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Sample records for macaques macaca fascicularis

  1. Vaginal Stone in a Cynomolgus Macaque (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Colagross-Schouten, Angela M; Canfield, Don R

    2015-01-01

    A 20-y-old female cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) housed in an indoor primate facility presented for poor appetite and acute weakness after several years of no adverse health events. Physical examination revealed a firm, ovoid mass in the caudal abdomen. Further evaluation revealed the mass to be a vaginal calculus composed of calcium carbonate, apatite, and struvite. To our knowledge, this case is the first reported description of a vaginal stone in an NHP. PMID:26678372

  2. Cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) immunoglobulin heavy chain locus description.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guo-Yun; Mate, Suzanne; Garcia, Karla; Ward, Michael D; Brueggemann, Ernst; Hall, Matthew; Kenny, Tara; Sanchez-Lockhart, Mariano; Lefranc, Marie-Paule; Palacios, Gustavo

    2016-07-01

    Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) have become an important animal model for biomedical research. In particular, it is the animal model of choice for the development of vaccine candidates associated with emerging dangerous pathogens. Despite their increasing importance as animal models, the cynomolgus macaque genome is not fully characterized, hindering molecular studies for this model. More importantly, the lack of knowledge about the immunoglobulin (IG) locus organization directly impacts the analysis of the humoral response in cynomolgus macaques. Recent advances in next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies to analyze IG repertoires open the opportunity to deeply characterize the humoral immune response. However, the IG locus organization for the animal is required to completely dissect IG repertoires. Here, we describe the localization and organization of the rearranging IG heavy (IGH) genes on chromosome 7 of the cynomolgus macaque draft genome. Our annotation comprises 108 functional genes which include 63 variable (IGHV), 38 diversity (IGHD), and 7 joining (IGHJ) genes. For validation, we provide RNA transcript data for most of the IGHV genes and all of the annotated IGHJ genes, as well as proteomic data to validate IGH constant genes. The description and annotation of the rearranging IGH genes for the cynomolgus macaques will significantly facilitate scientific research. This is particularly relevant to dissect the immune response during vaccination or infection with dangerous pathogens such as Ebola, Marburg and other emerging pathogens where non-human primate models play a significant role for countermeasure development. PMID:27233955

  3. Postdispersal nepotism in male long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Gerber, Livia; Krützen, Michael; de Ruiter, Jan R; van Schaik, Carel P; van Noordwijk, Maria A

    2016-01-01

    Cooperative behaviors are promoted by kin selection if the costs to the actor are smaller than the fitness benefits to the recipient, weighted by the coefficient of relatedness. In primates, cooperation occurs primarily among female dyads. Due to male dispersal before sexual maturity in many primate species, however, it is unknown whether there are sufficient opportunities for selective tolerance and occasional coalitionary support for kin selection to favor male nepotistic support. We studied the effect of the presence of male kin on correlates of male reproductive success (residence time, duration of high dominance rank) in non-natal male long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis). We found that "related" (i.e., related at the half-sibling level or higher) males in a group have a significantly higher probability to remain in the non-natal group compared to males without relatives. Moreover, males stayed longer in a group when a relative was present at group entry or joined the same group within 3 months upon arrival. Males with co-residing relatives also maintained a high rank for longer than those without. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a potential nepotistic effect on residence and rank maintenance among non-natal males in a social system without long-term alliances. PMID:26811773

  4. Pharmacokinetics of Cefovecin in Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis), Olive Baboons (Papio anubis), and Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatto)

    SciTech Connect

    Raabe, Brigitte M.; Lovaglio, Jamie A.; Grover, GScott; Brown, Scott A.; Boucher, Joseph F.; Yuan, Yang; Civil, Jacqueline R.; Gillhouse, Kimberly A.; Stubbs, Makeida N.; Hoggatt, Amber F.; Halliday, Lisa C.; Fortman, Jeffrey D.

    2011-05-01

    Cefovecin sodium is a long-acting, third-generation, cephalosporin antibiotic approved for the treatment of skin infections in dogs and cats. The pharmacokinetic properties of cefovecin were evaluated in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis), olive baboons (Papio anubis), and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatto) by using a single-dose (8 mg/kg SC) dosing regimen. Plasma cefovecin concentrations were determined by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry, and a noncompartmental model was used to determine pharmacokinetic parameters. The half-life of cefovecin was 4.95 {+-} 1.47 h in cynomolgus macaques, 9.17 {+-} 1.84 h in olive baboons, and 8.40 {+-} 2.53 h in rhesus macaques. These values are considerably lower than the half-lives previously published for dogs (133 h) and cats (166 h). The extended half-life of cefovecin in dogs and cats is speculated to be due to active reabsorption of drug in the kidney tubules because plasma clearance is well below the normal glomerular filtration rate. In nonhuman primates, renal clearance rates approximated plasma clearance rates, suggesting that active renal reabsorption of cefovecin does not occur in these species. The pharmacokinetic properties of cefovecin in nonhuman primates are vastly different from the pharmacokinetic properties in dogs and cats, precluding its use as a long-acting antibiotic in nonhuman primates. This study highlights the importance of performing pharmacokinetic studies prior to extralabel drug usage.

  5. Mitochondrial DNA variation within and among regional populations of longtail macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in relation to other species of the fascicularis group of macaques.

    PubMed

    Smith, David Glenn; McDonough, John W; George, Debra A

    2007-02-01

    An 835 base pair (bp) fragment of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was sequenced to characterize genetic variation within and among 1,053 samples comprising five regional populations each of longtail macaques (Macaca fascicularis) and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), and one sample each of Japanese (M. fuscata) and Taiwanese (M. cyclopis) macaques. The mtDNA haplotypes of longtail macaques clustered in two large highly structured clades (Fas1 and Fas2) of a neighbor-joining tree that were reciprocally monophyletic with respect to those representing rhesus macaques, Japanese macaques, and Taiwanese macaques. Both clades exhibited haplotypes of Indonesian and Malaysian longtail macaques widely dispersed throughout them; however, longtail macaques from Indochina, Philippines, and Mauritius each clustered in a separate well-defined clade together with one or a few Malaysian and/or Indonesian longtail macaques, suggesting origins on the Sunda shelf. Longtail macaques from Malaysia and Indonesia were far more genetically diverse, and those from Mauritius were far less diverse than any other population studied. Nucleotide diversity between mtDNA sequences of longtail macaques from different geographic regions is, in some cases, greater than that between Indian and Chinese rhesus macaques. Approximately equal amounts of genetic diversity are due to differences among animals in the same regional population, different regional populations, and different species. A greater proportion of genetic variance was explained by interspecies differences when Japanese and Taiwanese macaques were regarded as regional populations of rhesus macaques than when they were treated as separate species. Rhesus macaques from China were more closely related to both Taiwanese and Japanese macaques than to their own conspecifics from India. PMID:17177314

  6. Infinium Monkeys: Infinium 450K Array for the Cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Mei-Lyn; Tan, Peck Yean; MacIsaac, Julia L; Mah, Sarah M; Buschdorf, Jan Paul; Cheong, Clara Y; Stunkel, Walter; Chan, Louiza; Gluckman, Peter D.; Chng, Keefe; Kobor, Michael S.; Meaney, Michael J; Holbrook, Joanna D

    2014-01-01

    The Infinium Human Methylation450 BeadChip Array (Infinium 450K) is a robust and cost-efficient survey of genome-wide DNA methylation patterns. Macaca fascicularis (Cynomolgus macaque) is an important disease model; however, its genome sequence is only recently published, and few tools exist to interrogate the molecular state of Cynomolgus macaque tissues. Although the Infinium 450K is a hybridization array designed to the human genome, the relative conservation between the macaque and human genomes makes its use in macaques feasible. Here, we used the Infinium 450K array to assay DNA methylation in 11 macaque muscle biopsies. We showed that probe hybridization efficiency was related to the degree of sequence identity between the human probes and the macaque genome sequence. Approximately 61% of the Human Infinium 450K probes could be reliably mapped to the Cynomolgus macaque genome and contain a CpG site of interest. We also compared the Infinium 450K data to reduced representation bisulfite sequencing data generated on the same samples and found a high level of concordance between the two independent methodologies, which can be further improved by filtering for probe sequence identity and mismatch location. We conclude that the Infinium 450K array can be used to measure the DNA methylome of Cynomolgus macaque tissues using the provided filters. We also provide a pipeline for validation of the array in other species using a simple BLAST-based sequence identify filter. PMID:24815017

  7. Hiding and perspective taking in long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Kummer, H; Anzenberger, G; Hemelrijk, C K

    1996-03-01

    Seven long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) were trained by threats not to drink from a juice nipple as long as an experimenter was facing them. However, they were allowed to drink when the experimenter was standing with his or her back turned. During transfer tests, the monkeys had a choice between 2 juice nipples, one uncovered and the other hidden from the experimenter by a wooden screen, while the experimenter was facing them. We tested whether the monkeys would then prefer to drink behind the screen, thus demonstrating that they transferred knowledge acquired during training. Results did not yield a significant outcome, suggesting that the macaques did not transfer the observable "experimenter's visible open eyes" and that they did not take the experimenter's perspective. PMID:8851557

  8. Cerebral Baylisascaris larva migrans in a cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Shoieb, Ahmed; Radi, Zaher A

    2014-08-01

    An incidental, asymptomatic, focal inflammatory lesion was detected in brain cerebrum of an approximately 6-year-old, female cynomolgus macaque from a chronic toxicology study. No gross lesions were noted at necropsy. Microscopically, the lesion contained a cross-section of larvae approximately 70-80 μm in diameter, a centrally located intestine flanked on either side by large triangular excretory columns, and prominent single lateral cuticular alae. Mixed inflammatory cells of eosinophils, macrophages, and lymphocytes admixed with abundant connective tissue stroma and necrosis surrounded the larvae. Histochemical stains for trichrome revealed significant amount of fibrous connective tissue. The morphology of the larvae was compatible with Baylisascaris spp. Based on the microscopic and histochemical examination, a diagnosis of neural Baylisascaris spp. larva migrans was made. PMID:24795276

  9. Pharmacokinetics of 2 Formulations of Buprenorphine in Macaques (Macaca mulatta and Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Nunamaker, Elizabeth A; Halliday, Lisa C; Moody, David E; Fang, Wenfang B; Lindeblad, Matthew; Fortman, Jeffrey D

    2013-01-01

    Buprenorphine is the cornerstone of pain management in nonhuman primates, but the pharmacokinetics of this widely used drug are unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic profiles of buprenorphine (0.01 and 0.03 mg/kg IM) and sustained-release buprenorphine (0.2 mg/kg SC) in 2 macaque species (M. mulatta and M. fascicularis) by using mass spectrometry. The pharmacokinetics did not differ significantly between species, and buprenorphine was dose-proportional at the tested doses. The low and high doses of buprenorphine had elimination half-lives of 2.6 ± 0.7 and 5.3 ± 2.0 h, respectively, but the low-dose data were constrained by the sensitivity of the analytical method. Sustained-release buprenorphine had an elimination half-life of 42.6 ± 26.2 h. The AUC0-Tlast of buprenorphine were 9.1 ± 4.3 and 39.0 ± 25.1 ng×h/mL for the low and high doses, respectively, and sustained-release buprenorphine had an AUC0-Tlast of 177 ± 74 ng×h/mL. Assuming a hypothesized therapeutic buprenorphine plasma concentration threshold of 0.1 ng/mL in macaques, these results suggest that buprenorphine doses of 0.01 mg/kg IM should be administered every 6 to 8 h, whereas doses of 0.03 mg/kg IM can be administered every 12 h. These results further demonstrate that a single 0.2-mg/kg SC injection of sustained-release buprenorphine maintains plasma concentrations above 0.1 ng/mL for 5 d in macaques. These findings support a new dosing strategy using sustained-release buprenorphine to improve pain management, decrease animal stress, improve animal welfare, and simplify the postoperative management of nonhuman primates in laboratory animal and zoological settings. PMID:23562033

  10. Compete to Play: Trade-Off with Social Contact in Long-Tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Ballesta, Sébastien; Reymond, Gilles; Pozzobon, Mathieu; Duhamel, Jean-René

    2014-01-01

    Many animal species engage in various forms of solitary object play, but this activity seems to be of particular importance in primates. If playing objects constitute a valuable resource, and access to such objects is limited, a competitive context may arise. We inserted a unique toy within a mini-colony of long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) and compared their behaviors to sessions without playing object. An automatic color-based 3D video device was used to track the positions of each animal and the toy, and this data was categorized into 5 exclusive behaviors (resting, locomotion, foraging, social contact and object play). As expected, the delay to first access to the object reflected the hierarchy of the colony, indicating that a competition took place to own this unique resource of entertainment. In addition, we found that the amount of object play was not correlated with social or foraging behavior, suggesting independent motivational mechanisms. Conversely, object playing time was negatively correlated with idling time, thus indicating its relation to pastime activities. Interestingly, the amount of social contacts in the group was significantly reduced by the heightened competitive context, suggesting that competitors are more likely to be perceived as potential threat requiring caution, as shown in humans. Experimental manipulation of competitive contexts in primates reveals common mental processes involved in social judgment, and shows that access to valuable resources can be a sufficient cause for variations in group cohesion. PMID:25551755

  11. Compete to play: trade-off with social contact in long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Ballesta, Sébastien; Reymond, Gilles; Pozzobon, Mathieu; Duhamel, Jean-René

    2014-01-01

    Many animal species engage in various forms of solitary object play, but this activity seems to be of particular importance in primates. If playing objects constitute a valuable resource, and access to such objects is limited, a competitive context may arise. We inserted a unique toy within a mini-colony of long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) and compared their behaviors to sessions without playing object. An automatic color-based 3D video device was used to track the positions of each animal and the toy, and this data was categorized into 5 exclusive behaviors (resting, locomotion, foraging, social contact and object play). As expected, the delay to first access to the object reflected the hierarchy of the colony, indicating that a competition took place to own this unique resource of entertainment. In addition, we found that the amount of object play was not correlated with social or foraging behavior, suggesting independent motivational mechanisms. Conversely, object playing time was negatively correlated with idling time, thus indicating its relation to pastime activities. Interestingly, the amount of social contacts in the group was significantly reduced by the heightened competitive context, suggesting that competitors are more likely to be perceived as potential threat requiring caution, as shown in humans. Experimental manipulation of competitive contexts in primates reveals common mental processes involved in social judgment, and shows that access to valuable resources can be a sufficient cause for variations in group cohesion. PMID:25551755

  12. Gene expression profiling in the Cynomolgus macaque Macaca fascicularis shows variation within the normal birth range

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although an adverse early-life environment has been linked to an increased risk of developing the metabolic syndrome, the molecular mechanisms underlying altered disease susceptibility as well as their relevance to humans are largely unknown. Importantly, emerging evidence suggests that these effects operate within the normal range of birth weights and involve mechanisms of developmental palsticity rather than pathology. Method To explore this further, we utilised a non-human primate model Macaca fascicularis (Cynomolgus macaque) which shares with humans the same progressive history of the metabolic syndrome. Using microarray we compared tissues from neonates in the average birth weight (50-75th centile) to those of lower birth weight (5-25th centile) and studied the effect of different growth trajectories within the normal range on gene expression levels in the umbilical cord, neonatal liver and skeletal muscle. Results We identified 1973 genes which were differentially expressed in the three tissue types between average and low birth weight animals (P < 0.05). Gene ontology analysis identified that these genes were involved in metabolic processes including cellular lipid metabolism, cellular biosynthesis, cellular macromolecule synthesis, cellular nitrogen metabolism, cellular carbohydrate metabolism, cellular catabolism, nucleotide and nucleic acid metabolism, regulation of molecular functions, biological adhesion and development. Conclusion These differences in gene expression levels between animals in the upper and lower percentiles of the normal birth weight range may point towards early life metabolic adaptations that in later life result in differences in disease risk. PMID:21999700

  13. Molecular detection and prevalence of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. among long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sricharern, Wanat; Inpankaew, Tawin; Keawmongkol, Sarawan; Supanam, Juthamas; Stich, Roger W; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn

    2016-06-01

    Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. are divergent protozoal intestinal parasites that infect human beings and other animals, including non-human primates. Although long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) reside in human communities in Thailand, the prevalence of Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. in these primates has not been previously investigated. The objective of this study was to evaluate long-tailed macaques living near human communities as possible hosts of these intestinal parasites. In 2014, 200 fecal samples were randomly collected from long-tailed macaques living in different areas of Lopburi province, Thailand, and tested with a panel of PCR assays for Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. G. duodenalis assemblage B was most frequently detected (6%), while assemblage A and an inconclusive assemblage were detected in single samples, for a total G. duodenalis infection rate of 7%. Two samples (1%) tested positive for Cryptosporidium spp., which were both classified as monkey genotypes. No significant associations were found between G. duodenalis infection and sex or location of macaques. This study indicates that long-tailed macaques can carry G. duodenalis and, to a lesser extent, Cryptosporidium spp. monkey genotype. These results warrant education of residents and tourists to limit contact with long-tailed macaques and to take hygienic precautions to mitigate risk of zoonotic and anthroponotic transmission of these parasites between people and macaques. PMID:26892616

  14. Phylogenetic relationships of Malaysia’s long-tailed macaques, Macaca fascicularis, based on cytochrome b sequences

    PubMed Central

    Abdul-Latiff, Muhammad Abu Bakar; Ruslin, Farhani; Fui, Vun Vui; Abu, Mohd-Hashim; Rovie-Ryan, Jeffrine Japning; Abdul-Patah, Pazil; Lakim, Maklarin; Roos, Christian; Yaakop, Salmah; Md-Zain, Badrul Munir

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Phylogenetic relationships among Malaysia’s long-tailed macaques have yet to be established, despite abundant genetic studies of the species worldwide. The aims of this study are to examine the phylogenetic relationships of Macaca fascicularis in Malaysia and to test its classification as a morphological subspecies. A total of 25 genetic samples of M. fascicularis yielding 383 bp of Cytochrome b (Cyt b) sequences were used in phylogenetic analysis along with one sample each of M. nemestrina and M. arctoides used as outgroups. Sequence character analysis reveals that Cyt b locus is a highly conserved region with only 23% parsimony informative character detected among ingroups. Further analysis indicates a clear separation between populations originating from different regions; the Malay Peninsula versus Borneo Insular, the East Coast versus West Coast of the Malay Peninsula, and the island versus mainland Malay Peninsula populations. Phylogenetic trees (NJ, MP and Bayesian) portray a consistent clustering paradigm as Borneo’s population was distinguished from Peninsula’s population (99% and 100% bootstrap value in NJ and MP respectively and 1.00 posterior probability in Bayesian trees). The East coast population was separated from other Peninsula populations (64% in NJ, 66% in MP and 0.53 posterior probability in Bayesian). West coast populations were divided into 2 clades: the North-South (47%/54% in NJ, 26/26% in MP and 1.00/0.80 posterior probability in Bayesian) and Island-Mainland (93% in NJ, 90% in MP and 1.00 posterior probability in Bayesian). The results confirm the previous morphological assignment of 2 subspecies, M. f. fascicularis and M. f. argentimembris, in the Malay Peninsula. These populations should be treated as separate genetic entities in order to conserve the genetic diversity of Malaysia’s M. fascicularis. These findings are crucial in aiding the conservation management and translocation process of M. fascicularis populations

  15. Development of real-time PCR assays for the detection of Moraxella macacae associated with bloody nose syndrome in rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and cynomolgus (Macaca fascicularis) macaques

    PubMed Central

    Whitehouse, Chris A.; Chase, Kitty; Embers, Monica E.; Kulesh, David A.; Ladner, Jason T.; Palacios, Gustavo F.; Minogue, Timothy D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Moraxella macacae is a recently described bacterial pathogen that causes epistaxis or so-called bloody nose syndrome in captive macaques. The aim of this study was to develop specific molecular diagnostic assays for M. macacae and to determine their performance characteristics. Methods We developed six real-time PCR assays on the Roche LightCycler. The accuracy, precision, selectivity, and limit of detection (LOD) were determined for each assay, in addition to further validation by testing nasal swabs from macaques presenting with epistaxis at the Tulane National Primate Research Center. Results All assays exhibited 100% specificity and were highly sensitive with an LOD of 10 fg for chromosomal assays and 1 fg for the plasmid assay. Testing of nasal swabs from 10 symptomatic macaques confirmed the presence of M. macacae in these animals. Conclusions We developed several accurate, sensitive, and species-specific real-time PCR assays for the detection of M. macacae in captive macaques. PMID:26365904

  16. Thoracic Radiography as a Refinement Methodology for the Study of H1N1 Influenza in Cynomologus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Brining, Douglas L; Mattoon, John S; Kercher, Lisa; LaCasse, Rachael A; Safronetz, David; Feldmann, Heinz; Parnell, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in the technology associated with digital radiography have created new opportunities for biomedical research applications. Here we evaluated the use of thoracic radiography as a noninvasive refinement methodology for the cynomologus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) model of H1N1 infection. Thoracic radiographic evaluations of macaques infected with any of 3 strains of emerging H1N1 swine-associated influenza virus isolated during the recent pandemic were compared with those of macaques infected with the currently circulating Kawasaki strain of H1N1 influenza. Ventrodorsal, right, and left lateral thoracic radiographs were obtained at days 0, 1, 6, 8, 11, and 14 after infection. A board-certified veterinary radiologist who was blinded to the study design evaluated the images. Numeric scores of extent and severity of lung involvement assigned to each radiograph were compared and demonstrated a significant and substantial difference among groups. The radiographic evaluation allowed for noninvasive assessment of lung involvement, disease onset, progression, and resolution of radiographic changes associated with H1N1 influenza infection. PMID:21262125

  17. Population Recovery of Nicobar Long-Tailed Macaque Macaca fascicularis umbrosus following a Tsunami in the Nicobar Islands, India

    PubMed Central

    Velankar, Avadhoot D.; Kumara, Honnavalli N.

    2016-01-01

    Natural disasters pose a threat to isolated populations of species with restricted distributions, especially those inhabiting islands. The Nicobar long tailed macaque.Macaca fascicularis umbrosus, is one such species found in the three southernmost islands (viz. Great Nicobar, Little Nicobar and Katchal) of the Andaman and Nicobar archipelago, India. These islands were hit by a massive tsunami (Indian Ocean tsunami, 26 December 2004) after a 9.2 magnitude earthquake. Earlier studies [Umapathy et al. 2003; Sivakumar, 2004] reported a sharp decline in the population of M. f. umbrosus after thetsunami. We studied the distribution and population status of M. f. umbrosus on thethree Nicobar Islands and compared our results with those of the previous studies. We carried out trail surveys on existing paths and trails on three islands to get encounter rate as measure of abundance. We also checked the degree of inundation due to tsunami by using Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) on landsat imageries of the study area before and after tsunami. Theencounter rate of groups per kilometre of M. f. umbrosus in Great Nicobar, Little Nicobar and Katchal was 0.30, 0.35 and 0.48 respectively with the mean group size of 39 in Great Nicobar and 43 in Katchal following the tsunami. This was higher than that reported in the two earlier studies conducted before and after the tsunami. Post tsunami, there was a significant change in the proportion of adult males, adult females and immatures, but mean group size did not differ as compared to pre tsunami. The results show that population has recovered from a drastic decline caused by tsunami, but it cannot be ascertained whether it has reached stability because of the altered group structure. This study demonstrates the effect of natural disasters on island occurring species. PMID:26886197

  18. Population Recovery of Nicobar Long-Tailed Macaque Macaca fascicularis umbrosus following a Tsunami in the Nicobar Islands, India.

    PubMed

    Velankar, Avadhoot D; Kumara, Honnavalli N; Pal, Arijit; Mishra, Partha Sarathi; Singh, Mewa

    2016-01-01

    Natural disasters pose a threat to isolated populations of species with restricted distributions, especially those inhabiting islands. The Nicobar long tailed macaque.Macaca fascicularis umbrosus, is one such species found in the three southernmost islands (viz. Great Nicobar, Little Nicobar and Katchal) of the Andaman and Nicobar archipelago, India. These islands were hit by a massive tsunami (Indian Ocean tsunami, 26 December 2004) after a 9.2 magnitude earthquake. Earlier studies [Umapathy et al. 2003; Sivakumar, 2004] reported a sharp decline in the population of M. f. umbrosus after thetsunami. We studied the distribution and population status of M. f. umbrosus on thethree Nicobar Islands and compared our results with those of the previous studies. We carried out trail surveys on existing paths and trails on three islands to get encounter rate as measure of abundance. We also checked the degree of inundation due to tsunami by using Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) on landsat imageries of the study area before and after tsunami. Theencounter rate of groups per kilometre of M. f. umbrosus in Great Nicobar, Little Nicobar and Katchal was 0.30, 0.35 and 0.48 respectively with the mean group size of 39 in Great Nicobar and 43 in Katchal following the tsunami. This was higher than that reported in the two earlier studies conducted before and after the tsunami. Post tsunami, there was a significant change in the proportion of adult males, adult females and immatures, but mean group size did not differ as compared to pre tsunami. The results show that population has recovered from a drastic decline caused by tsunami, but it cannot be ascertained whether it has reached stability because of the altered group structure. This study demonstrates the effect of natural disasters on island occurring species. PMID:26886197

  19. Survey of prevalence of overweight body condition in laboratory-housed cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Bauer, Sharon A; Leslie, Ken E; Pearl, David L; Fournier, Jocelyn; Turner, Patricia V

    2010-07-01

    Excessive weight gain has been reported to occur in captive cynomolgus macaques with little to no change in diet. Overweight body condition can result in development of hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes and should be avoided. The purpose of this survey was to assess the prevalence of overweight cynomolgus macaques in North American research facilities, including breeding colonies and short-term and long-term facilities, and to describe current methods used to assess body condition. The survey consisted of 51 questions covering animal population demographics, body weight and body condition scoring, feeding, and behavior. Voluntary participants included veterinarians and animal care managers. Respondents from 13 facilities completed the survey, and information was collected on 17,500 cynomolgus macaques. The majority of surveyed facilities housed juvenile and young adult macaques. The reported prevalence of overweight (greater than 10% of ideal body weight) animals ranged between 0% and 20% and reportedly was more frequent in animals younger than 10 y. Most facilities had weight reduction strategies in place. Despite these programs, a significant proportion of animals were reported as being overweight. The results of this survey demonstrate that most North American facilities housing cynomolgus macaques recognize the importance of tracking body condition regularly. However, implementing effective weight reduction programs may be difficult in captive housing environments. Because of the potential for adverse health effects, facilities should have a means of regularly tracking body weight as well as an action plan for managing overweight animals. PMID:20819384

  20. Emergence and evolution of inter-specific segregating retrocopies in cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) and rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Qu; Su, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Retroposition is an RNA-mediated mechanism to generate gene duplication, and is believed to play an important role in genome evolution and phenotypic adaptation in various species including primates. Previous studies suggested an elevated rate of recent retroposition in the rhesus macaque genome. To better understand the impact of retroposition on macaque species which have undergone an adaptive radiation approximately 3–6 million years ago, we developed a bioinformatics pipeline to identify recently derived retrocopies in cynomolgus monkeys. As a result, we identified seven experimentally validated young retrocopies, all of which are polymorphic in cynomolgus monkeys. Unexpectedly, five of them are also present in rhesus monkeys and are still segregating. Molecular evolutionary analysis indicates that the observed inter-specific polymorphism is attribute to ancestral polymorphism. Further population genetics analysis provided strong evidence of balancing selection on at least one case (Crab-eating monkey retrocopy 6, or CER6) in both species. CER6 is in adjacent with an immunoglobulin related gene and may be involved in host-pathogen interaction, a well-known target of balancing selection. Altogether, our data support that retroposition is an important force to shape genome evolution and species adaptation. PMID:27600022

  1. Emergence and evolution of inter-specific segregating retrocopies in cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) and rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Qu; Su, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Retroposition is an RNA-mediated mechanism to generate gene duplication, and is believed to play an important role in genome evolution and phenotypic adaptation in various species including primates. Previous studies suggested an elevated rate of recent retroposition in the rhesus macaque genome. To better understand the impact of retroposition on macaque species which have undergone an adaptive radiation approximately 3-6 million years ago, we developed a bioinformatics pipeline to identify recently derived retrocopies in cynomolgus monkeys. As a result, we identified seven experimentally validated young retrocopies, all of which are polymorphic in cynomolgus monkeys. Unexpectedly, five of them are also present in rhesus monkeys and are still segregating. Molecular evolutionary analysis indicates that the observed inter-specific polymorphism is attribute to ancestral polymorphism. Further population genetics analysis provided strong evidence of balancing selection on at least one case (Crab-eating monkey retrocopy 6, or CER6) in both species. CER6 is in adjacent with an immunoglobulin related gene and may be involved in host-pathogen interaction, a well-known target of balancing selection. Altogether, our data support that retroposition is an important force to shape genome evolution and species adaptation. PMID:27600022

  2. Time preferences in long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) and humans (Homo sapiens).

    PubMed

    Genty, Emilie; Karpel, Heather; Silberberg, Alan

    2012-11-01

    Rosati et al. (Curr Biol 17(19):1663-1668, 2007) found in a self-control test in which choice was between a smaller, immediately delivered food and a larger, delayed food, that chimpanzees preferred the larger reward (self-control); humans, however, preferred the smaller reward (impulsivity). They attributed their results to a species difference in self-control. In Experiment 1, monkeys (long-tailed macaques) were exposed to a self-control task in two conditions: where the food was hidden under differently colored bowls and where it was visible. When these two conditions were compared, choice shifted from greater preference for the impulsive alternative in the hidden condition to greater preference for the self-control alternative in the visible condition. Additionally, in both conditions, preference shifted from self-control to impulsivity over sessions. These results were explained in terms of the reversed-contingency effect (a propensity to reach for more over less when rewards are visible) and not to a capacity for self-control. In Experiment 2, humans that demonstrated preference for more over less in choice preferred the impulsive alternative when choice to either alternative was followed by the same intertrial interval-a preference that accelerates trial rates relative to preference of the self-control alternative. When trial rates were equated so that neither choice accelerated session's end, humans demonstrated self-control. These results suggest that Rosati et al.'s demonstration of impulsivity in humans was due to participants' desire to minimize session time. PMID:22843198

  3. There Is More than One Way to Crack an Oyster: Identifying Variation in Burmese Long-Tailed Macaque (Macaca fascicularis aurea) Stone-Tool Use

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Amanda; Tan, Say Hoon; Vyas, Dhaval; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda; Gumert, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    We explored variation in patterns of percussive stone-tool use on coastal foods by Burmese long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis aurea) from two islands in Laem Son National Park, Ranong, Thailand. We catalogued variation into three hammering classes and 17 action patterns, after examining 638 tool-use bouts across 90 individuals. Hammering class was based on the stone surface used for striking food, being face, point, and edge hammering. Action patterns were discriminated by tool material, hand use, posture, and striking motion. Hammering class was analyzed for associations with material and behavioural elements of tool use. Action patterns were not, owing to insufficient instances of most patterns. We collected 3077 scan samples from 109 macaques on Piak Nam Yai Island’s coasts, to determine the proportion of individuals using each hammering class and action pattern. Point hammering was significantly more associated with sessile foods, smaller tools, faster striking rates, smoother recoil, unimanual use, and more varied striking direction, than were face and edge hammering, while both point and edge hammering were significantly more associated with precision gripping than face hammering. Edge hammering also showed distinct differences depending on whether such hammering was applied to sessile or unattached foods, resembling point hammering for sessile foods and face hammering for unattached foods. Point hammering and sessile edge hammering compared to prior descriptions of axe hammering, while face and unattached edge hammering compared to pound hammering. Analysis of scans showed that 80% of individuals used tools, each employing one to four different action patterns. The most common patterns were unimanual point hammering (58%), symmetrical-bimanual face hammering (47%) and unimanual face hammering (37%). Unimanual edge hammering was relatively frequent (13%), compared to the other thirteen rare action patterns (<5%). We compare our study to other stone

  4. A critical analysis of the cynomolgus macaque, Macaca fascicularis, as a model to test HIV-1/SIV vaccine efficacy.

    PubMed

    Antony, Joseph M; MacDonald, Kelly S

    2015-06-17

    The use of a number of non-rhesus macaque species, but especially cynomolgus macaques as a model for HIV-1 vaccine development has increased in recent years. Cynomolgus macaques have been used in the United Kingdom, Europe, Canada and Australia as a model for HIV vaccine development for many years. Unlike rhesus macaques, cynomolgus macaques infected with SIV show a pattern of disease pathogenesis that more closely resembles that of human HIV-1 infection, exhibiting lower peak and set-point viral loads and slower progression to disease with more typical AIDS defining illnesses. Several advances have been made recently in the use of the cynomolgus macaque SIV challenge model that allow the demonstration of vaccine efficacy using attenuated viruses and vectors that are both viral and non-viral in origin. This review aims to probe the details of various vaccination trials carried out in cynomolgus macaques in the context of our modern understanding of the highly diverse immunogenetics of this species with a view to understanding the species-specific immune correlates of protection and the efficacy of vectors that have been used to design vaccines. PMID:25510387

  5. Continental Monophyly and Molecular Divergence of Peninsular Malaysia's Macaca fascicularis fascicularis

    PubMed Central

    Abdul-Latiff, Muhammad Abu Bakar; Ruslin, Farhani; Faiq, Hamdan; Hairul, Mohd Salleh; Rovie-Ryan, Jeffrine Japning; Abdul-Patah, Pazil; Md-Zain, Badrul Munir

    2014-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis fascicularis) populations distributed in Peninsular Malaysia in relation to other regions remain unknown. The aim of this study was to reveal the phylogeography and population genetics of Peninsular Malaysia's M. f. fascicularis based on the D-loop region of mitochondrial DNA. Sixty-five haplotypes were detected in all populations, with only Vietnam and Cambodia sharing four haplotypes. The minimum-spanning network projected a distant relationship between Peninsular Malaysian and insular populations. Genetic differentiation (FST, Nst) results suggested that the gene flow among Peninsular Malaysian and the other populations is very low. Phylogenetic tree reconstructions indicated a monophyletic clade of Malaysia's population with continental populations (NJ = 97%, MP = 76%, and Bayesian = 1.00 posterior probabilities). The results demonstrate that Peninsular Malaysia's M. f. fascicularis belonged to Indochinese populations as opposed to the previously claimed Sundaic populations. M. f. fascicularis groups are estimated to have colonized Peninsular Malaysia ~0.47 million years ago (MYA) directly from Indochina through seaways, by means of natural sea rafting, or through terrestrial radiation during continental shelf emersion. Here, the Isthmus of Kra played a central part as biogeographical barriers that then separated it from the remaining continental populations. PMID:25143948

  6. A population-genetic study of crab-eating macaques (Macaca fascicularis) on the island of Angaur, Palau, Micronesia.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Y; Nozawa, K; Matsubayashi, K; Gotoh, S

    1988-01-01

    Blood protein polymorphisms of an introduced population of the crab-eating macaques on Angaur Island, Palau, Micronesia, were examined electrophoretically to assess genetic variability. Results showed a high degree of genetic heterozygosity and some distinctive features in the genetic constitution of this island population. Negative evidence is presented regarding ancestry from a single pair of macaques. Their origin is discussed in relation to the genetic structure of the present population. PMID:3256533

  7. Variation in hair δ13C and δ15N values in long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) from Singapore

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schillaci, Michael A.; Castellini, J. Margaret; Stricker, Craig A.; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Lee, Benjamin P.Y.-H.

    2014-01-01

    Much of the primatology literature on stable isotope ratios of carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) has focused on African and New World species, with comparatively little research published on Asian primates. Here we present hair δ13C and δ15N isotope values for a sample of 33 long-tailed macaques from Singapore. We evaluate the suggestion by a previous researcher that forest degradation and biodiversity loss in Singapore have led to a decline in macaque trophic level. The results of our analysis indicated significant spatial variability in δ13C but not δ15N. The range of variation in δ13C was consistent with a diet based on C3 resources, with one group exhibiting low values consistent with a closed canopy environment. Relative to other macaque species from Europe and Asia, the macaques from Singapore exhibited a low mean δ13C value but mid-range mean δ15N value. Previous research suggesting a decline in macaque trophic level is not supported by the results of our study.

  8. Pathology of experimental Machupo virus infection, Chicava strain, in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) by intramuscular and aerosol exposure.

    PubMed

    Bell, T M; Shaia, C I; Bunton, T E; Robinson, C G; Wilkinson, E R; Hensley, L E; Cashman, K A

    2015-01-01

    Machupo virus, the causative agent of Bolivian hemorrhagic fever (BHF), is a highly lethal viral hemorrhagic fever of which little is known and for which no Food and Drug Administration-approved vaccines or therapeutics are available. This study evaluated the cynomolgus macaque as an animal model using the Machupo virus, Chicava strain, via intramuscular and aerosol challenge. The incubation period was 6 to 10 days with initial signs of depression, anorexia, diarrhea, mild fever, and a petechial skin rash. These were often followed by neurologic signs and death within an average of 18 days. Complete blood counts revealed leukopenia as well as marked thrombocytopenia. Serum chemistry values identified a decrease in total protein, marked increases in alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, and moderate increases in alkaline phosphatase. Gross pathology findings included a macular rash extending across the axillary and inguinal regions beginning at approximately 10 days postexposure as well as enlarged lymph nodes and spleen, enlarged and friable liver, and sporadic hemorrhages along the gastrointestinal mucosa and serosa. Histologic lesions consisted of foci of degeneration and necrosis/apoptosis in the haired skin, liver, pancreas, adrenal glands, lymph nodes, tongue, esophagus, salivary glands, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine. Lymphohistiocytic interstitial pneumonia was also present. Inflammation within the central nervous system (nonsuppurative encephalitis) was histologically apparent approximately 16 days postexposure and was generally progressive. This study provides insight into the course of Machupo virus infection in cynomolgus macaques and supports the usefulness of cynomolgus macaques as a viable model of human Machupo virus infection. PMID:24990481

  9. Effects of MDMA Injections on the Behavior of Socially-Housed Long-Tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Ballesta, Sébastien; Reymond, Gilles; Pozzobon, Matthieu; Duhamel, Jean-René

    2016-01-01

    3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methyl amphetamine (MDMA) is one of the few known molecules to increase human and rodent prosocial behaviors. However, this effect has never been assessed on the social behavior of non-human primates. In our study, we subcutaneously injected three different doses of MDMA (1.0, 1.5 or 2.0mg/kg) to a group of three, socially housed, young male long-tailed macaques. More than 200 hours of behavioral data were recorded, during 68 behavioral sessions, by an automatic color-based video device that tracked the 3D positions of each animal and of a toy. This data was then categorized into 5 exclusive behaviors (resting, locomotion, foraging, social contact and object play). In addition, received and given social grooming was manually scored. Results show several significant dose-dependent behavioral effects. At 1.5mg/kg only, MDMA induces a significant increase in social grooming behavior, thus confirming the prosocial effect of MDMA in macaques. Additionally, at 1.5 and 2.0 mg/kg MDMA injection substantially decreases foraging behavior, which is consistent with the known anorexigenic effect of this compound. Furthermore, at 2.0 mg/kg MDMA injection induces an increase in locomotor behavior, which is also in accordance with its known stimulant property. Interestingly, MDMA injected at 1.0mg/kg increases the rate of object play, which might be interpreted as a decrease of the inhibition to manipulate a unique object in presence of others, or, as an increase of the intrinsic motivation to manipulate this object. Together, our results support the effectiveness of MDMA to study the complex neurobiology of primates' social behaviors. PMID:26840064

  10. Effects of MDMA Injections on the Behavior of Socially-Housed Long-Tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Ballesta, Sébastien; Reymond, Gilles; Pozzobon, Matthieu; Duhamel, Jean-René

    2016-01-01

    3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methyl amphetamine (MDMA) is one of the few known molecules to increase human and rodent prosocial behaviors. However, this effect has never been assessed on the social behavior of non-human primates. In our study, we subcutaneously injected three different doses of MDMA (1.0, 1.5 or 2.0mg/kg) to a group of three, socially housed, young male long-tailed macaques. More than 200 hours of behavioral data were recorded, during 68 behavioral sessions, by an automatic color-based video device that tracked the 3D positions of each animal and of a toy. This data was then categorized into 5 exclusive behaviors (resting, locomotion, foraging, social contact and object play). In addition, received and given social grooming was manually scored. Results show several significant dose-dependent behavioral effects. At 1.5mg/kg only, MDMA induces a significant increase in social grooming behavior, thus confirming the prosocial effect of MDMA in macaques. Additionally, at 1.5 and 2.0 mg/kg MDMA injection substantially decreases foraging behavior, which is consistent with the known anorexigenic effect of this compound. Furthermore, at 2.0 mg/kg MDMA injection induces an increase in locomotor behavior, which is also in accordance with its known stimulant property. Interestingly, MDMA injected at 1.0mg/kg increases the rate of object play, which might be interpreted as a decrease of the inhibition to manipulate a unique object in presence of others, or, as an increase of the intrinsic motivation to manipulate this object. Together, our results support the effectiveness of MDMA to study the complex neurobiology of primates’ social behaviors. PMID:26840064

  11. An SNP marker at the STAT6 locus can identify the hybrids between rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and long-tailed macaques (M. fascicularis) in Thailand: a rapid and simple screening method and its application.

    PubMed

    Jadejaroen, Janya; Kawamoto, Yoshi; Hamada, Yuzuru; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda

    2016-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay was developed to genetically discriminate rhesus (Macaca mulatta) macaques from long-tailed (M. fascicularis) macaques. The 745 bp PCR amplicon of the STAT6 locus that spans a potentially species-diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker was digested with ApaI and gel electrophoresed to give (1) two (234 and 511 bp), (2) one (745 bp) and (3) three (234, 511 and 745 bp) band patterns that correspond to the genotypes G/G (long-tailed macaque specific homozygote), A/A (rhesus macaque specific homozygote) and A/G (hybrid specific heterozygote), respectively. The diagnostic robustness and efficiency of this PCR-RFLP assay was tested on wild rhesus and long-tailed macaques inhabiting Thailand and a known hybrid population. The Indochinese and Sundaic long-tailed macaque samples (n = 18) all showed a homozygous G/G pattern, while the Indochinese rhesus macaques (n = 10) all showed a homozygous A/A pattern. The rhesus/long-tailed hybrid population at Khao Khieow Open Zoo, which resulted from an introduced group of rhesus macaques that hybridized with the indigenous long-tailed macaques about 20 years ago, revealed 47% (56/118 samples analyzed) with the heterogenous A/G genotype. In addition, the frequency of the rhesus-specific allele A significantly decreased in the hybrid population during 2006-2014, where a strong association between the STAT6 genotype and the morphology of the individuals was detected. In conclusion, a robust PCR-RFLP assay allows a simple, effective and inexpensive approach, in particular for field studies, to assess hybrid individuals between rhesus and long-tailed macaques. Although this assay cannot conclusively identify all the hybrids over two or more generations, it at least can allow the evaluation of the process of hybridization, and so it is applicable to the assessment of the status of natural or anthropogenic hybridization between the two

  12. The Mutual Influences between Depressed Macaca fascicularis Mothers and Their Infants

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Liang; Wang, Tao; Fang, Liang; Yang, Deyu; Melgiri, Narayan D.; Xie, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the influence of infant rearing on the behavior of depressed adult female Macaca fascicularis and the influence of depressed infant-rearing adult female Macaca fascicularis on their infants in a free enclosure environment. Methods Here, 20 depressed subjects and then 20 healthy subjects were randomly selected from a total population of 1007 adult female Macaca fascicularis subjects. Four depressed subjects and eight healthy subjects were rearing infants. By focal observation, three trained observers video-recorded the selected subjects over a total observational period of 560 hours. The video footage was analyzed by qualified blinded analysts that coded the raw footage into quantitative behavioral data (i.e., durations of 53 pre-defined behavioral items across 12 behavioral categories) for statistical analysis. Results Between infant-rearing and non-rearing healthy subjects, ten differential behaviors distributed across five behavioral categories were identified. Between infant-rearing and non-rearing depressed subjects, nine behaviors distributed across five behavioral categories were identified. Between infant-rearing healthy and infant-rearing depressed subjects, fifteen behaviors distributed across six behavioral categories were identified. Conclusion Infant-rearing depressed adult female Macaca fascicularis subjects may have a worse psychological status as compared to non-rearing depressed counterparts. Infant rearing may negatively influence depressed Macaca fascicularis mothers. Infant-rearing depressed subjects were less adequate at raising infants as compared to infant-rearing healthy subjects. Thus, maternal depression in this macaque species may negatively impact infatile development, which is consistent with previous findings in humans. PMID:24599092

  13. Effects of synthetic glycosides on steroid balance in Macaca fascicularis

    SciTech Connect

    Malinow, M.R.; Elliott, W.H.; McLaughlin, P.; Upson, B.

    1987-01-01

    The predominantly beta-anomer of diosgenin glucoside (DG) was synthesized and its effects on cholesterol homeostasis were tested in monkeys. Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) were fed, during two 3-week periods, a semipurified diet with 0.1% cholesterol and a similar ration containing 1% DG, respectively. A Chow diet was given for 5 weeks between the experimental periods. Cholesterol and bile acid balance were analyzed during the last week of each semipurified diet. Diosgenin glucoside reduced cholesterolemia from 292 mg/dl to 172 mg/dl, decreased intestinal absorption of exogenous cholesterol from 62.4% to 26.0%, and increased secretion of endogenous cholesterol from -0.8 to 93.5 mg/day. The fecal excretion of neutral steroids rose from 40.7 to 157.3 mg/day; that of bile acids changed, nonsignificantly, from 23.1 to 16.0 mg/day. The cholesterol balance was -44 mg/day in the control period, and 88 mg/day in the DG-fed animals. No toxic signs were observed. Thus, when long-term studies demonstrate that the glucoside is well tolerated, DG and other synthetic glycosides with similar activities may be of use in the management of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis.

  14. The rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and crab-eating (Macaca fascicularis) monkeys in cardiovascular and aerospace research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, H. H.; Ritzman, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    Two nonhuman primate species were used to investigate the effects of gravitoinertial forces on pilot incapacitation and performance impairment, to define human physiologic tolerance and safe exposure limits to these environments, and to obtain data which can be used to evolve new methods to improve man's G tolerance to match the structural capability of new generation aircraft. The macaca fascicularis was used to study the effects of environmental stress and atheroscelerosis on cerebral blood flow and function agents on myocardial and cardiovascular function were studied in the macaca mulatta.

  15. Estimation of glomerular filtration rate in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Iwama, Ryosuke; Sato, Tsubasa; Sakurai, Ken; Takasuna, Kiyoshi; Ichijo, Toshihiro; Furuhama, Kazuhisa; Satoh, Hiroshi

    2014-10-01

    To estimate the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis), a three-blood-sample method using iodixanol was assessed in comparison with the conventional multisample strategy using inulin. Iodixanol and inulin were coadministered intravenously 40 mg I/kg and 50 mg/kg, respectively, to male monkeys, followed by blood collection 60, 90 and 120 min later. A close correlation (r=0.96) was noted between the GFR values estimated by both methods. In clinically healthy monkeys, the basal values were determined to be 3.06 ± 0.50 ml/min/kg. This is the first report, suggesting that serum clearance of iodixanol is a ready-to-use tool for a screening the GFR in monkeys, although it is necessary to perform a more longitudinal study using animals with reduced renal function. PMID:24998395

  16. Study of the gastrointestinal parasitic fauna of captive non-human primates (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Zanzani, Sergio Aurelio; Gazzonis, Alessia Libera; Epis, Sara; Manfredi, Maria Teresa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine helminths and protozoans in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) imported from registered breeding facilities in China and their relation to health risks for non-human primate handlers in biomedical research centers and in breeding facilities. Fresh fecal samples were collected from a total of 443 M. fascicularis and analyzed by copromicroscopical analysis, immunoenzymatic, or molecular assays. As to helminths, whose eggs were shed in 2.03% of the samples, Trichuris and Oesophagostomum were the only two taxa found, with low prevalence and low eggs per gram (EPG) values. Protozoans were more frequently detected (87.40%), with Entamoeba coli (85.19%) and Endolimax nana (79.26%) as the most prevalent species shed. Other parasites found by fecal smear examination were uninucleated-cyst-producing Entamoebas (78.52%), Iodamoeba bütschlii (42.96%), and Chilomastix mesnili (24.44%), while cysts of Balantidium coli (22.2%) were only observed by sedimentation. No coproantigens of Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., and Entamoeba histolytica complex were detected. Blastocystis sp. infection was noticed in 87.63% of macaques by PCR. These cynomolgus monkeys were infected with many subtypes (ST1, ST2, ST3, ST5, and ST7), where the predominant Blastocystis sp. subtypes were ST2 (77.5%), followed by ST1 (63.5%). Data collected confirmed the presence of potentially zoonotic parasites and a high parasite diversity, suggesting the need for appropriate and sensitive techniques to adequately control them and related health risks for handlers of non-human primates in biomedical research centers and in breeding facilities. PMID:26374536

  17. Ultrastructural study of the primary olfactory pathway in Macaca fascicularis.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Loren P; Casas, Carlos E; Bates, Margaret L; Guest, James D

    2005-08-01

    Olfactory ensheathing glial cells (OEGs) interact with a wide repertoire of cell types and support extension of olfactory axons (OAs) within the olfactory pathway. OEGs are thought to exclude OAs from contact with all other cells between the olfactory epithelium and the glomerulus of the olfactory bulb. These properties have lead to testing to determine whether OEGs support axonal growth following transplantation. The cellular interactions of transplanted OEGs will probably resemble those that occur within the normal pathway where interactions between OEGs and fibroblasts are prominent. No previous primate studies have focused on these interactions, knowledge of which is important if clinical application is envisioned. We describe the detailed intercellular interactions of OAs with supporting cells throughout the olfactory epithelium, the lamina propria, the fila olfactoria, and the olfactory nerve layer by using transmission electron microscopy in adult Macaca fascicularis. Patterns of OEG ensheathment and variations of the endo- and perineurium formed by olfactory nerve fibroblasts are described. OAs mainly interacted with horizontal basal cells, OEGs, and astrocytes. At both transitional ends of the pathway seamless intercellular interactions were observed, and fibroblast processes were absent. Perineurial cells produced surface basal lamina; however, endoneurial, epineurial, and meningeal fibroblasts did not. Perineurial cells contained intermediate filaments and were distinct from other fibroblasts and meningeal cells. OAs had direct contacts with astrocytes near the glia limitans. The properties of OEGs differed depending on whether astrocytic or fibroblastic processes were present. This indicates the importance of the cellular milieu in the structure and function of OEGs in primates. PMID:15973683

  18. Genome-based analysis of the nonhuman primate Macaca fascicularis as a model for drug safety assessment

    PubMed Central

    Ebeling, Martin; Küng, Erich; See, Angela; Broger, Clemens; Steiner, Guido; Berrera, Marco; Heckel, Tobias; Iniguez, Leonardo; Albert, Thomas; Schmucki, Roland; Biller, Hermann; Singer, Thomas; Certa, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    The long-tailed macaque, also referred to as cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis), is one of the most important nonhuman primate animal models in basic and applied biomedical research. To improve the predictive power of primate experiments for humans, we determined the genome sequence of a Macaca fascicularis female of Mauritian origin using a whole-genome shotgun sequencing approach. We applied a template switch strategy that uses either the rhesus or the human genome to assemble sequence reads. The sixfold sequence coverage of the draft genome sequence enabled discovery of about 2.1 million potential single-nucleotide polymorphisms based on occurrence of a dimorphic nucleotide at a given position in the genome sequence. Homology-based annotation allowed us to identify 17,387 orthologs of human protein-coding genes in the M. fascicularis draft genome, and the predicted transcripts enabled the design of a M. fascicularis–specific gene expression microarray. Using liver samples from 36 individuals of different geographic origin we identified 718 genes with highly variable expression in liver, whereas the majority of the transcriptome shows relatively stable and comparable expression. Knowledge of the M. fascicularis draft genome is an important contribution to both the use of this animal in disease models and the safety assessment of drugs and their metabolites. In particular, this information allows high-resolution genotyping and microarray-based gene-expression profiling for animal stratification, thereby allowing the use of well-characterized animals for safety testing. Finally, the genome sequence presented here is a significant contribution to the global “3R” animal welfare initiative, which has the goal to reduce, refine, and replace animal experiments. PMID:21862625

  19. Japanese Macaques (Macaca fuscata) as Natural Reservoir of Bartonella quintana.

    PubMed

    Sato, Shingo; Kabeya, Hidenori; Yoshino, Aika; Sekine, Wataru; Suzuki, Kazuo; Tamate, Hidetoshi B; Yamazaki, Shouki; Chomel, Bruno B; Maruyama, Soichi

    2015-12-01

    Bartonella quintana bacteremia was detected in 6 (13.3%) of 45 wild-caught Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). Multilocus sequence typing of the isolates revealed that Japanese macaques were infected with a new and specific B. quintana sequence type. Free-ranging Japanese macaques thus represent another natural reservoir of B. quintana. PMID:26584238

  20. Extraintestinal Campylobacteriosis in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Clemmons, Elizabeth A; Jean, Sherrie M; Machiah, Deepa K; Breding, Eileen; Sharma, Prachi

    2014-01-01

    Two cases of clinical disease associated with extraintestinal Campylobacter infection were recently encountered in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). The first case was that of a 3-y-old, male, rhesus macaque experimentally infected with SIV, who presented with abdominal pain and a midabdominal mass and was euthanized. Pathology findings included an abscess within the median liver lobe, fibrinopurulent peritonitis, and intestinal serositis with isolation of Campylobacter fetus from the blood, liver, and the hepatic abscess. The second case was that of a 1-mo-old, female, rhesus macaque who died with no apparent history of illness. Gross pathology findings included thin body condition and diarrheic staining of the perineum; histologically, acute multifocal hepatitis with intralesional bacteria was noted. Campylobacter coli was isolated from the liver and colon. Extraintestinal Campylobacter infection is uncommon in humans, usually occurring in immunocompromised subjects and most commonly manifesting as bacteremia. Extraintestinal Campylobacter infections in animals are rare but have been associated with bacteremia and cholecystitis. The macaques presented here were either immunocompromised due to SIV infection (case 1) or more vulnerable due to young age (case 2). These factors likely contributed to the extraintestinal spread of Campylobacter. PMID:25527031

  1. Construction and Validation of a Systematic Ethogram of Macaca fascicularis in a Free Enclosure

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Ji, Yongjia; Kong, Fei; Zhan, Qunlin; Cheng, Ke; Fang, Liang; Xie, Peng

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral studies in non-human primates have become ideal models for further investigations into advanced cognitive function in humans. To date, there is no systematic ethogram of the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) in a free enclosure. In a field observation of 6012 subjects, 107 distinct behaviors of M. fascicularis were preliminarily described. 83 of these behaviors were then independently validated through a randomized cohort and classified into 12 behavioral categories. 53 of these behaviors were then selected to accurately reflect the daily mundane activity of the species in a free enclosure. These findings systematically document the behavior of M. fascicularis in a free enclosure for use in further investigations. PMID:22662158

  2. Measuring pad-pad pinch strength in a non-human primate: Macaca fascicularis.

    PubMed

    Banks, Jacob J; Lavender, Steven A; Buford, John A; Sommerich, Carolyn M

    2007-12-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to establish a methodology for determining and perhaps predicting (via regression analysis of anthropometric measures) Macaca fascicularis isometric pinch strength for a specific task. The larger purpose of this work was to properly scale a pinching task for the monkeys in order to study dose-response relationships in a non-human primate model for carpal tunnel syndrome. Three female and one male macaque (n=4) of varying size and age were trained to perform a left-handed pad-pad pinch. The task required 60 degrees of wrist flexion at a static pinching distance of 3 cm between the thumb and fingers. Subjects were trained for a period of 20-weeks. After that time, an analysis of performance gradients found that they had each reached a plateau in their force output. Pinch strength for the four animals ranged from 29.4 to 59.8 N. Regression analysis revealed that body mass (kg) and wrist circumference (cm) were both predictive of pinch strength, exhibiting adjusted R(2) values of 0.93 (p=0.024) and 0.96 (p=0.015), respectively. Thus, the results suggest that maximal pinch strength could be acceptably estimated in future subjects using either the wrist circumference or the body mass measures, as both were strong predictors of pad-pad pinch strength. PMID:17035044

  3. Vasopressin and oxytocin systems in the brain and upper spinal cord of Macaca fascicularis.

    PubMed

    Caffé, A R; Van Ryen, P C; Van der Woude, T P; Van Leeuwen, F W

    1989-09-15

    This paper describes the vasopressin (VP) and oxytocin (OXT) immunoreactive structures in the brain and upper spinal cord of the adult male and female Macaca fascicularis. Immunocytochemistry following intraventricular application of colchicine displayed VP neurons in the diagonal band of Broca (DBB), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST), medial amygdaloid nucleus, dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, area of the locus coeruleus (LC), solitary tract nuclei (NTS), and the dorsal horn of the cervical spinal cord in addition to those known to exist in the paraventricular, supraoptic, and suprachiasmatic hypothalamic nuclei. Furthermore, a dense accumulation of VP fibers was observed in areas such as the DBB, medial septum, BST, amygdala, hippocampus, ventral tegmental area, periaquaductal gray, dorsal and ventral raphe, area of Forel, LC region, parabrachial nuclei, and NTS. The lateral septum and lateral habenula displayed no and very few VP fibers, respectively. No extrahypothalamic OXT neurons were found in the brain of this macaque monkey. Dense concentrations of OXT fibers were demonstrated in the amygdala, NTS, and marginal layer of the cervical spinal cord. No sexual dimorphism was found in this primate VP or OXT system. The results show a distribution of the central VP and OXT systems in this primate which is quite different from that in the rat. However, in various aspects it agrees with current data on the VP and OXT systems of the human brain. The present results suggest, therefore, that this monkey might serve as a better model for the human VP system than the rat. PMID:2778107

  4. Osteochondromatosis in a Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Kristin A; Strait, Karen; Connor-Stroud, Fawn; Courtney, Cynthia L

    2012-01-01

    A 5-y-old, male, rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) presented with a prominent mass slightly anteriomedial to the right stifle. On exam, multiple radiopaque masses were identified protruding from the mid- and distal femur. Lateral and anteroposterior radiographs of the right stifle region revealed multiple exophytic masses arising from the femur, with mild bony reaction of the proximal tibia. Histologic examination of biopsy tissue revealed woven and lamellar bone with granulation tissue and skeletal muscle. Because the macaque was exhibiting no lameness or signs of pain, we decided to monitor the progression of the masses. Minimal change was noted during the time prior to study termination at 6.5 y of age. Necropsy revealed that the bony masses were cartilage-capped lesions arising near the growth plate of the distal femur and midshaft of the femur and tibia. Histologic examination revealed chondro-osseous exophytic growths that blended imperceptibly with the cortex and spongiosa of the femur, consistent with a final diagnosis of multiple osteochondromas. PMID:22546923

  5. Whole-genome sequencing of tibetan macaque (Macaca Thibetana) provides new insight into the macaque evolutionary history.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhenxin; Zhao, Guang; Li, Peng; Osada, Naoki; Xing, Jinchuan; Yi, Yong; Du, Lianming; Silva, Pedro; Wang, Hongxing; Sakate, Ryuichi; Zhang, Xiuyue; Xu, Huailiang; Yue, Bisong; Li, Jing

    2014-06-01

    Macaques are the most widely distributed nonhuman primates and used as animal models in biomedical research. The availability of full-genome sequences from them would be essential to both biomedical and primate evolutionary studies. Previous studies have reported whole-genome sequences from rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) and cynomolgus macaque (M. fascicularis, CE), both of which belong to the fascicularis group. Here, we present a 37-fold coverage genome sequence of the Tibetan macaque (M. thibetana; TM). TM is an endemic species to China belonging to the sinica group. On the basis of mapping to the rhesus macaque genome, we identified approximately 11.9 million single-nucleotide variants), of which 3.9 million were TM specific, as assessed by comparison two Chinese rhesus macaques (CR) and two CE genomes. Some genes carried TM-specific homozygous nonsynonymous variants (TSHNVs), which were scored as deleterious in human by both PolyPhen-2 and SIFT (Sorting Tolerant From Intolerant) and were enriched in the eye disease genes. In total, 273 immune response and disease-related genes carried at least one TSHNV. The heterozygosity rates of two CRs (0.002617 and 0.002612) and two CEs (0.003004 and 0.003179) were approximately three times higher than that of TM (0.000898). Polymerase chain reaction resequencing of 18 TM individuals showed that 29 TSHNVs exhibited high allele frequencies, thus confirming their low heterozygosity. Genome-wide genetic divergence analysis demonstrated that TM was more closely related to CR than to CE. We further detected unusual low divergence regions between TM and CR. In addition, after applying statistical criteria to detect putative introgression regions (PIRs) in the TM genome, up to 239,620 kb PIRs (8.84% of the genome) were identified. Given that TM and CR have overlapping geographical distributions, had the same refuge during the Middle Pleistocene, and show similar mating behaviors, it is highly likely that there was an ancient

  6. Toxicological consequences of feeding PCB congeners to infant rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and cynomolgus (Macaca fascicularis) monkeys.

    PubMed

    Arnold, D L; Bryce, F; Mes, J; Tryphonas, H; Hayward, S; Malcolm, S

    1999-01-01

    In a study designed to minimize interspecies extrapolation of toxicological data, nine rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and 15 cynomolgus (M. fascicularis) day-old infant monkeys were separated from their dams following parturition and hand-reared using a liquid non-human primate formulation. The infants were randomly divided into a control and a treated group which received a mixture of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners analogous to those found in breast milk from Canadian women. The concentration of congeners in the dosing media resulted in each infant receiving a total of 7.5 microg PCB congeners/kg body weight/day. The congeners were added either to the liquid formulation or to corn oil and administered to the back of the monkey's mouth for 20 weeks. Monthly blood and adipose specimens were obtained during the dosing period and then periodically until the monkey was necropsied or taken off test (minimum of 66 weeks on test) for congener analysis. Parameters such as body weight, formula consumption, tooth eruption, somatic measurements, haematology and serum biochemistry were monitored throughout the study. In addition, a qualitative evaluation of the absorption and depletion of the various congeners was undertaken as was an immunological evaluation. For the monitored parameters, very few differences were found to be statistically significant. For the immunological parameters, the only statistically differences found were a reduction over time for immunoglobulins M and G antibodies to sheep red blood cells (cyno, P = 0.025; rhesus, P = 0.002) and a treatment-related reduction in the levels of the HLA-DR cell surface marker (mean percent, P = 0.016; absolute levels, P = 0.027). There were some qualitative differences regarding absorption and depletion rates for the various congeners, but it could not be definitely ascertained whether these differences were due to species differences or dosing mode. However, statistically significant differences were found for

  7. Reaching and grasping behavior in Macaca fascicularis: a kinematic study.

    PubMed

    Sartori, Luisa; Camperio Ciani, Andrea; Bulgheroni, Maria; Castiello, Umberto

    2013-01-01

    The prehensile hand is one of the major traits distinguishing primates from other mammal species. All primates, in fact, are able to grasp an object and hold it in part or entirely using a single hand. Although there is a wealth of behavioral data regarding grasping movements in humans and apes, there is relatively little material on macaques, the animal model often used to investigate neuronal mechanisms responsible for grip control in humans. To date, evidence regarding free-ranging macaques is confined to observational data, while quantitative reports describe studies carried out in laboratory settings or in captivity. The purpose of the present study was to provide the first kinematic descriptions of basic grip behavior with regard to precision and power grips in free-ranging macaque monkeys. Video footage of those animals grasping objects was analyzed frame-by-frame using digitalization techniques. The results revealed that the two types of grips considered are each characterized by specific kinematic signatures. It was also found that hand kinematics was scaled depending on the type of grasp needing to be adopted and the intrinsic properties of the object to be grasped. In accordance with data concerning humans, these findings indicate that the intrinsic features of an object affect the planning and control of reach-to-grasp movements even in free-ranging macaques. The data presented here take research in the field of comparative reach-to-grasp kinematics in human and non-human primates another step forward as they are based on precise measurements of spontaneous grasping movements by animals living/acting in their natural environment. PMID:23064847

  8. Visual transduction in cones of the monkey Macaca fascicularis.

    PubMed Central

    Schnapf, J L; Nunn, B J; Meister, M; Baylor, D A

    1990-01-01

    1. Visual transduction in macaque cones was studied by measuring the membrane current of single outer segments projecting from small pieces of retina. 2. The response to a brief flash of light was diphasic and resembled the output of a bandpass filter with a peak frequency near 5 Hz. After the initial reduction in dark current there was a rebound increase which resulted from an increase in the number of open light-sensitive channels. The response to a step of light consisted of a prominent initial peak followed by a steady phase of smaller amplitude. 3. Responses to dim light were linear and time-invariant, suggesting that responses to single photons were linearly additive. From the flash sensitivity and the effective collecting area the peak amplitude of the single photon response was estimated as about 30 fA. 4. With flashes of increasing strength the photocurrent amplitude usually saturated along a curve that was gentler than an exponential but steeper than a Michaelis relation. The response reached the half-saturating amplitude at roughly 650 photoisomerizations. 5. The response-intensity relation was flatter in the steady state than shortly after a light step was turned on, indicating that bright light desensitized the transduction with a delay. This desensitization was not due to a reduction in pigment content. In the steady state, a background of intensity I lowered the sensitivity to a weak incremental test flash by a factor 1/(1 + I/IO), where IO was about 2.6 x 10(4) photoisomerizations s-1, or about 3.3 log trolands for the red- and green-sensitive cones. 6. Bleaching exposures produced permanent reductions in flash sensitivity but had little effect on the kinetics or saturating amplitude of subsequent flash responses. The sensitivity reductions were consistent with the expected reductions in visual pigment content and gave photosensitivities of about 8 x 10(-9) microns2 (free solution value) for the red- and green-sensitive pigments. During a steady

  9. White-cheeked macaque (Macaca leucogenys): A new macaque species from Medog, southeastern Tibet.

    PubMed

    Li, Cheng; Zhao, Chao; Fan, Peng-Fei

    2015-07-01

    We describe a newly discovered Macaca species from the Medog, in southeastern Tibet, China, Macaca leucogenys sp. nov or the "white-cheeked macaque". Based on 738 photos taken during direct observations and captured by camera traps this new species appears to be distinct from the Macaca sinica species group. Moreover, the species is distinguished from all potential sympatric macaque species (M. mulatta, M. thibetana, M. assamensis, and M. munzala) in exhibiting a suite of pelage characteristics including relatively uniform dorsal hair pattern, hairy ventral pelage, relative hairless short tail, prominent pale to white side- and chin-whiskers creating a white cheek and round facial appearance, dark facial skin on the muzzle, long and thick hairs on its neck, and a round rather than arrow-shaped male genitalia. This new macaque species was found to exploit a diverse set of habitat types from tropical forest at 1395 m, to primary and secondary evergreen broad-leaved forest at 2000 m, as well as mixed broadleaf-conifer forest at 2700 m. Its range may extend to neighboring counties in Tibet and the part of southeastern Tibet controlled by India. The white-cheeked macaque is threatened by illegal hunting and the construction of hydropower stations. Discovery of this new primate species further highlights the high value for biodiversity conservation of southeastern Tibet and calls for more intensive surveys, studies, and environmental protection in this area. PMID:25809642

  10. Neuroblastoma at the trigeminal nerve in a cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Ide, Tetsuya; Moriyama, Akiko; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Chambers, James K; Okazaki, Takanobu; Kobayashi, Kinji; Nakatsuji, Shunji; Matsumoto, Masahiro

    2016-07-01

    A male cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) of 5 years and 11 months of age from the vehicle control group of a 4-week repeated oral dose toxicity study had a spontaneously occurring mass lesion directly attached to the proximal part of the left trigeminal nerve. Histologically, the mass was characterized by a multifocal nodular appearance. Nodular zones showed low to moderate cellularity and were composed of small round cells exhibiting nuclear uniformity. On the other hand, inter-nodular zones were composed of nerve fiber containing septa and closely aggregated highly pleomorphic cells. Immunohistochemically, the small round cells were strongly immunopositive for synaptophysin, neuN, and class III beta-tubulin, while the highly pleomorphic cells were weakly immunopositive for neuN and occasionally immunopositive for class III beta-tubulin and doublecortin, suggesting that the tumor had originated from a neuronal lineage cell. Based on these findings, the mass was diagnosed as a neuroblastoma at the trigeminal nerve. PMID:27559245

  11. Peripheral Ossifying Fibroma and Juxtacortical Chondrosarcoma in Cynomolgus Monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Schmelting, Barthel; Zöller, Martina; Kaspareit, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Literature on spontaneous primary bone tumors in nonhuman primates is sparse. This case report describes 2 different neoplastic bone lesions in 2 adult cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis), including macroscopic, radiographic, histologic, and immunohistochemical findings. In one monkey, a firm mass located at the palatogingival junction of the left rostral maxilla was confirmed to be a peripheral ossifying fibroma in light of its histologic and immunohistochemical characteristics. In another monkey, a lobulated tumor at the right distal femur that radiographically showed moderate radiopacity with splotchy areas of mineralization was confirmed to be a juxtacortical chondrosarcoma on histologic examination. The 2 neoplastic bone lesions revealed rare histologic and immunohistochemical characteristics and contribute to the known tumor spectrum of cynomolgus monkeys. PMID:21333171

  12. Neuroblastoma at the trigeminal nerve in a cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Ide, Tetsuya; Moriyama, Akiko; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Chambers, James K.; Okazaki, Takanobu; Kobayashi, Kinji; Nakatsuji, Shunji; Matsumoto, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    A male cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) of 5 years and 11 months of age from the vehicle control group of a 4-week repeated oral dose toxicity study had a spontaneously occurring mass lesion directly attached to the proximal part of the left trigeminal nerve. Histologically, the mass was characterized by a multifocal nodular appearance. Nodular zones showed low to moderate cellularity and were composed of small round cells exhibiting nuclear uniformity. On the other hand, inter-nodular zones were composed of nerve fiber containing septa and closely aggregated highly pleomorphic cells. Immunohistochemically, the small round cells were strongly immunopositive for synaptophysin, neuN, and class III beta-tubulin, while the highly pleomorphic cells were weakly immunopositive for neuN and occasionally immunopositive for class III beta-tubulin and doublecortin, suggesting that the tumor had originated from a neuronal lineage cell. Based on these findings, the mass was diagnosed as a neuroblastoma at the trigeminal nerve. PMID:27559245

  13. Seed dispersal by rhesus macaques Macaca mulatta in Northern India.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Asmita; McConkey, Kim R; Radhakrishna, Sindhu

    2014-12-01

    Frugivorous primates are important seed dispersers and their absence from forest patches is predicted to be detrimental to tropical forest regeneration and recruitment. With the reduction of primate populations globally, ecologically resilient primate species, characterized by dietary flexibility and the ability to thrive in a variety of habitats, assume new importance as seed dispersers. The most widely distributed non-human primate, the rhesus macaque Macaca mulatta has been intensively studied but little is known about its role in maintaining ecosystem structure and functions. Due to their frugivorous diet, large group sizes, large home ranges and tolerance to disturbance, rhesus macaques may be effective seed dispersers. We studied seed dispersal by rhesus macaques at the Buxa Tiger Reserve, India, through a combination of behavioural observations and germination experiments. Rhesus macaques dispersed 84% of the 49 species they fed on either through spitting or defecation. Nearly 96% of the handled seeds were undamaged and 61% of the species for which germination tests were performed had enhanced germination. Almost 50% of the monitored seeds among those deposited in situ germinated and 22% established seedlings, suggesting that rhesus macaques are important seed dispersers in tropical forests. Due to their widespread distribution and large populations, rhesus macaques are perceived as common and are categorized as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List, effectively excluding them from any conservation plans. Based on the results of our study, we argue that rhesus macaques fulfill critical ecological functions in their habitat and that this parameter must be taken into consideration when they are reviewed for conservation priorities. PMID:24838181

  14. Infection by Brazilian and Dutch swine hepatitis E virus strains induces haematological changes in Macaca fascicularis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been described as an emerging pathogen in Brazil and seems to be widely disseminated among swine herds. An autochthonous human case of acute hepatitis E was recently reported. To obtain a better understanding of the phenotypic profiles of both human and swine HEV strains, a experimental study was conducted using the animal model, Macaca fascicularis. Methods Six cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were inoculated intravenously with swine HEV genotype 3 that was isolated from naturally and experimentally infected pigs in Brazil and the Netherlands. Two other monkeys were inoculated with HEV genotype 3 that was recovered from Brazilian and Argentinean patients with locally acquired acute and fulminant hepatitis E. The haematological, biochemical, and virological parameters of all animals were monitored for 67 days. Results Subclinical hepatitis was observed in all monkeys after inoculation with HEV genotype 3 that was recovered from the infected swine and human patients. HEV RNA was detected in the serum and/or faeces of 6 out of the 8 cynomolgus monkeys between 5 and 53 days after inoculation. The mild inflammation of liver tissues and elevations of discrete liver enzymes were observed. Seroconversions to anti-HEV IgM and/or IgG were detected in 7 animals. Reactivities to anti-HEV IgA were also detected in the salivary samples of 3 animals. Interestingly, all of the infected monkeys showed severe lymphopenia and a trend toward monocytosis, which coincided with elevations in alanine aminotransferase and antibody titres. Conclusions The ability of HEV to cross the species barrier was confirmed for both the swine (Brazilian and Dutch) and human (Argentinean) strains, thus reinforcing the zoonotic risk of hepatitis E in South America. Cynomolgus monkeys that were infected with HEV genotype 3 developed subclinical hepatitis that was associated with haematological changes. Haematological approaches should be considered in

  15. Therapy of calcium oxalate urolithiasis in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Conze, Theresa; Wehrend, Axel; Exner, Cornelia; Kaminiarz, André

    2016-08-01

    A rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) was presented for anuria. Examination revealed calcium oxalate concrements in the bladder. A cystotomy was performed, and a therapy with alfuzosin was conducted. Over 1 year after the treatment, the rhesus macaque had not shown any more signs of stranguria. This is the first case reporting the successful treatment of urolithiasis in a rhesus macaque. PMID:27283130

  16. Systemic Spironucleosis In Two Immunodeficient Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, C; Kramer, J; Mejia, A; MacKey, J; Mansfield, KG; Miller, AD

    2011-01-01

    Spironucleus spp. are parasites of fish and terrestrial vertebrates including mice and turkeys that rarely cause extraintestinal disease. Two rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were experimentally inoculated with simian immunodeficiency virus mac251 (SIVmac251). Both progressed to simian acquired immune deficiency syndrome (SAIDS) within one year of inoculation and, in addition to common opportunistic infections including rhesus cytomegalovirus, rhesus lymphocryptovirus, and rhesus adenovirus, developed systemic protozoal infections. In the first case, the protozoa were associated with colitis, multifocal abdominal abscessation, and lymphadenitis. In the second case they one of a number of organisms associated with extensive pyogranulomatous pneumonia and colitis. Ultrastructural, molecular, and phylogenetic analysis revealed the causative organism to be a species of Spironucleus closely related to Spironucleus meleagridis of turkeys. This is the first report of extraintestinal infection with Spironucleus sp. in higher mammals and further expands the list of opportunistic infections found in immunocompromised rhesus macaques. PMID:20351359

  17. Dermatologic investigation of alopecia in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Steinmetz, Hanspeter W; Kaumanns, Werner; Neimeier, Karl-Albrecht; Kaup, Franz-Josef

    2005-06-01

    Coat damage has been reported frequently in captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), and it is a serious health problem because the hair coat functions as an anatomic and physiologic barrier between the animal and the environment. The purpose of this study was to identify the pathogenesis of coat damage in this species and to exclude the most frequent causes of alopecia. The investigation included clinical, hematologic, bacteriologic, mycologic, parasitologic, and histopathologic evaluations. A broad systematic dermatologic investigation was performed on 156 rhesus macaques, kept under variable environmental conditions, at the German Primate Center, Göttingen. In addition, 27 animals from other primate facilities were incorporated into the study. Clinically, 126 animals showed partial alopecia of varying severity, with complete alopecia in the worst cases. In 88% of the cases, the disorder was bilaterally symmetrical. The back and extremities were most commonly affected. No gross clinical changes of the skin surface were detected. Histologic changes consisted predominantly of mild epidermal hyperkeratosis and mild perivascular dermatitis. The presence and severity of histologic lesions were not correlated to coat damage. Parasitic, bacterial, and mycotic causes of alopecia were ruled out. Overviewing these results, disturbances in environment and behavior controlling or influencing hair growth may lead to hair loss in captive rhesus macaques. Future studies should try to identify disturbances in extrinsic or intrinsic factors influencing hair follicle activity in rhesus macaques. PMID:17323563

  18. Variation in CCL3L1 Copy Number in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Taormina, Patrick L; Trask, Jessica A Satkoski; Smith, David G; Kanthaswamy, Sreetharan

    2012-01-01

    We used real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) methodology to examine copy number variation (CNV) of the CCL3L1 gene among pure Indian-origin, pure Chinese-origin, and hybrid Indian–Chinese rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). CNV among purebred macaques fell within expected ranges, with Indian macaques having lower copy numbers than those of Chinese macaques. Compared with the purebred macaques, Indian–Chinese hybrid rhesus macaques showed much greater variance in copy number and an intermediate average copy number. Copy numbers of CCL3L1 in rhesus macaque trios (sire, dam, and offspring) were consistent with Mendelian inheritance. PMID:22776055

  19. Variation in CCL3L1 copy number in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Taormina, Patrick L; Satkoski Trask, Jessica A; Smith, David G; Kanthaswamy, Sreetharan

    2012-06-01

    We used real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) methodology to examine copy number variation (CNV) of the CCL3L1 gene among pure Indian-origin, pure Chinese-origin, and hybrid Indian-Chinese rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). CNV among purebred macaques fell within expected ranges, with Indian macaques having lower copy numbers than those of Chinese macaques. Compared with the purebred macaques, Indian-Chinese hybrid rhesus macaques showed much greater variance in copy number and an intermediate average copy number. Copy numbers of CCL3L1 in rhesus macaque trios (sire, dam, and offspring) were consistent with Mendelian inheritance. PMID:22776055

  20. Facial expression recognition in crested macaques (Macaca nigra).

    PubMed

    Micheletta, Jérôme; Whitehouse, Jamie; Parr, Lisa A; Waller, Bridget M

    2015-07-01

    Facial expressions are a main communication channel used by many different species of primate. Despite this, we know relatively little about how primates discriminate between different facial expressions, and most of what we do know comes from a restricted number of well-studied species. In this study, three crested macaques (Macaca nigra) took part in matching-to-sample tasks where they had to discriminate different facial expressions. In a first experiment, the macaques had to match a photograph of a facial expression to another exemplar of the same expression produced by a different individual, against examples of one of three other types of expressions and neutral faces. In a second experiment, they had to match a dynamic video recording of a facial expression to a still photograph of another exemplar of the same facial expression produced by another individual, also against one of four other expressions. The macaques performed above chance in both tasks, identifying expressions as belonging to the same category regardless of individual identity. Using matrix correlations and multidimensional scaling, we analysed the pattern of errors to see whether overall similarity between facial expressions and/or specific morphological features caused the macaques to confuse facial expressions. Overall similarity, measured with the macaque facial action coding system (maqFACS), did not correlate with performances. Instead, functional similarities between facial expressions could be responsible for the observed pattern of error. These results expand previous findings to a novel primate species and highlight the potential of using video stimuli to investigate the perception and categorisation of visual signals in primates. PMID:25821924

  1. Immunization of Macaca fascicularis (Macaca irus) monkeys with Streptococcus mutans: specificity of antibody responses in saliva.

    PubMed

    Emmings, F G; Evans, R T; Genco, R J

    1976-04-01

    M fascicularis monkeys were immunized subcutaneously in the vicinity of the major salivary glands and by retrograde infusion into the parotid duct, with a vaccine containing Formalin-killed S mutans strain 6715 cells and culture-fluid antigens. Indirect immunofluorescent staining was used to titrate and classify antibodies. Subcutaneous immunization induced only a serum response, whereas intraductal infusion stimulated both an IgA antibody response in the parotid fluid and a serum response. Immunized and nonimmunized control groups were orally infected with S mutans strain 6715. The establishment in dental plaque was quantitated by recovery of the infecting organism on selective media and by immunofluorescent staining of plaque smears taken from individual tooth surfaces. The establishment of S mutans strain 6715 was noticeably inhibited in immune monkeys. Immunofluorescent assays for antibody also showed that serum and parotid fluid containing serum IgA antibodies cross reacted with other d serotype and a serotype strains but not representative b and c strains. Immune and control groups were then orally infected with S mutans strain GS-5, a c serotype strain, and no inhibition in establishment was detected of the non-cross-reacting type c organism in the immune group. A latter series of booster immunizations via the intraductal route resulted in a significant decrease in parotid fluid flow. Histological investigations showed inflammatory cell infiltration and replacement of epithelium by connective tissue in the glands from immunized monkeys. A separate group of monkeys, younger than the first, was immunized with the same vaccine via the duct only. In this group, immunizations were given at shorter intervals, but the immunization response was similar to that observed in the first group. The investigations reviewed here and new experiments reported show that immunization of monkeys with S mutan strain 6715 via the parotid duct elicited a reproducible IgA antibody

  2. Comparison of discrete ratios by rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Drucker, Caroline B; Rossa, Marley A; Brannon, Elizabeth M

    2016-01-01

    Perceiving and comparing ratios are crucial skills for humans. Little is known about whether other animals can compare ratios. We trained two rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) to choose arrays that contained the greater ratio of positive to negative stimuli, regardless of the absolute number of stimuli in each of the two choice arrays. Subjects learned this task, and their performance generalized to novel ratios. Moreover, performance was modulated by the ratio between ratios; subjects responded more quickly and accurately when the ratio between ratios was higher. Control conditions ruled out the possibility that subjects were relying on surface area, although the ratio between ratios of surface area did seem to influence their choices. Our results demonstrate that rhesus monkeys can compare discrete ratios, demonstrating not only proportional reasoning ability but also the ability to reason about relations between relations. PMID:26286201

  3. Variation in Clitoral Length in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Goldschmidt, Beatriz; Cabello, Pedro H; Kugelmeier, Tatiana; Pereira, Barbara B; Lopes, Claudia A; Fasano, Daniele M; Andrade, Marcia C; Santos, Joice S; Marinho, Antonio M

    2009-01-01

    Clitoromegaly in the neonatal period is an important morphologic sign that can be useful for sexual determination in aberrant cases. In rhesus monkeys, differentiation of the external genitalia occurs early during gestation (at 55 to 60 d) and is complete by approximately 80 d. Most of the critical steps in genital differentiation in primates occur prenatally. We sought to determine clitoral size in normal rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and possible effects of age and inheritance. Clitoral length was highly variable and had no relationship to fertility. Statistical evaluation revealed no association in the distribution of daughters with and without clitoris between mothers with and without clitoris. However, even when mated with several female monkeys, some male macaques produced primarily daughters without clitoris. PMID:19807967

  4. Generation of haploid embryonic stem cells from Macaca fascicularis monkey parthenotes

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hui; Liu, Zhen; Ma, Yu; Zhong, Cuiqing; Yin, Qi; Zhou, Chikai; Shi, Linyu; Cai, Yijun; Zhao, Hanzhi; Wang, Hui; Tang, Fan; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Chenchen; Liu, Xin-yuan; Lai, Dongmei; Jin, Ying; Sun, Qiang; Li, Jinsong

    2013-01-01

    Recent success in the derivation of haploid embryonic stem cells (haESCs) from mouse via parthenogenesis and androgenesis has enabled genetic screening in mammalian cells and generation of gene-modified animals. However, whether haESCs can be derived from primates remains unknown. Here, we report the derivation of haESCs from parthenogenetic blastocysts of Macaca fascicularis monkeys. These cells, termed as PG-haESCs, are pluripotent and can differentiate to cells of three embryonic germ layers in vitro or in vivo. Interestingly, the haploidy of one monkey PG-haESC line (MPH1) is more stable compared with that of the other one (MPH2), as shown by the existence of haploid cells for more than 140 days without fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) enrichment of haploid cells. Importantly, transgenic monkey PG-haESC lines can be generated by lentivirus- and piggyBac transposon-mediated gene transfer. Moreover, genetic screening is feasible in monkey PG-haESCs. Our results demonstrate that PG-haESCs can be generated from monkeys, providing an ideal tool for genetic analyses in primates. PMID:23856644

  5. Cryopreservation of epididymal spermatozoa collected by needle biopsy from cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Feradis, A H; Pawitri, D; Suatha, I K; Amin, M R; Yusuf, T L; Sajuthi, D; Budiarsa, I N; Hayes, E S

    2001-04-01

    We have examined the motility, morphology, and cryopreservation of epididymal spermatozoa collected by needle biopsy from cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). At collection, epididymal sperm (23 x 10(6) +/- 4 x 10(6) sperm/sample; 611 x 10(6) +/- 116 x 10(6) sperm/ ml; n = 18) were alive (79 +/- 2%), motile (67 +/- 2%), and exhibited intact membranes (65 +/- 2%). Sperm maintained at room temperature in handling medium exhibited decreased motility over time, but head-to-head agglutination was limited. Tris egg-yolk extender containing 6% glycerol and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) did not significantly affect functional morphology, whereas extender containing propanediol significantly reduced motility, survival, and membrane integrity. Cryostorage reduced all measures of functional morphology independent of cryoprotectant. Post-thaw motility was superior for glycerol and DMSO compared to propanediol. Variation in glycerol concentration (4, 6, and 8%) produced equivocal effects on sperm functional morphology post-thaw. Needle biopsy may be a useful technique for laboratory and field-based collection of spermatozoa from nonhuman primates. PMID:11491402

  6. Phylogenetic relationships of Malaysia's pig-tailed macaque Macaca nemestrina based on D-loop region sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul-Latiff M. A., B.; Ampeng, A.; Yaakop, S.; Md-Zain B., M.

    2014-09-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among Malaysian pig-tailed macaques have never been established even though the data are crucial in aiding conservation plan for the species. The aims of this study is to establish the phylogenetic relationships of Macaca nemestrina in Malaysia. A total of 21 genetic samples of M. nemestrina yielding 458 bp of D-loop sequences were used in phylogenetic analyses, in addition to one sample of M. fascicularis which was used as an outgroup. Sequence character analysis revealed that D-loop locus contains 23% parsimony informative character detected among the ingroups. Further analysis indicated a clear separation between populations originating from different regions; the Malay Peninsula populations are separated from Borneo Insular population; and Perak population formed a distinctive clade within Peninsular Malaysia populations. Phylogenetic trees (NJ, MP and Bayesian) portray a consistent clustering paradigm as Borneo population was distinguished from Peninsula population (100% bootstrap value in the NJ, MP, 1.00 posterior probability in Bayesian trees). Perak's population was separated from other Peninsula populations (100% in NJ, 99% in MP and 1.00 in Bayesian). D-loop region of mtDNA is proven to be a suitable locus in studying the separation of M. nemestrina at population level. These findings are crucial in aiding the conservation management and translocation process of M. fascicularis populations in Malaysia.

  7. Stress in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) subjected to long-distance transport and simulated transport housing conditions.

    PubMed

    Fernström, A L; Sutian, W; Royo, F; Westlund, K; Nilsson, T; Carlsson, H-E; Paramastri, Y; Pamungkas, J; Sajuthi, D; Schapiro, S J; Hau, J

    2008-11-01

    The stress associated with transportation of non-human primates used in scientific research is an important but almost unexplored part of laboratory animal husbandry. The procedures and routines concerning transport are not only important for the animals' physical health but also for their mental health as well. The transport stress in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) was studied in two experiments. In Experiment 1, 25 adult female cynomolgus monkeys were divided into five groups of five animals each that received different diets during the transport phase of the experiment. All animals were transported in conventional single animal transport cages with no visual or tactile contact with conspecifics. The animals were transported by lorry for 24 h at ambient temperatures ranging between 20 degrees C and 35 degrees C. Urine produced before, during and after transport was collected and analysed for cortisol by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). All monkeys exhibited a significant increase in cortisol excretion per time unit during the transport and on the first day following transport.Although anecdotal reports concerning diet during transport, including the provision of fruits and/or a tranquiliser, was thought likely to influence stress responses, these were not corrobated by the present study. In Experiment 2, behavioural data were collected from 18 cynomolgus macaques before and after transfer from group cages to either single or pair housing, and also before and after a simulated transport, in which the animals were housed in transport cages. The single housed monkeys were confined to single transport cages and the pair housed monkeys were kept in their pairs in double size cages. Both pair housed and singly housed monkeys showed clear behavioural signs of stress soon after their transfer out of their group cages.However, stress-associated behaviours were more prevalent in singly housed animals than in pair housed animals, and these behaviours

  8. Engineering Macaca fascicularis cytochrome P450 2C20 to reduce animal testing for new drugs.

    PubMed

    Rua, Francesco; Sadeghi, Sheila J; Castrignanò, Silvia; Di Nardo, Giovanna; Gilardi, Gianfranco

    2012-12-01

    In order to develop in vitro methods as an alternative to P450 animal testing in the drug discovery process, two main requisites are necessary: 1) gathering of data on animal homologues of the human P450 enzymes, currently very limited, and 2) bypassing the requirement for both the P450 reductase and the expensive cofactor NADPH. In this work, P450 2C20 from Macaca fascicularis, homologue of the human P450 2C8 has been taken as a model system to develop such an alternative in vitro method by two different approaches. In the first approach called "molecular Lego", a soluble self-sufficient chimera was generated by fusing the P450 2C20 domain with the reductase domain of cytochrome P450 BM3 from Bacillus megaterium (P450 2C20/BMR). In the second approach, the need for the redox partner and also NADPH were both obviated by the direct immobilization of the P450 2C20 on glassy carbon and gold electrodes. Both systems were then compared to those obtained from the reconstituted P450 2C20 monooxygenase in presence of the human P450 reductase and NADPH using paclitaxel and amodiaquine, two typical drug substrates of the human P450 2C8. The K(M) values calculated for the 2C20 and 2C20/BMR in solution and for 2C20 immobilized on electrodes modified with gold nanoparticles were 1.9 ± 0.2, 5.9 ± 2.3, 3.0 ± 0.5 μM for paclitaxel and 1.2 ± 0.2, 1.6±0.2 and 1.4 ± 0.2 μM for amodiaquine, respectively. The data obtained not only show that the engineering of M. fascicularis did not affect its catalytic properties but also are consistent with K(M) values measured for the microsomal human P450 2C8 and therefore show the feasibility of developing alternative in vitro animal tests. PMID:22819650

  9. Measurement of Blood Volume in Adult Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Hobbs, Theodore R; Blue, Steven W; Park, Byung S; Greisel, Jennifer J; Conn, P Michael; Pau, Francis K-Y

    2015-01-01

    Most biomedical facilities that use rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) limit the amount of blood that may be collected for experimental purposes. These limits typically are expressed as a percentage of blood volume (BV), estimated by using a fixed ratio of blood (mL) per body weight (kg). BV estimation ratios vary widely among facilities and typically do not factor in variables known to influence BV in humans: sex, age, and body condition. We used indicator dilution methodology to determine the BV of 20 adult rhesus macaques (10 male, 10 female) that varied widely in body condition. We measured body composition by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, weight, crown-to-rump length, and body condition score. Two indicators, FITC-labeled hydroxyethyl starch (FITC–HES) and radioiodinated rhesus serum albumin (125I-RhSA), were injected simultaneously, followed by serial blood collection. Plasma volume at time 0 was determined by linear regression. BV was calculated from the plasma volume and Hct. We found that BV calculated by using FITC–HES was consistently lower than BV calculated by using 125I-RhSA. Sex and age did not significantly affect BV. Percentage body fat was significantly associated with BV. Subjects categorized as having ‘optimal’ body condition score had 18% body fat and 62.1 mL/kg BV (by FITC–HES; 74.5 mL/kg by 125I-RhSA). Each 1% increase in body fat corresponded to approximately 1 mL/kg decrease in BV. Body condition score correlated with the body fat percentage (R2 = 0.7469). We provide an equation for calculating BV from weight and body condition score. PMID:26632777

  10. Measurement of Blood Volume in Adult Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Hobbs, Theodore R; Blue, Steven W; Park, Byung S; Greisel, Jennifer J; Conn, P Michael; Pau, Francis K-Y

    2015-11-01

    Most biomedical facilities that use rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) limit the amount of blood that may be collected for experimental purposes. These limits typically are expressed as a percentage of blood volume (BV), estimated by using a fixed ratio of blood (mL) per body weight (kg). BV estimation ratios vary widely among facilities and typically do not factor in variables known to influence BV in humans: sex, age, and body condition. We used indicator dilution methodology to determine the BV of 20 adult rhesus macaques (10 male, 10 female) that varied widely in body condition. We measured body composition by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, weight, crown-to-rump length, and body condition score. Two indicators, FITC-labeled hydroxyethyl starch (FITC-HES) and radioiodinated rhesus serum albumin ((125)I-RhSA), were injected simultaneously, followed by serial blood collection. Plasma volume at time 0 was determined by linear regression. BV was calculated from the plasma volume and Hct. We found that BV calculated by using FITC-HES was consistently lower than BV calculated by using (125)I-RhSA. Sex and age did not significantly affect BV. Percentage body fat was significantly associated with BV. Subjects categorized as having 'optimal' body condition score had 18% body fat and 62.1 mL/kg BV (by FITC-HES; 74.5 mL/kg by (125)I-RhSA). Each 1% increase in body fat corresponded to approximately 1 mL/kg decrease in BV. Body condition score correlated with the body fat percentage (R(2) = 0.7469). We provide an equation for calculating BV from weight and body condition score. PMID:26632777

  11. Brain Abscess in a Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta) with a Cephalic Implant

    PubMed Central

    Leblanc, Mathias; Berry, Kristy; McCort, Holly; Reuter, Jon D

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of brain abscess after craniotomy and the placement of a recording chamber for electrophysiologic records in an adult rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) enrolled in visual research. Approximately 2 wk after surgery, the macaque presented with nonspecific gastrointestinal signs and showed no evidence of fever, neurologic deficits, increased intracranial pressure, suggestive alterations in the CBC, or abnormal changes in the recording chamber. The macaque responded to symptomatic and antibiotic treatment and showed no behavioral or abnormal clinical signs for 3 wk before collapsing suddenly. The macaque was euthanized, and pathologic evaluation revealed a large brain abscess immediately under the original craniotomy. PMID:24209974

  12. Stimulus-Food Pairings Produce Stimulus-Directed Touch Screen Responding in Cynomolgus Monkeys ("Macaca Fascicularis") with or without a Positive Response Contingency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullock, Christopher E.; Myers, Todd M.

    2009-01-01

    Acquisition and maintenance of touch-screen responding was examined in naive cynomolgus monkeys ("Macaca fascicularis") under automaintenance and classical conditioning arrangements. In the first condition of Experiment 1, we compared acquisition of screen touching to a randomly positioned stimulus (a gray square) that was either stationary or…

  13. The complete mitochondrial genome of Assamese Macaques (Macaca assamensis).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Juan; Li, Peng; Yu, Jianqiu; Zhao, Guang; Yi, Yong; Yue, Bisong; Li, Jing

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Assamese macaques (Macaca assamensis) was sequenced in this study. The genome is 16,542 bp long, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 2 non-coding areas. Eight PCGs (COI, COII, ATP6, COIII, ND4L, ND4, ND6, CYTB) initiate with the start codon ATG and another two genes (ND1, ATP8) use GTG, while ND2, ND3 and ND5 start with ATT, ATC and ATA, respectively. Five genes (COII, ATP8, ATP6, ND4L and ND5) use the complete stop codon TAA, whereas four genes have incomplete stop codons, TA- (COIII) and T- - (ND3, ND4, CYTB), while others use standard canonical TAA as their termination codons. The largest non-coding control region with the length of 1091 bp is located between the tRNA-Pro and tRNA-Phe genes. PMID:24495139

  14. Reconciliation and relationship quality in Assamese macaques (Macaca assamensis).

    PubMed

    Cooper, Matthew A; Berntein, Irwin S; Hemelrijk, Charlotte K

    2005-03-01

    A consistent conclusion in reconciliation research is that animals that reconcile are likely to have strong social bonds. This has led to the hypothesis that reconciliation occurs most often between valuable social partners. We tested this hypothesis in a group of Assamese macaques (Macaca assamensis) living near a temple in Assam, India. Using focal sample and ad libitum data collection, we recorded the occurrence of reconciliation, grooming, and agonistic aiding, and the outcomes of approach. We used matrix association methods (TauKr correlation) to correlate reconciliation with grooming, aiding, and approach outcome. Females reconciled more often with females with which they had stronger grooming and aiding relationships. The correlation between reconciliation and aiding was significant for support to the aggressor and the victim. In contrast, no such correlations with reconciliation were found for males. This study provides evidence that females reconcile most often with valuable and compatible social partners. The results do not support the relationship-quality hypothesis for males, and we suggest that future studies give more consideration to the possibility that males reconcile for reasons other than to repair relationships with valuable partners. PMID:15772987

  15. The photocurrent, noise and spectral sensitivity of rods of the monkey Macaca fascicularis.

    PubMed Central

    Baylor, D A; Nunn, B J; Schnapf, J L

    1984-01-01

    Visual transduction in rods of the cynomolgus monkey, Macaca fascicularis, was studied by recording membrane current from single outer segments projecting from small pieces of retina. Light flashes evoked transient outward-going photocurrents with saturating amplitudes of up to 34 pA. A flash causing twenty to fifty photoisomerizations gave a response of half the saturating amplitude. The response-stimulus relation was of the form 1-e-x where x is flash strength. The response to a dim flash usually had a time to peak of 150-250 ms and resembled the impulse response of a series of six low-pass filters. From the average spectral sensitivity of ten rods the rhodopsin was estimated to have a peak absorption near 491 nm. The spectral sensitivity of the rods was in good agreement with the average human scotopic visibility curve determined by Crawford (1949), when the human curve was corrected for lens absorption and self-screening of rhodopsin. Fluctuations in the photocurrent evoked by dim lights were consistent with a quantal event about 0.7 pA in peak amplitude. A steady light causing about 100 photoisomerizations s-1 reduced the flash sensitivity to half the dark-adapted value. At higher background levels the rod rapidly saturated. These results support the idea that dim background light desensitizes human scotopic vision by a mechanism central to the rod outer segments while scotopic saturation may occur within the outer segments. Recovery of the photocurrent after bright flashes was marked by quantized step-like events. The events had the properties expected if bleached rhodopsin in the disks occasionally caused an abrupt blockage of the dark current over about one-twentieth of the length of the outer segment. It is suggested that superposition of these events after bleaching may contribute to the threshold elevation measured psychophysically. The current in darkness showed random fluctuations which disappeared in bright light. The continuous component of the noise

  16. Physiological properties of retinal Muller glial cells from the cynomolgus monkey, Macaca fascicularis--a comparison to human Muller cells.

    PubMed

    Pannicke, Thomas; Biedermann, Bernd; Uckermann, Ortrud; Weick, Michael; Bringmann, Andreas; Wolf, Sebastian; Wiedemann, Peter; Habermann, Gunnar; Buse, Eberhard; Reichenbach, Andreas

    2005-06-01

    Retinae from rabbits and laboratory rodents are often used as 'models' of the human retina, although there are anatomical differences. To test whether monkey eyes provide a better model, a physiological study of Muller glial cells was performed comparing isolated cells and retinal wholemounts from the cynomolgus monkey, Macaca fascicularis and from man. The membrane conductance of Muller cells from both species was dominated by inward and outward K(+) currents. Cells displayed glutamate uptake currents and responded to nucleotides by intracellular Ca(2+) increases. However, there were also species differences, such as a lack of GABA(A) receptors and of Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) currents in monkey cells. Thus, the use of Muller cells from cynomolgus monkeys may be advantageous for investigating a few specific properties; in general, monkey cells are no more similar to human cells than those from standard laboratory animals. PMID:15797768

  17. Evaluation of endoscopic salpingectomy for sterilization of female Formosan macaques (Macaca cyclopis).

    PubMed

    Yu, Pin-Huan; Weng, Chia-Chun; Kuo, Hung-Chih; Chi, Chau-Hwa

    2015-04-01

    We evaluated the safety and postsurgical outcomes of endoscopic salpingectomy for sterilization of female Formosan macaques (Macaca cyclopis) as a method of population control. Nineteen adult female Formosan macaques were included in our study. The fallopian tubes of each anesthetized macaque were cauterized and excised endoscopically using a 2.7-mm rigid endoscope system. We recorded the complications encountered, and objectively scored the amount of hemorrhage throughout the procedure. Postoperative ovarian function was evaluated by monitoring the serum levels of sex hormones in ten of the macaques for two ovarian cycles following the salpingectomy. Two to 13 months later, eight of the 19 macaques underwent laparoscopy for the objective evaluation of inflammation at the surgical sites on the fallopian tubes. No major anesthetic- or surgical-associated complications were observed in any of the macaques. The hormonal evaluation showed cyclic ovarian function after salpingectomy in all of the ten macaques examined, and the parameters were comparable to those of other macaque species. The long-term postoperative level of inflammation at the surgical site was minimal to low, and was lower than that reported for other tubal occlusion techniques used in macaques. The use of a 2.7-mm rigid endoscope for salpingectomy in macaques is safe and efficient, with fewer postoperative complications than comparable sterilization techniques. PMID:25407314

  18. Inhibition of progesterone secretion during the luteal phase by two luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists in Macaca fascicularis.

    PubMed

    Raynaud, J P; Mary, I; Moguilewsky, M; Mouren, M; Labrie, F

    1980-12-01

    The administration of 200 microgram of the potent luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist [D-Leu6,des-Gly-NH2(10)]LHRH ethylamide on day 6 following the plasma estradiol peak to 11 female monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) during two consecutive menstrual cycles decreased plasma progesterone levels by 40.0% +/- 3.9% as compared with previous control cycles. The plasma estradiol profile and the cycle length were not affected significantly by the treatment. Similar results were obtained with 25 microgram of [D-Ser(TBU)6,des-Gly-NH2(10)]LHRH ethylamide administered to one monkey at the same period of the cycle, such treatment leading to a 41% inhibition of circulating progesterone levels. Although plasma progesterone levels were still reduced in the two post-treatment cycles in monkeys treated with the high dose (200 microgram) of [D-Leu6,des-Gly-NH2(10)]LHRH ethylamide, the recovery cycle was normal after the administration of a lower dose (25 microgram) of [D-Ser(TBU)6, des-Gly-NH2(10)] LHRH ethylamide. The M. fascicularis monkey thus appears as a valid model with which to study the inhibitory effects of LHRH agonists on luteal function. PMID:6778718

  19. Visible lesion laser thresholds in Cynomolgus (Macaca fascicularis) retina with a 1064 nm 12-ns pulsed laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, Jeffrey W.; Stolarski, David J.; Noojin, Gary D.; Hodnett, Harvey M.; Imholte, Michelle L.; Rockwell, Benjamin A.; Kumru, Semih S.

    2007-02-01

    A series of experiments in a new animal model for retinal damage, cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis), have been conducted to determine the damage threshold for 12.5-nanosecond laser exposures at 1064 nm. These results provide a direct comparison to threshold values obtained in rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta), which is the model historically used in establishing retinal maximum permissible exposure (MPE) limits. In this study, the irradiance level of a collimated Gaussian laser beam of 2.5 mm diameter at the cornea was randomly varied to produce a rectangular grid of exposures on the retina. Exposures sites were fundoscopically evaluated at post-irradiance intervals of 1 hour and 24 hours. Probit analysis was performed on dose-response data to obtain probability of response curves. The 50% probability of damage (ED50) values for 1 and 24 hours post-exposure are 28.5(22.7-38.4) μJ and 17.0(12.9-21.8) μJ, respectively. These values compare favorably to data obtained with the rhesus model, 28.7(22.3-39.3) μJ and 19.1(13.6-24.4) μJ, suggesting that the cynomolgus monkey may be a suitable replacement for rhesus monkey in photoacoustic minimum visible lesion threshold studies.

  20. Macaques at the margins: the biogeography and extinction of Macaca sylvanus in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elton, Sarah; O'Regan, Hannah J.

    2014-07-01

    The genus Macaca (Primates: Cercopithecidae) originated in Africa, dispersed into Europe in the Late Miocene and resided there until the Late Pleistocene. In this contribution, we provide an overview of the evolutionary history of Macaca in Europe, putting it into context with the wider late Miocene, Pliocene and Pleistocene European monkey fossil record (also comprising Mesopithecus, Paradolichopithecus, Dolichopithecus and Theropithecus). The Pliocene and Pleistocene European Macaca fossil material is largely regarded as Macaca sylvanus, the same species as the extant Barbary macaque in North Africa. The M. sylvanus specimens found at West Runton in Norfolk (53°N) during the Middle Pleistocene are among the most northerly euprimates ever discovered. Our simple time-budget model indicates that short winter day lengths would have imposed a significant constraint on activity at such relatively high latitudes, so macaque populations in Britain may have been at the limit of their ecological tolerance. Two basic models using climatic and topographic data for the Last Interglacial and the Last Glacial Maximum alongside Middle and Late Pleistocene fossil distributions indicate that much of Europe may have been suitable habitat for macaques. The models also indicate that areas of southern Europe in the present day have a climate that could support macaque populations. However, M. sylvanus became locally extinct in the Late Pleistocene, possibly at a similar time as the straight-tusked elephant, Palaeoloxodon antiquus, and narrow-nosed rhinoceros, Stephanorhinus hemitoechus. Its extinction may be related to vegetation change or increased predation from Homo, although other factors (such as stochastic factors occurring as a result of small population sizes) cannot be ruled out. Notwithstanding the cause of extinction, the European macaque may thus be a previously overlooked member of the Late Pleistocene faunal turnover.

  1. A Chinese rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) model for vaginal Lactobacillus colonization and live microbicide development

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Rosa R.; Cheng, Andrew T.; Lagenaur, Laurel A.; Huang, Wenjun; Weiss, Deborah E.; Treece, Jim; Sanders-Beer, Brigitte E.; Hamer, Dean H.; Lee, Peter P.; Xu, Qiang; Liu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Background We sought to establish a nonhuman primate model of vaginal Lactobacillus colonization suitable for evaluating live microbial microbicide candidates. Methods Vaginal and rectal microflora in Chinese rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were analyzed, with cultivable bacteria identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Live lactobacilli were intravaginally administered to evaluate bacterial colonization. Results Chinese rhesus macaques harbored abundant vaginal Lactobacillus, with Lactobacillus johnsonii as the predominant species. Like humans, most examined macaques harbored only one vaginal Lactobacillus species. Vaginal and rectal Lactobacillus isolates from the same animal exhibited different genetic and biochemical profiles. Vaginal Lactobacillus was cleared by a vaginal suppository of azithromycin, and endogenous L. johnsonii was subsequently restored by intravaginal inoculation. Importantly, prolonged colonization of a human vaginal Lactobacillus jensenii was established in these animals. Conclusions The Chinese rhesus macaque harbors vaginal Lactobacillus and is a potentially useful model to support the pre-clinical evaluation of Lactobacillus-based topical microbicides. PMID:19367737

  2. Clinical Allograft of a Calcaneal Tendon in a Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Lemoy, Marie-Josee; Summers, Laura; Colagross-Schouten, Angela

    2014-01-01

    A 5.5-y-old male rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) housed in an outdoor field cage presented for severe trauma involving the left calcaneal tendon. Part of the management of this wound included an allograft of the calcaneal tendon from an animal that was euthanized for medical reasons. This case report describes the successful medical and surgical management of a macaque with a significant void of the calcaneal tendon. To our knowledge, this report is the first description of a successful tendon allograft in a rhesus macaque for clinical purposes. PMID:25255076

  3. Glucoregulatory Function in Adult Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) Undergoing Treatment with Medroxyprogesterone Acetate for Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Cruzen, Christina L; Baum, Scott T; Colman, Ricki J

    2011-01-01

    Endometriosis affects a large percentage of the rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) at our institution. When the disease is diagnosed in macaques on long-term research protocols, the treatment of choice in our facility is monthly administration of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) to decrease estrogen release and subsequently diminish clinical signs associated with the disease. Because hormonal fluctuations associated with the normal menstrual cycle are known to affect parameters of glucoregulatory function in rhesus macaques, we evaluated the effect of MPA treatment on glucoregulatory function cross-sectionally in 6 animals and longitudinally in 4 animals with endometriosis. Our hypothesis was that monthly administration of MPA for the treatment of endometriosis would negatively affect glucoregulatory function in rhesus macaques. We found that adult female rhesus macaques on MPA therapy for 1.4 to 36.1 mo had lower insulin sensitivity than did age- and weight-matched healthy control animals. In addition, glucoregulatory function was reduced after MPA treatment as compared with pretreatment levels in a group of 4 macaques. These data suggest that glucoregulatory function should be considered when endometriosis treatment is planned for rhesus macaques. PMID:22330788

  4. MaqFACS (Macaque Facial Action Coding System) can be used to document facial movements in Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus)

    PubMed Central

    Julle-Danière, Églantine; Whitehouse, Jamie; Joly, Marine; Gass, Carolin; Burrows, Anne M.; Waller, Bridget M.

    2015-01-01

    Human and non-human primates exhibit facial movements or displays to communicate with one another. The evolution of form and function of those displays could be better understood through multispecies comparisons. Anatomically based coding systems (Facial Action Coding Systems: FACS) are developed to enable such comparisons because they are standardized and systematic and aid identification of homologous expressions underpinned by similar muscle contractions. To date, FACS has been developed for humans, and subsequently modified for chimpanzees, rhesus macaques, orangutans, hylobatids, dogs, and cats. Here, we wanted to test whether the MaqFACS system developed in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) could be used to code facial movements in Barbary macaques (M. sylvanus), a species phylogenetically close to the rhesus macaques. The findings show that the facial movement capacity of Barbary macaques can be reliably coded using the MaqFACS. We found differences in use and form of some movements, most likely due to specializations in the communicative repertoire of each species, rather than morphological differences. PMID:26401458

  5. West Nile Virus Encephalitis in a Barbary Macaque (Macaca sylvanus)

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Ian K.; Crawshaw, Graham J.; Bertelsen, Mads F.; Drebot, Michael A.; Andonova, Maya

    2004-01-01

    An aged Barbary ape (Macaca sylvanus) at the Toronto Zoo became infected with naturally acquired West Nile virus (WNV) encephalitis that caused neurologic signs, which, associated with other medical problems, led to euthanasia. The diagnosis was based on immunohistochemical assay of brain lesions, reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction, and virus isolation. PMID:15200866

  6. Serum Cobalamin (Vitamin B12) Concentrations in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) and Pigtailed Macaques (Macaca nemestrina) with Chronic Idiopathic Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Izzi, Jessica M; Beck, Sarah E; Adams, Robert J; Metcalf Pate, Kelly A; Hutchinson, Eric K

    2016-01-01

    Chronic diarrhea poses a significant threat to the health of NHP research colonies, and its primary etiology remains unclear. In macaques, the clinical presentation of intractable diarrhea and weight loss that are accompanied by inflammatory infiltrates within the gastrointestinal tract closely resembles inflammatory bowel disease of humans, dogs, and cats, in which low serum and tissue cobalamin (vitamin B12) levels are due to intestinal malabsorption. We therefore hypothesized that macaques with chronic idiopathic diarrhea (CID) have lower serum cobalamin concentrations than do healthy macaques. Here we measured serum cobalamin concentrations in both rhesus and pigtailed macaques with CID and compared them with those of healthy controls. Serum cobalamin levels were 2.5-fold lower in pigtailed macaques with CID than control animals but did not differ between rhesus macaques with CID and their controls. This finding supports the use of serum cobalamin concentration as an adjunct diagnostic tool in pigtailed macaques that present with clinical symptoms of chronic gastrointestinal disease. This use of serum vitamin B12 levels has implications for the future use of parenteral cobalamin supplementation to improve clinical outcomes in this species. PMID:27538863

  7. Oocyte glutathione and fertilisation outcome of Macaca nemestrina and Macaca fascicularis in in vivo- and in vitro-matured oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Curnow, E. C.; Ryan, J. P.; Saunders, D. M.; Hayes, E. S.

    2010-01-01

    Fertilisation and development of IVM non-human primate oocytes is limited compared with that of in vivo-matured (IVO) oocytes. The present study describes the IVM of macaque oocytes with reference to oocyte glutathione (GSH). Timing of maturation, comparison of IVM media and cysteamine (CYS) supplementation as a modulator of GSH were investigated. A significantly greater proportion of oocytes reached MII after 30 h compared with 24 h of IVM. Following insemination, IVM oocytes had a significantly lower incidence of normal fertilisation (i.e. 2PN = two pronuclei and at least one polar body) and a higher rate of abnormal fertilisation (1PN = one pronucleus and at least one polar body) compared with IVO oocytes. Immunofluorescence of 1PN zygotes identified incomplete sperm head decondensation and failure of male pronucleus formation as the principal cause of abnormal fertilisation in IVM oocytes. The IVO oocytes had significantly higher GSH content than IVM oocytes. Cumulus-denuded oocytes had significantly lower GSH following IVM compared with immature oocytes at collection. Cysteamine supplementation of the IVM medium significantly increased the GSH level of cumulus-intact oocytes and reduced the incidence of 1PN formation, but did not improve GSH levels of the denuded oocyte. Suboptimal GSH levels in macaque IVM oocytes may be related to reduced fertilisation outcomes. PMID:20591337

  8. The vocal repertoire of Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana): A quantitative classification.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Sofia K; Sheeran, Lori K; Wagner, R Steven; Li, Jin-Hua; Koda, Hiroki

    2016-09-01

    Vocal repertoires are basic and essential components for describing vocal communication in animals. Studying the entire suite of vocal signals aids investigations on the variation of acoustic structure across social contexts, comparisons on the complexity of communication systems across taxa, and in exploration of the evolutionary origins of species-specific vocalizations. Here, we describe the vocal repertoire of the largest species in the macaque genus, Macaca thibetana. We extracted thirty acoustic parameters from call recordings. Post hoc validation through quantitative analyses of the a priori repertoire classified eleven call types: coo, squawk, squeal, noisy scream, growl, bark, compound squeak, leap coo, weeping, modulated tonal scream, and pant. In comparison to the rest of the genus, Tibetan macaques uttered a wider array of vocalizations in the context of copulations. Previous reports did not include modulated tonal screams and pants during harassment of copulatory dyads. Furthermore, in comparison to the rest of the genus, Tibetan macaque females emit acoustically distinct copulation calls. The vocal repertoire of Tibetan macaques contributes to the literature on the emergence of species-specific calls in the genus Macaca with potential insights from social, reproductive, and ecological comparisons across species. Am. J. Primatol. 78:937-949, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27243451

  9. Attenuation of Neurovirulence, Biodistribution, and Shedding of a Poliovirus:Rhinovirus Chimera after Intrathalamic Inoculation in Macaca fascicularis

    PubMed Central

    Dobrikova, Elena Y.; Goetz, Christian; Walters, Robert W.; Lawson, Sarah K.; Peggins, James O.; Muszynski, Karen; Ruppel, Sheryl; Poole, Karyol; Giardina, Steven L.; Vela, Eric M.; Estep, James E.

    2012-01-01

    A dependence of poliovirus on an unorthodox translation initiation mode can be targeted selectively to drive viral protein synthesis and cytotoxicity in malignant cells. Transformed cells are naturally susceptible to poliovirus, due to widespread ectopic upregulation of the poliovirus receptor, Necl-5, in ectodermal/neuroectodermal cancers. Viral tumor cell killing and the host immunologic response it engenders produce potent, lasting antineoplastic effects in animal tumor models. Clinical application of this principle depends on unequivocal demonstration of safety in primate models for paralytic poliomyelitis. We conducted extensive dose-range-finding, toxicity, biodistribution, shedding, and neutralizing antibody studies of the prototype oncolytic poliovirus recombinant, PVS-RIPO, after intrathalamic inoculation in Macaca fascicularis. These studies suggest that intracerebral PVS-RIPO inoculation does not lead to viral propagation in the central nervous system (CNS), does not cause histopathological CNS lesions or neurological symptoms that can be attributed to the virus, is not associated with extraneural virus dissemination or replication and does not induce shedding of virus with stool. Intrathalamic PVS-RIPO inoculation induced neutralizing antibody responses against poliovirus serotype 1 in all animals studied. PMID:22171271

  10. Pregnancy diagnosis by laparoscopy in free range rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, V.; Raj, A.; Kumar, P.

    2011-01-01

    The present study involved 50 adult female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatto) of age ranging between 4 to 15 years. Pregnancy diagnosis was done by using laparoscopic method. Anesthesia was achieved by using xylazine (2mg/kg) and ketamine (10mg/kg) intramuscularly. The gravid uterus was located close to the urinary bladder in early pregnancy and in abdominal cavity in the mid and late stage of pregnancy. The procedure was completed within 10 - 12 minutes. There were no complications after the surgery and recovery of animal was smooth and uneventful. The results of this study showed that laparoscopic method is also one of the methods of pregnancy diagnosis in rhesus macaques and it can be a precise and a reliable method of pregnancy diagnosis in rhesus macaques. PMID:26623277

  11. Antemortem Screening for Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Haertel, Andrew J; Stern, Joshua A; Reader, J Rachel; Spinner, Abigail; Roberts, Jeffrey A; Christe, Kari L

    2016-01-01

    Concentric left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is a hallmark finding in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy that leads to diastolic dysfunction and variable cardiac consequences as severe as congestive heart failure and sudden cardiac death. LVH was diagnosed postmortem in a large colony of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), but methods to screen and diagnose LVH in living animals are desired. We hypothesized that targeted echocardiography of macaques with a familial association of LVH would yield antemortem LVH diagnoses. We also hypothesized that cardiac biomarker levels would be higher in sudden-death LVH or occult LVH than controls and that cardiac troponin I (cTnI) levels would be higher in macaques housed outdoors than indoors. Sera were assayed for cardiac biomarkers (cTnI, C-reactive protein, creatinine kinase-MB, creatine phosphokinase, and LDH), in conjunction with echocardiography, after diagnosis by postmortem exam or from animals with different levels of exercise due to indoor compared with outdoor housing. None of the investigated biomarkers were associated with LVH. cTnI levels were significantly higher in serum collected from outdoor than indoor macaques. In addition, LVH was diagnosed in 29.4% of subjects with a familial association of LVH. These findings suggest that exercise may increase cTnI levels in rhesus macaques and that targeted echocardiography of rhesus macaques with a familial association of LVH was the most useful variable examined for disease surveillance. PMID:27538864

  12. Congenital malformations in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) at Takasakiyama.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Yukimaru; Kurita, Hiroyuki; Matsui, Takeshi; Kimoto, Satoshi; Egawa, Junko

    2014-04-01

    From the late 1960s to the early 1970s, many congenitally malformed infants were born into provisioned Japanese macaque troops. Although the exact cause of this problem was not determined, the occurrence of malformations decreased thereafter. We examined possible factors such as total population size, number of adult females, birth rate, and volume of provisioned food. Agrichemicals attached to provisioned food are suspected as the main cause, as other factors were found to have no influence. Many more malformations were seen in males compared with females, in feet compared with hands, and in the fourth compared with other digits. We confirmed that the frequency of congenital malformation was high during the 1960s through to the mid-1970s when increased levels of provisioned food were given and that the incidence of congenital malformations was also elevated among wild macaques during this time. PMID:24474604

  13. Pharmacokinetics of tramadol following intravenous and oral administration in male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Kelly, K R; Pypendop, B H; Christe, K L

    2015-08-01

    Recently, tramadol and its active metabolite, O-desmethyltramadol (M1), have been studied as analgesic agents in various traditional veterinary species (e.g., dogs, cats, etc.). This study explores the pharmacokinetics of tramadol and M1 after intravenous (IV) and oral (PO) administration in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), a nontraditional veterinary species. Rhesus macaques are Old World monkeys that are commonly used in biomedical research. Effects of tramadol administration to monkeys are unknown, and research veterinarians may avoid inclusion of this drug into pain management programs due to this limited knowledge. Four healthy, socially housed, adult male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were used in this study. Blood samples were collected prior to, and up to 10 h post-tramadol administration. Serum tramadol and M1 were analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was performed. Tramadol clearance was 24.5 (23.4-32.7) mL/min/kg. Terminal half-life of tramadol was 111 (106-127) min IV and 133 (84.9-198) min PO. Bioavailability of tramadol was poor [3.47% (2.14-5.96%)]. Maximum serum concentration of M1 was 2.28 (1.88-2.73) ng/mL IV and 11.2 (9.37-14.9) ng/mL PO. Sedation and pruritus were observed after IV administration. PMID:25488714

  14. Pharmacokinetics of tramadol following intravenous and oral administration in male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Kristi R.; Pypendop, Bruno H.; Christe, Kari L.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, tramadol and its active metabolite, O-desmethyltramadol (M1), have been studied as analgesic agents in various traditional veterinary species (e.g. dogs, cats, etc.). This study explores the pharmacokinetics of tramadol and M1 after intravenous (IV) and oral (PO) administration in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), a nontraditional veterinary species. Rhesus macaques are Old World monkeys that are commonly used in biomedical research. Effects of tramadol administration to monkeys are unknown, and research veterinarians may avoid inclusion of this drug into pain management programs due to this limited knowledge. Four healthy, socially-housed, adult male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were used in this study. Blood samples were collected prior to, and up to 10 h post tramadol administration. Serum tramadol and M1 were analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was performed. Tramadol clearance was 24.5 (23.4-32.7) mL/min/kg. Terminal half-life of tramadol was 111 (106-127) min IV and 133 (84.9-198) min PO. Bioavailability of tramadol was poor [3.47% (2.14-5.96%)]. Maximum serum concentration of M1 was 2.28 (1.88-2.73) ng/mL IV and 11.2 (9.37-14.9) ng/mL PO. Sedation and pruritus were observed after IV administration (180 words). PMID:25488714

  15. Buton macaques (Macaca ochreata brunnescens): crops, conflict, and behavior on farms.

    PubMed

    Priston, Nancy E C; Wyper, Rebecca M; Lee, Phyllis C

    2012-01-01

    One consequence of anthropogenic habitat alteration is that many nonhuman primates are forced into conflict interactions with humans and their livelihood activities, especially through crop raiding. These problems are particularly acute for the endemic and threatened Buton Island macaque (Macaca ochreata brunnescens), in southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. Our study investigated the crop raiding behavior of this species over time. Foods eaten and the behavioral repertoire exhibited by macaques during crop raiding at and inside farm perimeters were observed over a period of 8 years (2002-2009). Storage organ crops (e.g. sweet potato) were abundant and most frequently raided by macaques. Individual macaques were most commonly observed to raid close (0-10 m) to farm perimeters. Activities such as feeding, resting, moving, and social interaction varied significantly as a function of penetration distance into the farm, but only marginally between age-sex classes. The annual average raid frequency per farm decreased over the latter years of the study period, raising questions about changes in macaque foraging and ranging behavior over time and their response to farm management and mitigation strategies. PMID:22025206

  16. Pharmacokinetics of Oxymorphone in Titi Monkeys (Callicebus spp.) and Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Kristi R; Pypendop, Bruno H; Grayson, J Kevin; Stanley, Scott D; Christe, Kari L; Summers, Laura M; Lerche, Nicholas W

    2011-01-01

    Oxymorphone is a pure μ-opioid receptor agonist that is commonly used in nonhuman primate medicine and surgery to minimize pain ranging in intensity from moderate to severe. We compared pharmacokinetic profiles and physiologic and behavioral responses to oxymorphone between titi monkeys (Callicebus spp.) and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Titi monkeys (n = 4) and rhesus macaques (n = 4) were injected intravenously with either a bolus of 0.075 mg/kg oxymorphone or placebo on multiple occasions, with a minimal washout period of 14 d between trials. Blood collection was limited to no more than 3 samples per trial, with samples collected at multiple time points until 10 h after injection. Collection periods, animal order, and testing day were randomized. In addition, macaques underwent a single serial collection at all time points to validate study design. A 2-compartment model best described the disposition of oxymorphone in both species. Clearance was faster in macaques than titi monkeys, in which terminal half-life was longer. Statistically significant physiologic differences were found between species and between treatments within species. Apart from these effects, oxymorphone did not significantly change physiologic parameters over time. After oxymorphone treatment, macaques demonstrated behaviors reflecting pruritis, whereas titi monkeys exhibited sedation. Despite its mild side effects, we recommend the consideration of oxymorphone for pain management protocols in both Old and New World nonhuman primates. PMID:21439215

  17. Diversity and molecular phylogeny of mitochondrial DNA of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hasan, M Kamrul; Feeroz, M Mostafa; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Engel, Gregory A; Kanthaswamy, Sree; Smith, David Glenn

    2014-11-01

    While studies of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in the eastern (e.g., China) and western (e.g., India) parts of their geographic range have revealed major genetic differences that warrant the recognition of two different subspecies, little is known about genetic characteristics of rhesus macaques in the transitional zone extending from eastern India and Bangladesh through the northern part of Indo-China, the probable original homeland of the species. We analyzed genetic variation of 762 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA from 86 fecal swab samples and 19 blood samples from 25 local populations of rhesus macaque in Bangladesh collected from January 2010 to August 2012. These sequences were compared with those of rhesus macaques from India, China, and Myanmar. Forty-six haplotypes defined by 200 (26%) polymorphic nucleotide sites were detected. Estimates of gene diversity, expected heterozygosity, and nucleotide diversity for the total population were 0.9599 ± 0.0097, 0.0193 ± 0.0582, and 0.0196 ± 0.0098, respectively. A mismatch distribution of paired nucleotide differences yielded a statistically significantly negative value of Tajima's D, reflecting a population that rapidly expanded after the terminal Pleistocene. Most haplotypes throughout regions of Bangladesh, including an isolated region in the southwestern area (Sundarbans), clustered with haplotypes assigned to the minor haplogroup Ind-2 from India reflecting an east to west dispersal of rhesus macaques to India. Haplotypes from the southeast region of Bangladesh formed a cluster with those from Myanmar, and represent the oldest rhesus macaque haplotypes of Bangladesh. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that rhesus macaques first entered Bangladesh from the southeast, probably from Indo-China, then dispersed westward throughout eastern and central India. PMID:24810278

  18. Detection and quantification of male-specific fetal DNA in the serum of pregnant cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Yasmin, Lubna; Takano, Jun-Ichiro; Nagai, Yasushi; Otsuki, Junko; Sankai, Tadashi

    2015-02-01

    Because of their developmental similarities to humans, nonhuman primates are often used as a model to study fetal development for potential clinical applications in humans. The detection of fetal DNA in maternal plasma or serum offers a source of fetal genetic material for prenatal diagnosis. However, no such data have been reported for cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis), an important model in biomedical research. We have developed a specific, highly sensitive PCR system for detecting and quantifying male-specific fetal DNA in pregnant cynomolgus monkeys. We used multiplex quantitative real-time PCR to analyze cell-free DNA in maternal blood serum obtained from 46 pregnant monkeys at gestational weeks 5, 12, and 22. The presence of SRY gene and DYS14 Y chromosomal sequences was determined in 28 monkeys with male-bearing pregnancies. According to confirmation of fetal sex at birth, the probe and primers for detecting the Y chromosomal regions at each time point revealed 100% specificity of the PCR test and no false-positive or false-negative results. Increased levels of the SRY-specific sequences (mean, 4706 copies/mL serum DNA; range, 1731 to 12,625) and DYS14-specific sequences (mean, 54,814 copies/mL serum DNA; range, 4175-131,250 copies) were detected at week 22. The SRY- and DYS14-specific probes appear to be an effective combination of markers in a multiplex PCR system. To our knowledge, this report is the first to describe the detection of cell-free DNA in cynomolgus monkeys. PMID:25730760

  19. Diurnal pituitary-adrenal activity during schedule-induced polydipsia of water and ethanol in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Helms, Christa M.; Gonzales, Steven W.; Green, Heather L.; Szeliga, Kendall T.; Rogers, Laura S.M.; Grant, Kathleen A.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Intermittent delivery of an important commodity (e.g., food pellets) generates excessive behaviors as an adjunct to the schedule of reinforcement (adjunctive behaviors) that are hypothesized to be due to conflict between engaging and escaping a situation where reinforcement is delivered, but at sub-optimal rates. Objectives This study characterized the endocrine correlates during schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP) of water and ethanol using a longitudinal approach in non-human primates. Methods Plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol were measured in samples from awake cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis, 11 adult males) obtained at the onset, midday and offset of their 12-h light cycle. The monkeys were induced to drink water and ethanol (4% w/v, in water) using a fixed time (FT) 300-s interval schedule of pellet delivery. The induction fluid changed every 30 sessions in the following order: water, 0.5 g/kg ethanol, 1.0 g/kg ethanol, and 1.5 g/kg ethanol. Following induction, ethanol and water were concurrently available for 22 h/d. Results The FT300-s schedule gradually increased ACTH, but not cortisol, during water induction to a plateau sustained throughout ethanol induction in every monkey. Upon termination of the schedule, ACTH decreased to baseline and cortisol below baseline. Diurnal ACTH and cortisol were unrelated to the dose of ethanol, but ACTH rhythm flattened at 0.5 g/kg/d and remained flattened. Conclusions The coincidence of elevated ACTH with the initial experience of drinking to intoxication may have altered the mechanisms involved in the transition to heavy drinking. PMID:23508555

  20. Ordinal judgments of numerical symbols by macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1991-01-01

    Two rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) learned that the arabic numerals 0 through 9 represented corresponding quantities of food pellets. By manipulating a joystick, the monkeys were able to make a selection of paired numerals presented on a computer screen. Although the monkeys received a corresponding number of pellets even if the lesser of the two numerals was selected, they learned generally to choose the numeral of greatest value even when pellet delivery was made arrhythmic. In subsequent tests, they chose the numerals of greater value when presented in novel combinations or in random arrays of up to five numerals. Thus, the monkeys made ordinal judgments of numerical symbols in accordance with their absolute or relative values.

  1. Parentage analysis within a semi-free-ranging group of Barbary macaques Macaca sylvanus.

    PubMed

    von Segesser, F; Scheffrahn, W; Martin, R D

    1995-02-01

    This study of a group of semi-free-ranging Barbary macaques Macaca sylvanus aimed to determine paternity, to establish whether any individual male achieved prominent mating success and to assess genetic variability. Analyses involved electrophoresis of 15 blood protein systems and multilocus DNA fingerprinting (isotopic and nonisotopic). Genetic variability was low; only two blood protein systems were polymorphic. Although all DNA-fingerprints were individual-specific, they showed a high average band-sharing index value (0.67). Nevertheless, a combination of all methods permitted inference of paternity in 11 out of 15 (73%) cases tested. Several males from different age classes fathered infants. PMID:7711950

  2. Familiar and unfamiliar face recognition in crested macaques (Macaca nigra)

    PubMed Central

    Micheletta, Jérôme; Whitehouse, Jamie; Parr, Lisa A.; Marshman, Paul; Engelhardt, Antje; Waller, Bridget M.

    2015-01-01

    Many species use facial features to identify conspecifics, which is necessary to navigate a complex social environment. The fundamental mechanisms underlying face processing are starting to be well understood in a variety of primate species. However, most studies focus on a limited subset of species tested with unfamiliar faces. As well as limiting our understanding of how widely distributed across species these skills are, this also limits our understanding of how primates process faces of individuals they know, and whether social factors (e.g. dominance and social bonds) influence how readily they recognize others. In this study, socially housed crested macaques voluntarily participated in a series of computerized matching-to-sample tasks investigating their ability to discriminate (i) unfamiliar individuals and (ii) members of their own social group. The macaques performed above chance on all tasks. Familiar faces were not easier to discriminate than unfamiliar faces. However, the subjects were better at discriminating higher ranking familiar individuals, but not unfamiliar ones. This suggests that our subjects applied their knowledge of their dominance hierarchies to the pictorial representation of their group mates. Faces of high-ranking individuals garner more social attention, and therefore might be more deeply encoded than other individuals. Our results extend the study of face recognition to a novel species, and consequently provide valuable data for future comparative studies. PMID:26064665

  3. Determinants of immigration strategies in male crested macaques (Macaca nigra).

    PubMed

    Marty, Pascal R; Hodges, Keith; Agil, Muhammad; Engelhardt, Antje

    2016-01-01

    Immigration into a new group can produce substantial costs due to resistance from residents, but also reproductive benefits. Whether or not individuals base their immigration strategy on prospective cost-benefit ratios remains unknown. We investigated individual immigration decisions in crested macaques, a primate species with a high reproductive skew in favour of high-ranking males. We found two different strategies. Males who achieved low rank in the new group usually immigrated after another male had immigrated within the previous 25 days and achieved high rank. They never got injured but also had low prospective reproductive success. We assume that these males benefitted from immigrating into a destabilized male hierarchy. Males who achieved high rank in the new group usually immigrated independent of previous immigrations. They recieved injuries more frequently and therefore bore immigration costs. They, however, also had higher reproductive success prospects. We conclude that male crested macaques base their immigration strategy on relative fighting ability and thus potential rank in the new group i.e. potential reproductive benefits, as well as potential costs of injury. PMID:27535622

  4. Invasive Ductular Carcinoma in 2 Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Amanda P; Brooks, Amos; Zeiss, Caroline J

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women, with an estimated lifetime incidence of approximately 12% in American women. Invasive ductal carcinoma is the most common form of breast cancer in women, accounting for approximately 60% of all breast carcinomas. Prognostic markers are used to assess aggressiveness, invasiveness, and extent of spread of a neoplasm and thus may be correlated with patient survival. Immunohistochemistry is currently widely used for this purpose, with a variety of prognostication markers available. Classic markers for breast cancer in women include estrogen and progesterone receptor steroid hormone proteins and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. Many additional markers have been used in diagnosis and prognostication, including p53, p63, and E-cadherin and cell proliferation markers such as Ki67. Despite an estimated lifetime incidence of approximately 6.1%, naturally occurring mammary neoplasms in nonhuman primates are uncommonly reported, with only sporadic references over the past 75 y. The majority of reported tumors occur in rhesus macaques, although this prevalence has been suggested to be a consequence of their high frequency of usage in biomedical research. Here we present 2 cases of mammary carcinoma in adult female intact rhesus macaques, with cytology, histopathology, and extensive immunohistochemical analysis. According to current classifications for human breast tumors, both tumors were classified as invasive ductal carcinoma. The prognostic value of immunohistochemical markers in human breast cancer and in reported cases in nonhuman primates is discussed. PMID:25296018

  5. Determinants of immigration strategies in male crested macaques (Macaca nigra)

    PubMed Central

    Marty, Pascal R.; Hodges, Keith; Agil, Muhammad; Engelhardt, Antje

    2016-01-01

    Immigration into a new group can produce substantial costs due to resistance from residents, but also reproductive benefits. Whether or not individuals base their immigration strategy on prospective cost-benefit ratios remains unknown. We investigated individual immigration decisions in crested macaques, a primate species with a high reproductive skew in favour of high-ranking males. We found two different strategies. Males who achieved low rank in the new group usually immigrated after another male had immigrated within the previous 25 days and achieved high rank. They never got injured but also had low prospective reproductive success. We assume that these males benefitted from immigrating into a destabilized male hierarchy. Males who achieved high rank in the new group usually immigrated independent of previous immigrations. They recieved injuries more frequently and therefore bore immigration costs. They, however, also had higher reproductive success prospects. We conclude that male crested macaques base their immigration strategy on relative fighting ability and thus potential rank in the new group i.e. potential reproductive benefits, as well as potential costs of injury. PMID:27535622

  6. Seroprevalence of Japanese encephalitis virus infection in captive Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    PubMed

    Shimoda, Hiroshi; Saito, Akatsuki; Noguchi, Keita; Terada, Yutaka; Kuwata, Ryusei; Akari, Hirofumi; Takasaki, Tomohiko; Maeda, Ken

    2014-07-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), which is transmitted by mosquitoes, infects many animal species and causes serious acute encephalitis in humans and horses. In this study, a serosurvey of JEV in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) reared in Aichi Prefecture was conducted using purified JEV as an antigen for ELISA. The results revealed that 146 of 332 monkeys (44 %) were seropositive for JEV. In addition, 35 of 131 monkeys (27 %) born in the facility were seropositive, and the annual infection rate in the facility was estimated as 13 %. Our results provide evidence of the frequent exposure of many Japanese macaques to JEV, suggesting that there is a risk of JEV transmission to humans by mosquitoes. PMID:24748049

  7. Reach-to-grasp movements in Macaca fascicularis monkeys: the Isochrony Principle at work.

    PubMed

    Sartori, Luisa; Camperio-Ciani, Andrea; Bulgheroni, Maria; Castiello, Umberto

    2013-01-01

    Humans show a spontaneous tendency to increase the velocity of their movements depending on the linear extent of their trajectory in order to keep execution time approximately constant. Termed the isochrony principle, this compensatory mechanism refers to the observation that the velocity of voluntary movements increases proportionally with their linear extension. Although there is a wealth of psychophysical data regarding isochrony in humans, there is none regarding non-human primates. The present study attempts to fill that gap by investigating reach-to-grasp movement kinematics in free-ranging macaques. Video footage of monkeys grasping objects located at different distances was analyzed frame-by-frame using digitalization techniques. The amplitude of arm peak velocity was found to be correlated with the distance to be covered, and total movement duration remained invariant although target distances varied. Like in humans, the "isochrony principle" seems to be operative as there is a gearing down/up of movement velocity that is proportional to the distance to be covered in order to allow for a relatively constant movement duration. Based on a centrally generated temporal template, this mode of motor programming could be functional in macaques given the high speed and great instability of posture and joint kinematics characterizing their actions. The data presented here take research in the field of comparative motor control a step forward as they are based on precise measurements of spontaneous grasping movements by animals living/acting in their natural environment. PMID:23658547

  8. Coagulation Biomarkers in Healthy Chinese-Origin Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Frydman, Galit H; Bendapudi, Pavan K; Marini, Robert P; Vanderburg, Charles R; Tompkins, Ronald G; Fox, James G

    2016-01-01

    Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) are a common model for the study of human biology and disease. To manage coagulopathies in these animals and to study their clotting changes, the ability to measure coagulation biomarkers is necessary. Currently, few options for coagulation testing in NHP are commercially available. In this study, assays for 4 coagulation biomarkers-D-dimer, antithrombin III, protein C, and soluble P-selectin-were developed and optimized for rhesus macaques. Whole blood was collected from 28 healthy Chinese-origin rhesus macaques (11 male; 17 female) ranging in age from 5 to 20 y. Coagulation biomarkers were measured by using bead-based sandwich ELISA technology. The ranges (mean ± 90% confidence interval) for these biomarkers were: antithrombin III, 124.2 to 133.4 μg/mL; protein C, 3.2 to 3.6 μg/mL; D-dimer, 110.3 to 161.3 ng/mL; soluble P-selectin, 0.12 to 0.14 ng/10(6) platelets. These reference values did not differ significantly according to sex or age. These new assays for coagulation biomarkers in rhesus macaques will facilitate the evaluation of in vivo hemostasis. PMID:27177557

  9. Septic Arthritis Due to Moraxella osloensis in a Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Wren, Melissa A; Caskey, John R; Liu, David X; Embers, Monica E

    2013-01-01

    A 5.5-y-old Chinese-origin female rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) presented for bilateral hindlimb lameness. The primate had been group-reared in an SPF breeding colony and was seronegative for Macacine herpesvirus 1, SIV, simian retrovirus type D, and simian T-lymphotropic virus. The macaque's previous medical history included multiple occasions of swelling in the left tarsus, and trauma to the right arm and bilateral hands. In addition, the macaque had experienced osteomyelitis of the left distal tibia and rupture of the right cranial cruciate ligament that had been surgically repaired. Abnormal physical examination findings on presentation included a thin body condition, mild dehydration, and bilaterally swollen stifles that were warm to the touch, with the right stifle more severely affected. Mild instability in the left stifle was noted, and decreased range of motion and muscle atrophy were present bilaterally. Hematologic findings included marked neutrophilia and lymphopenia and moderate anemia. Arthrocentesis and culture of joint fluid revealed Moraxella-like organisms. Treatment with enrofloxacin was initiated empirically and subsequently switched to cephalexin, which over time alleviated the joint swelling and inflammation. Definitive diagnosis of Moraxella osloensis septic arthritis was made through isolation of the organism and sequencing of the 16S rDNA region. To our knowledge, this report is the first description of Moraxella osloensis septic arthritis in a rhesus macaque. PMID:24326229

  10. Effects of seasonal changes in dietary energy on body weight of captive Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    PubMed

    Aoki, Kouhei; Mitsutsuka, Syuuhei; Yamazaki, Ato; Nagai, Kazumi; Tezuka, Atsuko; Tsuji, Yamato

    2015-01-01

    Food availability varies seasonally for wild animals, and body weight fluctuates accordingly in the wild. In contrast, controlling availability of diet under captive condition is difficult from keepers' standpoint, and monotonous diet often causes health problems in captive animals. We evaluated the effects of a seasonally controlled diet on body weight of captive Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in an outside enclosure at Ueno Zoo, Tokyo, Japan. We fed a high-energy diet in spring and fall, and a more restricted diet in summer and winter for 3 years (2011-2013). Seasonal changes in body weight were similar to those that occur in wild macaques: for both sexes, body weight was higher in spring and fall and lower in winter. A decrease in body weight between fall and winter occurred only in adults, which implied that reducing dietary intake in winter had a more severe effect on adults than on juveniles. Different from wild populations, the body weight of captive macaques did not decrease between spring and summer, which we attributed to a lack of movement within the enclosure and to excess energy intake in summer. In addition to controlling dietary composition, providing large enclosure with complex structure and making efforts of giving unpredictability in feeding are necessary to motivate the captive animals to be more active, which would cause the macaques to show seasonal change in body weight, which is found in wild. PMID:25823966

  11. Maternal effects on offspring mortality in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Blomquist, Gregory E.

    2012-01-01

    The genetics of primate life histories are poorly understood, but quantitative genetic patterns in other mammals suggest phenotypic differences among individuals early in life can be strongly affected by interactions with mothers or other caretakers. I used generalized linear mixed model extensions of complex pedigree quantitative genetic techniques to explore regression coefficients and variance components for infant and juvenile mortality rates across pre-reproductive age classes in the semi-free ranging Cayo Santiago rhesus macaques. Using a large set of records (max. n=977 mothers, 6240 offspring), strong maternal effects can be identified early in development but they rapidly “burn off” as offspring age and mothers become less consistent buffers from increasingly prominent environmental variation. The different ways behavioral ecologists and animal breeders have defined and studied maternal effects can be subsumed, and even blended, within the quantitative genetic framework. Regression coefficients identify loss of the mother, maternal age, and offspring age within their birth cohort as having significant maternal effects on offspring mortality, while variance components for maternal identity record significant maternal influence in the first month of life. PMID:23315583

  12. Maternal effects on offspring mortality in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Blomquist, Gregory E

    2013-03-01

    The genetics of primate life histories are poorly understood, but quantitative genetic patterns in other mammals suggest phenotypic differences among individuals early in life can be strongly affected by interactions with mothers or other caretakers. I used generalized linear mixed model extensions of complex pedigree quantitative genetic techniques to explore regression coefficients and variance components for infant and juvenile mortality rates across prereproductive age classes in the semifree ranging Cayo Santiago rhesus macaques. Using a large set of records (maximum n = 977 mothers, 6,240 offspring), strong maternal effects can be identified early in development but they rapidly "burn off" as offspring age and mothers become less consistent buffers from increasingly prominent environmental variation. The different ways behavioral ecologists and animal breeders have defined and studied maternal effects can be subsumed, and even blended, within the quantitative genetic framework. Regression coefficients identify loss of the mother, maternal age, and offspring age within their birth cohort as having significant maternal effects on offspring mortality, while variance components for maternal identity record significant maternal influence in the first month of life. PMID:23315583

  13. Pharmacokinetics of Ceftiofur Crystalline Free Acid in Male Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) after Subcutaneous Administration

    PubMed Central

    Salyards, Gregory W; Knych, Heather K; Hill, Ashley E; Kelly, Kristi R; Christe, Kari L

    2015-01-01

    Trauma is a common sequela to agonistic social encounters in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), and veterinarians often prescribe antibiotics as part of a balanced treatment plan. Long-acting, single-dose, injectable antibiotics for use in rhesus macaques are unavailable currently. Ceftiofur crystalline free acid (CCFA) is a long-acting, single-dose, injectable third-generation cephalosporin that provides at least 7 d of ceftiofur therapeutic plasma concentrations in swine (Sus scrofa domesticus). We hypothesized that CCFA would achieve similar therapeutic concentrations (≥0.2 μg/mL) in rhesus macaques. We describe the pharmacokinetic profile of CCFA in healthy, adult male rhesus macaques (n = 6) in this 2-period, 2-treatment crossover study of 5 and 20 mg/kg SC administered once. Plasma ceftiofur metabolite concentrations were determined prior to and for a maximum of 21 d after administration. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was performed. The 5-mg dose achieved a maximal plasma concentration of 2.24 ± 0.525 μg/mL at 2.59 ± 1.63 h, an AUC of 46.9 ± 17.6 h/μg/mL, and a terminal elimination half-life of 56.5 ± 21.7 h; for the 20-mg/kg dose, these parameters were 9.18 ± 4.90 μg/mL at 1.82 ± 1.30 h, 331 ± 84.4 h/μg/mL, and 69.7 ± 8.86 h, respectively. No adverse effects were noted after either dose. Macaques maintained plasma ceftiofur concentrations of 0.2 μg/mL or greater for at least 2 d after 5 mg/kg SC and at least 7 d after 20 mg/kg SC. PMID:26424255

  14. Factors influencing reproduction in captive-bred cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) from Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Naiken, Sandiren; Griffiths, Mary-Ann; Edouard, Lindsay; Padayatchy, Nada

    2015-12-01

    The cynomolgus monkey is widely used in reproductive research. However, the effects on their reproductive parameters of infant and maternal factors such as birth order, sex of infants, twin births, maternal age and lactation status have not been fully examined. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine how such infant and maternal factors impact on infant birth weight, birth viability, neonatal loss and retained placenta in cynomolgus monkeys. The study was based on birth data from a cohort of 789 females over an eight-year period. Consistent with reports made in other macaque species, female offspring had lower birth weight compared with males. Birth weights of firstborn infants were lower compared with birth weights of higher birth order infants. Results from the logistic regression analysis showed that the risk of non-viable births was increased by advancing maternal age and retained placenta. As in other non-human primates, maternal age had predictive value for non-viable births in cynomolgus monkeys. The risk of neonatal loss decreased with advancing maternal age but was not affected by birth order. Firstborn offspring did not have an increased risk for neonatal loss, possibly from the practice of retaining mothers in their natal groups, which improved maternal skills in primiparous females. However, infant low birth weight and non-lactating females increased the risk of neonatal loss, and the delivery of low birth weight infants was associated with retained placenta. The results from this study can be useful for scientists conducting reproductive studies and for colony managers in maximizing fertility and infant survival of cynomolgus monkeys. PMID:26375598

  15. Winter ecology of the Arunachal macaque Macaca munzala in Pangchen Valley, western Arunachal Pradesh, northeastern India.

    PubMed

    Mendiratta, Uttara; Kumar, Ajith; Mishra, Charudutt; Sinha, Anindya

    2009-11-01

    The newly described Arunachal macaque Macaca munzala occurs largely in sub-tropical to temperate environments at elevations of c. 1,800-3,000 m in Arunachal Pradesh, northeastern India. We studied its over-wintering strategy by comparing the diet, ranging, and behavior of a troop of 24 individuals during winter and spring (December 2005 to May 2006) through instantaneous scan sampling (3,002 records, 448 scans, 112 hr of observation). We also monitored the phenology of food plants. The macaques spent more time (41-66%) feeding in the winter than in spring (33-51%), whereas time spent moving and resting was greater in spring. The diet composed largely of plants, with animal matter being eaten rarely. The number of plant species in the diet increased from 18 to 25 whereas food types rose from 18 to 36 from winter to spring, respectively. Although only two species formed 75% of the winter diet, seven species comprised this proportion in spring. Availability of fruits and young leaves increased in spring; the troop moved more and utilized a larger part of its range during this time. Seasonal changes in behavior could be explained by the scarcity of food and the costs of thermoregulation in winter. Our study suggests that the Arunachal macaque inhabits a highly seasonal environment and has an over-wintering strategy that includes subsisting on a high-fiber diet by increasing the time spent feeding, and minimizing energy expenditure by reducing the time spent moving. PMID:19655365

  16. Role of vocal tract characteristics in individual discrimination by Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    PubMed

    Furuyama, Takafumi; Kobayasi, Kohta I; Riquimaroux, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) exhibits a species-specific communication sound called the "coo call" to locate group members and maintain within-group contact. Monkeys have been demonstrated to be capable of discriminating between individuals based only on their voices, but there is still debate regarding how the fundamental frequencies (F0) and filter properties of the vocal tract characteristics (VTC) contribute to individual discrimination in nonhuman primates. This study was performed to investigate the acoustic keys used by Japanese macaques in individual discrimination. Two animals were trained with standard Go/NoGo operant conditioning to distinguish the coo calls of two unfamiliar monkeys. The subjects were required to continue depressing a lever until the stimulus changed from one monkey to the other. The test stimuli were synthesized by combining the F0s and VTC from each individual. Both subjects released the lever when the VTC changed, whereas they did not when the F0 changed. The reaction times to the test stimuli were not significantly different from that to the training stimuli that shared the same VTC. Our data suggest that vocal tract characteristics are important for the identification of individuals by Japanese macaques. PMID:27550840

  17. Intentional gestural communication and discrimination of human attentional states in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Canteloup, Charlotte; Bovet, Dalila; Meunier, Hélène

    2015-07-01

    The present study tested intentionality of a learned begging gesture and attention-reading abilities in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Subjects were trained to produce a begging gesture towards a hidden food reward that could be delivered by a human experimenter. More specifically, we investigated which attentional cues--body, face and/or eyes orientation of a human partner--were taken into account by the macaques in order to communicate with her. Our results provide strong evidence of intentional communication: the monkeys adjusted their behaviour to that of the partner. The latter's attentional state influenced the monkeys' likelihood of performing begging gestures and showing gaze alternation between the partner and the hidden food. By contrast, we found no evidence of attention-getting behaviours, persistence or elaboration of new communicative behaviours. Our results also showed that rhesus macaques discriminated gross cues including the presence, body and face orientation of the human experimenter but not her eyes. However, the monkeys emitted more gaze alternation and monitored the human's attentional state more closely when she also displayed gaze alternation, suggesting an important role of joint attention in gestural communication. PMID:25749401

  18. Role of vocal tract characteristics in individual discrimination by Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata)

    PubMed Central

    Furuyama, Takafumi; Kobayasi, Kohta I.; Riquimaroux, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) exhibits a species-specific communication sound called the “coo call” to locate group members and maintain within-group contact. Monkeys have been demonstrated to be capable of discriminating between individuals based only on their voices, but there is still debate regarding how the fundamental frequencies (F0) and filter properties of the vocal tract characteristics (VTC) contribute to individual discrimination in nonhuman primates. This study was performed to investigate the acoustic keys used by Japanese macaques in individual discrimination. Two animals were trained with standard Go/NoGo operant conditioning to distinguish the coo calls of two unfamiliar monkeys. The subjects were required to continue depressing a lever until the stimulus changed from one monkey to the other. The test stimuli were synthesized by combining the F0s and VTC from each individual. Both subjects released the lever when the VTC changed, whereas they did not when the F0 changed. The reaction times to the test stimuli were not significantly different from that to the training stimuli that shared the same VTC. Our data suggest that vocal tract characteristics are important for the identification of individuals by Japanese macaques. PMID:27550840

  19. Pharmacokinetics of buprenorphine following intravenous and intramuscular administration in male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Kristi R.; Pypendop, Bruno H.; Christe, Kari L.

    2014-01-01

    This study reports the pharmacokinetics of buprenorphine in conscious rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) after intravenous (IV) and intramuscular (IM) administration. Four healthy, opioid-naïve, socially-housed, adult male macaques were used. Buprenorphine (0.03 mg/kg) was administered intravenously as a bolus or intramuscularly on separate occasions. Blood samples were collected prior to, and up to 24 h, post-administration. Serum buprenorphine concentrations were analyzed with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was performed with commercially available software. Mean residence time in the IV study as compared to the IM study was 177 (159–189) minutes vs. 185 (174–214) minutes, respectively [median (range)]. In the IV study, concentration back extrapolated to time zero was found to be 33.0 (16.8–57.0) ng/mL [median (range)]. On the other hand, the maximum serum concentration found in the IM study was 11.8 (6.30–14.8) ng/mL [median (range)]. Rhesus macaques maintained concentrations greater than 0.10 ng/mL for over 24 h in the IV study and over 12 h in the IM study. Bioavailability was found to be 68.1 (59.3–71.2)% [median (range)]. No significant adverse effects were observed in the monkeys at the 0.03 mg/kg dose of buprenorphine during either study. PMID:24666428

  20. Minimally Invasive Lumbar Port System for the Collection of Cerebrospinal Fluid from Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    MacAllister, Rhonda Pung; Lester McCully, Cynthia M; Bacher, John; Thomas Iii, Marvin L; Cruz, Rafael; Wangari, Solomon; Warren, Katherine E

    2016-01-01

    Biomedical translational research frequently incorporates collection of CSF from NHP, because CSF drug levels are used as a surrogate for CNS tissue penetration in pharmacokinetic and dynamic studies. Surgical placement of a CNS ventricular catheter reservoir for CSF collection is an intensive model to create and maintain and thus may not be feasible or practical for short-term studies. Furthermore, previous NHP lumbar port models require laminectomy for catheter placement. The new model uses a minimally invasive technique for percutaneous placement of a lumbar catheter to create a closed, subcutaneous system for effective, repeated CSF sample collection. None of the rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta; n = 10) implanted with our minimally invasive lumbar port (MILP) system experienced neurologic deficits, postoperative infection of the surgical site, or skin erosion around the port throughout the 21.7-mo study. Functional MILP systems were maintained in 70% of the macaques, with multiple, high-quality, 0.5- to 1.0-mL samples of CSF collected for an average of 3 mo by using aspiration or gravitational flow. Among these macaques, 57% had continuous functionality for a mean of 19.2 mo; 50% of the cohort required surgical repair for port repositioning and replacement during the study. The MILP was unsuccessful in 2 macaques, at an average of 9.5 d after surgery. Nonpatency in these animals was attributed to the position of the lumbar catheter. The MILP system is an appropriate replacement for temporary catheterization and previous models requiring laminectomy and is a short-term alternative for ventricular CSF collection systems in NHP. PMID:27538866

  1. The complete mitochondrial genome of Stump-tailed Macaques (Macaca arctoides).

    PubMed

    Liu, Zongtao; Cui, Yaoyao; Yu, Jianqiu; Niu, Lili; Deng, Jiabo; Jiang, Juan; Li, Jing

    2016-05-01

    Stump-tailed macaque (Macaca arctoides) has been enlisted as the Near Threatened species in the IUCN Red List. In this study, the complete mitochondial genome of M. arctoides was determined. The mitogenome was 16,559 bp in length with an A + T content of 56.8%, containing 2 ribosomal RNA genes (rRNA), 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNA), 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) and a control region (D-loop). Ten protein-coding genes (ND1, COX1, COX2, ND4, COX3, ND4L, ATP8, ATP6, CYTB, ND6) started with ATG codons, while ND2, ND3 and ND5 initiated with ATT, ATC and ATA, respectively. Eight PCGs ended with complete termination codons except for COX3, ND3, ND4, and CYTB terminated with incompleted codon T. PMID:25242181

  2. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus non-aureus Infection in an Irradiated Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Kolappaswamy, Krishnan; Shipley, Steven T; Tatarov, Ivan I; DeTolla, Louis J

    2008-01-01

    We describe a case of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus non-aureus infection in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta). The nonhuman primate described was part of a research project that involved whole-body gamma irradiation and subsequently developed acute generalized dermatitis with skin dryness, peeling, and erythema around the eyes. After initial evaluation, which included microbiologic culture and 6 d of medical treatment, the animal was euthanized due to concern regarding a possible outbreak of infectious or zoonotic disease. On the basis of skin culture, diagnosis of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus non-aureus was confirmed. This report underscores the importance of the occupational risk of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus non-aureus to research and animal care staff in a research animal facility setting. PMID:18459716

  3. Viral seroprevalence in northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina) derived from Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming-Xu; Zheng, Hong-Yi; Jiang, Jin; Pang, Wei; Zhang, Gao-Hong; Zheng, Yong-Tang

    2016-07-01

    Non-human primates are natural virus reservoirs, whether wild or domestic. In this study, we determined the seroprevalence of common viruses by ELISA in a northern pig-tailed macaque (Macaca leonina) colony derived from Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. A total of 20 types of virus which are commonly selected as target microorganisms for specific-pathogen-free colonies, or which have zoonotic potential were included in this study. The results showed only 2 in 90 northern pig-tailed macaques were seronegative for all the detected viruses, and at least 16 out of the total 20 types of virus tested were prevalent in this colony, so these macaques were commonly infected by various viruses. These macaques should be carefully assessed for viral seroprevalence in order to prevent zoonotic diseases from being transferred to human beings. PMID:26993123

  4. Comparison of Noncontact Infrared Thermometry and 3 Commercial Subcutaneous Temperature Transponding Microchips with Rectal Thermometry in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Brunell, Marla K

    2012-01-01

    This study compared a noncontact infrared laser thermometer and 3 different brands of subcutaneous temperature transponding microchips with rectal thermometry in 50 rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). The data were analyzed by using intraclass correlation coefficients and limits of agreement. In addition, the technical capabilities and practicality of the thermometers in the clinical setting were reviewed. None of the alternative techniques investigated was equivalent to rectal thermometry in rhesus macaques. Temperatures obtained by using microchips had higher correlation and agreed more closely with rectal temperatures than did those obtained by the noncontact infrared method. However, transponding microchips did not yield consistent results. Due to difficulty in positioning nonsedated macaques in their homecage, subcutaneous microchips were not practical in the clinical setting. Furthermore, pair-housed macaques may be able to break or remove microchips from their cagemates. PMID:23043815

  5. Social Tolerance in Wild Female Crested Macaques (Macaca nigra) in Tangkoko-Batuangus Nature Reserve, Sulawesi, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Duboscq, Julie; Micheletta, Jérôme; Agil, Muhammad; Hodges, Keith; Thierry, Bernard; Engelhardt, Antje

    2013-01-01

    In primates, females typically drive the evolution of the social system and present a wide diversity of social structures. To understand this diversity, it is necessary to document the consistency and/or flexibility of female social structures across and within species, contexts, and environments. Macaques (Macaca sp.) are an ideal taxon for such comparative study, showing both consistency and variation in their social relations. Their social styles, constituting robust sets of social traits, can be classified in four grades, from despotic to tolerant. However, tolerant species are still understudied, especially in the wild. To foster our understanding of tolerant societies and to assess the validity of the concept of social style, we studied female crested macaques, Macaca nigra, under entirely natural conditions. We assessed their degree of social tolerance by analyzing the frequency, intensity, and distribution of agonistic and affiliative behaviors, their dominance gradient, their bared-teeth display, and their level of conciliatory tendency. We also analyzed previously undocumented behavioral patterns in grade 4 macaques: reaction upon approach and distribution of affiliative behavior across partners. We compared the observed patterns to data from other populations of grade 4 macaques and from species of other grades. Overall, female crested macaques expressed a tolerant social style, with low intensity, frequently bidirectional, and reconciled conflicts. Dominance asymmetry was moderate, associated with an affiliative bared-teeth display. Females greatly tolerated one another in close proximity. The observed patterns matched the profile of other tolerant macaques and were outside the range of patterns of more despotic species. This study is the first comprehensive analysis of females’ social behavior in a tolerant macaque species under natural conditions and as such, contributes to a better understanding of macaque societies. It also highlights the

  6. Cloning, sequencing, and polymorphism analysis of novel classical MHC class I alleles in northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina).

    PubMed

    Lian, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Xi-He; Dai, Zheng-Xi; Zheng, Yong-Tang

    2016-04-01

    The northern pig-tailed macaque (Macaca leonina) has been confirmed to be an independent species from the pig-tailed macaque group of Old World monkey. We have previously reported that the northern pig-tailed macaques were also susceptible to HIV-1. Here, to make this animal a potential HIV/AIDS model and to discover the mechanism of virus control, we attempted to assess the role of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-restricted immune responses to HIV-1 infection, which was associated with viral replication and disease progression. As an initial step, we first cloned and characterized the classical MHC class I gene of northern pig-tailed macaques. In this study, we identified 39 MHC class I alleles including 17 MHC-A and 22 MHC-B alleles. Out of these identified alleles, 30 were novel and 9 were identical to alleles previously reported from other macaque species. The MHC-A and MHC-B loci were both duplicates as rhesus macaques and southern pig-tailed macaques. In addition, we also detected the patterns of positive selection in northern pig-tailed macaques and revealed the existence of balance selection with 20 positive selection sites in the peptide binding region. The analysis of B and F peptide binding pockets in northern and southern pig-tailed macaques and rhesus macaques suggested that they were likely to share a few common peptides to present. Thus, this study provides important MHC immunogenetics information and adds values to northern pig-tailed macaques as a promising HIV/AIDS model. PMID:26782049

  7. [Comparisons of aggressive behavior for Tibetan Macaques (Macaca thibetana) to tourists from Mt. Huangshan, China].

    PubMed

    Ji, Huan; Li, Jin-Hua; Sun, Bing-Hua; Zhu, Yong

    2010-08-01

    To investigate the relationship between monkey-human aggressive behaviors and age/sex classes of monkey (initiator) and human (recipient), by using all-occurrence sampling and continuous recording, we evaluated the monkey-human aggressive behaviors between macaques (Macaca thibetana) and tourists at Mt. Huangshan in two periods (Nov.-Dec.2008 and Apr.-May 2009). After we divide the aggression into three types according to the dangerous level to tourists, some significant patterns were observed.Our observations indicate that Tibetan macaques respond differently to human according to the age/sex classes involved. On one hand, We found that the adult male monkeys tend to be more aggressive than expected (P<0.01), while the adult female monkeys and immature monkeys participated in AGIII behaviors (threat) less than expected (P<0.01); On the other hand, The adult male human received more aggressive behaviors than expected (P<0.01), while the adult female human and child received less aggressive in AGIII behaviors (threat) (P<0.01). Our results provide not only a scientific basis for the management advice that adult male monkeys and adult male human should be given special attention, but also a good management model of Huangshan for other primate tourist exploring places. PMID:20740706

  8. Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) mothers huddle with their young offspring instead of adult females for thermoregulation.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Masataka; Nakamichi, Masayuki

    2016-08-01

    It is unclear whom animals select to huddle with for thermoregulation. In this study, we investigated whom Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) mothers huddled with-their young offspring or other adult group members-when there is need for thermoregulation. We used a focal-animal sampling method, targeting 17 females at Katsuyama, Okayama Prefecture, Japan. A majority of huddling among adult females was recorded during winter season (December, January, and February). Females who had young (0- or 1-year-old) offspring huddled less frequently with other adult females compared to females who did not have young offspring in winter. However, including young offspring, the frequency of huddling with any other individuals did not differ by whether females had young offspring. Moreover, the females who did not have young offspring huddled with other adult females more often in cloudy than in sunny weather during winter season. In contrast, females who had young offspring increased huddling with their young offspring in cloudy than in sunny weather, but did not do so with other adult females. This study indicates that Japanese macaque mothers huddle with their young offspring instead of other adult females when there is need for thermoregulation. PMID:27262980

  9. Parameter comparison of white matter diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Mo, Yin; Chao, Fang; Song, Ming; Liu, Ci-Rong; Liu, Hui-Lang; Qian, Xi-Ying; Zhao, Xu-Dong

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we analyzed diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) results of brain white matter in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) with four different parameter settings and found that the sequence A (b=1 000 s/mm(2), spatial resolution=1.25 mm×1.25 mm× 1.25 mm, numbers of direction=33, NSA=3) and B (b=800 s/mm(2), spatial resolution=1.25 mm×1.25 mm×1.25 mm, numbers of direction=33, NSA=3) could accurately track coarse fibers. The fractional anisotropy (FA) derived from sequence C (b=1 000s/mm(2), spatial resolution=0.55 mm×0.55 mm×2.5 mm, direction number=33, NSA=3) was too fuzzy to be used in tracking white matter fibers. By comparison, the high resolution and the FA with high contrast of gray matter and white matter derived from sequence D (b=800 s/mm(2), spatial resolution=1.0 mm×1.0 mm ×1.0 mm, numbers of direction=33, NSA=3) qualified in its application in tracking both thick and thin fibers, making it an optimal DTI setting for rhesus macaques. PMID:24866488

  10. Use of an Aquarium as a Novel Enrichment Item for Singly Housed Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Meade, Theresa M; Hutchinson, Eric; Krall, Caroline; Watson, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Locomotor stereotypies are behaviors often seen in singly housed rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) and are considered to represent a maladaptive response to captive environments. Active and passive enrichment items are commonly used to mitigate these and other abnormal behaviors. Active enrichment items allow physical manipulation and may be temporarily successful in reducing stereotypies, but their beneficial effects usually are confined to relatively short periods of active use. Passive enrichment items that do not involve physical manipulation are less well studied, and the results are mixed. This study evaluated an aquarium with live fish for use as a novel passive enrichment item in a common facility setting as a means to decrease locomotor stereotypy. We hypothesized that the introduction of the aquarium would decrease the frequency of locomotor stereotypy in a group of singly housed rhesus macaques (n = 11) with a known history of abnormal behaviors. Unexpectedly, locomotor stereotypy increased with the introduction of the aquarium and then decreased over time. Furthermore, when the aquarium was removed, the frequency of stereotypy decreased to below baseline levels. These unexpected results are best explained by neophobia, a common phenomenon documented in many animal species. The increase in abnormal behavior is likely to result from the addition of a novel object within the environment. This study demonstrates that, in the context of reducing abnormal behavior, presumably innocuous enrichment items may have unexpected effects and should be evaluated critically after their introduction to a captive population. PMID:25255069

  11. No-scalpel vasectomy by electrocauterization in free range rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, V.; Raj, A.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to standardize a new method of vasectomy in male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). A total of 208 free range male rhesus macaques captured from different locations in Shivalik Hills in a population control programme of the rhesus macaques in India. General anaesthesia was achieved by using a combination of ketamine hydrochloride at 8 mg/kg body weight and xylazine hydrochloride at 2mg/kg body weight intramuscularly in squeeze cage. Surgical procedure of vasectomy was carried out by single-hole no-scalpel technique using a single pre-scrotal skin incision above the median raphae. Spermatic cord was grasped with ringed forceps and was pulled out through the single-hole incision. Vas deferens was separated from the artery-vein complexus and about 3-4 cm portion of vas deferens was resected. Cauterization of both ends of the vas deferens was achieved with electrocautery. The induction time for anaesthesia was 1.40±0.18 min while surgical time for vasectomy was found to be 5.09±0.22 min. Recovery from general anaesthesia was without side-effects after a mean duration of 36.07±1.22 min, whereas the duration of anaesthesia was observed to be 82.27±4.96 min. There were no major complications following the surgery and recovery of animals was smooth. Animals were kept in postoperative care for five days and released at the same capturing site. PMID:26623283

  12. Abdominal Lipomatosis with Secondary Self-Strangulation of Masses in an Adult Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Chum, Helen H; Long, C Tyler; McKeon, Gabriel P; Chang, Angela G; Luong, Richard H; Albertelli, Megan A

    2014-01-01

    An 10-y-old, intact male rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) presented for bilateral scrotal swelling and a distended abdomen. A soft mass in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen was palpated. A barium study did not reveal any gastrointestinal abnormalities. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a large (1.25 kg, 15.0 × 13.0 × 9.5 cm), red and tan, soft, circumscribed, spherical mass within the greater omentum and 10 to 20 smaller (diameter, 1 to 4 cm), soft to firm masses in the mesentery and greater omentum. The resected mass was a self-strangulating abdominal lipoma, a pedunculated neoplasm composed of white adipocytes arising from peritoneal adipose tissue undergoing secondary coagulation necrosis after strangulation of the blood supply due to twisting of the mass around the peduncle. The smaller masses were histologically consistent with simple or self-strangulating pedunculated abdominal lipomas. The macaque presented again 9 mo later with a firm, 5.0-cm mass in the midabdomen, with intestinal displacement visible on radiographs. Given this animal's medical history and questionable prognosis, euthanasia was elected. Necropsy revealed numerous, multifocal to coalescing, 1.0- to 15.0-cm, pale tan to yellow, circumscribed, soft to firm, spherical to ellipsoid, pedunculated masses that were scattered throughout the mesentery, greater omentum, lesser omentum, and serosal surfaces of the gastrointestinal tract. All of the masses were pedunculated abdominal lipomas, and most demonstrated coagulation necrosis due to self-strangulation of the blood supply. To our knowledge, this report is the first to describe abdominal lipomatosis with secondary self-strangulation of masses in a rhesus macaque. PMID:25402181

  13. Abdominal lipomatosis with secondary self-strangulation of masses in an adult rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Chum, Helen H; Long, C Tyler; McKeon, Gabriel P; Chang, Angela G; Luong, Richard H; Albertelli, Megan A

    2014-10-01

    An 10-y-old, intact male rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) presented for bilateral scrotal swelling and a distended abdomen. A soft mass in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen was palpated. A barium study did not reveal any gastrointestinal abnormalities. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a large (1.25 kg, 15.0 × 13.0 × 9.5 cm), red and tan, soft, circumscribed, spherical mass within the greater omentum and 10 to 20 smaller (diameter, 1 to 4 cm), soft to firm masses in the mesentery and greater omentum. The resected mass was a self-strangulating abdominal lipoma, a pedunculated neoplasm composed of white adipocytes arising from peritoneal adipose tissue undergoing secondary coagulation necrosis after strangulation of the blood supply due to twisting of the mass around the peduncle. The smaller masses were histologically consistent with simple or self-strangulating pedunculated abdominal lipomas. The macaque presented again 9 mo later with a firm, 5.0-cm mass in the midabdomen, with intestinal displacement visible on radiographs. Given this animal's medical history and questionable prognosis, euthanasia was elected. Necropsy revealed numerous, multifocal to coalescing, 1.0- to 15.0-cm, pale tan to yellow, circumscribed, soft to firm, spherical to ellipsoid, pedunculated masses that were scattered throughout the mesentery, greater omentum, lesser omentum, and serosal surfaces of the gastrointestinal tract. All of the masses were pedunculated abdominal lipomas, and most demonstrated coagulation necrosis due to self-strangulation of the blood supply. To our knowledge, this report is the first to describe abdominal lipomatosis with secondary self-strangulation of masses in a rhesus macaque. PMID:25402181

  14. Natural Infection of Burkholderia pseudomallei in an Imported Pigtail Macaque (Macaca nemestrina) and Management of the Exposed Colony

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Crystal H; Skinner, Brianna L; Dietz, Sharon M; Blaney, David; Engel, Robyn M; Lathrop, George W; Hoffmaster, Alex R; Gee, Jay E; Elrod, Mindy G; Powell, Nathaniel; Walke, Henry

    2013-01-01

    Identification of the select agent Burkholderia pseudomallei in macaques imported into the United States is rare. A purpose-bred, 4.5-y-old pigtail macaque (Macaca nemestrina) imported from Southeast Asia was received from a commercial vendor at our facility in March 2012. After the initial acclimation period of 5 to 7 d, physical examination of the macaque revealed a subcutaneous abscess that surrounded the right stifle joint. The wound was treated and resolved over 3 mo. In August 2012, 2 mo after the stifle joint wound resolved, the macaque exhibited neurologic clinical signs. Postmortem microbiologic analysis revealed that the macaque was infected with B. pseudomallei. This case report describes the clinical evaluation of a B. pseudomallei-infected macaque, management and care of the potentially exposed colony of animals, and protocols established for the animal care staff that worked with the infected macaque and potentially exposed colony. This article also provides relevant information on addressing matters related to regulatory issues and risk management of potentially exposed animals and animal care staff. PMID:24326230

  15. Retinal, functional, and morphological comparisons of two different macaque species, Macaca mulatta and Macaca fasicularis, for models of laser eye injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiCarlo, Cheryl D.; Hacker, Henry D.; Brown, Araceli; Cheramie, Rachael; Martinsen, Gary L.; Rockwell, Benjamin; Stuck, Bruce E.

    2005-04-01

    The past several years has seen a severe shortage of pathogen-free Indian origin rhesus macaques due to the increased requirement for this model in retroviral research. With greater than 30 years of research data accumulated using the Rhesus macaque as the model for laser eye injury there exists a need to bridge to a more readily available nonhuman primate model. Much of the data previously collected from the Rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) provided the basis for the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standards for laser safety. Currently a Tri-service effort is underway to utilize the Cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fasicularis) as a replacement for the Rhesus macaque. Preliminary functional and morphological baseline data collected from multifocal electroretinography (mfERG), optical coherence tomography (OCT) and retinal cell counts were compared from a small group of monkeys and tissues to determine if significant differences existed between the species. Initial functional findings rom mfERG yielded only one difference for the n2 amplitude value which was greater in the Cynomolgus monkey. No significant differences were seen in retinal and foveal thickness, as determined by OCT scans and no significant differences were seen in ganglion cell and inner nuclear cell nuclei counts. A highly significant difference was seen in the numbers of photoreceptor nuclei with greater numbers in the Rhesus macaque. This indicates more studies should be performed to determine the impact that a model change would have on the laser bioeffects community and their ability to continue to provide minimal visible lesion data for laser safety standards. The continued goal of this project will be to provide that necessary baseline information for a seamless transition to a more readily available animal model.

  16. Collective Movement in the Tibetan Macaques (Macaca thibetana): Early Joiners Write the Rule of the Game

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jinhua; Xia, Dongpo; Sun, Binghua; Zhang, Dao

    2015-01-01

    Collective behavior has recently attracted a great deal of interest in both natural and social sciences. While the role of leadership has been closely scrutinized, the rules used by joiners in collective decision making have received far less attention. Two main hypotheses have been proposed concerning these rules: mimetism and quorum. Mimetism predicts that individuals are increasingly likely to join collective behavior as the number of participants increases. It can be further divided into selective mimetism, where relationships among the participants affect the process, and anonymous mimetism, where no such effect exists. Quorum predicts that a collective behavior occurs when the number of participants reaches a threshold. To probe into which rule is used in collective decision making, we conducted a study on the joining process in a group of free-ranging Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) in Huangshan, China using a combination of all-occurrence and focal animal sampling methods. Our results show that the earlier individuals joined movements, the more central a role they occupied among the joining network. We also found that when less than three adults participated in the first five minutes of the joining process, no entire group movement occurred subsequently. When the number of these early joiners ranged from three to six, selective mimetism was used. This means higher rank or closer social affiliation of early joiners could be among the factors of deciding whether to participate in movements by group members. When the number of early joiners reached or exceeded seven, which was the simple majority of the group studied, entire group movement always occurred, meaning that the quorum rule was used. Putting together, Macaca thibetana used a combination of selective mimetism and quorum, and early joiners played a key role in deciding which rule should be used. PMID:25992882

  17. Self-Injurious Behavior Secondary to Cytomegalovirus-Induced Neuropathy in an SIV-Infected Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Clemmons, Elizabeth A; Gumber, Sanjeev; Strobert, Elizabeth; Bloomsmith, Mollie A; Jean, Sherrie M

    2015-01-01

    A 3.5-y-old, female rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) inoculated with SIVmac239 presented 8 mo later for inappetence and facial bruising. Physical examination revealed a superficial skin abrasion below the left eye, bruising below the left brow, and epistaxis of the left nostril. There were no significant findings on CBC, serum chemistry, urinalysis, or radiographs. Differential diagnoses included infectious etiologies, self-injurious behavior, immune-mediated dermatitis, and neoplasia. Lack of response to antibiotic and analgesic therapy and observations of the macaque made it apparent that the skin lesions were self-inflicted. The excoriations rapidly progressed to extend over the nose, and the left palpebrae became edematous. Euthanasia was elected because the macaque appeared to be experiencing continued discomfort despite analgesic therapy. Histopathologic examination revealed systemic cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection involving the facial nerves, periocular nerves, meninges, and perimesenteric lymph nodes. CMV is a common infection in macaques, with adult seroprevalence close to 100% in most colonies. Infection in immunocompetent animals is usually asymptomatic but can cause significant clinical disease in immunodeficient hosts. CMV is associated with a painful peripheral neuropathy in human AIDS patients, and analgesic treatment is often unsatisfactory. Peripheral neuropathy secondary to CMV should be considered as an underlying cause of self-injurious behavior in SIV-infected macaques. Macaques affected by other diseases and disorders may also be at risk for development of painful peripheral neuropathies. PMID:26141451

  18. Genetic differentiation within and between isolated Algerian subpopulations of Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus): evidence from microsatellites

    PubMed

    Von Segesser F; Menard; Gaci; Martin

    1999-03-01

    This study of wild-living Algerian Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) was designed to examine genetic variability in subpopulations isolated in residual forest patches, in an attempt to obtain data on the effects of habitat fragmentation. The wild population of this species (estimated at a maximum of 15,000) is vulnerable and this study therefore has direct relevance for conservation measures. Data from five microsatellite loci were analysed for 159 individuals from nine different groups living in four isolates in Algeria. Genetic polymorphism was found to be relatively high (4-12 alleles per locus) compared with other genetic markers used in previous studies of this species; mean expected heterozygosity was 65%. The four isolates are all genetically distinct (FST = 0; P < 0.001). Indeed, the results suggest that dispersal is limited even between some social groups within a single isolate. Genetic distances based on models not assuming stepwise mutation (FST and chord distance) gave very similar results and are highly correlated with geographical distances within one isolate but not between isolates. This may indicate that isolation by distance exerts a significant influence within an isolate but that genetic drift prevails between the four isolates. After allowing for variation in sample size, we found no evidence of reduced allelic diversity within small isolates that may have been separated for 250 years or more. The surviving population of Algerian Barbary macaques taken as a whole still shows marked variability in microsatellite alleles, but maintenance of genetic variability over the long term will surely require effective protection of all isolates. PMID:10199007

  19. Whom to Groom and for What? Patterns of Grooming in Female Barbary Macaques (Macaca sylvanus)

    PubMed Central

    Roubová, Veronika; Konečná, Martina; Šmilauer, Petr; Wallner, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Grooming is one of the most conspicuous social interactions among nonhuman primates. The selection of grooming partners can provide important clues about factors relevant for the distribution of grooming within a social group. We analyzed grooming behavior among 17 semi-free ranging female Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus). We tested whether grooming is related to kinship, rank and friendship. Furthermore, we tested whether grooming is reciprocated or exchanged for rank related benefits (i.e. lower aggression and increased tolerance whilst feeding). We found that in general grooming was reciprocally exchanged, directed up the hierarchy and at the same time affected by friendship and kinship. Grooming was more frequent among individuals with higher friendship values as well as amongst related individuals. We also divided our data set on the basis of rank difference and tested if different power asymmetries between individuals affected the tendency to exchange grooming for rank related benefits and grooming reciprocation. In support of our initial hypothesis our results show that the reciprocation of grooming was a significant predictor of grooming interactions between individuals of similar rank, but not between those individuals more distantly separated in the social hierarchy. However, we did not find any evidence for grooming being exchanged for rank related benefits in either data set. Our results, together with previously published studies, illustrate the behavioral flexibility of macaques. It is clear that multiple studies of the same species are necessary to gather the data required for the solid comparative studies needed to shed light on patterns of grooming behavior in primates. PMID:25668722

  20. Factors increasing snake detection and perceived threat in captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Etting, Stephanie F; Isbell, Lynne A; Grote, Mark N

    2014-02-01

    The primary predators of primates are all ambush hunters, and yet felids, raptors, and snakes differ in aspects of their ecology that affect the evasive strategies of their primate prey. Felids and raptors can traverse long distances quickly, thus the urgency of threat they present increases as they come closer in proximity to primates. In contrast, snakes do not move rapidly over long distances, and so primates may be reasonably safe even at close distances provided snakes can be detected and monitored. We investigated the ability of captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) to detect snakes at distances ranging from 15 to 1.5 m. We also examined variation in intensity of perceived threat by applying a Hidden Markov Model to infer changes in underlying state from observable behaviors, that is, increased attention and mobbing. We found that the macaques often failed to detect snake models but that closer proximity improved snake detection, which is necessary before threat can be perceived. We also found that having only one individual in fairly close proximity (≤ 7.5 m) was sufficient to alert the rest of the group and so the chances of detection did not increase with increasing group size. Finally, we found that when the snakes were perceived, they did not elicit greater intensity of response with closer proximity. These results provide evidence that the threat from snakes is greatest when they are in proximity to primates but are unseen. When snakes are seen, however, distance appears not to affect primates' perceived risk, in contrast to their perceived risk from raptors and felids. PMID:24395649

  1. Do Tonkean macaques (Macaca tonkeana) perceive what conspecifics do and do not see?

    PubMed Central

    Piraux, Emilie; Poulin, Nicolas; Meunier, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    The understanding of the visual perception of others, also named visual perspective taking, is a component of Theory of Mind. Although strong evidence of visual perspective taking has been reported in great apes, the issue is more open to discussion in monkeys. We investigated whether Tonkean macaques (Macaca tonkeana) know what conspecifics do and do not see, using a food competition paradigm originally developed in great apes. We tested individuals in pairs, after establishing the dominance relationship within each pair. Twenty-one pairs were tested in four different conditions. In one condition, the subordinate had the choice between two pieces of food, one that was visible only to it and another that was also visible to the dominant. It was predicted that if the subordinate understands that the dominant cannot see both pieces of food because one is hidden from its view, the subordinate should preferentially go for the food visible only to itself. In the three other conditions, we varied the temporal and visual access to food for both individuals, to control for alternative explanations based on dominance. We recorded the first movement direction chosen by subjects, i.e. towards a) visible food b) hidden food or c) elsewhere; and the outcome of the test, i.e. the quantity of food obtained. Results showed that subordinates moved preferentially for the hidden food when released simultaneously with the dominant and also with a head start on the dominant. By contrast, dominants’ choices of the two pieces of food were random. We also describe and discuss some of the strategies used by subordinates in these tests. According to the whole of our results, Tonkean macaques seem capable of visual perspective taking despite the fact that a low-level explanation as behavior reading has not been totally excluded. PMID:26925323

  2. Feeding behavior and aggression in wild Siberut macaques (Macaca siberu) living under low predation risk.

    PubMed

    Richter, Christin; Gras, Pierre; Hodges, Keith; Ostner, Julia; Schülke, Oliver

    2015-07-01

    Investigating which factors influence feeding competition is crucial for our understanding of the diversity of social relationships. Socio-ecological models differ in their predictions whether predation risk directly influences feeding competition and which factors exactly predict contest competition. We investigated feeding competition in Siberut macaques (Macaca siberu), a species endemic to Siberut Island (West Sumatra, Indonesia). Siberut macaques experience low predation risk, as major predators (felids, raptors) are absent. They are therefore appropriate subjects to test the prediction that low predation risk reduces feeding competition. To estimate contest potential, we quantified size, spatial distribution and density of food plants, and the availability of alternative resources. We recorded behavior in food patches using a modified focal tree method. Food patches, sorted by decreasing average feeding group size, included large trees (40% of focal plant observations), lianas/strangler (16%), medium trees (9%), small (palm) trees (20%), and rattan (15%). Most food patches were clumped but occurred at low densities relative to the area of average group spread. Thus, availability of alternative food patches was low. Although food patch characteristics indicate high contest potential, the observed aggression rate (0.13 bouts between adults/h) was low relative to other primates. Average feeding group size was small relative to total group size, and feeding group size matched crown volume. Perceived predation risk was low, based on spatial and feeding behavior of juveniles. Together, these results suggest that predation risk may influence feeding competition. Social and temporal factors (patch feeding time), but not ecological factors (fruit abundance in patch and forest, alternative resources) predicted aggression frequency in food patches. Overall, comparative data are still relatively scarce, and researchers should collect more data on group spread, sub

  3. Sex Differences in the Development of Social Relationships in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Amici, Federica; Langos, Doreen; Widdig, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have documented the importance of social bonding for the enhancement of individual fitness. However, little is known about how social relationships develop through ontogeny, and whether their development follows the same trajectory in males and females. Here we analyzed affiliative interactions (proximity, social grooming, play) combined with demographic and genetic data in semi-free-ranging rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) on Cayo Santiago over their first 4 yr of life (from birth to sexual maturation) to understand how these interactions change through development in both sexes. Generalized linear mixed models revealed that social behaviors mostly followed different developmental trajectories in males and females and were highly dependent on the social context. In particular, sex differences in social behavior varied through development depending on the partner’s sex and age. Females engaged in more social interactions than males, especially with other females, and were more involved in grooming around the time of maturation. In contrast, males interacted more with males and age peers, especially around maturation. Sex differences in social behavior varied through development, but also depended on rank, partner’s rank, and kin line, although not consistently. High-ranking individuals, especially older females, were generally preferred as social partners. Moreover, both male and female individuals interacted mostly with maternal kin, although males also preferred paternal kin over nonkin. Importantly, most developmental changes in sociality happened when individuals were ca. 2 yr old, suggesting that this might be a milestone in the development of sociality in rhesus macaques. The only notable exception to this pattern was play, which was more pronounced in males from the beginning of their lives. We propose that play might serve as a trigger of sex differences in social behavior, with sex differences emerging early in development and

  4. Whom to groom and for what? Patterns of grooming in female Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus).

    PubMed

    Roubová, Veronika; Konečná, Martina; Šmilauer, Petr; Wallner, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Grooming is one of the most conspicuous social interactions among nonhuman primates. The selection of grooming partners can provide important clues about factors relevant for the distribution of grooming within a social group. We analyzed grooming behavior among 17 semi-free ranging female Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus). We tested whether grooming is related to kinship, rank and friendship. Furthermore, we tested whether grooming is reciprocated or exchanged for rank related benefits (i.e. lower aggression and increased tolerance whilst feeding). We found that in general grooming was reciprocally exchanged, directed up the hierarchy and at the same time affected by friendship and kinship. Grooming was more frequent among individuals with higher friendship values as well as amongst related individuals. We also divided our data set on the basis of rank difference and tested if different power asymmetries between individuals affected the tendency to exchange grooming for rank related benefits and grooming reciprocation. In support of our initial hypothesis our results show that the reciprocation of grooming was a significant predictor of grooming interactions between individuals of similar rank, but not between those individuals more distantly separated in the social hierarchy. However, we did not find any evidence for grooming being exchanged for rank related benefits in either data set. Our results, together with previously published studies, illustrate the behavioral flexibility of macaques. It is clear that multiple studies of the same species are necessary to gather the data required for the solid comparative studies needed to shed light on patterns of grooming behavior in primates. PMID:25668722

  5. Terminal investment and senescence in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) on Cayo Santiago

    PubMed Central

    Higham, James P.; Mas-Rivera, Adaris; Ayala, James E.; Maestripieri, Dario

    2010-01-01

    Long-lived iteroparous species often show aging-related changes in reproduction that may be explained by 2 non-mutually exclusive hypotheses. The terminal investment hypothesis predicts increased female reproductive effort toward the end of the life span, as individuals have little to gain by reserving effort for the future. The senescence hypothesis predicts decreased female reproductive output toward the end of the life span due to an age-related decline in body condition. Nonhuman primates are ideal organisms for testing these hypotheses, as they are long lived and produce altricial offspring heavily dependent on maternal investment. In this study, we integrated 50 years of continuous demographic records for the Cayo Santiago rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) population with new morphometric and behavioral data to test the senescence and terminal investment hypotheses. We examined relationships between maternal age and activity, mother and infant body condition, interbirth intervals, measures of behavioral investment in offspring, and offspring survival and fitness to test for age-associated declines in reproduction that would indicate senescence, and for age-associated increases in maternal effort that would indicate terminal investment. Compared with younger mothers, older mothers had lower body mass indices and were less active, had longer interbirth intervals, and spent more time in contact with infants, but had infants of lower masses and survival rates. Taken together, our results provide strong evidence for the occurrence of reproductive senescence in free-ranging female rhesus macaques but are also consistent with some of the predictions of the terminal investment hypothesis. PMID:22475990

  6. Concealing of facial expressions by a wild Barbary macaque (Macaca sylvanus).

    PubMed

    Thunström, Maria; Kuchenbuch, Paul; Young, Christopher

    2014-07-01

    Behavioural research on non-vocal communication among non-human primates and its possible links to the origin of human language is a long-standing research topic. Because human language is under voluntary control, it is of interest whether this is also true for any communicative signals of other species. It has been argued that the behaviour of hiding a facial expression with one's hand supports the idea that gestures might be under more voluntary control than facial expressions among non-human primates, and it has also been interpreted as a sign of intentionality. So far, the behaviour has only been reported twice, for single gorilla and chimpanzee individuals, both in captivity. Here, we report the first observation of concealing of facial expressions by a monkey, a Barbary macaque (Macaca sylvanus), living in the wild. On eight separate occasions between 2009 and 2011 an adult male was filmed concealing two different facial expressions associated with play and aggression ("play face" and "scream face"), 22 times in total. The videos were analysed in detail, including gaze direction, hand usage, duration, and individuals present. This male was the only individual in his group to manifest this behaviour, which always occurred in the presence of a dominant male. Several possible interpretations of the function of the behaviour are discussed. The observations in this study indicate that the gestural communication and cognitive abilities of monkeys warrant more research attention. PMID:24770588

  7. Social bonds affect anti-predator behaviour in a tolerant species of macaque, Macaca nigra.

    PubMed

    Micheletta, Jérôme; Waller, Bridget M; Panggur, Maria R; Neumann, Christof; Duboscq, Julie; Agil, Muhammad; Engelhardt, Antje

    2012-10-01

    Enduring positive social bonds between individuals are crucial for humans' health and well being. Similar bonds can be found in a wide range of taxa, revealing the evolutionary origins of humans' social bonds. Evidence suggests that these strong social bonds can function to buffer the negative effects of living in groups, but it is not known whether they also function to minimize predation risk. Here, we show that crested macaques (Macaca nigra) react more strongly to playbacks of recruitment alarm calls (i.e. calls signalling the presence of a predator and eliciting cooperative mobbing behaviour) if they were produced by an individual with whom they share a strong social bond. Dominance relationships between caller and listener had no effect on the reaction of the listener. Thus, strong social bonds may improve the coordination and efficiency of cooperative defence against predators, and therefore increase chances of survival. This result broadens our understanding of the evolution and function of social bonds by highlighting their importance in the anti-predator context. PMID:22859593

  8. Training pair-housed Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) using a combination of negative and positive reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Wergård, Eva-Marie; Temrin, Hans; Forkman, Björn; Spångberg, Mats; Fredlund, Hélène; Westlund, Karolina

    2015-04-01

    When training animals, time is sometimes a limiting factor hampering the use of positive reinforcement training (PRT) exclusively. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a combination of negative and positive reinforcement training (NPRT). Twenty naïve female Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were trained in 30 sessions with either PRT (n=8) or NPRT (n=12) to respond to a signal, move into a selected cage section and accept confinement. In the NPRT-group a signal preceded the presentation of one or several novel, and thus aversive, stimuli. When the correct behaviour was performed, the novel stimulus was removed and treats were given. As the animal learned to perform the correct behaviour, the use of novel stimuli was decreased and finally phased out completely. None of the PRT-trained animals finished the task. Ten out of 12 monkeys in the NPRT-group succeeded to perform the task within the 30 training sessions, a significant difference from the PRT-group (p=0.0007). A modified approach test showed no significant difference between the groups (p=0.67) in how they reacted to the trainer. The results from this study suggest that carefully conducted NPRT can be an alternative training method to consider, especially when under a time constraint. PMID:25555746

  9. Immunohistochemical and morphological features of a small bowel leiomyoma in a black crested macaque (Macaca nigra)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Spontaneous gastrointestinal neoplasms in non-human primates are commonly seen in aged individuals. Due to genetic similarities between human and non-human primates, scientists have shown increasing interest in terms of comparative oncology studies. Case presentation The present study is related to a case of an intestinal leiomyoma in a black crested macaque (Macaca nigra), kept on captivity by Matecaña Zoo, Pereira City, Colombia. The animal had abdominal distension, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea and behavioral changes. Clinical examination showed an increased volume in the upper right abdominal quadrant caused by a neoplastic mass. The patient died during the surgical procedure. Necropsy revealed several small nodules in the peritoneum with adhesion to different portions of the small and large intestines, liver, stomach and diaphragm. Tissue samples were collected, routinely processed and stained by H&E. Microscopic examination revealed a mesenchymal tumor limited to tunica muscularis, resembling normal smooth muscle cells. Neoplastic cells were positive for alpha-smooth muscle actin and vimentin, and negative for cytokeratin AE1/AE3 by immunohistochemistry. Those morphological and immunohistochemical findings allowed to diagnose the intestinal leiomyoma referred above. Conclusion Neoplastic diseases in primates have multifaceted causes. Their manifestations are understudied, leading to a greater difficulty in detection and measurement of the real impact provides by this disease. PMID:22747606

  10. Tailored Enrichment Strategies and Stereotypic Behavior in Captive Individually Housed Macaques (Macaca spp.).

    PubMed

    Cannon, Tessa H; Heistermann, Michael; Hankison, Shala J; Hockings, Kimberley J; McLennan, Matthew R

    2016-01-01

    The welfare of nonhuman animals in captivity is widely dependent on the natural psychological, physical, and behavioral needs of the animals and how adequately these needs are met. Inability to engage in natural behaviors can lead to chronic stress and expression of stereotypic behavior. The majority of research on decreasing stereotypic behavior in captivity addresses problems at the group level and does not account for individual variability in each animal's needs, history, and preferences. This study combined physiological and behavioral measures of well being to comprehensively assess the unique needs of individually housed captive macaques (Macaca spp.) with the aim of developing tailored welfare strategies. Behavioral and hormonal data were collected under 2 conditions: baseline and individualized enrichment. The results showed a significant decrease in stereotypic behavior under the enrichment condition. Additionally, 7 out of 9 individuals showed a decrease in fecal glucocorticoid (stress hormone) levels, indicating a reduction in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity. Addressing welfare on an individual, rather than group, level allows for a better overall characterization of well being and maximizes the probability of improving the welfare of each animal. PMID:26882225

  11. Observation of lateral mandibular protuberance in Taiwan macaque (Macaca cyclopis) using computed tomography imaging.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Shintaro; Naitoh, Munetaka; Futagami, Chiharu; Hanamura, Hajime; Goto, Kenichi; Ariji, Eiichiro; Takai, Masanaru

    2009-01-01

    Morphological characteristics of the protuberance on the external surface of the mandible in Taiwan macaque (Macaca cyclopis) was investigated using cone-beam computed tomography. We observed 49 skulls of M. cyclopis. Of 7 skulls with deciduous and mixed dentitions in which M2s did not erupt, the protuberance was not found. Of the 13 skulls with mixed and permanent dentitions in which M2s had erupted, a palpable protuberance was found in one specimen. Of the 29 samples in which M3s had erupted completely, a perceptible protuberance was found in 2 samples, and palpable protuberance was found in 8 samples. Thus, the protuberance was found in 10 samples of the 29 samples with complete dentitions (34.5%), and the emergence of the protuberance may have been related to mandibular growth. In the case of the well-developed protuberance, it extended from the P4 to M3 region but did not extend to the mental foramina. By using cone-beam computed tomography, it was determined that the protuberance was composed of cortical bone and was the thickest in M2 region. Since the protuberance consisted of homogeneous cortical bone, it was considered to be the result of normal bone growth similar to the mandibular torus in humans. PMID:19828971

  12. Toxicity and fetotoxicity of TCDD, TCDF and PCB isomers in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    SciTech Connect

    McNulty, W.P.

    1985-05-01

    In rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), consumption of food containing commercial polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixtures, some pure polychlorobiphenyl congeners, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF) caused the same clinical toxic manifestations and histopathologic lesions, although the potencies of the toxicants covered a range of five orders of magnitude. Recovery from poisoning by 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (34TCB) or TCDF was rapid, whereas recovery from poisoning by Aroclor 1242, 3,4,5,3',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (345HCB), or TCDD was protracted, if it occurred at all. 34TCB did not appreciably accumulate in body fat, but the level of 345HCB in fat rose steadily during ingestion. Among the symmetrical tetra- and hexachlorobiphenyl isomers tested, subacute oral toxicity could be demonstrated only for those without ortho chlorine substitutions. The principal demonstrable histopathological lesions, bone marrow excepted, were metaplasias in some specialized epithelial structures, such as sebaceous glands, nail beds, gastric mucosa, ameloblast, and thymic corpuscles. These changes were interpreted as toxicant-induced, reversible redirection of differentiation. this aberration was wholly reversible. TCDD and 34TCB caused abortions when given in one or a few oral doses early in pregnancy. At the total doses used (1 or 5 g/kg of body weight for TCDD, 3 or 0.6 mg/kg of body weight for 34TCB), maternal toxicity was frequently apparent subsequent to the abortion.

  13. The Effects of Predictability in Daily Husbandry Routines on Captive Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Gottlieb, Daniel H; Coleman, Kristine; McCowan, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) housed indoors experience many routine husbandry activities on a daily basis. The anticipation of these events can lead to stress, regardless of whether the events themselves are positive or aversive in nature. The specific goal of this study was to identify whether increasing the predictability of husbandry events could decrease stress and anxiety in captive rhesus macaques. This study was conducted on 39 single-housed subjects in four indoor rooms at the Oregon National Primate Research Center. Temporal and signaled predictability were added to four daily husbandry events: morning and afternoon feeding, enrichment distribution, and room cleaning. Temporally predictable husbandry events occurred reliably at the same time daily, while signaled predictable husbandry events were preceded by a distinct event-specific signal in the form of a doorbell. Informal tests prior to study onset found the doorbells not to be aversive to the subjects. Subjects received each of four treatments: unpredictable events, temporally predictable events, signaled predictable events, and temporally and signaled predictable events. Change in stress was evaluated by monitoring changes in motor stereotypies and displacement behaviors. Our results showed that subjects displayed less stress and anticipatory behaviors related to feeding and enrichment events when the events were temporally predictable (P < 0 .0001). When husbandry events were preceded by a reliable signal, subjects vocalized less prior to the event and were less responsive to activity outside of the room (P < 0 .01). However this may have come at a cost as the animals were extremely reactive to the doorbell signals and showed a heightened stress response during the actual husbandry events (P < 0 .01). Similar to temporal predictability alone, when temporal predictability was combined with signaled predictability subjects displayed less stress and anticipatory behaviors related to feeding and

  14. Social rank versus affiliation: Which is more closely related to leadership of group movements in Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana)?

    PubMed

    Wang, Xi; Sun, Lixing; Sheeran, Lori K; Sun, Bing-Hua; Zhang, Qi-Xin; Zhang, Dao; Xia, Dong-Po; Li, Jin-Hua

    2016-08-01

    Research on leadership is a critical step for understanding collective decision making. However, only 4 of the 22 extant macaque species have been examined for the impact of social rank and affiliation on the initiation of collective movement. It is far from clear whether such impact exists and, if so, how it works among other macaques. To answer these questions, we investigated free-ranging, Tibetan macaques' (Macaca thibetana) group departures from a provisioning area and tested two alternative hypotheses: personal versus distributed leadership. Personal leadership predicts that a single, highest ranking individual initiates the most group movements, whereas distributed leadership predicts that different members lead the group on different occasions and affiliative individuals have more initiations. We recorded how often and how successfully adults initiated group movements from a provisioning area into the forest, and related these variables to the duration of interindividual proximity and grooming time in the forest. All adults initiated group movements, but did so variably. Social rank was related neither to the number of successful initiations nor to the success ratio of initiations. By contrast, eigenvector centrality based on proximity relations was positively correlated with the number and ratio of successful initiations. Moreover, successful initiations were positively correlated with social grooming. Overall, Tibetan macaques showed a pattern of distributed leadership. Our study demonstrated the relationship between social affiliation and individual leadership in a macaque society. Am. J. Primatol. 78:816-824, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26990010

  15. Postnatal development of the hippocampus in the Rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta): a longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Hunsaker, Michael R; Scott, Julia A; Bauman, Melissa D; Schumann, Cynthia M; Amaral, David G

    2014-07-01

    Nonhuman primates are widely used models to investigate the neural substrates of human behavior, including the development of higher cognitive and affective function. Due to their neuroanatomical and behavioral homologies with humans, the rhesus macaque monkey (Macaca mulatta) provides an excellent animal model in which to characterize the maturation of brain structures from birth through adulthood and into senescence. To evaluate hippocampal development in rhesus macaques, structural magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained longitudinally at 9 time points between 1 week and 260 weeks (5 years) of age on 24 rhesus macaque monkeys (12 males, 12 females). In our sample, the hippocampus reaches 50% of its adult volume by 13 weeks of age and reaches an adult volume by 52 weeks in both males and females. The hippocampus appears to be slightly larger at 3 years than at 5 years of age. Male rhesus macaques have larger hippocampi than females from 8 weeks onward by approximately 5%. Interestingly, there was increased variability in hemispheric asymmetry for hippocampus volumes at younger ages than at later ages. These data provide a comprehensive evaluation of the longitudinal development of male and female rhesus macaque hippocampus across development from 1 week to 5 years of age. PMID:24648155

  16. Postnatal Development of the Hippocampus in the Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta): A Longitudinal Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Hunsaker, Michael R.; Scott, Julia A.; Bauman, Melissa D.; Schumann, Cynthia M.; Amaral, David G.

    2014-01-01

    Nonhuman primates are widely used models to investigate the neural substrates of human behavior, including the development of higher cognitive and affective function. Due to their neuroanatomical and behavioral homologies with humans, the rhesus macaque monkey (Macaca mulatta) provides an excellent animal model in which to characterize the maturation of brain structures from birth through adulthood and into senescence. To evaluate hippocampal development in rhesus macaques, structural magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained longitudinally at 9 time points between 1 week and 260 weeks (5 years) of age on 24 rhesus macaque monkeys (12 male, 12 female). In our sample, the hippocampus reaches 50% of its adult volume by 13 weeks of age and reaches an adult volume by 52 weeks in both males and females. The hippocampus appears to be slightly larger at 3 years than at 5 years of age. Male rhesus macaques have larger hippocampi than females from 8 weeks onward by approximately 5%. Interestingly, there was increased variability in hemispheric asymmetry for hippocampus volumes at younger ages than at later ages. These data provide a comprehensive evaluation of the longitudinal development of male and female rhesus macaque hippocampus across development from 1 week to 5 years of age. PMID:24648155

  17. Flow cytometric characterizations of leukocyte subpopulations in the peripheral blood of northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina)

    PubMed Central

    ZHENG, Hong-Yi; ZHANG, Ming-Xu; ZHANG, Lin-Tao; ZHANG, Xiao-Liang; PANG, Wei; LYU, Long-Bao; ZHENG, Yong-Tang

    2014-01-01

    Pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemistrina group) have been extensively used as non-human primate animal models for various human diseases in recent years, notably for AIDS research due to their sensitivity to HIV-1. Northern pig-tailed macaques (M. leonina) are distributed in China and other surrounding Southeast Asia countries. Although northern pig-tailed macaques have been bred on a large scale as experimental animals since 2012, the reference value of normal levels of leukocytes is not available. To obtain such information, 62 blood samples from male and female healthy northern pig-tailed macaques at different ages were collected. The normal range of major leukocyte subpopulations, such as T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, natural killer (NK) cells, monocytes, and the expression levels of activation or differentiation related molecules (CD38, HLA-DR, CCR5, CD21, IgD, CD80 and CD86) on lymphocytes were analyzed by flow cytometry. The counts of B cells decreased with age, but those of CD8+ T cells and NK cells and the frequency of CD38+HLA-DR+CD4+ T cells were positively correlated with age. The counts of leukocyte subpopulations were higher in males than those in females except for CD4+ T cells. Males also showed higher expression levels of IgD and CD21 within B cells. This study provides basic data about the leukocyte subpopulations of northern pig-tailed macaques and compares this species with commonly used Chinese rhesus macaques (M. mulatta), which is meaningful for the biomedical application of northern pig-tailed macaques. PMID:25465082

  18. Proteomic identification of differentially expressed genes in neural stem cells and neurons differentiated from embryonic stem cells of cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) in vitro.

    PubMed

    Akama, Kuniko; Horikoshi, Tomoe; Nakayama, Takashi; Otsu, Masahiro; Imaizumi, Noriaki; Nakamura, Megumi; Toda, Tosifusa; Inuma, Michiko; Hirano, Hisashi; Kondo, Yasushi; Suzuki, Yutaka; Inoue, Nobuo

    2011-02-01

    Understanding neurogenesis is valuable for the treatment of nervous system disorders. However, there is currently limited information about the molecular events associated with the transition from primate ES cells to neural cells. We therefore sought to identify the proteins involved in neurogenesis, from Macaca fascicularis ES cells (CMK6 cell line) to neural stem (NS) cells to neurons using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF), and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). During the differentiation of highly homogeneous ES cells to NS cells, we identified 17 proteins with increased expression, including fatty acid binding protein 7 (FABP7), collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2), and cellular retinoic acid binding protein 1 (CRABP1), and seven proteins with decreased expression. In the differentiation of NS cells to neurons, we identified three proteins with increased expression, including CRMP2, and 10 proteins with decreased expression. Of these proteins, FABP7 is a marker of NS cells, CRMP2 is involved in axon guidance, and CRABP1 is thought to regulate retinoic acid access to its nuclear receptors. Western blot analysis confirmed the upregulation of FABP7 and CRABP1 in NS cells, and the upregulation of CRMP2 in NS cells and neurons. RT-PCR results showed that CRMP2 and FABP7 mRNAs were also upregulated in NS cells, while CRABP1 mRNA was unchanged. These results provide insight into the molecular basis of monkey neural differentiation. PMID:21047566

  19. Effect of dioxin on ovarian function in the cynomolgus macaque (M. fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Morán, F M; Tarara, R; Chen, J; Santos, S; Cheney, A; Overstreet, J W; Lasley, B L

    2001-01-01

    Ovarian function was evaluated in mature female cynomolgus macaques 443 to 625 days following a single oral exposure (1, 2, or 4 microg/kg BW) to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Urinary estrone conjugates (E1C), pregnanediol-3-glucuronide (PdG), and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) were measured. Three of four animals in the high dose group had no evidence of menstrual cycles while animals in the low and medium dose groups plus one from the high dose group had cycles that were similar to those of control animals. The noncycling animals had baseline E(1)C concentrations without ovulatory midcycle peaks and monotonic PdG profiles. Mean FSH concentrations during the midfollicular phase of the medium dose group and during the entire cycle of the high dose group were elevated compared to those of the control group and the endometria of the noncycling animals were inactive. These data demonstrate that a single exposure of 4 microg/kg BW TCDD leads to long-term adverse effects on ovarian function in primates. PMID:11489593

  20. Reactive amyloidosis associated with ischial callosititis: a report with histology of ischial callosities in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, David X.; Gilbert, Margaret H.; Wang, Xiaolei; Didier, Peter J.; Veazey, Ronald S.

    2014-01-01

    Ischial callosities have received little attention in veterinary medicine even though they are distinguishing anatomic organs. The organs are characterized by a pair of hairless pads of thickened epidermis, located bilaterally in the gluteal region, which overlay the tuberosities of the ischia of all Old World monkeys, gibbons, and siamangs. The current report describes a case of reactive amyloidosis associated with ischial callosititis in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta). Amyloid A (AA) protein was found in the liver, spleen, small intestine, mesenteric lymph nodes, and ischial callosities by histology, Congo red stain, and immunohistochemistry. Confocal microscopy showed that many cluster of differentiation (CD)68-positive macrophages within the ischial callosities contained intracellular AA protein, which suggests that CD68-positive macrophages have an important role in the pathogenesis of reactive amyloidosis in nonhuman primates. The normal histology of ischial callosities of rhesus macaques is also documented in this report. PMID:23104953

  1. Postmortem recovery and cryopreservation of spermatozoa from the vas deferens of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Goff, Kelly; Liukkonen, John; Kubisch, H. Michael

    2009-01-01

    To determine whether sperm derived form the vas deferens could be retrieved and successfully cryopreserved, testes were collected from 20 rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). The males ranged in age from 3 to 19 years with an average of 8.5 years. No sperm was obtained from three animals which were younger than 4 years. The remaining 17 samples contained sperm with an average sperm cell number of 421.8 ±88.7 × 106 and an average motility of 72.8 ± 4.4 %. After 24 h of culture in TALP medium at 37° C in 5% CO2 and 95% air, the overall motility decreased significantly in all samples regardless of treatment. Freezing in TEST-yolk buffer containing 6% (vol/vol) glycerol had a significant effect on sperm reducing the immediate post-thaw motility to 42.4 % in non-treated samples. Treatment with db-cAMP and caffeine further reduced sperm motility after 4 hr in fresh sperm (72.8 vs 50.4%), but increased in sperm that had been frozen (14.0 vs 23.2%). The age of the male did not influence sperm concentration or grade, but proved to be a significant factor in determining motility of frozen-thawed treated sperm with lower motility found in samples from older males. Overall the study demonstrates that motile sperm can be obtained from post-mortem males, although subsequent studies will have to determine whether the quality is sufficient to facilitate its use in assisted reproduction. PMID:19646745

  2. A modified mark test for own-body recognition in pig tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina)

    PubMed Central

    Macellini, Sara; Ferrari, Pier Francesco; Bonini, Luca; Fogassi, Leonardo; Paukner, Annika

    2013-01-01

    Classic mirror self-recognition mark tests involve familiarizing the subject with its mirror image, surreptitiously applying a mark on the subject’s eyebrow, nose, or ear, and measuring self-directed behaviors towards the mark. For many non-human primate species, however, direct gaze at the face constitutes an aggressive and threatening signal. It is therefore possible that monkeys fail the mark test because they do not closely inspect their faces in a mirror and hence they have no expectations about their physical appearance. In the current study we prevented 2 pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) from seeing their own faces in a mirror and we adopted a modified version of the classic mark test in which monkeys were marked on the chest, a body region to which they normally have direct visual access but that in the current study was visible only via a mirror. Neither monkey tried to touch the mark on its chest, possibly due to a failure to understand the mirror as a reflective surface. To further the monkeys’ understanding of the mirror image, we trained them to reach for food using the mirror as the only source of information. After both monkeys had learned mirror-mediated reaching, we replicated the mark test. In this latter phase of the study, only 1 monkey scratched the red dye on the chest once. The results are consistent with other findings suggesting that monkeys are not capable of passing a mark test, and imply that face and body recognition rely on the same cognitive abilities. PMID:20148344

  3. Temporal Expression of Peripheral Blood Leukocyte Biomarkers in a Macaca fascicularis Infection Model of Tuberculosis; Comparison with Human Datasets and Analysis with Parametric/Non-parametric Tools for Improved Diagnostic Biomarker Identification

    PubMed Central

    Wareham, Alice; Lewandowski, Kuiama S.; Williams, Ann; Dennis, Michael J.; Sharpe, Sally; Vipond, Richard; Silman, Nigel; Ball, Graham

    2016-01-01

    A temporal study of gene expression in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) from a Mycobacterium tuberculosis primary, pulmonary challenge model Macaca fascicularis has been conducted. PBL samples were taken prior to challenge and at one, two, four and six weeks post-challenge and labelled, purified RNAs hybridised to Operon Human Genome AROS V4.0 slides. Data analyses revealed a large number of differentially regulated gene entities, which exhibited temporal profiles of expression across the time course study. Further data refinements identified groups of key markers showing group-specific expression patterns, with a substantial reprogramming event evident at the four to six week interval. Selected statistically-significant gene entities from this study and other immune and apoptotic markers were validated using qPCR, which confirmed many of the results obtained using microarray hybridisation. These showed evidence of a step-change in gene expression from an ‘early’ FOS-associated response, to a ‘late’ predominantly type I interferon-driven response, with coincident reduction of expression of other markers. Loss of T-cell-associate marker expression was observed in responsive animals, with concordant elevation of markers which may be associated with a myeloid suppressor cell phenotype e.g. CD163. The animals in the study were of different lineages and these Chinese and Mauritian cynomolgous macaque lines showed clear evidence of differing susceptibilities to Tuberculosis challenge. We determined a number of key differences in response profiles between the groups, particularly in expression of T-cell and apoptotic makers, amongst others. These have provided interesting insights into innate susceptibility related to different host `phenotypes. Using a combination of parametric and non-parametric artificial neural network analyses we have identified key genes and regulatory pathways which may be important in early and adaptive responses to TB. Using comparisons

  4. Temporal Expression of Peripheral Blood Leukocyte Biomarkers in a Macaca fascicularis Infection Model of Tuberculosis; Comparison with Human Datasets and Analysis with Parametric/Non-parametric Tools for Improved Diagnostic Biomarker Identification.

    PubMed

    Javed, Sajid; Marsay, Leanne; Wareham, Alice; Lewandowski, Kuiama S; Williams, Ann; Dennis, Michael J; Sharpe, Sally; Vipond, Richard; Silman, Nigel; Ball, Graham; Kempsell, Karen E

    2016-01-01

    A temporal study of gene expression in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) from a Mycobacterium tuberculosis primary, pulmonary challenge model Macaca fascicularis has been conducted. PBL samples were taken prior to challenge and at one, two, four and six weeks post-challenge and labelled, purified RNAs hybridised to Operon Human Genome AROS V4.0 slides. Data analyses revealed a large number of differentially regulated gene entities, which exhibited temporal profiles of expression across the time course study. Further data refinements identified groups of key markers showing group-specific expression patterns, with a substantial reprogramming event evident at the four to six week interval. Selected statistically-significant gene entities from this study and other immune and apoptotic markers were validated using qPCR, which confirmed many of the results obtained using microarray hybridisation. These showed evidence of a step-change in gene expression from an 'early' FOS-associated response, to a 'late' predominantly type I interferon-driven response, with coincident reduction of expression of other markers. Loss of T-cell-associate marker expression was observed in responsive animals, with concordant elevation of markers which may be associated with a myeloid suppressor cell phenotype e.g. CD163. The animals in the study were of different lineages and these Chinese and Mauritian cynomolgous macaque lines showed clear evidence of differing susceptibilities to Tuberculosis challenge. We determined a number of key differences in response profiles between the groups, particularly in expression of T-cell and apoptotic makers, amongst others. These have provided interesting insights into innate susceptibility related to different host `phenotypes. Using a combination of parametric and non-parametric artificial neural network analyses we have identified key genes and regulatory pathways which may be important in early and adaptive responses to TB. Using comparisons between

  5. Complete Taiwanese Macaque (Macaca cyclopis) Mitochondrial Genome: Reference-Assisted de novo Assembly with Multiple k-mer Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yu-Feng; Midha, Mohit; Chen, Tzu-Han; Wang, Yu-Tai; Smith, David Glenn; Pei, Kurtis Jai-Chyi; Chiu, Kuo Ping

    2015-01-01

    The Taiwanese (Formosan) macaque (Macaca cyclopis) is the only nonhuman primate endemic to Taiwan. This primate species is valuable for evolutionary studies and as subjects in medical research. However, only partial fragments of the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of this primate species have been sequenced, not mentioning its nuclear genome. We employed next-generation sequencing to generate 2 x 90 bp paired-end reads, followed by reference-assisted de novo assembly with multiple k-mer strategy to characterize the M. cyclopis mitogenome. We compared the assembled mitogenome with that of other macaque species for phylogenetic analysis. Our results show that, the M. cyclopis mitogenome consists of 16,563 nucleotides encoding for 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs and 22 transfer RNAs. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that M. cyclopis is most closely related to M. mulatta lasiota (Chinese rhesus macaque), supporting the notion of Asia-continental origin of M. cyclopis proposed in previous studies based on partial mitochondrial sequences. Our work presents a novel approach for assembling a mitogenome that utilizes the capabilities of de novo genome assembly with assistance of a reference genome. The availability of the complete Taiwanese macaque mitogenome will facilitate the study of primate evolution and the characterization of genetic variations for the potential usage of this species as a non-human primate model for medical research. PMID:26125617

  6. Facial musculature in the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta): evolutionary and functional contexts with comparisons to chimpanzees and humans

    PubMed Central

    Burrows, Anne M; Waller, Bridget M; Parr, Lisa A

    2009-01-01

    Facial expression is a common mode of visual communication in mammals but especially so in primates. Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) have a well-documented facial expression repertoire that is controlled by the facial/mimetic musculature as in all mammals. However, little is known about the musculature itself and how it compares with those of other primates. Here we present a detailed description of the facial musculature in rhesus macaques in behavioral, evolutionary and comparative contexts. Formalin-fixed faces from six adult male specimens were dissected using a novel technique. The morphology, attachments, three-dimensional relationships and variability of muscles were noted and compared with chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and with humans. The results showed that there was a greater number of facial muscles in rhesus macaques than previously described (24 muscles), including variably present (and previously unmentioned) zygomaticus minor, levator labii superioris alaeque nasi, depressor septi, anterior auricularis, inferior auricularis and depressor supercilii muscles. The facial muscles of the rhesus macaque were very similar to those in chimpanzees and humans but M. mulatta did not possess a risorius muscle. These results support previous studies that describe a highly graded and intricate facial expression repertoire in rhesus macaques. Furthermore, these results indicate that phylogenetic position is not the primary factor governing the structure of primate facial musculature and that other factors such as social behavior are probably more important. The results from the present study may provide valuable input to both biomedical studies that use rhesus macaques as a model for human disease and disorder that includes assessment of facial movement and studies into the evolution of primate societies and communication. PMID:19563473

  7. Alopecia in three macaque species housed in a laboratory environment

    PubMed Central

    Kroeker, R.; Bellanca, R. U.; Lee, G. H.; Thom, J. P.; Worlein, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Alopecia is a persistent problem in captive macaque populations and despite recent interest, no factors have been identified that can unequivocally explain the presence of alopecia in a majority of cases. Seasonal, demographic and environmental factors have been identified as affecting alopecia presentation in rhesus macaques, the most widely studied macaque species. However, few studies have investigated alopecia rates in other macaque species. We report alopecia scores over a period of 12 months for three macaque species (Macaca nemestrina, M. mulatta, and M. fascicularis) housed at three indoor facilities within the Washington National Primate Research Center (WaNPRC) in Seattle. Clear species differences emerged with cynomolgus (M. fascicularis) showing the lowest alopecia rates and pigtails (M. nemestrina) the highest rates. Further analysis of pigtail and rhesus (M. mulatta) macaques revealed that sex effects were apparent for rhesus but not pigtails. Age and seasonal effects were evident for both species. In contrast to previous reports, we found that older animals (over 10 years of age) had improved alopecia scores in comparison to younger adults. This is the first report on alopecia rates in pigtail macaques and the first comparison of alopecia scores in pigtail, cynomolgus, and rhesus macaques housed under similar conditions. PMID:24243351

  8. The complete mitochondrial genome of Southern pig-tailed macaque, Macaca nemestrina, and comparative mitochondrial genomics of Macaca species.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Mei, Huixian; Luo, Xueting

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we report the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Southern pig-tailed, Macaca nemestrina for the first time. The genome is found to be 16,560 bp in length and has a base composition of A (32.25%), G (12.31%), C (30.51%), and T (24.93%), indicating that the percentage of A + T (57.18%) was higher than G + C (42.82%). Similar to other monkeys, it contains a typically conserved structure including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 1 control region (D-loop). Most of the genes were located on the H-strand except for the ND6 gene and 8 tRNA genes. To obtain a more complete understanding of the evolutionary history of Macaca genus, 11 mitochondrial genomes were used for phylogenetic analysis. This mitochondrial sequence reported here would be useful to uncover the monkey's evolution and add a new genetic resource for the genus Macaca. PMID:26000941

  9. Stone handling behavior in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), a behavioral propensity for solitary object play shared with Japanese macaques.

    PubMed

    Nahallage, Charmalie A D; Huffman, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    Stone handling (SH) behavior was systematically studied in a captive troop of rhesus macaques housed at the Primate Research Institute of Kyoto University, and compared with the results of long-term studies of this behavior in Japanese macaques, to evaluate the similarities of SH behavior in these two closely related species. Similar to Japanese macaques, rhesus macaques showed age-related differences in SH. Young animals were more active and displayed more SH patterns and bouts than did adults. Furthermore, the young displayed SH at a higher frequency and their bouts were of a shorter duration, compared to adults. Young adults were more active and displayed more patterns than did older adults. On the other hand, older adults were more conservative and displayed fewer patterns, and engaged in them for longer durations. All individuals displayed SH more frequently in relaxed environmental and social conditions. While lacking an apparent immediate adaptive value, practice of the behavior has been proposed to have long-term functional value for neural and cognitive development in the young and for the maintenance or repair of neuro-pathways in aging macaques that habitually perform the behavior. The results presented here are consistent with what we know about Japanese macaque SH. Given the uniformity of SH behavioral parameters and these two macaque species' close phylogenetic relatedness, we propose that a similar functional and adaptive value for SH can be inferred for rhesus macaques. PMID:22037669

  10. A novel wireless recording and stimulating multichannel epicortical grid for supplementing or enhancing the sensory-motor functions in monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Zippo, Antonio G; Romanelli, Pantaleo; Torres Martinez, Napoleon R; Caramenti, Gian C; Benabid, Alim L; Biella, Gabriele E M

    2015-01-01

    Artificial brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) represent a prospective step forward supporting or replacing faulty brain functions. So far, several obstacles, such as the energy supply, the portability and the biocompatibility, have been limiting their effective translation in advanced experimental or clinical applications. In this work, a novel 16 channel chronically implantable epicortical grid has been proposed. It provides wireless transmission of cortical recordings and stimulations, with induction current recharge. The grid has been chronically implanted in a non-human primate (Macaca fascicularis) and placed over the somato-motor cortex such that 13 electrodes recorded or stimulated the primary motor cortex and three the primary somatosensory cortex, in the deeply anaesthetized animal. Cortical sensory and motor recordings and stimulations have been performed within 3 months from the implant. In detail, by delivering motor cortex epicortical single spot stimulations (1-8 V, 1-10 Hz, 500 ms, biphasic waves), we analyzed the motor topographic precision, evidenced by tunable finger or arm movements of the anesthetized animal. The responses to light mechanical peripheral sensory stimuli (blocks of 100 stimuli, each single stimulus being <1 ms and interblock intervals of 1.5-4 s) have been analyzed. We found 150-250 ms delayed cortical responses from fast finger touches, often spread to nearby motor stations. We also evaluated the grid electrical stimulus interference with somatotopic natural tactile sensory processing showing no suppressing interference with sensory stimulus detection. In conclusion, we propose a chronically implantable epicortical grid which can accommodate most of current technological restrictions, representing an acceptable candidate for BMI experimental and clinical uses. PMID:26029061

  11. A novel wireless recording and stimulating multichannel epicortical grid for supplementing or enhancing the sensory-motor functions in monkey (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Zippo, Antonio G.; Romanelli, Pantaleo; Torres Martinez, Napoleon R.; Caramenti, Gian C.; Benabid, Alim L.; Biella, Gabriele E. M.

    2015-01-01

    Artificial brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) represent a prospective step forward supporting or replacing faulty brain functions. So far, several obstacles, such as the energy supply, the portability and the biocompatibility, have been limiting their effective translation in advanced experimental or clinical applications. In this work, a novel 16 channel chronically implantable epicortical grid has been proposed. It provides wireless transmission of cortical recordings and stimulations, with induction current recharge. The grid has been chronically implanted in a non-human primate (Macaca fascicularis) and placed over the somato-motor cortex such that 13 electrodes recorded or stimulated the primary motor cortex and three the primary somatosensory cortex, in the deeply anaesthetized animal. Cortical sensory and motor recordings and stimulations have been performed within 3 months from the implant. In detail, by delivering motor cortex epicortical single spot stimulations (1–8 V, 1–10 Hz, 500 ms, biphasic waves), we analyzed the motor topographic precision, evidenced by tunable finger or arm movements of the anesthetized animal. The responses to light mechanical peripheral sensory stimuli (blocks of 100 stimuli, each single stimulus being <1 ms and interblock intervals of 1.5–4 s) have been analyzed. We found 150–250 ms delayed cortical responses from fast finger touches, often spread to nearby motor stations. We also evaluated the grid electrical stimulus interference with somatotopic natural tactile sensory processing showing no suppressing interference with sensory stimulus detection. In conclusion, we propose a chronically implantable epicortical grid which can accommodate most of current technological restrictions, representing an acceptable candidate for BMI experimental and clinical uses. PMID:26029061

  12. Immunoreactivity for Choline Acetyltransferase of Peripheral-Type (pChAT) in the Trigeminal Ganglion Neurons of the Non-Human Primate Macaca fascicularis

    PubMed Central

    Koga, Tsuneyuki; Bellier, Jean-Pierre; Kimura, Hiroshi; Tooyama, Ikuo

    2013-01-01

    Transcripts of the choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) gene reveal a number of different splice variants including ChAT of a peripheral type (pChAT). Immunohistochemical staining of the brain using an antibody against pChAT clearly revealed peripheral cholinergic neurons, but failed to detect cholinergic neurons in the central nervous system. In rodents, pChAT-immunoreactivity has been detected in cholinergic parasympathetic postganglionic and enteric ganglion neurons. In addition, pChAT has been observed in non-cholinergic neurons such as peripheral sensory neurons in the trigeminal and dorsal root ganglia. The common type of ChAT (cChAT) has been investigated in many parts of the brain and the spinal cord of non-human primates, but little information is available about the localization of pChAT in primate species. Here, we report the detection of pChAT immunoreactivity in trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons and its co-localization with Substance P (SP) and/or calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the cynomolgus monkey, Macaca fascicularis. Neurons positive for pChAT were observed in a rather uniform pattern in approximately half of the trigeminal neurons throughout the TG. Most pChAT-positive neurons had small or medium-sized cell bodies. Double-immunofluorescence staining showed that 85.1% of SP-positive cells and 74.0% of CGRP-positive cells exhibited pChAT immunoreactivity. Most pChAT-positive cells were part of a larger population of neurons that co-expressed SP and/or CGRP. PMID:23720604

  13. Effect of photoperiod on characteristics of semen obtained by electroejaculation in stump-tailed macaques (Macaca arctoides).

    PubMed

    García Granados, Mónica Dafne; Hernández López, Leonor Estela; Córdoba Aguilar, Alejandro; Cerda Molina, Ana Lilia; Pérez-Ramírez, Olivia; Mondragón-Ceballos, Ricardo

    2014-07-01

    Some environmental variables determining seasonal reproduction in mammals are temperature, humidity, food availability, and photoperiod. Among these, photoperiod is considered the main regulator of primates' seasonal reproduction, thus the latitudinal distribution of primate populations is a key factor determining the appearance of seasonal reproduction. The present work presents supporting discrete seasonality in male stump-tailed macaques (Macaca arctoides). We investigated whether semen quality and testosterone covaried with Mexico City's photoperiod and relative humidity by analyzing variations in the portions that form the ejaculate: the seminal liquid, the seminal coagulum, and the copulatory plug. Five male adult stump-tailed macaques were electroejaculated once a month, obtaining three semen samples per male, from August 2011 to July 2012 (except for December 2011) (n = 165). Our results showed that stump-tailed macaque sperm counts were significantly different between the portions of the ejaculate. The seminal coagulum contained the significantly largest number of spermatozoids, followed by the copulatory plug and the seminal fluid. Photoperiod and relative humidity had major influence on the sperm count in the seminal coagulum and the testosterone concentrations. Testosterone reached its highest values around the time when days and nights lasted the same hours, decreasing when days either grew longer or became shorter. Concerning relative humidity, sperm counts in the seminal coagulum were highly variable on dry days, but decreased as the relative humidity increased. We conclude that stump-tailed macaques have a discrete seasonality, occurring in spring and fall when macaques' reproductive condition and readiness for postcopulatory intrasexual competition increase. PMID:24585247

  14. Effects of Extended-Release Injectable Naltrexone on Self-Injurious Behavior in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Kempf, Doty J; Baker, Kate C; Gilbert, Margaret H; Blanchard, James L; Dean, Reginald L; Deaver, Daniel R; Bohm, Rudolf P

    2012-01-01

    Self-injurious behavior (SIB) is a spontaneous behavior that threatens the health and wellbeing of multiple species. In humans, the opioid antagonist naltrexone hydrochloride has been used successfully to modulate the endogenous opioid system and reduce the occurrence of SIB. This study is the first to assess the efficacy of extended-release naltrexone in the pharmacologic treatment of SIB in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). In an acute pharmacokinetic study of 4 macaques, we determined the mean naltrexone plasma concentration was maintained above the therapeutic level (2 ng/mL) after administration of a single dose (20 mg/kg) of 28-d extended-release naltrexone throughout the release period. For a subsequent treatment study, we selected 8 singly housed macaques known to engage in SIB. The study comprised a 4-wk baseline phase; an 8-wk treatment phase, during which each macaque received 2 doses of extended-release naltrexone 28 d apart; and a 4-wk posttreatment phase. Plasma samples were collected and analyzed weekly for naltrexone concentrations throughout the treatment and posttreatment phases. In addition, total of 6 h of video was analyzed per animal per phase of the study. Compared with baseline phases, both the frequency and the percentage of time spent displaying SIB decreased during the treatment phase, and the percentage of time remained decreased during the posttreatment phase. In contrast, extended-release naltrexone did not alter the expression of other abnormal, anxiety-related, or agonistic behaviors nor were levels of inactivity affected. The present study supports the use of naltrexone in the treatment of SIB in rhesus macaques. PMID:22776054

  15. Sequence characterization and phylogenetic analysis of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 gene in the Tibetan macaque (Macaca thibetana).

    PubMed

    Dai, Q X; Yao, Y F; Qi, Z C; Huang, Y; Ni, Q Y; Zhang, M W; Xu, H L

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the complete coding region sequence of an innate immune-related TLR4 gene was obtained from the Tibetan macaque (Macaca thibetana) genome via PCR and direct sequencing. The sequence had a total length of 2481 bp, contained 3 complete exons, and encoded 826 amino acids (AAs); its isoelectric point was 5.703, and the molecular weight was 94.72 kDa. The high structure prediction showed that the protein was comprised of one extracellular region, one transmembrane region, and one intracellular region. There were 48 potential functional sites in the protein, including glycosylation, phosphorylation, and acetylation sites. A homology analysis among 9 primate species, including the Tibetan macaque, human, chimpanzee, gibbon, rhesus macaque, cynomolgus monkey, pig-tailed monkey, squirrel monkey, and small-eared galago, showed that the homology of the nucleotide and AA sequences ranged from 60.9-99.5% and 51.4- 99.0%, respectively. Higher variability was identified in the extracellular region of the TLR4 protein, and its variable sites accounted for 88.79% (AA) of the total variable sites. Additionally, the number of AAs at the 3' end of the intracellular region was notably different among the primate lineages. The phylogenetic tree based on TLR4 gene exons of 9 primate species showed that the Tibetan macaque clustered with the rhesus macaque, cynomolgus monkey, and pig-tailed monkey; it was most distant from the small-eared galago. This study will provide an important basis for further study on the expression, regulation, and polymorphism of the TLR4 gene and the relationship between polymorphisms and host disease susceptibility. PMID:25867333

  16. Intergroup variation in stable isotope ratios reflects anthropogenic impact on the Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) of Gibraltar.

    PubMed

    Schurr, Mark R; Fuentes, Agustín; Luecke, Ellen; Cortes, John; Shaw, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Interactions with humans impact many aspects of behavior and ecology in nonhuman primates. Because of the complexities of the human-nonhuman primate interface, methods are needed to quantify the effects of anthropogenic interactions, including their intensity and differential impacts between nonhuman primate groups. Stable isotopes can be used to quickly and economically assess intergroup dietary variation, and provide a framework for the development of specific hypotheses about anthropogenic impact. This study uses stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis to examine intraspecific variation in diet between five groups of Barbary macaques, Macaca sylvanus, in the Upper Rock Nature Reserve, Gibraltar. Analysis of hair from 135 macaques showed significant differences in δ(13)C and δ(15)N values between a group with minimal tourist contact and groups that were main tourist attractions. Because we observed no overt physiological or substantial behavioral differences between the groups, feeding ecology is the most likely cause of any differences in stable isotope ratios. Haphazard provisioning by tourists and Gibraltarians is a likely source of dietary variation between groups. Stable isotope analysis and observational data facilitate a deeper understanding of the feeding ecology of the Barbary macaques relevant to the role of an anthropogenic ecology for the species. PMID:21881959

  17. Cashing out: The decisional flexibility of uncertainty responses in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) and humans (Homo sapiens).

    PubMed

    Zakrzewski, Alexandria C; Perdue, Bonnie M; Beran, Michael J; Church, Barbara A; Smith, J David

    2014-10-01

    Researchers are exploring whether animals share with humans something like a metacognitive capacity. Though some results point to human-animal continuities in this domain, they face the dominant criticism that animals' performances might be associative. A persistent problem is that animal-metacognition paradigms present static environments of risk and reward that may foster inflexible and conditioned responding. Those environments do not challenge animals to show the flexibility in their decision strategies that could indicate an antecedent capacity to metacognition. Accordingly, we tested macaques and humans on an uncertainty-monitoring paradigm in which risk changed dynamically. Participants classified stimuli of different difficulties while also choosing when to use a cashout response to collect the accumulated rewards that would be forfeit on a discrimination error. Macaques (Macaca mulatta) and humans flexibly adjusted their decision criteria to achieve appropriate protection against the cost of error that could differ depending on trial difficulty and the number of rewards at risk. In particular, monkeys widened their cashout-response region as their accumulated rewards increased, providing more protection against a more costly error. These findings demonstrate a new continuity between humans' and animals' uncertainty systems. They reveal a calibration by macaques of present risk to trial difficulty tolerated. They show that animals' uncertainty-monitoring and risk-management systems have substantial trial-by-trial flexibility. PMID:25546106

  18. Contrasting the Edge- and Surface-Based Theories of Object Recognition: Behavioral Evidence From Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Parron, Carole; Washburn, David

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the contribution of edge and surface cues on object representation in macaques (Macaca mulatta). In Experiments 1 and 2, 5 macaques were trained to discriminate 4 simple volumetric objects (geons) and were subsequently tested for their ability to recognize line drawings, silhouettes, and light changes of these geons. Performance was above chance in all test conditions and was similarly high for the line drawings and silhouettes of geons, suggesting the use of the outline shape to recognize the original objects. In addition, transfer for the geons seen under new lighting was greater than for the other stimuli, stressing the importance of the shading information. Experiment 3, using geons filled with new textures, showed that a radical change in the surface cues does not prevent object recognition. It is concluded that these findings support a surface-based theory of object recognition in macaques, although it does not exclude the contribution of edge cues, especially when surface details are not available. PMID:20141325

  19. A structural comparison of female-male and female-female mounting in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    PubMed

    Ottenheimer Carrier, Lydia; Leca, Jean-Baptiste; Pellis, Sergio; Vasey, Paul L

    2015-10-01

    In certain populations, female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) mount both males and females. Vasey (2007) proposed that female-female sexual mounting in Japanese macaques may be a neutral evolutionary by-product of a purported adaptation, namely, female-male mounting. In this study, we aim to further examine the proposed link between female-male and female-female mounting in Japanese macaques by comparing the structural characteristics that define both forms of mounting. We do so using Eshkol-Wachman Movement Notation (EWMN), a globographic reference system that can be used to describe the position of body segments. No significant differences were observed in the female mounters' positioning of eight different body segments (i.e., lower torso, mid-torso, upper torso, upper arm, lower arm, upper leg, lower leg, and foot) during female-male and female-female mounting. This finding lends support to the conclusion that female-female and female-male mounting are structurally, and thus, evolutionarily, related. PMID:26232264

  20. Cercopithecine Herpesvirus 9 (Simian Varicella Virus) Infection after Total-Body Irradiation in a Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Gulani, Jatinder; Koch, Amory; Chappell, Mark G; Christensen, Christine L; Facemire, Paul; Singh, Vijay K; Ossetrova, Natalia I; Srinivasan, Venkataraman; Holt, Rebecca K

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta; male; age, 5 y; weight, 6.7 kg) with anorexia, dehydration, lethargy, ataxia, and generalized skin rashes that occurred 30 d after total-body irradiation at 6.5 Gy ((60)Co γ-rays). Physical examination revealed pale mucus membranes, a capillary refill time of 4 s, heart rate of 180 bpm. and respirations at 50 breaths per minute. Diffuse multifocal maculopapulovesicular rashes were present on the body, including mucocutaneous junctions. The CBC analysis revealed a Hct of 48%, RBC count of 6.2 × 10(6)/μL, platelet count of 44 × 10(3)/μL, and WBC count of 25 × 10(3)/μL of WBC. The macaque was euthanized in light of a grave prognosis. Gross examination revealed white foci on the liver, multifocal generalized petechiation on serosal and mucosal surfaces of the gastrointestinal tract, hemorrhagic lymph nodes, and hemorrhagic fluid in the thoracic cavity. Microscopic examination revealed cutaneous vesicular lesions with intranuclear eosinophilic viral inclusions within the epithelial cells, consistent with herpesvirus. Immunohistochemistry was positive for herpesvirus. The serum sample was negative for antibodies against Macacine herpesvirus 1 and Cercopithecine herpesvirus 9 (simian varicella virus, SVV). Samples submitted for PCR-based identification of the etiologic agent confirmed the presence of SVV DNA. PCR analysis, immunohistochemistry, and histology confirmed that lesions were attributed to an active SVV infection in this macaque. This case illustrates the importance of screening for SVV in rhesus macaques, especially those used in studies that involve immunosuppressive procedures. PMID:27053570

  1. Endozoochorous seed dispersal by Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata): Effects of temporal variation in ranging and seed characteristics on seed shadows.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Yamato; Morimoto, Mayumi

    2016-02-01

    Variation in seed shadows generated by frugivores is caused by daily, seasonal, and inter-annual variation in ranging, as well as inter-specific variability in gut passage times according to seed characteristics. We studied the extent to which seed weight, specific gravity, and daily (morning, afternoon, and evening) and inter-annual (2004 vs. 2005) variation in ranging affected seed shadows generated by wild Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in northern Japan. The macaques ingested fleshy fruits of 11 species during the two year study period; Viburnum dilatatum (Caprifoliaceae: heavier seeds with higher specific gravity) and Rosa multiflora (Rosaceae: lighter seeds with lower specific gravity) were eaten frequently in both years. The travel distances of macaques after feeding on V. dilatatum and R. multiflora fruits were estimated by combining feeding locations and ranging patterns measured in the field with gut passage times of model seeds in captive animals. Median travel distances after fruit feeding were 431 (quantile range: 277-654) and 478 m (265-646), respectively, with a maximum of 1,261 m. Neither year nor time of day affected travel distances. The gut passage time of model V. dilatatum seeds was longer than that of model R. multiflora seed, but this did not affect dispersal distances. Seed shadows for both species over 2 years showed unimodal distribution (peak: 101-500 m) and more than 90%, 20%, and 3% of ingested seeds were estimated to be dispersed >100, >500, and >1000 m, respectively, the longest known distances among macaque species. R. multiflora seeds tended to be dispersed further in 2004 than 2005, but V. dilatatum seeds were not, implying that inter-annual variations in ranging pattern due to the distribution and abundance of nut fruiting could affect dispersal distance. PMID:26469699

  2. Locally infiltrative ameloblastic fibroma in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) with characterizations of its proliferating activity and biological behavior

    PubMed Central

    Liu, David X.; Doyle, Lara A.; Bouljihad, Mostafa T.; Didier, Peter J.; Gilbert, Margaret H.; Wang, Xiaolei; Pahar, Bapi; Bohm, Rudolf P.; Veazey, Ronald S.; Lackner, Andrew A.

    2014-01-01

    An 8-year-old male rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) presented with unilateral enlargement of the left mandible. Radiographs revealed a marked expansion of the left mandible with a multilocular radiolucent mass with abundant osteolysis. The mass was grossly firm, fleshy, and gelatinous on the cut surface. Histologically, the mass was locally infiltrative and composed of neoplastic epithelial and mesenchymal components that stained positive for cytokeratin and vimentin, respectively. Occasional densely spherical condensations of fibroblasts resembling the cap stage of odontogenesis were present in the mesenchyma. Immunohistochemical staining with Ki-67, S-100, and CD34 indicated that both epithelial and mesenchymal components of the neoplasm had low proliferation. Alcian blue, periodic acid–Schiff, and trichrome stains showed an immature stromal component with no collagen formation. Based on the clinical, histologic, and immunophenotypic features, the tumor was identified as a locally infiltrative ameloblastic fibroma. PMID:22529141

  3. The Organization of Collective Group Movements in Wild Barbary Macaques (Macaca sylvanus): Social Structure Drives Processes of Group Coordination in Macaques.

    PubMed

    Seltmann, Anne; Majolo, Bonaventura; Schülke, Oliver; Ostner, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Social animals have to coordinate activities and collective movements to benefit from the advantages of group living. Animals in large groups maintain cohesion by self-organization processes whereas in smaller groups consensus decisions can be reached. Where consensus decisions are relevant leadership may emerge. Variation in the organization of collective movements has been linked to variation in female social tolerance among macaque species ranging from despotic to egalitarian. Here we investigated the processes underlying group movements in a wild macaque species characterized by a degree of social tolerance intermediate to previously studied congeneric species. We focused on processes before, during and after the departure of the first individual. To this end, we observed one group of wild Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) in the Middle Atlas, Morocco using all-occurrence behaviour sampling of 199 collective movements. We found that initiators of a collective movement usually chose the direction in which more individuals displayed pre-departure behavior. Dominant individuals contributed to group movements more than subordinates, especially juveniles, measured as frequencies of successful initiations and pre-departure behaviour. Joining was determined by affiliative relationships and the number of individuals that already joined the movement (mimetism). Thus, in our study group partially shared consensus decisions mediated by selective mimetism seemed to be prevalent, overall supporting the suggestion that a species' social style affects the organization of group movements. As only the most tolerant species show equally shared consensus decisions whereas in others the decision is partially shared with a bias to dominant individuals the type of consensus decisions seems to follow a stepwise relation. Joining order may also follow a stepwise, however opposite, relationship, because dominance only determined joining in highly despotic, but not in intermediate and

  4. Social learning in pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) and adult humans (Homo sapiens) on a two-action artificial fruit.

    PubMed

    Custance, Deborah; Prato-Previde, Emanuela; Spiezio, Caterina; Rigamonti, Marco M; Poli, Marco

    2006-08-01

    An artificial fruit (AF) was used to test for social learning in pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) and adult humans (Homo sapiens). A monkey demonstrator opened the AF, showing alternative methods to 2 groups of cage mates. Video films of the monkey demonstrations were presented to adult humans. Compared with chimpanzees and children, the macaques watched the demonstrations significantly less and in a much more sporadic manner. They also produced only very weak and transitory evidence of social learning. In contrast, the adult humans performed as one might expect of optimum imitators, even producing evidence of components of a "ratchet effect." PMID:16893268

  5. Female Barbary macaque (Macaca sylvanus) copulation calls do not reveal the fertile phase but influence mating outcome

    PubMed Central

    Pfefferle, Dana; Brauch, Katrin; Heistermann, Michael; Hodges, J. Keith; Fischer, Julia

    2007-01-01

    In a number of primate species, females utter loud and distinctive calls during mating. Here we aim to clarify the information content and function of Barbary macaque (Macaca sylvanus) copulation calls by testing (i) whether or not copulation calls advertise the female fertile phase and (ii) whether and how copulation calls influence male ejaculatory behaviour. In order to do this, we combined hormone measurements with acoustic analysis and behavioural observations. In contrast to a previous study implying that the structure of copulation calls indicates the timing of the fertile phase, our results, using objective endocrine criteria for assessing ovulation, provide evidence that the structure of copulation calls of female Barbary macaques does not reveal the timing of the fertile phase. More importantly, females seem to influence the likelihood of ejaculation by calling versus remaining silent and by adjusting the timing of call onset. Females make use of this ability to influence mating outcome to ensure ejaculatory matings with almost all males in the group. In addition, calls given during ejaculatory copulations differ from those during non-ejaculatory copulations, providing information about mating outcome for listeners. We conclude that in this species, copulation calls apparently serve to enhance sperm competition and maximize paternity confusion. PMID:18089536

  6. Molecular cloning and anti-HIV-1 activities of APOBEC3s from northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina)

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, Xiao-Liang; SONG, Jia-Hao; PANG, Wei; ZHENG, Yong-Tang

    2016-01-01

    Northern pig-tailed macaques (NPMs, Macaca leonina) are susceptible to HIV-1 infection largely due to the loss of HIV-1-restricting factor TRIM5α. However, great impediments still exist in the persistent replication of HIV-1 in vivo, suggesting some viral restriction factors are reserved in this host. The APOBEC3 proteins have demonstrated a capacity to restrict HIV-1 replication, but their inhibitory effects in NPMs remain elusive. In this study, we cloned the NPM A3A-A3H genes, and determined by BLAST searching that their coding sequences (CDSs) showed 99% identity to the corresponding counterparts from rhesus and southern pig-tailed macaques. We further analyzed the anti-HIV-1 activities of the A3A-A3H genes, and found that A3G and A3F had the greatest anti-HIV-1 activity compared with that of other members. The results of this study indicate that A3G and A3F might play critical roles in limiting HIV-1 replication in NPMs in vivo. Furthermore, this research provides valuable information for the optimization of monkey models of HIV-1 infection. PMID:27469256

  7. Measurement of Fecal Corticosterone Metabolites as a Predictor of the Habituation of Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) to Jacketing

    PubMed Central

    Field, Amy E; Jones, Cynthia L; Kelly, Richard; Marko, Shannon T; Kern, Steven J; Rico, Pedro J

    2015-01-01

    Jacket use in NHP is a common practice and is often considered a form of refinement during experiments necessitating extended periods of catheterization. An important consideration when using jackets is the physiologic effects that jacketing has on NHP and its potential to confound research. Several studies have evaluated the stress response and habituation of NHP to various forms of restraint, but none have looked directly at the timeframe necessary for the habituation of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) to jackets. We set out to determine whether 3 d was a sufficient timeframe for this species to become habituated to a jacket, with or without an undershirt, by evaluating 2 major physiologic parameters. After jacket placement, we measured food consumption and collected fecal samples to measure fecal corticosterone metabolites (FCM) daily for 2 wk. FCM measurements for NHP without undershirts were significantly increased for days 2 and 3 after jacketing before returning to baseline levels. FCM measurements for NHP with undershirts were significantly increased for only 1 d after jacketing, suggesting that the undershirt has a positive effect on jacket habituation. There were no measurable differences in food consumption during the jacket habituation period. Furthermore, no significant differences were noted between sexes. These findings suggest that FCM levels return to baseline 3 d after jacketing and could be a useful predictor of jacket habituation in rhesus macaques. PMID:25651092

  8. Does target animacy influence manual laterality of monkeys? First answer from northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dapeng; Wang, Yuan; Han, Kejia; Zhang, Hongbao; Li, Baoguo

    2015-07-01

    The evolutionary origin of human right-handedness remains unclear. Many factors such as emotion and tool use have been implicated in primate handedness evolution. With regard to emotional lateralization, most related research focuses on facial asymmetry and behavioral laterality under the non-social context, whereas few studies investigate social laterality. This study, for the first time, investigates the effect of target animacy on hand preference in Old World monkeys, compares our findings with previous related studies in great apes and humans, and aids in filling the knowledge gap on primate handedness evolution. Nine captive northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina) were chosen as focal subjects in this study. There was no group-level handedness for both animate and inanimate targets. No significant interaction was found between lateral hand use and target animacy. Left-hand use was more frequent than right-hand use for animate targets, whereas right-hand use was more frequent than left-hand use for inanimate targets, both of which demonstrate no significant level. On the whole, northern pig-tailed macaques showed a similar tendency as that in great apes and humans. Regarding handedness linked with emotive stimuli, it is likely that Old World monkeys, great apes and humans evolved from a common ancestor. PMID:25805651

  9. Molecular cloning and anti-HIV-1 activities of APOBEC3s from northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Liang; Song, Jia-Hao; Pang, Wei; Zheng, Yong-Tang

    2016-07-18

    Northern pig-tailed macaques (NPMs, Macaca leonina) are susceptible to HIV-1 infection largely due to the loss of HIV-1-restricting factor TRIM5α. However, great impediments still exist in the persistent replication of HIV-1 in vivo, suggesting some viral restriction factors are reserved in this host. The APOBEC3 proteins have demonstrated a capacity to restrict HIV-1 replication, but their inhibitory effects in NPMs remain elusive. In this study, we cloned the NPM A3A-A3H genes, and determined by BLAST searching that their coding sequences (CDSs) showed 99% identity to the corresponding counterparts from rhesus and southern pig-tailed macaques. We further analyzed the anti-HIV-1 activities of the A3A-A3H genes, and found that A3G and A3F had the greatest anti-HIV-1 activity compared with that of other members. The results of this study indicate that A3G and A3F might play critical roles in limiting HIV-1 replication in NPMs in vivo. Furthermore, this research provides valuable information for the optimization of monkey models of HIV-1 infection. PMID:27469256

  10. Chagas disease in 2 geriatric rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) housed in the Pacific Northwest.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, Mary F; Astorga, Nestor Gerardo; Astorga, Nestor Rodrigo; Lewis, Anne D

    2014-08-01

    Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis) is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. It is endemic in Latin America but also is found in the southern United States, particularly Texas and along the Gulf Coast. Typical clinical manifestations of Chagas disease are not well-characterized in rhesus macaques, but conduction abnormalities, myocarditis, and encephalitis and megaesophagus have been described. Here we report 2 cases of Chagas disease in rhesus macaques housed in the northwestern United States. The first case involved a geriatric male macaque with cardiomegaly, diagnosed as dilated cardiomyopathy on ultrasonographic examination. Postmortem findings included myocarditis as well as ganglioneuritis in the esophagus, stomach, and colon. The second case affected a geriatric female macaque experimentally infected with SIV. She was euthanized for a protocol-related time point. Microscopic examination revealed chronic myocarditis with amastigotes present in the cardiomyocytes, ganglioneuritis, and opportunistic infections attributed to her immunocompromised status. Banked serum samples from both macaques had positive titers for T. cruzi. T. cruzi DNA was amplified by conventional PCR from multiple tissues from both animals. Review of their histories revealed that both animals had been obtained from facilities in South Texas more than 12 y earlier. Given the long period of clinical latency, Chagas disease may be more prevalent in rhesus macaques than typically has been reported. T. cruzi infection should be considered for animals with unexplained cardiac or gastrointestinal pathology and that originated from areas known to have a high risk for disease transmission. PMID:25296019

  11. Dietary adaptations of Assamese macaques (Macaca assamensis) in limestone forests in Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhonghao; Huang, Chengming; Tang, Chuangbin; Huang, Libin; Tang, Huaxing; Ma, Guangzhi; Zhou, Qihai

    2015-02-01

    Limestone hills are an unusual habitat for primates, prompting them to evolve specific behavioral adaptations to the component karst habitat. From September 2012 to August 2013, we collected data on the diet of one group of Assamese macaques living in limestone forests at Nonggang National Nature Reserve, Guangxi Province, China, using instantaneous scan sampling. Assamese macaques were primarily folivorous, young leaves accounting for 75.5% and mature leaves an additional 1.8% of their diet. In contrast, fruit accounted for only 20.1%. The young leaves of Bonia saxatilis, a shrubby, karst-endemic bamboo that is superabundant in limestone hills, comprised the bulk of the average monthly diet. Moreover, macaques consumed significantly more bamboo leaves during the season when the availability of fruit declined, suggesting that bamboo leaves are an important fallback food for Assamese macaques in limestone forests. In addition, diet composition varied seasonally. The monkeys consumed significantly more fruit and fewer young leaves in the fruit-rich season than in the fruit-lean season. Fruit consumption was positively correlated with fruit availability, indicating that fruit is a preferred food for Assamese macaques. Of seventy-eight food species, only nine contributed >0.5% of the annual diet, and together these nine foods accounted for 90.7% of the annual diet. Our results suggest that bamboo consumption represents a key factor in the Assamese macaque's dietary adaptation to limestone habitat. PMID:25231871

  12. Chagas Disease in 2 Geriatric Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) Housed in the Pacific Northwest

    PubMed Central

    Dickerson, Mary F; Astorga, Nestor Gerardo; Astorga, Nestor Rodrigo; Lewis, Anne D

    2014-01-01

    Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis) is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. It is endemic in Latin America but also is found in the southern United States, particularly Texas and along the Gulf Coast. Typical clinical manifestations of Chagas disease are not well-characterized in rhesus macaques, but conduction abnormalities, myocarditis, and encephalitis and megaesophagus have been described. Here we report 2 cases of Chagas disease in rhesus macaques housed in the northwestern United States. The first case involved a geriatric male macaque with cardiomegaly, diagnosed as dilated cardiomyopathy on ultrasonographic examination. Postmortem findings included myocarditis as well as ganglioneuritis in the esophagus, stomach, and colon. The second case affected a geriatric female macaque experimentally infected with SIV. She was euthanized for a protocol-related time point. Microscopic examination revealed chronic myocarditis with amastigotes present in the cardiomyocytes, ganglioneuritis, and opportunistic infections attributed to her immunocompromised status. Banked serum samples from both macaques had positive titers for T. cruzi. T. cruzi DNA was amplified by conventional PCR from multiple tissues from both animals. Review of their histories revealed that both animals had been obtained from facilities in South Texas more than 12 y earlier. Given the long period of clinical latency, Chagas disease may be more prevalent in rhesus macaques than typically has been reported. T. cruzi infection should be considered for animals with unexplained cardiac or gastrointestinal pathology and that originated from areas known to have a high risk for disease transmission. PMID:25296019

  13. Multiple sirehood in free-ranging twin rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Bercovitch, Fred B; Widdig, Anja; Berard, John D; Nürnberg, Peter; Kessler, Matt J; Schmidtke, Jörg; Trefilov, Andrea; Krawczak, Michael

    2002-05-01

    Rhesus macaque females regularly copulate with a number of partners, and produce a single offspring per reproductive cycle in over 99% of cases. We used genotyping of 10 STR markers to determine paternity in the Cayo Santiago population of rhesus macaques. About 1,500 monkeys have been analyzed to date, with their marker genotypes entered into a computerized database. These data enable us to report the first documented case in any cercopithecine nonhuman primate species of the production of twin offspring sired by different males. PMID:11977124

  14. Mixed Fortunes: Ancient Expansion and Recent Decline in Population Size of a Subtropical Montane Primate, the Arunachal Macaque Macaca munzala

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Debapriyo; Sinha, Anindya; Ramakrishnan, Uma

    2014-01-01

    Quaternary glacial oscillations are known to have caused population size fluctuations in many temperate species. Species from subtropical and tropical regions are, however, considerably less studied, despite representing most of the biodiversity hotspots in the world including many highly threatened by anthropogenic activities such as hunting. These regions, consequently, pose a significant knowledge gap in terms of how their fauna have typically responded to past climatic changes. We studied an endangered primate, the Arunachal macaque Macaca munzala, from the subtropical southern edge of the Tibetan plateau, a part of the Eastern Himalaya biodiversity hotspot, also known to be highly threatened due to rampant hunting. We employed a 534 bp-long mitochondrial DNA sequence and 22 autosomal microsatellite loci to investigate the factors that have potentially shaped the demographic history of the species. Analysing the genetic data with traditional statistical methods and advance Bayesian inferential approaches, we demonstrate a limited effect of past glacial fluctuations on the demographic history of the species before the last glacial maximum, approximately 20,000 years ago. This was, however, immediately followed by a significant population expansion possibly due to warmer climatic conditions, approximately 15,000 years ago. These changes may thus represent an apparent balance between that displayed by the relatively climatically stable tropics and those of the more severe, temperate environments of the past. This study also draws attention to the possibility that a cold-tolerant species like the Arunachal macaque, which could withstand historical climate fluctuations and grow once the climate became conducive, may actually be extremely vulnerable to anthropogenic exploitation, as is perhaps indicated by its Holocene ca. 30-fold population decline, approximately 3,500 years ago. Our study thus provides a quantitative appraisal of these demographically important

  15. Response of Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) to the Body of a Group Member That Died from a Fatal Attack

    PubMed Central

    Buhl, Jacqueline S.; Aure, Bonn; Ruiz-Lambides, Angelina; Gonzalez-Martinez, Janis; Platt, Michael L.; Brent, Lauren J. N.

    2013-01-01

    Among animals that form social bonds, the death of a conspecific may be a significant social event, representing the loss of an ally and resulting in disruptions to the dominance hierarchy. Despite this potential biological importance, we have only limited knowledge of animals' reactions to the death of a group member. This is particularly true of responses to dead adults, as most reports describe the responses of mothers to dead infants. Here, we describe in detail and provide video evidence of the behavioral responses of a group of free-ranging rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) immediately after the death of a mid-ranking adult male as a result of a fatal attack. High-ranking male members of the group, suspected to have carried out the attack, dragged and bit the dead body, exhibiting a rate of aggression 20 times greater than baseline levels. Lower-ranking individuals approached and inspected the body by looking closely, smelling, and grooming the fur. There was inconclusive evidence that these rhesus macaques found the death of a conspecific stressful: Levels of grooming between group members after the fatal attack were significantly higher than baseline levels, and higher than levels of grooming after nonfatal attacks. However, when grooming levels were adjusted based on the assumption that individuals positioned close to the body, i.e., those visible to researchers, were more likely to be engaged in grooming than those positioned farther away, this difference from baseline was no longer significant. The rate of self-directed behaviors after the fatal attack was also not different from baseline. Many of the behaviors we observed directed toward the body (aggression, inspection) have been previously reported in chimpanzees and geladas, and are similar to reactions sometimes displayed by humans. As such, this report represents a potentially valuable contribution the nascent field of nonhuman primate thanatology. PMID:23459587

  16. Response of Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) to the Body of a Group Member That Died from a Fatal Attack.

    PubMed

    Buhl, Jacqueline S; Aure, Bonn; Ruiz-Lambides, Angelina; Gonzalez-Martinez, Janis; Platt, Michael L; Brent, Lauren J N

    2012-08-01

    Among animals that form social bonds, the death of a conspecific may be a significant social event, representing the loss of an ally and resulting in disruptions to the dominance hierarchy. Despite this potential biological importance, we have only limited knowledge of animals' reactions to the death of a group member. This is particularly true of responses to dead adults, as most reports describe the responses of mothers to dead infants. Here, we describe in detail and provide video evidence of the behavioral responses of a group of free-ranging rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) immediately after the death of a mid-ranking adult male as a result of a fatal attack. High-ranking male members of the group, suspected to have carried out the attack, dragged and bit the dead body, exhibiting a rate of aggression 20 times greater than baseline levels. Lower-ranking individuals approached and inspected the body by looking closely, smelling, and grooming the fur. There was inconclusive evidence that these rhesus macaques found the death of a conspecific stressful: Levels of grooming between group members after the fatal attack were significantly higher than baseline levels, and higher than levels of grooming after nonfatal attacks. However, when grooming levels were adjusted based on the assumption that individuals positioned close to the body, i.e., those visible to researchers, were more likely to be engaged in grooming than those positioned farther away, this difference from baseline was no longer significant. The rate of self-directed behaviors after the fatal attack was also not different from baseline. Many of the behaviors we observed directed toward the body (aggression, inspection) have been previously reported in chimpanzees and geladas, and are similar to reactions sometimes displayed by humans. As such, this report represents a potentially valuable contribution the nascent field of nonhuman primate thanatology. PMID:23459587

  17. Social Preferences by and for Pigtailed Macaques (Macaca Nemestrina) with Trisomy 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Karyl B.; Sackett, Gene P.

    1994-01-01

    Comparison of social choices of trisomic macaques and of control groups found that groups showed few differences in preferences for stimulus animals with and without disabilities. Results suggest that the avoidance of individuals with disabilities is not a general primate trait and the presence of mental retardation and physical handicaps need not…

  18. Coats-like retinopathy in a Young Indian Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, David X.; Gilbert, Margaret H.; Wang, Xiaolei; Didier, Peter J.; Shields, Carol L.; Lackner, Andrew A.

    2015-01-01

    A 1-year-old male Indian rhesus macaque presented with a bilateral blindness. Ocular examination, gross and histopathological evaluation, and immunohistochemistry were performed. The major findings were retinal telangiectasia, accumulation of exudate in the intraretinal and subretinal space, and retinal detachment. Coat-like retinopathy was diagnosed, and it has not been previously reported in veterinary medicine. PMID:25656754

  19. Can Gender Differences Be Evaluated in a Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta) Model of Focal Cerebral Ischemia?

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Stephanie J; Kirsch, Jeffrey R; Zhang, Wenri; Grafe, Marjorie R; West, G Alex; del Zoppo, Gregory J; Traystman, Richard J; Hurn, Patricia D

    2008-01-01

    Gender differences, sex steroid effects, and sex-specific candidate therapeutics in ischemic stroke have been studied in rodents but not in nonhuman primates. In this feasibility study (n = 3 per group), we developed a model of transient focal cerebral ischemia in adult male and female rhesus macaques that consistently includes white matter injury. The animals also were used to determine whether gender-linked differences in histopathologic outcomes could be evaluated in this model in future, larger preclinical trials. Histologic brain pathology was evaluated at 4 d after 90 min of reversible occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA). MCA occlusion was accomplished by using a transorbital approach and temporary placement of an aneurysm clip. Male and female rhesus macaques 7 to 11 y of age were studied. Baseline and intraischemic blood glucose, systolic blood pressure, heart rate, oxygen saturation, end-tidal CO2, and rectal temperatures were not different among groups. The variability in injury volume was comparable to that observed in human focal cerebrovascular ischemia and in other nonhuman primate models using proximal MCA occlusion. In this small sample, the volume of injury was not different between male and female subjects, but observed variability was higher in female caudate nucleus, putamen, and hemisphere. This report is the first to compare cerebral ischemic outcomes in female and male rhesus macaques. The female rhesus macaque ischemic stroke model could be used after rodent studies to provide preclinical data for clinical trials in women. PMID:19149416

  20. Spontaneous Nocardial Brain Abscess in a Juvenile Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Ferrecchia, Christie E.; Ducore, Rebecca M.; Colgin, Lois M.A.; Lewis, Anne D.

    2015-01-01

    Background A juvenile rhesus macaque presented with blindness, ataxia, and head tilt. Methods Postmortem gross and microscopic examination, histochemical staining and bacterial culture were performed. Results Nocardia sp. was identified as the etiologic agent of a primary pneumonia with secondary cerebral abscessation. Conclusions Nocardiosis should be a differential diagnosis for patients with neurologic disease. PMID:25470211

  1. Characterization of single-nucleotide variation in Indian-origin rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Rhesus macaques are the most widely utilized nonhuman primate model in biomedical research. Previous efforts have validated fewer than 900 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in this species, which limits opportunities for genetic studies related to health and disease. Extensive information about SNPs and other genetic variation in rhesus macaques would facilitate valuable genetic analyses, as well as provide markers for genome-wide linkage analysis and the genetic management of captive breeding colonies. Results We used the available rhesus macaque draft genome sequence, new sequence data from unrelated individuals and existing published sequence data to create a genome-wide SNP resource for Indian-origin rhesus monkeys. The original reference animal and two additional Indian-origin individuals were resequenced to low coverage using SOLiD™ sequencing. We then used three strategies to validate SNPs: comparison of potential SNPs found in the same individual using two different sequencing chemistries, and comparison of potential SNPs in different individuals identified with either the same or different sequencing chemistries. Our approach validated approximately 3 million SNPs distributed across the genome. Preliminary analysis of SNP annotations suggests that a substantial number of these macaque SNPs may have functional effects. More than 700 non-synonymous SNPs were scored by Polyphen-2 as either possibly or probably damaging to protein function and these variants now constitute potential models for studying functional genetic variation relevant to human physiology and disease. Conclusions Resequencing of a small number of animals identified greater than 3 million SNPs. This provides a significant new information resource for rhesus macaques, an important research animal. The data also suggests that overall genetic variation is high in this species. We identified many potentially damaging non-synonymous coding SNPs, providing new opportunities to

  2. Ranging and site fidelity in northern pigtailed macaques (Macaca leonina) over different temporal scales.

    PubMed

    José-Domínguez, Juan Manuel; Savini, Tommaso; Asensio, Norberto

    2015-08-01

    Space-use patterns are crucial to understanding the ecology, evolution, and conservation of primates, but detailed ranging data are scarce for many species, especially those in Southeast Asia. Researchers studying site fidelity to either home ranges or core areas have focused mainly on territorial species, whereas less information is available for non-territorial species. We analyzed the ranging patterns and site fidelity of one wild troop of northern pigtailed macaques over 16 months at different temporal scales. We used characteristic hull polygons in combination with spatial statistics to estimate home ranges and core areas. The total home range and core areas were 449 ha and 190 ha, respectively. Average daily path length was 2,246 m. The macaques showed a high defendabili--ty index according to the expected ranging of a non-territorial species in which movement does not theoretically permit the defense of a large territory. Overall, the study troop ranged more extensively than conspecific groups and closely related species studied elsewhere. These differences may reflect variable troop size, degree of terrestriality and habitat characteristics, but could also reflect methodological differences. The location, size and shape of home ranges and core areas, and extent of daily path lengths changed on a monthly basis resulting in low site fidelity between months. The macaques also showed clear shifts in the location of daily home ranges with low site fidelity scores between consecutive days. Daily home range and daily path length were related to seasonality, with greater values during the fruit-abundant period. Low site fidelity associated with lack of territoriality is consistent with macaques structuring their movement based on available food sources. However, ranging patterns and site fidelity can also be explained by macaques feeding on the move, a foraging strategy that hinders frequent and long visits to the same location. PMID:25864438

  3. A longitudinal study of age-specific reproductive output and body condition among male rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta.

    PubMed

    Bercovitch, Fred B; Widdig, Anja; Trefilov, Andrea; Kessler, Matt J; Berard, John D; Schmidtke, Jörg; Nürnberg, Peter; Krawczak, Michael

    2003-07-01

    In many mammalian species, male reproductive success appears to climb sharply at young adulthood, form a brief plateau during prime ages, and decline among older animals, a pattern often attributed to reduced physical condition with ageing. However, solid evidence to either substantiate or refute this profile among nonhuman primates is lacking. Here, we combine a decade of genetic analysis of paternity among free-ranging rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta, with information about body condition in order to evaluate how changes in morphology might govern age-specific reproduction among males. We show that age-specific reproductive success traverses the same life history profile as found in other mammals, but reductions in reproductive output with advanced age were associated with reduced chances of survivorship rather than accompanied by diminished body condition. We demonstrate that variance in male age at onset of reproduction is three times greater than variance in female age at onset of reproduction. We provide the first evidence from primates that age-specific reproductive output among males is not a consequence of age-related changes in body condition, but reflects social and demographic factors. PMID:12883773

  4. Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) as Living Fossils of Hominoid Personality and Subjective Well-being

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Alexander; Adams, Mark James; Widdig, Anja; Gerald, Melissa S.

    2014-01-01

    Personality dimensions capturing individual differences in behavior, cognition, and affect have been described in several species, including humans, chimpanzees, and orangutans. However, comparisons between species are limited by the use of different questionnaires. We asked raters to assess free-ranging rhesus macaques at two time points on personality and subjective well-being questionnaires used earlier to rate chimpanzees and orangutans. Principal-components analysis yielded domains we labeled Confidence, Friendliness, Dominance, Anxiety, Openness, and Activity. The presence of Openness in rhesus macaques suggests it is an ancestral characteristic. The absence of Conscientiousness suggests it is a derived characteristic in African apes. Higher Confidence and Friendliness, and lower Anxiety were prospectively related to subjective well-being, indicating that the connection between personality and subjective well-being in humans, chimpanzees, and orangutans is ancestral in catarrhine primates. As demonstrated here, each additional species studied adds another fold to the rich, historical story of primate personality evolution. PMID:21341912

  5. Renal pigmentation due to chronic bismuth administration in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Johnson, A L; Blaine, E T; Lewis, A D

    2015-05-01

    Renal pigmentation due to the administration of exogenous compounds is an uncommon finding in most species. This report describes renal pigmentation and intranuclear inclusions of the proximal convoluted tubules due to chronic bismuth administration in a rhesus macaque. An 11-year-old Indian-origin rhesus macaque with a medical history of chronic intermittent vomiting had been treated with bismuth subsalicylate, famotidine, and omeprazole singly or in combination over the course of 8 years. At necropsy, the renal cortices were diffusely dark green to black. Light and electron microscopy revealed intranuclear inclusions within the majority of renal proximal tubular epithelial cells. These inclusions appeared magenta to brown when stained with hematoxylin and eosin and were negative by the Ziehl-Neelsen acid-fast stain. Elemental analysis performed on frozen kidney measured bismuth levels to be markedly elevated at 110.6 ppm, approximately 500 to 1000 times acceptable limits. To our knowledge, this is the first report of renal bismuth deposition in a rhesus macaque resulting in renal pigmentation and intranuclear inclusions. PMID:24990482

  6. Dry bedding provides cost-effective enrichment for group-housed rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Doane, Cynthia J; Andrews, Kirk; Schaefer, Laura Jane; Morelli, Nathan; McAllister, Shannon; Coleman, Kristine

    2013-01-01

    Dry bedding has been shown to be an effective enrichment strategy for small groups of captive nonhuman primates housed in cages or in small enclosures with concrete flooring. However, dry bedding is used infrequently for large groups because of the perception that its use is time- and resource-intensive. We investigated the cost-effectiveness of this enrichment strategy in large groups (30 to 50 subjects) of rhesus macaques. Macaques were housed under 3 comparison conditions for 4 wk: pine shavings (n = 4), aspen and pine shaving mixture (n = 4), and nonbedded control (n = 4). As measures of resource consumption, husbandry tasks were documented by using time-in-motion methodology, and water usage was determined. In addition, groups underwent behavioral observations to assess the effect of dry bedding. The time required to care for units did not differ between bedded and nonbedded units. However, significantly less water was used for sanitization of bedded compared with nonbedded units. Monkeys housed in bedded units showed more foraging (13.8% ± 1.6% of time in bedded compared with 4.0% ± 0.3% of time in nonbedded units) and less aggression and self-grooming. Dry bedding benefited the macaques, reduced water usage and costs, and did not affect human resources. PMID:23849406

  7. Fading perceptual resemblance: a path for rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) to conceptual matching?

    PubMed

    David Smith, J; Flemming, Timothy M; Boomer, Joseph; Beran, Michael J; Church, Barbara A

    2013-12-01

    Cognitive, comparative, and developmental psychologists have long been intrigued by humans' and animals' capacity to respond to abstract relations like sameness and difference, because this capacity may underlie crucial aspects of cognition like analogical reasoning. Recently, this capacity has been explored in higher-order, relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) tasks in which humans and animals try to complete analogies of sameness and difference between disparate groups of items. The authors introduced a new paradigm to this area, by yoking the relational-matching cue to a perceptual-matching cue. Then, using established algorithms for shape distortion, the perceptual cue was weakened and eliminated. Humans' RMTS performance easily transcended the elimination of perceptual support. In contrast, RMTS performance by six macaques faltered as they were weaned from perceptual support. No macaque showed evidence of mature RMTS performance, even given more than 260,000 training trials during which we tried to coax a relational-matching performance from them. It is an important species difference that macaques show so hesitant a response to conceptual relations when humans respond to them so effortlessly. It raises theoretical questions about the emergence of this crucial capacity during humans' cognitive evolution and during humans' cognitive development. PMID:24076537

  8. Fading Perceptual Resemblance: A Path for Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) to Conceptual Matching?

    PubMed Central

    Smith, J. David; Flemming, Timothy M.; Boomer, Joseph; Beran, Michael J.; Church, Barbara A.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive, comparative, and developmental psychologists have long been intrigued by humans’ and animals’ capacity to respond to abstract relations like sameness and difference, because this capacity may underlie crucial aspects of cognition like analogical reasoning. Recently, this capacity has been explored in higher-order, relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) tasks in which humans and animals try to complete analogies of sameness and difference between disparate groups of items. The authors introduced a new paradigm to this area, by yoking the relational-matching cue to a perceptual-matching cue. Then, using established algorithms for shape distortion, the perceptual cue was weakened and eliminated. Humans’ RMTS performance easily transcended the elimination of perceptual support. In contrast, RMTS performance by six macaques faltered as they were weaned from perceptual support. No macaque showed evidence of mature RMTS performance, even given more than 260,000 training trials during which we tried to coax a relational-matching performance from them. It is an important species difference that macaques show so hesitant a response to conceptual relations when humans respond to them so effortlessly. It raises theoretical questions about the emergence of this crucial capacity during humans’ cognitive evolution and during humans’ cognitive development. PMID:24076537

  9. Use of enclosure space by captive lion-tailed macaques (Macaca silenus) housed in Indian zoos.

    PubMed

    Mallapur, Avanti; Waran, Natalie; Sinha, Anindya

    2005-01-01

    Captive nonhuman animals use enclosure space differentially. Enclosure features strongly influence this. This study recorded both the enclosure space used by 47 captive lion-tailed macaques housed in 13 zoos across India and the behavior of the macaques. The exhibition of abnormal behaviors, food-related behaviors, and social interactions correlated significantly with the use of the edge zone (the part of the enclosure closest to the visitor area). Animals housed in barren enclosures used the edge zone to a significantly greater percentage than did those housed in complex exhibits. Percentages of autogrooming, social interactions, and food-related behaviors significantly correlated with the use of the enrich zone. Space use studies assist in recognizing areas within the enclosure, which captive animals actively use. Conversely, the studies can identify areas infrequently used and show how to make maximum use of these enclosure areas. Further studies targeting both the increase in percentages of natural behaviors exhibited and use of the enrich zone used the current study on captive lion-tailed macaques for their design. PMID:16468946

  10. Serologic Evaluation of Clinical and Subclinical Secondary Hepatic Amyloidosis in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    MacGuire, Jamus G; Christe, Kari L; Yee, JoAnn L; Kalman-Bowlus, Alexis L; Lerche, Nicholas W

    2009-01-01

    Secondary hepatic amyloidosis in nonhuman primates carries a grave prognosis once animals become clinically ill. The purpose of this study was to establish serologic parameters that potentially could be used to identify rhesus macaques undergoing subclinical development of secondary hepatic amyloidosis. A retrospective analysis was completed by using serum biochemical profiles from 26 histologically diagnosed amyloidotic macaques evaluated at 2 stages of disease, clinical and subclinical (3 to 32 mo prior to clinical signs of disease). Standard serum biochemistry values for cases were compared with institutional age- and gender-specific references ranges by construction of 95% confidence intervals for the difference between means. In addition, 19 histologically diagnosed amyloidotic macaques and 19 age-matched controls were assayed for changes in various parameters by using routinely banked, frozen (–80 °C) sera available from clinical and subclinical time points. Clinically amyloidotic animals displayed increased levels of alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, gamma glutamyltranspeptidase, and macrophage colony-stimulating factor and significantly decreased quantities of albumin and total cholesterol. Subclinical amyloidotic animals displayed increased levels of alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and serum amyloid A and decreased concentrations of albumin and total cholesterol. The serologic parameters studied indicate a temporal relationship of these factors not previously described, show a clear pattern of disease progression, and could be useful in subclinical disease detection. PMID:19389309

  11. Comparative assessment of psychomotor performance - Target prediction by humans and macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1992-01-01

    Although nonhuman primates such as rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) have been useful models of many aspects of cognition and performance, it has been argued that, unlike humans, they may lack the capacity to respond as predictor-operators. Data from the present series of experiments undermine this claim, suggesting instead a continuity of predictive competency between humans and nonhuman primates. A prediction coefficient was devised to examine the degree to which each subject's response path approximated the optimal predictive strategy. Whereas human subjects (N= 30) generally predicted more accurately, rhesus monkeys (N= 10) also significantly anticipated the movements of the target in all conditions. It appears that humans and rhesus monkeys both exhibit the capacity to respond to where a stimulus is going.

  12. Behavioral measurement of temporal contrast sensitivity development in macaque monkeys (Macaca nemestrina)

    PubMed Central

    Stavros, Kara A.; Kiorpes, Lynne

    2009-01-01

    We measured the developmental time course for temporal contrast sensitivity in macaque monkeys. The animals, aged 5 wks to 4 yrs, detected an unpatterned field of light sinusoidally modulated over time at frequencies ranging from 1 to 40 Hz. Young infants showed reduced sensitivity for all frequencies, and a reduced range of detectable frequencies. Sensitivity to high and low frequencies developed at different rates, but the shape of the temporal contrast sensitivity function did not change significantly with age. Temporal contrast sensitivity matures earlier than spatial contrast sensitivity. The development of high, but not low, frequency sensitivity may be limited by maturation of the magnocellular pathway. PMID:18406441

  13. Retrograde ejaculation associated spontaneous sperm cystolithiasis in four rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Gumber, Sanjeev; Courtney, Cynthia L; Strait, Karen R; Sharma, Prachi; Freebersyser, Julie E; Crane, Maria M

    2013-11-01

    Retrograde ejaculation (RE) has been reported in humans and animals but RE with subsequent sperm calculi has rarely been reported. This report documents clinical and pathological findings of spontaneous sperm cystolithiasis in four rhesus macaques. While this condition has been associated with repeated electroejaculation, spontaneous sperm cystolithiasis is highly unusual. The animals presented with either stranguria, dysuria, hematuria, distended abdomen or lethargy. Ultrasound examination revealed several hyperechoic masses within the lumen of the urinary bladder. The animals were euthanized due to poor prognosis or study end points. Postmortem examination revealed multiple angular, amorphous, soft to firm, pale yellow to greenish-brown and variably sized calculi in the lumen of the urinary bladder or prostatic/penile urethra. Histologically, the calculi were composed of numerous sperm embedded in abundant brightly eosinophilic matrix. Based on gross and histologic findings, RE associated sperm cystolithiasis was diagnosed, with ulcerative urethritis as the major primary apparent etiology. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of four spontaneous cases of sperm cystolithiasis in rhesus macaques. PMID:23735542

  14. Retrograde ejaculation associated spontaneous sperm cystolithiasis in four Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Gumber, Sanjeev; Courtney, Cynthia L; Strait, Karen R; Sharma, Prachi; Freebersyser, Julie E; Crane, Maria M

    2015-01-01

    Retrograde ejaculation (RE) has been reported in humans and animals but RE with subsequent sperm calculi has rarely been reported. This report documents clinical and pathological findings of spontaneous sperm cystolithiasis in four rhesus macaques. While this condition has been associated with repeated electroejaculation, spontaneous sperm cystolithiasis is highly unusual. The animals presented with either stranguria, dysuria, hematuria, distended abdomen or lethargy. Ultrasound examination revealed several hyperechoic masses within the lumen of the urinary bladder. The animals were euthanized due to poor prognosis or study end points. Postmortem examination revealed multiple angular, amorphous, soft to firm, pale yellow to greenish-brown and variably sized calculi in the lumen of the urinary bladder or prostatic/penile urethra. Histologically, the calculi were composed of numerous sperm embedded in abundant brightly eosinophilic matrix. Based on gross and histologic findings, RE associated sperm cystolithiasis was diagnosed, with ulcerative urethritis as the major primary apparent etiology. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of four spontaneous cases of sperm cystolithiasis in rhesus macaques. PMID:23735542

  15. Implicit and Explicit Category Learning by Macaques (Macaca mulatta) and Humans (Homo sapiens)

    PubMed Central

    Smith, J. David; Beran, Michael J.; Crossley, Matthew J.; Boomer, Joseph. T.; Ashby, F. Gregory

    2010-01-01

    An influential theoretical perspective differentiates in humans an explicit, rule-based system of category learning from an implicit system that slowly associates different regions of perceptual space with different response outputs. This perspective was extended for the first time to the category learning of nonhuman primates. Humans and macaques learned categories composed of sine-wave gratings that varied across trials in bar width and bar orientation. The categories had either a single-dimensional, rule-based solution or a two-dimensional, information-integration solution. Humans strongly dimensionalized the stimuli and learned the rule-based task far more quickly. Six macaques showed the same performance advantage in the rule-based task. In humans, rule-based category learning is linked to explicit cognition, consciousness, and to declarative reports about the contents of cognition. The present results demonstrate an empirical continuity between human and nonhuman primate cognition, suggesting that nonhuman primates may have some structural components of humans’ capacity for explicit cognition. PMID:20141317

  16. Socioendocrine and morphological correlates of paternity in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Bercovitch, F B; Nürnberg, P

    1996-05-01

    When females mate with several males, problems arise in identifying sire and in determining factors contributing to differential male reproductive success. Three potential primary correlates of differential reproduction in males include fighting ability, sperm competition, and body condition. We collected a variety of socioendocrine and morphological measurements from sexually mature rhesus macaques to determine corollaries of paternity. We studied a troop of about 150 rhesus macaques living in a 0.3 ha corral and identified the sires of 70% of infants using multilocus DNA fingerprints. Eight of 21 males sired offspring, and dominant males were more successful than subordinate males. Neither canine size nor age influenced the probability of siring offspring. Male reproductive success was primarily an outcome of the number of females mated with, which was associated with an ensemble of traits including high dominance rank, large body size, relatively voluminous testicles and good body condition. Testes size was significantly larger in sires than in non-sires, but among sires the number of progeny produced was not correlated with testicle size. Sires began the mating season with more body fat than non-sires, but the energetic costs of mating resulted in a 50% reduction in abdominal skinfold thickness during the mating season. We conclude that social status exerts a major impact on paternity by affecting the number of females mated with, that male quality is a critical factor modulating paternity, and that male feeding strategies have a direct influence on variation in male reproductive success. PMID:8699435

  17. Efficacy of Oral Fecal Bacteriotherapy in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) with Chronic Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Ferrecchia, Christie E; Hobbs, Theodore R

    2013-01-01

    Chronic diarrhea remains the principal burden in providing health care for nonhuman primates in biomedical research facilities. Although the exact etiology continues to puzzle nonhuman primate clinicians, recent research in humans has shown that restoring the indigenous microbial diversity may be successful in resolving cases of chronic diarrhea when other treatment modalities have failed. The process of restoring this microbial balance, known as fecal bacteriotherapy, uses the complete flora from a normal donor as a therapeutic probiotic mixture. In the current study, Indian-origin rhesus macaques were randomized into treatment (n = 7) and control (n = 6) groups to determine whether orally administered fecal bacteriotherapy would reduce the overall incidence of chronic diarrhea during a 60-d follow-up period in the treatment group compared with control macaques, which received a placebo. Although the treatment effect, determined by comparing the baseline fecal scores of the treatment and control groups, did not reach statistical significance, preprocedure and postprocedure fecal scores in the treatment group differed significantly. These findings are encouraging, and we hope that our study will motivate larger studies evaluating the use of fecal bacteriotherapy in nonhuman primates. PMID:23561941

  18. Measuring cone density in a Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) model of age-related macular degeneration with commercially available adaptive optics.

    PubMed

    Pennesi, Mark E; Garg, Anupam K; Feng, Shu; Michaels, Keith V; Smith, Travis B; Fay, Jonathan D; Weiss, Alison R; Renner, Laurie M; Hurst, Sawan; McGill, Trevor J; Cornea, Anda; Rittenhouse, Kay D; Sperling, Marvin; Fruebis, Joachim; Neuringer, Martha

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of using a commercially available high-resolution adaptive optics (AO) camera to image the cone mosaic in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) with dominantly inherited drusen. The macaques examined develop drusen closely resembling those seen in humans with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). For each animal, we acquired and processed images from the AO camera, montaged the results into a composite image, applied custom cone-counting software to detect individual cone photoreceptors, and created a cone density map of the macular region. We conclude that flood-illuminated AO provides a promising method of visualizing the cone mosaic in nonhuman primates. Future studies will quantify the longitudinal change in the cone mosaic and its relationship to the severity of drusen in these animals. PMID:24664712

  19. Bioactive factors in milk across lactation: Maternal effects and influence on infant growth in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Robin M; Hinde, Katie

    2016-08-01

    Among mammals, numerous bioactive factors in milk vary across mothers and influence offspring outcomes. This emerging area of research has primarily investigated such dynamics within rodent biomedical models, domesticated dairy breeds, and among humans in clinical contexts. Less understood are signaling factors in the milk of non-human primates. Here, we report on multiple bioactive components in rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) milk and their associations with maternal and infant characteristics. Milk samples were collected from 59 macaques at multiple time points across lactation in conjunction with maternal and infant morphometrics and life-history animal records. Milk was assayed for adiponectin (APN), epidermal growth factor (EGF) and its receptor (EGF-R), and transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGF-β2 ). Regression models were constructed to assess the contributions of maternal factors on variation in milk bioactives, and on the relationship of this variation to infant body mass and growth. Maternal body mass, parity, social rank, and infant sex were all predictive of concentrations of milk bioactives. Primiparous mothers produced milk with higher adiponectin, but lower EGF, than multiparous mothers. Heavier mothers produced milk with lower EGF and EGF-R, but higher TGF-β2 . Mothers of daughters produced milk with higher TGF-β2 . Mid-ranking mothers produced milk with higher mean EGF and adiponectin concentrations than low-ranking mothers. Milk EGF and EGF-R were positively associated with infant body mass and growth rate. Importantly, these signaling bioactives (APN, EGF, EGF-R, and TGF-β2 ) were significantly correlated with nutritional values of milk. The effects of milk signals remained after controlling for the available energy in milk revealing the added physiological role of non-nutritive milk bioactives in the developing infant. Integrating analyses of energetic and other bioactive components of milk yields an important perspective for interpreting

  20. The response of the frugivorous lion-tailed macaque (Macaca silenus) to a period of fruit scarcity.

    PubMed

    Krishnadas, Meghna; Chandrasekhara, K; Kumar, Ajith

    2011-12-01

    Tropical rainforests show seasonal fluctuations in the abundance of fruits resulting in periods of resource scarcity for frugivores. We examined the response of an obligate frugivore, the lion-tailed macaque (LTM) (Macaca silenus), to a period of fruit scarcity in a rainforest in the Western Ghats, India. We estimated the abundance and distribution of fruit resources from food tree densities obtained from 348 point centered quadrats, and fruit availability from phenological monitoring of 195 trees of 15 reported major food species. Macronutrient content was estimated for fruits of 15 major food species. We estimated time spent feeding on different food items from 1,853 individual scans spanning 120 hr of observation of one habituated study group. There was a distinct period of fruit scarcity during the drier months of February to mid-March (Period 1) compared with late March and April (Period 2), separated by summer showers. Fruits available in Period 1 had lower soluble carbohydrate and lipid content and overall caloric value compared with Period 2. During the lean period, the LTM fed more on fruits of Drypetes wightii, which had the highest carbohydrate content, than on nectar of Palaquium ellipticum or Ficus spp., which had low carbohydrate content. During this period, the resource availability in a location significantly influenced the occurrence of feeding there. In Period 2, the group fed most on the seeds of Cullenia exarillata, the most abundant tree in the home-range and with the highest content of soluble carbohydrates. During this period, the abundance of food trees in fruit in a location did not seem to influence the occurrence of feeding. Low abundance, stochastic fruiting and, low quality might make Ficus spp. a poor fallback option for the LTM. PMID:21898517

  1. Comparison of Indoor Air Quality between 2 Ventilation Strategies in a Facility Housing Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Monts de Oca, Nicole A; Laughlin, Mitzi; Jenkins, John; Lockworth, Cynthia R; Bolton, Iris D; Brammer, David W

    2015-01-01

    Adequate indoor-air quality (IAQ)—defined by the temperature, relative humidity, and the levels of carbon dioxide, small particles, and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC)—is crucial in laboratory animal facilities. The ventilation standards for controlling these parameters are not well defined. This study assessed the effect of 2 ventilation strategies on IAQ in 2 rooms housing rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). We hypothesized that using a demand-controlled ventilation (DCV) system with a baseline ventilation rate of less than 3 fresh-air changes per hour (ACH) would maintain IAQ comparable to or better than the traditional constant flow rate (CFR) system at 12 fresh ACH. During a 60-d study period, each of the 2 rooms operated 30 d on DCV and 30 d on CFR ventilation. In both rooms, temperatures remained more consistently within the established setpoint during the DCV phase than during the CFR phase. Relative humidity did not differ significantly between rooms or strategies. CO2 was lower during the CFR phase than DCV phase. Small-particle and TVOC levels were lower during CFR in the larger (3060 ft3) room but not the smaller (2340 ft3) room. During the DCV phase, the larger room was at the baseline airflow rate over 99% of the time and the smaller room over 96% of the time. The DCV strategy resulted in a baseline airflow rate of less than 3 ACH, which in turn provided acceptable IAQ over 96% of the time; higher ventilation rates were warranted only during sanitation periods. PMID:26424251

  2. Comparison of Indoor Air Quality between 2 Ventilation Strategies in a Facility Housing Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Monts de Oca, Nicole A; Laughlin, Mitzi; Jenkins, John; Lockworth, Cynthia R; Bolton, Iris D; Brammer, David W

    2015-09-01

    Adequate indoor-air quality (IAQ)--defined by the temperature, relative humidity, and the levels of carbon dioxide, small particles, and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC)--is crucial in laboratory animal facilities. The ventilation standards for controlling these parameters are not well defined. This study assessed the effect of 2 ventilation strategies on IAQ in 2 rooms housing rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). We hypothesized that using a demand-controlled ventilation (DCV) system with a baseline ventilation rate of less than 3 fresh-air changes per hour (ACH) would maintain IAQ comparable to or better than the traditional constant flow rate (CFR) system at 12 fresh ACH. During a 60-d study period, each of the 2 rooms operated 30 d on DCV and 30 d on CFR ventilation. In both rooms, temperatures remained more consistently within the established setpoint during the DCV phase than during the CFR phase. Relative humidity did not differ significantly between rooms or strategies. CO₂ was lower during the CFR phase than DCV phase. Small-particle and TVOC levels were lower during CFR in the larger (3060 ft(3)) room but not the smaller (2340 ft(3)) room. During the DCV phase, the larger room was at the baseline airflow rate over 99% of the time and the smaller room over 96% of the time. The DCV strategy resulted in a baseline airflow rate of less than 3 ACH, which in turn provided acceptable IAQ over 96% of the time; higher ventilation rates were warranted only during sanitation periods. PMID:26424251

  3. Fasting induced kisspeptin signaling suppression is regulated by glutamate mediated cues in adult male rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Shamas, Shazia; Khan, Saeed-Ul-Hassan; Khan, Muhammad Yousaf; Shabbir, Nadia; Zubair, Hira; Shafqat, Saira; Wahab, Fazal; Shahab, Muhammad

    2015-08-01

    Kisspeptin signaling is suppressed by short term fasting. It has been reported that hypothalamic Kiss1 and Kiss1r mRNA expression decreased after 48h of fasting in male rhesus monkey. But the mechanism involved in the reduction of kisspeptin signaling after 48h of fasting is unknown. Recent studies have suggested the role of afferent excitatory and inhibitory pathways in the regulation of kisspeptin neurons. Therefore, this study was designed to observe the changes in the glutamate and GABA signaling during fed and 48h fasting states by performing immunofluorescence to examine the interaction of kisspeptin neurons with NR1 subunit of NMDA receptors and by performing SYBR green qRT-PCR to measure and quantify the levels of Kiss1, Kiss1r, NR1 and GAD67 mRNA in the POA and MBH of adult male rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) during 48h of fasting (n=2) and fed ad libitum (n=2). Plasma testosterone (p<0.05) and blood glucose levels were significantly (p<0.001) decreased after short term fasting. Our results clearly showed that expression of hypothalamic Kiss1, Kiss1r and NR1 mRNA was significantly (p<0.05) reduced in adult male rhesus monkeys which were fasted for 48h as compared to those which were fed ad libitum. There was no clear difference in the GAD67 mRNA contents between the two groups. Number of kisspeptin neurons and the interactions of kisspeptin neurons with NR1 were significantly (p<0.05) reduced after 48h fasting. These observations suggest that decreased kisspeptin signaling during fasting may occur due to reduction in glutamatergic inputs to kisspeptin neurons. Our results also suggest that fasting induced suppression of kisspeptin signaling is not mediated through GABAergic neurons. PMID:26138506

  4. Matrilineal Behavioral and Physiological Changes following the Death of a Non-Alpha Matriarch in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Wooddell, Lauren J.; Kaburu, Stefano S. K.; Rosenberg, Kendra L.; Meyer, Jerrold S.; Suomi, Stephen J.; Dettmer, Amanda M.

    2016-01-01

    In many species, the loss of alpha matriarchs is associated with a number of negative outcomes such as troop fission, eviction, wounding, and reduced vitality. However, whether the dramatic consequences of their loss are due to their role as an old experienced figure or to their alpha status remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that in a semi-free ranging colony of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), the death of a non-alpha matriarch, who had a large set of kin, would lead to changes in behavior and physiological stress within her matriline. Following her death, her matriline increased in aggression, vigilance, and social grooming. Additionally, hierarchical stability, measured by levels of rank changes, decreased within her matriline, and levels of intense aggression by high-ranking animals were more frequent, as well as matrilineal wounding. Although ordinal rank was positively associated with higher chronic hair cortisol concentrations (HCCs) in the months before the matriarch’s death, following her death, only those who experienced large increases in rank within her matriline displayed higher HCCs. Changes in matrilineal stability, aggression, behavior, and HCCs within the other two matrilines in the troop were not evident, although caution is needed due to the small sample sizes. We conclude that the death of the non-alpha matriarch led to matrilineal instability, characterized by higher levels of aggression and subsequent vigilance, rank changes, physiological stress, and grooming. We suggest that non-alpha matriarchs with a large number of kin and social support can be integral to the stability of matrilines. PMID:27275743

  5. Early involvement in friendships predicts later plasma concentrations of oxytocin and vasopressin in juvenile rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, Tamara A. R.; Bales, Karen L.; Maninger, Nicole; Hostetler, Caroline M.; Capitanio, John P.

    2014-01-01

    The neuropeptides oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) are involved in social bonding in attachment relationships, but their role in friendship is poorly understood. We investigated whether rhesus macaques’ (Macaca mulatta) friendships at age one predicted plasma OT and AVP at two later time points. Subjects were 54 rhesus macaques at the California National Primate Research Center (CNPRC). Blood was drawn during a brief capture-and-release in the home cage, and plasma assayed for OT and AVP using an enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Separate linear mixed models for each sex tested the effects of dominance rank, age, sampling time point, housing condition, parturition status, two blood draw timing measures, and five friendship types: proximity friendships, play friendships, reciprocal friendships (a preference for a peer that also preferred the subject), multiplex friendships (friendships displayed in more than one behavioral domain), and total number of friendships. Females’ number of reciprocal and play friendships at age one significantly predicted later OT; additionally, these two friendship types interacted with rank, such that high-ranking females with the fewest friendships had the highest OT concentrations. Friendship did not predict later OT levels in males, however proximity, play, reciprocal, and total number of friendships predicted males’ plasma AVP. Play and total number of friendships also tended to predict AVP in females. Our results show that peripheral measures of neuroendocrine functioning in juvenile rhesus monkeys are influenced by early involvement in friendships. Friendships have an especially strong impact on an individual’s psychosocial development, and our data suggest OT and AVP as potential underlying mechanisms. Moreover, sex differences in the functioning of the OT and AVP systems, and their relation to friendship, may have important clinical implications for the use of OT as a therapeutic, as well as informing the social

  6. Preliminary study of the genetic diversity of eastern Assamese macaques (Macaca assamensis assamensis) in Thailand based on mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Sukmak, Manakorn; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda; Schülke, Oliver; Ostner, Julia; Hamada, Yuzuru; Wajjwalku, Worawidh

    2014-04-01

    Human overpopulation, deforestation, invasion of agricultural areas, and livestock are the primary causes for population fragmentation of wildlife. The distribution range of species of the genus Macaca is constantly decreasing and becoming increasingly fragmented due to forest deterioration. Assamese macaques (M. assamensis) are classified as near threatened in the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Animals (2008) and have been declared a protected wildlife animal according to Wildlife Preservation and Protection Act, B.E.2535 (1992) of Thailand. As studies of the population history and genetic diversity of Assamese macaques in Thailand are currently lacking, we aimed at a first investigation of their genetic diversity based on mitochondrial DNA [hypervariable regions 1 and 2 (HV1, HV2) and cytochrome B (CYTB) regions], as well as 15 microsatellite markers of five sampling sites distributed across Thailand. Our results indicate that Assamese macaques in Thailand are diverse, with eight maternal haplotypes and a low inbreeding coefficient in the Phu Khieo Wildlife Sanctuary (PKWS) population. Moreover, our phylogenetic and median-joining network analysis based on mitochondrial (mt)DNA suggests a population distribution in accordance with the evolutionary scenario proposed for M. sinica. Today, the population of Assamese macaques is fragmented, and conservation strategies are needed to ensure the maintenance of genetic diversity of this primate species. PMID:24142419

  7. Granuloma Due to Oxidized Regenerated Cellulose in an Aged Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Lemoy, Marie-Josee MF; Schouten, Angela Colagross; Canfield, Don R

    2016-01-01

    Bioabsorbable hemostatic agents such as oxidized regenerated cellulose are widely used to control intraoperative diffuse capillary bleeding. Compared with electrocautery or ligation, oxidized regenerated cellulose has the advantage of controlling bleeding without occluding the vessel lumen or causing thermal injuries to adjacent tissue. Although the manufacturer recommends removal of the material once hemostasis is achieved, oxidized regenerated cellulose is a bioabsorbable hemostatic agent and is often left in the surgical bed to prevent subsequent bleeding after surgical closure. However, noninvasive imaging techniques have revealed granulomatous foreign-body reactions that mimic infection or tumor recurrence. We present a case report of sterile peritonitis and granuloma formation secondary to the presence of oxidized regenerated cellulose after intestinal resection to excise a colonic adenocarcinoma in an aged rhesus macaque. PMID:26884411

  8. Heritability of digit ratio (2D:4D) in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Nelson, Emma; Voracek, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) is a putative biomarker for prenatal androgen effects, which has been widely employed to study androgenic-programming effects on shaping sex-linked traits and behaviours in humans. This approach is now increasingly applied to non-human species. Heritability studies of 2D:4D in both humans and zebra finches indicate substantial genetic contributions to the expression of this trait. This study examines the heritability of 2D:4D in rhesus macaques, based on the resemblance of mother-infant dyads, to see how these compare with human values. Results suggest that familial resemblance in 2D:4D is also strong in rhesus monkeys. Heritability estimates were within the range of estimates from human studies. These preliminary results suggest that the strength of heritability of 2D:4D may generalize across taxa. PMID:19882209

  9. An Outbreak of Tularemia in a Colony of Outdoor-Housed Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Ferrecchia, Christie E; Colgin, Lois MA; Andrews, Kirk R; Lewis, Anne D

    2012-01-01

    Since an epizootic and detection of clinical cases of tularemia (Francisella tularensis) in 1996 at the Oregon National Primate Research Center, only 8 cases were identified in the succeeding 13 y. However, within a period of 7 mo, primarily during Winter 2010, 6 rhesus macaques were confirmed positive for Francisella tularensis type B by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention by culture and fluorescent antibody testing. All cases had similar gross pathologic findings, which included necrotizing splenitis and lymphadenitis. Recent colony management efforts have focused on minimizing nonhuman primate exposure to commonly observed reservoir species and controlling rodent access to corral-style housing. Strategies continue to evolve with regard to managing a large breeding colony of nonhuman primates in the presence of this threat. PMID:23043786

  10. Differences in activity budgets and diet between semiprovisioned and wild-feeding groups of the endangered Barbary macaque (Macaca sylvanus) in the central High Atlas Mountains, Morocco.

    PubMed

    El Alami, Abderrazak; Van Lavieren, Els; Rachida, Aboufatima; Chait, Abderrahman

    2012-03-01

    The Barbary macaque, Macaca sylvanus is a very adaptable primate species occupying a wide range of habitats in Morocco and Algeria. Several groups of this endangered macaque can be found in tourist sites, where they are affected by the presence of visitors providing food to them. We compare the activity budgets and the diet of semiprovisioned and wild-feeding groups of Barbary macaques in the central High Atlas Mountains of Morocco from February to August 2008. We used instantaneous scan sampling at 15-min intervals. The behaviors included in the activity budget were feeding, moving, foraging, resting, and aggressive display. Food items were grouped into seven categories. We found no differences between the two groups in the daily percentages of records attributed to feeding. The semiprovisioned group spent significantly more time engaged in resting and aggressive behavior, and foraged and moved significantly less than the wild-feeding group. There was no significant difference between the two groups in time spent eating leaves, fruits, or roots and bark. The semiprovisioned group, however, spent significantly less time per day feeding on herbs, seeds, and acorns than the wild-feeding group. Human food accounted for 26% of the daily feeding records for the semiprovisioned group and 1% for the wild-feeding group. Our findings agree with previous studies and indicate that in the tourist site, where food is highly clumped, macaques decreased foraging time yet showed higher levels of contest competition. Our results support the common claim that the diet of the Barbary macaque is highly flexible, differing among its varied habitats. Conservation efforts for the Barbary macaques should take into account the changes in behavior that human-modified environments may cause. PMID:24006539

  11. Characterization of cardiac time intervals in healthy bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata) by using an electronic stethoscope.

    PubMed

    Kamran, Haroon; Salciccioli, Louis; Pushilin, Sergei; Kumar, Paraag; Carter, John; Kuo, John; Novotney, Carol; Lazar, Jason M

    2011-03-01

    Nonhuman primates are used frequently in cardiovascular research. Cardiac time intervals derived by phonocardiography have long been used to assess left ventricular function. Electronic stethoscopes are simple low-cost systems that display heart sound signals. We assessed the use of an electronic stethoscope to measure cardiac time intervals in 48 healthy bonnet macaques (age, 8±5 y) based on recorded heart sounds. Technically adequate recordings were obtained from all animals and required 1.5±1.3 min. The following cardiac time intervals were determined by simultaneously recording acoustic and single-lead electrocardiographic data: electromechanical activation time (QS1), electromechanical systole (QS2), the time interval between the first and second heart sounds (S1S2), and the time interval between the second and first sounds (S2S1). QS2 was correlated with heart rate, mean arterial pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and left ventricular ejection time determined by using echocardiography. S1S2 correlated with heart rate, mean arterial pressure, diastolic blood pressure, left ventricular ejection time, and age. S2S1 correlated with heart rate, mean arterial pressure, diastolic blood pressure, systolic blood pressure, and left ventricular ejection time. QS1 did not correlate with any anthropometric or echocardiographic parameter. The relation S1S2/S2S1 correlated with systolic blood pressure. On multivariate analyses, heart rate was the only independent predictor of QS2, S1S2, and S2S1. In conclusion, determination of cardiac time intervals is feasible and reproducible by using an electrical stethoscope in nonhuman primates. Heart rate is a major determinant of QS2, S1S2, and S2S1 but not QS1; regression equations for reference values for cardiac time intervals in bonnet macaques are provided. PMID:21439218

  12. Multimodal Advertisement of Pregnancy in Free-Ranging Female Japanese Macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    PubMed

    Rigaill, Lucie; MacIntosh, Andrew J J; Higham, James P; Winters, Sandra; Shimizu, Keiko; Mouri, Keiko; Furuichi, Takeshi; Garcia, Cécile

    2015-01-01

    The role of multiple sexual signals in indicating the timing of female ovulation, and discrimination of this timing by males, has been particularly well studied among primates. However the exhibition of pregnancy signals, and how such signals might modulate male post-conception mating decisions, is still poorly understood. Here we aimed to determine if Japanese macaque males use changes in female sexual signals (behavioral, visual and auditory) to discriminate pregnancy and adjust their socio-sexual behaviors. We combined behavioral observations, digital photography and endocrinological (progestogen and estrogen) data, collected systematically during three one-month periods: the pre-conceptive period, the 1st month of pregnancy and the 2nd month of pregnancy. We analyzed variation in the probability of detecting male and female socio-sexual behaviors and estrus calls, as well as changes in female face color parameters, in relation to female reproductive state. Based on our focal observations, we found that males did not copulate during the pregnancy period, and that female socio-sexual behaviors generally decreased from the pre-conceptive to post-conceptive periods. Female face luminance decreased from the pre-conceptive month to the pregnancy period whereas face color only varied between the 1st and 2nd month of gestation. Our results suggest that Japanese macaque females display sexual cues of pregnancy that males might use to reduce energy wasted on non-reproductive copulations with pregnant females. We hypothesize that females advertize their pregnancy through changes in behavioral, visual and potential auditory signals that males can use to adjust their mating behaviors. We finish by discussing implications for male and female post-conception strategies. PMID:26308441

  13. Multimodal Advertisement of Pregnancy in Free-Ranging Female Japanese Macaques (Macaca fuscata)

    PubMed Central

    Rigaill, Lucie; MacIntosh, Andrew J. J.; Higham, James P.; Winters, Sandra; Shimizu, Keiko; Mouri, Keiko; Furuichi, Takeshi; Garcia, Cécile

    2015-01-01

    The role of multiple sexual signals in indicating the timing of female ovulation, and discrimination of this timing by males, has been particularly well studied among primates. However the exhibition of pregnancy signals, and how such signals might modulate male post-conception mating decisions, is still poorly understood. Here we aimed to determine if Japanese macaque males use changes in female sexual signals (behavioral, visual and auditory) to discriminate pregnancy and adjust their socio-sexual behaviors. We combined behavioral observations, digital photography and endocrinological (progestogen and estrogen) data, collected systematically during three one-month periods: the pre-conceptive period, the 1st month of pregnancy and the 2nd month of pregnancy. We analyzed variation in the probability of detecting male and female socio-sexual behaviors and estrus calls, as well as changes in female face color parameters, in relation to female reproductive state. Based on our focal observations, we found that males did not copulate during the pregnancy period, and that female socio-sexual behaviors generally decreased from the pre-conceptive to post-conceptive periods. Female face luminance decreased from the pre-conceptive month to the pregnancy period whereas face color only varied between the 1st and 2nd month of gestation. Our results suggest that Japanese macaque females display sexual cues of pregnancy that males might use to reduce energy wasted on non-reproductive copulations with pregnant females. We hypothesize that females advertize their pregnancy through changes in behavioral, visual and potential auditory signals that males can use to adjust their mating behaviors. We finish by discussing implications for male and female post-conception strategies. PMID:26308441

  14. Sperm membrane proteome in wild Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) and Sika deer (Cervus nippon).

    PubMed

    Kawase, Osamu; Cao, Shinuo; Xuan, Xuenan

    2015-01-01

    Whereas recent advances in proteome-related techniques have accumulated a lot of information about sperm proteins in model animals, the information in non-model wildlife species is absolutely deficient, although this knowledge would be valuable to regulate wildlife overabundance. To characterize the repertoires of sperm membrane proteins in Japanese overpopulated wildlife, our study focuses on the following two species: Macaca fuscata and Cervus nippon. We enriched sperm membrane proteins by the phase partitioning with Triton X-114, and then separated them by two-dimensional electrophoresis, and, finally, they were comprehensively identified by peptide mass fingerprinting. Sperm membrane proteins were successfully enriched. They included some proteins with unknown function and fertility-related proteins that work in sperm development, motility, capacitation, transport, protection, acrosome reaction, and fertilization. Additionally, beta-defensin 126 and epithelial chloride channel were strongly detected in M. fuscata but not in C. nippon, whereas lactadherin and NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase 1 were strongly detected in C. nippon alone. This study is an initiative case showing that the sperm of wildlife conserve major fertility-related proteins, but express some proteins in a species-specific manner. In the development of a practical method for fertility control, this aspect may be taken into consideration. PMID:25277530

  15. Macaque-human interactions and the societal perceptions of macaques in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Sha, John Chih Mun; Gumert, Michael D; Lee, Benjamin P Y-H; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Chan, Sharon; Fuentes, Agustín

    2009-10-01

    Humans and long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) interface in several locations in Singapore. We investigated six of these interface zones to assess the level of conflict between the two species. We observed macaque-to-human interactions and distributed questionnaires to residents and visitors of nature reserves. We observed an average of two macaque-to-human interactions per hour at the sites, which included affiliative or submissive behaviors (46.9%), aggression (19.1%), taking food and other items (18.5%) searching bins, cars, and houses (13.4%), and nonaggressive contact (2.1%). Two-thirds of interactions occurred when a human was carrying food or food cues, and one-quarter occurred when a human provoked macaques. Only 8% of interactions occurred without a clear human-triggered context. Our interview showed one-third of respondents experienced nuisance problems from macaques. They had items taken from them (50.5%) and received threats (31.9%). Residents reported more nuisance problems than visitors, and their perceptions toward macaques differed. Residents were more aware of the consequences of food provisioning and that there were regulations against feeding. Residents fed macaques less and held more negative sentiments toward macaques. Nearly half of the interviewed people held neutral attitudes toward macaques and only 26.2% of respondents thought conflict with macaques warranted urgent action. Nearly two-thirds of the respondents supported education programs to ameliorate human-macaque conflict, and less than 15% supported removing or eradicating macaques. 87.6% felt that it is importance to conserve and protect macaques. Our results show that human-macaque conflict exists in Singapore, but that it may not be severe. Human behavior is largely responsible for macaque-to-human interactions, and thus could be lessened with management of human behavior in interface zones (i.e. restrict food carrying and provocation). Moreover, our interviews shows people

  16. Personality Traits in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) Are Heritable but Do Not Predict Reproductive Output

    PubMed Central

    Brent, Lauren J. N.; Semple, Stuart; MacLarnon, Ann; Ruiz-Lambides, Angelina; Gonzalez-Martinez, Janis; Platt, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    There is growing evidence that behavioral tendencies, or “personalities,” in animals are an important aspect of their biology, yet their evolutionary basis is poorly understood. Specifically, how individual variation in personality arises and is subsequently maintained by selection remains unclear. To address this gap, studies of personality require explicit incorporation of genetic information. Here, we explored the genetic basis of personality in rhesus macaques by determining the heritability of personality components and by examining the fitness consequences of those components. We collected observational data for 108 adult females living in three social groups in a free-ranging population via focal animal sampling. We applied principal component analysis to nine spontaneously occurring behaviors and identified six putative personality components, which we named Meek, Bold, Aggressive, Passive, Loner, and Nervous. All components were repeatable and heritable, with heritability estimates ranging from 0.14 to 0.35. We found no evidence of an association with reproductive output, measured either by infant survival or by interbirth interval, for any of the personality components. This finding suggests either that personality does not have fitness-related consequences in this population or that selection has acted to reduce fitness-associated variation in personality. PMID:24659840

  17. Natural History of Inhalation Melioidosis in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) and African Green Monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops)

    PubMed Central

    Facemire, Paul; Dabisch, Paul A.; Robinson, Camenzind G.; Nyakiti, David; Beck, Katie; Baker, Reese; Pitt, M. Louise M.

    2012-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, is recognized as a serious health threat due to its involvement in septic and pulmonary infections in areas of endemicity and is recognized by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as a category B biothreat agent. An animal model is desirable to evaluate the pathogenesis of melioidosis and medical countermeasures. A model system that represents human melioidosis infections is essential in this process. A group of 10 rhesus macaques (RMs) and 10 African green monkeys (AGMs) was exposed to aerosolized B. pseudomallei 1026b. The first clinical signs were fever developing 24 to 40 h postexposure followed by leukocytosis resulting from a high percentage of neutrophils. Dyspnea manifested 2 to 4 days postexposure. In the AGMs, an increase in interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-8, gamma interferon (IFN-γ), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was observed. In the RMs, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α increased. All the RMs and AGMs had various degrees of bronchopneumonia, with inflammation consisting of numerous neutrophils and a moderate number of macrophages. Both the RMs and the AGMs appear to develop a melioidosis infection that closely resembles that seen in acute human melioidosis. However, for an evaluation of medical countermeasures, AGMs appear to be a more appropriate model. PMID:22778104

  18. Reversible inactivation of pSTS suppresses social gaze following in the macaque (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Stephen V.; Platt, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Humans and other primates shift their attention to follow the gaze of others [gaze following (GF)]. This behavior is a foundational component of joint attention, which is severely disrupted in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and schizophrenia. Both cortical and subcortical pathways have been implicated in GF, but their contributions remain largely untested. While the proposed subcortical pathway hinges crucially on the amygdala, the cortical pathway is thought to require perceptual processing by a region in the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS). To determine whether pSTS is necessary for typical GF behavior, we engaged rhesus macaques in a reward discrimination task confounded by leftward- and rightward-facing social distractors following saline or muscimol injections into left pSTS. We found that reversible inactivation of left pSTS with muscimol strongly suppressed GF, as assessed by reduced influence of observed gaze on target choices and saccadic reaction times. These findings demonstrate that activity in pSTS is required for normal GF by primates. PMID:23171617

  19. Marked variation between winter and spring gut microbiota in free-ranging Tibetan Macaques (Macaca thibetana).

    PubMed

    Sun, Binghua; Wang, Xi; Bernstein, Sofi; Huffman, Michael A; Xia, Dong-Po; Gu, Zhiyuan; Chen, Rui; Sheeran, Lori K; Wagner, R S; Li, Jinhua

    2016-01-01

    Variation in the availability and distribution of food resources is a strong selective pressure on wild primates. We explored variation in Tibetan macaque gut microbiota composition during winter and spring seasons. Our results showed that gut microbial composition and diversity varied by season. In winter, the genus Succinivibrio, which promotes the digestion of cellulose and hemicellulose, was significantly increased. In spring, the abundance of the genus Prevotella, which is associated with digestion of carbohydrates and simple sugars, was significantly increased. PICRUSt analysis revealed that the predicted metagenomes related to the glycan biosynthesis and metabolic pathway was significantly increased in winter samples, which would aid in the digestion of glycan extracted from cellulose and hemicellulose. The predicted metagenomes related to carbohydrate and energy metabolic pathways were significantly increased in spring samples, which could facilitate a monkey's recovery from acute energy loss experienced during winter. We propose that shifts in the composition and function of the gut microbiota provide a buffer against seasonal fluctuations in energy and nutrient intake, thus enabling these primates to adapt to variations in food supply and quality. PMID:27180722

  20. Marked variation between winter and spring gut microbiota in free-ranging Tibetan Macaques (Macaca thibetana)

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Binghua; Wang, Xi; Bernstein, Sofi; Huffman, Michael A.; Xia, Dong-Po; Gu, Zhiyuan; Chen, Rui; Sheeran, Lori K.; Wagner, R. S; Li, Jinhua

    2016-01-01

    Variation in the availability and distribution of food resources is a strong selective pressure on wild primates. We explored variation in Tibetan macaque gut microbiota composition during winter and spring seasons. Our results showed that gut microbial composition and diversity varied by season. In winter, the genus Succinivibrio, which promotes the digestion of cellulose and hemicellulose, was significantly increased. In spring, the abundance of the genus Prevotella, which is associated with digestion of carbohydrates and simple sugars, was significantly increased. PICRUSt analysis revealed that the predicted metagenomes related to the glycan biosynthesis and metabolic pathway was significantly increased in winter samples, which would aid in the digestion of glycan extracted from cellulose and hemicellulose. The predicted metagenomes related to carbohydrate and energy metabolic pathways were significantly increased in spring samples, which could facilitate a monkey’s recovery from acute energy loss experienced during winter. We propose that shifts in the composition and function of the gut microbiota provide a buffer against seasonal fluctuations in energy and nutrient intake, thus enabling these primates to adapt to variations in food supply and quality. PMID:27180722

  1. Inhaled oxytocin amplifies both vicarious reinforcement and self reinforcement in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Steve W. C.; Barter, Joseph W.; Ebitz, R. Becket; Watson, Karli K.; Platt, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    People attend not only to their own experiences, but also to the experiences of those around them. Such social awareness profoundly influences human behavior by enabling observational learning, as well as by motivating cooperation, charity, empathy, and spite. Oxytocin (OT), a neurosecretory hormone synthesized by hypothalamic neurons in the mammalian brain, can enhance affiliation or boost exclusion in different species in distinct contexts, belying any simple mechanistic neural model. Here we show that inhaled OT penetrates the CNS and subsequently enhances the sensitivity of rhesus macaques to rewards occurring to others as well as themselves. Roughly 2 h after inhaling OT, monkeys increased the frequency of prosocial choices associated with reward to another monkey when the alternative was to reward no one. OT also increased attention to the recipient monkey as well as the time it took to render such a decision. In contrast, within the first 2 h following inhalation, OT increased selfish choices associated with delivery of reward to self over a reward to the other monkey, without affecting attention or decision latency. Despite the differences in species typical social behavior, exogenous, inhaled OT causally promotes social donation behavior in rhesus monkeys, as it does in more egalitarian and monogamous ones, like prairie voles and humans, when there is no perceived cost to self. These findings potentially implicate shared neural mechanisms. PMID:22215593

  2. Efficacy of 3 types of foraging enrichment for rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, Daniel H; Ghirardo, Stephanie; Minier, Darren E; Sharpe, Nicole; Tatum, Lindsay; McCowan, Brenda

    2011-11-01

    Primate facilities provide environmental enrichment to improve animal wellbeing, increase opportunities for expression of species-typical behaviors, and decrease the occurrence of stereotypic behaviors. The current study assessed the efficacy of 3 types of foraging enrichment: puzzle balls, supertubes, and shakers. We assigned 48 rhesus macaques to 3 experimental groups, each of which received (after a 3-wk baseline observation period) 1 of the 3 enrichment devices intermittently for 3 wk. Observations were collected during 10-min sessions by using 1-0 sampling with 15-s intervals (480 h total). Observations were collected at the same 10 specified time points each week during the baseline period and after enrichment. Data were analyzed by using generalized linear mixed-effects modeling under the assumption that the underlying response followed a Poisson distribution. Foraging behavior increased significantly in all 3 groups and remained increased in some groups when enrichment was removed after 43 h. The 3 enrichment devices had different effects on individual expression of stereotypy: supertubes decreased it, shakers increased it, and puzzle balls led to a decrease followed by an increase. We present potential reasons for the changes in stereotypy and postulate a likely balance between the beneficial and negative effects of enrichment in any given environment. PMID:22330782

  3. Efficacy of 3 Types of Foraging Enrichment for Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Gottlieb, Daniel H; Ghirardo, Stephanie; Minier, Darren E; Sharpe, Nicole; Tatum, Lindsay; McCowan, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    Primate facilities provide environmental enrichment to improve animal wellbeing, increase opportunities for expression of species-typical behaviors, and decrease the occurrence of stereotypic behaviors. The current study assessed the efficacy of 3 types of foraging enrichment: puzzle balls, supertubes, and shakers. We assigned 48 rhesus macaques to 3 experimental groups, each of which received (after a 3-wk baseline observation period) 1 of the 3 enrichment devices intermittently for 3 wk. Observations were collected during 10-min sessions by using 1–0 sampling with 15-s intervals (480 h total). Observations were collected at the same 10 specified time points each week during the baseline period and after enrichment. Data were analyzed by using generalized linear mixed-effects modeling under the assumption that the underlying response followed a Poisson distribution. Foraging behavior increased significantly in all 3 groups and remained increased in some groups when enrichment was removed after 43 h. The 3 enrichment devices had different effects on individual expression of stereotypy: supertubes decreased it, shakers increased it, and puzzle balls led to a decrease followed by an increase. We present potential reasons for the changes in stereotypy and postulate a likely balance between the beneficial and negative effects of enrichment in any given environment. PMID:22330782

  4. Behavioral responses to injury and death in wild Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus).

    PubMed

    Campbell, Liz A D; Tkaczynski, Patrick J; Mouna, Mohamed; Qarro, Mohamed; Waterman, James; Majolo, Bonaventura

    2016-07-01

    The wounding or death of a conspecific has been shown to elicit varied behavioral responses throughout thanatology. Recently, a number of reports have presented contentious evidence of epimeletic behavior towards the dying and dead among non-human animals, a behavioral trait previously considered uniquely human. Here, we report on the behavioral responses of Barbary macaques, a social, non-human primate, to the deaths of four group members (one high-ranking adult female, one high-ranking adult male, one juvenile male, and one female infant), all caused by road traffic accidents. Responses appeared to vary based on the nature of the death (protracted or instant) and the age class of the deceased. Responses included several behaviors with potential adaptive explanations or consequences. These included exploration, caretaking (guarding, carrying, and grooming), and proximity to wounded individuals or corpses, and immediate as well as longer-lasting distress behaviors from other group members following death, all of which have been reported in other non-human primate species. These observations add to a growing body of comparative evolutionary analysis of primate thanatology and help to highlight the multifaceted impacts of human-induced fatalities on an endangered and socially complex primate. PMID:27194051

  5. Effect of Short-Term Pair Housing of Juvenile Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) on Immunologic Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Benton, Carrie G; West, Michael W; Hall, Shane M; Marko, Shannon T; Johnson, Joshua C

    2013-01-01

    Social housing of nonhuman primates (NHP) in an infectious disease setting presents unique challenges, and individual housing is often scientifically justified. At our institute, we recognized an opportunity to limit individual housing to the minimal period necessary by pair-housing NHP after quarantine and separating them just before they are moved into holding rooms for infectious disease studies. To alleviate concerns that pair-housing followed by separation affects the immune system of NHP and makes them unfit as research candidates, we designed a short-term pair-housing study. After a 3-wk baseline period, juvenile rhesus macaques (age, 3 to 4 y) were paired for 7 wk and then separated for 7 wk. During the study, serum cortisol, lymphocyte subsets, and proinflammatory cytokines were measured. The average values for all parameters were significantly lower after separation than during the baseline period. We conclude that short-term pair housing is a viable option at our institute for social housing of NHP. PMID:23849405

  6. Reproductive efficiency of captive Chinese- and Indian-origin rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) females

    PubMed Central

    Kubisch, H. Michael; Falkenstein, Kathrine P.; Deroche, Chelsea B.; Franke, Donald E.

    2011-01-01

    Reproductive and survival records (n = 2,913) from 313 Chinese-origin and 365 Indian-derived rhesus macaques at the Tulane National Primate Research Center spanning 3 generations were studied. Least-squares analysis of variance procedures were used to compare reproductive and infant survival traits while proportional hazards regression procedures were used to study female age at death, number of infants born per female and time from last birth to death. Chinese females were older at first parturition than Indian-females because they were older when placed with males, but the two subspecies had similar first and lifetime post-partum birth intervals. Females that gave birth to stillborn infants had shorter first post-partum birth intervals than females giving birth to live infants. Post-partum birth intervals decreased in females from 3 to 12 years of age but then increased again with advancing age. Chinese infants had a greater survival rate than Indian infants at 30 d, 6 mo and 1yr of age. Five hundred and forty-three females (80.01 %) had uncensored, or true records for age at death, number of infants born per female, and time from the birth until death whereas 135 females (19.91 %) had censored records for these traits. Low and high uncensored observations for age at death were 3 and 26 years of age for Chinese and 3 and 23 years of age for Indian females. Uncensored number of infants born per female ranged from 1 to 15 for Chinese females and 1 to 18 for Indian females. Each of these traits was significantly influenced by the origin × generation interaction in the proportional hazards regression analyses, indicating that probabilities associated with age at death, number of infants born per female and time from last birth to death for Chinese and Indian females did not rank the same across generations. PMID:22512021

  7. Innate-like γδ T cell responses to mycobacterium Bacille Calmette-Guerin using the public Vγ2 repertoire in Macaca fascicularis

    PubMed Central

    Cairo, Cristiana; Hebbeler, Andrew M; Propp, Nadia; Bryant, Joseph L; Colizzi, Vittorio; Pauza, C. David

    2010-01-01

    The Vγ2Vδ2 T cell subset responds to Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) immunization in macaques and may be a component of protective immunity against tuberculosis. We characterized the effects of BCG on the Vγ2Vδ2 T cell receptor repertoire by comparing the starting population of Vγ2 chains in cynomolgus macaques with the repertoire found after priming or booster immunization with BCG. The starting repertoire was dominated by public Vγ2 chain sequences that were found repeatedly among unrelated animals. Primary exposure to BCG triggered expansion of cells expressing public Vγ2 chains and booster immunization was often associated with contraction of these same subsets. Thus, BCG-reactive Vγ2 chains were present at high frequency in the repertoire of mycobacteria-naïve macaques and they comprised the major response to primary or booster immunization. Normal selection processes that created the naïve Vγ2 repertoire in macaques, also encoded the capacity for rapid responses to mycobacteria. The unusual composition of a normal Vγ2 repertoire helps to explain the powerful γδ T cell responses to BCG immunization. PMID:17292671

  8. Macacine Herpesvirus 1 in Long-Tailed Macaques, Malaysia, 2009–2011

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mei-Ho; Rostal, Melinda K.; Hughes, Tom; Sitam, Frankie; Lee, Chee-Yen; Japning, Jeffrine; Harden, Mallory E.; Griffiths, Anthony; Basir, Misliah; Wolfe, Nathan D.; Daszak, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Macacine herpesvirus 1 (MaHV1; B virus) naturally infects macaques (Macaca spp.) and can cause fatal encephalitis in humans. In Peninsular Malaysia, wild macaques are abundant, and translocation is used to mitigate human–macaque conflict. Most adult macaques are infected with MaHV1, although the risk for transmission to persons who handle them during capture and translocation is unknown. We investigated MaHV1 shedding among 392 long-tailed macaques (M. fascicularis) after capture and translocation by the Department of Wildlife and National Parks in Peninsular Malaysia, during 2009–2011. For detection of MaHV1 DNA, PCR was performed on urogenital and oropharyngeal swab samples. Overall, 39% of macaques were shedding MaHV1 DNA; rates of DNA detection did not differ between sample types. This study demonstrates that MaHV1 was shed by a substantial proportion of macaques after capture and transport and suggests that persons handling macaques under these circumstances might be at risk for exposure to MaHV1. PMID:26080081

  9. Macacine Herpesvirus 1 in Long-Tailed Macaques, Malaysia, 2009-2011.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mei-Ho; Rostal, Melinda K; Hughes, Tom; Sitam, Frankie; Lee, Chee-Yen; Japning, Jeffrine; Harden, Mallory E; Griffiths, Anthony; Basir, Misliah; Wolfe, Nathan D; Epstein, Jonathan H; Daszak, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Macacine herpesvirus 1 (MaHV1; B virus) naturally infects macaques (Macaca spp.) and can cause fatal encephalitis in humans. In Peninsular Malaysia, wild macaques are abundant, and translocation is used to mitigate human-macaque conflict. Most adult macaques are infected with MaHV1, although the risk for transmission to persons who handle them during capture and translocation is unknown. We investigated MaHV1 shedding among 392 long-tailed macaques (M. fascicularis) after capture and translocation by the Department of Wildlife and National Parks in Peninsular Malaysia, during 2009-2011. For detection of MaHV1 DNA, PCR was performed on urogenital and oropharyngeal swab samples. Overall, 39% of macaques were shedding MaHV1 DNA; rates of DNA detection did not differ between sample types. This study demonstrates that MaHV1 was shed by a substantial proportion of macaques after capture and transport and suggests that persons handling macaques under these circumstances might be at risk for exposure to MaHV1. PMID:26080081

  10. Emergence of infectious malignant thrombocytopenia in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) by SRV-4 after transmission to a novel host

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Munehiro; Miyazawa, Takayuki; Morikawa, Shigeru; Ono, Fumiko; Nakamura, Shota; Sato, Eiji; Yoshida, Tomoyuki; Yoshikawa, Rokusuke; Sakai, Kouji; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Nagata, Noriyo; Takano, Jun-ichiro; Okabayashi, Sachi; Hamano, Masataka; Fujimoto, Koji; Nakaya, Takaaki; Iida, Tetsuya; Horii, Toshihiro; Miyabe-Nishiwaki, Takako; Watanabe, Akino; Kaneko, Akihisa; Saito, Akatsuki; Matsui, Atsushi; Hayakawa, Toshiyuki; Suzuki, Juri; Akari, Hirofumi; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Hirai, Hirohisa

    2015-01-01

    We discovered a lethal hemorrhagic syndrome arising from severe thrombocytopenia in Japanese macaques kept at the Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University. Extensive investigation identified that simian retrovirus type 4 (SRV-4) was the causative agent of the disease. SRV-4 had previously been isolated only from cynomolgus macaques in which it is usually asymptomatic. We consider that the SRV-4 crossed the so-called species barrier between cynomolgus and Japanese macaques, leading to extremely severe acute symptoms in the latter. Infectious agents that cross the species barrier occasionally amplify in virulence, which is not observed in the original hosts. In such cases, the new hosts are usually distantly related to the original hosts. However, Japanese macaques are closely related to cynomolgus macaques, and can even hybridize when given the opportunity. This lethal outbreak of a novel pathogen in Japanese macaques highlights the need to modify our expectations about virulence with regards crossing species barriers. PMID:25743183