prepared with non-uniform hematite) than in ZYH-sample (Zn-doped Y-type hexa-ferrite prepared with uniform goethite). The permeability (μ') and loss tangent (δ) at 2 GHz are 2.31 and 0.07 in ZYG-sample and 2.0 and 0.07 in ZYH sample, respectively. We can observe that permeability and loss tangent are strongly related to the particle size and uniformity based on the nucleation, growth, and two magnetizing mechanisms: spin rotation and domain wall motion. The complex permeability spectra also can be numerically separated into spin rotational and domain wall resonance components.

  8. Radioactive Barium Ion Trap Based on Metal-Organic Framework for Efficient and Irreversible Removal of Barium from Nuclear Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yaguang; Huang, Hongliang; Liu, Dahuan; Zhong, Chongli

    2016-04-01

    Highly efficient and irreversible capture of radioactive barium from aqueous media remains a serious task for nuclear waste disposal and environmental protection. To address this task, here we propose a concept of barium ion trap based on metal-organic framework (MOF) with a strong barium-chelating group (sulfate and sulfonic acid group) in the pore structures of MOFs. The functionalized MOF-based ion traps can remove >90% of the barium within the first 5 min, and the removal efficiency reaches 99% after equilibrium. Remarkably, the sulfate-group-functionalized ion trap demonstrates a high barium uptake capacity of 131.1 mg g(-1), which surpasses most of the reported sorbents and can selectively capture barium from nuclear wastewater, whereas the sulfonic-acid-group-functionalized ion trap exhibits ultrafast kinetics with a kinetic rate constant k2 of 27.77 g mg(-1) min(-1), which is 1-3 orders of magnitude higher than existing sorbents. Both of the two MOF-based ion traps can capture barium irreversibly. Our work proposes a new strategy to design barium adsorbent materials and provides a new perspective for removing radioactive barium and other radionuclides from nuclear wastewater for environment remediation. Besides, the concrete mechanisms of barium-sorbent interactions are also demonstrated in this contribution. PMID:26999358

  9. AES analysis of barium fluoride thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashin, G. N.; Makhnjuk, V. I.; Rumjantseva, S. M.; Shchekochihin, Ju. M.

    1993-06-01

    AES analysis of thin films of metal fluorides is a difficult problem due to charging and decomposition of such films under electron bombardment. We have developed a simple algorithm for a reliable quantitative AES analysis of metal fluoride thin films (BaF 2 in our work). The relative AES sensitivity factors for barium and fluorine were determined from BaF 2 single-crystal samples. We have investigated the dependence of composition and stability of barium fluoride films on the substrate temperature during film growth. We found that the instability of BaF 2 films grown on GaAs substrates at high temperatures (> 525°C) is due to a loss of fluorine. Our results show that, under the optimal electron exposure conditions, AES can be used for a quantitative analysis of metal fluoride thin films.

  10. Resonance-fluorescence in barium ion clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horak, H. G.; Whitaker, R. W.

    1982-09-01

    The problem of resonant-fluorescent scattering of sunlight by a high altitude, plane-parallel, barium ion cloud is solved numerically. Line strengths and profiles are computed using a modified version of the computer program LINEAR (Auer, Heasley and Milkey, 1972). Hyperfine structure of the spectral lines becomes important for very thick layers and is taken into account. Comparisons are made between coherent and completely noncoherent scattering results, and finally the influence of collisions on the radiation field is estimated.

  11. Nanoparticles of barium induce apoptosis in human phagocytes

    PubMed Central

    Mores, Luana; França, Eduardo Luzia; Silva, Núbia Andrade; Suchara, Eliane Aparecida; Honorio-França, Adenilda Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Nutrients and immunological factors of breast milk are essential for newborn growth and the development of their immune system, but this secretion can contain organic and inorganic toxins such as barium. Colostrum contamination with barium is an important issue to investigate because this naturally occurring element is also associated with human activity and industrial pollution. The study evaluated the administration of barium nanoparticles to colostrum, assessing the viability and functional activity of colostral mononuclear phagocytes. Methods Colostrum was collected from 24 clinically healthy women (aged 18–35 years). Cell viability, superoxide release, intracellular Ca2+ release, and phagocyte apoptosis were analyzed in the samples. Results Treatment with barium lowered mononuclear phagocyte viability, increased superoxide release, and reduced intracellular calcium release. In addition, barium increased cell death by apoptosis. Conclusion These data suggest that nanoparticles of barium in colostrum are toxic to cells, showing the importance of avoiding exposure to this element. PMID:26451108

  12. Barium Titanate Nanoparticles for Biomarker Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matar, O.; Posada, O. M.; Hondow, N. S.; Wälti, C.; Saunders, M.; Murray, C. A.; Brydson, R. M. D.; Milne, S. J.; Brown, A. P.

    2015-10-01

    A tetragonal crystal structure is required for barium titanate nanoparticles to exhibit the nonlinear optical effect of second harmonic light generation (SHG) for use as a biomarker when illuminated by a near-infrared source. Here we use synchrotron XRD to elucidate the tetragonal phase of commercially purchased tetragonal, cubic and hydrothermally prepared barium titanate (BaTiO3) nanoparticles by peak fitting with reference patterns. The local phase of individual nanoparticles is determined by STEM electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), measuring the core-loss O K-edge and the Ti L3-edge energy separation of the t2g, eg peaks. The results show a change in energy separation between the t2g and eg peak from the surface and core of the particles, suggesting an intraparticle phase mixture of the barium titanate nanoparticles. HAADF-STEM and bright field TEM-EDX show cellular uptake of the hydrothermally prepared BaTiO3 nanoparticles, highlighting the potential for application as biomarkers.

  13. Suicidal ingestion of barium-sulfide-containing shaving powder.

    PubMed

    Downs, J C; Milling, D; Nichols, C A

    1995-03-01

    Physicians, familiar with the common usage of barium medicinally as the contrast agent barium sulfate, may consider it an innocuous or at most a minimally harmful compound. The barium cation is extremely toxic and produces characteristic gastrointestinal symptoms, periorbital and extremity paresthesia, hypertension, and progressive flaccid muscular paralysis. Profound hypokalemia also may be induced. Overdose may be rapidly fatal unless the ingestion is recognized and appropriate treatment is instituted expediently. PMID:7771386

  14. Magnetoelastic coupling in epitaxial cobalt ferrite/barium titanate heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gräfe, Joachim; Welke, Martin; Bern, Francis; Ziese, Michael; Denecke, Reinhard

    2013-08-01

    Ultra-thin cobalt ferrite films have been synthesised on ferroelectric barium titanate crystals. The cobalt ferrite films exhibit a magnetic response to strain induced by structural changes in the barium titanate substrate, suggesting a pathway to multiferroic coupling. These structural changes are achieved by heating through the phase transition temperatures of barium titanate. In addition the ferromagnetic signal of the substrate itself is taken into account, addressing the influence of impurities or defects in the substrate. The cobalt ferrite/barium titanate heterostructure is a suitable oxidic platform for future magnetoelectric applications with an established ferroelectric substrate and widely tuneable magnetic properties by changing the transition metal in the ferrite film.

  15. Lanthanide doped strontium-barium cesium halide scintillators

    SciTech Connect

    Bizarri, Gregory; Bourret-Courchesne, Edith; Derenzo, Stephen E.; Borade, Ramesh B.; Gundiah, Gautam; Yan, Zewu; Hanrahan, Stephen M.; Chaudhry, Anurag; Canning, Andrew

    2015-06-09

    The present invention provides for a composition comprising an inorganic scintillator comprising an optionally lanthanide-doped strontium-barium, optionally cesium, halide, useful for detecting nuclear material.

  16. Creating unstable velocity-space distributions with barium injections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pongratz, M. B.

    1983-01-01

    Ion velocity-space distributions resulting from barium injections from orbiting spacecraft and shaped charges are discussed. Active experiments confirm that anomalous ionization processes may operate, but photoionization accounts for the production of the bulk of the barium ions. Pitch-angle diffusion and/or velocity-space diffusion may occur, but observations of barium ions moving upwards against gravity suggests that the ions retain a significant enough fraction of their initial perpendicular velocity to provide a mirror force. The barium ion plasmas should have a range of Alfven Mach numbers and plasma betas. Because the initial conditions can be predicted these active experiments should permit testing plasma instability hypotheses.

  17. Clonal diversity of Streptococcus pyogenes within some M-types revealed by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Haase, A. M.; Melder, A.; Mathews, J. D.; Kemp, D. J.; Adams, M.

    1994-01-01

    Twenty-two reference isolates and 30 local isolates of group A Streptococci were classified into 36 electrophoretic types (ET) on the basis of allozyme variation at 27 enzyme loci. Local isolates were characterized by a high frequency of M-non typable strains. M-type and ET were more closely associated in local isolates from an endemically-infected population; nevertheless, amongst the local isolates there were also strains of the same ET type with different M-types. A possible explanation is that genetic exchange between strains may introduce different M-types into strains of defined ET when these are exposed to strong selection in the presence of heavy loads of infection. In contrast to the reported clustering of strains associated with toxic shock-like syndrome into two closely related ET clones, we found no relationship of ET phenotype to acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis or rheumatic fever. PMID:7995355

  18. Magnetic structure in cool stars. XVI - Emissions from the outer atmosphere of M-type dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutten, R. G. M.; Zwaan, C.; Schrijver, C. J.; Duncan, D. K.; Mewe, R.

    1989-01-01

    Consideration is given to emission from the outer atmospheres of M-type dwarfs in several spectral lines originating from the chromosphere, the transition-region, and the soft X-ray emission from the corona. It is shown that M-type dwarfs systematically deviate from relations between flux densities in soft X-rays and chromospheric and transition-region emission lines. The quantitative relation between the equivalent width of H-alpha and the Ca II, H, and K emission index is determined. It is suggested that the emission in the Balmer spectrum may result from back heating by coronal soft X-rays.

  19. A new investigation of hydration in the M-type asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landsman, Zoe A.; Campins, Humberto; Pinilla-Alonso, Noemí; Hanuš, Josef; Lorenzi, Vania

    2015-05-01

    We obtained 2-4 μm spectra of six M-type asteroids using the SpeX spectrograph at NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility. We find evidence for hydrated minerals on all six asteroids, including two that were previously thought to be dry. One of our targets, (216) Kleopatra, shows rotational variability in the depth of its 3-μm feature. We also studied three of these asteroids in the 0.8-2.4 μm range using the NICS instrument at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) in La Palma, Spain. The discovery of spectral signatures of hydrated minerals on so many M-types is difficult to reconcile with a highly thermally evolved composition. It has been suggested that the hydrated minerals could have been delivered to M-types via impacts with primitive objects, or that the M-types may actually have primitive compositions that are not represented in meteorite collections. Understanding the origin and type of hydration on these asteroids will help determine which of these interpretations is correct.

  20. Barium Enhancement in NGC 6819 Blue Stragglers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milliman, Katelyn; Mathieu, Robert D.; Schuler, Simon C.

    2015-01-01

    Possible formation pathways for blue straggler stars include mergers in hierarchical triple systems, stellar collisions during dynamical encounters, and mass transfer from a giant companion. Extensive work on the blue stragglers in the old open cluster NGC 188 (7 Gyr) has led to exciting discoveries including a binary secondary mass distribution peaked at 0.5 MSolar and the detection of three young white dwarf binary companions. These indicate that mass transfer from an asymptotic giant branch star is the dominant mechanism for blue straggler formation in open clusters. Such mass transfer events should pollute the surface abundance of the blue straggler with nucleosynthesis products from the evolved donor. The other formation pathways, mergers and collisions, are predicted to produce no such enhancements. In an effort to move beyond NGC 188 and into other open clusters we present the first results of a surface abundance study of the blue stragglers in the intermediate-aged open cluster NGC 6819 (2.5 Gyr) using the Hydra multi-object spectrograph on the WIYN 3.5 m telescope. This part of our study centers on the s-process element barium as a tracer of formation via mass transfer. We compare the blue straggler surface abundance of barium to that of a sample of main-sequence stars in NGC 6819 and find multiple blue stragglers with anomalous abundances. Surprising, most of the blue stragglers with barium anomalies show no radial-velocity evidence for a companion. We gratefully acknowledge funding from the National Science Foundation under grant AST- 0908082 and the Wisconsin Space Grant Consortium.

  1. BARIUM IN TEETH AS INDICATOR OF BODY BURDEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted to determine the biological availability of naturally occurring barium in a municipal drinking water by the analysis of barium in deciduous teeth of children. The grade school children of two Illinois towns were chosen for the study. The towns were chosen ba...

  2. Barium dithionate as an EPR dosemeter.

    PubMed

    Baran, M P; Bugay, O A; Kolesnik, S P; Maksimenko, V M; Teslenko, V V; Petrenko, T L; Desrosiers, M F

    2006-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) dosimetry is growing in popularity and this success has encouraged the search for other dosimetric materials. Previous studies of gamma-irradiated barium dithionate (BaS(2)O(6) x 2H(2)O) have shown promise for its use as a radiation dosemeter. This work studies in greater detail several essential attributes of the system. Special attention has been directed to the study of EPR response dependences on microwave power, irradiation temperature, minimum detectable dose and post-irradiation stability. PMID:16565205

  3. Europium-doped barium bromide iodide

    SciTech Connect

    Gundiah, Gautam; Hanrahan, Stephen M.; Hollander, Fredrick J.; Bourret-Courchesne, Edith D.

    2009-10-21

    Single crystals of Ba0.96Eu0.04BrI (barium europium bromide iodide) were grown by the Bridgman technique. The title compound adopts the ordered PbCl2 structure [Braekken (1932). Z. Kristallogr. 83, 222-282]. All atoms occupy the fourfold special positions (4c, site symmetry m) of the space group Pnma with a statistical distribution of Ba and Eu. They lie on the mirror planes, perpendicular to the b axis at y = +-0.25. Each cation is coordinated by nine anions in a tricapped trigonal prismatic arrangement.

  4. Short-cavity squeezing in barium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hope, D. M.; Bachor, H-A.; Manson, P. J.; Mcclelland, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    Broadband phase sensitive noise and squeezing were experimentally observed in a system of barium atoms interacting with a single mode of a short optical cavity. Squeezing of 13 +/- 3 percent was observed. A maximum possible squeezing of 45 +/- 8 percent could be inferred for out experimental conditions, after correction for measured loss factors. Noise reductions below the quantum limit were found over a range of detection frequencies 60-170 MHz and were best for high cavity transmission and large optical depths. The amount of squeezing observed is consistent with theoretical predictions from a full quantum statistical model of the system.

  5. Vacancy ordering in reduced barium titanate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodward, David I.; Reaney, Ian M.; Yang, Gaiying Y.; Dickey, Elizabeth C.; Randall, Clive A.

    2004-06-01

    A crystal structure is proposed for reduced barium titanate, BaTiO3-δ, δ≈0.33, formed during the degradation of Ni-BaTiO3 X7R multilayer ceramic capacitors. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and selected-area electron diffraction have been used in combination with computer simulations to show that oxygen vacancies accrete on every third pseudocubic {111} plane, resulting in a cell with space group P3m1. Additionally, from electron energy loss spectroscopy, it is proposed that Ti4+ is reduced to Ti3+ as a mechanism of charge compensation within oxygen-deficient octahedra.

  6. Barium cardiotoxicity: Relationship between ultrastructural damage and mechanical effects.

    PubMed

    Delfino, G; Amerini, S; Mugelli, A

    1988-01-01

    The ultrastructural damage in guinea-pig ventricular strips caused by barium was analysed. At a concentration of 1 mmol/litre, barium chloride caused a dramatic increase in the developed tension associated with the onset of automaticity. The ultrastructural analysis demonstrated that barium caused notable and consistent alterations which affected most myocyte components. Various degenerative aspects were observed in mitochondria and in the contractile apparatus. Glycogen deposits were completely depleted. Preparations driven at 4 Hz (i.e. the rate of spontaneous firing of barium-treated preparations) showed moderate ultrastructural alterations, thus demonstrating that the increase in the rate of beating is not the only determinant of the observed damage. These results suggest that the myocardial toxicity of barium is due not only to the well-known modifications in membrane permeability, but possibly also to alterations in cell function. PMID:20702358

  7. Emission analysis of a laser-produced barium plasma plume.

    PubMed

    Singh, R K; Joshi, H C; Kumar, Ajai

    2015-09-01

    In the present work we report the characteristic emission features of a laser-produced barium plasma plume. The time-resolved analysis for the different spectral lines of neutral and singly charged ionic barium has been carried out. It has been observed that the temporal evolution of electron temperature and density shows a peculiar behavior which is significantly different from the reported results of laser ablation of materials. The electron density increases with increase in delay time but the temperature does not change to any significant extent. Strong self-reversal in the emission of a resonant singly charged barium ionic line (455.4 nm) with time delay indicates the increase of population of singly charged barium ion with time. The results are explained on the basis of the increased population of barium metastables and subsequent ionization (Penning type). PMID:26368891

  8. An Investigation of the 3-μm Feature in M-Type Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landsman, Zoe A.; Campins, H.; Hargrove, K.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Emery, J.; Ziffer, J.

    2013-10-01

    The M-type asteroids had originally been interpreted as the disrupted iron cores of differentiated bodies by spectral analogy with the NiFe meteorites. More detailed studies have since indicated a range of compositions. In particular, the presence of a 3-µm feature, diagnostic of hydration, detected in more than 35% of surveyed M-type asteroids (Jones et al. 1990, Rivkin et al. 1995, 2000) has challenged the notion that these bodies are all metallic. Spectroscopy in the 0.8 - 2.5 µm region has revealed absorption features due to mafic silicates and hydroxides or phyllosilicates (Fornasier et al. 2010, Hardersen et al. 2006, 2010, Ockert-Bell et al. 2010). Radar studies have shown that most M-types are not likely to be iron cores, but they typically have a higher metal content than average (Shepard et al. 2010). Taken together, these results paint a fairly confounding picture of the M-type asteroids. While several interpretations have been suggested, more work is needed to clarify the mineralogy of these bodies. We have started a new spectroscopic study of the M asteroids in the 2 - 4 µm region. We seek to characterize the shape, band center, and band depth of the 3-µm feature where it is present, as these measures are indicative of the type and extent of hydration present on asteroids (Lebofsky et al. 1985, Rivkin et al. 2002, Takir & Emery 2012, Volguardsen et al. 2007). With this work, we hope to shed new light on the origin of hydration on M asteroids and its context within their mineralogy and thermal evolution. In July 2013, we obtained 2 - 4 µm spectra for 69 Hesperia, 136 Austria, and 261 Prymno with the SpeX at NASA’s IRTF, and are in the process of reducing the data. We have also obtained 0.8 - 2.0 µm data for 261 Prymno using the NICS at the TNG in February 2013. We report the presence of an absorption feature near 0.9 µm in Prymno’s spectrum, indicating a partially silicate composition. Based on spectral, physical and orbital similarities to

  9. Proton conductivity of potassium doped barium zirconates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaoxiang; Tao, Shanwen; Irvine, John T. S.

    2010-01-01

    Potassium doped barium zirconates have been synthesized by solid state reactions. It was found that the solubility limit of potassium on A-sites is between 5% and 10%. Introducing extra potassium leads to the formation of second phase or YSZ impurities. The water uptake of barium zirconates was increased even with 5% doping of potassium at the A-site. The sintering conditions and conductivity can be improved significantly by adding 1 wt% ZnO during material synthesis. The maximum solubility for yttrium at B-sites is around 15 at% after introducing 1 wt% zinc. The conductivity of Ba 0.95K 0.05Zr 0.85Y 0.11Zn 0.04O 3-δ at 600 °C is 2.2×10 -3 S/cm in wet 5% H 2. The activation energies for bulk and grain boundary are 0.29(2), 0.79(2) eV in wet 5% H 2 and 0.31(1), 0.74(3) eV in dry 5% H 2. A power density of 7.7 mW/cm 2 at 718 °C was observed when a 1 mm thick Ba 0.95K 0.05Zr 0.85Y 0.11Zn 0.04O 3-δ pellet was used as electrolyte and platinum electrodes.

  10. Role of grain boundaries in the conduction of Eu-Ni substituted Y-type hexaferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Irshad; Islam, M. U.; Naeem Ashiq, Muhammad; Asif Iqbal, M.; Khan, Hasan M.; Murtaza, G.

    2014-08-01

    Single phase nanostructured (Eu-Ni) substituted Y-type hexaferrites with nominal composition of Sr2Co2-xNixEuyFe12-yO22 (x=0.0-1, y=0.0-0.1) were synthesized by the microemulsion method. Temperature dependent DC electrical conductivity and drift mobility were found in good agreement with each other, reflecting semiconducting behavior. The presence of Debye peaks in imaginary electric modulus curves confirmed the existence of relaxation phenomena in given frequency range. The AC conductivity follows power law, with exponent (n) value, ranges from 0.81-0.97, indicating that the mechanism is due to polaron hopping. In the present ferrite system, Cole-Cole plots were used to separate the grain and grain boundary effects. Eu-Ni substitution leads to a remarkable rise of grain boundary resistance as compared to the grain resistance. As both AC conductivity and Cole-Cole plots are the functions of concentration, they reveal the dominant contribution of grain boundaries in the conduction mechanism. It was also observed that the AC activation energy is lower than the DC activation energy. Appreciable improved values of quality factor suggested the possible use of these synthesized materials for power applications and high frequency multilayer chip inductors.

  11. Magnetic Properties of Strontium Hexaferrite Nanostructures Measured with Magnetic Force Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qiang; Song, Jie; Saura-Múzquiz, Matilde; Besenbacher, Flemming; Christensen, Mogens; Dong, Mingdong

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic property is one of the important properties of nanomaterials. Direct investigation of the magnetic property on the nanoscale is however challenging. Herein we present a quantitative measurement of the magnetic properties including the magnitude and the orientation of the magnetic moment of strontium hexaferrite (SrFe12O19) nanostructures using magnetic force microscopy (MFM) with nanoscale spatial resolution. The measured magnetic moments of the as-synthesized individual SrFe12O19 nanoplatelets are on the order of ~10‑16 emu. The MFM measurements further confirm that the magnetic moment of SrFe12O19 nanoplatelets increases with increasing thickness of the nanoplatelet. In addition, the magnetization directions of nanoplatelets can be identified by the contrast of MFM frequency shift. Moreover, MFM frequency imaging clearly reveals the tiny magnetic structures of a compacted SrFe12O19 pellet. This work demonstrates the mesoscopic investigation of the intrinsic magnetic properties of materials has a potential in development of new magnetic nanomaterials in electrical and medical applications.

  12. Magnetic Properties of Strontium Hexaferrite Nanostructures Measured with Magnetic Force Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiang; Song, Jie; Saura-Múzquiz, Matilde; Besenbacher, Flemming; Christensen, Mogens; Dong, Mingdong

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic property is one of the important properties of nanomaterials. Direct investigation of the magnetic property on the nanoscale is however challenging. Herein we present a quantitative measurement of the magnetic properties including the magnitude and the orientation of the magnetic moment of strontium hexaferrite (SrFe12O19) nanostructures using magnetic force microscopy (MFM) with nanoscale spatial resolution. The measured magnetic moments of the as-synthesized individual SrFe12O19 nanoplatelets are on the order of ~10−16 emu. The MFM measurements further confirm that the magnetic moment of SrFe12O19 nanoplatelets increases with increasing thickness of the nanoplatelet. In addition, the magnetization directions of nanoplatelets can be identified by the contrast of MFM frequency shift. Moreover, MFM frequency imaging clearly reveals the tiny magnetic structures of a compacted SrFe12O19 pellet. This work demonstrates the mesoscopic investigation of the intrinsic magnetic properties of materials has a potential in development of new magnetic nanomaterials in electrical and medical applications. PMID:27174466

  13. Structural, electrical and magnetic study of Nd-Ni substituted W-type Hexaferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Imran; Sadiq, Imran; Ali, Irshad; Rana, Mazhar-Ud-Din; Najam-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; Shah, Afzal; Shakir, Imran; Naeem Ashiq, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    A series of Nd-Ni substituted W-type hexaferrites with composition Sr1-xNdxCo2NiyFe16-yO27 (where x=0.0, 0.025, 0.050, 0.075, 0.1 and y=0.0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1) has been prepared by the chemical co-precipitation method. The effect of rare earth Nd substitution at strontium site while Ni at iron site on microstructure, electrical and magnetic properties has been investigated. All the XRD patterns of the synthesized materials show single W-type hexagonal phase without any other intermediate phases. SEM images show that the particles are homogeneous and hexagonal platelet-like shape. DC electrical resistivity measurements were carried out in temperature range of 298-673 K showing metal-to-semiconductor transition when doped with Nd-Ni. The magnetic properties such as saturation magnetization, remanence, squareness ratio and coercivity were calculated from hysteresis loops and were observed to increase with the increase in Nd-Ni concentration up to a certain substitution level which is beneficial for high density recording media.

  14. Dielectric relaxation, resonance and scaling behaviors in Sr3Co2Fe24O41 hexaferrite

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Rujun; Jiang, Chen; Qian, Wenhu; Jian, Jie; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Haiyan; Yang, Hao

    2015-01-01

    The dielectric properties of Z-type hexaferrite Sr3Co2Fe24O41 (SCFO) have been investigated as a function of temperature from 153 to 503 K between 1 and 2 GHz. The dielectric responses of SCFO are found to be frequency dependent and thermally activated. The relaxation-type dielectric behavior is observed to be dominating in the low frequency region and resonance-type dielectric behavior is found to be dominating above 108 Hz. This frequency dependence of dielectric behavior is explained by the damped harmonic oscillator model with temperature dependent coefficients. The imaginary part of impedance (Z″) and modulus (M″) spectra show that there is a distribution of relaxation times. The scaling behaviors of Z″ and M″ spectra further suggest that the distribution of relaxation times is temperature independent at low frequencies. The dielectric loss spectra at different temperatures have not shown a scaling behavior above 108 Hz. A comparison between the Z″ and the M″ spectra indicates that the short-range charges motion dominates at low temperatures and the long-range charges motion dominates at high temperatures. The above results indicate that the dielectric dispersion mechanism in SCFO is temperature independent at low frequencies and temperature dependent at high frequencies due to the domination of resonance behavior. PMID:26314913

  15. Strontium hexaferrite (SrFe12O19) based composites for hyperthermia applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, Amin Ur; Southern, Paul; Darr, Jawwad A.; Awan, Saifullah; Manzoor, Sadia

    2013-10-01

    Mixed phase composites of SrFe12O19/MgFe2O4/ZrO2 were prepared via the citrate gel technique as potential candidate materials for magnetic hyperthermia. Structural and magnetic properties of the samples were studied using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and a vibrating sample magnetometer. XRD and FE-SEM data confirm that magnesium ferrite and zirconium oxide phases increased with increasing Mg and Zr content in the precursors. Magnetization loops for the composites were measured at room temperature and showed significant variation of saturation magnetization, coercivity and remanence depending on the amount of the highly anisotropic Sr-hexaferrite phase. The sample with the highest Mg and Zr content had the lowest coercivity (80 Oe) and saturation magnetization (41 emu/g). The composite samples each were exposed to a 214 kHz alternating magnetic field of amplitude 22 Oe and a significant heating effect was observed in selected samples, which suggests potential for use in magnetic hyperthermia.

  16. Magnetic Properties of Strontium Hexaferrite Nanostructures Measured with Magnetic Force Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Song, Jie; Saura-Múzquiz, Matilde; Besenbacher, Flemming; Christensen, Mogens; Dong, Mingdong

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic property is one of the important properties of nanomaterials. Direct investigation of the magnetic property on the nanoscale is however challenging. Herein we present a quantitative measurement of the magnetic properties including the magnitude and the orientation of the magnetic moment of strontium hexaferrite (SrFe12O19) nanostructures using magnetic force microscopy (MFM) with nanoscale spatial resolution. The measured magnetic moments of the as-synthesized individual SrFe12O19 nanoplatelets are on the order of ~10(-16) emu. The MFM measurements further confirm that the magnetic moment of SrFe12O19 nanoplatelets increases with increasing thickness of the nanoplatelet. In addition, the magnetization directions of nanoplatelets can be identified by the contrast of MFM frequency shift. Moreover, MFM frequency imaging clearly reveals the tiny magnetic structures of a compacted SrFe12O19 pellet. This work demonstrates the mesoscopic investigation of the intrinsic magnetic properties of materials has a potential in development of new magnetic nanomaterials in electrical and medical applications. PMID:27174466

  17. Synthesis, structure, morphology evolution and magnetic properties of single domain strontium hexaferrite particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Deyang; Zeng, Dechang; Liu, Zhongwu

    2016-04-01

    Single domain strontium ferrite particles (SrFe12O19) with hexagonal morphology were synthesized by conventional ceramic process. Effects of Fe/Sr mole ratio and milling time on structure, morphology and magnetic properties of the strontium ferrite particles have been systematically studied. Single phase SrFe12O19 was successfully synthesized in a large composition range of Fe/Sr ratio (Fe/Sr = 9–11). The particle size refinement effect and the morphology change were observed with the increase of Fe/Sr ratio. It was also found that the change of Fe/Sr ratio had little effect on the magnetization curve. However, the magnetization process was significantly influenced with different milling time. The optimal magnetic properties obtained at Fe/Sr = 11 with 6 h milling are 68.2 emu g‑1 and 5540 Oe for saturation magnetization (M S) and intrinsic coercivity (H C), respectively. The high performance single domain strontium hexaferrite particles obtained in this paper would greatly facilitate the application in the permanent magnet industry.

  18. Site preference and magnetic properties of Ga/In-substituted strontium hexaferrite: An ab initio study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixit, Vivek; Nandadasa, Chandani N.; Kim, Seong-Gon; Kim, Sungho; Park, Jihoon; Hong, Yang-Ki

    2015-11-01

    The first-principles density functional theory has been used to study Ga/In-substituted strontium hexaferrite (SrFe12O19). Based on the calculation of the substitution energy of Ga and In in SrFe12O19 and the formation probability analysis, we conclude that in SrFe12-xGaxO19 the substituted Ga atoms prefer to occupy the 12k, 2a, and 4f1 sites, while In atoms in SrFe12-xInxO19 occupy the 12k, 4f2, and 4f1 sites. We used the site occupation probabilities to calculate the magnetic properties of the substituted SrFe12O19. It was found that as the fraction of Ga atoms in SrFe12-xGaxO19 increases, the saturation magnetization (Ms) as well as magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE) decrease, while the anisotropy field (Ha) increases. In the case of SrFe12-xInxO19, Ms, MAE, and Ha decrease with an increase of the concentration of In atoms.

  19. Synthesis of strontium hexaferrite nanoparticles prepared using co-precipitation method and microemulsion processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drmota, A.; Žnidaršič, A.; Košak, A.

    2010-01-01

    Strontium hexaferrite (SrFe12O19) nanoparticles have been prepared with co-precipitation in aqueous solutions and precipitation in microemulsion system water/SDS/n-butanol/cyclohexane, using iron and strontium nitrates in different molar rations as a starting materials. The mixed Sr2+, Fe3+ hydroxide precursors obtained during the reaction between corresponding metal nitrates and tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH), which served as a precipitating reagent, were calcined in a wide temperature range, from 350 °C to 1000 °C in a static air atmosphere. The influence of the Sr2+/Fe3+ molar ratio and the calcination temperature to the chemistry of the product formation, its crystallite size, morphology and magnetic properties were investigated. It was found that the formation of single phase SrFe12O19 with relatively high specific magnetization (54 Am2/kg) was achieved at the Sr2+/Fe3+ molar ration of 6.4 and calcination at 800 °C for 3h with heating/cooling rate 5 °C/min. The prepared powders were characterized using X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and specific surface area measurements (BET). The specific magnetization (DSM-10, magneto-susceptometer) of the prepared samples was measured.

  20. Dielectric relaxation, resonance and scaling behaviors in Sr3Co2Fe24O41 hexaferrite.

    PubMed

    Tang, Rujun; Jiang, Chen; Qian, Wenhu; Jian, Jie; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Haiyan; Yang, Hao

    2015-01-01

    The dielectric properties of Z-type hexaferrite Sr3Co2Fe24O41 (SCFO) have been investigated as a function of temperature from 153 to 503 K between 1 and 2 GHz. The dielectric responses of SCFO are found to be frequency dependent and thermally activated. The relaxation-type dielectric behavior is observed to be dominating in the low frequency region and resonance-type dielectric behavior is found to be dominating above 10(8) Hz. This frequency dependence of dielectric behavior is explained by the damped harmonic oscillator model with temperature dependent coefficients. The imaginary part of impedance (Z″) and modulus (M″) spectra show that there is a distribution of relaxation times. The scaling behaviors of Z″ and M″ spectra further suggest that the distribution of relaxation times is temperature independent at low frequencies. The dielectric loss spectra at different temperatures have not shown a scaling behavior above 10(8) Hz. A comparison between the Z″ and the M″ spectra indicates that the short-range charges motion dominates at low temperatures and the long-range charges motion dominates at high temperatures. The above results indicate that the dielectric dispersion mechanism in SCFO is temperature independent at low frequencies and temperature dependent at high frequencies due to the domination of resonance behavior. PMID:26314913

  1. Site preference and magnetic properties of Ga/In-substituted strontium hexaferrite: An ab initio study

    SciTech Connect

    Dixit, Vivek; Nandadasa, Chandani N.; Kim, Seong-Gon; Kim, Sungho; Park, Jihoon; Hong, Yang-Ki

    2015-11-28

    The first-principles density functional theory has been used to study Ga/In-substituted strontium hexaferrite (SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}). Based on the calculation of the substitution energy of Ga and In in SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} and the formation probability analysis, we conclude that in SrFe{sub 12−x}Ga{sub x}O{sub 19} the substituted Ga atoms prefer to occupy the 12k, 2a, and 4f{sub 1} sites, while In atoms in SrFe{sub 12−x}In{sub x}O{sub 19} occupy the 12k, 4f{sub 2}, and 4f{sub 1} sites. We used the site occupation probabilities to calculate the magnetic properties of the substituted SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}. It was found that as the fraction of Ga atoms in SrFe{sub 12−x}Ga{sub x}O{sub 19} increases, the saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) as well as magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE) decrease, while the anisotropy field (H{sub a}) increases. In the case of SrFe{sub 12−x}In{sub x}O{sub 19}, M{sub s}, MAE, and H{sub a} decrease with an increase of the concentration of In atoms.

  2. Structural modification of strontium hexaferrite through destruction process and ionic substitution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitriana, Karina Nur; Hafizah, Mas Ayu Elita; Manaf, Azwar

    2016-04-01

    Synthesis of single phased SrO.6Fe2-xMnx/2Tix/2O3 (x = 0.0; 0.5; and 1.0) nanoparticles has been prepared through mechanical alloying, assisted with the ultrasonic destruction process. Monocrystalline particles were obtained when x = 0 treated with ultrasonic destruction at 55 μm of transducer amplitude. Average particle size and crystallite size were reduced significantly from 723 nm to ˜87 nm for x = 0. The particle size was not significantly reduced when x = 0.5 and x = 1 was changed. On the other hand, substitution of Ti elements on some of Fe elements expectedly had a major effect on reducing particle size. This was proven by larger size on both particle and crystallite size at x = 1 rather than x = 0.5, with comparison respectively 2:1 (in nm). In addition, a higher transducer power was required for modifying Strontium Hexaferrite (SHF) with more Ti elements and a bigger size of pre-ultrasonic destructed sample. It is concluded that the amplitude of the transducer in ultrasonic destruction process and the element of ionic substitution affects both average particle size and crystallite size of SHF.

  3. Synthesis of Y-type hexaferrites via a soft mechanochemical route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temuujin, J.; Aoyama, M.; Senna, M.; Masuko, T.; Ando, C.; Kishi, H.

    2004-11-01

    Y-type (Ba 2Co 2Fe 12O 22) hexaferrite precursors have been prepared via a soft mechanochemical route from mixtures comprising BaCO 3, Co(OH) 2 and α-FeOOH. The mixture was activated with a multi-ring type mill for varying duration. The chemical and structural changes during grinding were examined in detail by XRD, DTA-TG, SEM, XPS and FTIR. During grinding, extended crystallinity loss or lattice disturbance was observed without an emersion of any new crystalline phases. At the same time, electronic states were changed toward the final product, fully crystallized Y-phase ferrite. Mechanical activation for only 1 h was sufficient to obtain a precursor for phase pure Y-type by subsequent heating in air at temperatures as low as 1000 °C. Development of plate-like anisotropy by using a precursor with prolonged milling was also observed. Magnetic permeability, μ', was ca. 3 at 1 GHz, equivalent to the reported data, in spite of the lower firing temperature.

  4. Iron oxide nanocomposite magnets produced by partial reduction of strontium hexaferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikkanen, Jussi; Paturi, Petriina

    2014-07-01

    Isotropic bulk nanocomposite permanent magnets were produced with strontium hexaferrite, SrO·6Fe2O3, and magnetite, Fe3O4, as the magnetically hard and soft components. A novels synthesis scheme based on the partial reduction of SrO·6Fe2O3 was employed. In two parallel experiments, nano- and microcrystalline SrO·6Fe2O3 particles were compacted into pellets along with a controlled, understoichiometric amount of potato starch as a reducing agent. The pellets were then sintered in a passive atmosphere. Based on XRD and room temperature magnetic hysteresis measurements, it was concluded that a fraction of the SrO·6Fe2O3 input material had been reduced into Fe3O4. In comparison with pure SrO·6Fe2O3 control pellets, these composites exhibited maximum energy product increases in excess of 5 % due to remanence boosting. The improvement of magnetic properties was attributed to an efficient exchange spring coupling between the magnetic phases. Interestingly, as the synthesis scheme also worked for microcrystalline SrO·6Fe2O3 , the method could presumably be adapted to yield crystallographically oriented bulk nanocomposite magnets.

  5. Moessbauer and magnetic study of Mn, Zr and Cd substituted W-type hexaferrites prepared by co-precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Iqbal, Muhammad Javed; Khan, Rafaqat Ali; Mizukami, Shigemi; Miyazaki, Terunobu

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} Zr and Cd ions substitute tetrahedral 4e and 4f{sub IV} sites while Mn ions occupy octahedral 6g and 4f sites. {yields} Doping of W-type hexaferrites with Mn, Zr and Cd improves the values of M{sub s} and M{sub r}. {yields} The enhancement of magnetic characteristic togetherwith the formation of rice shaped W-type hexaferrites nanoparticles is promising for imaging and sensing devices. {yields} The synthesized materials are suitable for magnetic data storage with high density. -- Abstract: BaCo{sub 2-x}Mn{sub x}Fe{sub 16-2y}(Zr-Cd){sub y}O{sub 27} (x = 0-0.5 and y = 0-1.0) hexaferrite nanocrystallites of average sizes in the range of 33-42 nm are synthesized by the chemical co-precipitation method. The synthesized materials are characterized using different techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray florescence (ED-XRF), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Moessbauer spectrometer and vibrating-sample magnetometer (VSM). Based on analysis of the data obtained from Moessbauer spectral studies, doping is believed to have occurred preferably in the vicinity of 12k sub-lattice, i.e. f{sub IV} (4e, 4f{sub IV}), 2b (6g, 4f) and 2d site. Variations in the saturation magnetization (77.1-60.9 emu g{sup -1}), remanent magnetization (22.08-31.23 emu g{sup -1}) and coercivity (1570.1-674.7 Oe) exhibit tunable behavior with dopant content and therefore can be useful for application in various magnetic devices.

  6. Electric characterization of (Sr, Sr-Ba, Ba) M-type ferrites by AC measurements[Alternating Current

    SciTech Connect

    Huanosta-Tera, A.; Lira-Hueso, R. de; Perez-Orta, O.; Palomares-Sanchez, S.A.; Ponce-Castaneda, S.; Mirabal-Garcia, M.

    2000-02-01

    Considering the electrical conductivity in ceramics, necessary reference should be given to dynamic processes occurring as a function of frequency and temperature. Although the most immediate interest in ferrites lies in their magnetic properties, technological applications require a wider knowledge of general physical properties as well. This is especially applicable when the materials are studied as a function of composition or when adding different modifiers. In this report, the authors present results of the ac and dc electric characteristics of a family of magneto-plumbite-type hexaferrites, where Ba gradually substitutes Sr in the Ba{sub x}Sr{sub 1{minus}x}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 19} compound (0 {le} x {le} 1). The results were determined over a wide range of frequencies and temperatures.

  7. Diagnosis of Cervical Cancer Using the Median M-Type Radial Basis Function (MMRBF) Neural Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Mayorga, Margarita E.; Gallegos-Funes, Francisco J.; de-La-Rosa-Vázquez, José M.; Cruz-Santiago, Rene; Ponomaryov, Volodymyr

    The automatic analysis of Pap smear microscopic images is one of the most interesting fields in biomedical image processing. In this paper we present the capability of the Median M-Type Radial Basis Function (MMRBF) neural network in the classification of cervical cancer cells. From simulation results we observe that the MMRBF neural network has better classification capabilities in comparison with the Median RBF algorithm used as comparative.

  8. Do all barium stars have a white dwarf companion?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominy, J. F.; Lambert, D. L.

    1983-01-01

    International Ultraviolet Explorer short-wavelength, low-dispersion spectra were analyzed for four barium, two mild barium, and one R-type carbon star in order to test the hypothesis that the barium and related giants are produced by mass transfer from a companion now present as a white dwarf. An earlier tentative identification of a white dwarf companion to the mild barium star Zeta Cyg is confirmed. For the other stars, no ultraviolet excess attributable to a white dwarf is seen. Limits are set on the bolometric magnitude and age of a possible white dwarf companion. Since the barium stars do not have obvious progenitors among main-sequence and subgiant stars, mass transfer must be presumed to occur when the mass-gaining star is already on the giant branch. This restriction, and the white dwarf's minimum age, which is greater than 8 x 10 to the 8th yr, determined for several stars, effectively eliminates the hypothesis that mass transfer from an asymptotic giant branch star creates a barium star. Speculations are presented on alternative methods of producing a barium star in a binary system.

  9. Hygienic importance of increased barium content in some fresh waters.

    PubMed

    Havlík, B; Hanusová, J; Rálková, J

    1980-01-01

    In surface waters of the mining and processing areas of uranium ore there is an increased content of free and bound barium ions due to the use of barium salts for the treatment of waste and mine waters containing radium. In model experiments with the algae Ankistrodesmus falcatus, Chlorella kessleri and Scenedesmus obliquus, we studied the effect of Ba2+ on the accumulation of 226Ra. It was found that the accumulation of radium by algae is negatively influenced with barium concentrations higher than 1 mg.l-1. The accumulation of barium of organisms of primary production was studied using 133BaCl2. At a barium content in the medium of 4.0, 0.46 and 0.04 mu. l-1, the algae accumulated 30-60% of the added amount of barium during an exposure of 15 days. Biochemical analyses showed that barium is bound to the cellular membrane and to other components of the algal cell that cannot be extracted with water or alcohol. PMID:7462608

  10. Photoluminescence of barium titanate and barium zirconate in multilayer disordered thin films at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Moreira, M L; Gurgel, M F C; Mambrini, G P; Leite, E R; Pizani, P S; Varela, J A; Longo, E

    2008-09-25

    The emission of wide band photoluminescence showed a synergic effect on barium zirconate and barium titanate thin films in alternate multilayer system at room temperature by 488 nm exiting wavelength. The thin films obtained by spin-coating were annealed at 350, 450, and 550 degrees C for 2 h. The X-ray patterns revealed the complete separation among the BaTiO3 and BaZrO3 phases in the adjacent films. Visible and intense photoluminescence was governed by BaZrO3 thin films in the multilayer system. Quantum mechanics calculations were used in order to simulate ordered and disordered thin films structures. The disordered models, which were built by using the displacement of formers and modifier networks, showed a different symmetry in each system, which is in accordance with experimental photoluminescence emission, thus allowing to establish a correlation among the structural and optical properties of these multilayered systems. PMID:18593105

  11. Proton conductivity of potassium doped barium zirconates

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Xiaoxiang; Tao Shanwen; Irvine, John T.S.

    2010-01-15

    Potassium doped barium zirconates have been synthesized by solid state reactions. It was found that the solubility limit of potassium on A-sites is between 5% and 10%. Introducing extra potassium leads to the formation of second phase or YSZ impurities. The water uptake of barium zirconates was increased even with 5% doping of potassium at the A-site. The sintering conditions and conductivity can be improved significantly by adding 1 wt% ZnO during material synthesis. The maximum solubility for yttrium at B-sites is around 15 at% after introducing 1 wt% zinc. The conductivity of Ba{sub 0.95}K{sub 0.05}Zr{sub 0.85}Y{sub 0.11}Zn{sub 0.04}O{sub 3-{delta}} at 600 deg. C is 2.2x10{sup -3} S/cm in wet 5% H{sub 2}. The activation energies for bulk and grain boundary are 0.29(2), 0.79(2) eV in wet 5% H{sub 2} and 0.31(1), 0.74(3) eV in dry 5% H{sub 2}. A power density of 7.7 mW/cm{sup 2} at 718 deg. C was observed when a 1 mm thick Ba{sub 0.95}K{sub 0.05}Zr{sub 0.85}Y{sub 0.11}Zn{sub 0.04}O{sub 3-{delta}} pellet was used as electrolyte and platinum electrodes. - Graphical abstract: Potassium doped barium zirconates have been synthesized by solid state reactions. It was found that the solubility limit of potassium on A-sites is between 5% and 10 %. The sintering conditions and conductivity can be improved significantly by adding 1 wt% ZnO during material synthesis. Five percent doping of potassium at A-site can double the total conductivity.

  12. Metallurgical Properties and Phase Transformations of Barium-Strontium Modifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platonov, M. A.; Sulimova, I. S.; Rozhikhina, I. D.; Dmitrienko, V. I.; Horoshun, G. V.

    2016-04-01

    Metallurgical properties and phase transformations of barium-strontium modifier were tested in laboratory conditions resembling steel processing in furnace and ladle. When heating barium-strontium modifier start of melting, kinetics of decomposition, phase and structure transformation were studied. The concentrate under consideration has been revealed to be a complex mineral compound containing barytocalcite, calcite, calciostrontianite, dolomite and siderite. The reaction kinetics of decomposing mineral components of barium-strontium modifier to oxides does not considerably affect slag formation in conditions of out-of-furnace steel processing.

  13. A high-altitude barium radial injection experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wescott, E. M.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Hallinan, T. J.; Deehr, C. S.; Romick, G. J.; Olson, J. V.; Roederer, J. G.; Sydora, R.

    1980-01-01

    A rocket launched from Poker Flat, Alaska, carried a new type of high-explosive barium shaped charge to 571 km, where detonation injected a thin disk of barium vapor with high velocity nearly perpendicular to the magnetic field. The TV images of the injection are spectacular, revealing three major regimes of expanding plasma which showed early instabilities in the neutral gas. The most unusual effect of the injection is a peculiar rayed barium-ion structure lying in the injection plane and centered on a 5 km 'black hole' surrounding the injection point. Preliminary electrostatic computer simulations show a similar rayed development.

  14. Sol–gel hydrothermal synthesis of strontium hexaferrite nanoparticles and the relation between their crystal structure and high coercivity properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hue Dang, Thi Minh; Dung Trinh, Viet; Huan Bui, Doan; Huong Phan, Manh; Chinh Huynh, Dang

    2012-06-01

    Hard magnetic strontium hexaferrite SrFe12O19 nanoparticles were synthesized by the sol–gel hydrothermal method. The factors affecting the synthesized process, such as the mole proportion of the reactants, pH, temperature, the hydrothermal conditions and the calcination process, have been investigated. The crystal structures of these materials were refined by Rietveld method. The obtained materials have single crystal phase, equal nano-size, plate shape and high anisotropy. The high magnetic coercivity of 6.3 kOe with the magnetization at 11.1 kOe of 66 emu g‑1 at room temperature was observed for the strontium hexaferrite nanoparticles. For other nanoparticles (SrLnxFe12-xO19 and SrFe12O19/CoFe2O4) synthesized on the basis of SrFe12O19 the complex completion of the crystal structure distortion and the interaction between magnetic phases were observed.

  15. AC Dielectric Properties and Positron Annihilation Study on Co and Ti Substitution Effect on Ca-Sr M-Hexaferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud, K. R.; Eraky, M. R.

    2016-06-01

    The dependence of AC conductivity σ AC, dielectric constant έ, and dielectric loss tangent tan δ on frequency and composition have been investigated at room temperature for polycrystalline Ca0.5Sr0.5Co x Ti x Fe12 - 2 x O19 (where 0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.8) hexaferrites. It was found that the parameters σ AC, ɛ ', and tan δ have maximum values at x = 0.4 of the Co and Ti substitution. The behavior of σ AC, ɛ ', and tan δ with frequency and composition was explained on the basis of the hopping conduction mechanism and the Koops model. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) was used to investigate the defects and changes in electron density for hexaferrite samples. The PAL parameters ( τ 1, I 1, τ 2, I 2, and mean lifetime) show that altering the doping percentage of the Co and Ti ions affects the size and concentration of defects. The results reveal that there are some large voids in the studied samples. The obtained results indicate the high sensitivity of the PALS technique to the enhanced structure changes with changing composition of the investigated samples and correlate the results with the measured electrical parameters.

  16. Phased surgical treatment of barium enema-induced rectal injury and retention of barium in the pelvic floor space

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xuefei; Xia, Ligang; Huang, Jun; Wang, Jianping

    2014-01-01

    Iatrogenic injuries caused by barium enema are rarely reported. Following a phased surgical protocol for up to one year, we have successfully treated a patient with rectal injury and severe infection of the pelvic floor space complicated with retention of large amounts of barium and vaginal fistula. In this article, the phased surgery planning for the treatment of rectal injury complicated with vaginal fistula is discussed in terms of the pros and cons, and the observed effect and evolution of barium retained in the pelvic floor space are described. PMID:25405155

  17. Modeling of the nonstationary regimes of distributed-emission M-type microwave amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gritsunov, A. V.

    An improved modeling procedure for the calculation of transient processes in M-type microwave amplifiers by the large-particle method is described which involves a three-dimensional mulitparticle configuration and rectangular and cylindrical geometry. The operating characteristics of the TUL'PAN applied program package based on the models developed are examined. Typical time dependences of the output parameters during the insertion process are shown for the QK-434 device, and the space-charge distribution in the interaction space under stationary conditions is presented.

  18. Consideration of cysteine protease activity for serological M-typing of clinical Streptococcus pyogenes isolates.

    PubMed

    Morita, Masatomo; Ikebe, Tadayoshi; Watanabe, Haruo

    2004-01-01

    Clinical isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes were classified by serological typing of their surface M protein. Non-M typeable strains with the emm1 gene were characterized as the degradation of M protein caused by overproduction of the extracellular cysteine protease, SpeB. These events are dependent on the growth phase. M protein produced prior to expression of SpeB is degraded in the stationary phase when the active form of SpeB is detected. The proteolytic degradation of M protein should be considered for precise M typing analysis. PMID:15502412

  19. Gas poisoning investigations of scandate and M-type dispenser cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Wensheng; Zhang, Ke; Li, Ji; Yan, Suqiu; Chen, Qilue

    2003-06-01

    Gas poisoning tests of cathode emission were carried out with four kinds of thermal cathodes: W+Sc 2O 3 mixed matrix cathode, impregnated scandate cathode, Ir-coated cathode, Os-coated cathode. As a result, M-type cathodes are more sensitive to O 2, but can recover absolutely in a short time; scandate-type cathodes react slowly and recover partly after a long time. Compared to O 2, ambient air leaked into the vacuum chamber has a smaller influence on the cathode emission; H 2 has a little effect of activation on the four cathodes, especially on the Os-coated cathode.

  20. Upper gastrointestinal barium evaluation of duodenal pathology: A pictorial review

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Pankaj; Debi, Uma; Sinha, Saroj Kant; Prasad, Kaushal Kishor

    2014-01-01

    Like other parts of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), duodenum is subject to a variety of lesions both congenital and acquired. However, unlike other parts of the GIT viz. esophagus, rest of the small intestine and large intestine, barium evaluation of duodenal lesions is technically more challenging and hence not frequently reported. With significant advances in computed tomography technology, a thorough evaluation including intraluminal, mural and extramural is feasible in a single non-invasive examination. Notwithstanding, barium evaluation still remains the initial and sometimes the only imaging study in several parts of the world. Hence, a thorough acquaintance with the morphology of various duodenal lesions on upper gastrointestinal barium examination is essential in guiding further evaluation. We reviewed our experience with various common and uncommon barium findings in duodenal abnormalities. PMID:25170399

  1. Calculated emission rates for barium releases in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.

    1989-01-01

    The optical emissions from barium releases in space are caused by resonance and fluorescent scattering of sunlight. Emission rates for the dominant ion and neutral lines are calculated assuming the release to be optically thin and the barium to be in radiative equilibrium with the solar radiation. The solar spectrum has deep Fraunhofer absorption lines at the primary barium ion resonances. A velocity component toward or away from the sun will Doppler shift the emission lines relative to the absorption lines and the emission rates will increase many-fold over the rest value. The Doppler brightening is important in shaped charge or satellite releases where the barium is injected at high velocities. Emission rates as a function of velocity are calculated for the 4554, 4934, 5854, 6142 and 6497 A ion emission lines and the dominant neutral line at 5535 A. Results are presented for injection parallel to the ambient magnetic field, B, and for injection at an angle to B.

  2. Study of the photovoltaic effect in thin film barium titanate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grannemann, W. W.; Dharmadhikari, V. S.

    1983-01-01

    The feasibility of making non-volatile digital memory devices of barium titanate, BaTiO3, that are integrated onto a silicon substrate with the required ferroelectric film produced by processing, compatible with silicon technology was examined.

  3. Synthesis, photoluminescence and magnetic properties of barium vanadate nanoflowers

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Jing; Hu, Chenguo; Xi, Yi; Peng, Chen; Wan, Buyong; He, Xiaoshan

    2011-06-15

    Graphical abstract: The flower-shaped barium vanadate was obtained for the first time. The photoluminescence and magnetic properties of the barium vanadate nanoflowers were investigated at room temperature. Research highlights: {yields} In the paper, the flower-shaped barium vanadate were obtained for the first time. The CHM method used here is new and simple for preparation of barium vanadate. {yields} The photoluminescence and magnetic properties of the barium vanadate nanoflowers were investigated at room temperature. The strong bluish-green emission was observed. {yields} The ferromagnetic behavior of the barium vanadate nanoflowers was found with saturation magnetization of about 83.50 x 10{sup -3} emu/g, coercivity of 18.89 Oe and remnant magnetization of 4.63 x 10{sup -3} emu/g. {yields} The mechanisms of PL and magnetic property of barium vanadate nanoflowers have been discussed. -- Abstract: The flower-shaped barium vanadate has been obtained by the composite hydroxide mediated (CHM) method from V{sub 2}O{sub 5} and BaCl{sub 2} at 200 {sup o}C for 13 h. XRD and XPS spectrum of the as-synthesized sample indicate it is hexagonal Ba{sub 3}V{sub 2}O{sub 8} with small amount of Ba{sub 3}VO{sub 4.8} coexistence. Scan electron microscope and transmission electron microscope display that the flower-shaped crystals are composed of nanosheets with thickness of {approx}20 nm. The UV-visible spectrum shows that the barium vanadate sample has two optical gaps (3.85 eV and 3.12 eV). Photoluminescence spectrum of the barium vanadate flowers exhibits a visible light emission centered at 492 and 525 nm which might be attributed to VO{sub 4} tetrahedron with T{sub d} symmetry in Ba{sub 3}V{sub 2}O{sub 8}. The ferromagnetic behavior of the barium vanadate nanoflowers has been found with saturation magnetization of about 83.50 x 10{sup -3} emu/g, coercivity of 18.89 Oe and remnant magnetization of 4.63 x 10{sup -3} emu/g, which is mainly due to the presence of a non

  4. A search for technetium (Tc II) in barium stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Little-Marenin, Irene R.; Little, Stephen J.

    1987-01-01

    The authors searched without success for the lines of Tc II at 2647.02, 2610.00 and 2543.24 A in IUE spectra of the barium stars HR 5058, Omicron Vir, and Zeta Cap. The lack of Tc II implies that the observed s-process enhancements were produced more than half a million years ago and supports the suggestion that the spectral peculiarities of barium stars are probably related to the binary nature of the stars.

  5. 'Skidding' of the CRRES G-9 barium release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huba, J. D.; Mitchell, H. G.; Fedder, J. A.; Bernhardt, P. A.

    1992-01-01

    A simulation study and experimental data of the CRRES G-9 ionospheric barium release are presented. The simulation study is based on a 2D electrostatic code that incorporates time-dependent coupling to the background plasma. It is shown that the densest portion of the barium ion cloud 'skids' about 15 km within the first three seconds following the release, consistent with the optical data analyses.

  6. Solar eclipse sign of intussusception on barium enema.

    PubMed

    Raveenthiran, V

    2002-01-01

    The colographic appearance of intussusception is variously described as a claw sign, pincer defect, shouldering effect, and coiled-spring pattern. This report adds a new radiographic sign to the list. An end-on view of an intussusception on barium enema shows a ring of contrast resembling a solar eclipse. Familiarity with this bizarre appearance is desirable, lest it may be mistaken for spillage of barium due to a colonic perforation. PMID:11793074

  7. Planar millimeter wave band-stop filters based on the excitation of confined magnetostatic waves in barium hexagonal ferrite thin film strips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Lei; Song, Young-Yeal; Bevivino, Joshua; Wu, Mingzhong

    2011-05-01

    A planar millimeter wave band-stop filter based on confined magnetostatic wave (MSW) excitations in an M-type barium hexagonal ferrite (BaM) film strip was demonstrated. The device consists of a BaM film strip on the top of a coplanar waveguide with the strip length along the signal line. For zero magnetic fields, the device shows a band-stop filtering response at 53 GHz. This response originates from the excitation of confined MSW modes across the BaM strip width. The filter operation frequency is tunable with low fields. This tuning relies on the change in the MSW dispersion with field.

  8. Hα as a Luminosity Class Diagnostic for K- and M-type Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, Jeff; Levesque, Emily M.

    2016-04-01

    We have identified the Hα absorption feature as a new spectroscopic diagnostic of luminosity class in K- and M-type stars. From high-resolution spectra of 19 stars with well-determined physical properties (including effective temperatures and stellar radii), we measured equivalent widths for Hα and the Ca ii triplet and examined their dependence on both luminosity class and stellar radius. Hα shows a strong relation with both luminosity class and radius that extends down to late M spectral types. This behavior in Hα has been predicted as a result of the density-dependent overpopulation of the metastable 2s level in hydrogen, an effect that should become dominant for Balmer line formation in non-LTE conditions. We conclude that this new metallicity-insensitive diagnostic of luminosity class in cool stars could serve as an effective means of discerning between populations such as Milky Way giants and supergiant members of background galaxies.

  9. M-type potassium channels modulate Schaffer collateral-CA1 glutamatergic synaptic transmission.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianli; Kapur, Jaideep

    2012-08-15

    Previous studies have suggested that muscarinic receptor activation modulates glutamatergic transmission. M-type potassium channels mediate the effects of muscarinic activation in the hippocampus, and it has been proposed that they modulate glutamatergic synaptic transmission. We tested whether M1 muscarinic receptor activation enhances glutamatergic synaptic transmission via the inhibition of the M-type potassium channels that are present in Schaffer collateral axons and terminals. Miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) were recorded from CA1 pyramidal neurons. The M1 receptor agonist, NcN-A-343, increased the frequency of mEPSCs, but did not alter their amplitude. The M-channel blocker XE991 and its analogue linopirdine also increased the frequency of mEPSCs. Flupirtine, which opens M-channels, had the opposite effect. XE991 did not enhance mEPSCs frequency in a calcium-free external medium. Blocking P/Q- and N-type calcium channels abolished the effect of XE991 on mEPSCs. These data suggested that the inhibition of M-channels increases presynaptic calcium-dependent glutamate release in CA1 pyramidal neurons. The effects of these agents on the membrane potentials of presynaptic CA3 pyramidal neurons were studied using current clamp recordings; activation of M1 receptors and blocking M-channels depolarized neurons and increased burst firing. The input resistance of CA3 neurons was increased by the application of McN-A-343 and XE991; these effects were consistent with the closure of M-channels. Muscarinic activation inhibits M-channels in CA3 pyramidal neurons and its efferents – Schaffer collateral, which causes the depolarization, activates voltage-gated calcium channels, and ultimately elevates the intracellular calcium concentration to increase the release of glutamate on CA1 pyramidal neurons. PMID:22674722

  10. Coherent control of photoionization of atomic barium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Rekishu

    We present the results of our study on coherent control of photoionization of atomic barium. Our study focused on the understanding of the controllability, especially due to the effect of the coherent interaction between the atomic system and the laser field. The first half of the study investigates the mechanisms of the control behind the previously observed laser phase-insensitive product state control. The controllability of this excitation scheme, two-color two-photon resonantly enhanced excitation, was analyzed from two aspects, the role of ac Stark shift introduced by the strong laser field and the multi-pathway quantum mechanical interferences. We have analyzed the excitation scheme from the analysis of the photoelectron angular distribution measured using the excitation scheme and the monitoring of the intermediate state population. Analysis of the data as well as the numerical simulation showed clear understanding of the role of two mechanisms in the product state control reported. We also investigated the control of the phase lag during the product state control. We conducted the control of the phase lag in the study of asymmetric photoelectron angular distribution, which arises from the concurrent even-odd parity outgoing electron wave excitation. The phase lag was controlled in full range, 2pi, and the results were analyzed in terms of the role of autoionizing resonance structures as well as the nature of outgoing electron waves at different locations of the autoionizing resonances.

  11. Barium Tagging for nEXO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fudenberg, Daniel; Brunner, Thomas; Varentsov, Victor; Devoe, Ralph; Dilling, Jens; Gratta, Giorgio; nEXO Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    nEXO is a next-generation experiment designed to search for 0 νββ -decay of Xe-136 in a liquid xenon time projection chamber. Positive observation of this decay would determine the neutrino to be a Majorana particle In order to greatly reduce background contributions to this search, the collaboration is developing several ``barium tagging'' techniques to recover and identify the decay daughter, Ba-136. ``Tagging'' may be available for a 2nd phase of nEXO and will push the sensitivity beyond the inverted neutrino-mass hierarchy. Tagging methods in testing for this phase include Ba-ion capture on a probe with identification by resonance ionization laser spectroscopy, and Ba capture in solid xenon on a cold probe with identification by fluorescence. In addition, Ba tagging for a gas-phase detector, appropriate for a later stage, is being tested. Here efficient ion extraction from heavy carrier gases is key. Detailed gas-dynamic and ion transport calculations have been performed to optimize for ion extraction. An apparatus to extract Ba ions from up to 10 bar xenon gas into vacuum using an RF-only funnel has been constructed and demonstrates extraction of ions from noble gases. We will present this system's status along with results of this R&D program.

  12. High H- ionic conductivity in barium hydride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbraeken, Maarten C.; Cheung, Chaksum; Suard, Emmanuelle; Irvine, John T. S.

    2015-01-01

    With hydrogen being seen as a key renewable energy vector, the search for materials exhibiting fast hydrogen transport becomes ever more important. Not only do hydrogen storage materials require high mobility of hydrogen in the solid state, but the efficiency of electrochemical devices is also largely determined by fast ionic transport. Although the heavy alkaline-earth hydrides are of limited interest for their hydrogen storage potential, owing to low gravimetric densities, their ionic nature may prove useful in new electrochemical applications, especially as an ionically conducting electrolyte material. Here we show that barium hydride shows fast pure ionic transport of hydride ions (H-) in the high-temperature, high-symmetry phase. Although some conductivity studies have been reported on related materials previously, the nature of the charge carriers has not been determined. BaH2 gives rise to hydride ion conductivity of 0.2 S cm-1 at 630 °C. This is an order of magnitude larger than that of state-of-the-art proton-conducting perovskites or oxide ion conductors at this temperature. These results suggest that the alkaline-earth hydrides form an important new family of materials, with potential use in a number of applications, such as separation membranes, electrochemical reactors and so on.

  13. Development of advanced barium ferrite tape media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Osamu; Oyanagi, Masahito; Morooka, Atsushi; Mori, Masahiko; Kurihashi, Yuich; Tada, Toshio; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Harasawa, Takeshi

    2016-02-01

    We developed an advanced particulate magnetic tape using fine barium ferrite (BaFe) particles for magnetic-tape storage systems. The new tape showed a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) that was 3.5 dB higher than that of the commercially available BaFe tape used for the Linear Tape Open generation 6 tape-storage system, at a linear density of 300 kfci measured with a giant magnetoresistive head with a reader width of 0.45 μm. Such significant increase in SNR was achieved by reducing the magnetic particle volume from 1950 to 1350 nm3, while maintaining a sufficiently high thermal stability, improving the perpendicular squareness ratio from 0.66 to 0.83, and improving the surface roughness from 2.5 to 2.0 nm when measured by atomic force microscopy and from 2.4 to 0.9 nm when measured by optical interferometry. This paper describes the characteristics of the new BaFe particles and media, which are expected to be employed for future high-capacity linear-tape systems.

  14. Effects of KCNQ channel modulators on the M-type potassium current in primate retinal pigment epithelium.

    PubMed

    Pattnaik, Bikash R; Hughes, Bret A

    2012-03-01

    Recently, we demonstrated the expression of KCNQ1, KCNQ4, and KCNQ5 transcripts in monkey retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and showed that the M-type current in RPE cells is blocked by the specific KCNQ channel blocker XE991. Using patch-clamp electrophysiology, we investigated the pharmacological sensitivity of the M-type current in isolated monkey RPE cells to elucidate the subunit composition of the channel. Most RPE cells exhibited an M-type current with a voltage for half-maximal activation of approximately -35 mV. The M-type current activation followed a double-exponential time course and was essentially complete within 1 s. The M-type current was inhibited by micromolar concentrations of the nonselective KCNQ channel blockers linopirdine and XE991 but was relatively insensitive to block by 10 μM chromanol 293B or 135 mM tetraethylammonium (TEA), two KCNQ1 channel blockers. The M-type current was activated by 1) 10 μM retigabine, an opener of all KCNQ channels except KCNQ1, 2) 10 μM zinc pyrithione, which augments all KCNQ channels except KCNQ3, and 3) 50 μM N-ethylmaleimide, which activates KCNQ2, KCNQ4, and KCNQ5, but not KCNQ1 or KCNQ3, channels. Application of cAMP, which activates KCNQ1 and KCNQ4 channels, had no significant effect on the M-type current. Finally, diclofenac, which activates KCNQ2/3 and KCNQ4 channels but inhibits KCNQ5 channels, inhibited the M-type current in the majority of RPE cells but activated it in others. The results indicate that the M-type current in monkey RPE is likely mediated by channels encoded by KCNQ4 and KCNQ5 subunits. PMID:22135213

  15. Magnetoelectric memory effect in the Y-type hexaferrite BaSrZnMgFe12O22

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fen; Shen, Shi-Peng; Sun, Young

    2016-08-01

    We report on the magnetic and magnetoelectric properties of the Y-type hexaferrite BaSrZnMgFe12O22, which undergoes transitions from a collinear ferrimagnetic phase to a proper screw phase at 310 K and to a longitudinal conical phase at 45 K. Magnetic and electric measurements revealed that the magnetic structure with spiral spin order can be modified by applying a magnetic field, resulting in magnetically controllable electric polarization.It was observed that BaSrZnMgFe12O22 exhibits an anomalous magnetoelectric memory effect: the ferroelectric state can be partially recovered from the paraelectric phase with collinear spin structure by reducing magnetic field at 20 K. We ascribe this memory effect to the pinning of multiferroic domain walls, where spin chirality and structure are preserved even in the nonpolar collinear spin state. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11534015 and 51371193).

  16. Acceleration of barium ions near 8000 km above an aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Hallinan, T. J.; Wescott, E. M.; Foeppl, H.

    1984-01-01

    A barium shaped charge, named Limerick, was released from a rocket launched from Poker Flat Research Range, Alaska, on March 30, 1982, at 1033 UT. The release took place in a small auroral breakup. The jet of ionized barium reached an altitude of 8100 km 14.5 min after release, indicating that there were no parallel electric fields below this altitude. At 8100 km the jet appeared to stop. Analysis shows that the barium at this altitude was effectively removed from the tip. It is concluded that the barium was actually accelerated upward, resulting in a large decrease in the line-of-sight density and hence the optical intensity. The parallel electric potential in the acceleration region must have been greater than 1 kV over an altitude interval of less than 200 km. The acceleration region, although presumably auroral in origin, did not seem to be related to individual auroral structures, but appeared to be a large-scale horizontal structure. The perpendicular electric field below, as deduced from the drift of the barium, was temporally and spatially very uniform and showed no variation related to individual auroral structures passing through.

  17. Both barium and calcium activate neuronal potassium currents.

    PubMed Central

    Ribera, A B; Spitzer, N C

    1987-01-01

    Amphibian spinal neurons in culture possess both rapidly inactivating and sustained calcium-dependent potassium current components, similar to those described for other cells. Divalent cation-dependent whole-cell outward currents were isolated by subtracting the voltage-dependent potassium currents recorded from Xenopus laevis neurons in the presence of impermeant cadmium (100-500 microM) from the currents produced without cadmium but in the presence of permeant divalent cations (50-100 microM). These concentrations of permeant ions were low enough to avoid contamination by macroscopic inward currents through calcium channels. Calcium-dependent potassium currents were reduced by 1 microM tetraethylammonium. These currents can also be activated by barium or strontium. Barium as well as calcium activated outward currents in young neurons (6-8 hr) and in relatively mature neurons (19-26 hr in vitro). However, barium influx appeared to suppress the sustained voltage-dependent potassium current in most cells. Barium also activated at least one class of potassium channels observed in excised membrane patches, while blocking others. The blocking action may have masked and hindered detection of the stimulatory action of barium in other systems. PMID:2442762

  18. Barium Depletion in the NSTAR Discharge Cathode After 30,000 Hours of Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polk, James E.; Capece, Angela M.; Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira

    2010-01-01

    Dispenser hollow cathodes rely on a consumable supply of barium released by impregnant materials in the pores of a tungsten matrix to maintain a low work function surface. Examinations of cathode inserts from long duration ion engine tests show deposits of tungsten at the downstream end that appear to block the flow of barium from the interior. In addition, a numerical model of barium transport in the insert plasma indicates that the barium partial pressure in the insert may exceed the equilibrium vapor pressure of the dominant barium-producing reaction, and it was postulated previously that this would suppress barium loss in the upstream part of the insert. New measurements of the depth of barium depletion from a cathode insert operated for 30,352 hours reveal that barium loss is confined to a narrow region near the downstream end, confirming this hypothesis.

  19. Rocket having barium release system to create ion clouds in the upper atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, B. W.; Stokes, C. S.; Smith, E. W.; Murphy, W. J. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A chemical system for releasing a good yield of free barium atoms and barium ions to create ion clouds in the upper atmosphere and interplanetary space for the study of the geophysical properties of the medium is presented.

  20. Studies of hexacelsian and celsian barium aluminosilicates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kuo-Tong

    1998-09-01

    The first part of this work (chapter 3) describes the reaction paths leading to the formation of BaAlsb2Sisb2Osb8 (BAS) from a mixture of gamma-BaCOsb3,\\ alpha-Alsb2Osb3, and amorphous SiOsb2 powders. Heat treatments conducted from 600 to 1200sp°C in air were used to transform the powder mixtures into hexacelsian BAS. The phase evolution to BAS was examined by x-ray diffraction. Several experiments were designed to microscopically reproduce the solid-solid interfaces expected during the synthesis of BAS and enabled the author to describe the different stages of the reaction. There exist two reaction paths in formation of BAS in this study: (1) formation of a series of barium silicates leading to BaO*2SiOsb2 (BSsb2) which then reacts with Alsb2Osb3 to form BAS and (2) formation of BaO*Alsb2Osb3 (BA) which then reacts with SiOsb2 to form BAS. The kinetics of the latter is slower than that of the former because the reaction between BaO*Alsb2Osb3 and SiOsb2 to form BAS includes a bond breaking process. The second part (chapter 4) of this research was undertaken to study the role of additives on the kinetics of the transformation of hexacelsian to celsian. Pre-synthesized hexacelsian powders doped with various additives were heated at temperatures ranging from 850 to 1400sp°C for 4 hrs. Semi-quantitative analysis of XRD was used to determine the extent of the hexacelsian-to-celsian transformation. This work was extended further to investigate the mechanisms involved in the transformation. Defect structures developed in the additive-containing celsian provide insights about the sites occupied by the cations added. Experimental results indicate that the doping of ˜0.99A cations in promoting the conversion of hexacelsian to celsian is by forming an interstitial solid solution in hexacelsian and ˜0.66A cations form a substitutional solid solution. In a kinetic study on the CaO- or MgO-enhanced transformation, values of rate constant, k, and Avlami constant, n, at

  1. Barium Levels in Soils and Centella asiatica

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Ghim Hock; Yap, Chee Kong; Mahmood, Maziah; Tan, Soon Guan; Hamzah, Suhaimi

    2013-01-01

    In this study, Centella asiatica and surface soils were collected from 12 sampling sites in Peninsular Malaysia, and the barium (Ba) concentrations were determined. The Ba concentration [μg/g dry weight (dw)] was 63.72 to 382.01 μg/g in soils while in C. asiatica, Ba concentrations ranged from 5.05 to 21.88 μg/g for roots, 3.31 to 11.22 μg/g for leaves and 2.37 to 6.14 μg/g for stems. In C. asiatica, Ba accumulation was found to be the highest in roots followed by leaves and stems. The correlation coefficients (r) of Ba between plants and soils were found to be significantly positively correlated, with the highest correlation being between roots-soils (r=0.922, p<005), followed by leaves-soils (r=0.890, p<005) and stems-soils (r=0.848, p<005). This indicates that these three parts of C. asiatica are good biomonitors of Ba pollution. For the transplantation study, four sites were selected as unpolluted [(Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM)], semi-polluted (Seri Kembangan and Balakong) and polluted sites (Juru). Based on the transplantation study under experimental field and laboratory conditions, Ba concentrations in C. asiatica were significantly (p<0.05) higher after three weeks of exposure at Seri Kembangan, Balakong and Juru. Thus, these experimental findings confirm that the leaves, stems and roots of C. asiatica can reflect the Ba levels in the soils where this plant is found. Three weeks after back transplantation to clean soils, the Ba levels in C. asiatica were still higher than the initial Ba level even though Ba elimination occurred. In conclusion, the leaves, stems and roots of C. asiatica are good biomonitors of Ba pollution. PMID:24575242

  2. Magneto-optical properties BaBixLaxFe12-2xO19 (0.0≤x≤0.5) hexaferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auwal, I. A.; Baykal, A.; Güner, S.; Sertkol, M.; Sözeri, H.

    2016-07-01

    BaBixLaxFe(12-2x)O19 (0.0≤x≤0.5) hexaferrites were synthesized by solid state synthesis route and the effects of Bi, La substitutions on structural, magnetic and optical properties were investigated. X-ray powder diffraction, Scanning electron microscopy, Vibrating sample magnetometer, and Percent diffuse reflectance spectroscopy were used to study the physical properties. Room temperature specific magnetization (M-H) curves revealed the ferromagnetic nature of all products. The increasing Bi, La compositions increased the magnetic properties at different magnitudes with respect to undoped BaFe12O19 sample. The maximum values of remnant specific magnetization (Mr=30.3 emu/g), extrapolated specific saturation magnetization (Ms=62.12 emu/g), and magneton number (nB=16.27) were recorded from BaBi0.2La0.2Fe11.4O19 hexaferrite. The average crystallite size varies in a range of (37.35-51.36) nm. The coercive field (Hc) of undoped hexaferrites is 1180 Oe and increased to maximum 2320 Oe belonging to BaBi0.4La0.4Fe11.2O19. Magnetic anisotropy was confirmed as uniaxial and calculated effective anisotropy constants (Keff) are between 4.27×105 Ergs/g and 5.05×105 Ergs/g. The high magnitudes of magnetocrystalline anisotropy (Ha) above than 16,200 Oe revealed that all samples are magnetically hard materials. The Tauc plots were drawn to extrapolate the direct optical energy band gap (Eg) of hexaferrites. The Eg values decreased from 1.76 eV to 1.47 eV with increasing Bi, La compositions.

  3. Barium Aspiration in an Infant: A Case Report and Review of Management

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, M.; Kapur, N.; Goyal, V.; Choo, K.; Sarikwal, A.; Masters, I. B.; Isles, Alan F.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a case of bilateral inhalation of barium in an infant following a barium swallow for investigation of dusky spells associated with feeds. A bronchoscopy subsequently revealed the presence of a mid-tracheal tracheo-esophageal cleft. To date, little has been reported on barium aspiration in children and there is no consensus for management. We review the literature on barium aspiration, its consequences, and make recommendations for management. PMID:24818122

  4. Emission spectrographic determination of barium in sea water using a cation exchange concentration procedure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szabo, B. J.; Joensuu, O.

    1967-01-01

    A concentration technique employing Dowex 50W cation exchange resin is described for the determination of barium in sea water. The separated barium is precipitated as fluoride together with calcium and strontium and measured by emission spectrographic analysis. The vertical distribution of barium in sea water has been measured in the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. The barium content varied between 7 and 23 ??g. per liter; in two profiles, the lowest concentrations were at a depth of about 1000 meters.

  5. The Near-ultraviolet Luminosity Function of Young, Early M-type Dwarf Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansdell, Megan; Gaidos, Eric; Mann, Andrew W.; Lépine, Sebastien; James, David; Buccino, Andrea; Baranec, Christoph; Law, Nicholas M.; Riddle, Reed; Mauas, Pablo; Petrucci, Romina

    2015-01-01

    Planets orbiting within the close-in habitable zones of M dwarf stars will be exposed to elevated high-energy radiation driven by strong magnetohydrodynamic dynamos during stellar youth. Near-ultraviolet (NUV) irradiation can erode and alter the chemistry of planetary atmospheres, and a quantitative description of the evolution of NUV emission from M dwarfs is needed when modeling these effects. We investigated the NUV luminosity evolution of early M-type dwarfs by cross-correlating the Lépine & Gaidos catalog of bright M dwarfs with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) catalog of NUV (1771-2831 Å) sources. Of the 4805 sources with GALEX counterparts, 797 have NUV emission significantly (>2.5σ) in excess of an empirical basal level. We inspected these candidate active stars using visible-wavelength spectra, high-resolution adaptive optics imaging, time-series photometry, and literature searches to identify cases where the elevated NUV emission is due to unresolved background sources or stellar companions; we estimated the overall occurrence of these "false positives" (FPs) as ~16%. We constructed an NUV luminosity function that accounted for FPs, detection biases of the source catalogs, and GALEX upper limits. We found the NUV luminosity function to be inconsistent with predictions from a constant star-formation rate and simplified age-activity relation defined by a two-parameter power law.

  6. B-M-type anisotropy in bacteriorhodopsin films for nonlinear spatial light modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korchemskaya, Elena Y.; Stepanchikov, Dmitriy A.; Dyukova, Tatyana V.; Shakhbazian, Valery Y.

    2003-02-01

    Bacteriorhodopsin (BR), a photoreceptor protein possesses a photochemical cycle of several distinct intermediates; all of them are photoactive. The BR molecules both in the initial form of the photocycle, BR570 (absorption maximum around 570 nm) and longest-lived (in films) intermediate M412 (absorption maximum at 412 nm) possess anisotropic absorption. Under the action of linearly polarized light, the reversible anisotropic photoselection of BR molecules takes place. So far only the method of photoinduced anisotropy based on anisotropic properties of BR570 was applied to realtime optical processing. In the present work, the potentialities for the use of photoinduced anisotropy in the BR-films based on both BR570 and M412 for the spatial light modulation are demonstrated. The overall blocking of highintensity features from an image is shown. Mixed B-M-type anisotropy in the chemically modified BR films, as applied to the edge enhancement, can provide a contrast ratio as high as 250:1. Low saturation intensity of the BR-films allows for the blocking of any intensity feature from an image that is carried out by choosing an appropriate intensity level of a controlling He-Ne laser beam without analyzer rotation. The photoanisotropic incoherent-to-coherent optical conversion with concurrent spatial-intensity modulation is also performed on the BR-films.

  7. Analysis of Loss Mechanisms in G-M Type Pulse Tube Refrigerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baik, J. H.; Nellis, G. F.; Pfotenhauer, J. M.

    2004-06-01

    A one dimensional, numerical analysis that considers the heat transfer between the pulse tube walls and the internal working fluid has been performed to incorporate DC flow and shuttle heat loss mechanisms in a 5-valve G-M type pulse tube refrigerator model. All of the physical dimensions and operating conditions associated with three refrigeration systems built at UW-Madison have been used to provide input information for a 1st and 2nd order numerical analysis. The 1st order numerical analysis assumes that the pulse-tube is adiabatic and predicts the pressure, temperatures and mass flow rates at any time and location during a cycle. The gas and wall temperature profiles are subsequently modified by a 2nd order analysis that considers more realistic thermal behavior in the pulse-tube by explicitly modeling the heat transfer interaction between the fluid and the wall. Three different convective heat transfer correlations have been considered. The 2nd order analysis allows the calculation of various losses including DC flow and shuttle heat transfer in order to predict actual performances of the systems. The comparisons of the numerical model with a series of experimental results display very good agreement across significantly different system geometries and operating conditions.

  8. THE NEAR-ULTRAVIOLET LUMINOSITY FUNCTION OF YOUNG, EARLY M-TYPE DWARF STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Ansdell, Megan; Baranec, Christoph; Gaidos, Eric; Mann, Andrew W.; Lépine, Sebastien; James, David; Buccino, Andrea; Mauas, Pablo; Petrucci, Romina; Law, Nicholas M.; Riddle, Reed

    2015-01-01

    Planets orbiting within the close-in habitable zones of M dwarf stars will be exposed to elevated high-energy radiation driven by strong magnetohydrodynamic dynamos during stellar youth. Near-ultraviolet (NUV) irradiation can erode and alter the chemistry of planetary atmospheres, and a quantitative description of the evolution of NUV emission from M dwarfs is needed when modeling these effects. We investigated the NUV luminosity evolution of early M-type dwarfs by cross-correlating the Lépine and Gaidos catalog of bright M dwarfs with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) catalog of NUV (1771-2831 Å) sources. Of the 4805 sources with GALEX counterparts, 797 have NUV emission significantly (>2.5σ) in excess of an empirical basal level. We inspected these candidate active stars using visible-wavelength spectra, high-resolution adaptive optics imaging, time-series photometry, and literature searches to identify cases where the elevated NUV emission is due to unresolved background sources or stellar companions; we estimated the overall occurrence of these ''false positives'' (FPs) as ∼16%. We constructed an NUV luminosity function that accounted for FPs, detection biases of the source catalogs, and GALEX upper limits. We found the NUV luminosity function to be inconsistent with predictions from a constant star-formation rate and simplified age-activity relation defined by a two-parameter power law.

  9. Superflare occurrence and energies on G-, K-, and M-type dwarfs

    SciTech Connect

    Candelaresi, S.; Hillier, A.; Maehara, H.; Shibata, K.; Brandenburg, A.

    2014-09-01

    Kepler data from G-, K-, and M-type stars are used to study conditions that lead to superflares with energies above 10{sup 34} erg. From the 117,661 stars included, 380 show superflares with a total of 1690 such events. We study whether parameters, like effective temperature or rotation rate, have any effect on the superflare occurrence rate or energy. With increasing effective temperature we observe a decrease in the superflare rate, which is analogous to the previous findings of a decrease in dynamo activity with increasing effective temperature. For slowly rotating stars, we find a quadratic increase of the mean occurrence rate with the rotation rate up to a critical point, after which the rate decreases linearly. Motivated by standard dynamo theory, we study the behavior of the relative starspot coverage, approximated as the relative brightness variation. For faster rotating stars, an increased fraction of stars shows higher spot coverage, which leads to higher superflare rates. A turbulent dynamo is used to study the dependence of the Ohmic dissipation as a proxy of the flare energy on the differential rotation or shear rate. The resulting statistics of the dissipation energy as a function of dynamo number is similar to the observed flare statistics as a function of the inverse Rossby number and shows similarly strong fluctuations. This supports the idea that superflares might well be possible for solar-type G stars.

  10. Prompt ionization in the CRIT II barium releases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torbert, R. B.; Kletzing, C. A.; Liou, K.; Rau, D.

    1992-05-01

    Observations of electron and ion distributions inside a fast neutral barium jet in the ionosphere show significant fluxes within 4 km of release, presumably related to beam plasma instability processes involved in the Critical Ionization Velocity (CIV) effect. Electron fluxes exceeding 5 x 10 exp 12/sq cm-str-sec-keV were responsible for ionizing both the streaming barium and ambient oxygen. Resulting ion fluxes seem to be consistent with 1-2 percent ionization of the fast barium, as reported by optical observations, although the extended spatial distribution of the optically observed ions is difficult to reconcile with the in situ observations. When the perpendicular velocity of the neutrals falls below critical values, these processes shut off. Although these observations resemble the earlier Porcupine experimental results (Haerendel, 1982), theoretical understanding of the differences between these data and that of earlier negative experiments is still lacking.

  11. White dwarf kicks and implications for barium stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izzard, R. G.; Church, R. P.; Dermine, T.

    The barium stars have caused much grief in the field of binary stellar evolution. They are often eccentric when they should be circular and are not found to have periods longer than 104 days even though wind accretion should still be efficient at such separations. We address both these problems by introducing a kick to white dwarfs when they are born, thus solving the eccentricity problem, and imposing strong orbital angular momentum loss to shrink barium-star binaries down to the observed periods. Whilst our angular momentum prescription is hard to justify for the barium stars it shows that strong angular momentum loss is necessary to reproduce the observed period-eccentricity distribution. We are investigating whether this can be obtained from a circumbinary disc.

  12. Barium-borate-flyash glasses: As radiation shielding materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sukhpal; Kumar, Ashok; Singh, Devinder; Thind, Kulwant Singh; Mudahar, Gurmel S.

    2008-01-01

    The attenuation coefficients of barium-borate-flyash glasses have been measured for γ-ray photon energies of 356, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV using narrow beam transmission geometry. The photon beam was highly collimated and overall scatter acceptance angle was less than 3°. Our results have an uncertainty of less than 3%. These coefficients were then used to obtain the values of mean free path (mfp), effective atomic number and electron density. Good agreements have been observed between experimental and theoretical values of these parameters. From the studies of the obtained results it is reported here that from the shielding point of view the barium-borate-flyash glasses are better shields to γ-radiations in comparison to the standard radiation shielding concretes and also to the ordinary barium-borate glasses.

  13. Compact pulse forming line using barium titanate ceramic material.

    PubMed

    Kumar Sharma, Surender; Deb, P; Shukla, R; Prabaharan, T; Shyam, A

    2011-11-01

    Ceramic material has very high relative permittivity, so compact pulse forming line can be made using these materials. Barium titanate (BaTiO(3)) has a relative permittivity of 1200 so it is used for making compact pulse forming line (PFL). Barium titanate also has piezoelectric effects so it cracks during high voltages discharges due to stresses developed in it. Barium titanate is mixed with rubber which absorbs the piezoelectric stresses when the PFL is charged and regain its original shape after the discharge. A composite mixture of barium titanate with the neoprene rubber is prepared. The relative permittivity of the composite mixture is measured to be 85. A coaxial pulse forming line of inner diameter 120 mm, outer diameter 240 mm, and length 350 mm is made and the composite mixture of barium titanate and neoprene rubber is filled between the inner and outer cylinders. The PFL is charged up to 120 kV and discharged into 5 Ω load. The voltage pulse of 70 kV, 21 ns is measured across the load. The conventional PFL is made up of oil or plastics dielectrics with the relative permittivity of 2-10 [D. R. Linde, CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 90th ed. (CRC, 2009); Xia et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 086113 (2008); Yang et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 43303 (2010)], which increases the length of PFL. We have reported the compactness in length achieved due to increase in relative permittivity of composite mixture by adding barium titanate in neoprene rubber. PMID:22129008

  14. Compact pulse forming line using barium titanate ceramic material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar Sharma, Surender; Deb, P.; Shukla, R.; Prabaharan, T.; Shyam, A.

    2011-11-01

    Ceramic material has very high relative permittivity, so compact pulse forming line can be made using these materials. Barium titanate (BaTiO3) has a relative permittivity of 1200 so it is used for making compact pulse forming line (PFL). Barium titanate also has piezoelectric effects so it cracks during high voltages discharges due to stresses developed in it. Barium titanate is mixed with rubber which absorbs the piezoelectric stresses when the PFL is charged and regain its original shape after the discharge. A composite mixture of barium titanate with the neoprene rubber is prepared. The relative permittivity of the composite mixture is measured to be 85. A coaxial pulse forming line of inner diameter 120 mm, outer diameter 240 mm, and length 350 mm is made and the composite mixture of barium titanate and neoprene rubber is filled between the inner and outer cylinders. The PFL is charged up to 120 kV and discharged into 5 Ω load. The voltage pulse of 70 kV, 21 ns is measured across the load. The conventional PFL is made up of oil or plastics dielectrics with the relative permittivity of 2-10 [D. R. Linde, CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 90th ed. (CRC, 2009); Xia et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 086113 (2008); Yang et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 43303 (2010)], which increases the length of PFL. We have reported the compactness in length achieved due to increase in relative permittivity of composite mixture by adding barium titanate in neoprene rubber.

  15. The adhesiometer: a simple device to measure adherence of barium sulfate to intestinal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Salomonowitz, E; Frick, M P; Cragg, A H; Lund, G

    1984-04-01

    A simple, inexpensive device assessing barium sulfate adherence to alimentary tract mucosa was tested in an animal study using pigs and dogs. Interaction of gastric, intestinal, and colonic mucosal lining with three different barium preparations was studied. In both pigs and dogs, barium adherence to gastric mucosa was significantly stronger when compared with colonic mucosa. PMID:6608230

  16. 49 CFR 173.182 - Barium azide-50 percent or more water wet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Barium azide-50 percent or more water wet. 173.182 Section 173.182 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.182 Barium azide—50 percent or more water wet. Barium azide—50 percent or...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10010 - Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3). 721... Substances § 721.10010 Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3) (PMN...

  18. 21 CFR 201.304 - Tannic acid and barium enema preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. 201.304... Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. (a) It has become a widespread practice for tannic acid to be added to barium enemas to improve X-ray pictures. Tannic acid is capable of causing diminished...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10010 - Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3). 721... Substances § 721.10010 Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3) (PMN...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10010 - Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3). 721... Substances § 721.10010 Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3) (PMN...

  1. 49 CFR 173.182 - Barium azide-50 percent or more water wet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Barium azide-50 percent or more water wet. 173.182 Section 173.182 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.182 Barium azide—50 percent or more water wet. Barium azide—50 percent or...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10010 - Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3). 721... Substances § 721.10010 Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3) (PMN...

  3. 49 CFR 173.182 - Barium azide-50 percent or more water wet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Barium azide-50 percent or more water wet. 173.182 Section 173.182 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.182 Barium azide—50 percent or more water wet. Barium azide—50 percent or...

  4. 49 CFR 173.182 - Barium azide-50 percent or more water wet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Barium azide-50 percent or more water wet. 173.182 Section 173.182 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.182 Barium azide—50 percent or more water wet. Barium azide—50 percent or...

  5. 21 CFR 201.304 - Tannic acid and barium enema preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. 201.304... Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. (a) It has become a widespread practice for tannic acid to be added to barium enemas to improve X-ray pictures. Tannic acid is capable of causing diminished...

  6. 21 CFR 201.304 - Tannic acid and barium enema preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. 201.304... Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. (a) It has become a widespread practice for tannic acid to be added to barium enemas to improve X-ray pictures. Tannic acid is capable of causing diminished...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10010 - Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3). 721... Substances § 721.10010 Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3) (PMN...

  8. 21 CFR 201.304 - Tannic acid and barium enema preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. 201.304... Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. (a) It has become a widespread practice for tannic acid to be added to barium enemas to improve X-ray pictures. Tannic acid is capable of causing diminished...

  9. 49 CFR 173.182 - Barium azide-50 percent or more water wet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Barium azide-50 percent or more water wet. 173.182 Section 173.182 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.182 Barium azide—50 percent or more water wet. Barium azide—50 percent or...

  10. 21 CFR 201.304 - Tannic acid and barium enema preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. 201.304... Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. (a) It has become a widespread practice for tannic acid to be added to barium enemas to improve X-ray pictures. Tannic acid is capable of causing diminished...

  11. Barium and antimony distributions on the hands of nonshooters.

    PubMed

    Havakost, D G; Peters, C A; Koons, R D

    1990-09-01

    Barium and antimony levels from selected areas of the left and right hands of 269 nonshooters provide a database for interpretation of gunshot residue swab analysis results. The database represents a variety of activities of individuals sampled by collectors throughout the United States. Nonshooting exposure to barium and antimony can generally be distinguished from firearms-associated exposure by considering the relative levels of the elements, location on the hands, and condition of the swabs. Consistent definition of sampling procedures and accurate analytical results make this database applicable for interpretation of data generated by most gunshot residue swab examiners. PMID:2230685

  12. Study of the photovoltaic effect in thin film barium titanate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grannemann, W. W.; Dharmadhikari, V. S.

    1981-01-01

    The photoelectric effect in structures consisting of metal deposited barium titanate film silicon is described. A radio frequency sputtering technique is used to deposit ferroelectric barium titantate films on silicon and quartz. Film properties are measured and correlated with the photoelectric effect characteristics of the films. It was found that to obtain good quality pin hole free films, it is necessary to reduce the substrate temperature during the last part of the deposition. The switching ability of the device with internal applied voltage is improved when applied with a ferroelectric memory device.

  13. Methods for producing monodispersed particles of barium titanate

    DOEpatents

    Hu, Zhong-Cheng

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is a low-temperature controlled method for producing high-quality, ultrafine monodispersed nanocrystalline microsphere powders of barium titanate and other pure or composite oxide materials having particles ranging from nanosized to micronsized particles. The method of the subject invention comprises a two-stage process. The first stage produces high quality monodispersed hydrous titania microsphere particles prepared by homogeneous precipitation via dielectric tuning in alcohol-water mixed solutions of inorganic salts. Titanium tetrachloride is used as an inorganic salt precursor material. The second stage converts the pure hydrous titania microsphere particles into crystalline barium titanate microsphere powders via low-temperature, hydrothermal reactions.

  14. Ionization and expansion of barium clouds in the ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, T.-Z.; Schunk, R. W.

    1993-01-01

    A recently envelope 3D model is used here to study the motion of the barium clouds released in the ionosphere, including the ionization stage. The ionization and the expansion of the barium clouds and the interaction between the clouds and the background ions are investigated using three simulations: a cloud without a directional velocity, a cloud with an initial velocity of 5 km/s across the B field, and a cloud with initial velocity components of 2 km/s both along and across the B field.

  15. Ferroelastic domains in lead-free barium zirconate titanate - barium calcium titanate piezoceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehmke, Matthias Claudius

    Piezoelectricity was first discovered by Pierre and Jaque Curie in the year 1880. Nowadays, piezoelectric materials are used in many application such as high voltage generation in gas igniters, actuation in micro-positioning devices, generation and detection of acoustic waves, emitters and receivers for sonar technology, ultrasonic cleaning, ultrasound medical therapy, and micropumps for ink-jet printers. The most commonly used piezoelectric material since the 1950's is the solid solution system lead zirconate titanate (PZT) that offers high piezoelectric performance under a large range of operating conditions. However, the toxicity of lead requires the replacement of PZT. The studied lead-free alternatives are commonly based on potassium sodium niobate (KNN) and bismuth sodium titanate (BNT), and more recently zirconium and calcium substituted barium titanate (BZT-BCT). The BZT-BCT system exhibits large piezoelectric coefficients that can exceed even those of most PZT compositions under certain conditions. Piezoelectricity was first discovered by Pierre and Jaque Curie in the year 1880. Nowadays, piezoelectric materials are used in many application such as high voltage generation in gas igniters, actuation in micro-positioning devices, generation and detection of acoustic waves, emitters and receivers for sonar technology, ultrasonic cleaning, ultrasound medical therapy, and micropumps for ink-jet printers. The most commonly used piezoelectric material since the 1950's is the solid solution system lead zirconate titanate (PZT) that offers high piezoelectric performance under a large range of operating conditions. However, the toxicity of lead requires the replacement of PZT. The studied lead-free alternatives are commonly based on potassium sodium niobate (KNN) and bismuth sodium titanate (BNT), and more recently zirconium and calcium substituted barium titanate (BZT-BCT). The BZT-BCT system exhibits large piezoelectric coefficients that can exceed even those of

  16. Sulphur molecules in the circumstellar envelopes of M-type AGB stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilovich, T.; De Beck, E.; Black, J. H.; Olofsson, H.; Justtanont, K.

    2016-04-01

    Aims: The sulphur compounds SO and SO2 have not been widely studied in the circumstellar envelopes of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. By presenting and modelling a large number of SO and SO2 lines in the low mass-loss rate M-type AGB star R Dor, and modelling the available lines of those molecules in a further four M-type AGB stars, we aim to determine their circumstellar abundances and distributions. Methods: We use a detailed radiative transfer analysis based on the accelerated lambda iteration method to model circumstellar SO and SO2 line emission. We use molecular data files for both SO and SO2 that are more extensive than those previously available. Results: Using 17 SO lines and 98 SO2 lines to constrain our models for R Dor, we find an SO abundance of (6.7 ± 0.9) × 10-6 and an SO2 abundance of 5 × 10-6 with both species having high abundances close to the star. We also modelled 34SO and found an abundance of (3.1 ± 0.8) × 10-7, giving an 32SO/34SO ratio of 21.6 ± 8.5. We derive similar results for the circumstellar SO and SO2 abundances and their distributions for the low mass-loss rate object W Hya. For the higher mass-loss rate stars, we find shell-like SO distributions with peak abundances that decrease and peak abundance radii that increase with increasing mass-loss rate. The positions of the peak SO abundance agree very well with the photodissociation radii of H2O. We also modelled SO2 in two higher mass-loss rate stars but our models for these were less conclusive. Conclusions: We conclude that for the low mass-loss rate stars, the circumstellar SO and SO2 abundances are much higher than predicted by chemical models of the extended stellar atmosphere. These two species may also account for all the available sulphur. For the higher mass-loss rate stars we find evidence that SO is most efficiently formed in the circumstellar envelope, most likely through the photodissociation of H2O and the subsequent reaction between S and OH. The S

  17. Involvement of inward rectifier and M-type currents in carbachol-induced epileptiform synchronization.

    PubMed

    Cataldi, Mauro; Panuccio, Gabriella; Cavaccini, Anna; D'Antuono, Margherita; Taglialatela, Maurizio; Avoli, Massimo

    2011-03-01

    Exposure to cholinergic agonists is a widely used paradigm to induce epileptogenesis in vivo and synchronous activity in brain slices maintained in vitro. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects remain unclear. Here, we used field potential recordings from the lateral entorhinal cortex in horizontal rat brain slices to explore whether two different K(+) currents regulated by muscarinic receptor activation, the inward rectifier (K(IR)) and the M-type (K(M)) currents, have a role in carbachol (CCh)-induced field activity, a prototypical model of cholinergic-dependent epileptiform synchronization. To establish whether K(IR) or K(M) blockade could replicate CCh effects, we exposed slices to blockers of these currents in the absence of CCh. K(IR) channel blockade with micromolar Ba(2+) concentrations induced interictal-like events with duration and frequency that were lower than those observed with CCh; by contrast, the K(M) blocker linopirdine was ineffective. Pre-treatment with Ba(2+) or linopirdine increased the duration of epileptiform discharges induced by subsequent application of CCh. Baclofen, a GABA(B) receptor agonist that activates K(IR), abolished CCh-induced field oscillations, an effect that was abrogated by the GABA(B) receptor antagonist CGP 55845, and prevented by Ba(2+). Finally, when applied after CCh, the K(M) activators flupirtine and retigabine shifted leftward the cumulative distribution of CCh-induced event duration; this effect was opposite to what seen during linopirdine application under similar experimental conditions. Overall, our findings suggest that K(IR) rather than K(M) plays a major regulatory role in controlling CCh-induced epileptiform synchronization. PMID:21144855

  18. Planar Millimeter Wave Notch Filters Based on Magnetostatic Wave Resonance in Barium Hexagonal Ferrite Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Lei; Song, Young-Yeal; Bevivino, Joshua; Wu, Mingzhong

    2010-10-01

    There is a critical need for planar millimeter (mm) wave devices. To meet this need, one important strategy is in the use of high-anisotropy hexagonal ferrite films. The high internal anisotropy field for the hexagonal ferrites can be used to realize low-loss devices in the 30-100 GHz regime without the need for high external magnetic fields. Previous work has demonstrated the use of M-type barium hexagonal ferrite (BaM) films and ferromagnetic resonance therein to make mm-wave notch filters. This presentation reports on a new mm-wave notch filter that uses magnetostatic wave (MSW) resonance in BaM films. The device consists of a BaM film strip positioned on the top of a coplanar waveguide (CPW), with the strip's length along the CPW signal line. The BaM strip was grown by pulsed laser deposition and had uniaxial anisotropy along the strip's length. The device showed a band-stop filtering response centered at 53 GHz in absence of external fields. One can increase this frequency with nonzero external fields. A reduction in the strip's width resulted in an enhancement in peak absorption. This filtering response resulted from MSW resonance across the BaM strip's width. The MSW modes were excited by CPW-produced non-uniform alternating magnetic fields.

  19. Chemical abundance analysis of 19 barium stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guo-Chao; Liang, Yan-Chun; Spite, Monique; Chen, Yu-Qin; Zhao, Gang; Zhang, Bo; Liu, Guo-Qing; Liu, Yu-Juan; Liu, Nian; Deng, Li-Cai; Spite, Francois; Hill, Vanessa; Zhang, Cai-Xia

    2016-01-01

    We aim at deriving accurate atmospheric parameters and chemical abundances of 19 barium (Ba) stars, including both strong and mild Ba stars, based on the high signal-to-noise ratio and high resolution Echelle spectra obtained from the 2.16 m telescope at Xinglong station of National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The chemical abundances of the sample stars were obtained from an LTE, plane-parallel and line-blanketed atmospheric model by inputting the atmospheric parameters (effective temperatures Teff, surface gravities log g, metallicity [Fe/H] and microturbulence velocity ξt) and equivalent widths of stellar absorption lines. These samples of Ba stars are giants as indicated by atmospheric parameters, metallicities and kinematic analysis about UVW velocity. Chemical abundances of 17 elements were obtained for these Ba stars. Their Na, Al, α- and iron-peak elements (O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Ni) are similar to the solar abundances. Our samples of Ba stars show obvious overabundances of neutron-capture (n-capture) process elements relative to the Sun. Their median abundances of [Ba/Fe], [La/Fe] and [Eu/Fe] are 0.54, 0.65 and 0.40, respectively. The Y I and Zr I abundances are lower than Ba, La and Eu, but higher than the α- and iron-peak elements for the strong Ba stars and similar to the iron-peak elements for the mild stars. There exists a positive correlation between Ba intensity and [Ba/Fe]. For the n-capture elements (Y, Zr, Ba, La), there is an anti-correlation between their [X/Fe] and [Fe/H]. We identify nine of our sample stars as strong Ba stars with [Ba/Fe] >0.6 where seven of them have Ba intensity Ba=2-5, one has Ba=1.5 and another one has Ba=1.0. The remaining ten stars are classified as mild Ba stars with 0.17<[Ba/Fe] <0.54.

  20. Synthesis of phase pure praseodymium barium copper iron oxide.

    PubMed

    Konne, Joshua L; Davis, Sean A; Glatzel, Stefan; Hall, Simon R

    2013-06-18

    The control of crystallization of praseodymium barium copper iron oxide, an intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell cathode material, has been demonstrated for the first time using a biotemplated sol-gel synthesis technique. The results obtained showed significant improvement in purity, synthesis time, surface area and simplicity over that previously reported. PMID:23660963

  1. Stabilization of arsenic- and barium-rich glass manufacturing waste

    SciTech Connect

    Fuessle, R.W.; Taylor, M.A.

    2000-03-01

    Effective solidification/stabilization (S/S) of arsenic- and barium-containing D004/D005 waste was accomplished by using a binder of cement with 40% class C fly ash and either ferrous sulfate or ferric sulfate as an additive. Addition of iron salts improves arsenic solidification/stabilization (S/S). Barium may be encapsulated within the stabilized matrix as barium sulfate. Recommended mole ratios for iron/arsenic and barium/sulfate are at least 6 and 1.2, respectively. A binder/waste ratio of 0.15 is volume efficient, but the mix design must be carefully controlled to achieve adequate S/S. In practice, the heterogeneity of waste and large-scale mix operations may preclude close control of reagent dosages, so a binder/waste ratio of 0.40 is preferable. Ferrous sulfate additive is preferable for arsenic S/S because it is effective over a wider range of mix designs and over a long-term curing period. Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure results degraded with long curing time for some mix designs with ferric sulfate additive.

  2. Laser selective excitation of a three-level atom - Barium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlsten, J. L.

    1974-01-01

    Development of a theory describing the selective excitation of a three-level atom with a tunable laser. The effects of number density, line widths, and laser parameters on the final populations of the levels are discussed. An experiment is described in which a tunable dye laser is used to pump large numbers of barium atoms into a definite excited state.

  3. REMOVING BARIUM AND RADIUM THROUGH CALCIUM CATION EXCHANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The removal of barium (Ba) and radium (Ra), which are found in many groundwater sources, was achieved in laboratory studies with an ion exchange process. In the studies, a strong acid resin in the calcium form effectively removed Ba(+2) and Ra (+2) to meet standards. The resin wa...

  4. Effects of light exposure on irradiated barium fluoride crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Wuest, C.R.; Mauger, G.J.

    1993-04-20

    Small barium fluoride crystals have been irradiated using cobalt-60 gamma rays under various illumination conditions to establish the effect of photo-bleaching of the radiation-induced color centers. This paper describes results of a few different experiments conducted at LLNL over the past few weeks.

  5. SEPARATION OF BARIUM VALUES FROM URANYL NITRATE SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Tompkins, E.R.

    1959-02-24

    The separation of radioactive barium values from a uranyl nitrate solution of neutron-irradiated uranium is described. The 10 to 20% uranyl nitrate solution is passed through a flrst column of a cation exchange resin under conditions favoring the adsorption of barium and certain other cations. The loaded resin is first washed with dilute sulfuric acid to remove a portion of the other cations, and then wash with a citric acid solution at pH of 5 to 7 to recover the barium along with a lesser amount of the other cations. The PH of the resulting eluate is adjusted to about 2.3 to 3.5 and diluted prior to passing through a smaller second column of exchange resin. The loaded resin is first washed with a citric acid solution at a pH of 3 to elute undesired cations and then with citric acid solution at a pH of 6 to eluts the barium, which is substantially free of undesired cations.

  6. Dynamics of a barium release in the magnetospheric tail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mende, S. B.; Swenson, G. R.; Geller, S. P.; Doolittle, J. H.; Haerendel, G.

    1989-01-01

    The late time behavior of the May 13, 1985 magnetotail barium cloud is examined. The bulk dynamics of the cloud are studied based on triangulated data and data from Fabry-Perot Doppler velocity measurements. The changes in cloud morphology in relation to the in situ measurements made by the Ion Release Module satellite are discussed.

  7. PROPOSED ORAL REFERENCE DOSE (RFD) FOR BARIUM AND COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) is a database of EPA's consensus opinion of the human health effects that may result from exposure to various substances found in the environment. A Toxicological Review and IRIS Summary were prepared for barium and compounds in 1998 ...

  8. BARIUM AND RADIUM REMOVAL FROM GROUNDWATER BY ION EXCHANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the applicability of weak acid exchange resin in the hydrogen form for removal of hardness, barium and radium from groundwater. Weak acid resin in the hydrogen form eliminates the addition of sodium to drinking water. The capac...

  9. Synthesis and the magnetic characterization of iridium cobalt substituted calcium hexaferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rewatkar, K. G.; Patil, N. M.; Jaykumar, S.; Bhowmick, D. S.; Giriya, M. N.; Khobragade, C. L.

    2007-09-01

    M-type hexagonal ferrite powder with partial substitution lr 4++Co 2+ has been synthesized by chemical-coprecipitation technique. The saturation magnetization Ms decreases linearly from 69.8 to 40.3 emu/g with increasing doping content from 0.5 to 1. The Coerecivity sharply drops for x=0.5, which can be explained by the decrease of the anisotropy constant K1 Curie temperature Tc decreases linearly with increasing ' x'. Crystallographic studies were explained on the cation distribution consistent with Gorter spin model of parallel alignment.

  10. Ultra-low temperature processing of barium tellurate dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Do-Kyun

    Ceramics, metals and polymers have unique electrical properties that are combined for electronic devices and systems. It necessitates lower processing temperatures for ceramics to be compatible with metal and polymer systems. In this thesis, the synthesis, crystal structure, and dielectric properties of barium tellurate are studied for temperatures between 500 and 900°C. Barium tellurate dielectric ceramics (BaTe4O9, BaTe 2O5, BaTe2O6, BaTeO3, BaTeO 4, and Ba2TeO5) are extensively investigated as new LTCC (Low-Temperature Cofired Ceramics) dielectric systems integrated with low resistivity metal electrodes such as silver and aluminum for microwave application. Studies on the phase formation and crystal structure through thermal analyses (Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Thermogravimetric Analysis, DSC-TGA) and X-ray diffraction phase analysis attest that barium tellurates are formed in the temperature range of 500 ˜ 900°C, through the sequential phase formations from Te-rich to Ba-rich phases. The oxygen coordination of the tellurium ion progresses from TeO4 to TeO6 via TeO 3+1 and TeO3 with increasing barium content as confirmed by structural analysis using infrared spectroscopy. High density barium tellurate ceramics are achieved at temperatures as low as 550°C, which provides the potential to be co-fired with low-melting aluminum metal electrodes in LTCC processing. Dielectric permittivity, loss, and temperature stability of barium tellurate dielectric ceramics were measured from 100 Hz to 13 GHz. Barium tellurate ceramics exhibit excellent microwave dielectric properties with intermediate dielectric permittivities and high quality factors (Q). The dielectric properties at microwave frequencies are epsilonr = 17.5, Qxf = 54700 GHz, TCf = -90 ppm/°C for BaTe4O9, epsilonr = 21, Qxf = 50300 GHz, TCf = -51 ppm/°C for BaTe2O6, epsilonr = 10, Qxf = 34000 GHz, TCf = -54 ppm/°C for BaTeO3, and epsilonr = 17, Qx f = 49600 GHz, TCf = -124 ppm/°C for Ba 2TeO5

  11. Preliminary study of the CRRES magnetospheric barium releases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huba, J. D.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Lyon, J. G.

    1992-01-01

    Preliminary theoretical and computational analyses of the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) magnetospheric barium releases are presented. The focus of the studies is on the evolution of the diamagnetic cavity which is formed by the barium ions as they expand outward, and on the structuring of the density and magnetic field during the expansion phase of the releases. Two sets of simulation studies are discussed. The first set is based upon a 2D ideal MHD code and provides estimates of the time and length scales associated with the formation and collapse of the diamagnetic cavity. The second set uses a nonideal MHD code; specifically, the Hall term is included. This additional term is critical to the dynamics of sub-Alfvenic plasma expansions, such as the CRRES barium releases, because it leads to instability of the expanding plasma. Detailed simulations of the G4 and G10 releases were performed. In both cases the expanding plasma rapidly structured: the G4 release structured at time t less than about 3 s and developed scale sizes of about 1-2 km, while the G10 release structured at time t less than about 22 s and developed scale sizes of about 10-15 km. It is also found that the diamagnetic cavity size is reduced from those obtained from the ideal MHD results because of the structure. On the other hand, the structuring allows the formation of plasma blobs which appear to free stream across the magnetic field; thus, the barium plasma can propagate to larger distances traverse to the magnetic field than the case where no structuring occurs. Finally, a new normal mode of the system was discovered which may be excited at the leading edge of the expanding barium plasma.

  12. Carriage of Escherichia coli Producing CTX-M-Type Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase in Healthy Vietnamese Individuals.

    PubMed

    Bui, Thi Mai Huong; Hirai, Itaru; Ueda, Shuhei; Bui, Thi Kim Ngan; Hamamoto, Kouta; Toyosato, Takehiko; Le, Danh Tuyen; Yamamoto, Yoshimasa

    2015-10-01

    Healthy carriage of CTX-M-type extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli was examined by thrice collecting fecal samples from the same 199 healthy Vietnamese subjects every 6 months. Using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), identical PFGE patterns throughout the three samplings were not observed, although prevalence of E. coli in the subjects was around 50% in the three samplings. Our results suggested a short carriage period of the CTX-M-type ESBL-producing E. coli in healthy Vietnamese subjects. PMID:26195526

  13. An improved SELEX technique for selection of DNA aptamers binding to M-type 11 of Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Hamula, Camille L A; Peng, Hanyong; Wang, Zhixin; Tyrrell, Gregory J; Li, Xing-Fang; Le, X Chris

    2016-03-15

    Streptococcus pyogenes is a clinically important pathogen consisting of various serotypes determined by different M proteins expressed on the cell surface. The M type is therefore a useful marker to monitor the spread of invasive S. pyogenes in a population. Serotyping and nucleic acid amplification/sequencing methods for the identification of M types are laborious, inconsistent, and usually confined to reference laboratories. The primary objective of this work is to develop a technique that enables generation of aptamers binding to specific M-types of S. pyogenes. We describe here an in vitro technique that directly used live bacterial cells and the Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX) strategy. Live S. pyogenes cells were incubated with DNA libraries consisting of 40-nucleotides randomized sequences. Those sequences that bound to the cells were separated, amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), purified using gel electrophoresis, and served as the input DNA pool for the next round of SELEX selection. A specially designed forward primer containing extended polyA20/5Sp9 facilitated gel electrophoresis purification of ssDNA after PCR amplification. A counter-selection step using non-target cells was introduced to improve selectivity. DNA libraries of different starting sequence diversity (10(16) and 10(14)) were compared. Aptamer pools from each round of selection were tested for their binding to the target and non-target cells using flow cytometry. Selected aptamer pools were then cloned and sequenced. Individual aptamer sequences were screened on the basis of their binding to the 10 M-types that were used as targets. Aptamer pools obtained from SELEX rounds 5-8 showed high affinity to the target S. pyogenes cells. Tests against non-target Streptococcus bovis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Enterococcus species demonstrated selectivity of these aptamers for binding to S. pyogenes. Several aptamer sequences were found to bind

  14. Design, testing, fabrication and launch support of a liquid chemical barium release payload (utilizing the liquid fluorine-barium salt/hydrazine system)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stokes, C. S.; Smith, E. W.; Murphy, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    A payload was designed which included a cryogenic oxidizer tank, a fuel tank, and burner section. Release of 30 lb of chemicals was planned to occur in 2 seconds at the optimum oxidizer to fuel ratio. The chemicals consisted of 17 lb of liquid fluorine oxidizer and 13 lb of hydrazine-barium salt fuel mixture. The fuel mixture was 17% barium chloride, 16% barium nitrate, and 67% hydrazine, and contained 2.6 lb of available barium. Two significant problem areas were resolved during the program: explosive valve development and burner operation. The release payload was flight tested, from Wallops Island, Virginia. The release took place at an altitude of approximately 260 km. The release produced a luminous cloud which expanded very rapidly, disappearing to the human eye in about 20 seconds. Barium ion concentration slowly increased over a wide area of sky until measurements were discontinued at sunrise (about 30 minutes).

  15. Surface studies of barium and barium oxide on tungsten and its application to understanding the mechanism of operation of an impregnated tungsten cathode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forman, R.

    1976-01-01

    Surface studies have been made of multilayer and monolayer films of barium and barium oxide on a tungsten substrate. The purpose of the investigation was to synthesize the surface conditions that exist on an activated impregnated tungsten cathode and obtain a better understanding of the mechanism of operation of such cathodes. The techniques employed in these measurements were Auger spectroscopy and work-function measurements. The results of this study show that the surface of an impregnated cathode is identical to that observed for a synthesized monolayer or partial monolayer of barium on oxidized tungsten by evaluating Auger spectra and work-function measurements. Data obtained from desorption studies of barium monolayers on a tungsten substrate in conjunction with Auger and work-function results have been interpreted to show that throughout most of its life an impreganated cathode has a partial monolayer, rather than a monolayer, of barium on its surface.

  16. Effect of thermal treatment on magnetic and dielectric response of SrM hexaferrites obtained by hydrothermal synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilczer, Andrzej; Andrzejewski, Bartłomiej; Markiewicz, Ewa; Kowalska, Katarzyna; Pietraszko, Adam

    2014-11-01

    Electric, dielectric and magnetic properties of SrFe12O19 hexaferrite ceramics obtained from hydrothermally synthesized single-phase nanopowders were studied in wide temperature range. The effect of space charge polarization, related to highly conducting grains with poor conducting grain boundaries, was found to be apparent at high temperatures and at low frequencies. The activation energy of relaxation of the (Fe3+-Fe2+) dipoles in low conducting grain boundary regions was found to amount to 0.20 eV for non-annealed ceramics and to increase to 0.32 eV after thermal treatment. The temperature and frequency dependences of the dielectric permittivity for non-annealed and annealed SrFe12O19 ceramics were found to be correlated with respective dependences of the electric conductivity. We relate the observed increase in the saturation magnetization after annealing to an increase in coherent spin rotation in greater grains, which are however still below the critical single-domain size.

  17. Microstructure and magnetic properties of La-Co substituted strontium hexaferrite films prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoudpanah, S. M.; Ebrahimi, S. A. Seyyed; Ong, C. K.

    2013-09-01

    Microstructure and magnetic properties of La-Co substituted strontium hexaferrite films (Sr1-xLaxFe12-xCoxO19) fabricated by pulsed laser deposition on Si(100)/Pt(111) substrate were investigated. The coercivities of the films in perpendicular direction were higher than those in in-plane direction which confirms the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of the films. Atomic force microscopy images of the films revealed decreasing of the plate-like grains size, from 300 to 110 nm with increasing the La-Co contents. The saturation magnetization increased slightly till x=0.2 and then decreased from x=0.2 to x=0.4. However, the coercivity increased from 2.3 kOe for the SrFe12O19 film to 4.1 kOe for the Sr0.6La0.4Fe11.6Co0.4O19 film, because of the decrease of the grain size and increase of the magnetic anisotropy field.

  18. Dielectric and magnetic properties of ZnCo-substituted X hexaferrites prepared by citrate sol-gel process

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Haijun; Liu Zhichao; Yao Xi; Zhang Liangying; Wu Mingzhong

    2003-01-25

    Ba{sub 2}Zn{sub 2-x}Co{sub x}Fe{sub 28}O{sub 46} hexaferrites with x=2.0, 1.6, 1.2, 0.8, 0.4 and 0.0 were prepared by citrate sol-gel process. They were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC). The frequency-response complex dielectric constant and complex permeability of Ba{sub 2}Zn{sub 2-x}Co{sub x}Fe{sub 28}O{sub 46} sintered at 1000-1200 deg. C had been investigated in the range from 100 MHz to 6 GHz. The pronounced natural resonance phenomena were observed in {mu}'' spectrum for the samples annealed at 1100 and 1200 deg. C. The natural resonance frequency of Ba{sub 2}Zn{sub 2-x}Co{sub x}Fe{sub 28}O{sub 46} ferrites was intensively affected by the substitution of Zinc ion and annealing temperature.

  19. Dielectric function for doped graphene layer with barium titanate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez Ramos, Manuel; Garces Garcia, Eric; Magana, Fernado; Vazquez Fonseca, Gerardo Jorge

    2015-03-01

    The aim of our study is to calculate the dielectric function for a system formed with a graphene layer doped with barium titanate. Density functional theory, within the local density approximation, plane-waves and pseudopotentials scheme as implemented in Quantum Espresso suite of programs was used. We considered 128 carbon atoms with a barium titanate cluster of 11 molecules as unit cell with periodic conditions. The geometry optimization is achieved. Optimization of structural configuration is performed by relaxation of all atomic positions to minimize their total energies. Band structure, density of states and linear optical response (the imaginary part of dielectric tensor) were calculated. We thank Dirección General de Asuntos del Personal Académico de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, partial financial support by Grant IN-106514 and we also thank Miztli Super-Computing center the technical assistance.

  20. Particularities of Radiation Defect Formation in Ceramic Barium Cerate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khromushin, I. V.; Aksenova, T. I.; Tuseev, T.; Munasbaeva, K. K.; Ermolaev, Yu V.; Ermolaev, V. N.; Seitov, A. S.

    2015-04-01

    The effects of irradiation with electrons, ions of noble gases (Ne, Ar, Kr) and oxygen on the structure and properties of neodymium-doped barium cerate have been studied using the methods of X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron and atomic force microscopy, thermal desorption spectroscopy. It was shown that irradiation by low-energy ions of noble gases stimulates the blistering processes on the sample surface, while the high-energy ions contribute to formation of the structures on the irradiated surface that resemble the various stages of spherulitegrowth. The similar structures were not observed in the case of irradiation with high-energy oxygen ions. According to the data on thermal desorption of water and oxygen molecules from the irradiated barium cerate it was supposed that irradiation by the noble gas ions promotes neodymium oxidation state change. It was noticed that the electron irradiation leads to the formation of the nano-sized acicular structures on the cerate surface.

  1. Absolute Te_2 reference for barium ion at 4554 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Tarun; De Munshi, Debashis; Mukherjee, Manas

    2016-06-01

    Precision atomic spectroscopy is presently the work horse in quantum information technology, metrology, trace analysis and even for fundamental tests in physics. Stable lasers are inherent part of precision spectroscopy which in turn requires absolute wavelength markers suitably placed corresponding to the atomic species being probed. Here we present, new lines of tellurium (Te$_2$) which allows locking of external cavity diode laser (ECDL) for precision spectroscopy of singly charged barium ions. In addition, we have developed an ECDL with over 100 GHz mod-hop-free tuning range using commercially available diode from $\\textit{Nichia}$. These two developments allow nearly drift-free operation of a barium ion trap set-up with one single reference cell thereby reducing the complexity of the experiment.

  2. Barium titanate nanoparticles: promising multitasking vectors in nanomedicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graziana Genchi, Giada; Marino, Attilio; Rocca, Antonella; Mattoli, Virgilio; Ciofani, Gianni

    2016-06-01

    Ceramic materials based on perovskite-like oxides have traditionally been the object of intense interest for their applicability in electrical and electronic devices. Due to its high dielectric constant and piezoelectric features, barium titanate (BaTiO3) is probably one of the most studied compounds of this family. Recently, an increasing number of studies have been focused on the exploitation of barium titanate nanoparticles (BTNPs) in the biomedical field, owing to the high biocompatibility of BTNPs and their peculiar non-linear optical properties that have encouraged their use as nanocarriers for drug delivery and as label-free imaging probes. In this review, we summarize all the recent findings about these ‘smart’ nanoparticles, including the latest, most promising potential as nanotransducers for cell stimulation.

  3. NASA/Max Planck Institute Barium Ion Cloud Project.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brence, W. A.; Carr, R. E.; Gerlach, J. C.; Neuss, H.

    1973-01-01

    NASA and the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE), Munich, Germany, conducted a cooperative experiment involving the release and study of a barium cloud at 31,500 km altitude near the equatorial plane. The release was made near local magnetic midnight on Sept. 21, 1971. The MPE-built spacecraft contained a canister of 16 kg of Ba CuO mixture, a two-axis magnetometer, and other payload instrumentation. The objectives of the experiment were to investigate the interaction of the ionized barium cloud with the ambient medium and to deduce the properties of electric fields in the proximity of the release. An overview of the project is given to briefly summarize the organization, responsibilities, objectives, instrumentation, and operational aspects of the project.

  4. The Skylab barium plasma injection experiments. I - Convection observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wescott, E. M.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Davis, T. N.; Peek, H. M.

    1976-01-01

    Two barium-plasma injection experiments were carried out during magnetically active periods in conjunction with the Skylab 3 mission. The high-explosive shaped charges were launched near dawn on November 27 and December 4, 1973, UT. In both cases, the AE index was near 400 gammas, and extensive pulsating auroras covered the sky. The first experiment, Skylab Alpha, occurred in the waning phase of a 1000-gamma substorm, and the second, Skylab Beta, occurred in the expansive phase of an 800-gamma substorm. In both, the convection was generally magnetically eastward, with 100-km-level electric fields near 40 mV/m. However, in the Alpha experiment the observed orientation of the barium flux tube fit theoretical field lines having no parallel current, but the Beta flux-tube orientation indicated a substantial upward parallel sheet current.

  5. Observations and theory of the AMPTE magnetotail barium releases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernhardt, P. A.; Roussel-Dupre, R. A.; Pongratz, M. B.; Haerendel, G.; Valenzuela, A.

    1987-01-01

    The barium releases in the magnetotail during the Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Explorers (AMPTE) operation were monitored by ground-based imagers and by instruments on the Ion Release Module. After each release, the data show the formation of a structured diamagnetic cavity. The cavity grows until the dynamic pressure of the expanding ions balances the magnetic pressure on its surface. The magnetic field inside the cavity is zero. The barium ions collect on the surface of the cavity, producing a shell. Plasma irregularities form along magnetic field lines draped over the surface of the cavity. The scale size of the irregularities is nearly equal to the thickness of the shell. The evolution and structuring of the diamagnetic cavity are modeled using magnetohydrodynamics theory.

  6. Numerical simulation of a radially injected barium cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, D. W.; Wescott, E. M.

    1981-01-01

    Electrostatic two-dimensional numerical simulations of a radially symmetric barium injection experiment demonstrate that ions created by solar UV irradiation are electrostatically bound to the electrons which remain tied to the field lines on which they are created. Two possible instabilities are identified, but neither of them causes the barium plasma cloud to polarize in a way that would permit the plasma to keep up with the neutrals. In a second model, the velocity of the neutrals is allowed to be a function of the azimuthal angle. Here, a portion of the cloud does polarize in a way that allows a portion of the plasma to detach and move outward at the approximate speed of the neutrals. No rapid detachment is found when only the density of the neutrals is given an azimuthal asymmetry.

  7. Study of the photovoltaic effect in thin film barium titanate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grannemann, W. W.; Dharmadhikari, V. S.

    1982-01-01

    Ferroelectric films of barium titanate were synthesized on silicon and quartz substrates, and the photoelectric effect in the structure consisting of metal deposited ferroelectric barium titanate film silicon was studied. A photovoltage with polarity that depends on the direction of the remanent polarization was observed. The deposition of BaTiO3 on silicon and fused quartz substrates was accomplished by an rf sputtering technique. A series of experiments to study the growth of ferroelectric BaTiO3 films on single crystal silicon and fused quartz substrates were conducted. The ferroelectric character in these films was found on the basis of evidence from the polarization electric field hysteresis loops, capacitance voltage and capacitance temperature techniques and from X-ray diffraction studies.

  8. Barium titanate nanoparticles: promising multitasking vectors in nanomedicine.

    PubMed

    Genchi, Giada Graziana; Marino, Attilio; Rocca, Antonella; Mattoli, Virgilio; Ciofani, Gianni

    2016-06-10

    Ceramic materials based on perovskite-like oxides have traditionally been the object of intense interest for their applicability in electrical and electronic devices. Due to its high dielectric constant and piezoelectric features, barium titanate (BaTiO3) is probably one of the most studied compounds of this family. Recently, an increasing number of studies have been focused on the exploitation of barium titanate nanoparticles (BTNPs) in the biomedical field, owing to the high biocompatibility of BTNPs and their peculiar non-linear optical properties that have encouraged their use as nanocarriers for drug delivery and as label-free imaging probes. In this review, we summarize all the recent findings about these 'smart' nanoparticles, including the latest, most promising potential as nanotransducers for cell stimulation. PMID:27145888

  9. Barium borohydride chlorides: synthesis, crystal structures and thermal properties.

    PubMed

    Grube, Elisabeth; Olesen, Cathrine H; Ravnsbæk, Dorthe B; Jensen, Torben R

    2016-05-10

    Here we report the synthesis, mechanism of formation, characterization and thermal decomposition of new barium borohydride chlorides prepared by mechanochemistry and thermal treatment of MBH4-BaCl2, M = Li, Na or K in ratios 1 : 1 and 1 : 2. Initially, orthorhombic barium chloride, o-BaCl2 transforms into o-Ba(BH4)xCl2-x, x ∼ 0.15. Excess LiBH4 leads to continued anion substitution and a phase transformation into hexagonal barium borohydride chloride h-Ba(BH4)xCl2-x, which accommodates higher amounts of borohydride, possibly x ∼ 0.85 and resembles h-BaCl2. Thus, two solid solutions are in equilibrium during mechano-chemical treatment of LiBH4-BaCl2 (1 : 1) whereas LiBH4-BaCl2 (2 : 1) converts to h-Ba(BH4)0.85Cl1.15. Upon thermal treatment at T > ∼200 °C, h-Ba(BH4)0.85Cl1.15 transforms into another orthorhombic barium borohydride chloride compound, o-Ba(BH4)0.85Cl1.15, which is structurally similar to o-BaBr2. The samples with M = Na and K have lower reactivity and form o-Ba(BH4)xCl2-x, x ∼ 0.1 and a solid solution of sodium chloride dissolved in solid sodium borohydride, Na(BH4)1-xClx, x = 0.07. The new compounds and reaction mechanisms are investigated by in situ synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction (SR-PXD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and simultaneous thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), mass spectroscopy (MS) and temperature programmed photographic analysis (TPPA). PMID:27109871

  10. Synthesis and characterization of barium ferrite–silica nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar-González, M.A.; Mendoza-Suárez, G.; Padmasree, K.P.

    2013-10-15

    In this work, we prepared barium ferrite-silica (BaM-SiO{sub 2}) nanocomposites of different molar ratios by high-energy ball milling, followed by heat-treatment at different temperatures. The microstructure, morphology and magnetic properties were characterized for different synthesis conditions by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). The results indicate that 15 h of milling was enough to avoid the generation of hematite phase and to get a good dispersion of barium ferrite particles in the ceramic matrix. For milling periods beyond 15 h and heat treatment above 900 °C, the XRD patterns showed the presence of hematite phase caused by the decomposition of BaM. The agglomerate size observed through SEM analysis was around 150 nm with a good BaM dispersion into the SiO{sub 2} matrix. The highest saturation magnetization (Ms) value obtained was 43 emu/g and the corresponding coercivity (Hc) value of 3.4 kOe for the composition 60BaM-40SiO{sub 2} milled for 15 h and heat treated at 900 °C. This coercivity value is acceptable for the application in magnetic recording media. Highlights: • Barium ferrite–silica nanocomposites were prepared by high energy ball milling. • Optimal processing time is 15 h milling and heat treatment at 900 °C. • This is enough to avoid the generation of hematite phase. • Obtain good dispersion of barium ferrite particles in the ceramic matrix • Above this processing time shows the presence of increased amount of hematite.

  11. Layer morphology and growth mechanisms in barium ferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, G.; Stewart, B.; Baird, T.; Peacock, R. D.; Cairns-Smith, A. G.

    1996-01-01

    Crystals of hexagonal barium ferrites have been grown using a standard flux technique and, as a modification, on platinum tabs removed early from the hot flux. Products have been examined by SEM. Mature crystals often show highly laminated structures. Early crystals may consist of thin, somewhat flexible plates or slabs which overgrow themselves in ways which provide a possible explanation for the long c-axis repeats previously reported in these materials.

  12. Acute barium intoxication following ingestion of soap water solution

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Nandita; Sharma, Chhavi Sarabpreert; Sai; Sharma, Jai Prakash

    2012-01-01

    We present a rare case in which a young girl ingested a solution of a hair-removing soap. The ingestion resulted in profound hypokalemia and severe acidosis leading to flaccid paralysis, respiratory arrest and ventricular arrhythmias. Ultimately the patient made complete recovery. The soapwas found to contain barium sulfide. The degree of paralysis and acidosis appeared to be directly related to serum potassium levels. PMID:23559738

  13. Giant magnetoresistance due to magnetoelectric currents in Sr{sub 3}Co{sub 2}Fe{sub 24}O{sub 41} hexaferrites

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xian; Su, Zhijuan; Sokolov, Alexander; Hu, Bolin; Andalib, Parisa; Chen, Yajie Harris, Vincent G.

    2014-09-15

    The giant magnetoresistance and magnetoelectric (ME) effects of Z-type hexaferrite Sr{sub 3}Co{sub 2}Fe{sub 24}O{sub 41} were investigated. The present experiments indicated that an induced magnetoelectric current in a transverse conical spin structure not only presented a nonlinear behavior with magnetic field and electric field but also depended upon a sweep rate of the applied magnetic field. More interestingly, the ME current induced magnetoresistance was measured, yielding a giant room temperature magnetoresistance of 32.2% measured at low magnetic fields (∼125 Oe). These results reveal great potential for emerging applications of multifunctional magnetoelectric ferrite materials.

  14. Life Model of Hollow Cathodes Using a Barium Calcium Aluminate Impregnated Tungsten Emitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kovaleski, S. D.; Burke, Tom (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Hollow cathodes with barium calcium aluminate impregnated tungsten emitters for thermionic emission are widely used in electric propulsion. These high current, low power cathodes are employed in ion thrusters, Hall thrusters, and on the International Space Station in plasma contactors. The requirements on hollow cathode life are growing more stringent with the increasing use of electric propulsion technology. The life limiting mechanism that determines the entitlement lifetime of a barium impregnated thermionic emission cathode is the evolution and transport of barium away from the emitter surface. A model is being developed to study the process of barium transport and loss from the emitter insert in hollow cathodes. The model accounts for the production of barium through analysis of the relevant impregnate chemistry. Transport of barium through the approximately static gas is also being treated. Finally, the effect of temperature gradients within the cathode are considered.

  15. The Tordo 1 polar cusp barium plasma injection experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wescott, E. M.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Davis, T. N.; Jeffries, R. A.; Roach, W. H.

    1978-01-01

    In January 1975, two barium plasma injection experiments were carried out with rockets launched into the upper atmosphere where field lines from the dayside cusp region intersect the ionosphere. The Tordo 1 experiment took place near the beginning of a worldwide magnetic storm. It became a polar cap experiment almost immediately as convection perpendicular to the magnetic field moved the fluorescent plasma jet away from the cusp across the polar cap in an antisunward direction. Convection across the polar cap with an average velocity of more than 1 km/s was observed for nearly 40 min until the barium flux tubes encountered large electron fields associated with a poleward bulge of the auroral oval near Greenland. Prior to the encounter with the aurora near Greenland there is evidence of upward acceleration of the barium ions while they were in the polar cap. The three-dimensional observations of the plasma orientation and motion give an insight into convection from the cusp region across the polar cap, the orientation of the polar cap magnetic field lines out to several earth radii, the causes of polar cap magnetic perturbations, and parallel acceleration processes.

  16. Barium aluminosilicate reinforced in situ with silicon nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, K.K.; Freitag, D.W.; Hunn, D.L.

    1995-10-01

    Advanced ceramic composite materials that exhibit high strength and toughness with good thermal shock resistance are needed for emerging high-temperature engineering applications. A recently developed in situ reinforced barium aluminosilicate glass-ceramic shows promise of meeting many of the requirements for these types of applications with the added benefit of low-cost fabrication through densification by pressureless sintering. The material is toughened through in situ growth of rodlike {beta}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} grains resulting from the {alpha}-{beta} silicon nitride phase transformation. Microstructural development and material properties for temperatures up to 1,400 C are discussed. When compared to monolithic barium aluminosilicate, barium aluminosilicate reinforced with 70% by volume of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} shows a significant increase in flexural strength (from 80 to 565 MPa) and fracture toughness (from 1.8 to 5.74 MPa {center_dot} m{sup 1/2}) with a high resistance to thermal shock.

  17. Mechanism of action of barium ion on rat aortic smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Hansen, T R; Dineen, D X; Petrak, R

    1984-03-01

    The mechanism of action of barium ion on the aortic smooth muscle of the normal rat was investigated using in vitro calcium-depleted aortic strips. Aortic strips were depleted of calcium by repeated exposure to norepinephrine in a calcium-free bathing solution. Although calcium depletion abrogated the response of strips to catecholamines and depolarizing agents, the response to barium chloride remained quantitatively intact. The calcium influx blocker D 600 prevented the contractile response to barium but not to catecholamines, whereas phentolamine prevented the response to catecholamines but not barium. The strip response to barium was depressed by a twofold increase in extracellular magnesium concentration whether the strip was intact or calcium depleted. Although increased concentrations of calcium in the extracellular medium inhibited the contractile response to potassium ion, increases in barium merely potentiated the potassium contracture. These findings indicate that barium produces its contractile effect on vascular smooth muscle by a direct intracellular interaction with the contractile or regulatory proteins. Barium enters these cells via calcium influx channels and is probably not sequestered in a physiologically releasable pool. Unlike calcium, barium does not stabilize the smooth muscle sarcolemma when present in high concentration. PMID:6703038

  18. Barium can replace calcium in calmodulin-dependent contractions of skinned renal arteries of the rabbit.

    PubMed

    Kreye, V A; Hofmann, F; Mühleisen, M

    1986-03-01

    Renal arteries of the rabbit were chemically skinned using Triton X-100. In EGTA-buffered solutions containing calmodulin and ATP, small strips of the skinned preparations were found to develop contractile force which was dependent on the concentrations of either free calcium or of free barium. However, a 220 times greater concentration of barium than of calcium was necessary for comparable effects. Quantitatively, the response to barium was dependent on the concentration of calmodulin added to the test solutions. The contractile effect of barium was partly antagonized by the calmodulin antagonist, trifluoperazine. PMID:3960707

  19. Hexagonal ferrites of X-, W-, and M-type in the system Sr-Fe-O: A comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Töpfer, Jörg; Seifert, Daniela; Le Breton, Jean-Marie; Langenhorst, Falko; Chlan, Vojtech; Kouřil, Karel; Štěpánková, Helena

    2015-03-01

    Three hexagonal ferrites from the Fe-rich part of the pseudo-binary system SrO-Fe2O3 were investigated. Besides the well-known M-type SrFe12O19 two other ferrites were found to exist at high temperatures: W-type SrFe22 + Fe163 + O27 and X-type Sr2 Fe22 + Fe283 + O46 ferrites. A detailed characterization of the X-type Sr-ferrite is reported here for the first time using XRD, HRTEM, magnetization measurements, Mössbauer and 57Fe NMR spectroscopies and ab initio calculations of the electronic structure. The results are compared to those of W- and M-type Sr ferrites. Mössbauer spectra were analyzed with six Fe contributions in the case of the X-type, seven Fe-sites for the W-type and five Fe sites for the M-type in agreement with crystal structure arrangements. Based on a detailed analysis of the NMR spectra in comparison with ab initio calculations the NMR lines were assigned to individual crystal sites. A preferential occupation of ferrous ions in the S blocks of the X- and W-type ferrites was elucidated from Mössbauer and NMR data as well as ab initio calculations.

  20. Resistance and Protective Immunity in Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Exposed to M Type Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus (IHNV)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kurath, Gael; Garver, Kyle; Purcell, Maureen K.; LaPatra, Scott E.

    2010-01-01

    Differential virulence of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) isolates from the U and M phylogenetic subgroups is clearly evident in the Redfish Lake (RFL) strain of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka. In these fish, experimental immersion challenges with U isolates cause extremely high mortality and M isolates cause low or no mortality. When survivors of M virus immersion challenges were exposed to a secondary challenge with virulent U type virus they experienced high mortality, indicating that the primary M challenge did not elicit protective immunity. Delivery of a moderate dose (2 × 104 plaque-forming units [PFU]/fish) of virus by intraperitoneal injection challenge did not overcome RFL sockeye salmon resistance to M type IHNV. Injection challenge with a high dose (5 × 106 PFU/fish) of M type virus caused 10% mortality, and in this case survivors did develop protective immunity against a secondary U type virus challenge. Thus, although it is possible for M type IHNV to elicit cross-protective immunity in this disease model, it does not develop after immersion challenge despite entry, transient replication of M virus to low levels, stimulation of innate immune genes, and development of neutralizing antibodies in some fish.

  1. Electrical conductivity of cobalt-titanium substituted SrCaM hexaferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eraky, M. R.

    2012-03-01

    A series of polycrystalline M-type hexagonal ferrites with the composition Sr0.5Ca0.5CoxTixFe12-2xO19 (where x=0.0-0.8) were prepared by the conventional ceramic technique. The electrical conductivity has been measured from 300 to 590 K. The dc conductivity, σdc, exhibited a semiconductor behavior. The negative sign of thermoelectric power coefficient S reveals that all samples are n-type semiconductors. Both σdc and mobility, μd, increases with the substitution of Co2+ and Ti4+ ions, reach maximum at x=0.4 and start decreasing at x>0.4. Many conduction mechanisms were discussed to explain the electric conduction in the system. It was found that the hopping conduction is the predominant conduction mechanism. For samples with compositional parameter x=0.0 and 0.8, the band conduction mechanism shares in electric conduction beside the hopping process.

  2. Effect of oxygen pressure on microstructure and magnetic properties of strontium hexaferrite (SrFe 12O 19) film prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoudpanah, S. M.; Seyyed Ebrahimi, S. A.; Ong, C. K.

    2012-04-01

    The effects of oxygen pressure during deposition on microstructure and magnetic properties of strontium hexaferrite (SrFe12O19) films grown on Si (100) substrate with Pt (111) underlayer by pulsed laser deposition have been investigated. X-ray diffraction pattern confirms that the films have c-axis perpendicular orientation. The c-axis dispersion (Δθ50) increases and c-axis lattice parameter decreases with increasing oxygen pressure. The films have hexagonal shape grains with diameter of 150-250 nm as determined by atomic force microscopy. The coercivities in perpendicular direction are higher than those in in-plane direction, which shows the films have perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. The saturation magnetization and anisotropy field for the film deposited in oxygen pressure of 0.13 mbar are comparable to those of the bulk strontium hexaferrite. Higher oxygen pressure leads to the films having higher coercivity and squareness. The coercivity in perpendicular and in-plane directions of the film deposited in oxygen pressure of 0.13 mbar are 2520 Oe and 870 Oe, respectively.

  3. Tungsten and barium transport in the internal plasma of hollow cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polk, James E.; Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Capece, Angela M.

    2009-06-01

    The effect of tungsten erosion, transport, and redeposition on the operation of dispenser hollow cathodes was investigated in detailed examinations of the discharge cathode inserts from 8200 h and 30 352 h ion engine wear tests. Erosion and subsequent redeposition of tungsten in the electron emission zone at the downstream end of the insert reduce the porosity of the tungsten matrix, preventing the flow of barium from the interior. This inhibits the interfacial reactions of the barium-calcium-aluminate impregnant with the tungsten in the pores. A numerical model of barium transport in the internal xenon discharge plasma shows that the barium required to reduce the work function in the emission zone can be supplied from upstream through the gas phase. Barium that flows out of the pores of the tungsten insert is rapidly ionized in the xenon discharge and pushed back to the emitter surface by the electric field and drag from the xenon ion flow. This barium ion flux is sufficient to maintain a barium surface coverage at the downstream end greater than 0.6, even if local barium production at that point is inhibited by tungsten deposits. The model also shows that the neutral barium pressure exceeds the equilibrium vapor pressure of the impregnant decomposition reaction over much of the insert length, so the reactions are suppressed. Only a small region upstream of the zone blocked by tungsten deposits is active and supplies the required barium. These results indicate that hollow cathode failure models based on barium depletion rates in vacuum dispenser cathodes are very conservative.

  4. A review of the health impacts of barium from natural and anthropogenic exposure.

    PubMed

    Kravchenko, Julia; Darrah, Thomas H; Miller, Richard K; Lyerly, H Kim; Vengosh, Avner

    2014-08-01

    There is an increasing public awareness of the relatively new and expanded industrial barium uses which are potential sources of human exposure (e.g., a shale gas development that causes an increased awareness of environmental exposures to barium). However, absorption of barium in exposed humans and a full spectrum of its health effects, especially among chronically exposed to moderate and low doses of barium populations, remain unclear. We suggest a systematic literature review (from 1875 to 2014) on environmental distribution of barium, its bioaccumulation, and potential and proven health impacts (in animal models and humans) to provide the information that can be used for optimization of future experimental and epidemiological studies and developing of mitigative and preventive strategies to minimize negative health effects in exposed populations. The potential health effects of barium exposure are largely based on animal studies, while epidemiological data for humans, specifically for chronic low-level exposures, are sparse. The reported health effects include cardiovascular and kidney diseases, metabolic, neurological, and mental disorders. Age, race, dietary patterns, behavioral risks (e.g., smoking), use of medications (those that interfere with absorbed barium in human organism), and specific physiological status (e.g., pregnancy) can modify barium effects on human health. Identifying, evaluating, and predicting the health effects of chronic low-level and moderate-level barium exposures in humans is challenging: Future research is needed to develop an understanding of barium bioaccumulation in order to mitigate its potential health impacts in various exposured populations. Further, while occupationally exposed at-risk populations exist, it is also important to identify potentially vulnerable subgroups among non-occupationally exposed populations (e.g., elderly, pregnant women, children) who are at higher risk of barium exposure from drinking water and food

  5. Electrical Behavior of Tb-Mn Substituted Y-Type Hexa-ferrites for High-Frequency Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Irshad; Islam, M. U.; Ashiq, Muhammad Naeem; Sadiq, Imran; Khan, M. Azhar; Karamat, Nazia; Ishaque, M.; Murtaza, G.; Shakir, Imran; Ahmad, Zahoor

    2015-04-01

    Single phase nanostructured Tb-Mn substituted Y-type hexaferrites with composition Sr2Co2 -x Mn x Tb y Fe12- y O22 ( x = 0.0-1, y = 0.0-0.1) have been synthesized by the normal microemulsion technique. X-ray diffraction patterns reveal the formation of Y-type hexagonal single phase. The crystallite size, calculated by Scherer's formula, is found in the range of 30-48 nm, which is well suitable for obtaining good signal-to-noise ratio in high density recording media. The enhancement in direct current resistivity has been attributed to the reduction in Fe3+ ions at octahedral sites. The Arrhenius plots show that there are two conduction mechanisms operating in the synthesized materials: in the ferri-region, the conduction is due to electrons, whereas in the para-region, it is due to polaron hopping phenomena. The calculated values of activation energy in the para-region are greater than 0.40 eV, which clearly suggests that the conduction phenomenon is due to hopping of polarons. Variation of dielectric constant with frequency depicts that the dielectric constant initially decreases with increase in frequency, while at higher frequency it decreases slowly. The dielectric results are in agreement with the Maxwell-Wagner model. Both the resonance and relaxation peaks at high frequency have been observed in dielectric loss and tan δ data. It has been noted that such types of peaks appear when hopping frequency becomes equal to that of the external applied field. The high values of resistivity and low dielectric loss make these materials best candidates for high frequency applications.

  6. Weldability of corrosion-resistant high-nitrogen austenitic Kh22AG16N8M-type steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bannykh, O. A.; Blinov, V. M.; Kostina, M. V.; Blinov, E. V.; Zvereva, T. N.

    2007-10-01

    The influence of thermal treatment on the structures and mechanical properties of welds of corrosion-resistant high-nitrogen austenitic 05Kh22AG16N8M-type steels is studied. In these steels, austenite is found to be highly resistant to discontinuous precipitation and the formation of σ phase and δ ferrite upon cooling regardless of the temperature of heating for quenching (from 900 to 1250°C) and the cooling conditions (water, air, furnace). Welding of these steels can produce high-strength welds with an enhanced impact toughness.

  7. The effect of barium on perceptions of taste intensity and palatability.

    PubMed

    Dietsch, Angela M; Solomon, Nancy Pearl; Steele, Catriona M; Pelletier, Cathy A

    2014-02-01

    Barium may affect the perception of taste intensity and palatability. Such differences are important considerations in the selection of dysphagia assessment strategies and interpretation of results. Eighty healthy women grouped by age (younger, older) and genetic taste status (supertaster, nontaster) rated intensity and palatability for seven tastants prepared in deionized water with and without 40 % w/v barium: noncarbonated and carbonated water, diluted ethanol, and high concentrations of citric acid (sour), sodium chloride (salty), caffeine (bitter), and sucrose (sweet). Mixed-model analyses explored the effects of barium, taster status, and age on perceived taste intensity and acceptability of stimuli. Barium was associated with lower taste intensity ratings for sweet, salty, and bitter tastants, higher taste intensity in carbonated water, and lower palatability in water, sweet, sour, and carbonated water. Older subjects reported lower palatability (all barium samples, sour) and higher taste intensity scores (ethanol, sweet, sour) compared to younger subjects. Supertasters reported higher taste intensity (ethanol, sweet, sour, salty, bitter) and lower palatability (ethanol, salty, bitter) than nontasters. Refusal rates were highest for younger subjects and supertasters, and for barium (regardless of tastant), bitter, and ethanol. Barium suppressed the perceived intensity of some tastes and reduced palatability. These effects are more pronounced in older subjects and supertasters, but younger supertasters are least likely to tolerate trials of barium and strong tastant solutions. PMID:24037100

  8. 75 FR 36629 - Barium Chloride From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... Barium Chloride From China, 75 FR 33824 (June 15, 2010), and Barium Chloride from China (Inv. No. 731-TA... Five-year (``Sunset'') Review, 74 FR 31412 (July 1, 2009). As a result of its review, the Department... China: Final Results of Expedited Third Sunset Review of Antidumping Duty Order, 74 FR 55814 (October...

  9. Description of the barium cloud vectoring systems developed for the PLACES test series

    SciTech Connect

    Finnell, R.T.

    1981-05-01

    The PLACES experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of ionospheric plasmas (created by barium vapor released from rockets) on satellite communications and navigation systems. Launcher setting angles for the rockets were provided by a minicomputer system made up of four subsystems. This report describes the subsystems which determined the barium cloud vectors from TV data alone and from combined radar/TV data.

  10. LACK OF EFFECT OF DRINKING WATER BARIUM ON CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Higher cardiovascular mortality has been associated in a single epidemiological study with higher levels of barium in drinking water. he purpose of this study was to determine whether drinking water barium at levels found in some U.S. communities alters the known risk factors for...

  11. Agglomeration behavior of solid nickel on polycrystalline barium titanate

    SciTech Connect

    Weil, K Scott; Mast, Eric S; Sprenkle, Vince

    2007-11-01

    This letter describes the phenomenon that takes place between nickel/barium titanate couples when heated under conditions employed in multilayer ceramic capacitor manufacturing practice: a 4hr, 1300°C isothermal anneal in 1% H2 – 99% N2. Dense, sputtered nickel films were observed to dewet the titanate and agglomerate into discrete or interconnected islands via a solid-state process. Up to a critical film thickness value of ~1.4 μm, the degree of agglomeration was found to display an exponential dependence on the thickness of the original nickel film.

  12. Defect chemistry and proton conductivity in barium-based perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jian

    The site incorporation mechanism of M3+ dopats into A 2+B4+O3 perovskites controls the overall defect chemistry and thus their transport properties. For charge balance reasons, incorporation onto the A2+ site would require the creation of negatively charged point defects, such as cation vacancies, whereas incorporation onto the B4+ site is accompanied by the generation of positively charged defects, typically oxygen vacancies. Oxygen vacancy content, in turn, is relevant to proton conducting oxides in which protons are introduced via the dissolution of hydroxyl ions at vacant oxygen sites. This work proposes that, on the basis of X-ray powder diffraction studies, electron microscopy, chemical analysis, thermal gravimetric analysis, AC impedance spectroscopy, extended X-ray fine structure (EXAFS) and atomistic simulation, that nominally B-site doped barium cerate can exhibit dopant partitioning partially as a consequence of barium evaporation at elevated temperatures. Such partitioning and the presence of significant dopant concentrations on the A-site negatively impact proton conductivity. As a consequence of the greater ability of larger cations to exist on the Ba site, the H2O adsorption and proton conductivities of large-cation doped barium cerates are lower than those of small-cation doped analogs. A series of dopats, La, Nd, Sm, Gd and Yb are adopted in doped BaCeO 3 with the composition BaCe0.85M0.15O3-delta . Yb doped BaCeO3 yields the highest proton conductivity among all the doped samples. Compositional non-stoichiometry, which is closely tied to sample processing, is studied in a BaXCe0.85M 0.15O3+/-delta series. It is indicated that low temperature synthesis is beneficial to reduce barium evaporation at elevated temperatures and in turn increase the proton conductivity. The chemical stability of BaCeO 3 is investigated and Zr is used to stabilize BaCeO3 in CO 2-rich atmosphere effectively. This result helps to commercialize doped BaCeO3 as the

  13. The barium ion jet experiments of the Porcupine project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haerendel, G.

    1980-06-01

    The injection of a barium plasma from a sounding rocket by the shaped charge technique offers several possibilities that cannot be achieved by conventional releases. This is due to high initial velocities of the atoms of up to 14 km/sec. Most of the the applications are related to the great heights that the ions can reach, but some depend directly on the initial momentum. Typical applications are: tracing at high altitudes, modifications, and alternate Ionization processes. Project Porcupine contributions in this field are summarized.

  14. Radium and barium in the Amazon River system

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, W.S.; Edmond, J.M.

    1984-03-20

    Data for /sup 226/Ra and /sup 228/Ra in the Amazon River system show that the activity of each radium isotope is strongly correlated with barium concentrations. Two trends are apparent, one for rivers which drain shield areas and another for all other rivers. These data suggest that there has been extensive fractionation of U, Th, and Ba during weathering in the Amazon basin. The /sup 226/Ra data fit a flux model for the major ions indicating that /sup 226/Ra behaves conservatively along the main channel of the Amazon River.

  15. Nanodielectric system for cryogenic applications: Barium titanate filled polyvinyl alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Tuncer, Enis; Sauers, Isidor; James, David Randy; Ellis, Alvin R; Duckworth, Robert C

    2008-01-01

    In the current study the focus is on dielectric properties (as a function of frequency and temperature) of a polymeric composite system composed of polyvinyl alcohol and barium titanate nano powder. In the investigations, the temperature range is between 50-295 K, and the frequency range is between $20\\ \\hertz-1\\ \\mega\\hertz$. Polarization and conduction processes are investigated in the linear regime. Dielectric breakdown strengths of samples are also reported. The materials presented have potential to be implemented in cryogenic capacitor or field grading applications.

  16. Enhanced flexoelectricity through residual ferroelectricity in barium strontium titanate

    SciTech Connect

    Garten, Lauren M. Trolier-McKinstry, Susan

    2015-03-07

    Residual ferroelectricity is observed in barium strontium titanate ceramics over 30 °C above the global phase transition temperature, in the same temperature range in which anomalously large flexoelectric coefficients are reported. The application of a strain gradient leads to strain gradient-induced poling or flexoelectric poling. This was observed by the development of a remanent polarization in flexoelectric measurements, an induced d{sub 33} piezoelectric response even after the strain gradient was removed, and the production of an internal bias of 9 kV m{sup −1}. It is concluded that residual ferroelectric response considerably enhances the observed flexoelectric response.

  17. Strain engineered barium strontium titanate for tunable thin film resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Khassaf, H.; Khakpash, N.; Sun, F.; Sbrockey, N. M.; Tompa, G. S.; Kalkur, T. S.; Alpay, S. P.

    2014-05-19

    Piezoelectric properties of epitaxial (001) barium strontium titanate (BST) films are computed as functions of composition, misfit strain, and temperature using a non-linear thermodynamic model. Results show that through adjusting in-plane strains, a highly adaptive rhombohedral ferroelectric phase can be stabilized at room temperature with outstanding piezoelectric response exceeding those of lead based piezoceramics. Furthermore, by adjusting the composition and the in-plane misfit, an electrically tunable piezoelectric response can be obtained in the paraelectric state. These findings indicate that strain engineered BST films can be utilized in the development of electrically tunable and switchable surface and bulk acoustic wave resonators.

  18. Barium dierbium(III) tetra­sulfide

    PubMed Central

    Mesbah, Adel; Stojko, Wojciech; Ibers, James. A

    2013-01-01

    Barium dierbium(III) tetra­sulfide, BaEr2S4, crystallizes with four formula units in the ortho­rhom­bic space group Pnma in the CaFe2O4 structure type. The asymmetric unit contains two Er, one Ba, and four S atoms, each with .m. site symmetry. The structure consists of channels formed by corner- and edge-sharing ErS6 octa­hedra in which Ba atoms reside. The resultant coordination of Ba is that of a bicapped trigonal prism. PMID:23476480

  19. Barium impaction therapy with balloon occlusion for deep colonic diverticular bleeding: a three-case series

    PubMed Central

    Koga, Mikinori; Kusano, Chika; Gotoda, Takuji; Suzuki, Sho; Sato, Takemasa; Fukuzawa, Masakatsu; Itoi, Takao; Moriyasu, Fuminori

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims: In hemostasis for colonic diverticular bleeding, the incidence of recurrent bleeding is higher in deep colonic diverticulum than in shallow. We aimed to improve and evaluate barium impaction therapy using an enteroscopic overtube with balloon. Patients and method: We performed barium impaction therapy in three patients with a diagnosis of deep colonic diverticular bleeding. The tip of the overtube was inserted to reach the cecum using the conventional method. After deflating the colon, the enteroscope was removed. The balloon in the tube was inflated, followed by barium filling via the tube. Sufficient pressure was applied by ensuring no regurgitation into the small intestine side. The entire colon was continuously filled with barium in stages. Results: Post-treatment bleeding was controllable without adverse events in all three patients. Conclusion: This novel barium impaction therapy using an enteroscopic overtube with balloon was effectively performed without adverse events. PMID:27227115

  20. Setting process of lime-based conservation mortars with barium hydroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Karatasios, Ioannis . E-mail: ikarat@ims.demokritos.gr; Kilikoglou, Vassilis; Colston, Belinda; Theoulakis, Panagiotis; Watt, David

    2007-06-15

    This paper presents the effect of barium hydroxide on the setting mechanism of lime-based conservation mortars, when used as an additive material. The study focuses on the monitoring of the setting process and the identification of the mineral phases formed, which are essential for furthering the study of the durability of barium mixtures against chemical degradation. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermal analysis (DTA-TG) were used to monitor the setting processes of these mixtures and identify new phases formed. The results suggest that barium hydroxide is evenly distributed within the lime and produces a homogeneous binding material, consisting of calcite (CaCO{sub 3}), witherite (BaCO{sub 3}) and barium-calcium carbonate [BaCa(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}]. Finally, it was found that barium carbonate can be directly bonded to calcitic aggregates and therefore increases its chemical compatibility with the binding material.

  1. Occultation of the ATS-3 satellite by the AVEFRIA barium ion cloud

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzgerald, T.J.; Simons, D.J.; Pongratz, M.B.; Clynch, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    During the AVEFRIA DOS barium release experiment, sponsored by the Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Defense Nuclear Agency in May 1978, the line of sight from one of the ground observation stations to the ATS-3 satellite was occulted by the barium ion cloud for a period of approximately five minutes. Optical measurements of the structured barium ion cloud were made with intensified cameras using the 455.4-nm wavelength fluorescent ion line. These measurements have been related to barium ion column density. During the occultation, the amplitude scintillations of the 136.47-MHz signal from the ATS-3 satellite were monitored. The optical measurements have been used to correlate the barium column density with the total electron content measurements and to calculate the scintillation index, S/sub 4/, and the two dimensional intensity pattern for comparison with the measured amplitude scintillations.

  2. Tungsten and Barium Transport in the Internal Plasma of Hollow Cathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polk, James E.; Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Capece, Angela M.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of tungsten erosion, transport and redeposition on the operation of dispenser hollow cathodes was investigated in detailed examinations of the discharge cathode inserts from an 8200 hour and a 30,352 hour ion engine wear test. Erosion and subsequent re-deposition of tungsten in the electron emission zone at the downstream end of the insert reduces the porosity of the tungsten matrix, preventing the flow of barium from the interior. This inhibits the interfacial reactions of the barium-calcium-aluminate impregnant with the tungsten in the pores. A numerical model of barium transport in the internal xenon discharge plasma shows that the barium required to reduce the work function in the emission zone can be supplied from upstream through the gas phase. Barium that flows out of the pores of the tungsten insert is rapidly ionized in the xenon discharge and pushedback to the emitter surface by the electric field and drag from the xenon ion flow. Thisbarium ion flux is sufficient to maintain a barium surface coverage at the downstream endgreater than 0.6, even if local barium production at that point is inhibited by tungsten deposits. The model also shows that the neutral barium pressure exceeds the equilibrium vapor pressure of the impregnant decomposition reaction over much of the insert length,so the reactions are suppressed. Only a small region upstream of the zone blocked by tungsten deposits is active and supplies the required barium. These results indicate that hollowcathode failure models based on barium depletion rates in vacuum dispenser cathodes are very conservative.

  3. Endotrophic Calcium, Strontium, and Barium Spores of Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus cereus1

    PubMed Central

    Foerster, Harold F.; Foster, J. W.

    1966-01-01

    Foerster, Harold F. (The University of Texas, Austin), and J. W. Foster. Endotrophic calcium, strontium, and barium spores of Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus cereus. J. Bacteriol. 91:1333–1345. 1966.—Spores were produced by washed vegetative cells suspended in deionized water supplemented with CaCl2, SrCl2, or BaCl2. Normal, refractile spores were produced in each case; a portion of the barium spores lost refractility and darkened. Thin-section electron micrographs revealed no apparent anatomical differences among the three types of spores. Analyses revealed that the different spore types were enriched specifically in the metal to which they were exposed during sporogenesis. The calcium content of the strontium and the barium spores was very small. From binary equimolar mixtures of the metal salts, endotrophic spores accumulated both metals to nearly the same extent. Viability of the barium spores was considerably less than that of the other two types. Strontium and barium spores were heat-resistant; however, calcium was essential for maximal heat resistance. Significant differences existed in the rates of germination; calcium spores germinated fastest, strontium spores were slower, and barium spores were slowest. Calcium-barium and calcium-strontium spores germinated readily. Endotrophic calcium and strontium spores germinated without the prior heat activation essential for growth spores. Chemical germination of the different metal-type spores with n-dodecylamine took place at the same relative rates as physiological germination. Heat-induced release of dipicolinic acid occurred much faster with barium and strontium spores than with calcium spores. The washed “coat fraction” from disrupted spores contained little of the spore calcium but most of the spore barium. The metal in this fraction was released by dilute acid. The demineralized coats reabsorbed calcium and barium at neutral pH. Images PMID:4956334

  4. Dissolution of Barium from Barite in Sewage Sludges and Cultures of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans

    PubMed Central

    Baldi, F.; Pepi, M.; Burrini, D.; Kniewald, G.; Scali, D.; Lanciotti, E.

    1996-01-01

    High concentrations of total barium, ranging from 0.42 to 1.58 mg(middot)g(sup-1) (dry weight) were found in sludges of two sewage treatment plants near Florence, Italy. Barium concentrations in the suspended matter decreased as redox potential values changed from negative to positive. An anoxic sewage sludge sample was aerated, and 30% of the total barium was removed in 24 h. To demonstrate that barium was solubilized from barite by sulfate-reducing bacteria, a strain of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans was used to study the solubilization of barium from barite under laboratory conditions. During cell growth with different concentrations of barite from 0.01 to 0.3 g(middot)liter(sup-1) (the latter is the MIC) as the only source of sulfates in the cultures, the D. desulfuricans strain accumulated barium up to 0.58 (mu)g(middot)mg(sup-1) (dry weight). Three times the quantity of barium was dissolved by bacteria than in the uninoculated medium (control). The unexpectedly low concentration of soluble barium (1.2 mg of Ba(middot)liter(sup-1)) with respect to the quantity expected (109 mg of Ba(middot)liter(sup-1)), calculated on the basis of the free H(inf2)S evolved from the dissimilatory reduction of sulfate from barite, was probably due to the formation of other barium compounds, such as witherite (BaCO(inf3)) and the transient species barium sulfide (BaS). The D. desulfuricans strain, growing on barite, formed visible aggregates. Confocal microscopy analysis showed that aggregates consisted of bacteria and barite. After 3 days of incubation, several autofluorescent crystals surrounded by a dissolution halo were observed. The crystals were identified as BaS by comparison with the commercial compound. PMID:16535353

  5. Proton trapping in yttrium-doped barium zirconate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Yoshihiro; Blanc, Frédéric; Okuyama, Yuji; Buannic, Lucienne; Lucio-Vega, Juan C.; Grey, Clare P.; Haile, Sossina M.

    2013-07-01

    The environmental benefits of fuel cells have been increasingly appreciated in recent years. Among candidate electrolytes for solid-oxide fuel cells, yttrium-doped barium zirconate has garnered attention because of its high proton conductivity, particularly in the intermediate-temperature region targeted for cost-effective solid-oxide fuel cell operation, and its excellent chemical stability. However, fundamental questions surrounding the defect chemistry and macroscopic proton transport mechanism of this material remain, especially in regard to the possible role of proton trapping. Here we show, through a combined thermogravimetric and a.c. impedance study, that macroscopic proton transport in yttrium-doped barium zirconate is limited by proton-dopant association (proton trapping). Protons must overcome the association energy, 29 kJ mol-1, as well as the general activation energy, 16 kJ mol-1, to achieve long-range transport. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance studies show the presence of two types of proton environment above room temperature, reflecting differences in proton-dopant configurations. This insight motivates efforts to identify suitable alternative dopants with reduced association energies as a route to higher conductivities.

  6. Results of magnetospheric barium ion cloud experiment of 1971

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamson, D.; Fricke, C. L.; Long, S. A. T.

    1975-01-01

    The barium ion cloud experiment involved the release of about 2 kg of barium at an altitude of 31 482 km, a latitude of 6.926 N., and a longitude of 74.395 W. Significant erosion of plasma from the main ion core occurred during the initial phase of the ion cloud expansion. From the motion of the outermost striational filaments, the electric field components were determined to be 0.19 mV/m in the westerly direction and 0.68 mV/m in the inward direction. The differences between these components and those measured from balloons flown in the proximity of the extremity of the field line through the release point implied the existence of potential gradients along the magnetic field lines. The deceleration of the main core was greater than theoretically predicted. This was attributed to the formation of a polarization wake, resulting in an increase of the area of interaction and resistive dissipation at ionospheric levels. The actual orientation of the magnetic field line through the release point differed by about 10.5 deg from that predicted by magnetic field models that did not include the effect of ring current.

  7. Plasma waves associated with the first AMPTE magnetotail barium release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, D. A.; Anderson, R. R.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Luehr, H.; Haerendel, G.

    1986-01-01

    Plasma waves observed during the March 21, 1985, AMPTE magnetotail barium release are described. Electron plasma oscillations provided local measurements of the plasma density during both the expansion and decay phases. Immediately after the explosion, the electron density reached a peak of about 400,000/cu cm, and then started decreasing approximately as t to the -2.4 as the cloud expanded. About 6 minutes after the explosion, the electron density suddenly began to increase, reached a secondary peak of about 240/cu cm, and then slowly decayed down to the preevent level over a period of about 15 minutes. The density increase is believed to be caused by the collapse of the ion cloud into the diamagnetic cavity created by the initial expansion. The plasma wave intensities observed during the entire event were quite low. In the diamagnetic cavity, electrostatic emissions were observed near the barium ion plasma frequency, and in another band at lower frequencies. A broadband burst of electrostatic noise was also observed at the boundary of the diamagnetic cavity. Except for electron plasma oscillations, no significant wave activity was observed outside of the diamagnetic cavity.

  8. Liquid-Phase Processing of Barium Titanate Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, David Thomas

    Processing of thin films introduces strict limits on the thermal budget due to substrate stability and thermal expansion mismatch stresses. Barium titanate serves as a model system for the difficulty in producing high quality thin films because of sensitivity to stress, scale, and crystal quality. Thermal budget restriction leads to reduced crystal quality, density, and grain growth, depressing ferroelectric and nonlinear dielectric properties. Processing of barium titanate is typically performed at temperatures hundreds of degrees above compatibility with metalized substrates. In particular integration with silicon and other low thermal expansion substrates is desirable for reductions in costs and wider availability of technologies. In bulk metal and ceramic systems, sintering behavior has been encouraged by the addition of a liquid forming second phase, improving kinetics and promoting densification and grain growth at lower temperatures. This approach is also widespread in the multilayer ceramic capacitor industry. However only limited exploration of flux processing with refractory thin films has been performed despite offering improved dielectric properties for barium titanate films at lower temperatures. This dissertation explores physical vapor deposition of barium titanate thin films with addition of liquid forming fluxes. Flux systems studied include BaO-B2O3, Bi2O3-BaB2O 4, BaO-V2O5, CuO-BaO-B2O3, and BaO-B2O3 modified by Al, Si, V, and Li. Additions of BaO-B2O3 leads to densification and an increase in average grain size from 50 nm to over 300 nm after annealing at 900 °C. The ability to tune permittivity of the material improved from 20% to 70%. Development of high quality films enables engineering of ferroelectric phase stability using residual thermal expansion mismatch in polycrystalline films. The observed shifts to TC match thermodynamic calculations, expected strain from the thermal expansion coefficients, as well as x-ray diffract measurements

  9. Structural and magnetic properties of La–Co substituted Sr–Ca hexaferrites synthesized by the solid state reaction method

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yujie; Liu, Xiansong Jin, Dali; Ma, Yuqi

    2014-11-15

    Graphical abstract: The change of the remanence (B{sub r}) and intrinsic coercivity (H{sub cj}) with La content (x) and Co content (y) of hexagonal ferrite Sr{sub 0.7−x}Ca{sub 0.3}La{sub x}Fe{sub 12−y}Co{sub y}O{sub 19} magnets. - Highlights: • Sr{sub 0.7−x}Ca{sub 0.3}La{sub x}Fe{sub 12−y}Co{sub y}O{sub 19} hexaferrites were synthesized by the solid state reaction method. • B{sub r} continuously increases with increasing dopant contents. • H{sub cb}, H{sub cj} and (BH){sub max} for the magnets first increases and then decreases with an increase in the La–Co contents. - Abstract: Hexagonal ferrite Sr{sub 0.7−x}Ca{sub 0.3}La{sub x}Fe{sub 12−y}Co{sub y}O{sub 19} (x = 0.05–0.50; y = 0.04–0.40) magnetic powders and magnets were synthesized by the solid state reaction method. X-ray diffraction was employed to determine the phase compositions of the magnetic powders. There is a single magnetoplumbite phase in the magnetic powders with the substitution of La (0.05 ≤ x ≤ 0.15) and Co (0.04 ≤ y ≤ 0.12) contents. For the magnetic powders containing La (x ≥ 0.20) and Co (y ≥ 0.16), magnetic impurities begin to appear in the structure. A field emission scanning electron microscope was used to characterize the micrographs of the magnets. The magnets have formed hexagonal structures. Magnetic properties of the magnets were measured by a magnetic properties test instrument. The remanence continuously increases with increasing dopant contents. Whereas, the magnetic induction coercivity, intrinsic coercivity and maximum energy product for the magnets first increases and then decreases with an increase in the La–Co contents.

  10. Plasma cell granuloma of the sigmoid colon associated with diverticular disease and accompanying IgM-type monoclonal gammopathy.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yuichi; Kayano, Hidekazu; Shimada, Tsuneyuki; Ito, Yoshihiro; Bessho, Masami

    2010-01-01

    Plasma cell granuloma is a pseudoneoplastic lesion composed of reactive plasma cells of a polyclonal nature and must be distinguished from plasmacytoma. We report a case of plasma cell granuloma in the sigmoid colon associated with diverticulosis. In this case, the lesion consisted of multiple submucosal tumors with prominent infiltration of polyclonal plasma cells. Although the patient exhibited IgM-type monoclonal gammopathy, the expression of a monoclonal immunoglobulin was not detected in the sigmoid colonic lesion, but in the bone marrow cells. Plasma cell granuloma in the lower alimentary tract has been rarely reported. Recurrent inflammatory process with diverticular disease was considered as a pathogenesis of the pseudoneoplasm and a possible cause of monoclonal proliferation of IgM-producing lymphoid cells in this case. PMID:20118600

  11. Transformation of hexagonal to mixed spinel crystal structure and magnetic properties of Co2+ substituted BaFe12O19

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavan, Varsha C.; Shirsath, Sagar E.; Mane, Maheshkumar L.; Kadam, R. H.; More, Surendra S.

    2016-01-01

    M-type barium hexaferrites Ba1-xCoxFe12O19 (x=0.0-1.00 with steps of 0.25) were synthesized by sol-gel autocombination method and were post-annealed at relatively low temperature at 600 °C. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry. Crystal transformed from pure Ba-hexaferrite to spinel with Co2+ substitution. Results of scanning electron microscope show that the grains are regular and well-defined structured. Infrared spectra support the nature and crystal symmetry that obtained from X-ray diffraction pattern study. Magnetization results show that saturation magnetization and magneton number decreased whereas coercivity increased for x>0.50 Co2+ doping.

  12. Characterization of CTX-M-Type Extend-Spectrum β-Lactamase Producing Klebsiella spp. in Kashan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Afzali, Hasan; Firoozeh, Farzaneh; Amiri, Atena; Moniri, Rezvan; Zibaei, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Context: The CTX-M family consists of more than 50 β-lactamases, which are grouped on the basis of sequences into five subtypes including CTX-M-1, CTX-M-2, CTX-M-8, CTX-M-9 and CTX-M-25. Objectives: The current study aimed to detect subtypes of CTX-M extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) among ESBL positive Klebsiella isolates from patients in Kashan, Iran. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 clinical isolates of Klebsiella were collected and the isolates, which showed resistance or reduced susceptibility to cefotaxime, ceftazidime and/or aztreonam by the disk diffusion method were selected. These isolates were identified as ESBL-producing isolates by double disk synergy tests using clavulanic acid, cefotaxime, ceftazidime and aztreonam. The blaCTX-M type determinants were identified by the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) method followed by DNA sequencing. Results: Of the 100 Klebsiella isolates, 41 (41%) demonstrated resistance or reduced susceptibility to ceftazidime and/or aztreonam and 35% (n = 35) were ESBL-producers. Twenty-eight (8o%) of the ESBL-producing isolates carried the blaCTX-M type genes. Based on PCR assays and sequencing of blaCTX-M genes, CTX-M-1, CTX-M-2 and CTX-M-9 were identified in 21 (60%), 15 (42%) and nine (34%) of these isolates, respectively (GenBank accession numbers KJ803828-KJ803829). Conclusions: Our study showed that the frequency of blaCTX-M genes among Klebsiella isolates in our region is at an alarming rate. Also, we found a high prevalence of blaCTX-M-1 β-lactamase in Klebsiella isolates in Kashan. PMID:26587221

  13. Fabrication and characterization of cerium-doped barium titanate inverse opal by sol-gel method

    SciTech Connect

    Jin Yi; Zhu Yihua Yang Xiaoling; Li Chunzhong; Zhou Jinghong

    2007-01-15

    Cerium-doped barium titanate inverted opal was synthesized from barium acetate contained cerous acetate and tetrabutyl titanate in the interstitial spaces of a polystyrene (PS) opal. This procedure involves infiltration of precursors into the interstices of the PS opal template followed by hydrolytic polycondensation of the precursors to amorphous barium titanate and removal of the PS opal by calcination. The morphologies of opal and inverse opal were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The pores were characterized by mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) investigation showed the doping structure of cerium, barium and titanium. And powder X-ray diffraction allows one to observe the influence of doping degree on the grain size. The lattice parameters, crystal size and lattice strain were calculated by the Rietveld refinement method. The synthesis of cerium-doped barium titanate inverted opals provides an opportunity to electrically and optically engineer the photonic band structure and the possibility of developing tunable three-dimensional photonic crystal devices. - Graphical abstract: Cerium-doped barium titanate inverted opal was synthesized from barium acetate acid contained cerous acetate and tetrabutyl titanate in the interstitial spaces of a PS opal, which involves infiltration of precursors into the interstices of the PS opal template and removal of the PS opal by calcination.

  14. Bio-based barium alginate film: Preparation, flame retardancy and thermal degradation behavior.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yun; Zhang, Chuan-Jie; Zhao, Jin-Chao; Guo, Yi; Zhu, Ping; Wang, De-Yi

    2016-03-30

    A bio-based barium alginate film was prepared via a facile ionic exchange and casting approach. Its flammability, thermal degradation and pyrolysis behaviors, thermal degradation mechanism were studied systemically by limiting oxygen index (LOI), vertical burning (UL-94), microscale combustion calorimetry (MCC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) coupled with Fourier transform infrared analysis (FTIR) and pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS). It showed that barium alginate film had much higher LOI value (52.0%) than that of sodium alginate film (24.5%). Moreover, barium alginate film passed the UL-94 V-0 rating, while the sodium alginate film showed no classification. Importantly, peak of heat release rate (PHRR) of barium alginate film in MCC test was much lower than that of sodium alginate film, suggested that introduction of barium ion into alginate film significantly decreased release of combustible gases. TG-FTIR and Py-GC-MS results indicated that barium alginate produced much less flammable products than that of sodium alginate in whole thermal degradation procedure. Finally, a possible degradation mechanism of barium alginate had been proposed. PMID:26794953

  15. SrFeO amorphous underlayer for fabrication of c-axis perpendicularly orientated strontium hexaferrite films by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoudpanah, S. M.; Ong, C. K.

    2013-09-01

    A thin amorphous SrFeO underlayer on Si(100) substrate was pulse laser deposited as an underlayer for the growth of c-axis perpendicularly oriented strontium hexaferrite (SrFe12O19) films. The amorphous SrFeO underlayer was deposited at different temperatures in the range from room temperature to 700 °C, while the SrFe12O19 film was deposited at 700 °C. The SrFe12O19 films exhibited slightly perpendicular magnetic anisotropy by the rather higher coercivities in perpendicular direction (Hc⊥) than those for the in-plane direction (Hc||), due to the c-axis perpendicular orientation. The magnetization and coercivities of the SrFe12O19 film increase, but the magnetic anisotropy (ΔHc=Hc⊥-Hc||) increases firstly and then decreases, as the SrFeO underlayer deposition temperature increases.

  16. Local anisotropic structure in amorphous Ba-Fe-O films and its role in determining magnetic anisotropy in crystallized Ba-hexaferrite films

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, J.E.; Harris, V.G.; Koon, N.C.; Sui, X.; Kryder, M.H.

    1995-11-01

    Ba hexaferrite films with the easy direction of magnetization perpendicular or in-plane can be prepared by crystallization of amorphous films deposited under different sputtering conditions. Using polarization-dependent EXAFS (extended x-ray absorption fine structure), the authors have observed anisotropic local structure around the Fe atoms in as-sputtered amorphous Ba-Fe-O films. Such structure has not been detectable by conventional structural characterization techniques (x-ray diffraction, electron diffraction and transmission electron microscopy [TEM]). The results suggest that this local structural anisotropy determines the orientation of the fast-growing basal plane directions during post-deposition annealing and thus the directions of the c-axes and the magnetic anisotropy

  17. Template preparation of strontium hexaferrite (SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}) micro/nanostructures: Characterization, synthesis mechanism and magnetic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Cong-ju, Li; Guo-rong, Xu

    2011-01-15

    Using electrospun thermoplastic ester elastomer (TPEE) micro/nanofibers as the template, strontium hexaferrite micro/nanostructures with different morphologies were prepared successfully by a combination process composed of sol-gel precursor coating technique and subsequent calcination. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) were used to characterize the morphology, crystalloid structure and the magnetic properties of samples. The relation between the fabricated structure morphologies and TPEE micro/nanofibers properties was studied. It was believed that the hydrogen bond effect competition between TPEE/precursors and precursors/precursors played an important role on the formation of the obtained structures. In addition, the influence of annealing time and annealing rate on the magnetic properties of the samples obtained was investigated. The structures thus fabricated can be potential materials in many fields, drug delivery and photocatalysts for example.

  18. Analysis of the effect of crushing of strontium hexaferrite powders in a vibratory mill on the properties of magnets on their basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostishin, V. G.; Andreev, V. G.; Chitanov, D. N.; Timofeev, A. V.; Adamtsov, A. Yu.; Alekseev, A. A.

    2015-08-01

    We analyze the effect of duration of dry crushing of strontium hexaferrite powders (manufactured at joint-stock corporation Olkon) in a vibratory mill on the degree of disaggregation of powders and on the properties of articles on their basis. It is shown that an increase in the vibrational frequency of the vibromill from 25 to 50 Hz with the amplitude of vibrations maintained in the limits 3-4 mm makes it possible to reduce by 5 times the crushing time ensuring complete disaggregation of powders. An increase in the impact energy of balls with increasing vibrational frequency activates the powders due to microdistortions appearing in the crystal lattice. An increase in the degree of disaggregation of powders leads to sintering and formation of a dense fine-grain microstructure ensuring an increase in the maximal energy product ( BH)max of magnets by 15-20%.

  19. Spin reorientation transition and near room-temperature multiferroic properties in a W-type hexaferrite SrZn{sub 1.15}Co{sub 0.85}Fe{sub 16}O{sub 27}

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Y. Q.; Fang, Y.; Wang, L. Y.; Zhou, W. P.; Cao, Q. Q.; Wang, D. H. Du, Y. W.

    2014-03-07

    In this Letter, we investigate the magnetic and multiferroic properties of a W-type hexaferrite SrZn{sub 1.15}Co{sub 0.85}Fe{sub 16}O{sub 27}. Due to the strong planar contribution to the anisotropy provided by Co{sup 2+} ions, this hexaferrite shows a spin reorientation transition from easy-axis to easy-cone at 302 K, which is different from the onset temperature of ferroelectric polarization, 275 K. By applying magnetic field, a remarkable drop of polarization is observed, suggesting a large magnetoelectric effect in this multiferroics. The difference between spin reorientation and ferroelectric phase transition temperature as well as the origin of magnetoelectric effect are discussed.

  20. An XPS study of the optimum loading of barium on high-silica MFI zeolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, M. H.; Abdillahi, M. M.; Abbas, N. M.; Siddiqui, A. B.

    1995-12-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been applied to the characterization of barium-impregnated MFI high-silica zeolites which are used for the conversion of methanol to light alkenes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy provided information about the degree of the dispersion of the various barium loadings on the silicalite structure, and this information helped in elucidating the observed relationship between the activity/selectivity of the catalysts and the barium loading. The XPS results also helped in predicting that the performance of the catalyst would be optimized at 4 wt% Ba loading which was found to agree with the catalytic conversion of methanol to light alkenes.

  1. Analysis of barium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide slurry carbonation reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Patch, K.D.; Hart, R.P.; Schumacher, W.A.

    1980-05-01

    The removal of CO/sub 2/ from air was investigated by using a continuous-agitated-slurry carbonation reactor containing either barium hydroxide (Ba(OH)/sub 2/) or calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)/sub 2/). Such a process would be applied to scrub /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ from stack gases at nuclear-fuel reprocessing plants. Decontamination factors were characterized for reactor conditions which could alter hydrodynamic behavior. An attempt was made to characterize reactor performance with models assuming both plug flow and various degrees of backmixing in the gas phase. The Ba(OH)/sub 2/ slurry enabled increased conversion, but apparently the process was controlled under some conditions by phenomena differing from those observed for carbonation by Ca(OH)/sub 2/. Overall reaction mechanisms are postulated.

  2. Photorefractive properties of cobalt-doped strontium barium niobate crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Bogodaev, N V; Ivleva, Lyudmila I; Lykov, P A; Polozkov, N M; Osiko, Vyacheslav V

    1999-05-31

    The two-wave interaction (at {lambda} = 488 nm) in strontium barium niobate crystals doped with cobalt ions (Co:SBN) was studied. The experimental dependences of the gain coefficient on the grating period and of the grating response time on the writing beam intensity were used to calculate the Debye screening length, the diffusion length, the dark conductivity, and the effective concentration of carrier traps for a series of Co:SBN crystals with different dopant concentrations. The crystals were shown to have high coupling coefficients ({Gamma} = 33 cm{sup -1}) and short optical response times ({tau} = 140 ms for I = 1 W cm{sup -2} ). This, in combination with a high photorefractive sensitivity (S = 39 cm{sup 2} J{sup -1} ), determines the efficiency of their use in the storage of optical information and in laser phase conjugation. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  3. Synthesis, microstructure and dielectric properties of zirconium doped barium titanate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Rohtash; Asokan, K.; Patnaik, S.; Birajdar, Balaji

    2016-05-01

    We report on synthesis, microstructural and relaxor ferroelectric properties of Zirconium(Zr) doped Barium Titanate (BT) samples with general formula Ba(Ti1-xZrx)O3 (x=0.20, 0.35). These lead-free ceramics were prepared by solid state reaction route. The phase transition behavior and temperature dependent dielectric properties and composition dependent ferroelectric properties were investigated. XRD analysis at room temperature confirms phase purity of the samples. SEM observations revealed retarded grain growth with increasing Zr mole fraction. Dielectric properties of BZT ceramics is influenced significantly by small addition of Zr mole fraction. With increasing Zr mole fraction, dielectric constant decreases while FWHM and frequency dispersion increases. Polarization vs electric field hysteresis measurements reveal ferroelectric relaxor phase at room temperature. The advantages of such substitution maneuvering towards optimizing ferroelectric properties of BaTiO3 are discussed.

  4. Laser irradiation in Nd3+ doped strontium barium niobate glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haro-González, P.; Martín, I. R.; Arbelo-Jorge, E.; González-Pérez, S.; Cáceres, J. M.; Núñez, P.

    2008-07-01

    A local nanocrystalline formation in a neodymium doped strontium barium niobate (SBN) glass has been obtained under argon laser irradiation. The intense emission around 880 nm, originated from the F43/2 (F45/2) thermalized level when the glass structure changes to a glass ceramic structure due to the irradiation of the laser beam, has been studied. The intensities and lifetimes change from this level inside and outside the irradiated area made by the laser excitation. They have been analyzed and demonstrated that the desvitrification process has been successfully achieved. These results confirm that nanocrystals of SBN have been created by the laser action confirming that the transition from glass to glass ceramic has been completed. These results are in agreement with the emission properties of nanocrystals of the bulk glass ceramic sample. The present study also suggests that the SBN nanocrystal has a potential application as temperature detector.

  5. The Performance of Barium Sulfate Nanoparticles/polypropylene Hybrid Multifilament

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ying; Wang, Xuanjun; Mu, Xiaoxi; Zhang, Shujuan

    2012-01-01

    Nanosize barium sulfate (BaSO4) particles prepared with dodecyl benzene sulfonic acid (DBSA) in ethanol-water reaction system are used to prepare BaSO4/polypropylene (PP) nanocomposites by melt mixing method. It is then made into hybrid fibers by melt spinning and subsequent drawing with different ratios. The hybrid fibers are characterized by rheology, morphology, thermal stability and mechanical properties, respectively. The results indicate that the DBSA-modified BaSO4 can improve the spinnability of BaSO4/PP hybrid multifilament even at high BaSO4 nanoparticles concentration. DBSA can be used as compatibilizer to enhance the interface interaction of BaSO4/PP nanocomposites, because DBSA contains both hydrophobicity long alkyl chain and hydrophilic sulfonic group. Therefore, it can improve the performances of BaSO4/PP hybrid multifilament.

  6. A buffer gas cooled beam of barium monohydride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, Geoffrey; Tarallo, Marco; Zelevinsky, Tanya

    2016-05-01

    Significant advances in direct laser cooling of diatomic molecules have opened up a wide array of molecular species to precision studies spanning many-body physics, quantum collisions and ultracold dissociation. We present a cryogenic beam source of barium monohydride (BaH), and study laser ablation of solid precursor targets as well as helium buffer gas cooling dynamics. Additionally, we cover progress towards a molecular magneto-optical trap, with spectroscopic studies of relevant cooling transitions in the B2 Σ <--X2 Σ manifold in laser ablated molecules, including resolution of hyperfine structure and precision measurements of the vibrational Frank-Condon factors. Finally, we examine the feasibility of photo dissociation of trapped BaH molecules to yield optically accessible samples of ultracold hydrogen.

  7. Study on a flexoelectric microphone using barium strontium titanate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, S. R.; Huang, W. B.; Zhang, S. J.; Yuan, F. G.; Jiang, X. N.

    2016-04-01

    In this study, a flexoelectric microphone was, for the first time, designed and fabricated in a bridge structure using barium strontium titanate (Ba0.65Sr0.35TiO3) ceramic and tested afterwards. The prototyped flexoelectric microphone consists of a 1.5 mm  ×  768 μm  ×  50 μm BST bridge structure and a silicon substrate with a cavity. The sensitivity and resonance frequency were designed to be 0.92 pC/Pa and 98.67 kHz, respectively. The signal to noise ratio was measured to be 74 dB. The results demonstrate that the flexoelectric microphone possesses high sensitivity and a wide working frequency range simultaneously, suggesting that flexoelectricity could be an excellent alternative sensing mechanism for microphone applications.

  8. Barium depletion study on impregnated cathodes and lifetime prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roquais, J. M.; Poret, F.; le Doze, R.; Ricaud, J. L.; Monterrin, A.; Steinbrunn, A.

    2003-06-01

    In the thermionic cathodes used in cathode ray-tubes (CRTs), barium is the key element for the electronic emission. In the case of the dispenser cathodes made of a porous tungsten pellet impregnated with Ba, Ca aluminates, the evaporation of Ba determines the cathode lifetime with respect to emission performance in the CRT. The Ba evaporation results in progressive depletion of the impregnating material inside the pellet. In the present work, the Ba depletion with time has been extensively characterized over a large range of cathode temperature. Calculations using the depletion data allowed modeling of the depletion as a function of key parameters. The link between measured depletion and emission in tubes has been established, from which an end-of-life criterion was deduced. Taking modeling into account, predicting accelerated life-tests were performed using high-density maximum emission current (MIK).

  9. Gamma radiation induced darkening in barium gallo-germanate glass.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaodong; Heng, Xiaobo; Tang, Guowu; Zhu, Tingting; Sun, Min; Shan, Xiujie; Wen, Xin; Guo, Jingyuan; Qian, Qi; Yang, Zhongmin

    2016-05-01

    Barium gallo-germanate (BGG) glass is an important glass matrix material used for mid-infrared transmission and mid-infrared fiber laser. In this study, we investigated the γ-ray irradiation induced darkening effect of BGG glass. Optical transmittance spectra, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and thermoluminescence (TL) spectra were employed to investigate the γ-ray irradiation induced defects. Two kinds of Ge-related defects in the irradiated BGG glass, named Ge-related non-bridging oxygen hole center (Ge-NBOHC) and Ge-related electron centers (GEC), were verified. In addition, the absorption bands of the two defects have been separated and the peak absorptivity of Ge-NBOHC and GEC defects is at 375 nm and 315 nm, respectively. PMID:27137531

  10. Synthesis and optical study of barium magnesium aluminate blue phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeet, Suninder; Sharma, Manoj; Pandey, O. P.

    2015-05-01

    Europium doped barium magnesium aluminate (BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+) phosphor was prepared via solution combustion method at 550°C using urea as a fuel. Morphological and optical properties of the prepared sample was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). XRD result showed the formation of pure phase BaMgAl10O17(JCPDS 26-0163) along with an additional phase BaAl2O4(JCPDS 01-082-1350). TEM image indicated the formation of faceted particles with average particle size 40 nm. From PL spectra, a broad emission band obtained at about 450 nm attributes to 4f6 5d → 4f7 transition of Eu2+ which lies in the blue region of the visible spectrum.

  11. Studies on immobilization of thorium in barium borosilicate glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, R. K.; Sengupta, Pranesh; Kaushik, C. P.; Tyagi, A. K.; Kale, G. B.; Raj, Kanwar

    2007-02-01

    The barium borosilicate glass (BBS) matrix has shown considerable solubility of ThO2 at 1000 °C. As seen by X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and Electron probe micro analysis (EPMA) up to 15.86 wt% of ThO2 could be dissolved in this matrix. The homogeneity of thoria loaded glass was convincingly ascertained by EPMA. Attempts to load more than 16 wt% ThO2 led to the phase separation of crystalline phases identified as major phase of ThO2 and minor percentage of ThSiO4 phase with altogether different morphologies, as seen by XRD. Interestingly, the back scattered images of thorite crystals point towards the presence of chemical zoning. The results being reported in this paper are of interest especially with respect to immobilization of other actinides in borosilicate glass matrix.

  12. Small polarons and point defects in barium cerate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swift, Michael; Janotti, Anderson; Van de Walle, Chris G.

    2015-12-01

    Barium cerate (BaCeO3) is a well-known ionic conductor of both hydrogen and oxygen. In applications, it is frequently doped (for instance with Y) to increase stability and promote diffusion. However, the effects of doping and native defects are not fully understood. Computational studies have been stymied by the nature of the conduction band, which is made up of cerium 4 f states. These states present a challenge to ab initio techniques based on density functional theory within the standard approximations for exchange and correlation. Using a hybrid functional, we investigate the effects of hydrogen impurities and native defects on the electrical and optical properties of BaCeO3. We discuss the tendency of excess electrons or holes to localize in the form of small polarons. We also explore the interactions of polarons with hydrogen impurities and oxygen vacancies, and their impact on luminescence properties.

  13. Ultrasonic de-agglomeration of barium titanate powder.

    PubMed

    Marković, S; Mitrić, M; Starcević, G; Uskoković, D

    2008-01-01

    BaTiO3 (BT) powder, with average particle size of 1.4 microm, was synthesized by solid-state reaction. A high-intensity ultrasound irradiation (ultrasonication) was used to de-agglomerate micro-sized powder to nano-sized one. The crystal structure, crystallite size, morphology, particle size, particle size distribution, and specific surface area of the BT powder de-agglomerated for different ultrasonication times (0, 10, 60, and 180 min) were determined. It was found that the particles size of the BT powder was influenced by ultrasonic treatment, while its tetragonal structure was maintained. Therefore, ultrasonic irradiation can be proposed as an environmental-friendly, economical, and effective tool for the de-agglomeration of barium titanate powders. PMID:17845864

  14. Synthesis and optical study of barium magnesium aluminate blue phosphors

    SciTech Connect

    Jeet, Suninder Pandey, O. P.; Sharma, Manoj

    2015-05-15

    Europium doped barium magnesium aluminate (BaMgAl{sub 10}O{sub 17}:Eu{sup 2+}) phosphor was prepared via solution combustion method at 550°C using urea as a fuel. Morphological and optical properties of the prepared sample was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). XRD result showed the formation of pure phase BaMgAl{sub 10}O{sub 17}(JCPDS 26-0163) along with an additional phase BaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}(JCPDS 01-082-1350). TEM image indicated the formation of faceted particles with average particle size 40 nm. From PL spectra, a broad emission band obtained at about 450 nm attributes to 4f{sup 6} 5d → 4f{sup 7} transition of Eu{sup 2+} which lies in the blue region of the visible spectrum.

  15. Nonlinear optical properties of calcium barium niobate epitaxial thin films.

    PubMed

    Bancelin, Stéphane; Vigne, Sébastien; Hossain, Nadir; Chaker, Mohammed; Légaré, François

    2016-07-25

    We investigate the potential of epitaxial calcium barium niobate (CBN) thin film grown by pulsed laser deposition for optical frequency conversion. Using second harmonic generation (SHG), we analyze the polarization response of the generated signal to determine the ratios d15 / d32 and d33 / d32 of the three independent components of the second-order nonlinear susceptibility tensor in CBN thin film. In addition, a detailed comparison to the signal intensity obtained in a y-cut quartz allows us to measure the absolute value of these components in CBN thin film: d15 = 5 ± 2 pm / V, d32 = 3.1 ± 0.6 pm / V and d33 = 9 ± 2 pm / V. PMID:27464195

  16. Dynamics of the CRRES barium releases in the magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuselier, S. A.; Mende, S. B.; Geller, S. P.; Miller, M.; Hoffman, R. A.; Wygant, J. R.; Pongratz, M.; Meredith, N. P.; Anderson, R. R.

    1994-01-01

    The Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) G-2, G-3, and G-4 ionized and neutral barium cloud positions are triangulated from ground-based optical data. From the time history of the ionized cloud motion perpendicular to the magnetic field, the late time coupling of the ionized cloud with the collisionless ambient plasma in the magnetosphere is investigated for each of the releases. The coupling of the ionized clouds with the ambient medium is quantitatively consistent with predictions from theory in that the coupling time increases with increasing distance from the Earth. Quantitative comparison with simple theory for the couping time also yields reasonable agreement. Other effects not predicted by the theory are discussed in the context of the observations.

  17. Pulsating aurora induced by upper atmospheric barium releases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deehr, C.; Romick, G.

    1977-01-01

    The paper reports the apparent generation of pulsating aurora by explosive releases of barium vapor near 250 km altitude. This effect occurred only when the explosions were in the path of precipitating electrons associated with the visible aurora. Each explosive charge was a standard 1.5 kg thermite mixture of Ba and CuO with an excess of Ba metal which was vaporized and dispersed by the thermite explosion. Traces of Sr, Na, and Li were added to some of the charges, and monitoring was achieved by ground-based spectrophotometric observations. On March 28, 1976, an increase in emission at 5577 A and at 4278 A was observed in association with the first two bursts, these emissions pulsating with roughly a 10 sec period for approximately 60 to 100 sec after the burst.

  18. Dielectric behavior of barium modified strontium bismuth titanate ceramic

    SciTech Connect

    Nayak, P.; Badapanda, T.; Anwar, S.; Panigrahi, S.

    2014-04-24

    Barium Modified Strontium Bismuth Titanate(SBT) ceramic with general formula Sr1−xBaxBi4Ti4O15 is prepared by solid state reaction route. The structural analysis of the ceramics was done by X-ray diffraction technique. The X-ray patterns show that all the compositions are of single phase with orthorhombic structure. The temperature dependent dielectric behavior shows that the transition temperature decreases with Ba content but the maximum dielectric constant increases. The decreases of the transition with increase in Ba{sup 2+} ion, may be due to the decrease of orthorhombicity by the incorporation of Ba{sup 2+} ion in SBT lattice.

  19. Barium titanate nanocomposite capacitor FY09 year end report.

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, Tyler E.; DiAntonio, Christopher Brian; Yang, Pin; Chavez, Tom P.; Winter, Michael R.; Monson, Todd C.; Roesler, Alexander William; Fellows, Benjamin D.

    2009-11-01

    This late start RTBF project started the development of barium titanate (BTO)/glass nanocomposite capacitors for future and emerging energy storage applications. The long term goal of this work is to decrease the size, weight, and cost of ceramic capacitors while increasing their reliability. Ceramic-based nanocomposites have the potential to yield materials with enhanced permittivity, breakdown strength (BDS), and reduced strain, which can increase the energy density of capacitors and increase their shot life. Composites of BTO in glass will limit grain growth during device fabrication (preserving nanoparticle grain size and enhanced properties), resulting in devices with improved density, permittivity, BDS, and shot life. BTO will eliminate the issues associated with Pb toxicity and volatility as well as the variation in energy storage vs. temperature of PZT based devices. During the last six months of FY09 this work focused on developing syntheses for BTO nanoparticles and firing profiles for sintering BTO/glass composite capacitors.

  20. Structure and static and dynamic magnetic properties of Sr(Co x Ti x )Fe12-2 x O19 hexaferrites produced by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naiden, E. P.; Zhuravlev, V. A.; Itin, V. I.; Minin, R. V.; Suslyaev, V. I.; Dotsenko, O. A.

    2013-01-01

    A resource-effective process to synthesize Sr(Co х Ti х )Fe12-2 x O19 hexaferrites is proposed. The values of saturation magnetization and anisotropy field of the resulting materials are determined. It is shown that an interpretation of the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectra requires that anisotropy of the magnetomechanical ratio should be taken into account in addition to magnetic anisotropy.

  1. Raman Gain Coefficient of Barium Nitrate Measured for the Spectral Region of TI:SAPPHIRE Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisinetskii, V. A.; Mishkel', I. I.; Chulkov, R. V.; Grabtchikov, A. S.; Apanasevich, P. A.; Eichler, H.-J.; Orlovich, V. A.

    We report the measurements of the Raman gain coefficient for a barium nitrate crystal in the spectral region of a Ti:Sapphire laser using Raman amplification. The experimentally-obtained data are well described by the known empirical formula.

  2. The value of the preoperative barium-enema examination in the assessment of pelvic masses

    SciTech Connect

    Gedgaudas, R.K.; Kelvin, F.M.; Thompson, W.M.; Rice, R.P.

    1983-03-01

    The value of the barium-enema examination in the assessment of pelvic masses was studied in 44 patients. Findings from those barium-enema examinations and from pathological specimens from 37 patients who had malignant tumors and seven patients who had endometriosis were retrospectively analyzed to determine if the barium-enema examination is useful in differentiating extrinsic lesions with and without invasion of the colon. None of the 12 patients who had extrinsic lesions had any of the criteria that indicated bowel-wall invasion. These criteria included fixation and serrations of the bowel wall in all patients with invasion, and ulceration and fistulizaton in those patients who had complete transmural invasion. In patients with pelvic masses, the preoperative barium-enema examination may be useful to the surgeon in planning surgery and in preparing the patient for the possibility of partial colectomy or colostomy.

  3. Numberical simulation of the effects of radially injected barium plasma in the ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, D. W.

    1985-01-01

    The morphology of the ion cloud in the radial shaped charge barium injection was studied. The shape of the ion cloud that remains after the explosive products and neutral barium clears away was examined. The ion cloud which has the configuration of a rimless wagon wheel is shown. The major features are the 2.5 km radius black hole in the center of the cloud, the surrounding ring of barium ion and the spokes of barium ionization radiating away from the center. The cloud shows no evolution after it emerges from the neutral debris and it is concluded that it is formed within 5 seconds of the event. A numerical model is used to calculate the motion of ions and electrons subject to the electrostatic and lorenz forces.

  4. Expulsion of Barium and Methane at Mud Volcanoes in the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellini, D. G.; Dickens, G. R.; Snyder, G. T.; Gilhooly, W. P.; Ruppel, C. D.

    2003-12-01

    Submarine mud volcanoes and cold-seeps along continental margins transfer methane from gas-charged marine sediments to the water column. Such methane venting is dynamic and may provide an important and variable supply of carbon to the ocean and atmosphere through time. Barite mounds and chimneys have been found around some modern mud volcanoes and seeps, and similar structures can be identified in the geological record (e.g., bedded barite deposits). These observations suggest that expelled methane-rich fluids are greatly enriched in dissolved barium. However, there are very few analyses of barium concentrations in these systems. Here, we examine the dissolved barium of pore fluids from a series of shallow piston cores across two submarine mud volcanoes in the Gulf of Mexico. Dissolved barium concentrations at 1.5 m below the seafloor at the Garden Bank volcano range from 18200 μ M at the center of the feature to 0.56 μ M on its flanks approximately 1 km away. Similarly, dissolved barium concentrations at the Mississippi Canyon volcano range from 15600 μ M to 0.50 μ M. Thus, the concentrations in the cores of the mud volcanoes are nominally 5 orders of magnitude greater than in mean ocean water ( ˜0.1 μ M). Anaerobic oxidation of upward flowing methane consumes sulfate, which leads to the dissolution of barite and release of barium to pore fluids. Because this mechanism alone cannot explain the extreme concentrations in the mud volcanoes, a deep source of barium may exist in the Gulf of Mexico strata. Our current work is focused on quantifying the fluxes and sedimentary fate of expelled barium at these locations. However, even if a large fraction of the barium precipitates adjacent to the sites of methane venting, fluid expulsion at mud volcanoes must significantly impact the barium cycle in the Gulf of Mexico. Conceivably, submarine mud volcanoes and cold-seeps along continental margins are a major source of barium to the deep ocean, a concept that has

  5. Magnetic properties of Sr-La system M-type ferrite fine particles prepared by controlling the chemical coprecipitation method

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Seki, Hirota

    1999-09-01

    Single phase Sr-La M-type ferrite fine particles were prepared by the chemical coprecipitation and subsequent heat-treatment methods. Optimum magnetic properties were achieved with materials of composition Sr{sub 0.794}{sup 2+}La{sub 0.172}{sup 3+}Fe{sub 0.335}{sup 2+}Fe{sub 11.74}{sup 3+}O{sub 19}, and heat-treatment of 950 C x 2h in air. The magnetic and physical properties are {sigma}{sub s} = 90.5 x 10{sup {minus}6} Wb {center{underscore}dot} m/kg (72.0emu/g), H{sub cJ} = 505.3 kA/m (6.35 kOe), Tc = 454.4 C, the lattice constants a = 0.5882nm, c = 2.303nm, the activation energy = 230.9kJ/mol(55.2kcal/mol), and the average particle size = 0.3{micro}m.

  6. Augmentation of M-type (KCNQ) potassium channels as a novel strategy to reduce stroke-induced brain injury.

    PubMed

    Bierbower, Sonya M; Choveau, Frank S; Lechleiter, James D; Shapiro, Mark S

    2015-02-01

    Cerebral ischemic stroke is a worldwide cause of mortality/morbidity and thus an important focus of research to decrease the severity of brain injury. Therapeutic options for acute stroke are still limited. In neurons throughout the brain, "M-type" K(+) currents, underlain by KCNQ subunits 2-5, play dominant roles in control over excitability, and are thus implicated in myriad neurological and psychiatric disorders. Although KCNQ channel openers, such as retigabine, have emerged as anti-epilepsy drugs, their effects on ischemic injury remain unknown. Here, we investigated the protective effects of M-channel openers on stroke-induced brain injury in mouse photothrombotic and middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) models. Both photothrombosis and MCAo led to rapid, predictable, and consistently sized necrotic brain lesions, inflammatory responses, and behavioral deficits. Administration of three distinct M-channel openers at 0-6 h after ischemic injury significantly decreased brain infarct size and inflammation, and prevented neurological dysfunction, although they were more effective when administered 0-3 h poststroke. Thus, we show beneficial effects against stroke-induced brain injury and neuronal death through pharmacological regulation of ion channels that control neuronal excitability. PMID:25653366

  7. Generation of sub-100-fs Stokes pulses upon SRS in a barium nitrate crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Konyashchenko, Aleksandr V; Losev, Leonid L; Tenyakov, S Yu

    2010-10-15

    72-fs pulses are generated at the first Stokes component frequency upon stimulated Raman scattering in a barium nitrate crystal for the radiation of the Ti{sup 3+}:Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} laser with the pulse duration of 50 fs. The energy efficiency of conversion is 20%. The barium nitrate crystal was optically pumped by two consecutive orthogonally polarised chirped pulses with the following time compression of the Stokes radiation pulse. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  8. Role of Barium Swallow in Diagnosing Clinically Significant Anastomotic Leak following Esophagectomy

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Simon; Iannettoni, Mark D.; Keech, John C.; Bashir, Mohammad; Gruber, Peter J.; Parekh, Kalpaj R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Barium swallow is performed following esophagectomy to evaluate the anastomosis for detection of leaks and to assess the emptying of the gastric conduit. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of the barium swallow study in diagnosing anastomotic leaks following esophagectomy. Methods Patients who underwent esophagectomy from January 2000 to December 2013 at our institution were investigated. Barium swallow was routinely done between days 5–7 to detect a leak. These results were compared to clinically determined leaks (defined by neck wound infection requiring jejunal feeds and or parenteral nutrition) during the postoperative period. The sensitivity and specificity of barium swallow in diagnosing clinically significant anastomotic leaks was determined. Results A total of 395 esophagectomies were performed (mean age, 62.2 years). The indications for the esophagectomy were as follows: malignancy (n=320), high-grade dysplasia (n=14), perforation (n=27), benign stricture (n=7), achalasia (n=16), and other (n=11). A variety of techniques were used including transhiatal (n=351), McKeown (n=35), and Ivor Lewis (n=9) esophagectomies. Operative mortality was 2.8% (n=11). Three hundred and sixty-eight patients (93%) underwent barium swallow study after esophagectomy. Clinically significant anastomotic leak was identified in 36 patients (9.8%). Barium swallow was able to detect only 13/36 clinically significant leaks. The sensitivity of the swallow in diagnosing a leak was 36% and specificity was 97%. The positive and negative predictive values of barium swallow study in detecting leaks were 59% and 93%, respectively. Conclusion Barium swallow is an insensitive but specific test for detecting leaks at the cervical anastomotic site after esophagectomy. PMID:27066433

  9. Barium isotopes in Allende meteorite - Evidence against an extinct superheavy element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, R. S.; Anders, E.; Shimamura, T.; Lugmair, G. W.

    1983-01-01

    Carbon and chromite fractions from the Allende meteorite that contain isotopically anomalous xenon-131 to xenon-136 (carbonaceous chondrite fission or CCF xenon) at up to 5 x 10 to the 11th atoms per gram show no detectable isotopic anomalies in barium-130 to barium-138. This rules out the possibility that the CCF xenon was formed by in situ fission of an extinct superheavy element. Apparently the CCF xenon and its carbonaceous carrier are relics from stellar nucleosynthesis.

  10. Comparison of the reflectance characteristics of polytetrafluoroethylene and barium sulfate paints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butner, C. L.; Schutt, J. B.; Shai, M. C.

    1984-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented of the directional reflectance measurements taken on two tetrafluorethylene (TFE) paints formulated with silicone binders. Both paints are found to be more Lambertian than barium sulfate paint and pressed powder, although the pigment to binder ratios for barium sulfate and TFE paints are about 133 and 3.3 to 1, respectively. The TFE paints exhibit total visible reflectances above 90 percent and offer surfaces that are not significantly affected by water.

  11. Calculations of energy levels and lifetimes of low-lying states of barium and radium

    SciTech Connect

    Dzuba, V. A.; Ginges, J. S. M.

    2006-03-15

    We use the configuration-interaction method and many-body perturbation theory to perform accurate calculations of energy levels, transition amplitudes, and lifetimes of low-lying states of barium and radium. Calculations for radium are needed for the planning of measurements of parity- and time-invariance-violating effects which are strongly enhanced in this atom. Calculations for barium are used to control the accuracy of the calculations.

  12. Barium swallow study in routine clinical practice: a prospective study in patients with chronic cough*,**

    PubMed Central

    Nin, Carlos Shuler; Marchiori, Edson; Irion, Klaus Loureiro; Paludo, Artur de Oliveira; Alves, Giordano Rafael Tronco; Hochhegger, Daniela Reis; Hochhegger, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the routine use of barium swallow study in patients with chronic cough. METHODS: Between October of 2011 and March of 2012, 95 consecutive patients submitted to chest X-ray due to chronic cough (duration > 8 weeks) were included in the study. For study purposes, additional images were obtained immediately after the oral administration of 5 mL of a 5% barium sulfate suspension. Two radiologists systematically evaluated all of the images in order to identify any pathological changes. Fisher's exact test and the chi-square test for categorical data were used in the comparisons. RESULTS: The images taken immediately after barium swallow revealed significant pathological conditions that were potentially related to chronic cough in 12 (12.6%) of the 95 patients. These conditions, which included diaphragmatic hiatal hernia, esophageal neoplasm, achalasia, esophageal diverticulum, and abnormal esophageal dilatation, were not detected on the images taken without contrast. After appropriate treatment, the symptoms disappeared in 11 (91.6%) of the patients, whereas the treatment was ineffective in 1 (8.4%). We observed no complications related to barium swallow, such as contrast aspiration. CONCLUSIONS: Barium swallow improved the detection of significant radiographic findings related to chronic cough in 11.5% of patients. These initial findings suggest that the routine use of barium swallow can significantly increase the sensitivity of chest X-rays in the detection of chronic cough-related etiologies. PMID:24473762

  13. Comparison of Calcium and Barium Microcapsules as Scaffolds in the Development of Artificial Dermal Papillae.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Lin, Changmin; Zeng, Yang; Li, Haihong; Cai, Bozhi; Huang, Keng; Yuan, Yanping; Li, Yu

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to develop and evaluate barium and calcium microcapsules as candidates for scaffolding in artificial dermal papilla. Dermal papilla cells (DPCs) were isolated and cultured by one-step collagenase treatment. The DPC-Ba and DPC-Ca microcapsules were prepared by using a specially designed, high-voltage, electric-field droplet generator. Selected microcapsules were assessed for long-term inductive properties with xenotransplantation into Sprague-Dawley rat ears. Both barium and calcium microcapsules maintained xenogenic dermal papilla cells in an immunoisolated environment and induced the formation of hair follicle structures. Calcium microcapsules showed better biocompatibility, permeability, and cell viability in comparison with barium microcapsules. Before 18 weeks, calcium microcapsules gathered together, with no substantial immune response. After 32 weeks, some microcapsules were near inflammatory cells and wrapped with fiber. A few large hair follicles were found. Control samples showed no marked changes at the implantation site. Barium microcapsules were superior to calcium microcapsules in structural and mechanical stability. The cells encapsulated in hydrogel barium microcapsules exhibited higher short-term viability. This study established a model to culture DPCs in 3D culture conditions. Barium microcapsules may be useful in short-term transplantation study. Calcium microcapsules may provide an effective scaffold for the development of artificial dermal papilla. PMID:27123456

  14. Comparison of Calcium and Barium Microcapsules as Scaffolds in the Development of Artificial Dermal Papillae

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Lin, Changmin; Zeng, Yang; Li, Haihong; Cai, Bozhi; Huang, Keng; Yuan, Yanping; Li, Yu

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to develop and evaluate barium and calcium microcapsules as candidates for scaffolding in artificial dermal papilla. Dermal papilla cells (DPCs) were isolated and cultured by one-step collagenase treatment. The DPC-Ba and DPC-Ca microcapsules were prepared by using a specially designed, high-voltage, electric-field droplet generator. Selected microcapsules were assessed for long-term inductive properties with xenotransplantation into Sprague-Dawley rat ears. Both barium and calcium microcapsules maintained xenogenic dermal papilla cells in an immunoisolated environment and induced the formation of hair follicle structures. Calcium microcapsules showed better biocompatibility, permeability, and cell viability in comparison with barium microcapsules. Before 18 weeks, calcium microcapsules gathered together, with no substantial immune response. After 32 weeks, some microcapsules were near inflammatory cells and wrapped with fiber. A few large hair follicles were found. Control samples showed no marked changes at the implantation site. Barium microcapsules were superior to calcium microcapsules in structural and mechanical stability. The cells encapsulated in hydrogel barium microcapsules exhibited higher short-term viability. This study established a model to culture DPCs in 3D culture conditions. Barium microcapsules may be useful in short-term transplantation study. Calcium microcapsules may provide an effective scaffold for the development of artificial dermal papilla. PMID:27123456

  15. Excess Barium as a Paleoproductivity Proxy: A Reevaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eagle, M.; Paytan, A.

    2001-12-01

    Marine barite may serve as a proxy to reconstruct past export production (Dymond, 1992). In most studies sedimentary barite accumulation is not measured directly, instead a parameter termed excess barium (Baexs), also referred to as biogenic barium, is used to estimate the barite content. Baexs is defined as the total Ba concentration in the sediment minus the Ba associated with terrigenous material. Baexs is calculated by normalization to a constant Ba/Al ratio, typically the average shale ratio. This application assumes that (1) all the Ba besides the fraction associated with terrigenous Al is in the form of barite (the phase related to productivity) (2) the Ba/Alshale is constant in space and time (3) all of the Al is associated with terrigenous matter. If these assumptions are invalidated however, this approach lead to significant errors in calculating export production rates. To test the validity of the use of Baexs as a proxy for barite we compared the Baexs in a wide range of core top sediments from different oceanic settings to the barite content in the same cores. We found that Baexs frequently overestimated the Ba fraction associated with barite and in several cases significant Baexs was measured in the cores where no barite was observed. We have also used a sequential leaching protocol (Collier and Edmond 1984) to determine Ba association with organic matter, carbonates, Fe-Mn hydroxides and silicates. While terrigenous Ba remains an important fraction, in our samples 25-95% of non-barite Ba was derived from other fractions, with Fe-Mn oxides contributing the most Ba. In addition we found that the Ba/Al ratio in the silicate fraction of our samples varied considerably from site to site. The above results suggest that at least two of the underlying assumptions for employing Baexs to reconstruct paleoproductivity are not always valid and previously published data from (Murray and Leinen 1993) indicate that the third assumption may also not hold in every

  16. Analysis of flares in the chromosphere and corona of main- and pre-main-sequence M-type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crespo-Chacón, I.

    2015-11-01

    This Ph.D. Thesis revolves around flares on main- and pre-main-sequence M-type stars. We use observations in different wavelength ranges with the aim of analysing the effects of flares at different layers of stellar atmospheres. In particular, optical and X-ray observations are used so that we can study how flares affect, respectively, the chromosphere and the corona of stars. In the optical range we carry out a high temporal resolution spectroscopic monitoring of UV Ceti-type stars aimed at detecting non-white-light flares (the most typical kind of solar flares) in stars other than the Sun. With these data we confirm that non-white-light flares are a frequent phenomenon in UV Ceti-type stars, as observed in the Sun. We study and interpret the behaviour of different chromospheric lines during the flares detected on AD Leo. By using a simplified slab model of flares (Jevremović et al. 1998), we are able to determine the physical parameters of the chromospheric flaring plasma (electron density and electron temperature), the temperature of the underlying source, and the surface area covered by the flaring plasma. We also search for possible relationships between the physical parameters of the flaring plasma and other properties such as the flare duration, area, maximum flux and released energy. This work considerably extends the existing sample of stellar flares analysed with good quality spectroscopy in the optical range. In X-rays we take advantage of the great sensitivity, wide energy range, high energy resolution, and continuous time coverage of the EPIC detectors - on-board the XMMNewton satellite - in order to perform time-resolved spectral analysis of coronal flares. In particular, in the UV Ceti-type star CC Eri we study two flares that are weaker than those typically reported in the literature (allowing us to speculate about the role of flares as heating agents of stellar atmospheres); while in the pre-main-sequence M-type star TWA 11B (with no signatures of

  17. sPLA2 IB induces human podocyte apoptosis via the M-type phospholipase A2 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yangbin; Wan, Jianxin; Liu, Yipeng; Yang, Qian; Liang, Wei; Singhal, Pravin C.; Saleem, Moin A.; Ding, Guohua

    2014-01-01

    The M-type phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) is expressed in podocytes in human glomeruli. Group IB secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2 IB), which is one of the ligands of the PLA2R, is more highly expressed in chronic renal failure patients than in controls. However, the roles of the PLA2R and sPLA2 IB in the pathogenesis of glomerular diseases are unknown. In the present study, we found that more podocyte apoptosis occurs in the kidneys of patients with higher PLA2R and serum sPLA2 IB levels. In vitro, we demonstrated that human podocyte cells expressed the PLA2R in the cell membrane. After binding with the PLA2R, sPLA2 IB induced podocyte apoptosis in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. sPLA2 IB-induced podocyte PLA2R upregulation was not only associated with increased ERK1/2 and cPLA2α phosphorylation but also displayed enhanced apoptosis. In contrast, PLA2R-silenced human podocytes displayed attenuated apoptosis. sPLA2 IB enhanced podocyte arachidonic acid (AA) content in a dose-dependent manner. These data indicate that sPLA2 IB has the potential to induce human podocyte apoptosis via binding to the PLA2R. The sPLA2 IB-PLA2R interaction stimulated podocyte apoptosis through activating ERK1/2 and cPLA2α and through increasing the podocyte AA content. PMID:25335547

  18. Thermomagnetic stability of M-type strontium ferrite (SrFe12O19) particles with different shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jihoon; Hong, Yang-Ki; Lee, Woncheol; Kim, Chin-Mo; Choi, Kang-Ryong; An, Sung-Yong; Seo, Jung-Wook; Hur, Kang-Heon

    2016-01-01

    M-type strontium ferrite (SrFe12O19: SrM) with two different shapes were synthesized by a simple and benign process. One is peanut-like shape, and the other is hexagonal platelet. These shapes were controlled by the shape and size of precursor Fe3O4 particles. A mixture of submicron- or nanometer-sized Fe3O4 particles and SrCO3 nanoparticles was calcined to transform to SrM, followed by acid-washing to remove secondary phase from SrM particles. Static magnetic properties, magnetic interactions, and thermomagnetic stability of the SrM particles were studied. The measured saturation magnetization and intrinsic coercivity are 74.2 emu/g and 4431 Oe, respectively, for the peanut-like SrM particles and 73.6 emu/g and 5360 Oe for the hexagonal SrM platelets. The saturation magnetization is close to the theoretical value of 76 emu/g. Both types of SrM show dipolar interactions and good thermomagnetic stability, i.e. α = Δ σ s / σ s = -0.16%/K and β = Δ H ci/ H ci = 0.15%/K for the peanut-like SrM particles and α = -0.12%/K and β = 0.12%/K for the hexagonal SrM platelets. The temperature coefficient of intrinsic coercivity ( β) is positive and magnetization still remains high at 400 K; 60 emu/g for the hexagonal SrM platelets and 50 emu/g for the peanut-like SrM particles. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  19. Supramolecular curcumin-barium prodrugs for formulating with ceramic particles.

    PubMed

    Kamalasanan, Kaladhar; Anupriya; Deepa, M K; Sharma, Chandra P

    2014-10-01

    A simple and stable curcumin-ceramic combined formulation was developed with an aim to improve curcumin stability and release profile in the presence of reactive ceramic particles for potential dental and orthopedic applications. For that, curcumin was complexed with barium (Ba(2+)) to prepare curcumin-barium (BaCur) complex. Upon removal of the unbound curcumin and Ba(2+) by dialysis, a water-soluble BaCur complex was obtained. The complex was showing [M+1](+) peak at 10,000-20,000 with multiple fractionation peaks of MALDI-TOF-MS studies, showed that the complex was a supramolecular multimer. The (1)H NMR and FTIR studies revealed that, divalent Ba(2+) interacted predominantly through di-phenolic groups of curcumin to form an end-to-end complex resulted in supramolecular multimer. The overall crystallinity of the BaCur was lower than curcumin as per XRD analysis. The complexation of Ba(2+) to curcumin did not degrade curcumin as per HPLC studies. The fluorescence spectrum was blue shifted upon Ba(2+) complexation with curcumin. Monodisperse nanoparticles with size less than 200dnm was formed, out of the supramolecular complex upon dialysis, as per DLS, and upon loading into pluronic micelles the size was remaining in similar order of magnitude as per DLS and AFM studies. Stability of the curcumin was improved greater than 50% after complexation with Ba(2+) as per UV/Vis spectroscopy. Loading of the supramloecular nanoparticles into pluronic micelles had further improved the stability of curcumin to approx. 70% in water. These BaCur supramolecule nanoparticles can be considered as a new class of prodrugs with improved solubility and stability. Subsequently, ceramic nanoparticles with varying chemical composition were prepared for changing the material surface reactivity in terms of the increase in, degradability, surface pH and protein adsorption. Further, these ceramic particles were combined with curcumin prodrug formulations and optimized the curcumin release

  20. Active experiments in space in conjunction with Skylab. [barium plasma injection experiment and magnetic storm of March 7, 1972

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wescott, E. M.

    1974-01-01

    Two papers are presented which relate to the Skylab barium shaped charge experiments. The first describes the L=6.6 OOSIK barium plasma injection experiment and magnetic storm of March 7, 1972. Rocket payload, instrumentation, data reduction methods, geophysical environment at the time of the experiment, and results are given. The second paper presents the observation of an auroral Birkeland current which developed from the distortion of a barium plasma jet during the above experiment.

  1. Method of preparing barium, titanium, zirconium oxide ferroelectric ceramic composition

    SciTech Connect

    McSweeney, R.T.; Zuk, K.

    1991-07-16

    This patent describes a method for preparing a barium titanium zirconium oxide ferroelectric ceramic composition. It comprises reacting tetraalkyl titanate and tetraalkyl zirconate in appropriate amounts to produce (Ti{sub 1{minus}x}Zr{sub x}) alkoxide wherein 021 x {le} 0.25; reacting the (Ti{sub 1{minus}x}Sr{sub x}) alkoxide to form a two phase mixture of TiZrO{sub 4} and (Ti{sub 1{minus}s}Zr{sub s})O{sub 2}, wherein s is the solubility limit for ZrO{sub 2} in TiO{sub 2}; admixing the (Ti{sub 1{minus}s}Zr{sub s})O{sub 2} and TiZrO{sub 4} with a BaO precursor, the BaO precursor, (Ti{sub 1{minus}s}Zr{sub s})O{sub 2} and TiZrO{sub 4}; and heading the admixture for a period of time and at a sufficient temperature to produce Ba(Ti{sub 1{minus}x}Zr{sub x})O{sub 3} wherein 0 {lt} x {le} 0.25.

  2. Barium in landscape components of the western Transbaikal region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashin, V. K.

    2015-10-01

    Barium concentrations in parent materials, soils, and plants of the forest-steppe, steppe, and dry steppe landscapes of the Transbaikal region have been studied. The average concentration of this element in rocks and soils of this region exceeds its clarke by 1.8-2.1 times. A positive correlation between the contents of Ba in soils, soil-forming rocks, and plants has been found. The concentration of Ba in soils does not correlate with the soil pH and humus content. Distribution patterns of Ba in the soil profiles have been characterized. With respect to the coefficient of the biological uptake by plants, Ba is assigned to the group of low accumulation (0.55-0.65) for mineral soils and of strong accumulation (6.0) for alluvial bog soils. Average concentrations of Ba in the steppe, meadow, and cultivated vegetation of the region are 1.9-2.3 times higher in comparison with the average concentration of this element in plants of the continents. The biological migration of Ba is most active in meadow landscapes, whereas steppe landscapes are characterized by the least active biological migration of this element.

  3. Two new barium sulfonates with pillared layered structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jin; Li, Li; Ma, Jian-Fang; Liu, Ying-Ying; Ma, Ji-Cheng

    2006-08-01

    The reactions of BaCl 2·2H 2O with NaHL a and K 3L b (H 2L a=4-hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid, H 3L b=4-hydroxy-5-nitro-1,3-benzenedisulfonic acid) gave two pillared layered coordination polymers: Ba(HL a)(Cl) 1 and KBaL b(H 2O) 32, respectively. The crystal structures were determined by X-ray diffraction method and refined by full-matrix least-squares methods to R=0.0509 and wR=0.1216 using 1455 reflections with I>2 σ( I) for 1; and R=0.0288 and wR=0.0727 using 2661 reflections with I>2 σ( I) for 2. The interesting feature of compound 1 is the coordination actions of chloride anions, which help to form the polymeric layers by bridging barium cations. In compound 2 the Lb3- anion acts as an unusual dodecadente ligand to form a coordination polymer with pillared layered structure.

  4. Two new barium sulfonates with pillared layered structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jin; Li, Li; Ma, Jian-Fang; Liu, Ying-Ying; Ma, Ji-Cheng

    2006-05-01

    The reactions of BaCl 2·2H 2O with NaHL a and K 3L b (H 2L a=4-hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid, H 3L b=4-hydroxy-5-nitro-1,3-benzenedisulfonic acid) gave two pillared layered coordination polymers: Ba(HL a)(Cl) 1 and KBaL b(H 2O) 32, respectively. The crystal structures were determined by X-ray diffraction method and refined by full-matrix least-squares methods to R=0.0509 and wR=0.1216 using 1455 reflections with I>2 σ( I) for 1; and R=0.0288 and wR=0.0727 using 2661 reflections with I>2 σ( I) for 2. The interesting feature of compound 1 is the coordination actions of chloride anions, which help to form the polymeric layers by bridging barium cations. In compound 2 the Lb3- anion acts as an unusual dodecadente ligand to form a coordination polymer with pillared layered structure.

  5. Thermoelectric Properties of Barium Plumbate Doped by Alkaline Earth Oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eufrasio, Andreza; Bhatta, Rudra; Pegg, Ian; Dutta, Biprodas

    Ceramic oxides are now being considered as a new class of thermoelectric materials because of their high stability at elevated temperatures. Such materials are especially suitable for use as prospective thermoelectric power generators because high temperatures are encountered in such operations. The present investigation uses barium plumbate (BaPbO3) as the starting material, the thermoelectric properties of which have been altered by judicious cation substitutions. BaPbO3 is known to exhibit metallic properties which may turn semiconducting as a result of compositional changes without precipitating a separate phase and/or altering the basic perovskite crystal structure. Perovskite structures are noted for their large interstitial spaces which can accommodate a large variety of ``impurity'' ions. As BaPbO3 has high electrical conductivity, σ = 2.43x105Ω-1 m-1 at room temperature, its thermopower, S, is relatively low, 23 μV/K, as expected. With a thermal conductivity, k, of 4.83Wm-1K-1, the figure of merit (ZT =S2 σ Tk-1) of BaPbO3 is only 0.01 at T = 300K. The objective of this investigation is to study the variation of thermoelectric properties of BaPbO3 as Ba and Pb ions are systematically substituted by alkaline earth ions.

  6. The chemical composition of the mild barium star HD 202109

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yushchenko, A. V.; Gopka, V. F.; Kim, C.; Liang, Y. C.; Musaev, F. A.; Galazutdinov, G. A.

    2004-01-01

    We present chemical abundances of the mild barium star HD 202109 (\\zeta Cyg) determined from the analysis of a spectrum obtained by using the 2-m telescope at the Peak Terskol Observatory and a high-resolution spectrometer with R=80 000, signal to noise ratio >100. We also present the atmospheric parameters of the star determined using various methods including iron-line abundance analysis. For line identifications, we use whole-range synthetic spectra computed from Kurucz's database and the latest lists of spectral lines. Among the determined abundances of 51 elements, those of P, S, K, Cu, Zn, Ge, Rb, Sr, Nb, Mo, Ru, Rh, Pd, In, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Er, Tm, Hf, Os, Ir, Pt, Tl, and Pb were not investigated previously. Assuming that the overabundance pattern of Ba stars is due to binary accretion, the observed abundance pattern of the neutron-capture process elements in HD 202109 can be explained by combining the AGB star nucleosynthesis and the wind accretion scenario. Based on observations obtained at the 2-m telescope of Peak Terskol observatory near Mt. Elbrus, Northern Caucasus, Russia - International Center for Astronomical, Medical and Ecological Research (ICAMER), Ukraine & Russia.

  7. Impact of vanadium ions in barium borate glass.

    PubMed

    Abdelghany, A M; Hammad, Ahmed H

    2015-02-25

    Combined optical and infrared spectral measurements of prepared barium borate glasses containing different concentrations of V2O5 were carried out. Vanadium containing glasses exhibit extended UV-visible (UV/Vis.) bands when compared with base binary borate glass. UV/Vis. spectrum shows the presence of an unsymmetrical strong UV broad band centered at 214 nm attributed to the presence of unavoidable trace iron impurities within the raw materials used for the preparation of such glass. The calculated direct and indirect optical band gaps are found to decrease with increasing the vanadium content (2.9:137 for indirect and 3.99:2.01 for direct transition). This change was discussed in terms of structural changes in the glass network. Infrared absorption spectra of the glasses reveal the appearance of both triangular and tetrahedral borate units. Electron spin resonance analyses indicate the presence of unpaired species in sufficient quantity to be identified and to confirm the spectral data. PMID:25194319

  8. Nanoscale inhomogeneities in yttrium-barium-copper-oxide (YBCO) superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Zahirul; Sinha, S. K.; Lang, J. C.; Liu, X.; Haskel, D.; Moss, S. C.; Srajer, G.; Veal, B. W.; Wermeille, D.; Lee, D. R.; Haeffner, D. R.; Welp, U.; Wochner, P.

    2004-03-01

    X-ray diffraction studies at the Advanced Photon Source reveal that nanoscale inhomogeneities, electronic or structural in origin, form in yttrium-barium-copper-oxide (YBa_2Cu_3O_6+x) superconductors and coexist with the superconducting (SC) state. Diffuse scattering from these inhomogeneous superstructures is due to atomic displacements with respect to equilibrium lattice sites (Z. Islam et al. Phys. Rev. B 66, 92501 (2002)), that are characterized by a wavevector of the form q=(q_x,0,0), where qx varies with hole doping from 2 unit cells (along shorter Cu-O-Cu direction) for very low doping to 4 unit cells at optimal doping. Interestingly, while these superstructures are 3-dimensionally ordered when the SC state is weakened (e.g., at x=0.4), as the doping increases, they become quasi 1D with correlation lengths comparable to SC coherence lengths in these cuprates. Recent first-principles calculations (D. de Fontaine et al., to be published) for the x=0.63 compound show that atomic displacements consistent with experimental data can be the result of ordering of O vacancies in YBCO. Models for various superstructures and their role in the phase diagram will be discussed.

  9. Barium oxide, calcium oxide, magnesia, and alkali oxide free glass

    DOEpatents

    Lu, Peizhen Kathy; Mahapatra, Manoj Kumar

    2013-09-24

    A glass composition consisting essentially of about 10-45 mole percent of SrO; about 35-75 mole percent SiO.sub.2; one or more compounds from the group of compounds consisting of La.sub.2O.sub.3, Al.sub.2O.sub.3, B.sub.2O.sub.3, and Ni; the La.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 20 mole percent; the Al.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 25 mole percent; the B.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 15 mole percent; and the Ni less than about 5 mole percent. Preferably, the glass is substantially free of barium oxide, calcium oxide, magnesia, and alkali oxide. Preferably, the glass is used as a seal in a solid oxide fuel/electrolyzer cell (SOFC) stack. The SOFC stack comprises a plurality of SOFCs connected by one or more interconnect and manifold materials and sealed by the glass. Preferably, each SOFC comprises an anode, a cathode, and a solid electrolyte.

  10. Abundance analysis of s-process enhanced barium stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahanta, Upakul; Karinkuzhi, Drisya; Goswami, Aruna; Duorah, Kalpana

    2016-08-01

    Detailed chemical composition studies of stars with enhanced abundances of neutron-capture elements can provide observational constraints for neutron-capture nucleosynthesis studies and clues for understanding their contribution to the Galactic chemical enrichment. We present abundance results from high-resolution spectral analyses of a sample of four chemically peculiar stars characterized by s-process enhancement. High-Resolution spectra (R ˜42000) of these objects spanning a wavelength range from 4000 to 6800 Å, are taken from the ELODIE archive. We have estimated the stellar atmospheric parameters, the effective temperature Teff, the surface gravity log g, and metallicity [Fe/H] from local thermodynamic equilibrium analysis using model atmospheres. We report estimates of elemental abundances for several neutron-capture elements, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu and Dy. While HD 49641 and HD 58368 show [Ba/Fe] ≥ 1.16 the other two objects HD 119650 and HD 191010 are found to be mild barium stars with [Ba/Fe] ˜ 0.4. The derived abundances of the elements are interpreted on the basis of existing theories for understanding their origin and evolution.

  11. Barium from a mini r-process in supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymann, D.

    1983-01-01

    McCulloch and Wasserburg (1978) have reported nonlinear isotopic anomalies in barium for two Ca-Al-rich inclusions of the Allende carbonaceous chondrite, known as EK-1-4-1 and C-1. In an attempt to account for these anomalies, it has been proposed that Ba from an r-process of nucleosynthesis, containing Ba-135 and Ba-137, was injected into the primeval color system but was not totally homogenized. Questions arise in connection with the relations of Xe isotopes in carbonaceous chondrites. This has prompted Heymann and Dziczkaniec (1979, 1980, 1981) to study the formation of r-Xe, r-Kr, and r-Te by the mini r-process which is thought to occur in the O, Ne-rich shells of Type II supernovae. Lee et al. (1979) have studied the formation of r-Ba, r-Nd, and r-Sm by the same process. Certain differences regarding the approaches used by Lee et al. and by Heymann and Dziczkaniec make it necessary to restudy the work of Lee et al. Attention is given to the survival probabilities of nuclear species of interest, taking into accounts the elements Cs, Ba, I, and Xe.

  12. Properties of barium strontium titanate at millimeter wave frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Osman, Nurul; Free, Charles

    2015-04-24

    The trend towards using higher millimetre-wave frequencies for communication systems has created a need for accurate characterization of materials to be used at these frequencies. Barium Strontium Titanate (BST) is a ferroelectric material whose permittivity is known to change as a function of applied electric field and have found varieties of application in electronic and communication field. In this work, new data on the properties of BST characterize using the free space technique at frequencies between 145 GHz and 155 GHz for both thick film and bulk samples are presented. The measurement data provided useful information on effective permittivity and loss tangent for all the BST samples. Data on the material transmission, reflection properties as well as loss will also be presented. The outcome of the work shows through practical measurement, that BST has a high permittivity with moderate losses and the results also shows that BST has suitable properties to be used as RAM for high frequency application.

  13. Dielectric and Impedance Spectroscopy of Barium Bismuth Vanadate Ferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutar, B. C.; Choudhary, R. N. P.; Das, Piyush R.

    2014-07-01

    Structural, micro-structural and electrical properties of barium bismuth vanadate Ba(Bi0.5V0.5)O3 ceramics were investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the prepared material confirmed the formation of the compound with monoclinic crystal system. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the compound exhibits well-defined grains that are uniformly distributed throughout the surface of the sample. Dielectric properties of the compound were studied as a function of temperature at different frequencies. An observation of dielectric anomaly at 295 °C is due to ferroelectric phase transition that was later confirmed by the appearance of hysteresis loop. Detailed studies of complex impedance spectroscopy have provided a better understanding of the relaxation process and correlations between the microstructure-electrical properties of the materials. The nature of frequency dependence of ac conductivity obeys the Debye power law. The dc conductivity, calculated from the ac conductivity spectrum, shows the negative temperature coefficient of resistance behavior similar to that of a semiconductor.

  14. Hydrogen diffusion in lead zirconate titanate and barium titanate

    SciTech Connect

    Alvine, K. J.; Vijayakumar, M.; Bowden, M. E.; Schemer-Kohrn, A. L.; Pitman, S. G.

    2012-08-28

    Hydrogen is a potential clean-burning, next-generation fuel for vehicle and stationary power. Unfortunately, hydrogen is also well known to have serious materials compatibility issues in metals, polymers, and ceramics. Piezoelectric actuator materials proposed for low-cost, high efficiency high-pressure hydrogen internal combustion engines (HICE) are known to degrade rapidly in hydrogen. This limits their potential use and poses challenges for HICE. Hydrogen-induced degradation of piezoelectrics is also an issue for low-pressure hydrogen passivation in ferroelectric random access memory. Currently, there is a lack of data in the literature on hydrogen species diffusion in piezoelectrics in the temperature range appropriate for the HICE as charged via a gaseous route. We present 1HNMR quantification of the local hydrogen species diffusion within lead zirconate titanate and barium titanate on samples charged by exposure to high-pressure gaseous hydrogen ~32 MPa. We discuss results in the context of theoretically predicted interstitial hydrogen lattice sites and aqueous charging experiments from existing literature.

  15. Characterization of A-site deficient samarium doped barium titanate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguly, M.; Rout, S. K.; Woo, W. S.; Ahn, C. W.; Kim, I. W.

    2013-02-01

    Ba1-xSm2x/3TiO3 (0.00≤x≤0.10, in a step of 0.02) ceramics have been prepared through solid state reaction route. Structural studies (XRD, FTIR, Raman) suggested a tetragonal symmetry of all the prepared ceramics and a decrease in tetragonality with increase in Sm content. Rietveld refinement technique has been employed to investigate the details of crystal structure and was found to be tetragonal at room temperature with space group P4mm. Photoluminescence study confirmed formation of shallow defects. The prepared materials are found to show photoemission in the violet, blue and green zone. Optical band gap values calculated from UV-visual diffuse reflectance spectra showed a decreasing trend in band gap values with increase in samarium concentration. Disk shaped pellets were prepared using PVA as binder. Scanning electron microscopy showed a drastic decrease in grain size on doping than undoped barium titanate. A regular increase in the grain size with increase in Sm content in the doped compositions is observed. Dielectric studies were performed over a wide temperature range from 15 K to 600 K at different frequencies. Normal ferroelectric character was obtained for all the compositions. A gradual decrease in the Curie temperature was noticed with increase in samarium content. P∼E hysteresis loops showed a domain pinning effect which increased successively resulting in a decrease in the values of remnant polarization and coercive fields.

  16. Review on dielectric properties of rare earth doped barium titanate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Fatin Adila; Osman, Rozana Aina Maulat; Idris, Mohd Sobri

    2016-07-01

    Rare earth doped Barium Titanate (BaTiO3) were studied due to high permittivity, excellent electrical properties and have wide usage in various applications. This paper reviewed on the electrical properties of RE doped BaTiO3 (RE: Lanthanum (La), Erbium (Er), Samarium (Sm), Neodymium (Nd), Cerium (Ce)), processing method, phase transition occurred and solid solution range for complete study. Most of the RE doped BaTiO3 downshifted the Curie temperature (TC). Transition temperature also known as Curie temperature, TC where the ceramics had a transition from ferroelectric to a paraelectric phase. In this review, the dielectric constant of La-doped BaTiO3, Er-doped BaTiO3, Sm-doped BaTiO3, Nd-doped BaTiO3 and Ce-doped BaTiO3 had been proved to increase and the transition temperature or also known as TC also lowered down to room temperature as for all the RE doped BaTiO3 except for Er-doped BaTiO3.

  17. Electrical properties of lanthanum doped barium titanate ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Vijatovic Petrovic, M.M.; Bobic, J.D.; Ramoska, T.; Banys, J.; Stojanovic, B.D.

    2011-10-15

    Pure and lanthanum doped barium titanate (BT) ceramics were prepared by sintering pellets at 1300 deg. C for 8 h, obtained from nanopowders synthesized by the polymeric precursor method. XRD results showed formation of a tetragonal structure. The presence of dopants changed the tetragonal structure to pseudo-cubic. The polygonal grain size was reduced up to 300 nm with addition of lanthanum as a donor dopant. Determined dielectric properties revealed that lanthanum modified BT ceramics possessed a diffused ferroelectric character in comparison with pure BT that is a classical ferroelectric material. In doped BT phase transition temperatures were shifted to lower temperatures and dielectric constant values were much higher than in pure BT. A modified Currie Weiss law was used to explore the connection between the doping level and degree of diffuseness of phase transitions. Impedance spectroscopy measurements were carried out at different temperatures in order to investigate electrical resistivity of materials and appearance of a PTCR effect. - Highlights: {yields} Pure and lanthanum doped BaTiO{sub 3} were prepared by polymeric precursors method. {yields} Change of structure from tetragonal to pseudo-cubic. {yields} Lanthanum as a donor dopant influenced on change of ferro-para phase transition. {yields} The diffuseness factor indicated the formation of diffuse ferroelectric material. {yields} Lanthanum affected on PTCR effect appearance in BT ceramics.

  18. Microstructure and magnetic properties of low-temperature sintered CoTi-substituted barium ferrite for LTCC application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Daming; Liu, Yingli; Li, Yuanxun; Zhong, Wenguo; Zhang, Huaiwu

    2011-11-01

    In this article, the influences of the BaCu(B 2O 5) (BCB) additive on sintering behavior, structure and magnetic properties of iron deficient M-type barium ferrite Ba(CoTi) xFe 11.8-2 xO 19 (BaM) have been investigated. It is found that the maximum sintered densities of BaM change from 86% to 94% as the BCB content varies from 1 to 4 wt%. Single-phase BaM can be detected by the XRD analysis in the sample with 3 wt% BCB sintered at 900 °C, and the microstructure is hexagonal platelets with few intragranular pores. This is attributed to the formation of the BCB liquid phase. Meanwhile, the experimental results illuminate that the CoTi ions prefer to occupy the 4f2 and 2b sites and the magnetic properties depend on the amount of CoTi-substitution. In addition, the chemical compatibility between BaM and silver paste is also investigated; it can be seen that BaM is co-fired well with the silver paste and no other second phase is observed. Especially, the 3 wt% BCB-added Ba(CoTi) 0.9Fe 11O 19 sintered at 900 °C has good properties with the sintered density of 4.9 g/cm 3, saturation magnetization of 49.7 emu/g and coercivity of 656.6 Oe. These results indicate that it is cost effective in the production of Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramics (LTCC) multilayer devices.

  19. The size and shape of the Milky Way disc and halo from M-type brown dwarfs in the BoRG survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Vledder, Isabel; van der Vlugt, Dieuwertje; Holwerda, B. W.; Kenworthy, M. A.; Bouwens, R. J.; Trenti, M.

    2016-05-01

    We have identified 274 M-type brown dwarfs in the Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field Camera 3 pure parallel fields from the Brightest of Reionizing Galaxies (BoRG) survey for high-redshift galaxies. These are near-infrared observations with multiple lines of sight out of our Milky Way. Using these observed M-type brown dwarfs, we fitted a Galactic disc and halo model with a Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis. This model worked best with the scalelength of the disc fixed at h = 2.6 kpc. For the scaleheight of the disc, we found z_0 = 0.29^{+0.02}_{-0.019} kpc and for the central number density, ρ _0 = 0.29^{+0.20}_{-0.13} # pc-3. For the halo, we derived a flattening parameter κ = 0.45 ± 0.04 and a power-law index p = 2.4 ± 0.07. We found the fraction of M-type brown dwarfs in the local density that belong to the halo to be fh = 0.0075^{+0.0025}_{-0.0019}. We found no correlation between subtype of M-dwarf and any model parameters. The total number of M-type brown dwarfs in the disc and halo was determined to be 58.2^{+9.81}_{-6.70} × 109. We found an upper limit for the fraction of M-type brown dwarfs in the halo of 7^{+5}_{-4} per cent. The upper limit for the total Galactic disc mass in M-dwarfs is 4.34^{+0.73}_{-0.5}× 109 M⊙, assuming all M-type brown dwarfs have a mass of 80 MJ.

  20. High pressure-low temperature phase diagram of barium: Simplicity versus complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desgreniers, Serge; Tse, John S.; Matsuoka, Takahiro; Ohishi, Yasuo; Li, Quan; Ma, Yanming

    2015-11-01

    Barium holds a distinctive position among all elements studied upon densification. Indeed, it was the first example shown to violate the long-standing notion that high compression of simple metals should preserve or yield close-packed structures. From modest pressure conditions at room temperature, barium transforms at higher pressures from its simple structures to the extraordinarily complex atomic arrangements of the incommensurate and self-hosting Ba-IV phases. By a detailed mapping of the pressure/temperature structures of barium, we demonstrate the existence of another crystalline arrangement of barium, Ba-VI, at low temperature and high pressure. The simple structure of Ba-VI is unlike that of complex Ba-IV, the phase encountered in a similar pressure range at room temperature. First-principles calculations predict Ba-VI to be stable at high pressure and superconductive. The results illustrate the complexity of the low temperature-high pressure phase diagram of barium and the significant effect of temperature on structural phase transformations.

  1. High pressure–low temperature phase diagram of barium: Simplicity versus complexity

    SciTech Connect

    Desgreniers, Serge; Tse, John S.; Matsuoka, Takahiro; Ohishi, Yasuo

    2015-11-30

    Barium holds a distinctive position among all elements studied upon densification. Indeed, it was the first example shown to violate the long-standing notion that high compression of simple metals should preserve or yield close-packed structures. From modest pressure conditions at room temperature, barium transforms at higher pressures from its simple structures to the extraordinarily complex atomic arrangements of the incommensurate and self-hosting Ba-IV phases. By a detailed mapping of the pressure/temperature structures of barium, we demonstrate the existence of another crystalline arrangement of barium, Ba-VI, at low temperature and high pressure. The simple structure of Ba-VI is unlike that of complex Ba-IV, the phase encountered in a similar pressure range at room temperature. First-principles calculations predict Ba-VI to be stable at high pressure and superconductive. The results illustrate the complexity of the low temperature-high pressure phase diagram of barium and the significant effect of temperature on structural phase transformations.

  2. Chromospherically active stars. 6: Giants with compact hot companions and the barium star scenario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fekel, Francis C.; Henry, Gregory W.; Busby, Michael R.; Eitter, Joseph J.

    1993-01-01

    We have determined spectroscopic orbits for three chromospherically active giants that have hot compact companions. They are HD 160538 (K0 III + wd, P = 904 days), HD 165141 (G8 III + wd, P approximately 5200 days), and HD 185510 (K0 III + sdB, P = 20.6619 days). By fitting an IUE spectrum with theoretical models, we find the white dwarf companion of HD 165141 has a temperature of about 35000 K. Spectral types and rotational velocities have been determined for the three giants and distances have been estimated. These three systems and 39 Ceti are compared with the barium star mass-transfer scenario. The long-period mild barium giant HD 165141 as well as HD 185510 and 39 Ceti, which have relatively short periods and normal abundance giants, appear to be consistent with this scenario. The last binary, HD 160538, a system with apparently near solar abundances, a white dwarf companion, and orbital characteristics similar to many barium stars, demonstrates that the existence of a white-dwarf companion is insufficient to produce a barium star. The paucity of systems with confirmed white-dwarf companions makes abundance analyses of HD 160538 and HD 165141 of great value in examining the role of metallicity in barium star formation.

  3. Chromospherically active stars. 11: Giant with compact hot companions and the barium star scenario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fekel, Francis C.; Henry, Gregory W.; Busby, Michael R.; Eitter, Joseph J.

    1993-01-01

    We have determined spectroscopic orbits for three chromsopherically active giants that have hot compact companions. They are HD 160538 (KO III + wd, P = 904 days), HD 165141 (G8 III + wd, P approximately 5200 days), and HD 185510 (KO III + sdB, P = 20.6619 days). By fitting an IUE spectrum with theoretical models, we find the white dwarf companion of HD 165141 has a temperature of about 35,000 K. Spectral types and rotational velocities have been determined for the three giants and distances have been estimated. These three systems and 39 Ceti are compared with the barium star mass-transfer scenario. The long-period mild barium giant HD 165141 as well as HD 185510 and 39 Ceti, which have relatively short periods and normal abundance giants, appear to be consistent with this scenario. The last binary, HD 160538, a system with apparently near solar abundances, a white dwarf companion, and orbital characteristics similar to many barium stars, demonstrates that the existence of a white dwarf companion is insufficient to produce a barium star. The paucity of systems with confirmed white dwarf companions makes abundance analyses of HD 160538 and HD 165141 of great value in examining the role of metallicity in barium star formation.

  4. TWO BARIUM STARS IN THE OPEN CLUSTER NGC 5822

    SciTech Connect

    Katime Santrich, O. J.; Pereira, C. B.; De Castro, D. B. E-mail: claudio@on.br

    2013-08-01

    Open clusters are very useful examples to explain the constraint of the nucleosynthesis process with the luminosities of stars because the distances of the clusters are better known than those of field stars. We carried out a detailed spectroscopic analysis to derive the chemical composition of two red giants in the young open cluster NGC 5822, NGC 5822-2, and NGC 5822-201. We obtained abundances of C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Ca, Si, Ti, Ni, Cr, Y, Zr, La, Ce, and Nd. The atmospheric parameters of the studied stars and their chemical abundances were determined using high-resolution optical spectroscopy. We employed the local thermodynamic equilibrium model atmospheres of Kurucz and the spectral analysis code MOOG. The abundances of the light elements were derived using the spectral synthesis technique. We found that NGC 5822-2 and -201 have, respectively, a mean overabundance of the elements created by the s-process, ''s'', with the notation [s/Fe] of 0.77 {+-} 0.12 and 0.83 {+-} 0.05. These values are higher than those for field giants of similar metallicity. We also found that NGC 5822-2 and -201 have, respectively, luminosities of 140 L{sub Sun} and 76 L{sub Sun }, which are much lower than the luminosity of an asymptotic giant branch star. We conclude that NGC 5822-2 and NGC 5822-201 are two new barium stars first identified in the open cluster NGC 5822. The mass transfer hypothesis is the best scenario to explain the observed overabundances.

  5. Dominant toughening mechanisms in barium aluminosilicate (BAS) glass-ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griggs, Jason Alan

    The purpose of this study was to develop a barium aluminosilicate (BAS) glass-ceramic with improved strength and fracture toughness by controlling the morphology of the constituent phases through a series of thermal crystallization treatments. The specific objectives of this study were to (1) determine which toughening mechanisms are active in the BAS system, (2) provide quantitative estimates of the relative contributions of those mechanisms, and (3) identify the processing conditions that correspond to a glass-ceramic with optimal fracture toughness. The BAS system was chosen for this study because of its potential applications in CAD-CAM production of dental prostheses. It is concluded that load sharing and crack deflection are the only major sources of toughening in the BAS system. Theoretical predictions for toughening increases due to load sharing and crack deflection are insufficient to account for 100% of the increases observed. The excess increase in fracture toughness is produced by thermal mismatch between and crystal and glass phases. The strength and fracture toughness of BAS glass-ceramics are shown to increase with increasing crystal growth time over the entire range of treatments studied. The strength and fracture toughness increased from 63 ± 8 MPa and 0.89 ± 0.05 MPa*msp{1/2}, respectively for BAS glass to 141 ± 8 MPa and 1.87 ± 0.07 MPa*msp{1/2} respectively for a glass-ceramic treated for 256 h at 975sp°C. Fracture toughness was also shown to increase with increasing mean crystal size. A non-stoichiometric glass composition results in thermal compatibility between the glass and crystal phases, eliminating the weakening at large crystal sizes that can be associated with a spontaneous microcracking mechanism.

  6. Evaluation of antibacterial properties of Barium Zirconate Titanate (BZT) nanoparticle

    PubMed Central

    Mohseni, Simin; Aghayan, Mahdi; Ghorani-Azam, Adel; Behdani, Mohammad; Asoodeh, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    So far, the antibacterial activity of some organic and inorganic compounds has been studied. Barium zirconate titanate [Ba(ZrxTi1-x)O3] (x = 0.05) nanoparticle is an example of inorganic materials. In vitro studies have provided evidence for the antibacterial activity of this nanoparticle. In the current study, the nano-powder was synthesized by sol-gel method. X-ray diffraction showed that the powder was single-phase and had a perovskite structure at the calcination temperature of 1000 °C. Antibacterial activity of the desired nanoparticle was assessed on two gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus PTCC1431 and Micrococcus luteus PTCC1625) and two gram-negative (Escherichia coli HP101BA 7601c and clinically isolated Klebsiella pneumoniae) bacteria according to Radial Diffusion Assay (RDA). The results showed that the antibacterial activity of BZT nano-powder on both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria was acceptable. The minimum inhibitory concentration of this nano-powder was determined. The results showed that MIC values for E. coli, K. pneumoniae, M. luteus and S. aureus were about 2.3 μg/mL, 7.3 μg/mL, 3 μg/mL and 12 μg/mL, respectively. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was also evaluated and showed that the growth of E. coli, K. pneumoniae, M. luteus and S. aureus could be decreased at 2.3, 14, 3 and 18 μg/mL of BZT. Average log reduction in viable bacteria count in time-kill assay ranged between 6 Log10 cfu/mL to zero after 24 h of incubation with BZT nanoparticle. PMID:25763046

  7. Kinetic analysis of barium currents in chick cochlear hair cells.

    PubMed Central

    Zidanic, M; Fuchs, P A

    1995-01-01

    Inward barium current (IBa) through voltage-gated calcium channels was recorded from chick cochlear hair cells using the whole-cell clamp technique. IBa was sensitive to dihydropyridines and insensitive to the peptide toxins omega-agatoxin IVa, omega-conotoxin GVIa, and omega-conotoxin MVIIC. Changing the holding potential over a -40 to -80 mV range had no effect on the time course or magnitude of IBa nor did it reveal any inactivating inward currents. The activation of IBa was modeled with Hodgkin-Huxley m2 kinetics. The time constant of activation, tau m, was 550 microseconds at -30 mV and gradually decreased to 100 microseconds at +50 mV. A Boltzmann fit to the activation curve, m infinity, yielded a half activation voltage of -15 mV and a steepness factor of 7.8 mV. Opening and closing rate constants, alpha m and beta m, were calculated from tau m and m infinity, then fit with modified exponential functions. The H-H model derived by evaluating the exponential functions for alpha m and beta m not only provided an excellent fit to the time course of IBa activation, but was predictive of the time course and magnitude of the IBa tail current. No differences in kinetics or voltage dependence of activation of IBa were found between tall and short hair cells. We conclude that both tall and short hair cells of the chick cochlea predominantly, if not exclusively, express noninactivating L-type calcium channels. These channels are therefore responsible for processes requiring voltage-dependent calcium entry through the basolateral cell membrane, such as transmitter release and activation of Ca(2+)-dependent K+ channels. PMID:7787021

  8. Electrical properties of niobium doped barium bismuth-titanate ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Bobić, J.D.; Vijatović Petrović, M.M.; Banys, J.; Stojanović, B.D.

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: ► Pure and doped BaBi{sub 4}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 15} were prepared via the solid-state reaction method. ► The grain size was suppressed in Nb-doped samples. ► The diffuseness of the dielectric peak increased with dopant concentration. ► Niobium affected on relaxor behavior of barium bismuth titanate ceramics. ► The conductivity change was noticed in doped samples. -- Abstract: BaBi{sub 4}Ti{sub 4–5/4x}Nb{sub x}O{sub 15} (BBNTx, x = 0, 0.05, 0.15, 0.30) ceramics have been prepared by solid state method. XRD data indicate the formation of single-phase-layered perovskites for all compositions. SEM micrographs suggest that the grain size decreases with Nb doping. The effect of niobium doping on the dielectric and relaxor behavior of BaBi{sub 4}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 15} ceramics was investigated in a wide range of temperatures (20–777 °C) and frequencies (1.21 kHz to 1 MHz). Nb doping influences T{sub c} decrease as well as the decrease of dielectric permittivity at Curie temperature. At room temperature, undoped BaBi{sub 4}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 15} exhibits dielectric constant of ∼204 at 100 kHz, that slightly increases with Nb doping. The conductivity of BBNT5 ceramics is found to be lower than that of other investigated compositions. The value of activation energy of σ{sub DC} was found to be 0.89 eV, 1.01 eV, 0.93 eV and 0.71 eV for BBT, BBNT5, BBNT15 and BBNT30, respectively.

  9. FIRST DIRECT EVIDENCE THAT BARIUM DWARFS HAVE WHITE DWARF COMPANIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, R. O.; McGahee, C. E.; Griffin, R. E. M.; Corbally, C. J. E-mail: cmcgahe@g.clemson.edu E-mail: corbally@as.arizona.edu

    2011-05-15

    Barium II (Ba) stars are chemically peculiar F-, G-, and K-type objects that show enhanced abundances of s-process elements. Since s-process nucleosynthesis is unlikely to take place in stars prior to the advanced asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stage, the prevailing hypothesis is that each present Ba star was contaminated by an AGB companion which is now a white dwarf (WD). Unless the initial mass ratio of such a binary was fairly close to unity, the receiving star is thus at least as likely to be a dwarf as a giant. So although most known Ba stars appear to be giants, the hypothesis requires that Ba dwarfs be comparably plentiful and moreover that they should all have WD companions. However, despite dedicated searches with the IUE satellite, no WD companions have been directly detected to date among the classical Ba dwarfs, even though some 90% of those stars are spectroscopic binaries, so the contamination hypothesis is therefore presently in some jeopardy. In this paper, we analyze recent deep, near-UV and far-UV Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) exposures of four of the brightest of the class (HD 2454, 15360, 26367, and 221531), together with archived GALEX data for two newly recognized Ba dwarfs: HD 34654 and HD 114520 (which also prove to be spectroscopic binaries). The GALEX observations of the Ba dwarfs as a group show a significant far-UV excess compared to a control sample of normal F-type dwarfs. We suggest that this ensemble far-UV excess constitutes the first direct evidence that Ba dwarfs have WD companions.

  10. BaCO3 mediated modifications in structural and magnetic properties of natural nanoferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widanarto, W.; Jandra, M.; Ghoshal, S. K.; Effendi, M.; Cahyanto, W. T.

    2015-04-01

    Preparing M-type barium hexaferrite and improving the magnetic response of natural ferrites by incorporating barium carbonate (BaCO3) is ever-demanding. Series of barium carbonate doped ferrites with composition (100-x)Fe3O4·xBaCO3 (x=0, 10, 20, 30 wt%) are prepared through solid state reaction method and sintered gradually at temperatures of 800 and 1000 °C. Nanoparticles of natural ferrite and commercial BaCO3 are used as raw materials. Impacts of BaCO3 on structural and magnetic properties of these synthesized ferrites are inspected. The obtained ferrites are characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) at room temperature. Uniform barium hexaferrite particles in terms of both morphology and size are not achieved. The average crystallite size of BaFe12O19 is observed to be within 30-600 nm. The sintering process results phase transformation from Fe3O4 (magnetite) to α-Fe2O3 (hematite) and the formation of hexagonal barium ferrite crystals. The occurrence of barium crystal is found to enhance with the increase of BaCO3 concentrations up to 20 wt% and suddenly drop at 30 wt%. Saturation and remanent magnetization of the doped ferrites are significantly augmented up to 16.37 and 8.92 emu g-1, respectively compared to their pure counterpart. Furthermore, the coercivity field is slightly decreased as BaCO3 concentrations are increased. BaCO3 mediated improvements in the magnetic response of natural ferrites are demonstrated.

  11. Tailoring of structural, electrical and magnetic properties of BaCo 2 W-type hexaferrites by doping with Zr-Mn binary mixtures for useful applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, Muhammad Javed; Khan, Rafaqat Ali; Mizukami, Shigemi; Miyazaki, Terunobu

    2011-08-01

    Single-phase W-type hexaferrite, BaCo2Fe16-2x(ZrMn)xO27 (x=0.0-1.0), has been synthesized by the chemical co-precipitation technique. Mössbauer analysis indicates substitution of Zr ions on tetrahedral (4e and 4fIV) sites and Mn ions on the octahedral ‘4fVI site’ at low-doped concentration when the concentration is increased Mn ions but show preference for the octahedral ‘2b site’. The highest enhancement in the value of the room temperature resistivity of 2.82×109 Ω cm has been obtained by doping with Zr-Mn content of x=0.6. The dissipation factor increases from 6.49×103 to 9.97×103 at 10 kHz with the addition of Zr-Mn dopants. Such materials are potentially suitable for electromagnetic attenuation purposes, for microwave absorption and as radar absorbing material. High values of saturation magnetization (67 emu/g) and remanent magnetization (34.7 emu/g) are obtained for substitution level of x=0.4 making them suitable for data processing devices.

  12. Structural, electrical, dielectric and magnetic properties of Gd-Sn substituted Sr-hexaferrite synthesized by sol-gel combustion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashiq, Muhammad Naeem; Shakoor, Sajeela; Najam-ul-Haq, Muhammad; Warsi, Muhammad Farooq; Ali, Irshad; Shakir, Imran

    2015-01-01

    The effect of Gd-Sn substitution on the structural, electrical and magnetic properties of Sr1-xGdx Fe12-ySny O19 (where x=0.00, 0.025, 0.05, 0.075, 0.1) and (y=0.00, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1) prepared by the sol-gel combustion method has been investigated. The XRD analysis shows the presence of Fe2O3 phase at higher substitution. The average crystallite size obtained lies between 19-42 nm which is beneficial in obtaining suitable signal-to-noise ratio in high density recording media. The FTIR spectra of annealed samples of SrFe12O19, Sr0.95Gd0.05 Fe11.5Sn0.5O19 show that strontium hexaferrite nanoparticles have been synthesized successfully. DC electrical resistivity shows metal-to-semiconductor transition with temperature. The value of transition temperature increases with dopant content. Room temperature dc resistivity and energy of activation decreases while drift mobility increases on increasing the dopant concentration. The magnetic properties such as saturation magnetization (Ms), remanence (Mr) and coercivity (Hc) decreases with increasing the dopant concentration.

  13. Synthesis, magnetic and dielectric properties of Er-Ni doped Sr-hexaferrite nanomaterials for applications in High density recording media and microwave devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashiq, Muhammad Naeem; Iqbal, Muhammad Javed; Najam-ul-Haq, Muhammad; Hernandez Gomez, Pablo; Qureshi, Ashfaq Mahmood

    2012-01-01

    A sol-gel combustion method has been successfully employed for the synthesis of Sr-hexaferrite nanomaterials doped with Er3+ and Ni2+ at strontium and iron sites, respectively. The X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the single magnetoplumbite phase and the crystallite size was found to be in the range of 14-16 nm, suitable for obtaining signal-to-noise ratio in the high density recording media. The magnetic properties such as saturation magnetization (Ms), remanence (Mr) and coercivity (Hc) were calculated from hysteresis loops. Ms, Mr and Hc are observed to increase with the Er-Ni content. The dielectric constant (ε´) and dielectric loss (tan δ) is found to decrease with the increase in frequency and is explained on the basis of Maxwell-Wagner and Koops theory. The decrease in dielectric constant and dielectric loss but increase in saturation magnetization and remanence with Er-Ni content suggests that the materials are suitable for applications in microwave devices and high density recording media .

  14. Evolutionary generation of high order Runge - Kutta - Nyström type pairs for solving y(4) = f (x,y)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Famelis, I. Th.; Tsitmidelis, S.; Tsitouras, Ch.

    2016-06-01

    We present a new Runge - Kutta - Nyström type pair of orders 8(6) for the solution of a special fourth order initial value problem. To achieve this, a set of non - linear equations is solved using differential evolution technique.

  15. Reverse microemulsion-mediated synthesis and structural evolution of barium hexaaluminate nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Zarur, A.J.; Hwu, H.H.; Ying, J.Y.

    2000-04-04

    Nanocrystalline barium hexaaluminate has been successfully synthesized through the use of a reverse microemulsion as a medium for controlled hydrolysis and polycondensation of barium and aluminum alkoxides. The nanoparticles derived were characterized with electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and nitrogen adsorption analysis. This novel material possessed a well-defined particle morphology and an ultrahigh surface area, and exhibited excellent catalytic performance in methane combustion. Its structural evolution was found to be strongly dependent on synthesis parameters, such as water/alkoxide ratio and aging period. Powder recovery and drying techniques also had an important impact on particle agglomeration and structural development. Through the unique synthesis approach described, barium hexaaluminate with superb thermal stability was achieved, with surface areas in excess of 100 m{sup 2}/g retained even after calcination at 1,300 C.

  16. Changes in the Small Intestine of a Cat Associated with Barium Sulphate Following Contrast Radiography.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, H; Oishi, M; Ohno, K; Tsuboi, M; Irie, N; Uchida, K; Tsujimoto, H

    2016-01-01

    A 7-year-old neutered male domestic short-haired cat that had undergone contrast radiography of the bowel with barium sulphate after acute episodes of vomiting 2 months previously, was presented with chronic vomiting, anorexia and weight loss. Abdominal radiography and ultrasonography revealed residual contrast enhancement and an obstruction of the small intestine. A contracted and stenosed ileum and distal jejunum were identified by exploratory laparotomy and surgically resected; subsequently, the clinical signs resolved. Histopathological examination of the ileum revealed mucosal ulceration with severe submucosal granulation tissue formation associated with scattered foreign crystalline material. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy revealed that the crystals contained barium sulphate. This is the first report in animals of the rare complication of barium sulphate incorporation into the gastrointestinal mucosa after contrast radiography. PMID:26997652

  17. The review of various synthesis methods of barium titanate with the enhanced dielectric properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    More, S. P.; Topare, R. J.

    2016-05-01

    The Barium Titanate is a very well known dielectric ceramic belongs to perovskite structure. It has very wide applications in the field of electronic, electro ceramic, electromechanical and electro-optical applications. Barium Titanate has very high dielectric constant as well as low dielectric loss. Substituted dielectrics are one of the most important technological compounds in modern electro ceramics. Its electrical properties can be tuned flexibly by a simple substitution technique. This has encouraged researchers to select a typical cation to be substituted at cationic sites. In the present paper, the review of various synthesis methods of Barium Titanate compound with the effect of different dopants, the grain size on the dielectric properties at various temperatures is discussed.

  18. Improved chemical stability and conductivity of barium cerate nanopowders by Lanthanum doping.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hunhyeong; Park, Inyu; Shin, Dongwook

    2013-09-01

    Despite of the highest proton conductivity, barium cerate electrolytes are well known for the deficiency of chemical stability at elevated temperature under CO2 atmosphere. This work is focused on improving chemical stability of lanthanum doped barium cerate (BCL) powder for electrolyte. Although lanthanum doping causes distortion of perovskite structure lattice, immoderate doping could stabilize structure due to increasing symmetry of structure lattices. The thermogravimetric analysis and AC impedance measurements revealed that the lanthanum doping suppresses the reaction between barium and carbonate and this effect results in sufficient improvement in ionic conductivity in operating temperatures range. It was confirmed that BaCe0.7La0.3O3-delta (BCL30) was the most stable composition and the conductivity of BCL30 is high as 3.8 S x cm(-1) x K at 700 degrees C. PMID:24205607

  19. Barium isotopes in individual presolar silicon carbide grains from the Murchison meteorite.

    SciTech Connect

    Savina, M. R.; Davis, A. M.; Tripa, C. E.; Pellin, M. J.; Clayton, R. N.; Lewis, R. S.; Amari, S.; Gallino, R.; Lugaro, M.; Univ. of Chicago; Washington Univ.; Univ. di Torino; Cambridge Univ.

    2003-09-01

    Barium isotopic compositions of single 2.3-5.3 {mu}m presolar SiC grains from the Murchison meteorite were measured by resonant ionization mass spectrometry. Mainstream SiC grains are enriched in s-process barium and show a spread in isotopic composition from solar to dominantly s-process. In the relatively coarse grain size fraction analyzed, there are large grain-to-grain variations of barium isotopic composition. Comparison of single grain data with models of nucleosynthesis in asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars indicates that the grains most likely come from low mass carbon-rich AGB stars (1.5 to 3 solar masses) of about solar metallicity and with approximately solar initial proportions of r- and s-process isotopes. Measurements of single grains imply a wide variety of neutron-to-seed ratios, in agreement with previous measurements of strontium, zirconium and molybdenum isotopic compositions of single presolar SiC grains.

  20. Solid solution barium-strontium chlorides with tunable ammonia desorption properties and superior storage capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialy, Agata; Jensen, Peter B.; Blanchard, Didier; Vegge, Tejs; Quaade, Ulrich J.

    2015-01-01

    Metal halide ammines are very attractive materials for ammonia absorption and storage-applications where the practically accessible or usable gravimetric and volumetric storage densities are of critical importance. Here we present, that by combining advanced computational materials prediction with spray drying and in situ thermogravimetric and structural characterization, we synthesize a range of new, stable barium-strontium chloride solid solutions with superior ammonia storage densities. By tuning the barium/strontium ratio, different crystallographic phases and compositions can be obtained with different ammonia ab- and desorption properties. In particular it is shown, that in the molar range of 35-50% barium and 65-50% strontium, stable materials can be produced with a practically usable ammonia density (both volumetric and gravimetric) that is higher than any of the pure metal halides, and with a practically accessible volumetric ammonia densities in excess of 99% of liquid ammonia.

  1. Phase transition studies in barium and strontium titanates at microwave frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahiya, Jai N.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives were the following: to understand the phase transformations in barium and strontium titanates as the crystals go from one temperature to the other; and to study the dielectric behavior of barium and strontium titanate crystals at a microwave frequency of 9.12 GHz and as a function of temperature. Phase transition studies in barium and strontium titanate are conducted using a cylindrical microwave resonant cavity as a probe. The cavity technique is quite successful in establishing the phase changes in these crystals. It appears that dipole relaxation plays an important role in the behavior of the dielectric response of the medium loading the cavity as phase change takes place within the sample. The method of a loaded resonant microwave cavity as applied in this work has proven to be sensitive enough to monitor small phase changes of the cavity medium.

  2. Plasma irregularities caused by cycloid bunching of the CRRES G-2 barium release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernhardt, P. A.; Huba, J. D.; Pongratz, M. B.; Simons, D. J.; Wolcott, J. H.

    1993-01-01

    The Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) spacecraft carried a number of barium thermite canisters for release into the upper atmosphere. The barium release labeled G-2 showed evidence of curved irregularities not aligned with the ambient magnetic field B. The newly discovered curved structures can be explained by a process called cycloid bunching. Cycloid bunching occurs when plasma is created by photoionization of a neutral cloud injected at high velocity perpendicular to B. If the injection velocity is much larger than the expansion speed of the cloud, the ion trail will form a cycloid that has irregularities spaced by the product of the perpendicular injection speed and the ion gyroperiod, Images of the solar-illuminated barium ions are compared with the results of a three-dimensional kinetic simulation. Cycloid bunching is shown to be responsible for the rapid generation of both curved and field-aligned irregularities in the CRRES G-2 experiment.

  3. Prompt ionization in the CRIT II barium releases. [Critical Ionization Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torbert, R. B.; Kletzing, C. A.; Liou, K.; Rau, D.

    1992-01-01

    Observations of electron and ion distributions inside a fast neutral barium jet in the ionosphere show significant fluxes within 4 km of release, presumably related to beam plasma instability processes involved in the Critical Ionization Velocity (CIV) effect. Electron fluxes exceeding 5 x 10 exp 12/sq cm-str-sec-keV were responsible for ionizing both the streaming barium and ambient oxygen. Resulting ion fluxes seem to be consistent with 1-2 percent ionization of the fast barium, as reported by optical observations, although the extended spatial distribution of the optically observed ions is difficult to reconcile with the in situ observations. When the perpendicular velocity of the neutrals falls below critical values, these processes shut off. Although these observations resemble the earlier Porcupine experimental results (Haerendel, 1982), theoretical understanding of the differences between these data and that of earlier negative experiments is still lacking.

  4. Observation and theory of the barium releases from the CRRES satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernhardt, P. A.; Huba, J. D.; Scales, W. A.; Wescott, E. M.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.

    1992-01-01

    The relationship between releases of barium from the NASA Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) and enhanced auroral activity is discussed with reference to observational data. Barium releases were conducted at a variety of altitudes and injection velocities, and plasma irregularities are reported as a result of the interactions. Auroral activity increased within 5 min of each release, and references are made to the effects on diamagnetic cavities, bulk ion motion, and stimulated electron and ion precipitation. Artificially created structured diamagnetic cavities are noted for each release, plasma waves are generated by the high-speed ion clouds, and enhanced ionization is found in the critical ionization-velocity process. Barium releases are effective in stimulating electron precipitation, and the observed irregularities are related to cycloid bunching of the initial ion distributions.

  5. Highly aligned arrays of high aspect ratio barium titanate nanowires via hydrothermal synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Bowland, Christopher C.; Zhou, Zhi; Malakooti, Mohammad H.; Sodano, Henry A.

    2015-06-01

    We report on the development of a hydrothermal synthesis procedure that results in the growth of highly aligned arrays of high aspect ratio barium titanate nanowires. Using a multiple step, scalable hydrothermal reaction, a textured titanium dioxide film is deposited on titanium foil upon which highly aligned nanowires are grown via homoepitaxy and converted to barium titanate. Scanning electron microscope images clearly illustrate the effect the textured film has on the degree of orientation of the nanowires. The alignment of nanowires is quantified by calculating the Herman's Orientation Factor, which reveals a 58% improvement in orientation as compared to growth in the absence of the textured film. The ferroelectric properties of barium titanate combined with the development of this scalable growth procedure provide a powerful route towards increasing the efficiency and performance of nanowire-based devices in future real-world applications such as sensing and power harvesting.

  6. Characterization, sintering and dielectric properties of nanocrystalline barium titanate synthesized through a modified combustion process

    SciTech Connect

    George, C.N.; Thomas, J.K. Kumar, H.P.; Suresh, M.K.; Kumar, V.R.; Wariar, P.R.S.; Jose, R.; Koshy, J.

    2009-04-15

    Nanocrystalline barium titanate has been synthesized through a modified combustion process in a single step for the first time. The as-prepared barium titanate powder is cubic perovskite with lattice constant a = 4.018 A. The phase purity of the nanopowder was examined using thermo gravimetric analysis, differential thermal analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Transmission electron microscopic investigations have shown that the particle size of the as-prepared powder is in the range 20-40 nm. The agglomerate size distribution of the as-prepared powder was studied using atomic force microscopy. The nanoparticles of barium titanate were sintered to 97% of the theoretical density at a temperature of 1350 deg. C for 3 h. The microstructure of the sintered surface was examined using scanning electron microscopy. The dielectric constant and loss factor of the sintered pellets at 1 MHz measured at room temperature were 1223 and 3.5 x 10{sup -3} respectively.

  7. Spectroscopy of Ba and Ba+ deposits in solid xenon for barium tagging in nEXO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mong, B.; Cook, S.; Walton, T.; Chambers, C.; Craycraft, A.; Benitez-Medina, C.; Hall, K.; Fairbank, W.; Albert, J. B.; Auty, D. J.; Barbeau, P. S.; Basque, V.; Beck, D.; Breidenbach, M.; Brunner, T.; Cao, G. F.; Cleveland, B.; Coon, M.; Daniels, T.; Daugherty, S. J.; DeVoe, R.; Didberidze, T.; Dilling, J.; Dolinski, M. J.; Dunford, M.; Fabris, L.; Farine, J.; Feldmeier, W.; Fierlinger, P.; Fudenberg, D.; Giroux, G.; Gornea, R.; Graham, K.; Gratta, G.; Heffner, M.; Hughes, M.; Jiang, X. S.; Johnson, T. N.; Johnston, S.; Karelin, A.; Kaufman, L. J.; Killick, R.; Koffas, T.; Kravitz, S.; Krücken, R.; Kuchenkov, A.; Kumar, K. S.; Leonard, D. S.; Licciardi, C.; Lin, Y. H.; Ling, J.; MacLellan, R.; Marino, M. G.; Moore, D.; Odian, A.; Ostrovskiy, I.; Piepke, A.; Pocar, A.; Retiere, F.; Rowson, P. C.; Rozo, M. P.; Schubert, A.; Sinclair, D.; Smith, E.; Stekhanov, V.; Tarka, M.; Tolba, T.; Twelker, K.; Vuilleumier, J.-L.; Walton, J.; Weber, M.; Wen, L. J.; Wichoski, U.; Yang, L.; Yen, Y.-R.; Zhao, Y. B.; nEXO Collaboration

    2015-02-01

    Progress on a method of barium tagging for the nEXO double beta decay experiment is reported. Absorption and emission spectra for deposits of barium atoms and ions in solid xenon matrices are presented. Excitation spectra for prominent emission lines, temperature dependence, and bleaching of the fluorescence reveal the existence of different matrix sites. A regular series of sharp lines observed in Ba+ deposits is identified with some type of barium hydride molecule. Lower limits for the fluorescence quantum efficiency of the principal Ba emission transition are reported. Under current conditions, an image of fewer than or equal to 104 Ba atoms can be obtained. Prospects for imaging single Ba atoms in solid xenon are discussed.

  8. [Preparation and Performances of the M'-Type LuTaO4:Eu³⁺ Transparent Scintillator Films].

    PubMed

    QIU, Zhi-che; GU, Mu; LIU, Xiao-lin; Liu, Bo; Huang, Shi-ming; Ni, Chen

    2016-02-01

    X-ray imaging has a very important role in life sciences and material microstructure analysis and other applications. One of the core components of X-ray imaging equipment is the X-rays-visible light conversion screen. Flashing transparent film is an effective way to achieve high spatial resolution X-ray imaging. M'-type LuTaO₄: Eu³+ is an excellent scintillation material. It has high light yield, high density, good radiation hardness and good chemical stability. Therefore, to research and develop the transparent conversion screen with M'-type LuTaO⁴: Eu+ is very important for the application of X-ray detector in high spatial resolution X-ray imaging. In this paper, the M'-type LuTaO₄:Eu³+ transparent scintillator films were successfully prepared from the inorganic salt and 2-methoxyethanol solution containing polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) via sol-gel technique, and transmittance, photoluminescence, X-ray excitation emission spectral and spatial resolution, and a series of film properties were characterized. A film thickness of about 2.1 µm was achieved after 8 coatings. The thick film was homogeneous and crack free, and the transmittance was approximately 70% in its emission region. The spatial resolution of the thick film was 1.5 µm, which measured by the standard spatial resolution panels. An X-ray imageof fruit fly was obtained by using this thick film. Additionally, thesol-gel derived M'-type LuTaO₄:Eu³+ thick film revealed excellent photoluminescence and X-ray excited luminescence per- formances. All results indicated that the M'-type LuTaO⁴:Eu³+ thick films have satisfied the essential requirements for applications in high-spatial-resolution X-ray imaging. PMID:27209726

  9. Prevalence of CTX-M-Type and PER Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases Among Klebsiella spp. Isolated From Clinical Specimens in the Teaching Hospital of Kashan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Amiri, Atena; Firoozeh, Farzaneh; Moniri, Rezvan; Zibaei, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) is one of the most important mechanisms of resistance to β-lactams especially among Enterobacteriaceae family including Klebsiella spp. Different types of extended-spectrum β-lactamases including CTX-M-type and PER enzymes are identified among gram negative bacteria. Objectives: The current study aimed to determine the prevalence of CTX-M-type and PER extended-spectrum β-lactamases among Klebsiella spp. isolated from clinical specimens in the teaching hospital of Kashan, Iran. Patients and Methods: One hundred Klebsiella spp. were isolated from clinical specimens of hospitalized patients at Shahid-Beheshti hospital from December 2012 to November 2013. Disk diffusion method was used to determine the susceptibility of these isolates to 14 different antimicrobial agents; disks were purchased from MAST company (United Kingdom). The phenotypic double disk synergy confirmatory test was used to screen the isolates to produce extended-spectrum β-lactamase. DNAs of isolates were extracted using boiling method and PCR assay was used to characterize the blaCTX-M type and blaPER genes. The purified PCR products were sent to Macrogen research company (Korea) for sequencing. Results: Of the total 100 Klebsiella isolates, %93 was susceptible to imipenem. Resistance to ampicillin, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, aztreonam and cefotaxime was (92%), (67%), (65%), (64%) and (59%), respectively. The phenotypic confirmatory test (PCT) confirmed that 35% (n = 35) of the isolates were ESBL-producing Klebsiella strains. The prevalence of blaCTX-M type and blaRER genes among Klebsiella isolates were 28% (n = 28) and 9% (n = 9), respectively. Conclusions: The prevalence of ESBL-producing Klebsiella strains in Shahid-Beheshti hospital in Kashan has increased. The study concluded that there was a high prevalence of the blaCTX-M type gene among ESBL positive isolates. PMID:27247786

  10. Barium hydrogen phosphate/gelatin composites versus gelatin-free barium hydrogen phosphate: synthesis and characterization of properties.

    PubMed

    Gashti, Mazeyar Parvinzadeh; Burgener, Matthias; Stir, Manuela; Hulliger, Jürg

    2014-10-01

    Recently, attention has been spent on crystal growth of phosphate compounds in gels for studying the mechanism of in vitro crystallization processes. Here, we present a gel-based approach for the synthesis of barium hydrogen phosphate (BHP) crystals using single and double diffusion techniques in gelatin. The composite crystals were compared with analytical grade BHP powder, single and polycrystalline BHP materials using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), scanning pyroelectric microscopy (SPEM), optical microscopy (OM), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). FTIR spectra showed surface adsorption of gelatin molecules by using BHP stacked sheets due to CH2 stretching, CH2 bending and amide I vibrations are found in a gelatin content of about 2% determined by dissolution. SEM shows various crystal morphologies of the BHP/gelatin composites forming bundled micro-flakes to irregular bundled needles and spheres different from gel-free crystals. The variety in morphology depends on the ion concentration, pH of gel as well as the method of crystal growth. SPEM investigation of BHP/gelatin aggregates revealed polar domains showing alteration of the polarization. Moreover, BHP/gelatin composite crystals showed a higher thermal stability in comparison with analytical grade BHP or/and BHP single crystals due to strong interactions between gelatin and BHP. The XRD diffraction analysis demonstrated that the single and double diffusion techniques in gelatin led to the formation of orthorhombic BHP. This study demonstrates that gelatin is a useful high molecular weight biomacromolecule for controlling the crystallization of a composite material by producing a variety of morphological forms. PMID:24996024

  11. Meteorological support to the West German-United States Barium Ion Cloud Project.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westfall, R. R.; Chamberlain, L. W.

    1972-01-01

    The objective of the Barium Ion Cloud Project was to study a barium ionized cloud released at an altitude of 5 earth radii. Accurate forecasting of weather conditions to prevail during the experiment period was critical to the project success. Good seeing conditions were required at all optical sites during the experiment. All meteorological support was the responsibility of the National Weather Service at Wallops Station, Virginia. Preliminary results confirm the scientists' theories of the magnetic fields and the existence of electric fields in the magnetosphere.

  12. Physical states and properties of barium titanate films in a plane electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirokov, V. B.; Kalinchuk, V. V.; Shakhovoi, R. A.; Yuzyuk, Yu. I.

    2016-07-01

    The influence of a plane electric field on the phase states of barium titanate thin films under the conditions of forced deformation has been studied. The field dependence of a complete set of material constants has been taken in the region of the c-phase, where polarization losses are absent. The material constants are calculated using equations of the piezoelectric effect derived by linearizing the nonlinear equations of state from the phenomenological; theory for barium titanate. It has been shown that there is a critical value of the field at which the electromechanical coupling coefficient reaches a maximum.

  13. Calcium barium niobate as a functional material for broadband optical frequency conversion.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Yan; Chen, Xin; Lukasiewicz, Tadeusz; Swirkowicz, Marek; Koynov, Kaloian; Krolikowski, Wieslaw

    2014-03-15

    We demonstrate the application of as-grown calcium barium niobate (CBN) crystal with random-sized ferroelectric domains as a broadband frequency converter. The frequency conversion process is similar to broadband harmonic generation in commonly used strontium barium niobate (SBN) crystal, but results in higher conversion efficiency reflecting a larger effective nonlinear coefficient of the CBN crystal. We also analyzed the polarization properties of the emitted radiation and determined the ratio of d32 and d33 components of the second-order susceptibility tensor of the CBN crystal. PMID:24690779

  14. Magnetic properties of barium ferrite dispersed within polystyrene-butadiene-styrene block copolymers.

    PubMed

    Chipara, M; Skomski, R; Ali, N; Hui, D; Sellmyer, D J

    2009-06-01

    Magnetic properties of nanocomposite materials obtained by dispersing barium ferrite nanoparticles within polystyrene-butadiene-styrene block copolymer, in the temperature range, 300 to 500 K are reported. The temperature dependence of the magnetization at saturation, averaged uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy, and coercive field of thick films are analyzed. A "matrix effect" was noticed within the glass transition range of the hard component (polystyrene) of the polymeric matrix. The reported modifications of the magnetic properties were assigned to the competition between the magnetic and mechanical reorientation of nanoparticles within the polymeric matrix. Such modifications were not observed in barium ferrite dispersed in cement. PMID:19504902

  15. ION-EXCHANGE METHOD FOR SEPARATING RADIUM FROM RADIUM-BARIUM MIXTURES

    DOEpatents

    Fuentevilla, M.E.

    1959-06-30

    An improved process is presented for separating radium from an aqueous feed solution containing radium and barium values and a complexing agent for these metals. In this process a feed solutlon containing radium and barium ions and a complexing agent for said ions ls cycled through an exchange zone in resins. The radiumenriched resin is then stripped of radium values to form a regeneration liquid, a portion of which is collected as an enriched product, the remaining portion being recycled to the exchange zone to further enrich the ion exchange resin in radium.

  16. Magnetic and Microwave Absorbing Properties of Electrospun Ba (1- x) La xFe 12O 19 Nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cong-Ju; Wang, Bin; Wang, Jiao-Na

    2012-04-01

    Ba(1-x)LaxFe12O19 (0.00≤x≤0.10) nanofibers were fabricated via the electrospinning technique followed by heat treatment at different temperatures for 2 h. Various characterization methods including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), and microwave vector network analyzer were employed to investigate the morphologies, crystalline phases, magnetic properties, and complex electromagnetic parameters of nanofibers. The SEM images indicate that samples with various values of x are of a continuous fiber-like morphology with an average diameter of 110±20 nm. The XRD patterns show that the main phase is M-type barium hexaferrite without other impurity phases when calcined at 1100 °C. The VSM results show that coercive force (Hc) decreases first and then increases, while saturation magnetization (Ms) reveals an increase at first and then decreases with La3+ ions content increase. Both the magnetic and dielectric losses are significantly enhanced by partial substitution of La3+ for Ba2+ in the M-type barium hexaferrites. The microwave absorption performance of Ba0.95La0.05Fe12O19 nanofibers gets significant improvement: The bandwidth below -10 dB expands from 0 GHz to 12.6 GHz, and the peak value of reflection loss decreases from -9.65 dB to -23.02 dB with the layer thickness of 2.0 mm.

  17. Growth rate controlled barium partitioning in calcite and aragonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goetschl, Katja Elisabeth; Mavromatis, Vasileios; Baldermann, Andre; Purgstaller, Bettina; Dietzel, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The barium (Ba) content and the Ba/Ca molar ratios in biogenic and abiotic carbonates have been widely used from the scientific community as a geochemical proxy especially in marine and early diagenetic settings. The Ba content of carbonate minerals has been earlier associated to changes in oceanic circulation that may have been caused by upwelling, changes in weathering regimes and river-runoff as well as melt water discharge. The physicochemical controls of Ba ion incorporation in the two most abundant CaCO3 polymorphs found in Earth's surface environments, i.e. calcite and aragonite, have adequately been studied only for calcite. These earlier studies (i.e. [1]) suggest that at increasing growth rate, Ba partitioning in calcite is increasing as well. In contrast, to date the effect of growth rate on the partitioning of Ba in aragonite remains questionable, despite the fact that this mineral phase is the predominant carbonate-forming polymorph in shallow marine environments. To shed light on the mechanisms controlling Ba ion uptake in carbonates in this study we performed steady-state Ba co-precipitation experiments with calcite and aragonite at 25°C. The obtained results for the partitioning of Ba in calcite are in good agreement with those reported earlier by [1], whereas those for aragonite indicate a reduction of Ba partitioning at elevated aragonite growth rates, with the partitioning coefficient value between solid and fluid to be approaching the unity. This finding is good agreement with the formation of a solid solution in the aragonite-witherite system, owing to the isostructural crystallography of the two mineral phases. Moreover, our data set provides new insights that are required for reconstructing the evolution of the Ba content of pristine marine versus diagenetically altered carbonate minerals commonly occurring in marine subfloor settings, as the thermodynamically less stable aragonite will transform to calcite enriched in Ba, whilst affecting

  18. Rapid ray motions in barium plasma clouds and auroras

    SciTech Connect

    Wescott, E.M.; Hallinan, T.J.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H.C.; Swift, D.W.; Wallis, D.D. )

    1993-03-01

    Barium plasma clouds released at high latitudes characteristically become striated with many field-aligned rays. The rays which often resemble auroral features usually drift as a whole with the E [times] B/B[sup 2] drift of the cloud and alter position only slowly (order or tens of seconds). On two evenings in 1968, in releases from Andoya, Norway, anomalous field-aligned brightenings or emission enhancements of up to 3X were observed to move rapidly (10-20 km/s) through three different Ba[sup +] clouds. Similar effects were observed in Ba[sup +] clouds released from rockets launched from Poker Flat, Alaska: On March 21, 1973, in two Ba thermite releases and on March 22, 1980, in the Ba-shaped charge experiment Miss Peggy.' On these occasions, auroras on or near the Ba[sup +] L shell, also exhibited active rapid ray motions. This leads to the assumption that the two phenomena are related and the expectation that an explanation of the rapid ray motions in the Ba[sup +] clouds would lead to a better understanding of the physics of auroral ray motions and the auroral ionosphere. Seven possible mechanisms to produce the observed moving emission enhancements are discussed. Direct motion of an isolated Ba[sup +] ray past the other rays by E [times] B/B[sup 2] motion seems very unlikely due to the observed variations in the enhancements and the large E field required (> 500 mV/m). Compressional waves do not seem to be of sufficient amplitude or velocity. Absorption or radiation of Doppler shifted Ba[sup +] emissions by ions gyrating or moving at a few kilometers per second seems to be the most promising mechanism for producing the enhancements. The observations provide compelling evidence for the existence of transient electric fields of order 100 mV/m at altitudes as low as 200 km during active aurora with rapid ray motions. The affected regions have dimensions of order a few kilometers across B and move eastward at 10-20 km/s. 36 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Regeneration of barium carbonate from barium sulphide in a pilot-scale bubbling column reactor and utilization for acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Mulopo, J; Zvimba, J N; Swanepoel, H; Bologo, L T; Maree, J

    2012-01-01

    Batch regeneration of barium carbonate (BaCO(3)) from barium sulphide (BaS) slurries by passing CO(2) gas into a pilot-scale bubbling column reactor under ambient conditions was used to assess the technical feasibility of BaCO(3) recovery in the Alkali Barium Calcium (ABC) desalination process and its use for sulphate removal from high sulphate Acid Mine Drainage (AMD). The effect of key process parameters, such as BaS slurry concentration and CO(2) flow rate on the carbonation, as well as the extent of sulphate removal from AMD using the recovered BaCO(3) were investigated. It was observed that the carbonation reaction rate for BaCO(3) regeneration in a bubbling column reactor significantly increased with increase in carbon dioxide (CO(2)) flow rate whereas the BaS slurry content within the range 5-10% slurry content did not significantly affect the carbonation rate. The CO(2) flow rate also had an impact on the BaCO(3) morphology. The BaCO(3) recovered from the pilot-scale bubbling column reactor demonstrated effective sulphate removal ability during AMD treatment compared with commercial BaCO(3). PMID:22233912

  20. Barium responsiveness of the rat aorta and femoral artery during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Hart, J L

    1982-01-11

    The barium responses of isolated aortic strips and femoral arteries from non-pregnant and pregnant rats were investigated. Barium caused concentration-related increases in tension of vessels from both pregnant and non-pregnant rats. The concentration-response curves of femoral arteries from non-pregnant and 3 week pregnant rats were not different; however contractility and slopes of concentration-response lines for thoracic aortas from 1, 2 and 3 week pregnant rats were significantly less than those of aortas from non-pregnant rats. In addition, barium caused rhythmic contractions to develop in both femoral arteries and aortas of 3 week pregnant rats more frequently than vessels from non-pregnant rats. Rhythmic contractions did not develop in aortas from 3 week pregnant rats in calcium-free Krebs. Since the effects of barium on the electrical and mechanical activity of various muscles have been postulated to be similar to and/or dependent on calcium, these results may indicate that changes in calcium sensitivity of vascular smooth muscle occur during pregnancy. Such changes may contribute to the blood flow redistribution and other cardiovascular adaptations of pregnancy. PMID:7054642

  1. [Mesenteric panniculitis of the colon: barium enema, US, CT, and MRI findings (case report)].

    PubMed

    Kebapçi, Mahmut; Adapinar, Baki; Kaya, Tamer; Kebapçi, Nur

    2004-12-01

    Mesenteric panniculitis as an uncommon disease of unknown etiology characterised by nonspecific inflammation of the fat tissue of the mesentery. In this report, we are presenting a case of mesenteric panniculitis of the rectosigmoid colon in which characteristic findings of barium enema, ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging were noted. We emphasized the diagnostic significance of these methods. PMID:15611917

  2. Surface composition and barium evaporation rate of ``pedigreed'' impregnated tungsten dispenser cathodes during accelerated life testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomich, D. H.; Mescher, J. A.; Grant, J. T.

    1987-03-01

    A study has been made of the surface composition and barium evaporation rate of "pedigreed" impregnated tungsten dispenser cathodes. The effect of air exposure on coated cathodes was examined and was found to have no significant effect on barium evaporation rate although in some cases longer reactivation times were required. No changes in surface topography were apparent following air exposure and reactivation. Life testing was done at 100°C above the typical operating temperature for the cathode, where the typical operating temperature was taken to be 950°C for coated cathodes and 1050°C for uncoated cathodes. The cathodes were examined at different stages of life testing, up to 1200 h. Significant decreases in barium evaporation rates were found after as few as 500 h of life testing. After 1000 h the evaporation rate had decreased more than an order of magnitude. Changes in surface composition were also found. The effects of tungsten particle size, used in manufacture of the billet, on barium evaporation rate were also studied but no correlation was found.

  3. Effects of barium and cadmium on the population development of the marine nematode Rhabditis (Pellioditis) marina.

    PubMed

    Lira, V F; Santos, G A P; Derycke, S; Larrazabal, M E L; Fonsêca-Genevois, V G; Moens, T

    2011-10-01

    Offshore oil and gas drilling often involves the use of fluids containing barium and traces of other heavy metals. These may affect the environment, but information on their toxicity to benthic biota remains scant. Here, we present results of a 10-day bioassay with the marine nematode Rhabditis (Pellioditis) marina at different loads of barium (0-10 ,000 ppm nominal concentrations) and cadmium (0-12 ppm) in the range of concentrations reported from drilling-impacted sediments. Barium did not affect the fitness and population development of R. (P.) marina at concentrations up to 300 ppm, but did cause a decrease in population abundance and an increase in development time from concentrations of 400-2000 ppm onwards. Increased mortality occurred at 4800 ppm Ba. For cadmium, LOEC and EC₅₀ values for total population abundance were 2.95 and 8.82 ppm, respectively. Cd concentrations as low as 2.40 to 2.68 caused a decrease in the abundance of adult nematodes, indicating that assays covering more generations would likely demonstrate yet more pronounced population-level effects. Our results indicate that oil and gas drilling activities may potentially have important implications for the meiobenthos through the toxicity of barium and associated metals like cadmium. PMID:21855994

  4. Low temperature phase barium borate: A new optical limiter in continuous wave and nano pulsed regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babeela, C.; Girisun, T. C. Sabari

    2015-11-01

    Low temperature phase barium borate was synthesized by hydrothermal method. XRD analysis confirms the formation of γ-BBO or hydrated barium polyborate (Ba3B6O9(OH)6) which crystallizes in monoclinic system in the P2/c space group. The molecular structure analysis shows the presence of dominant BO4 unit and the hydrated nature of material. γ-BBO exhibits sharp absorption edge at 202 nm and highly transparency in the UV-Visible-NIR region. The peak at 347 nm in the emission spectrum is due to the presence of self-trapped exciton. The third order nonlinear optical properties and limiting behavior of low temperature barium borate in both pulsed and continuous wave regime were studied. The effective 2PA absorption coefficient of γ-BBO under ns pulse excitation is estimated to be 0.38 × 10-10 m/W. The nonlinear absorption coefficient, refractive index and optical susceptibility of the material in cw regime were found to be in the order of 10-5 m W-1, 10-12 m2 W-1, 10-6 esu respectively. In both regimes, low temperature phase barium borate exhibits better optical limiting properties than high temperature phase β-BBO.

  5. Near-resonance-Rayleigh scattering measurement on a resonant laser-driven barium plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Nee, T.A.

    1985-06-01

    Near-resonance-Rayleigh scattering is used as a space-time-resolved density probe on a resonant laser-driven barium plasma. Feasibility of this technique was investigated. Comparison to other methods such as absorption technique is made and found to be consistent.

  6. Distribution and source of barium in ground water at Cattaraugus Indian Reservation, southwestern New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, R.B.; Staubitz, W.W.

    1984-01-01

    High concentrations of dissolved barium have been found in ground water from bedrock wells on the Seneca Nation of Indians Reservation on Cattaraugus Creek in southwestern New York. Concentrations in 1982 were as high as 23.0 milligrams per liter , the highest found reported from any natural ground-water system in the world. The highest concentrations are in a bedrock aquifer and in small lenses of saturated gravel between bedrock and the overlying till. The bedrock aquifer is partly confined by silt, clay, and till. The high barium concentrations are attributed to dissolution of the mineral barite (BaSO4), which is present in the bedrock and possibly in overlying silt, clay, or till. The dissolution of barite seems to be controlled by action of sulfate-reducing bacteria, which alter the BaSO4 equilibrium by removing sulfate ions and permitting additional barite to dissolve. Ground water from the surficial, unconsolidated deposits and surface water in streams contain little or no barium. Because barium is chemically similar to calcium, it probably could be removed by cation exchange or treatments similar to those used for water softening. (USGS)

  7. Thermochemical process for the production of hydrogen using chromium and barium compound

    DOEpatents

    Bamberger, Carlos E.; Richardson, Donald M.

    1977-01-25

    Hydrogen is produced by a closed cyclic process involving the reduction and oxidation of chromium compounds by barium hydroxide and the hydrolytic disproportionation of Ba.sub.2 CrO.sub.4 and Ba.sub.3 (CrO.sub.4).sub.2.

  8. Barium versus Nonbarium Stimuli: Differences in Taste Intensity, Chemesthesis, and Swallowing Behavior in Healthy Adult Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagy, Ahmed; Steele, Catriona M.; Pelletier, Cathy A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The authors examined the impact of barium on the perceived taste intensity of 7 different liquid tastant stimuli and the modulatory effect that these differences in perceived taste intensity have on swallowing behaviors. Method: Participants were 80 healthy women, stratified by age group (<40; >60) and genetic taste status…

  9. Assessment of Barium Sulphate Formation and Inhibition at Surfaces with Synchrotron X-ray Diffraction (SXRD)

    SciTech Connect

    E Mavredaki; A Neville; K Sorbie

    2011-12-31

    The precipitation of barium sulphate from aqueous supersaturated solutions is a well-known problem in the oil industry often referred to as 'scaling'. The formation and growth of barite on surfaces during the oil extraction process can result in malfunctions within the oil facilities and serious damage to the equipment. The formation of barium sulphate at surfaces remains an important topic of research with the focus being on understanding the mechanisms of formation and means of control. In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction (SXRD) was used to investigate the formation of barium sulphate on a stainless steel surface. The effect of Poly-phosphinocarboxylic acid (PPCA) and Diethylenetriamine-penta-methylenephosphonic acid (DETPMP) which are two commercial inhibitors for barium sulphate was examined. The in situ SXRD measurements allowed the identification of the crystal faces of the deposited barite in the absence and presence of the two inhibitors. The preferential effect of the inhibitors on some crystal planes is reported and the practical significance discussed.

  10. Fabrication and characterization of cerium doped barium titanate/PMMA nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padalia, Diwakar; Bisht, Garima; Johri, U. C.; Asokan, K.

    2013-05-01

    The cerium doped barium titanate (BaTiO3:Ce)/poly methyl methacrylate(PMMA) polymer nano-composites (PNC) were successfully fabricated via solvent evaporation method with microwaves (2.4 GHz) heating. The X-ray diffraction measurements confirm the formation of barium titanate (BT) with crystallite size ranges from 55 to 62 nm. Differential scanning calorimetry study shows that the glass transition temperature (Tg) directly affected by microwaves heat treatment and particle size of filler. The broadband dielectric spectroscopy was employed to investigate the frequency and temperature dependence of the dielectric properties of the nanocomposites in a frequency range from 75 kHz to 5 MHz and temperature range 80-400 K. The introduction of different BT fillers in PMMA enhance the dielectric constant of PNCs drastically and give a smooth response in frequency range mentioned above. The loss factor of the composite can be suppressed by using cerium doped barium titanate filler rather than pure barium titanate filler.

  11. BARIUM BIOAVAILABILITY AS THE CHLORIDE, SULFATE, OR CARBONATE SALT IN THE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was conducted to determine how the bioavailability of a low concentration of barium (Ba) in drinking water is affected by anion speciation. Male Sprague Dawley rats weighing 250-300 grams were maintained on a diet of less than 1 mg Ba/kg of food for at least 1 month pr...

  12. WEAK-ACID ION EXCHANGE FOR REMOVING BARIUM, RADIUM, AND HARDNESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Weak-acid resin in the hydrogen form was found to effectively remove barium, radium, and hardness, without increasing the sodium content of the product water. The maximum capacity of the weak-acid resin was about 2.3 times that of strong-acid resin, and much less spent regenerant...

  13. PROPOSED ORAL REFERENCE DOSE (RFD) FOR BARIUM AND COMPOUNDS (Final Report) 2004

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is the final report for the 2004 external peer review of the Proposed Oral Reference Dose (RfD) for Barium and Compounds, prepared by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), National Center for Environmental Assessment (NCEA), for the Integrated Risk Informa...

  14. Periodate salts as pyrotechnic oxidizers: development of barium- and perchlorate-free incendiary formulations.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Jared D; Sabatini, Jesse J; Chen, Gary

    2012-07-01

    In a flash: pyrotechnic incendiary formulations with good stabilities toward various ignition stimuli have been developed without the need for barium or perchlorate oxidizers. KIO(4) and NaIO(4) were introduced as pyrotechnic oxidizers and exhibited excellent pyrotechnic performance. The periodate salts may garner widespread use in military and civilian fireworks because of their low hygroscopicities and high chemical reactivities. PMID:22639415

  15. Effect of annealing temperature on the structural, photoluminescence and magnetic properties of sol-gel derived Magnetoplumbite-type (M-type) hexagonal strontium ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teh, Geok Bee; Wong, Yat Choy; Tilley, Richard D.

    2011-09-01

    Magnetoplumbite-type (M-type) hexagonal strontium ferrite particles were synthesized via sol-gel technique employing ethylene glycol as the gel precursor at two different calcination temperatures (800 and 1000 °C). Structural properties were systematically investigated via X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), photoluminescence spectrophotometry and superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer. XRD results showed that the sample synthesized at 1000 °C was of single-phase with a space group of P6 3/mmc and lattice cell parameter values of a=5.882 Å and c=23.048 Å. EDS confirmed the composition of strontium ferrite calcined at 1000 °C being mainly of M-type SrFe 12O 19 with HRTEM micrographs confirming the ferrites exhibiting M-type long range ordering along the c-axis of the crystal structure. The photoluminescence (PL) property of strontium ferrite was examined at excitation wavelengths of 260 and 270 nm with significant PL emission peaks centered at 350 nm being detected. Strontium ferrite annealed at higher temperature (1000 °C) was found to have grown into larger particle size, having higher content of oxygen vacancies and exhibited 83-85% more intense PL. Both the as-prepared strontium ferrites exhibited significant oxygen vacancies defect structures, which were verified via TGA. Higher calcination temperature turned strontium ferrite into a softer ferrite.

  16. A study of the microchemistry of nanocrystalline barium titanate with tetragonal and pseudocubic room temperature symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacey, Robert A.

    The investigation of possible effects of undesired surface species on barium titanate, one of the most utilized ferroelectric ceramics, constitutes the focus of this work. Six commercial barium titanate powders from three manufacturers representing two different synthesis processes, with average particle sizes from 40 nm to 470 nm, were analyzed in this study. Four of the nanopowders exhibited pseudocubic room temperature symmetry. Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform (DRIFT) spectroscopic analysis of the nanopowders was conducted in ambient atmosphere at room temperature. High temperature DRIFT followed incorporating four avenues of analysis: moisture adsorption studies, deuterium oxide exchange studies, carbon dioxide adsorption studies, and high temperature analysis under dry air and UHP nitrogen atmospheres. At the highest temperature used in this study, 1173K, moisture and the accompanying incorporated protonic impurities were still present. The powders readily readsorbed moisture during rapid cooling, 170K/minute, to room temperature. The smallest powder, as received, formed spherical agglomerates up to 10 mum diameter. These sintered as separate units attaining diameters up to 60 mum during intermediate stage sintering. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated a surface contamination layer of 10 A to 18 A; 50--70% of which was barium carbonate, the balance being atmospheric adsorbed species. Samples cooled at 3K/minute after an 1173K calcine retained cubic symmetry as indicated with high temperature X-ray diffraction. However, spectral evidence was obtained indicating that upon the rapid cooling from the 1173K calcine, a reorientation to the room temperature tetragonal symmetry was observed. Further, SEM and TEM supported this finding with visual evidence of interfacial rearrangement including corroborating electron diffraction analysis. This data, therefore, substantiated the hypothesis that the cause of the room temperature pseudocubic

  17. Cathodic arc deposition of barium oxide for oxide-coated cathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Umstattd, R.; Pi, T.; Luhmann, N. Jr.; Scheitrum, G.; Monteiro, O.; Brown, I.

    1998-12-31

    Cathodic arc deposition is used to create a barium oxide plasma which is then deposited/implanted onto a cathode nickel substrate. The primary motivation for this work is the critical need for a reliable, repeatable thermionic cathode for the production of high power, microsecond duration microwave pulses. The deposition is performed by generating a cathodic arc discharge at the surface of a barium of barium-strontium alloy rod. The metal plasma thus created is deposited onto the target in the presence of small amounts of oxygen. Difficulties in handling the highly hygroscopic barium and strontium sources were addressed by encapsulating the source rods in thin nickel sleeves (nickel being the major constituent of the deposition target). Both filtered and unfiltered depositions were performed; the former in the interest of improving film quality and the latter in an effort to improve deposition rate. The plasma deposition is monitored via a rate thickness monitor, an optical emission spectrometer for plasma composition information, and an electrostatic probe for the density and temperature profile of the plasma. Good film adhesion is critical for oxide cathodes since they are continually cycled, this, substrates are pulse biased during deposition to encourage implantation. An initial test was performed in which a film of barium oxide approximately one micron in thickness was deposited onto a small section of a 1 in. diameter nickel cathode with better than expected mission results. These preliminary results will be presented together with the results from follow-up experiments done to improve overall coating quality and emission performance.

  18. Modeling of compositionally graded barium strontium titanate from first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walizer, Laura Elizabeth

    Barium Strontium Titanate (BaxSr1-xTiO 3 or BST) is a Perovskite alloy of interest for both technological and intellectual reasons. Its ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties make it useful in a variety of electric components such as transducers and actuators, and BST in particular is a material of interest for the development of a ferroelectric RAM for computers.(1) The inclusion of SrTiO3, an incipient ferroelectric, and the fact that the properties of a BST system depend strongly on its relative composition of BaTiO3 (BT) and SrTiO3 (ST), make also this a material of high interest. (2) Compositionally graded systems are of further interest (see e.g., Refs. (3), (4), (5) and references therein), partly because their compositional grading leads to a built-in polarization gradient. Due to this, these systems could act as transcapacitors, devices which act as charge amplifiers in much the same way that transistors act as current amplifiers.(3), (4) Here, compositionally graded BST systems were modeled using a first-principles derived effective Hamiltonian method within Monte-Carlo simulation. (6) The graded systems under consideration had an average Ba composition of 70%. These systems were modeled under stress-free conditions, as well as, under epitaxial strain due to a SrTiO3 substrate. Both the degree of grading and the thickness of the layers were varied. The investigation revealed that graded BST systems behaved differently from bulk BST systems in several ways. First, some graded BST systems possessed both monodomain states qualitatively similar to those found in bulk systems (except that the polarization exhibited a "wave" behavior inside the graded systems), and also states with domain striping. Where this occurred, the monodomain state was lower in energy, and was therefore the ground-state, but the striped domain state was found to be metastable, representing a local energy minimum. Analyzing unstrained compositionally graded systems layer by layer

  19. Site-selective spectroscopy of the solid-state defect chemistry in erbium-doped barium titanate.

    PubMed

    Bak, John D; Wright, John C

    2005-10-01

    Erbium-doped barium titanate crystals were studied by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. Thirteen spectroscopically distinct erbium ion sites were found. The relative concentrations of the different sites changed as a function of the crystal and its preparation and treatment. One major site was present in all crystals. The site distribution was changed either by growing codoped crystals with donor (La3+) and acceptor (Sc3+) ions or by changing the temperature and partial pressure of the oxygen in the annealing atmosphere. Equilibrium calculations were done to simulate the defect distributions that result from the charge compensation of the erbium ions. Comparison with the observed dependence of the site spectral intensities indicated that the erbium enters the lattice on barium sites. We assigned the dominant site to an erbium ion on a barium site that is locally compensated by a barium vacancy, whereas the other lower-intensity sites corresponded to erbium ions that are locally compensated by an electron and a more complex center of an erbium, a barium vacancy, and a hole. The spectra of one sample showed that its defects were different and were characteristic of a sample that had not equilibrated. The new sites in this sample were assigned to erbium entering the lattice on a titanium site, which was then locally compensated by an oxygen vacancy or a hole. Heating equilibrated the sample and changed the erbium to a barium site. PMID:16853368

  20. The M-type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Hollis Ralph; Querci, Francois R.; Jordan, Stuart (Editor); Thomas, Richard (Editor); Goldberg, Leo; Pecker, Jean-Claude

    1987-01-01

    The papers in this volume cover the following topics: (1) basic properties and photometric variability of M and related stars; (2) spectroscopy and nonthermal processes; (3) circumstellar radio molecular lines; (4) circumstellar shells, the formation of grains, and radiation transfer; (5) mass loss; (6) circumstellar chemistry; (7) thermal atmospheric models; (8) quasi-thermal models; (9) observations on the atmospheres of M dwarfs; and (1) theoretical work on M dwarfs.