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Sample records for m2-f1 lifting body

  1. M2-F1 lifting body and Paresev 1B on ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    In this photo of the M2-F1 lifting body and the Paresev 1B on the ramp, the viewer sees two vehicles representing different approaches to building a research craft to simulate a spacecraft able to land on the ground instead of splashing down in the ocean as the Mercury capsules did. The M2-F1 was a lifting body, a shape able to re-enter from orbit and land. The Paresev (Paraglider Research Vehicle) used a Rogallo wing that could be (but never was) used to replace a conventional parachute for landing a capsule-type spacecraft, allowing it to make a controlled landing on the ground. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially conceived as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with the largest engine available. He took the car to Bill Straup's renowned hot-rod shop

  2. M2-F1 lifting body aircraft on a flatbed truck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    After the grounding of the M2-F1 in 1966, it was kept in outside storage on the Dryden complex. After several years, its fabric and plywood structure was damaged by the sun and weather. Restoration of the vehicle began in February 1994 under the leadership of NASA retiree Dick Fischer, with other retirees who had originally worked on the M2-F1's construction and flight research three decades before also participating. The photo shows the now-restored M2-F1 returning to the site of its flight research, now called the Dryden Flight Research Center, on 22 August 1997. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially conceived as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, NASA Flight Research Center (later Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA) management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with the largest engine available

  3. M2-F1 lifting body and Paresev 1B on ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    In this photo of the M2-F1 lifting body and the Paresev 1B on the ramp, the viewer sees two vehicles representing different approaches to building a research craft to simulate a spacecraft able to land on the ground instead of splashing down in the ocean as the Mercury capsules did. The M2-F1 was a lifting body, a shape able to re-enter from orbit and land. The Paresev (Paraglider Research Vehicle) used a Rogallo wing that could be (but never was) used to replace a conventional parachute for landing a capsule-type spacecraft, allowing it to make a controlled landing on the ground. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially conceived as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with the largest engine available. He took the car to Bill Straup's renowned hot-rod shop

  4. Proposed Ames M2-F1, M1-L half-cone, and Langley lenticular bodies.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    Dale Reed, who inaugurated the lifting-body flight research at NASA's Flight Research Center (later, Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA), originally proposed that three wooden outer shells be built. These would then be attached to the single internal steel structure. The three shapes were (viewer's left to right) the M2-F1, the M1-L, and a lenticular shape. Milt Thompson, who supported Reed's advocacy for a lifting-body research project, recommended that only the M2-F1 shell be built, believing that the M1-L shape was 'too radical,' while the lenticular one was 'too exotic.' Although the lenticular shape was often likened to that of a flying saucer, Reed's wife Donna called it the 'powder puff.' The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially conceived as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey

  5. M2-F1 cockpit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    This photo shows the cockpit configuration of the M2-F1 wingless lifting body. With a top speed of about 120 knots, the M2-F1 had a simple instrument panel. Besides the panel itself, the ribs of the wooden shell (left) and the control stick (center) are also visible. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially conceived as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with the largest engine available. He took the car to Bill Straup's renowned hot-rod shop near Long Beach for modification. With a special gearbox and racing slicks, the Pontiac could tow the 1,000-pound M2-F1 110 miles per hour in 30 seconds. It proved adequate for the roughly 400 car tows that got the M2-F1 airborne to prove it could fly safely and to train pilots before they were towed behind a C-47

  6. M2-F1 in Tow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    The M2-F1 lifting body is seen here being towed behind a C-47 at the Flight Research Center (later redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially conceived as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric re-entry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle.

  7. M2-F1 In Tow Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    The M2-F1 lifting body is seen here under tow at the Flight Research Center (later redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially conceived as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. These initial tests produced enough flight data about the M2-F1 to proceed with flights behind a NASA C-47 tow plane at greater altitudes. The C-47 took the craft to an altitude of 12,000 feet where free flights back to Rogers Dry Lake began.

  8. M2-F1 in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    The M2-F1 Lifting Body is seen here under tow by an unseen C-47 at the NASA Flight Research Center (later redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California. The low-cost vehicle was the first piloted lifting body to be test flown. The lifting-body concept originated in the mid-1950s at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics' Ames Aeronautical Laboratory, Mountain View California. By February 1962, a series of possible shapes had been developed, and R. Dale Reed was working to gain support for a research vehicle. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially concieved as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. These initial tests produced enough flight data about the M2-F1 to proceed with flights behind a NASA C-47 tow plane at greater altitudes. The C-47 took the craft to an altitude of 12,000 where free flights back to Rogers Dry Lake began. Pilot for the first series of flights of the M2-F1 was NASA research pilot Milt Thompson. Typical glide flights with the M2-F1 lasted about two minutes and reached speeds of 110 to l20 mph. More than 400 ground tows and 77 aircraft tow flights were carried out with the M2-F1. The success of Dryden's M2-F1 program led to NASA's development and construction of two heavyweight lifting bodies based on studies at

  9. M2-F1 in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    The M2-F1 Lifting Body is seen here under tow, high above Rogers Dry Lake near the Flight Research Center (later redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California. R. Dale Reed effectively advocated the project with the support of NASA research pilot Milt Thompson. Together, they gained the support of Flight Research Center Director Paul Bikle. After a six-month feasibility study, Bikle gave approval in the fall of 1962 for the M2-F1 to be built. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially concieved as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Flight Research Center management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. These initial tests produced enough flight data about the M2-F1 to proceed with flights behind a NASA C-47 tow plane at greater altitudes. The C-47 took the craft to an altitude of 12,000 where free flights back to Rogers Dry Lake began. Pilot for the first series of flights of the M2-F1 was NASA research pilot Milt Thompson. Typical glide flights with the M2-F1 lasted about two minutes and reached speeds of 110 to l20 mph. More than 400 ground tows and 77 aircraft tow flights were carried out with the M2-F1. The success of Dryden's M2-F1 program led to NASA's development and construction of two heavyweight lifting bodies based on studies at NASA's Ames and Langley research centers--the M2-F2 and the HL

  10. M2-F1 simulator cockpit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    This early simulator of the M2-F1 lifting body was used for pilot training, to test landing techniques before the first ground tow attempts, and to test new control configurations after the first tow attempts and wind-tunnel tests. The M2-F1 simulator was limited in some ways by its analog simulator. It had only limited visual display for the pilot, as well. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially conceived as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with the largest engine available. He took the car to Bill Straup's renowned hot-rod shop near Long Beach for modification. With a special gearbox and racing slicks, the Pontiac could tow the 1,000-pound M2-F1 110 miles per hour in 30 seconds. It proved adequate for the roughly 400 car tows that got the M2-F1 airborne

  11. M2-F1 in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    This 25-second clip shows Milt Thompson being towed in the M2-F1 behind a C-47 aircraft. The M2-F1 lifting body, dubbed the 'flying bathtub' by the media, was the precursor of a remarkable series of wingless flying vehicles that contributed data used in the Space Shuttles, the X-33 Advanced Technology Demonstrator for the next century's Reusable Launch Vehicle, and the X-38 Technology Demonstrator for crew return from the International Space Station. Based on the ideas and basic design of Alfred J. Eggers and others at the Ames Aeronautical Laboratory (now the Ames Research Center), Mountain View, California, in the mid-1950's, the M2-F1 was built in 1962-63 over a four-month period for a cost of only about $30,000, plus an additional $8,000-$10,000 for an ejection seat. Engineers and technicians at the NASA Flight Research Center (now NASA Dryden) kept costs low by designing and fabricating it partly in-house, with the plywood shell constructed by a local sailplane builder. Someone at the time estimated that it would have cost a major aircraft company $150,000 to build the same vehicle. Unlike the later lifting bodies, the M2-F1 was unpowered and was initially towed by a souped-up Pontiac convertible until it was airborne. Later a C-47 took over the towing duties. Flown by such famous research pilots as Milt Thompson, Bruce Peterson, Chuck Yeager, and Bill Dana, the lightweight flying bathtub demonstrated that a wingless vehicle shaped for reentry into the Earth's atmosphere from space could be flown and landed safely. Flown from 1963 to 1966, the lightweight M2-F1 paved the way for the heavyweight M2-F2, M2-F3, HL-10, X-24A, and X-24B lifting bodies that flew under rocket power after launch from a B-52 mothership. The heavyweights flew from 1966 to 1975, demonstrating the viability and versatility of the wingless configuration and the ability of a vehicle with low lift-over-drag characteristics to fly to high altitudes and then to land precisely with their rocket

  12. M2-F1 in flight on tow line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    The M2-F1 Lifting Body is seen here under tow at the Flight Research Center (later redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California. The wingless, lifting-body aircraft design was initially concieved as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Flight Research Center management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The M2-F1 project had limited goals. They were to show that a piloted lifting body could be built, that it could not only fly but be controlled in flight, and that it could make a successful landing. While the M2-F1 did prove the concept, with a wooden fuselage and fixed landing gear, it was far from an operational spacecraft. The next step in the lifting-body development was to build a heavyweight, rocket-powered vehicle that was more like an operational lifting body, albeit one without the thermal protection system that would be needed for reentry into the atmosphere from space at near-orbital speeds. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. These initial tests produced enough flight data about the M2-F1 to proceed with flights behind a NASA C-47 tow plane at greater altitudes. The C-47 took the craft to an altitude of 12,000 where free flights back to Rogers Dry Lake began. Pilot for the first series of flights of the M2-F1 was NASA research pilot Milt Thompson. Typical glide flights with the M2-F1 lasted about two minutes and reached speeds of 110 to

  13. M2-F1 on lakebed with pilot Milt Thompson

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    NASA Flight Research Pilot Milt Thompson, shown here on the lakebed with the M2-F1 lifting body, was an early backer of R. Dale Reed's lifting-body proposal. He urged Flight Research Center director Paul Bikle to approve the M2-F1's construction. Thompson also made the first glide flights in both the M2-F1 and its successor, the heavyweight M2-F2. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially conceived as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, NASA Flight Research Center (later Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA) management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with the largest engine available. He took the car to Bill Straup's renowned hot-rod shop near Long Beach for modification. With a special gearbox and racing slicks, the Pontiac could tow the 1,000-pound M2-F1 110 miles per hour in 30 seconds. It proved

  14. M2-F1 in hangar with Pontiac tow vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    The M2-F1 Lifting Body is seen here in a hangar with its hotrod Pontiac convertible tow vehicle at the Flight Research Center (later the Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California. The car was a 1963 Pontiac Catalina convertible, fitted with a 421-cubic-inch tripower engine like those being run at the Daytona 500 auto race. The vehicle also had a four-speed transmission and a heavy-duty suspension and cooling system. A roll bar was also added and the passenger seat turned around so an observer could watch the M2-F1 while it was being towed. The rear seat was removed and a second, side-facing seat installed. The lifting-body team used the Pontiac for all the ground-tow flights over the next three years. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially conceived as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey

  15. M2-F1 ejection seat test at South Edwards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    The M2-F1 was fitted with an ejection seat before the airtow flights began. The project selected the seat used in the T-37 as modified by the Weber Company to use a rocket rather than a ballistic charge for ejection. To test the ejection seat, the Flight Research Center's Dick Klein constructed a plywood mockup of the M2-F1's top deck and canopy. On the first firings, the test was unsuccessful, but on the final test the dummy in the seat landed safely. The M2-F1 ejection seat was later used in the two Lunar Landing Research Vehicles and the three Lunar Landing Training Vehicles. Three of them crashed, but in each case the pilot ejected from the vehicle successfully. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially conceived as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with

  16. Internal steel structure of M2-F1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    The internal steel structure for the M2-F1 was built at the Flight Research Center (predecessor of the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA) in a section of the calibration hangar dubbed 'Wright Bicycle Shop.' Visible are the stick, rudder pedals, and ejection seat. The external wooden shell was attached to the steel structure. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially conceived as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with the largest engine available. He took the car to Bill Straup's renowned hot-rod shop near Long Beach for modification. With a special gearbox and racing slicks, the Pontiac could tow the 1,000-pound M2-F1 110 miles per hour in 30 seconds. It proved adequate for the roughly 400 car tows that got the M2-F1 airborne to prove it could fly

  17. M2-F1 under tow across lakebed by car

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    This 20-second clip shows the M2-F1 being towed by the Pontiac across Rogers Dry Lakebed. The M2-F1 lifting body, dubbed the 'flying bathtub' by the media, was the precursor of a remarkable series of wingless flying vehicles that contributed data used in the Space Shuttles, the X-33 Advanced Technology Demonstrator for the next century's Reusable Launch Vehicle, and the X-38 Technology Demonstrator for crew return from the International Space Station. Based on the ideas and basic design of Alfred J. Eggers and others at the Ames Aeronautical Laboratory (now the Ames Research Center), Mountain View, California, in the mid-1950's, the M2-F1 was built in 1962-63 over a four-month period for a cost of only about $30,000, plus an additional $8,000-$10,000 for an ejection seat. Engineers and technicians at the NASA Flight Research Center (now NASA Dryden) kept costs low by designing and fabricating it partly in-house, with the plywood shell constructed by a local sailplane builder. Someone at the time estimated that it would have cost a major aircraft company $150,000 to build the same vehicle. Unlike the later lifting bodies, the M2-F1 was unpowered and was initially towed by a souped-up Pontiac convertible until it was airborne. Later a C-47 took over the towing duties. Flown by such famous research pilots as Milt Thompson, Bruce Peterson, Chuck Yeager, and Bill Dana, the lightweight flying bathtub demonstrated that a wingless vehicle shaped for reentry into the Earth's atmosphere from space could be flown and landed safely. Flown from 1963 to 1966, the lightweight M2-F1 paved the way for the heavyweight M2-F2, M2`F3, HL-10, X-24A, and X-24B lifting bodies that flew under rocket power after launch from a B-52 mothership. The heavyweights flew from 1966 to 1975, demonstrating the viability and versatility of the wingless configuration and the ability of a vehicle with low lift-over-drag characteristics to fly to high altitudes and then to land precisely with their

  18. M2-F1 in flight being towed by a C-47

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    The M2-F1 Lifting Body is seen here being towed behind a C-47 at the Flight Research Center (later redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California. In this rear view, the M2-F1 is flying above and to one side of the C-47. This was done to avoid wake turbulence from the towplane. Lacking wings, the M2-F1 used an unusual configuration for its control surfaces. It had two rudders on the fins, two elevons (called 'elephant ears') mounted on the outsides of the fins, and two body flaps on the upper rear fuselage. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially concieved as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. These initial tests produced enough flight data about the M2-F1 to proceed with flights behind the C-47 tow plane at greater altitudes. The C-47 took the craft to an altitude of 12,000 where free flights back to Rogers Dry Lake began. Pilot for the first series of flights of the M2-F1 was NASA research pilot Milt Thompson. Typical glide flights with the M2-F1 lasted about two minutes and reached speeds of 110 to l20 mph. More than 400 ground tows and 77 aircraft tow flights were carried out with the M2-F1. The success of Dryden's M2-F1 program led to NASA's development and construction of two heavyweight lifting bodies based on studies at NASA's Ames and

  19. M2-F1 in flight over lakebed on tow line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Following the first M2-F1 airtow flight on 16 August 1963, the Flight Research Center used the vehicle for both research flights and to check out new lifting-body pilots. These included Bruce Peterson, Don Mallick, Fred Haise, and Bill Dana from NASA. Air Force pilots who flew the M2-F1 included Chuck Yeager, Jerry Gentry, Joe Engle, Jim Wood, and Don Sorlie, although Wood, Haise, and Engle only flew on car tows. In the three years between the first and last flights of the M2-F1, it made about 400 car tows and 77 air tows. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially concieved as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with the largest engine available. He took the car to Bill Straup's renowned hot-rod shop near Long Beach for modification. With a special gearbox and

  20. M2-F1 on lakebed with Pontiac convertible tow vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    The M2-F1 lifting body, dubbed the 'flying bathtub' by the media, was the precursor of a remarkable series of wingless flying vehicles that contributed data used in the space shuttle and the X-38 Technology Demonstrator for crew return from the International Space Station. The early tow tests were done using the 1963 Pontiac Catalina convertible modified for the purpose. The first flight attempt occurred on 1 March 1963 but was unsuccessful due to control-system problems. It was not until 5 April 1963, after tests in the Ames Research Center wind tunnel, that Milt Thompson made the first M2-F1 tow flight. Based on the ideas and basic design of Alfred J. Eggers and others at the Ames Aeronautical Laboratory (now the Ames Research Center), Mountain View, Calif., in the mid-1950s, the M2-F1 came to be built over a four-month period in 1962-63 for a cost of only about $30,000 plus perhaps an additional $8,000-$10,000 for an ejection seat and $10,000 for solid-propellant rockets to add time to the landing flare. Engineers and technicians at the NASA Flight Research Center (now NASA Dryden) kept costs low by designing and fabricating it partly in-house, with the plywood shell constructed by a local sailplane builder. Someone at the time estimated that it would have cost a major aircraft company $150,000 to build the same vehicle. Unlike the later lifting bodies, the M2-F1 was unpowered and was initially towed until it was airborne by a souped-up Pontiac convertible. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina

  1. Wooden shell of M2-F1 being assembled at El Mirage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    Wooden shell of the M2-F1 being assembled at El Mirage, CA. While Flight Research Center technicians built the internal steel structure of the M2-F1, sailplane builder Gus Briegleb built the vehicle's outer wooden shell. Its skin was 3/32-inch mahogany plywood, with 1/8-inch mahogany rib sections reinforced with spruce. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially conceived as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with the largest engine available. He took the car to Bill Straup's renowned hot-rod shop near Long Beach for modification. With a special gearbox and racing slicks, the Pontiac could tow the 1,000-pound M2-F1 110 miles per hour in 30 seconds. It proved adequate for the roughly 400 car tows that got the M2-F1 airborne to prove it could fly safely and to

  2. M2-F1 mounted in NASA Ames Research Center 40x80 foot wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    After the first attempted ground-tow tests of the M2-F1 in March 1963, the vehicle was taken to the Ames Research Center, Mountain View, CA, for wind-tunnel testing. During these tests, Milt Thompson and others were in the M2-F1 to position the control surfaces for each test. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially conceived as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with the largest engine available. He took the car to Bill Straup's renowned hot-rod shop near Long Beach for modification. With a special gearbox and racing slicks, the Pontiac could tow the 1,000-pound M2-F1 110 miles per hour in 30 seconds. It proved adequate for the roughly 400 car tows that got the M2-F1 airborne to prove it could fly safely and to train pilots before they were towed behind a C

  3. M2-F1 in flight over lakebed on tow line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    After initial ground-tow flights of the M2-F1 using the Pontiac as a tow vehicle, the way was clear to make air tows behind a C-47. The first air tow took place on 16 August 1963. Pilot Milt Thompson found that the M2-F1 flew well, with good control. This first flight lasted less than two minutes from tow-line release to touchdown. The descent rate was 4,000 feet per minute. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially concieved as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with the largest engine available. He took the car to Bill Straup's renowned hot-rod shop near Long Beach for modification. With a special gearbox and racing slicks, the Pontiac could tow the 1,000-pound M2-F1 110 miles per hour in 30 seconds. It proved adequate for the roughly 400 car tows that got

  4. M2-F1 in flight during low-speed car tow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    The M2-F1 shown in flight during a low-speed car tow runs across the lakebed. Such tests allowed about two minutes to test the vehicle's handling in flight. NASA Flight Research Center (later redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center) personnel conducted as many as 8 to 14 ground-tow flights in a single day either to test the vehicle in preparation for air tows or to train pilots to fly the vehicle before they undertook air tows. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially concieved as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with the largest engine available. He took the car to Bill Straup's renowned hot-rod shop near Long Beach for modification. With a special gearbox and racing slicks, the Pontiac could tow the 1,000-pound M2-F1 110 miles per hour in 30

  5. M2-F1 fabrication by Grierson Hamilton, Bob Green, and Ed Browne

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    Flight Research Center discretionary funds paid for the M2-F-1's construction. NASA mechanics, sheet-metal smiths, and technicians did much of the work in a curtained-off area of a hangar called the 'Wright Bicycle Shop.' The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially conceived as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with the largest engine available. He took the car to Bill Straup's renowned hot-rod shop near Long Beach for modification. With a special gearbox and racing slicks, the Pontiac could tow the 1,000-pound M2-F1 110 miles per hour in 30 seconds. It proved adequate for the roughly 400 car tows that got the M2-F1 airborne to prove it could fly safely and to train pilots before they were towed behind a C-47 aircraft and released. These initial car-tow tests

  6. Dale Reed with model in front of M2-F1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    Dale Reed with a model of the M2-F1 in front of the actual lifting body. Reed used the model to show the potential of the lifting bodies. He first flew it into tall grass to test stability and trim, then hand-launched it from buildings for longer flights. Finally, he towed the lifting-body model aloft using a powered model airplane known as the 'Mothership.' A timer released the model and it glided to a landing. Dale's wife Donna used a 9 mm. camera to film the flights of the model. Its stability as it glided--despite its lack of wings--convinced Milt Thompson and some Flight Research Center engineers including the center director, Paul Bikle, that a piloted lifting body was possible. The lifting body concept evolved in the mid-1950s as researchers considered alternatives to ballistic reentries of piloted space capsules. The designs for hypersonic, wingless vehicles were on the boards at NASA Ames and NASA Langley facilities, while the US Air Force was gearing up for its Dyna-Soar program, which defined the need for a spacecraft that would land like an airplane. Despite favorable research on lifting bodies, there was little support for a flight program. Dryden engineer R. Dale Reed was intrigued with the lifting body concept, and reasoned that some sort of flight demonstration was needed before wingless aircraft could be taken seriously. In February 1962, he built a model lifting body based upon the Ames M2 design, and air-launched it from a radio controlled 'mothership.' Home movies of these flights, plus the support of research pilot Milt Thompson, helped pursuade the facilities director, Paul Bikle, to give the go-ahead for the construction of a full-scale version, to be used as a wind-tunnel model and possibly flown as a glider. Comparing lifting bodies to space capsules, an unofficial motto of the project was, 'Don't be Rescued from Outer Space--Fly Back in Style.' The construction of the M2-F1 was a joint effort by Dryden and a local glider manufacturer, the

  7. M2-F1 on lakebed with pilots Milt Thompson, Chuck Yeager, Don Mallick, and Bruce Peterson

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    After the initial M2-F1 airtow flights, the NASA Flight Research Center used the vehicle to check out other pilots. Bruce Peterson was scheduled to take over as the M2-F1 project pilot from Milt Thompson, while Don Mallick was to be his backup. Col. (later Brig. Gen.) Charles (Chuck) Yeager, then commandant of the Air Force's Aerospace Research Pilots School, wanted to evaluate a possible lifting-body trainer for the school. This photo shows all of these distinguished pilots on or in the M2-F1, with Col. Yeager in the pilot's seat. The lifting body concept evolved in the mid-1950s as researchers considered alternatives to ballistic reentries of piloted space capsules. The designs for hypersonic, wingless vehicles were on the boards at NASA Ames and NASA Langley facilities, while the US Air Force was gearing up for its Dyna-Soar program, which defined the need for a spacecraft that would land like an airplane. Despite favorable research on lifting bodies, there was little support for a flight program. Dryden engineer R. Dale Reed was intrigued with the lifting body concept, and reasoned that some sort of flight demonstration was needed before wingless aircraft could be taken seriously. In February 1962, he built a model lifting body based upon the Ames M2 design, and air-launched it from a radio controlled 'mothership.' Home movies of these flights, plus the support of research pilot Milt Thompson, helped pursuade the facilities director, Paul Bikle, to give the go-ahead for the construction of a full-scale version, to be used as a wind-tunnel model and possibly flown as a glider. Comparing lifting bodies to space capsules, an unofficial motto of the project was, 'Don't be Rescued from Outer Space--Fly Back in Style.' The construction of the M2-F1 was a joint effort by Dryden and a local glider manufacturer, the Briegleb Glider Company. The budget was $30,000. NASA craftsmen and engineers built the tubular steel interior frame. Its mahogany plywood shell was hand

  8. Lifting Body Flight Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barret, Chris

    1998-01-01

    NASA has a technology program in place to build the X-33 test vehicle and then the full sized Reusable Launch Vehicle, VentureStar. VentureStar is a Lifting Body (LB) flight vehicle which will carry our future payloads into orbit, and will do so at a much reduced cost. There were three design contenders for the new Reusable Launch Vehicle: a Winged Vehicle, a Vertical Lander, and the Lifting Body(LB). The LB design won the competition. A LB vehicle has no wings and derives its lift solely from the shape of its body, and has the unique advantages of superior volumetric efficiency, better aerodynamic efficiency at high angles-of-attack and hypersonic speeds, and reduced thermal protection system weight. Classically, in a ballistic vehicle, drag has been employed to control the level of deceleration in reentry. In the LB, lift enables the vehicle to decelerate at higher altitudes for the same velocity and defines the reentry corridor which includes a greater cross range. This paper outlines our LB heritage which was utilized in the design of the new Reusable Launch Vehicle, VentureStar. NASA and the U.S. Air Force have a rich heritage of LB vehicle design and flight experience. Eight LB's were built and over 225 LB test flights were conducted through 1975 in the initial LB Program. Three LB series were most significant in the advancement of today's LB technology: the M2-F; HL-1O; and X-24 series. The M2-F series was designed by NASA Ames Research Center, the HL-10 series by NASA Langley Research Center, and the X-24 series by the Air Force. LB vehicles are alive again today.

  9. Lifting Bodies on Lakebed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The wingless, lifting body aircraft sitting on Rogers Dry Lake at what is now NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, from left to right are the X-24A, M2-F3 and the HL-10.The lifting body aircraft studied the feasibility of maneuvering and landing an aerodynamic craft designed for reentry from space. These lifting bodies were air launched by a B-52 mother ship, then flew powered by their own rocket engines before making an unpowered approach and landing. They helped validate the concept that a space shuttle could make accurate landings without power. The X-24A flew from April 17, 1969 to June 4, 1971. The M2-F3 flew from June 2, 1970 until December 22, 1972. The HL-10 flew from December 22, 1966 until July 17, 1970, and logged the highest and fastest records in the lifting body program. The X-24 was one of a group of lifting bodies flown by the NASA Flight Research Center (FRC-now Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, in a joint program with the U.S. Air Force at Edwards Air Force Base from 1963 to 1975. The lifting bodies were used to demonstrate the ability of pilots to maneuver and safely land wingless vehicles designed to fly back to Earth from space and be landed like an airplane at a predetermined site. Lifting bodies' aerodynamic lift, essential to flight in the atmosphere, was obtained from their shape. The addition of fins and control surfaces allowed the pilots to stabilize and control the vehicles and regulate their flight paths. Built by Martin Aircraft Company, Maryland, for the U.S. Air Force, the X-24A was a bulbous vehicle shaped like a teardrop with three vertical fins at the rear for directional control. It weighed 6,270 pounds, was 24.5 feet long and 11.5 feet wide (measuring just the fuselage, not the distance between the tips of the outboard fins). Its first unpowered glide flight was on April 17, 1969, with Air Force Maj. Jerauld Gentry at the controls. Gentry also piloted its first powered flight on March 19

  10. Aerodynamic Assessment of Flight-Determined Subsonic Lift and Drag Characteristics of Seven Lifting-Body and Wing-Body Reentry Vehicle Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saltzman, Edwin J.; Wang, K. Charles; Iliff, Kenneth W.

    2002-01-01

    This report examines subsonic flight-measured lift and drag characteristics of seven lifting-body and wing-body reentry vehicle configurations with truncated bases. The seven vehicles are the full-scale M2-F1, M2-F2, HL-10, X-24A, X-24B, and X-15 vehicles and the Space Shuttle Enterprise. Subsonic flight lift and drag data of the various vehicles are assembled under aerodynamic performance parameters and presented in several analytical and graphical formats. These formats are intended to unify the data and allow a greater understanding than individually studying the vehicles allows. Lift-curve slope data are studied with respect to aspect ratio and related to generic wind-tunnel model data and to theory for low-aspect-ratio platforms. The definition of reference area is critical for understanding and comparing the lift data. The drag components studied include minimum drag coefficient, lift-related drag, maximum lift-to drag ratio, and, where available, base pressure coefficients. The influence of forebody drag on afterbody and base drag at low lift is shown to be related to Hoerner's compilation for body, airfoil, nacelle, and canopy drag. This feature may result in a reduced need of surface smoothness for vehicles with a large ratio of base area to wetted area. These analyses are intended to provide a useful analytical framework with which to compare and evaluate new vehicle configurations of the same generic family.

  11. Flight-Determined Subsonic Lift and Drag Characteristics of Seven Lifting-Body and Wing-Body Reentry Vehicle Configurations With Truncated Bases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saltzman, Edwin J.; Wang, K. Charles; Iliff, Kenneth W.

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines flight-measured subsonic lift and drag characteristics of seven lifting-body and wing-body reentry vehicle configurations with truncated bases. The seven vehicles are the full-scale M2-F1, M2-F2, HL-10, X-24A, X-24B, and X-15 vehicles and the Space Shuttle prototype. Lift and drag data of the various vehicles are assembled under aerodynamic performance parameters and presented in several analytical and graphical formats. These formats unify the data and allow a greater understanding than studying the vehicles individually allows. Lift-curve slope data are studied with respect to aspect ratio and related to generic wind-tunnel model data and to theory for low-aspect-ratio planforms. The proper definition of reference area was critical for understanding and comparing the lift data. The drag components studied include minimum drag coefficient, lift-related drag, maximum lift-to-drag ratio, and, where available, base pressure coefficients. The effects of fineness ratio on forebody drag were also considered. The influence of forebody drag on afterbody (base) drag at low lift is shown to be related to Hoerner's compilation for body, airfoil, nacelle, and canopy drag. These analyses are intended to provide a useful analytical framework with which to compare and evaluate new vehicle configurations of the same generic family.

  12. Three Lifting Bodies on Lakebed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The wingless, lifting body aircraft sitting on Rogers Dry Lake at what is now NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, from left to right are the X-24A, M2-F3 and the HL-10.The lifting body aircraft studied the feasibility of maneuvering and landing an aerodynamic craft designed for reentry from space. These lifting bodies were air launched by a B-52 mother ship, then flew powered by their own rocket engines before making an unpowered approach and landing. They helped validate the concept that a space shuttle could make accurate landings without power. The X-24A flew from April 17, 1969 to June 4, 1971. The M2-F3 flew from June 2, 1970 until December 20, 1972. The HL-10 flew from December 22, 1966 until July 17, 1970 and logged the highest and fastest records in the lifting body program. The X-24 was one of a group of lifting bodies flown by the NASA Flight Research Center (FRC--now Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, in a joint program with the U.S. Air Force at Edwards Air Force Base from 1963 to 1975. The lifting bodies were used to demonstrate the ability of pilots to maneuver and safely land wingless vehicles designed to fly back to Earth from space and be landed like an airplane at a predetermined site. Lifting bodies' aerodynamic lift, essential to flight in the atmosphere, was obtained from their shape. The addition of fins and control surfaces allowed the pilots to stabilize and control the vehicles and regulate their flight paths. Built by Martin Aircraft Company, Maryland, for the U.S. Air Force, the X-24A was a bulbous vehicle shaped like a teardrop with three vertical fins at the rear for directional control. It weighed 6,270 pounds, was 24.5 feet long and 11.5 feet wide (measuring just the fuselage, not the distance between the tips of the outboard fins). Its first unpowered glide flight was on April 17, 1969, with Air Force Maj. Jerauld Gentry at the controls. Gentry also piloted its first powered flight on March 19

  13. Wingless Flight: The Lifting Body Story

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, R. Dale; Lister, Darlene (Editor); Huntley, J. D. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    Wingless Flight tells the story of the most unusual flying machines ever flown, the lifting bodies. It is my story about my friends and colleagues who committed a significant part of their lives in the 1960s and 1970s to prove that the concept was a viable one for use in spacecraft of the future. This story, filled with drama and adventure, is about the twelve-year period from 1963 to 1975 in which eight different lifting-body configurations flew. It is appropriate for me to write the story, since I was the engineer who first presented the idea of flight-testing the concept to others at the NASA Flight Research Center. Over those twelve years, I experienced the story as it unfolded day by day at that remote NASA facility northeast of los Angeles in the bleak Mojave Desert. Benefits from this effort immediately influenced the design and operational concepts of the winged NASA Shuttle Orbiter. However, the full benefits would not be realized until the 1990s when new spacecraft such as the X-33 and X-38 would fully employ the lifting-body concept. A lifting body is basically a wingless vehicle that flies due to the lift generated by the shape of its fuselage. Although both a lifting reentry vehicle and a ballistic capsule had been considered as options during the early stages of NASA's space program, NASA initially opted to go with the capsule. A number of individuals were not content to close the book on the lifting-body concept. Researchers including Alfred Eggers at the NASA Ames Research Center conducted early wind-tunnel experiments, finding that half of a rounded nose-cone shape that was flat on top and rounded on the bottom could generate a lift-to-drag ratio of about 1.5 to 1. Eggers' preliminary design sketch later resembled the basic M2 lifting-body design. At the NASA Langley Research Center, other researchers toyed with their own lifting-body shapes. Meanwhile, some of us aircraft-oriented researchers at the, NASA Flight Research Center at Edwards Air

  14. Heating Analysis of the Lockheed Lifting Body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, Grant; Henline, Bill; Olynick, Dave; Edwards, Thomas A. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis is performed on the Lockheed Lifting Body Single-Stage-to-Orbit vehicle to determine the heat transfer to the vehicle during its descent trajectory. Seven species, chemical nonequilibriurn computations using the GASP code will be completed at several trajectory points to assess the thermal protection requirements of the vehicle. Sophisticated surface boundary conditions including in-depth conduction, catalycity, and a variable temperature wall have been incorporated into the flow solver.

  15. The Lifting Body Legacy...X-33

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barret, Chris

    1999-01-01

    NASA has a technology program in place to enable the development of a next generation Reusable Launch Vehicle that will carry our future payloads into orbit at a much-reduced cost. The VentureStar, Lifting Body (LB) flight vehicle, is one of the potential reusable launch vehicle configurations being studied. A LB vehicle has no wings and derives its lift solely from the shape of its body, and has the unique advantages of superior volumetric efficiency, better aerodynamic efficiency at high angles-of-attack and hypersonic speeds, and reduced thermal protection system weight. Classically, in a ballistic vehicle, drag has been employed to control the level of deceleration in reentry. In the LB, lift enables the vehicle to decelerate at higher altitudes for the same velocity and defines the reentry corridor which includes a greater cross range. This paper outlines the flight stability and control aspects of our LB heritage which was utilized in the design of the VentureStar LB and its test version, the X-33. NASA and the U.S. Air Force have a rich heritage of LB vehicle design and flight experience. In the initial LB Program, eight LB's were built and over 225 LB test flights were conducted through 1975. Three LB series were most significant in the advancement of today's LB technolocy: the M2-F; the HL-10; and the X-24 series. The M2-F series was designed by NASA Ames Research Center, the HL-10 series by NASA Langley Research Center, and the X-24 series by the U. S. Air Force. LB vehicles are alive again today with the X- 33, X-38, and VentureStar.

  16. Development and flight testing of the HL-10 lifting body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempel, Robert W.; Painter, Weneth D.

    1993-01-01

    The Horizontal Lander 10 (HL-10) lifting body successfully completed 37 flights, achieved the highest Mach number and altitude of this class of vehicle, and contributed to the technology base used to develop the space shuttle and future generations of lifting bodies. Design, development, and flight testing of this low-speed, air-launched, rocket-powered, lifting body was part of an unprecedented effort by NASA and the Northrop Corporation. This paper describes the evolution of the HL-10 lifting body from theoretical design, through development, to selection as one of two low-speed flight vehicles chosen for fabrication and piloted flight testing. Interesting and unusual events which occurred during the program and flight tests, review of significant problems encountered during the first flight, and discussion of how these problems were solved are presented. In addition, impressions of the pilots who flew the HL-10 lifting body are given.

  17. Analysis of transonic flow about lifting wing-body configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnwell, R. W.

    1975-01-01

    An analytical solution was obtained for the perturbation velocity potential for transonic flow about lifting wing-body configurations with order-one span-length ratios and small reduced-span-length ratios and equivalent-thickness-length ratios. The analysis is performed with the method of matched asymptotic expansions. The angles of attack which are considered are small but are large enough to insure that the effects of lift in the region far from the configuration are either dominant or comparable with the effects of thickness. The modification to the equivalence rule which accounts for these lift effects is determined. An analysis of transonic flow about lifting wings with large aspect ratios is also presented.

  18. Aerodynamic development of a lifting body launch vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Reaser, J.S.

    1997-01-01

    The Lockheed Martin Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) and X-33 demonstrator vehicle incorporate a lifting body aerodynamic design. This design originated from the X-24, HL-20 and ACRV lifting body database. It evolved rapidly through successive wind tunnel tests using stereolithography generated plastic models and rapid data acquisition and analysis. The culmination of this work is a configuration that is close to meeting a goal of at least neutral stability about all axes throughout the operating Mach spectrum. The development process and aerodynamic evolution are described. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  19. Unsteady compressible potential flow around lifting bodies - General theory.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morino, L.

    1973-01-01

    The general theory of potential aerodynamic flow around a lifting body having arbitrary shape and motion is presented. By using the Green's function method, an integral representation for the velocity potential is obtained for both supersonic and subsonic flow. This representation reduces properly to the lifting surface theories as well as to other classical mathematical formulas. Under small perturbation assumption, the potential at any point P in the field depends only upon the values of the potential and its normal derivative on the surface of the body. Hence, if the point P approaches the surface of the body, the representation reduces to an integrodifferential equation relating the potential and its normal derivative on the surface of the body.

  20. The Personnel Launch System - A lifting body approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talay, Theodore A.; Stone, Howard W.

    1991-01-01

    A lifting-body approach to the sign of a Personnel Launch System spacecraft for Space Station crew missions is defined. This paper reviews the characteristics and capabilities of this spacecraft the HL-20. Launch vehicle options are examined and recent findings from wind tunnel tests, tests of landing dynamics and handling qualities, and human factors research using a full-scale research model are reviewed.

  1. HL-10 pilots assist with pilot entry into lifting body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Not every moment of a test pilot's day is serious business. In a moment of levity, NASA pilots Bill Dana (left) and John A. Manke try to drag Air Force test pilot Peter Hoag away from the HL-10 lifting body while Air Force Major Jerauld R. Gentry helps from the cockpit. These four men were the principal pilots for the HL-10 program. This was not the only prank involving the HL-10 and its pilots. Once 'Captain Midnight' (Gentry) and the 'Midnight skulkers' sneaked into the NASA hangar and put 'U.S. Air Force' on the aircraft using stick-on letters. Later, while Gentry was making a lifting-body flight, his 1954 Ford was 'borrowed' from the parking lot, painted with yellow-green zinc-chromate primer, and decorated with large stick-on flowers about one foot in diameter. After Gentry returned from the flight, he was surprised to see what had happened to his car. The HL-10 was one of five heavyweight lifting-body designs flown at NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC--later Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, from July 1966 to November 1975 to study and validate the concept of safely maneuvering and landing a low lift-over-drag vehicle designed for reentry from space. Northrop Corporation built the HL-10 and M2-F2, the first two of the fleet of 'heavy' lifting bodies flown by the NASA Flight Research Center. The contract for construction of the HL-10 and the M2-F2 was $1.8 million. 'HL' stands for horizontal landing, and '10' refers to the tenth design studied by engineers at NASA's Langley Research Center, Hampton, Va. After delivery to NASA in January 1966, the HL-10 made its first flight on Dec. 22, 1966, with research pilot Bruce Peterson in the cockpit. Although an XLR-11 rocket engine was installed in the vehicle, the first 11 drop flights from the B-52 launch aircraft were powerless glide flights to assess handling qualities, stability, and control. In the end, the HL-10 was judged to be the best handling of the three original heavy-weight lifting

  2. In vivo loads on a vertebral body replacement during different lifting techniques.

    PubMed

    Dreischarf, Marcel; Rohlmann, Antonius; Graichen, Friedmar; Bergmann, Georg; Schmidt, Hendrik

    2016-04-11

    The repeated lifting of heavy weights has been identified as a risk factor for low back pain (LBP). Whether squat lifting leads to lower spinal loads than stoop lifting and whether lifting a weight laterally results in smaller forces than lifting the same weight in front of the body remain matters of debate. Instrumented vertebral body replacements (VBRs) were used to measure the in vivo load in the lumbar spine in three patients at level L1 and in one patient at level L3. Stoop lifting and squat lifting were compared in 17 measuring sessions, in which both techniques were performed a total of 104 times. The trunk inclination and amount of knee bending were simultaneously estimated from recorded images. Compared with the aforementioned lifting tasks, the patients additionally lifted a weight laterally with one hand 26 times. Only a small difference (4%) in the measured resultant force was observed between stoop lifting and squat lifting, although the knee-bending angle (stoop 10°, squat 45°) and trunk inclination (stoop 52°, squat 39°) differed considerably at the time points of maximal resultant forces. Lifting a weight laterally caused 14% less implant force on average than lifting the same weight in front of the body. The current in vivo biomechanical study does not provide evidence that spinal loads differ substantially between stoop and squat lifting. The anterior-posterior position of the lifted weight relative to the spine appears to be crucial for spinal loading. PMID:26603872

  3. Lifting Entry & Atmospheric Flight (LEAF) Applications at Solar System Bodies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, G.; Sen, B.; Polidan, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    Introduction: Northrop Grumman and L'Garde have continued the development of a hypersonic entry, maneuverable platform capable of performing long-duration (months to a year) in situ and remote measurements at any solar system body that possesses an atmosphere. The Lifting Entry & Atmospheric Flight (LEAF) family of vehicles achieve this capability by using a semi-buoyant, ultra-low ballistic coefficient vehicle whose lifting entry allows it to enter the atmosphere without an aeroshell. In this presentation, we discuss the application of the LEAF system at various solar system bodies: Venus, Titan, Mars, and Earth. We present the key differences in platform design as well as operational differences required by the various target environments. The Venus implementation includes propulsive capability to reach higher altitudes during the day and achieves full buoyancy in the "habitable layers" of Venus' atmosphere at night. Titan also offers an attractive operating environment, allowing LEAF designs that can target low, medium, or high altitude operations, also with propulsive capabilities to roam within each altitude regime. The Mars version is a glider that descends gradually, allowing targeted delivery of payloads to the surface. Finally, an Earth version could remain in orbit in a stowed state until activated, allowing rapid response type deployments to any region of the globe.

  4. Thermal Management Design for the X-33 Lifting Body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouslog, S.; Mammano, J.; Strauss, B.

    1998-01-01

    The X-33 Advantage Technology Demonstrator offers a rare and exciting opportunity in Thermal Protection System development. The experimental program incorporates the latest design innovation in re-useable, low life cycle cost, and highly dependable Thermal Protection materials and constructions into both ground based and flight test vehicle validations. The unique attributes of the X-33 demonstrator for design application validation for the full scale Reusable Launch Vehicle, (RLV), are represented by both the configuration of the stand-off aeroshell, and the extreme exposures of sub-orbital hypersonic re-entry simulation. There are several challenges of producing a sub-orbital prototype demonstrator of Single Stage to Orbit/Reusable Launch Vehicle (SSTO/RLV) operations. An aggressive schedule with budgetary constraints precludes the opportunity for an extensive verification and qualification program of vehicle flight hardware. However, taking advantage of off the shelf components with proven technologies reduces some of the requirements for additional testing. The effects of scale on thermal heating rates must also be taken into account during trajectory design and analysis. Described in this document are the unique Thermal Protection System (TPS) design opportunities that are available with the lifting body configuration of the X-33. The two principal objectives for the TPS are to shield the primary airframe structure from excessive thermal loads and to provide an aerodynamic mold line surface. With the relatively benign aeroheating capability of the lifting body, an integrated stand-off aeroshell design with minimal weight and reduced procurement and operational costs is allowed. This paper summarizes the design objectives of the X-33 TPS, the flight test requirements driven configuration, and design benefits. Comparisons are made of the X-33 flight profiles and Space Shuttle Orbiter, and lifting body Reusable Launch Vehicle aerothermal environments. The X-33

  5. Exploring the effects of seated whole body vibration exposure on repetitive asymmetric lifting tasks.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Jay P; Lavender, Steven A; Jagacinski, Richard J; Sommerich, Carolyn M

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated changes in the physiological and behavioral responses to repetitive asymmetric lifting activity after exposure to whole body vibrations. Seventeen healthy volunteers repeatedly lifted a box (15% of lifter's capacity) positioned in front of them at ankle level to a location on their left side at waist level at the rate of 10 lifts/min for a period of 60 minutes. Prior to lifting, participants were seated on a vibrating platform for 60 minutes; in one of the two sessions the platform did not vibrate. Overall, the physiological responses assessed using near-infrared spectroscopy signals for the erector spinae muscles decreased significantly over time during the seating and the lifting tasks (p < 0.001). During repetitive asymmetric lifting, behavioral changes included increases in peak forward bending motion, twisting movement, and three-dimensional movement velocities of the spine. The lateral bending movement of the spine and the duration of each lift decreased significantly over the 60 minutes of repetitive lifting. With exposure to whole body vibration, participants twisted farther (p = 0.046) and twisted faster (p = 0.025). These behavioral changes would suggest an increase in back injury risk when repetitive lifting tasks are preceded by whole body vibration exposure. PMID:25264920

  6. Supporting the upper body with the hand on the thigh reduces back loading during lifting.

    PubMed

    Kingma, Idsart; Faber, Gert S; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2016-04-11

    When picking objects from the floor, low back pain patients often tend to support the upper body by leaning with one hand on a thigh. While this strategy may reduce back load, this has not yet been assessed, probably due to the difficulty of measuring the forces between hand and thigh. Ten healthy male subjects lifted a pencil and a crate from the floor, with four lifting techniques (free, squat, stoop and a Weight Lifters Technique (WLT)), each of which was performed with and without supporting with one hand on the thigh. A six Degrees of Freedom force transducer, with a comfortable surface to support the hand on, was mounted just above the subject׳s left knee. Hand forces, ground reaction forces, full body kinematics, and trunk EMG were measured. Using inverse dynamics and taking the forces between hand and thigh into account, we calculated 3D L5S1 joint moments, and subsequently estimated spine forces using an EMG-assisted trunk model. For lifting a pencil, hand support reduced average peak total moments by 17-25%, dependent on lifting technique. For crate lifting, hand support reduced total moments by 13-19% compared with one-handed lifting and by 14-26% compared to two-handed lifting. Hand support slightly increased asymmetric motions and caused a substantial increase in asymmetric moments in crate lifting. For compression forces, reductions (up to 28%) were seen in all techniques except in stoop lifts. It is concluded that leaning with a hand on the thigh can lead to substantial reductions of low back loading during lifting. PMID:26475223

  7. The lift-off velocity on the surface of an arbitrary body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van wal, S.; Scheeres, D. J.

    2016-05-01

    An expression is developed for the velocity at which a particle, moving tangentially on the surface of a body with an arbitrary shape, rotation, and gravitational field, will lift off from that surface and enter orbit. The osculating departure plane in which this lift-off motion occurs is defined by the net particle acceleration and the desired lift-off direction. The body surface is approximated within this plane, at the departure point, with some radius and center of curvature, allowing for a universal, frame-independent lift-off velocity expression. Applying the geometry of plane-ellipsoid intersections, we perform a validation of the full lift-off velocity expression on a number of rotating ellipsoids. Finally, we derive a limit expression for the case of lift-off from a rotating plane, and compare this with the results on curved bodies. This theory has numerous applications to lander/rover surface mobility operations on asteroids, comets, and small moons, as well as to geophysical processes encountered on these bodies.

  8. Supersonic aerodynamic characteristics of a proposed Assured Crew Return Capability (ACRC) lifting-body configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ware, George M.

    1989-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel at Mach numbers from 1.6 to 4.5. The model had a low-aspect-ratio body with a flat undersurface. A center fin and two outboard fins were mounted on the aft portion of the upper body. The outboard fins were rolled outboard 40 deg from the vertical. Elevon surfaces made up the trailing edges of the outboard fins, and body flaps were located on the upper and lower aft fuselage. The center fin pivoted about its midchord for yaw control. The model was longitudinally stable about the design center-of-gravity position at 54 percent of the body length. The configuration with undeflected longitudinal controls trimmed near 0 deg angle of attack at Mach numbers from 1.6 to 3.0 where lift and lift-drag ratio were negative. Longitudinal trim was near the maximum lift-drag ratio (1.4) at Mach 4.5. The model was directionally stable over Mach number range except at angles of attack around 4 deg at M = 2.5. Pitch control deflection of more than -10 deg with either elevons or body flaps is needed to trim the model to angles of attack at which lift becomes positive. With increased control deflection, the lifting-body configuration should perform the assured crew return mission through the supersonic speed range.

  9. Two cases of lower body contouring with a spiral and vertical medial thigh lift.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Wha; Han, Hyun Ho; Seo, Je Won; Lee, Jung Ho; Oh, Deuk Young; Ahn, Sang Tae; Rhie, Jong Won

    2012-01-01

    Massive weight loss results in skin excess, leading to an unsatisfying body contour. Various thigh lift procedures can correct flabby skin in the lower leg. We present a lower body contouring technique with a report on two patients. The procedure is determined by the body contour of the patient. As the skin excess in the thigh area tended to appear mostly on the medial side, a vertical medial thigh lift was considered. Moreover, for patients with a pear/guitar-shaped body contour, we added the spiral thigh lift for skin excess in the buttocks and the lateral thigh area. The extent of tissue to excise was determined by pinching the patient in a standing position. The inferior skin flap was fixed to non-movable tissue, which was helpful for lifting the tissue and preventing the widening of the scar. After the operation, a drain was kept for 3 to 4 days. A compressive garment was used after removing the drain. There were no complications. The patients were discharged 6 to 8 days after the operation. In conclusion, skin excess, especially in the lower body, can be corrected by a thigh lift combining several procedures, varying from person to person. PMID:22783496

  10. Two Cases of Lower Body Contouring with a Spiral and Vertical Medial Thigh Lift

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Wha; Han, Hyun Ho; Seo, Je Won; Lee, Jung Ho; Oh, Deuk Young; Ahn, Sang Tae

    2012-01-01

    Massive weight loss results in skin excess, leading to an unsatisfying body contour. Various thigh lift procedures can correct flabby skin in the lower leg. We present a lower body contouring technique with a report on two patients. The procedure is determined by the body contour of the patient. As the skin excess in the thigh area tended to appear mostly on the medial side, a vertical medial thigh lift was considered. Moreover, for patients with a pear/guitar-shaped body contour, we added the spiral thigh lift for skin excess in the buttocks and the lateral thigh area. The extent of tissue to excise was determined by pinching the patient in a standing position. The inferior skin flap was fixed to non-movable tissue, which was helpful for lifting the tissue and preventing the widening of the scar. After the operation, a drain was kept for 3 to 4 days. A compressive garment was used after removing the drain. There were no complications. The patients were discharged 6 to 8 days after the operation. In conclusion, skin excess, especially in the lower body, can be corrected by a thigh lift combining several procedures, varying from person to person. PMID:22783496

  11. In-Flight Subsonic Lift and Drag Characteristics Unique to Blunt-Based Lifting Reentry Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saltzman, Edwin J.; Wang, K. Charles; Iliff, Kenneth W.

    2007-01-01

    Lift and drag measurements have been analyzed for subsonic flight conditions for seven blunt-based reentry-type vehicles. Five of the vehicles are lifting bodies (M2-F1, M2-F2, HL-10, X-24A, and X-24B) and two are wing-body configurations (the X-15 and the Space Shuttle Enterprise). Base pressure measurements indicate that the base drag for full-scale vehicles is approximately three times greater than predicted by Hoerner's equation for three-dimensional bodies. Base drag and forebody drag combine to provide an optimal overall minimum drag (a drag "bucket") for a given configuration. The magnitude of this optimal drag, as well as the associated forebody drag, is dependent on the ratio of base area to vehicle wetted area. Counter-intuitively, the flight-determined optimal minimum drag does not occur at the point of minimum forebody drag, but at a higher forebody drag value. It was also found that the chosen definition for reference area for lift parameters should include the projection of planform area ahead of the wing trailing edge (i.e., forebody plus wing). Results are assembled collectively to provide a greater understanding of this class of vehicles than would occur by considering them individually.

  12. Aero-thermal analysis of lifting body configurations in hypersonic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sachin; Mahulikar, Shripad P.

    2016-09-01

    The aero-thermal analysis of a hypersonic vehicle is of fundamental interest for designing its thermal protection system. The aero-thermal environment predictions over several critical regions of the hypothesized lifting body vehicle, including the stagnation region of the nose-cap, cylindrically swept leading edges, fuselage-upper, and fuselage-lower surfaces, are discussed. The drag (Λ=70°) and temperature (Λ=80°) minimized sweepback angles are considered in the configuration design of the two hypothesized lifting body shape hypersonic vehicles. The main aim of the present study is to analyze and compare the aero-thermal characteristics of these two lifting body configurations at same heat capacity. Accordingly, a Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation has been carried out at Mach number (M∞=7), H=35 km altitude with zero Angle of Attack. Finally, the material selection for thermal protection system based on these predictions and current methodology is described.

  13. Developing and flight testing the HL-10 lifting body: A precursor to the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempel, Robert W.; Painter, Weneth D.; Thompson, Milton O.

    1994-01-01

    The origins of the lifting-body idea are traced back to the mid-1950's, when the concept of a manned satellite reentering the Earth's atmosphere in the form of a wingless lifting body was first proposed. The advantages of low reentry deceleration loads, range capability, and horizontal landing of a lifting reentry vehicle (as compared with the high deceleration loads and parachute landing of a capsule) are presented. The evolution of the hypersonic HL-10 lifting body is reviewed from the theoretical design and development process to its selection as one of two low-speed flight vehicles for fabrication and piloted flight testing. The design, development, and flight testing of the low-speed, air-launched, rocket-powered HL-10 was part of an unprecedented NASA and contractor effort. NASA Langley Research Center conceived and developed the vehicle shape and conducted numerous theoretical, experimental, and wind-tunnel studies. NASA Flight Research Center (now NASA Dryden Flight Research Center) was responsible for final low-speed (Mach numbers less than 2.0) aerodynamic analysis, piloted simulation, control law development, and flight tests. The prime contractor, Northrop Corp., was responsible for hardware design, fabrication, and integration. Interesting and unusual events in the flight testing are presented with a review of significant problems encountered in the first flight and how they were solved. Impressions by the pilots who flew the HL-10 are included. The HL-10 completed a successful 37-flight program, achieved the highest Mach number and altitude of this class vehicle, and contributed to the technology base used to develop the space shuttle and future generations of lifting bodies.

  14. Theoretical lift due to wing incidence of slender wing-body-tail combinations at zero angle of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sacks, Alvin H

    1956-01-01

    The theoretical lift of a cylindrical afterbody at zero angle of attack due to incidence of the wing is calculated by means of slender-body theory. It is assumed that the vortex sheet becomes fully rolled up ahead of the tail, and the vortex paths in the presence of the body are determined analytically. The total lift of a variety of slender wing-body-tail combinations due to wing incidence is also calculated.

  15. Test Pilot John A. Manke and M2-F3 Lifting Body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    NASA research pilot John A. Manke is seen here in front of the M2-F3 lifting body. Manke was hired by NASA on May 25, 1962, as a flight research engineer. He was later assigned to the pilot's office and flew various support aircraft including the F-104, F-5D, F-111 and C-47. The M2-F3 reached a top speed of l,064 mph (Mach 1.6). Highest altitude reached by the vehicle was 7l,500 feet on December 21, 1972, the date of its last flight with NASA pilot John Manke at the controls. The information the lifting body program generated contributed to the data base that led to development of today's Space Shuttle program. NASA donated The M2-F3 vehicle to the Smithsonian Institution in December 1973.

  16. Flight-Simulated Launch-Pad-Abort-to-Landing Maneuvers for a Lifting Body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, E. Bruce; Rivers, Robert A.

    1998-01-01

    The results of an in-flight investigation of the feasibility of conducting a successful landing following a launch-pad abort of a vertically-launched lifting body are presented. The study attempted to duplicate the abort-to-land-ing trajectory from the point of apogee through final flare and included the steep glide and a required high-speed, low-altitude turn to the runway heading. The steep glide was flown by reference to ground-provided guidance. The low-altitude turn was flown visually with a reduced field- of-view duplicating that of the simulated lifting body. Results from the in-flight experiment are shown to agree with ground-based simulation results; however, these tests should not be regarded as a definitive due to performance and control law dissimilarities between the two vehicles.

  17. Aft-End Flow of a Large-Scale Lifting Body During Free-Flight Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Daniel W.; Fisher, David F.

    2006-01-01

    Free-flight tests of a large-scale lifting-body configuration, the X-38 aircraft, were conducted using tufts to characterize the flow on the aft end, specifically in the inboard region of the vertical fins. Pressure data was collected on the fins and base. Flow direction and movement were correlated with surface pressure and flight condition. The X-38 was conceived to be a rescue vehicle for the International Space Station. The vehicle shape was derived from the U.S. Air Force X-24 lifting body. Free-flight tests of the X-38 configuration were conducted at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards Air Force Base, California from 1997 to 2001.

  18. Human Factors Lessons Learned from Flight Testing Wingless Lifting Body Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merlin, Peter William

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1960s, NASA, the Air Force, and now private industry have attempted to develop an operational human crewed reusable spacecraft with a wingless, lifting body configuration. This type of vehicle offers increased mission flexibility and greater reentry cross range than capsule type craft, and is particularly attractive due to the capability to land on a runway. That capability, however, adds complexity to the human factors engineering requirements of developing such aircraft.

  19. Drag and lift reduction of a 3D bluff-body using active vortex generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aider, Jean-Luc; Beaudoin, Jean-François; Wesfreid, José Eduardo

    2010-05-01

    In this study, a passive flow control experiment on a 3D bluff-body using vortex generators (VGs) is presented. The bluff-body is a modified Ahmed body (Ahmed in J Fluids Eng 105:429-434 1983) with a curved rear part, instead of a slanted one, so that the location of the flow separation is no longer forced by the geometry. The influence of a line of non-conventional trapezoïdal VGs on the aerodynamic forces (drag and lift) induced on the bluff-body is investigated. The high sensitivity to many geometric (angle between the trapezoïdal element and the wall, spanwise spacing between the VGs, longitudinal location on the curved surface) and physical (freestream velocity) parameters is clearly demonstrated. The maximum drag reduction is -12%, while the maximum global lift reduction can reach more than -60%, with a strong dependency on the freestream velocity. For some configurations, the lift on the rear axle of the model can be inverted (-104%). It is also shown that the VGs are still efficient even downstream of the natural separation line. Finally, a dynamic parameter is chosen and a new set-up with motorized vortex generators is proposed. Thanks to this active device. The optimal configurations depending on two parameters are found more easily, and a significant drag and lift reduction (up to -14% drag reduction) can be reached for different freestream velocities. These results are then analyzed through wall pressure and velocity measurements in the near-wake of the bluff-body with and without control. It appears that the largest drag and lift reduction is clearly associated to a strong increase of the size of the recirculation bubble over the rear slant. Investigation of the velocity field in a cross-section downstream the model reveals that, in the same time, the intensity of the longitudinal trailing vortices is strongly reduced, suggesting that the drag reduction is due to the breakdown of the balance between the separation bubble and the longitudinal vortices

  20. Subsonic aerodynamic characteristics of the HL-20 lifting-body configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ware, George M.; Cruz, Christopher I.

    1993-01-01

    The HL-20 is proposed as a possible future manned spacecraft. The configuration consists of a low-aspect-ratio body with a flat undersurface. Three fins (a small centerline fin and two outboard (tip) fins set at a dihedral angle of 50 deg) are mounted on the aft body. The control system consists of elevon surfaces on the outboard fins, a set of four body flaps on the upper and lower aft body, and an all-movable center fin. Both the elevons and body flaps were capable of trimming the model to angles of attack from -2 deg to above 20 deg. The maximum trimmed lift-drag ratio was 3.6. Replacing the flat-plate tip fins with airfoil tip fins increased the maximum trimmed lift-drag ratio to 4.2. The elevons were effective as a roll control, but they produced about as much yawing moment as rolling moment because of the tip-fin dihedral angle. The body flaps produced less rolling moment than the elevons and only small values of yawing moment. A limited investigation of the effect of varying tip-fin dihedral angle indicated that a dihedral angle of 50 deg was a reasonable compromise for longitudinal and lateral stability, longitudinal trim, and performance at subsonic speeds.

  1. Generic multi-body formulation of heavy lift airship equations of motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ringland, R. F.; Tischler, M. B.; Ashkenas, I. L.; Jex, H. R.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes the formulation of a comprehensive set of equations which describe the dynamic behavior of a generic heavy lift airship (HLA). They are being used in a digital computer simulation to investigate the response dynamics and flying qualities of HLAs operating with various payloads in a variety of operational environments. A key feature is the separate treatment of each component body making up the HLA. This allows the analyst to vary the configuration (e.g., number of lift-propulsion units, presence or absence of slung payload, etc.) without rewriting the equations. It further provides measures of key structural and control loads acting on the HLA and eases the task of modeling wind disturbances.

  2. Lift and center of pressure of wing-body-tail combinations at subsonic, transonic, and supersonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, William C; Nielsen, Jack N; Kaattari, George E

    1957-01-01

    A method is presented for calculating the lift and centers of pressure of wing-body and wing-body-tail combinations at subsonic, transonic, and supersonic speeds. A set of design charts and a computing table are presented which reduce the computations to routine operations. Comparison between the estimated and experimental characteristics for a number of wing-body and wing-body-tail combinations shows correlation to within + or - 10 percent on lift and to within about + or - 0.02 of the body length on center of pressure.

  3. Whole-body lift and ground effect during pectoral fin locomotion in the northern spearnose poacher (Agonopsis vulsa).

    PubMed

    Nowroozi, Bryan N; Strother, James A; Horton, Jaquan M; Summers, Adam P; Brainerd, Elizabeth L

    2009-01-01

    The northern spearnose poacher, Agonopsis vulsa, is a benthic, heavily armored fish that swims primarily using pectoral fins. High-speed kinematics, whole-body lift measurements, and flow visualization were used to study how A. vulsa overcomes substantial negative buoyancy while generating forward thrust. Kinematics for five freely swimming poachers indicate that individuals tend to swim near the bottom (within 1cm) with a consistently small (less than 1 degrees ) pitch angle of the body. When the poachers swam more than 1cm above the bottom, however, body pitch angles were higher and varied inversely with speed, suggesting that lift may help overcome negative buoyancy. To determine the contribution of the body to total lift, fins were removed from euthanized fish (n=3) and the lift and drag from the body were measured in a flume. Lift and drag were found to increase with increasing flow velocity and angle of attack (ANCOVA, p<0.0001 for both effects). Lift force from the body was found to supply approximately half of the force necessary to overcome negative buoyancy when the fish were swimming more than 1cm above the bottom. Lastly, flow visualization experiments were performed to examine the mechanism of lift generation for near-bottom swimming. A vortex in the wake of the pectoral fins was observed to interact strongly with the substratum when the animals approached the bottom. These flow patterns suggest that, when swimming within 1cm of the bottom, poachers may use hydrodynamic ground effect to augment lift, thereby counteracting negative buoyancy. PMID:19501494

  4. Three Lifting Bodies on Lakebed (X-24A, M2-F3, HL-10)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The wingless, lifting body aircraft sitting on Rogers Dry Lake at what is now NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, from left to right are the X-24A, M2-F3 and the HL-10.The lifting body aircraft studied the feasibility of maneuvering and landing an aerodynamic craft designed for reentry from space. These lifting bodies were air launched by a B-52 mother ship, then flew powered by their own rocket engines before making an unpowered approach and landing. They helped validate the concept that a space shuttle could make accurate landings without power. The X-24A flew from April 17, 1969 to June 4, 1971. The M2-F3 flew from June 2, 1970 until December 20, 1972. The HL-10 flew from December 22, 1966 until July 17, 1970, and logged the highest and fastest records in the lifting body program. The X-24 was one of a group of lifting bodies flown by the NASA Flight Research Center (FRC--now Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, in a joint program with the U.S. Air Force at Edwards Air Force Base from 1963 to 1975. The lifting bodies were used to demonstrate the ability of pilots to maneuver and safely land wingless vehicles designed to fly back to Earth from space and be landed like an airplane at a predetermined site. Lifting bodies' aerodynamic lift, essential to flight in the atmosphere, was obtained from their shape. The addition of fins and control surfaces allowed the pilots to stabilize and control the vehicles and regulate their flight paths. Built by Martin Aircraft Company, Maryland, for the U.S. Air Force, the X-24A was a bulbous vehicle shaped like a teardrop with three vertical fins at the rear for directional control. It weighed 6,270 pounds, was 24.5 feet long and 11.5 feet wide (measuring just the fuselage, not the distance between the tips of the outboard fins). Its first unpowered glide flight was on April 17, 1969, with Air Force Maj. Jerauld Gentry at the controls. Gentry also piloted its first powered flight on March

  5. Three Lifting Bodies on Lakebed (X-24A, M2-F3, HL-10)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The wingless, lifting body aircraft sitting on Rogers Dry Lake at what is now NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, from left to right are the X-24A, M2-F3 and the HL-10.The lifting body aircraft studied the feasibility of maneuvering and landing an aerodynamic craft designed for reentry from space. These lifting bodies were air launched by a B-52 mother ship, then flew powered by their own rocket engines before making an unpowered approach and landing. They helped validate the concept that a space shuttle could make accurate landings without power. The X-24A flew from April 17, 1969 to June 4, 1971. The M2-F3 flew from June 2, 1970 until December 20, 1972. The HL-10 flew from December 22, 1966 until July 17, 1970 and logged the highest and fastest records in the lifting body program. The X-24 was one of a group of lifting bodies flown by the NASA Flight Research Center (now Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, in a joint program with the U.S. Air Force at Edwards Air Force Base from 1963 to 1975. The lifting bodies were used to demonstrate the ability of pilots to maneuver and safely land wingless vehicles designed to fly back to Earth from space and be landed like an airplane at a predetermined site. Lifting bodies' aerodynamic lift, essential to flight in the atmosphere, was obtained from their shape. The addition of fins and control surfaces allowed the pilots to stabilize and control the vehicles and regulate their flight paths. Built by Martin Aircraft Company, Maryland, for the U.S. Air Force, the X-24A was a bulbous vehicle shaped like a teardrop with three vertical fins at the rear for directional control. It weighed 6,270 pounds, was 24.5 feet long and 11.5 feet wide (measuring just the fuselage, not the distance between the tips of the outboard fins). Its first unpowered glide flight was on April 17, 1969, with Air Force Maj. Jerauld Gentry at the controls. Gentry also piloted its first powered flight on March 19

  6. A Study of a Lifting Body as a Space Station Crew Exigency Return Vehicle (CERV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacConochie, Ian O.

    2000-01-01

    A lifting body is described for use as a return vehicle for crews from a space station. Reentry trajectories, subsystem weights and performance, and costs are included. The baseline vehicle is sized for a crew of eight. An alternate configuration is shown in which only four crew are carried with the extra volume reserved for logistics cargo. A water parachute recovery system is shown as an emergency alternative to a runway landing. Primary reaction control thrusters from the Shuttle program are used for orbital maneuvering while the Shuttle verniers are used for all attitude control maneuvers.

  7. Statistical analysis of landing contact conditions for three lifting body research vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, R. R.

    1972-01-01

    The landing contact conditions for the HL-10, M2-F2/F3, and the X-24A lifting body vehicles are analyzed statistically for 81 landings. The landing contact parameters analyzed are true airspeed, peak normal acceleration at the center of gravity, roll angle, and roll velocity. Ground measurement parameters analyzed are lateral and longitudinal distance from intended touchdown, lateral distance from touchdown to full stop, and rollout distance. The results are presented in the form of histograms for frequency distributions and cumulative frequency distribution probability curves with a Pearson Type 3 curve fit for extrapolation purposes.

  8. Lifting Entry & Atmospheric Flight (LEAF) System Concept Applications at Solar System Bodies With an Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Greg; Polidan, Ronald; Ross, Floyd; Sokol, Daniel; Warwick, Steve

    2015-11-01

    Northrop Grumman and L’Garde have continued the development of a hypersonic entry, semi-buoyant, maneuverable platform capable of performing long-duration (months to a year) in situ and remote measurements at any solar system body that possesses an atmosphere.The Lifting Entry & Atmospheric Flight (LEAF) family of vehicles achieves this capability by using a semi-buoyant, ultra-low ballistic coefficient vehicle whose lifting entry allows it to enter the atmosphere without an aeroshell. The mass savings realized by eliminating the heavy aeroshell allows significantly more payload to be accommodated by the platform for additional science collection and return.In this presentation, we discuss the application of the LEAF system at various solar system bodies: Venus, Titan, Mars, and Earth. We present the key differences in platform design as well as operational differences required by the various target environments. The Venus implementation includes propulsive capability to reach higher altitudes during the day and achieves full buoyancy in the mid-cloud layer of Venus’ atmosphere at night.Titan also offers an attractive operating environment, allowing LEAF designs that can target low or medium altitude operations, also with propulsive capabilities to roam within each altitude regime. The Mars version is a glider that descends gradually, allowing targeted delivery of payloads to the surface or high resolution surface imaging. Finally, an Earth version could remain in orbit in a stowed state until activated, allowing rapid response type deployments to any region of the globe.

  9. The application of some lifting-body reentry concepts to missile design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1985-01-01

    The aerodynamic characteristics of some lifting-body concepts are examined with a view to the applicability of such concepts to the design of missiles. A considerable amount of research has been done in past years with vehicle concepts suitable for manned atmospheric-entry and atmospheric flight. Some of the concepts appear to offer some novel design approaches for missiles for a variety of missions and flight profiles, including long-range orbital/reentry with transatmospheric operation for strategic penetration, low altitude penetration, and battlefield tactical. The concepts considered include right triangular pyramidal configurations, a lenticular configuration, and various 75-degree triangular planform configurations with variations in body camber and control systems. The aerodynamic features are emphasized but some observations are also made relative to other factors such as heat transfer, structures, carriage, observability, propulsion, and volumetric efficiency.

  10. A simple demonstration of Einstein's lift: a body thrown upwards moves rectilinearly and uniformly relative to a free-falling model of the lift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, V. V.; Varaksina, E. I.

    2015-09-01

    The educational model of Einstein's lift consists of a table suspended from an electromagnet. A flexible support is attached to the table. A metal ball is on the support and deforms it. When the electromagnet is deenergized, the table falls, the system goes to a weightless state and the support throws the ball up. A camera carries out frame-by-frame photography of the free-falling model. The resulting photographs are imported into a computer, projected on to a screen with a multimedia projector and analyzed in a lecture with the audience. The experiment proves that a thrown up body moves rectilinearly and uniformly relative to the free-falling model of Einstein's lift. In the second version of the experiment we replace the ball with a water drop lying on the unwettable surface of the table of the model.

  11. A Multidisciplinary Performance Analysis of a Lifting-Body Single-Stage-to-Orbit Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tartabini, Paul V.; Lepsch, Roger A.; Korte, J. J.; Wurster, Kathryn E.

    2000-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Skunk Works (LMSW) is currently developing a single-stage-to-orbit reusable launch vehicle called VentureStar(TM) A team at NASA Langley Research Center participated with LMSW in the screening and evaluation of a number of early VentureStar(TM) configurations. The performance analyses that supported these initial studies were conducted to assess the effect of a lifting body shape, linear aerospike engine and metallic thermal protection system (TPS) on the weight and performance of the vehicle. These performance studies were performed in a multidisciplinary fashion that indirectly linked the trajectory optimization with weight estimation and aerothermal analysis tools. This approach was necessary to develop optimized ascent and entry trajectories that met all vehicle design constraints. Significant improvements in ascent performance were achieved when the vehicle flew a lifting trajectory and varied the engine mixture ratio during flight. Also, a considerable reduction in empty weight was possible by adjusting the total oxidizer-to-fuel and liftoff thrust-to-weight ratios. However, the optimal ascent flight profile had to be altered to ensure that the vehicle could be trimmed in pitch using only the flow diverting capability of the aerospike engine. Likewise, the optimal entry trajectory had to be tailored to meet TPS heating rate and transition constraints while satisfying a crossrange requirement.

  12. HFL-10 lifting body flight control system characteristics and operational experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Painter, W. D.; Sitterle, G. J.

    1974-01-01

    A flight evaluation was made of the mechanical hydraulic flight control system and the electrohydraulic stability augmentation system installed in the HL-10 lifting body research vehicle. Flight tests performed in the speed range from landing to a Mach number of 1.86 and the altitude range from 697 meters (2300 feet) to 27,550 meters (90,300 feet) were supplemented by ground tests to identify and correct structural resonance and limit-cycle problems. Severe limit-cycle and control sensitivity problems were encountered during the first flight. Stability augmentation system structural resonance electronic filters were modified to correct the limit-cycle problem. Several changes were made to control stick gearing to solve the control sensitivity problem. Satisfactory controllability was achieved by using a nonlinear system. A limit-cycle problem due to hydraulic fluid contamination was encountered during the first powered flight, but the problem did not recur after preflight operations were improved.

  13. Real-time simulation model of the HL-20 lifting body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, E. Bruce; Cruz, Christopher I.; Ragsdale, W. A.

    1992-01-01

    A proposed manned spacecraft design, designated the HL-20, has been under investigation at Langley Research Center. Included in that investigation are flight control design and flying qualities studies utilizing a man-in-the-loop real-time simulator. This report documents the current real-time simulation model of the HL-20 lifting body vehicle, known as version 2.0, presently in use at NASA Langley Research Center. Included are data on vehicle aerodynamics, inertias, geometries, guidance and control laws, and cockpit displays and controllers. In addition, trim case and dynamic check case data is provided. The intent of this document is to provide the reader with sufficient information to develop and validate an equivalent simulation of the HL-20 for use in real-time or analytical studies.

  14. Launch-pad abort capabilities of the HL-20 lifting body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, E. Bruce; Rivers, Robert A.; Chowdhry, Rajiv S.; Ragsdale, W. A.; Geyer, David W.

    1994-01-01

    The capability of the HL-20 lifting body to perform an abort maneuver from the launch pad to a horizontal landing was studied. The study involved both piloted and batch simulation models of the vehicle. A point-mass model of the vehicle was used for trajectory optimization studies. The piloted simulation was performed in the Langley Visual/Motion Simulator in the fixed-base mode. A candidate maneuver was developed and refined for the worst-case launch-pad-to-landing-site geometry with an iterative procedure of off-line maneuver analysis followed by piloted evaluations and heuristic improvements to the candidate maneuver. The resulting maneuver demonstrates the launch-site abort capability of the HL-20 and dictates requirements for nominal abort-motor performance. The sensitivity of the maneuver to variations in several design parameters was documented.

  15. Aerodynamic interaction between vortical wakes and lifting two-dimensional bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stremel, Paul M.

    1989-01-01

    Unsteady rotor wake interactions with the empennage, tail boom, and other aerodynamic surfaces of a helicopter have a significant influence on its aerodynamic performance, the ride quality, and vibration. A numerical method for computing the aerodynamic interaction between an interacting vortex wake and the viscous flow about arbitrary two-dimensional bodies was developed to address this helicopter problem. The method solves for the flow field velocities on a body-fitted computational mesh using finite-difference techniques. The interacting vortex wake is represented by an array of discrete vortices which, in turn, are represented by a finite-core model. The evolution of the interacting vortex wake is calculated by Lagrangian techniques. The viscous flow field of the two-dimensional body is calculated on an Eulerian grid. The flow around circular and elliptic cylinders in the absence of an interacting vortex wake was calculated. These results compare very well with other numerical results and with results obtained from experiment and thereby demonstrate the accuracy of the viscous solution. The interaction of a rotor wake with the flow about a 4 to 1 elliptic cylinder at 45 degree incidence was calculated for a Reynolds number of 3000. The results demonstrate the significant variations in the lift and drag on the elliptic cylinder in the presence of the interacting rotor wake.

  16. Calculation of water drop trajectories to and about arbitrary three-dimensional lifting and nonlifting bodies in potential airflow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norment, H. G.

    1985-01-01

    Subsonic, external flow about nonlifting bodies, lifting bodies or combinations of lifting and nonlifting bodies is calculated by a modified version of the Hess lifting code. Trajectory calculations can be performed for any atmospheric conditions and for all water drop sizes, from the smallest cloud droplet to large raindrops. Experimental water drop drag relations are used in the water drop equations of motion and effects of gravity settling are included. Inlet flow can be accommodated, and high Mach number compressibility effects are corrected for approximately. Seven codes are described: (1) a code used to debug and plot body surface description data; (2) a code that processes the body surface data to yield the potential flow field; (3) a code that computes flow velocities at arrays of points in space; (4) a code that computes water drop trajectories from an array of points in space; (5) a code that computes water drop trajectories and fluxes to arbitrary target points; (6) a code that computes water drop trajectories tangent to the body; and (7) a code that produces stereo pair plots which include both the body and trajectories. Accuracy of the calculations is discussed, and trajectory calculation results are compared with prior calculations and with experimental data.

  17. Trajectory optimization study of a lifting body re-entry vehicle for medium to intermediate range applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizvi, S. Tauqeer ul Islam; Linshu, He; ur Rehman, Tawfiq; Rafique, Amer Farhan

    2012-11-01

    A numerical optimization study of lifting body re-entry vehicles is presented for nominal as well as shallow entry conditions for Medium and Intermediate Range applications. Due to the stringent requirement of a high degree of accuracy for conventional vehicles, lifting re-entry can be used to attain the impact at the desired terminal flight path angle and speed and thus can potentially improve accuracy of the re-entry vehicle. The re-entry of a medium range and intermediate range vehicles is characterized by very high negative flight path angle and low re-entry speed as compared to a maneuverable re-entry vehicle or a common aero vehicle intended for an intercontinental range. Highly negative flight path angles at the re-entry impose high dynamic pressure as well as heat loads on the vehicle. The trajectory studies are carried out to maximize the cross range of the re-entry vehicle while imposing a maximum dynamic pressure constraint of 350 KPa with a 3 MW/m2 heat rate limit. The maximum normal acceleration and the total heat load experienced by the vehicle at the stagnation point during the maneuver have been computed for the vehicle for possible future conceptual design studies. It has been found that cross range capability of up to 35 km can be achieved with a lifting-body design within the heat rate and the dynamic pressure boundary at normal entry conditions. For shallow entry angle of -20 degree and intermediate ranges a cross range capability of up to 250 km can be attained for a lifting body design with less than 10 percent loss in overall range. The normal acceleration also remains within limits. The lifting-body results have also been compared with wing-body results at shallow entry condition. An hp-adaptive pseudo-spectral method has been used for constrained trajectory optimization.

  18. Comparison of the Experimental and Theoretical Distribution of Lift on a Slender Inclined Body of Revolution at M = 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, Edward W; Kuehn, Donald M

    1953-01-01

    Pressure distributions and force characteristics have been determined for a body of revolution consisting of a fineness ratio 5.75, circular-arc, ogival nose tangent to a cylindrical afterbody for an angle-of-attack range of 0 degrees to 35.5 degrees. The free-stream Mach number was 1.98 and the free-stream Reynolds number was approximately 0.5 x 10 sup 6, based on body diameter. Comparison of the theoretical and experimental pressure distributions shows that for zero lift, either slender-body theory or higher-order theories yield results which are in good agreement with experiment. For the lifting case, good agreement with theory is found only for low angles of attack and for the region in which the body cross-sectional area is increasing in the downstream direction. Because of the effects of cross-flow separation and the effects of compressibility due to the high cross-flow Mach numbers at large angles of attack, the experimental pressure distributions differ from those predicted by potential theory. Although the flow about the inclined body was, in general, similar to that assumed as the basis for Allen's method of estimating the forces resulting from viscous effects (NACA RM A91I26), the distribution of the forces was significantly different from that assumed. Nevertheless, the lift and pitching-moment characteristics were in fair agreement with the estimated value.

  19. Control of propulsion and body lift during the first two stances of sprint running: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Debaere, Sofie; Delecluse, Christophe; Aerenhouts, Dirk; Hagman, Friso; Jonkers, Ilse

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to relate the contribution of lower limb joint moments and individual muscle forces to the body centre of mass (COM) vertical and horizontal acceleration during the initial two steps of sprint running. Start performance of seven well-trained sprinters was recorded using an optoelectronic motion analysis system and two force plates. Participant-specific torque-driven and muscle-driven simulations were conducted in OpenSim to quantify, respectively, the contributions of the individual joints and muscles to body propulsion and lift. The ankle is the major contributor to both actions during the first two stances, with an even larger contribution in the second compared to the first stance. Biarticular gastrocnemius is the main muscle contributor to propulsion in the second stance. The contribution of the hip and knee depends highly on the position of the athlete: During the first stance, where the athlete runs in a forward bending position, the knee contributes primarily to body lift and the hip contributes to propulsion and body lift. In conclusion, a small increase in ankle power generation seems to affect the body COM acceleration, whereas increases in hip and knee power generation tend to affect acceleration less. PMID:25798644

  20. Guidance and control analysis of the entry of a lifting body personnel launch vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Richard W.; Cruz, Christopher I.

    1991-01-01

    NASA is currently involved in definition studies of a Personnel Launch System (PLS) that could be used to transport people to and from low-earth orbit. This vehicle would serve both to complement the Space Shuttle and to provide alternative access to space in the event the Space Shuttle fleet were unavailable for a prolonged period. The PLS would consist of a manned spacecraft launched by an expendable vehicle, e.g., Titan 4. One promising candidate for the manned component of the PLS is the NASA Langley Research Center HL-20 lifting body. Many studies are currently underway to assess this vehicle, and one of the main areas of study is the development of the capability to successfully enter, glide to the landing site, and land. To provide this capability, guidance and control algorithms have been developed, incorporated into a six-degree-of-freedom simulation, and evaluation in the presence of off-nominal atmospheric conditions, consisting of both density variations and steady-state winds. In addition, the impact of atmospheric turbulence was examined for the portion of flight from Mach 3.5 to touchdown. This analysis showed that the vehicle remained controllable and could successfully land even in the presence of off-nominal atmospheric conditions.

  1. Low speed aerodynamic characteristics of a lifting-body hypersonic research aircraft configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penland, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the low-speed longitudinal, lateral, and directional stability characteristics of a lifting-body hypersonic research airplane concept was conducted in a low-speed tunnel with a 12-foot (3.66-meter) octagonal test section at the Langley Research Center. The model was tested with two sets of horizontal and vertical tip controls having different planform areas, a center vertical tail and two sets of canard controls having trapezoidal and delta planforms, and retracted and deployed engine modules and canopy. This investigation was conducted at a dynamic pressure of 239.4 Pa (5 psf) (Mach number of 0.06) and a Reynolds number of 2 million based on the fuselage length. The tests were conducted through an angle-of-attack range of 0 deg to 30 deg and through horizontal-tail deflections of 10 deg to minus 30 deg. The complete configuration exhibited excessive positive static longitudinal stability about the design center-of-gravity location. However, the configuration was unstable laterally at low angles of attack and unstable directionally throughout the angle-of-attack range. Longitudinal control was insufficient to trim at usable angles of attack. Experiments showed that a rearward shift of the center of gravity and the use of a center-located vertical tail would result in a stable and controllable vehicle.

  2. Preliminary subsonic aerodynamic model for simulation studies of the HL-20 lifting body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, E. Bruce; Cruz, Christopher I.

    1992-01-01

    A nonlinear, six-degree-of-freedom aerodynamic model for an early version of the HL-20 lifting body is described and compared with wind tunnel data upon which it is based. Polynomial functions describing most of the aerodynamic parameters are given and tables of these functions are presented. Techniques used to arrive at these functions are described. Basic aerodynamic coefficients were modeled as functions of angles of attack and sideslip. Vehicle lateral symmetry was assumed. Compressibility (Mach) effects were ignored. Control-surface effectiveness was assumed to vary linearly with angle of deflection and was assumed to be invariant with the angle of sideslip. Dynamic derivatives were obtained from predictive aerodynamic codes. Landing-gear and ground effects were scaled from Space Shuttle data. The model described is provided to support pilot-in-the-loop simulation studies of the HL-20. By providing the data in tabular format, the model is suitable for the data interpolation architecture of many existing engineering simulation facilities. Because of the preliminary nature of the data, however, this model is not recommended for study of the absolute performance of the HL-20.

  3. Flight-determined aerodynamic stability and control derivatives of the M2-F2 lifting body vehicle at subsonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempel, R. W.; Thompson, R. C.

    1971-01-01

    Aerodynamic derivatives were obtained for the M2-F2 lifting body flight vehicle in the subsonic flight region between Mach numbers of 0.41 and 0.64 and altitudes of 7000 feet to 45,000 feet. The derivatives were determined by a flight time history curve-fitting process utilizing a hybrid computer. The flight-determined derivatives are compared with wind-tunnel and predicted values. Modal-response characteristics, calculated from the flight derivatives, are presented.

  4. Estimation of aerodynamics for slender bodies alone and with lifting surfaces at alpha's from 0 deg to 90 deg.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, L. H.

    1973-01-01

    Expressions are derived, according to a method developed by the author (1972), for bodies in which the cross-sectional shape (but not necessarily the area) is constant along the longitudinal axis. For the more general case of a body alone or with lifting surfaces where the cross-sectional shape varies along the length, a similar procedure is suggested. The specific case for an elliptic cone with a triangular wing is considered, and formulas for winged elliptic cross sections are developed. For the limited test conditions shown, the agreement between computed and experimental results is very good.

  5. Self-propulsion of a body with rigid surface and variable coefficient of lift in a perfect fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramodanov, Sergey M.; Tenenev, Valentin A.; Treschev, Dmitry V.

    2012-11-01

    We study the system of a 2D rigid body moving in an unbounded volume of incompressible, vortex-free perfect fluid which is at rest at infinity. The body is equipped with a gyrostat and a so-called Flettner rotor. Due to the latter the body is subject to a lifting force (Magnus effect). The rotational velocities of the gyrostat and the rotor are assumed to be known functions of time (control inputs). The equations of motion are presented in the form of the Kirchhoff equations. The integrals of motion are given in the case of piecewise continuous control. Using these integrals we obtain a (reduced) system of first-order differential equations on the configuration space. Then an optimal control problem for several types of the inputs is solved using genetic algorithms.

  6. Flight evaluation of HL-10 lifting body handling qualities at Mach numbers from 0.30 to 1.86

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempel, R. W.; Manke, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    The longitudinal and lateral-directional handling qualities of the HL-10 lifting body vehicle were evaluated in flight at Mach numbers up to 1.86 and altitudes up to approximately 27,450 meters (90,000 feet). In general, the vehicle's handling qualities were considered to be good. Approximately 91 percent of the pilot ratings were 3.5 or better, and 42.4 percent were 2.0. Handling qualities problems were encountered during the first flight due to problems with the control system and vehicle aerodynamics. Modifications of the flight vehicle corrected all deficiencies, and no other significant handling qualities problems were encountered.

  7. Comparison between prediction and experiment for all-movable wing and body combinations at supersonic speeds : lift, pitching moment, and hinge moment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nielsen, Jack N; Kaattari, George E; Drake, William C

    1952-01-01

    A simple method is presented for estimating lift, pitching-moment, and hinge-moment characteristics of all-movable wings in the presence of a body as well as the characteristics of wing-body combinations employing such wings. In general, good agreement between the method and experiment was obtained for the lift and pitching moment of the entire wing-body combination and for the lift of the wing in the presence of the body. The method is valid for moderate angles of attack, wing deflection angles, and width of gap between wing and body. The method of estimating hinge moment was not considered sufficiently accurate for triangular all-movable wings. An alternate procedure is proposed based on the experimental moment characteristics of the wing alone. Further theoretical and experimental work is required to substantiate fully the proposed procedure.

  8. Prediction of static aerodynamic characteristics for slender bodies alone and with lifting surfaces to very high angles of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, L. H.

    1977-01-01

    An engineering-type method is presented for computing normal-force and pitching-moment coefficients for slender bodies of circular and noncircular cross section alone and with lifting surfaces. In this method, a semi-empirical term representing viscous-separation crossflow is added to a term representing potential-theory crossflow. For many bodies of revolution, computed aerodynamic characteristics are shown to agree with measured results for investigated free-stream Mach numbers from 0.6 to 2.9. The angles of attack extend from 0 deg to 180 deg for M = 2.9 from 0 deg to 60 deg for M = 0.6 to 2.0. For several bodies of elliptic cross section, measured results are also predicted reasonably well over the investigated Mach number range from 0.6 to 2.0 and at angles of attack from 0 deg to 60 deg. As for the bodies of revolution, the predictions are best for supersonic Mach numbers. For body-wing and body-wing-tail configurations with wings of aspect ratios 3 and 4, measured normal-force coefficients and centers are predicted reasonably well at the upper test Mach number of 2.0. Vapor-screen and oil-flow pictures are shown for many body, body-wing and body-wing-tail configurations. When spearation and vortex patterns are asymmetric, undesirable side forces are measured for the models even at zero sideslip angle. Generally, the side-force coefficients decrease or vanish with the following: increase in Mach number, decrease in nose fineness ratio, change from sharp to blunt nose, and flattening of body cross section (particularly the body nose).

  9. Prediction of static aerodynamic characteristics for slender bodies alone and with lifting surfaces to very high angles of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, L. H.

    1976-01-01

    An engineering-type method is presented for computing normal-force and pitching-moment coefficients for slender bodies of circular and noncircular cross section alone and with lifting surfaces. In this method, a semi-empirical term representing viscous-separation crossflow is added to a term representing potential-theory crossflow. For many bodies of revolution, computed aerodynamic characteristics are shown to agree with measured results for investigated free-stream Mach numbers from 0.6 to 2.9. For several bodies of elliptic cross section, measured results are also predicted reasonably well over the investigated Mach number range from 0.6 to 2.0 and at angles of attack from 0 to 60 deg. As for the bodies of revolution, the predictions are best for supersonic Mach numbers. For body-wing and body-wing-tail configurations with wings of aspect ratios 3 and 4, measured normal-force coefficients and centers are predicted reasonably well at the upper test Mach number of 2.0. However, with a decrease in Mach number to 0.6, the agreement for C sub N rapidly deteriorates, although the normal-force centers remain in close agreement. Vapor-screen and oil-flow pictures are shown for many body, body-wing, and body-wing-tail configurations. When separation and vortex patterns are asymmetric, undesirable side forces are measured for the models even at zero sideslip angle. Generally, the side-force coefficients decrease or vanish with the following: increase in Mach number, decrease in nose fineness ratio, change from sharp to blunt nose, and flattening of body cross section (particularly the body nose).

  10. Aero Spacelines B377SG Super Guppy on Ramp Loading the X-24B and HL-10 Lifting Bodies.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The Aero Spacelines B377SG Super Guppy was at Dryden in May, 1976, to ferry the X-24 and HL-10 lifting bodies from the Center to the Air Force Museum at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. The oversized cargo aircraft is a further modification of the B377PG Pregnant Guppy, which was built to transport outsized cargo for NASA's Apollo program, primarily to carry portions of the Saturn V rockets from the manufacturer to Cape Canaveral. The original Guppy modification incorporated the wings, engines, lower fuselage and tail from a Boeing 377 Stratocruiser with a huge upper fuselage more than 20 feet in diameter. The Super Guppy further expanded the fuselage added a taller vertical tail for better lateral stability. A later version, the Super Guppy Turbine, is still in occasional use by NASA to transport oversize structures. The X-24 was one of a group of lifting bodies flown by the NASA Flight Research Center (now Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, in a joint program with the U.S. Air Force at Edwards Air Force Base from 1963 to 1975. The lifting bodies were used to demonstrate the ability of pilots to maneuver and safely land wingless vehicles designed to fly back to Earth from space and be landed like an airplane at a predetermined site. Lifting bodies' aerodynamic lift, essential to flight in the atmosphere, was obtained from their shape. The addition of fins and control surfaces allowed the pilots to stabilize and control the vehicles and regulate their flight paths. Built by Martin Aircraft Company, Maryland, for the U.S. Air Force, the X-24A was a bulbous vehicle shaped like a teardrop with three vertical fins at the rear for directional control. It weighed 6,270 pounds, was 24.5 feet long and 11.5 feet wide (measuring just the fuselage, not the distance between the tips of the outboard fins). Its first unpowered glide flight was on April 17, 1969, with Air Force Maj. Jerauld Gentry at the controls. Gentry also piloted its first powered

  11. Aero Spacelines B377SG Super Guppy on Ramp Loading the X-24B and HL-10 Lifting Bodies.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The Aero Spacelines B377SG Super Guppy was at Dryden in May, 1976, to ferry the X-24 and HL-10 lifting bodies from the Center to the Air Force Museum at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. The oversized cargo aircraft is a further modification of the B377PG Pregnant Guppy, which was built to transport outsized cargo for NASA's Apollo program, primarily to carry portions of the Saturn V rockets from the manufacturer to Cape Canaveral. The original Guppy modification incorporated the wings, engines, lower fuselage and tail from a Boeing 377 Stratocruiser with a huge upper fuselage more than 20 feet in diameter. The Super Guppy further expanded the fuselage added a taller vertical tail for better lateral stability. A later version, the Super Guppy Turbine, is still in occasional use by NASA to transport oversize structures. The X-24 was one of a group of lifting bodies flown by the NASA Flight Research Center (now Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, in a joint program with the U.S. Air Force at Edwards Air Force Base from 1963 to 1975. The lifting bodies were used to demonstrate the ability of pilots to maneuver and safely land wingless vehicles designed to fly back to Earth from space and be landed like an airplane at a predetermined site. Lifting bodies' aerodynamic lift, essential to flight in the atmosphere, was obtained from their shape. The addition of fins and control surfaces allowed the pilots to stabilize and control the vehicles and regulate their flight paths. Built by Martin Aircraft Company, Maryland, for the U.S. Air Force, the X-24A was a bulbous vehicle shaped like a teardrop with three vertical fins at the rear for directional control. It weighed 6,270 pounds, was 24.5 feet long and 11.5 feet wide (measuring just the fuselage, not the distance between the tips of the outboard fins). Its first unpowered glide flight was on April 17, 1969, with Air Force Maj. Jerauld Gentry at the controls. Gentry also piloted its first powered

  12. Solution of an optimal control lifting body entry problem by an improved method of perturbation functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, F., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    This paper presents a solution to a complex lifting reentry three-degree-of-freedom problem by using the calculus of variations to minimize the integral of the sum of the aerodynamics loads and heat rate input to the vehicle. The entry problem considered does not have state and/or control constraints along the trajectory. The calculus of variations method applied to this problem gives rise to a set of necessary conditions which are used to formulate a two point boundary value (TPBV) problem. This TPBV problem is then numerically solved by an improved method of perturbation functions (IMPF) using several starting co-state vectors. These vectors were chosen so that each one had a larger norm with respect to show how the envelope of convergence is significantly increased using this method and cases are presented to point this out.

  13. Aerodynamic Characteristics and Control Effectiveness of the HL-20 Lifting Body Configuration at Mach 10 in Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scallion, William I.

    1999-01-01

    A 0.0196-scale model of the HL-20 lifting-body, one of several configurations proposed for future crewed spacecraft, was tested in the Langley 31-Inch Mach 10 Tunnel. The purpose of the tests was to determine the effectiveness of fin-mounted elevons, a lower surface flush-mounted body flap, and a flush-mounted yaw controller at hypersonic speeds. The nominal angle-of-attack range, representative of hypersonic entry, was 2 deg to 41 deg, the sideslip angles were 0 deg, 2 deg, and -2 deg, and the test Reynolds number was 1.06 x 10 E6 based on model reference length. The aerodynamic, longitudinal, and lateral control effectiveness along with surface oil flow visualizations are presented and discussed. The configuration was longitudinally and laterally stable at the nominal center of gravity. The primary longitudinal control, the fin-mounted elevons, could not trim the model to the desired entry angle of attack of 30 deg. The lower surface body flaps were effective for roll control and the associated adverse yawing moment was eliminated by skewing the body flap hinge lines. A yaw controller, flush-mounted on the lower surface, was also effective, and the associated small rolling moment was favorable.

  14. Hydrodynamic forces during the initial stage of body lifting from water surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega-Martínez, Patricia; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Javier; Korobkin, A.; Khabakhpasheva, Tatyana

    2015-11-01

    We consider the flow induced by a rigid flat plate, initially touching a horizontal water surface, when it starts to move upwards with constant acceleration. Negative hydrodynamic pressures on the wetted surface of the plate are allowed, thus the water follows the plate due to the resulting suction force. The acceleration of the plate and the plate length are such that gravity, surface tension and viscous effects can be neglected. Under these assumptions, the potential flow caused by the plate lifting is obtained by using the small-time expansion of the velocity potential. This small-time solution fails close to the plate edges, as it predicts there singular velocities and unbounded displacements of the free surface. It is shown that close to the plate edges the flow is non-linear and self-similar in the leading order. This nonlinear flow is computed by the boundary element method combined with a time-marching scheme. We also present the results of an experimental investigation aimed at measuring the hydrodynamic force felt by the plate. This force seems to be very weak, what suggests that cavitation occurs during these initial stages. Supported by the NICOP research grant N62909-13-1-N274, and the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness, grant DPI2014-59292-C3-1-P.

  15. Some Research on the Lift and Stability of Wing-Body Combinations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purser, Paul E.; Fields, E. M.

    1959-01-01

    The present paper summarizes and correlates broadly some of the research results applicable to fin-stabilized ammunition. The discussion and correlation are intended to be comprehensive, rather than detailed, in order to show general trends over the Mach number range up to 7.0. Some discussion of wings, bodies, and wing-body interference is presented, and a list of 179 papers containing further information is included. The present paper is intended to serve more as a bibliography and source of reference material than as a direct source of design information.

  16. Aerodynamic interaction between vortical wakes and lifting two-dimensional bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stremel, Paul M.

    1987-01-01

    Unsteady rotor wake interactions with the empenage, tail boom, and other aerodynamic surfaces of a helicopter have a significant influence on its aerodynamic performance, the ride quality, and amount of vibration. A numerical method for computing the aerodynamic interaction between an interacting vortex wake and the viscous flow about arbitrary two-dimensional bodies has been developed to address this helicopter problem. The method solves for the flow field velocities on a body-fitted computational mesh using finite-difference techniques. The interaction of a rotor wake with the flow about a 4:1 elliptic cylinder at 45-deg incidence was calculated for a Reynolds number of 3000.

  17. Steady incompressible potential flow around lifting bodies immersed in a fluid. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiuchiolo, E. A.

    1974-01-01

    The refinement was investigated of a method for evaluating the pressure distribution on a body surface of arbitrary shape in incompressible flow. The solution was obtained in terms of the velocity potential, through numerical approximations which require the use of a high speed digital computer. The box method and the modal method are described in detail, and were applied to a very thin, rectangular wing in incompressible, steady flow. The box method is found to be more practical as it is applicable to more general geometries (the modal method requires a new set of functions for each geometry), and requires less computer time (fifty percent of that required by the modal method for the same problem).

  18. The X-38 lifting body research vehicle, seen here wrapped in a protective material, lowered onto a t

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The X-38 lifting body research vehicle, seen here wrapped in a protective material, is lowered onto a truck for shipping from the Dryden Flight Research Center in May 2000. The X-38 Crew Return Vehicle (CRV) research project is designed to develop the technology for a prototype emergency crew return vehicle, or lifeboat, for the International Space Station. The project is also intended to develop a crew return vehicle design that could be modified for other uses, such as a joint U.S. and international human spacecraft that could be launched on the French Ariane-5 Booster. The X-38 project is using available technology and off-the-shelf equipment to significantly decrease development costs. Original estimates to develop a capsule-type crew return vehicle were estimated at more than $2 billion. X-38 project officials have estimated that development costs for the X-38 concept will be approximately one quarter of the original estimate. Off-the-shelf technology is not necessarily 'old' technology. Many of the technologies being used in the X-38 project have never before been applied to a human-flight spacecraft. For example, the X-38 flight computer is commercial equipment currently used in aircraft and the flight software operating system is a commercial system already in use in many aerospace applications. The video equipment for the X-38 is existing equipment, some of which has already flown on the space shuttle for previous NASA experiments. The X-38's primary navigational equipment, the Inertial Navigation System/Global Positioning System, is a unit already in use on Navy fighters. The X-38 electromechanical actuators come from previous joint NASA, U.S. Air Force, and U.S. Navy research and development projects. Finally, an existing special coating developed by NASA will be used on the X-38 thermal tiles to make them more durable than those used on the space shuttles. The X-38 itself was an unpiloted lifting body designed at 80 percent of the size of a projected

  19. The X-38 lifting body research vehicle, seen here wrapped in a protective material, lowered onto a t

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The X-38 lifting body research vehicle, seen here wrapped in a protective material, is lowered onto a truck for shipping from the Dryden Flight Research Center in May 2000. The X-38 Crew Return Vehicle (CRV) research project is designed to develop the technology for a prototype emergency crew return vehicle, or lifeboat, for the International Space Station. The project is also intended to develop a crew return vehicle design that could be modified for other uses, such as a joint U.S. and international human spacecraft that could be launched on the French Ariane-5 Booster. The X-38 project is using available technology and off-the-shelf equipment to significantly decrease development costs. Original estimates to develop a capsule-type crew return vehicle were estimated at more than $2 billion. X-38 project officials have estimated that development costs for the X-38 concept will be approximately one quarter of the original estimate. Off-the-shelf technology is not necessarily 'old' technology. Many of the technologies being used in the X-38 project have never before been applied to a human-flight spacecraft. For example, the X-38 flight computer is commercial equipment currently used in aircraft and the flight software operating system is a commercial system already in use in many aerospace applications. The video equipment for the X-38 is existing equipment, some of which has already flown on the space shuttle for previous NASA experiments. The X-38's primary navigational equipment, the Inertial Navigation System/Global Positioning System, is a unit already in use on Navy fighters. The X-38 electromechanical actuators come from previous joint NASA, U.S. Air Force, and U.S. Navy research and development projects. Finally, an existing special coating developed by NASA will be used on the X-38 thermal tiles to make them more durable than those used on the space shuttles. The X-38 itself was an unpiloted lifting body designed at 80 percent of the size of a projected

  20. Comparison of Experimental and Theoretical Zero-Lift Wave-Drag Results for Various Wing-Body-Tail Combinations at Mach Numbers up to 1.9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, R. B.

    1957-01-01

    Comparisons are made of experimental and theoretical zero-lift wave drag for several nose shapes, wing-body combinations, and models of current airplanes at Mach numbers up to 1.0. The experimental data were obtained from tests in the Ames 6- by6-foot supersonic wind tunnel and at the NACA Wallops Island facility. The theoretical drag was found by use of linear theory utilizing model area distributions. The agreement between theoretical and experimental zero-lift wave-drag coefficients was generally very good, especially for a fuselage or for fuselage-wing combinations that were vertically symmetrical. For other models that had rapid changes in body shape and/or were not vertically symmetrical, the agreement of theory with experiment ranged from fair to poor, depending on the severity of the change in shape.

  1. Supersonic aerodynamic characteristics of a lifting-body orbiter model with a blunted delta planform at Mach 2.30 to 4.60

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair, A. B., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation has been made in the Langley Unitary Plan wind tunnel to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of a lifting-body orbiter model with a blunted delta planform. The model was tested at Mach numbers from 2.30 to 4.60, at nominal angles of attack from -4 deg to 60 deg and angles of sideslip from -4 deg to 10 deg, and at a Reynolds number of 2.5 million per foot.

  2. Forehead lift

    MedlinePlus

    ... both sides even. If you have already had plastic surgery to lift your upper eyelids, a forehead lift ... Managing the cosmetic patient. In: Neligan PC, ed. Plastic Surgery . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap ...

  3. Breast lift

    MedlinePlus

    ... enable JavaScript. A breast lift, or mastopexy, is cosmetic breast surgery to lift the breasts. The surgery ... the position of the areola and nipple. Description Cosmetic breast surgery can be done at an outpatient ...

  4. Eyelid lift

    MedlinePlus

    Eyelid lift surgery is done to repair sagging or drooping upper eyelids ( ptosis ). The surgery is called blepharoplasty. Sagging ... An eyelid lift is needed when eyelid drooping reduces your vision. You may be asked to have your eye doctor test ...

  5. A Study of the Zero-Lift Drag-Rise Characteristics of Wing-Body Combinations Near the Speed of Sound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitcomb, Richard T

    1956-01-01

    Comparisons have been made of the shock phenomena and drag-rise increments for representative wing and central-body combinations with those for bodies of revolution having the same axial developments of cross-sectional areas normal to the airstream. On the basis of these comparisons, it is concluded that near the speed of sound the zero-lift drag rise of a low-aspect-ratio thin-wing and body combination is primarily dependent on the axial development of the cross-sectional areas normal to the airstream. It follows that the drag rise for any such configuration is approximately the same as that for any other with the same development of cross-sectional areas. Investigations have also been made of representative wing-body combinations with the body so indented that the axial developments of cross-sectional areas for the combinations were the same as that for the original body alone. Such indentations greatly reduced or eliminated the zero-lift drag-rise increments associated with the wings near the speed of sound.

  6. Lift and Pitching-moment Interference Between a Pointed Cylindrical Body and Triangular Wings of Various Aspect Ratios at Mach Numbers of 1.50 and 2.02

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nielsen, Jack N; Katzen, Elliott D; Tang, Kenneth K

    1956-01-01

    The lift and pitching-moment characteristics of a body alone, six triangular wings of various aspect ratios, and the combinations were measured at Mach numbers of 1.50 and 2.02 at a Reynolds number of 5.5 million (based on the body length) for angles of attack up to 5.5 degrees. The total lift and pitching-moment interference were determined and compared with theory. The agreement was found to be good.

  7. Approximate method for calculating transonic flow about lifting wing-body configurations: Computer program and user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnwell, R. W.; Davis, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    A user's manual is presented for a computer program which calculates inviscid flow about lifting configurations in the free-stream Mach-number range from zero to low supersonic. Angles of attack of the order of the configuration thickness-length ratio and less can be calculated. An approximate formulation was used which accounts for shock waves, leading-edge separation and wind-tunnel wall effects.

  8. Ear-body lift and a novel thrust generating mechanism revealed by the complex wake of brown long-eared bats (Plecotus auritus)

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, L. Christoffer; Håkansson, Jonas; Jakobsen, Lasse; Hedenström, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Large ears enhance perception of echolocation and prey generated sounds in bats. However, external ears likely impair aerodynamic performance of bats compared to birds. But large ears may generate lift on their own, mitigating the negative effects. We studied flying brown long-eared bats, using high resolution, time resolved particle image velocimetry, to determine the aerodynamics of flying with large ears. We show that the ears and body generate lift at medium to cruising speeds (3–5 m/s), but at the cost of an interaction with the wing root vortices, likely reducing inner wing performance. We also propose that the bats use a novel wing pitch mechanism at the end of the upstroke generating thrust at low speeds, which should provide effective pitch and yaw control. In addition, the wing tip vortices show a distinct spiraling pattern. The tip vortex of the previous wingbeat remains into the next wingbeat and rotates together with a newly formed tip vortex. Several smaller vortices, related to changes in circulation around the wing also spiral the tip vortex. Our results thus show a new level of complexity in bat wakes and suggest large eared bats are less aerodynamically limited than previous wake studies have suggested. PMID:27118083

  9. Ear-body lift and a novel thrust generating mechanism revealed by the complex wake of brown long-eared bats (Plecotus auritus).

    PubMed

    Johansson, L Christoffer; Håkansson, Jonas; Jakobsen, Lasse; Hedenström, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Large ears enhance perception of echolocation and prey generated sounds in bats. However, external ears likely impair aerodynamic performance of bats compared to birds. But large ears may generate lift on their own, mitigating the negative effects. We studied flying brown long-eared bats, using high resolution, time resolved particle image velocimetry, to determine the aerodynamics of flying with large ears. We show that the ears and body generate lift at medium to cruising speeds (3-5 m/s), but at the cost of an interaction with the wing root vortices, likely reducing inner wing performance. We also propose that the bats use a novel wing pitch mechanism at the end of the upstroke generating thrust at low speeds, which should provide effective pitch and yaw control. In addition, the wing tip vortices show a distinct spiraling pattern. The tip vortex of the previous wingbeat remains into the next wingbeat and rotates together with a newly formed tip vortex. Several smaller vortices, related to changes in circulation around the wing also spiral the tip vortex. Our results thus show a new level of complexity in bat wakes and suggest large eared bats are less aerodynamically limited than previous wake studies have suggested. PMID:27118083

  10. Protect Your Back: Guidelines for Safer Lifting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantu, Carolyn O.

    2002-01-01

    Examines back injury in teachers and child care providers; includes statistics, common causes of back pain (improper alignment, improper posture, improper lifting, and carrying), and types of back pain (acute and chronic). Focuses on preventing back injury, body mechanics for lifting and carrying, and proper lifting and carrying of children. (SD)

  11. Development of an efficient computer code to solve the time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations. [for predicting viscous flow fields about lifting bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harp, J. L., Jr.; Oatway, T. P.

    1975-01-01

    A research effort was conducted with the goal of reducing computer time of a Navier Stokes Computer Code for prediction of viscous flow fields about lifting bodies. A two-dimensional, time-dependent, laminar, transonic computer code (STOKES) was modified to incorporate a non-uniform timestep procedure. The non-uniform time-step requires updating of a zone only as often as required by its own stability criteria or that of its immediate neighbors. In the uniform timestep scheme each zone is updated as often as required by the least stable zone of the finite difference mesh. Because of less frequent update of program variables it was expected that the nonuniform timestep would result in a reduction of execution time by a factor of five to ten. Available funding was exhausted prior to successful demonstration of the benefits to be derived from the non-uniform time-step method.

  12. A review of a method for dynamic load distribution, dynamical modeling, and explicit internal force control when two manipulators mutually lift and transport a rigid body object

    SciTech Connect

    Unseren, M.A.

    1997-04-20

    The paper reviews a method for modeling and controlling two serial link manipulators which mutually lift and transport a rigid body object in a three dimensional workspace. A new vector variable is introduced which parameterizes the internal contact force controlled degrees of freedom. A technique for dynamically distributing the payload between the manipulators is suggested which yields a family of solutions for the contact forces and torques the manipulators impart to the object. A set of rigid body kinematic constraints which restrict the values of the joint velocities of both manipulators is derived. A rigid body dynamical model for the closed chain system is first developed in the joint space. The model is obtained by generalizing the previous methods for deriving the model. The joint velocity and acceleration variables in the model are expressed in terms of independent pseudovariables. The pseudospace model is transformed to obtain reduced order equations of motion and a separate set of equations governing the internal components of the contact forces and torques. A theoretic control architecture is suggested which explicitly decouples the two sets of equations comprising the model. The controller enables the designer to develop independent, non-interacting control laws for the position control and internal force control of the system.

  13. Study of belly-flaps to enhance lift and pitching moment coefficient of a Blended-Wing-Body airplane in landing and takeoff configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staelens, Yann Daniel

    During the first century of flight few major changes have been made to the configuration of subsonic airplanes. A distinct fuselage with wings, a tail, engines and a landing gear persists as the dominant arrangement. During WWII some companies developed tailless all-wing airplanes. However the concept failed to advance till the late 80's when the B-2, the only flying wing to enter production to date, illustrated its benefits at least for a stealth platform. The advent of the Blended-Wing-Body (BWB) addresses the historical shortcomings of all-wing designs, specifically poor volume utility and excess wetted area as a result. The BWB is now poised to become the new standard for large subsonic airplanes. Major aerospace companies are studying the concept for next generation of passenger airplanes. But there are still challenges. One is the BWB's short control lever-arm pitch. This affects rotation and go-around performances. This study presents a possible solution by using a novel type of control surface, a belly-flap, on the under side of the wing to enhance its lift and pitching moment coefficient during landing, go-around and takeoff. Increases of up to 30% in lift-off CL and 8% in positive pitching moment have been achieved during wind tunnel tests on a generic BWB-model with a belly-flap. These aerodynamic improvements when used in a mathematical simulation of landing, go-around and takeoff procedure were showing reduction in landing-field-length by up to 22%, in takeoff-field-length by up to 8% and in loss in altitude between initiation of rotation and actual rotation during go-around by up to 21.5%.

  14. Experimental and theoretical study of aerodynamic characteristics of some lifting bodies at angles of attack from -10 degrees to 53 degrees at Mach numbers from 2.30 to 4.62

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. Leroy; Torres, Abel O.

    1994-01-01

    Lifting bodies are of interest for possible use as space transportation vehicles because they have the volume required for significant payloads and the aerodynamic capability to negotiate the transition from high angles of attack to lower angles of attack (for cruise flight) and thus safely reenter the atmosphere and perform conventional horizontal landings. Results are presented for an experimental and theoretical study of the aerodynamic characteristics at supersonic speeds for a series of lifting bodies with 75 deg delta planforms, rounded noses, and various upper and lower surface cambers. The camber shapes varied in thickness and in maximum thickness location, and hence in body volume. The experimental results were obtained in the Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel for both the longitudinal and the lateral aerodynamic characteristics. Selected experimental results are compared with calculated results obtained through the use of the Hypersonic Arbitrary-Body Aerodynamic Computer Program.

  15. Lift enhancement in flying snakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Anush; Socha, John; Vlachos, Pavlos; Barba, Lorena

    2013-11-01

    Flying snakes use a unique method of aerial locomotion: they jump from tree branches, flatten their bodies and undulate through the air to produce a glide. The shape of their body cross-section during the glide plays an important role in generating lift. We present a computational investigation of the aerodynamics of the cross-sectional shape. We performed two-dimensional simulations of incompressible flow past the anatomically correct cross-section of the species Chrysopelea paradisi, which show that a significant enhancement in lift appears at an angle of attack of 35 degrees, for Reynolds numbers 2000 and above. Previous experiments on physical models also demonstrated an increased lift and at the same angle of attack. The simulations point to the lift enhancement arising from the early separation of the boundary layer on the dorsal surface of the snake profile, without stall. The separated shear layer rolls up and interacts with secondary vorticity in the near-wake, inducing the primary vortex to remain closer to the body and thus cause enhanced suction, resulting in higher lift. In physical experiments, the flow is inherently 3-D due to fluid instabilities, and it is intriguing that the enhanced lift also appears in the two-dimensional simulations.

  16. An aerodynamic design study of a series of lifting bodies at angles of attack from 10 to 53 degrees at Mach numbers from 2.30 to 4.62

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.; Torres, Abel O.

    1992-01-01

    The aerodynamic characteristics in the transition from high to low angles of attack at supersonic speeds have been experimentally and theoretically studied for a series of lifting bodies with various upper and lower surface camber designs. The configurations under consideration have a 75-degree swept delta planform with a rounded nose. Data obtained indicate that changes in the camber design cause some distinct changes in the aerodynamic characteristics that shoud be taken into account in the selection of a lifting body shape. The flat bottom designs with upper surface camber are found to provide greater drag for retardation at high angles of attack but are considerably out of trim longitudinally. The flat top designs with lower surface camber provide less drag at high angles of attack but can be more easily trimmed. Calculated results are found to be in good agreement with the experimental data.

  17. Calculation of potential flow past non-lifting bodies at angle of attack using axial and surface singularity methods. M.S. Thesis. Contractor Report, 1 Jan. 1981 - 31 Aug. 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shu, J. Y.

    1983-01-01

    Two different singularity methods have been utilized to calculate the potential flow past a three dimensional non-lifting body. Two separate FORTRAN computer programs have been developed to implement these theoretical models, which will in the future allow inclusion of the fuselage effect in a pair of existing subcritical wing design computer programs. The first method uses higher order axial singularity distributions to model axisymmetric bodies of revolution in an either axial or inclined uniform potential flow. Use of inset of the singularity line away from the body for blunt noses, and cosine-type element distributions have been applied to obtain the optimal results. Excellent agreement to five significant figures with the exact solution pressure coefficient value has been found for a series of ellipsoids at different angles of attack. Solutions obtained for other axisymmetric bodies compare well with available experimental data. The second method utilizes distributions of singularities on the body surface, in the form of a discrete vortex lattice. This program is capable of modeling arbitrary three dimensional non-lifting bodies. Much effort has been devoted to finding the optimal method of calculating the tangential velocity on the body surface, extending techniques previously developed by other workers.

  18. Total Facelift: Forehead Lift, Midface Lift, and Neck Lift

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Patients with thick skin mainly exhibit the aging processes of sagging, whereas patients with thin skin develop wrinkles or volume loss. Asian skin is usually thicker than that of Westerners; and thus, the sagging of skin due to aging, rather than wrinkling, is the chief problem to be addressed in Asians. Asian skin is also relatively large in area and thick, implying that the weight of tissue to be lifted is considerably heavier. These factors account for the difficulties in performing a facelift in Asians. Facelifts can be divided into forehead lift, midface lift, and lower face lift. These can be performed individually or with 2-3 procedures combined. PMID:25798381

  19. Simulated lift testing using computerized isokinetics.

    PubMed

    Porterfield, J A; Mostardi, R A; King, S; Ariki, P; Moats, E; Noe, D

    1987-09-01

    Eighty-four volunteer asymptomatic men between 18 and 40 years of age were evaluated as to their ability to lift. An innovative isokinetic device was used to measure lifting force. This device does not isolate any specific body part, yet it measures the muscular force of lifting an object whose speed of ascent is controlled. Two lifting methods (bent knee, straight leg) and two foot positions were used. The results indicate the bent-knee lift method and forward-foot position was the position of optimal force production. Force production increase was inversely proportional to age. The authors concluded that the isokinetic lift device has promising capabilities to produce repeatable data and may be advantageous in generating standards for rehabilitation and specific job criteria. PMID:3686220

  20. Variable Lifting Index (VLI)

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Thomas; Occhipinti, Enrico; Colombini, Daniela; Alvarez-Casado, Enrique; Fox, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We seek to develop a new approach for analyzing the physical demands of highly variable lifting tasks through an adaptation of the Revised NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) Lifting Equation (RNLE) into a Variable Lifting Index (VLI). Background: There are many jobs that contain individual lifts that vary from lift to lift due to the task requirements. The NIOSH Lifting Equation is not suitable in its present form to analyze variable lifting tasks. Method: In extending the prior work on the VLI, two procedures are presented to allow users to analyze variable lifting tasks. One approach involves the sampling of lifting tasks performed by a worker over a shift and the calculation of the Frequency Independent Lift Index (FILI) for each sampled lift and the aggregation of the FILI values into six categories. The Composite Lift Index (CLI) equation is used with lifting index (LI) category frequency data to calculate the VLI. The second approach employs a detailed systematic collection of lifting task data from production and/or organizational sources. The data are organized into simplified task parameter categories and further aggregated into six FILI categories, which also use the CLI equation to calculate the VLI. Results: The two procedures will allow practitioners to systematically employ the VLI method to a variety of work situations where highly variable lifting tasks are performed. Conclusions: The scientific basis for the VLI procedure is similar to that for the CLI originally presented by NIOSH; however, the VLI method remains to be validated. Application: The VLI method allows an analyst to assess highly variable manual lifting jobs in which the task characteristics vary from lift to lift during a shift. PMID:26646300

  1. Lift truck safety review

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1997-03-01

    This report presents safety information about powered industrial trucks. The basic lift truck, the counterbalanced sit down rider truck, is the primary focus of the report. Lift truck engineering is briefly described, then a hazard analysis is performed on the lift truck. Case histories and accident statistics are also given. Rules and regulations about lift trucks, such as the US Occupational Safety an Health Administration laws and the Underwriter`s Laboratories standards, are discussed. Safety issues with lift trucks are reviewed, and lift truck safety and reliability are discussed. Some quantitative reliability values are given.

  2. High lift selected concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, M. L.

    1979-01-01

    The benefits to high lift system maximum life and, alternatively, to high lift system complexity, of applying analytic design and analysis techniques to the design of high lift sections for flight conditions were determined and two high lift sections were designed to flight conditions. The influence of the high lift section on the sizing and economics of a specific energy efficient transport (EET) was clarified using a computerized sizing technique and an existing advanced airplane design data base. The impact of the best design resulting from the design applications studies on EET sizing and economics were evaluated. Flap technology trade studies, climb and descent studies, and augmented stability studies are included along with a description of the baseline high lift system geometry, a calculation of lift and pitching moment when separation is present, and an inverse boundary layer technique for pressure distribution synthesis and optimization.

  3. Lift and wakes of flying snakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Anush; Socha, John J.; Vlachos, Pavlos P.; Barba, L. A.

    2014-03-01

    Flying snakes use a unique method of aerial locomotion: they jump from tree branches, flatten their bodies, and undulate through the air to produce a glide. The shape of their body cross-section during the glide plays an important role in generating lift. This paper presents a computational investigation of the aerodynamics of the cross-sectional shape. Two-dimensional simulations of incompressible flow past the anatomically correct cross-section of the species Chrysopelea paradisi show that a significant enhancement in lift appears at a 35° angle of attack, above Reynolds numbers 2000. Previous experiments on physical models also obtained an increased lift, at the same angle of attack. The flow is inherently three-dimensional in physical experiments, due to fluid instabilities, and it is thus intriguing that the enhanced lift also appears in the two-dimensional simulations. The simulations point to the lift enhancement arising from the early separation of the boundary layer on the dorsal surface of the snake profile, without stall. The separated shear layer rolls up and interacts with secondary vorticity in the near-wake, inducing the primary vortex to remain closer to the body and thus cause enhanced suction, resulting in higher lift.

  4. Lifting BLS Power Supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Sarychev, Michael

    2007-08-01

    This note describes BLS power supplies lifting techniques and provides stress calculations for lifting plate and handles bolts. BLS power supply weight is about 120 Lbs, with the center of gravity shifted toward the right front side. A lifting plate is used to attach a power supply to a crane or a hoist. Stress calculations show that safety factors for lifting plate are 12.9 (vs. 5 required) for ultimate stress and 5.7 (vs. 3 required) for yield stress. Safety factor for shackle bolt thread shear load is 37, and safety factor for bolts that attach handles is 12.8.

  5. Aerodynamic interactions from reaction controls for lateral control of the M2-F2 lifting-body entry configuration at transonic and supersonic and supersonic Mach numbers. [wind tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, R. O.; Brownson, J. J.

    1979-01-01

    Tests were conducted in the Ames 6 by 6 foot wind tunnel to determine the interaction of reaction jets for roll control on the M2-F2 lifting-body entry vehicle. Moment interactions are presented for a Mach number range of 0.6 to 1.7, a Reynolds number range of 1.2 x 10 to the 6th power to 1.6 x 10 to the 6th power (based on model reference length), an angle-of-attack range of -9 deg to 20 deg, and an angle-of-sideslip range of -6 deg to 6 deg at an angle of attack of 6 deg. The reaction jets produce roll control with small adverse yawing moment, which can be offset by horizontal thrust component of canted jets.

  6. Portable seat lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A portable seat lift that can help individuals either (1) lower themselves to a sitting position or (2) raise themselves to a standing position is presented. The portable seat lift consists of a seat mounted on a base with two levers, which are powered by a drive unit.

  7. Portable Lifting Seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    Portable lifting machine assists user in rising from seated position to standing position, or in sitting down. Small and light enough to be carried like briefcase. Used on variety of chairs and benches. Upholstered aluminum box houses mechanism of lifting seat. Springs on outer shaft-and-arm subassembly counterbalance part of user's weight to assist motor.

  8. Understanding Wing Lift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, J.; Soares, A. A.

    2010-01-01

    The conventional explanation of aerodynamic lift based on Bernoulli's equation is one of the most common mistakes in presentations to school students and is found in children's science books. The fallacies in this explanation together with an alternative explanation for aerofoil lift have already been presented in an excellent article by Babinsky…

  9. A review of a method for dynamic load distribution, dynamic modeling, and explicit internal force control when two serial link manipulators mutually lift and transport a rigid body object

    SciTech Connect

    Unseren, M.A.

    1997-09-01

    The report reviews a method for modeling and controlling two serial link manipulators which mutually lift and transport a rigid body object in a three dimensional workspace. A new vector variable is introduced which parameterizes the internal contact force controlled degrees of freedom. A technique for dynamically distributing the payload between the manipulators is suggested which yields a family of solutions for the contact forces and torques the manipulators impart to the object. A set of rigid body kinematic constraints which restricts the values of the joint velocities of both manipulators is derived. A rigid body dynamical model for the closed chain system is first developed in the joint space. The model is obtained by generalizing the previous methods for deriving the model. The joint velocity and acceleration variables in the model are expressed in terms of independent pseudovariables. The pseudospace model is transformed to obtain reduced order equations of motion and a separate set of equations governing the internal components of the contact forces and torques. A theoretic control architecture is suggested which explicitly decouples the two sets of equations comprising the model. The controller enables the designer to develop independent, non-interacting control laws for the position control and internal force control of the system.

  10. Interior of lift mechanism area of eastern lift span, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of lift mechanism area of eastern lift span, looking northwest. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  11. Samus Counter Lifting Fixture

    SciTech Connect

    Stredde, H.; /Fermilab

    1998-05-27

    A lifting fixture has been designed to handle the Samus counters. These counters are being removed from the D-zero area and will be transported off site for further use at another facility. This fixture is designed specifically for this particular application and will be transferred along with the counters. The future use of these counters may entail installation at a facility without access to a crane and therefore a lift fixture suitable for both crane and/or fork lift usage has been created The counters weigh approximately 3000 lbs. and have threaded rods extended through the counter at the top comers for lifting. When these counters were first handled/installed these rods were used in conjunction with appropriate slings and handled by crane. The rods are secured with nuts tightened against the face of the counter. The rod thread is M16 x 2({approx}.625-inch dia.) and extends 2-inch (on average) from the face of the counter. It is this cantilevered rod that the lift fixture engages with 'C' style plates at the four top comers. The strongback portion of the lift fixture is a steel rectangular tube 8-inch (vertical) x 4-inch x .25-inch wall, 130-inch long. 1.5-inch square bars are welded perpendicular to the long axis of the rectangular tube at the appropriate lift points and the 'C' plates are fastened to these bars with 3/4-10 high strength bolts -grade 8. Two short channel sections are positioned-welded-to the bottom of the rectangular tube on 40 feet centers, which are used as locators for fork lift tines. On the top are lifting eyes for sling/crane usage and are rated at 3500 lbs. safe working load each - vertical lift only.

  12. Control effectiveness and tip-fin dihedral effects for the HL-20 lifting-body configuration at Mach numbers from 1.6 to 4.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruz, Christopher I.; Ware, George M.

    1995-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests were made with a scale model of the HL-20 in the Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. Pitch control was investigated by deflecting the elevon surfaces on the outboard fins and body flaps on the fuselage. Yaw control tests were made with the all movable center fin deflected 5 deg. Almost full negative body flap deflection (-30 deg) was required to trim the HL-20 (moment reference center at 0.54-percent body length from nose) to positive values of life in the Mach number range from 1.6 to 2.5. Elevons were twice as effective as body flaps as a longitudinal trim device. The elevons were effective as a roll control, but because of tip-fin dihedral angle, produced about as much adverse yawing moment as rolling moment. The body flaps were less effective in producing rolling moment, but produced little adverse yawing moment. The yaw effectiveness of the all movable center fin was essentially constant over the angle-of-attack range at each Mach number. The value of yawing moment, however, was small. Center-fin deflection produced almost no rolling moments. The model was directionally unstable over most of the Mach number range with tip-fin dihedral angles less than the baseline value of 50 deg.

  13. Boundary-layer transition and displacement thickness effects on zero-lift drag of a series of power-law bodies at Mach 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashby, G. C., Jr.; Harris, J. E.

    1974-01-01

    Wave and skin-friction drag have been numerically calculated for a series of power-law bodies at a Mach number of 6 and Reynolds numbers, based on body length, from 1.5 million to 9.5 million. Pressure distributions were computed on the nose by the inverse method and on the body by the method of characteristics. These pressure distributions and the measured locations of boundary-layer transition were used in a nonsimilar-boundary-layer program to determine viscous effects. A coupled iterative approach between the boundary-layer and pressure-distribution programs was used to account for boundary-layer displacement-thickness effects. The calculated-drag coefficients compared well with previously obtained experimental data.

  14. Dubai gas lift automation

    SciTech Connect

    Coltharp, E.D.; Khokhar, M.

    1984-09-01

    Dubai Petroleum Company has recently installed a computer gas lift surveillance and gas lift gas injection control system in the Fateh and S.W. Fateh Fields located in the southern part of the Arabian Gulf. This system is the fourth generation of the computer control system installed in California in 1971 by Conoco, Inc. This paper describes the advantages and problems in this system to monitor and control the gas lift operation of 116 wells through 30 intelligent remote terminal units (RTU). In addition, this system monitors the condition of critical operational

  15. Understanding wing lift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, J.; Soares, A. A.

    2010-05-01

    The conventional explanation of aerodynamic lift based on Bernoulli's equation is one of the most common mistakes in presentations to school students and is found in children's science books. The fallacies in this explanation together with an alternative explanation for aerofoil lift have already been presented in an excellent article by Babinsky (2003 Phys. Educ. 38 497-503). However, in Babinsky's explanation, the air friction forces are ignored and the flow-field curvature introduced by the aerofoil shape is understood intuitively. In this article, a simple analysis of the lift with friction forces incorporated is presented to give a more precise qualitative explanation.

  16. Free-Flight Zero-Lift Drag Results from a 1/5-Scale Model and Several Small-Scale Equivalent Bodies of Revolution of the Convair F-102 Configuration at Mach Numbers up to 1.34

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallskog, Harvey A.

    1954-01-01

    A 1/5-scale, rocket-propelled model of the Convair F-102 configuration was tested in free flight to determine zero-lift drag at Mach numbers up to 1.34 and at Reynolds numbers comparable to those of the full-scale airplane. This large-scale model corresponded to the prototype airplane and had air flow through the duct. Additional zero-lift drag tests involved a series of small equivalent bodies of revolution which were launched by means of a helium gun. The several small-scale models tested corresponded to: the basic configuration, the 1/5-scale rocket-propelled model configuration, a 2-foot (full-scale) fuselage-extension configuration, and a 7-foot (full-scale) fuselage-extension configuration. Models designed to correspond to the area distribution at a Mach number of 1.0 were flown for each of these 'shapes and, in addition, models designed to correspond to the area distribution at a Mach number of 1.2 were flown for the 1/5-scale rocket-propelled model and the 7-foot-fuselage-extension configuration. The value of external pressure drag coefficient (including base drag) obtained from the large-scale rocket model was 0.0190 at a Mach number of 1..05 and the corresponding values from the equivalent-body tests varied from 0.0183 for the rocket-propelled model shape to 0.0137 for the 7-foot-fuselage-extension configuration. From the results of tests of equivalent bodies designed to correspond to the area distribution at a Mach number of 1.0, it is evident that the small changes in shape incorporated in the basic and 2-foot-fuselage-extension configurations from that of the rocket-propelled model configuration will provide no significant change in pressure drag. On the other hand, the data from the 7-foot-fuselage-extension model indicate a substantial reduction in pressure drag at transonic speeds.

  17. Maximum acceptable weights for asymmetric lifting of Chinese females.

    PubMed

    Wu, Swei-Pi

    2003-05-01

    This study used the psychophysical approach to evaluate the effects of asymmetric lifting on the maximum acceptable weight of lift (MAWL) and the resulting heart rate, oxygen uptake and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). A randomized complete block factorial design was employed. Twelve female college students lifted weights at three different lifting frequencies (one-time maximum, 1 and 4 lifts/min) in the sagittal plane and at three different asymmetric angles (30 degrees, 60 degrees, and 90 degrees ) from the floor to a 68-cm height pallet. This lifting experiment was conducted for a 1-h work period using a free-style lifting technique. The MAWLs for asymmetric lifting were significantly lower than those for symmetric lifting in the sagittal plane. The MAWL decreased with the increase in the angle of asymmetry. However, the heart rate, oxygen uptake and RPE remained unchanged. Though the MAWL decreased significantly with lifting frequency, both the physiological costs (heart rate and oxygen uptake) and rating of perceived exertion increased with the increase in lift frequency. The most stressed body part was the arm. Lifting frequency had no significant effect on the percentage decrease in MAWL from the sagittal plane values. On average, decreases of 5%, 9% and 14% for MAWL at 30 degrees, 60 degrees and 90 degrees asymmetric lifting, respectively, were revealed. This result was in agreement with the findings of Chinese males studied by Wu [Int. J. Ind. Ergonom. 25 (2000) 675]. The percentage decrease in MAWL with twisting angle for the Chinese participants was somewhat lower than those for Occidental participants. In addition, even though there was an increase in heart rate and RPE with the increase in the symmetrical lift angle for Occidental participants, it was different from the Chinese participants. Lastly, the 1991 NIOSH equation asymmetry multiplier is more conservative in comparison with the results of the present study. PMID:12737921

  18. Wind tower service lift

    DOEpatents

    Oliphant, David; Quilter, Jared; Andersen, Todd; Conroy, Thomas

    2011-09-13

    An apparatus used for maintaining a wind tower structure wherein the wind tower structure may have a plurality of legs and may be configured to support a wind turbine above the ground in a better position to interface with winds. The lift structure may be configured for carrying objects and have a guide system and drive system for mechanically communicating with a primary cable, rail or other first elongate member attached to the wind tower structure. The drive system and guide system may transmit forces that move the lift relative to the cable and thereby relative to the wind tower structure. A control interface may be included for controlling the amount and direction of the power into the guide system and drive system thereby causing the guide system and drive system to move the lift relative to said first elongate member such that said lift moves relative to said wind tower structure.

  19. FREIGHT CONTAINER LIFTING STANDARD

    SciTech Connect

    POWERS DJ; SCOTT MA; MACKEY TC

    2010-01-13

    This standard details the correct methods of lifting and handling Series 1 freight containers following ISO-3874 and ISO-1496. The changes within RPP-40736 will allow better reading comprehension, as well as correcting editorial errors.

  20. Aerodynamic Lifting Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weltner, Klaus

    1990-01-01

    Describes some experiments showing both qualitatively and quantitatively that aerodynamic lift is a reaction force. Demonstrates reaction forces caused by the acceleration of an airstream and the deflection of an airstream. Provides pictures of demonstration apparatus and mathematical expressions. (YP)

  1. Advanced underwater lift device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flanagan, David T.; Hopkins, Robert C.

    1993-01-01

    Flexible underwater lift devices ('lift bags') are used in underwater operations to provide buoyancy to submerged objects. Commercially available designs are heavy, bulky, and awkward to handle, and thus are limited in size and useful lifting capacity. An underwater lift device having less than 20 percent of the bulk and less than 10 percent of the weight of commercially available models was developed. The design features a dual membrane envelope, a nearly homogeneous envelope membrane stress distribution, and a minimum surface-to-volume ratio. A proof-of-concept model of 50 kg capacity was built and tested. Originally designed to provide buoyancy to mock-ups submerged in NASA's weightlessness simulators, the device may have application to water-landed spacecraft which must deploy flotation upon impact, and where launch weight and volume penalties are significant. The device may also be useful for the automated recovery of ocean floor probes or in marine salvage applications.

  2. Back injury prevention: a lift team success story.

    PubMed

    Hefti, Kelly S; Farnham, Richard J; Docken, Lisa; Bentaas, Ruth; Bossman, Sharon; Schaefer, Jill

    2003-06-01

    Work related back injuries among hospital personnel account for high volume, high cost workers' compensation claims. These injuries can be life altering experiences, affecting both the personal and professional lives of injured workers. Lifting must be viewed as a skill involving specialized training and mandated use of mechanical equipment, rather than as a random task performed by numerous health care providers. The use of a lift team specially trained in body mechanics, lifting techniques, and the use of mandated mechanical equipment can significantly affect injury data, financial outcomes, and employee satisfaction. The benefits of a lift team extend beyond the effect on injury and financial outcomes--they can be used for recruitment and retention strategies, and team members serve as mentors to others by demonstrating safe lifting techniques. Ultimately, a lift team helps protect a valuable resource--the health care worker. PMID:12846457

  3. Effects of jets, wakes, and vortices on lifting surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margason, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    The interaction of jets, wakes, and vortices on lifting bodies represents a broad spectrum of aerodynamic flow phenomena. A literature survey is presented of 79 research activities in related aerodynamic situations.

  4. Waste Package Lifting Calculation

    SciTech Connect

    H. Marr

    2000-05-11

    The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the structural response of the waste package during the horizontal and vertical lifting operations in order to support the waste package lifting feature design. The scope of this calculation includes the evaluation of the 21 PWR UCF (pressurized water reactor uncanistered fuel) waste package, naval waste package, 5 DHLW/DOE SNF (defense high-level waste/Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel)--short waste package, and 44 BWR (boiling water reactor) UCF waste package. Procedure AP-3.12Q, Revision 0, ICN 0, calculations, is used to develop and document this calculation.

  5. Clamp usable as jig and lifting clamp

    DOEpatents

    Tsuyama, Yoshizo

    1976-01-01

    There is provided a clamp which is well suited for use as a lifting clamp for lifting and moving materials of assembly in a shipyard, etc. and as a pulling jig in welding and other operations. The clamp comprises a clamp body including a shackle for engagement with a pulling device and a slot for receiving an article, and a pair of jaws provided on the leg portions of the clamp body on the opposite sides of the slot to grip the article in the slot, one of said jaws consisting of a screw rod and the other jaw consisting of a swivel jaw with a spherical surface, whereby when the article clamped in the slot by the pair of jaws tends to slide in any direction with respect to the clamp body, the article is more positively gripped by the pair of jaws.

  6. Interior view of lift mechanism area of eastern lift span, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of lift mechanism area of eastern lift span, showing trunion gears at left and right, and counterweight above. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  7. Interior view of lift mechanism area of eastern lift span ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of lift mechanism area of eastern lift span looking south, showing trunion gears at left and right, and counterweight above. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  8. Obesity-related changes in prolonged repetitive lifting performance.

    PubMed

    Ghesmaty Sangachin, Mahboobeh; Cavuoto, Lora A

    2016-09-01

    Despite the rising prevalence of obesity, little is known about its moderating effects on injury risk factors, such as fatigue, in occupational settings. This study investigated the effect of obesity, prolonged repetitive lifting and their interaction on lifting performance of 14 participants, 7 obese (mean body mass index (BMI): 33.2 kg m(-2)) and 7 non-obese (mean BMI: 22.2 kg m(-2)) subjects. To present a physically challenging task, subjects performed repetitive lifting for 1 h at 120% of their maximum acceptable weight of lift. Generalized linear mixed models were fit to posture and acceleration data. The obese group bent to a ∼10° lower peak trunk sagittal flexion angle, had 17% lower root mean square (RMS) jerk and took 0.8 s longer per lift. Over time, the obese group increased their trunk transverse and sagittal posterior accelerations while the non-obese maintained theirs. Although the majority of lifting variables were unaffected by BMI or its interaction with prolonged lifting duration, the observed differences, combined with a greater upper body mass, necessitate a more cautious use of existing psychophysical lifting limits for individuals who are obese, particularly when fatigued. PMID:27184307

  9. [Subperiosteal midface lifting].

    PubMed

    Bonnefon, A

    2006-04-01

    Since 1990, when we had found the solutions about the oval of the face and the neck problems by the vertical lift, our whole attention was focused on the midface. We have been through the "cheek lift", high SMAS incision. We followed Oscar Ramirez and Richard Anderson in the subperiosteal undermining of the mid face under endoscopic control by a buccal and temporal incision. The actual technic made possible by Paul Tessier's work who initiated the subperiosteal undermining and Oscar Ramirez who initiated the endoscopy. The endoscopy allowed us to go through this technic, but now we don't use it anymore. We have to credit Thierry Besins who mixed these concepts alltogether to obtain a complete and effective technic. The idea is to move up the centrofacial structures and to secure them reliably because of the perioste strengh. This technic solve in an unparallel way, all the stigmata of the centrofacial aging; so, we have a scarless lifting. For the one who have a neck problem, we associate the deep vertical lift. PMID:16631299

  10. Lifting as You Climb

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Debra R.

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses leadership themes and answers leadership questions presented to "Exchange" by the Panel members who attended the "Exchange" Panel of 300 Reception in Dallas, Texas, last November. There is an old proverb that encourages people to lift as they climb: "While you climb a mountain, you must not forget others along the way." With…

  11. JWST Lifting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolleson, William

    2012-01-01

    A document describes designing, building, testing, and certifying a customized crane (Lifting Device LD) with a strong back (cradle) to facilitate the installation of long wall panels and short door panels for the GHe phase of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The LD controls are variable-frequency drive controls designed to be adjustable for very slow and very-short-distance movements throughout the installation. The LD has a lift beam with an electric actuator attached at the end. The actuator attaches to a rectangular strong back (cradle) for lifting the long wall panels and short door panels from a lower angle into the vertical position inside the chamber, and then rotating around the chamber for installation onto the existing ceiling and floor. The LD rotates 360 (in very small increments) in both clockwise and counterclockwise directions. Eight lifting pads are on the top ring with 2-in. (.5-cm) eye holes spaced evenly around the ring to allow for the device to be suspended by three crane hoists from the top of the chamber. The LD is operated by remote controls that allow for a single, slow mode for booming the load in and out, with slow and very slow modes for rotating the load.

  12. Hydraulic lifting device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terrell, Kyle (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A piston and cylinder assembly is disclosed which is constructed of polyvinyl chloride that uses local water pressure to perform small lifting tasks. The chamber is either pressurized to extend the piston or depressurized to retract the piston. The present invention is best utilized for raising and lowering toilet seats.

  13. Helicopter Toy and Lift Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakerin, Said

    2013-01-01

    A $1 plastic helicopter toy (called a Wacky Whirler) can be used to demonstrate lift. Students can make basic measurements of the toy, use reasonable assumptions and, with the lift formula, estimate the lift, and verify that it is sufficient to overcome the toy's weight. (Contains 1 figure.)

  14. Helicopter Toy and Lift Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakerin, Said

    2013-05-01

    A1 plastic helicopter toy (called a Wacky Whirler) can be used to demonstrate lift. Students can make basic measurements of the toy, use reasonable assumptions and, with the lift formula, estimate the lift, and verify that it is sufficient to overcome the toy's weight.

  15. Frequency response of lift control in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Graetzel, Chauncey F.; Nelson, Bradley J.; Fry, Steven N.

    2010-01-01

    The flight control responses of the fruitfly represent a powerful model system to explore neuromotor control mechanisms, whose system level control properties can be suitably characterized with a frequency response analysis. We characterized the lift response dynamics of tethered flying Drosophila in presence of vertically oscillating visual patterns, whose oscillation frequency we varied between 0.1 and 13 Hz. We justified these measurements by showing that the amplitude gain and phase response is invariant to the pattern oscillation amplitude and spatial frequency within a broad dynamic range. We also showed that lift responses are largely linear and time invariant (LTI), a necessary condition for a meaningful analysis of frequency responses and a remarkable characteristic given its nonlinear constituents. The flies responded to increasing oscillation frequencies with a roughly linear decrease in response gain, which dropped to background noise levels at about 6 Hz. The phase lag decreased linearly, consistent with a constant reaction delay of 75 ms. Next, we estimated the free-flight response of the fly to generate a Bode diagram of the lift response. The limitation of lift control to frequencies below 6 Hz is explained with inertial body damping, which becomes dominant at higher frequencies. Our work provides the detailed background and techniques that allow optomotor lift responses of Drosophila to be measured with comparatively simple, affordable and commercially available techniques. The identification of an LTI, pattern velocity dependent, lift control strategy is relevant to the underlying motion computation mechanisms and serves a broader understanding of insects' flight control strategies. The relevance and potential pitfalls of applying system identification techniques in tethered preparations is discussed. PMID:20462877

  16. Frequency response of lift control in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Graetzel, Chauncey F; Nelson, Bradley J; Fry, Steven N

    2010-11-01

    The flight control responses of the fruitfly represent a powerful model system to explore neuromotor control mechanisms, whose system level control properties can be suitably characterized with a frequency response analysis. We characterized the lift response dynamics of tethered flying Drosophila in presence of vertically oscillating visual patterns, whose oscillation frequency we varied between 0.1 and 13 Hz. We justified these measurements by showing that the amplitude gain and phase response is invariant to the pattern oscillation amplitude and spatial frequency within a broad dynamic range. We also showed that lift responses are largely linear and time invariant (LTI), a necessary condition for a meaningful analysis of frequency responses and a remarkable characteristic given its nonlinear constituents. The flies responded to increasing oscillation frequencies with a roughly linear decrease in response gain, which dropped to background noise levels at about 6 Hz. The phase lag decreased linearly, consistent with a constant reaction delay of 75 ms. Next, we estimated the free-flight response of the fly to generate a Bode diagram of the lift response. The limitation of lift control to frequencies below 6 Hz is explained with inertial body damping, which becomes dominant at higher frequencies. Our work provides the detailed background and techniques that allow optomotor lift responses of Drosophila to be measured with comparatively simple, affordable and commercially available techniques. The identification of an LTI, pattern velocity dependent, lift control strategy is relevant to the underlying motion computation mechanisms and serves a broader understanding of insects' flight control strategies. The relevance and potential pitfalls of applying system identification techniques in tethered preparations is discussed. PMID:20462877

  17. [Subperiosteal face-lift].

    PubMed

    Tessier, P

    1989-01-01

    The "facial mask" is composed of all of the tissues lying on top of the skeleton: periosteum, deep adipose tissue, superficial musculo-aponeurotic tissue and skin. The periosteum is the intermediate zone between the skeleton, responsible for the shape of the face, and the more superficial tissues which complete the shapes and, most importantly, represent the mobile part of the face and consequently the site of facial expression. The secret of an effective "mask-lift" depends on complete subperiosteal dissection of the malar bones, zygomatic arches and orbital margins. This dissection can be performed via a coronal approach, but it is easier to start the subperiosteal dissection via a short vestibular incision. Subperiosteal dissection via a coronal incision is not only useful to lift the facial mask; it is also useful for remodelling the orbital margins and to obtain bone grafts from the parietal area in order to reinforce the glabella, check bones and nasogenial folds. PMID:2473674

  18. Enhanced Rescue Lift Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.

    2007-01-01

    The evolving and ever-increasing demands of emergency response and disaster relief support provided by rotorcraft dictate, among other things, the development of enhanced rescue lift capability for these platforms. This preliminary analysis is first-order in nature but provides considerable insight into some of the challenges inherent in trying to effect rescue using a unique form of robotic rescue device deployed and operated from rotary-wing aerial platforms.

  19. Powered-lift aircraft technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckert, W. H.; Franklin, J. A.

    1989-01-01

    Powered lift aircraft have the ability to vary the magnitude and direction of the force produced by the propulsion system so as to control the overall lift and streamwise force components of the aircraft, with the objective of enabling the aircraft to operate from minimum sized terminal sites. Power lift technology has contributed to the development of the jet lift Harrier and to the forth coming operational V-22 Tilt Rotor and the C-17 military transport. This technology will soon be expanded to include supersonic fighters with short takeoff and vertical landing capability, and will continue to be used for the development of short- and vertical-takeoff and landing transport. An overview of this field of aeronautical technology is provided for several types of powered lift aircraft. It focuses on the description of various powered lift concepts and their operational capability. Aspects of aerodynamics and flight controls pertinent to powered lift are also discussed.

  20. Detail of lift wire rope attachment to lift span at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of lift wire rope attachment to lift span at southeast corner. Note rope-adjustment turnbuckle with strap keepers to prevent its rotation, which could pull the bridge out of alignment. A single rope and light-gauge attachment at each corner were adequate for lifting the span because most of its weight was balanced by the two counterweights. - Potomac Edison Company, Chesapeake & Ohio Canal Bridge, Spanning C & O Canal South of U.S. 11, Williamsport, Washington County, MD

  1. On the relationship between discrete and repetitive lifting performance in military tasks.

    PubMed

    Savage, Robert J; Best, Stuart A; Carstairs, Greg L; Ham, Daniel J; Doyle, Tim L A

    2014-03-01

    Military manual handling requirements range from discrete lifts to continuous and repetitive lifting tasks. For the military to introduce a discrete lifting assessment, the assessment must be predictive of the various submaximum lifting tasks personnel are required to perform. This study investigated the relationship between discrete and repetitive military lifting to assess the validity of implementing a discrete lifting test. Twenty-one soldiers from the Australian Army completed a whole-body box-lifting assessment as a one repetition maximum (1RM) and a series of submaximal lifting repetitions (% 1RM). Performance was measured between the number of lifting repetitions that could be performed at different intensities between 58 and 95% 1RM. A strong curvilinear relationship existed across the entire submaximal lifting range (r = 0.72, p ≤ 0.05). The model developed demonstrated a low predictive error (standard error of the estimate = 7.2% 1RM) with no differences detected in the relationship when comparing individuals of high and low strength. Findings support the use of a discrete functional lifting assessment in providing coverage of a broad range of military lifting tasks. Parallels can be drawn between the trend reported in the current study and weight-training exercises reported in the literature. PMID:23897024

  2. Biomechanical exploration on dynamic modes of lifting.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, M; Smyth, G

    1992-03-01

    Whatever the lifting method used, dynamic factors appear to have an effect on the safe realization of movement, and NIOSH guidelines recommend smooth lifting with no sudden acceleration effects. On the other hand, inertial forces may play an important role in the process of transfer of momentum to the load. The direction by which these inertial forces may affect the loadings on body structures and processes of energy transfers cannot be determined a priori. A biomechanical experiment was performed to examine if there were differences in the execution processes between a slow-continuous lift and an accelerated-continuous lift, and also between accelerated lifts either executed continuously or interrupted with a pause. The lifts were executed from a height of 15 cm to a height of 185 cm above the head and with two different loads (6.4 and 11.6 kg). Five experienced workers in manual materials handling were used as subjects. Films and force platforms recordings supplied the data; dynamic segmental analyses were performed to calculate net muscular moments at each joint; a planar single-muscle equivalent was used to estimate compression loadings at L5/S1; total mechanical work, joint work distribution, and energy transfers were determined from a kinetic approach based on the integration of joint power as a function of time. Analyses of variance with repeated measures were applied to the three treatments. The results showed that joint muscular moments, spinal loadings, mechanical work, and muscular utilization ratios were generally increased by the presence of acceleration without inducing benefits of improved energy transfers; therefore slower lifts with reduced acceleration may be safer when handling moderately heavy loads. The maximum values of kinematic and kinetic factors were generally not affected by the pause, but the occurrence of jerks in the movement (acceleration, ground forces, and muscular moments) suggests that the pause may not be indicated when

  3. Endoscopic brow lifts: have they replaced coronal lifts?

    PubMed

    Javidnia, Hedyeh; Sykes, Jonathan

    2013-05-01

    This article describes the use of the endoscopic brow-lifting technique in addressing periorbital aging. This article discusses the advantages and disadvantage of the endoscopic versus traditional techniques of brow lifting and gives our treatment algorithm depending on patient needs. PMID:23731581

  4. Feasibility study of modern airships, phase 1. Volume 2: Parametric analysis (task 3). [lift, weight (mass)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lancaster, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    Various types of lighter-than-air vehicles from fully buoyant to semibuoyant hybrids were examined. Geometries were optimized for gross lifting capabilities for ellipsoidal airships, modified delta planform lifting bodies, and a short-haul, heavy-lift vehicle concept. It is indicated that: (1) neutrally buoyant airships employing a conservative update of materials and propulsion technology provide significant improvements in productivity; (2) propulsive lift for VTOL and aerodynamic lift for cruise significantly improve the productivity of low to medium gross weight ellipsoidal airships; and (3) the short-haul, heavy-lift vehicle, consisting of a simple combination of an ellipsoidal airship hull and existing helicopter componentry, provides significant potential for low-cost, near-term applications for ultra-heavy lift missions.

  5. Effects of range and mode on lifting capability and lifting time.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tzu-Hsien

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of 3 lifting ranges and 3 lifting modes on maximum lifting capability and total lifting time. The results demonstrated that the maximum lifting capability for FK (from floor to knuckle height) was greater than that for KS (from knuckle height to shoulder height) or FS (from floor to shoulder height). Additionally, asymmetric lifting with initial trunk rotation decreased maximum lifting capability compared with symmetric lifting or asymmetric lifting with final trunk rotation. The difference in total lifting time between KS and FS was not significant, while FK increased total lifting time by ~20% compared with FS even though the travel distance was 50% shorter. PMID:22995136

  6. Lifting Loads With Two Helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cicolani, L. S.; Kanning, G.

    1992-01-01

    Report discusses theoretical equilibrium characteristics of dual-helicopter lifting system. Analysis presented provides mathematical basis for selection of lifting configurations and flight parameters. Force-balance equations serve as basis for coordination in flight. Employed in both military and civilian sectors to deliver weapons, vehicles, and construction materials.

  7. Pneumatic Spoiler Controls Airfoil Lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, D.; Krauss, T.

    1991-01-01

    Air ejection from leading edge of airfoil used for controlled decrease of lift. Pneumatic-spoiler principle developed for equalizing lift on helicopter rotor blades. Also used to enhance aerodynamic control of short-fuselage or rudderless aircraft such as "flying-wing" airplanes. Leading-edge injection increases maneuverability of such high-performance fixed-wing aircraft as fighters.

  8. Lift enhancing tabs for airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, James C. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A tab deployable from the trailing edge of a main airfoil element forces flow onto a following airfoil element, such as a flap, to keep the flow attached and thus enhance lift. For aircraft wings with high lift systems that include leading edge slats, the slats may also be provided with tabs to turn the flow onto the following main element.

  9. Project LIFT: Year 1 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Michael; Piccinino, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    Research for Action (RFA) is currently in the second year of a five-year external evaluation of the Project Leadership and Investment for Transformation (LIFT) Initiative in the Charlotte-Mecklenburg School District (CMS). Project LIFT is a public-private partnership between CMS and the local philanthropic and business communities in Charlotte,…

  10. Investigation of advanced thrust vectoring exhaust systems for high speed propulsive lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchison, R. A.; Petit, J. E.; Capone, F. J.; Whittaker, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a wind tunnel investigation conducted at the NASA-Langley research center to determine thrust vectoring/induced lift characteristics of advanced exhaust nozzle concepts installed on a supersonic tactical airplane model. Specific test objectives include: (1) basic aerodynamics of a wing body configuration, (2) investigation of induced lift effects, (3) evaluation of static and forward speed performance, and (4) the effectiveness of a canard surface to trim thrust vectoring/induced lift forces and moments.

  11. Summary of Lift and Lift/Cruise Fan Powered Lift Concept Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Woodrow L.

    1993-01-01

    A summary is presented of some of the lift and lift/cruise fan technology including fan performance, fan stall, ground effects, ingestion and thrust loss, design tradeoffs and integration, control effectiveness and several other areas related to vertical short takeoff and landing (V/STOL) aircraft conceptual design. The various subjects addressed, while not necessarily pertinent to specific short takeoff/vertical landing (STOVL) supersonic designs being considered, are of interest to the general field of lift and lift/cruise fan aircraft designs and may be of importance in the future. The various wind tunnel and static tests reviewed are: (1) the Doak VZ-4 ducted fan, (2) the 0.57 scale model of the Bell X-22 ducted fan aircraft, (3) the Avrocar, (4) the General Electric lift/cruise fan, (5) the vertical short takeoff and landing (V/STOL) lift engine configurations related to ingestion and consequent thrust loss, (6) the XV-5 and other fan-in-wing stall consideration, (7) hybrid configurations such as lift fan and lift/cruise fan or engines, and (8) the various conceptual design studies by air-frame contractors. Other design integration problems related to small and large V/STOL transport aircraft are summarized including lessons learned during more recent conceptual design studies related to a small executive V/STOL transport aircraft.

  12. Lifting and wound closure with barbed sutures.

    PubMed

    Mulholland, R Stephen; Paul, Malcolm D

    2011-07-01

    The advent of barbed sutures has been a novel and useful adjunct for the aesthetic plastic surgeon in properly selected patients. The deployment of a barbed suture minimizes the risks of cheese wiring and stress relaxation, facilitating the minimally invasive repositioning of soft tissue in the head and neck, as well as optimizing and enhancing traditionally long and potentially tedious procedures in body contouring. This article highlights the advances, advantages, and efficacy associated with the use of barbed sutures in lifting and wound closure. PMID:21824547

  13. Lift force of delta wings

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, M.; Ho, Chihming )

    1990-09-01

    On a delta wing, the separation vortices can be stationary due to the balance of the vorticity surface flux and the axial convection along the swept leading edge. These stationary vortices keep the wing from losing lift. A highly swept delta wing reaches the maximum lift at an angle of attack of about 40, which is more than twice as high as that of a two-dimensional airfoil. In this paper, the experimental results of lift forces for delta wings are reviewed from the perspective of fundamental vorticity balance. The effects of different operational and geometrical parameters on the performance of delta wings are surveyed.

  14. Air-cushion lift pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaise, H. T.; Dane, D. H.

    1969-01-01

    Mathematical model is formulated for an air pad which is capable of lifting a structure to a height of 0.125 inch. Design is superior to conventional air cushion devices because it eliminates flutter, vibration, heaving, and pitching.

  15. Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    During the Space Shuttle development phase, Marshall plarners concluded a Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV) would be needed for successful Space Industrialization. Shown here in this 1976's artist's conception is an early version of the HLLV during launch.

  16. Face lift postoperative recovery.

    PubMed

    Mottura, A Aldo

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe what I have studied and experienced, mainly regarding the control and prediction of the postoperative edema; how to achieve an agreeable recovery and give positive support to the patient, who in turn will receive pleasant sensations that neutralize the negative consequences of the surgery.After the skin is lifted, the drainage flow to the flaps is reversed abruptly toward the medial part of the face, where the flap bases are located. The thickness and extension of the flap determines the magnitude of the post-op edema, which is also augmented by medial surgeries (blepharo, rhino) whose trauma obstruct their natural drainage, increasing the congestion and edema. To study the lymphatic drainage, the day before an extended face lift (FL) a woman was infiltrated in the cheek skin with lynfofast (solution of tecmesio) and the absorption was observed by gamma camera. Seven days after the FL she underwent the same study; we observed no absorption by the lymphatic, concluding that a week after surgery, the lymphatic network was still damaged. To study the venous return during surgery, a fine catheter was introduced into the external jugular vein up to the mandibular border to measure the peripheral pressure. Following platysma plication the pressure rose, and again after a simple bandage, but with an elastic bandage it increased even further, diminishing considerably when it was released. Hence, platysma plication and the elastic bandage on the neck augment the venous congestion of the face. There are diseases that produce and can prolong the surgical edema: cardiac, hepatic, and renal insufficiencies, hypothyroidism, malnutrition, etc. According to these factors, the post-op edema can be predicted, the surgeon can choose between a wide dissection or a medial surgery, depending on the social or employment compromises the patient has, or the patient must accept a prolonged recovery if a complex surgery is necessary. Operative

  17. Summary of Free-Flight Zero-Lift Drag Results from Tests of 1/5-Scale Models of the Convair YF-102 and F-102A Airplanes and Several Related Small Equivalent Bodies at Mach Numbers from 0.70 to 1.46

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallskog, Harvey A.

    1954-01-01

    One-fifth-scale rocket-propelled models of the Convair YF-102 and F-102A airplanes were tested to determine free-flight zero-lift drag coefficients through the transonic speed range at Reynolds numbers near those to be encountered by the full-scale airplane. Trim and duct characteristics were obtained along with measurements of total-, internal-, and base-drag coefficients. Additional zero-lift drag tests involved a series of small equivalent-body-of-revolution models which were launched to low supersonic speeds by means of a helium gun. The several small models tested corresponded to the following full-scale airplanes: basic, YF-102, 2-foot (full-scale) fuselage extension, F-102A, F-102A (relocated inlets), F-102A (faired nose), and F-102A (parabolic nose) . Equivalent-body models corresponding to the normal area distribution (derived for Mach number 1.0) of each of these airplane shapes were flown and, in addition, equivalent-body models designed to represent the YF-102 and F-102A airplanes at Mach number 1.2 were tested. External-drag coefficients obtained from the 115-scale tests ranged from 0.0094 to 0.0273 for the YF-102 model and from 0.0100 to 0.0255 for the F-102A model. Forebody external-pressure-drag coefficients (drag rise) at Mach number 1.05 of 0.0183 and 0.0134 were obtained from the 115-scale models of the YF-102 and F-102A, respectively, a 16-percent reduction for the F-102A model. Values of drag rise at Mach number 1.05 from the small equivalent-body tests were nearly the same for the basic, YF-102, and 2-foot-fuselage-extension airplane shapes. Equivalent-body tests of the YF-102 and F-102A shapes showed the latter to have about 25 percent less drag rise as compared with a 16-percent reduction illustrated by the 1/5-scale tests. Additional equivalent-body tests illustrating effects of modifications to the F-102A airplane shape shared that relocating the inlets on the fuselage or altering the nose shape to provide a smoother cross-sectional area

  18. Lifting China's water spell.

    PubMed

    Guan, Dabo; Hubacek, Klaus; Tillotson, Martin; Zhao, Hongyan; Liu, Weidong; Liu, Zhu; Liang, Sai

    2014-10-01

    China is a country with significant but unevenly distributed water resources. The water stressed North stays in contrast to the water abundant and polluted South defining China's current water environment. In this paper we use the latest available data sets and adopt structural decomposition analysis for the years 1992 to 2007 to investigate the driving forces behind the emerging water crisis in China. We employ four water indicators in China, that is, freshwater consumption, discharge of COD (chemical oxygen demand) in effluent water, cumulative COD and dilution water requirements for cumulative pollution, to investigate the driving forces behind the emerging crisis. The paper finds water intensity improvements can effectively offset annual freshwater consumption and COD discharge driven by per capita GDP growth, but that it had failed to eliminate cumulative pollution in water bodies. Between 1992 and 2007, 225 million tones of COD accumulated in Chinese water bodies, which would require 3.2-8.5 trillion m(3) freshwater, depending on the water quality of the recipient water bodies to dilute pollution to a minimum reusable standard. Cumulative water pollution is a key driver to pollution induced water scarcity across China. In addition, urban household consumption, export of goods and services, and infrastructure investment are the main factors contributing to accumulated water pollution since 2000. PMID:25226569

  19. Subperiosteal brow lifts without fixation.

    PubMed

    Troilius, Carl

    2004-11-01

    Most surgeons today advocate an endoscopic subperiosteal brow lift for surgical correction of the upper third of the face. At the author's clinic, this operation has been performed since 1994 and the subgaleal bicoronal brow lift is no longer used. In earlier investigations, the author showed that the subperiosteal approach (n = 60) gives a better result than the subgaleal method (n = 60) when compared 1 year after surgery. In the literature, however, there are no published data regarding the long-term results of subperiosteal brow lifts. The author took material from his earlier investigations and looked at the same patients 5 years postoperatively. He compared the subperiosteal approach (n = 30) with the subgaleal brow lift (n = 15) and found that after 5 years the brows of the subgaleal patients were on the same level as they were before surgery, but in the group of subperiosteal brow lifts, almost all of the brows were higher 5 years after surgery than they were 1 year after surgery, with a mean increase in height of 2.5 mm. These findings led the author to the question whether scalp fixation was necessary at all when performing a subperiosteal brow lift. He performed 20 subperiosteal endoscopic brow lifts where scalp fixation was not used at all, relying only on changing the balance of muscle vectors around the eyebrows. Using a computerized instrument, measurements were made of the distance between the medial canthus and the top of the eyebrow, the midpupil and the top of the eyebrow, and the lateral canthus and the top of the eyebrow. All patients were measured before and 1 year after surgery. The author found an increase of the vertical height from the midpupil to the top of the brow, with an average increase of 3.9 mm. There were no differences between patients who had only a brow lift and those who had a brow lift and an upper blepharoplasty at the same time. The author concludes that for most cases where an increased vertical height of the brows of more

  20. Normalized Lift: An Energy Interpretation of the Lift Coefficient Simplifies Comparisons of the Lifting Ability of Rotating and Flapping Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Burgers, Phillip; Alexander, David E.

    2012-01-01

    For a century, researchers have used the standard lift coefficient CL to evaluate the lift, L, generated by fixed wings over an area S against dynamic pressure, ½ρv2, where v is the effective velocity of the wing. Because the lift coefficient was developed initially for fixed wings in steady flow, its application to other lifting systems requires either simplifying assumptions or complex adjustments as is the case for flapping wings and rotating cylinders. This paper interprets the standard lift coefficient of a fixed wing slightly differently, as the work exerted by the wing on the surrounding flow field (L/ρ·S), compared against the total kinetic energy required for generating said lift, ½v2. This reinterpreted coefficient, the normalized lift, is derived from the work-energy theorem and compares the lifting capabilities of dissimilar lift systems on a similar energy footing. The normalized lift is the same as the standard lift coefficient for fixed wings, but differs for wings with more complex motions; it also accounts for such complex motions explicitly and without complex modifications or adjustments. We compare the normalized lift with the previously-reported values of lift coefficient for a rotating cylinder in Magnus effect, a bat during hovering and forward flight, and a hovering dipteran. The maximum standard lift coefficient for a fixed wing without flaps in steady flow is around 1.5, yet for a rotating cylinder it may exceed 9.0, a value that implies that a rotating cylinder generates nearly 6 times the maximum lift of a wing. The maximum normalized lift for a rotating cylinder is 1.5. We suggest that the normalized lift can be used to evaluate propellers, rotors, flapping wings of animals and micro air vehicles, and underwater thrust-generating fins in the same way the lift coefficient is currently used to evaluate fixed wings. PMID:22629326

  1. Mist lift analysis summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Davenport, R.L.

    1980-09-01

    The mist flow open-cycle OTEC concept proposed by S.L. Ridgway has much promise, but the fluid mechanics of the mist flow are not well understood. The creation of the mist and the possibility of droplet growth leading to rainout (when the vapor can no longer support the mist) are particularly troublesome. This report summarizes preliminary results of a numerical analysis initiated at SERI in FY79 to study the mist-lift process. The analysis emphasizes the mass transfer and fluid mechanics of the steady-state mist flow and is based on one-dimensional models of the mist flow developed for SERI by Graham Wallis. One of Wallis's models describes a mist composed of a single size of drops and another considers several drop sizes. The latter model, further developed at SERI, considers a changing spectrum of discrete drop sizes and incorporates the mathematics describing collisions and growth of the droplets by coalescence. The analysis results show that under conditions leading to maximum lift in the single-drop-size model, the multigroup model predicts significantly reduced lift because of the growth of droplets by coalescence. The predicted lift height is sensitive to variations in the mass flow rate and inlet pressure. Inclusion of a coasting section, in which the drops would rise ballistically without change in temperature, may lead to increased lift within the existing range of operation.

  2. Serrated-Planform Lifting-Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGrath, Brian E. (Inventor); Wood, Richard M. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A novel set of serrated-planform lifting surfaces produce unexpectedly high lift coefficients at moderate to high angles-of-attack. Each serration, or tooth, is designed to shed a vortex. The interaction of the vortices greatly enhances the lifting capability over an extremely large operating range. Variations of the invention use serrated-planform lifting surfaces in planes different than that of a primary lifting surface. In an alternate embodiment, the individual teeth are controllably retractable and deployable to provide for active control of the vortex system and hence lift coefficient. Differential lift on multiple serrated-planform lifting surfaces provides a means for vehicle control. The important aerodynamic advantages of the serrated-planform lifting surfaces are not limited to aircraft applications but can be used to establish desirable performance characteristics for missiles, land vehicles, and/or watercraft.

  3. Slug bucket lifting yoke analysis

    SciTech Connect

    McElfresh, A.J.

    1994-11-14

    There are baskets of fuel in the storage pools in the Purex facility (202-A). These baskets (called slug buckets) need to be removed from Purex and taken to the K-Basins. The current slug bucket lifting yoke is of sufficient age to be in question structurally. Therefore new yokes need to be fabricated. Prior to fabricating new yokes, the slug bucket lifting yoke DWG needs to be updated for fabrication. However, the design needs to be refined so that the yoke will be easier to fabricate. These calculations are prepared to demonstrate the adequacy of the new design. The objective of these calculations is to select appropriately sized structural members and weld sizes to serve as components in the slug bucket lifting yoke.

  4. Three-Dimensional Effects on Multi-Element High Lift Computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumsey, Christopher L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Watson, Ralph D.

    2002-01-01

    In an effort to discover the causes for disagreement between previous 2-D computations and nominally 2-D experiment for flow over the 3-clement McDonnell Douglas 30P-30N airfoil configuration at high lift, a combined experimental/CFD investigation is described. The experiment explores several different side-wall boundary layer control venting patterns, document's venting mass flow rates, and looks at corner surface flow patterns. The experimental angle of attack at maximum lift is found to be sensitive to the side wall venting pattern: a particular pattern increases the angle of attack at maximum lift by at least 2 deg. A significant amount of spanwise pressure variation is present at angles of attack near maximum lift. A CFD study using 3-D structured-grid computations, which includes the modeling of side-wall venting, is employed to investigate 3-D effects of the flow. Side-wall suction strength is found to affect the angle at which maximum lift is predicted. Maximum lift in the CFD is shown to be limited by the growth of all off-body corner flow vortex and consequent increase in spanwise pressure variation and decrease in circulation. The 3-D computations with and without wall venting predict similar trends to experiment at low angles of attack, but either stall too earl or else overpredict lift levels near maximum lift by as much as 5%. Unstructured-grid computations demonstrate that mounting brackets lower die the levels near maximum lift conditions.

  5. Lifting Mechanism for the Mars Explorer Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melko, Joseph; Iskenderian, Theodore; Harrington, Brian; Voorhees, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    A report discusses the design of a rover lift mechanism (RLM) -- a major subsystem of each of the Mars Exploration Rover vehicles, which were landed on Mars in January 2004. The RLM had to satisfy requirements to (1) be foldable as part of an extremely dense packing arrangement and (2) be capable of unfolding itself in a complex, multistep process for disengaging the rover from its restraints in the lander, lifting the main body of the rover off its landing platform, and placing the rover wheels on the platform in preparation for driving the rover off the platform. There was also an overriding requirement to minimize the overall mass of the rover and lander. To satisfy the combination of these and other requirements, it was necessary to formulate an extremely complex design that integrated components and functions of the RLM with those of a rocker-bogie suspension system, the aspects of which have been described in several prior NASA Tech Briefs articles. In this design, suspension components also serve as parts of a 4- bar linkage in the RLM.

  6. Prosthetic Hand Lifts Heavy Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carden, James R.; Norton, William; Belcher, Jewell G.; Vest, Thomas W.

    1991-01-01

    Prosthetic hand designed to enable amputee to lift diverse heavy objects like rocks and logs. Has simple serrated end effector with no moving parts. Prosthesis held on forearm by system of flexible straps. Features include ruggedness, simplicity, and relatively low cost.

  7. Powered-Lift Aerodynamics and Acoustics. [conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Powered lift technology is reviewed. Topics covered include: (1) high lift aerodynamics; (2) high speed and cruise aerodynamics; (3) acoustics; (4) propulsion aerodynamics and acoustics; (5) aerodynamic and acoustic loads; and (6) full-scale and flight research.

  8. Lift distribution in a rectangular jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jameson, A.

    1971-01-01

    Computer programs predict effect of slipstream-wing flow interaction on aerodynamic characteristics of deflected slipstream and tilt aircraft. One program calculates lift distribution, lift, and drag of wing in wide slipstream. Results permit development of simplified lifting surface theory for circular jet.

  9. 49 CFR 37.203 - Lift maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lift maintenance. 37.203 Section 37.203... DISABILITIES (ADA) Over-the-Road Buses (OTRBs) § 37.203 Lift maintenance. (a) The entity shall establish a system of regular and frequent maintenance checks of lifts sufficient to determine if they are...

  10. Vertical Lift - Not Just For Terrestrial Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A

    2000-01-01

    Autonomous vertical lift vehicles hold considerable potential for supporting planetary science and exploration missions. This paper discusses several technical aspects of vertical lift planetary aerial vehicles in general, and specifically addresses technical challenges and work to date examining notional vertical lift vehicles for Mars, Titan, and Venus exploration.

  11. 29 CFR 1926.453 - Aerial lifts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... lift, except in case of emergency. (x) Climbers shall not be worn while performing work from an aerial... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aerial lifts. 1926.453 Section 1926.453 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Scaffolds § 1926.453 Aerial lifts. (a)...

  12. 30 CFR 57.16016 - Lift trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lift trucks. 57.16016 Section 57.16016 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... § 57.16016 Lift trucks. Fork and other similar types of lift trucks shall be operated with the:...

  13. 30 CFR 56.16016 - Lift trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lift trucks. 56.16016 Section 56.16016 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND....16016 Lift trucks. Fork and other similar types of lift trucks shall be operated with the— (a)...

  14. Analysis of the Effects of Streamwise Lift Distribution on Sonic Boom Signature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoo, Seung Yeun (Paul)

    2010-01-01

    The streamwise lift distribution of a wing-canard-stabilator-body configuration was varied to study its effect on the near-field sonic boom signature. The investigation was carried out via solving the three-dimensional Euler equation with the OVERFLOW-2 flow solver. The computational meshes were created using the Chimera overset grid topology. The lift distribution was varied by first deflecting the canard then trimming the aircraft with the wing and the stabilator while maintaining constant lift coefficient of 0.05. A validation study using experimental results was also performed to determine required grid resolution and appropriate numerical scheme. A wide range of streamwise lift distribution was simulated. The result shows that the longitudinal wave propagation speed can be controlled through lift distribution thus controlling the shock coalescence.

  15. Influences on lifetime of wire ropes in traction lifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, W.

    2016-05-01

    Traction lifts are complex systems with rotating and translating moving masses, springs and dampers and several system inputs from the lifts and the users. The wire ropes are essential mechanical elements. The mechanical properties of the ropes in use depend on the rope construction, the load situation, nonlinearities and the lift dimensions. The mechanical properties are important for the proper use in lifts and the ride quality. But first of all the wire ropes (for all other suspension means as well) have to satisfy the safety relevant requirements sufficient lifetime, reliable determination of discard and sufficient and limited traction capacity. The lifetime of the wire ropes better the number of trips until rope discard depends on a lot of parameters of the rope and the rope application eg use of plastic deflection sheaves and reverse bending layouts. New challenges for rope lifetime are resulting from the more or less open D/d-ratio limits possible by certificates concerning the examination of conformity by notified bodies. This paper will highlight the basics of wire rope technology, the endurance and lifetime of wire ropes running over sheaves, and the different influences from the ropes and more and more important from the lift application parameters. Very often underestimated are the influences of transport, storage, installation and maintenance. With this background we will lead over to the calculation methods of wire rope lifetime considering the actual findings of wire rope endurance research. We'll show in this paper new and innovative facts as the influence of rope length and size factor in the lifetime formular, the reduction of lifetime caused by traction grooves, the new model for the calculation in reverse bending operations and the statistically firmed possibilities for machine roomless lifts (MRL) under very small bending conditions.

  16. Serrated trailing edges for improving lift and drag characteristics of lifting surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vijgen, Paul M. H. W. (Inventor); Howard, Floyd G. (Inventor); Bushnell, Dennis M. (Inventor); Holmes, Bruce J. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An improvement in the lift and drag characteristics of a lifting surface is achieved by attaching a serrated panel to the trailing edge of the lifting surface. The serrations may have a saw-tooth configuration, with a 60 degree included angle between adjacent serrations. The serrations may vary in shape and size over the span-wise length of the lifting surface, and may be positioned at fixed or adjustable deflections relative to the chord of the lifting surface.

  17. Sex differences in lifting strategies during a repetitive palletizing task.

    PubMed

    Plamondon, A; Larivière, C; Denis, D; St-Vincent, M; Delisle, A

    2014-11-01

    Forty-five manual material handlers (15 females, 15 expert males and 15 novice males) performed series of box transfers under conditions similar to those of large distribution centers. The objective of the study was to verify whether sex differences in joint motions and in back loading variables (L5/S1 moments) exist during multiple box transfers. The task consisted in transferring 24 15-kg boxes from one pallet to another (4 layers of boxes; 6 boxes/layer: 3 in the front row, 3 in the back) at a self-determined pace and then at an imposed pace of 9 lifts/min. Full-body 3D kinematic data were collected as well as external foot forces. A dynamic 3D linked segment model was used to estimate the net moments at L5/S1. The results show that the peak L5/S1 moment during lifting for females was significantly lower than for males, but once normalized to body size the difference disappeared. In general, the female workers were very close to the posture adopted by the novice males at the instant of the peak resultant moment. However, females were closer to the box than the male workers. One major sex difference was seen when lifting from the ground, with the use of interjoint coordination analyses. Female workers showed a sequential motion initiated by the knees, followed by the hip and the back, while expert males showed a more synchronized motion. The lifting strategy of females likely stretches lumbar spine passive tissues, which in turn put them at greater risk of back injuries. As observed in our previous studies, these differences between expert males, novice males and females are especially notable when the box is lifted from the ground. PMID:24931477

  18. Quiet powered-lift propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Latest results of programs exploring new propulsion technology for powered-lift aircraft systems are presented. Topics discussed include results from the 'quiet clean short-haul experimental engine' program and progress reports on the 'quiet short-haul research aircraft' and 'tilt-rotor research aircraft' programs. In addition to these NASA programs, the Air Force AMST YC 14 and YC 15 programs were reviewed.

  19. [Lifting procedures in cosmetic facial surgery].

    PubMed

    Jansma, J; Schepers, R H; Vissink, A

    2014-10-01

    A prominent characteristic of the aging face is the descent of skin and subcutaneous tissues. In order to reduce this and create a more youthful appearance, several lifting procedures can be employed. In the forehead and eyebrow region the transblepharoplastic brow lift, the direct brow lift, the temporal brow lift, the coronal brow lift and the endoscopic brow lift can be distinguished. For the mid-face, the facelift is known to be an effective treatment for aging characteristics. Classic facelifts can be divided into the one layer-, two layer- and the deep plane facelift. Nowadays the minimal access cranial suspension lift is popular. The lifting capacity of this lift may be less, but the risk of complications is lower and the result is often more natural. A neck lift improves the chin-neck angle and a submental liposuction/lipectomy can contribute to this. Complications in lifting procedures are rare. Hematoma is the most frequent complication. Skin necrosis of the wound edges and laceration of the end branches of the facial nerve can also occur. There is a tendency towards minimally invasive procedures with smaller risk of complications and shorter recovery periods. PMID:26185994

  20. Generalised Eisenhart lift of the Toda chain

    SciTech Connect

    Cariglia, Marco; Gibbons, Gary

    2014-02-15

    The Toda chain of nearest neighbour interacting particles on a line can be described both in terms of geodesic motion on a manifold with one extra dimension, the Eisenhart lift, or in terms of geodesic motion in a symmetric space with several extra dimensions. We examine the relationship between these two realisations and discover that the symmetric space is a generalised, multi-particle Eisenhart lift of the original problem that reduces to the standard Eisenhart lift. Such generalised Eisenhart lift acts as an inverse Kaluza-Klein reduction, promoting coupling constants to momenta in higher dimension. In particular, isometries of the generalised lift metric correspond to energy preserving transformations that mix coordinates and coupling constants. A by-product of the analysis is that the lift of the Toda Lax pair can be used to construct higher rank Killing tensors for both the standard and generalised lift metrics.

  1. Lift enhancement by bats' dynamically changing wingspan.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shizhao; Zhang, Xing; He, Guowei; Liu, Tianshu

    2015-12-01

    This paper elucidates the aerodynamic role of the dynamically changing wingspan in bat flight. Based on direct numerical simulations of the flow over a slow-flying bat, it is found that the dynamically changing wingspan can significantly enhance the lift. Further, an analysis of flow structures and lift decomposition reveal that the elevated vortex lift associated with the leading-edge vortices intensified by the dynamically changing wingspan considerably contributed to enhancement of the time-averaged lift. The nonlinear interaction between the dynamically changing wing and the vortical structures plays an important role in the lift enhancement of a flying bat in addition to the geometrical effect of changing the lifting-surface area in a flapping cycle. In addition, the dynamically changing wingspan leads to the higher efficiency in terms of generating lift for a given amount of the mechanical energy consumed in flight. PMID:26701882

  2. The Kutta-Zhukovsky Lift Theorem revisited: Alteration due to the Viscous Wake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, Sven

    2011-11-01

    The circulation theory of lift comprised in the classical Kutta-Zhukovsky Lift Theorem forms the foundation of modern aerodynamic wing theory. The theorem has been applied ever since in lifting-line models of aircraft and rotary wings. Reynolds numbers larger than one million support its validity, yet the effect of a viscous wake on a change in the functional relationship between lift and circulation is not taken into account in standard lifting-line analyses. A discrepancy in circulation of more than six percent in comparison to the classical Kutta-Zhukovsky Lift Theorem has been demonstrated by the author (Schmitz & Chattot, Computers & Fluids, 36) for moderately separated flow around a wind turbine airfoil by means of a control volume analysis governed by the Navier-Stokes equations. The present work extends the previous analysis to general three-dimensional flow around a lifting body. An analytical expression is presented that extends the classical Kutta-Zhukovsky Lift Theorem by adding terms to the theorem due to chord- and spanwise vorticity transport. An integrated solution for induced drag is given that has not been documented in previous literature on the subject. The generalized theorem will find future application and quantification in actuator-line methods used to predict wind farm wake interactions with Atmospheric Boundary Layer flow.

  3. The relationship between maximal lifting capacity and maximum acceptable lift in strength-based soldiering tasks.

    PubMed

    Savage, Robert J; Best, Stuart A; Carstairs, Greg L; Ham, Daniel J

    2012-07-01

    Psychophysical assessments, such as the maximum acceptable lift, have been used to establish worker capability and set safe load limits for manual handling tasks in occupational settings. However, in military settings, in which task demand is set and capable workers must be selected, subjective measurements are inadequate, and maximal capacity testing must be used to assess lifting capability. The aim of this study was to establish and compare the relationship between maximal lifting capacity and a self-determined tolerable lifting limit, maximum acceptable lift, across a range of military-relevant lifting tasks. Seventy male soldiers (age 23.7 ± 6.1 years) from the Australian Army performed 7 strength-based lifting tasks to determine their maximum lifting capacity and maximum acceptable lift. Comparisons were performed to identify maximum acceptable lift relative to maximum lifting capacity for each individual task. Linear regression was used to identify the relationship across all tasks when the data were pooled. Strong correlations existed between all 7 lifting tasks (rrange = 0.87-0.96, p < 0.05). No differences were found in maximum acceptable lift relative to maximum lifting capacity across all tasks (p = 0.46). When data were pooled, maximum acceptable lift was equal to 84 ± 8% of the maximum lifting capacity. This study is the first to illustrate the strong and consistent relationship between maximum lifting capacity and maximum acceptable lift for multiple single lifting tasks. The relationship developed between these indices may be used to help assess self-selected manual handling capability through occupationally relevant maximal performance tests. PMID:22643137

  4. Analysis of the Effects of Streamwise Lift Distribution on Sonic Boom Signature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoo, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Investigation of sonic boom has been one of the major areas of study in aeronautics due to the benefits a low-boom aircraft has in both civilian and military applications. This work conducts a numerical analysis of the effects of streamwise lift distribution on the shock coalescence characteristics. A simple wing-canard-stabilator body model is used in the numerical simulation. The streamwise lift distribution is varied by fixing the canard at a deflection angle while trimming the aircraft with the wing and the stabilator at the desired lift coefficient. The lift and the pitching moment coefficients are computed using the Missile DATCOM v. 707. The flow field around the wing-canard- stabilator body model is resolved using the OVERFLOW-2 flow solver. Overset/ chimera grid topology is used to simplify the grid generation of various configurations representing different streamwise lift distributions. The numerical simulations are performed without viscosity unless it is required for numerical stability. All configurations are simulated at Mach 1.4, angle-of-attack of 1.50, lift coefficient of 0.05, and pitching moment coefficient of approximately 0. Four streamwise lift distribution configurations were tested.

  5. Influences of the position of the head on posture while lifting.

    PubMed

    Ishida, H; Watanabe, S; Eguchi, A; Kobara, K

    2008-01-01

    In clinical training of some lower back pain patients, teaching them to control their lumbar lordosis during lifting may be difficult. Therefore, another effective method for lifting technique is required. In standing, head cannot move without some compensating postural adjustment. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of head position on lifting posture. Fourteen healthy male volunteers (22.6 +/- 4.4 years old) lifted a case while maintaining two different head positions; a downward position and an upright position. In the upright position, activities of the latissimus dorsi and vastus lateralis significantly increased, and these of the biceps femoris significantly decreased during the initial 100 msec phase of lifting. There were no differences in the activities of the upper trapezius, lumbar extensor muscles (L3, L5), and obliquus abdominis under the two conditions. There were also no differences in the lumbar angle when the case was lifted. The flexion angles of the hip, knee, and ankle significantly increased, and the lumbar spine moved closer to the case. Lifting posture was influenced by the head position. Advantages included being able to shift loads on the body from the lower back to the legs, to move the lumbar spine closer to the case, and to relatively increase the moment of lumbar extension. The weight of the head as it moved upward and back, and the weight of the rear part of the body as it moved downward and forward helped to maintain balance. PMID:18551836

  6. Health care concerns related to lifting: an inside look at intervention strategies.

    PubMed

    Laflin, K; Aja, D

    1995-01-01

    As members of injury prevention and injury management teams, physical therapists and occupational therapists have the opportunity to evaluate back stress associated with patient-lifting activities. In this study, three mathematical formulas are presented that can be used to objectively assess health care workers' maximum safe lifting capacity for moving patients. Recommendations to reduce the rate of back injury in health care workers include the use of lifting machines for moving patients, mandatory in-service education on body mechanics, and employee assistance programs that improve job satisfaction and worker morale. PMID:7892903

  7. New and expected developments in artificial lift

    SciTech Connect

    Lea, J.F.; Winkler, H.W.

    1994-12-31

    Artificial lift is a broad subject. This paper discusses some of the new developments in the major areas of artificial lift. These are (1) beam lift, (2) electrical submersible pumping, (3) gas lift, (4) hydraulic pumping and (5) miscellaneous topics. The beam lift discussion concerns a new rod material, downhole measurements for rod loading, unit design and some miscellaneous topics. The ESP (Electrical Submersible Pump) section includes a discussion on solids handling, downhole sensor technology, new motor temperature limitations, motor efficiency, and other topics. The gas lift discussion includes mention of coiled tubing with gas lift valves internal, a surface controlled gas lift valve concept, and gas lift valve testing and modeling. Hydraulic pumping is used in many locations with deep pay and fairly small production rates. New hydraulic developments include a wider availability of power fluid pumps other than positive displacement pumps, and small jet pumps specifically designed for de-watering gas wells. Some miscellaneous developments include an insertable PC (progressing cavity) pump and improved plunger lift algorithms and equipment.

  8. Inducing Lift on Spherical Particles by Traveling Magnetic Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazuruk, Konstantin; Grugel, Richard N.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Gravity induced sedimentation of suspensions is a serious drawback to many materials and biotechnology processes, a factor that can, in principle, be overcome by utilizing an opposing Lorentz body force. In this work we demonstrate the utility of employing a traveling magnetic field (TMF) to induce a lifting force on particles dispersed in the fluid. Theoretically, a model has been developed to ascertain the net force, induced by TMF, acting on a spherical body as a function of the fluid medium's electrical conductivity and other parameters. Experimentally, the model is compared to optical observations of particle motion in the presence of TMF.

  9. Inducing Lift on Spherical Particles by Traveling Magnetic Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazuruk, Konstantin; Grugel, Richard N.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Gravity induced sedimentation of suspensions is a serious drawback to many materials and biotechnology processes, a factor that can, in principle, be overcome by utilizing an opposing Lorentz body force. In this work we demonstrate the utility of employing a traveling magnetic field (TMF) to induce a lifting force on particles dispersed in the fluid. Theoretically, a model has been developed to ascertain the net force, induced by TMF, acting on a spherical body as a function of the fluid medium's electrical conductivity and other parameters. Experimentally, the model is compared to optical observations of particle motion in the presence of TMF.

  10. Three-Dimensional Effects in Multi-Element High Lift Computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumsey, Christopher L.; LeeReusch, Elizabeth M.; Watson, Ralph D.

    2003-01-01

    In an effort to discover the causes for disagreement between previous two-dimensional (2-D) computations and nominally 2-D experiment for flow over the three-element McDonnell Douglas 30P-30N airfoil configuration at high lift, a combined experimental/CFD investigation is described. The experiment explores several different side-wall boundary layer control venting patterns, documents venting mass flow rates, and looks at corner surface flow patterns. The experimental angle of attack at maximum lift is found to be sensitive to the side-wall venting pattern: a particular pattern increases the angle of attack at maximum lift by at least 2 deg. A significant amount of spanwise pressure variation is present at angles of attack near maximum lift. A CFD study using three-dimensional (3-D) structured-grid computations, which includes the modeling of side-wall venting, is employed to investigate 3-D effects on the flow. Side-wall suction strength is found to affect the angle at which maximum lift is predicted. Maximum lift in the CFD is shown to be limited by the growth of an off-body corner flow vortex and consequent increase in spanwise pressure variation and decrease in circulation. The 3-D computations with and without wall venting predict similar trends to experiment at low angles of attack, but either stall too early or else overpredict lift levels near maximum lift by as much as 5%. Unstructured-grid computations demonstrate that mounting brackets lower the lift levels near maximum lift conditions.

  11. Lift enhancement by trapped vortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossow, Vernon J.

    1992-01-01

    The viewgraphs and discussion of lift enhancement by trapped vortex are provided. Efforts are continuously being made to find simple ways to convert wings of aircraft from an efficient cruise configuration to one that develops the high lift needed during landing and takeoff. The high-lift configurations studied here consist of conventional airfoils with a trapped vortex over the upper surface. The vortex is trapped by one or two vertical fences that serve as barriers to the oncoming stream and as reflection planes for the vortex and the sink that form a separation bubble on top of the airfoil. Since the full three-dimensional unsteady flow problem over the wing of an aircraft is so complicated that it is hard to get an understanding of the principles that govern the vortex trapping process, the analysis is restricted here to the flow field illustrated in the first slide. It is assumed that the flow field between the two end plates approximates a streamwise strip of the flow over a wing. The flow between the endplates and about the airfoil consists of a spanwise vortex located between the suction orifices in the endplates. The spanwise fence or spoiler located near the nose of the airfoil serves to form a separated flow region and a shear layer. The vorticity in the shear layer is concentrated into the vortex by withdrawal of fluid at the suction orifices. As the strength of the vortex increases with time, it eventually dominates the flow in the separated region so that a shear or vertical layer is no longer shed from the tip of the fence. At that point, the vortex strength is fixed and its location is such that all of the velocity contributions at its center sum to zero thereby making it an equilibrium point for the vortex. The results of a theoretical analysis of such an idealized flow field are described.

  12. Concepts for a theoretical and experimental study of lifting rotor random loads and vibrations (the effects of some rotor feedback systems on rotor-body dynamics), Phase 7-A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hohenemser, K. H.; Yin, S. K.

    1973-01-01

    The effects of three gyroless rotor feedback systems: (1) coning feedback, (2) proportional tilting feedback, and (3) a combination of these on the rotor-body dynamics of hingeless rotorcraft are studied with a simplified analytical model in the advance ratio range from 0 to .8. Combinations of feedback phase angles and control phase angles are selected to minimize control cross coupling and control sensitivity changes between low and high speed flight. For the feedback systems thus selected the effects of feedback gain and control actuator time lag on the stability both with fixed hub and in free flight is studied, whereby the rotorcraft is free in pitch, roll and vertical motion but otherwise restrained. For the free flight is studied, whereby the rotorcraft is free in pitch, roll and vertical motion but otherwise restrained. For the free flight conditions the effects of a horizontal tail are also determined in itself and in combination with the rotor feedback systems.

  13. Influence of Lift Offset on Rotorcraft Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne

    2009-01-01

    The influence of lift offset on the performance of several rotorcraft configurations is explored. A lift-offset rotor, or advancing blade concept, is a hingeless rotor that can attain good efficiency at high speed by operating with more lift on the advancing side than on the retreating side of the rotor disk. The calculated performance capability of modern-technology coaxial rotors utilizing a lift offset is examined, including rotor performance optimized for hover and high-speed cruise. The ideal induced power loss of coaxial rotors in hover and twin rotors in forward flight is presented. The aerodynamic modeling requirements for performance calculations are evaluated, including wake and drag models for the high-speed flight condition. The influence of configuration on the performance of rotorcraft with lift-offset rotors is explored, considering tandem and side-by-side rotorcraft as well as wing-rotor lift share.

  14. Influence of Lift Offset on Rotorcraft Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    The influence of lift offset on the performance of several rotorcraft configurations is explored. A lift-offset rotor, or advancing blade concept, is a hingeless rotor that can attain good efficiency at high speed, by operating with more lift on the advancing side than on the retreating side of the rotor disk. The calculated performance capability of modern-technology coaxial rotors utilizing a lift offset is examined, including rotor performance optimized for hover and high-speed cruise. The ideal induced power loss of coaxial rotors in hover and twin rotors in forward flight is presented. The aerodynamic modeling requirements for performance calculations are evaluated, including wake and drag models for the high speed flight condition. The influence of configuration on the performance of rotorcraft with lift-offset rotors is explored, considering tandem and side-by-side rotorcraft as well as wing-rotor lift share.

  15. Artificial lift: Many new developments are emerging

    SciTech Connect

    Lea, J.F.

    1984-03-01

    Methods of artificially lifting oil production are almost countless, testifying to the ingenuity of inventors, engineers, technicians, etc., that have worked in this area. And, artificial lift improvements continue to be important, especially now that product prices are nearly constant and production costs are under closer scruitiny. Some methods of artificial lift thought to be new to industry are mentioned in this article, including: Aluminum sucker rods, Graphite composite lift system, Unique pumping unit geometry, Chain drive pumping unit, Two types of pump-off control, Downhole gas pump, Hydraulic-centrifugal pump, Improvements in submersible pumps, and Submersible pump gas separators.

  16. The lift-fan aircraft: Lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckert, Wallace H.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the highlights and results of a workshop held at NASA Ames Research Center in October 1992. The objective of the workshop was a thorough review of the lessons learned from past research on lift fans, and lift-fan aircraft, models, designs, and components. The scope included conceptual design studies, wind tunnel investigations, propulsion systems components, piloted simulation, flight of aircraft such as the SV-5A and SV-5B and a recent lift-fan aircraft development project. The report includes a brief summary of five technical presentations that addressed the subject The Lift-Fan Aircraft: Lessons Learned.

  17. New life for heavy lift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demeis, Richard

    1991-03-01

    The advisory committee to NASA on overall approaches for implementing the U.S. space program in the years ahead has concluded that Shuttle missions should only be flown when a human presence is necessary. It was noted that reducing the number of missions would extend the life of the existing fleet and retain the number of orbiters required at the presently planned four and any funding for a fifth orbiter should be utilized instead for the development of a new heavy lift launch vehicle. These recommendations have led to increased design proposals under the Advanced Launch Development (ADLP) Program such as the Shuttle C (cargo), an unmanned version that could orbit 100,00 to 150,000 lb for two- and three-engine versions, respectively, and would make maximum utilization of present Shuttle processing and pad facilities. Other concepts under investigation by ADLP include electromechanical actuators to replace hydraulic systems, advanced modular avionics and common avionics/payload interfaces, and laser-initiated ordnance for component separation and staging. It is noted that the drive to evolve a heavy lift system will fully employ the total quality management approach, with producibility and operability built into the system from the start.

  18. Fuel Cell Powered Lift Truck

    SciTech Connect

    Moulden, Steve

    2015-08-20

    This project, entitled “Recovery Act: Fuel Cell-Powered Lift Truck Sysco (Houston) Fleet Deployment”, was in response to DOE funding opportunity announcement DE-PS36-08GO98009, Topic 7B, which promotes the deployment of fuel cell powered material handling equipment in large, multi-shift distribution centers. This project promoted large-volume commercialdeployments and helped to create a market pull for material handling equipment (MHE) powered fuel cell systems. Specific outcomes and benefits involved the proliferation of fuel cell systems in 5-to 20-kW lift trucks at a high-profile, real-world site that demonstrated the benefits of fuel cell technology and served as a focal point for other nascent customers. The project allowed for the creation of expertise in providing service and support for MHE fuel cell powered systems, growth of existing product manufacturing expertise, and promoted existing fuel cell system and component companies. The project also stimulated other MHE fleet conversions helping to speed the adoption of fuel cell systems and hydrogen fueling technology. This document also contains the lessons learned during the project in order to communicate the successes and difficulties experienced, which could potentially assist others planning similar projects.

  19. Facial emphysema after sinus lift.

    PubMed

    Sakakibara, Akiko; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Yamashita, Atsuya; Hasegawa, Takumi; Minamikawa, Tsutomu; Furudoi, Shungo; Komori, Takahide

    2015-01-01

    An 80-year-old man with a history of en bloc resection of squamous cell carcinoma of the hard palate (T4aN0M0) was performed a lateral-window sinus lift of the edentulous area of the left maxillary molar region to facilitate future placement of dental implants.Two hours after the surgery, the patient complained of sudden malar swelling. Marked swelling was present from the left infraorbital region to the buccal region. The swelling was associated with air pockets at the alar base and in the angulus oculi medialis region and subcutaneous malar tissue. Emphysema appeared after the patient blew his nose. Therefore, the mucous membrane of the maxillary sinus might have had a small hole, and air might have entered the subcutaneous tissue via the bone window when the air pressure in the maxillary sinus increased with nose blowing. It is important to advise patients to avoid increasing the intraoral pressure after sinus-lift procedure. PMID:26088054

  20. Facial emphysema after sinus lift

    PubMed Central

    Sakakibara, Akiko; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Yamashita, Atsuya; Hasegawa, Takumi; Minamikawa, Tsutomu; Furudoi, Shungo; Komori, Takahide

    2015-01-01

    An 80-year-old man with a history of en bloc resection of squamous cell carcinoma of the hard palate (T4aN0M0) was performed a lateral-window sinus lift of the edentulous area of the left maxillary molar region to facilitate future placement of dental implants. Two hours after the surgery, the patient complained of sudden malar swelling. Marked swelling was present from the left infraorbital region to the buccal region. The swelling was associated with air pockets at the alar base and in the angulus oculi medialis region and subcutaneous malar tissue. Emphysema appeared after the patient blew his nose. Therefore, the mucous membrane of the maxillary sinus might have had a small hole, and air might have entered the subcutaneous tissue via the bone window when the air pressure in the maxillary sinus increased with nose blowing. It is important to advise patients to avoid increasing the intraoral pressure after sinus-lift procedure. PMID:26088054

  1. Computation of viscous transonic flow about a lifting airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walitt, L.; Liu, C. Y.

    1976-01-01

    The viscous transonic flow about a stationary body in free air was numerically investigated. The geometry chosen was a symmetric NACA 64A010 airfoil at a freestream Mach number of 0.8, a Reynolds number of 4 million based on chord, and angles of attack of 0 and 2 degrees. These conditions were such that, at 2 degrees incidence unsteady periodic motion was calculated along the aft portion of the airfoil and in its wake. Although no unsteady measurements were made for the NACA 64A010 airfoil at these flow conditions, interpolated steady measurements of lift, drag, and surface static pressures compared favorably with corresponding computed time-averaged lift, drag, and surface static pressures.

  2. 77 FR 20558 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Platform Lifts for Motor Vehicles; Platform Lift...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-05

    ... vehicles with lift systems must comply with objective safety requirements in order to be sold. \\1\\ 67 FR... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AJ93 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Platform Lifts for Motor Vehicles; Platform Lift Installations in Motor Vehicles AGENCY:...

  3. The Selection of a Van Lift or a Scooter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, John H.

    1990-01-01

    This newsletter issue describes 3-wheeled scooters and van lifts that can assist a person with a disability to drive independently or have access to transportation. The section on van lifts compares hydraulic lifts and electric lifts, lists manufacturers, and offers an "assessment quiz" outlining factors to consider in selecting a van lift. In the…

  4. 33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lights on vertical lift bridges... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.85 Lights on vertical lift bridges. (a) Lift span lights. The vertical lift span of every vertical lift bridge shall be lighted so that the center of...

  5. 33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lights on vertical lift bridges... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.85 Lights on vertical lift bridges. (a) Lift span lights. The vertical lift span of every vertical lift bridge shall be lighted so that the center of...

  6. 33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lights on vertical lift bridges... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.85 Lights on vertical lift bridges. (a) Lift span lights. The vertical lift span of every vertical lift bridge shall be lighted so that the center of...

  7. 33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lights on vertical lift bridges... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.85 Lights on vertical lift bridges. (a) Lift span lights. The vertical lift span of every vertical lift bridge shall be lighted so that the center of...

  8. 33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lights on vertical lift bridges... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.85 Lights on vertical lift bridges. (a) Lift span lights. The vertical lift span of every vertical lift bridge shall be lighted so that the center of...

  9. Measuring lifting forces in rock climbing: effect of hold size and fingertip structure.

    PubMed

    Bourne, Roger; Halaki, Mark; Vanwanseele, Benedicte; Clarke, Jillian

    2011-02-01

    This study investigates the hypothesis that shallow edge lifting force in high-level rock climbers is more strongly related to fingertip soft tissue anatomy than to absolute strength or strength to body mass ratio. Fifteen experienced climbers performed repeated maximal single hand lifting exercises on rectangular sandstone edges of depth 2.8, 4.3, 5.8, 7.3, and 12.5 mm while standing on a force measurement platform. Fingertip soft tissue dimensions were assessed by ultrasound imaging. Shallow edge (2.8 and 4.3 mm) lifting force, in newtons or body mass normalized, was uncorrelated with deep edge (12.5 mm) lifting force (r < .1). There was a positive correlation (r = .65, p < .05) between lifting force in newtons at 2.8 mm edge depth and tip of bone to tip of finger pulp measurement (r < .37 at other edge depths). The results confirm the common perception that maximum lifting force on a deep edge ("strength") does not predict maximum force production on very shallow edges. It is suggested that increased fingertip pulp dimension or plasticity may enable increased deformation of the fingertip, increasing the skin to rock contact area on very shallow edges, and thus increase the limit of force production. The study also confirmed previous assumptions of left/right force symmetry in climbers. PMID:21451181

  10. Soccer Ball Lift Coefficients via Trajectory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goff, John Eric; Carre, Matt J.

    2010-01-01

    We performed experiments in which a soccer ball was launched from a machine while two high-speed cameras recorded portions of the trajectory. Using the trajectory data and published drag coefficients, we extracted lift coefficients for a soccer ball. We determined lift coefficients for a wide range of spin parameters, including several spin…

  11. 29 CFR 1926.453 - Aerial lifts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aerial lifts. 1926.453 Section 1926.453 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Scaffolds § 1926.453 Aerial lifts. (a) General requirements. (1) Unless otherwise provided...

  12. Improving Grading Consistency through Grade Lift Reporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millet, Ido

    2010-01-01

    We define Grade Lift as the difference between average class grade and average cumulative class GPA. This metric provides an assessment of how lenient the grading was for a given course. In 2006, we started providing faculty members individualized Grade Lift reports reflecting their position relative to an anonymously plotted school-wide…

  13. Training Guidelines: Fork Lift Truck Driving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceramics, Glass, and Mineral Products Industry Training Board, Harrow (England).

    This manual of operative training guidelines for fork lift truck driving has been developed by the Ceramics, Glass and Mineral Products Industry Training Board (Great Britain) in consultation with a number of firms which manufacture fork lift trucks or which already have training--programs for their use. The purpose of the guidelines is to assist…

  14. Air Bearing Lift Pad (ABLP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dane, Dan H.; Blaise, Herman T.

    1968-01-01

    Typical air bearings float on air films of only a few thousandths of an inch and so will only operate above very smooth, even surfaces. For the mechanical simulation of space, the small drag of the bladder type air pads is much more than can be coped with, and the practicality of large floor areas being machined for precision air bearings is nonexistent. To enable operation above surfaces that undulate slightly or feature cracks and discontinuities, an ABLP has been developed. It consists of a rigid pad beneath which an inflatable bladder is mounted. The bladder is inflated with air which then escapes through passages into a cavity in the center of the bladder to produce the lifting energy. As the air escapes about the perimeter of the bladder, a certain degree of balance and equilibrium is imparted to the pad as it is able to move a limited weight across slightly uneven surfaces.

  15. Heavy-lift airship dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, M. B.; Ringland, R. F.; Jex, H. R.

    1983-01-01

    The basic aerodynamic and dynamic properties of an example heavy-lift airship (HLA) configuration are analyzed using a nonlinear, multibody, 6-degrees-of-freedom digital simulation. The slung-payload model is described, and a preliminary analysis of the coupled vehicle-payload dynamics is presented. Trim calculations show the importance of control mixing selection and suggest performance deficiencies in crosswind stationkeeping for the unloaded example HLA. Numerically linearized dynamics of the unloaded vehicle exhibit a divergent yaw mode and an oscillatory pitch mode whose stability characteristic is sensitive to flight speed. An analysis of the vehicle-payload dynamics shows significant coupling of the payload dynamics with those of the basic HLA. It is shown that significant improvement in the vehicle's dynamic behavior can be achieved with the incorporation of a simple flight controller having proportional, rate, and integral-error feedbacks.

  16. Post-bariatric body contouring: oue experience.

    PubMed

    Grieco, Michele; Grignaffini, Eugenio; Simonacci, Francesco; Di Mascio, Donatello; Raposio, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a growing socio-economic problem especially in the western population. Patients who are undergoing bariatric surgery after a significant weight loss have an altered body profile which may have an important psychological impact. These patients may be candidates for surgical body-lifting. The aim of body-lifting is to obtain a firmer, tighter, rejuvenated appearance for patients who have lax, ptotic tissues. In this paper we describe our experience with two techniques currently practiced by our team, brachioplasty and thigh lift, reporting the indications, the surgical technique and possible complications. PMID:27163898

  17. Prompting correct lifting posture using signs.

    PubMed

    Burt, C D; Henningsen, N; Consedine, N

    1999-08-01

    The use of a symbol to prompt the adoption of correct lifting posture was examined in three studies. Study 1 used an Appropriateness Test to evaluate nine symbols designed to encourage the adoption of correct lifting posture. Four symbols met the appropriateness criteria and were tested for comprehension in Study 2. Study 3 examined the effect of the best performing symbol from Study 2 in a field setting which involved subjects lifting a small box. Results indicate significant increases in the adoption of the use of correct lifting posture when the symbol was present compared to a control condition. The study also identified the placement of a lifting criterion symbol onto packaging as a useful technique for communicating safety information. PMID:10416848

  18. Formal optimization of hovering performance using free wake lifting surface theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, S. Y.

    1986-01-01

    Free wake techniques for performance prediction and optimization of hovering rotor are discussed. The influence functions due to vortex ring, vortex cylinder, and source or vortex sheets are presented. The vortex core sizes of rotor wake vortices are calculated and their importance is discussed. Lifting body theory for finite thickness body is developed for pressure calculation, and hence performance prediction of hovering rotors. Numerical optimization technique based on free wake lifting line theory is presented and discussed. It is demonstrated that formal optimization can be used with the implicit and nonlinear objective or cost function such as the performance of hovering rotors as used in this report.

  19. THE IMPORTANCE OF NEGATIVE ACCELERATION OF THE LOAD IN FREE-STYLE LIFTING.

    PubMed

    Trafimow, Jordan; Xaygnaraj, Joseph; Trafimow, David; Aruin, Alexander S

    2015-08-01

    Lifters may use negative acceleration in lifting a very light load. Body kinematic data were recorded in 10 participants lifting a 114 g box. Vertical position and acceleration of the center of mass and angle of the thigh to a vertical line were calculated. Acceleration data between the positions of the body when the thighs were horizontal and as the knees extended to an angle of 45° indicated that negative acceleration was present at 68.9% of time points, more than predicted by chance. PMID:26302192

  20. View of West end of central lift span truss web ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of West end of central lift span truss web of Tensaw River Bridge, showing web brace of lift girder superstructure, looking west - Tensaw River Lift Bridge, Spanning Tensaw River at U.S. Highway 90, Mobile, Mobile County, AL

  1. Advanced wind turbine with lift canceling aileron for shutdown

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, C.; Juengst, T.M.; Zuteck, M.D.

    1996-06-18

    An advanced aileron configuration is described for wind turbine rotors featuring an independent, lift generating aileron connected to the rotor blade. The aileron has an airfoil profile which is inverted relative to the airfoil profile of the main section of the rotor blade. The inverted airfoil profile of the aileron allows the aileron to be used for strong positive control of the rotation of the rotor while deflected to angles within a control range of angles. The aileron functions as a separate, lift generating body when deflected to angles within a shutdown range of angles, generating lift with a component acting in the direction opposite the direction of rotation of the rotor. Thus, the aileron can be used to shut down rotation of the rotor. The profile of the aileron further allows the center of rotation to be located within the envelope of the aileron, at or near the centers of pressure and mass of the aileron. The location of the center of rotation optimizes aerodynamically and gyroscopically induced hinge moments and provides a fail safe configuration. 24 figs.

  2. Advanced wind turbine with lift cancelling aileron for shutdown

    DOEpatents

    Coleman, Clint; Juengst, Theresa M.; Zuteck, Michael D.

    1996-06-18

    An advanced aileron configuration for wind turbine rotors featuring an independent, lift generating aileron connected to the rotor blade. The aileron has an airfoil profile which is inverted relative to the airfoil profile of the main section of the rotor blade. The inverted airfoil profile of the aileron allows the aileron to be used for strong positive control of the rotation of the rotor while deflected to angles within a control range of angles. The aileron functions as a separate, lift generating body when deflected to angles within a shutdown range of angles, generating lift with a component acting in the direction opposite the direction of rotation of the rotor. Thus, the aileron can be used to shut down rotation of the rotor. The profile of the aileron further allows the center of rotation to be located within the envelope of the aileron, at or near the centers of pressure and mass of the aileron. The location of the center of rotation optimizes aerodynamically and gyroscopically induced hinge moments and provides a fail safe configuration.

  3. An experimental study of the lift, drag and static longitudinal stability for a three lifting surface configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostowari, C.; Naik, D.

    1986-01-01

    The experimental procedure and aerodynamic force and moment measurements for wind tunnel testing of the three lifting surface configuration (TLC) are described. The influence of nonelliptical lift distributions on lift, drag, and static longitudinal stability are examined; graphs of the lift coefficient versus angle of attack, the pitching moment coefficient, drag coefficient, and lift to drag ratio versus lift coefficient are provided. The TLC data are compared with the conventional tail-aft configuration and the canard-wing configuration; it is concluded that the TLC has better lift and high-lift drag characteristics, lift to drag ratio, and zero-lift moments than the other two configurations. The effects of variations in forward and tail wind incidence angles, gap, stagger, and forward wind span on the drag, lift, longitudinal stability, and zero-lift moments of the configuration are studied.

  4. Rotating cylinder design as a lifting generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asrokin, Azharrudin; Rizal Ramly, Mohammad; Halim Ahmad, Abdul

    2013-12-01

    The airfoil shape of a wing has always been the design to generate lift. But few realized that a simple rotating cylinder can also create lift. However, the explanation and study of how a rotating cylinder creates lift are still complex. In remote area where it is difficult for air vehicle to access, the exploration and discovery of different configuration for design concept is rather important. Due to this reason, there is a need to think of a lift generator that can produce better lift (few fold better than conventional airfoil) at lower speed to take off in a short distance of time. This paper will explain the conditions and the design of such a wing using the rotating cylinder concept that will take off in a short time and requires little takeoff and landing strip. Spokes will be attached to the cylinder to force the surrounding air to rotate along with the cylinder. This will create a vortex that hastens the speed of the air on top of the cylinder and at the same time retarding the speed of air below the cylinder. From the results, the rougher surface cylinder produces more lift when rotating and also, higher speed rotation of the cylinder greatly changes the speed of the surrounding air, thus better lift.

  5. Lift-Enhancing Tabs on Multielement Airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, James C.; Storms, Bruce L.; Carrannanto, Paul G.

    1995-01-01

    The use of flat-plate tabs (similar to Gurney flaps) to enhance the lift of multielement airfoils is extended here by placing them on the pressure side and near the trailing edge of the main element rather than just on the furthest downstream wing element. The tabs studied range in height from 0.125 to 1.25% of the airfoil reference chord. In practice, such tabs would be retracted when the high-lift system is stowed. The effectiveness of the concept was demonstrated experimentally and computationally on a two-dimensional NACA 63(sub 2)-215 Mod B airfoil with a single-slotted, 30%-chord flap. Both the experiments and computations showed that the tabs significantly increase the lift at a given angle of attack and the maximum lift coefficient of the airfoil. The computational results showed that the increased lift was a result of additional turning of the flow by the tab that reduced or eliminated now separation on the flap. The best configuration tested, a 0.5%-chord tab placed 0.5% chord upstream of the trailing edge of the main element, increased the maximum lift coefficient of the airfoil by 12% and the maximum lift-to-drag ratio by 40%.

  6. Dynamic ECA lift-off compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepage, Benoit; Brillon, Charles

    2015-03-01

    Good control on lift-off is crucial in Eddy Current Testing (ECT) as the signal amplitude, directly affected by lif-toff changes, can potentially lead to reduced detection performance and/or false positives. This is especially true in automated inspections with Eddy Current Array (ECA) technology, where lift-off cannot be mechanically compensated for at each coil position. Here, we report on a novel method for compensating sensitivity variations induced by varying lift-off for an ECA probe. This method makes use of a single ECA probe operated in two different ways: One is to create a set of detection channels and the other is to create a set of lift-off measurement channels. Since a simple relationship exists between the two measurements, an improved calibration process can be used which combines the calibration of both detection and lift-off measurement channels on a simple calibration block exhibiting a reference indication, thus eliminating the need for a predefined lift-off condition. In this work, we will show results obtained on a weld cap, where lift-off condition is known to vary significantly over the scanning area.

  7. Lift and thrust generation by a butterfly-like 3D flapping wing model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Kosuke; Inamuro, Takaji

    2013-11-01

    The flapping flight of tiny insects such as a butterfly is of fundamental interest not only in biology itself but also in its practical use for the development of micro air vehicles. It is known that a butterfly flaps downward for generating lift force and backward for generating thrust force. In this study, we consider a simple butterfly-like 3D flapping wing model whose body is a thin rod, wings are rigid and rectangular, and wing motion is simplified. We investigate the lift and thrust generation by the butterfly-like flapping wing model by using the immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method. Firstly, we compute the lift and thrust forces when the body of the model is fixed for Reynolds numbers in the range of 50 - 1000. In addition, we evaluate the supportable mass for each Reynolds number by using the computed lift force. Secondly, we simulate the free flight where the body can move translationally but cannot rotate. As results, we find that the evaluated supportable mass can be supported even in the free flight, and the wing model with the mass and the Reynolds number of a fruit fly can go upward against the gravity. Finally, we simulate the effect of the rotation of the body. As results, we find that the body has a large pitching motion and consequently gets off-balance.

  8. Airfoil Lift with Changing Angle of Attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Elliott G

    1927-01-01

    Tests have been made in the atmospheric wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics to determine the effects of pitching oscillations upon the lift of an airfoil. It has been found that the lift of an airfoil, while pitching, is usually less than that which would exist at the same angle of attack in the stationary condition, although exceptions may occur when the lift is small or if the angle of attack is being rapidly reduced. It is also shown that the behavior of a pitching airfoil may be qualitatively explained on the basis of accepted aerodynamic theory.

  9. Secondary lift for magnetically levitated vehicles

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, Richard K.

    1976-01-01

    A high-speed terrestrial vehicle that is magnetically levitated by means of magnets which are used to induce eddy currents in a continuous electrically conductive nonferromagnetic track to produce magnetic images that repel the inducing magnet to provide primary lift for the vehicle. The magnets are arranged so that adjacent ones have their fields in opposite directions and the magnets are spaced apart a distance that provides a secondary lift between each magnet and the adjacent magnet's image, the secondary lift being maximized by optimal spacing of the magnets.

  10. Remote lift fan study program, volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A study program to select and conduct preliminary design of advanced technology lift fan systems to meet low noise goals of future V/STOL transport aircraft is discussed. This volume contains results of additional studies conducted to support the main preliminary design effort done under the Remote Lift Fan Study Program (Contract NAS3-14406) and a companion effort, the Integral Lift Fan Study (NAS3-14404). These results cover engine emission study, a review of existing engines for research aircraft application and support data for aircraft studies.