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1

A New Process of Additive and Removal Machining by EDM with a Thin Electrode  

Microsoft Academic Search

Removal machining or additive machining can be performed in electrical discharge machining (EDM), under proper machining conditions. In this paper, rapid accretion of a thin electrode material and rapid manufacturing of a thin electrode are proposed. The material of a thin electrode can be accreted onto a work piece in an instant through an explosion process. A needle of 35?m

Naotake Mohri; Hideki Takezawa; Katsushi Furutani; Yoshiro Ito; Toshio Sata

2000-01-01

2

State of the art electrical discharge machining (EDM)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is a well-established machining option for manufacturing geometrically complex or hard material parts that are extremely difficult-to-machine by conventional machining processes. The non-contact machining technique has been continuously evolving from a mere tool and die making process to a micro-scale application machining alternative attracting a significant amount of research interests.In recent years, EDM researchers have explored

K. H Ho; S. T Newman

2003-01-01

3

Optimization of Correlated Responses of EDM Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrical discharge machining (EDM) process has several important performance measures (responses), some of which are correlated. For example, material removal rate (MRR) and electrode wear rate (EWR) are highly correlated. No reported research work on EDM process has taken into consideration the possible correlation between the response variables while determining the optimal process conditions. Thus, the results achieved by the

Rina Chakravorty; Susanta Kumar Gauri; Shankar Chakraborty

2011-01-01

4

Optimization of Correlated Responses of EDM Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrical discharge machining (EDM) process has several important performance measures (responses), some of which are correlated. For example, material removal rate (MRR) and electrode wear rate (EWR) are highly correlated. No reported research work on EDM process has taken into consideration the possible correlation between the response variables while determining the optimal process conditions. Thus, the results achieved by the

Rina Chakravorty; Susanta Kumar Gauri; Shankar Chakraborty

2012-01-01

5

3D micro-EDM machining technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The micro-EDM machining technique has been broadly applied to fabricate 2D and 3D micro-parts. It is difficult to produce a metal mold with dimension from several micrometers and with the accuracy in the level of micrometers . Poor accuracy comes from electrode wear during 3D micro-EDM machining. In this research, an efficient wear compensation cooperated with CAD/CAM path compensation is provided to improve the machining accuracy. In the experiments, by fabricating a micro-gear and sculpturing letters on surface of tiny steel ball, the technique provided in this research shows the expected results successfully.

Kuo, Chia-Lung; Chen, Shung-Tong; Wu, Ying-Jeng E.; Yen, Albert T.

1997-11-01

6

A review on current research trends in electrical discharge machining (EDM)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is one of the earliest non-traditional machining processes. EDM process is based on thermoelectric energy between the work piece and an electrode. A pulse discharge occurs in a small gap between the work piece and the electrode and removes the unwanted material from the parent metal through melting and vaporising. The electrode and the work piece

Norliana Mohd Abbas; Darius G. Solomon

2007-01-01

7

Evaluating the electrical discharge machining (EDM) parameters with using carbon nanotubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is one of the most accurate non traditional manufacturing processes available for creating tiny apertures, complex or simple shapes and geometries within parts and assemblies. Performance of the EDM process is usually evaluated in terms of surface roughness, existence of cracks, voids and recast layer on the surface of product, after machining. Unfortunately, the high heat generated on the electrically discharged material during the EDM process decreases the quality of products. Carbon nanotubes display unexpected strength and unique electrical and thermal properties. Multi-wall carbon nanotubes are therefore on purpose added to the dielectric used in the EDM process to improve its performance when machining the AISI H13 tool steel, by means of copper electrodes. Some EDM parameters such as material removal rate, electrode wear rate, surface roughness and recast layer are here first evaluated, then compared to the outcome of EDM performed without using nanotubes mixed to the dielectric. Independent variables investigated are pulse on time, peak current and interval time. Experimental evidences show that EDM process operated by mixing multi-wall carbon nanotubes within the dielectric looks more efficient, particularly if machining parameters are set at low pulse of energy.

Sari, M. M.; Noordin, M. Y.; Brusa, E.

2012-09-01

8

Study on ultra-fine w-EDM with on-machine measurement-assisted  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to develop the on-machine measurement techniques so as to precisely fabricate micro intricate part using ultra-fine w-EDM. The measurement-assisted approach which employs an automatic optical inspection (AOI) is incorporated to ultra-fine w-EDM process to on-machine detect the machining error for next re-machining. The AOI acquires the image through a high resolution CCD device from the contour of the workpiece after roughing in order to further process and recognize the image for determining the residual. This facilitates the on-machine error detection and compensation re-machining. The micro workpiece and electrode are not repositioned during machining. A fabrication for a micro probe of 30-{mu}m diameter is rapidly machined and verified successfully. Based on the proposed technique, on-machine measurement with AOI has been realized satisfactorily.

Chen Shuntong [Department of Mechatronic Technology, National Taiwan Normal University (China); Yang Hongye [Department of Industrial Education, National Taiwan Normal University (China)

2011-01-17

9

EDM machining of carbon–carbon composite—a Taguchi approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to determine the optimal setting of the process parameters on the electro-discharge machining (EDM) machine while machining carbon–carbon composites. The parameters considered are pulse current, gap voltage and pulse-on-time; whereas the responses are electrode wear rate (EWR) and material removal rate (MRR). The optimal setting of the parameters are determined through experiments planned, conducted

P. M. George; B. K. Raghunath; L. M. Manocha; Ashish M. Warrier

2004-01-01

10

Surface Integrity of C-40 Steel Processed with WC-Cu Powder Metallurgy Green Compact Tools in EDM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric discharge machining (EDM) is an electrothermal process where recast layer on the machined surface and heat-affected (HAZ) zone just below the machined surface are common phenomena. Thus, the assessment of surface integrity in EDM is a very important task. In this study, an attempt was made to modify the surface integrity of C-40 steel in EDM. WC-Cu powder metallurgy

P. K. Patowari; U. K. Mishra; P. Saha; P. K. Mishra

2011-01-01

11

Effect of the powder concentration and dielectric flow in the surface morphology in electrical discharge machining with powder-mixed dielectric (PMD-EDM)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The addition of powder particles to the electrical discharge machining (EDM) dielectric fluid modifies some process variables\\u000a and creates the conditions to achieve a higher surface quality in large machined areas. This paper presents a new research\\u000a work that aims to study the improvement in the polishing performance of conventional EDM when used with a powder-mixed-dielectric\\u000a (PMD-EDM). The analysis was

Paulo Peças; Elsa Henriques

2008-01-01

12

Process characterization of Electrical Discharge Machining of highly doped silicon  

E-print Network

Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) is an advanced machining process that removes material via thermal erosion through a plasma arc. The machining process is accomplished through the application of high frequency current ...

Crawford, Gregory Allan

2012-01-01

13

Monitoring of the electrical discharge machining process by abductive networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes the use of abductive networks to monitor the electrical discharge machining (EDM) process. The voltage and current across the gap between the tool and workpiece are fed into the developed networks for the recognition of various pulse types in EDM in a “winner-take-all” fashion. Experimental results have shown that EDM pulses can be clearly classified even with

H. S. Liu; Y. S. Tarng

1997-01-01

14

Comparative study of different dielectrics for micro-EDM performance during microhole machining of Ti6Al4V alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In microelectrodischarge machining (micro-EDM), dielectric plays an important role during machining operation. The machining\\u000a characteristics are greatly influenced by the nature of dielectric used during micro-EDM machining. Present paper addresses\\u000a the issues of micro-EDM utilizing different types of dielectrics such as kerosene, deionized water, boron carbide (B4C) powder suspended kerosene, and deionized water to explore the influence of these dielectrics

G. Kibria; B. R. Sarkar; B. B. Pradhan; B. Bhattacharyya

2010-01-01

15

Cylindrical Wire Electrical Discharge Machining Process Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of applying the wire Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) process to generate precise cylindrical forms on hard, difficult-to-machine materials are presented. A precise, flexible, and corrosion-resistant underwater rotary spindle was designed and added to a conventional two-axis wire EDM machine to enable the generation of free-form cylindrical geometries. A detailed spindle error analysis identifies the major source of error at

Jun Qu; Albert J. Shih; Ron O. Scattergood; Samuel B. McSpadden

16

Numerical study on the splitting of a vapour bubble in the process of EDM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is a powerful technique for machining of hard and brittle materials. In this process,\\u000a because of electrical discharge, a vapour bubble is generated in the dielectric liquid between the tool and the workpiece.\\u000a The growth and collapse phases of the vapour bubble have significant effect on the hydrodynamic behaviour of the dielectric\\u000a liquid domain between the

M. T. Shervani-Tabar; K. Maghsoudi

2008-01-01

17

INVESTIGATING THE EFFECTS OF EDM PARAMETERS ON SURFACE INTEGRITY, MRR AND TWR IN MACHINING OF Ti–6Al–4V  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ti–6Al–4V is a kind of difficult-to-cut material with poor machinability by traditional machining methods, while electrical discharge machining (EDM) is suitable for machining titanium alloys. In this paper, three input machining parameters including pulse current, pulse on time and open circuit voltage were changed during EDM tests. To investigate the output characteristics; material removal rate (MRR), tool wear ratio (TWR)

B. Jabbaripour; M. H. Sadeghi; Sh. Faridvand; M. R. Shabgard

2012-01-01

18

The Implementation of Taguchi Method on EDM Process of Tungsten Carbide  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the cutting of Tungsten Carbide ceramic using electro-discharge machining (EDM) with a graphite electrode by using Taguchi methodology has been reported. The Taguchi method is used to formulate the experimental layout, to analyse the effect of each parameter on the machining characteristics, and to predict the optimal choice for each EDM parameter such as peak current, voltage,

Mohd Amri Lajis; H. C. D. Mohd

19

Finishing effect of abrasive flow machining on micro slit fabricated by wire-EDM  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experimental research use the method of abrasive flow machining (AFM) to evaluate the characteristics of various levels\\u000a of roughness and finishing of the complex shaped micro slits fabricated by wire electrical discharge machining (Wire-EDM).\\u000a An investigative methodology based on the Taguchi experimental method for the micro slits of biomedicine was developed to\\u000a determine the parameters of AFM, including abrasive

Hsinn-Jyh Tzeng; Biing-Hwa Yan; Rong-Tzong Hsu; Han-Ming Chow

2007-01-01

20

Development of the Cylindrical Wire Electrical Discharge Machining Process.  

SciTech Connect

Results of applying the wire Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) process to generate precise cylindrical forms on hard, difficult-to-machine materials are presented. A precise, flexible, and corrosion-resistant underwater rotary spindle was designed and added to a conventional two-axis wire EDM machine to enable the generation of free-form cylindrical geometries. A detailed spindle error analysis identifies the major source of error at different frequency. The mathematical model for the material removal of cylindrical wire EDM process is derived. Experiments were conducted to explore the maximum material removal rate for cylindrical and 2D wire EDM of carbide and brass work-materials. Compared to the 2D wire EDM, higher maximum material removal rates may be achieved in the cylindrical wire EDM. This study also investigates the surface integrity and roundness of parts created by the cylindrical wire EDM process. For carbide parts, an arithmetic average surface roughness and roundness as low as 0.68 and 1.7 {micro}m, respectively, can be achieved. Surfaces of the cylindrical EDM parts were examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to identify the craters, sub-surface recast layers and heat-affected zones under various process parameters. This study has demonstrated that the cylindrical wire EDM process parameters can be adjusted to achieve either high material removal rate or good surface integrity.

McSpadden, SB

2002-01-22

21

Robust PI Controller Design for EDM  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study models the eroding process of the gap control system in electric discharge machine (EDM). A proportional plus integral (PI) controller is selected for the system with fast eroding speed such as drilling electric discharge machine (EDM), according to the model of the process. The study also designs the robust PI controller for the gap control, which improves the

Yih-Fang Chang

2007-01-01

22

Development of the Cylindrical Wire Electrical Discharge Machining Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of applying the wire Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) process to generate precise cylindrical forms on hard, difficult-to-machine materials are presented. A precise, flexible, and corrosion-resistant underwater rotary spindle was designed and added to a conventional two-axis wire EDM machine to enable the generation of free-form cylindrical geometries. A detailed spindle error analysis identifies the major source of error at

McSpadden

2002-01-01

23

Investigation of the removing process of cathode material in micro-EDM using an atomistic-continuum model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In micro-electrical discharge machining (micro-EDM), the discharge duration is ultra-short, and both the electric action and the thermal action by the discharge channel play important roles in the removing process of cathode material. However, in most researches on the machining mechanism of micro-EDM, only the thermal action is concerned. In this article, a combined atomistic-continuum modeling method in which the two-temperature model and the molecular dynamics simulation model are integrated is used to construct the simulation model for cathode in single-discharge micro-EDM process. With this simulation model, removing processes of Cu cathode material in micro-EDM under pure thermal action, pure electric action and the combination of them are investigated in a simulative way. By analyzing evolutions of temperature, stress and micro-structure of material as well as the dynamical behaviors of material in the removing process, mechanisms of the cathode material removal and crater formation are revealed. In addition, the removing process of cathode material under the combination of pure thermal action and pure electric action is compared with those under the two pure actions respectively to analyze the interactive effect between the thermal action and the electric action.

Guo, Jianwen; Zhang, Guojun; Huang, Yu; Ming, Wuyi; Liu, Min; Huang, Hao

2014-10-01

24

Investigation of the effect of process parameters on the formation and characteristics of recast layer in wire-EDM of Inconel 718  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inconel 718 is a high nickel content superalloy possessing high strength at elevated temperatures and resistance to oxidation and corrosion. The non-traditional manufacturing process of wire-electrical discharge machining (EDM) possesses many advantages over traditional machining during the manufacture of Inconel 718 parts. However, certain detrimental effects are also present and are due in large part to the formation of the

Thomas R. Newton; Shreyes N. Melkote; Thomas R. Watkins; Rosa M. Trejo; Laura Reister

2009-01-01

25

Study of the effect of machining parameters on the machining characteristics in electrical discharge machining of tungsten carbide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is a process for shaping hard metals and forming deep and complex-shaped holes by arc erosion in all kinds of electro-conductive materials. The objective of this research is to study the influence of operating parameters of EDM of tungsten carbide on the machining characteristics. The effectiveness of the EDM process with tungsten carbide is evaluated in

S. H. Lee; X. P. Li

2001-01-01

26

The use of the orthogonal array with grey relational analysis to optimize the electrical discharge machining process with multiple performance characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a new approach for the optimization of the electrical discharge machining (EDM) process with multiple performance characteristics based on the orthogonal array with the grey relational analysis has been studied. A grey relational grade obtained from the grey relational analysis is used to solve the EDM process with the multiple performance characteristics. Optimal machining parameters can then

J. L Lin; C. L Lin

2002-01-01

27

Study on an evaluation method of micro CMM spherical stylus tips by µ-EDM on-machine measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes an on-machine measurement function of a micro electro-discharge machine (µ-EDM) to evaluate the quality of micro ball-ended stylus tips fabricated by a combination of wire-electro-discharge grinding (WEDG) and one-pulse-electro-discharge (OPED) technology. A low-voltage contacting trigger function without any capacitor between a stationary wire and the spindle of a µ-EDM was used to measure the outer profile and evaluate the forming quality. The measurement results show that the deviation of the largest radius between the micro ball-ended tip and stem is approximately 3 µm. Moreover, OPED/WEDG is also easily able to produce high-quality micro spherical stylus tips with a standard deviation as small as 0.7 µm through use of sharp-needle-shaped electrode tools. With further improvements in electro-discharge position, OPED and WEDG technology are promising and excellent approaches for manufacturing micro coordinate measurement machine (CMM) spherical stylus tips.

Sheu, Dong-Yea

2010-07-01

28

Evolutionary programming method for modeling the EDM parameters for roughness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The method of electrical discharge machining (EDM), one of the processing methods based on non-traditional manufacturing procedures, is gaining increased popularity, since it does not require cutting tools and allows machining involving hard, brittle, thin and complex geometry.By using different EDM parameters (current, pulse on-time, pulse off-time, arc voltage), the Ra (?m) roughness value as a result of application of

Özlem Salman; M. Cengiz Kayacan

2008-01-01

29

Fabrication of a miniature diamond grinding tool using a hybrid process of micro-EDM and co-deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel miniature diamond grinding tool usable for the precise micro-grinding of miniature parts is presented. A hybrid process that combines 'micro-EDM' with 'precision co-deposition' is proposed. The metal substrate is micro-EDMed to a 50 µm diameter and micro diamonds with 0-2 µm grains are 'electroformed' on the substrate surface, producing a miniature multilayered grinding tool. Nickel and diamond act as binders and cutters, respectively. A partition plate with an array of drilled holes is designed to ensure good convection in the electroforming solution. The dispersion of diamond grains and displacement of nickel ions are noticeably improved. A miniature funnel mould enables the diamond grains to converge towards the cathode to increase their deposition probability on the substrate, thereby improving their distribution on the substrate surface. A micro ZrO2 ceramic ferrule is finely ground by the developed grinding tool and then yields a surface roughness of Ra = 0.085 µm. The proposed approach is applied during the final machining process.

Chen, Shun-Tong; Lai, Yun-Cheng; Liu, Ching-Chang

2008-05-01

30

A neutral-network approach for the on-line monitoring of the electrical discharge machining process  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a feed-forward neural network is used to on-line monitor electrical discharge machining (EDM) processes. The relationships between tool-workpiece gap signals and various pulse types are established, based on the neural network through the back-propagation learning algorithm. As a result, the developed neural network can be used to monitor varying machining conditions in EDM. Experimental results have shown

J. Y Kao; Y. S Tarng

1997-01-01

31

Effect of the Machining Processes on Low Cycle Fatigue Behavior of a Powder Metallurgy Disk  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study has been performed to investigate the effect of various machining processes on fatigue life of configured low cycle fatigue specimens machined out of a NASA developed LSHR P/M nickel based disk alloy. Two types of configured specimen geometries were employed in the study. To evaluate a broach machining processes a double notch geometry was used with both notches machined using broach tooling. EDM machined notched specimens of the same configuration were tested for comparison purposes. Honing finishing process was evaluated by using a center hole specimen geometry. Comparison testing was again done using EDM machined specimens of the same geometry. The effect of these machining processes on the resulting surface roughness, residual stress distribution and microstructural damage were characterized and used in attempt to explain the low cycle fatigue results.

Telesman, J.; Kantzos, P.; Gabb, T. P.; Ghosn, L. J.

2010-01-01

32

Ultrasonic Abrasive Removal Of EDM Recast  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ultrasonic abrasive process removes layer of recast material generated during electrical-discharge machining (EDM) of damper pocket on turbine blade. Form-fitted tool vibrated ultrasonically in damper pocket from which material removed. Vibrations activate abrasive in pocket. Amount of material removed controlled precisely.

Mandel, Johnny L.; Jacobson, Marlowe S.

1990-01-01

33

Electrical-Discharge Machining Of Curved Passages  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electrical-discharge machining (EDM) used to cut deep hole with bends. EDM process done with articulating segmented electrode. Originally straight, electrode curved as it penetrates part, forming long, smoothly curving hole. After hole cut, honed with slurry to remove thin layer of recast metal created by EDM. Breakage of tools, hand deburring, and drilling debris eliminated.

Guirguis, Kamal S.

1993-01-01

34

High aspect ratio meso-scale parts enabled by wire micro-EDM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micro-electro discharge machining (EDM) is a subtractive meso-scale machining process. The Agie Excellence 2F wire micro\\u000a EDM is capable of machining with a 25 micron diameter wire electrode and positioning the work piece to within ±1.5 microns.\\u000a The over-burn gap can be controlled to within 3 microns to obtain a minimum feature radius of about 16 microns while achieving\\u000a submicron

G. L. Benavides; L. F. Bieg; M. P. Saavedra; E. A. Bryce

2002-01-01

35

Machining Efficiency Evaluation of Cryogenically Treated Copper Electrode in Additive Mixed EDM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present experimental investigations have been carried to evaluate machining efficiency with additive powder mixed in dielectric fluid of electrical discharge machining on Inconel 718 with copper and cryogenically treated copper electrodes. Experiments have been conducted to study the effect of input parameters viz polarity, type of electrode, peak current, pulse on time, duty cycle, gap voltage, retract distance and

Anil Kumar; Sachin Maheshwari; Chitra Sharma; Naveen Beri

2012-01-01

36

Statistical analysis on electrode wear in EDM of tool steel DIN 1.2714 used in forging dies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is a widespread process which works very effectively in machining of difficult-to-cut materials and alloys in die and aerospace industries with high dimensional accuracies. However, this capability could be deteriorated due to electrode wear leading to decrease of process productivity. In this study, the effect of machining parameters of EDM process including on-time, current, voltage, the

H. Zarepour; A. Fadaei Tehrani; D. Karimi; S. Amini

2007-01-01

37

Workpiece surface modification using electrical discharge machining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is a widely used process in the mould \\/ die and aerospace industries. Following a brief summary of the process, the paper reviews published work on the deliberate surface alloying of various workpiece materials using EDM. Details are given of operations involving powder metallurgy (PM) tool electrodes and the use of powders suspended in the dielectric

J Simao; H. G Lee; D. K Aspinwall; R. C Dewes; E. M Aspinwall

2003-01-01

38

State of the art in wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) is a specialised thermal machining process capable of accurately machining parts with varying hardness or complex shapes, which have sharp edges that are very difficult to be machined by the main stream machining processes. This practical technology of the WEDM process is based on the conventional EDM sparking phenomenon utilising the widely accepted non-contact technique

K. H Ho; S. T Newman; S Rahimifard; R. D Allen

2004-01-01

39

Gaussian processes for machine learning.  

PubMed

Gaussian processes (GPs) are natural generalisations of multivariate Gaussian random variables to infinite (countably or continuous) index sets. GPs have been applied in a large number of fields to a diverse range of ends, and very many deep theoretical analyses of various properties are available. This paper gives an introduction to Gaussian processes on a fairly elementary level with special emphasis on characteristics relevant in machine learning. It draws explicit connections to branches such as spline smoothing models and support vector machines in which similar ideas have been investigated. Gaussian process models are routinely used to solve hard machine learning problems. They are attractive because of their flexible non-parametric nature and computational simplicity. Treated within a Bayesian framework, very powerful statistical methods can be implemented which offer valid estimates of uncertainties in our predictions and generic model selection procedures cast as nonlinear optimization problems. Their main drawback of heavy computational scaling has recently been alleviated by the introduction of generic sparse approximations.13,78,31 The mathematical literature on GPs is large and often uses deep concepts which are not required to fully understand most machine learning applications. In this tutorial paper, we aim to present characteristics of GPs relevant to machine learning and to show up precise connections to other "kernel machines" popular in the community. Our focus is on a simple presentation, but references to more detailed sources are provided. PMID:15112367

Seeger, Matthias

2004-04-01

40

Influence of EDM pulse energy on the surface integrity of martensitic steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electro-discharge machining (EDM) is essentially a thermal process with a complex metal-removal mechanism, involving the formation of a plasma channel between the tool and workpiece electrodes, resulting in metallurgical transformations, residual tensile stresses and cracking. These properties determine the operational behaviour of the material and can be included in one term: surface integrity. Results of different experimental analysis to characterise

J. C Rebelo; A Morao Dias; D Kremer; J. L Lebrun

1998-01-01

41

Surface Improvement Using a Combination of Electrical Discharge Machining with Ball Burnish Machining Based on the Taguchi Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the feasibility of improving surface integrity via a novel combined process of electrical discharge\\u000a machining (EDM) with ball burnish machining (BBM) using the Taguchi method. To provide burnishing immediately after the EDM\\u000a process, ZrO2 balls were attached to the tool electrode in the experiments. To verify the optimal process, three observed values, i.e.\\u000a material removal rate, surface

Y. C. Lin; B. H. Yan; F. Y. Huang

2001-01-01

42

EDM electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A precision molded electrical discharge machining electrode is made by shaping a preform from granules of carbon and granules of a refractory material selected from the group consisting of tungsten, molybdenum, carbides thereof, and stoichiometric and hyperstoichiometric carbides of the other elements of the groups IVB, VB, and VIB of the Periodic Table of the Elements, the carbon and refractory

Th. E. Haskett; J. J. Schmitt

1984-01-01

43

High-speed micro-electro-discharge machining.  

SciTech Connect

When two electrodes are in close proximity in a dielectric liquid, application of a voltage pulse can produce a spark discharge between them, resulting in a small amount of material removal from both electrodes. Pulsed application of the voltage at discharge energies in the range of micro-Joules results in the continuous material removal process known as micro-electro-discharge machining (micro-EDM). Spark erosion by micro-EDM provides significant opportunities for producing small features and micro-components such as nozzle holes, slots, shafts and gears in virtually any conductive material. If the speed and precision of micro-EDM processes can be significantly enhanced, then they have the potential to be used for a wide variety of micro-machining applications including fabrication of microelectromechanical system (MEMS) components. Toward this end, a better understanding of the impacts the various machining parameters have on material removal has been established through a single discharge study of micro-EDM and a parametric study of small hole making by micro-EDM. The main avenues for improving the speed and efficiency of the micro-EDM process are in the areas of more controlled pulse generation in the power supply and more controlled positioning of the tool electrode during the machining process. Further investigation of the micro-EDM process in three dimensions leads to important design rules, specifically the smallest feature size attainable by the process.

Chandrasekar, Srinivasan Dr. (.School of Industrial Engineering, West Lafayette, IN); Moylan, Shawn P. (School of Industrial Engineering, West Lafayette, IN); Benavides, Gilbert Lawrence

2005-09-01

44

Fabrication of a micro-tool in micro-EDM combined with co-deposited Ni SiC composites for micro-hole machining  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an in situ process using a micro-tool in micro-electro-discharge-machining combined with co-deposited Ni-SiC composites to drill and finish micro-holes. During the machining process, a micro-tool is fabricated by wire electro-discharge grinding and electrodeposition. The experimental result shows that the suitable parameters obtained for fabricating micro-tools for Ni-SiC composite coatings are a current density of 7 A dm-2,

Jung-Chou Hung; Wei-Chieh Wu; Biing-Hwa Yan; Fuang-Yuan Huang; Kun-Ling Wu

2007-01-01

45

Analysis of Machining Characteristics in Additive Mixed Electric Discharge Machining of Nickel Based Super Alloy Inconel 718  

Microsoft Academic Search

Additive mixed electric discharge machining (AEDM) is a novel innovation for enhancing the capabilities of electrical discharge machining process. The objective of present research work is to study the influence of operating process input parameters on machining characteristics of nickel based super alloy (Inconel 718) in aluminium additive mixed EDM of with copper electrode. The effectiveness of AEDM process on

Anil Kumar; Sachin Maheshwari; Chitra Sharma; Naveen Beri

2011-01-01

46

A Feasibility Study on the Micro Eletro-Discharge Machining Process for Photomask Fabrication  

Microsoft Academic Search

A feasibility study of micro electro-discharge machining (micro-EDM) technology has been conducted for its possible contri-bution\\u000a in the photomask industry. A series of experimental runs was performed on three specimens using a micro-EDM system with built-in\\u000a wire electro-discharge grinding. Different thicknesses of chromium films were coated on borosilicate glass substrates. Unwanted\\u000a chromium metal was machined through to the transparent glass

S. H. Yeo; G. G. Yap

2001-01-01

47

Multi-Objective Optimization of Green EDM: An Integrated Theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) generates toxic substances, results in serious occupational health, and environmental issues, which influence the process parameters of EDM. These process parameters are multi-response parameters. The aim of this research is to solve the multi-response optimization problems and selection of optimum process parameters of green EDM using an integrated methodology comprising of entropy and Grey Relational Analysis (GRA). In this work, initially, an experiment was performed using Taguchi experimental technique. Thereafter, Entropy-GRA has been used to convert the multi-response parameters into single response parameter. Finally, the ranking of the parameter decides the best experimental set up and optimizes the input process parameters. In this work, Entropy method has been used to extract the precise value of each of the output parameters, which influences the gray relational grades for finding the optimal experimental set up. The justification of optimal input process parameters has been made using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) analysis. An attempt has been made to compare the proposed methodology with the Fuzzy-TOPSIS and Taguchi-VIKOR methodology. The numerical result shows that the optimum process parameters are peak current (4.5 A), pulse duration (261 ?s), dielectric level (80 mm) and flushing pressure (0.3 kg/cm2).

Jagadish; Ray, A.

2014-10-01

48

Development of magneto abrasive flow machining process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abrasive flow machining (AFM) is a relatively new process among non-conventional machining processes. Low material removal rate happens to be one serious limitation of almost all such processes. Limited efforts have hitherto been directed towards improving the efficiency of these processes so as to achieve higher material removal rates by applying different techniques. This paper discusses the possible improvement in

Sehijpal Singh; H. S. Shan

2002-01-01

49

Influence of electrical resistivity and machining parameters on electrical discharge machining performance of engineering ceramics.  

PubMed

Engineering ceramics have been widely used in modern industry for their excellent physical and mechanical properties, and they are difficult to machine owing to their high hardness and brittleness. Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is the appropriate process for machining engineering ceramics provided they are electrically conducting. However, the electrical resistivity of the popular engineering ceramics is higher, and there has been no research on the relationship between the EDM parameters and the electrical resistivity of the engineering ceramics. This paper investigates the effects of the electrical resistivity and EDM parameters such as tool polarity, pulse interval, and electrode material, on the ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic's EDM performance, in terms of the material removal rate (MRR), electrode wear ratio (EWR), and surface roughness (SR). The results show that the electrical resistivity and the EDM parameters have the great influence on the EDM performance. The ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic with the electrical resistivity up to 3410 ?·cm can be effectively machined by EDM with the copper electrode, the negative tool polarity, and the shorter pulse interval. Under most machining conditions, the MRR increases, and the SR decreases with the decrease of electrical resistivity. Moreover, the tool polarity, and pulse interval affect the EWR, respectively, and the electrical resistivity and electrode material have a combined effect on the EWR. Furthermore, the EDM performance of ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic with the electrical resistivity higher than 687 ?·cm is obviously different from that with the electrical resistivity lower than 687 ?·cm, when the electrode material changes. The microstructure character analysis of the machined ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic surface shows that the ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic is removed by melting, evaporation and thermal spalling, and the material from the working fluid and the graphite electrode can transfer to the workpiece surface during electrical discharge machining ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic. PMID:25364912

Ji, Renjie; Liu, Yonghong; Diao, Ruiqiang; Xu, Chenchen; Li, Xiaopeng; Cai, Baoping; Zhang, Yanzhen

2014-01-01

50

Influence of Electrical Resistivity and Machining Parameters on Electrical Discharge Machining Performance of Engineering Ceramics  

PubMed Central

Engineering ceramics have been widely used in modern industry for their excellent physical and mechanical properties, and they are difficult to machine owing to their high hardness and brittleness. Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is the appropriate process for machining engineering ceramics provided they are electrically conducting. However, the electrical resistivity of the popular engineering ceramics is higher, and there has been no research on the relationship between the EDM parameters and the electrical resistivity of the engineering ceramics. This paper investigates the effects of the electrical resistivity and EDM parameters such as tool polarity, pulse interval, and electrode material, on the ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic's EDM performance, in terms of the material removal rate (MRR), electrode wear ratio (EWR), and surface roughness (SR). The results show that the electrical resistivity and the EDM parameters have the great influence on the EDM performance. The ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic with the electrical resistivity up to 3410 ?·cm can be effectively machined by EDM with the copper electrode, the negative tool polarity, and the shorter pulse interval. Under most machining conditions, the MRR increases, and the SR decreases with the decrease of electrical resistivity. Moreover, the tool polarity, and pulse interval affect the EWR, respectively, and the electrical resistivity and electrode material have a combined effect on the EWR. Furthermore, the EDM performance of ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic with the electrical resistivity higher than 687 ?·cm is obviously different from that with the electrical resistivity lower than 687 ?·cm, when the electrode material changes. The microstructure character analysis of the machined ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic surface shows that the ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic is removed by melting, evaporation and thermal spalling, and the material from the working fluid and the graphite electrode can transfer to the workpiece surface during electrical discharge machining ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic. PMID:25364912

Ji, Renjie; Liu, Yonghong; Diao, Ruiqiang; Xu, Chenchen; Li, Xiaopeng; Cai, Baoping; Zhang, Yanzhen

2014-01-01

51

Manufacturing and performance of ceramic/metal matrix composite electrical discharge machining electrodes.  

E-print Network

??The manufacturing and performance of ceramic/metal matrix composite (cermet) electrical discharge machining (EDM) electrodes have been investigated. The processing techniques necessary for creating TiB2/Cu, TaC/Cu,… (more)

Kim, Eugene Ty

2012-01-01

52

Effect of Deep Cryogenic Treatment on Machinability of Titanium Alloy (Ti6246) in Electric Discharge Drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently there is a vital need for cost effective machining processes for titanium alloys. Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is used quite extensively in machining titanium alloys due to its favorable features and advantages. This paper investigates the effect of deep cryogenic treatment (DCT) on machinability of Ti 6246 alloy in electric discharge drilling (EDD) by conducting experimental investigations on the

Simranpreet Singh Gill; Jagdev Singh

2010-01-01

53

The radon EDM apparatus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The observation of a permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) at current experimentally accessible levels would provide clear evidence of physics beyond the Standard Model. EDMs violate CP symmetry, making them a possible route to explaining the size of the observed baryon asymmetry in the universe. The Radon EDM Experiment aims to search for an EDM in radon isotopes whose sensitivity to CP-odd interactions is enhanced by octupole-deformed nuclei. A prototype apparatus currently installed in the ISAC hall at TRIUMF includes a gas handling system to move radon from a collection foil to a measurement cell and auxiliary equipment for polarization diagnostics and validation. The features and capabilities of the apparatus are described and an overview of the experimental design for a gamma-ray-anisotropy based EDM measurement is provided.

Tardiff, E. R.; Rand, E. T.; Ball, G. C.; Chupp, T. E.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Garrett, P.; Hayden, M. E.; Kierans, C. A.; Lorenzon, W.; Pearson, M. R.; Schaub, C.; Svensson, C. E.

2014-01-01

54

Machining time estimation for magnetic abrasive processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we present the magnetic abrasive process which is used to finish and size those workpieces that have been produced using standard machine tools. The process is proved to be very effective in achieving the desired finish size and roundness of the workpieces. We develop an empirical expression to estimate the machining time to produce a workpiece with specified roundness.

G. Z. KREMEN; E. A. ELSAYED; J. L. RIBEIRO

1994-01-01

55

Development of the Cylindrical Wire Electrical Discharge Machining Process, Part 2: Surface Integrity and Roundness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the surface integrity and roundness of parts created by the cylin- drical wire EDM process. A mathematical model for the arithmetic average surface roughness on the ideal surface of a cylindrical wire EDM workpiece is first derived. Effects of wire feed rate and part rotational speed on the surface finish and roundness for brass and carbide work-materials

Jun Qu; Albert J. Shih; Ronald O. Scattergood

2002-01-01

56

Surface characteristics and damage of monocrystalline silicon induced by wire-EDM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wire-EDM has recently shown itself as an alternative approach for slicing silicon and other semiconductor materials without the presence of significant chipping as normally found in the traditional machining processes. However, the intensive electrical spark between a wire electrode and silicon can cause damage to the cut surface and subsurface in micro and nano-scale aspects. This paper presents the influence of major process parameters on the cut surface characteristics and damage in the wire-EDMing of silicon. An n-type monocrystalline silicon wafer was cut under different spark energy densities, duty cycles and dielectric flushing rates. Poor cut surface quality and high amount of electrode material deposition were obtained when low spark energy density, small duty cycle and low dielectric flushing rate were applied. Moreover, the amorphous and defective crystal structures of silicon were apparent under the low spark energy condition. The interactions between the wire-EDMing parameters and cut surface characteristics drawn in this study could have significances for the further development of EDM technology towards the fine-scale and damage-free processing of semiconductor materials.

Punturat, Jiraporn; Tangwarodomnukun, Viboon; Dumkum, Chaiya

2014-11-01

57

Some investigations into the electric discharge machining of hardened tool steel using different electrode materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric discharge machining (EDM), a ‘non-traditional machining process’, has been replacing drilling, milling, grinding and other traditional machining operations and is now a well-established machining option in many manufacturing industries throughout the world. Modern ED machinery is capable of machining geometrically complex or hard material components, that are precise and difficult-to-machine such as heat treated tool steels, composites, super alloys,

Shankar Singh; S. Maheshwari; P. C. Pandey

2004-01-01

58

Improvement of laser machining processes  

SciTech Connect

Laser processing versus steel rule die cutting was evaluated using new fixturing to enhance the processing of flexible and rigid materials. Other enhancements in laser processing reduced carbon deposits from Kapton parts. A special multi-use fixture was designed to enhance laser cutting and save on additional fixturing. This is an example of using different techniques in new ways to improve product.

Fialko, R.W.; Harvey, D.K.

1992-02-01

59

Gaussian Processes For Machine Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gaussian processes (GPs) are natural generalisations of multivariate Gaussian ran- dom variables to innite (countably or continuous) index sets. GPs have been applied in a large number of elds to a diverse range of ends, and very many deep theoretical anal- yses of various properties are available. This paper gives an introduction to Gaussian processes on a fairly elementary level

Matthias Seeger

2004-01-01

60

Effect of ultrasonic-assisted EDM on the surface integrity of cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the effects of tool electrode ultrasonic vibration on some surface integrity properties of cemented tungsten\\u000a carbide (WC-10%Co) in the electrical discharge machining (EDM) process. Surface integrity concerns surface alterations associated\\u000a with a manufacturing process, including surface topography, surface metallurgy, and changes of the mechanical and physical\\u000a properties of the material as well as residual stresses. Scanning electron

Amir Abdullah; Mohammad R. Shabgard; A. Ivanov; Mohammad T. Shervanyi-Tabar

2009-01-01

61

Performance and Surface Integrity of Ti6Al4V After Sinking EDM with Special Graphite Electrodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Titanium and its alloys have high chemical reactivity with most of the cutting tools. This makes it difficult to work with these alloys using conventional machining processes. Electrical discharge machining (EDM) emerges as an alternative technique to machining these materials. In this work, it is investigated the performance of three special grades of graphite as electrodes when ED-Machining Ti6Al4V samples under three different regimes. The main influences of electrical parameters are discussed for the samples material removal rate, volumetric relative wear and surface roughness. The samples surfaces were evaluated using SEM images, microhardness measurements, and x-ray diffraction. It was found that the best results for samples material removal rate, surface roughness, and volumetric relative wear were obtained for the graphite electrode with 10-?m particle size and negative polarity. For all samples machined by EDM and characterized by x-ray (XRD), it was identified the presence of titanium carbides. For the finish EDM regimes, the recast layer presents an increased amount of titanium carbides compared to semi-finish and rough regimes.

Amorim, Fred L.; Stedile, Leandro J.; Torres, Ricardo D.; Soares, Paulo C.; Henning Laurindo, Carlos A.

2014-04-01

62

Rockburst Prediction Using Gaussian Process Machine Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rockburst is a geological disaster occurred usually in deep mines. Because of poor understanding of the mechanism and influence factors of rockburst, it is very difficult to give accurate prediction using conventional methods. A new model based on Gaussian process (GP), which is a probabilistic kernel machine leaning and has become a power tool for solving highly nonlinear problems, therefore,

Guo-Shao Su; Ke-Shi Zhang; Zhi Chen

2009-01-01

63

A Study of Optimization of Machining Parameters for Electrical Discharge Machining of Boron Carbide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The correct selection of manufacturing conditions is one of the most important aspects to take into consideration in the majority of manufacturing processes and, particularly, in processes related to electrical discharge machining (EDM) of conductive ceramic materials. It is these conditions that determine such important characteristics as surface roughness, electrode wear, and material removal rate. In this article, a review

I. Puertas; C. J. Luis

2004-01-01

64

The effect of microstructure on fatigue performance of Ti-6Al-4V alloy after EDM surface treatment for application in orthopaedics.  

PubMed

Three different microstructures--equiaxed, bi-modal and coarse lamellar--are prepared from Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Electric discharge machining (EDM) with a high peak current (29 A) is performed in order to impose surface roughness and modify the chemical composition of the surface. Detailed scanning electron microscopy (SEM) investigation revealed a martensitic surface layer and subsurface heat affected zone (HAZ). EDX measurements showed carbon enriched remnants of the EDM process on the material surface. Rotating bending fatigue tests are undertaken for EDM processed samples for all three microstructures and also for electropolished-benchmark-samples. The fatigue performance is found to be rather poor and not particularly dependent on microstructure. The bi-modal microstructure shows a slightly superior high cycle fatigue performance. This performance can be further improved by a suitable heat treatment to an endurance limit of 200 MPa. PMID:22098894

Stráský, Josef; Jane?ek, Miloš; Harcuba, Petr; Bukovina, Michal; Wagner, Lothar

2011-11-01

65

Effect of hole geometry and Electric-Discharge Machining (EDM) on airflow rates through small diameter holes in turbine blade material  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of two design parameters, electrode diameter and hole angle, and two machine parameters, electrode current and current-on time, on air flow rates through small-diameter (0.257 to 0.462 mm) electric-discharge-machined holes were measured. The holes were machined individually in rows of 14 each through 1.6 mm thick IN-100 strips. The data showed linear increase in air flow rate with increases in electrode cross sectional area and current-on time and little change with changes in hole angle and electrode current. The average flow-rate deviation (from the mean flow rate for a given row) decreased linearly with electrode diameter and increased with hole angle. Burn time and finished hole diameter were also measured.

Hippensteele, S. A.; Cochran, R. P.

1980-01-01

66

Technology of Reconfigurable Multi-Process Combined Machining for Remanufacturing  

Microsoft Academic Search

To solve the problem of the machining equipment with low flexibility, low efficiency and high cost in Remanufacturing, the reconfigurable multi-process combined machining method and implementation technology are systematically proposed, including the machining methods in remanufacturing for the repaired parts with various forms, the reconfigurable structure design method of multi-process combined machining, man-machine coordination parameter programming and control system technology

Xuxiao Fan; Zhijing Zhang; Xin Jin; Wei Yuan; Na Guo

2010-01-01

67

Maps of Dipersions for Machining Processes  

E-print Network

During the products design, the design office defines dimensional and geometrical parameters according to the use criteria and the product functionality. The manufacturing department must integrate the manufacturing and the workpiece position dispersions during the choice of tools and machines operating modes and parameters values to respect the functional constraints. In this paper, we suggest to model the turning dispersions taking into account not only geometrical specifications of position or orientation but also the experience of method actors. A representation using the principle of know-how maps in two or three dimensions is privileged. The most interesting aspect is that these maps include tacit and explicit knowledge. An experimental study realized on a machine tool (HES 300) allows to elaborate knowledge maps especially for the turning process.

Valéry Wolff; Arnaud Lefebvre; J. Renaud

2008-03-03

68

Electrode Wear Process in Electrical Discharge Machinings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with a synthetic consideration of electrode wear phenomena in electrical discharge machining. Time dependance of an electrode shape was observed through on-the-machine measurement. While the electrode wears at the edge portion in the beginning of machining, it grows at the flat portion in the longitudinal direction. In the stationary state of machining, the wear rate of an

Naotake Mohri; Masayuki Suzuki; Masanori Furuya; Nagao Saito; Akira Kobayashi

1995-01-01

69

Micro Electro Discharge Machining of Electrically Nonconductive Ceramics  

SciTech Connect

EDM is a known process for machining of hard and brittle materials. Due to its noncontact and nearly forceless behaviour, it has been introduced into micro manufacturing and through constant development it is now an important means for producing high-precision micro geometries. One restriction of EDM is its limitation to electrically conducting materials.Today many applications, especially in the biomedical field, make use of the benefits of ceramic materials, such as high strength, very low wear and biocompatibility. Common ceramic materials such as Zirconium dioxide are, due to their hardness in the sintered state, difficult to machine with conventional cutting techniques. A demand for the introduction of EDM to these materials could so far not be satisfied because of their nonconductive nature.At the Chemnitz University of Technology and the Fraunhofer IWU, investigations in the applicability of micro-EDM for the machining of nonconductive ceramics are being conducted. Tests are undertaken using micro-EDM drilling with Tungsten carbide tool electrodes and ZrO{sub 2} ceramic workpieces. A starting layer, in literature often referred to as 'assisting electrode' is used to set up a closed electric circuit to start the EDM process. Combining carbon hydride based dielectric and a specially designed low-frequency vibration setup to excite the workpiece, the process environment can be held within parameters to allow for a constant EDM process even after the starting layer is machined. In the experiments a cylindrical 120 {mu}m diameter Tungsten carbide tool electrode and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}- and MgO- stabilized ZrO{sub 2} worpieces are used. The current and voltage signals of the discharges within the different stages of the process (machining of the starting layer, machining of the base material, transition stage) are recorded and their characteristics compared to discharges in metallic material. Additionally, the electrode feed is monitored. The influences of the process parameters are analysed with regard to the discharge type, electrode wear and process speed.Using the found parameters, micro geometries can be successfully machined into nonconductive Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}- and MgO- stabilized ZrO{sub 2} ceramic by means of micro-EDM.

Schubert, A. [Chair Micromanufacturing Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Chemnitz University of Technology, 09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Fraunhofer Institute for Machine Tools and Forming Technology IWU, 09126 Chemnitz (Germany); Zeidler, H.; Hackert, M. [Chair Micromanufacturing Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Chemnitz University of Technology, 09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Wolf, N. [Fraunhofer Institute for Machine Tools and Forming Technology IWU, 09126 Chemnitz (Germany)

2011-05-04

70

Modeling and Analysis of process parameters on Surface Roughness in EDM of AISI D2 tool Steel by RSM Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research, Response Surface Methodology (RSM) is used to investigate the effect of four controllable input variables namely: discharge current, pulse duration, pulse off time and applied voltage Surface Roughness (SR) of on Electrical Discharge Machined surface. To study the proposed second-order polynomial model for SR, a Central Composite Design (CCD) is used to estimation the model coefficients of

M. K. Pradhan; C. K. Biswas

2009-01-01

71

Flexible human machine interface for process diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

A flexible human machine interface to design and display graphical and textual process diagnostic information is presented. The system operates on different computer hardware platforms, including PCs under MS Windows and UNIX Workstations under X-Windows, in a client-server architecture. The interface system is customized for specific process applications in a graphical user interface development environment by overlaying the image of the process piping and instrumentation diagram with display objects that are highlighted in color during diagnostic display. Customization of the system is presented for Commonwealth Edison`s Braidwood PWR Chemical and Volume Control System with transients simulated by a full-scale operator-training simulator and diagnosed by a computer-based system.

Reifman, J.; Graham, G.E.; Wei, T.Y.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Brown, K.R.; Chin, R.Y. [ComEd Chicago, IL (United States)

1996-05-01

72

Evaluation of machining dispersions for turning process  

E-print Network

In this article we propose to extend the model of simulation of dispersions in turning based on the geometrical specifications. Our study is articulated around two trends of development: the first trend relates to the geometrical model. The geometrical model suggested must allow a follow-up of the geometry of the part during the simulation of machining. It is thus a question of carrying out a systematic treatment of the whole dimensioning and tolerancing process while being based on the principles of the \\DeltaL method. We also planned to integrate this type of specification in the model of simulation of machining suggested. It is more generally a question of extending the traditional model for better taking into account the multi axis specification of coaxiality and perpendicularity on the turned workpieces. The second trend of our study relates to the widening of the field of application of the model. We propose to extend the field of application of the model by taking into account the modifications of several parameters of the manufacturing process plans, likely to involve variations of dispersions.

Arnaud Lefebvre; Valery Wolff

2008-03-03

73

Research on NC Machine Tool Dynamic Characteristic Considering Processing Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for the machine tool dynamic characteristic modeling and simulation is further presented. This method takes structure and processing dynamics into account, after the structural dynamic characteristic of the machine tool has been studied. A certain gantry-type machining center is used as a research object. First, the structural dynamic model based on finite element analysis (FEA) is built. Through

Xu Dan; Kang Rui; Liu Qiang

2010-01-01

74

Improving Electrical Discharge Machined Surfaces Using Magnetic Abrasive Finishing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recast layer is invariably present on surfaces produced by electrical discharge machining (EDM). For some metals with high hardness, the recast layer may contain micro-cracks. This damaged layer can affect the service life of the parts produced by this method. This investigation demonstrates that magnetic abrasive finishing (MAF) process using unbonded magnetic abrasives (UMA), can improve the quality of

Biing-Hwa Yan; Geeng-Wei Chang; Jung-Hsien Chang; Rong-Tzong Hsu

2004-01-01

75

Searching for the electron EDM in a storage ring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Searches for permanent electric dipole moments (EDM) of fundamental particles have been underway for more than 50 years with null results. Still, such searches are of great interest because EDMs arise from radiative corrections involving processes that violate parity and time-reversal symmetries, and through the CPT theorem, are sensitive to CP-violation. New models of physics beyond the standard model predict new sources of CP-violation leading to dramatically enhanced EDMs possibly within the reach of a new generation of experiments. We describe a new approach to electron EDM searches using molecular ions stored in a tabletop electrostatic storage ring. Molecular ions with long-lived paramagnetic states such as tungsten nitride WN+ can be injected and stored in larger numbers and with longer coherence times than competing experiments, leading to high sensitivity to an electron EDM. Systematic effects mimicking an EDM such as those due to motional magnetic fields and geometric phases are found not to limit the approach in the short term, and sensitivities of ?|de| ? 10-30 e·cm/day appear possible under conservative conditions.

Kawall, D.

2011-05-01

76

Modeling and compensation of cutting-forces generated during the EDM process for ultra high-precision robots  

E-print Network

on the robot Agietron micro-nano as a case study and we have used an ultra high-precision measuring system the deformations in real-time. 1 Introduction Robot calibration is a process that permits to increase ro- bot. The robot considered in this work is an Agietron micro-nano (fig. 1), a parallel robot based

Floreano, Dario

77

Simulation of Surface Integrity for Nanopowder-Mixed Dielectric in Micro Electrical Discharge Machining  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of powder-mixed dielectric for electrical discharge machining (PMD-EDM) and micro-electrical discharge machining (PMD micro-EDM) has been shown to reduce machined surface roughness and surface defects, such as, recast layer thickness. However, these were mainly empirical studies which had limited capacity to elucidate the physics and characteristics of the PMD-EDM process. In the current study, a new numerical model has been developed to describe the PMD micro-EDM process. The model has taken into account the larger expansion of the plasma channel and reduction in heat flux distributed to the workpiece because of the presence of powder particles. It has been analyzed using finite element methods (FEMs) and based on the multiple discharge approach. The heat source expansion factor due to the presence of powder particles has been estimated to be 1.07 at 0.02 g/L powder concentration. The fraction of heat flux to the workpiece has been found to decrease from 0.24 at 0.02 g/L to 0.11 at 0.2 g/L powder concentration. For model validation, simulated R max and recast layer thickness values were compared with their corresponding measured values. The simulated and measured results varied with the same general trend which suggested that the proposed process model for PMD micro-EDM was fundamentally sound.

Tan, P. C.; Yeo, S. H.

2013-06-01

78

Testing of new banknotes for machines that process currency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Banknotes are now frequently use din machines. The Federal Reserve Board and the US Department of the Treasury have identified a need to produce notes that are reliably accepted in a variety of machine applications. This paper describes the steps that led to identifying requirements of manufacturers of machines that process banknotes for test notes, and the program developed for the Bureau of Engraving and Printing to address those requirements.

Foster, Eugenie E.

2000-04-01

79

A Robust Helical Abrasive Flow Machining (HLX-AFM) Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abrasive flow machining (AFM) is a fine finishing process in which an abrasives laden semi-solid paste is used for finishing of internal inaccessible recesses or surfaces. Recently, several modifications in the tooling with/without additional machining action have been tried for increasing the material removal in the AFM. The present study is about a novel development in the AFM process, towards the enhancement of material removal rate while polishing the internal cylindrical surfaces. The modified process is termed as helical abrasive flow machining process (HLX-AFM). Taguchi's quality engineering approach has been applied to the developed HLX-AFM process, leading to the optimization of various process parameters and thus the development of a robust machining process with significantly enhanced material removal.

Brar, B. S.; Walia, R. S.; Singh, V. P.; Sharma, M.

2013-01-01

80

Modelling of abrasive flow machining process: a neural network approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple neural network model for abrasive flow machining process has been established. The effects of machining parameters on material removal rate and surface finish have been experimentally analysed. Based on this analysis, model inputs and outputs were chosen and off-line model training using back-propagation algorithm was carried out. Simulation results confirm the feasibility of this approach and show a

R. K. Jain; V. K. Jain; P. K. Kalra

1999-01-01

81

Rapid tooling aided by reverse engineering to manufacture EDM electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work deals with the application of indirect rapid tooling (RT) technology to manufacture electrical discharge\\u000a machining (EDM) copper electrodes from investment casting, with wax prototypes made by ThermoJet 3D printing, a rapid prototyping\\u000a (RP) technique. The reverse engineering (RE) method is utilised to transform the point cloud data of an object surface, obtained\\u000a from 3D digitising, in a

José Carvalho Ferreira; Artur S. Mateus; Nuno F. Alves

2007-01-01

82

Edme Mariotte and Newton's Cradle  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first recorded experiments describing the phenomena made popular by Newton's cradle appear to be those conducted by Edme Mariotte around 1670. He was quoted in Newton's "Principia," along with Wren, Wallis, and Huygens, as having conducted pioneering experiments on the collisions of pendulum balls. Each of these authors concluded that momentum…

Cross, Rod

2012-01-01

83

Man-machine processes in modeling based engineering activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the man-machine interaction process in collaborative engineering systems where decisions of humans are assisted by computer procedures. Recent development in communication, multimedia, modeling and knowledge engineering techniques brought a new age in human-computer interface processes. Authors propose a model of the man-machine interaction that can be applied in CAD\\/CAM and flexible manufacturing systems. The paper is organized

Laszlo HorvAth; I. J. Rudas; J. A. Tenreiro Machado

1998-01-01

84

A neural network process model for abrasive flow machining operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the development of a predictive process modeling system for the abrasive flow machining (AFM) process. This process is used for polishing and surface removal of workpieces with an internal flow path. The core of the process modeling system is a set of neural network models that predicts surface finish and dimensional change. These neural network models are

Kimberly L. Petri; Richard E. Billo; Bopaya Bidanda

1998-01-01

85

Accretion of titanium carbide by electrical discharge machining with powder suspended in working fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

A surface modification method by electrical discharge machining (EDM) with a green compact electrode has been studied to make thick TiC or WC layer. Titanium alloy powder or tungsten powder is supplied from the green compact electrode and adheres on a workpiece by the heat caused by discharge. To avoid the production process of the green compact electrode, a surface

Katsushi Furutania; Akinori Saneto; Hideki Takezawa; Naotake Mohri; Hidetaka Miyake

2001-01-01

86

Simulation of Fatigue Crack Initiation at Corrosion Pits With EDM Notches  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Uniaxial fatigue tests were conducted to compare the fatigue life of laboratory produced corrosion pits, similar to those observed in the shuttle main landing gear wheel bolt-hole, and an electro-discharged-machined (EDM) flaw. EDM Jaws are used to simulate corrosion pits during shuttle wheel (dynamometer) testing. The aluminum alloy, (AA 7050) laboratory fatigue tests were conducted to simulate the local stress level contained in the wheel bolt-hole. Under this high local stress condition, the EDM notch produced a fatigue life similar to test specimens containing corrosion pits of similar size. Based on the laboratory fatigue test results, the EDM Jaw (semi-circular disc shaped) produces a local stress state similar to corrosion pits and can be used to simulate a corrosion pit during the shuttle wheel dynamometer tests.

Smith, Stephen W.; Newman, John A.; Piascik, Robert S.

2003-01-01

87

Characterizing Process Execution Behaviour Using Machine Learning Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract A deep knowledge of process execution behavior is very useful in formulating better scheduling techniques. In this paper we study the approaches to the process characterization problem. Also we propose a no vel method to characterize and categorize process execution behaviors by using machine learning techniques that learn from previous execution instances of programs. The “Waikato Environment f or

Kishore Kumar. P; Atul Negi

2004-01-01

88

Deformation prediction of foundation pit using Gaussian Process machine learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prediction of deformation of foundation pit by means of conventional method such as mechanics analysis or numerical method often has a large error because the deformation process of foundation pit is a highly complicated nonlinear evolution process. A novel method based on Gaussian process (GP) machine learning is proposed for solving the problem of deformation prediction of foundation pit. GP

Guoshao Su; Keshi ZHANG; Huanling Zhang; Yan Zhang

2009-01-01

89

Modern Technologies for Processing Wastes from Machining Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are currently many methods available for processing and recycling wastes from machining operations [1]. Although some of them consume large amounts of energy and require special equipment or special processing regimes (remelting, comminution, sintering in heating furnaces, hot and cold pressing), significant amounts of the raw material are also lost in the process. For example, the losses incurred in

V. V. Zharikov

2001-01-01

90

Edme Mariotte and Newton's Cradle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first recorded experiments describing the phenomena made popular by Newton's cradle appear to be those conducted by Edme Mariotte around 1670. He was quoted in Newton's Principia, along with Wren, Wallis, and Huygens, as having conducted pioneering experiments on the collisions of pendulum balls. Each of these authors concluded that momentum (then described as the "quantity of motion") is conserved when one ball collides with another.

Cross, Rod

2012-04-01

91

Machine Processing Issues in Crop Type Identification and Estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Machine processing techniques which utilize remotely sensed data to estimate crop acreage have been extensively evaluated in several large scale experiments, beginning in 1972 with the Crop Identification Technology Assessment for Remote Sensing (CITARS) and more recently, the Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE). Landsat multispectral scanner data acquired over several major global agricultural regions, has been processed using state-of-the-art

Forrest G. Hall

1979-01-01

92

Specific energy and temperature determination in abrasive flow machining process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model has been proposed for the determination of specific energy and tangential forces in abrasive flow machining (AFM) process. It accounts for the process parameters of AFM e.g., grain size, applied pressure, hardness of workpiece material, number of cycles and number of active grains. Heat transfer in AFM has also been analysed considering heat flow to the workpiece and

Rajendra K Jain; V. K Jain

2001-01-01

93

Nanoindentation characterization of surface layers of electrical discharge machined WC–Co  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study applies nanoindentation and other analysis techniques to investigate the influence of wire electrical discharge machining (EDM) process on the structure and properties of machined surface layers of WC–Co composites. Multiple indents were conducted on the cross-section of the surface recast layer, sub-surface heat-affected zone, and bulk material. The energy disperse X-ray spectrometry and X-ray diffraction were used to

Jun Qu; Laura Riester; Albert J. Shih; Ronald O. Scattergood; Edgar Lara-Curzio; Thomas R. Watkins

2003-01-01

94

Information processing in man-machine systems  

SciTech Connect

The human decision maker in an organization can be treated as an adaptive information channel (i.e. a channel with non-constant processing times), especially in high data rate environments such as C/sup 3/ systems. This paper develops a framework for treating information transmission through such adaptive channels and presents some basic results. A model of a human decision maker in an organization is also developed within this framework.

Sen, P.; Drenick, R.F.

1980-01-01

95

In-process machine tool vibration cancellation using PMN actuators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At present, the machine tool technology in the US is not in the state-of-the-art of leading international competitors. Conventional machine tools under use are being pushed into their machining accuracy limits. There is a pressing need calling for revitalizing the machine tool industry. This paper presents, a mechatronic system developed for reducing tool vibration during machining. It consists of electrical and mechanical components, and is realized by placing electrically driven electrostrictive actuators in a specially designed tool post mechanical structure. The linear neural network controller, namely, digital filters, are implemented using a signal processing board. The experimental investigation is conducted in two stages. In the first stage, a test bed is established to use an electro-magnetic shaker to resemble the excitation of cutting force acting on the tool. In the second stage, experiments were conducted using a lathe on the shop floor. In-process vibration cancellation was observed. In the laboratory experiment, a percent reduction in the 90 percent was possible using a feedforward scheme. The improvement in surface roughness during the turning operation was confirmed from measurements of surface roughness profiles.

Eshete, Zelalem; Zhang, Guangming

1996-12-01

96

Simulation of surface generated in abrasive flow machining process  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the control of abrasive flow machining (AFM) process, it is important to understand the mechanics of generation of its surface profile. This paper describes the analysis and simulation of profile of finished surface and material removal by the interaction of abrasive grains with workpiece. The abrasive grains are randomly distributed in media depending upon their percentage concentration and mesh

Rajendra Kumar Jain; Vijay Kumar Jain

1999-01-01

97

A high-efficiency approach for fabricating mass micro holes by batch micro EDM  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work is a follow-up study based on previous research. The study presents a novel approach for effective production of mass micro holes. Initially, a set of micro w-EDM mechanisms is designed and mounted on the developed precise tabletop CNC machine tool to fabricate the micro electrode array. The tension of the micro wire is precisely controlled by a magnetic

Shun-Tong Chen

2007-01-01

98

A novel approach for batch production of micro holes by micro EDM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper proposed a novel approach of effective production of mass micro holes. A set of micro w-EDM mechanism is designed and mounted on the developed tabletop precision machine tool. The tension of micro wire is precisely controlled by magnetic force. In addition, the micro vibrations of the wire during discharging are effectively suppressed by the developed vibration suppression system.

S. T. Chen; Y. S. Liao

99

Artificial neural networks and machine learning for man-machine-interfaces - processing of nervous signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, Man-Machine-Interfaces contacting the nervous system in order to extract information resp. to introduce information gain more and more in importance. In order to establish systems like neural prostheses or Brain-Computer-Interfaces, powerful (real time) algorithms for processing nerve signals or their field potentials are required. Another important point is the introduction of information into nervous systems by means like functional

Martin Bogdan; Michael Bensch

2006-01-01

100

Makespan minimization in a job shop with a batch processing machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A job shop with one batch processing and several discrete machines is analyzed. Given a set of jobs, their process routes, processing requirements, and size, the objective is to schedule the jobs such that the makespan is minimized. The batch processing machine can process a batch of jobs as long as the machine capacity is not violated. The batch processing

Miguel Rojas Santiago

2010-01-01

101

Process modeling for the prediction of surface finish by a micromechanical process: semimagnetic abrasive machining  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comparatively new micromechanical machining process, semi- magnetic abrasive machining which uses magnetic force as a machining pressure has been developed in ISRO/IIT recently for the precision finishing of cylindrical components. The process is controllable because the machining pressure is controlled by the current that is input to the coil of solenoid, but it needs the monitoring of the surface roughness by controlling the process parameters. For this the surface roughness is predicted as a function of input parameters like rotational sped, magnetic flux density, abrasive grain size, machining duration, and clearance between the workpiece and the poles by a model that has been derived from the removed volume of material. The simulation results are confirmed by comparing them with the experimental results.

Jayakumar, P.; Radhakrishnan, V.

1999-11-01

102

IN-PROCESS AND POST-PROCESS QUANTIFICATION OF MACHINING ACCURACY IN CIRCULAR CNC MILLING  

Microsoft Academic Search

In-process part inspection using a spindle touch probe has gained a significant importance, mainly because parts can remain on the machine without disrupting the machine setup while inspection is being conducted. This practice leads to a shorter inspection time, improved part accuracies, and reduction of scraps. Recently, intense domestic and international competition has put more importance on part quality in

Yongjin Kwon; Yalcin M. Ertekin; Bill Tseng

2005-01-01

103

Self-modulating abrasive medium and its application to abrasive flow machining for finishing micro channel surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study developed a self-modulating abrasive medium whose viscosity and fluidity can be adjusted during the processing\\u000a period. The complex micro channel was fabricated on the stainless steel (SUS304) by using wire electrical discharge machining\\u000a (wire-EDM). An experiment of employing abrasive flow machining (AFM) was conducted to evaluate the characteristics of various\\u000a levels of roughness and finishing of the micro

Hsinn-Jyh Tzeng; Biing-Hwa Yan; Rong-Tzong Hsu; Yan-Cherng Lin

2007-01-01

104

Effect of near-surface residual stress and microstructure modification from machining on the fatigue endurance of a tool steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study concerns the effect of machining on the fatigue life of an EN X155CrMoV12 tool steel (SAE J438b), with regard to\\u000a the generation of near-surface residual stress and microstructural modification of the machined surface. Two possible methods\\u000a for machining tool steels were compared: electro-discharge machining (EDM), a high energy density process, and milling, a\\u000a more conventional cutting process. Particular

F. Ghanem; H. Sidhom; C. Braham; M. E. Fitzpatrick

2002-01-01

105

Progress on big data publication and documentation for machine-to-machine discovery, access, and processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-resolution data for use in environmental modeling is increasingly becoming available at broad spatial and temporal scales. Downscaled climate projections, remotely sensed landscape parameters, and land-use/land-cover projections are examples of datasets that may exceed an individual investigation's data management and analysis capacity. To allow projects on limited budgets to work with many of these data sets, the burden of working with them must be reduced. The approach being pursued at the U.S. Geological Survey Center for Integrated Data Analytics uses standard self-describing web services that allow machine to machine data access and manipulation. These techniques have been implemented and deployed in production level server-based Web Processing Services that can be accessed from a web application or scripted workflow. Data publication techniques that allow machine-interpretation of large collections of data have also been implemented for numerous datasets at U.S. Geological Survey data centers as well as partner agencies and academic institutions. Discovery of data services is accomplished using a method in which a machine-generated metadata record holds content--derived from the data's source web service--that is intended for human interpretation as well as machine interpretation. A distributed search application has been developed that demonstrates the utility of a decentralized search of data-owner metadata catalogs from multiple agencies. The integrated but decentralized system of metadata, data, and server-based processing capabilities will be presented. The design, utility, and value of these solutions will be illustrated with applied science examples and success stories. Datasets such as the EPA's Integrated Climate and Land Use Scenarios, USGS/NASA MODIS derived land cover attributes, and downscaled climate projections from several sources are examples of data this system includes. These and other datasets, have been published as standard, self-describing, web services that provide the ability to inspect and subset the data. This presentation will demonstrate this file-to-web service concept and how it can be used from script-based workflows or web applications.

Walker, J. I.; Blodgett, D. L.; Suftin, I.; Kunicki, T.

2013-12-01

106

Ultraprecision ductile mode machining of glass by micromilling process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glass is considered as a difficult-to-machine material because of its susceptibility to brittle fracture during machining. To avoid brittle fracture and achieve superior surface finish, glass must be machined in ductile mode. Mostly, ductile mode machining is performed by a single point cutting tool. This paper presents the results of an experimental study to achieve ductile mode machining of glass

Muhammad Arif; Mustafizur Rahman; Wong Yoke San

2011-01-01

107

Micro slit machining using electro-discharge machining with a modified rotary disk electrode (RDE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To circumvent the high cost of micro electro-discharge machining (MEDM) with superfine wire, the authors modified a conventional electro-discharge machine (EDM) by fitting a rotating disk as the electrode (RDE). Locating the electrode below the workpiece in the modified RDE-EDM, the debris removal rate was greatly improved. Further, by an improved fixture design to stabilize electrode vibration during machining and

H. M Chow; B. H Yan; F. Y Huang

1999-01-01

108

Gaussian Processes for Machine Learning Carl Edward Rasmussen and Christopher K. I. Williams  

E-print Network

and practical aspects of GPs in machine learning. The treatment is comprehensive and self-contained, targetedGaussian Processes for Machine Learning Carl Edward Rasmussen and Christopher K. I. Williams to learning in kernel machines. GPs have received growing attention in the machine learning community over

Edinburgh, University of

109

CKM benchmarks for electron EDM experiments  

E-print Network

All current experiments searching for an electron EDM d_e are performed with atoms and diatomic molecules. Motivated by significant recent progress in searches for an EDM-type signal in diatomic molecules with an uncompensated electron spin, we provide an estimate for the expected signal in the Standard Model due to the CKM phase. We find that the main contribution originates from the effective electron-nucleon operator $\\bar{e} i\\gamma_5 e \\bar{N}N$, induced by a combination of weak and electromagnetic interactions at $O(G_F^2\\alpha^2)$, and not by the CKM-induced electron EDM itself. When the resulting atomic P,T-odd mixing is interpreted as an {\\it equivalent} electron EDM, this estimate leads to the benchmark $d_e^{equiv}(CKM) \\sim 10^{-38}$ ecm.

Maxim Pospelov; Adam Ritz

2013-11-21

110

Process Monitoring Evaluation and Implementation for the Wood Abrasive Machining Process  

PubMed Central

Wood processing industries have continuously developed and improved technologies and processes to transform wood to obtain better final product quality and thus increase profits. Abrasive machining is one of the most important of these processes and therefore merits special attention and study. The objective of this work was to evaluate and demonstrate a process monitoring system for use in the abrasive machining of wood and wood based products. The system developed increases the life of the belt by detecting (using process monitoring sensors) and removing (by cleaning) the abrasive loading during the machining process. This study focused on abrasive belt machining processes and included substantial background work, which provided a solid base for understanding the behavior of the abrasive, and the different ways that the abrasive machining process can be monitored. In addition, the background research showed that abrasive belts can effectively be cleaned by the appropriate cleaning technique. The process monitoring system developed included acoustic emission sensors which tended to be sensitive to belt wear, as well as platen vibration, but not loading, and optical sensors which were sensitive to abrasive loading. PMID:22163477

Saloni, Daniel E.; Lemaster, Richard L.; Jackson, Steven D.

2010-01-01

111

Machining process and superficial hardness of carbon-carbon composites  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this work is to present some experiment`s results concerning with the machinability and the determination of the superficial hardness of green carbon fiber reinforced phenolic workpieces, and three different kinds of carbon fiber reinforced carbon (CRFC) samples. Firstly, this work shows a characterization of the CFRC composite related with its composition, fabrication process, mechanical properties and main applications. Secondly, two kinds of hardness were measured: (1) Rockwell, L and (2) Micro Vickers. More than 200 indentations were carried out. In the main, the results of the Rockwell L tests showed better repeatability than those based on the Micro Vickers tests. After the hardness test, a comparative analysis of the CRFC composite machinability is done about the green carbon fiber reinforced phenolic composites. Experimental of turning were carried out to study the performance of different tool materials. Experimental results showed that only diamond tools are suitable for use in finish turning. In rough turning, the cemented carbide tools showed to be the best solution. This work ends with suggestions of machining parameters for CRFC composites, allowing some basic cutting conditions to be established for the turning operations.

Coppini, N.L.; Ferreira, J.R. [Univ. of Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Dept. of Manufacturing Engineering; Neto, F.L.; Freitas, A.C.; Pardini, L.C. [Aerospace Technical Centre, Sao Jose dos Campos, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Inst. of Aeronautic and Space

1996-12-01

112

Characterization of electric discharge machining, subsequent etching and shot-peening as a surface treatment for orthopedic implants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Presented work aims at multi-method characterization of combined surface treatment of Ti-6Al-4V alloy for biomedical use. Surface treatment consists of consequent use of electric discharge machining (EDM), acid etching and shot peening. Surface layers are analyzed employing scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Acid etching by strong Kroll's reagent is capable of removing surface layer of transformed material created by EDM. Acid etching also creates partly nanostructured surface and significantly contributes to the enhanced proliferation of the bone cells. The cell growth could be positively affected by the superimposed bone-inspired structure of the surface with the morphological features in macro-, micro- and nano-range. Shot peening significantly improves poor fatigue performance after EDM. Final fatigue performance is comparable to benchmark electropolished material without any adverse surface effect. The proposed three-step surface treatment is a low-cost process capable of producing material that is applicable in orthopedics.

Stráský, Josef; Havlíková, Jana; Ba?áková, Lucie; Harcuba, Petr; Mhaede, Mansour; Jane?ek, Miloš

2013-09-01

113

Statistical process control (SPC) for coordinate measurement machines  

SciTech Connect

The application of process capability analysis, using designed experiments, and gage capability studies as they apply to coordinate measurement machine (CMM) uncertainty analysis and control will be demonstrated. The use of control standards in designed experiments, and the use of range charts and moving range charts to separate measurement error into it's discrete components will be discussed. The method used to monitor and analyze the components of repeatability and reproducibility will be presented with specific emphasis on how to use control charts to determine and monitor CMM performance and capability, and stay within your uncertainty assumptions.

Escher, R.N.

2000-01-04

114

Scheduling unit length jobs with parallel nested machine processing set restrictions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the impact of restricting the machines upon which individual jobs may be scheduled. Even the simple case of a single stage of identical parallel machines cannot be solved to optimality in a reasonable time. We therefore focus on the case when job processing times are identical. In some applications the machine processing sets of jobs are structured

Celia A. Glass; H. R. Mills

2006-01-01

115

PROCESS MONITORING OF ABRASIVE FLOW MACHINING USING A NEURAL NETWORK PREDICTIVE MODEL  

E-print Network

PROCESS MONITORING OF ABRASIVE FLOW MACHINING USING A NEURAL NETWORK PREDICTIVE MODEL Sarah S. Y of a neural network based process monitor and off-line controller for abrasive flow machining of automotive parameter of interest, air flow rate through the manifold. Keywords: Abrasive flow machining, neural

Smith, Alice E.

116

Cascade-Correlation Neural Network Modeling of the Abrasive Flow Machining Process  

E-print Network

1 Cascade-Correlation Neural Network Modeling of the Abrasive Flow Machining Process Sarah S. Y the abrasive flow machining (AFM) of automotive engine air intake manifolds using a cascade-correlation neural: Abrasive Flow Machining, Neural Network, Cascade Learning, Process Control, Engine Manifold, Cross

Smith, Alice E.

117

Design and Testing of a Friction Stir Processing Machine for Laboratory Research  

SciTech Connect

This presentation describes the design, fabrication and testing of a friction stir processing machine. The machine is intended to be a flexible research tool for a broad range of friction stir processing studies. The machine design also addresses the need for an affordable, robust design for general laboratory use.

Karen S. Miller; Rodney J. Bitsoi; Eric D. Larsen; Herschel B. Smartt

2006-08-01

118

Optimization of the electrical discharge machining process based on the Taguchi method with fuzzy logics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the application of the Taguchi method with fuzzy logic for optimizing the electrical discharge machining process with multiple performance characteristics has been reported. A multi-response performance index is used to solve the electrical discharge machining process with multiple performance characteristics. The machining parameters (the workpiece polarity, pulse-on time, duty factor, open discharge voltage, discharge current and dielectric

J. L. Lin; K. S. Wang; B. H. Yan; Y. S. Tarng

2000-01-01

119

Parametric optimization and surface characterization of wire electrical discharge machining process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) technology has been widely used in conductive material machining. The WEDM process, which is a combination of electrodynamic, electromagnetic, thermaldynamic, and hydrodynamic actions, exhibits a complex and stochastic nature. Its performance, in terms of surface finish and machining productivity, is affected by many factors. This paper presents an attempt at optimization of the process parametric

T. A. Spedding; Z. Q. Wang

1997-01-01

120

The finite element machine: An experiment in parallel processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The finite element machine is a prototype computer designed to support parallel solutions to structural analysis problems. The hardware architecture and support software for the machine, initial solution algorithms and test applications, and preliminary results are described.

Storaasli, O. O.; Peebles, S. W.; Crockett, T. W.; Knott, J. D.; Adams, L.

1982-01-01

121

The Evolutionary Design Model (EDM) for the design of complex engineered systems : Masdar City as a case study  

E-print Network

This thesis develops a framework for constructing an Evolutionary Design Model (EDM) that would enhance the design of complex systems through an efficient process. The framework proposed is generic and suggests a group of ...

Alfaris, Anas (Anas Faris)

2009-01-01

122

Parallel astronomical data processing with Python: Recipes for multicore machines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High performance computing has been used in various fields of astrophysical research. But most of it is implemented on massively parallel systems (supercomputers) or graphical processing unit clusters. With the advent of multicore processors in the last decade, many serial software codes have been re-implemented in parallel mode to utilize the full potential of these processors. In this paper, we propose parallel processing recipes for multicore machines for astronomical data processing. The target audience is astronomers who use Python as their preferred scripting language and who may be using PyRAF/IRAF for data processing. Three problems of varied complexity were benchmarked on three different types of multicore processors to demonstrate the benefits, in terms of execution time, of parallelizing data processing tasks. The native multiprocessing module available in Python makes it a relatively trivial task to implement the parallel code. We have also compared the three multiprocessing approaches-Pool/Map, Process/Queue and Parallel Python. Our test codes are freely available and can be downloaded from our website.

Singh, Navtej; Browne, Lisa-Marie; Butler, Ray

2013-08-01

123

Surface integrity evolution from main cut mode to finish trim cut mode in W-EDM of shape memory alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shape memory alloys such as Nitinol are widely used in medical, aerospace, actuator, and machine tool industries. However, Nitinol is a very difficult-to-machine material due to the superelasticity, high ductility, and severe strain-hardening. The machined surface should have tailored micro texture to enhance cell adhesion. This study explores the process capability of W-EDM (DI-water based dielectric) in machining Ni50.8Ti49.2 by one main cut (MC) mode followed by four trim cut (TC) modes. Experimental results show that the 6-sigma distributions of Ra are very different between MC mode and finish TC mode. Thick white layers (2-8 ?m) with microcracks in MC mode and very thin white layers (0-2 ?m) free of those defects in finish TC mode can be observed. However, microcracks would not propagate into the heat affected zone (HAZ) below the white layer. The microhardness of white layer by TC mode is about 50% higher than that by MC mode. In addition, Ni is the dominant element for the measured microhardness.

Liu, J. F.; Li, L.; Guo, Y. B.

2014-07-01

124

Experimental characterization of the inner surface in micro-drilling of spray holes: A comparison between ultrashort pulsed laser and EDM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this research, the inner surface characteristics of micro-drilled holes of fuel injector nozzles were analyzed by Shear Force Microscopy (SHFM). The surface texture was characterized by maximum peak-to-valley distance and periodicity whose dimensions were related to the adopted energy. 180 µm diameter holes were drilled using ultrashort pulsed laser process using pulse energies within the range of 10-50 µJ. Laser ablated surfaces in the tested energy range offer a smooth texture with a peculiar periodic structure with a variation in height between 60 and 90 nm and almost constant periodicity. The Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) photograph of the Laser Induced Periodic Surface Structure (LIPSS) showed the co-existence of Low Spatial Frequency LIPSS (LSFL) and High Spatial Frequency LIPSS (HSFL). A comparative analysis was carried out between the highest laser pulse energy in the tested range energy laser drilling which enables the shortest machining time and micro-Electrical Discharge Machining (µ-EDM). On the contrary, results showed that surfaces obtained by electro-erosion are characterized by a random distribution of craters with a total excursion up to 1.5 µm with a periodicity of 10 µm. The mean-squared surface roughness (Rq) derived from the scanned maps ranges between 220 and 560 nm for µ-EDM, and between 50 and 100 nm for fs-pulses laser drilling.

Romoli, L.; Rashed, C. A. A.; Fiaschi, M.

2014-03-01

125

Quantum thermodynamic processes: a control theory for machine cycles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The minimal set of thermodynamic control parameters consists of a statistical (thermal) and a mechanical one. These suffice to introduce all the pertinent thermodynamic variables; thermodynamic processes can then be defined as paths on this 2-dimensional control plane. Putting aside coherence we show that for a large class of quantum objects with discrete spectra and for the cycles considered the Carnot efficiency applies as a universal upper bound. In the dynamic (finite time) regime renormalized thermodynamic variables allow to include non-equilibrium phenomena in a systematic way. The machine function ceases to exist in the large speed limit; the way, in which this limit is reached, depends on the type of cycle considered.

Birjukov, J.; Jahnke, T.; Mahler, G.

2008-07-01

126

A high-efficiency approach for fabricating mass micro holes by batch micro EDM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work is a follow-up study based on previous research. The study presents a novel approach for effective production of mass micro holes. Initially, a set of micro w-EDM mechanisms is designed and mounted on the developed precise tabletop CNC machine tool to fabricate the micro electrode array. The tension of the micro wire is precisely controlled by a magnetic force. Furthermore, micro vibrations of the wire during discharging are effectively suppressed by the developed vibration suppression system. To fabricate the mass micro holes, a microstructure array with a high-aspect ratio of 10 × 10 micro squared electrodes, width and height of 21 µm and 700 µm, respectively, for each electrode and 24 µm spacing between two electrodes is fabricated first by using the proposed 'reverse w-EDM' machining strategy. The electrodes array is directly utilized to drill the mass micro holes by bath micro EDM on the same machine. An array of 900 through-holes of the same size is successfully fabricated via the modified peck-drilling method on a 30 µm thick stainless-steel plate. A tip at the free end of the micro electrode is designed and fabricated as a circular-pyramid shape. Experimental results verified that the spiky end form eliminates debris adhering to the edges of the micro holes. Analytical results demonstrate satisfactory hole geometric accuracy, dimensional accuracy and surface roughness. Furthermore, mass micro holes can be fabricated efficiently using the proposed technique.

Chen, Shun-Tong

2007-10-01

127

An experimental investigation of cylindrical wire electrical discharge turning process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cylindrical wire electrical discharge turning (CWEDT) process was developed to generate precise cylindrical forms on hard,\\u000a difficult to machine materials. A precise, flexible, and corrosion-resistant submerged rotary spindle was designed and added\\u000a to a conventional five-axis CNC wire electrical discharge machine (EDM) to enable the generation of free-form cylindrical\\u000a geometries. The hardness and strength of the work material are

Mohammad Jafar Haddad; Fereshteh Alihoseini; Mostafa Hadi; Meysam Hadad; Alireza Fadaei Tehrani; Aminollah Mohammadi

2010-01-01

128

Study on the nano-powder-mixed sinking and milling micro-EDM of WC-Co  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present study investigates the feasibility of improving surface characteristics in the micro-electric discharge machining\\u000a (EDM) of cemented tungsten carbide (WC–Co), a widely used die and mould material, using graphite nano-powder-mixed dielectric.\\u000a In this context, a comparative analysis has been carried out on the performance of powder-mixed sinking and milling micro-EDM\\u000a with view of obtaining smooth and defect-free surfaces. The surface

Muhammad Pervej Jahan; Mustafizur Rahman; Yoke San Wong

2011-01-01

129

PROCESS MONITORING OF ABRASIVE FLOW MACHINING USING A NEURAL NETWORK PREDICTIVE MODEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the preliminary development of a neural network based process monitor and off-line controller for abrasive flow machining of automotive engine intake manifolds. The process is only observable indirectly, yet the time at which machining achieves the specified air flow rate must be estimated accurately. A neural network model is used to estimate when the process has achieved

Sarah S. Y. Lam; Alice E. Smith

1997-01-01

130

Searches for Permanent Electric Dipole Moments (EDM)  

E-print Network

(~10-11 at T=30 K) Ultra-Cold Neutrons (UCN) The ILL UCN Source Materials used for UCN storage: #12;The SQUIDs to detect 3He spin precession 3He capture/4He scintillation detection #12;UCN Source #12;NeutronSearches for Permanent Electric Dipole Moments (EDM) of Atoms, Molecules, and the Neutron Dmitry

Pines, Alexander

131

Modelling the abrasive flow machining process on advanced ceramic materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abrasive flow machining (AFM) is a unique machining method used to achieve high surface quality on inner, difficult-to-access and on outside contours. Using AFM, it is possible to realise predefined edge rounding on any brittle or hard material. AFM is easy to integrate in an automated manufacturing environment. The abrasive medium applied during AFM is a fluid consisting of a

Eckart Uhlmann; Vanja Mihotovic; Andre Coenen

2009-01-01

132

the finite element machine: An experiment in parallel processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Finite Element Machine at the NASA Langley Research Center is a prototype computer designed to support parallel solutions to structural analysis problems. The hardware architecture and support software for the machine, initial solution algorithms and test applications, and preliminary results are described. Directions for future work are presented.

Storaasli, O. O.; Peebles, S. W.; Crockett, T. W.; Knott, J. D.; Adams, L.

1982-01-01

133

RESEARCH ON POLISHING PROCESS OF A SPECIAL POLISHING MACHINE TOOL  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a serial-parallel hybrid special polishing machine tool based on the elastic polishing theory is developed, which is used for polishing mould surface by using bound abrasives. This machine tool mostly consists of parallel mechanism of three-dimensional moving platform, series rotational mechanism of two degrees of freedom and elastic polishing tool device. The parallel mechanism controls the spatial

Guilian Wang; Yiqiang Wang

2009-01-01

134

Influence of electrical discharge machining on the reciprocating sliding wear response of WC-Co cemented carbides  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of commercially available WC-Co-based cemented carbides with 6 up to 12wt.% Co were machined and surface finished by grinding as well as by wire electrical discharge machining (EDM) in demineralised water through a number of consecutive gradually finer EDM regimes. Comparative dry reciprocating sliding wear experiments on both wire-EDM and ground samples against WC-Co pins were conducted, using

K. Bonny; P. De Baets; W. Ost; J. Vleugels; S. Huang; B. Lauwers; W. Liu

2009-01-01

135

Subtractive Rapid Prototyping: Creating a Completely Automated Process for Rapid Machining  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter presents a description of how CNC milling can be used as a rapid prototyping process. The methodology uses a\\u000a layer-based approach for machining (like traditional rapid prototyping) for the rapid, automatic machining of common manufactured\\u000a part geometries in a variety of materials. Parts are machined using a plurality of 21\\/2-D toolpaths from orientations about\\u000a a rotary axis. Process

Matthew C. Frank

136

Achieving Small Structures in Thin NiTi Sheets for Medical Applications with Water Jet and Micro Machining: A Comparison  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NiTi shape memory alloys (SMA) are used for a variety of applications including medical implants and tools as well as actuators, making use of their unique properties. However, due to the hardness and strength, in combination with the high elasticity of the material, the machining of components can be challenging. The most common machining techniques used today are laser cutting and electrical discharge machining (EDM). In this study, we report on the machining of small structures into binary NiTi sheets, applying alternative processing methods being well-established for other metallic materials. Our results indicate that water jet machining and micro milling can be used to machine delicate structures, even in very thin NiTi sheets. Further work is required to optimize the cut quality and the machining speed in order to increase the cost-effectiveness and to make both methods more competitive.

Frotscher, M.; Kahleyss, F.; Simon, T.; Biermann, D.; Eggeler, G.

2011-07-01

137

Flotation machine and process for removing impurities from coals  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed to a type of flotation machine that combines three separate operations in a single unit. The flotation machine is a hydraulic separator that is capable of reducing the pyrite and other mineral matter content of a coal. When the hydraulic separator is used with a flotation system, the pyrite and certain other minerals particles that may have been entrained by hydrodynamic forces associated with conventional flotation machines and/or by the attachment forces associated with the formation of microagglomerates are washed and separated from the coal.

Szymocha, Kazimierz (Edmonton, CA); Ignasiak, Boleslaw (Edmonton, CA); Pawlak, Wanda (Edmonton, CA); Kulik, Conrad (Newark, CA); Lebowitz, Howard E. (Mountain View, CA)

1995-01-01

138

Flotation machine and process for removing impurities from coals  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed to a type of flotation machine that combines three separate operations in a single unit. The flotation machine is a hydraulic separator that is capable of reducing the pyrite and other mineral matter content of a coal. When the hydraulic separator is used with a flotation system, the pyrite and certain other minerals particles that may have been entrained by hydrodynamic forces associated with conventional flotation machines and/or by the attachment forces associated with the formation of microagglomerates are washed and separated from the coal. 4 figs.

Szymocha, K.; Ignasiak, B.; Pawlak, W.; Kulik, C.; Lebowitz, H.E.

1997-02-11

139

Flotation machine and process for removing impurities from coals  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed to a type of flotation machine that combines three separate operations in a single unit. The flotation machine is a hydraulic separator that is capable of reducing the pyrite and other mineral matter content of a coal. When the hydraulic separator is used with a flotation system, the pyrite and certain other mineral particles that may have been entrained by hydrodynamic forces associated with conventional flotation machines and/or by the attachment forces associated with the formation of microagglomerates are washed and separated from the coal. 4 figs.

Szymocha, K.; Ignasiak, B.; Pawlak, W.; Kulik, C.; Lebowitz, H.E.

1995-12-05

140

Flotation machine and process for removing impurities from coals  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed to a type of flotation machine that combines three separate operations in a single unit. The flotation machine is a hydraulic separator that is capable of reducing the pyrite and other mineral matter content of a coal. When the hydraulic separator is used with a flotation system, the pyrite and certain other minerals particles that may have been entrained by hydrodynamic forces associated with conventional flotation machines and/or by the attachment forces associated with the formation of microagglomerates are washed and separated from the coal.

Szymocha, Kazimierz (Edmonton, CA); Ignasiak, Boleslaw (Edmonton, CA); Pawlak, Wanda (Edmonton, CA); Kulik, Conrad (Newark, CA); Lebowitz, Howard E. (Mountain View, CA)

1997-01-01

141

Multiple Model Soft Sensor Based on Affinity Propagation, Gaussian Process and Bayesian Committee Machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presented is a multiple model soft sensing method based on Affinity Propagation (AP), Gaussian process (GP) and Bayesian committee machine (BCM). AP clustering arithmetic is used to cluster training samples according to their operating points. Then, the sub-models are estimated by Gaussian Process Regression (GPR). Finally, in order to get a global probabilistic prediction, Bayesian committee machine is used to

Xiuliang LI; Hongye SU; Jian CHU

2009-01-01

142

Intelligent Adaptive Control of Machining Process Based on Hybrid Recurrent Neural Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aiming at the feasibility of intelligent adaptive control for a machining process, a new network architecture, called a hybrid recurrent neural network (HRNN) is first presented based on the diagonal recurrent neural network (DRNN). Considering the uncertain information in the machining process, a generalized entropy square error (GESE) criterion is then proposed. The learning algorithm of the HRNN and the

Xing-Yu Lai; Chun-Yan Yan; Bang-Yan Ye; Wei-Guang Li

2007-01-01

143

Modeling of material removal and surface roughness in abrasive flow machining process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abrasive flow machining process provides a high level of surface finish and close tolerances with an economically acceptable rate of surface generation for a wide range of industrial components. This paper deals with the theoretical investigations into the mechanism of abrasive flow machining (AFM) process. A finite element model is developed for the flow of media during AFM and the

Rajendra K. Jain; Vijay K. Jain; P. M. Dixit

1999-01-01

144

ACO-based scheduling of parallel batch processing machines to minimize the total weighted tardiness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research was motivated by the scheduling problem of parallel batch processing machines located in the diffusion and oxidation areas in a semiconductor wafer fabrication facility (wafer fab). The objective was to minimize the total weighted tardiness (TWT) on parallel batch processing machines which have incompatible job families, dynamic job arrivals, and constraints on the sequence-dependent setup time and the

L. Li; F. Qiao; Q. D. Wu

2009-01-01

145

Developing a Process Model for Abrasive Flow Machining  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Abrasive flow machining (AFM) is a unique machining method used to achieve high surface quality on inner, difficult-to-access\\u000a contours and on outside edges. Using AFM, it is possible to deburr complex shaped intersecting holes and to realize pre-defined\\u000a edge rounding on any brittle or hard material. Moreover it is easy to integrate into an automated manufacturing environment.\\u000a Reproducibility of results

E. Uhlmann; V. Mihotovic; H. Szulczynski; M. Kretzschmar

146

Scheduling jobs with variable job processing times on unrelated parallel machines.  

PubMed

m unrelated parallel machines scheduling problems with variable job processing times are considered, where the processing time of a job is a function of its position in a sequence, its starting time, and its resource allocation. The objective is to determine the optimal resource allocation and the optimal schedule to minimize a total cost function that dependents on the total completion (waiting) time, the total machine load, the total absolute differences in completion (waiting) times on all machines, and total resource cost. If the number of machines is a given constant number, we propose a polynomial time algorithm to solve the problem. PMID:24982933

Zhang, Guang-Qian; Wang, Jian-Jun; Liu, Ya-Jing

2014-01-01

147

Scheduling Jobs with Variable Job Processing Times on Unrelated Parallel Machines  

PubMed Central

m unrelated parallel machines scheduling problems with variable job processing times are considered, where the processing time of a job is a function of its position in a sequence, its starting time, and its resource allocation. The objective is to determine the optimal resource allocation and the optimal schedule to minimize a total cost function that dependents on the total completion (waiting) time, the total machine load, the total absolute differences in completion (waiting) times on all machines, and total resource cost. If the number of machines is a given constant number, we propose a polynomial time algorithm to solve the problem. PMID:24982933

Zhang, Guang-Qian; Wang, Jian-Jun; Liu, Ya-Jing

2014-01-01

148

A MONTE CARLO SEQUENTIAL ESTIMATION OF POINT PROCESS OPTIMUM FILTERING FOR BRAIN MACHINE INTERFACES  

E-print Network

1 A MONTE CARLO SEQUENTIAL ESTIMATION OF POINT PROCESS OPTIMUM FILTERING FOR BRAIN MACHINE Monte Carlo Sequential Estimation for Point Processes.................................................29 Simulation of Monte Carlo Sequential Estimation on Neural Spike Train Decoding............32 Interpretation

Slatton, Clint

149

Development of a honing process for the combination machining of hardened axisymmetric parts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel concept to enhance the conventional combination machining ‘turning and grinding’ by a long-stroke\\u000a honing process for finishing bores of axisymetric parts. Honing is the best choice when the surface integrity of tribologically\\u000a highly-stressed parts is of vital importance. The presented approach reduces the required overall machining time when compared\\u000a with that of the conventional machining

Dirk Biermann; Kay Marschalkowski; Kai-Uwe Paffrath

2010-01-01

150

Status of the Radon EDM Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experiment to measure the permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) of ^223Rn is under development at TRIUMF. The EDM of ^223Rn is expected to be enhanced by a factor of several hundred relative to ^199Hg due to effects of octupole deformation. In the first runs, the ^223Rn will be polarized by spin-exchange with laser polarized Rb and the precession frequency in combined magnetic fields will be measured using gamma-ray anisotropies detected in the large solid angle TIGRESS array of HPGe detectors. In preparation, polarization and relaxation of radon isotopes by spin exchange with laser optically pumped rubidium have been studied over the range 130^oC to 220^oC. The generation of a greater rubidium polarization in the radon spin-exchange optical pumping cells using a narrow-band diode laser is under investigation. Other preparations and the time frame for the measurements will be presented.

Tardiff, Eric; Chupp, Timothy; Lorenzon, Wolfgang; Nuss-Warren, Sarah; Behr, John; Pearson, Matthew; Gulyuz, Kerim; Lefferts, Richard; Pietralla, Norbert; Rainovski, Georgi; Sell, Jerry; Sprouse, Gene

2008-05-01

151

Intrinsic innovations of die sinking electrical discharge machining technology: estimation of its impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

The die sinking version of electrical discharge machining (EDM) is a current manufacturing technology widely disseminated\\u000a in several industrial sectors. In the recent past, developments in the high-speed milling (HSM) have narrowed the EDMs’ traditional\\u000a application domains. As a result, a strong research effort has been focused on EDM leading to the reduction of the operation\\u000a time and cost and

P. Peças; E. Henriques

2009-01-01

152

Measuring CPU Overhead for I\\/O Processing in the Xen Virtual Machine Monitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtual Machine Monitors (VMMs) are gaining popularity in enterprise environments as a software-based solution for building shared hardware infrastructures via virtualization. In this work, using the Xen VMM, we present a light weight monitoring system for measuring the CPU usage of different virtual machines including the CPU overhead in the device driver domain caused by I\\/O processing on behalf of

Ludmila Cherkasova; Rob Gardner

2005-01-01

153

A Comprehensive Market Analysis on Camera and Illumination Sensors for Image Processing and Machine Vision Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present industrial application space, conventional inspection techniques using manual intervention are getting replaced by automated inspection using image sensors. Image sensors have empowered machines with vision and that has led to increased levels of process automation which used to be manually exhaustive. This paper mainly focuses on the comparative study of Machine Vision hardware aspect specifically on cameras

Ayan Chaki; M. Prashant; P. Sen

2010-01-01

154

CryoEDM: A cryogenic experiment to measure the neutron electric dipole moment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CryoEDM is an experiment that aims to measure the electric dipole moment (EDM) of the neutron to a precision of 10 -28 e cm. A description of CryoEDM, the apparatus, technologies and commissioning is presented.

van der Grinten, M. G. D.; CryoEDM Collaboration; Balashov, S. N.; Francis, V.; Green, K.; Iaydjiev, P. S.; Ivanov, S. N.; Khazov, A.; Tucker, M. A. H.; Wark, D. L.; Davidson, A.; Hardiman, M.; Harris, P. G.; Katsika, K.; Pendlebury, J. M.; Peeters, S. J. M.; Shiers, D. B.; Smith, P.; Townsley, C.; Wardell, I.; Clarke, C.; Henry, S.; Kraus, H.; McCann, M.; Geltenbort, P.; Yoshiki, Y.

2009-12-01

155

Electrical Discharge Machining in Gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we show that electrical discharge machining (EDM) can be achieved in gas. With the help of a high-pressure gas flow supplied through a thin-walled pipe electrode, the molten workpiece material can be removed and flushed out of the working gap without being reattached to the electrode surfaces. The greatest advantage of this technique is that the tool

Masanori Kunieda; Masahiro Yoshida; Norio Taniguchi

1997-01-01

156

Point process modeling on decoding and encoding for Brain Machine Interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Point process modeling has the potential to capture the specificity of neural firing where the information is contained in the spike time occurrence. We aim at building an adaptive signal processing framework for brain machine interfaces working directly in the spike domain. However, the signal processing tools for continuous stochastic processes faces challenge when implemented directly on point processes. Under

Yiwen Wang; Jose C. Principe

2009-01-01

157

Experimental Studies on Mechanism of Material Removal in Abrasive Flow Machining Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the mechanism of material removal (MR) in Abrasive Flow Machining (AFM) process has been studied. Representative components of pure Aluminum and Brass were processed by AFM under similar process conditions. The processed surfaces were analyzed with the help of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). SEM photographs reveal noticeable difference between abrasion patterns produced on the processed surfaces of

Sehijpal Singh; H. S. Shan; Pradeep Kumar

2008-01-01

158

Neuro-fuzzy and neural network-based prediction of various responses in electrical discharge machining of AISI D2 steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present research, two neuro-fuzzy models and a neural network model are presented for predictions of material removal\\u000a rate (MRR), tool wear rate (TWR), and radial overcut (G) in die sinking electrical discharge machining (EDM) process for American Iron and Steel Institute D2 tool steel with copper\\u000a electrode. The discharge current (I\\u000a p), pulse duration (T\\u000a on), duty cycle

Mohan Kumar Pradhan; Chandan Kumar Biswas

2010-01-01

159

Methods of Scale Modeling of Operating Processes of Highway Construction Machines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The monograph examines the principal assumptions in the theory of similarity and modeling for the study and evaluation of operating processes and the design of highway construction machines. Methods are described for the determination of similarity criter...

V. I. Balovnev

1985-01-01

160

Power metallurgy tool electrodes for electrical discharge machining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrodes in electrical discharge machining (EDM) can be compared with cutting tools in conventional machining. Tool performance is one of the important factors that determine the quality of the machined component. Due to the ease of manufacturing and control over the properties of electrodes, the powder metallurgy (P\\/M) technique has an advantage over other methods of electrode fabrication. P\\/M electrodes

M. P. Samuel; P. K. Philip

1997-01-01

161

Process automation using combinations of process and machine control technologies with application to a continuous dissolver  

SciTech Connect

Operation of a continuous rotary dissolver, designed to leach uranium-plutonium fuel from chopped sections of reactor fuel cladding using nitric acid, has been automated. The dissolver is a partly continuous, partly batch process that interfaces at both ends with batchwise processes, thereby requiring synchronization of certain operations. Liquid acid is fed and flows through the dissolver continuously, whereas chopped fuel elements are fed to the dissolver in small batches and move through the compartments of the dissolver stagewise. Sequential logic (or machine control) techniques are used to control discrete activities such as the sequencing of isolation valves. Feedback control is used to control acid flowrates and temperatures. Expert systems technology is used for on-line material balances and diagnostics of process operation. 1 ref., 3 figs.

Spencer, B.B.: Yarbro, O.O.

1991-01-01

162

1nEDM collaboration A. Serebrov, PSI Report 2002  

E-print Network

1nEDM collaboration A. Serebrov, PSI Report 2002 A new precision measurement of the neutron electric dipole moment (EDM) PSI, February 2003 E. Aleksandrov9 , M. Balabas9 , G. Ban4 , G. Bison8 , K Corpusculaire, Caen, France 5 PNPI, St. Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, Russia 6 PSI, Paul

Titov, Anatoly

163

Fiber optic diagnostic techniques for the electrical discharge machining process  

E-print Network

on both sides of the electrodes . . 27 12 Setup to observe total optical power emitted by the plasma spark along with the current measurements from the machine 34 13 Total setup for measuring the spectrum of light emitted by a tungsten lamp . 14... Detailed view of how the monochrometer is being used in the system. . 37 FIG U RE Page IS Total setup for measuring the spectrum of light emitted by a tungsten lamp with a light chopper set at a low duty cycle. . . . . . . . 38 16 Total setup for measu...

Pillans, Brandon William

2012-06-07

164

Impact phenomena in the case of some non-traditional machining processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The material removal within different machining processes can be performed in distinct modalities. One of these modalities\\u000a is based on the effects of certain impact phenomena. The objective of the paper was to find a modality to classify the non-traditional\\u000a machining methods based on the impact phenomena and to emphasize some of their common and different characteristics. The research\\u000a was

L. Sl?tineanu; M. Cotea??; O. Dodun; A. Iosub; L. Apetrei

2008-01-01

165

A study of the flexible job shop scheduling problem with parallel machines and reentrant process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a scheduling algorithm for the job shop scheduling problem with parallel machines and reentrant process.\\u000a This algorithm includes two major modules: the machine selection module (MSM) and the operation scheduling module (OSM). An\\u000a order has several jobs and each job has several operations in a hierarchical structure. The MSM helps an operation to select\\u000a one of the

J. C. Chen; K. H. Chen; J. J. Wu; C. W. Chen

2008-01-01

166

Installation and Implementation of an In-Process Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM)  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the work accomplished during the installation and implementation of the in-process Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM) in Department A. A wealth of knowledge has been gained in solving the many technical issues that delayed the partial implementation of this CMM. The work completed thus far lead to the successfully calibrated in-process CMM workstation. A great deal of current and future work has been outlined in the following pages that shall be used as a guide for the full implementation of this CMM with machining processes in Department A.

Johnston, Derek

2008-06-16

167

Progress toward an EDM measurement in {sup225}Ra.  

SciTech Connect

Permanent electric dipole moments (EDMs) in atoms or molecules are a signature of time-reversal and parity violation and represent an important window onto physics beyond the Standard Model. We are developing a next generation EDM search based on laser-cooled and trapped {sup 225}Ra atoms. Due to octupole deformation of the nucleus, {sup 225}Ra is predicted to be two to three orders of magnitude more sensitive to T-violating interactions than {sup 199}Hg, which currently sets the most stringent limits in the nuclear sector. We will discuss progress toward realizing a first EDM measurement for {sup 225}Ra.

Holt, R. J.; Ahmad, I.; Bailey, K.; Graner, B.; Greene, J. P.; Korsch, W.; Lu, Z.-T.; Mueller, P.; O'Connor, T. P.; Sulai, I. A.; Trimble, W. L. (Physics); (Univ. of Chicago); (Univ. of Kentucky)

2010-11-01

168

PLANS FOR A NEUTRON EDM EXPERIMENT AT SNS  

SciTech Connect

The electric dipole moment of the neutron, leptons, and atoms provide a unique window to Physics Beyond the Standard Model. They are currently developing a new neutron EDM experiment (the nEDM Experiment). This experiment, which will be run at the 8.9 {angstrom} Neutron Line at the Fundamental Neutron Physics Beamline (FNPB) at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, will search for the neutron EDM with a sensitivity two orders of magnitude higher than the present limit. In this paper, the motivation for the experiment, the experimental method, and the present status of the experiment are discussed.

ITO, TAKEYASU [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2007-01-31

169

Post-cast EDM method for reducing the thickness of a turbine nozzle wall  

DOEpatents

A post-cast EDM process is used to remove material from the interior surface of a nozzle vane cavity of a turbine. A thin electrode is passed through the cavity between opposite ends of the nozzle vane and displaced along the interior nozzle wall to remove the material along a predetermined path, thus reducing the thickness of the wall between the cavity and the external surface of the nozzle. In another form, an EDM process employing a profile as an electrode is disposed in the cavity and advanced against the wall to remove material from the wall until the final wall thickness is achieved, with the interior wall surface being complementary to the profile surface.

Jones, Raymond Joseph (Duanesburg, NY); Bojappa, Parvangada Ganapathy (Schenectady, NY); Kirkpatrick, Francis Lawrence (Galway, NY); Schotsch, Margaret Jones (Clifton Park, NY); Rajan, Rajiv (Guilderland, NY); Wei, Bin (Mechanicville, NY)

2002-01-01

170

Key words: machine vision, range estimation, image processing J.W. BRUCE, Peter STUBBERUD and Ashok IYER1  

E-print Network

Key words: machine vision, range estimation, image processing J.W. BRUCE, Peter STUBBERUD and Ashok IYER1 RANGE ESTIMATION AND OBJECT IDENTIFICATION WITH A SINGLE CAMERA MACHINE VISION SYSTEM Typically machine vision systems estimate ranges using stereoscopic vision systems or specialized range detectors

Bruce, J.W.

171

CIRP Conference on Modeling of Machining Operations (CIRP CMMO) Process Mechanics and Surface Integrity Induced by Dry and  

E-print Network

with improved SI is often very thin [6]. The combination of cryogenic machining with the use of cutting tools14th CIRP Conference on Modeling of Machining Operations (CIRP CMMO) Process Mechanics and Surface Integrity Induced by Dry and Cryogenic Machining of AZ31B-O Magnesium Alloy J.C. Outeiroa, *, F. Rossia , G

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

172

Cascade-Correlation Neural Network Modeling of the Abrasive Flow Machining Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents some preliminary work for modeling the abrasive flow machining (AFM) of automotive engine air intake manifolds using a cascade-correlation neural network approach. AFM has not been widely used because of the lack of theoretic support for the complex behavior of the process. Currently, this process can only be monitored subjectively by the plant engineers and is not

Sarah S. Y. Lam; Alice E. Smith

173

Environmental comparison of MESO-CLAD ® process and conventional machining implementing life cycle assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

CLAD® process (Direct additive laser manufacturing, Construction Laser Additive Directe in French) allows the direct manufacturing of small parts, and especially in case of complex shapes, giving equivalent properties with traditional processes such as conventional machining or casting techniques. Present environmental considerations are very important for updates in legislation or in order to make economic allowances. A specified mechanical Ti6Al4V

Nicolas Serres; Dorian Tidu; Simon Sankare; Françoise Hlawka

2011-01-01

174

Rapid tooling of EDM electrodes by means of selective laser sintering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Besides using the selective laser sintering of metal powder for tooling of, e.g., moulding dies, the sintering of EDM-electrodes is one modern development in the field of the Rapid Tooling. The electrodes are built up layer by layer using the 3-D CAD data. So far, a bronze–nickel powder mixture has been used. The made optimization of the sintering process parameters

Holger Dürr; Rolf Pilz; Nuri Saad Eleser

1999-01-01

175

Micromechanical Machining Processes and their Application to Aerospace Structures, Devices and Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Micromechanical machining processes are those micro fabrication techniques which directly remove work piece material by either a physical cutting tool or an energy process. These processes are direct and therefore they can help reduce the cost and time for prototype development of micro mechanical components and systems. This is especially true for aerospace applications where size and weight are critical, and reliability and the operating environment are an integral part of the design and development process. The micromechanical machining processes are rapidly being recognized as a complementary set of tools to traditional lithographic processes (such as LIGA) for the fabrication of micromechanical components. Worldwide efforts in the U.S., Germany, and Japan are leading to results which sometimes rival lithography at a fraction of the time and cost. Efforts to develop processes and systems specific to aerospace applications are well underway.

Friedrich, Craig R.; Warrington, Robert O.

1995-01-01

176

Slow-Atom Electron EDM Experiment with Electric Field Quantization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improving the electron electric dipole moment (e-EDM) upper limit has been a 40-year battle against systematic effects. Two new weapons in this battle are slow atoms and ground-state electric field quantization, both of which suppress motional magnetic field effects. They have been used effectively in a recently completed e-EDM experiment that is a prototype for a high-sensitivity Cs fountain e-EDM experiment. Electric field quantization of Cs atoms required nulling residual magnetic fields to < 200 pT, transport of polarized atoms through field-free (nulled) regions, and inducing transitions between closely spaced |mF| levels using separated short pulses in place of oscillatory fields. The possibility of improving the e-EDM limit with a Cs fountain experiment will be discussed.

Gould, Harvey; Amini, Jason; Munger, Charles, Jr.

2007-06-01

177

The Forensic Participant as an Information Processing Machine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prompted by the issue of whether participation in forensics programs has some tangible beneficial effects on the participants, this paper examines how such participation might influence the participant's processing of information. The paper first presents a rationale for examining the forensics participant as an information processor, citing…

Zeman, James V.

178

Microstructure, Morphology, and Nanomechanical Properties Near Fine Holes Produced by Electro-Discharge Machining  

SciTech Connect

Fine holes in metal alloys are employed for many important technological purposes, including cooling and the precise atomization of liquids. For example, they play an important role in the metering and delivery of fuel to the combustion chambers in energy-efficient, low-emissions diesel engines. Electro-discharge machining (EDM) is one process employed to produce such holes. Since the hole shape and bore morphology can affect fluid flow, and holes also represent structural discontinuities in the tips of the spray nozzles, it is important to understand the microstructures adjacent to these holes, the features of the hole walls, and the nanomechanical properties of the material that was in some manner altered by the EDM hole-making process. Several techniques were used to characterize the structure and properties of spray-holes in a commercial injector nozzle. These include scanning electron microscopy, cross-sectioning and metallographic etching, bore surface roughness measurements by optical interferometry, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy of recast EDM layers extracted with the help of a focused ion beam.

Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL; Howe, Jane Y [ORNL; Coffey, Dorothy W [ORNL; Trejo, Rosa M [ORNL; Kenik, Edward A [ORNL; Jolly, Brian C [ORNL; Yang, Nan [Caterpillar Inc.

2012-01-01

179

Study on mechanism and process of ion beam machining on high-precision large optical surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ion beam machining has become an important means adopted to high-precision large optical mirror processing. This study has conducted a bitmap-style model, calculation and analysis on low-energy Ar+ ion beam sputtering optical surface, based on Sigmund Theory and the CCOS principle. We have obtained the relationship of the removal function and the removal rate with major technological parameters of ion beam machining (e.g. dwell time, work distance, ion energy, etc.) also via orthogonal experiments of single point removal. Results indicated that the removal rate of amorphous SiO2 (fused silica) by Ar+ ions with 600~1200 electron volts increases with the increase of ion energy and dwell time at different extents, decreases exponentially with the increase in work distance. On the basis of computational analysis and experimental investigations, we optimized process conditions and further figured the plane mirror with the clear aperture of 130 millimeters, utilizing technologically optimized low-energy Ar+ ion beam machining. Eventually we obtained the high-precision figure shape with the post-machined surface roughness of 0.43~0.44 nm rms and the post-machined figure error of 1 nm rms.

Liang, Xiao; Gu, Yongqiang; Wang, Xiang; Ma, Zhanlong; Sui, Yongxin; Zheng, Jinjin

2014-08-01

180

Optimization process planning using hybrid genetic algorithm and intelligent search for job shop machining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimization of process planning is considered as the key technology for computer-aided process planning which is a rather\\u000a complex and difficult procedure. A good process plan of a part is built up based on two elements: (1) the optimized sequence\\u000a of the operations of the part; and (2) the optimized selection of the machine, cutting tool and Tool Access Direction

Mojtaba Salehi; Ardeshir Bahreininejad

181

Intelligent Signal Processing Group, IMM, DTU / Jan Larsen 1 Search for sounds a machine learning approach  

E-print Network

by humming search for related songs using the "genes of music" Explore by Genre, mood, theme, country Processing Group, IMM, DTU / Jan Larsen 2 Search for sounds ­ a machine learning approach The digital music digital music legally and with no strings attached," Rob Glaser, RealNetworks chairman and CEO, said

182

Combining Shallow Text Processing and Machine Learning in Real World Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present first results we achieved and experiences we had combining shallow text processing methods with machine learning tools. In two research projects, where DFKI and industrial partners are involved, Ger- man real world texts have to be classified into several predefined categories. We will point out that decisions concerning questions such as how deep the texts

Günter Neumann; Sven Schmeier

183

Optimization of Process Parameters in CFRP Machining with Diamond Abrasive Cutters  

E-print Network

Optimization of Process Parameters in CFRP Machining with Diamond Abrasive Cutters Aude BOUDELIER.garnier@irccyn.ec-nantes.fr, benoit.furet@irccyn.ec-nantes.fr Keywords: CFRP laminate composite; trimming; diamond abrasive cutter roughness. Feedrate must respect cutting limitations due to CFRP removal mechanisms with abrasive cutters

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

184

Numerical magnetic field analysis and signal processing for fault diagnostics of electrical machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerical magnetic field analysis is used for predicting the performance of an induction motor and a slip-ring generator having different faults implemented in their structure. Virtual measurement data provided by the numerical magnetic field analysis are analysed using modern signal processing techniques to get a reliable indication of the fault. Support vector machine based classification is applied to fault diagnostics.

S. Pöyhönen; M. Negrea; P. Jover; A. Arkkio; H. Hyötyniemi

2003-01-01

185

Thermal stresses due to electrical discharge machining  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high temperature gradients generated at the gap during electrical discharge machining (EDM) result in large localized thermal stresses in a small heat-affected zone. These thermal stresses can lead to micro-cracks, decrease in strength and fatigue life and possibly catastrophic failure. A finite element model has been developed to estimate the temperature field and thermal stresses due to Gaussian distributed

Vinod Yadav; Vijay K. Jain; Prakash M. Dixit

2002-01-01

186

Monocular depth perception using image processing and machine learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper primarily exploits some of the more obscure, but inherent properties of camera and image to propose a simpler and more efficient way of perceiving depth. The proposed method involves the use of a single stationary camera at an unknown perspective and an unknown height to determine depth of an object on unknown terrain. In achieving so a direct correlation between a pixel in an image and the corresponding location in real space has to be formulated. First, a calibration step is undertaken whereby the equation of the plane visible in the field of view is calculated along with the relative distance between camera and plane by using a set of derived spatial geometrical relations coupled with a few intrinsic properties of the system. The depth of an unknown object is then perceived by first extracting the object under observation using a series of image processing steps followed by exploiting the aforementioned mapping of pixel and real space coordinate. The performance of the algorithm is greatly enhanced by the introduction of reinforced learning making the system independent of hardware and environment. Furthermore the depth calculation function is modified with a supervised learning algorithm giving consistent improvement in results. Thus, the system uses the experience in past and optimizes the current run successively. Using the above procedure a series of experiments and trials are carried out to prove the concept and its efficacy.

Hombali, Apoorv; Gorde, Vaibhav; Deshpande, Abhishek

2011-10-01

187

Neural-net Processed Electronic Holography for Rotating Machines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents the results of an R&D effort to apply neural-net processed electronic holography to NDE of rotors. Electronic holography was used to generate characteristic patterns or mode shapes of vibrating rotors and rotor components. Artificial neural networks were trained to identify damage-induced changes in the characteristic patterns. The development and optimization of a neural-net training method were the most significant contributions of this work, and the training method and its optimization are discussed in detail. A second positive result was the assembly and testing of a fiber-optic holocamera. A major disappointment was the inadequacy of the high-speed-holography hardware selected for this effort, but the use of scaled holograms to match the low effective resolution of an image intensifier was one interesting attempt to compensate. This report also discusses in some detail the physics and environmental requirements for rotor electronic holography. The major conclusions were that neural-net and electronic-holography inspections of stationary components in the laboratory and the field are quite practical and worthy of continuing development, but that electronic holography of moving rotors is still an expensive high-risk endeavor.

Decker, Arthur J.

2003-01-01

188

Etching process for improving the strength of a laser-machined silicon-based ceramic article  

DOEpatents

A process is disclosed for improving the strength of laser-machined articles formed of a silicon-based ceramic material such as silicon nitride, in which the laser-machined surface is immersed in an etching solution of hydrofluoric acid and nitric acid for a duration sufficient to remove substantially all of a silicon film residue on the surface but insufficient to allow the solution to unduly attack the grain boundaries of the underlying silicon nitride substrate. This effectively removes the silicon film as a source of cracks that otherwise could propagate downwardly into the silicon nitride substrate and significantly reduce its strength. 1 figure.

Copley, S.M.; Tao, H.; Todd-Copley, J.A.

1991-06-11

189

Principles of image processing in machine vision systems for the color analysis of minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the moment color sorting method is one of promising methods of mineral raw materials enrichment. This method is based on registration of color differences between images of analyzed objects. As is generally known the problem with delimitation of close color tints when sorting low-contrast minerals is one of the main disadvantages of color sorting method. It is can be related with wrong choice of a color model and incomplete image processing in machine vision system for realizing color sorting algorithm. Another problem is a necessity of image processing features reconfiguration when changing the type of analyzed minerals. This is due to the fact that optical properties of mineral samples vary from one mineral deposit to another. Therefore searching for values of image processing features is non-trivial task. And this task doesn't always have an acceptable solution. In addition there are no uniform guidelines for determining criteria of mineral samples separation. It is assumed that the process of image processing features reconfiguration had to be made by machine learning. But in practice it's carried out by adjusting the operating parameters which are satisfactory for one specific enrichment task. This approach usually leads to the fact that machine vision system unable to estimate rapidly the concentration rate of analyzed mineral ore by using color sorting method. This paper presents the results of research aimed at addressing mentioned shortcomings in image processing organization for machine vision systems which are used to color sorting of mineral samples. The principles of color analysis for low-contrast minerals by using machine vision systems are also studied. In addition, a special processing algorithm for color images of mineral samples is developed. Mentioned algorithm allows you to determine automatically the criteria of mineral samples separation based on an analysis of representative mineral samples. Experimental studies of the proposed algorithm were performed using samples of gold and copper-nickel ores. And obtained results confirmed its efficiency with respect to mineral objects. The research results will allow: expanding the use of the color sorting method in the field of mineral raw materials enrichment; facilitating the search for values of image processing features for machine vision systems which are used to the color analysis of minerals; reducing the time required for reconfiguration of image processing features when changing the type of analyzed minerals; realizing the process of rapid estimating the concentration rate of analyzed mineral ore by using color sorting method.

Petukhova, Daria B.; Gorbunova, Elena V.; Chertov, Aleksandr N.; Korotaev, Valery V.

2014-09-01

190

Process waste assessment (PWA) for monomeric TDI polyurethane foam encapsulation machine mix. [Toluene Diisocyanate (TDI)  

SciTech Connect

A process waste assessment (PWA) is a systematic, planned procedure with the overall objective of identifying opportunities and methods to reduce or eliminate waste. A PWA also provides emission and waste stream information for regulatory reporting requirements. This specific PWA examines waste minimization and emission information for the process of encapsulating electronic assemblies with monomeric TDI polyurethane foam, using an automated foam encapsulation machine for mixing.

Gerding, M.J.

1992-08-01

191

Intermittent process measurement and process capability analysis using MP700 touch trigger probe on a CNC machining center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study developed an intermittent process measurement system by integrating a MP700 touch trigger probe system with a machining center to measure a workpiece containing freeform surface and regular geometric features, and to do the statistical process control analysis. The whole measuring system, consisting of a personal computer, a CNC machining center controller, a RENISHAW MP700 touch probe system, was integrated information-technically. Measuring software was also developed to simulate the measuring path, to prevent collision, to generate the corresponding measuring NC codes and to calculate the process capability indices, such as the process capability index (Cp), the process performance index (C PK) and the accuracy capability index (Ca). To evaluate the performance of the developed measuring system, a carrier combined with a freeform surface and regular geometric features, referred to in the ISO 10791-7 cutting test standard, was designed. Six pieces of the tested carriers were manufactured and inspected using the MP700 touch trigger probe to evaluate the performance of the developed measuring system. According to the measuring results, the developed measuring system was successfully and effectively used to carry out the intermittent process measurement and the statistical process analysis of the measuring results of some test carriers on the machining center.

Shiou, Fang-Jung; Su, Po-Chuan

2006-11-01

192

Quantum Machines  

E-print Network

We discuss quantum information processing machines. We start with single purpose machines that either redistribute quantum information or identify quantum states. We then move on to machines that can perform a number of functions, with the function they perform being determined by a program, which is itself a quantum state. Examples of both deterministic and probabilistic programmable machines are given, and we conclude with a discussion of the utility of quantum programs.

Mark Hillery; Vladimir Buzek

2009-03-24

193

Application of machine learning and expert systems to Statistical Process Control (SPC) chart interpretation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Statistical Process Control (SPC) charts are one of several tools used in quality control. Other tools include flow charts, histograms, cause and effect diagrams, check sheets, Pareto diagrams, graphs, and scatter diagrams. A control chart is simply a graph which indicates process variation over time. The purpose of drawing a control chart is to detect any changes in the process signalled by abnormal points or patterns on the graph. The Artificial Intelligence Support Center (AISC) of the Acquisition Logistics Division has developed a hybrid machine learning expert system prototype which automates the process of constructing and interpreting control charts.

Shewhart, Mark

1991-01-01

194

Optimization process planning using hybrid genetic algorithm and intelligent search for job shop machining  

PubMed Central

Optimization of process planning is considered as the key technology for computer-aided process planning which is a rather complex and difficult procedure. A good process plan of a part is built up based on two elements: (1) the optimized sequence of the operations of the part; and (2) the optimized selection of the machine, cutting tool and Tool Access Direction (TAD) for each operation. In the present work, the process planning is divided into preliminary planning, and secondary/detailed planning. In the preliminary stage, based on the analysis of order and clustering constraints as a compulsive constraint aggregation in operation sequencing and using an intelligent searching strategy, the feasible sequences are generated. Then, in the detailed planning stage, using the genetic algorithm which prunes the initial feasible sequences, the optimized operation sequence and the optimized selection of the machine, cutting tool and TAD for each operation based on optimization constraints as an additive constraint aggregation are obtained. The main contribution of this work is the optimization of sequence of the operations of the part, and optimization of machine selection, cutting tool and TAD for each operation using the intelligent search and genetic algorithm simultaneously. PMID:21845020

Salehi, Mojtaba

2010-01-01

195

Modeling of the flow stress for AISI H13 Tool Steel during Hard Machining Processes  

SciTech Connect

In general, the flow stress models used in computer simulation of machining processes are a function of effective strain, effective strain rate and temperature developed during the cutting process. However, these models do not adequately describe the material behavior in hard machining, where a range of material hardness between 45 and 60 HRC are used. Thus, depending on the specific material hardness different material models must be used in modeling the cutting process. This paper describes the development of a hardness-based flow stress and fracture models for the AISI H13 tool steel, which can be applied for range of material hardness mentioned above. These models were implemented in a non-isothermal viscoplastic numerical model to simulate the machining process for AISI H13 with various hardness values and applying different cutting regime parameters. Predicted results are validated by comparing them with experimental results found in the literature. They are found to predict reasonably well the cutting forces as well as the change in chip morphology from continuous to segmented chip as the material hardness change.

Umbrello, Domenico; Rizzuti, Stefania [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Calabria 87036 Rende (Italy); Outeiro, Jose C. [Portuguese Catholic University, 3080-024 Figueira da Foz (Portugal); Shivpuri, Rajiv [Industrial, Welding and Systems Engineering - Ohio State University 43210 Columbus (United States)

2007-04-07

196

Optimization of Machining Process Parameters for Surface Roughness of Al-Composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metal matrix composites (MMCs) have become a leading material among the various types of composite materials for different applications due to their excellent engineering properties. Among the various types of composites materials, aluminum MMCs have received considerable attention in automobile and aerospace applications. These materials are known as the difficult-to-machine materials because of the hardness and abrasive nature of reinforcement element-like silicon carbide particles. In the present investigation Al-SiC composite was produced by stir casting process. The Brinell hardness of the alloy after SiC addition had increased from 74 ± 2 to 95 ± 5 respectively. The composite was machined using CNC turning center under different machining parameters such as cutting speed (S), feed rate (F), depth of cut (D) and nose radius (R). The effect of machining parameters on surface roughness (Ra) was studied using response surface methodology. Face centered composite design with three levels of each factor was used for surface roughness study of the developed composite. A response surface model for surface roughness was developed in terms of main factors (S, F, D and R) and their significant interactions (SD, SR, FD and FR). The developed model was validated by conducting experiments under different conditions. Further the model was optimized for minimum surface roughness. An error of 3-7 % was observed in the modeled and experimental results. Further, it was fond that the surface roughness of Al-alloy at optimum conditions is lower than that of Al-SiC composite.

Sharma, S.

2013-10-01

197

Use of maximum entropy method with parallel processing machine. [for x-ray object image reconstruction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The maximum entropy method (MEM) and balanced correlation method were used to reconstruct the images of low-intensity X-ray objects obtained experimentally by means of a uniformly redundant array coded aperture system. The reconstructed images from MEM are clearly superior. However, the MEM algorithm is computationally more time-consuming because of its iterative nature. On the other hand, both the inherently two-dimensional character of images and the iterative computations of MEM suggest the use of parallel processing machines. Accordingly, computations were carried out on the massively parallel processor at Goddard Space Flight Center as well as on the serial processing machine VAX 8600, and the results are compared.

Yin, Lo I.; Bielefeld, Michael J.

1987-01-01

198

3D Machine Vision and Additive Manufacturing: Concurrent Product and Process Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The manufacturing environment rapidly changes in turbulence fashion. Digital manufacturing (DM) plays a significant role and one of the key strategies in setting up vision and strategic planning toward the knowledge based manufacturing. An approach of combining 3D machine vision (3D-MV) and an Additive Manufacturing (AM) may finally be finding its niche in manufacturing. This paper briefly overviews the integration of the 3D machine vision and AM in concurrent product and process development, the challenges and opportunities, the implementation of the 3D-MV and AM at POLMAN Bandung in accelerating product design and process development, and discusses a direct deployment of this approach on a real case from our industrial partners that have placed this as one of the very important and strategic approach in research as well as product/prototype development. The strategic aspects and needs of this combination approach in research, design and development are main concerns of the presentation.

Ilyas, Ismet P.

2013-06-01

199

Progress on a Polarimeter for the Deuteron EDM Search  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design of the storage ring for the deuteron electric dipole moment (EDM) search uses crossed E and B fields to nearly stop the magnetic moment precession of the deuteron in the ring bending magnets. This allows time for the EDM (whose predession is based on E=?vxB) to generate a detectable vertical polarization component [1]. A polarimeter for the EDM ring must monitor continuously and with high statistical precision. Recent tests at COSY-J"ulich have demonstrated high efficiency (˜1.5%) using a thick-walled carbon tube target that also determines the ring aperture. Extraction onto the target was tested using beam position ramping and beam heating with a cluster jet target or a white-noise electric field. Systematic errors were investigated. Continuous monitoring demonstration measurements were made using an RF solenoid whose frequency was ramped through the 1-G? depolarizing resonance.[1] F.J. Farley et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93. 052001 (2004).

Stephenson, E. J.

2008-10-01

200

Recent Results from the PbO Electron EDM Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observation of an electric dipole moment (EDM) of the electron would imply CP violation beyond the Standard Model. This experiment searches for the electron EDM using a metastable state of the PbO molecule. Several unique properties of this state, including closely spaced levels of opposite parity and a long coherence time, make it suitable for use in a vapor cell, which in turn enables high counting rates. The closely spaced levels of opposite parity are due to omega-doubling. Roughly speaking this doubling leads to states with oppositely directed internal electric fields but otherwise nearly identical properties. This reversal along with those of the lab electric and magnetic fields allow us to greatly reduce most systematics. We will discuss the statistical and systematic limits from a recent EDM data run as well as improvements in both our state preparation and detection schemes.

Hamilton, Paul; Kirilov, Emil; Smith, Hunter; Demille, David

2010-03-01

201

Recent Results from the PbO Electron EDM Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observation of an electric dipole moment (EDM) of the electron would imply CP violation beyond the Standard Model. This experiment searches for the electron EDM using a metastable state of the PbO molecule. Several unique properties of this state, including closely spaced levels of opposite parity and a long coherence time, make it suitable for use in a vapor cell, which in turn enables high counting rates. The closely spaced levels of opposite parity are due to omega-doubling. Roughly speaking this doubling leads to states with oppositely directed internal electric fields but otherwise nearly identical properties. This reversal along with those of the lab electric and magnetic fields allow us to greatly reduce most systematics. We will discuss the statistical and systematic limits from a recent EDM data run as well as progress towards improving both our state preparation and detection schemes.

Hamilton, Paul; Smith, Hunter; Demille, David

2009-05-01

202

Semi-online scheduling jobs with tightly-grouped processing times on three identical machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the semi-online version of scheduling problem P||Cmax on a three-machine system. We assume that all jobs have their processing times between p and rp (p>0,r?1). We give a comprehensive competitive ratio of LS algorithm which is a piecewise function on r?1. It shows that LS is an optimal semi-online algorithm for every r?[1,1.5], [3,2] and [6,+?). We

Yong He; György Dósa

2005-01-01

203

Process capability study of laser assisted micro milling of a hard-to-machine material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser assisted micro milling (LAMM) is capable of generating three-dimensional micro scale features in hard-to-machine materials. This paper compares the process capability of LAMM with conventional micro milling of a hardened tool steel. In particular, the potential advantages of LAMM over micro milling with respect to cutting forces, tool wear, material removal rate, burr formation and surface roughness are investigated

Mukund Kumar; Shreyes N. Melkote

204

Modeling of TIG welding and abrasive flow machining processes using radial basis function networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Input-output relationships of tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding and abrasive flow machining (AFM) processes were determined\\u000a using radial basis function networks (RBFNs). A batch mode of training was adopted to implement the principle of back-propagation\\u000a (BP) algorithm (which works based on a steepest descent algorithm) and a genetic algorithm (GA), separately. The performances\\u000a of RBFN tuned by a BP algorithm

Asfak Ali Mollah; Dilip Kumar Pratihar

2008-01-01

205

Search for a permanent EDM using laser cooled radioactive atom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An Electric Dipole Moment (EDM) of the elementary particle is a good prove to observe the phenomena beyond the Standard Model. A non-zero EDM shows the violation of the time reversal symmetry, and under the CPT invariance it means the CP violation. In paramagnetic atoms, an electron EDM results in an atomic EDM enhanced by the factor of the 3rd power of the charge of the nucleus due the relativistic effects. A heaviest alkali element francium (Fr), which is the radioactive atom, has the largest enhancement factor K ~ 895. Then, we are developing a high intensity laser cooled Fr factory at Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center (CYRIC), Tohoku University to perform the search for the EDM of Fr with the accuracy of 10-29 e · cm. The important points to overcome the current accuracy limit of the EDM are to realize the high intensity Fr source and to reduce the systematic error due to the motional magnetic field and inhomogeneous applied field. To reduce the dominant component of the systematic errors mentioned above, we will confine the Fr atoms in the small region with the Magneto-Optical Trap and optical lattice using the laser cooling and trapping techniques. The construction of the experimental apparatus is making progress, and the new thermal ionizer already produces the Fr of ~106 ions/s with the primary beam intensity 200 nA. The developments of the laser system and optical equipments are in progress, and the present status and future plan of the experimental project is reported.

Sakemi, Y.; Harada, K.; Hayamizu, T.; Itoh, M.; Kawamura, H.; Liu, S.; Nataraj, H. S.; Oikawa, A.; Saito, M.; Sato, T.; Yoshida, H. P.; Aoki, T.; Hatakeyama, A.; Murakami, T.; Imai, K.; Hatanaka, K.; Wakasa, T.; Shimizu, Y.; Uchida, M.

2011-07-01

206

The study of lepton EDM in CP violating BLMSSM  

E-print Network

In the supersymmetric model with local gauged baryon and lepton numbers(BLMSSM), the CP-violating effects are considered to study the lepton electric dipole moment(EDM). The CP-violating phases in BLMSSM are more than those in the standard model(SM) and can give large contributions. The analysis of the EDMs for the leptons $e,\\mu, \\tau$ is shown in this work. It is in favour of exploring the source of CP violating and probing the physics beyond SM.

Zhao, Shu-Min; Zhan, Xi-Jie; Zhang, Hai-Bin; Yan, Ben

2014-01-01

207

Non-stationary Policy Learning in 2-player Zero Sum Games Content Areas: machine learning, Markov decision processes, reinforcement learning  

E-print Network

Non-stationary Policy Learning in 2-player Zero Sum Games Content Areas: machine learning, Markov over the space of stochastic actions. Many previous machine learning approaches apply to single agent decision processes, reinforcement learning Abstract A key challenge in multiagent environments is the con

He, Sheng

208

Mechanical properties of white layers formed by different machining processes on nickel-based superalloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nickel-based superalloys are widely used in the aerospace industry in the production of turbine discs and blades because of their good mechanical properties and great corrosion resistance at high temperature. Although very useful, these alloys are hard to machine. Their structure is responsible for rapid wear of cutting tools. Moreover, under certain machining conditions, near-surface regions of the material undergo a phase transformation resulting in the formation of a thin layer called "white etching layer" at the surface of the machined workpiece. Because turbine discs are safety critical components, no defects can be tolerated on the workpiece. Therefore, efforts should be made to ensure that this white etching layer can't influence the operating life of the workpiece and make its operation unsafe. Even if the existence of the white etching layer is well known, its mechanical properties have never been assessed in detail. In this thesis, we present a study of the mechanical (hardness and Young's modulus) and microstructural properties of white etching layers formed at the surface of nickel-based superalloy IN100 turbine discs fabricated by different machining processes. This work aims at evaluating the impact of the machining process and of fatigue on the properties of the white etching layers under study. The originality of this study primarily lies in the employed characterization technique. Using nanoindentation has allowed us to very precisely assess the variations of both the hardness and the Young's modulus along the white etching layers. Also, the use of a sophisticated indentation system has enabled the acquisition of very precise surface images of the samples and therefore to study the microstructure of the white etching layers. This research has demonstrated that the mechanical and microstructural properties of the white etching layers are closely linked to the machining conditions of the material. Therefore, our study will help researchers gain a better understanding of white etching layer formation mechanisms on IN100 nickel-based superalloy and find ways to prevent their formation: a point of crucial importance for the aerospace industry.

Proust, Edouard

209

The nEDM experiment at the SNS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nEDM collaboration proposes to measure the neutron electric dipole moment at the Spallation Neutron Source (Oak Ridge National Laboratory). The nEDM is a clear signature of CP violation. According to the Standard Model the nEDM is very small (˜10-31 e cm), but many theories predict much higher values. In the proposed experiment polarized cold neutrons from the SNS would be trapped in liquid helium at a temperature of about 400 mK. The neutron spin would precess in a very uniform magnetic field ( H ˜ 30 mG), and the experiment would measure the change in the precession frequency when a very strong electric field ( E ˜ 50 kV/cm) is applied. Polarized 3He atoms serve as a co-magnetometer. The goal of the experiment is to measure the nEDM with an accuracy of ˜9 × 10-28 e cm, which is more than an order of magnitude better than existing results.

Tsentalovich, E. P.

2014-01-01

210

Search for electron EDM in molecular experiments: new  

E-print Network

. Liquid or solid state means accounting for large number of the electrons. #12;Hydride Cations+ Calculations #12;Liquid Xenon Cavity (cell) model #12;Lattice Model of Liquid Xenon I #12;Lattice ModelSearch for electron EDM in molecular experiments: new objects and importance of precise

Titov, Anatoly

211

Optimization of laser machining process for the preparation of photomasks, and its application to microsystems fabrication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventional photolithography normally utilizes a photomask for patterning light onto a chemical resist film. Therefore, the accuracy of microfabrication is highly dependent on the accuracy of the photomasks. Fabrication of hard masks involves the use of expensive laser pattern generators and other sophisticated machines using very high-precision stages and the necessary control instrumentation; therefore, an inexpensive strategy is highly necessary for laboratory-level fabrication. As this technology is primarily based on raster scanning of a laser beam, the mask making as such becomes a low-throughput process. A strategy of high-throughput manufacturing of hard masks with laser micromachining using a one-step exposure process of a chromated glass slide through a micromachined aluminum shadow mask is proposed. The features that are finally embedded in the mask are highly demagnified and well focused. Optimization of the laser machining process is carried out by considering all processing parameters. The features are characterized using an optical microscope, a scanning electron microscope, and a self-developed image analysis code. Geometrical methods are used to estimate the average edge roughness and feature size. We have also validated the usage of these masks by performing microfabrication on films made of photoresist.

Kumar, Avinash; Gupta, Ankur; Kant, Rishi; Akhtar, Syed Nadeem; Tiwari, Nachiketa; Ramkumar, Janakrajan; Bhattacharya, Shantanu

2013-10-01

212

Wire electric discharge machining induced titanium hydride in Ti–46Al–2Cr alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wire electric discharge machining (Wire-EDM) induced a new phase in Ti–46Al–2Cr (in at.%) intermetallic alloy has been identified by using X-ray diffraction technique. The new phase is found to be neither TiO2 nor Al2O3, but well consistent with fcc structure titanium hydride with the lattice parameter of 4.49–4.50 Å. The new phase exists in the wire-EDM cut alloy surface layer

G. W. Qin; K. Oikawa; G. D. W. Smith; S. M. Hao

2003-01-01

213

Determining dynamically active abrasive particles in the media used in centrifugal force assisted abrasive flow machining process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abrasive flow machining (AFM) is a relatively new non-traditional process in which a semisolid media consisting of abrasive\\u000a particles and a flexible polymer carrier is extruded through or across the component to be machine finished. This process\\u000a is capable of providing excellent surface finishes on a wide range of simple as well as intricated shaped components. Low\\u000a material removal rate

R. S. Walia; H. S. Shan; P. Kumar

2008-01-01

214

Dynamic behavior analysis of drill-threading process when machining AISI Al-Si-Cu 4 alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional threading operations involve two distinct machining processes: drilling and threading. Therefore, it is time\\u000a consuming for the tools must be changed and the workpiece has to be moved to another machine. This paper presents an analysis\\u000a of the combined process (drilling followed by threading) using a single tool for both operations: the tap-milling tool. Before\\u000a presenting the methodology used

Wisley Falco Sales; Marcelo Becker; Alexandre G. Gurgel; Jánes L. Júnior

2009-01-01

215

UCN n-EDM experimental developments at RCNP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our KEK-RCNP-Osaka-ICEPP collaboration group led by Y. Masuda of IPNS, KEK and K. Hatanaka of RCNP, Osaka Univ. is developing a new type high intensity UCN (ultracold neutron) source at RCNP, Osaka Univ., for the future experiments on fundamental physics including n-EDM (neutron electric dipole moment) precision measurements, which may disclose origin of the baryon asymmetry in the present universe by providing active evidence of the violation of the time reversal invariance. Our UCN source produces 15 UCN/cm^3 at the exit, by the compact combination of the spallation neutron source and the super-fluid He-II moderator, which provides with the best power efficiency. In the present stage, we are trying to establish Ramsey resonance technique for the n-EDM measurements, by studying behavior of UCN and the polarization, using abundant UCNs produced in this source, in addition to the improvement of the source performance. The energy spectrum of UCN, i.e. the velocity distribution, is an important information in the estimation of the false EDM effect such as Bloch-Siegert shift and is found to be well reproduced by the uniform production in phase space. We tried to polarize UCN by the magnetic potential in pure ion foil. The production of polarization itself is found rather easy, namely, the polarization could reach as high as 100% in the beginning. Average polarization, however, is dominated by the relaxation of polarization during transportation and storage. For the n-EDM measurements in the next generation, our effort should be devoted to the understanding of the geometric phase such as Bloch-Siegert shift which dominates systematic error in the EDM measurements. Our next step will be demonstration of Ramsey resonance and the installation of the co-magnetometer and electric field, to detect geometric phase.

Matsuta, Kensaku

2009-10-01

216

A batch-mode micromachining process for spherical structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports a self-aligned three-dimensional process (3D-SOULE) that incorporates batch-mode micro ultrasonic machining (µUSM), lapping and micro electro-discharge machiningEDM) for fabrication of concave and mushroom-shaped spherical structures from hard and brittle materials. To demonstrate the process, 1 mm structures are fabricated from glass and ruby spheres. The µEDM technique is used to create the tool for ?USM from stainless steel spheres. Stainless steel 440, which provides a tool wear ratio <5%, is chosen as the tool material. A 2 × 2 array is used for batch processing. For an ultrasound generator frequency of 20 kHz and a vibration amplitude of 15 µm, machining rates of 24 and 12 µm min-1 are obtained for glass and ruby spheres, respectively. An approximate linear relationship is observed between the measured roughness (Ra) of the machined surface and the product of the fracture toughness (KIC) and the hardness (H) of the workpiece material (KIC3/2H1/2).

Li, Tao; Visvanathan, Karthik; Gianchandani, Yogesh B.

2014-02-01

217

Performance evaluation and rheological characterization of newly developed butyl rubber based media for abrasive flow machining process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The precision manufacturing technology always demands a good surface finish at low cost. This scenario drives both industries and research community to develop novel finishing processes. Presently, there are many techniques and one among them is abrasive flow machining (AFM) process. The media developed by optimum process variables mainly governs the performance of AFM. In the present experimental endeavor, an

Kamal K. Kar; N. L. Ravikumar; Piyushkumar B. Tailor; J. Ramkumar; D. Sathiyamoorthy

2009-01-01

218

Application of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system and cuckoo optimization algorithm for analyzing electro chemical machining process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrochemical machining process (ECM) is increasing its importance due to some of the specific advantages which can be exploited during machining operation. The process offers several special privileges such as higher machining rate, better accuracy and control, and wider range of materials that can be machined. Contribution of too many predominate parameters in the process, makes its prediction and selection of optimal values really complex, especially while the process is programmized for machining of hard materials. In the present work in order to investigate effects of electrolyte concentration, electrolyte flow rate, applied voltage and feed rate on material removal rate (MRR) and surface roughness (SR) the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS) have been used for creation predictive models based on experimental observations. Then the ANFIS 3D surfaces have been plotted for analyzing effects of process parameters on MRR and SR. Finally, the cuckoo optimization algorithm (COA) was used for selection solutions in which the process reaches maximum material removal rate and minimum surface roughness simultaneously. Results indicated that the ANFIS technique has superiority in modeling of MRR and SR with high prediction accuracy. Also, results obtained while applying of COA have been compared with those derived from confirmatory experiments which validate the applicability and suitability of the proposed techniques in enhancing the performance of ECM process.

Teimouri, Reza; Sohrabpoor, Hamed

2013-12-01

219

Semi-online scheduling on 2 machines under a grade of service provision with bounded processing times  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the problem of semi-online scheduling on 2 machines under a grade of service (GoS). GoS means that some jobs have\\u000a to be processed by some machines to be guaranteed a high quality. The problem is online in the sense that jobs are presented\\u000a one by one, and each job shall be assigned to a time slot on its

Ming Liu; Chengbin Chu; Yinfeng Xu; Feifeng Zheng

2011-01-01

220

Laser Wire Scanner Basic Process and Perspectives for the CTF's and CLIC Machines  

E-print Network

In a laser wire scanner, the basic idea is to replace the solid wire classically used in a standard wire scanner by a narrow laser beam. The basic process involved is the Thomson-Compton scattering process, where photons are scattered from the laser beam by the incoming electrons. By counting the number of scattered photons or degraded electrons as a function of laser position the bunch profile can be reconstructed. In this note the Compton scattering mechanism is first presented. In the framework of the CLIC project, a laser wire scanner (LWS) could be used as a non-interfering beam profile measurement both on the Drive Beam for a high current electron beam and on the Main Beam for very small electron beam sizes. A design for a LWS on the CTF2 and CTF3 machines is proposed and some considerations for the use of a LWS on the CLIC main beam are also mentioned.

Lefèvre, T

2002-01-01

221

Determination of optimal cutting parameters in wire electrical discharge machining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Owing to the complexity of wire electrical discharge machining (wire-EDM), it is very difficult to determine optimal cutting parameters for improving cutting performance. The paper utilizes a feedforward neural network to associate the cutting parameters with the cutting performance. A simulated annealing (SA) algorithm is then applied to the neural network for solving the optimal cutting parameters based on a

Y. S. Tarng; S. C. Ma; L. K. Chung

1995-01-01

222

The material and energy flow through the abrasive waterjet machining and recycling processes  

E-print Network

The purpose of this thesis was to investigate the material and energy flow through the abrasive waterjet machine and the WARD recycling machine. The goal was to track all of the material, water, abrasive, energy, air, and ...

Kurd, Michael Omar, 1982-

2004-01-01

223

Reverse time migration: A seismic processing application on the connection machine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The implementation of a reverse time migration algorithm on the Connection Machine, a massively parallel computer is described. Essential architectural features of this machine as well as programming concepts are presented. The data structures and parallel operations for the implementation of the reverse time migration algorithm are described. The algorithm matches the Connection Machine architecture closely and executes almost at the peak performance of this machine.

Fiebrich, Rolf-Dieter

1987-01-01

224

Development of NMOR magnetometer for spin-maser EDM experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have been developing a high sensitivity atomic magnetometer for atomic EDM experiments using a lowfrequency nuclear spin maser. In the developed nuclear spin maser of 129Xe, suppression of drift and fluctuation in the magnetic field is one of the important issues. The magnetometer being developed for spin maser EDM experiments utilizes the nonlinear magneto optical rotation (NMOR) e_ect in Rb atomic vapor. The enhancement of the optical rotation in a small magnetic field relies on the long spin-coherence time of Rb atoms in a vapor cell. The NMOR spectrum was measured by using fabricated Rb cells coated with an anti-relaxation material. The NMOR spectrum dependence on laser frequency, cell coating, and laser beam diameter were investigated. The magnetic sensitivity at present is 0:2 ?G/?Hz from observed NMOR and noise spectra.

Yoshimi, A.; Nanao, T.; Inoue, T.; Furukawa, T.; Uchida, M.; Tsuchiya, M.; Hayashi, H.; Chikamori, M.; Asahi, K.

225

Optical dipole trapping of radium atoms for EDM search  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are developing an EDM search based on laser-cooled and trapped Ra-225 (half-life = 15 d) atoms. Due to octupole deformation of the nucleus, Ra-225 is predicted to be 2-3 orders of magnitude more sensitive to T-violating interactions than Hg-199, which currently sets the most stringent limits in the nuclear sector. Recently, we have succeeded in transferring Ra-226 atoms from a MOT into an optical dipole trap formed by a fiber laser beam at 1550 nm. For the EDM measurement, the cold atoms will be moved into the neighboring vacuum chamber inside magnetic shields where a pair of electrodes apply a 10 kV cm-1electric field. This work is supported by DOE, Office of Nuclear Physics under contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

Trimble, W. L.; Sulai, I. A.; Parker, R. H.; Bailey, K.; Greene, J. P.; Holt, R. J.; Korsch, W.; Lu, Z.-T.; Mueller, P.; O'Connor, T. P.; Singh, J.

2010-03-01

226

Magnetic Field Stabilization for 129Xe EDM Search Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic field stabilization is a crucial condition parameter for many kinds of ultra-high precision measurements such as a search for an electric dipole moment (EDM). The instability of magnetic field strength often arises from the drift of current flow in a solenoid coil to generate the magnetic field. For our EDM search experiment with maser oscillating diamagnetic 129Xe atoms, we have developed a new stabilized current source based on a feedback system which is devised to correct the amount of current flow measured precisely with high-precision digital multimeter and standard resistor. Using this new current source, we have successfully reduced the drifts of coil current by at least a factor of 100 compared to commercially available current sources.

Furukawa, Takeshi; Inoue, Takeshi; Nanao, Tsubasa; Yoshimi, Akihiro; Tsuchiya, Masato; Hayashi, Hironori; Uchida, Makoto; Asahi, Koichiro

2011-09-01

227

Preliminary Measurements for an Electron EDM Experiment in Thorium Monoxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ACME collaboration aims to measure the eEDM via Ramsey spectroscopy of a cryogenic beam of ThO molecules in their metastable H state. This thesis describes the launch of this new experimental effort. A set of diode lasers has been built to address all the necessary ThO transitions. The laser frequencies were stabilized to a stable reference laser via a Fabry-Perot transfer cavity. A measurement of the magnetic dipole moment of the H state has been performed that is complementary to a previous measurement by the collaboration. This value is important for determining the sensitivity of the H state to magnetic fields, which can be a source of noise and systematic errors in the eEDM measurement. Experimental efforts to prepare the coherent superposition of the M=+/-1 Zeeman sublevels in the H, J=1 state that is the starting point of the eEDM experiment using transitions to the G state resulted in a better understanding of transitions between O-doublet states in an electric field. This led to a new technique for normalizing out shot-to-shot fluctuations in the molecular beam flux, which has also been demonstrated experimentally.

Gurevich, Yulia Vsevolodovna

228

Machine vision process monitoring on a poultry processing kill line: results from an implementation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Researchers at the Georgia Tech Research Institute designed a vision inspection system for poultry kill line sorting with the potential for process control at various points throughout a processing facility. This system has been successfully operating in a plant for over two and a half years and has been shown to provide multiple benefits. With the introduction of HACCP-Based Inspection Models (HIMP), the opportunity for automated inspection systems to emerge as viable alternatives to human screening is promising. As more plants move to HIMP, these systems have the great potential for augmenting a processing facilities visual inspection process. This will help to maintain a more consistent and potentially higher throughput while helping the plant remain within the HIMP performance standards. In recent years, several vision systems have been designed to analyze the exterior of a chicken and are capable of identifying Food Safety 1 (FS1) type defects under HIMP regulatory specifications. This means that a reliable vision system can be used in a processing facility as a carcass sorter to automatically detect and divert product that is not suitable for further processing. This improves the evisceration line efficiency by creating a smaller set of features that human screeners are required to identify. This can reduce the required number of screeners or allow for faster processing line speeds. In addition to identifying FS1 category defects, the Georgia Tech vision system can also identify multiple "Other Consumer Protection" (OCP) category defects such as skin tears, bruises, broken wings, and cadavers. Monitoring this data in an almost real-time system allows the processing facility to address anomalies as soon as they occur. The Georgia Tech vision system can record minute-by-minute averages of the following defects: Septicemia Toxemia, cadaver, over-scald, bruises, skin tears, and broken wings. In addition to these defects, the system also records the length and width information of the entire chicken and different parts such as the breast, the legs, the wings, and the neck. The system also records average color and miss- hung birds, which can cause problems in further processing. Other relevant production information is also recorded including truck arrival and offloading times, catching crew and flock serviceman data, the grower, the breed of chicken, and the number of dead-on- arrival (DOA) birds per truck. Several interesting observations from the Georgia Tech vision system, which has been installed in a poultry processing plant for several years, are presented. Trend analysis has been performed on the performance of the catching crews and flock serviceman, and the results of the processed chicken as they relate to the bird dimensions and equipment settings in the plant. The results have allowed researchers and plant personnel to identify potential areas for improvement in the processing operation, which should result in improved efficiency and yield.

Usher, Colin; Britton, Dougl; Daley, Wayne; Stewart, John

2005-11-01

229

Hybrid metaheuristics for solving a fuzzy single batch-processing machine scheduling problem.  

PubMed

This paper deals with a problem of minimizing total weighted tardiness of jobs in a real-world single batch-processing machine (SBPM) scheduling in the presence of fuzzy due date. In this paper, first a fuzzy mixed integer linear programming model is developed. Then, due to the complexity of the problem, which is NP-hard, we design two hybrid metaheuristics called GA-VNS and VNS-SA applying the advantages of genetic algorithm (GA), variable neighborhood search (VNS), and simulated annealing (SA) frameworks. Besides, we propose three fuzzy earliest due date heuristics to solve the given problem. Through computational experiments with several random test problems, a robust calibration is applied on the parameters. Finally, computational results on different-scale test problems are presented to compare the proposed algorithms. PMID:24883359

Molla-Alizadeh-Zavardehi, S; Tavakkoli-Moghaddam, R; Lotfi, F Hosseinzadeh

2014-01-01

230

Effects of Powder Characteristics on Electrodischarge Machining Efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the effects of various powder characteristics on the efficiency of electrodischarge machining (EDM) SKD-11.\\u000a The additives examined include aluminium (Al), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), and silicon carbide (SiC) powders that have significant\\u000a differences in their thermophysical properties. The machining mechanism with the addition of the foreign particles, the tool\\u000a wear rate (TWR), and the material removal rate

Y.-F. Tzeng; C.-Y. Lee

2001-01-01

231

Modeling of a plasma processing machine for semiconductor wafer etching using energy-functions-based neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complex processing of plasma etching and deposition is highly nonlinear and its modeling is intractable by analytical basic-principles techniques. Neural network approaches have shown initial success for specific plasma processes in extracting implicit relations\\/models based on input-output measurements. The resulting modeling techniques naturally depend on the neural structure, the adopted learning algorithms, and the specific plasma process and machine.

Fathi M. Salam; Christian Piwek; Gamze Erten; Timothy Grotjohn; Jes Asmussen

1997-01-01

232

The Process and Product of Machine Shorthand Programs in New York State Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It was the purpose of this study to assess the extent of growth of machine shorthand programs, evaluate current practices related to its instruction, and determine whether its results warranted encouragement by the State Education Department. The machine system was compared to the manual system in the areas of: (1) scope and sequence of…

Drexler, Violet

233

An integrated approach for machine tool selection using fuzzy analytical hierarchy process and grey relational analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selecting a proper machine tool is one of the important decisions a company has to make. Companies which fail to do so face many problems which negatively affect the firm's productivity, flexibility, precision and its responsiveness capabilities. Selection of a machine tool involves a lot of criteria to be simultaneously studied and so it requires a multi-criterion decision making (MCDM)

Avinash Samvedi; Vipul Jain; Felix T. S. Chan

2012-01-01

234

An integrated approach for machine tool selection using fuzzy analytical hierarchy process and grey relational analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selecting a proper machine tool is one of the important decisions a company has to make. Companies which fail to do so face many problems which negatively affect the firm's productivity, flexibility, precision and its responsiveness capabilities. Selection of a machine tool involves a lot of criteria to be simultaneously studied and so it requires a multi-criterion decision making (MCDM)

Avinash Samvedi; Vipul Jain; Felix T. S. Chan

2011-01-01

235

For a new edition of the Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. The History of Natural Language Processing and Machine Translation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article surveys fifty years of work in computational language processing and machine translation, and suggests that a great number of the important ideas were present in the earliest days and hampered only back lack of computational power. Sections review the influence of linguistics proper on the computational area, as well as the influence of artificial intelligence and concerns from

Yorick Wilks

236

Effect of composition and processing on the thermal fatigue and toughness of high performance die steels. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to improve average die life by optimizing die steel composition and the die processing. Four different steels, K,Q,C and Premium Grade H-13 have been investigated for thermal fatigue resistance and toughness. Optimum heat treatment processing has been determined for each steel with respect to austenitizing temperature and tempering conditions. The effect of the quenching rate on the thermal fatigue resistance and toughness of the die steels and the effect of Electro-Discharge Machining (EDM) on the thermal fatigue resistance were also determined. The immersion thermal fatigue specimen developed at CWRU was used to determine the thermal fatigue resistance as characterized by the two parameters of average maximum crack length and total crack area. The Charpy V-notch impact test was used over a -100{degrees}F to 450{degrees}F testing temperature range to evaluate the toughness and the brittle-ductile transition behavior. K steel has been identified as superior in performance compared to Premium Grade H-13. Q and C provide lower toughness and thermal fatigue resistance than H-13. Faster cooling rates provide higher thermal fatigue resistance and toughness. Higher austenitizing temperatures such as 1925{degrees}F compared to 1875{degrees}F provide better thermal fatigue resistance, but lower austenitizing temperatures of 1875{degrees}F provide better toughness. Higher hardness improves thermal fatigue resistance, but reduces toughness. A minimum of Rc 46 hardness is desired for aluminum die casting dies. EDM reduces the thermal fatigue resistance compared to conventional machining operations. When the EDM process of multiple small steps of decreasing energy and post-EDM treatments are employed, the effect can be reduced to a very slight amount. Preliminary evidence of the superior performance of the K steel has been provided by ongoing field testing of inserts in multiple cavity dies.

Wallace, J.F.; Wang, Y.; Schwam, D.

1997-06-01

237

CATSI EDM: recent advances in the development and validation of a ruggedized passive standoff CWA sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Defence Research and Development Canada (DRDC) - Valcartier is currently developing a ruggedized passive standoff sensor for the detection of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) based on differential Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) radiometry. This system is referred to as the Compact ATmospheric Sounding Interferometer (CATSI) Engineering Development Model (EDM). The CATSI EDM sensor is based on the use of a double-beam FTIR

Hugo Lavoie; Jean-Marc Thériault; François Bouffard; Eldon Puckrin; Caroline S. Turcotte; Paul Lacasse

2008-01-01

238

An EDM measurement with a new comagnetometer and a high density UCN source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss a new neutron EDM measurement of 10-28 e cm. For the improved UCN density, we will apply a new spallation UCN source of superfluid He. For magnetometry, 129Xe nuclear spins are injected into a EDM cell, to supress GPE. Performance of the prototype KEK-RCNP UCN source, and the obtained Ramsey resonance spectra are presented.

Matsuta, K.; Masuda, Y.; Hatanaka, K.; Kawasaki, S.; Matsumiya, R.; Mihara, M.; Jeong, S. C.; Watanabe, Y.; Adachi, T.; Nishimura, D.; Asahi, K.; Martin, J. W.; Konaka, A.; Miller, A.; Bidinosti, C.; Dawson, T.; Lee, L.; Davis, C. A.; Ramsay, W. D.; van Oers, W. T. H.; Korkmaz, E.; Buckman, L.

2013-10-01

239

Machines of life: catalogue, stochastic process modeling, probabilistic reverse engineering and the PIs- from Aristotle to Alberts  

E-print Network

Molecular machines consist of either a single protein or a macromolecular complex composed of protein and RNA molecules. Just like their macroscopic counterparts, each of these nano-machines has an engine that "transduces" input energy into an output form which is then utilized by its coupling to a transmission system for appropriate operations. The theory of heat engines, pioneered by Carnot, rests on the second law of equilibrium thermodynamics. However, the engines of molecular machines, operate under isothermal conditions far from thermodynamic equilibrium. Moreover, one of the possible mechanisms of energy transduction, popularized by Feynman and called Brownian ratchet, does not even have any macroscopic counterpart. But, {\\it molecular machine is not synonymous with Brownian ratchet}; a large number of molecular machines actually execute a noisy power stroke, rather than operating as Brownian ratchet. The man-machine analogy, a topic of intense philosophical debate in which many leading philosophers like Aristotle and Descartes participated, was extended to similar analogies at the cellular and subcellular levels after the invention of optical microscope. The idea of molecular machine, pioneered by Marcelo Malpighi, has been pursued vigorously in the last fifty years. It has become a well established topic of current interdisciplinary research as evident from the publication of a very influential paper by Alberts towards the end of the twentieth century. Here we give a non-technical overview of the strategies for (a) stochastic modeling of mechano-chemical kinetic processes, and (b) model selection based on statistical inference drawn from analysis of experimental data. It is written for non-experts and from a broad perspective, showing overlapping concepts from several different branches of physics and from other areas of science and technology.

Debashish Chowdhury

2012-03-12

240

Modelling the surface roughness behaviour of an EDMed workpiece with different tool electrodes using DoE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface roughness of a workpiece is one of the measures used in evaluating the performance of any machining technique. In this paper, the behaviour of a post-EDM roughness of mild steel material subjected to machining with two different electrodes is evaluated through modelling using three machining variables. The variables are peak current, pulse on-time and pulse off-time, while the electrodes used are Cu-TaC compact green electrode and metallic Cu. The investigation was planned and analysed with Design of Experiment (DoE) in which the output response obtained with the two electrodes were compared. Results indicate that the roughness obtained with Cu-TaC electrode is a function of peak current, pulse on-time, pulse off-time with interaction between on-time and off time, whereas that of metallic Cu electrode is related with current and pulse on-time only. Further more, the metallic Cu electrode produced comparatively lower roughness under all the machining conditions. The lowest roughness obtained with Cu-TaC electrode is over 100% higher than that of Cu-electrode.

Ndaliman, M. B.; Khan, A. A.; Y Ali, M.; Hambiyah, M. A. Mohammad

2013-12-01

241

Fabrication Process for Machined and Shrink-Fitted Impactor-Type Liners for the LOS Alamos Hedp Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Composite liners have been fabricated for the Los Alamos liner-driven High Energy Density Physics (HEDP) experiments using impactors formed by physical vapor deposition, and by machining and shrink fitting. Chemical vapor deposition has been proposed for some ATLAS liner applications. This paper describes the processes used to fabricate machined and shrink-fitted impactors; these processes have been used for copper impactors in 1100 aluminum liners and for 6061 T-6 aluminum impactors in 1100 aluminum liners. The most successful processes have been largely empirically developed and rely upon a combination of shrink-fitting and light press fitting. The processes used to date will be described along with some considerations for future composite liners for the HEDP Program.

Randolph, B.

2004-11-01

242

On the Machining Dynamics of Turning and Micro-milling Processes  

E-print Network

Excessive vibrations continue to be a major hurdle in improving machining efficiency and achieving stable high speed cutting. To overcome detrimental vibrations, an enhanced understanding of the underlying nonlinear dynamics is required. Cutting...

Halfmann, Eric

2012-10-19

243

MULTI-OBJECTIVE OPTIMIZATION OF ABRASIVE FLOW MACHINING PROCESSES USING POLYNOMIAL NEURAL NETWORKS AND GENETIC ALGORITHMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abrasive flow machining (AFM) is an economic and effective non-traditional machining technique, which is capable of providing excellent surface finish on difficult to approach regions on a wide range of components. With this method, it has become possible to substitute various time-consuming deburring and polishing operations that had often lead to non-reproducible results. In this paper, group method of data

M. Ali-Tavoli; N. Nariman-Zadeh; A. Khakhali; M. Mehran

2006-01-01

244

Feasibility demonstration of using wire electrical-discharge machining, abrasive flow honing, and laser spot welding to manufacture high-precision triangular-pitch Zircaloy-4 fuel-rod-support grids  

SciTech Connect

Results are reported supporting the feasibility of manufacturing high precision machined triangular pitch Zircaloy-4 fuel rod support grids for application in water cooled nuclear power reactors. The manufacturing processes investigated included wire electrical discharge machining of the fuel rod and guide tube cells in Zircaloy plate stock to provide the grid body, multistep pickling of the machined grid to provide smooth and corrosion resistant surfaces, and laser welding of thin Zircaloy cover plates to both sides of the grid body to capture separate AM-350 stainless steel insert springs in the grid body. Results indicated that dimensional accuracy better than +- 0.001 and +- 0.002 inch could be obtained on cell shape and position respectively after wire EDM and surface pickling. Results on strength, corrosion resistance, and internal quality of laser spot welds are provided.

Horwood, W.A.

1982-05-01

245

Automatic River Bed Grain Size Measurement Using Image Processing and Support Vector Machines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gravel-bedded rivers cut through hilly and mountainous areas, driving landscape evolution and creating a diverse habitat upon which river food web ecosystems develop. Our understanding of the mechanics underlying important processes in fluvial geomorphology, hydrodynamics, and aquatic ecology inevitably requires knowledge about the grain size distribution of river bed material. Standard methods of sampling bed surface material may introduce errors due to biases and inadequate sample size. Alternative areal or volumetric sampling procedures are often impractical, particularly in coarse channel beds. Furthermore, all invasive sampling techniques can compromise laboratory flume experiments. These concerns suggest that there is a practical need for a reliable, automated, non-invasive procedure for obtaining the grain size distribution of bed surface material. Although considerable effort has been made to automatically generate grain size distributions using image processing and analysis techniques, the problem remains quite challenging: issues such as varying lighting conditions, partial immersion of particles in water, and heterogeneous mineralogy result in ambiguities that cannot be easily resolved. Feature extraction introduces further biases due to over- or under-segmentation of the image. Moreover, unless the grain distributions are fairly homogeneous between different locations, and images are collected in similar fashion, it is difficult to parametrize any such method in a transferable manner. In this study we present an image processing and machine learning procedure to automatically identify and measure grains from photographic images of gravel-bedded rivers. We apply the state-of-the-art of image segmentation techniques, making use of local cues such as brightness, color, and texture in a multi-scale approach. These cues are globalized using a graph partitioning method on the oriented contour signal. The resulting boundary probability signal is treated by a region-merging procedure that avoids the artifacts of standard segmentation, providing a flexible hierarchical structure which allows us to progressively retain the grains which give us the greatest level of confidence, based on a learned decisional model. Our parameter-free procedure characterizes grain size distributions both quantitatively and spatially, enabling the tool to deliver a spatial grid of grain size distributions at multiple scales, the finest of which depends upon image resolution and sediment characteristics. We test the procedure on a unique data set composed of a high-resolution photographic survey of the bed surface of a near-field-scale flume in which diverse square patches of particles were removed and sieved to obtain precise measurements. The results show that this procedure effectively and automatically recovers particle size distributions and the spatial pattern of sorting processes acting on the bed.

Bellugi, D.; Nelson, P. A.; Dietrich, W. E.

2010-12-01

246

A Search for the Electron EDM using Europium-Barium Titanates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discovery of a permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) of a fundamental particle would prove a great discovery in modern physics; such an EDM would violate two or three of the core symmetries of the fundamental forces of nature. Many models that go beyond the standard model of particle physics produce EDMs with magnitudes approaching the level detectable by the next generation of experiments. One possibility for such an experiment involves the use of a solid sample at low temperatures. In a paramagnetic material, the unpaired electrons, if they possess an EDM, can interact with the polarization of the sample and produce a magnetization that can be detected. This dissertation discusses an incarnation of such an experiment based on mixed europium-barium titanates. Such an experiment offers several advantages over other solid-state and atomic EDM searches including larger electron EDM induced interactions and the ability to measure without an applied electric field. This experiment has produced the world's best limit on the electron EDM to date from a solid sample, at |de| < 6.05 × 10-25 ecm (90% confidence limit). While this limit represents an improvement in the realm of solid-state experiments, it is not yet competitive with similar molecular and atomic experiments. However, there are many possibilities that could produce a superior solid-state experiment, and these will be discussed.

Eckel, Stephen P.

247

Development of a New Utm (universal Testing Machine) System for the Nano/micro In-Process Measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Micro UTM (Universal Testing Machines) are becoming increasingly popular for testing the mechanical properties of MEMS materials, metal thin films, and micro-molecule materials1-2. And, new miniature testing machines that can perform in-process measurement in SEM, TEM, and SPM are also needed. In this paper, a new micro UTM with a precision positioning system that can be fine positioning stage. Coarse positioning is implemented by step motor. The size, load output and used in SEM, TEM, and SPM have been proposed. Bimorph type PZT precision actuator is used in displacement output of bimorph type UTM are 109×64×22(mm), about 35g, and 0.4 mm, respectively. And the displacement output is controlled in the block digital form. The results of the analysis and basic properties of positioning system and the UTM system are presented. In addition, the experiment results of in-process measurement during tensile load in SEM and AFM are showed.

Kweon, Hyunkyu; Choi, Sungdae; Kim, Youngsik; Nam, Kiho

248

On-line process monitoring of water-soluble ions in pulp and paper machine waters by capillary electrophoresis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, capillary electrophoresis (CE) was used for separation of inorganic and organic ions from waters of paper and paperboard machines at mills. The instrument was constructed for on-line measurements by building a batch-type sample feeding unit. Chloride, thiosulphate, sulphate, oxalate, sulphite, hydrogen sulphide, formate, carbonate, phosphate and acetate in the process water samples were separated using an ion-specific

Raimo Kokkonen; Heli Sirén; Seppo Kauliomäki; Stella Rovio; Kaija Luomanperä

2004-01-01

249

The electron and neutron EDM from supersymmetric see-saw thresholds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the corrections that arise at one loop when integrating out heavy fields in supersymmetric models. We show that, in type-I see-saw models, complex AN- and BN-terms of the heavy right-handed neutrino give radiative contributions to the neutron EDM, as well as new dominant contributions to the electron EDM. Type-II and type-III see-saw also predict a pure gauge correction that makes complex the masses of the weak gauginos. All the see-saw models can predict observable EDM for the electron and for the neutron in a peculiar ratio.

Giudice, Gian F.; Paradisi, Paride; Strumia, Alessandro

2010-10-01

250

Do Two Machine-Learning Based Prognostic Signatures for Breast Cancer Capture the Same Biological Processes?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fact that there is very little if any overlap between the genes of different prognostic signatures for early-discovery breast cancer is well documented. The reasons for this apparent discrepancy have been explained by the limits of simple machine-learning identification and ranking techniques, and the biological relevance and meaning of the prognostic gene lists was questioned. Subsequently, proponents of the

Yotam Drier; Eytan Domany; Wael El-Rifai

2011-01-01

251

ITR -(ASE + NHS) -(int): Intelligent Human-Machine Interface & Control for Highly Automated Chemical Screening Processes  

E-print Network

ITR - (ASE + NHS) - (int): Intelligent Human-Machine Interface & Control for Highly Automated for communication delay conditions in predicting human operator robot control actions. 2006 Spring Prototype. Use CELISCA operators for informal usability tests. Assemble collection of prototypes in graph for use

Kaber, David B.

252

Manufacturing process applications team (MATEAM). [technology transfer in the areas of machine tools and robots  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The transfer of NASA technology to the industrial sector is reported. Presentations to the machine tool and robot industries and direct technology transfers of the Adams Manipulator arm, a-c motor control, and the bolt tension monitor are discussed. A listing of proposed RTOP programs with strong potential is included. A detailed description of the rotor technology available to industry is given.

1979-01-01

253

Wavelet transform with spectral post-processing for enhanced feature extraction [machine condition monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality of machine condition monitoring techniques and their applicability in the industry are determined by the effectiveness and efficiency, with which characteristic signal features are extracted and identified. Because of the weak amplitude and short duration of structural defect signals at the incipient stage, it is generally difficult to extract hidden features from the data measured using conventional spectral

Changting Wang; Robert X. Gao

2003-01-01

254

High precision batch mode micro-electro-discharge machining of metal alloys using DRIE silicon as a cutting tool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports recent advances in batch mode micro-electro-discharge machiningEDM) for high precision micromachining of metal alloys such as stainless steel. High-aspect-ratio silicon microstructures with fine feature sizes formed by deep reactive ion etching are used as cutting tools. To machine workpiece features with widths ?10 µm, a silicon dioxide coating is necessary to passivate the sidewalls of the silicon tools from spurious discharges. In the machined workpieces, a minimum feature size of ?7 µm and an aspect ratio up to 3.2 are demonstrated by the batch mode µEDM of stainless steel 304 and titanium (Grade 1) substrates. Machining rates up to ?5 µm min-1 in feature depth are achieved in batch mode micromachining of typical microfluidic structures, including arrays of channels and cavities of different sizes. The machined features are uniform across a die-scale area of 5 × 5 mm2. Other machining characteristics are also discussed.

Li, Tao; Bai, Qing; Gianchandani, Yogesh B.

2013-09-01

255

Manufacturing and performance of ceramic/metal matrix composite electrical discharge machining electrodes  

E-print Network

C/Cu, and TiC/CuNi electrodes were developed. The electrodes (anodes) were eroded in an EDM machine using a stainless steel workpiece (cathode) and the performance variables-wear ratio, sink rate, and surface finish-were tracked. TiB2/CU was shown to be a...

Kim, Eugene Ty

2012-06-07

256

Predictions on surface finish in electrical discharge machining based upon neural network models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predictions on the surface finish of work-pieces in electrical discharge machining (EDM) based upon physical or empirical models have been reported in the past years. However, when the change of electrode polarity has been considered, very few models have given reliable predictions. In this study, the comparisons on predictions of surface finish for various work materials with the change of

Kuo-Ming Tsai; Pei-Jen Wang

2001-01-01

257

Validation of electrical discharge machining electrodes made with rapid tooling technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid tooling technologies allow tools and moulds to be manufactured in a short time and with complex geometry. The main aim of this research is to develop new electrical discharge machining (EDM) electrode testing and manufacturing by applying rapid prototyping (RP) and electroforming technologies. Copper electroformed shells allow complex electrodes to be obtained with a high dimensional precision and with

M. Monzón; A. N. Benítez; M. D. Marrero; N. Hernández; P. Hernández; J. Aisa

2008-01-01

258

EDMS Microcomputer Pollution Model for Civilian Airports and Air Forces Bases: User's Guide Supplement A.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This supplement announces the incorporation of the latest aircraft emission database (EPA, 1992) and the latest motor vehicle database (Mobile 5a) into the Emissions and Dispersion Modeling System (EDMS). (The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 requires tha...

H. M. Segal

1993-01-01

259

Spectroscopic approach for an electron EDM measurement using neutral cesium atoms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observation of a permanent electric dipole moment of the electron (eEDM) would imply CP violating effects not contained in the Standard Model. We describe the state preparation and spectroscopy that will be used to measure the eEDM. Cesium atoms are guided into a measurement chamber, where they are laser-cooled and trapped in a pair of parallel one-dimensional optical lattices. The lattices thread three specially coated glass electric field plates. The measurement chamber is surrounded by a four layer magnetic shield inside of which eight magnetic field coils control the bias and gradient magnetic fields. A series of microwave and low frequency magnetic field pulses transfer the atoms into a superposition state that is sensitive to the eEDM signal. A measurement of the eEDM using neutral cesium atoms can obtain an ultimate shot noise limit of 3x10-30 e-cm.

Zhu, Kunyan; Solmeyer, Neal; Weiss, David S.

2012-06-01

260

Semi-online scheduling on two machines with GoS levels and partial information of processing time.  

PubMed

This paper investigates semi-online scheduling problems on two parallel machines under a grade of service (GoS) provision subject to minimize the makespan. We consider three different semi-online versions with knowing the total processing time of the jobs with higher GoS level, knowing the total processing time of the jobs with lower GoS level, or knowing both in advance. Respectively, for the three semi-online versions, we develop algorithms with competitive ratios of 3/2, 20/13, and 4/3 which are shown to be optimal. PMID:24672335

Luo, Taibo; Xu, Yinfeng

2014-01-01

261

Electron EDM as a Sensitive Probe of PeV Scale Physics  

E-print Network

We give a quantitative analysis of the electric dipole moments as a probe of high scale physics. We focus on the electric dipole moment of the electron since the limit on it is the most stringent. Further, theoretical computations of it are free of QCD uncertainties. The analysis presented here first explores the probe of high scales via electron EDM within MSSM where the contributions to the electric dipole moment (EDM) arise from the chargino and the neutralino exchanges in loops. Here it is shown that the electron EDM can probe mass scales from tens of TeV into the PeV range.The analysis is then extended to include a vectorlike generation which can mix with the three ordinary generations. Here new CP phases arise and it is shown that the electron EDM now has not only a supersymmetric contribution from the exchange of charginos and neutralinos but also a non-supersymmetric contribution from the exchange of W and Z bosons. It is further shown that the interference of the supersymmetric and the non-supersymmetric contribution leads to the remarkable phenomenon where the electron EDM as a function of the slepton mass first falls and become vanishingly small and then rises again as the slepton mass increases This phenomenon arises as a consequence of cancellation between the SUSY and the non-SUSY contribution at low scales while at high scales the SUSY contribution dies out and the EDM is controlled by the non-SUSY contribution alone. The high mass scales that can be probed by the EDM are far in excess of what accelerators will be able to probe. The sensitivity of the EDM to CP phases both in the SUSY and the non-SUSY sectors are also discussed.

Tarek Ibrahim; Ahmad Itani; Pran Nath

2014-05-31

262

Extreme Kicking Machine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this design challenge activity follow up to "Kicking Machine", learners add a hands-free feature to their Kicking Machine. Learners modify their kicking machine to have it either release the pendulum or rubber band while standing three feet away or have it automatically feed balls into the kicking machine, one after another. They must figure out how to integrate the new feature into the existing structure and use the design process to make sure the modified kicking machine works properly. Educators can use this activity to demonstrate simple machines and kinetic/potential energy.

Wgbh

2010-01-01

263

A discrete-event simulation approach to predict power consumption in machining processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whereas in the past the sustainable use of resources and the reduction of waste have mainly been looked at from an ecological\\u000a point of view, resource efficiency recently becomes more and more an issue of cost saving as well. In manufacturing engineering\\u000a especially the reduction of power consumption of machine tools and production facilities is in the focus of industry,

Roland Larek; Ekkard Brinksmeier; Daniel Meyer; Thorsten Pawletta; Olaf Hagendorf

264

Spatio-Temporal Processing for Multichannel Biosensors Using Support Vector Machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid-response biosensing systems are necessary to counteract threats due to foreign and high-consequence pathogens. A yes\\/no multichannel biosensor is an important tool that enables simultaneous detection of different pathogens, independent of their relative concentration level. This paper proposes a novel multichannel biosensing technique, which combines multiclass support vector machines (SVMs) with multichannel immunosensors. The method combines spatial and temporal information

Yueming Zuo; Shantanu Chakrabartty; Zarini Muhammad-Tahir; Sudeshna Pal; Evangelyn C. Alocilja

2006-01-01

265

Femtosecond laser ablation properties of transparent materials: impact of the laser process parameters on the machining throughput  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High average power, high repetition rate femtosecond lasers with ?J pulse energies are increasingly used for bio-medical and material processing applications. With the introduction of femtosecond laser systems such as the SpiritTM platform developed by High Q Lasers and Spectra-Physics, micro-processing of solid targets with femtosecond laser pulses have obtained new perspectives for industrial applications [1]. The unique advantage of material processing with subpicosecond lasers is efficient, fast and localized energy deposition, which leads to high ablation efficiency and accuracy in nearly all kinds of solid materials. The study on the impact of the laser processing parameters on the removal rate for transparent substrate using femtosecond laser pulses will be presented. In particular, examples of micro-processing of poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) - bio-degradable polyester and XensationTM glass (Schott) machined with SpiritTM ultrafast laser will be shown.

Matylitsky, V. V.; Hendricks, F.; Aus der Au, J.

2013-03-01

266

Progress Towards a New Measurement of the Permanent Electric Dipole Moment (EDM) of ^199Hg  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observation of a nonzero EDM would imply CP violation beyond the Standard Model. The most precise EDM limit, established by our group several years ago for ^199Hg, is |dHg| < 2.1x10-28 e cm. To further refine these measurements, we recently switched from two to four spin- polarized Hg vapor cells: two lie in parallel magnetic and anti- parallel electric fields, resulting in EDM-sensitive spin precession; the remaining cells, at zero electric field, serve to cancel magnetic gradient noise and limit systematics due to charging and leakage currents. To date, the statistical uncertainty for the new EDM data is ± 1.7x10-29 e cm, a 3x improvement over our previous measurement. Constraining systematics at similar levels requires mitigating Stark interference, an EDM-mimicking vector light shift that is linear in the electric field. To this end, we have explored averaging data at two probe wavelengths where the Stark interference light shift is equal but opposite. Alternatively, this effect can be eliminated by determining the Larmor frequency ``in the dark'' between two probe pulses that establish the Larmor phase at the beginning and end of the dark period. We are currently implementing this latter scheme. We will discuss progress on an improved measurement of the ^199 Hg EDM.

Loftus, T. H.; Swallows, M. D.; Heckel, B. R.; Fortson, E. N.; Griffith, W. C.; Romalis, M. V.

2008-05-01

267

Cutting cured carbon fiber composites using electrical discharge machining  

SciTech Connect

Traditionally, composite materials are cut using mechanical (solid tool) methods (drilling, milling, grinding, etc) or one of the newer cutting methods such as water jet or laser. All of these methods have serious disadvantages, especially when cutting sharp radii and/or working within close tolerances. The electrical discharge machining (EDM) method offers new opportunities to cut conductive composite materials (such as those containing carbon fibers) with excellent accuracy and minimum damage to the composite part.

Strong, A.B.; Crockett, T.; Merrell, R.S.; Dredge, J.D. Jr. (Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States))

1991-04-01

268

Unsteady viscous flow around a circular cylinder found by the hopscotch scheme on a vector processing machine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The hopscotch scheme is examined to see whether it can compete effectively with implicit schemes for the integration of the Navier-Stokes equations on a vector processing machine. This scheme is stable as long as the Courant number is less than or equal to one and it does not underestimate viscous effects. The accuracy of the scheme is tested on one- and two-dimensional problems whose exact solutions are known. The scheme is then used to simulate flows around a circular cylinder with Reynolds numbers 200, 500 and 1000.

Duffy, Dean G.

1990-01-01

269

Machinability of Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) Produced by Integrated Green Technology of Continuous Casting-Heat Treatment Processes  

SciTech Connect

This study presents the novel processing technique known as continuous casting-heat treatment processes to produce Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) which is a new class of ductile iron. ADI is characterized by improved mechanical properties but has low machinability as compared to other cast irons and steel of similar strength. The novel technique is developed by the integration of casting (in die casting) and heat treatment processes in foundry to save cost energy and time. Specimens just after casting were austenitized at 930 deg. C for 90 min and then austempered in fluidized bed at 380 deg. C for 90 and 120 min. Hence, the effect of austempering time on the morphology of retained austenite and mechanical properties of the material were examined and compared with conventionally produced ADI. Drilling tests were then carried out to evaluate the machinability of ADI in terms of cutting forces, chip micro-hardness, chip morphology and surface roughness. The mechanical properties of ADI austempered for 120 min have found to be better as compare to the ADI austempered for 90 min.

Meena, A.; El Mansori, M.; Ghidossi, P. [Arts et Metiers ParisTech, LMPF-EA 4106, Rue Saint Dominique, BP 508, 51006, Chalons-en-Champagne, Cedex (France)

2011-01-17

270

Calculation of Neutron EDM in quenched and full QCD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on a direct lattice calculation of the neutron EDM(NEDM) using the external electric field method in both quenched and full QCD. In quenched QCD, we use a 24 3 32 lattice at ¢ ? 2¤ 6 with the Iwasaki gauge action and the clover fermion action to examine the viability of £ this method. In particular we investigate possible effects of violation of the periodic boundary condition of the external electric field on the NEDM signal. We also study the quark mass depen- dence of NEDM in quenched QCD, and observe that NEDM seems to remain non-zero toward the chiral limit because of the quenched artifact. In 2-flavor full QCD we employ configurations generated by the CP-PACS collaboration on a 243 48 lattice at ? 2¤ 1 with the same gluon ¢ £ and quark actions as in the quenched case. Since the number of configurations is limited, we employ 8 different source points per one configuration and take an average over them. Our pre- ¥ liminary result at three quark masses (mPS mV 0¤ 81§ 0¤ 76§ 0¤ 69) indicates that non-zero value ¦ for NEDM can be obtained in full QCD. Statistical errors, however, are still too large to show the theoretically expected behaviour for NEDM in full QCD that it vanishes in the chiral limit.

Shintani, Eigo

2006-12-01

271

Local health department translation processes: potential of machine translation technologies to help meet needs.  

PubMed

Limited English proficiency (LEP), defined as a limited ability to read, speak, write, or understand English, is associated with health disparities. Despite federal and state requirements to translate health information, the vast majority of health materials are solely available in English. This project investigates barriers to translation of health information and explores new technologies to improve access to multilingual public health materials. We surveyed all 77 local health departments (LHDs) in the Northwest about translation needs, practices, barriers and attitudes towards machine translation (MT). We received 67 responses from 45 LHDs. Translation of health materials is the principle strategy used by LHDs to reach LEP populations. Cost and access to qualified translators are principle barriers to producing multilingual materials. Thirteen LHDs have used online MT tools. Many respondents expressed concerns about the accuracy of MT. Overall, respondents were positive about its potential use, if low costs and quality could be assured. PMID:24551414

Turner, Anne M; Mandel, Hannah; Capurro, Daniel

2013-01-01

272

Annual Symposium on Machine Processing of Remotely Sensed Data, 4th, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Ind., June 21-23, 1977, Proceedings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Papers are presented on a variety of techniques for the machine processing of remotely sensed data. Consideration is given to preprocessing methods such as the correction of Landsat data for the effects of haze, sun angle, and reflectance and to the maximum likelihood estimation of signature transformation algorithm. Several applications of machine processing to agriculture are identified. Various types of processing systems are discussed such as ground-data processing/support systems for sensor systems and the transfer of remotely sensed data to operational systems. The application of machine processing to hydrology, geology, and land-use mapping is outlined. Data analysis is considered with reference to several types of classification methods and systems.

Morrison, D. B. (editor); Scherer, D. J.

1977-01-01

273

Single Machine Scheduling and Due Date Assignment with Past-Sequence-Dependent Setup Time and Position-Dependent Processing Time  

PubMed Central

This paper considers single machine scheduling and due date assignment with setup time. The setup time is proportional to the length of the already processed jobs; that is, the setup time is past-sequence-dependent (p-s-d). It is assumed that a job's processing time depends on its position in a sequence. The objective functions include total earliness, the weighted number of tardy jobs, and the cost of due date assignment. We analyze these problems with two different due date assignment methods. We first consider the model with job-dependent position effects. For each case, by converting the problem to a series of assignment problems, we proved that the problems can be solved in O(n4) time. For the model with job-independent position effects, we proved that the problems can be solved in O(n3) time by providing a dynamic programming algorithm.

Zhao, Chuan-Li; Hsu, Hua-Feng

2014-01-01

274

Single machine scheduling and due date assignment with past-sequence-dependent setup time and position-dependent processing time.  

PubMed

This paper considers single machine scheduling and due date assignment with setup time. The setup time is proportional to the length of the already processed jobs; that is, the setup time is past-sequence-dependent (p-s-d). It is assumed that a job's processing time depends on its position in a sequence. The objective functions include total earliness, the weighted number of tardy jobs, and the cost of due date assignment. We analyze these problems with two different due date assignment methods. We first consider the model with job-dependent position effects. For each case, by converting the problem to a series of assignment problems, we proved that the problems can be solved in O(n(4)) time. For the model with job-independent position effects, we proved that the problems can be solved in O(n(3)) time by providing a dynamic programming algorithm. PMID:25258727

Zhao, Chuan-Li; Hsu, Chou-Jung; Hsu, Hua-Feng

2014-01-01

275

Machine processing of remotely sensed data; Proceedings of the Conference, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Ind., October 16-18, 1973  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Topics discussed include the management and processing of earth resources information, special-purpose processors for the machine processing of remotely sensed data, digital image registration by a mathematical programming technique, the use of remote-sensor data in land classification (in particular, the use of ERTS-1 multispectral scanning data), the use of remote-sensor data in geometrical transformations and mapping, earth resource measurement with the aid of ERTS-1 multispectral scanning data, the use of remote-sensor data in the classification of turbidity levels in coastal zones and in the identification of ecological anomalies, the problem of feature selection and the classification of objects in multispectral images, the estimation of proportions of certain categories of objects, and a number of special systems and techniques. Individual items are announced in this issue.

1973-01-01

276

Non-traditional machining techniques  

SciTech Connect

During the course of machining targets for various experiments it sometimes becomes necessary to adapt fixtures or machines, which are designed for one function, to another function. When adapting a machine or fixture is not adequate, it may be necessary to acquire a machine specifically designed to produce the component required. In addition to the above scenarios, the features of a component may dictate that multi-step machining processes are necessary to produce the component. This paper discusses the machining of four components where adaptation, specialized machine design, or multi-step processes were necessary to produce the components.

Day, Robert D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fierro, Frank [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Garcia, Felix P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hatch, Douglass J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Randolph, Randall B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reardon, Patrick T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rivera, Gerald [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

277

Parametric study on design of composite–foam–resin concrete sandwich structures for precision machine tool structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, sandwich structures for micro-EDM machines are optimized by using parametric study varying composite geometries and parameters like stacking sequence, thickness and rib geometry. The structures are composed of fibre reinforced composites for skin material and resin concrete and PVC foam (Closed cell, Divinycell) for core materials. Column structure was designed by a beam with cruciform rib and

D. I. Kim; S. C. Jung; J. E. Lee; S. H. Chang

2006-01-01

278

Design of Vitrification Machine  

E-print Network

and unreliable process. Moreover, there is a lack of standardization in the methods for preparing cells and biological material for the vitrification process. The purpose of the Vitrification Machine is to greatly simplify the process by making it faster, more...

McDonald, Todd William

2009-11-30

279

Applications of the Connection Machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Connection Machine development effort was initiated in the belief that parallel processing and artificial intelligence could together accelerate the rate of progress toward truly intelligent machines. This progress is the result of the ease with which the machine can be programmed and the dramatic increase in compute power that the machine can bring to bear. The authors have been

David L. Waltz

1987-01-01

280

Current breathomics--a review on data pre-processing techniques and machine learning in metabolomics breath analysis.  

PubMed

We define breathomics as the metabolomics study of exhaled air. It is a strongly emerging metabolomics research field that mainly focuses on health-related volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Since the amount of these compounds varies with health status, breathomics holds great promise to deliver non-invasive diagnostic tools. Thus, the main aim of breathomics is to find patterns of VOCs related to abnormal (for instance inflammatory) metabolic processes occurring in the human body. Recently, analytical methods for measuring VOCs in exhaled air with high resolution and high throughput have been extensively developed. Yet, the application of machine learning methods for fingerprinting VOC profiles in the breathomics is still in its infancy. Therefore, in this paper, we describe the current state of the art in data pre-processing and multivariate analysis of breathomics data. We start with the detailed pre-processing pipelines for breathomics data obtained from gas-chromatography mass spectrometry and an ion-mobility spectrometer coupled to multi-capillary columns. The outcome of data pre-processing is a matrix containing the relative abundances of a set of VOCs for a group of patients under different conditions (e.g. disease stage, treatment). Independently of the utilized analytical method, the most important question, 'which VOCs are discriminatory?', remains the same. Answers can be given by several modern machine learning techniques (multivariate statistics) and, therefore, are the focus of this paper. We demonstrate the advantages as well the drawbacks of such techniques. We aim to help the community to understand how to profit from a particular method. In parallel, we hope to make the community aware of the existing data fusion methods, as yet unresearched in breathomics. PMID:24713999

Smolinska, A; Hauschild, A-Ch; Fijten, R R R; Dallinga, J W; Baumbach, J; van Schooten, F J

2014-06-01

281

Architecture and data processing alternatives for Tse computer. Volume 1: Tse logic design concepts and the development of image processing machine architectures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Digital computer components which perform two dimensional array logic operations (Tse logic) on binary data arrays are described. The properties of Golay transforms which make them useful in image processing are reviewed, and several architectures for Golay transform processors are presented with emphasis on the skeletonizing algorithm. Conventional logic control units developed for the Golay transform processors are described. One is a unique microprogrammable control unit that uses a microprocessor to control the Tse computer. The remaining control units are based on programmable logic arrays. Performance criteria are established and utilized to compare the various Golay transform machines developed. A critique of Tse logic is presented, and recommendations for additional research are included.

Rickard, D. A.; Bodenheimer, R. E.

1976-01-01

282

Addressing the Computational Requirements of Image Processing with a Custom Computing Machine: An Overview1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Custom computing platforms represent a new approach to high-performance computing. By configuring processing elements and interconnections at a low level, these systems can be tailored to a wide variety tasks and yet can yield performance that rivals that of application-specific hardware. Image processing tasks are computationally demanding, and therefore represent a good test of the custom computing approach. Image processing

Peter M. Athanas; A. Lynn Abbott

1995-01-01

283

Understanding the Role of Weight Percentage and Size of Silicon Carbide Particulate Reinforcement on ElectroDischarge Machining of Aluminium-Based Composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the feasibility of fabricating microholes in SiCp-Al composites using micro-electro-discharge machining (micro-EDM) with a rotary tube electrode. Material removal rate (MRR), electrode wear rate (EWR), and hole taper were considered as responses for the study. Machining was performed on 5 and 10 wt% SiCp-Al composites having particle size of 50 µm and 150 µm to evaluate machining characteristics. Pulse-on

K. M. Patel; Pulak M. Pandey; P. Venkateswara Rao

2008-01-01

284

Enhanced virtual machining for sculptured surfaces by integrating machine tool error models into NC machining simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sculptured surface machining is a time-consuming and costly process. It requires simultaneously controlled motion of the machine axes. However, positioning inaccuracies or errors exist in machine tools. The combination of error motions of the machine axes will result in a complicated pattern of part geometry errors. In order to quantitatively predict these part geometry errors, a new application framework ‘enhanced

Yizhen Lin; Yin-Lin Shen

2004-01-01

285

Bone regenerative potential of mesenchymal stem cells on a micro-structured titanium processed by wire-type electric discharge machining  

E-print Network

A new strategy with bone tissue engineering by mesenchymal stem cell transplantation on titanium implant has been dawn attention. The surface scaffold properties of titanium surface play an important role in bone regenerative potential of cells. The surface topography and chemistry are postulated to be two major factors increasing the scaffold properties of titanium implants. This study aimed to evaluate the osteogenic gene expression of mesenchymal stem cells on titanium processed by wire-type electric discharge machining. Some amount of roughness and distinctive irregular features were observed on titanium processed by wire-type electric discharge machining. The thickness of suboxide layer was concomitantly grown during the processing. Since the thickness of oxide film and micro-topography allowed an improvement of mRNA expression of cells, titanium processed by wire-type electric discharge machining is a promising candidate for mesenchymal stem cell based functional restoration of implants.

Tamaki, Yukimichi; Miyazaki, Takashi

2010-01-01

286

Challenges and opportunities in the search for electric dipole moment (EDM) in ^225Ra atom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The observation of a permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) in a non-degenerate system would indicate violation of time reversal symmetry. ^225Ra atom is a particularly attractive candidate for this search since it has a nuclear spin I=1/2 and has a significant nuclear octupole deformation. This property increases the Schiff moment of the nucleus and therefore enhances the atomic EDM. The half life (t1/2 =14.9 days) of ^225Ra is sufficiently long to perform EDM searches. Our group has already demonstrated the trapping of laser cooled Ra atoms in a magneto-optical trap (MOT) and transferring them to a far off resonant optical dipole trap (ODT). We will discuss our recent progress on manipulation of ultra cold Ra atoms in the ODT, efforts in improving our laser systems and generation of electric and magnetic fields required for the measurement.

Ranjan Kalita, Mukut; Bailey, Kevin; Dietrich, Matthew; Greene, John; Holt, Roy; Korsch, Wolfgang; Lu, Zheng-Tian; Mueller, Peter; O'Connor, Thomas; Parker, Richard; Sulai, Ibrahim; Singh, Jaideep

2011-10-01

287

CATSI EDM: a new sensor for the real-time passive stand-off detection and identification of chemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

DRDC Valcartier recently completed the development of the CATSI EDM (Compact Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer Engineering Development Model) for the Canadian Forces (CF). It is a militarized sensor designed to meet the needs of the CF in the development of area surveillance capabilities for the detection and identification of chemical Warfare Agents (CWA) and toxic industrial chemicals (TIC). CATSI EDM is

Jean-Marc Thériault; Paul Lacasse; Hugo Lavoie; François Bouffard; Yan Montembeault; Vincent Farley; Louis Belhumeur; Philippe Lagueux

2010-01-01

288

[Proceedings of the] International Conference on Educational Data Mining (EDM) (3rd, Pittsburgh, PA, July 11-13, 2010)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Third International Conference on Data Mining (EDM 2010) was held in Pittsburgh, PA, USA. It follows the second conference at the University of Cordoba, Spain, on July 1-3, 2009 and the first edition of the conference held in Montreal in 2008, and a series of workshops within the AAAI, AIED, EC-TEL, ICALT, ITS, and UM conferences. EDM 2011…

Baker, Ryan S. J. d., Ed.; Merceron, Agathe, Ed.; Pavlik, Philip I., Jr., Ed.

2010-01-01

289

Proceedings of the International Conference on Educational Data Mining (EDM) (2nd, Cordoba, Spain, July 1-3, 2009)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Second International Conference on Educational Data Mining (EDM2009) was held at the University of Cordoba, Spain, on July 1-3, 2009. EDM brings together researchers from computer science, education, psychology, psychometrics, and statistics to analyze large data sets to answer educational research questions. The increase in instrumented…

Barnes, Tiffany, Ed.; Desmarais, Michel, Ed.; Romero, Cristobal, Ed.; Ventura, Sebastian, Ed.

2009-01-01

290

Interim results from the characterization testing of the Engineering Development (EDM) rubidium clocks for satellite applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some interim results from the environmental testing program to evaluate the Engineering Design Model (EDM) of the EG and G Spaceborne Rubidium Clock are presented. This effort is in support of the Global Positioning System (GPS) BLOCK IIR program and is intended to characterize the performance of EG and G design for BLOCK IIR satellite applications. Two EG and G EDM units are currently under test at NRL's Clock Test Facility to measure the long-term frequency stability, drift, and frequency versus temperature characteristics.

Powers, Edward D., Jr.; Danzy, Fredrick

1990-01-01

291

Application of system engineering processes to analyze and predict engine cooling fan system noise for off-highway machines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

System Engineering processes were applied to create a Cooling Fan System Noise Analysis Tool for a back-hoe loader machine. The Cooling Fan System Noise Analysis Tool combined elements of aeroacoustic theory, Fan Law, sound power measurements and particle image velocimetry into a single computer analysis tool. The cooling fan system consisted of a cooling fan, multiple radiators in front of the cooling fan, a shroud, a mock engine behind the cooling fan, and a simulated engine compartment. A vortex flow structure was measured in front of the cooling fan. The cooling fan system sound power spectrum was measured. The radiated sound power spectrum for the vortex interaction with the fan blades was calculated. Measured and predicted cooling fan system sound power results were compared. The overall structure and approach will be presented along with an overview of the theory and initial results.

Masini, Christopher P.; Mann, J. Adin

2005-09-01

292

Enabling shear textures and fine-grained structures in Magnesium sheet by machining-based deformation processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The production of Mg alloy AZ31B sheet in a single deformation step by large- strain extrusion machining (LSEM) is detailed. LSEM imposes intense simple shear in a narrow zone by constrained chip formation. The confined deformation and the associated in situ adiabatic heating are found to be the key factors in production of the Mg sheet without need for external (pre-) heating. A range of shear textures with basal planes inclined to the sheet surface are achieved by this processing. The basal plane inclination could be varied by controlling the strain path. Microstructures, both ultrafine-grained (100-500 nm) and conventional fine-grained (2-5 ?m), have been obtained by controlling the adiabatic heating and the extent of dynamic recrystallization. The LSEM sheet with shear texture and fine grain size shows superior combinations of formability and strength compared to rolled sheet.

Sagapuram, D.; Efe, M.; Trumble, K. P.; Chandrasekar, S.

2014-08-01

293

Estimating costs and performance of systems for machine processing of remotely sensed data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper outlines a method for estimating computer processing times and costs incurred in producing information products from digital remotely sensed data. The method accounts for both computation and overhead, and may be applied to any serial computer. The method is applied to estimate the cost and computer time involved in producing Level II Land Use and Vegetative Cover Maps for a five-state midwestern region. The results show that the amount of data to be processed overloads some example computer systems, but that the processing is feasible on others.

Ballard, R. J.; Eastwood, L. F., Jr.

1977-01-01

294

A study on the machining-parameters optimization of wire electrical discharge machining  

Microsoft Academic Search

A suitable selection of machining parameters for the wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) process relies heavily on the operators' technologies and experience because of their numerous and diverse range. Machining-parameters tables provided by the machine-tool builder can not meet the operators' requirements, since for an arbitrary desired roughness of the machining surface, they do not provide the optimal machining conditions.

Y. S. Liao; J. T. Huang; H. C. Su

1997-01-01

295

Micro and Nano Machining by Electro-Physical and Chemical Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for micro-features, components and products is rapidly increasing in diverse industries such as electronics, medical and aviation. Product miniaturization demands innovative manufacturing methods. Various existing macro-manufacturing processes are being modified to perform micro-scale manufacturing. Electro-physical and chemical micromachining processes play important role in this field due to their special material removal mechanisms. This paper reports the worldwide technical

K. P. Rajurkar; G. Levy; A. Malshe; M. M. Sundaram; J. McGeough; X. Hu; R. Resnick; A. DeSilva

2006-01-01

296

The Supraspliceosome — A Multi-Task Machine for Regulated Pre-mRNA Processing in the Cell Nucleus  

PubMed Central

Pre-mRNA splicing of Pol II transcripts is executed in the mammalian cell nucleus within a huge (21 MDa) and highly dynamic RNP machine — the supraspliceosome. It is composed of four splicing active native spliceosomes, each resembling an in vitro assembled spliceosome, which are connected by the pre-mRNA. Supraspliceosomes harbor protein splicing factors and all the five-spliceosomal U snRNPs. Recent analysis of specific supraspliceosomes at defined splicing stages revealed that they harbor all five spliceosomal U snRNAs at all splicing stages. Supraspliceosomes harbor additional pre-mRNA processing components, such as the 5?-end and 3?-end processing components, and the RNA editing enzymes ADAR1 and ADAR2. The structure of the native spliceosome, at a resolution of 20 Å, was determined by cryo-EM. A unique spatial arrangement of the spliceosomal U snRNPs within the native spliceosome emerged from in-silico studies, localizing the five U snRNPs mostly within its large subunit, and sheltering the active core components deep within the spliceosomal cavity. The supraspliceosome provides a platform for coordinating the numerous processing steps that the pre-mRNA undergoes: 5? and 3?-end processing activities, RNA editing, constitutive and alternative splicing, and processing of intronic microRNAs. It also harbors a quality control mechanism termed suppression of splicing (SOS) that, under normal growth conditions, suppresses splicing at abundant intronic latent 5? splice sites in a reading frame-dependent fashion. Notably, changes in these regulatory processing activities are associated with human disease and cancer. These findings emphasize the supraspliceosome as a multi-task master regulator of pre-mRNA processing in the cell nucleus. PMID:25408845

Shefer, Kinneret; Sperling, Joseph; Sperling, Ruth

2014-01-01

297

Processive ATP-driven substrate disassembly by the N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) molecular machine.  

PubMed

SNARE proteins promote membrane fusion by forming a four-stranded parallel helical bundle that brings the membranes into close proximity. Post-fusion, the complex is disassembled by an AAA+ ATPase called N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF). We present evidence that NSF uses a processive unwinding mechanism to disassemble SNARE proteins. Using a real-time disassembly assay based on fluorescence dequenching, we correlate NSF-driven disassembly rates with the SNARE-activated ATPase activity of NSF. Neuronal SNAREs activate the ATPase rate of NSF by ?26-fold. One SNARE complex takes an average of ?5 s to disassemble in a process that consumes ?50 ATP. Investigations of substrate requirements show that NSF is capable of disassembling a truncated SNARE substrate consisting of only the core SNARE domain, but not an unrelated four-stranded coiled-coil. NSF can also disassemble an engineered double-length SNARE complex, suggesting a processive unwinding mechanism. We further investigated processivity using single-turnover experiments, which show that SNAREs can be unwound in a single encounter with NSF. We propose a processive helicase-like mechanism for NSF in which ?1 residue is unwound for every hydrolyzed ATP molecule. PMID:23775070

Cipriano, Daniel J; Jung, Jaemyeong; Vivona, Sandro; Fenn, Timothy D; Brunger, Axel T; Bryant, Zev

2013-08-01

298

An analysis of metropolitan land-use by machine processing of earth resources technology satellite data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A successful application of state-of-the-art remote sensing technology in classifying an urban area into its broad land use classes is reported. This research proves that numerous urban features are amenable to classification using ERTS multispectral data automatically processed by computer. Furthermore, such automatic data processing (ADP) techniques permit areal analysis on an unprecedented scale with a minimum expenditure of time. Also, classification results obtained using ADP procedures are consistent, comparable, and replicable. The results of classification are compared with the proposed U. S. G. S. land use classification system in order to determine the level of classification that is feasible to obtain through ERTS analysis of metropolitan areas.

Mausel, P. W.; Todd, W. J.; Baumgardner, M. F.

1976-01-01

299

Review of the investigation of mixture formation and combustion process using rapid compression machine and direct visualization system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reviews of some applications of optical visualization systems to compute the fuel-air mixing process during early stage of mixture formation in Diesel Combustion Engines. A number of studies have contributed to the understanding of fuel air mixing in DI diesel engine. This review has shown that the mixture formation process affects initial flame development. The review also found that injection pressure has a great effect on the mixture formation then the flame development and combustion characteristics. The method of the simulation of real phenomenon of diesel combustion with optical access rapid compression machine is also reviewed and experimental results are presented. The application of these methods to the investigation of diesel sprays highlights mechanisms which govern propagation and distribution of the formation of a combustible fuel-air mixture. A summary of the implementation of constant volume chamber and optical visualization system are shown in the accompanying tables and figures. The visualization of the formation process of diesel spray and its combustion in the diesel combustion chamber of diesel engine has been recognized as one of the best ways to understand the characteristics of the mixture formation.

Jaat, M.; Khalid, Amir; Manshoor, B.; Ramsy, Him

2013-12-01

300

A Lab Scale Polymer Micro-Embossing Machine for Process Control Research  

E-print Network

Micro embossing is the process of fabricating micron-sized features by plastic deformation of a work piece by means of a shaped tool or die. In our work we are concerned with hot embossing of PMMA to produce features in ...

Ganesan, Bala

301

GEFCom2012 Hierarchical Load Forecasting Gradient boosting machines and Gaussian processes  

E-print Network

discusses data cleansing, section 3 is on temperature forecasting, sections 4 and 5 introduce the GBM and GP. A brief introduction to Gaussian processes is provided in Appendix A. 2. Data cleansing A sensible first the algorithms detailed below performed acceptably well without further data cleansing. No adjustments were made

Ghahramani, Zoubin

302

Measurement and Processing of Fast Pulsed Discharge Current in Plasma Focus Machines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fast pulsed electric discharge current drives all physical processes in the plasma focus device; in turn all physical processes in the focus affect the current waveform. Thus the discharge current waveform is the most important indicator of plasma focus performance. This underlies the importance of properly measuring, processing and interpreting the discharge current waveform. This paper reports the measurement of fast pulsed discharge current by the Rogowski coil, in two different modes: the current transformer, "I" mode, and current derivative, "Idot" mode. The processing and interpretation of recorded current waveform to obtain useful information about the physical processes in the plasma focus device are discussed. The current transformer with a large number of turns and a sub-1 Ohm terminator has good high frequency response, necessary for the sharp current dip region when dI/ dt exceeds 2 × 1011 A/s. However the signal is "noisy" in the current dip region. Several methods to extract the current dip from the noise are discussed and examples of how low pass filters affect the signals are shown. The dI/ dt coil, the Rogowski coil in "Idot" mode, with a few turns terminated by 50-Ohm is also described. Integrating the 1 GSa/s digital waveform does remove the high frequency noise components, yet the extracted waveform shows sharp angular features indicative of the retention of short-time features. This makes the dI/ dt coil superior to the current transformer. A 7-turn coil is tested against the Lee Model code and found to be suitable to measure the plasma focus discharge current.

Lee, S.; Saw, S. H.; Rawat, R. S.; Lee, P.; Verma, R.; Talebitaher, A.; Hassan, S. M.; Abdou, A. E.; Ismail, Mohamed; Mohamed, Amgad; Torreblanca, H.; Al Hawat, Sh.; Akel, M.; Chong, P. L.; Roy, F.; Singh, A.; Wong, D.; Devi, K.

2012-04-01

303

Student Modeling and Machine Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

After identifying essential student modeling issues and machine learning approaches, this paper examines how machine learning techniques have been used to automate the construction of student models as well as the background knowledge necessary for student modeling. In the process, the paper sheds light on the difficulty, suitability and potential of using machine learning for student modeling processes, and, to

Raymund Sison; Masamichi Shimura

304

Modeling small-scale resistance spot welding machine dynamics for process control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrode displacement is generally regarded as a variable that can provide real-time information useful for monitoring and\\u000a controlling resistance spot welding (RSW) process quality. However, in small-scale RSW production, it is difficult to measure\\u000a the displacement because its magnitude is very small. By contrast, force signals are relatively large and thus are less susceptible\\u000a to measurement noise. In this article,

Jianzhong Chen; Dave F. Farson; Kevin Ely; Tim Frech

2006-01-01

305

A Proposal for a Cryogenic Experiment to Measure the Neutron Electric Dipole Moment (nEDM)  

E-print Network

This document is a copy of the original 2003 proposal for the construction grant for the CryoEDM Experiment at ILL, Grenoble. It is here made publicly available as a technical reference source for interested parties. It does not necessarily represent the final configuration of the experiment. Items pertaining to costs, personnel etc. have been removed.

S. N. Balashov; K. Green; M. G. D. van der Grinten; P. G. Harris; H. Kraus; J. M. Pendlebury; D. B. Shiers; M. A. H. Tucker; D. L. Wark

2007-09-17

306

How fine-tuned is a large Muon EDM from Flavor?  

SciTech Connect

We study the possibility of having a large muon electric dipole moment (EDM) of the order 10{sup -24}-10{sup -22} ecm. We quantify how natural such a value is within the general minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model with CP violation from lepton flavor violation.

Rueppell, Timo [Department of Physics, and Helsinki Institute of Physics, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland)

2010-02-10

307

Calculation of roller and ball bearing capacitances and prediction of EDM currents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with the calculation of the roller and ball bearing capacitances by analytical and finite element methods 2D and 3D. The central lubricant thickness and the contact Hertz'ian area are calculated using the EHD theory. Two equivalent circuits are tested for EDM current prediction in big induction motors, one which uses the measured bearing voltage and another, which

Oliver Magdun; Andreas Binder

2009-01-01

308

Magnetic Field Finite-Element Calculations for the SNS Neutron EDM Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nEDM experiment is a new search for the electric dipole moment (EDM) of the neutron with a sensitivity of 10-28 e-cm at the recently constructed Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). The measurement requires a static magnetic field surrounding two target cells that contain superfluid ^4He, polarized neutrons and polarized ^3He atoms. The latter are used as a co-magnetometer and ultracold neutron spin precession frequency analyzer. The applied static magnetic field, B0, is chosen to be about 10 mG resulting in a precession of the magnetic moments for both neutrons and ^3He nuclei of ˜30 Hz. To maintain the polarization of the neutrons and ^3He atoms, the magnetic field should be very uniform with gradients of the order of 0.1 ?G/cm averaged over each cell volume. A separate requirement on the volume-averaged magnetic field gradient in the direction of B0 of less than 0.01 ?G/cm is necessary to minimize false EDM signals. In addition, to reduce the influence of ambient external fields an overall magnetic shielding factor of ˜10^5 is required. We present finite-element calculation results for the complete nEDM static magnetic field configuration including magnetic field gradients and ^3He relaxation rates.

Balascuta, S.; Alarcon, R.; Filippone, B.; Plaster, B.; Schmid, R.

2007-10-01

309

^3He comagnetometer readout for the neutron electric dipole moment (nEDM) experiment at SNS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nEDM collaboration is developing a new experiment to measure the neutron's electric dipole moment to ˜10-28 e--cm. A non-zero neutron EDM would be the first observation of CP violation in a baryon containing only light quarks, while a null result would be inconsistent with predictions from most variants of supersymmetry. The experiment will measure the difference in spin precession, of polarized ultracold neutrons (UCN) produced and stored in a superfluid-helium-filled cell, when the magnetic and electric fields are parallel and antiparallel. A key feature of the experimental method is the use of polarized ^3He atoms within the cell acting as both spin analyzer and comagnetometer to the UCN. In one mode of running, the ^3He precession signal is detected by SQUID gradiometers adjacent to the cell. This talk will cover the efforts of the nEDM collaboration towards practical implementation of SQUIDs for the ^3He comagnetometer readout, with a goal of <=1 fT/?Hz noise level (referred to one gradiometer loop), low enough to be a small contribution to the overall uncertainty of the final nEDM result. )

Clayton, Steven

2010-02-01

310

Results from a Search for the Permanent Electric Dipole Moment (EDM) of ^199Hg  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observation of a nonzero EDM would imply CP violation beyond the Standard Model. Additional sources of CP violation are expected to help explain the matter-antimatter asymmetry observed in our universe and naturally arise in extensions to the standard model such as supersymmetry. Our group has recently reported a new upper limit: |dHg| < 3.1x10-29 e-cm for the EDM of ^199Hg. The experiment compared the spin precession frequencies in four spin-polarized Hg vapor cells: two cells lie in parallel magnetic and anti-parallel electric fields, resulting in EDM-sensitive spin precession while the remaining two cells, at zero electric field, serve to cancel noise generated by magnetic field gradients and test for systematic errors. A frequency shift, linear in the applied electric field, due to the Stark mixing of atomic states has been identified and measured. A description of the EDM experiment and measurements that led to our recent result will be presented. )

Heckel, Blayne

2010-02-01

311

Superfamily I helicases as modular components of DNA-processing machines.  

PubMed

Helicases are a ubiquitous and abundant group of motor proteins that couple NTP binding and hydrolysis to processive unwinding of nucleic acids. By targeting this activity to a wide range of specific substrates, and by coupling it with other catalytic functionality, helicases fulfil diverse roles in virtually all aspects of nucleic acid metabolism. The present review takes a look back at our efforts to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of UvrD-like DNA helicases. Using these well-studied enzymes as examples, we also discuss how helicases are programmed by interactions with partner proteins to participate in specific cellular functions. PMID:21428912

Dillingham, Mark S

2011-04-01

312

Machining of uranium and uranium alloys  

SciTech Connect

Uranium and uranium alloys can be readily machined by conventional methods in the standard machine shop when proper safety and operating techniques are used. Material properties that affect machining processes and recommended machining parameters are discussed. Safety procedures and precautions necessary in machining uranium and uranium alloys are also covered. 30 figures.

Morris, T.O.

1981-12-14

313

Machine Learning and NLP Research Interests  

E-print Network

Machine Learning and NLP Research Interests Machine Learning for Language Learning and Processing University of Edinburgh keller@inf.ed.ac.uk October 15, 2008 Goldwater et al. Machine Learning for Language 1 #12;Machine Learning and NLP Research Interests 1 Machine Learning and NLP Latent Variables Multi

Edinburgh, University of

314

A study of liquid helium scintillation in the presence of an electric field for the nEDM experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nEDM experiment, currently being developed to be constructed at the Fundamental Neutron Physics Beamline at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, will search for the neutron electric dipole moment (EDM) with a sensitivity roughly two orders of magnitude better than the current limit. In neutron EDM searches, the signature of an EDM appears as a shift in the neutron spin precession frequency upon an application of an electric field for neutrons precessing in a weak magnetic field. In the nEDM experiment, the neutron precession will be measured with respect to that of polarized ^3He atoms, which will occupy the same volume as the neutrons and act as a co-magnetometer. Liquid helium (LHe) scintillation from the spin dependent ^3He(n,p)t reaction will be used to determine the n-^3He precession frequency difference. The existing data on LHe scintillation in an electric field do not cover the expected electric field and operating temperature of the nEDM experiment. We measured the LHe scintillation yield dependence on the electric field strength up to ˜45 kV/cm in the temperature range of 0.2-1.1K at the saturated vapor pressure. In this talk, the results of the measurements will be presented, along with their implication for the nEDM experiment.

Ito, Takeyasu; Clayton, S.; Ramsey, J.; Karcz, M.; Liu, C.-Y.; Long, J.; Meyer, H.-O.; Reddy, G.

2009-10-01

315

Digital signal processing control of induction machine`s torque and stator flux utilizing the direct stator flux field orientation method  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a review of the Direct Stator Flux Field Orientation control method. This method can be used to control an induction motor`s torque and flux directly and is the application of interest for this thesis. This control method is implemented without the traditional feedback loops and associated hardware. Predictions are made, by mathematical calculations, of the stator voltage vector. The voltage vector is determined twice a switching period. The switching period is fixed throughout the analysis. The three phase inverter duty cycle necessary to control the torque and flux of the induction machine is determined by the voltage space vector Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) technique. Transient performance of either the flux or torque requires an alternate modulation scheme which is also addressed in this thesis. A block diagram of this closed loop system is provided. 22 figs., 7 tabs.

Seiz, J.B.

1997-04-01

316

Experimental and computational investigation of end-milling and development of a simulation model describing the machining process  

E-print Network

of the cutting tool life · Restriction of faulty products · Reduction of costs and machining time with increase Technical University of Crete Department of Production Engineering & Management Chania, Crete, 73100 Greece and higher accuracy machined by material removal, and the pursuit of minimization of the production costs

Aristomenis, Antoniadis

317

Technique for Machining Glass  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Process for machining glass with conventional carbide tools requires a small quantity of a lubricant for aluminum applied to area of glass to be machined. A carbide tool is then placed against workpiece with light pressure. Tool is raised periodically to clear work of glass dust and particles. Additional lubricant is applied as it is displaced.

Rice, S. H.

1982-01-01

318

A branch and bound algorithm to minimise total weighted tardiness on a single batch processing machine with ready times and incompatible job families  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research deals with developing a branch and bound algorithm for minimising total weighted tardiness on a single batch processing machine with characteristics similar to those seen in the diffusion operation in semiconductor manufacturing. Dominance properties are utilised in order to increase the efficiency of the algorithm. The developed algorithm is implemented in C++ and tested on different cases. We

S. K. Tangudu; M. E. Kurz

2006-01-01

319

Kid Machine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is on page 3 (continued on page 2) of the pdf, part of the Simple Machines Discovery Box. In this fun activity, learners "create" a complex machine by simulating the parts in action. Learners move their bodies and make sounds as if they are individual parts of a moving machine. Then learners discover what happens when part of a machine is broken and problem solve ways to fix it.

Omsi

2004-01-01

320

Mining machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A haulage system for a mining machine comprises a mining machine mounted on and\\/or guided by a conveyor and reciprocable with respect thereto, the conveyor being provided with a rack having plural rows of teeth of identical pitch, with the teeth of one row staggered with respect to an adjacent row(s), and the machine being provided with at least one

Parrott

1985-01-01

321

Using machine learning techniques to interpret results from discrete event  

E-print Network

Using machine learning techniques to interpret results from discrete event simulation Dunja Mladeni machine learning techniques. The results of two simulators were processed as machine learning problems discovered. Key words: discrete event simulation, machine learning, artificial intelligence 1 Introduction

Mladenic, Dunja

322

An innovative method for coordinate measuring machine one-dimensional self-calibration with simplified experimental process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, an innovative method for CMM (Coordinate Measuring Machine) self-calibration is proposed. In contrast to conventional CMM calibration that relies heavily on a high precision reference standard such as a laser interferometer, the proposed calibration method is based on a low-cost artefact which is fabricated with commercially available precision ball bearings. By optimizing the mathematical model and rearranging the data sampling positions, the experimental process and data analysis can be simplified. In mathematical expression, the samples can be minimized by eliminating the redundant equations among those configured by the experimental data array. The section lengths of the artefact are measured at arranged positions, with which an equation set can be configured to determine the measurement errors at the corresponding positions. With the proposed method, the equation set is short of one equation, which can be supplemented by either measuring the total length of the artefact with a higher-precision CMM or calibrating the single point error at the extreme position with a laser interferometer. In this paper, the latter is selected. With spline interpolation, the error compensation curve can be determined. To verify the proposed method, a simple calibration system was set up on a commercial CMM. Experimental results showed that with the error compensation curve uncertainty of the measurement can be reduced to 50%.

Fang, Cheng; Butler, David Lee

2013-05-01

323

An innovative method for coordinate measuring machine one-dimensional self-calibration with simplified experimental process.  

PubMed

In this paper, an innovative method for CMM (Coordinate Measuring Machine) self-calibration is proposed. In contrast to conventional CMM calibration that relies heavily on a high precision reference standard such as a laser interferometer, the proposed calibration method is based on a low-cost artefact which is fabricated with commercially available precision ball bearings. By optimizing the mathematical model and rearranging the data sampling positions, the experimental process and data analysis can be simplified. In mathematical expression, the samples can be minimized by eliminating the redundant equations among those configured by the experimental data array. The section lengths of the artefact are measured at arranged positions, with which an equation set can be configured to determine the measurement errors at the corresponding positions. With the proposed method, the equation set is short of one equation, which can be supplemented by either measuring the total length of the artefact with a higher-precision CMM or calibrating the single point error at the extreme position with a laser interferometer. In this paper, the latter is selected. With spline interpolation, the error compensation curve can be determined. To verify the proposed method, a simple calibration system was set up on a commercial CMM. Experimental results showed that with the error compensation curve uncertainty of the measurement can be reduced to 50%. PMID:23742585

Fang, Cheng; Butler, David Lee

2013-05-01

324

Decoding Semi-Constrained Brain Activity from fMRI Using Support Vector Machines and Gaussian Processes  

PubMed Central

Predicting a particular cognitive state from a specific pattern of fMRI voxel values is still a methodological challenge. Decoding brain activity is usually performed in highly controlled experimental paradigms characterized by a series of distinct states induced by a temporally constrained experimental design. In more realistic conditions, the number, sequence and duration of mental states are unpredictably generated by the individual, resulting in complex and imbalanced fMRI data sets. This study tests the classification of brain activity, acquired on 16 volunteers using fMRI, during mental imagery, a condition in which the number and duration of mental events were not externally imposed but self-generated. To deal with these issues, two classification techniques were considered (Support Vector Machines, SVM, and Gaussian Processes, GP), as well as different feature extraction methods (General Linear Model, GLM and SVM). These techniques were combined in order to identify the procedures leading to the highest accuracy measures. Our results showed that 12 data sets out of 16 could be significantly modeled by either SVM or GP. Model accuracies tended to be related to the degree of imbalance between classes and to task performance of the volunteers. We also conclude that the GP technique tends to be more robust than SVM to model unbalanced data sets. PMID:22563410

Wehenkel, Louis; Maquet, Pierre; Phillips, Christophe

2012-01-01

325

Intégration de la programmation basée entités pour la fabrication sur machines à commandes numériques dans un contexte multi-process.  

E-print Network

??Les travaux présentés portent sur l'intégration de la programmation basée entités des machines-outils à commande numérique (MOCN). Cette programmation émergente s'appuie sur les concepts véhiculés… (more)

Laguionie, Raphael

2010-01-01

326

Search for a Neutron Electric Dipole Moment at the SNS Brad Filippone (Caltech) for the nEDM@SNS collaboration  

E-print Network

" of both species [3]). Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of the nEDM apparatus. #12;2 The collaboration for a large-scale magnetic coil and a Pb superconducting magnetic shield. 3. Understanding of polarized 3 He

327

CATSI EDM: recent advances in the development and validation of a ruggedized passive standoff CWA sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Defence Research and Development Canada (DRDC) - Valcartier is currently developing a ruggedized passive standoff sensor for the detection of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) based on differential Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) radiometry. This system is referred to as the Compact ATmospheric Sounding Interferometer (CATSI) Engineering Development Model (EDM). The CATSI EDM sensor is based on the use of a double-beam FTIR spectrometer that is optimized for optical subtraction. A description of the customized sensor is given along with a discussion on the detection and identification approaches that have been developed. Preliminary results of validation from a number of laboratory measurements and open-air trials are analyzed to establish the capability of detection and identification of various toxic and non-toxic chemical vapor plumes. These results clearly demonstrate the capability of the passive differential radiometric approach for the standoff detection and identification of chemical vapors at distances up to a few kilometers from the sensor.

Lavoie, Hugo; Thériault, Jean-Marc; Bouffard, François; Puckrin, Eldon; Turcotte, Caroline S.; Lacasse, Paul

2008-04-01

328

Neutron Diffraction and Optics of a Noncentrosymmetric Crystal. New Feasibility of a Search for Neutron EDM  

E-print Network

Recently strong electric fields (up to 10^9 V/cm) have been discovered, which affect the neutrons moving in noncentrosymmetric crystals. Such fields allow new polarization phenomena in neutron diffraction and optics and provide, for instance, a new feasibility of a search for the neutron electric dipole moment (EDM). A series of experiments was carried out in a few last years on study of the dynamical diffraction of polarized neutrons in thick (1-10 cm) quartz crystals, using the forward diffraction beam and Bragg angles close to 90^0. As well new neutron optics phenomena were investigated. The feasibility of experiment on a search for neutron EDM using Laue diffraction in crystals without a center of symmetry was tested at the reactors: WWR-M in Gatchina and HFR in Grenoble. It was shown that the sensitivity can reach (3 - 6)\\cdot 10^{-25}e cm per day for the available quartz crystal and cold neutron beam flux.

V. V. Fedorov; V. V. Voronin

2005-04-25

329

Accessing Interior Vector Magnetic Field Components in Neutron EDM Experiments via Boundary Value Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a new technique for the determination and monitoring of the interior vector magnetic field components during the operation of neutron EDM experiments. If a suitable three-dimensional volume surrounding the fiducial volume of an experiment can be defined which contains no interior currents or magnetization, each of the interior vector field components will satisfy the Laplace Equation within this volume. Therefore, if the field components can be measured on the boundary, the interior vector field components can be determined uniquely via numerical solution of the Laplace Equation. We discuss the applicability of this technique to the determination of the magnetic field components and magnetic field gradients in the fiducial volumes of neutron EDM experiments.

Plaster, Brad

2012-10-01

330

Surface quality improvement of wire-EDM using a fine-finish power supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the development and application of a new fine-finish power supply in wire-EDM. The transistor-controlled power supply composed of a full-bridge circuit, two snubber circuits and a pulse control circuit was designed to provide the functions of anti-electrolysis, high frequency and very-low-energy pulse control. Test results indicated that the pulse duration of discharge current can be shortened through

Mu-Tian Yan; Yi-Peng Lai

2007-01-01

331

Page 304 Course Descriptions Sonoma State University 2008-2010 Catalog Education: Multiple Subject (EDMS)  

E-print Network

and teachers in elementary schools, and read about forces that shape teachers and issues they confront in our educational system. They will analyze what it means to be a teacher today in our elementary schools, facing the challenges of diversity, equity and quality of education. edMS 200 BeinG A teACher in tOdAy'S SChOOlS (2

Ravikumar, B.

332

Nuclear Spin Maser at Highly Stabilized Low Magnetic Field and Search for Atomic EDM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A nuclear spin maser is operated at a low static field through an active feedback scheme based on an optical nuclear spin detection and succeeding spin control by a transverse field application. The frequency stability of this optical-coupling spin maser is improved by installation of a low-noise current source for a solenoid magnet producing a static magnetic field in the maser operation. Experimental devices for application of the maser to EDM experiment are being developed.

Yoshimi, A.; Asahi, K.; Inoue, T.; Uchida, M.; Hatakeyama, N.; Tsuchiya, M.; Kagami, S.

2009-08-01

333

Sensitivity Reach of the Neutron EDM Experiment: The Electric Field Strength  

SciTech Connect

The search for an electric dipole moment of the neutron tests physics beyond the Standard Model such as new sources of CP-violation and Supersymmetry. The nEDM experiment aims to improve the sensitivity on the current limit of the electric dipole moment of the neutron to <10{sup -27} e{center_dot}cm. The experiment will use a flux of Ultra Cold Neutrons (UCNs) produced and stored in a bath of superfluid He-II. A change in precession frequency is expected for a non-zero EDM when an electric field is applied parallel and antiparallel to a magnetic field across the neutron storage cell. A dominant parameter in terms of reducing the statistical uncertainty of this measurement is the strength of the applied electric field. An experiment to measure if superfluid He-II can sustain up to 50 kV/cm for a volume and electrode spacings comparable to the nEDM experiment has been constructed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. It consists in a large-area parallel plate capacitor immersed in a 200 liter central volume inside a suitable cryostat that in turn is connected to a dilution refrigerator unit. A description of test runs and the status of the experiment is presented.

Hennings-Yeomans, R.; Cooper, M.; Currie, S. A.; Makela, M. F.; Ramsey, J. C.; Tajima, S.; Womack, T. L. [Physics Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos NM 87545 (United States); Long, J. C. [Department of Physics, Indiana University, 727 E. Third St. Bloomington, IN 47405-7105 (United States); Stanislaus, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, IN 46383 (United States)

2010-08-04

334

Ultracold-neutron infrastructure for the PNPI/ILL neutron EDM experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A PNPI/ILL experiment to measure the neutron electric dipole moment (EDM) is currently being prepared at the facility PF2 for ultracold neutrons (UCN) at the Institut Laue-Langevin in Grenoble. To enable an improvement of sensitivity, one of PF2's beam positions has been equipped with new components for UCN transport, polarization and beam characterization, comprised of a superconducting solenoid-polarizer with magnetic field 4 T, a neutron guide system with diameter 136 mm prepared in replica technology, and a novel beam chopper for time-of-flight analysis. The whole EDM apparatus is set up on a non-magnetic platform. The total flux of polarized UCN with velocities less than 6.8 m/s along the guide axis is 1.5×10 5 n/s, corresponding to a flux density of 10 3 cm -2 s -1. The density of polarized UCN at the experimental position is about 5 cm -3, which shall lead to an EDM measurement with a counting statistical accuracy of 1.5×10 -26 ecm during 200 days of operation at PF2.

Serebrov, A. P.; Geltenbort, P.; Shoka, I. V.; Shmelev, G. E.; Kharitonov, A. G.; Vassiliev, A. V.; Krasnoshekova, I. A.; Lasakov, M. S.; Siber, E. V.; Fomin, A. K.; Zimmer, O.

2009-12-01

335

Sensitivity Reach of the Neutron EDM Experiment: The Electric Field Strength  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The search for an electric dipole moment of the neutron tests physics beyond the Standard Model such as new sources of CP-violation and Supersymmetry. The nEDM experiment aims to improve the sensitivity on the current limit of the electric dipole moment of the neutron to <10-27 e?cm. The experiment will use a flux of Ultra Cold Neutrons (UCNs) produced and stored in a bath of superfluid He-II. A change in precession frequency is expected for a non-zero EDM when an electric field is applied parallel and antiparallel to a magnetic field across the neutron storage cell. A dominant parameter in terms of reducing the statistical uncertainty of this measurement is the strength of the applied electric field. An experiment to measure if superfluid He-II can sustain up to 50 kV/cm for a volume and electrode spacings comparable to the nEDM experiment has been constructed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. It consists in a large-area parallel plate capacitor immersed in a 200 liter central volume inside a suitable cryostat that in turn is connected to a dilution refrigerator unit. A description of test runs and the status of the experiment is presented.

Hennings-Yeomans, R.; Cooper, M.; Currie, S. A.; Makela, M. F.; Ramsey, J. C.; Tajima, S.; Womack, T. L.; Long, J. C.; Stanislaus, S.

2010-08-01

336

Development of high-sensitivity NMOR magnetometry for an EDM experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Developments are in progress aiming at the search for a permanent Electric Dipole Moment (EDM) in 129Xe atom using a low-frequency nuclear spin maser. In the EDM experiment, drifts in the applied static magnetic field in a long time scale are the dominating source of errors in frequency determination. The stability of the applied field and its monitoring by use of a high sensitivity magnetometer are thus the indispensable part of the EDM experiment. We are developing a magnetometer based on the Nonlinear Magneto-Optical Rotation (NMOR) effect in Rb atom. The sharp response to the magnetic field in this apparatus relies on a long relaxation time of the atomic spin alignment induced by linearly polarized laser light, and thus the suppression of the atomic decoherence should be essential for its sensitivity. Coating the inner walls of the cell with an antirelaxation layer, introducing a buffer gas in the cell and cancelling the transverse magnetic field should be effective in preventing atoms from depolarization. We obtained several NMOR spectra for Rb in cylindrical cells in such attempts. Up to now a sensitivity of ?B=1.5 × 10-5 G has been attained in the present setup.

Nanao, T.; Yoshimi, A.; Inoue, T.; Furukawa, T.; Tsuchiya, M.; Hayashi, H.; Uchida, M.; Asahi, K.

2011-09-01

337

Kicking Machine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this design challenge activity, learners build a machine that kicks a Ping-Pong ball into a cup lying on its side 12 inches away. Learners use a pendulum, a rubber band, or a combination of the two to do this and test the accuracy of their machines by shooting a Ping-Pong ball into a cup. Educators can use this activity to demonstrate simple machines and kinetic/potential energy. This activity can be followed up with "Extreme Kicking Machine" which adds an even greater challenge into the mix.

Wgbh

2010-01-01

338

DNA-Based Machines.  

PubMed

The base sequence in nucleic acids encodes substantial structural and functional information into the biopolymer. This encoded information provides the basis for the tailoring and assembly of DNA machines. A DNA machine is defined as a molecular device that exhibits the following fundamental features. (1) It performs a fuel-driven mechanical process that mimics macroscopic machines. (2) The mechanical process requires an energy input, "fuel." (3) The mechanical operation is accompanied by an energy consumption process that leads to "waste products." (4) The cyclic operation of the DNA devices, involves the use of "fuel" and "anti-fuel" ingredients. A variety of DNA-based machines are described, including the construction of "tweezers," "walkers," "robots," "cranes," "transporters," "springs," "gears," and interlocked cyclic DNA structures acting as reconfigurable catenanes, rotaxanes, and rotors. Different "fuels", such as nucleic acid strands, pH (H(+)/OH(-)), metal ions, and light, are used to trigger the mechanical functions of the DNA devices. The operation of the devices in solution and on surfaces is described, and a variety of optical, electrical, and photoelectrochemical methods to follow the operations of the DNA machines are presented. We further address the possible applications of DNA machines and the future perspectives of molecular DNA devices. These include the application of DNA machines as functional structures for the construction of logic gates and computing, for the programmed organization of metallic nanoparticle structures and the control of plasmonic properties, and for controlling chemical transformations by DNA machines. We further discuss the future applications of DNA machines for intracellular sensing, controlling intracellular metabolic pathways, and the use of the functional nanostructures for drug delivery and medical applications. PMID:24647836

Wang, Fuan; Willner, Bilha; Willner, Itamar

2014-01-01

339

: Helmholtz machine estimation .  

E-print Network

: Helmholtz machine density estimation . . : . . . (supervised learning) , (active learning) (query learning) [1, 3]. . (unsupervised learning), . , [5]. . Helmholtz machine , . Helmholtz machine : Helmholtz machine [2] . Helmholtz machine (generative network) (recognition network) . , , . Helmholtz machine (self

340

Nonplanar machines  

SciTech Connect

This talk examines methods available to minimize, but never entirely eliminate, degradation of machine performance caused by terrain following. Breaking of planar machine symmetry for engineering convenience and/or monetary savings must be balanced against small performance degradation, and can only be decided on a case-by-case basis. 5 refs.

Ritson, D. (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (USA))

1989-05-01

341

Electric machine  

DOEpatents

An interior permanent magnet electric machine is disclosed. The interior permanent magnet electric machine comprises a rotor comprising a plurality of radially placed magnets each having a proximal end and a distal end, wherein each magnet comprises a plurality of magnetic segments and at least one magnetic segment towards the distal end comprises a high resistivity magnetic material.

El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi (Niskayuna, NY); Reddy, Patel Bhageerath (Madison, WI)

2012-07-17

342

Simple Machines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How do you get a glove and a ball up to your tree house? One answer is to use a pulley. A pulley is a simple machine. In this original KET interactive, children learn about the basic workings of three simple machines.

Ket

2010-11-16

343

Excavating machines  

SciTech Connect

The excavating machine has a cutter carrying boom carried by a boom support member which can be swung about an axis extending in the direction of the roadway. The machine includes a cutter unit and a stay unit each of which is releasably anchorable in the roadway and each of which can be advanced relative to the other unit.

Plummer, D.

1980-10-21

344

29 CFR 570.61 - Occupations in the operation of power-driven meat-processing machines and occupations involving...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...animal fats, scrap meats, blood, and bones into stock feeds, tallow, inedible greases...meat patty forming machines, meat and bone cutting saws, poultry scissors or shears...Boning occupations means the removal of bones from meat cuts. It does not include...

2012-07-01

345

29 CFR 570.61 - Occupations in the operation of power-driven meat-processing machines and occupations involving...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...animal fats, scrap meats, blood, and bones into stock feeds, tallow, inedible greases...meat patty forming machines, meat and bone cutting saws, poultry scissors or shears...Boning occupations means the removal of bones from meat cuts. It does not include...

2013-07-01

346

29 CFR 570.61 - Occupations in the operation of power-driven meat-processing machines and occupations involving...  

...animal fats, scrap meats, blood, and bones into stock feeds, tallow, inedible greases...meat patty forming machines, meat and bone cutting saws, poultry scissors or shears...Boning occupations means the removal of bones from meat cuts. It does not include...

2014-07-01

347

A Structured Linear Quadratic Gaussian Based Control Design Algorithm for Machine Tool Controllers Including Both Feed Drive and Process Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new extension of the stochastic linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) regulator problem is developed and used for the design of new suboptimal cross-coupling controllers for machine tool drives. This new extension allowed us to combine both the drive and the cutting dynamics into a unified model driven by the static and the dynamic portions of the cutting force. The dynamic

E. M. Elbeheiry; W. H. ELMARAGHY; H. A. ELMARAGHY

2005-01-01

348

Human-machine interactions  

SciTech Connect

Digital technology utilizing a cognitive model based on human naturalistic decision-making processes, including pattern recognition and episodic memory, can reduce the dependency of human-machine interactions on the abilities of a human user and can enable a machine to more closely emulate human-like responses. Such a cognitive model can enable digital technology to use cognitive capacities fundamental to human-like communication and cooperation to interact with humans.

Forsythe, J. Chris (Sandia Park, NM); Xavier, Patrick G. (Albuquerque, NM); Abbott, Robert G. (Albuquerque, NM); Brannon, Nathan G. (Albuquerque, NM); Bernard, Michael L. (Tijeras, NM); Speed, Ann E. (Albuquerque, NM)

2009-04-28

349

Weka Machine Learning Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you are inspired to try the process, the Weka Machine Learning Project from Waikato University offers open source software that can be used for data mining tasks. Visitors can also find the projects 1993 to 2006 publications, many of which are available for free in as PDFs. The "related" section offers a number of links to further information on topics such as artificial intelligence and machine learning.

2008-01-10

350

The effect of electro-discharge machined sonotrode topology on interlaminar bonding in ultrasonic consolidation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrasonic Consolidation (UC) is a solid state additive manufacturing process which fabricates three-dimensional objects by ultrasonically joining metal foils together, layer-by-layer, to form a solid part. This study investigates the effect of sonotrode surface texture on the bond strength, interlaminar microstructure and sample surface texture of parts fabricated by UC. White light interferometry was used to characterize the surface of two sonotrodes, textured by Electro-Discharge Machining (EDM). Aluminum 3003-H18 UC samples were fabricated using both sonotrodes under identical processing conditions. The surface texture of the UC samples produced is a reduced amplitude version of the parent sonotrodes texture. Peel testing was used to evaluate the bond strength and failure mode of the samples. The interlaminar microstructure of the parts was examined and linear weld density measured. The rougher sonotrode samples exhibited higher weld strength and brittle failure modes compared to the less rough sonotrode samples which demonstrated ductile failure and lower weld strength. This paper examines the influence of sonotrode texture on interlaminar bonding in UC and how this could be controlled and exploited to optimize bonding in UC.

Edmonds, H. C.; Harris, R. A.

2011-04-01

351

Diamond machine tool face lapping machine  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for shaping, sharpening and polishing diamond-tipped single-point machine tools. The isolation of a rotating grinding wheel from its driving apparatus using an air bearing and causing the tool to be shaped, polished or sharpened to be moved across the surface of the grinding wheel so that it does not remain at one radius for more than a single rotation of the grinding wheel has been found to readily result in machine tools of a quality which can only be obtained by the most tedious and costly processing procedures, and previously unattainable by simple lapping techniques.

Yetter, H.H.

1985-05-06

352

Scribbling Machines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore electronics and motion by making a Scribbling Machine, a motorized contraption that moves in unusual ways and leaves a mark to trace its path. Itâs made from simple materials and is based on the idea of motion created by an offset motor. Try using harvested motors and switches from discarded toys and electronics to make your Scribbling Machine - this not only keeps costs down, but is a playful and inventive way to explore how everyday objects work. To take the activity further, you can also incorporate PicoCrickets to make your Scribbling Machine more intelligent and to explore computers.

Exploratorium

2013-01-30

353

Machine therapy  

E-print Network

Machine Therapy is a new practice combining art, design, psychoanalysis, and engineering work in ways that access and reveal the vital, though often unnoticed, relevance of people's interactions and relationships with ...

Dobson, Kelly E. (Kelly Elizabeth), 1970-

2007-01-01

354

Math Machines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The mission of the Math Machines organization is to "improve the quality of mathematical education, enhance the transfer of mathematical thinking into other classes, and increase students' ability to apply rigorous mathematics outside the classroom." Their website supports a National Science Foundation ATE grant-supported project designed to improve teaching in the areas of Mathematics, Science, and Technology at the high school and college levels. This improved learning results from using math, science, and technology principles to build and control various machines such as pointers and robots or "math machines", which are simple devices that provide an immediate, physical, dynamic expression to abstract mathematical equations. The website provides information links on Educational Theory, Classroom Activities, Project Workshops, Calculators & Programs, and Machine Construction Instructions for Building: Closed Circuits, Servo Motors, Controllers, Robot Boards and more. There is also contact information, an FAQ section, as well as upcoming events.

2010-05-18

355

Effect of ultrasonic vibration of tool on electrical discharge machining of cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the effect of copper tool vibration with ultrasonic (US) frequency on the electrical discharge machining\\u000a (EDM) characteristics of cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co). It was found that ultrasonic vibration of the tool (USVT) was\\u000a more effective in attaining a high material removal rate (MRR) when working under low discharge currents and low pulse times\\u000a (finishing regimes). In

Amir Abdullah; Mohammad R. Shabgard

2008-01-01

356

Monel Machining  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Castle Industries, Inc. is a small machine shop manufacturing replacement plumbing repair parts, such as faucet, tub and ballcock seats. Therese Castley, president of Castle decided to introduce Monel because it offered a chance to improve competitiveness and expand the product line. Before expanding, Castley sought NERAC assistance on Monel technology. NERAC (New England Research Application Center) provided an information package which proved very helpful. The NASA database was included in NERAC's search and yielded a wealth of information on machining Monel.

1983-01-01

357

2005 IEEE Workshop on Applications of Signal Processing to Audio and Acoustics October 16-19, 2005, New Paltz, NY LEARNING AUDITORY MODELS OF MACHINE VOICES  

E-print Network

to traditional therapy akin to art therapy and music therapy, utilizes the sounds of machines as relational@ee.columbia.edu ABSTRACT Vocal imitation is often found useful in Machine Therapy ses- sions as it creates an emphatic by our work in Machine Therapy in which hu- mans try to vocally imitate machines, but this task also

Ellis, Dan

358

Search for an Atomic EDM with Optical-Coupling Nuclear Spin Oscillator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have constructed a nuclear spin oscillator of a new type, that employs a feedback scheme based on an optical spin detection and suceeding spin control by a transverse field application. This spin oscillator parallels the conventional spin maser in many points, but exhibits advantages and requirements that are different from those with the spin maser. By means of the optical-coupling nuclear spin oscillator, an experimental setup to search for an electric dipole moment (EDM) in a spin 1/2 diamagnetic atom 129Xe is being developed.

Asahi, K.; Uchida, M.; Yoshimi, A.; Inoue, T.; Hatakeyama, N.

2007-06-01

359

Experiment to measure the electric dipole moment (edm) of the electron using laser-cooled Cs atoms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electron edm de is known to be smaller in magnitude than 1.6x10-27e.cm [1]. We will describe progress on an ongoing experiment designed to be sensitive to an electron EDM de as small as 10-29e.cm. The experiment will search for the resulting edm of the Cs atom, proportional to de, using laser-cooled Cs atoms held in an optical dipole force trap. Important features of the experiment include resonant optical cavities to accurately define the trapping laser field, in-vacuum high voltage electrodes, and methods to reduce magnetic noise to low levels, including the use of a novel titanium vacuum chamber [4pt] [1] B. C. Regan et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 071805 (2002)

Ihn, Yong-Sup; Heinzen, Daniel

2010-03-01

360

Meso-Machining Capabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meso-scale manufacturing processes are bridging the gap between silicon-based MEMS processes and conventional miniature machining. These processes can fabricate two and three-dimensional parts having micron size features in traditional materials such as stainless steels, rare earth magnets, ceramics, and glass. Meso-scale processes that are currently available include, focused ion beam sputtering, micro-milling, micro-turning, excimer laser ablation, femtosecond laser ablation, and

GILBERT L. BENAVIDES; DAVID P. ADAMS; PIN YANG

2001-01-01

361

Modelling the pattern creation process for the optimum design of a circular warp-knitting machine using a conical needle-bed  

Microsoft Academic Search

A circular warp-knitting machine was designed using a novel approach that uses a conical needle-bed. This machine was built and successfully tested. The interaction between the patterning and knitting mechanisms of a warp-knitting machine is critical for the performance of the machine. In a circular warp-knitting machine, geometric parameters such as the diameter of the patterning rings and the distance

Sylvia P. Mermelstein; Memis Acar

2007-01-01

362

Improvement of reliability of welding by in-process sensing and control (development of smart welding machines for girth welding of pipes). Final report  

SciTech Connect

Closed-loop control of the welding variables represents a promising, cost-effective approach to improving weld quality and therefore reducing the total cost of producing welded structures. The ultimate goal is to place all significant weld variables under direct closed-loop control; this contrasts with preprogrammed machines which place the welding equipment under control. As the first step, an overall strategy has been formulated and an investigation of weld pool geometry control for gas tungsten arc process has been completed. The research activities were divided into the areas of arc phenomena, weld pool phenomena, sensing techniques and control activities.

Hardt, D.E.; Masubuchi, K.; Paynter, H.M.; Unkel, W.C.

1983-04-01

363

A new affinity-HPLC packing for protein separation: Cibacron blue attached uniform porous poly(HEMA- co EDM) beads  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a new affinity high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) stationary phase suitable for protein separation\\u000a was synthesized. In the first stage of the synthesis, uniform porous poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate), poly(HEMA-co-EDM), beads 6.2 ?m in size were obtained. Homogeneous distribution of hydroxyl groups in the bead interior was confirmed\\u000a by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The plain poly(HEMA-co-EDM) particles gave very low

Ender Unsal; Aysun Durdu; Begum Elmas; Murvet Tuncel; Ali Tuncel

2005-01-01

364

TEHNOMUS -New Technologies and Products in Machine Manufacturing Technologies (1) CMM : coordinate measuring machine  

E-print Network

TEHNOMUS - New Technologies and Products in Machine Manufacturing Technologies (1) CMM : coordinate measuring machine - 1 - COMPARISON OF A MACHINE OF MEASUREMENT WITHOUT CONTACT AND A CMM(1) : OPTIMIZATION products, the process of measurement usually proceeds on a type of machine (for example CMM

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

365

Photogrammetry & Machine Vision 1. Image sensors  

E-print Network

Photogrammetry & Machine Vision 1. Image sensors (a) Fundamentals of image sensors (b) CCD image'Apuzzo Photogrammetry and Machine Vision - 3 Point cloud processing, surface generation, texturing (b) Camera, noise) 2N. D'Apuzzo Photogrammetry and Machine Vision - 3 Point cloud processing, surface generation

Giger, Christine

366

Development of Rb atomic magnetometer for EDM experiment with ^129Xe spin maser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have been investigating the frequency stability of the low-frequency nuclear spin maser with ^129Xe aiming at EDM (permanent Electric Dipole Moment) experiment. One of the main sources for this frequency instability comes from the field fluctuation of the applied static magnetic field in a relatively long time scale. The present stability 30 nG of the applied field B0=30 mG in a time scale of 10^4 s should be suppressed in order to perform EDM experiment. We have been preparing for introduction of magnetometer to stabilize the magnet current to produce the B0 field. This magnetometer utilizes NMOE (Nonlinear Magneto Optical Effect) in Rb atom. The expected sensitivity of this type of magnetometer achieves the order of pG. We will report on systematic measurement of NMOE in Rb atom with different type of Rb cells using a tunable external-cavity diode laser, and on present status for the development of this type of magnetometer.

Yoshimi, Akihiro; Asahi, Koichiro; Inoue, Takeshi; Tsuchiya, Makoto; Uchida, Makoto; Furukawa, Takeshi

2009-10-01

367

Workout Machine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Orbotron is a tri-axle exercise machine patterned after a NASA training simulator for astronaut orientation in the microgravity of space. It has three orbiting rings corresponding to roll, pitch and yaw. The user is in the middle of the inner ring with the stomach remaining in the center of all axes, eliminating dizziness. Human power starts the rings spinning, unlike the NASA air-powered system. Marketed by Fantasy Factory (formerly Orbotron, Inc.), the machine can improve aerobic capacity, strength and endurance in five to seven minute workouts.

1995-01-01

368

Culture Machine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Culture Machine is a new, refereed, electronic journal encompassing cultural studies and cultural theory. The international editorial board of the interactive journal aims to "generat[e] research in culture and theory" by promoting and publishing "the most provocative of new work." The theme of the inaugural issue is Taking Risks with the Future. Content includes articles such as Life After Death of the Text by Johan Fornas, Cultural Studies in the Clouds: Mourning for Detail by Tadeusz Slawek, and The Future States of Politics by Kenneth Surin. Culture Machine is hosted by the University of Teesside, England.

369

Design and simulation for mico-hole abrasive flow machining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abrasive flow machining technology has become an effective way for micro-hole precise machining. In this paper, we design an equipment for abrasive flow machining to achieve precise machining for peculiar parts. The Fluent, fluid dynamics software, is used here to simulate the abrasive flow micro-hole processing state. We can achieve an ideal machining program for abrasive flow through comparative analysis

Junye Li; Weina Liu; Lifeng Yang; Chun Li; Bin Liu; Haihong Wu; Xiaoli Sun

2009-01-01

370

Simulating Turing Machines on Maurer Machines  

E-print Network

Simulating Turing Machines on Maurer Machines J.A. Bergstra1,2 and C.A. Middelburg3 1 Programming MB Eindhoven, the Netherlands keesm@win.tue.nl Abstract. Maurer machines are much closer to real computers than Turing machines. Computer instructions play a prominent part in Mau- rer machines. We show

van der Zwaag, Mark

371

Cleaning of Free Machining Brass  

SciTech Connect

We have investigated four brightening treatments proposed by two cleaning vendors for cleaning free machining brass. The experimental results showed that none of the proposed brightening treatments passed the swipe test. Thus, we maintain the recommendation of not using the brightening process in the cleaning of free machining brass for NIF application.

Shen, T

2005-12-29

372

Physics in Action: Fusion Machines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article from Physics Central provides a description of fusion machines and plasma power. The process and challenges to producing a sustained fusion reaction that could lead to electric power generation are explained. Current research being conducted with fusion machines is also presented along with links to additional information.

2007-04-26

373

Providing machine tractable dictionary tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Machine readable dictionaries (Mrds) contain knowledge about language and the world essential for tasks in natural language processing (Nlp). However, this knowledge, collected and recorded by lexicographers for human readers, is not presented in a manner for Mrds to be used directly for Nlp tasks. What is badly needed are machine tractable dictionaries (Mtds): Mrds transformed into a format usable

Yorick Wilks; Dan Fass; Cheng-ming Guo; James E. Mcdonald; Tony Plate; Brian M. Slator

1990-01-01

374

Decoding Machine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this math lesson, learners explore variables and their uses. Learners pretend to be FBI agents and make a TOP SECRET tool that enables them to decode and find the values of hidden messages and words. Learners make their simple "decoding machines" out of paper and tape.

Lessonplans, Utah

2012-10-22

375

Leonardo's Machines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science NetLinks lesson will highlight some of Leonardo da Vinci's futuristic inventions, introducing the elements of machines. Through the use of student interactives, this lesson provides an interesting context in which students can begin to develop their ideas about the uniqueness of humans in the natural world.

Science Netlinks;

2003-03-05

376

Function Machine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Java applet allows learners to explore simple linear functions. Students determine the algebraic form of a linear equation by entering inputs into the machine and by looking for patterns in the outputs. The function rules available are: integers from -10 to 10 are either added to, subtracted from, or multiplied by the input x to yield the output y.

2011-01-01

377

Machine tools get smarter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes how, using software, sensors, and controllers, a new generation of intelligent machine tools are optimizing grinding, milling, and molding processes. A paradox of manufacturing parts is that the faster the parts are made, the less accurate they are--and vice versa. However, a combination of software, sensors, controllers, and mechanical innovations are being used to create a new

Valenti

1995-01-01

378

Proceedings of the International Conference on Educational Data Mining (EDM) (4th, Eindhoven, the Netherlands, July 6-8, 2011)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 4th International Conference on Educational Data Mining (EDM 2011) brings together researchers from computer science, education, psychology, psychometrics, and statistics to analyze large datasets to answer educational research questions. The conference, held in Eindhoven, The Netherlands, July 6-9, 2011, follows the three previous editions…

Pechenizkiy, Mykola; Calders, Toon; Conati, Cristina; Ventura, Sebastian; Romero, Cristobal; Stamper, John

2011-01-01

379

Machine performance assessment and enhancement for a hexapod machine  

SciTech Connect

The focus of this study is to develop a sensor fused process modeling and control methodology to model, assess, and then enhance the performance of a hexapod machine for precision product realization. Deterministic modeling technique was used to derive models for machine performance assessment and enhancement. Sensor fusion methodology was adopted to identify the parameters of the derived models. Empirical models and computational algorithms were also derived and implemented to model, assess, and then enhance the machine performance. The developed sensor fusion algorithms can be implemented on a PC-based open architecture controller to receive information from various sensors, assess the status of the process, determine the proper action, and deliver the command to actuators for task execution. This will enhance a hexapod machine`s capability to produce workpieces within the imposed dimensional tolerances.

Mou, J.I. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); King, C. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Integrated Manufacturing Systems Center

1998-03-19

380

The Connection Machine  

SciTech Connect

This book describes what history may judge to be the second stage in the evolution of digital computers. Up to now, all computers have had basically the same architecture: one or a few large memory banks. Challenging that conception, the Connection Machine links together thousands or millions of extremely small processors and memories. From each moment to the next, the programs for this singularly versatile machine can refigure its architecture to suit the natural requirements of problems to be solved. The resulting configurations have already been applied to diverse data-structures required for processes involved with artificial intelligence, cellular physics, database inference, and number crunching computation.

Hillis, W.D.

1985-01-01

381

Automated fiber pigtailing machine  

DOEpatents

The Automated Fiber Pigtailing Machine (AFPM) aligns and attaches optical fibers to optoelectonic (OE) devices such as laser diodes, photodiodes, and waveguide devices without operator intervention. The so-called pigtailing process is completed with sub-micron accuracies in less than 3 minutes. The AFPM operates unattended for one hour, is modular in design and is compatible with a mass production manufacturing environment. This machine can be used to build components which are used in military aircraft navigation systems, computer systems, communications systems and in the construction of diagnostics and experimental systems.

Strand, Oliver T. (Castro Valley, CA); Lowry, Mark E. (Castro Valley, CA)

1999-01-01

382

Automated fiber pigtailing machine  

DOEpatents

The Automated Fiber Pigtailing Machine (AFPM) aligns and attaches optical fibers to optoelectronic (OE) devices such as laser diodes, photodiodes, and waveguide devices without operator intervention. The so-called pigtailing process is completed with sub-micron accuracies in less than 3 minutes. The AFPM operates unattended for one hour, is modular in design and is compatible with a mass production manufacturing environment. This machine can be used to build components which are used in military aircraft navigation systems, computer systems, communications systems and in the construction of diagnostics and experimental systems. 26 figs.

Strand, O.T.; Lowry, M.E.

1999-01-05

383

Drilling Machines: Vocational Machine Shop.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The lessons and supportive information in this field tested instructional block provide a guide for teachers in developing a machine shop course of study in drilling. The document is comprised of operation sheets, information sheets, and transparency masters for 23 lessons. Each lesson plan includes a performance objective, material and tools,…

Thomas, John C.

384

Machine Learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this chapter is to present fundamental ideas and techniques of machine learning suitable for the field of this book, i.e., for automated scientific discovery. The chapter focuses on those symbolic machine learning methods, which produce results that are suitable to be interpreted and understood by humans. This is particularly important in the context of automated scientific discovery as the scientific theories to be produced by machines are usually meant to be interpreted by humans. This chapter contains some of the most influential ideas and concepts in machine learning research to give the reader a basic insight into the field. After the introduction in Sect. 1, general ideas of how learning problems can be framed are given in Sect. 2. The section provides useful perspectives to better understand what learning algorithms actually do. Section 3 presents the Version space model which is an early learning algorithm as well as a conceptual framework, that provides important insight into the general mechanisms behind most learning algorithms. In section 4, a family of learning algorithms, the AQ family for learning classification rules is presented. The AQ family belongs to the early approaches in machine learning. The next, Sect. 5 presents the basic principles of decision tree learners. Decision tree learners belong to the most influential class of inductive learning algorithms today. Finally, a more recent group of learning systems are presented in Sect. 6, which learn relational concepts within the framework of logic programming. This is a particularly interesting group of learning systems since the framework allows also to incorporate background knowledge which may assist in generalisation. Section 7 discusses Association Rules - a technique that comes from the related field of Data mining. Section 8 presents the basic idea of the Naive Bayesian Classifier. While this is a very popular learning technique, the learning result is not well suited for human comprehension as it is essentially a large collection of probability values. In Sect. 9, we present a generic method for improving accuracy of a given learner by generatingmultiple classifiers using variations of the training data. While this works well in most cases, the resulting classifiers have significantly increased complexity and, hence, tend to destroy the human readability of the learning result that a single learner may produce. Section 10 contains a summary, mentions briefly other techniques not discussed in this chapter and presents outlook on the potential of machine learning in the future.

Hoffmann, Achim; Mahidadia, Ashesh

385

Machinability of Stellite 6 hardfacing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports some experimental findings concerning the machinability at high cutting speed of nickel-base weld-deposited hardfacings for the manufacture of hot tooling. The forging work involves extreme impacts, forces, stresses and temperatures. Thus, mould dies must be extremely resistant. The aim of the project is to create a rapid prototyping process answering to forging conditions integrating a Stellite 6 hardfacing deposed PTA process. This study talks about the dry machining of the hardfacing, using a two tips machining tool and a high speed milling machine equipped by a power consumption recorder Wattpilote. The aim is to show the machinability of the hardfacing, measuring the power and the tip wear by optical microscope and white light interferometer, using different strategies and cutting conditions.

Benghersallah, M.; Boulanouar, L.; Le Coz, G.; Devillez, A.; Dudzinski, D.

2010-06-01

386

Fullerene Machines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fullerenes possess remarkable properties and many investigators have examined the mechanical, electronic and other characteristics of carbon SP2 systems in some detail. In addition, C-60 can be functionalized with many classes of molecular fragments and we may expect the caps of carbon nanotubes to have a similar chemistry. Finally, carbon nanotubes have been attached to t he end of scanning probe microscope (Spill) tips. Spills can be manipulated with sub-angstrom accuracy. Together, these investigations suggest that complex molecular machines made of fullerenes may someday be created and manipulated with very high accuracy. We have studied some such systems computationally (primarily functionalized carbon nanotube gears and computer components). If such machines can be combined appropriately, a class of materials may be created that can sense their environment, calculate a response, and act. The implications of such hypothetical materials are substantial.

Globus, Al; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

1998-01-01

387

Fullerene Machines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent computational efforts at NASA Ames Research Center and computation and experiment elsewhere suggest that a nanotechnology of machine phase functionalized fullerenes may be synthetically accessible and of great interest. We have computationally demonstrated that molecular gears fashioned from (14,0) single-walled carbon nanotubes and benzyne teeth should operate well at 50-100 gigahertz. Preliminary results suggest that these gears can be cooled by a helium atmosphere and a laser motor can power fullerene gears if a positive and negative charge have been added to form a dipole. In addition, we have unproven concepts based on experimental and computational evidence for support structures, computer control, a system architecture, a variety of components, and manufacture. Combining fullerene machines with the remarkable mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes, there is some reason to believe that a focused effort to develop fullerene nanotechnology could yield materials with tremendous properties.

Globus, Al; Saini, Subhash

1998-01-01

388

Simple Machines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Can you identify the six types of simple machines? 1. What do you know about Inclined Planes? Draw an example on your graphic organizer and state one fact.Inclined Plane 2. What do you know about levers? Draw an example on your graphic organizer and state one fact.Lever. 3. What do you know about pulleys? Draw an example on your graphic organizer and ...

Stewart, Miss

2010-03-24

389

Induction machine  

DOEpatents

A polyphase rotary induction machine for use as a motor or generator utilizing a single rotor assembly having two series connected sets of rotor windings, a first stator winding disposed around the first rotor winding and means for controlling the current induced in one set of the rotor windings compared to the current induced in the other set of the rotor windings. The rotor windings may be wound rotor windings or squirrel cage windings.

Owen, Whitney H. (Ogden, UT)

1980-01-01

390

A Generalized Deletion Machine  

E-print Network

In this work we prescribe a more generalized quantum-deleting machine (input state dependent). The fidelity of deletion is dependent on some machine parameters such that on alteration of machine parameters we get back to standard deleting machines. We also carried out a various comparative study of various kinds of quantum deleting machines. We also plotted graphs, making a comparative study of fidelity of deletion of the deletion machines, obtained as particular cases on changing the machine parameters of our machine.

Indranil Chakrabarty; Satyabrata Adhikari

2005-11-22

391

State-Machine Replication  

E-print Network

State-Machine Replication #12;The Problem Clients Server #12;The Problem Clients Server #12;The (state machine) #12;The Solution 1. Make server deterministic (state machine) State machine #12;The Solution 1. Make server deterministic (state machine) 2. Replicate server State machines #12;The Solution 1

Venkataramani, Arun

392

Generation of Reaction Layers on Machined Surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Machined surfaces are influenced by the generation of reaction layers resulting from the formulation of the metalworking fluid. Coolants reduce friction at the tool\\/surface interface and significantly influence the heat dissipation in machining operations and the generation of the surface layer. Nowadays, machining processes are evaluated with respect to the forces, grinding wheel wear, surface roughness, surface integrity, residual stresses,

E. Brinksmeier; A. Walter

2000-01-01

393

Applications of Machine Learning in Information Retrieval.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces the basic ideas that underpin applications of machine learning to information retrieval. Describes applications of machine learning to text categorization. Considers how machine learning can be applied to the query-formulation process. Examines methods of document filtering, where the user specifies a query that is to be applied to an…

Cunningham, Sally Jo; Witten, Ian H.; Littin, James

1999-01-01

394

CURRENT STATUS AND FUTURE DIRECTION IN THE NUMERICAL MODELING AND SIMULATION OF MACHINING PROCESSES: A CRITICAL LITERATURE REVIEW  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a literature review on modeling and simulation of the metal cutting process, with special consideration to difficult-to-cut materials. The critical issues in the modeling of the cutting process are presented and investigated, which include the identification and formulation of the material constitutive equation, as well as the models that describe the tribological and thermal interactions at the

Bin Shi; Helmi Attia

2010-01-01

395

An evaluation of machine processing techniques of ERTS-1 data for user applications. [urban land use and soil association mapping in Indiana  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A broad study is described to evaluate a set of machine analysis and processing techniques applied to ERTS-1 data. Based on the analysis results in urban land use analysis and soil association mapping together with previously reported results in general earth surface feature identification and crop species classification, a profile of general applicability of this procedure is beginning to emerge. Put in the hands of a user who knows well the information needed from the data and also is familiar with the region to be analyzed it appears that significantly useful information can be generated by these methods. When supported by preprocessing techniques such as the geometric correction and temporal registration capabilities, final products readily useable by user agencies appear possible. In parallel with application, through further research, there is much potential for further development of these techniques both with regard to providing higher performance and in new situations not yet studied.

Landgrebe, D.

1974-01-01

396

Experimental investigation of active machine tool vibration control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The successful vibration reduction of machine tools during machining process can improve productivity, increase quality, and reduce tool wear. This paper will present our initial investigation in the application of smart material technologies in machine tool vibration control using magnetostrictive actuators and electrorheological elastomer dampers on an industrial Sheldon horizontal lathe. The dynamics of the machining process are first studied,

J. Rojas; Chen Liang; Zheng J. Geng

1996-01-01

397

Development of a selective electroforming process for micro-sized probe tips used in LCD inspection machines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A probe station is an inspection apparatus that automatically transfers liquid crystal display (LCD) panels and separates defective LCD products using a micro-probe unit. However, as the number of pixels increases in LCD screens, the size of the inspecting probe unit has to decrease. There are many limits to the conventional methodology when it comes to fabricating micro-sized probes. In this study, a selective electroforming process was developed and a micro-probe tip was fabricated using this process. Selective electroforming is a high-precision fabricating process where a non-conductive barrier layer is deposited on a conductive wafer and the conductive parts are electroformed using only Ni. Finally, using the selective electroforming process, the micro-sized probe was fabricated with a shape error of less than 0.1%.

Kim, Jong Sun; Min, In Ki; Kim, Jong Deok

2012-08-01

398

Reduce cycle time and work in process in a medical device factory : scheduling of needle hub molding machines  

E-print Network

Many manufacturing firms have improved their operations by implementing a work-in-process (WIP) limiting control strategy. This project explores the application of this concept to limit WIP and reduce cycle time for the ...

Yao, Jing, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2007-01-01

399

Machine Design  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, the homepage of Machine Design.com, contains resources on a variety of information for engineers and technicians related to devices, components, design applications, products, and systems in the manufacturing technology sector. The site also features a CAD library, eBooks, audiovisual aids, webinars, whitepapers and a reference center. Some of the resources require a free login. The page offers an RSS feed to keep users up to date on new resources. A free login may be required to access some of these items.

2009-11-09

400

Function Machine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Java activity for the interactive white board (free access with registration) provides learners an opportunity to explore number functions and to predict outcomes. Teachers set the desired function from the drop-down list (double it, halve it, add 1, subtract 1, add 10, or subtract 10) and choose the start number from 1-20. Students are asked to predict the outcome before asking the machine to go. There is an option to hide the function so the teacher can ask students to work out what operation is being used to get from the starting number to the number generated.

2012-07-19

401

New spectroscopic constants from high-resolution Stark spectroscopy of the PbF molecule: Implications for state-selection in an e-EDM measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead mono-fluoride (PbF) is ideally suited to carry out a search for an e-EDM: PbF has relatively large molecular dipole moment (making it easy to polarize), a strong effective internal field (making it sensitive to an e-EDM), ground-state sensitivity to the e-EDM (allowing for long coherence time), a small magnetic moment (making it less sensitive to stray magnetic fields) and convenient optical spectroscopy. Here we use a sensitive multi-photon ionization technique (pseudo-continuous-REMPI) to carry out A<-X1 spectroscopic measurements. New dipole moments and spectroscopic constants for the A state are presented. With these new data we have isolated an e-EDM sensitive Stark transition at a magic electric field that both polarizes the molecule and allows for sharp transitions that are immune to variations in electric field.

Yang, Tao; Coker, James; Furneaux, John; Shafer-Ray, Neil

2012-06-01

402

Influence of Dielectric Type on Porosity Formation on Electrical Discharge Machined Surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents a comparative study on the performance of three types of dielectrics at different electrical discharge machining (EDM) parameter combinations favorable for generating porosity. The characteristics of the porosity formation in the recast layer formed in water/oil emulsions (W/O) were investigated by comparing them with those present in the recast layer formed in kerosene and deionized water dielectric. The results showed that the porosity characters were influenced significantly by the dielectric type. The formation mechanism of the porosity in different dielectrics is presented in this article.

Zhang, Yanzhen; Liu, Yonghong; Ji, Renjie; Cai, Baoping; Li, Hang

2012-08-01

403

Conceiving of a High Level Language for Programming of the Machine Reconfiguration and Part Machining Dedicated to the New Reconfigurable Machine - Tools Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is proposing a new approach of the RMT (Reconfigurable Machine Tool) programming. The approach is based on a new control architecture characterized by high level of reconfigurability. The programming consists in the building of two documents: i) machine- program, concerning machine reconfiguration phase and ii) part-program, concerning the programming of the machine to process a specific part. A

404

Urban land use mapping by machine processing of ERTS-1 multispectral data: A San Francisco Bay area example  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The study is reported to develop computer produced urban land use maps using multispectral scanner data from a satellite is reported. Data processing is discussed along with the results of the San Francisco Bay area, which was chosen as the test area.

Ellefsen, R.; Swain, P. H.; Wray, J. R.

1973-01-01

405

2013 IEEE INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON MACHINE LEARNING FOR SIGNAL PROCESSING, SEPT. 2225, 2013, SOUTHAMPTON, UK A CONJUGATE GRADIENT ALGORITHM FOR  

E-print Network

phase shifts and/or gains at each sensor, cf. [2, 3]. Similarly, applications with microphone arrays, the location or intrinsic parameters of the sensors are not exactly known. In turn, it results in some unknown are also shown to require a calibration process of each microphone, in order to account for the unknown

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

406

Laser machining of explosives  

DOEpatents

The invention consists of a method for machining (cutting, drilling, sculpting) of explosives (e.g., TNT, TATB, PETN, RDX, etc.). By using pulses of a duration in the range of 5 femtoseconds to 50 picoseconds, extremely precise and rapid machining can be achieved with essentially no heat or shock affected zone. In this method, material is removed by a nonthermal mechanism. A combination of multiphoton and collisional ionization creates a critical density plasma in a time scale much shorter than electron kinetic energy is transferred to the lattice. The resulting plasma is far from thermal equilibrium. The material is in essence converted from its initial solid-state directly into a fully ionized plasma on a time scale too short for thermal equilibrium to be established with the lattice. As a result, there is negligible heat conduction beyond the region removed resulting in negligible thermal stress or shock to the material beyond a few microns from the laser machined surface. Hydrodynamic expansion of the plasma eliminates the need for any ancillary techniques to remove material and produces extremely high quality machined surfaces. There is no detonation or deflagration of the explosive in the process and the material which is removed is rendered inert.

Perry, Michael D. (Livermore, CA); Stuart, Brent C. (Fremont, CA); Banks, Paul S. (Livermore, CA); Myers, Booth R. (Livermore, CA); Sefcik, Joseph A. (Tracy, CA)

2000-01-01

407

Smart Machine Protection System  

SciTech Connect

A Machine Protection System implemented on the SLC automatically controls the beam repetition rates in the accelerator so that radiation or temperature faults slow the repetition rate to bring the fault within tolerance without shutting down the machine. This process allows the accelerator to aid in the fault diagnostic process, and the protection system automatically restores the beams back to normal rates when the fault is diagnosed and corrected. The user interface includes facilities to monitor the performance of the system, and track rate limits, faults, and recoveries. There is an edit facility to define the devices to be included in the protection system, along with their set points, limits, and trip points. This set point and limit data is downloaded into the CAMAC modules, and the configuration data is compiled into a logical decision tree for the 68030 processor. 3 figs.

Clark, S.; Nelson, D.; Grillo, A.; Spencer, N.; Hutchinson, D.; Olsen, J.; Millsom, D.; White, G.; Gromme, T.; Allison, S.; Underwood, K.; Zelazny, M.; Kang, H.

1991-11-01

408

Software sensors for biomass concentration in a SSC process using artificial neural networks and support vector machine.  

PubMed

The lack of sensors for some relevant state variables in fermentation processes can be coped by developing appropriate software sensors. In this work, NARX-ANN, NARMAX-ANN, NARX-SVM and NARMAX-SVM models are compared when acting as software sensors of biomass concentration for a solid substrate cultivation (SSC) process. Results show that NARMAX-SVM outperforms the other models with an SMAPE index under 9 for a 20 % amplitude noise. In addition, NARMAX models perform better than NARX models under the same noise conditions because of their better predictive capabilities as they include prediction errors as inputs. In the case of perturbation of initial conditions of the autoregressive variable, NARX models exhibited better convergence capabilities. This work also confirms that a difficult to measure variable, like biomass concentration, can be estimated on-line from easy to measure variables like CO? and O? using an adequate software sensor based on computational intelligence techniques. PMID:23429930

Acuña, Gonzalo; Ramirez, Cristian; Curilem, Millaray

2014-01-01

409

Symposium on Machine Processing of Remotely Sensed Data, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Ind., June 29-July 1, 1976, Proceedings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Papers are presented on the applicability of Landsat data to water management and control needs, IBIS, a geographic information system based on digital image processing and image raster datatype, and the Image Data Access Method (IDAM) for the Earth Resources Interactive Processing System. Attention is also given to the Prototype Classification and Mensuration System (PROCAMS) applied to agricultural data, the use of Landsat for water quality monitoring in North Carolina, and the analysis of geophysical remote sensing data using multivariate pattern recognition. The Illinois crop-acreage estimation experiment, the Pacific Northwest Resources Inventory Demonstration, and the effects of spatial misregistration on multispectral recognition are also considered. Individual items are announced in this issue.

1976-01-01

410

Dynamic monocular machine vision  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approach to real-time machine vision in dynamic scenes is presented based on special hardware and methods for feature extraction and information processing. Using integral spatio-temporal models, it by-passes the nonunique inversion of the perspective projection by applying recursive least squares filtering. By prediction error feedback methods similar to those used in modern control theory, all spatial state variables

Ernst Dieter Dickmanns; Volker Graefe

1988-01-01

411

CATSI EDM: a new sensor for the real-time passive stand-off detection and identification of chemicals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DRDC Valcartier recently completed the development of the CATSI EDM (Compact Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer Engineering Development Model) for the Canadian Forces (CF). It is a militarized sensor designed to meet the needs of the CF in the development of area surveillance capabilities for the detection and identification of chemical Warfare Agents (CWA) and toxic industrial chemicals (TIC). CATSI EDM is a passive infrared double-beam Fourier spectrometer system designed for real-time stand-off detection and identification of chemical vapours at distances up to 5 km. It is based on the successful passive differential detection technology. This technique known as optical subtraction, results in a target gas spectrum which is almost free of background, thus making possible detection of weak infrared emission in strong background emission. This paper summarizes the system requirements, achievements, hardware and software characteristics and test results.

Thériault, Jean-Marc; Lacasse, Paul; Lavoie, Hugo; Bouffard, François; Montembeault, Yan; Farley, Vincent; Belhumeur, Louis; Lagueux, Philippe

2010-04-01

412

Neural Network Modeling of Abrasive Flow Machining  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the preliminary development of a neural network-based process monitor and off-line controller for abrasive flow machining of automotive engine intake manifolds. The process is only observable indirectly, yet the time at which machining achieves the specified air flow rate must be estimated accurately. A neural network model is used to estimate when the process has achieved air

Alice E. Smith; William S. Slaughter

413

Mind & Machine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mind & Machine is a weekly column provided by Ashley Dunn for the New York Times Cybertimes that discusses topics related to computing, technology, and the Internet. Recent columns have addressed the topics of the development of Internet telephony, possible futures of user interfaces, the history of technology and standards, and the Internet as a vehicle for community. Articles are well written, opinionated, and thought provoking. Mr. Dunn is a free lance writer who has written for such papers as the New York Times, the Los Angeles Times, the Seattle Post-Intelligencer, and the South China Morning Post. Note that the site is available only upon registration and is free of charge only in the US.

Dunn, Ashley.

1996-01-01

414

Design and experimental study of a high-frequency fine-finish power supply for wire-EDM  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the development of a high-frequency fine finish power supply in wire-EDM using fixed pulse-width modulation (FPWM) pulse control method. A digital signal processor (DSP) card is employed to generate high-frequency pulse control signals with FPWM for easy modification purpose. The DSP-based power supply can provide very low discharge energy pulses with a frequency of 4.4 MHz, a

Mu-Tian Yan; Yi-Ting Liu

2009-01-01

415

Course info Machine Learning  

E-print Network

Course info Machine Learning Real life problems Lecture 1: Machine Learning Problem Qinfeng (Javen) Shi 28 July 2014 Intro. to Stats. Machine Learning COMP SCI 4401/7401 Qinfeng (Javen) Shi Lecture 1: Machine Learning Problem #12;Course info Machine Learning Real life problems Table of Contents I 1 Course

Shi, Qinfeng "Javen"

416

Case for a field-programmable gate array multicore hybrid machine for an image-processing application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

General purpose computer designers have recently begun adding cores to their processors in order to increase performance. For example, Intel has adopted a homogeneous quad-core processor as a base for general purpose computing. PlayStation3 (PS3) game consoles contain a multicore heterogeneous processor known as the Cell, which is designed to perform complex image processing algorithms at a high level. Can modern image-processing algorithms utilize these additional cores? On the other hand, modern advancements in configurable hardware, most notably field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) have created an interesting question for general purpose computer designers. Is there a reason to combine FPGAs with multicore processors to create an FPGA multicore hybrid general purpose computer? Iris matching, a repeatedly executed portion of a modern iris-recognition algorithm, is parallelized on an Intel-based homogeneous multicore Xeon system, a heterogeneous multicore Cell system, and an FPGA multicore hybrid system. Surprisingly, the cheaper PS3 slightly outperforms the Intel-based multicore on a core-for-core basis. However, both multicore systems are beaten by the FPGA multicore hybrid system by >50%.

Rakvic, Ryan N.; Ives, Robert W.; Lira, Javier; Molina, Carlos

2011-01-01

417

Architecture and Data Processing Alternatives for TSE Computer. Volume 1: Tse Logic Design Concepts and the Development of Image Processing Machine Architectures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Digital computer components which perform two dimensional array logic operations (Tse logic) on binary data arrays are described. The properties of Golay transforms which make them useful in image processing are reviewed, and several architectures for Gol...

D. A. Rickard, R. E. Bodenheimer

1976-01-01

418

Stiffness Analysis of Machine Tools Using Finite Element Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern machining processes require machine tools to work accurately and dynamically. This leads to the necessity for a method which can analyze the stiffness of machine tools. In this paper, a single module method and a hybrid modeling method for analyzing the stiffness of machine tools are presented. Techniques include building suitable finite element models, determining equivalent loads, simulating the

Yu Lianqing Wang Liping; Wang Liping

2009-01-01

419

Integrated machining tool path planning using feature free spaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe an automatic machining tool path generation method that integrates local and global tool path planning for machining features. From the solid model and the tolerance specifications of the part, we automatically recognize machining features, and obtain the geometry-based precedence relations between these features. A separate process planning module uses this information to determine the machining sequence, tool selections,

Yong Se Kim; Eric Wang; Il-Kyu Hwang; Hyung Min Rho

2003-01-01

420

Socially guided machine learning  

E-print Network

Social interaction will be key to enabling robots and machines in general to learn new tasks from ordinary people (not experts in robotics or machine learning). Everyday people who need to teach their machines new things ...

Thomaz, Andrea Lockerd

2006-01-01

421

Autonomous agent for on-machine acceptance of machined components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, manufacturers of high precision mechanical parts have been required to produce increasingly complex designs, in smaller lot sizes, with improved quality. These requirements demand lower process costs, shorter development cycles and more accurate manufacturing technologies. To meet these demands, manufacturers are attempting to both improve process quality and provide better CAD/CAM integration. The technique of on- machine acceptance provides one mechanisms for improving the part inspection and verification process. This approach allows one machine and one process capability model to be used for both fabrication and inspection, reducing capital cost and overall cycle time. However, the on-machine acceptance technique possesses greater potential than as simply an alternative mechanism for verifying part geometry. If the inspection capability information generated by on-machine acceptance processes can be made available to designers, it can be used to create a design-for-inspectability environment and help realize the benefits of concurrent engineering. This paper proposes a novel architecture which integrates on-machine acceptance with an agent-based concurrent design environment, for reducing both the cost and production time for high quality, small lot size, mechanical parts. This work has focused on the production of stainless steel pressure vessels at the Integrated Manufacturing Technology Laboratory manufacturing cell, located at Sandia National Laboratories, California.

Pancerella, Carmen M.; Hazelton, Andrew J.; Frost, H. R.

1995-11-01

422

RISMA: A Rule-based Interval State Machine Algorithm for Alerts Generation, Performance Analysis and Monitoring Real-Time Data Processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The monitoring of real-time systems is a challenging and complicated process. So, there is a continuous need to improve the monitoring process through the use of new intelligent techniques and algorithms for detecting exceptions, anomalous behaviours and generating the necessary alerts during the workflow monitoring of such systems. The interval-based or period-based theorems have been discussed, analysed, and used by many researches in Artificial Intelligence (AI), philosophy, and linguistics. As explained by Allen, there are 13 relations between any two intervals. Also, there have also been many studies of interval-based temporal reasoning and logics over the past decades. Interval-based theorems can be used for monitoring real-time interval-based data processing. However, increasing the number of processed intervals makes the implementation of such theorems a complex and time consuming process as the relationships between such intervals are increasing exponentially. To overcome the previous problem, this paper presents a Rule-based Interval State Machine Algorithm (RISMA) for processing, monitoring, and analysing the behaviour of interval-based data, received from real-time sensors. The proposed intelligent algorithm uses the Interval State Machine (ISM) approach to model any number of interval-based data into well-defined states as well as inferring them. An interval-based state transition model and methodology are presented to identify the relationships between the different states of the proposed algorithm. By using such model, the unlimited number of relationships between similar large numbers of intervals can be reduced to only 18 direct relationships using the proposed well-defined states. For testing the proposed algorithm, necessary inference rules and code have been designed and applied to the continuous data received in near real-time from the stations of International Monitoring System (IMS) by the International Data Centre (IDC) of the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO). The CLIPS expert system shell has been used as the main rule engine for implementing the algorithm rules. Python programming language and the module "PyCLIPS" are used for building the necessary code for algorithm implementation. More than 1.7 million intervals constitute the Concise List of Frames (CLF) from 20 different seismic stations have been used for evaluating the proposed algorithm and evaluating stations behaviour and performance. The initial results showed that proposed algorithm can help in better understanding of the operation and performance of those stations. Different important information, such as alerts and some station performance parameters, can be derived from the proposed algorithm. For IMS interval-based data and at any period of time it is possible to analyze station behavior, determine the missing data, generate necessary alerts, and to measure some of station performance attributes. The details of the proposed algorithm, methodology, implementation, experimental results, advantages, and limitations of this research are presented. Finally, future directions and recommendations are discussed.

Laban, Shaban; El-Desouky, Aly

2013-04-01

423

Machine musicianship  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The training of musicians begins by teaching basic musical concepts, a collection of knowledge commonly known as musicianship. Computer programs designed to implement musical skills (e.g., to make sense of what they hear, perform music expressively, or compose convincing pieces) can similarly benefit from access to a fundamental level of musicianship. Recent research in music cognition, artificial intelligence, and music theory has produced a repertoire of techniques that can make the behavior of computer programs more musical. Many of these were presented in a recently published book/CD-ROM entitled Machine Musicianship. For use in interactive music systems, we are interested in those which are fast enough to run in real time and that need only make reference to the material as it appears in sequence. This talk will review several applications that are able to identify the tonal center of musical material during performance. Beyond this specific task, the design of real-time algorithmic listening through the concurrent operation of several connected analyzers is examined. The presentation includes discussion of a library of C++ objects that can be combined to perform interactive listening and a demonstration of their capability.

Rowe, Robert

2002-05-01

424

The use of machine learning with signal- and NLP processing of source code to detect and classify vulnerabilities and weaknesses with MARFCAT  

E-print Network

We present a machine learning approach to static code analysis for weaknesses related to security and others with the open-source MARF framework and its application to for the NIST's SATE 2010 static analysis tool exhibition workshop.

Mokhov, Serguei A

2010-01-01

425

TOPOGRAPHIC DESCRIPTION OF ABRASIVE WATERJET MACHINED SURFACES  

E-print Network

) processed by Abrasive Waterjet Machining (AWJM). The design variables were: nozzle diameter, stand-parameter roughness analysis, statistical design of experiments, modeling, Abrasive Waterjet Machining (AWJM industrial AWJM system. The specimens were processed with three different diameters of the nozzle (Nozzle

Aristomenis, Antoniadis

426

Machine Vision Methods in Computer Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper surveys machine vision and image processing methods that can be used in games and also shows how machine vi- sion applications may beneflt from the graphics hardware developed for game applications. By observing image space rendering algorithms, we come to the conclusion that image processing and rendering methods require similar algorithms and hardware support.

Laszlo Szirmay-Kalos; BME IIT

427

Electrochemical Machining Carves out Nanostructures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This news article from June 20, 2003 published by Great Britain's Institute of Physics, describes an electrochemical machining process that is being used to fabricate complex nanostructures. The work, produced by German and U.S. researchers, has the potential to compete with current lithographic processes.

Kalaugher, Liz

2008-04-23

428

Analysis of Machining Characteristics in Additive Mixed Electric Discharge Machining of Nickel-Based Super Alloy Inconel 718  

Microsoft Academic Search

Additive mixed electric discharge machining (AEDM) is a recent innovation for enhancing the capabilities of electrical discharge machining process. The objective of present research work is to study the influence of operating process input parameters on machining characteristics of nickel-based super alloy (Inconel 718) in aluminium AEDM with copper electrode. The effectiveness of AEDM process on Inconel is evaluated in

Anil Kumar; Sachin Maheshwari; Chitra Sharma; Naveen Beri

2011-01-01

429

The effect of electric discharge machined notches on the fracture toughness of several structural alloys  

SciTech Connect

Recent computational studies of the stress and strain fields at the tip of very sharp notches have shown that the stress and strain fields are very weakly dependent on the initial geometry of the notch once the notch has been blunted to a radius that is 6 to 10 times the initial root radius. It follows that if the fracture toughness of a material is sufficiently high so that fracture initiation does not occur in a specimen until the crack-tip opening displacement (CTOD) reaches a value from 6 to 10 times the size of the initial notch tip diameter, then the fracture toughness will be independent of whether a fatigue crack or a machined notch served as the initial crack. In this experimental program the fracture toughness (J{sub Ic} and J resistance (J-R) curve, and CTOD) for several structure alloys was measured using specimens with conventional fatigue cracks and with EDM machined notches. The results of this program have shown, in fact, that most structural materials do not achieve initiation CTOD values on the order of 6 to 10 times the radius of even the smallest EDM notch tip presently achievable. It is found furthermore that tougher materials do not seem to be less dependent on the type of notch tip present. Some materials are shown to be much more dependent on the type of notch tip used, but no simple pattern is found that relates this observed dependence to the material strength toughness, or strain hardening rate.

Joyce, J.A. [Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD (United States); Link, R.E. [Naval Surface Warfare Center, Annapolis, MD (United States)

1993-09-01

430

Machines registres Yves Lafont  

E-print Network

Machines à registres Yves Lafont Université d'Aix-Marseille Institut de Mathématiques de Luminy) Pascal Turing Von Neumann #12;Quelle opération calcule cette machine ? Exemple 1 2 registres : (+ 1 Quelle opération calcule cette machine ? #12;Quelle propriété teste cette machine ? Exemple 3 1 seul

Lafont, Yves

431

SOVIETS BUILD MACHINES TO PRODUCE KRILL PASTE'  

E-print Network

protein paste from Black Sea shrimp. Each machine, operated by 2 people, has a processing capacity of 1 ashore by canneries, processing plants, an d ship-repair yards in the Black Sea cities of Izmail, K her

432

Surface finish of precision machined advanced materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the surface finish and integrity of glass, silicon, some advanced ceramics and aluminum-based metal matrix composites (MMCs) reinforced with ceramic particles, precision machined by various machining processes. The studies revealed that grinding\\/lapping operations using inexpensive machine tools can produce ductile streaks on glass and silicon surfaces under good grinding\\/lapping conditions. This resulted in significantly shortened polishing time

Zhaowei Zhong

2002-01-01

433

Building and simulating protein machines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glycolysis is a central metabolic pathway, present in almost all organisms, that produces energy. The pathway has been extensively investigated by biochemists. There is a significant body of structural and biochemical information about this pathway. The complete pathway is a ten step process. At each step, a specific chemical reaction is catalyzed by a specific enzyme. Fructose bisphosphate aldolase (FBA) and triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) catalyze the fourth and the fifth steps on the pathway. This thesis investigates the possible substrate transfer mechanism between FBA and TIM. FBA cleaves its substrate, the six-carbon fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP), into two three-carbon products -- glyceraldehydes 3-phosphate (GAP) and dihydroxy acetone phosphate (DHAP). One component of these two products, DHAP, is the substrate for TIM and the other component GAP goes directly to GAPDH, the subsequent enzyme on the pathway. TIM converts DHAP to GAP and delivers the product to GAPDH. I employ Elastic Network Models (ENM) to investigate the mechanistic and dynamic aspects of the functionality of FBA and TIM enzymes -- (1) the effects of the oligomerization of these two enzymes on their functional dynamics and the coordination of the individual protein's structural components along the functional region; and (2) the mechanistic synchrony of these two protein machines that may enable them to operate in a coordinated fashion as a conjugate machine -- transferring the product from FBA as substrate to TIM. A macromolecular machine comprised of FBA and TIM will facilitate the substrate catalysis mechanism and the product flow between FBA and TIM. Such a machine could be used as a functional unit in building a larger a machine for the structural modeling of the whole glycolysis pathway. Building such machines for the glycolysis pathway may reveal the interplay of the enzymes as a complete machine. Also the methods and insights developed from the efforts to build such large machines could be applied to build macromolecular structures for other biologically important clusters of interacting enzymes centered around individual metabolic pathways.

Katebi, Ataur Rahim

434

Estimation of breast percent density in raw and processed full field digital mammography images via adaptive fuzzy c-means clustering and support vector machine segmentation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The amount of fibroglandular tissue content in the breast as estimated mammographically, commonly referred to as breast percent density (PD%), is one of the most significant risk factors for developing breast cancer. Approaches to quantify breast density commonly focus on either semiautomated methods or visual assessment, both of which are highly subjective. Furthermore, most studies published to date investigating computer-aided assessment of breast PD% have been performed using digitized screen-film mammograms, while digital mammography is increasingly replacing screen-film mammography in breast cancer screening protocols. Digital mammography imaging generates two types of images for analysis, raw (i.e., 'FOR PROCESSING') and vendor postprocessed (i.e., 'FOR PRESENTATION'), of which postprocessed images are commonly used in clinical practice. Development of an algorithm which effectively estimates breast PD% in both raw and postprocessed digital mammography images would be beneficial in terms of direct clinical application and retrospective analysis. Methods: This work proposes a new algorithm for fully automated quantification of breast PD% based on adaptive multiclass fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering and support vector machine (SVM) classification, optimized for the imaging characteristics of both raw and processed digital mammography images as well as for individual patient and image characteristics. Our algorithm first delineates the breast region within the mammogram via an automated thresholding scheme to identify background air followed by a straight line Hough transform to extract the pectoral muscle region. The algorithm then applies adaptive FCM clustering based on an optimal number of clusters derived from image properties of the specific mammogram to subdivide the breast into regions of similar gray-level intensity. Finally, a SVM classifier is trained to identify which clusters within the breast tissue are likely fibroglandular, which are then aggregated into a final dense tissue segmentation that is used to compute breast PD%. Our method is validated on a group of 81 women for whom bilateral, mediolateral oblique, raw and processed screening digital mammograms were available, and agreement is assessed with both continuous and categorical density estimates made by a trained breast-imaging radiologist. Results: Strong association between algorithm-estimated and radiologist-provided breast PD% was detected for both raw (r= 0.82, p < 0.001) and processed (r= 0.85, p < 0.001) digital mammograms on a per-breast basis. Stronger agreement was found when overall breast density was assessed on a per-woman basis for both raw (r= 0.85, p < 0.001) and processed (0.89, p < 0.001) mammograms. Strong agreement between categorical density estimates was also seen (weighted Cohen's {kappa}{>=} 0.79). Repeated measures analysis of variance demonstrated no statistically significant differences between the PD% estimates (p > 0.1) due to either presentation of the image (raw vs processed) or method of PD% assessment (radiologist vs algorithm). Conclusions: The proposed fully automated algorithm was successful in estimating breast percent density from both raw and processed digital mammographic images. Accurate assessment of a woman's breast density is critical in order for the estimate to be incorporated into risk assessment models. These results show promise for the clinical application of the algorithm in quantifying breast density in a repeatable manner, both at time of imaging as well as in retrospective studies.

Keller, Brad M.; Nathan, Diane L.; Wang Yan; Zheng Yuanjie; Gee, James C.; Conant, Emily F.; Kontos, Despina [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Applied Mathematics and Computational Science, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

2012-08-15

435

Measurement of muon g-2 and EDM with an ultra-cold muon beam at J-PARC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new measurement of the anomalous magnetic moment ( g-2) and electric dipole moment (EDM) of the positive muon is proposed with a novel technique utilizing an ultra-cold muons accelerated to 300 MeV/c and a 66 cm-diameter compact muon storage ring without focusing-electric field. It requires an intense source of muonium to achieve the design intensity of the ultra-cold muon beam. Test experiments at TRIUMF aims to measure the muonium production rate as well as its space-time distribution in the vacuum for the development of the intense muonium source.

Mibe, Tsutomu; J-PARC g-2 Collaboration

436

Can Machines BeCan Machines Be Polite?Polite?  

E-print Network

Can Machines BeCan Machines Be Polite?Polite? Michael A. CovingtonMichael A. Covington Artificial Intelligence CenterArtificial Intelligence Center #12;Can machines be polite?Can machines be polite? Machines have beenMachines have been annoying peopleannoying people ever since humanever since human--machine

Covington, Michael A.

437

Scheduling parallel dedicated machines with the speeding?up resource  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider a problem of scheduling jobs on m parallel machines. The machines are dedicated, i.e., for each job the processing machine is known in advance. We mainly concentrate on the model in which at any time there is one unit of an additional resource. Any job may be assigned the resource and this reduces its processing time. A job

Hans Kellerer; Vitaly A. Strusevich

2008-01-01

438

A REVIEW ON THE ROTARY ULTRASONIC MACHINING OF ADVANCED CERAMICS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced ceramics are likely candidates for many industrial applications due to their superior properties. However, their high machining costs lead to limited applications. Rotary ultrasonic machining (RUM) is one of the cost-effective machining processes available for drilling holes in advanced ceramics. This paper reports on investigations in the last few years on RUM process of advanced ceramics. Emphasis is given

C. Y. Khoo; Esah Hamzah; Izman Sudin

2008-01-01

439

Hybrid Quantum Cloning Machine  

E-print Network

In this work, we introduce a special kind of quantum cloning machine called Hybrid quantum cloning machine. The introduced Hybrid quantum cloning machine or transformation is nothing but a combination of pre-existing quantum cloning transformations. In this sense it creates its own identity in the field of quantum cloners. Hybrid quantum cloning machine can be of two types: (i) State dependent and (ii) State independent or Universal. We study here the above two types of Hybrid quantum cloning machines. Later we will show that the state dependent hybrid quantum-cloning machine can be applied on only four input states. We will also find in this paper another asymmetric universal quantum cloning machine constructed from the combination of optimal universal B-H quantum cloning machine and universal anti-cloning machine. The fidelities of the two outputs are different and their values lie in the neighborhood of ${5/6} $

Satyabrata Adhikari; A. K. Pati; Indranil Chakrabarty; B. S. Choudhury

2007-05-04

440

All Electric Injection Molding Machines: How Much Energy Can You Save?  

E-print Network

There are three basic types of injection molding machines (IMMs) currently on the market: hydraulic, all-electric, and hybrid. They each have a different way of driving machine processes. Hydraulic IMMs use hydraulic pumps, all-electric machines use...

Kanungo, A.; Swan, E.

2008-01-01

441

Interaction with Machine Improvisation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe two multi-agent architectures for an improvisation oriented musician-machine interaction systems that learn in real time from human performers. The improvisation kernel is based on sequence modeling and statistical learning. We present two frameworks of interaction with this kernel. In the first, the stylistic interaction is guided by a human operator in front of an interactive computer environment. In the second framework, the stylistic interaction is delegated to machine intelligence and therefore, knowledge propagation and decision are taken care of by the computer alone. The first framework involves a hybrid architecture using two popular composition/performance environments, Max and OpenMusic, that are put to work and communicate together, each one handling the process at a different time/memory scale. The second framework shares the same representational schemes with the first but uses an Active Learning architecture based on collaborative, competitive and memory-based learning to handle stylistic interactions. Both systems are capable of processing real-time audio/video as well as MIDI. After discussing the general cognitive background of improvisation practices, the statistical modelling tools and the concurrent agent architecture are presented. Then, an Active Learning scheme is described and considered in terms of using different improvisation regimes for improvisation planning. Finally, we provide more details about the different system implementations and describe several performances with the system.

Assayag, Gerard; Bloch, George; Cont, Arshia; Dubnov, Shlomo

442

Experiments with three identical ultraprecision machine tools  

SciTech Connect

This paper outlines the underlying philosophy of, and reports preliminary results from experiments with three nominally identical diamond turning machines. Identical tools, specially fabricated from the same diamond, were used to machine mirrors from blanks cut from the same base material using previously specified process parameters; parts produced are compared. 8 refs., 14 figs.

Evans, C.; Hannah, P.; Rhorer, R.

1988-01-01

443

Advances in Diagnostic Techniques for Induction Machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates diagnostic techniques for electrical machines with special reference to induction machines and to papers published in the last ten years. A comprehensive list of references is reported and examined, and research activities classified into four main topics: 1) electrical faults; 2) mechanical faults; 3) signal processing for analysis and monitoring; and 4) artificial intelligence and decision-making techniques.

Alberto Bellini; Fiorenzo Filippetti; Carla Tassoni; GÉrard-AndrÉ Capolino

2008-01-01

444

Applications of machine learning and rule induction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Machine learning is the study of computational methods for improving performance by mechanizing the acquisition of knowledge from experience. Expert performance requires much domain-specific knowledge, and knowledge engineering has produced hundreds of AI expert systems that are now used regularly in industry. Machine learning aims to provide increasing levels of automation in the knowledge engineering process, replacing much time-consuming human

Pat Langley; Herbert A. Simon

1995-01-01

445

Machine Learning for Global Optimization  

E-print Network

global optimization, machine learning, support vector machines, space trajectory design. Introduction ...... LIBSVM: a library for support vector machines. (Software ... Boston, Dordrecht, London: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Mangasarian, O. L. ...

schoen,,,

446

Teachers, Children and the Magical Writing Machine: Instructional Contexts for Word Processing with Learning Disabled Children. Final Report, and "I Know What to Say!" Writing Activities for the Magical Machine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 2-year study investigated the use of word processing technology with 36 learning disabled (LD) intermediate grade children and 9 remedial teachers in five Massachusetts school districts. During the first year study staff documented how word processing was being used. In the second year, word processing activities hypothesized to be the most…

Morocco, Catherine Cobb; And Others

447

Optimum selection of machining conditions in abrasive flow machining using neural network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abrasive flow machining (AFM) is a finishing process with wider bounds of application areas, which offers both automation and flexibility in final machining operations. This paper presents the use of neural network for modeling and optimal selection of input parameters of AFM process. First, a generalized back-propagation neural network with four inputs, two outputs, and one hidden layer has been

Rajendra Kumar Jain; Vijay Kumar Jain

2000-01-01

448

Interactive Gumball Machine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners review the history of gumball machines and explore potential and kinetic energy, while working in teams to build a gumball slide. Teams then design and build their own interactive gumball machine.

Ieee

2013-08-30

449

Your Sewing Machine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The programed instruction manual is designed to aid the student in learning the parts, uses, and operation of the sewing machine. Drawings of sewing machine parts are presented, and space is provided for the student's written responses. Following an introductory section identifying sewing machine parts, the manual deals with each part and its…

Peacock, Marion E.

450

Talking Vending Machines  

E-print Network

're in the central Tokyo Station and you're thirsty so you go to the, you know, vending machine to buy a drink. Only this is not your average vending machine. Uh uh. This vending machine has opinions on what beverage you want. Sensors built into large touch panels...

Hacker, Randi

2011-02-02

451

Millikelvin Lab Machine Shop  

E-print Network

Millikelvin Lab OP105­112 Machine Shop OP132 Resistive Magnet Shop CICC Winding Area Transformers This building is home to the Millikelvin lab, the control room, the resistive magnet and machine shops, the CICC@magnet.fsu.edu (850) 644-4378 (850) 644-0534 2 MACHINE SHOP OP132 Vaughan Williams (A114*) williams

McQuade, D. Tyler

452

Cable-Twisting Machine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New cable-twisting machine is smaller and faster than many production units. Is useful mainly in production of short-run special cables. Already-twisted cable can be fed along axis of machine. Faster operation than typical industrial cable-twisting machines possible by using smaller spools of wire.

Kurnett, S.

1982-01-01

453

Simple Machines in the Community  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The community can be a powerful context and mini-laboratory for cultivating students' common understandings of science and mathematics. On the island of Panay in the Philippines, the community was the starting place for a group of fifth- and sixth-grade students to explore simple machines in their daily lives. What students learned in the process became the basis for developing the set of culturally relevant lessons on simple machines described in this article. Each of the examples that follow features a simple machine found in the community, an explanation of how it works, a guiding-inquiry question, and a follow-up activity designed to foster students' exploration of this question.

Laroder, Aris; Tippens, Deborah; Meliza (Melai) Emaz; Bryan, Robert; Fox, Ryan

2008-03-01

454

Machine learning methods in chemoinformatics  

PubMed Central

Machine learning algorithms are generally developed in computer science or adjacent disciplines and find their way into chemical modeling by a process of diffusion. Though particular machine learning methods are popular in chemoinformatics and quantitative structure–activity relationships (QSAR), many others exist in the technical literature. This discussion is methods-based and focused on some algorithms that chemoinformatics researchers frequently use. It makes no claim to be exhaustive. We concentrate on methods for supervised learning, predicting the unknown property values of a test set of instances, usually molecules, based on the known values for a training set. Particularly relevant approaches include Artificial Neural Networks, Random Forest, Support Vector Machine, k-Nearest Neighbors and naïve Bayes classifiers.

Mitchell, John B. O.

2014-01-01

455

Internet Archive Wayback Machine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Internet Archive is the "parent" site for two sites previously reviewed in the Scout Report, Election 2000 (see the July 13, 2001 Scout Report) and September11.archive.org (see the October 19, 2001 Scout Report). The Archive has been cataloging Webpages since its inception in 1996, and for their fifth anniversary has opened the archive to the public by launching their "Wayback Machine." To operate the "Machine," users type a URL into the search box, which will call up dated, archived pages of the site. The Internet Archive holds ten billion Webpages, making it the largest known database. Since announcing public access to the overall database, the site has experienced a great deal of traffic. They are in the process of adding servers, but users should be warned that, in the meantime, access may be tricky. The Internet Archive is a nonprofit, which has received funding from a number of sources including the Library of Congress and the National Science Foundation.

2001-01-01

456

Circular tests for HSM machine tools: Bore machining application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today's High-Speed Machining (HSM) machine tool combines productivity and part quality. The difficulty inherent in HSM operations lies in understanding the impact of machine tool behaviour on machining time and part quality. Analysis of some of the relevant ISO standards [230. Acceptance code for machine tools. Part 4, Circular tests for numerically controlled machine-tools, April 1998, 10791. Test conditions for

Laurent Tapie; Kwamiwi Mawussi; Bernard Anselmetti

2007-01-01

457

What is Machine Learning? About the Course Example Machine Learning  

E-print Network

What is Machine Learning? About the Course Example Machine Learning DD2431 ¨Orjan Ekeberg Oct­Dec, 2008 #12;What is Machine Learning? About the Course Example 1 What is Machine Learning? Definition A Hypothetical Project #12;What is Machine Learning? About the Course Example 1 What is Machine Learning

Kjellström, Hedvig

458

What is Machine Learning? About the Course Example Machine Learning  

E-print Network

What is Machine Learning? About the Course Example Machine Learning DD2431 ¨Orjan Ekeberg Oct­Dec, 2007 What is Machine Learning? About the Course Example 1 What is Machine Learning? Definition A Hypothetical Project What is Machine Learning? About the Course Example 1 What is Machine Learning? Definition

Kjellström, Hedvig

459

What is Machine Learning? About the Course Example Machine Learning  

E-print Network

What is Machine Learning? About the Course Example Machine Learning DD2431 ¨Orjan Ekeberg Oct­Dec, 2008 What is Machine Learning? About the Course Example 1 What is Machine Learning? Definition A Hypothetical Project What is Machine Learning? About the Course Example 1 What is Machine Learning? Definition

Kjellström, Hedvig

460

What is Machine Learning? About the Course Example Machine Learning  

E-print Network

What is Machine Learning? About the Course Example Machine Learning DD2431 ¨Orjan Ekeberg Oct­Dec, 2007 #12;What is Machine Learning? About the Course Example 1 What is Machine Learning? Definition A Hypothetical Project #12;What is Machine Learning? About the Course Example 1 What is Machine Learning

Kjellström, Hedvig

461

Benchmarking the Connection Machine  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this memo is to present the results of work done recently on the Connection Machine during a one-week visit by the authors to Thinking Machines Corporation. The main objectives of the trip were to benchmark the Connection Machine and to assess the software environment, in order to determine the suitability of the Connection Machine for solving computationally-intensive problems and to compare the Connection Machine with other highly-parallel computers. This report presents preliminary results, and describes the computer architecture.

Baillie, C.; Felten, E.; Walker, D.

1987-01-01

462

Edheads: The Compound Machine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a collection of interactive animations designed to help kids learn how forces and simple machines can work together to create the compound machine. Child-centered animated activities enhance understanding of how compound machines function and how they are differentiated from simple machines. Additionally the site includes a glossary of important terms, lesson plans, a teacher's guide and information about professionals who work with compound machines. This page is part of a larger collection of animated education resources for the elementary level.

2007-09-18

463

Machine Learning in Natural Language Georgios P. Petasis  

E-print Network

Machine Learning in Natural Language Processing Georgios P. Petasis Software and Knowledge@iit.demokritos.gr Abstract. This thesis examines the use of machine learning techniques in various tasks of natural language-entity recog- nition, and b) the creation of a new machine learning algorithm and its assessment on synthetic

Kouroupetroglou, Georgios

464

Gestalt: Integrated Support for Implementation and Analysis in Machine Learning  

E-print Network

Gestalt: Integrated Support for Implementation and Analysis in Machine Learning Kayur Patel present Gestalt, a development environment designed to support the process of applying machine learning this significantly improves the ability of developers to find and fix bugs in machine learning systems. Our

Anderson, Richard

465

A Machine Learning Approach to Musical Style Recognition  

E-print Network

A Machine Learning Approach to Musical Style Recognition Roger B. Dannenberg, Belinda Thom processing. In short, there are many reasons to believe that style recognition is di cult. Machine learning-level perceptual features such as pitch and tempo. Our work demonstrates that machine learning can be used to build

Dannenberg, Roger B.

466

Color Deconvolution and Support Vector Machines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methods for machine learning (support vector machines) and image processing (color deconvolution) are combined in this paper for the purpose of separating colors in images of documents. After determining the background color, samples from the image that are representative of the colors to be separated are mapped to a feature space. Given the clusters of samples of either color the support vector machine (SVM) method is used to find an optimal separating line between the clusters in feature space. Deconvolution image processing parameters are determined from the separating line. A number of examples of applications in forensic casework are presented.

Berger, Charles E. H.; Veenman, Cor J.

467

Analytical design of intelligent machines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem of designing 'intelligent machines' to operate in uncertain environments with minimum supervision or interaction with a human operator is examined. The structure of an 'intelligent machine' is defined to be the structure of a Hierarchically Intelligent Control System, composed of three levels hierarchically ordered according to the principle of 'increasing precision with decreasing intelligence', namely: the organizational level, performing general information processing tasks in association with a long-term memory; the coordination level, dealing with specific information processing tasks with a short-term memory; and the control level, which performs the execution of various tasks through hardware using feedback control methods. The behavior of such a machine may be managed by controls with special considerations and its 'intelligence' is directly related to the derivation of a compatible measure that associates the intelligence of the higher levels with the concept of entropy, which is a sufficient analytic measure that unifies the treatment of all the levels of an 'intelligent machine' as the mathematical problem of finding the right sequence of internal decisions and controls for a system structured in the order of intelligence and inverse order of precision such that it minimizes its total entropy. A case study on the automatic maintenance of a nuclear plant illustrates the proposed approach.

Saridis, George N.; Valavanis, Kimon P.

1987-01-01

468

Theory and Methodology Job sequencing rules for minimizing the expected makespan in flexible machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider scheduling of a deteriorating flexible machine that is capable of processing a number of diverse jobs with negligible setup times between jobs. Specifically, we develop rules for sequencing N jobs on such a machine such that its expected makespan (sum of all job processing times and machine down-time) is minimized. Using the Weibull distribution to characterize machine failures

Amiya K. Chakravarty; Nagraj Balakrislman

469

Perspex machine: VII. The universal perspex machine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The perspex machine arose from the unification of projective geometry with the Turing machine. It uses a total arithmetic, called transreal arithmetic, that contains real arithmetic and allows division by zero. Transreal arithmetic is redefined here. The new arithmetic has both a positive and a negative infinity which lie at the extremes of the number line, and a number nullity that lies off the number line. We prove that nullity, 0/0, is a number. Hence a number may have one of four signs: negative, zero, positive, or nullity. It is, therefore, impossible to encode the sign of a number in one bit, as floating-point arithmetic attempts to do, resulting in the difficulty of having both positive and negative zeros and NaNs. Transrational arithmetic is consistent with Cantor arithmetic. In an extension to real arithmetic, the product of zero, an infinity, or nullity with its reciprocal is nullity, not unity. This avoids the usual contradictions that follow from allowing division by zero. Transreal arithmetic has a fixed algebraic structure and does not admit options as IEEE, floating-point arithmetic does. Most significantly, nullity has a simple semantics that is related to zero. Zero means "no value" and nullity means "no information." We argue that nullity is as useful to a manufactured computer as zero is to a human computer. The perspex machine is intended to offer one solution to the mind-body problem by showing how the computable aspects of mind and, perhaps, the whole of mind relates to the geometrical aspects of body and, perhaps, the whole of body. We review some of Turing's writings and show that he held the view that his machine has spatial properties. In particular, that it has the property of being a 7D lattice of compact spaces. Thus, we read Turing as believing that his machine relates computation to geometrical bodies. We simplify the perspex machine by substituting an augmented Euclidean geometry for projective geometry. This leads to a general-linear perspex-machine which is very much easier to program than the original perspex-machine. We then show how to map the whole of perspex space into a unit cube. This allows us to construct a fractal of perspex machines with the cardinality of a real-numbered line or space. This fractal is the universal perspex machine. It can solve, in unit time, the halting problem for itself and for all perspex machines instantiated in real-numbered space, including all Turing machines. We cite an experiment that has been proposed to test the physical reality of the perspex machine's model of time, but we make no claim that the physical universe works this way or that it has the cardinality of the perspex machine. We leave it that the perspex machine provides an upper bound on the computational properties of physical things, including manufactured computers and biological organisms, that have a cardinality no greater than the real-number line.

Anderson, James A. D. W.

2006-01-01

470

Simultaneous 3D machining with real-time NURBS interpolation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing demand on precision machining using computerized numerical control (CNC) machines have necessitated that the tool\\u000a move not only with the smallest possible position error but also with smoothly varying feedrates in 3-dimensional (3D) space.\\u000a This paper presents the simultaneous 3D machining process investigated using a retrofitted PC-NC milling machine. To achieve\\u000a the simultaneous 3-axis motions, a new precision interpolation

Won-Pyo Hong; Seok-Woo Lee; Hon-Zong Choi; Min-Yang Yang

2003-01-01

471

Experimental investigations into abrasive flow machining (AFM)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new non-traditional finishing process known as abrasive flow machining (AFM) is used to deburr, radius, polish and remove recast layer of components in a wide range of applications. The process is relatively new, although around 2000 machines are in use worldwide. Material is removed from the workpiece by flowing a semisolid visco-elastic\\/visco-plastic abrasive-laden medium across the surface to be

V. K. Jain; S. G. Adsul

2000-01-01

472

Laboratory directed research and development final report: Intelligent tools for on-machine acceptance of precision machined components  

SciTech Connect

On-Machine Acceptance (OMA) is an agile manufacturing concept being developed for machine tools at SNL. The concept behind OMA is the integration of product design, fabrication, and qualification processes by using the machining center as a fabrication and inspection tool. This report documents the final results of a Laboratory Directed Research and Development effort to qualify OMA.

Christensen, N.G.; Harwell, L.D.; Hazelton, A.

1997-02-01

473

Machine Learning Group Machine Learning Group Machine Learning Group  

E-print Network

The deep Boltzmann machine is a powerful model that extracts the hierarchical structure of observed data. While inference is typically slow due to its undirected nature, we argue that the emerging feature hierarchy is still explicit enough to be traversed in a feedforward fashion. The claim is corroborated by training a set of deep neural networks on real data and measuring the evolution of the representation layer after layer. The analysis reveals that the deep Boltzmann machine produces a feed-forward hierarchy of increasingly invariant representations that clearly surpasses the layer-wise approach. 1

Grégoire Montavon; Mikio L. Braun; Klaus-robert Müller; Tu Berlin; Tu Berlin; Tu Berlin

474

Examining the cancellation mechanism of a neutron EDM in a model with dilaton-dominated SUSY breaking  

SciTech Connect

We examine the cancellation mechanism between the different contributions to the electric dipole moment of the neutron in a model with dilaton-dominated SUSY breaking. We find these accidental cancellations occur at few points in parameter space. For a wide region of this space we must constrain the phase of {mu} to be of order 10{sup -1} and have the phases of A and {mu} strongly correlated in order to have a small neutron EDM. Moreover, we consider the indirect CP violation parameter {epsilon} in this region where the electric dipole moment is less than the experimental limit and find that we can generate {epsilon} of order 10{sup -6}. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

Barr, S. M. [Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States) [Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Ain Shams University, Faculty of Science, Cairo 11566, (Egypt); Khalil, Shaaban [Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States)] [Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States)

2000-02-01

475

Unified Universal Quantum Cloning Machine and Fidelities  

E-print Network

We present a unified universal quantum cloning machine, which combines several different existing universal cloning machines together including the asymmetric case. In this unified framework, the identical pure states are projected equally into each copy initially constituted by input and one half of the maximally entangled states. We show explicitly that the output states of those universal cloning machines are the same. One importance of this unified cloning machine is that the cloning procession is always the symmetric projection which reduces dramatically the difficulties for implementation. Also it is found that this unified cloning machine can be directly modified to the general asymmetric case. Besides the global fidelity and the single-copy fidelity, we also present all possible arbitrary-copy fidelities.

Yi-Nan Wang; Han-Duo Shi; Zhao-Xi Xiong; Li Jing; Xi-Jun Ren; Liang-Zhu Mu; Heng Fan

2011-04-20

476

International Conference on Machine Control & Guidance 2008 1 Geodetic Instrumentation for Use on Machine Bored  

E-print Network

on Machine Bored Tunnels N. CLARKE-HACKSTON, M. MESSING, E. ULLRICH VMT GmbH, Bruchsal Germany Abstract As advance rates of TBM bored tunnels increase, it is essential that all aspects of the control of the machines operating parameters in the Controlled Boring Process software integration package to give

477

The sawing machine is a machine SAWING MACHINES  

E-print Network

main parts, which are discussed below. The head is the large unit at the top of the contour machine), and the adjustable post which supports the upper saw guide. The job selector dial is also located on the head the speed in feet per minute (FPM). The butt welder is also mounted on the column. different positions

Gellman, Andrew J.

478

Machine tool locator  

DOEpatents

Machine tools can be accurately measured and positioned on manufacturing machines within very small tolerances by use of an autocollimator on a 3-axis mount on a manufacturing machine and positioned so as to focus on a reference tooling ball or a machine tool, a digital camera connected to the viewing end of the autocollimator, and a marker and measure generator for receiving digital images from the camera, then displaying or measuring distances between the projection reticle and the reference reticle on the monitoring screen, and relating the distances to the actual position of the autocollimator relative to the reference tooling ball. The images and measurements are used to set the position of the machine tool and to measure the size and shape of the machine tool tip, and examine cutting edge wear. patent

Hanlon, John A. (Los Alamos, NM); Gill, Timothy J. (Stanley, NM)

2001-01-01

479

Meso-scale machining capabilities and issues  

SciTech Connect

Meso-scale manufacturing processes are bridging the gap between silicon-based MEMS processes and conventional miniature machining. These processes can fabricate two and three-dimensional parts having micron size features in traditional materials such as stainless steels, rare earth magnets, ceramics, and glass. Meso-scale processes that are currently available include, focused ion beam sputtering, micro-milling, micro-turning, excimer laser ablation, femto-second laser ablation, and micro electro discharge machining. These meso-scale processes employ subtractive machining technologies (i.e., material removal), unlike LIGA, which is an additive meso-scale process. Meso-scale processes have different material capabilities and machining performance specifications. Machining performance specifications of interest include minimum feature size, feature tolerance, feature location accuracy, surface finish, and material removal rate. Sandia National Laboratories is developing meso-scale electro-mechanical components, which require meso-scale parts that move relative to one another. The meso-scale parts fabricated by subtractive meso-scale manufacturing processes have unique tribology issues because of the variety of materials and the surface conditions produced by the different meso-scale manufacturing processes.

BENAVIDES,GILBERT L.; ADAMS,DAVID P.; YANG,PIN

2000-05-15

480

Killer pop machines.  

PubMed

Abuse and misuse of soda vending machines has resulted in a considerable number of injuries and deaths. The machines fall forward when rocked or tilted and crush those in front. These accidents are all preventable by a simple and cheap device. There should be a law compelling safety requirements for these machines. This is a report of a recent case in which a young man was crushed to death. PMID:2329341

Spitz, D J; Spitz, W U

1990-03-01

481

Quantum Learning Machine  

E-print Network

We propose a novel notion of a quantum learning machine for automatically controlling quantum coherence and for developing quantum algorithms. A quantum learning machine can be trained to learn a certain task with no a priori knowledge on its algorithm. As an example, it is demonstrated that the quantum learning machine learns Deutsch's task and finds itself a quantum algorithm, that is different from but equivalent to the original one.

Jeongho Bang; James Lim; M. S. Kim; Jinhyoung Lee

2008-03-20

482

Parallel Kinematic Machines (PKM)  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this 3-year cooperative research project was to develop a parallel kinematic machining (PKM) capability for complex parts that normally require expensive multiple setups on conventional orthogonal machine tools. This non-conventional, non-orthogonal machining approach is based on a 6-axis positioning system commonly referred to as a hexapod. Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) was the lead site responsible for a multitude of projects that defined the machining parameters and detailed the metrology of the hexapod. The role of the Kansas City Plant (KCP) in this project was limited to evaluating the application of this unique technology to production applications.

Henry, R.S.

2000-03-17

483

Asymmetric universal entangling machine  

E-print Network

We give a definition of asymmetric universal entangling machine which entangles a system in an unknown state to a specially prepared ancilla. The machine produces a fixed state-independent amount of entanglement in exchange to a fixed degradation of the system state fidelity. We describe explicitly such a machine for any quantum system having $d$ levels and prove its optimality. We show that a $d^2$-dimensional ancilla is sufficient for reaching optimality. The introduced machine is a generalization to a number of widely investigated universal quantum devices such as the symmetric and asymmetric quantum cloners, the symmetric quantum entangler, the quantum information distributor and the universal-NOT gate.

Dmitri Horoshko; Mikhail Kolobov; Sergei Kilin

2004-12-23

484

Machinability of a Stainless Steel by Electrochemical Discharge Microdrilling  

SciTech Connect

Due to the chemical elements included in their structure for ensuring an increased resistance to the environment action, the stainless steels are characterized by a low machinability when classical machining methods are applied. For this reason, sometimes non-traditional machining methods are applied, one of these being the electrochemical discharge machining. To obtain microholes and to evaluate the machinability by electrochemical discharge microdrilling, test pieces of stainless steel were used for experimental research. The electrolyte was an aqueous solution of sodium silicate with different densities. A complete factorial plan was designed to highlight the influence of some input variables on the sizes of the considered machinability indexes (electrode tool wear, material removal rate, depth of the machined hole). By mathematically processing of experimental data, empirical functions were established both for stainless steel and carbon steel. Graphical representations were used to obtain more suggestive vision concerning the influence exerted by the considered input variables on the size of the machinability indexes.

Coteata, Margareta; Pop, Nicolae; Slatineanu, Laurentiu ['Gheorghe Asachi' Technical University of Iasi, Department of Machine Manufacturing Technology, Blvd. D Mangeron 59A, 700050 Iasi (Romania); Schulze, Hans-Peter [Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg, Institute of Fundamental Electrical Engineering and EMC Universitaetsplatz 2, D-39106 Magdeburg (Germany); Besliu, Irina [University 'Stefan cel Mare' of Suceava, Department of Technologies and Management, Str. Universitatii, 13, 720 229 Suceava (Romania)

2011-05-04

485

What Can Turing Machines Do? How powerful are Turing machines?  

E-print Network

1 What Can Turing Machines Do? How powerful are Turing machines? Turing machines can accept any regular or context- free language. Turing machines can perform basic arithmetic computations. Sequencing can be implemented on Turing ma- chines. Subroutine calls can be implemented on Turing machines

Bylander, Tom

486

Circular tests for HSM machine tools: Bore machining application  

E-print Network

Circular tests for HSM machine tools: Bore machining application Abstract: Today's High was ultimately validated on a bore machining simulation. Keywords: circular interpolation, HSM, kinematic machine machining features can be extracted [3] [4] such as bores, holes, drillings, tapered holes and planes

Paris-Sud XI, Université de