Science.gov

Sample records for machine tool design

  1. Circular machine design techniques and tools

    SciTech Connect

    Servranckx, R.V.; Brown, K.L.

    1986-04-01

    Some of the basic optics principles involved in the design of circular accelerators such as Alternating Gradient Synchrotrons, Storage and Collision Rings, and Pulse Stretcher Rings are outlined. Typical problems facing a designer are defined, and the main references and computational tools are reviewed that are presently available. Two particular classes of problems that occur typically in accelerator design are listed - global value problems, which affect the control of parameters which are characteristic of the complete closed circular machine, and local value problems. Basic mathematical formulae are given that are considered useful for a first draft of a design. The basic optics building blocks that can be used to formulate an initial machine design are introduced, giving only the elementary properties and transfer matrices only in one transverse plane. Solutions are presented for some first-order and second-order design problems. (LEW)

  2. A New Approach to Precision Design for Machine Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Baodong; Jiao, Aisheng; Yi, Xiangbin; Xu, Yanwei

    Precision of the NC axes is an important aspect of machine tool design. Conventionally, the precision specification of machine tools is empirically determined, resulting in poor designs with insufficient or excessive precision. To provide a cost-effective precision specification for machine tools, an active precision design approach is proposed to generate the specification of the positioning repeatability of NC axes to meet the designated working precision requirements of the machine tools. Finally, the approach is demonstrated and validated through a case study of precision design for a gear milling machine.

  3. Machine Tool Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A NASA-developed software package has played a part in technical education of students who major in Mechanical Engineering Technology at William Rainey Harper College. Professor Hack has been using (APT) Automatically Programmed Tool Software since 1969 in his CAD/CAM Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing curriculum. Professor Hack teaches the use of APT programming languages for control of metal cutting machines. Machine tool instructions are geometry definitions written in APT Language to constitute a "part program." The part program is processed by the machine tool. CAD/CAM students go from writing a program to cutting steel in the course of a semester.

  4. Technology and Jobs: Computer-Aided Design. Numerical-Control Machine-Tool Operators. Office Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton, Michael; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Three reports on the effects of high technology on the nature of work include (1) Stanton on applications and implications of computer-aided design for engineers, drafters, and architects; (2) Nardone on the outlook and training of numerical-control machine tool operators; and (3) Austin and Drake on the future of clerical occupations in automated…

  5. Machine tool locator

    DOEpatents

    Hanlon, John A.; Gill, Timothy J.

    2001-01-01

    Machine tools can be accurately measured and positioned on manufacturing machines within very small tolerances by use of an autocollimator on a 3-axis mount on a manufacturing machine and positioned so as to focus on a reference tooling ball or a machine tool, a digital camera connected to the viewing end of the autocollimator, and a marker and measure generator for receiving digital images from the camera, then displaying or measuring distances between the projection reticle and the reference reticle on the monitoring screen, and relating the distances to the actual position of the autocollimator relative to the reference tooling ball. The images and measurements are used to set the position of the machine tool and to measure the size and shape of the machine tool tip, and examine cutting edge wear. patent

  6. Design of piezo-based AVC system for machine tool applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggogeri, F.; Al-Bender, F.; Brunner, B.; Elsaid, M.; Mazzola, M.; Merlo, A.; Ricciardi, D.; de la O Rodriguez, M.; Salvi, E.

    2013-03-01

    The goal of machine tools for Ultra High Precision Machining is to guarantee high specified performances and to maintain them over life cycle time. In this paper the design of an innovative mechatronic subsystem (platform) for Active Vibration Control (AVC) of Ultra High Precision micromilling Machines is presented. The platform integrates piezoelectric stack actuators and a novel sensor concept. During the machining process (e.g. milling), the contact between the cutting tool and the workpiece surface at the tool tip point generates chattering vibrations. Any vibration is recorded on the workpiece surface, directly affecting its roughness. Consequently, uncontrolled vibrations lead to poor surface finishing, unacceptable in high precision milling. The proposed Smart Platform aims to improve the surface finishing of the workpiece exploiting a broadband AVC strategy. The paper describes the steps throughout the design phase of the platform, beginning from the actuator/sensor criteria selection taking into account both performance and durability. The novel actuation principle and mechanism and the related FE analysis are also presented. Finally, an integrated mechatronic model able to predict in closed-loop the active damping and vibration-suppression capability of the integrated system is presented and simulation results are discussed.

  7. IB: a Monte Carlo Simulation Tool for Neutron Scattering Instrument Design under Parallel Virtual Machine

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Jinkui

    2011-01-01

    IB is a Monte Carlo simulation tool for aiding neutron scattering instrument designs. It is written in C++ and implemented under Parallel Virtual Machine. The program has a few basic components, or modules, that can be used to build a virtual neutron scattering instrument. More complex components, such as neutron guides and multichannel beam benders, can be constructed using the grouping technique unique to IB. Users can specify a collection of modules as a group. For example, a neutron guide can be constructed by grouping four neutron mirrors together that make up the four sides of the guide. IB s simulation engine ensures that neutrons entering a group will be properly operated upon by all members of the group. For simulations that require higher computer speed, the program can be run in parallel mode under the PVM architecture. Initially, the program was written for designing instruments on pulsed neutron sources, it has since been used to simulate reactor based instruments as well.

  8. Applying CBR to machine tool product configuration design oriented to customer requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pengjia; Gong, Yadong; Xie, Hualong; Liu, Yongxian; Nee, Andrew Yehching

    2016-03-01

    Product customization is a trend in the current market-oriented manufacturing environment. However, deduction from customer requirements to design results and evaluation of design alternatives are still heavily reliant on the designer's experience and knowledge. To solve the problem of fuzziness and uncertainty of customer requirements in product configuration, an analysis method based on the grey rough model is presented. The customer requirements can be converted into technical characteristics effectively. In addition, an optimization decision model for product planning is established to help the enterprises select the key technical characteristics under the constraints of cost and time to serve the customer to maximal satisfaction. A new case retrieval approach that combines the self-organizing map and fuzzy similarity priority ratio method is proposed in case-based design. The self-organizing map can reduce the retrieval range and increase the retrieval efficiency, and the fuzzy similarity priority ratio method can evaluate the similarity of cases comprehensively. To ensure that the final case has the best overall performance, an evaluation method of similar cases based on grey correlation analysis is proposed to evaluate similar cases to select the most suitable case. Furthermore, a computer-aided system is developed using MATLAB GUI to assist the product configuration design. The actual example and result on an ETC series machine tool product show that the proposed method is effective, rapid and accurate in the process of product configuration. The proposed methodology provides a detailed instruction for the product configuration design oriented to customer requirements.

  9. Machine Tool Operation, Course Description.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denny, Walter E.; Anderson, Floyd L.

    Prepared by an instructor and curriculum specialists, this course of study was designed to meet the individual needs of the dropout and/or hard-core unemployed youth by providing them skill training, related information, and supportive services knowledge in machine tool operation. The achievement level of each student is determined at entry, and…

  10. Diamond machine tool face lapping machine

    DOEpatents

    Yetter, H.H.

    1985-05-06

    An apparatus for shaping, sharpening and polishing diamond-tipped single-point machine tools. The isolation of a rotating grinding wheel from its driving apparatus using an air bearing and causing the tool to be shaped, polished or sharpened to be moved across the surface of the grinding wheel so that it does not remain at one radius for more than a single rotation of the grinding wheel has been found to readily result in machine tools of a quality which can only be obtained by the most tedious and costly processing procedures, and previously unattainable by simple lapping techniques.

  11. National Machine Tool Partnership (NMTP) FY 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Defense Programs (DP) National Machine Tool Partnership (NMTP) program has been active since February 1993. The NMTP program is an element of the DP Technology Partnership Program. The NMTP has assisted the Association of Manufacturing Technology (AMT) in the formulation of a technology roadmap for the machine tool industry. This roadmap has been developed to provide a clearer step-by-step plan for technology development and implementation to help close the gap between user requirements and industry implementation. The document outlines a suggested path for the development of technologies for the machine tool industry. The plan details the technology issues or needs analysis facing the machine tool industry. In a parallel effort, the NMTP has prepared a needs analysis of machine tool related technologies needed in various DP laboratory weapons core programs, including the Advanced Design and Production Technologies (ADaPT) initiative.

  12. Slide system for machine tools

    DOEpatents

    Douglass, Spivey S.; Green, Walter L.

    1982-01-01

    The present invention relates to a machine tool which permits the machining of nonaxisymmetric surfaces on a workpiece while rotating the workpiece about a central axis of rotation. The machine tool comprises a conventional two-slide system (X-Y) with one of these slides being provided with a relatively short travel high-speed auxiliary slide which carries the material-removing tool. The auxiliary slide is synchronized with the spindle speed and the position of the other two slides and provides a high-speed reciprocating motion required for the displacement of the cutting tool for generating a nonaxisymmetric surface at a selected location on the workpiece.

  13. Slide system for machine tools

    DOEpatents

    Douglass, S.S.; Green, W.L.

    1980-06-12

    The present invention relates to a machine tool which permits the machining of nonaxisymmetric surfaces on a workpiece while rotating the workpiece about a central axis of rotation. The machine tool comprises a conventional two-slide system (X-Y) with one of these slides being provided with a relatively short travel high-speed auxiliary slide which carries the material-removing tool. The auxiliary slide is synchronized with the spindle speed and the position of the other two slides and provides a high-speed reciprocating motion required for the displacement of the cutting tool for generating a nonaxisymmetric surface at a selected location on the workpiece.

  14. Vibration absorber modeling for handheld machine tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Mohd Azman; Mustafa, Mohd Muhyiddin; Jamil, Jazli Firdaus; Salim, Mohd Azli; Ramli, Faiz Redza

    2015-05-01

    Handheld machine tools produce continuous vibration to the users during operation. This vibration causes harmful effects to the health of users for repeated operations in a long period of time. In this paper, a dynamic vibration absorber (DVA) is designed and modeled to reduce the vibration generated by the handheld machine tool. Several designs and models of vibration absorbers with various stiffness properties are simulated, tested and optimized in order to diminish the vibration. Ordinary differential equation is used to derive and formulate the vibration phenomena in the machine tool with and without the DVA. The final transfer function of the DVA is later analyzed using commercial available mathematical software. The DVA with optimum properties of mass and stiffness is developed and applied on the actual handheld machine tool. The performance of the DVA is experimentally tested and validated by the final result of vibration reduction.

  15. Machine tool evaluation and machining operation development

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, T.O.; Kegg, R.

    1997-03-15

    The purpose of this CRADA was to support Cincinnati Milacron`s needs in fabricating precision components, from difficult to machine materials, while maintaining and enhancing the precision manufacturing skills of the Oak Ridge Complex. Oak Ridge and Cincinnati Milacron personnel worked in a team relationship wherein each contributed equally to the success of the program. Process characterization, control technologies, machine tool capabilities, and environmental issues were the primary focus areas. In general, Oak Ridge contributed a wider range of expertise in machine tool testing and monitoring, and environmental testing on machining fluids to the defined tasks while Cincinnati Milacron personnel provided equipment, operations-specific knowledge and shop-floor services to each task. Cincinnati Milacron was very pleased with the results of all of the CRADA tasks. However, some of the environmental tasks were not carried through to a desired completion due to an expanding realization of need as the work progressed. This expansion of the desired goals then exceeded the time length of the CRADA. Discussions are underway on continuing these tasks under either a Work for Others agreement or some alternate funding.

  16. Tool grinding machine

    DOEpatents

    Dial, Sr., Charles E.

    1980-01-01

    The present invention relates to an improved tool grinding mechanism for grinding single point diamond cutting tools to precise roundness and radius specifications. The present invention utilizes a tool holder which is longitudinally displaced with respect to the remainder of the grinding system due to contact of the tool with the grinding surface with this displacement being monitored so that any variation in the grinding of the cutting surface such as caused by crystal orientation or tool thickness may be compensated for during the grinding operation to assure the attainment of the desired cutting tool face specifications.

  17. Improved tool grinding machine

    DOEpatents

    Dial, C.E. Sr.

    The present invention relates to an improved tool grinding mechanism for grinding single point diamond cutting tools to precise roundness and radius specifications. The present invention utilizes a tool holder which is longitudinally displaced with respect to the remainder of the grinding system due to contact of the tool with the grinding surface with this displacement being monitored so that any variation in the grinding of the cutting surface such as caused by crystal orientation or tool thicknesses may be compensated for during the grinding operation to assure the attainment of the desired cutting tool face specifications.

  18. OPTICAM machine design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liedes, Jyrki T.

    1992-01-01

    Rank Pneumo has worked with the Center of Optics Manufacturing to design a multiple-axis flexible machining center for spherical lens fabrication. The OPTICAM/SM prototype machine has been developed in cooperation with the Center's Manufacturing Advisory Board. The SM will generate, fine grind, pre-polish, and center a spherical lens surface in one setup sequence. Unique features of the design incorporate machine resident metrology to provide RQM (Real-time Quality Management) and closed-loop feedback control that corrects for lens thickness, diameter, and centering error. SPC (Statistical Process Control) software can compensate for process drift and QA data collection is provided without additional labor.

  19. Advanced machine tools, loading systems viewed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharkov, V. I.

    1986-03-01

    The machine-tooling complex built from a revolving lathe and a two-armed robot designed to machine short revolving bodies including parts with curvilinear and threaded surfaces from piece blanks in either small-series or series multiitem production is described. The complex consists of: (1) a model 1V340F30 revolving lathe with a vertical axis of rotation, 8-position revolving head on a cross carriage and an Elektronika NTs-31 on-line control system; (2) a gantry-style two-armed M20-Ts robot with a 20-kilogram (20 x 2) load capacity; and (3) an 8-position indexable blank table, one of whose positions is for initial unloading of finished parts. Subsequently, machined parts are set onto the position into which all of the blanks are unloaded. Complex enclosure allows adjustment and process correction during maintenance and convenient observation of the machining process.

  20. Computer Aided Drafting and Design, Industrial Manufacturing Technician, and Mechanical Engineering Technician and Machine Tool, Die and Moldmaking Technology. Tech Prep Competency Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mid-East Ohio Tech Prep Consortium, Zanesville.

    This document contains competency profiles in four areas: computer-aided drafting and design; industrial manufacturing technician; mechanical engineering technician; and machine tool, die, and moldmaking technology occupations. The profiles are intended for use in articulating tech prep programs from high school through associate degrees in Ohio.…

  1. Computer-Aided Drafting and Design Series. Educational Resources for the Machine Tool Industry, Course Syllabi, [and] Instructor's Handbook. Student Laboratory Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Technical Coll. System, Waco.

    This package consists of course syllabi, an instructor's handbook, and a student laboratory manual for a 2-year vocational training program to prepare students for entry-level employment in computer-aided drafting and design in the machine tool industry. The program was developed through a modification of the DACUM (Developing a Curriculum)…

  2. Standardized Curriculum for Machine Tool Operation/Machine Shop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized vocational education course titles and core contents for two courses in Mississippi are provided: machine tool operation/machine shop I and II. The first course contains the following units: (1) orientation; (2) shop safety; (3) shop math; (4) measuring tools and instruments; (5) hand and bench tools; (6) blueprint reading; (7)…

  3. ATST telescope mount: telescope of machine tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffers, Paul; Stolz, Günter; Bonomi, Giovanni; Dreyer, Oliver; Kärcher, Hans

    2012-09-01

    The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) will be the largest solar telescope in the world, and will be able to provide the sharpest views ever taken of the solar surface. The telescope has a 4m aperture primary mirror, however due to the off axis nature of the optical layout, the telescope mount has proportions similar to an 8 meter class telescope. The technology normally used in this class of telescope is well understood in the telescope community and has been successfully implemented in numerous projects. The world of large machine tools has developed in a separate realm with similar levels of performance requirement but different boundary conditions. In addition the competitive nature of private industry has encouraged development and usage of more cost effective solutions both in initial capital cost and thru-life operating cost. Telescope mounts move relatively slowly with requirements for high stability under external environmental influences such as wind buffeting. Large machine tools operate under high speed requirements coupled with high application of force through the machine but with little or no external environmental influences. The benefits of these parallel development paths and the ATST system requirements are being combined in the ATST Telescope Mount Assembly (TMA). The process of balancing the system requirements with new technologies is based on the experience of the ATST project team, Ingersoll Machine Tools who are the main contractor for the TMA and MT Mechatronics who are their design subcontractors. This paper highlights a number of these proven technologies from the commercially driven machine tool world that are being introduced to the TMA design. Also the challenges of integrating and ensuring that the differences in application requirements are accounted for in the design are discussed.

  4. Machine tools and fixtures: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    As part of NASA's Technology Utilizations Program, a compilation was made of technological developments regarding machine tools, jigs, and fixtures that have been produced, modified, or adapted to meet requirements of the aerospace program. The compilation is divided into three sections that include: (1) a variety of machine tool applications that offer easier and more efficient production techniques; (2) methods, techniques, and hardware that aid in the setup, alignment, and control of machines and machine tools to further quality assurance in finished products: and (3) jigs, fixtures, and adapters that are ancillary to basic machine tools and aid in realizing their greatest potential.

  5. Tool force evaluation of lathe machined high explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Flowers, G.L.

    1980-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a better understanding of the effects of machining properties upon tool forces encountered during lathe machining of high explosives, in order to optimize machining conditions for mechanical properties test specimens. Monetary considerations dictated that the tooling either already exist or be fabricated in-house using limited machine shop capability. The design chosen which fit between the tool holder and the tool post and interfaced to existing signal conditioners was easily fabricated. The study evaluated all forces on the cutter during machining of two types of high explosives at four cutter radii, four feed rates, three depths of cut and two cutting speeds. The study pointed out design problems, instrumentation drift, tool chatter and detection levels. It also showed that the type of high explosive was more significant than first thought toward influencing tool force levels.

  6. Chip breaking system for automated machine tool

    DOEpatents

    Arehart, Theodore A.; Carey, Donald O.

    1987-01-01

    The invention is a rotary selectively directional valve assembly for use in an automated turret lathe for directing a stream of high pressure liquid machining coolant to the interface of a machine tool and workpiece for breaking up ribbon-shaped chips during the formation thereof so as to inhibit scratching or other marring of the machined surfaces by these ribbon-shaped chips. The valve assembly is provided by a manifold arrangement having a plurality of circumferentially spaced apart ports each coupled to a machine tool. The manifold is rotatable with the turret when the turret is positioned for alignment of a machine tool in a machining relationship with the workpiece. The manifold is connected to a non-rotational header having a single passageway therethrough which conveys the high pressure coolant to only the port in the manifold which is in registry with the tool disposed in a working relationship with the workpiece. To position the machine tools the turret is rotated and one of the tools is placed in a material-removing relationship of the workpiece. The passageway in the header and one of the ports in the manifold arrangement are then automatically aligned to supply the machining coolant to the machine tool workpiece interface for breaking up of the chips as well as cooling the tool and workpiece during the machining operation.

  7. [Research on infrared safety protection system for machine tool].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuan-Ji; Zhang, Zhi-Ling; Yan, Hui-Ying; Wang, Song-De

    2008-04-01

    In order to ensure personal safety and prevent injury accident in machine tool operation, an infrared machine tool safety system was designed with infrared transmitting-receiving module, memory self-locked relay and voice recording-playing module. When the operator does not enter the danger area, the system has no response. Once the operator's whole or part of body enters the danger area and shades the infrared beam, the system will alarm and output an control signal to the machine tool executive element, and at the same time, the system makes the machine tool emergency stop to prevent equipment damaged and person injured. The system has a module framework, and has many advantages including safety, reliability, common use, circuit simplicity, maintenance convenience, low power consumption, low costs, working stability, easy debugging, vibration resistance and interference resistance. It is suitable for being installed and used in different machine tools such as punch machine, pour plastic machine, digital control machine, armor plate cutting machine, pipe bending machine, oil pressure machine etc. PMID:18619302

  8. Method for machining steel with diamond tools

    DOEpatents

    Casstevens, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method for machine optical quality finishes and contour accuracies of workpieces of carbon-containing metals such as steel with diamond tooling. The wear rate of the diamond tooling is significantly reduced by saturating the atmosphere at the interface of the workpiece and the diamond tool with a gaseous hydrocarbon during the machining operation. The presence of the gaseous hydrocarbon effectively eliminates the deterioration of the diamond tool by inhibiting or preventing the conversion of the diamond carbon to graphite carbon at the point of contact between the cutting tool and the workpiece.

  9. Method for machining steel with diamond tools

    DOEpatents

    Casstevens, John M.

    1986-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method for machining optical quality inishes and contour accuracies of workpieces of carbon-containing metals such as steel with diamond tooling. The wear rate of the diamond tooling is significantly reduced by saturating the atmosphere at the interface of the workpiece and the diamond tool with a gaseous hydrocarbon during the machining operation. The presence of the gaseous hydrocarbon effectively eliminates the deterioration of the diamond tool by inhibiting or preventing the conversion of the diamond carbon to graphite carbon at the point of contact between the cutting tool and the workpiece.

  10. Speed-Selector Guard For Machine Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shakhshir, Roda J.; Valentine, Richard L.

    1992-01-01

    Simple guardplate prevents accidental reversal of direction of rotation or sudden change of speed of lathe, milling machine, or other machine tool. Custom-made for specific machine and control settings. Allows control lever to be placed at only one setting. Operator uses handle to slide guard to engage or disengage control lever. Protects personnel from injury and equipment from damage occurring if speed- or direction-control lever inadvertently placed in wrong position.

  11. Numerically Controlled Machine Tools and Worker Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe, Jeffrey H.

    1991-01-01

    Analysis of data from "Industry Wage Surveys of Machinery Manufacturers" on the skill levels of 57 machining jobs found that introduction of numerically controlled machine tools has resulted in a very small reduction in skill levels or no significant change, supporting neither the deskilling argument nor argument that skill levels increase with…

  12. Machine Tool Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This task list is intended for use in planning and/or evaluating a competency-based course to prepare machine tool, drill press, grinding machine, lathe, mill, and/or power saw operators. The listing is divided into six sections, with each one outlining the tasks required to perform the duties that have been identified for the given occupation.…

  13. Refrigerated cutting tools improve machining of superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudley, G. M.

    1971-01-01

    Freon-12 applied to tool cutting edge evaporates quickly, leaves no residue, and permits higher cutting rate than with conventional coolants. This technique increases cutting rate on Rene-41 threefold and improves finish of machined surface.

  14. Laboratory directed research and development final report: Intelligent tools for on-machine acceptance of precision machined components

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, N.G.; Harwell, L.D.; Hazelton, A.

    1997-02-01

    On-Machine Acceptance (OMA) is an agile manufacturing concept being developed for machine tools at SNL. The concept behind OMA is the integration of product design, fabrication, and qualification processes by using the machining center as a fabrication and inspection tool. This report documents the final results of a Laboratory Directed Research and Development effort to qualify OMA.

  15. Principles and techniques for designing precision machines

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, L C

    1999-02-01

    This thesis is written to advance the reader's knowledge of precision-engineering principles and their application to designing machines that achieve both sufficient precision and minimum cost. It provides the concepts and tools necessary for the engineer to create new precision machine designs. Four case studies demonstrate the principles and showcase approaches and solutions to specific problems that generally have wider applications. These come from projects at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in which the author participated: the Large Optics Diamond Turning Machine, Accuracy Enhancement of High- Productivity Machine Tools, the National Ignition Facility, and Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography. Although broad in scope, the topics go into sufficient depth to be useful to practicing precision engineers and often fulfill more academic ambitions. The thesis begins with a chapter that presents significant principles and fundamental knowledge from the Precision Engineering literature. Following this is a chapter that presents engineering design techniques that are general and not specific to precision machines. All subsequent chapters cover specific aspects of precision machine design. The first of these is Structural Design, guidelines and analysis techniques for achieving independently stiff machine structures. The next chapter addresses dynamic stiffness by presenting several techniques for Deterministic Damping, damping designs that can be analyzed and optimized with predictive results. Several chapters present a main thrust of the thesis, Exact-Constraint Design. A main contribution is a generalized modeling approach developed through the course of creating several unique designs. The final chapter is the primary case study of the thesis, the Conceptual Design of a Horizontal Machining Center.

  16. Parallel machine architecture and compiler design facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuck, David J.; Yew, Pen-Chung; Padua, David; Sameh, Ahmed; Veidenbaum, Alex

    1990-01-01

    The objective is to provide an integrated simulation environment for studying and evaluating various issues in designing parallel systems, including machine architectures, parallelizing compiler techniques, and parallel algorithms. The status of Delta project (which objective is to provide a facility to allow rapid prototyping of parallelized compilers that can target toward different machine architectures) is summarized. Included are the surveys of the program manipulation tools developed, the environmental software supporting Delta, and the compiler research projects in which Delta has played a role.

  17. Lathe tool bit and holder for machining fiberglass materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winn, L. E. (Inventor)

    1972-01-01

    A lathe tool and holder combination for machining resin impregnated fiberglass cloth laminates is described. The tool holder and tool bit combination is designed to accommodate a conventional carbide-tipped, round shank router bit as the cutting medium, and provides an infinite number of cutting angles in order to produce a true and smooth surface in the fiberglass material workpiece with every pass of the tool bit. The technique utilizes damaged router bits which ordinarily would be discarded.

  18. NCSX Machine Configuration Design Progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neilson, G. H.; Brooks, A.; Johnson, D.; Kugel, H.; Majeski, R.; Reiersen, W.; Zarnstorff, M.; Berry, L.; Cole, M.; Hirshman, S.; Nelson, B.; Strickler, D.

    2000-10-01

    A new experimental facility, the National Compact Stellarator Experiment, is being designed to support the development of high-beta, low aspect-ratio stellarators. To fulfill its mission, the facility design is required to: 1)be based on a stellarator magnetic configuration which enables it to address reactor physics issues, 2)have high probability of achieving its physics mission within the uncertainties of present-day physics models, and 3)provide access for experimental tools such as plasma heating systems and diagnostics. The most critical machine component is the coil system which determines the plasma configuration and its properties. To gain an understanding of the practical implications of the mission requirements and determine the optimum approach to satisfying them, a range of coil configuration options was investigated. To address requirement 1, each option was designed to reconstruct a common stellarator plasma configuration with desired stability and transport properties. To mitigate mission risk (requirement 2), magnetic configuration flexibility features, e.g., coils for inductive current drive and axisymmetric field shaping and an operating space exceeding the nominal magnetic field and pulse-length requirements, were included in all designs. To implement requirement 3, port access requirements for neutral-beam and radiofrequency heating systems, a diagnostic array, and vacuum pumping were determined and these were used to analyze the various designs. Differential costs were evaluated to provide a basis for assessing benefit/cost.

  19. Upgrading the capabilities of existing machine tools for precision machining

    SciTech Connect

    Barkman, W.E.

    1982-05-01

    A number of two-axis turning machines at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant have undergone upgrading as a means of meeting the needs for parts with tolerances that were more restrictive than the capability of the basic machine. The level of upgrading has ranged from changing a single machine characteristic to doing a complete overhaul of the slides, drives, spindle, and control system. The features available for the up-grading process include: tool setters, air bearing spindles and slides, pressurized oil bearing slides, electric dc torque motor drives, linear motor slide drives, eddy current spindle drives, laser feedback, vibration-isolation machine platforms, and computer numerical control (CNC) systems. Actual case histories are presented which show the levels of performance achieved with the various modifications. A discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of the various options is included.

  20. Sine-Bar Attachment For Machine Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mann, Franklin D.

    1988-01-01

    Sine-bar attachment for collets, spindles, and chucks helps machinists set up quickly for precise angular cuts that require greater precision than provided by graduations of machine tools. Machinist uses attachment to index head, carriage of milling machine or lathe relative to table or turning axis of tool. Attachment accurate to 1 minute or arc depending on length of sine bar and precision of gauge blocks in setup. Attachment installs quickly and easily on almost any type of lathe or mill. Requires no special clamps or fixtures, and eliminates many trial-and-error measurements. More stable than improvised setups and not jarred out of position readily.

  1. Machine-Tool Technology Instructor's Sourcebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tammer, Anthony M.

    This document lists and annotates commercial and noncommercial resources pertaining to machine-tool technology. Following an introduction that explains how the document came to be written, the subjects of succeeding chapters are (1) periodicals; (2) associations; (3) audiovisual resources, including a subject index; (4) publishers, including a…

  2. A Real-Time Tool Positioning Sensor for Machine-Tools

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Antonio Ramon Jimenez; Rosas, Jorge Guevara; Granja, Fernando Seco; Honorato, Jose Carlos Prieto; Taboada, Jose Juan Esteve; Serrano, Vicente Mico; Jimenez, Teresa Molina

    2009-01-01

    In machining, natural oscillations, and elastic, gravitational or temperature deformations, are still a problem to guarantee the quality of fabricated parts. In this paper we present an optical measurement system designed to track and localize in 3D a reference retro-reflector close to the machine-tool's drill. The complete system and its components are described in detail. Several tests, some static (including impacts and rotations) and others dynamic (by executing linear and circular trajectories), were performed on two different machine tools. It has been integrated, for the first time, a laser tracking system into the position control loop of a machine-tool. Results indicate that oscillations and deformations close to the tool can be estimated with micrometric resolution and a bandwidth from 0 to more than 100 Hz. Therefore this sensor opens the possibility for on-line compensation of oscillations and deformations. PMID:22408472

  3. Machine tool accuracy characterization workshops. Final report, May 5, 1992--November 5 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-06

    The ability to assess the accuracy of machine tools is required by both tool builders and users. Builders must have this ability in order to predict the accuracy capability of a machine tool for different part geometry`s, to provide verifiable accuracy information for sales purposes, and to locate error sources for maintenance, troubleshooting, and design enhancement. Users require the same ability in order to make intelligent choices in selecting or procuring machine tools, to predict component manufacturing accuracy, and to perform maintenance and troubleshooting. In both instances, the ability to fully evaluate the accuracy capabilities of a machine tool and the source of its limitations is essential for using the tool to its maximum accuracy and productivity potential. This project was designed to transfer expertise in modern machine tool accuracy testing methods from LLNL to US industry, and to educate users on the use and application of emerging standards for machine tool performance testing.

  4. MOD Tool (Microwave Optics Design Tool)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Daniel S.; Borgioli, Andrea; Cwik, Tom; Fu, Chuigang; Imbriale, William A.; Jamnejad, Vahraz; Springer, Paul L.

    1999-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is currently designing and building a number of instruments that operate in the microwave and millimeter-wave bands. These include MIRO (Microwave Instrument for the Rosetta Orbiter), MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder), and IMAS (Integrated Multispectral Atmospheric Sounder). These instruments must be designed and built to meet key design criteria (e.g., beamwidth, gain, pointing) obtained from the scientific goals for the instrument. These criteria are frequently functions of the operating environment (both thermal and mechanical). To design and build instruments which meet these criteria, it is essential to be able to model the instrument in its environments. Currently, a number of modeling tools exist. Commonly used tools at JPL include: FEMAP (meshing), NASTRAN (structural modeling), TRASYS and SINDA (thermal modeling), MACOS/IMOS (optical modeling), and POPO (physical optics modeling). Each of these tools is used by an analyst, who models the instrument in one discipline. The analyst then provides the results of this modeling to another analyst, who continues the overall modeling in another discipline. There is a large reengineering task in place at JPL to automate and speed-up the structural and thermal modeling disciplines, which does not include MOD Tool. The focus of MOD Tool (and of this paper) is in the fields unique to microwave and millimeter-wave instrument design. These include initial design and analysis of the instrument without thermal or structural loads, the automation of the transfer of this design to a high-end CAD tool, and the analysis of the structurally deformed instrument (due to structural and/or thermal loads). MOD Tool is a distributed tool, with a database of design information residing on a server, physical optics analysis being performed on a variety of supercomputer platforms, and a graphical user interface (GUI) residing on the user's desktop computer. The MOD Tool client is being developed using Tcl

  5. An investigation of chatter and tool wear when machining titanium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutherland, I. A.

    1974-01-01

    The low thermal conductivity of titanium, together with the low contact area between chip and tool and the unusually high chip velocities, gives rise to high tool tip temperatures and accelerated tool wear. Machining speeds have to be considerably reduced to avoid these high temperatures with a consequential loss of productivity. Restoring this lost productivity involves increasing other machining variables, such as feed and depth-of-cut, and can lead to another machining problem commonly known as chatter. This work is to acquaint users with these problems, to examine the variables that may be encountered when machining a material like titanium, and to advise the machine tool user on how to maximize the output from the machines and tooling available to him. Recommendations are made on ways of improving tolerances, reducing machine tool instability or chatter, and improving productivity. New tool materials, tool coatings, and coolants are reviewed and their relevance examined when machining titanium.

  6. Automatic tool path generation for finish machining

    SciTech Connect

    Kwok, Kwan S.; Loucks, C.S.; Driessen, B.J.

    1997-03-01

    A system for automatic tool path generation was developed at Sandia National Laboratories for finish machining operations. The system consists of a commercially available 5-axis milling machine controlled by Sandia developed software. This system was used to remove overspray on cast turbine blades. A laser-based, structured-light sensor, mounted on a tool holder, is used to collect 3D data points around the surface of the turbine blade. Using the digitized model of the blade, a tool path is generated which will drive a 0.375 inch diameter CBN grinding pin around the tip of the blade. A fuzzified digital filter was developed to properly eliminate false sensor readings caused by burrs, holes and overspray. The digital filter was found to successfully generate the correct tool path for a blade with intentionally scanned holes and defects. The fuzzified filter improved the computation efficiency by a factor of 25. For application to general parts, an adaptive scanning algorithm was developed and presented with simulation results. A right pyramid and an ellipsoid were scanned successfully with the adaptive algorithm.

  7. Analytical design of intelligent machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saridis, George N.; Valavanis, Kimon P.

    1987-01-01

    The problem of designing 'intelligent machines' to operate in uncertain environments with minimum supervision or interaction with a human operator is examined. The structure of an 'intelligent machine' is defined to be the structure of a Hierarchically Intelligent Control System, composed of three levels hierarchically ordered according to the principle of 'increasing precision with decreasing intelligence', namely: the organizational level, performing general information processing tasks in association with a long-term memory; the coordination level, dealing with specific information processing tasks with a short-term memory; and the control level, which performs the execution of various tasks through hardware using feedback control methods. The behavior of such a machine may be managed by controls with special considerations and its 'intelligence' is directly related to the derivation of a compatible measure that associates the intelligence of the higher levels with the concept of entropy, which is a sufficient analytic measure that unifies the treatment of all the levels of an 'intelligent machine' as the mathematical problem of finding the right sequence of internal decisions and controls for a system structured in the order of intelligence and inverse order of precision such that it minimizes its total entropy. A case study on the automatic maintenance of a nuclear plant illustrates the proposed approach.

  8. Web-based machine tool condition monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimi, Morteza; Victory, J. L.

    2000-12-01

    This paper looks at the advantages of using the Internet, as the basis for the implementation of low-cost condition monitoring systems, in the manufacturing industry. A model based condition monitoring system, is presented where a number of machining stations dispersed at different physical locations can be inspected via Internet access and the signals from the process analyzed in a dedicated condition monitoring center. Incentive for the new approach to the system health monitoring, logging and surveillance are presented. These extend into advantages of using model-based techniques and the need for an appropriate mathematical model of the machine tool. Finally, the data acquisition and communication system to be used in this application for Internet access will be explained.

  9. Coordinate measurement machines as an alignment tool

    SciTech Connect

    Wand, B.T.

    1991-03-01

    In February of 1990 the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) purchased a LEITZ PM 12-10-6 CMM (Coordinate measurement machine). The machine is shared by the Quality Control Team and the Alignment Team. One of the alignment tasks in positioning beamline components in a particle accelerator is to define the component's magnetic centerline relative to external fiducials. This procedure, called fiducialization, is critical to the overall positioning tolerance of a magnet. It involves the definition of the magnetic center line with respect to the mechanical centerline and the transfer of the mechanical centerline to the external fiducials. To perform the latter a magnet coordinate system has to be established. This means defining an origin and the three rotation angles of the magnet. The datum definition can be done by either optical tooling techniques or with a CMM. As optical tooling measurements are very time consuming, not automated and are prone to errors, it is desirable to use the CMM fiducialization method instead. The establishment of a magnet coordinate system based on the mechanical center and the transfer to external fiducials will be discussed and presented with 2 examples from the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC). 7 figs.

  10. Universal Tool Grinder Operator Instructor's Guide. Part of Single-Tool Skills Program Machine Industries Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Div. of Curriculum Development.

    The document is an instructor's guide for a course on universal tool grinder operation. The course is designed to train people in making complicated machine setups and precision in the grinding operations and, although intended primarily for adult learners, it can be adapted for high school use. The guide is divided into three parts: (1) the…

  11. 13. TOOL ROOM SHOWING W. ROBERTSON MACHINE & FOUNDRY CO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. TOOL ROOM SHOWING W. ROBERTSON MACHINE & FOUNDRY CO. NO. 5 POWER HACKSAW (FOREGROUND) AND WELLS METAL BAND SAW (BACKGROUND). VIEW SOUTHEAST - Oldman Boiler Works, Office/Machine Shop, 32 Illinois Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  12. Interpolator for numerically controlled machine tools

    DOEpatents

    Bowers, Gary L.; Davenport, Clyde M.; Stephens, Albert E.

    1976-01-01

    A digital differential analyzer circuit is provided that depending on the embodiment chosen can carry out linear, parabolic, circular or cubic interpolation. In the embodiment for parabolic interpolations, the circuit provides pulse trains for the X and Y slide motors of a two-axis machine to effect tool motion along a parabolic path. The pulse trains are generated by the circuit in such a way that parabolic tool motion is obtained from information contained in only one block of binary input data. A part contour may be approximated by one or more parabolic arcs. Acceleration and initial velocity values from a data block are set in fixed bit size registers for each axis separately but simultaneously and the values are integrated to obtain the movement along the respective axis as a function of time. Integration is performed by continual addition at a specified rate of an integrand value stored in one register to the remainder temporarily stored in another identical size register. Overflows from the addition process are indicative of the integral. The overflow output pulses from the second integration may be applied to motors which position the respective machine slides according to a parabolic motion in time to produce a parabolic machine tool motion in space. An additional register for each axis is provided in the circuit to allow "floating" of the radix points of the integrand registers and the velocity increment to improve position accuracy and to reduce errors encountered when the acceleration integrand magnitudes are small when compared to the velocity integrands. A divider circuit is provided in the output of the circuit to smooth the output pulse spacing and prevent motor stall, because the overflow pulses produced in the binary addition process are spaced unevenly in time. The divider has the effect of passing only every nth motor drive pulse, with n being specifiable. The circuit inputs (integrands, rates, etc.) are scaled to give exactly n times the

  13. Plans and resources required for a computer numerically controlled machine tool tester

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, L.E.; Burleson, R.R.; McCue, H.K.; Pomernacki, C.L.; Mansfield, A.R.; Childs, J.J.

    1982-07-19

    Precision computer numerically controlled (CNC) machine tools present unique and especially difficult problems in the areas of qualification and fault isolation. In this report, we examine and classify these problems, discuss methods to resolve them effectively, and present estimates of the resources needed to design and build a CNC/machine tool tester.

  14. OOTW Force Design Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, R.E.; Hartley, D.S.III; Packard, S.L.

    1999-05-01

    This report documents refined requirements for tools to aid the process of force design in Operations Other Than War (OOTWs). It recommends actions for the creation of one tool and work on other tools relating to mission planning. It also identifies the governmental agencies and commands with interests in each tool, from whom should come the user advisory groups overseeing the respective tool development activities. The understanding of OOTWs and their analytical support requirements has matured to the point where action can be taken in three areas: force design, collaborative analysis, and impact analysis. While the nature of the action and the length of time before complete results can be expected depends on the area, in each case the action should begin immediately. Force design for OOTWs is not a technically difficult process. Like force design for combat operations, it is a process of matching the capabilities of forces against the specified and implied tasks of the operation, considering the constraints of logistics, transport and force availabilities. However, there is a critical difference that restricts the usefulness of combat force design tools for OOTWs: the combat tools are built to infer non-combat capability requirements from combat capability requirements and cannot reverse the direction of the inference, as is required for OOTWs. Recently, OOTWs have played a larger role in force assessment, system effectiveness and tradeoff analysis, and concept and doctrine development and analysis. In the first Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR), each of the Services created its own OOTW force design tool. Unfortunately, the tools address different parts of the problem and do not coordinate the use of competing capabilities. These tools satisfied the immediate requirements of the QDR, but do not provide a long-term cost-effective solution.

  15. Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST). Common Ground: Toward a Standards-Based Training System for the U.S. Machine Tool and Metal Related Industries. Volume 10: Computer-Aided Drafting & Design, of a 15-Volume Set of Skill Standards and Curriculum Training Materials for the Precision Manufacturing Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Technical Coll., Waco.

    This document is intended to help education and training institutions deliver the Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST) curriculum to a variety of individuals and organizations. MAST consists of industry-specific skill standards and model curricula for 15 occupational specialty areas within the U.S. machine tool and metals-related…

  16. Experimental investigation of active machine tool vibration control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas, J.; Liang, Chen; Geng, Zheng J.

    1996-05-01

    The successful vibration reduction of machine tools during machining process can improve productivity, increase quality, and reduce tool wear. This paper will present our initial investigation in the application of smart material technologies in machine tool vibration control using magnetostrictive actuators and electrorheological elastomer dampers on an industrial Sheldon horizontal lathe. The dynamics of the machining process are first studied, which reveals the complexity in the machine tool vibration response and the challenge to the active control techniques. The active control experiment shows encouraging results. The use of electrorheological elastomer damping device for active/passive vibration control provides significant vibration reduction in the high frequency range and great improvement in the workpiece surface finishing. The research presented in this paper demonstrates that the combination of active and active/passive vibration control techniques is very promising for successful machine tool vibration control.

  17. Design and performance of a small precision CNC turning machine

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, R.R.; Thompson, D.C.

    1986-02-26

    This paper describes the design of a CNC turning machine that is capable of machining workpieces up to 100 mm in diameter with a high contour accuracy and a very low surface roughness. Two nearly identical machines have been built and put into operation using this design, one for serial parts manufacture and the other for research into improving the accuracy of single-point machining; information based on this operational experience is also presented. The first machine has demonstrated an accuracy of 0.1 ..mu..m peak-to-valley on contoured workpieces, while the second machine has produced surface roughnesses of 1 nm rms in flat facing of electroless nickel with a diamond tool.

  18. An Expert Machine Tools Selection System for Turning Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, C. F.; Khalil, S. N.; Karjanto, J.; Wahidin, L. S.; Chen, W.; Rauterberg, G. W. M.

    2015-09-01

    The turning machining process is an important process in the manufacturing industry. It is important to select the right tool for the turning process so that the manufacturing cost will be decreased. The main objective of this research is to select the most suitable machine tools with respect to user input requirement. The selection criteria are based on rule based expert system and multi-criteria weighted average method. The developed system consists of Knowledge Acquisition Module, Machine Tool Selection Module, User Interface Module and Help Module. The system capable of selecting the most suitable machine along with its full specification and ranks the machines based on criteria weighted. The main benefits from using the system is to reduce the complexity in the decision making for selecting the most appropriate machine tools to suit one requirement in the turning process for manufacturing industry.

  19. Market for multiaxis laser machine tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ream, Stanley L.

    1991-03-01

    While it's true that this is an exciting topic, it niay be more exciting than profitable, but it certainly has captured the attention of a lot of us laser folks, and it keeps growing almost because it wants to. First of all let me comment briefly with a word from our sponsor that GE Fanuc is one of the several ways the Fanuc laser product gets into the United States. We market it, GM Fanuc also markets it, and of course it shows up on Japanese machine tool built products. The information in this little presentation came from discussions with you folks wherever possible. In some cases I was unable to make contact with the horse's mouth as it were, but we got roundabout information so it's not gospel, but it's close. We've also had some updated information at the show here updated rumors maybe that suggest that some of the numbers may be high or low. I think in the aggregate it's not too far off.

  20. Information Model for Machine-Tool-Performance Tests

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Y. Tina; Soons, Johannes A.; Donmez, M. Alkan

    2001-01-01

    This report specifies an information model of machine-tool-performance tests in the EXPRESS [1] language. The information model provides a mechanism for describing the properties and results of machine-tool-performance tests. The objective of the information model is a standardized, computer-interpretable representation that allows for efficient archiving and exchange of performance test data throughout the life cycle of the machine. The report also demonstrates the implementation of the information model using three different implementation methods.

  1. Designing a leaner, cleaner machine

    SciTech Connect

    Valenti, M.

    1997-05-01

    With factories cutting back on emissions and municipalities stepping up recycling efforts, environmentalists have cast automobiles as the primary pollution culprit. A concept car called the XCAR, which incorporates a fuel-efficient, low-pollution engine from Australia, may one day rehabilitate automobiles` bad environmental reputation. The XCAR is being designed by XCORP in Malibu, Calif. The company was founded in 1991 to transfer cutting-edge aerospace and defense technologies to business and manufacturing applications. Their goals are to design a next-generation automobile that will use less energy; provide a higher degree of safety by being more impact-resistant; reduce stress on roads, highways, and bridges by its lighter weight, thus extending the life of infrastructure; and be easily recycled and repaired. The company is developing a roadster, a subcompact coupe, and a sports/utility version of the XCAR for American civilian use, as well as a general-purpose version for the US military and a multipurpose car for developing nations. The design of the XCAR includes molded thermoplastic panels, which reduces the vehicle`s overall weight. Thermoplastic also lowers the energy needed to stamp steel parts by eliminating the by-products generated from spot-welding, drilling, and riveting, such as welding fumes and spent machining oils. Using large, molded thermoplastic/aluminum sections for much of the chassis and body assemblies will also reduce the number of parts required by a third compared to conventional autos. In addition, paint application and its attendant solvents are eliminated because the color is molded into the plastic body.

  2. Application of accelerated tool life tests to machining of titanium

    SciTech Connect

    Stagner, R.T.

    1980-09-01

    The tool life of several commercial C-2 grade cutting tools used in machining titanium was estimated using two experimental techniques, the quick facing test and the multipass facing test. Comparisons among the tools tested were made statistically by analyzing differences in regression equations derived from test data. Tool life end points were determined by operator judgement, tool force analysis, and tool wear measurement. Of the ten tools tested, nine had the same life under the test conditions.

  3. New Tools for Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halliburton, Cal; Roza, Victoria

    2006-01-01

    Technology educators are constantly in search of new tools and methods to enhance the education of their students. This article is an excerpt from a longer article published in "The Technology Teacher" that introduced the technology education community to a research- and knowledge-based methodology for design--invention and innovation. This…

  4. Design and Testing of a Friction Stir Processing Machine for Laboratory Research

    SciTech Connect

    Karen S. Miller; Rodney J. Bitsoi; Eric D. Larsen; Herschel B. Smartt

    2006-08-01

    This presentation describes the design, fabrication and testing of a friction stir processing machine. The machine is intended to be a flexible research tool for a broad range of friction stir processing studies. The machine design also addresses the need for an affordable, robust design for general laboratory use.

  5. Graphite fiber reinforced structure for supporting machine tools

    DOEpatents

    Knight, Jr., Charles E.; Kovach, Louis; Hurst, John S.

    1978-01-01

    Machine tools utilized in precision machine operations require tool support structures which exhibit minimal deflection, thermal expansion and vibration characteristics. The tool support structure of the present invention is a graphite fiber reinforced composite in which layers of the graphite fibers or yarn are disposed in a 0/90.degree. pattern and bonded together with an epoxy resin. The finished composite possesses a low coefficient of thermal expansion and a substantially greater elastic modulus, stiffness-to-weight ratio, and damping factor than a conventional steel tool support utilized in similar machining operations.

  6. Study on machining mechanism of nanotwinned CBN cutting tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Junyun; Jin, Tianye; Wang, Jinhu; Zhao, Qingliang; Lu, Ling

    2014-08-01

    The latest developed nanotwinned cubic boron nitride (nt-CBN) with isotropic nano-sized microstructure possesses an extremely high hardness (~100GPa Hv), very large fracture toughness (>12Mpa m1/2) and excellent high temperature stability. Thus nt-CBN is a promising tool material to realize ultra-precision cutting of hardened steel which is widely used in mold insert of optical and opto-electrical mass products. In view of its hard machinability, the machining mechanism is studied in this paper. Three feasible methods of mechanical lapping, laser machining as well as ion beam sputtering are applied to process nt-CBN. The results indicate that among the three kinds of methods, mechanical lapping not only can achieve the highest machining accuracy because of material removing at ductile mode completely, but also has satisfactory high material removal rate. Thus mechanical lapping method is appropriate to finish machining of nt-CBN cutting tool. Moreover, laser machining method can be only used in contour machining or rough machining of cutting tool as worse machined surface quality. With regard to ion beam sputtering method, the material remove rate is too low in spite of high machining accuracy. Additionally, no phase transition was found in any machining process of nt-CBN.

  7. Modeling of cumulative tool wear in machining metal matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Hung, N.P.; Tan, V.K.; Oon, B.E.

    1995-12-31

    Metal matrix composites (MMCs) are notoriously known for their low machinability because of the abrasive and brittle reinforcement. Although a near-net-shape product could be produced, finish machining is still required for the final shape and dimension. The classical Taylor`s tool life equation that relates tool life and cutting conditions has been traditionally used to study machinability. The turning operation is commonly used to investigate the machinability of a material; tedious and costly milling experiments have to be performed separately; while a facing test is not applicable for the Taylor`s model since the facing speed varies as the tool moves radially. Collecting intensive machining data for MMCs is often difficult because of the constraints on size, cost of the material, and the availability of sophisticated machine tools. A more flexible model and machinability testing technique are, therefore, sought. This study presents and verifies new models for turning, facing, and milling operations. Different cutting conditions were utilized to assess the machinability of MMCs reinforced with silicon carbide or alumina particles. Experimental data show that tool wear does not depend on the order of different cutting speeds since abrasion is the main wear mechanism. Correlation between data for turning, milling, and facing is presented. It is more economical to rank machinability using data for facing and then to convert the data for turning and milling, if required. Subsurface damages such as work-hardened and cracked matrix alloy, and fractured and delaminated particles are discussed.

  8. Influence of Tool Balancing in High Speed Machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bašovská, Klaudia; Peterka, Jozef

    2014-12-01

    The high speed machining (HSM) is now considered as one of the key manufacturing technologies for higher throughput and productivity. HSM used higher rotational speed of the spindle (40,000 min-1 and higher). With increasing high speed spindle rotations raises a number of dynamic forces. Even a small mass unbalance in the spindle and tooling generates tool vibration. Tool vibration shortens tool life and lowers the quality of the machined surface. It is necessary to minimize this vibration by balancing tool and tool holder. The balancing process improves the mass distribution of a cutting tool and its holder, allowing the combination of the two to rotate with the minimum amount of unbalanced centrifugal forces. Machining with balanced tool will provide better surface quality, accuracy and less tool and machine wear. In this study is focused on unbalance cutting tools, definitions, balancing techniques, sources, effects, processes and machineries. The aim of this article was to examine the relationship between unbalance and tool holders used in high speed metalworking machine tools

  9. Study of on-machine error identification and compensation methods for micro machine tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shih-Ming; Yu, Han-Jen; Lee, Chun-Yi; Chiu, Hung-Sheng

    2016-08-01

    Micro machining plays an important role in the manufacturing of miniature products which are made of various materials with complex 3D shapes and tight machining tolerance. To further improve the accuracy of a micro machining process without increasing the manufacturing cost of a micro machine tool, an effective machining error measurement method and a software-based compensation method are essential. To avoid introducing additional errors caused by the re-installment of the workpiece, the measurement and compensation method should be on-machine conducted. In addition, because the contour of a miniature workpiece machined with a micro machining process is very tiny, the measurement method should be non-contact. By integrating the image re-constructive method, camera pixel correction, coordinate transformation, the error identification algorithm, and trajectory auto-correction method, a vision-based error measurement and compensation method that can on-machine inspect the micro machining errors and automatically generate an error-corrected numerical control (NC) program for error compensation was developed in this study. With the use of the Canny edge detection algorithm and camera pixel calibration, the edges of the contour of a machined workpiece were identified and used to re-construct the actual contour of the work piece. The actual contour was then mapped to the theoretical contour to identify the actual cutting points and compute the machining errors. With the use of a moving matching window and calculation of the similarity between the actual and theoretical contour, the errors between the actual cutting points and theoretical cutting points were calculated and used to correct the NC program. With the use of the error-corrected NC program, the accuracy of a micro machining process can be effectively improved. To prove the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed methods, micro-milling experiments on a micro machine tool were conducted, and the results

  10. Fluctuation as a tool of biological molecular machines.

    PubMed

    Yanagida, Toshio

    2008-01-01

    The mechanism for biological molecular machines is different from that of man-made ones. Recently single molecule measurements and other experiments have revealed unique operations where biological molecular machines exploit thermal fluctuation in response to small inputs of energy or signals to achieve their function. Understanding and applying this mechanism to engineering offers new artificial machine designs. PMID:18583025

  11. Volumetric Verification of Multiaxis Machine Tool Using Laser Tracker

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar, Juan José

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to present a method of volumetric verification in machine tools with linear and rotary axes using a laser tracker. Beyond a method for a particular machine, it presents a methodology that can be used in any machine type. Along this paper, the schema and kinematic model of a machine with three axes of movement, two linear and one rotational axes, including the measurement system and the nominal rotation matrix of the rotational axis are presented. Using this, the machine tool volumetric error is obtained and nonlinear optimization techniques are employed to improve the accuracy of the machine tool. The verification provides a mathematical, not physical, compensation, in less time than other methods of verification by means of the indirect measurement of geometric errors of the machine from the linear and rotary axes. This paper presents an extensive study about the appropriateness and drawbacks of the regression function employed depending on the types of movement of the axes of any machine. In the same way, strengths and weaknesses of measurement methods and optimization techniques depending on the space available to place the measurement system are presented. These studies provide the most appropriate strategies to verify each machine tool taking into consideration its configuration and its available work space. PMID:25202744

  12. On Electro Discharge Machining of Inconel 718 with Hollow Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajesha, S.; Sharma, A. K.; Kumar, Pradeep

    2012-06-01

    Inconel 718 is a nickel-based alloy designed for high yield, tensile, and creep-rupture properties. This alloy has been widely used in jet engines and high-speed airframe parts in aeronautic application. In this study, electric discharge machining (EDM) process was used for machining commercially available Inconel 718. A copper electrode with 99.9% purity having tubular cross section was employed to machine holes of 20 mm height and 12 mm diameter on Inconel 718 workpieces. Experiments were planned using response surface methodology (RSM). Effects of five major process parameters—pulse current, duty factor, sensitivity control, gap control, and flushing pressure on the process responses—material removal rate (MRR) and surface roughness (SR) have been discussed. Mathematical models for MRR and SR have been developed using analysis of variance. Influences of process parameters on tool wear and tool geometry have been presented with the help of scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrographs. Analysis shows significant interaction effect of pulse current and duty factor on MRR yielding a wide range from 14.4 to 22.6 mm3/min, while pulse current remains the most contributing factor with approximate changes in the MRR and SR of 48 and 37%, respectively, corresponding to the extreme values considered. Interactions of duty factor and flushing pressure yield a minimum surface roughness of 6.2 μm. The thickness of the sputtered layer and the crack length were found to be functions of pulse current. The hollow tool gets worn out on both the outer and the inner edges owing to spark erosion as well as abrasion due to flow of debris.

  13. Tool simplifies machining of pipe ends for precision welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matus, S. T.

    1969-01-01

    Single tool prepares a pipe end for precision welding by simultaneously performing internal machining, end facing, and bevel cutting to specification standards. The machining operation requires only one milling adjustment, can be performed quickly, and produces the high quality pipe-end configurations required to ensure precision-welded joints.

  14. Job Grading Standard for Machine Tool Operator, WG-3431.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Civil Service Commission, Washington, DC. Bureau of Policies and Standards.

    The standard covers nonsupervisory work involved in the set up, adjustment, and operation of conventional machine tools to perform machining operations in the manufacture and repair of castings, forgings, or parts from raw stock made of various metals, metal alloys, and other materials. A general description of the job at both the WG-8 and WG-9…

  15. 27. View within machine room showing water tank, tool chest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. View within machine room showing water tank, tool chest and oil/grease cans used for maintenance. (Nov. 25, 1988) - University Heights Bridge, Spanning Harlem River at 207th Street & West Harlem Road, New York County, NY

  16. Light source design for machine vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieczka, Eric J.; Harding, Kevin G.

    1992-03-01

    There is a lack of commercially available white light sources for machine vision applications. Current commercial sources are typically expensive and primarily designed for workbench use. Because of their benchtop design, these light sources cannot be easily integrated into the inspection system. In most cases a light source must be custom designed and built to suit the needs of the particular machine vision application. The materials being inspected can vary from highly specular to highly diffuse, thus requiring a broad range of illumination levels. Other issues important in machine vision light sources include efficiency, light divergence, spectral content, source size, and packaging. This paper discusses the issues that must be overcome when designing a light source for machine vision applications, and describes the work done by ITI to produce an efficient white light source with computer controlled illumination level.

  17. Reducing tool wear when machining austenitic stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Magee, J.H.; Kosa, T.

    1998-07-01

    Austenitic stainless steels are considered more difficult to machine than carbon steels due to their high work hardening rate, large spread between yield and ultimate tensile strength, high toughness and ductility, and low thermal conductivity. These characteristics can result in a built-up edge or excessive tool wear during machining, especially when the cutting speed is too high. The practical solution is to lower the cutting speed until tool life reaches an acceptable level. However, lower machining speed negatively impacts productivity. Thus, in order to overcome tool wear at relatively high machining speeds for these alloys, on-going research is being performed to improve cutting fluids, develop more wear-resistant tools, and to modify stainless steels to make them less likely to cause tool wear. This paper discusses compositional modifications to the two most commonly machined austenitic stainless steels (Type 303 and 304) which reduced their susceptibility to tool wear, and allowed these grades to be machined at higher cutting speeds.

  18. Machine Tool Technology. Automatic Screw Machine Troubleshooting & Set-Up Training Outlines [and] Basic Operator's Skills Set List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anoka-Hennepin Technical Coll., Minneapolis, MN.

    This set of two training outlines and one basic skills set list are designed for a machine tool technology program developed during a project to retrain defense industry workers at risk of job loss or dislocation because of conversion of the defense industry. The first troubleshooting training outline lists the categories of problems that develop…

  19. Mississippi Curriculum Framework for Machine Tool Operation/Machine Shop (Program CIP: 48.0503--Machine Shop Assistant). Secondary Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.

    This document, which reflects Mississippi's statutory requirement that instructional programs be based on core curricula and performance-based assessment, contains outlines of the instructional units required in local instructional management plans and daily lesson plans for machine tool operation/machine shop I and II. Presented first are a…

  20. Toward a metrology for precision-machine-tool control systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pomernacki, C.L.; McCue, H.K.; Newton, L.E.

    1982-07-20

    The difficulty of determining the source of an error in the performance of the control system of a computer numerically controlled (CNC) precision machine tool is discussed and recommendations are made for error isolation using the Machine Control System Meterology Tree. These recommendations refer to types of tests for specific errors and to a possible architecture for a CNC performance tester. It is concluded that there is a need for both a control system metrology and for establishing standards of performance and testing methods for precision machine tool control systems. (LCL)

  1. Tool and Fixture Design

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Mark W.

    2015-07-28

    In a manufacturing process, a need is identified and a product is created to fill this need. While design and engineering of the final product is important, the tools and fixtures that aid in the creation of the final product are just as important, if not more so. Power supplies assembled at the TA-55 PF-5 have been designed by an excellent engineering team. The task in PF-5 now is to ensure that all steps of the assembly and manufacturing process can be completed safely, reliably, and in a quality repeatable manner. One of these process steps involves soldering fine wires to an electrical connector. During the process development phase, the method of soldering included placing the power supply in a vice in order to manipulate it into a position conducive to soldering. This method is unacceptable from a reliability, repeatability, and ergonomic standpoint. To combat these issues, a fixture was designed to replace the current method. To do so, a twelve step engineering design process was used to create the fixture that would provide a solution to a multitude of problems, and increase the safety and efficiency of production.

  2. Diamond tool machining of materials which react with diamond

    DOEpatents

    Lundin, Ralph L.; Stewart, Delbert D.; Evans, Christopher J.

    1992-01-01

    Apparatus for the diamond machining of materials which detrimentally react with diamond cutting tools in which the cutting tool and the workpiece are chilled to very low temperatures. This chilling halts or retards the chemical reaction between the workpiece and the diamond cutting tool so that wear rates of the diamond tool on previously detrimental materials are comparable with the diamond turning of materials which do not react with diamond.

  3. Diamond tool machining of materials which react with diamond

    DOEpatents

    Lundin, R.L.; Stewart, D.D.; Evans, C.J.

    1992-04-14

    An apparatus is described for the diamond machining of materials which detrimentally react with diamond cutting tools in which the cutting tool and the workpiece are chilled to very low temperatures. This chilling halts or retards the chemical reaction between the workpiece and the diamond cutting tool so that wear rates of the diamond tool on previously detrimental materials are comparable with the diamond turning of materials which do not react with diamond. 1 figs.

  4. A Machine Tool Controller using Cascaded Servo Loops and Multiple Feedback Sensors per Axis

    SciTech Connect

    Weinert, G F; Hopkins, D J; Wulff, T A

    2004-03-19

    In the past, several of LLNL precision machine tools have been built with custom in-house designed machine tool controllers (CNC). In addition, many of these controllers have reached the end of their maintainable lifetime, limit future machine application enhancements, have poor operator interfaces and are a potential single point of failure for the machine tool. There have been attempts to replace some of these custom controllers with commercial controller products, unfortunately, this has occurred with only limited success. Many commercial machine tool controllers have the following undesirable characteristics, a closed architecture (use as the manufacturer intended and not as LLNL would desire), allow only a single feedback device per machine axis and have limited servo axis compensation calculations. Technological improvements in recent years have allowed for the development of some commercial machine tool controllers that are more open in their architecture and have the power to solve some of these limitations. In this paper, we exploit the capabilities of one of these controllers to allow it to process multiple feedback sensors for tool tip calculations in real time and to extend the servo compensation capabilities by cascading several standard motor compensation loops.

  5. NUMERICAL CONTROL OF MACHINE TOOLS, AN INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bureau of Industrial Education.

    IN A SUMMER WORKSHOP, JUNIOR COLLEGE INSTRUCTORS AND INDUSTRIAL SUPERVISORS DEVELOPED THIS GUIDE FOR TEACHER USE IN A 3-SEMESTER-HOUR COURSE AT THE JUNIOR COLLEGE LEVEL. THE COURSE OBJECTIVES ARE TO (1) UPGRADE JOURNEYMEN IN MACHINE TOOL OPERATION, MAINTENANCE, AND TOOLING, AND (2) ACQUAINT MANUFACTURING, SUPERVISORY, PLANNING, AND MAINTENANCE…

  6. Hard turning micro-machine tool

    DOEpatents

    DeVor, Richard E; Adair, Kurt; Kapoor, Shiv G

    2013-10-22

    A micro-scale apparatus for supporting a tool for hard turning comprises a base, a pivot coupled to the base, an actuator coupled to the base, and at least one member coupled to the actuator at one end and rotatably coupled to the pivot at another end. A tool mount is disposed on the at least one member. The at least one member defines a first lever arm between the pivot and the tool mount, and a second lever arm between the pivot and the actuator. The first lever arm has a length that is less than a length of the second lever arm. The actuator moves the tool mount along an arc.

  7. Process Damping and Cutting Tool Geometry in Machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, C. M.; Sims, N. D.; Turner, S.

    2011-12-01

    Regenerative vibration, or chatter, limits the performance of machining processes. Consequences of chatter include tool wear and poor machined surface finish. Process damping by tool-workpiece contact can reduce chatter effects and improve productivity. Process damping occurs when the flank (also known as the relief face) of the cutting tool makes contact with waves on the workpiece surface, created by chatter motion. Tool edge features can act to increase the damping effect. This paper examines how a tool's edge condition combines with the relief angle to affect process damping. An analytical model of cutting with chatter leads to a two-section curve describing how process damped vibration amplitude changes with surface speed for radiussed tools. The tool edge dominates the process damping effect at the lowest surface speeds, with the flank dominating at higher speeds. A similar curve is then proposed regarding tools with worn edges. Experimental data supports the notion of the two-section curve. A rule of thumb is proposed which could be useful to machine operators, regarding tool wear and process damping. The question is addressed, should a tool of a given geometry, used for a given application, be considered as sharp, radiussed or worn regarding process damping.

  8. Multi-sensor Doppler radar for machine tool collision detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wächter, T. J.; Siart, U.; Eibert, T. F.; Bonerz, S.

    2014-11-01

    Machine damage due to tool collisions is a widespread issue in milling production. These collisions are typically caused by human errors. A solution for this problem is proposed based on a low-complexity 24 GHz continuous wave (CW) radar system. The developed monitoring system is able to detect moving objects by evaluating the Doppler shift. It combines incoherent information from several spatially distributed Doppler sensors and estimates the distance between an object and the sensors. The specially designed compact prototype contains up to five radar sensor modules and amplifiers yet fits into the limited available space. In this first approach we concentrate on the Doppler-based positioning of a single moving target. The recorded signals are preprocessed in order to remove noise and interference from the machinery hall. We conducted and processed system measurements with this prototype. The Doppler frequency estimation and the object position obtained after signal conditioning and processing with the developed algorithm were in good agreement with the reference coordinates provided by the machine's control unit.

  9. 25. VIEW OF THE MACHINE TOOL LAYOUT IN ROOMS 244 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. VIEW OF THE MACHINE TOOL LAYOUT IN ROOMS 244 AND 296. MACHINES WERE USED FOR STAINLESS STEEL FABRICATION (THE J-LINE). THE ORIGINAL DRAWING HAS BEEN ARCHIVED ON MICROFILM. THE DRAWING WAS REPRODUCED AT THE BEST QUALITY POSSIBLE. LETTERS AND NUMBERS IN THE CIRCLES INDICATE FOOTER AND/OR COLUMN LOCATIONS. - Rocky Flats Plant, General Manufacturing, Support, Records-Central Computing, Southern portion of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  10. Method for producing hard-surfaced tools and machine components

    DOEpatents

    McHargue, Carl J.

    1985-01-01

    In one aspect, the invention comprises a method for producing tools and machine components having superhard crystalline-ceramic work surfaces. Broadly, the method comprises two steps: A tool or machine component having a ceramic near-surface region is mounted in ion-implantation apparatus. The region then is implanted with metal ions to form, in the region, a metastable alloy of the ions and said ceramic. The region containing the alloy is characterized by a significant increase in hardness properties, such as microhardness, fracture-toughness, and/or scratch-resistance. The resulting improved article has good thermal stability at temperatures characteristic of typical tool and machine-component uses. The method is relatively simple and reproducible.

  11. Method for producing hard-surfaced tools and machine components

    DOEpatents

    McHargue, C.J.

    1981-10-21

    In one aspect, the invention comprises a method for producing tools and machine components having superhard crystalline-ceramic work surfaces. Broadly, the method comprises two steps: a tool or machine component having a ceramic near-surface region is mounted in ion-implantation apparatus. The region then is implanted with metal ions to form, in the region, a metastable alloy of the ions and said ceramic. The region containing the alloy is characterized by a significant increase in hardness properties, such as microhardness, fracture-toughness, and/or scratch-resistance. The resulting improved article has good thermal stability at temperatures characteristic of typical tool and machine-component uses. The method is relatively simple and reproducible.

  12. Enhanced design for a miniature Stirling machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagawa, Noboro; Araoka, Katsumasa; Otaka, Toshio

    A small size engine, SD01 has been developed since 1989. For the purpose of cultivating the advantageous properties of the SD01 engine, its cylindrical cam mechanism was modified. The modification was able to operate the Stirling cycle stably and silently. The modified SD01 coupled with an electric motor was reconstructed as a hermetic cooler. The attractive Stirling cooler was evaluated on the conditions of a cooling mode. Moreover, with an aid of the enhanced design concept for the SD01 machine, a small size Vuilleumier machine for heat pump applications was designed and constructed.

  13. Fatigue failure and molecular machine design.

    PubMed

    Hess, Henry; Dumont, Emmanuel L P

    2011-06-20

    Sophisticated molecular machines have evolved in nature, and the first synthetic molecular machines have been demonstrated. With our increasing understanding of individual operating cycles, the question of how operation can be sustained over many cycles comes to the forefront. In the design of macroscale machines, performance and lifetime are opposing goals. Similarly, the natural evolution of biological nanomachines, such as myosin motor proteins, is likely constrained by lifetime requirements. Rather than bond rupture at high forces, bond fatigue under repeated small stresses may limit the mechanical performance of molecular machines. Here, the effect of cyclic stresses using single and double bonds as simple examples are discussed. Additionally, it is demonstrated that an increase in lifetime requires a reduction in mechanical load and that molecular engineering design features, such as polyvalent bonds capable of rebinding, can extend the bond lifetime dramatically. A universal scaling law for the force output of motors is extrapolated to the molecular scale to estimate the design space for molecular machines. PMID:21574250

  14. Modelling of Tool Wear and Residual Stress during Machining of AISI H13 Tool Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Outeiro, José C.; Umbrello, Domenico; Pina, José C.; Rizzuti, Stefania

    2007-05-01

    Residual stresses can enhance or impair the ability of a component to withstand loading conditions in service (fatigue, creep, stress corrosion cracking, etc.), depending on their nature: compressive or tensile, respectively. This poses enormous problems in structural assembly as this affects the structural integrity of the whole part. In addition, tool wear issues are of critical importance in manufacturing since these affect component quality, tool life and machining cost. Therefore, prediction and control of both tool wear and the residual stresses in machining are absolutely necessary. In this work, a two-dimensional Finite Element model using an implicit Lagrangian formulation with an automatic remeshing was applied to simulate the orthogonal cutting process of AISI H13 tool steel. To validate such model the predicted and experimentally measured chip geometry, cutting forces, temperatures, tool wear and residual stresses on the machined affected layers were compared. The proposed FE model allowed us to investigate the influence of tool geometry, cutting regime parameters and tool wear on residual stress distribution in the machined surface and subsurface of AISI H13 tool steel. The obtained results permit to conclude that in order to reduce the magnitude of surface residual stresses, the cutting speed should be increased, the uncut chip thickness (or feed) should be reduced and machining with honed tools having large cutting edge radii produce better results than chamfered tools. Moreover, increasing tool wear increases the magnitude of surface residual stresses.

  15. Modelling of Tool Wear and Residual Stress during Machining of AISI H13 Tool Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Outeiro, Jose C.; Pina, Jose C.; Umbrello, Domenico; Rizzuti, Stefania

    2007-05-17

    Residual stresses can enhance or impair the ability of a component to withstand loading conditions in service (fatigue, creep, stress corrosion cracking, etc.), depending on their nature: compressive or tensile, respectively. This poses enormous problems in structural assembly as this affects the structural integrity of the whole part. In addition, tool wear issues are of critical importance in manufacturing since these affect component quality, tool life and machining cost. Therefore, prediction and control of both tool wear and the residual stresses in machining are absolutely necessary. In this work, a two-dimensional Finite Element model using an implicit Lagrangian formulation with an automatic remeshing was applied to simulate the orthogonal cutting process of AISI H13 tool steel. To validate such model the predicted and experimentally measured chip geometry, cutting forces, temperatures, tool wear and residual stresses on the machined affected layers were compared. The proposed FE model allowed us to investigate the influence of tool geometry, cutting regime parameters and tool wear on residual stress distribution in the machined surface and subsurface of AISI H13 tool steel. The obtained results permit to conclude that in order to reduce the magnitude of surface residual stresses, the cutting speed should be increased, the uncut chip thickness (or feed) should be reduced and machining with honed tools having large cutting edge radii produce better results than chamfered tools. Moreover, increasing tool wear increases the magnitude of surface residual stresses.

  16. A Tool for Assessing the Text Legibility of Digital Human Machine Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Roger Lew; Ronald L. Boring; Thomas A. Ulrich

    2015-08-01

    A tool intended to aid qualified professionals in the assessment of the legibility of text presented on a digital display is described. The assessment of legibility is primarily for the purposes of designing and analyzing human machine interfaces in accordance with NUREG-0700 and MIL-STD 1472G. The tool addresses shortcomings of existing guidelines by providing more accurate metrics of text legibility with greater sensitivity to design alternatives.

  17. Behavior of some sealing arrangements for machine tool spindles

    SciTech Connect

    Philpott, M.L.; Colton, M.W.; Cusano, C.

    1995-09-01

    A test stand has been built and instrumented to simulate conditions in the spindle cavity of production machine tools, such as high-speed transfer machines, machining centers, milling machines, etc. The purpose of the simulation is to better understand causes of premature support rolling element bearing failures due to grease degradation and corrosion, from the ingress of coolant vapor. Performance characteristics based on coolant vapor in the test chamber, as measured by relative humidity, chamber temperature and chamber pressure relative to the lab atmosphere were obtained for a radial double-lip seal, labyrinth seal, viscoseal/face seal combination and a mechanical face seal. For the operating conditions considered, the best performance was obtained from the viscoseal/face combination followed by the labyrinth seal. 14 refs., 15 figs.

  18. Educational Resources for the Machine Tool Industry. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Technical Coll. System, Waco.

    This document describes the MASTER (Machine Tool Advanced Skills Educational Resources) program, a geographic partnership of seven of the nation's best 2-year technical and community colleges located in seven states. The project developed and disseminated a national training model for manufacturing processes and new technologies within the…

  19. Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology Program (MAST). Overview and Methodology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Technical Coll., Waco.

    The Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology Program (MAST) is a geographical partnership of six of the nation's best two-year colleges located in the six states that have about one-third of the density of metals-related industries in the United States. The purpose of the MAST grant is to develop and implement a national training model to overcome…

  20. Portable power tool machines weld joints in field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spier, R. A.

    1966-01-01

    Portable routing machine for cutting precise weld joints required by nonstandard pipe sections used in the field for transfer of cryogenic fluids. This tool is adaptable for various sizes of pipes and has a selection of router bits for different joint configurations.

  1. Tool nos. 277 and 2201, details for bending machine, Johnson ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Tool nos. 277 and 2201, details for bending machine, Johnson Company, Johnstown, Pa. Scale 3 inches - 1 ft, Feb 13th 1893, drawing number 15098. (Photograph of drawing held at the Johnstown Corporation General Office, Johnstown, Pennsylvania) - Johnson Steel Street Rail Company, 525 Central Avenue, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  2. Design intent tool: User guide

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, Evan; Abell, Daniel; Bell, Geoffrey; Faludi, Jeremy; Greenberg, Steve; Hitchcock, Rob; Piette, Mary Ann; Sartor, Dalei; Stum, Karl

    2002-08-23

    This database tool provides a structured approach to recording design decisions that impact a facility's design intent in areas such as energy efficiency.Owners and de signers alike can plan, monitor and verify that a facility's design intent is being met during each stage of the design process. Additionally, the Tool gives commissioning agents, facility operators and future owners and renovators an understanding of how the building and its subsystems are intended to operate, and thus track and benchmark performance.

  3. Vision-based on-machine measurement for CNC machine tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Ruixue; Han, Jiang; Lu, Rongsheng; Xia, Lian

    2015-02-01

    A vision-based on-machine measurement system (OMM) was developed to improve manufacturing effectiveness. It was based on a visual probe to enable the CNC machine tool itself to act as a coordinate measuring machine (CMM) to inspect a workpiece. The proposed OMM system was composed of a visual probe and two software modules: computer-aided inspection planning (CAIP) module and measurement data processing (MDP) module. The auto-focus function of the visual probe was realized by using astigmatic method. The CAIP module was developed based on a CAD development platform with Open CASCADE as its kernel. The MDP module includes some algorithms for determination of inspection parameters, for example, the chamfered hole was measured through focus variation. The entire system was consequently verified on a CNC milling machine.

  4. Analysis/Design Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Excelerator II, developed by INTERSOLV, Inc., provides a complete environment for rules-based expert systems. The software incorporates NASA's C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS), a shell for constructing expert systems. Excelerator II provides complex verification and transformation routines based on matching that is simple and inexpensive. *Excelerator II was sold to SELECT Software Tools in June 1997 and is now called SELECT Excelerator. SELECT has assumed full support and maintenance for the product line.

  5. Mississippi Curriculum Framework for Machine Tool Operation/Machine Shop and Tool and Die Making Technology Cluster (Program CIP: 48.0507--Tool and Die Maker/Technologist) (Program CIP: 48.0503--Machine Shop Assistant). Postsecondary Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.

    This document, which is intended for use by community and junior colleges throughout Mississippi, contains curriculum frameworks for the course sequences in the machine tool operation/machine tool and tool and die making technology programs cluster. Presented in the introductory section are a framework of courses and programs, description of the…

  6. Machine Tool User Cylindrical Die Rolling Performance Support System

    SciTech Connect

    Bohley, M.C.; Grothe, V.D.

    1998-08-06

    This project was initiated to provide the machine tool industry and the DOE a method for evaluating educating potential users about various aspects of the cylindrical die rolling process including: characteristics of the cylindrical die rolling processes, major productivity and material savings benefits, advantages for use in the fastener industry, production capabilities based on part parameters, and production capabilities based on machine specifications. AlliedSignal Federal Manufacturing and Technologies (ASFM and T) utilized data provided by Kinefac Corporation to develop an interactive performance support system. AlliedSignal developed one complete branch of the program and Kinefac will develop the remaining two branches. Macromedia Authorware version 3.5 and Microsoft Access version 7.0 were selected for development tools. These software tools maximize continued program development ease and program management with future machine technology advancements. Using this authoring tool and the external database resulted in development of a product that has many potential uses within the manufacturing industry. Source code for the product can be used as a template for other applications is reusable and can provide potential solutions to non-manufacturing needs. The final product will be released on CD-ROM.

  7. Calibration of rotary joints in multi-axis machine tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Abdul Wahid; Liu, Fei; Chen, Wuyi

    2009-05-01

    A novel technique is developed and implemented for error quantification in a rotary joint of a multi-axis machine tool by using a calibrated double ball bar (DBB) system as a working standard. This technique greatly simplified the measurement setup requirement and accelerated the calibration of rotary joints. In addition it is highly economical by reducing the complex optics and eliminating the usage of various tooling, instrumentation and accessories. This methodology is capable of measuring the five degree of freedom (DOF) errors out of 6DOF of a rotary joint by using the calibrated DBB system and a point locating fixture. The methodology is implemented on rotary joints of a five axis CNC machine tools. Equation solvers and error modeling technique are implemented and validity of the methodology and authenticity of the results obtained are tested through simulation in UG and Matlab software. The methodology is found extremely feasible pragmatic, quite simple, efficient and easy to use for error characterization of rotary joints of multi axis machine tools.

  8. Error compensation for thermally induced errors on a machine tool

    SciTech Connect

    Krulewich, D.A.

    1996-11-08

    Heat flow from internal and external sources and the environment create machine deformations, resulting in positioning errors between the tool and workpiece. There is no industrially accepted method for thermal error compensation. A simple model has been selected that linearly relates discrete temperature measurements to the deflection. The biggest problem is how to locate the temperature sensors and to determine the number of required temperature sensors. This research develops a method to determine the number and location of temperature measurements.

  9. Prediction Of Abrasive And Diffusive Tool Wear Mechanisms In Machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzuti, S.; Umbrello, D.

    2011-01-01

    Tool wear prediction is regarded as very important task in order to maximize tool performance, minimize cutting costs and improve the quality of workpiece in cutting. In this research work, an experimental campaign was carried out at the varying of cutting conditions with the aim to measure both crater and flank tool wear, during machining of an AISI 1045 with an uncoated carbide tool P40. Parallel a FEM-based analysis was developed in order to study the tool wear mechanisms, taking also into account the influence of the cutting conditions and the temperature reached on the tool surfaces. The results show that, when the temperature of the tool rake surface is lower than the activation temperature of the diffusive phenomenon, the wear rate can be estimated applying an abrasive model. In contrast, in the tool area where the temperature is higher than the diffusive activation temperature, the wear rate can be evaluated applying a diffusive model. Finally, for a temperature ranges within the above cited values an adopted abrasive-diffusive wear model furnished the possibility to correctly evaluate the tool wear phenomena.

  10. Multimode vibration reduction concept for machine tools and automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neugebauer, Reimund; Drossel, Welf-Guntram; Kranz, Burkhard; Kunze, Holger

    2005-05-01

    This paper reports a numerical and experimental study on a new multi mode vibration reduction concept for struts of machine tools or shafts of automotives. The example described in detail validates this new concept for high dynamic parallel kinematic struts. The structural advantages of parallel kinematic mechanisms are undisputed. However statical and dynamical bending and torsional loads must be considered during the design process of the structure and thus effect the shape of the strut geometry. The here described new actuator concept for multi mode vibration reduction is to influence these bending and torsional loads. It uses piezopatches based on the MFC technology licensed by NASA. Initial simulation and experimental tests were done at an one side clamped aluminium beam with applicated 45°-MFC's on both sides. Simulation results show, that driving the piezos in opposite direction leads to a bending deflection of the beam, driving them in the same phase leads to a torsional deflection of the aluminium beam. Experimental measurements confirm the simulation results. The benefit we get is a decreased number of actuators for multimode vibration reduction. Likewise these actuators allow the separation or selective combination of bending and torsion. This new actuation concept is not limited on beams. Further simulations for cylindrical struts result in a design of a MFC-ring with eight segments with changing fiber orientation for separation of bending and torsion on struts and shafts. The selective controlled activation of each of the segments leads to bending in x-direction, bending in y-direction or torsion.

  11. Decorating Cutting as New Approach to Machine Tool System Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murcinkova, Zuzana; Vasilko, Karol

    2014-12-01

    The paper presents so called decorating cutting focused on turning. It uses self-excited vibrations that are typical for turning and other types of cutting operations. The decorating turning do not utilize setting of unstable technological conditions of cutting process but it actively use the acting of cutting force on machine tool without generation of unwanted chatter vibrations. The special tool fixture was developed to utilize self-excited vibrations invoked by periodical changeability of cutting force by cutting process itself. Thus the typical texture of surface appears. The various macro/micro-textures of surfaces can be applied either for decorating purpose or for better holding of oil film.

  12. Method and apparatus for characterizing and enhancing the dynamic performance of machine tools

    DOEpatents

    Barkman, William E; Babelay, Jr., Edwin F

    2013-12-17

    Disclosed are various systems and methods for assessing and improving the capability of a machine tool. The disclosure applies to machine tools having at least one slide configured to move along a motion axis. Various patterns of dynamic excitation commands are employed to drive the one or more slides, typically involving repetitive short distance displacements. A quantification of a measurable merit of machine tool response to the one or more patterns of dynamic excitation commands is typically derived for the machine tool. Examples of measurable merits of machine tool performance include dynamic one axis positional accuracy of the machine tool, dynamic cross-axis stability of the machine tool, and dynamic multi-axis positional accuracy of the machine tool.

  13. Dataflow Design Tool: User's Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Robert L., III

    1996-01-01

    The Dataflow Design Tool is a software tool for selecting a multiprocessor scheduling solution for a class of computational problems. The problems of interest are those that can be described with a dataflow graph and are intended to be executed repetitively on a set of identical processors. Typical applications include signal processing and control law problems. The software tool implements graph-search algorithms and analysis techniques based on the dataflow paradigm. Dataflow analyses provided by the software are introduced and shown to effectively determine performance bounds, scheduling constraints, and resource requirements. The software tool provides performance optimization through the inclusion of artificial precedence constraints among the schedulable tasks. The user interface and tool capabilities are described. Examples are provided to demonstrate the analysis, scheduling, and optimization functions facilitated by the tool.

  14. A novel vending machine for supplying root canal tools during surgery.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Carl A; Hossain, S G M; Al-Okaily, Ala'a; Ong, Jason

    2012-02-01

    A root canal surgery involves the successive use of several tools one after another. Typically dozens of tools are laid out for possible use, and the process of tool selection is done manually. This is a rather inefficient process and uses up a large area on the mobile cart or cabinet of the dental chair due to the large number of tools. In this article, a novel 'tool vending machine' is introduced which will be capable of solving those problems and at the same time move a step closer to robot-assisted dental surgery. The tool vending machine was designed considering the needs of the dentists and also from the perspective of the entire product life cycle. For these reasons the design process was implemented using a rigorous analysis of effective manufacturing processes and product quality. To show the feasibility of using such a machine in improving work efficiency during operations, a study of the associated motion patterns and the required time increments were demonstrated. PMID:22268997

  15. Selected aspects of microelectronics technology and applications: Numerically controlled machine tools. Technology trends series no. 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigurdson, J.; Tagerud, J.

    1986-05-01

    A UNIDO publication about machine tools with automatic control discusses the following: (1) numerical control (NC) machine tool perspectives, definition of NC, flexible manufacturing systems, robots and their industrial application, research and development, and sensors; (2) experience in developing a capability in NC machine tools; (3) policy issues; (4) procedures for retrieval of relevant documentation from data bases. Diagrams, statistics, bibliography are included.

  16. Simplified, inverse, ejector design tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dechant, Lawrence J.

    1993-01-01

    A simple lumped parameter based inverse design tool has been developed which provides flow path geometry and entrainment estimates subject to operational, acoustic, and design constraints. These constraints are manifested through specification of primary mass flow rate or ejector thrust, fully-mixed exit velocity, and static pressure matching. Fundamentally, integral forms of the conservation equations coupled with the specified design constraints are combined to yield an easily invertible linear system in terms of the flow path cross-sectional areas. Entrainment is computed by back substitution. Initial comparison with experimental and analogous one-dimensional methods show good agreement. Thus, this simple inverse design code provides an analytically based, preliminary design tool with direct application to High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) design studies.

  17. Indirect measurement of machine tool motion axis error with single laser tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhaoyong; Li, Liangliang; Du, Zhengchun

    2015-02-01

    For high-precision machining, a convenient and accurate detection of motion error for machine tools is significant. Among common detection methods such as the ball-bar method, the laser tracker approach has received much more attention. As a high-accuracy measurement device, laser tracker is capable of long-distance and dynamic measurement, which increases much flexibility during the measurement process. However, existing methods are not so satisfactory in measurement cost, operability or applicability. Currently, a plausible method is called the single-station and time-sharing method, but it needs a large working area all around the machine tool, thus leaving itself not suitable for the machine tools surrounded by a protective cover. In this paper, a novel and convenient positioning error measurement approach by utilizing a single laser tracker is proposed, followed by two corresponding mathematical models including a laser-tracker base-point-coordinate model and a target-mirror-coordinates model. Also, an auxiliary apparatus for target mirrors to be placed on is designed, for which sensitivity analysis and Monte-Carlo simulation are conducted to optimize the dimension. Based on the method proposed, a real experiment using single API TRACKER 3 assisted by the auxiliary apparatus is carried out and a verification experiment using a traditional RENISHAW XL-80 interferometer is conducted under the same condition for comparison. Both results demonstrate a great increase in the Y-axis positioning error of machine tool. Theoretical and experimental studies together verify the feasibility of this method which has a more convenient operation and wider application in various kinds of machine tools.

  18. Experimental Choice of Suitable Cutting Tool for Machining of Plastic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokova, Dagmar; Cep, Robert; Cepova, Lenka; Kocifajova, Simona

    2014-12-01

    In today's competitive times overall development of the technology is moving somewhere further, including automotive industry, which went toward relieving material. One of the many materials which are applied in the automotive industry, are polymers. The aim of the article was to test three different types of cutters for machining material group N - nonferrous metals. The article was tested three different types of cutters from different vendors on electro material SKLOTEXTIT G 11 and samples size 12x100x500mm. The entire experiment was conducted in a company Slavík- Technické plasty on the machine tool SCM RECORD 220. In the conclusion are technical-evaluation, experimental results and conclusions for company.

  19. Method and apparatus for characterizing and enhancing the functional performance of machine tools

    DOEpatents

    Barkman, William E; Babelay, Jr., Edwin F; Smith, Kevin Scott; Assaid, Thomas S; McFarland, Justin T; Tursky, David A; Woody, Bethany; Adams, David

    2013-04-30

    Disclosed are various systems and methods for assessing and improving the capability of a machine tool. The disclosure applies to machine tools having at least one slide configured to move along a motion axis. Various patterns of dynamic excitation commands are employed to drive the one or more slides, typically involving repetitive short distance displacements. A quantification of a measurable merit of machine tool response to the one or more patterns of dynamic excitation commands is typically derived for the machine tool. Examples of measurable merits of machine tool performance include workpiece surface finish, and the ability to generate chips of the desired length.

  20. Modeling of Passive Forces of Machine Tool Covers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolar, Petr; Hudec, Jan; Sulitka, Matej

    The passive forces acting against the drive force are phenomena that influence dynamical properties and precision of linear axes equipped with feed drives. Covers are one of important sources of passive forces in machine tools. The paper describes virtual evaluation of cover passive forces using the cover complex model. The model is able to compute interaction between flexible cover segments and sealing wiper. The result is deformation of cover segments and wipers which is used together with measured friction coefficient for computation of cover total passive force. This resulting passive force is dependent on cover position. Comparison of computational results and measurement on the real cover is presented in the paper.

  1. Use of open source distribution for a machine tool controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shackleford, William P.; Proctor, Frederick M.

    2001-02-01

    In recent years a growing number of government and university las, non-profit organizations and even a few for- profit corporations have found that making their source code public is good for both developers and users. In machine tool control, a growing number of users are demanding that the controllers they buy be `open architecture,' which would allow third parties and end-users at least limited ability to modify, extend or replace the components of that controller. This paper examines the advantages and dangers of going one step further, and providing `open source' controllers by relating the experiences of users and developers of the Enhanced Machine Controller. We also examine some implications for the development of standards for open-architecture but closed-source controllers. Some of the questions we hope to answer include: How can the quality be maintained after the source code has been modified? Can the code be trusted to run on expensive machines and parts, or when the safety of the operator is an issue? Can `open- architecture' but closed-source controllers ever achieve the level of flexibility or extensibility that open-source controllers can?

  2. Research on test techniques of fault forewarning and diagnosis for high-end CNC machine tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Bin; Xu, Xiaoli

    2010-12-01

    With the progress of modern science and technique, the manufacturing industry becomes more and more complex and intelligent. It is the challenge for stable, safe running and economical efficiency of machining equipment such as high-quality numerical control because of its complex structure and integrated functions, and the potential faults are easy to happen. How to ensure the equipment runs stably and reliably becomes the key problem to improve the machining precision and efficiency. In order to prolong the average no-fault time, stable running and machining precision of numerical control, it is very important to make relative test and research on acquisition of data of numerical control sample and establishment of sample database. Take high-end CNC Machine Tool for example, the research on test techniques for data acquisition of sample of typical functional parts in CNC Machine Tool will be made and test condition will be set up; the test methods for sample acquisition on running state monitoring and fault forewarning and diagnosis of numerical control is determined; the test platform for typical functional parts of numerical control is established; the sample database is designed and the sample base and knowledge mode is made. The test and research provide key test techniques to disclosure dynamic performance of fault and precision degeneration, and analyze the impact factors to fault.

  3. Tool wear of a single-crystal diamond tool in nano-groove machining of a quartz glass plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshino, Masahiko; Nakajima, Satoshi; Terano, Motoki

    2015-12-01

    Tool wear characteristics of a diamond tool in ductile mode machining are presented in this paper. Nano-groove machining of a quartz glass plate was conducted to examine the tool wear rate of a single-crystal diamond tool. Effects of lubrication on the tool wear rate were also evaluated. A numerical simulation technique was developed to evaluate the tool temperature and normal stress acting on the wear surface. From the simulation results it was found that the tool temperature does not increase during the machining experiment. It is also demonstrated that tool wear is attributed to the abrasive wear mechanism, but the effect of the adhesion wear mechanism is minor in nano-groove machining. It is found that the tool wear rate is reduced by using water or kerosene as a lubricant.

  4. Rotary ultrasonic elliptical machining for side milling of CFRP: tool performance and surface integrity.

    PubMed

    Geng, Daxi; Zhang, Deyuan; Xu, Yonggang; He, Fengtao; Liu, Dapeng; Duan, Zuoheng

    2015-05-01

    The rotary ultrasonic elliptical machining (RUEM) has been recognized as a new effective process to machining circular holes on CFRP materials. In CFRP face machining, the application of grinding tools is restricted for the tool clogging and the machined surface integrity. In this paper, we proposed a novel approach to extend the RUEM process to side milling of CFRP for the first time, which kept the effect of elliptical vibration in RUEM. The experiment apparatus was developed, and the preliminary experiments were designed and conducted, with comparison to conventional grinding (CG). The experimental results showed that when the elliptical vibration was applied in RUEM, a superior cutting process can be obtained compared with that in CG, including providing reduced cutting forces (2-43% decrement), an extended tool life (1.98 times), and improved surface integrity due to the intermittent material removal mechanism and the excellent chip removal conditions achieved in RUEM. It was concluded that the RUEM process is suitable to mill flat surface on CFRP composites. PMID:25708349

  5. A vibrating razor blade machining tool for material removal on low- density foams

    SciTech Connect

    Hillyer, D.F. Jr.

    1990-10-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed an accurate method of machining low-density foams into rectangular blank shapes by using a commercial oscillating razor blade machining tool concept marketed as a Vibratome. Since 1970, Vibratome has been used by medical laboratories to section fresh or fixed animal and plant tissues without freezing or embedding. By employing a vibrating razor blade principle, Vibratome sectioning avoids the alteration of morphology and the destruction of enzyme activities. The patented vibrating blade principle moves the sectioning razor blade in a reciprocating arcuate path as it penetrates the specimen. Sectioning takes place in a liquid bath using an ordinary injector-type razor blade. Although other commercial products may accomplish the same task, the Vibratome concept is currently being used at LLNL to obtain improved foam surface qualities from razor machining by combining state-of-the-art air bearing hardware with precise linear motion and an electrodynamic exciter that generates sinusoidal excitation. Razor cut foam surfaces of less than 25 {mu}m (0.001 in.) flatness are achieved over areas of 8.75 in.{sup 2} (2.5 {times} 3.5 in.). Razor machining of wide or narrow foam surfaces is generally characterized by a continuous curl chip for the full length of the material removed. This continuous chip facilitates flatness and prevents increased surface densities caused by material chip collection often left in the surface cells by conventional machine tools. This report covers the design evolution of razor machining of non-metallic soft materials. Hardware that maintains close dimensional tolerances and concurrently leaves the machined surface free of physical property changes is described. 20 figs.

  6. Prospects for chaos control of machine tool chatter

    SciTech Connect

    Hively, L.M.; Protopopescu, V.A.; Clapp, N.E.; Daw, C.S.

    1998-06-01

    The authors analyze the nonlinear tool-part dynamics during turning of stainless steel in the nonchatter and chatter regimes, toward the ultimate objective of chatter control. Their previous work analyzed tool acceleration in three dimensions at four spindle speeds. In the present work, the authors analyze the machining power and obtain nonlinear measures of this power. They also calculate the cycle-to-cycle energy for the turning process. Return maps for power cycle times do not reveal fixed points or (un)stable manifolds. Energy return maps do display stable and unstable directions (manifolds) to and from an unstable period-1 orbit, which is the dominant periodicity. Both nonchatter and chatter dynamics have the unusual feature of arriving at the unstable period-1 fixed point and departing from that fixed point of the energy return map in a single step. This unusual feature makes chaos maintenance, based on the well-known Ott-Grebogi-Yorke scheme, a very difficult option for chatter suppression. Alternative control schemes, such as synchronization of the tool-part motion to prerecorded nonchatter dynamics or dynamically damping the period-1 motion, are briefly discussed.

  7. Modeling of tool path for the CNC sheet cutting machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petunin, Aleksandr A.

    2015-11-01

    In the paper the problem of tool path optimization for CNC (Computer Numerical Control) cutting machines is considered. The classification of the cutting techniques is offered. We also propose a new classification of toll path problems. The tasks of cost minimization and time minimization for standard cutting technique (Continuous Cutting Problem, CCP) and for one of non-standard cutting techniques (Segment Continuous Cutting Problem, SCCP) are formalized. We show that the optimization tasks can be interpreted as discrete optimization problem (generalized travel salesman problem with additional constraints, GTSP). Formalization of some constraints for these tasks is described. For the solution GTSP we offer to use mathematical model of Prof. Chentsov based on concept of a megalopolis and dynamic programming.

  8. 38. METAL WORKING TOOLS AND MACHINES ADJACENT TO THE CIRCA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. METAL WORKING TOOLS AND MACHINES ADJACENT TO THE CIRCA 1900 MICHIGAN MACHINERY MFG. CO. PUNCH PRESS NEAR THE CENTER OF THE FACTORY BUILDING. AT THE LEFT FOREGROUND IS A MOVABLE TIRE BENDER FOR SHAPING ELI WINDMILL WHEEL RIMS. AT THE CENTER IS A FLOOR-MOUNTED CIRCA 1900 SNAG GRINDER OF THE TYPE USED FOR SMOOTHING ROUGH CASTINGS. ON THE WHEELED WORK STATION IS A SUNNEN BUSHING GRINDER, BEHIND WHICH IS A TRIPOD CHAIN VICE. IN THE CENTER BACKGROUND IS A WOODEN CHEST OF DRAWERS WHICH CONTAINS A 'RAG DRAWER' STILL FILLED WITH CLOTH RAGS PLACED IN THE FACTORY BUILDING AT THE INSISTENCE OF LOUISE (MRS. ARTHUR) KREGEL FOR THE CONVENIENCE AND CLEANLINESS OF WORKERS. IN THE LEFT BACKGROUND IS A CIRCA 1900 CROSS-CUTOFF CIRCULAR SAW. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  9. Small-size measuring gauges for metal cutting machine tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, B. M.; Lyapkov, V. N.; Myasnikov, Y. A.; Kirsanova, L. N.

    1984-02-01

    Recently two new models of suspension type optical measuring gauges have been developed with a 0.01 mm scale division, for measuring displacements of movable parts in metal cutting machine tools. The first one is the IG-98 consisting of an STs-80 incandescent lamp, a light filter, two reference rulers, two objectives, a light splitter cube, four plane mirrors, two condenser lenses, a graduated circle and a magnifying glass. The second one is the IG-119 consisting of an STs-61 incandescent lamp, a light filter, a rectangular prism with cover, two reference rulers, two objectives, a light splitter cube, one mirror, one condenser lens, a cylindrical shield and a magnifying glass. A complete accuracy analysis of both instruments indicates that two out of the seven principal error components are negligible, namely the angular error of the null adjustment guides and the temperature error referred to the plane of one of the reference rulers.

  10. Identification of kinematic errors of five-axis machine tool trunnion axis from finished test piece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ya; Fu, Jianzhong; Chen, Zichen

    2014-09-01

    Compared with the traditional non-cutting measurement, machining tests can more accurately reflect the kinematic errors of five-axis machine tools in the actual machining process for the users. However, measurement and calculation of the machining tests in the literature are quite difficult and time-consuming. A new method of the machining tests for the trunnion axis of five-axis machine tool is proposed. Firstly, a simple mathematical model of the cradle-type five-axis machine tool was established by optimizing the coordinate system settings based on robot kinematics. Then, the machining tests based on error-sensitive directions were proposed to identify the kinematic errors of the trunnion axis of cradle-type five-axis machine tool. By adopting the error-sensitive vectors in the matrix calculation, the functional relationship equations between the machining errors of the test piece in the error-sensitive directions and the kinematic errors of C-axis and A-axis of five-axis machine tool rotary table was established based on the model of the kinematic errors. According to our previous work, the kinematic errors of C-axis can be treated as the known quantities, and the kinematic errors of A-axis can be obtained from the equations. This method was tested in Mikron UCP600 vertical machining center. The machining errors in the error-sensitive directions can be obtained by CMM inspection from the finished test piece to identify the kinematic errors of five-axis machine tool trunnion axis. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed method can reduce the complexity, cost, and the time consumed substantially, and has a wider applicability. This paper proposes a new method of the machining tests for the trunnion axis of five-axis machine tool.

  11. Control System Design for Automatic Cavity Tuning Machines

    SciTech Connect

    Carcagno, R.; Khabiboulline, T.; Kotelnikov, S.; Makulski, A.; Nehring, R.; Nogiec, J.; Ross, M.; Schappert, W.; Goessel, A.; Iversen, J.; Klinke, D.; /DESY

    2009-05-01

    A series of four automatic tuning machines for 9-cell TESLA-type cavities are being developed and fabricated in a collaborative effort among DESY, FNAL, and KEK. These machines are intended to support high-throughput cavity fabrication for construction of large SRF-based accelerator projects. Two of these machines will be delivered to cavity vendors for the tuning of XFEL cavities. The control system for these machines must support a high level of automation adequate for industrial use by non-experts operators. This paper describes the control system hardware and software design for these machines.

  12. Vectorial formalism for analysis and design of polyphase synchronous machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semail, E.; Bouscayrol, A.; Hautier, J.-P.

    2003-06-01

    A vectorial formalism for analysis and design of polyphase synchronous machines without reluctance and saturation effects is described. We prove the equivalence of such a machine with a set of magnetically independent machines, which are electrically and mechanically coupled. Specific problems of polyphase machines can thus be favorably analyzed with this concept. Rules of conception and constraints on electric supply can be deduced. Moreover the vectorial approach, which generalizes the complex phasor method, can also be used to control n-leg voltage source inverters. This methodology is applied to 3-phase and 6-phase synchronous machines.

  13. Performance of Process Damping in Machining Titanium Alloys at Low Cutting Speed with Different Helix Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaharun, M. A.; Yusoff, A. R.; Reza, M. S.; Jalal, K. A.

    2012-09-01

    Titanium is a strong, lustrous, corrosion-resistant and transition metal with a silver color to produce strong lightweight alloys for industrial process, automotive, medical instruments and other applications. However, it is very difficult to machine the titanium due to its poor machinability. When machining titanium alloys with the conventional tools, the wear rate of the tool is rapidly accelerate and it is generally difficult to achieve at high cutting speed. In order to get better understanding of machining titanium alloy, the interaction between machining structural system and the cutting process which result in machining instability will be studied. Process damping is a useful phenomenon that can be exploited to improve the limited productivity of low speed machining. In this study, experiments are performed to evaluate the performance of process damping of milling under different tool helix geometries. The results showed that the helix of 42° angle is significantly increase process damping performance in machining titanium alloy.

  14. Involving users in the design cycle for parallel tools

    SciTech Connect

    Pancake, C.M.

    1995-01-31

    Parallel programmers do not use software tools, in spite of the fact that parallel application development is a difficult and time- consuming task that could benefit from tool support. It has become increasingly clear that the simple availability of elegant, powerful software tools employing the latest technology is not enough. Usability is the real key to success; users simply do not adopt tools that fail to respond to their needs. Research in the area of usability engineering indicates that five design principles can have significant impact on parallel tool usability. {sm_bullet} tools must be based on demonstrable user requirements {sm_bullet} actively involve users throughout tool design {sm_bullet} minimize tool complexity to reduce the learning curve {sm_bullet} support the tool across multiple machine platforms to amortize the user`s investment {sm_bullet} employ iterative refinement techniques to improve tool usability. Those principles served as the starting point for a Parallel Tools Consortium project to develop a tool that will help users determine the final state of a program that crashes or is terminated forcibly. Carried out over a period of ten months, the project involved the collaboration of tool researchers, and implementors, and users. This report describes how user-centered design techniques were applied to ensure that the tool would provide simple, intuitive support for the programmer`s task.

  15. A 3-d modular gripper design tool

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.G.; Brost, R.C.

    1997-01-01

    Modular fixturing kits are precisely machined sets of components used for flexible, short-turnaround construction of fixtures for a variety of manufacturing purposes. A modular vise is a parallel-jaw vise, where each jaw is a modular fixture plate with a regular grid of precisely positioned holes. A modular vise can be used to locate and hold parts for machining, assembly, and inspection tasks. To fixture a part, one places pins in some of the holes so that when the vise is closed, the part is reliably located and completely constrained. The modular vise concept can be adapted easily to the design of modular parallel-jaw grippers for robots. By attaching a grid plate to each jaw of a parallel-jaw gripper, the authors gain the ability to easily construct high-quality grasps for a wide variety of parts from a standard set of hardware. Wallack and Canny developed a previous algorithm for planning planar grasp configurations for the modular vise. In this paper, the authors expand this work to produce a 3-d fixture/gripper design tool. They describe several analyses added to the planar algorithm to improve its utility, including a three-dimensional grasp quality metric based on geometric and force information, three-dimensional geometric loading analysis, and inter-gripper interference analysis to determine the compatibility of multiple grasps for handing the part from one gripper to another. Finally, the authors describe two applications which combine the utility of modular vise-style grasping with inter-gripper interference: The first is the design of a flexible part-handling subsystem for a part cleaning workcell under development at Sandia National Laboratories; the second is the automatic design of grippers that support the assembly of multiple products on a single assembly line.

  16. AN EIGHT WEEK SEMINAR IN AN INTRODUCTION TO NUMERICAL CONTROL ON TWO- AND THREE-AXIS MACHINE TOOLS FOR VOCATIONAL AND TECHNICAL MACHINE TOOL INSTRUCTORS. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BOLDT, MILTON; POKORNY, HARRY

    THIRTY-THREE MACHINE SHOP INSTRUCTORS FROM 17 STATES PARTICIPATED IN AN 8-WEEK SEMINAR TO DEVELOP THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE ESSENTIAL FOR TEACHING THE OPERATION OF NUMERICALLY CONTROLLED MACHINE TOOLS. THE SEMINAR WAS GIVEN FROM JUNE 20 TO AUGUST 12, 1966, WITH COLLEGE CREDIT AVAILABLE THROUGH STOUT STATE UNIVERSITY. THE PARTICIPANTS COMPLETED AN…

  17. Cutting tool performance characteristics in the machining of a nickel aluminide intermetallic compound

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, S.; Srivatsan, T.S.; Giusti, P.

    1994-05-01

    Ductile nickel aluminide, Ni{sub 3}Al, containing traces of boron, is an intermetallic compound with high strength, making it a promising structural material for elevated, ambient and cryogenic temperature applications. In order to be able to use alloys, they must be capable of being fabricated by machining. The machinability of a cast nickel aluminide, Ni{sub 3}Al, alloy containing boron was studied by conventional machining using the lathe. Three different cutting tool inserts and two types of coolants, namely kerosene oil mist and soluble oil, were chosen. The machining performance of the cutting tool insert and the influence of coolant type were established through measurements of volume of material removed and tool wear. The tool wear analysis was made using microscopic examination of the cutting tool insert in order to elucidate information of the influence of machining parameters and choice of coolant on performance capability of the insert. The overall machinability performance of these materials is rationalized.

  18. Design and accuracy analysis of a metamorphic CNC flame cutting machine for ship manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shenghai; Zhang, Manhui; Zhang, Baoping; Chen, Xi; Yu, Wei

    2016-05-01

    The current research of processing large size fabrication holes on complex spatial curved surface mainly focuses on the CNC flame cutting machines design for ship hull of ship manufacturing. However, the existing machines cannot meet the continuous cutting requirements with variable pass conditions through their fixed configuration, and cannot realize high-precision processing as the accuracy theory is not studied adequately. This paper deals with structure design and accuracy prediction technology of novel machine tools for solving the problem of continuous and high-precision cutting. The needed variable trajectory and variable pose kinematic characteristics of non-contact cutting tool are figured out and a metamorphic CNC flame cutting machine designed through metamorphic principle is presented. To analyze kinematic accuracy of the machine, models of joint clearances, manufacturing tolerances and errors in the input variables and error models considering the combined effects are derived based on screw theory after establishing ideal kinematic models. Numerical simulations, processing experiment and trajectory tracking experiment are conducted relative to an eccentric hole with bevels on cylindrical surface respectively. The results of cutting pass contour and kinematic error interval which the position error is from-0.975 mm to +0.628 mm and orientation error is from-0.01 rad to +0.01 rad indicate that the developed machine can complete cutting process continuously and effectively, and the established kinematic error models are effective although the interval is within a `large' range. It also shows the matching property between metamorphic principle and variable working tasks, and the mapping correlation between original designing parameters and kinematic errors of machines. This research develops a metamorphic CNC flame cutting machine and establishes kinematic error models for accuracy analysis of machine tools.

  19. Reverse engineering of machine-tool settings with modified roll for spiral bevel pinions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guanglei; Chang, Kai; Liu, Zeliang

    2013-05-01

    Although a great deal of research has been dedicated to the synthesis of spiral bevel gears, little related to reverse engineering can be found. An approach is proposed to reverse the machine-tool settings of the pinion of a spiral bevel gear drive on the basis of the blank and tooth surface data obtained by a coordinate measuring machine(CMM). Real tooth contact analysis(RTCA) is performed to preliminary ascertain the contact pattern, the motion curve, as well as the position of the mean contact point. And then the tangent to the contact path and the motion curve are interpolated in the sense of the least square method to extract the initial values of the bias angle and the higher order coefficients(HOC) in modified roll motion. A trial tooth surface is generated by machine-tool settings derived from the local synthesis relating to the initial meshing performances and modified roll motion. An optimization objective is formed which equals the tooth surface deviation between the real tooth surface and the trial tooth surface. The design variables are the parameters describing the meshing performances at the mean contact point in addition to the HOC. When the objective is optimized within an arbitrarily given convergence tolerance, the machine-tool settings together with the HOC are obtained. The proposed approach is verified by a spiral bevel pinion used in the accessory gear box of an aviation engine. The trial tooth surfaces approach to the real tooth surface on the whole in the example. The results show that the convergent tooth surface deviation for the concave side on the average is less than 0.5 μm, and is less than 1.3 μm for the convex side. The biggest tooth surface deviation is 6.7 μm which is located at the corner of the grid on the convex side. Those nodes with relative bigger tooth surface deviations are all located at the boundary of the grid. An approach is proposed to figure out the machine-tool settings of a spiral bevel pinion by way of reverse

  20. Passive Energy Building Design Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1994-11-01

    SOLAR5 is a computer aided design tool to help architects design better, more energy efficient buildings. It is intended for use at the beginning of the design process. To get started, only four pieces of information are necessary to compute the energy needed: the square footage, the number of stories, the kind of building (such as school, home, hotel, or any one of 20 types), and its location (the program stores the temperature ranges formore » fourty major cities). Additional information may be given later to fine tune the design. An expert system using heuristics from a wide range of sources, automatically creates a passive solar baseline building from the four facts specified for that project. By modifying and adapting prior designs the user can create and work upon as many as nine schemes simultaneously. SOLAR5 can analyze the buildings thermal performance for each hour of each month and plot its total heat gain or loss as a three-dimensional surface. After reading the plot, the user can immediately redesign the building and rerun the analysis. Separate heat gain/loss surfaces can be plotted for each of the different parts of the building or schemes that add together to make up the total, including walls, roof, windows, skylights, floor, slab on grade, people, lights, equipment, and infiltration. Two different schemes can be instantly compared by asking for a three-dimensional plot showing only the difference in their performances. The objective of SOLAR5 is to allow the designer to make changes easily and quickly with detailed instantaneous pictorial feedback of the implications of the change.« less

  1. Design of an impact abrasion testing machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, D.; Beeley, P. R.; Baker, A. J.

    1994-04-01

    By using a cam-flat follower-impact shaft with a crank-flat rotating anvil system, the machine to be described can create various impact abrasion conditions to simulate a large range of industrial situations encountered in this field. The main features of the machine are the long working life of the flat rotating anvil, which works in the same way as that of the disk in a pin-on-disk wear tester, and the accurate control of both the impact energy delivered to the specimen and the total sliding distance of the specimen on the anvil. Statistical analysis of test results on the machine with EN24 steel and cast high manganese steel shows that the uncertainty of the population mean is within +/- 4.7% of the sample mean under a 95% confidence level of student distribution, which indicates a very good accuracy of test.

  2. A new deformation measurement method for heavy-duty machine tool base by multipoint distributed FBG sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ruiya; Tan, Yuegang; Liu, Yi; Zhou, Zude; Liu, Mingyao

    2015-10-01

    The deformation of machine tool base is one of main error elements of heavy-duty CNC machine tool. A new deformation measurement method for heavy-duty machine tool base by multipoint distributed FBG sensors is developed in this study. Experiment is implemented on a real moving beam gantry machine tool. 16 FBG strain sensors are installed on the side-surface of the machine tool base. Moving the machine tool column to different positions, varying strain signals are collected. The testing results show that this distributed measurement method based on FBG sensors can effectively detect the deformation of the machine tool base. The largest deflection in vertical direction (axis Z) can be 75μm. This work is of great significance to the structure optimizing of machine tool base and real-time error compensation of heavy-duty CNC machine tool.

  3. Coupling for joining a ball nut to a machine tool carriage

    DOEpatents

    Gerth, Howard L.

    1979-01-01

    The present invention relates to an improved coupling for joining a lead screw ball nut to a machine tool carriage. The ball nut is coupled to the machine tool carriage by a plurality of laterally flexible bolts which function as hinges during the rotation of the lead screw for substantially reducing lateral carriage movement due to wobble in the lead screw.

  4. Machine and Woodworking Tool Safety. Module SH-24. Safety and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This student module on machine and woodworking tool safety is one of 50 modules concerned with job safety and health. This module discusses specific practices and precautions concerned with the efficient operation and use of most machine and woodworking tools in use today. Following the introduction, 13 objectives (each keyed to a page in the…

  5. Advancing Research in Second Language Writing through Computational Tools and Machine Learning Techniques: A Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an agenda for replication studies focusing on second language (L2) writing and the use of natural language processing (NLP) tools and machine learning algorithms. Specifically, it introduces a range of the available NLP tools and machine learning algorithms and demonstrates how these could be used to replicate seminal studies…

  6. Design Your Own Rube Goldberg Machine. Grades 6-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushton, Erik; Ryan, Emily; Swift, Charles

    Rube Goldberg is famous for his very complex machines that accomplish everyday tasks. In this activity, students design and build a Rube Goldberg machine that will accomplish a simple task in no less than 10 steps. This activity requires a 120-360 minute time period for completion. (Author/SOE)

  7. Reliability-Based Electronics Shielding Design Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; O'Neill, P. J.; Zang, T. A.; Pandolf, J. E.; Tripathi, R. K.; Koontz, Steven L.; Boeder, P.; Reddell, B.; Pankop, C.

    2007-01-01

    Shielding design on large human-rated systems allows minimization of radiation impact on electronic systems. Shielding design tools require adequate methods for evaluation of design layouts, guiding qualification testing, and adequate follow-up on final design evaluation.

  8. Tool wear mechanisms in the machining of Nickel based super-alloys: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhtar, Waseem; Sun, Jianfei; Sun, Pengfei; Chen, Wuyi; Saleem, Zawar

    2014-06-01

    Nickel based super-alloys are widely employed in aircraft engines and gas turbines due to their high temperature strength, corrosion resistance and, excellent thermal fatigue properties. Conversely, these alloys are very difficult to machine and cause rapid wear of the cutting tool, frequent tool changes are thus required resulting in low economy of the machining process. This study provides a detailed review of the tool wear mechanism in the machining of nickel based super-alloys. Typical tool wear mechanisms found by different researchers are analyzed in order to find out the most prevalent wear mechanism affecting the tool life. The review of existing works has revealed interesting findings about the tool wear mechanisms in the machining of these alloys. Adhesion wear is found to be the main phenomenon leading to the cutting tool wear in this study.

  9. Designing Educational Social Machines for Effective Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yee-King, Matthew; Krivenski, Maria; Brenton, Harry; Grimalt-Reynes, Andreu; d'Inverno, Mark

    2014-01-01

    We report on our development of an educational social machine based on the concept that feedback in communities is an effective means to support the development of communities of learning and practice. Key challenges faced by this work are how best to support educational and social interactions, how to deliver personalised tuition, and how to…

  10. Can carbon fibres work as tool electrodes in micro electrical discharge machining?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trych-Wildner, Anna; Kudla, Leszek

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a basic study of the possible application of carbon fibres as tool electrodes in micro electrical discharge machining. The purpose of the experiments with this novel material was to gain knowledge about the operation of the new tool electrode. In the paper, the procedure for adapting a single fibre to such a function is described, with detailed steps on preparing the shanks essential for the mounting operation in the experimental setup. The design setup is also presented and the experimental conditions of each test are shown. Furthermore, tests with the prepared electrodes concerning the general observations of the process and the results on the machined surface and on the tool are presented. The shape cavity fabrication and tests with the reverse polarity of the electrodes are also introduced. Next, the influence of single discharge energy is considered and the geometry of the obtained microholes is discussed. Detailed data about the wear of the tool, which can be up to 90% of the entire eroded material, in comparison with the material removal rate from the workpiece, which can be at a level of 10%, is gathered. Then, the geometrical analysis of the cavities is described showing that their depths are in the range of a few micrometres.

  11. A tool for urban soundscape evaluation applying Support Vector Machines for developing a soundscape classification model.

    PubMed

    Torija, Antonio J; Ruiz, Diego P; Ramos-Ridao, Angel F

    2014-06-01

    To ensure appropriate soundscape management in urban environments, the urban-planning authorities need a range of tools that enable such a task to be performed. An essential step during the management of urban areas from a sound standpoint should be the evaluation of the soundscape in such an area. In this sense, it has been widely acknowledged that a subjective and acoustical categorization of a soundscape is the first step to evaluate it, providing a basis for designing or adapting it to match people's expectations as well. In this sense, this work proposes a model for automatic classification of urban soundscapes. This model is intended for the automatic classification of urban soundscapes based on underlying acoustical and perceptual criteria. Thus, this classification model is proposed to be used as a tool for a comprehensive urban soundscape evaluation. Because of the great complexity associated with the problem, two machine learning techniques, Support Vector Machines (SVM) and Support Vector Machines trained with Sequential Minimal Optimization (SMO), are implemented in developing model classification. The results indicate that the SMO model outperforms the SVM model in the specific task of soundscape classification. With the implementation of the SMO algorithm, the classification model achieves an outstanding performance (91.3% of instances correctly classified). PMID:24007752

  12. The development of a two-component force dynamometer and tool control system for dynamic machine tool research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutherland, I. A.

    1973-01-01

    The development is presented of a tooling system that makes a controlled sinusoidal oscillation simulating a dynamic chip removal condition. It also measures the machining forces in two mutually perpendicular directions without any cross sensitivity.

  13. An iterative learning control method with application for CNC machine tools

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, D.I.; Kim, S.

    1996-01-01

    A proportional, integral, and derivative (PID) type iterative learning controller is proposed for precise tracking control of industrial robots and computer numerical controller (CNC) machine tools performing repetitive tasks. The convergence of the output error by the proposed learning controller is guaranteed under a certain condition even when the system parameters are not known exactly and unknown external disturbances exist. As the proposed learning controller is repeatedly applied to the industrial robot or the CNC machine tool with the path-dependent repetitive task, the distance difference between the desired path and the actual tracked or machined path, which is one of the most significant factors in the evaluation of control performance, is progressively reduced. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed learning controller can improve machining accuracy when the CNC machine tool performs repetitive machining tasks.

  14. The in-situ 3D measurement system combined with CNC machine tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Huijie; Jiang, Hongzhi; Li, Xudong; Sui, Shaochun; Tang, Limin; Liang, Xiaoyue; Diao, Xiaochun; Dai, Jiliang

    2013-06-01

    With the development of manufacturing industry, the in-situ 3D measurement for the machining workpieces in CNC machine tools is regarded as the new trend of efficient measurement. We introduce a 3D measurement system based on the stereovision and phase-shifting method combined with CNC machine tools, which can measure 3D profile of the machining workpieces between the key machining processes. The measurement system utilizes the method of high dynamic range fringe acquisition to solve the problem of saturation induced by specular lights reflected from shiny surfaces such as aluminum alloy workpiece or titanium alloy workpiece. We measured two workpieces of aluminum alloy on the CNC machine tools to demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed measurement system.

  15. Haptics-Augmented Simple-Machine Educational Tools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Robert L., II; Chen, Meng-Yun; Seaton, Jeffrey M.

    2003-01-01

    Describes a unique project using commercial haptic interfaces to augment the teaching of simple machines in elementary school. Suggests that the use of haptics in virtual simple-machine simulations has the potential for deeper, more engaging learning. (Contains 13 references.) (Author/YDS)

  16. Performance investigation of capillary tubes for machine tool coolers retrofitted with HFC-407C refrigerant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fujen; Chang, Tongbou; Chiang, Weiming; Lee, Haochung

    2012-09-01

    The machine tool coolers are the best managers of coolant temperature in avoiding the deviation of spindle centerline for machine tools. However, the machine coolers are facing the compressed schedule to phase out the HCFC (hydro-chloro-floro-carbon) refrigerant and little attention has been paid to comparative study on sizing capillary tube for retrofitted HFC (hydro-floro-carbon) refrigerant. In this paper, the adiabatic flow in capillary tube is analyzed and modeled for retrofitting of HFC-407C refrigerant in a machine tool cooler system. A computer code including determining the length of sub-cooled flow region and the two phase region of capillary tube is developed. Comparative study of HCFC-22 and HFC-407C in a capillary tube is derived and conducted to simplify the traditional trial-and-error method of predicting the length of capillary tubes. Besides, experimental investigation is carried out by field tests to verify the simulation model and cooling performance of the machine tool cooler system. The results from the experiments reveal that the numerical model provides an effective approach to determine the performance data of capillary tube specific for retrofitting a HFC-407C machine tool cooler. The developed machine tool cooler system is not only directly compatible with new HFC-407C refrigerant, but can also perform a cost-effective temperature control specific for industrial machines.

  17. Study on the auto-leveling adjustment vibration isolation system for the ultra-precision machine tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, XiCong; Li, ZengQiang; Zhao, XueSen; Sun, Tao; Zhang, KunPeng

    2014-08-01

    The requirement of the vibration isolation system for ultra-precision machine tool was extremely stringent. However, most of the isolation systems currently cannot meet the requirement. Therefore, it is urgently needed to design a new vibration isolation system to fulfill the strict vibration capability required by ultra-precision machine tool. In this paper the structure and principle of the conventional vibration isolation systems composed of air springs were first elucidated thoroughly. Based on these knowledge, we have designed a vibration isolation system with the function of auto-leveling adjustment for a home-made ultra-precision machine tool. The capability of vibration isolation system was validated by an experimental method, in which acceleration-frequency curves were recorded. And post data processing including the analyzing the cut-off frequency and amplitude attenuation were followed. The experimental results demonstrated that the air spring vibration isolation system designed in this paper has the capability to effectively isolate the vibration from the ground: it has a higher attenuation ratio for vibration with a frequency beyond 3 Hz, which preferably meet the vibration isolation requirement of the ultra-precision machine tool.

  18. Modeling Tool Advances Rotorcraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Continuum Dynamics Inc. (CDI), founded in 1979, specializes in advanced engineering services, including fluid dynamic modeling and analysis for aeronautics research. The company has completed a number of SBIR research projects with NASA, including early rotorcraft work done through Langley Research Center, but more recently, out of Ames Research Center. NASA Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grants on helicopter wake modeling resulted in the Comprehensive Hierarchical Aeromechanics Rotorcraft Model (CHARM), a tool for studying helicopter and tiltrotor unsteady free wake modeling, including distributed and integrated loads, and performance prediction. Application of the software code in a blade redesign program for Carson Helicopters, of Perkasie, Pennsylvania, increased the payload and cruise speeds of its S-61 helicopter. Follow-on development resulted in a $24 million revenue increase for Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, of Stratford, Connecticut, as part of the company's rotor design efforts. Now under continuous development for more than 25 years, CHARM models the complete aerodynamics and dynamics of rotorcraft in general flight conditions. CHARM has been used to model a broad spectrum of rotorcraft attributes, including performance, blade loading, blade-vortex interaction noise, air flow fields, and hub loads. The highly accurate software is currently in use by all major rotorcraft manufacturers, NASA, the U.S. Army, and the U.S. Navy.

  19. Acquiring Software Design Schemas: A Machine Learning Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harandi, Mehdi T.; Lee, Hing-Yan

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, we describe an approach based on machine learning that acquires software design schemas from design cases of existing applications. An overview of the technique, design representation, and acquisition system are presented. the paper also addresses issues associated with generalizing common features such as biases. The generalization process is illustrated using an example.

  20. Metal Cutting Theory and Friction Stir Welding Tool Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Payton, Lewis N.

    2003-01-01

    Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a relatively new industrial process that was invented at The Weld Institute (TWI, United Kingdom) and patented in 1992 under research funded by in part by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Often quoted advantages of the process include good strength and ductility along with minimization of residual stress and distortion. Less well advertised are the beneficial effects of this solid state welding process in the field of occupational and environmental safety. It produces superior weld products in difficult to weld materials without producing any toxic fumes or solid waste that must be controlled as hazardous waste. In fact, it reduces noise pollution in the workspace as well. In the early days of FSW, most welding was performed on modified machine tools, in particular on milling machines with modified milling cutters. In spite of the obvious milling heritage of the process, the techniques and lessons learned from almost 250 years of successful metalworking with milling machines have not been applied in the field of modern Friction Stir Welding. The goal of the current research was to study currently successful FSW tools and parameterize the process in such a way that the design of new tools for new materials could be accelerated. Along the way, several successful new tooling designs were developed for current issues at the Marshall Space Flight Center with accompanying patent disclosures

  1. Foam-machining tool with eddy-current transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copper, W. P.

    1975-01-01

    Three-cutter machining system for foam-covered tanks incorporates eddy-current sensor. Sensor feeds signal to numerical controller which programs rotational and vertical axes of sensor travel, enabling cutterhead to profile around tank protrusions.

  2. Finite Element Modelling of the effect of tool rake angle on tool temperature and cutting force during high speed machining of AISI 4340 steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulaiman, S.; Roshan, A.; Ariffin, M. K. A.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, a Finite Element Method (FEM) based on the ABAQUS explicit software which involves Johnson-Cook material model was used to simulate cutting force and tool temperature during high speed machining (HSM) of AISI 4340 steel. In this simulation work, a tool rake angle ranging from 0° to 20° and a range of cutting speeds between 300 to 550 m/min was investigated. The purpose of this simulation analysis was to find optimum tool rake angle where cutting force is smallest as well as tool temperature is lowest during high speed machining. It was found that cutting forces to have a decreasing trend as rake angle increased to positive direction. The optimum rake angle observed between 10° and 18° due to decrease of cutting force as 20% for all simulated cutting speeds. In addition, increasing cutting tool rake angle over its optimum value had negative influence on tool's performance and led to an increase in cutting temperature. The results give a better understanding and recognition of the cutting tool design for high speed machining processes.

  3. Performance evaluation and optimization of a fast tool servo for single point diamond turning machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Arthur C., Jr.; Cuttino, James F.

    1997-11-01

    This paper describes a new, fast tool servo system designed for fabrication of non-rotationally symmetric components using single point diamond turning machines. A prototype device, designed for flexible interfacing to typical machine tool controllers, will be described along with performance testing data of tilted flat and off-axis conic sections. Evaluation data show that servo produced surfaces have an RMS roughness less than 175 angstroms. Techniques for linearizing the hysteretic effects in the piezoelectric actuator are also discussed. The nonlinear effects due to hysteresis are reduced using a dynamic compensator module in conjunction with a linear controller. The compensator samples the reduced using a dynamic compensator module in conjunction with a linear controller. The compensator samples the hysteretic voltage/displacement relationship in real time and modifies the effective gain accordingly. Simulation results indicate that errors in the performance of the system caused by hysteresis in the system can be compensated and reduced by 90 percent. Experimental implementation results in an 80 percent reduction in the motion error caused by hysteresis, but peak-to-valley errors are limited by side effects from the compensation. The uncompensated servo system demonstrated a peak-to-valley error of less than 0.80 micrometer for an off-axis conic section turned on-axis.

  4. Powerful tool for design analysis of linear control systems

    SciTech Connect

    Maddux, Jr, A S

    1982-05-10

    The methods for designing linear controls for electronic or mechanical systems have been understood and put to practice. What has not been readily available to engineers, however, is a practical, quick and inexpensive method for analyzing these linear control (feedback) systems once they have been designed into the electronic or mechanical hardware. Now, the PET, manufactured by Commodore Business Machines (CBM), operating with several peripherals via the IEEE 488 Bus, brings to the engineer for about $4000 a complete set of office tools for analyzing these system designs.

  5. Remediation, General Education, and Technical Mathematics. Educational Resources for the Machine Tool Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Technical Coll. System, Waco.

    This document contains descriptions of adult education courses in remediation, general education, and technical mathematics. They are part of a program developed by the Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology Educational Resources (MASTER) program to help workers become competent in the skills needed to be productive workers in the machine tools…

  6. 12. TOOL ROOM SHOWING LANDIS MACHINE CO. BOL/T THREADER (L), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. TOOL ROOM SHOWING LANDIS MACHINE CO. BOL/T THREADER (L), OSTER MANUFACTURING CO. PIPE MASTER (R), AND OLDMAN KINK, A SHOP-MADE WELDING STRENGTH TESTER (L, BACKGROUND). VIEW NORTHEAST - Oldman Boiler Works, Office/Machine Shop, 32 Illinois Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  7. Man and machine design for space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Louviere, A. J.

    1979-01-01

    The factors involved in creating effective designs for living and working in a weightless environment are discussed. Among the areas covered are special provisions for eating and drinking, a special shower nozzle to remove soap, electric shavers designed for vacuum containment of the clippings, and the need for restraint systems at the crew's workstations. Attention is given to the fact that the crewmen assume a neutral body posture in weightlessness which is an important consideration in designing displays, controls, and windows. It is concluded that the incorporation of the change in body posture and the requirement for restraint into future designs will greatly facilitate the crewman's task in the weightless environment.

  8. Effect of Flexural Rigidity of Tool on Machining Accuracy during Microgrooving by Ultrasonic Vibration Cutting Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furusawa, Toshiaki

    2010-12-01

    It is necessary to form fine holes and grooves by machining in the manufacture of equipment in the medical or information field and the establishment of such a machining technology is required. In micromachining, the use of the ultrasonic vibration cutting method is expected and examined. In this study, I experimentally form microgrooves in stainless steel SUS304 by the ultrasonic vibration cutting method and examine the effects of the shape and material of the tool on the machining accuracy. As a result, the following are clarified. The evaluation of the machining accuracy of the straightness of the finished surface revealed that there is an optimal rake angle of the tools related to the increase in cutting resistance as a result of increases in work hardening and the cutting area. The straightness is improved by using a tool with low flexural rigidity. In particular, Young's modulus more significantly affects the cutting accuracy than the shape of the tool.

  9. Programmable phase plate for tool modification in laser machining applications

    DOEpatents

    Thompson Jr., Charles A.; Kartz, Michael W.; Brase, James M.; Pennington, Deanna; Perry, Michael D.

    2004-04-06

    A system for laser machining includes a laser source for propagating a laser beam toward a target location, and a spatial light modulator having individual controllable elements capable of modifying a phase profile of the laser beam to produce a corresponding irradiance pattern on the target location. The system also includes a controller operably connected to the spatial light modulator for controlling the individual controllable elements. By controlling the individual controllable elements, the phase profile of the laser beam may be modified into a desired phase profile so as to produce a corresponding desired irradiance pattern on the target location capable of performing a machining operation on the target location.

  10. New Accessory for Cleaning the Inside of the Machine Tool Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarus, Lloyd

    2009-04-21

    The best way to extend the life of a metalworking fluid (MWF) is to make sure the machine tool and MWF delivery system are properly cleaned at least once per year. The dilemma the MWF manager is faced with is: How does one clean the machine tool and the MWF system on a large machine tool with an enclosure in a timely manner without impacting production schedules? Remember the walls and roof of the machine enclosure are coated with a film of dried contaminated MWF that must also be removed. If not removed, the deposits on these surfaces can recontaminate the fresh charge of MWF. I have found a product that with this revised procedure helps to shorten the machine tool down time involved with machine cleaning. (1) Discuss with your MWF supplier if they have a machine cleaning product that can be used with your current water based MWF during normal machining operations. Most MWF manufacturers have a machine cleaner that can be used at a lower concentration (1-2% vs. 5%) and can be used while still making production parts for a short period of time (usually 24-48 hours). (2) Make sure this machine cleaner is compatible with the work-piece material you are machining into product. Most cleaners are compatible with ferrous alloys. Because of the increased alkalinity of the fluid you might experience staining if you are machining copper or aluminum alloys. (3) Remove the chips from the chips pans and fluid channels. (4) During off shift hours circulate the MWF using a new product marketed by Rego-Fix called a 'Hydroball'. This device has a 5/8 inch diameter straight shank which allows it to be installed in any collet or solid quick change tool holder. It has multiple nozzles so that the user can control the spray pattern generated when the MWF is circulated. It allows the user to utilize the high pressure, through spindle MWF delivery capability of your machine tool for cleaning purposes. The high pressure MWF system can now be effectively used for cleaning purposes. This

  11. Accelerating Dielectrics Design Using Thinking Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramprasad, R.

    2013-03-01

    High energy density capacitors are required for several pulsed power and energy storage applications, including food preservation, nuclear test simulations, electric propulsion of ships and hybrid electric vehicles. The maximum electrostatic energy that can be stored in a capacitor dielectric is proportional to its dielectric constant and the square of its breakdown field. The current standard material for capacitive energy storage is polypropylene which has a large breakdown field but low dielectric constant. We are involved in a search for new classes of polymers superior to polypropylene using first principles computations combined with statistical and machine learning methods. Essential to this search are schemes to efficiently compute the dielectric constant of polymers and the intrinsic dielectric breakdown field, as well as methods to determine the stable structures of new classes of polymers and strategies to efficiently navigate through the polymer chemical space offered by the periodic table. These methodologies have been combined with statistical learning paradigms in order to make property predictions rapidly, and promising classes of polymeric systems for energy storage applications have been identified. This work is being supported by the Office of Naval Research.

  12. High accurate interpolation of NURBS tool path for CNC machine tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qiang; Liu, Huan; Yuan, Songmei

    2016-06-01

    Feedrate fluctuation caused by approximation errors of interpolation methods has great effects on machining quality in NURBS interpolation, but few methods can efficiently eliminate or reduce it to a satisfying level without sacrificing the computing efficiency at present. In order to solve this problem, a high accurate interpolation method for NURBS tool path is proposed. The proposed method can efficiently reduce the feedrate fluctuation by forming a quartic equation with respect to the curve parameter increment, which can be efficiently solved by analytic methods in real-time. Theoretically, the proposed method can totally eliminate the feedrate fluctuation for any 2nd degree NURBS curves and can interpolate 3rd degree NURBS curves with minimal feedrate fluctuation. Moreover, a smooth feedrate planning algorithm is also proposed to generate smooth tool motion with considering multiple constraints and scheduling errors by an efficient planning strategy. Experiments are conducted to verify the feasibility and applicability of the proposed method. This research presents a novel NURBS interpolation method with not only high accuracy but also satisfying computing efficiency.

  13. Performance evaluation and optimization of a fast tool servo for single point diamond turning machines

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, A.C. Jr.; Cuttino, J.F.

    1997-08-01

    This paper describes a new, fast tool servo system for fabricating non-rotationally symmetric components using single point diamond turning machines. A prototype, designed for flexible interfacing to typical machine tool controllers, will be described along with performance testing data of tilted flat and off-axis conic sections. Evaluation data show that servo produced surfaces have an rms roughness less than 175 angstroms (2-200 {mu}m spatial filter). Techniques for linearizing the hysteretic effects in the piezoelectric actuator are also discussed. The nonlinear effects due to hysteresis are reduced using a dynamic compensator module in conjunction with a linear controller. The compensator samples the hysteretic voltage/displacement relation in real time and modifies the effective gain accordingly. Simulation results indicate that errors in the performance of the system caused by hysteresis can be compensated and reduced by 90%. Experimental implementation results in 80% reduction in motion error caused by hysteresis, but peak-to- valley errors are limited by side effects from the compensation. The uncompensated servo system demonstrated a peak-to-valley error of less than 0.80 micrometer for an off-axis conic section turned on-axis.

  14. Atwood's Machine as a Tool to Introduce Variable Mass Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Sousa, Celia A.

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses an instructional strategy which explores eventual similarities and/or analogies between familiar problems and more sophisticated systems. In this context, the Atwood's machine problem is used to introduce students to more complex problems involving ropes and chains. The methodology proposed helps students to develop the…

  15. A Comparative Study of Teacher Education Institutions and Machine Tool Manufacturers to Determine Course Content for a Machine Tool Maintenance Course in the Woodworking Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polette, Douglas Lee

    To determine what type of maintenance training the prospective industrial arts teacher should receive in the woodworking area and how this information should be taught, a research instrument was constructed using information obtained from a review of relevant literature. Specific data on machine tool maintenance was gathered by the use of two…

  16. Parametric Optimization of Wire Electrical Discharge Machining of Powder Metallurgical Cold Worked Tool Steel using Taguchi Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudhakara, Dara; Prasanthi, Guvvala

    2016-08-01

    Wire Cut EDM is an unconventional machining process used to build components of complex shape. The current work mainly deals with optimization of surface roughness while machining P/M CW TOOL STEEL by Wire cut EDM using Taguchi method. The process parameters of the Wire Cut EDM is ON, OFF, IP, SV, WT, and WP. L27 OA is used for to design of the experiments for conducting experimentation. In order to find out the effecting parameters on the surface roughness, ANOVA analysis is engaged. The optimum levels for getting minimum surface roughness is ON = 108 µs, OFF = 63 µs, IP = 11 A, SV = 68 V and WT = 8 g.

  17. Design features and results from fatigue reliability research machines.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lalli, V. R.; Kececioglu, D.; Mcconnell, J. B.

    1971-01-01

    The design, fabrication, development, operation, calibration and results from reversed bending combined with steady torque fatigue research machines are presented. Fifteen-centimeter long, notched, SAE 4340 steel specimens are subjected to various combinations of these stresses and cycled to failure. Failure occurs when the crack in the notch passes through the specimen automatically shutting down the test machine. These cycles-to-failure data are statistically analyzed to develop a probabilistic S-N diagram. These diagrams have many uses; a rotating component design example given in the literature shows that minimum size and weight for a specified number of cycles and reliability can be calculated using these diagrams.

  18. Investigation on the Surface Integrity and Tool Wear in Cryogenic Machining

    SciTech Connect

    Dutra Xavier, Sandro E.; Delijaicov, Sergio; Farias, Adalto de; Stipkovic Filho, Marco; Ferreira Batalha, Gilmar

    2011-01-17

    This work aimed to study the influences of cryogenic cooling on tool wear, comparing it to dry machining during on the surface integrity of test circular steel SAE 52100 hardened to 62 HRC, during the turning of the face, with the use of special PcBN, using liquid nitrogen with cooler. The surface integrity parameters analyzed were: surface roughness and white layer and tool wear. The results of the present work indicated reduction in tool wear, which enhance the tool life.

  19. Guided Design: A Motivational Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayers, Caroline L.

    Presented is a descriptive account of guided design, an educational strategy in which students work together in small groups to solve open-ended problems designed to provide experience in applying the subject matter content of a course. The essential elements of this instructional strategy are described, and the instructor's role clarified as…

  20. The error analysis and online measurement of linear slide motion error in machine tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, H.; Hong, M. S.; Li, Z. J.; Wei, Y. L.; Xiong, S. B.

    2002-06-01

    A new accurate two-probe time domain method is put forward to measure the straight-going component motion error in machine tools. The characteristics of non-periodic and non-closing in the straightness profile error are liable to bring about higher-order harmonic component distortion in the measurement results. However, this distortion can be avoided by the new accurate two-probe time domain method through the symmetry continuation algorithm, uniformity and least squares method. The harmonic suppression is analysed in detail through modern control theory. Both the straight-going component motion error in machine tools and the profile error in a workpiece that is manufactured on this machine can be measured at the same time. All of this information is available to diagnose the origin of faults in machine tools. The analysis result is proved to be correct through experiment.

  1. Factors influencing design and selection of GTAW robotic welding machines for the Space Shuttle main engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flanigan, L.

    1986-01-01

    Proposed hardware and software for microprocessor-controlled power supplies and welding machines are described. The application of the automatic seven-axis welding machine, which is to be preprogrammed to allow minimum intervention by the welding operator during the actual process, to the welding of the Space Shuttle main engine is discussed. The production requirements for the gas tungsten arc welds for the Space Shuttle main engine are examined. Consideration is given to positioner design, welding variables, inert shielding gas management, filler metal wire control, the up loading and down loading of data from off-line computers, process improvements, tooling, the welding variable library, and adaptive sensor control.

  2. Machine performance and site disturbance in skidding on designated trails

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, E.D.; Seifert, J.C.W.

    1984-01-01

    Overstorey trees (predominantly western red cedar Thuja plicata) in a stand in Idaho were removed in 1981 using 4 machines and 2 methods: skidding whole trees on undesignated trails; and skidding tree lengths on trails designated in advance. A caterpillar 518 rubber-tyred skidder (RTS) handling whole trees on undesignated trails had the lowest cost and the highest production. An FMC 200 CA torsion-bar track machine (low ground pressure) was the most expensive because of high initial and operating costs, and high incidence of breakdowns. A caterpillar D6D rigid track, medium-horsepower crawler and an international TD-8E rigid track, low-horsepower crawler were intermediate in cost. Output was generally increased when tree lengths were skidded on designated trails. Again the RTS had the lowest cost, and the highest production on haulage distances up to about 900 feet. For longer haulage distances, the D6D hauled more tree-length logs on designated skid trails. For all machine types, 17% of the area of conventionally logged whole tree units and 9% of the units where tree-length logs were skidded on designated trails were calculated to be occupied by roads. Trail designation reduced machine damage to regeneration by about 5%. 3 references.

  3. Modeling and design optimization of switched reluctance machine by boundary element analysis and simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Y.; Kline, J.A. Sr.

    1996-12-01

    Nonlinear boundary element analysis provides a more accurate and detailing tool for the design of switched reluctance machines, than the conventional equivalent-circuit methods. Design optimization through more detailed analysis and simulation can reduce development and prototyping costs and time to market. Firstly, magnetic field modeling of an industrial switched reluctance machine by boundary element method is reported in this paper. Secondly, performance prediction and dynamic simulation of motor and control design are presented. Thirdly, magnetic forces that cause noise and vibration are studied, to include the effects of motor and control design variations on noise in the design process. Testing of the motor in NEMA 215-Frame size is carried out to verify the accuracy of modeling and simulation.

  4. A CAD tool that automatically designs fixtures and pallets

    SciTech Connect

    Brost, R.C.; Peters, R.R.

    1995-12-01

    Costs associated with designing and fabricating fixtures may be a significant portion of the total costs associated with a manufacturing task. The software tool, HoldFast, designs optimal fixtures that hold a single workpiece, are easily fabricated, provide rigid constraint and deterministic location of the workpiece, are robust to workpiece shape variations, obey all associated task constraints, and are easy to load and unload. We illustrate the capabilities of HoldFast by designing fixtures for several examples. Fixtures are designed and built for finish-machining and drilling of a cast part for prototype fabrication and mass-production fabrication. A pallet fixture is designed for vertical assembly of a personal cassette player. Another pallet fixture is designed and built that will hold either the personal cassette player or a glue gun during assembly.

  5. Machine Learning Techniques in Optimal Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cerbone, Giuseppe

    1992-01-01

    Many important applications can be formalized as constrained optimization tasks. For example, we are studying the engineering domain of two-dimensional (2-D) structural design. In this task, the goal is to design a structure of minimum weight that bears a set of loads. A solution to a design problem in which there is a single load (L) and two stationary support points (S1 and S2) consists of four members, E1, E2, E3, and E4 that connect the load to the support points is discussed. In principle, optimal solutions to problems of this kind can be found by numerical optimization techniques. However, in practice [Vanderplaats, 1984] these methods are slow and they can produce different local solutions whose quality (ratio to the global optimum) varies with the choice of starting points. Hence, their applicability to real-world problems is severely restricted. To overcome these limitations, we propose to augment numerical optimization by first performing a symbolic compilation stage to produce: (a) objective functions that are faster to evaluate and that depend less on the choice of the starting point and (b) selection rules that associate problem instances to a set of recommended solutions. These goals are accomplished by successive specializations of the problem class and of the associated objective functions. In the end, this process reduces the problem to a collection of independent functions that are fast to evaluate, that can be differentiated symbolically, and that represent smaller regions of the overall search space. However, the specialization process can produce a large number of sub-problems. This is overcome by deriving inductively selection rules which associate problems to small sets of specialized independent sub-problems. Each set of candidate solutions is chosen to minimize a cost function which expresses the tradeoff between the quality of the solution that can be obtained from the sub-problem and the time it takes to produce it. The overall solution

  6. Innovative machine designs for radiation processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vroom, David

    2007-12-01

    In the 1990s Raychem Corporation established a program to investigate the commercialization of several promising applications involving the combined use of its core competencies in materials science, radiation chemistry and e-beam radiation technology. The applications investigated included those that would extend Raychem's well known heat recoverable polymer and wire and cable product lines as well as new potential applications such as remediation of contaminated aqueous streams. A central part of the program was the development of new accelerator technology designed to improve quality, lower processing costs and efficiently process conformable materials such at liquids. A major emphasis with this new irradiation technology was to look at the accelerator and product handling systems as one integrated, not as two complimentary systems.

  7. A Catalog of Performance Objectives, Performance Conditions, and Performance Guides for Machine Tool Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stadt, Ronald; And Others

    This catalog provides performance objectives, tasks, standards, and performance guides associated with current occupational information relating to the job content of machinists, specifically tool grinder operators, production lathe operators, and production screw machine operators. The catalog is comprised of 262 performance objectives, tool and…

  8. Design, development and use of the finite element machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, L. M.; Voigt, R. C.

    1983-01-01

    Some of the considerations that went into the design of the Finite Element Machine, a research asynchronous parallel computer are described. The present status of the system is also discussed along with some indication of the type of results that were obtained.

  9. Atwood's machine as a tool to introduce variable mass systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Sousa, Célia A.

    2012-03-01

    This article discusses an instructional strategy which explores eventual similarities and/or analogies between familiar problems and more sophisticated systems. In this context, the Atwood's machine problem is used to introduce students to more complex problems involving ropes and chains. The methodology proposed helps students to develop the ability needed to apply relevant concepts in situations not previously encountered. The pedagogical advantages are relevant for both secondary and high school students, showing that, through adequate examples, the question of the validity of Newton's second law may even be introduced to introductory level students.

  10. Circuit design tool. User's manual, revision 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyake, Keith M.; Smith, Donald E.

    1992-01-01

    The CAM chip design was produced in a UNIX software environment using a design tool that supports definition of digital electronic modules, composition of these modules into higher level circuits, and event-driven simulation of these circuits. Our design tool provides an interface whose goals include straightforward but flexible primitive module definition and circuit composition, efficient simulation, and a debugging environment that facilitates design verification and alteration. The tool provides a set of primitive modules which can be composed into higher level circuits. Each module is a C-language subroutine that uses a set of interface protocols understood by the design tool. Primitives can be altered simply by recoding their C-code image; in addition new primitives can be added allowing higher level circuits to be described in C-code rather than as a composition of primitive modules--this feature can greatly enhance the speed of simulation.

  11. Computer assisted blast design and assessment tools

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, A.R.; Kleine, T.H.; Forsyth, W.W.

    1995-12-31

    In general the software required by a blast designer includes tools that graphically present blast designs (surface and underground), can analyze a design or predict its result, and can assess blasting results. As computers develop and computer literacy continues to rise the development of and use of such tools will spread. An example of the tools that are becoming available includes: Automatic blast pattern generation and underground ring design; blast design evaluation in terms of explosive distribution and detonation simulation; fragmentation prediction; blast vibration prediction and minimization; blast monitoring for assessment of dynamic performance; vibration measurement, display and signal processing; evaluation of blast results in terms of fragmentation; and risk and reliability based blast assessment. The authors have identified a set of criteria that are essential in choosing appropriate software blasting tools.

  12. Design methods for fault-tolerant finite state machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niranjan, Shailesh; Frenzel, James F.

    1993-01-01

    VLSI electronic circuits are increasingly being used in space-borne applications where high levels of radiation may induce faults, known as single event upsets. In this paper we review the classical methods of designing fault tolerant digital systems, with an emphasis on those methods which are particularly suitable for VLSI-implementation of finite state machines. Four methods are presented and will be compared in terms of design complexity, circuit size, and estimated circuit delay.

  13. Acoustic emission from single point machining: Source mechanisms and signal changes with tool wear

    SciTech Connect

    Heiple, C.R.; Carpenter, S.H.; Armentrout, D.L.; McManigle, A.P.

    1994-05-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) was monitored during single point, continuous machining of 4340 steel and Ti-6Al-4V as a function of heat treatment. Heat treatments that increase the strength of 4340 steel substantially increase the amount of AE produced during deformation, while heat treatments that increase the strength of Ti-6Al-4V dramatically decrease the amount of AE produced during deformation. There was little change in root-mean-square (rms) AE level during machining for either alloy as a function of prior heat treatment, demonstrating that chip deformation is not a major source of AE in single point machining. Additional data from a variety of materials suggest that sliding friction between the nose and/or flank of the tool and the newly machined surface is the primary source of AE. Changes in AE signal characteristics with tool wear were also monitored during single point machining. No signal characteristic changed in the same way with tool wear for all materials tested. A single change in a particular AE signal characteristic with tool wear valid for all materials probably does not exist. Nevertheless, changes in various signal characteristics with wear for a given material may be sufficient to be used to monitor tool wear.

  14. Structure Based Thermostability Prediction Models for Protein Single Point Mutations with Machine Learning Tools.

    PubMed

    Jia, Lei; Yarlagadda, Ramya; Reed, Charles C

    2015-01-01

    Thermostability issue of protein point mutations is a common occurrence in protein engineering. An application which predicts the thermostability of mutants can be helpful for guiding decision making process in protein design via mutagenesis. An in silico point mutation scanning method is frequently used to find "hot spots" in proteins for focused mutagenesis. ProTherm (http://gibk26.bio.kyutech.ac.jp/jouhou/Protherm/protherm.html) is a public database that consists of thousands of protein mutants' experimentally measured thermostability. Two data sets based on two differently measured thermostability properties of protein single point mutations, namely the unfolding free energy change (ddG) and melting temperature change (dTm) were obtained from this database. Folding free energy change calculation from Rosetta, structural information of the point mutations as well as amino acid physical properties were obtained for building thermostability prediction models with informatics modeling tools. Five supervised machine learning methods (support vector machine, random forests, artificial neural network, naïve Bayes classifier, K nearest neighbor) and partial least squares regression are used for building the prediction models. Binary and ternary classifications as well as regression models were built and evaluated. Data set redundancy and balancing, the reverse mutations technique, feature selection, and comparison to other published methods were discussed. Rosetta calculated folding free energy change ranked as the most influential features in all prediction models. Other descriptors also made significant contributions to increasing the accuracy of the prediction models. PMID:26361227

  15. Structure Based Thermostability Prediction Models for Protein Single Point Mutations with Machine Learning Tools

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Lei; Yarlagadda, Ramya; Reed, Charles C.

    2015-01-01

    Thermostability issue of protein point mutations is a common occurrence in protein engineering. An application which predicts the thermostability of mutants can be helpful for guiding decision making process in protein design via mutagenesis. An in silico point mutation scanning method is frequently used to find “hot spots” in proteins for focused mutagenesis. ProTherm (http://gibk26.bio.kyutech.ac.jp/jouhou/Protherm/protherm.html) is a public database that consists of thousands of protein mutants’ experimentally measured thermostability. Two data sets based on two differently measured thermostability properties of protein single point mutations, namely the unfolding free energy change (ddG) and melting temperature change (dTm) were obtained from this database. Folding free energy change calculation from Rosetta, structural information of the point mutations as well as amino acid physical properties were obtained for building thermostability prediction models with informatics modeling tools. Five supervised machine learning methods (support vector machine, random forests, artificial neural network, naïve Bayes classifier, K nearest neighbor) and partial least squares regression are used for building the prediction models. Binary and ternary classifications as well as regression models were built and evaluated. Data set redundancy and balancing, the reverse mutations technique, feature selection, and comparison to other published methods were discussed. Rosetta calculated folding free energy change ranked as the most influential features in all prediction models. Other descriptors also made significant contributions to increasing the accuracy of the prediction models. PMID:26361227

  16. The study of opened CNC system of turning-grinding composite machine tool based on UMAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongjun; Han, Qiushi; Wu, Guoxin; Ma, Chao

    2010-12-01

    The general function analysis of a turning-grinding composite machine tool (TGCM) is done. The structure of the TGCM based on 'process integration with one setup' theory in this paper is presented. The CNC system functions of TGCM are analyzed and the CNC framework of TGCM is discussed. Finally the opened-CNC system for this machine tool is developed based on UMAC (Universal Motion and Automation Controller) included hardware system and software system. The hardware structure layout is put forward and the software system is implemented by using VC++6.0. The hardware system was composed of IPC and UMAC. The general control system meets the requirement of integrity machining and matches the hardware structure system of TGCM. The practical machining experiment results showed that the system is valid with high accuracy and high reliability.

  17. The study of opened CNC system of turning-grinding composite machine tool based on UMAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongjun; Han, Qiushi; Wu, Guoxin; Ma, Chao

    2011-05-01

    The general function analysis of a turning-grinding composite machine tool (TGCM) is done. The structure of the TGCM based on 'process integration with one setup' theory in this paper is presented. The CNC system functions of TGCM are analyzed and the CNC framework of TGCM is discussed. Finally the opened-CNC system for this machine tool is developed based on UMAC (Universal Motion and Automation Controller) included hardware system and software system. The hardware structure layout is put forward and the software system is implemented by using VC++6.0. The hardware system was composed of IPC and UMAC. The general control system meets the requirement of integrity machining and matches the hardware structure system of TGCM. The practical machining experiment results showed that the system is valid with high accuracy and high reliability.

  18. Automated radiation hard ASIC design tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Mike; Bartholet, Bill; Baze, Mark

    1993-01-01

    A commercial based, foundry independent, compiler design tool (ChipCrafter) with custom radiation hardened library cells is described. A unique analysis approach allows low hardness risk for Application Specific IC's (ASIC's). Accomplishments, radiation test results, and applications are described.

  19. INL Review of Fueling Machine Inspection Tool Development Proposal

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, George

    2015-03-01

    A review of a technical proposal for James Fischer Nuclear. The document describes an inspection tool to examine the graphite moderator in an AGR reactor. The system is an optical system to look at the graphite blocks for cracks. INL reviews the document for technical value.

  20. The use of machine learning and nonlinear statistical tools for ADME prediction.

    PubMed

    Sakiyama, Yojiro

    2009-02-01

    Absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME)-related failure of drug candidates is a major issue for the pharmaceutical industry today. Prediction of ADME by in silico tools has now become an inevitable paradigm to reduce cost and enhance efficiency in pharmaceutical research. Recently, machine learning as well as nonlinear statistical tools has been widely applied to predict routine ADME end points. To achieve accurate and reliable predictions, it would be a prerequisite to understand the concepts, mechanisms and limitations of these tools. Here, we have devised a small synthetic nonlinear data set to help understand the mechanism of machine learning by 2D-visualisation. We applied six new machine learning methods to four different data sets. The methods include Naive Bayes classifier, classification and regression tree, random forest, Gaussian process, support vector machine and k nearest neighbour. The results demonstrated that ensemble learning and kernel machine displayed greater accuracy of prediction than classical methods irrespective of the data set size. The importance of interaction with the engineering field is also addressed. The results described here provide insights into the mechanism of machine learning, which will enable appropriate usage in the future. PMID:19239395

  1. Tools for Material Design and Selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehage, Kristopher

    The present thesis focuses on applications of numerical methods to create tools for material characterization, design and selection. The tools generated in this work incorporate a variety of programming concepts, from digital image analysis, geometry, optimization, and parallel programming to data-mining, databases and web design. The first portion of the thesis focuses on methods for characterizing clustering in bimodal 5083 Aluminum alloys created by cryomilling and powder metallurgy. The bimodal samples analyzed in the present work contain a mixture of a coarse grain phase, with a grain size on the order of several microns, and an ultra-fine grain phase, with a grain size on the order of 200 nm. The mixing of the two phases is not homogeneous and clustering is observed. To investigate clustering in these bimodal materials, various microstructures were created experimentally by conventional cryomilling, Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP), Extrusion, Dual-Mode Dynamic Forging (DMDF) and a new 'Gradient' cryomilling process. Two techniques for quantitative clustering analysis are presented, formulated and implemented. The first technique, the Area Disorder function, provides a metric of the quality of coarse grain dispersion in an ultra-fine grain matrix and the second technique, the Two-Point Correlation function, provides a metric of long and short range spatial arrangements of the two phases, as well as an indication of the mean feature size in any direction. The two techniques are implemented on digital images created by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Electron Backscatter Detection (EBSD) of the microstructures. To investigate structure--property relationships through modeling and simulation, strategies for generating synthetic microstructures are discussed and a computer program that generates randomized microstructures with desired configurations of clustering described by the Area Disorder Function is formulated and presented. In the computer program, two

  2. Promoting Learning of Instructional Design via Overlay Design Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carle, Andrew Jacob

    2012-01-01

    I begin by introducing Virtual Design Apprenticeship (VDA), a learning model--built on a solid foundation of education principles and theories--that promotes learning of design skills via overlay design tools. In VDA, when an individual needs to learn a new design skill or paradigm she is provided accessible, concrete examples that have been…

  3. Design of testbed and emulation tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundstrom, S. F.; Flynn, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    The research summarized was concerned with the design of testbed and emulation tools suitable to assist in projecting, with reasonable accuracy, the expected performance of highly concurrent computing systems on large, complete applications. Such testbed and emulation tools are intended for the eventual use of those exploring new concurrent system architectures and organizations, either as users or as designers of such systems. While a range of alternatives was considered, a software based set of hierarchical tools was chosen to provide maximum flexibility, to ease in moving to new computers as technology improves and to take advantage of the inherent reliability and availability of commercially available computing systems.

  4. Method and apparatus for suppressing regenerative instability and related chatter in machine tools

    DOEpatents

    Segalman, Daniel J.; Redmond, James M.

    2001-01-01

    Methods of and apparatuses for mitigating chatter vibrations in machine tools or components thereof. Chatter therein is suppressed by periodically or continuously varying the stiffness of the cutting tool (or some component of the cutting tool), and hence the resonant frequency of the cutting tool (or some component thereof). The varying of resonant frequency of the cutting tool can be accomplished by modulating the stiffness of the cutting tool, the cutting tool holder, or any other component of the support for the cutting tool. By periodically altering the impedance of the cutting tool assembly, chatter is mitigated. In one embodiment, a cyclic electric (or magnetic) field is applied to the spindle quill which contains an electro-rheological (or magneto-rheological) fluid. The variable yield stress in the fluid affects the coupling of the spindle to the machine tool structure, changing the natural frequency of oscillation. Altering the modal characteristics in this fashion disrupts the modulation of current tool vibrations with previous tool vibrations recorded on the workpiece surface.

  5. Method and apparatus for suppressing regenerative instability and related chatter in machine tools

    DOEpatents

    Segalman, Daniel J.; Redmond, James M.

    1999-01-01

    Methods of and apparatuses for mitigating chatter vibrations in machine tools or components thereof. Chatter therein is suppressed by periodically or continuously varying the stiffness of the cutting tool (or some component of the cutting tool), and hence the resonant frequency of the cutting tool (or some component thereof). The varying of resonant frequency of the cutting tool can be accomplished by modulating the stiffness of the cutting tool, the cutting tool holder, or any other component of the support for the cutting tool. By periodically altering the impedance of the cutting tool assembly, chatter is mitigated. In one embodiment, a cyclic electric (or magnetic) field is applied to the spindle quill which contains an electro-rheological (or magneto-rheological) fluid. The variable yield stress in the fluid affects the coupling of the spindle to the machine tool structure, changing the natural frequency of oscillation. Altering the modal characteristics in this fashion disrupts the modulation of current tool vibrations with previous tool vibrations recorded on the workpiece surface.

  6. Method and apparatus for suppressing regenerative instability and related chatter in machine tools

    SciTech Connect

    Segalman, D.J.; Redmond, J.M.

    1999-09-28

    Methods of and apparatuses for mitigating chatter vibrations in machine tools or components thereof are disclosed. Chatter therein is suppressed by periodically or continuously varying the stiffness of the cutting tool (or some component of the cutting tool), and hence the resonant frequency of the cutting tool (or some component thereof). The varying of resonant frequency of the cutting tool can be accomplished by modulating the stiffness of the cutting tool, the cutting tool holder, or any other component of the support for the cutting tool. By periodically altering the impedance of the cutting tool assembly, chatter is mitigated. In one embodiment, a cyclic electric (or magnetic) field is applied to the spindle quill which contains an electro-rheological (or magneto-rheological) fluid. The variable yield stress in the fluid affects the coupling of the spindle to the machine tool structure, changing the natural frequency of oscillation. Altering the modal characteristics in this fashion disrupts the modulation of current tool vibrations with previous tool vibrations recorded on the workpiece surface.

  7. Compensation of Gravity-Induced Errors on a Hexapod-Type Parallel Kinematic Machine Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibaraki, Soichi; Okuda, Toshihiro; Kakino, Yoshiaki; Nakagawa, Masao; Matsushita, Tetsuya; Ando, Tomoharu

    This paper presents a methodology to compensate contouring errors introduced by the gravity on a Hexapod-type parallel kinematic machine tool with the Stewart platform. Unlike conventional serial kinematic feed drives, the gravity imposes a critical effect on the positioning accuracy of a parallel kinematic feed drive, and its effect significantly varies depending on the position and the orientation of the spindle. We first present a kinematic model to predict the elastic deformation of struts caused by the gravity. The positioning error at the tool tip is given as the superposition of the deformation of each strut. It is experimentally verified for a commercial parallel kinematic machine tool that the machine's contouring error is significantly reduced by compensating gravity-induced errors on a reference trajectory.

  8. Control/structure interaction conceptual design tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Hugh C.

    1990-01-01

    The JPL Control/Structure Interaction Program is developing new analytical methods for designing micro-precision spacecraft with controlled structures. One of these, the Conceptual Design Tool, will illustrate innovative new approaches to the integration of multi-disciplinary analysis and design methods. The tool will be used to demonstrate homogeneity of presentation, uniform data representation across analytical methods, and integrated systems modeling. The tool differs from current 'integrated systems' that support design teams most notably in its support for the new CSI multi-disciplinary engineer. The design tool will utilize a three dimensional solid model of the spacecraft under design as the central data organization metaphor. Various analytical methods, such as finite element structural analysis, control system analysis, and mechanical configuration layout, will store and retrieve data from a hierarchical, object oriented data structure that supports assemblies of components with associated data and algorithms. In addition to managing numerical model data, the tool will assist the designer in organizing, stating, and tracking system requirements.

  9. Of Genes and Machines: Application of a Combination of Machine Learning Tools to Astronomy Data Sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinis, S.; Kumar, S.; Gezari, S.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Draper, P. W.; Flewelling, H.; Kaiser, N.; Magnier, E. A.; Metcalfe, N.; Waters, C.

    2016-04-01

    We apply a combination of genetic algorithm (GA) and support vector machine (SVM) machine learning algorithms to solve two important problems faced by the astronomical community: star-galaxy separation and photometric redshift estimation of galaxies in survey catalogs. We use the GA to select the relevant features in the first step, followed by optimization of SVM parameters in the second step to obtain an optimal set of parameters to classify or regress, in the process of which we avoid overfitting. We apply our method to star-galaxy separation in Pan-STARRS1 data. We show that our method correctly classifies 98% of objects down to {i}{{P1}}=24.5, with a completeness (or true positive rate) of 99% for galaxies and 88% for stars. By combining colors with morphology, our star-galaxy separation method yields better results than the new SExtractor classifier spread_model, in particular at the faint end ({i}{{P1}}\\gt 22). We also use our method to derive photometric redshifts for galaxies in the COSMOS bright multiwavelength data set down to an error in (1+z) of σ =0.013, which compares well with estimates from spectral energy distribution fitting on the same data (σ =0.007) while making a significantly smaller number of assumptions.

  10. Of Genes and Machines: Application of a Combination of Machine Learning Tools to Astronomy Data Sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinis, S.; Kumar, S.; Gezari, S.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Draper, P. W.; Flewelling, H.; Kaiser, N.; Magnier, E. A.; Metcalfe, N.; Waters, C.

    2016-04-01

    We apply a combination of genetic algorithm (GA) and support vector machine (SVM) machine learning algorithms to solve two important problems faced by the astronomical community: star–galaxy separation and photometric redshift estimation of galaxies in survey catalogs. We use the GA to select the relevant features in the first step, followed by optimization of SVM parameters in the second step to obtain an optimal set of parameters to classify or regress, in the process of which we avoid overfitting. We apply our method to star–galaxy separation in Pan-STARRS1 data. We show that our method correctly classifies 98% of objects down to {i}{{P1}}=24.5, with a completeness (or true positive rate) of 99% for galaxies and 88% for stars. By combining colors with morphology, our star–galaxy separation method yields better results than the new SExtractor classifier spread_model, in particular at the faint end ({i}{{P1}}\\gt 22). We also use our method to derive photometric redshifts for galaxies in the COSMOS bright multiwavelength data set down to an error in (1+z) of σ =0.013, which compares well with estimates from spectral energy distribution fitting on the same data (σ =0.007) while making a significantly smaller number of assumptions.

  11. Hardening effect on machined surface for precise hard cutting process with consideration of tool wear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Caixu; Liu, Xianli; Ma, Jing; Liu, Zhaojing; Liu, Fei; Yang, Yongheng

    2014-11-01

    During hard cutting process there is severe thermodynamic coupling effect between cutting tool and workpiece, which causes quenching effect on finished surfaces under certain conditions. However, material phase transformation mechanism of heat treatment in cutting process is different from the one in traditional process, which leads to changes of the formation mechanism of damaged layer on machined workpiece surface. This paper researches on the generation mechanism of damaged layer on machined surface in the process of PCBN tool hard cutting hardened steel Cr12MoV. Rules of temperature change on machined surface and subsurface are got by means of finite element simulation. In phase transformation temperature experiments rapid transformation instrument is employed, and the effect of quenching under cutting conditions on generation of damaged layer is revealed. Based on that, the phase transformation points of temperature under cutting conditions are determined. By experiment, the effects of cutting speed and tool wear on white layer thickness in damaged layer are revealed. The temperature distribution law of third deformation zone is got by establishing the numerical prediction model, and thickness of white layer in damaged layer is predicted, taking the tool wear effect into consideration. The experimental results show that the model prediction is accurate, and the establishment of prediction model provides a reference for wise selection of parameters in precise hard cutting process. For the machining process with high demanding on surface integrity, the generation of damaged layer on machined surface can be controlled precisely by using the prediction model.

  12. Improving air traffic control: Proving new tools or approving the joint human-machine system?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaillard, Irene; Leroux, Marcel

    1994-01-01

    From the description of a field problem (i.e., designing decision aids for air traffic controllers), this paper points out how a cognitive engineering approach provides the milestones for the evaluation of future joint human-machine systems.

  13. Machining conditions and the wear of TiC-coated carbide tools

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, C.Y.H.; Lim, S.C.; Lee, K.S.

    1998-07-01

    This paper examines the wear behavior of TiC-coated cemented carbide tools in turning. Experimental data from dry turning tests, together with similar data from the open literature, are used to construct wear maps depicting the flank and crater wear characteristics of these tools over a wide range of machining conditions. The maps show that both flank and crater wear rates vary according to the cutting speeds and feed rates used. An overall wear-damage map for this class of coated tools is also presented for the first time. The presence of the safety zone and the least-wear regime, within which the overall wear damage to the tools is low, suggests the possibility of selecting the machining conditions to achieve a compromise between the rates of material removal and tool wear.

  14. Structural and Machine Design Using Piezoceramic Materials: A Guide for Structural Design Engineers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inman, Daniel J.; Cudney, Harley H.

    2000-01-01

    Using piezoceramic materials is one way the design engineer can create structures which have an ability to both sense and respond to their environment. Piezoceramic materials can be used to create structural sensors and structural actuators. Because piezoceramic materials have transduction as a material property, their sensing or actuation functions are a result of what happens to the material. This is different than discrete devices we might attach to the structure. For example, attaching an accelerometer to a structure will yield an electrical signal proportional to the acceleration at the attachment point on the structure. Using a electromagnetic shaker as an actuator will create an applied force at the attachment point. Active material elements in a structural design are not easily modeled as providing transduction at a point, but rather they change the physics of the structure in the areas where they are used. Hence, a designer must not think of adding discrete devices to a structure to obtain an effect, but rather must design a structural system which accounts for the physical principles of all the elements in the structure. The purpose of this manual is to provide practicing engineers the information necessary to incorporate piezoelectric materials in structural design and machine design. First, we will review the solid-state physics of piezoelectric materials. Then we will discuss the physical characteristics of the electrical-active material-structural system. We will present the elements of this system which must be considered as part of the design task for a structural engineer. We will cover simple modeling techniques and review the features and capabilities of commercial design tools that are available. We will then cover practical how-to elements of working with piezoceramic materials. We will review sources of piezoceramic materials and built-up devices, and their characteristics. Finally, we will provide two design examples using piezoceramic

  15. Designing Online Assessment Tools for Disengaged Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brader, Andy; Luke, Allan; Klenowski, Val; Connolly, Stephen; Behzadpour, Adib

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on the development of online assessment tools for disengaged youth in flexible learning environments. Sociocultural theories of learning and assessment and Bourdieu's sociological concepts of capital and exchange were used to design a purpose-built content management system. This design experiment engaged participants in…

  16. Web-Based Learning Design Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruno, F. B.; Silva, T. L. K.; Silva, R. P.; Teixeira, F. G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose a web-based tool that enables the development and provision of learning designs and its reuse and re-contextualization as generative learning objects, aimed at developing educational materials. Design/methodology/approach: The use of learning objects can facilitate the process of production and…

  17. Automated database design technology and tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Stewart N. T.

    1988-01-01

    The Automated Database Design Technology and Tools research project results are summarized in this final report. Comments on the state of the art in various aspects of database design are provided, and recommendations made for further research for SNAP and NAVMASSO future database applications.

  18. Integrated Design Tools Reduce Risk, Cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    Thanks in part to a SBIR award with Langley Research Center, Phoenix Integration Inc., based in Wayne, Pennsylvania, modified and advanced software for process integration and design automation. For NASA, the tool has resulted in lower project costs and reductions in design time; clients of Phoenix Integration are experiencing the same rewards.

  19. Analytical Tools for Space Suit Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aitchison, Lindsay

    2011-01-01

    As indicated by the implementation of multiple small project teams within the agency, NASA is adopting a lean approach to hardware development that emphasizes quick product realization and rapid response to shifting program and agency goals. Over the past two decades, space suit design has been evolutionary in approach with emphasis on building prototypes then testing with the largest practical range of subjects possible. The results of these efforts show continuous improvement but make scaled design and performance predictions almost impossible with limited budgets and little time. Thus, in an effort to start changing the way NASA approaches space suit design and analysis, the Advanced Space Suit group has initiated the development of an integrated design and analysis tool. It is a multi-year-if not decadal-development effort that, when fully implemented, is envisioned to generate analysis of any given space suit architecture or, conversely, predictions of ideal space suit architectures given specific mission parameters. The master tool will exchange information to and from a set of five sub-tool groups in order to generate the desired output. The basic functions of each sub-tool group, the initial relationships between the sub-tools, and a comparison to state of the art software and tools are discussed.

  20. An Integrated Approach of Fuzzy Linguistic Preference Based AHP and Fuzzy COPRAS for Machine Tool Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Huu-Tho; Md Dawal, Siti Zawiah; Nukman, Yusoff; Aoyama, Hideki; Case, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Globalization of business and competitiveness in manufacturing has forced companies to improve their manufacturing facilities to respond to market requirements. Machine tool evaluation involves an essential decision using imprecise and vague information, and plays a major role to improve the productivity and flexibility in manufacturing. The aim of this study is to present an integrated approach for decision-making in machine tool selection. This paper is focused on the integration of a consistent fuzzy AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) and a fuzzy COmplex PRoportional ASsessment (COPRAS) for multi-attribute decision-making in selecting the most suitable machine tool. In this method, the fuzzy linguistic reference relation is integrated into AHP to handle the imprecise and vague information, and to simplify the data collection for the pair-wise comparison matrix of the AHP which determines the weights of attributes. The output of the fuzzy AHP is imported into the fuzzy COPRAS method for ranking alternatives through the closeness coefficient. Presentation of the proposed model application is provided by a numerical example based on the collection of data by questionnaire and from the literature. The results highlight the integration of the improved fuzzy AHP and the fuzzy COPRAS as a precise tool and provide effective multi-attribute decision-making for evaluating the machine tool in the uncertain environment. PMID:26368541

  1. An Integrated Approach of Fuzzy Linguistic Preference Based AHP and Fuzzy COPRAS for Machine Tool Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Huu-Tho; Md Dawal, Siti Zawiah; Nukman, Yusoff; Aoyama, Hideki; Case, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Globalization of business and competitiveness in manufacturing has forced companies to improve their manufacturing facilities to respond to market requirements. Machine tool evaluation involves an essential decision using imprecise and vague information, and plays a major role to improve the productivity and flexibility in manufacturing. The aim of this study is to present an integrated approach for decision-making in machine tool selection. This paper is focused on the integration of a consistent fuzzy AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) and a fuzzy COmplex PRoportional ASsessment (COPRAS) for multi-attribute decision-making in selecting the most suitable machine tool. In this method, the fuzzy linguistic reference relation is integrated into AHP to handle the imprecise and vague information, and to simplify the data collection for the pair-wise comparison matrix of the AHP which determines the weights of attributes. The output of the fuzzy AHP is imported into the fuzzy COPRAS method for ranking alternatives through the closeness coefficient. Presentation of the proposed model application is provided by a numerical example based on the collection of data by questionnaire and from the literature. The results highlight the integration of the improved fuzzy AHP and the fuzzy COPRAS as a precise tool and provide effective multi-attribute decision-making for evaluating the machine tool in the uncertain environment. PMID:26368541

  2. An open CAM system for dentistry on the basis of China-made 5-axis simultaneous contouring CNC machine tool and industrial CAM software.

    PubMed

    Lu, Li; Liu, Shusheng; Shi, Shenggen; Yang, Jianzhong

    2011-10-01

    China-made 5-axis simultaneous contouring CNC machine tool and domestically developed industrial computer-aided manufacture (CAM) technology were used for full crown fabrication and measurement of crown accuracy, with an attempt to establish an open CAM system for dental processing and to promote the introduction of domestic dental computer-aided design (CAD)/CAM system. Commercially available scanning equipment was used to make a basic digital tooth model after preparation of crown, and CAD software that comes with the scanning device was employed to design the crown by using domestic industrial CAM software to process the crown data in order to generate a solid model for machining purpose, and then China-made 5-axis simultaneous contouring CNC machine tool was used to complete machining of the whole crown and the internal accuracy of the crown internal was measured by using 3D-MicroCT. The results showed that China-made 5-axis simultaneous contouring CNC machine tool in combination with domestic industrial CAM technology can be used for crown making and the crown was well positioned in die. The internal accuracy was successfully measured by using 3D-MicroCT. It is concluded that an open CAM system for dentistry on the basis of China-made 5-axis simultaneous contouring CNC machine tool and domestic industrial CAM software has been established, and development of the system will promote the introduction of domestically-produced dental CAD/CAM system. PMID:22038364

  3. Design of an instrumented smart cutting tool and its implementation and application perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Cheng, Kai; Chen, Xun; Minton, Timothy; Rakowski, Richard

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents an innovative design of a smart cutting tool, using two surface acoustic wave (SAW) strain sensors mounted onto the top and the side surface of the tool shank respectively, and its implementation and application perspectives. This surface acoustic wave-based smart cutting tool is capable of measuring the cutting force and the feed force in a real machining environment, after a calibration process under known cutting conditions. A hybrid dissimilar workpiece is then machined using the SAW-based smart cutting tool. The hybrid dissimilar material is made of two different materials, NiCu alloy (Monel) and steel, welded together to form a single bar; this can be used to simulate an abrupt change in material properties. The property transition zone is successfully detected by the tool; the sensor feedback can then be used to initiate a change in the machining parameters to compensate for the altered material properties.

  4. Design and Analysis Tools for Supersonic Inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, John W.; Folk, Thomas C.

    2009-01-01

    Computational tools are being developed for the design and analysis of supersonic inlets. The objective is to update existing tools and provide design and low-order aerodynamic analysis capability for advanced inlet concepts. The Inlet Tools effort includes aspects of creating an electronic database of inlet design information, a document describing inlet design and analysis methods, a geometry model for describing the shape of inlets, and computer tools that implement the geometry model and methods. The geometry model has a set of basic inlet shapes that include pitot, two-dimensional, axisymmetric, and stream-traced inlet shapes. The inlet model divides the inlet flow field into parts that facilitate the design and analysis methods. The inlet geometry model constructs the inlet surfaces through the generation and transformation of planar entities based on key inlet design factors. Future efforts will focus on developing the inlet geometry model, the inlet design and analysis methods, a Fortran 95 code to implement the model and methods. Other computational platforms, such as Java, will also be explored.

  5. Muon Collider interaction region and machine-detector interface design

    SciTech Connect

    Mokhov, N.V.; Alexahin, Y.I.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Striganov, S.I.; Zlobin, A.V.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    One of the key systems of a Muon Collider (MC) - seen as the most exciting option for the energy frontier machine in the post-LHC era - is its interaction region (IR). Designs of its optics, magnets and machine-detector interface are strongly interlaced and iterative. As a result of recent comprehensive studies, consistent solutions for the 1.5-TeV c.o.m. MC IR have been found and are described here. To provide the required momentum acceptance, dynamic aperture and chromaticity, an innovative approach was used for the IR optics. Conceptual designs of large-aperture high-field dipole and high-gradient quadrupole magnets based on Nb{sub 3}Sn superconductor were developed and analyzed in terms of the operating margin, field quality, mechanics, coil cooling and quench protection. Shadow masks in the interconnect regions and liners inside the magnets are used to mitigate the unprecedented dynamic heat deposition due to muon decays ({approx}0.5 kW/m). It is shown that an appropriately designed machine-detector interface (MDI) with sophisticated shielding in the detector has a potential to substantially suppress the background rates in the MC detector.

  6. Acoustic emission from single point machining: Part 2, Signal changes with tool wear. Revised

    SciTech Connect

    Heiple, C.R.; Carpenter, S.H.; Armentrout, D.L.; McManigle, A.P.

    1989-12-31

    Changes in acoustic emission signal characteristics with tool wear were monitored during single point machining of 4340 steel and Ti-6Al-4V heat treated to several strength levels, 606l-T6 aluminum, 304 stainless steel, 17-4PH stainless steel, 410 stainless steel, lead, and teflon. No signal characteristic changed in the same way with tool wear for all materials tested. A single change in a particular AE signal characteristic with tool wear valid for all materials probably does not exist. Nevertheless, changes in various signal characteristic with wear for a given material may be sufficient to be used to monitor tool wear.

  7. Acoustic emission from single point machining: Part 2, Signal changes with tool wear

    SciTech Connect

    Heiple, C.R.; Carpenter, S.H.; Armentrout, D.L.; McManigle, A.P.

    1989-01-01

    Changes in acoustic emission signal characteristics with tool wear were monitored during single point machining of 4340 steel and Ti-6Al-4V heat treated to several strength levels, 606l-T6 aluminum, 304 stainless steel, 17-4PH stainless steel, 410 stainless steel, lead, and teflon. No signal characteristic changed in the same way with tool wear for all materials tested. A single change in a particular AE signal characteristic with tool wear valid for all materials probably does not exist. Nevertheless, changes in various signal characteristic with wear for a given material may be sufficient to be used to monitor tool wear.

  8. Description of a unique machine tool permitting achievement of < 15-A rms diamond-turned surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.M.; Hauver, G.H.; Culverhouse, J.N.; Greenwell, E.N.

    1980-01-01

    A new machine tool now in the final stages of development at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory uses a unique tool motion to produce diamond-turned surfaces of exceptionally high quality. The cutting tool is programmed to move in 4-nm increments along two axes: an X axis and an Omega axis. Exceptionally stiff and accurate control of the tool is possible with this Omega-X system. Copper surfaces of revolution have been produced with a 12.3-A rms surface finish and a contour accuracy of 75 nm. In conjunction with a unique, thermally stabilized air bearing spindle and machine calibration equipment, the Omega-X system permits a significant advance in the fabrication of optical-quality surfaces for use with the visible spectrum.

  9. Design of a high-performance slide and drive system for a small precision machining research lathe

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, R.R.; Maddux, A.S.

    1984-03-01

    The development of high-accuracy machine tools, principally through interest in diamond turning, plus the availability of new cutting tool materials, offers the possibility of improving workpiece accuracy for a much larger variety of materials than that addressed by diamond tools. This paper describes the design and measured performance of a slideway and servo-drive system for a small lathe intended as a tool for research on the above subject, with emphasis on the servo-control design. The slide system provides high accuracy and stiffness over a travel of 100 mm, utilizing oil hydrostatic bearings and a capstan roller drive with integral dc motor and tachometer.

  10. Recent progresses in the exploration of machine learning methods as in-silico ADME prediction tools.

    PubMed

    Tao, L; Zhang, P; Qin, C; Chen, S Y; Zhang, C; Chen, Z; Zhu, F; Yang, S Y; Wei, Y Q; Chen, Y Z

    2015-06-23

    In-silico methods have been explored as potential tools for assessing ADME and ADME regulatory properties particularly in early drug discovery stages. Machine learning methods, with their ability in classifying diverse structures and complex mechanisms, are well suited for predicting ADME and ADME regulatory properties. Recent efforts have been directed at the broadening of application scopes and the improvement of predictive performance with particular focuses on the coverage of ADME properties, and exploration of more diversified training data, appropriate molecular features, and consensus modeling. Moreover, several online machine learning ADME prediction servers have emerged. Here we review these progresses and discuss the performances, application prospects and challenges of exploring machine learning methods as useful tools in predicting ADME and ADME regulatory properties. PMID:26037068

  11. Placement of the material temperature sensor during measuring the accuracy of CNC machine tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dong-sheng; Jia, Min-qiang; Zhang, Jian; Sun, Lei; Li, Wei-jun

    2013-10-01

    In view of the dispute on the placement of material sensor when measuring the positional accuracy of a linear axis of a CNC machine tool, this paper presents the method and principle of deciding where to put the material temperature sensor. The positional accuracy of the linear axis of the machine tool is one of the most important performance parameters, and it must be measured when setup and check. The placement of the material temperature sensor has great influence on the measurement accuracy. At present, there are two main views on this issue: one is to place the sensor on the table of the machine tool, the other is to place it on the feedback system. This conflict between these two debates often makes the measurers feel confused and as a result influences the measure quality, sometimes. This thesis attempts to classify the CNC machine tools positional accuracy measurement according to its different purposes, then further presents the best placement. The thesis also elaborates other relevant questions of the placement of the material temperature sensor.

  12. Mathematics for the Workplace. Applications from Machine Tool Technology (Michelin Tire Corporation). A Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Johnny M.; Stewart, Grover

    This module presents a real-world context in which mathematics skills (geometry and trigonometry) are used as part of a daily routine. The context is the machine tool technology field, and the module aims to help students develop the ability to analyze diagrams in order to make mathematical computations. The modules, which features applications…

  13. MACHINE TOOL OPERATOR--GENERAL, ENTRY, SUGGESTED GUIDE FOR A TRAINING COURSE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RONEY, MAURICE W.; AND OTHERS

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS CURRICULUM GUIDE IS TO ASSIST THE ADMINISTRATOR AND INSTRUCTOR IN PLANNING AND DEVELOPING MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS TO PREPARE MACHINE TOOL OPERATORS FOR ENTRY-LEVEL POSITIONS. THE COURSE OUTLINE PROVIDES UNITS IN -- (1) ORIENTATION, (2) BENCH WORK, (3) SHOP MATHEMATICS, (4) BLUEPRINT READING AND SKETCHING, (5)…

  14. Manufacturing process applications team (MATEAM). [technology transfer in the areas of machine tools and robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The transfer of NASA technology to the industrial sector is reported. Presentations to the machine tool and robot industries and direct technology transfers of the Adams Manipulator arm, a-c motor control, and the bolt tension monitor are discussed. A listing of proposed RTOP programs with strong potential is included. A detailed description of the rotor technology available to industry is given.

  15. Determination of real machine-tool settings and minimization of real surface deviation by computerized inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvin, Faydor L.; Kuan, Chihping; Zhang, YI

    1991-01-01

    A numerical method is developed for the minimization of deviations of real tooth surfaces from the theoretical ones. The deviations are caused by errors of manufacturing, errors of installment of machine-tool settings and distortion of surfaces by heat-treatment. The deviations are determined by coordinate measurements of gear tooth surfaces. The minimization of deviations is based on the proper correction of initially applied machine-tool settings. The contents of accomplished research project cover the following topics: (1) Descriptions of the principle of coordinate measurements of gear tooth surfaces; (2) Deviation of theoretical tooth surfaces (with examples of surfaces of hypoid gears and references for spiral bevel gears); (3) Determination of the reference point and the grid; (4) Determination of the deviations of real tooth surfaces at the points of the grid; and (5) Determination of required corrections of machine-tool settings for minimization of deviations. The procedure for minimization of deviations is based on numerical solution of an overdetermined system of n linear equations in m unknowns (m much less than n ), where n is the number of points of measurements and m is the number of parameters of applied machine-tool settings to be corrected. The developed approach is illustrated with numerical examples.

  16. 76 FR 5832 - International Business Machines (IBM), Software Group Business Unit, Optim Data Studio Tools QA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration International Business Machines (IBM), Software Group Business Unit, Optim Data Studio Tools QA, San Jose, CA; Notice of Affirmative Determination Regarding Application for Reconsideration By application dated...

  17. Graphical Acoustic Liner Design and Analysis Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howerton, Brian M. (Inventor); Jones, Michael G. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An interactive liner design and impedance modeling tool comprises software utilized to design acoustic liners for use in constrained spaces, both regularly and irregularly shaped. A graphical user interface allows the acoustic channel geometry to be drawn in a liner volume while the surface impedance calculations are updated and displayed in real-time. A one-dimensional transmission line model may be used as the basis for the impedance calculations.

  18. Defining and Testing the Influence of Servo System Response on Machine Tool Compliance

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, D J

    2004-03-24

    Compliance can be defined as the measurement of displacement per unit of force applied e.g. nano-meters per Newton (m/N). Compliance is the reciprocal of stiffness. High stiffness means low compliance and visa versa. It is an important factor in machine tool characteristics because it reflects the ability of the machine axis to maintain a desired position as it encounters a force or torque. Static compliance is a measurement made with a constant force applied e.g. the average depth of cut. Dynamic compliance is a measurement made as a function of frequency, e.g. a fast too servo (FTS) that applies a varying cutting force or load, interrupted cuts and external disturbances such as ground vibrations or air conditioning induced forces on the machine. Compliance can be defined for both a linear and rotary axis of a machine tool. However, to properly define compliance for a rotary axis, the axis must allow a commanded angular position. Note that this excludes velocity only axes. In this paper, several factors are discussed that affect compliance but emphasis is placed on how the machine servo system plays a key role in compliance at low to mid frequency regions. The paper discusses several techniques for measuring compliance and provides examples of results from these measurements.

  19. Evaluation and optimization of handle design parameters of a grass trimming machine.

    PubMed

    Mallick, Zulquernain

    2008-01-01

    The grass trimming machine is a widely used agricultural machine for cutting grass by the roadside and in other areas in Malaysia. Hand-arm vibration (HAV) syndrome is very common among workers operating power tools and performing similar work for extended periods. Grass trimming involves the use of a motorized cutter spinning at high speed, resulting in high levels of HAV among its operators. The existing D-shape handle causes HAV-related stress and operational load in operators. This research proposes a new design of a handle of the grass trimming machine. When this new design was compared with the old one, it was found that the new handle resulted in 18% lower HAV. To find the lowest HAV, 3 critical parameters of the new handle (length, angle and material of the cap of the handle) were optimized using the Taguchi quality tool. Appropriately selected parameters of the new handle significantly reduced the occurrence of HAV among grass trimmers. PMID:18954544

  20. Language and Tool Support for Class and State Machine Refinement in UML-B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Said, Mar Yah; Butler, Michael; Snook, Colin

    UML-B is a ‘UML-like’ graphical front end for Event-B that provides support for object-oriented modelling concepts. In particular, UML-B supports class diagrams and state machines, concepts that are not explicitly supported in plain Event-B. In Event-B, refinement is used to relate system models at different abstraction levels. The same abstraction-refinement concepts can also be applied in UML-B. This paper introduces the notions of refined classes and refined state machines to enable refinement of classes and state machines in UML-B. Together with these notions, a technique for moving an event between classes to facilitate abstraction is also introduced. Our work makes explicit the structures of class and state machine refinement in UML-B. The UML-B drawing tool and Event-B translator are extended to support the new refinement concepts. A case study of an auto teller machine (ATM) is presented to demonstrate application and effectiveness of refined classes and refined state machines.

  1. Designing a Moodle Course with the CADMOS Learning Design Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsamani, Maria; Retalis, Symeon; Boloudakis, Michail

    2012-01-01

    CADMOS is a graphical learning design (LD) authoring tool that helps a teacher design a unit of learning in two layers: (i) the conceptual layer, which seems like a concept map and contains the learning activities with their associated learning resources and (ii) the flow layer, which contains the orchestration of these activities. One of CADMOS'…

  2. Apprentice Machine Theory Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford. Div. of Vocational-Technical Schools.

    This volume contains outlines for 16 courses in machine theory that are designed for machine tool apprentices. Addressed in the individual course outlines are the following topics: basic concepts; lathes; milling machines; drills, saws, and shapers; heat treatment and metallurgy; grinders; quality control; hydraulics and pneumatics;…

  3. Participatory design and an eligibility screening tool.

    PubMed Central

    Gennari, J. H.; Reddy, M.

    2000-01-01

    For most medical informatics software products, insufficient effort is spent on the design phase of production. However, poor design often leads to systems that are either not well accepted, or far less effective than they could be. In this paper, we describe the ideas of participatory design and discuss why these ideas are especially applicable to medical informatics systems. In particular, we present a case study in the area of clinical trial protocol management. We designed and developed a tool aimed at increasing accrual to clinical trial protocols at an oncology center. However, the design evolved over time, and features of this design were only discovered through iterative development and interaction with the users within the context of the workplace. PMID:11079891

  4. Electronics Shielding and Reliability Design Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; ONeill, P. M.; Zang, Thomas A., Jr.; Pandolf, John E.; Koontz, Steven L.; Boeder, P.; Reddell, B.; Pankop, C.

    2006-01-01

    It is well known that electronics placement in large-scale human-rated systems provides opportunity to optimize electronics shielding through materials choice and geometric arrangement. For example, several hundred single event upsets (SEUs) occur within the Shuttle avionic computers during a typical mission. An order of magnitude larger SEU rate would occur without careful placement in the Shuttle design. These results used basic physics models (linear energy transfer (LET), track structure, Auger recombination) combined with limited SEU cross section measurements allowing accurate evaluation of target fragment contributions to Shuttle avionics memory upsets. Electronics shielding design on human-rated systems provides opportunity to minimize radiation impact on critical and non-critical electronic systems. Implementation of shielding design tools requires adequate methods for evaluation of design layouts, guiding qualification testing, and an adequate follow-up on final design evaluation including results from a systems/device testing program tailored to meet design requirements.

  5. Designing for Audit: A Voting Machine with a Tiny TCB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Ryan W.; Garera, Sujata; Rubin, Aviel D.

    Thoroughly auditing voting machine software has proved to be difficult, and even efforts to reduce its complexity have relied on significant amounts of external code. We design and implement a device that allows a voter to confirm and cast her vote while trusting only 1,034 lines of ARM assembly. The system, which we develop from scratch, supports visually (and hearing) impaired voters and ensures the privacy of the voter as well as the integrity of the tally under some common assumptions. We employ several techniques to increase the readability of our code and make it easier to audit.

  6. Nonlinear machine learning and design of reconfigurable digital colloids.

    PubMed

    Long, Andrew W; Phillips, Carolyn L; Jankowksi, Eric; Ferguson, Andrew L

    2016-09-14

    Digital colloids, a cluster of freely rotating "halo" particles tethered to the surface of a central particle, were recently proposed as ultra-high density memory elements for information storage. Rational design of these digital colloids for memory storage applications requires a quantitative understanding of the thermodynamic and kinetic stability of the configurational states within which information is stored. We apply nonlinear machine learning to Brownian dynamics simulations of these digital colloids to extract the low-dimensional intrinsic manifold governing digital colloid morphology, thermodynamics, and kinetics. By modulating the relative size ratio between halo particles and central particles, we investigate the size-dependent configurational stability and transition kinetics for the 2-state tetrahedral (N = 4) and 30-state octahedral (N = 6) digital colloids. We demonstrate the use of this framework to guide the rational design of a memory storage element to hold a block of text that trades off the competing design criteria of memory addressability and volatility. PMID:27498992

  7. Development of a State Machine Sequencer for the Keck Interferometer: Evolution, Development and Lessons Learned using a CASE Tool Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rede, Leonard J.; Booth, Andrew; Hsieh, Jonathon; Summer, Kellee

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a discussion of the evolution of a sequencer from a simple EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System) based sequencer into a complex implementation designed utilizing UML (Unified Modeling Language) methodologies and a CASE (Computer Aided Software Engineering) tool approach. The main purpose of the sequencer (called the IF Sequencer) is to provide overall control of the Keck Interferometer to enable science operations be carried out by a single operator (and/or observer). The interferometer links the two 10m telescopes of the W. M. Keck Observatory at Mauna Kea, Hawaii. The IF Sequencer is a high-level, multi-threaded, Hare1 finite state machine, software program designed to orchestrate several lower-level hardware and software hard real time subsystems that must perform their work in a specific and sequential order. The sequencing need not be done in hard real-time. Each state machine thread commands either a high-speed real-time multiple mode embedded controller via CORB A, or slower controllers via EPICS Channel Access interfaces. The overall operation of the system is simplified by the automation. The UML is discussed and our use of it to implement the sequencer is presented. The decision to use the Rhapsody product as our CASE tool is explained and reflected upon. Most importantly, a section on lessons learned is presented and the difficulty of integrating CASE tool automatically generated C++ code into a large control system consisting of multiple infrastructures is presented.

  8. Vibration suppression in multi-tool ultrasonic machining to multi-external and parametric excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamel, M. M.; El-Ganaini, W. A. A.; Hamed, Y. S.

    2009-06-01

    Ultrasonic machining (USM) is of particular interest for the machining of non-conductive, brittle materials such as engineering ceramics. In this paper, a multi-tool technique is used in USM to reduce the vibration in the tool holder and have reasonable amplitude for the tools. This can be done via dynamic absorbers. The coupling of four non-linear oscillators of the tool holder and tools representing ultrasonic cutting process are investigated. This leads to a four-degree-of-freedom system subjected to multi-external and multi-parametric excitation forces. The aim of this work is to control the tool holder behavior at simultaneous primary, sub-harmonic and internal resonance condition. Multiple scale perturbation method is used to obtain the solution up to the second order approximations. The different resonance cases are reported and studied numerically. The stability of the system is investigated by using both phase-plane and frequency response techniques. The effects of the different parameters of the tools on the system behavior are studied numerically. Comparison with the available published work is reported.

  9. Adaptive tool servo diamond turning for enhancing machining efficiency and surface quality of freeform optics.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhiwei; To, Suet

    2015-08-10

    Fast tool servo/ slow tool servo (FTS/STS) diamond turning is a very promising technique for the generation of freeform optics. However, the currently adopted constant scheme for azimuth sampling and side-feeding motion possesses no adaptation to surface shape variation, leading to the non-uniform surface quality and low machining efficiency. To overcome this defect, this paper reports on a novel adaptive tool servo (ATS) diamond turning technique which is essentially based on the novel two-degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) FTS/STS. In the ATS, the sampling interval and the side-feeding motion are actively controlled at any cutting point to adapt the machining process to shape variation of the desired surface, making both the sampling induced interpolation error and the side-feeding induced residual tool mark be within the desired tolerances. Characteristic of the required cutting motion suggests that besides the conventional z-axis servo motion, another servo motion along the x-axis synthesizing by the c-axis is mandatory for implementing the ATS. Comparative studies of surface generation of typical micro-structured surfaces in FTS/STS and ATS are thoroughly conducted both theoretically and experimentally. The result demonstrates that the ATS outperforms the FTS/STS with improved surface quality while simultaneously enhanced machining efficiency. PMID:26367879

  10. Effects of the roughness characteristics on the wire tool surface for the electrical discharge machining properties

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuzawa, Yasushi; Yamashita, Masahide; Mamuro, Hiroaki; Yamashita, Ken; Ogata, Masayoshi

    2011-01-17

    Wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) has been investigated to obtain the better discharge machining properties of the removal rate and the surface roughness in a few decades. Recently, it revealed that the rough tool electrodes can improve the WEDM properties for some sort of materials. In this study, the rough wire electrodes using a wet blasting method was developed and evaluated the machining performance for the insulated Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} in the WEDM processes. As the results, it could not recognize the advantage of roughness wire electrode under the high-energy condition, but it found that the electro-conductive layer thickness became thinner in comparison with those of normal wires. On the contrary, it could be obtained the better surface roughness in the low energy condition. It was supposed that the roughed wire surface generates the homogeneous dispersion discharges on the workpiece.