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Sample records for macrobrachium rosenbergii cultivated

  1. Toxicity of rotenone to giant river freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquaculturists have often suffered predation losses in the production of freshwater giant river prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii due to the presence of wild fish species in culture ponds. The piscicide rotenone is widely used to remove undesirable fish species from ponds. Although evidence in the t...

  2. Feasibility of direct utilization of selected geothermal water for aquaculture of macrobrachium rosenbergii. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Spinosa, C.

    1984-05-01

    The feasibility was tested of direct utilization of geothermal water for the aquaculture of Malaysian freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). A problem with using geothermal water for aquaculture is the chemical composition of the water with high flouride levels being a particular problem. Results show that (1) some geothermal water in Idaho can be used directly for the aquaculture of Macrobrachium rosenbergii, (2) high flouride levels cannot be directly correlated with high mortality rates and (3) low flouride levels do not correlate with high growth rates.

  3. Routine Metabolic Rate and Limiting Oxygen Concentration of Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii Larvae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Malaysian prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, are hatched and raised indoors in small tanks. Prawns may be raised and shipped at high densities which could result in low dissolved oxygen (DO) conditions. Because DO may play an important role in prawn development and survival, we measured routine me...

  4. The effect of copper nanoparticles supplementation on freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii post larvae.

    PubMed

    Muralisankar, Thirunavukkarasu; Saravana Bhavan, Periyakali; Radhakrishnan, Subramanian; Seenivasan, Chandirasekar; Srinivasan, Veeran

    2016-03-01

    The present study was performed to assess the effects of dietary supplementation of copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs) on growth, biochemical constituents, digestive enzyme activities, antioxidant, metabolic enzyme levels, and non specific immune response of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii post larvae (PL). The Cu-NPs (200nm) were synthesized by facile and environmental friendly hydrothermal method. Cu-NPs were supplemented at 0, 10, 20, 40, 60, and 80mgkg(-1) with the basal diets. These Cu-NPs supplemented diets were fed to M. rosenbergii PL for 90 days. Results showed significant (P<0.05) improvements were observed in survival, growth, digestive enzyme activities, concentrations of biochemical constituents and total and differential haemocytes count of prawns fed with 20mgCu-NPskg(-1) supplemented feed. Prawns fed with 40-80mgCu-NPskg(-1) supplemented feed showed negative performance. Activity of antioxidants and metabolic enzymes in the muscle and hepatopancreas of prawns showed no significant alterations (P>0.05) prawns fed with up to 20mgCu-NPskg(-1) supplemented feeds. Whereas, prawns fed with 40-80mgCu-NPskg(-1) supplemented feed showed significant (P<0.05) elevations in antioxidant and metabolic enzymes activities. Hence, 40-80mgCu-NPskg(-1) diets may have toxic effect to M. rosenbergii. Hence, present study suggests that 20mgCu-NPskg(-1) can be supplemented for regulating better survival, growth and immune response of M. rosenbergii PL. PMID:26854244

  5. Grooming as a secondary behavior in the shrimp Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Crustacea, Decapoda, Caridea)

    PubMed Central

    VanMaurik, Lauren N.; Wortham, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is a large shrimp extensively used in aquaculture whose grooming behaviors were analyzed in this study. Macrobrachium rosenbergii exhibits three unique male morphotypes that differ in their behavior, morphology and physiology: small-clawed males (SM), orange-clawed males (OC) and blue-clawed males (BC). The largest and most dominant males, BC males, are predicted to have significantly different grooming behaviors compared to females and the other two male morphotypes. These BC males may be too large and bulky to efficiently groom and may dedicate more time to mating and agonistic interactions than grooming behaviors. Observations were conducted to look at the prevalence of grooming behaviors in the absence and presence of conspecifics and to determine if any differences in grooming behavior exist among the sexes and male morphotypes. Significant differences in the grooming behaviors of all individuals (females and male morphotypes) were found. BC males tended to have the highest grooming time budget (percent of time spent grooming) while SM males had a relatively low grooming time budget. The grooming behaviors of the male morphotypes differed, indicating while these males play distinct, separate roles in the social hierarchy, they also have different grooming priorities. The conditions in which Macrobrachium rosenbergii are cultured may result in increased body fouling, which may vary, depending on the grooming efficiencies and priorities of these male morphotypes. Overall, grooming behaviors were found to be a secondary behavior which only occurred when primary behaviors such as mating, feeding or fighting were not present. PMID:25561831

  6. Genetic diversity of cultured and wild populations of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii based on microsatellite analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii culture in the Western Hemisphere is primarily, if not entirely, based on thirty-six individual prawn introduced to Hawaii from Malaysia in 1965 and 1966. Little information is available regarding the genetic background or current population status of cult...

  7. A transcriptome study on Macrobrachium rosenbergii hepatopancreas experimentally challenged with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV).

    PubMed

    Rao, Rama; Bhassu, Subha; Bing, Robin Zhu Ya; Alinejad, Tahereh; Hassan, Sharifah Syed; Wang, Jun

    2016-05-01

    The world production of shrimp such as the Malaysian giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii is seriously affected by the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). There is an urgent need to understand the host pathogen interaction between M. rosenbergii and WSSV which will be able to provide a solution in controlling the spread of this infectious disease and lastly save the aquaculture industry. Now, using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS), we will be able to capture the response of the M. rosenbergii to the pathogen and have a better understanding of the host defence mechanism. Two cDNA libraries, one of WSSV-challenged M. rosenbergii and a normal control one, were sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 platform. After de novo assembly and clustering of the unigenes from both libraries, 63,584 standard unigenes were generated with a mean size of 698bp and an N50 of 1137bp. We successfully annotated 35.31% of all unigenes by using BLASTX program (E-value <10-5) against NCBI non-redundant (Nr), Swiss-Prot, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome pathway (KEGG) and Orthologous Groups of proteins (COG) databases. Gene Ontology (GO) assessment was conducted using BLAST2GO software. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) by using the FPKM method showed 8443 host genes were significantly up-regulated whereas 5973 genes were significantly down-regulated. The differentially expressed immune related genes were grouped into 15 animal immune functions. The present study showed that WSSV infection has a significant impact on the transcriptome profile of M. rosenbergii's hepatopancreas, and further enhanced the knowledge of this host-virus interaction. Furthermore, the high number of transcripts generated in this study will provide a platform for future genomic research on freshwater prawns. PMID:26880158

  8. Identification and function of 11 Rab GTPases in giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Ren, Qian

    2015-03-01

    Rab GTPases, members of the Ras-like GTPase superfamily, are central elements in endocytic membrane trafficking. However, little is known of the Rab genes in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. In this study, 11 Rab genes were identified from M. rosenbergii. All MrRabs have a RAB domain. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these 11 MrRabs were divided into different groups. The MrRab genes were ubiquitously expressed in heart, hemocytes, hepatopancreas, gills, stomach, and intestines. Real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed that the MrRab genes were significantly upregulated by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in the prawns, indicating that MrRabs might play an important role in innate immune response against WSSV. Moreover, after challenge with Vibrio parahaemolyticus, the expression levels of all MrRabs in the hepatopancreas were also upregulated, which might indicated the involvement of MrRabs in prawns antibacterial immunity. In all, these preliminary results showed that MrRabs were involved in innate immunity of M. rosenbergii. PMID:25542378

  9. TBT Effects on the Development of Intersex (Ovotestis) in Female Fresh Water Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    PubMed Central

    Peranandam, Revathi; Palanisamy, Iyapparaj; Lourdaraj, Arockia Vasanthi; Natesan, Munuswamy; Vimalananthan, Arun Prasanna; Thangaiyan, Suganya; Perumal, Anantharaman; Muthukalingan, Krishnan

    2014-01-01

    The impact of tributyltin (TBT) on the female gonad and the endocrine system in Macrobrachium rosenbergii was studied. Prawns were exposed to environmentally realistic concentrations of 10, 100, and 1000 ng/L of TBT for 6 months. Dose dependent effects were noticed in TBT exposed prawns. At 1000 ng/L TBT caused ovotestis formation (formation of male germ cells in ovary). Presence immature oocytes, fusion of developing oocytes, increase in interstitial connective tissues, and its modification into tubular like structure and abundance of spermatogonia in the ovary of TBT treated prawns. The control prawn ovary showed normal architecture of cellular organelles such as mature oocytes with type 2 yolk globules, lipid droplets, normal appearance of yolk envelop, and uniformly arranged microvilli. On the other hand, type 1 yolk globules, reduced size of microvilli, spermatogonial cells in ovary, spermatogonia with centrally located nucleus, and chromatin distribution throughout the nucleoplasm were present in the TBT treated group. Immunofluorescence staining indicated a reduction in vitellin content in ovary of TBT treated prawn. Moreover, TBT had inhibited the vitellogenesis by causing hormonal imbalance in M. rosenbergii. Thus, the present investigation demonstrates that TBT substantially affects sexual differentiation and gonadal development in M. rosenbergii. PMID:25121096

  10. Steroids and genes related to steroid biosynthesis in the female giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Thongbuakaew, Tipsuda; Siangcham, Tanapan; Suwansa-Ard, Saowaros; Elizur, Abigail; Cummins, Scott F; Sobhon, Prasert; Sretarugsa, Prapee

    2016-03-01

    The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is important to many Asian countries due to its high economic value as an aquaculture product. With demand increasing, there is requirement for a better understanding of the biosynthetic components that regulate its growth and reproduction, including steroids, in order to help increase production. Vertebrate-type steroids and their receptors were identified in crustaceans and implicated in reproduction. In this study, we presented the sex steroids estradiol and progesterone by LC-MS/MS in female M. rosenbergii, and reveal steroidogenic-related genes by in silico analysis of de novo assembled transcriptomes. Comparative analysis with other species was performed to confirm their putative role, as well as tissue-specific and quantitative gene expression. We reveal 29 transcripts that encode for steroidogenic-related proteins, including steroidogenic enzymes, a nuclear steroid hormone receptors, and a steroidogenic factor. Moreover, we identified for the first time the presence of steroidogenic factor 1, StAR-related lipid transfer protein, estradiol receptor- and progesterone-like protein in M. rosenbergii. Those targeted for gene expression analysis (3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, estrogen sulfotransferase and progesterone receptor-like) showed widespread expression within many tissues, and at relatively high levels in the central nervous system (CNS) during ovarian maturation. In summary, we provide further evidence for the existence of steroidogenic pathways in crustaceans, which may be useful for advancing prawn aquaculture. PMID:26774430

  11. Isolation and Characterization of a Novel Dicistrovirus Associated with Moralities of the Great Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xiaoyi; Cao, Zheng; Yuan, Junfa; Shi, Zhengli; Yuan, Xuemei; Lin, Lingyun; Xu, Yang; Yao, Jiayun; Hao, Guijie; Shen, Jinyu

    2016-01-01

    The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is an economically important crustacean and is farmed in many countries. Since 2009, a larval mortality syndrome of M. rosenbergii has broken out and spread widely in the main breeding area, including Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Guangxi, and Guangdong Provinces in mainland China. A novel virus, named Macrobrachium rosenbergii Taihu virus (MrTV), was isolated from the moribund larvae and was determined to be the causative agent of the M. rosenbergii larval mortality syndrome by experimental infection. Further genomic sequencing suggested that the MrTV genome is monopartite, 10,303 nt in length, and dicistronic with two non-overlapping open reading frames (ORFs) separated by an intergenic region (IGR) and flanked by untranslated regions (UTRs). Phylogenetic analysis using the full-length genomic sequence and the putative amino acid sequences of the capsid protein revealed that MrTV was more closely related to the taura syndrome virus (TSV) than to any other viruses. According to these molecular features, we proposed that MrTV is a new species in the genus Aparavirus, family Dicistroviridae. These results may shed light on controlling larval mortality syndrome in M. rosenbergii. PMID:26848659

  12. Isolation and Characterization of a Novel Dicistrovirus Associated with Moralities of the Great Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiaoyi; Cao, Zheng; Yuan, Junfa; Shi, Zhengli; Yuan, Xuemei; Lin, Lingyun; Xu, Yang; Yao, Jiayun; Hao, Guijie; Shen, Jinyu

    2016-01-01

    The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is an economically important crustacean and is farmed in many countries. Since 2009, a larval mortality syndrome of M. rosenbergii has broken out and spread widely in the main breeding area, including Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Guangxi, and Guangdong Provinces in mainland China. A novel virus, named Macrobrachium rosenbergii Taihu virus (MrTV), was isolated from the moribund larvae and was determined to be the causative agent of the M. rosenbergii larval mortality syndrome by experimental infection. Further genomic sequencing suggested that the MrTV genome is monopartite, 10,303 nt in length, and dicistronic with two non-overlapping open reading frames (ORFs) separated by an intergenic region (IGR) and flanked by untranslated regions (UTRs). Phylogenetic analysis using the full-length genomic sequence and the putative amino acid sequences of the capsid protein revealed that MrTV was more closely related to the taura syndrome virus (TSV) than to any other viruses. According to these molecular features, we proposed that MrTV is a new species in the genus Aparavirus, family Dicistroviridae. These results may shed light on controlling larval mortality syndrome in M. rosenbergii. PMID:26848659

  13. First report on vertical transmission of a plasmid DNA in freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Labrechai Mog; Gireesh-Babu, P; Pavan-Kumar, A; Suresh Babu, P P; Chaudhari, Aparna

    2014-09-01

    Outbreak of WSSV disease is one of the major stumbling blocks in shrimp aquaculture. DNA vaccines have shown potential for mass scale vaccination owing to their stability, cost effectiveness and easy maintenance. Development of economically feasible delivery strategies remains to be a major challenge. This study demonstrates vertical transmission of a plasmid DNA in a decapod Macrobrachium rosenbergii for the first time. Females at three different maturation stages (immature, matured and berried) and mature males were injected with a plasmid DNA and allowed to spawn with untreated counterparts. Using specific primers the plasmid DNA could be amplified from the offspring of all groups except that of berried females. For this confirmation genomic DNA was isolated from 3 pools of 10 post larvae in each group. This presents an ideal strategy to protect young ones at zero stress. PMID:24933022

  14. Impact of tributyltin on antioxidant and DNA damage response in spermatozoa of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Rani, K Umaa; Musthafa, M Saiyad; War, Mehrajuddin; Al-Sadoon, Mohammad K; Paray, Bilal Ahmad; Shareef, T H Mohamed Ahadhu; Nawas, P Mohideen Askar

    2015-12-01

    Effects of tributyltin (TBT) on antioxidant [total superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR)] and DNA damage levels in the spermatozoa were studied and reported here for the first time in the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Three groups of (n = 10 in each group) fishes were exposed to three different nominal concentrations of TBT viz., 1, 2, and 4 mg L(-1) along with control group for 90 days. Significant decrease of antioxidant and increased DNA damage levels were seen at higher doses of 2 and 4 mg L(-1). In prawn, the antioxidant level plays a vital role in sperm protection, activation, differential functions related to the physiology, and reproductive behavior. This study serves as a biomonitoring tool to assess the TBT effects on reproductive behavior of aquatic biota. PMID:26296505

  15. Effects of chlordecone on 20-hydroxyecdysone concentration and chitobiase activity in a decapod crustacean, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Lafontaine, Anne; Gismondi, Eric; Boulangé-Lecomte, Céline; Geraudie, Perrine; Dodet, Nathalie; Caupos, Fanny; Lemoine, Soazig; Lagadic, Laurent; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Forget-Leray, Joëlle

    2016-07-01

    Chlordecone (CLD) is an organochlorine insecticide abundant in aquatic environment of the French West Indies. However, few studies have investigated its impact on freshwater invertebrates. Whereas CLD is suspected of inducing endocrine disruption, this work aimed to study the effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of CLD on the 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-HE) hormone concentration and on the chitobiase activity, both having key roles in the molting process of crustaceans. In addition, the bioaccumulation of CLD was measured in the muscle tissue of Macrobrachium rosenbergii to underline potential dose-response relationship. The results have shown that CLD was bioaccumulated in exposed organisms according to a trend to a dose-response relationship. Moreover, it was observed that CLD decreased the 20-HE concentration in exposed prawns when compared to control, whatever the duration of exposure, as well as it inhibited the chitobiase activity after 30days of exposure. The present study indicates that CLD could interfere with molting process of M. rosenbergii by disturbing the 20-HE concentration and the activity of chitobiase, suggesting consequences at the long term on the shrimp development. This study also confirmed that CLD could be an endocrine disruptor in decapod crustaceans, as it was already observed in vertebrates. PMID:27108204

  16. Involvement of Relish gene from Macrobrachium rosenbergii in the expression of anti-microbial peptides.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yan-Ru; Jin, Min; Ma, Fu-Tong; Huang, Ying; Huang, Xin; Feng, Jin-Ling; Zhao, Ling-Ling; Chen, Yi-Hong; Ren, Qian

    2015-10-01

    Relish is an NF-kB transcription factor involved in immune-deficiency (IMD) signal pathway. In this study, a Relish gene (MrRelish) was identified from Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The full length of MrRelish comprises 5072 bp, including a 3510 bp open reading frame encoding a 1169 bp amino acid protein. MrRelish contains a Rel homology domain (RHD), a nucleus localization signal, an IκB-like domain (6 ankyrin repeats), and a death domain. Phylogenetic analysis showed that MrRelish and other Relish from crustaceans belong to one group. MrRelish was expressed in all detected tissues, with the highest expression level in hemocytes and intestines. MrRelish was also upregulated in hepatopancreas at 6 h after Vibrio anguillarum challenge. The over-expression of MrRelish could induce the expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), such as Drosophila Metchnikowin (Mtk), Attacin (Atta), Drosomycin (Drs), and Cecropin (CecA) and shrimp Penaeidin (Pen4). The RNAi of MrRelish in gills showed that the expression of crustin (cru) 2, Cru5, Cru8, lysozyme (Lyso) 1, and Lyso2 was inhibited. However, the expression of anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF) 1 and ALF3 did not change when MrRelish was knocked down. These results indicate that MrRelish may play an important role in innate immune defense against V. anguillarum in M. rosenbergii. PMID:26026243

  17. Toxicity of phenol on Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) eggs, larvae, and post-larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Law, A.T.; Yeo, M.E.

    1997-03-01

    Literature on the toxicities of phenol on aquatic organisms is very limited. USEPA reported that the acute and chronic toxicities of phenol to freshwater aquatic life occur at concentrations as low as 10.2 mg/L and 2.56 mg/L, respectively. While for the saltwater aquatic life the acute toxicity occurs at concentrations as low as 5.8 mg/L. No data are available for the chronic toxicity of phenol to saltwater aquatic life. Sublethal concentrations of phenol have significant effects on the physiological and histological processes of the aquatic organisms: such as gill necrosis; destruction of erythrocyte cells; inhibition of sexual activities; suppression on growth and reduction of resistance to diseases. Macrobrachium rosenbergii(de Man) is the sole freshwater prawn cultured in Malaysia. Occasionally, the hatcheries are unable to produce the post-larvae because of undefined pollutants present in the water supplies. It has been observed that the use of cracked fiberglass tanks for larvae rearing is correlated with high mortality. This high mortality is probably due to the toxicity of the phenolic compounds which are leached out from the fiber glass tank into the water. This study was undertaken to evaluate the toxicity of phenol on eggs, larvae and post-larvae of M. rosenbergii and to set the water quality criteria of phenol for the said species. 16 refs., 3 tabs.

  18. Transcriptomics of a Giant Freshwater Prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii): De Novo Assembly, Annotation and Marker Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hyungtaek; Lyons, Russell E.; Dinh, Hung; Hurwood, David A.; McWilliam, Sean; Mather, Peter B.

    2011-01-01

    Background Giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii or GFP), is the most economically important freshwater crustacean species. However, as little is known about its genome, 454 pyrosequencing of cDNA was undertaken to characterise its transcriptome and identify genes important for growth. Methodology and Principal Findings A collection of 787,731 sequence reads (244.37 Mb) obtained from 454 pyrosequencing analysis of cDNA prepared from muscle, ovary and testis tissues taken from 18 adult prawns was assembled into 123,534 expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Of these, 46% of the 8,411 contigs and 19% of 115,123 singletons possessed high similarity to sequences in the GenBank non-redundant database, with most significant (E value < 1e–5) contig (80%) and singleton (84%) matches occurring with crustacean and insect sequences. KEGG analysis of the contig open reading frames identified putative members of several biological pathways potentially important for growth. The top InterProScan domains detected included RNA recognition motifs, serine/threonine-protein kinase-like domains, actin-like families, and zinc finger domains. Transcripts derived from genes such as actin, myosin heavy and light chain, tropomyosin and troponin with fundamental roles in muscle development and construction were abundant. Amongst the contigs, 834 single nucleotide polymorphisms, 1198 indels and 658 simple sequence repeats motifs were also identified. Conclusions The M. rosenbergii transcriptome data reported here should provide an invaluable resource for improving our understanding of this species' genome structure and biology. The data will also instruct future functional studies to manipulate or select for genes influencing growth that should find practical applications in aquaculture breeding programs. PMID:22174756

  19. Quantification of lectin in freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii ) hemolymph by ELISA.

    PubMed

    Agundis, C; Pereyra, A; Zenteno, R; Brassart, C; Sierra, C; Vazquez, L; Zenteno, E

    2000-10-01

    An enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay was developed to quantify the lectin present in the hemolymph of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. This method involves the use of murine monoclonal IgG1 with kappa light chain (designated as 3G1) antibodies raised against the purified lectin, the assay that we developed recognized as little as 30 ng/ml of lectin, and was used to measure the lectin concentration in animals at different maturation stages. The highest concentration of lectin was identified in the hemolymph from post-larval prawns and the lowest in molt stage adult animals. The hemagglutination activity of the lectin was four-fold higher in adult than in juvenile specimens, although in all cases N-acetylated sugar residues, such as N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, and N-acetyl-D-neuraminic acid were inhibitors of the lectin activity, suggesting that lectin plays a role in the transport of N-acetylated sugar in juvenile prawns. Our results indicate that lectin concentration and hemagglutinating activity could be influenced by developmental conditions of the freshwater prawn. PMID:11079370

  20. Effects of Two Densities of Caged Monosex Nile Tilapia Oreochromis Niloticus on Water Quality, Phytoplankton Populations and Production When Polycultured With Macrobrachium rosenbergii in Temperate Ponds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elevated pH levels from the photosynthetic activity of phytoplankton can be a major problem in semi-intensive freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) production systems. Phytoplanktontiverous fish may be able to graze excess phytoplankton and lower pH. The effect of different densities of cag...

  1. Impact of TBT on the vitellogenesis and sex hormones in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1879)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tributyltin (TBT) is a ubiquitous persistent xenobiotic that can be found in freshwater, estuarine and marine ecosystem. TBT is a strong endocrine disrupting compound (EDC) that can cause toxic threat to aquatic organisms. Imposex, sexual deformities and endocrine dysfunctions are the causes of TBT to most of the aquatic organisms. Effect of TBT on the vitellogenesis and sex hormonal changes in Macrobrachium rosenbergii has never been reported. Hence, the present investigation was undertaken to find out the impact of TBT on histological changes in the different reproductive tissues, sex hormonal alterations and level of biomarkers like vitellogenin and vitellin in M. rosenbergii. Results The present investigation documents the possible impact of tributyltin (TBT) on the vitellogenesis in freshwater female prawn M. rosenbergii. TBT at 10 ng/l, 100 ng/l and 1000 ng/l concentrations were exposed individually to prawns for a period of three months. At higher concentration of 1000 ng/l, the ovarian development was arrested and ovary remained at spent stage. At lower concentration of TBT (10 ng/l), the development proceeded up to early vitellogenic stage. At intermediate concentration of 100 ng/l TBT, the ovary remained at pre vitellogenic stage and thereafter no development was noticed. Histological results indicated the normal ovarian development with vitellogenic oocytes, filled with yolk globules in control prawn. On the other hand, the TBT treated groups showed reduction in yolk globules, fusion of developing oocytes and abundance of immature oocytes. Immunofluorescence staining denoted the remarkable reduction in vitellin content in ovary of TBT treated prawn. Hence, TBT had conspicuously inhibited the vitellogenesis by causing hormonal imbalance in M. rosenbergii. Conclusion TBT had notably inhibited the vitellogenesis due to hormonal imbalance. This endocrine dysfunction ultimately impaired the oogenesis in the freshwater female prawn M. rosenbergii. PMID:23634699

  2. Genetic Inheritance of Female and Male Morphotypes in Giant Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Giant freshwater prawn (GFP) Macrobrachium rosenbergii is unique with males categorized in five different morphotypes (small claw, orange claw, blue claw, old blue claw and no claw males) and females in three reproductive statuses (mature ovary, berried and spawned females). In the present study we examined genetic inheritance of female and male morphotypes, their body weights and genetic associations between morphotypes and body traits. Restricted maximum likelihood fitting a multi-trait animal model was performed on a total of 21,459 body records collected over five generations in a GFP population selected for high growth rate. The estimates of variance components showed that there were substantial differences in additive genetic variance in body weight between male morphotypes. The low and significantly different from one genetic correlations between the expressions of body weight in male morphotypes also suggest that these traits should be treated as genetically different traits in selective breeding programs. By contrast, body weights of female types are essentially the same characters as indicated by the high genetic correlations between homologous trait expressions. In addition to body weight, male morphotypes and female reproductive statuses were treated as traits in themselves and were analysed as binary observations using animal and sire linear mixed models, and logit and probit threshold models. The estimates of heritability back-transformed from the liability scale were in good agreement with those obtained from linear mixed models, ranging from 0.02 to 0.43 for male morphotypes and 0.06 to 0.10 for female types. The genetic correlations among male morphoptypes were generally favourable. Body weight showed negative genetic associations with SM (−0.96), whereas those of body weight with other male morphotypes were positive (0.25 to 0.76). Our results showed that there is existence of heritable (additive genetic) component for male morphotypes, giving prospects for genetic selection to change population structure of GFP. PMID:24587246

  3. Molecular cloning and characterization of a Toll receptor gene from Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Srisuk, Chutima; Longyant, Siwaporn; Senapin, Saengchan; Sithigorngul, Paisarn; Chaivisuthangkura, Parin

    2014-02-01

    Toll receptors are cell surface molecules acting as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that have been implicated in the signaling pathway of innate immune responses. In this study, the full-length cDNA of a Toll receptor gene of Macrobrachium rosenbergii, designated MrToll, was successfully isolated using designed degenerate primers and the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The MrToll gene sequence contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 2799 nucleotides encoding a protein of 932 amino acid residues. The protein contained distinct structural motifs of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family, including an extracellular domain containing 15 leucine-rich repeats (LRRs), a transmembrane segment of 23 amino acids, and a cytoplasmic Toll/interleukin-1R (TIR) domain of 139 residues. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that MrToll and Toll receptor of Marsupenaeus japonicus (MjToll) evolved closely. However, the MrToll ORF demonstrated only 48-49% identity with shrimp Toll1, suggesting that MrToll isolated from a palaemonid shrimp might belong to a novel class of Toll receptors in shrimp. The transcripts of the MrToll gene were constitutively expressed in various tissues, with high levels in hemocytes, the stomach and muscle. A reverse transcriptase PCR assay demonstrated that the expression patterns of MrToll were distinctly modulated after Aeromonas caviae stimulation, with significant enhancement at 3-12 h post-challenge and a decline to basal levels at 24 h post-challenge. In addition, when MrToll-silenced shrimp were challenged with A. caviae, there was a significant increase in mortality and bacterial CFU counts. These results suggest that MrToll might be involved in host innate defense, especially against the pathogen A. caviae. PMID:24398262

  4. Gene silencing of VP9 gene impairs WSSV infectivity on Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Alenton, Rod Russel R; Kondo, Hidehiro; Hirono, Ikuo; Maningas, Mary Beth B

    2016-03-01

    White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) remains the most widespread and devastating infectious agent that hit the shrimp aquaculture industry worldwide. To date, there are no known effective strategies yet to combat WSSV infection. Hence, functional studies on genes critical for viral infection is essential in elucidating shrimp-virus interaction. Here we report the function of a gene from WSSV coding for a non-structural protein, VP9, utilizing RNA interference. Silencing of VP9 gene also effectively suppressed other gene region in the WSSV genome (wsv168 gene) as early as day 1 post infection (dpi). Three set-ups using Macrobrachium rosenbergii shrimp were prepared for treatment using VP9-dsRNA, GFP-dsRNA, and PBS. Each shrimp was challenge with WSSV, and survival rate was recorded. VP9- and GFP-dsRNA injected shrimps showed a significant survival rate of 80% and 70%, respectively, in contrast to 0% of the PBS injected shrimps at 25dpi. Re-infection of shrimp survivors using a higher viral titer concentration, concurrent with the infection of new shrimp samples for the PBS control group, resulted in a significant 67% survival rate for VP9-dsRNA compared to 0% with that of GFP-dsRNA and PBS group. Challenge test on two more species, Penaeus monodon and Marsupenaeus japonicus, also significantly increased survival after VP9-dsRNA treatment. Our results provided evidence that VP9 gene plays an essential role in WSSV replication and it can be a potent target gene in the development of RNAi therapeutics for shrimps. PMID:26811904

  5. Identification of the major allergen of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (giant freshwater prawn)

    PubMed Central

    Yadzir, Zailatul Hani Mohamad; Misnan, Rosmilah; Abdullah, Noormalin; Bakhtiar, Faizal; Arip, Masita; Murad, Shahnaz

    2012-01-01

    Objective To characterize the major allergens of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (giant freshwater prawn). Methods Raw and cooked extracts of the giant freshwater prawn were prepared. The IgE reactivity pattern was identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting technique with the sera of 20 skin prick test (SPT) positive patients. The major allergen identified was then characterized using the proteomics approach involving a combination of two-dimensional (2-DE) electrophoresis, mass spectrometry and bioinformatics tools. Results SDS-PAGE of the raw extract showed 23 protein bands (15–250 kDa) but those ranging from 40 to 100 kDa were not found in the cooked extract. From immunoblotting experiments, raw and cooked extracts demonstrated 11 and 5 IgE-binding proteins, respectively, with a molecular mass ranging from 15 to 155 kDa. A heat-resistant 36 kDa protein was identified as the major allergen of both extracts. In addition, a 42 kDa heat-sensitive protein was shown to be a major allergen of the raw extract. The 2-DE gel fractionated the prawn proteins to more than 50 different protein spots. Of these, 10 spots showed specific IgE reactivity with patients' sera. Matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) analysis led to identification of 2 important allergens, tropomyosin and arginine kinase. Conclusions It can be concluded that the availability of such allergens would help in component-based diagnosis and therapy of prawn allergies. PMID:23569834

  6. In silico Neuropeptidome of Female Macrobrachium rosenbergii Based on Transcriptome and Peptide Mining of Eyestalk, Central Nervous System and Ovary.

    PubMed

    Suwansa-Ard, Saowaros; Thongbuakaew, Tipsuda; Wang, Tianfang; Zhao, Min; Elizur, Abigail; Hanna, Peter J; Sretarugsa, Prapee; Cummins, Scott F; Sobhon, Prasert

    2015-01-01

    Macrobrachium rosenbergii is the most economically important of the cultured freshwater crustacean species, yet there is currently a deficiency in genomic and transcriptomic information for research requirements. In this study, we present an in silico analysis of neuropeptide genes within the female M. rosenbergii eyestalk, central nervous system, and ovary. We could confidently predict 37 preproneuropeptide transcripts, including those that encode bursicons, crustacean cardioactive peptide, crustacean hyperglycemic hormones, eclosion hormone, pigment-dispersing hormones, diuretic hormones, neuropeptide F, neuroparsins, SIFamide, and sulfakinin. These transcripts are most prominent within the eyestalk and central nervous system. Transcript tissue distribution as determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed the presence of selected neuropeptide genes of interest mainly in the nervous tissues while others were additionally present in the non-nervous tissues. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of eyestalk peptides confirmed the presence of the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone precursor. This data set provides a strong foundation for further studies into the functional roles of neuropeptides in M. rosenbergii, and will be especially helpful for developing methods to improve crustacean aquaculture. PMID:26023789

  7. In silico Neuropeptidome of Female Macrobrachium rosenbergii Based on Transcriptome and Peptide Mining of Eyestalk, Central Nervous System and Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tianfang; Zhao, Min; Elizur, Abigail; Sretarugsa, Prapee; Cummins, Scott F.; Sobhon, Prasert

    2015-01-01

    Macrobrachium rosenbergii is the most economically important of the cultured freshwater crustacean species, yet there is currently a deficiency in genomic and transcriptomic information for research requirements. In this study, we present an in silico analysis of neuropeptide genes within the female M. rosenbergii eyestalk, central nervous system, and ovary. We could confidently predict 37 preproneuropeptide transcripts, including those that encode bursicons, crustacean cardioactive peptide, crustacean hyperglycemic hormones, eclosion hormone, pigment-dispersing hormones, diuretic hormones, neuropeptide F, neuroparsins, SIFamide, and sulfakinin. These transcripts are most prominent within the eyestalk and central nervous system. Transcript tissue distribution as determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed the presence of selected neuropeptide genes of interest mainly in the nervous tissues while others were additionally present in the non-nervous tissues. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of eyestalk peptides confirmed the presence of the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone precursor. This data set provides a strong foundation for further studies into the functional roles of neuropeptides in M. rosenbergii, and will be especially helpful for developing methods to improve crustacean aquaculture. PMID:26023789

  8. Identification and cloning of a transglutaminase from giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and its transcription during pathogen infection and moulting.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun-Hung; Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Chiu, Yun-Chih; Cheng, Winton; Yeh, Maw-Sheng

    2011-12-01

    Complementary (c)DNA encoding transglutaminase (TG) messenger (m)RNA of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, was cloned from haemocytes by a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) using oligonucleotide primers based on the TG sequence of the horseshoe crab, Tachypleus tridentatus; tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon; kuruma shrimp, Marsupenaeus japonicus; and crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus. The 2722-bp cDNA contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 2334 bp, a 72-bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), and a 316-bp 3'-UTR containing a stop codon and a poly A tail. The molecular mass of the deduced amino acid (aa) sequence (778 aa) was 86.67 kDa with an estimated pI of 5.4. The M. rosenbergii TG (abbreviated MrTG, accession no.: JF309296) contains a typical transglutaminase-like homologue, two putative integrin-binding motifs (RGD), ten glycosylation sites, and four calcium-binding sites; a catalytic triad is present as in arthropod TGs. Sequence comparison and a phylogenetic analysis revealed that shrimp TG can be separated into three subgroups, penaeid TG1, freshwater crustacean TG2 and marine crustacean TG2, and MrTG was more closely related to TG2 than to TG1. MrTG mRNA and TG activities were detected in all tested tissues of M. rosenbergii, with MrTG mainly being synthesised by haemocytes. There was a negative correlation between clotting time of haemolymph, and MrTG expression and TG activity of haemocytes in prawn injected with Lactococcus garvieae. The pattern of MrTG mRNA expression and TG activity in haemocytes exhibited a contrary tendency with clotting time of haemolymph during the moult stages. Those results indicate that cloned MrTG is involved in the defence response, and is probably the major functional TG for haemolymph coagulation in M. rosenbergii. PMID:21854853

  9. Roles of dopamine receptors in mediating acute modulation of immunological responses in Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Chang, Zhong-Wen; Ke, Zhi-Han; Chang, Chin-Chyuan

    2016-02-01

    Dopamine (DA) was found to influence the immunological responses and resistance to pathogen infection in invertebrates. To clarify the possible modulation of DA through dopamine receptors (DAR) against acute environmental stress, the levels of DA, glucose and lactate in the haemolymph of Macrobrachium rosenbergii under hypo- and hyperthermal stresses were measured. The changes in immune parameters such as total haemocyte count (THC), differential haemocyte count (DHC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts (RBs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities and phagocytic activity (PA) were evaluated in prawns which received DAR antagonists (SCH23390, SCH, D1 antagonist; domperidone, DOM, D2 antagonist; chlorpromazine, CH, D1+2 antagonist) followed by hypo- (15 °C) and hyperthermal (34 °C) stresses. In addition, pharmacological analysis of the effect DA modulation was studied in haemocytes incubated with DA and DAR antagonists. The results revealed a significant increase in haemolymph DA accompanied with upregulated levels of glucose and lactate in prawns exposed to both hypo- and hyperthermal stresses in 2 h. In addition, a significant decrease in RBs per haemocyte was noted in prawns which received DAR antagonists when they exposed to hyperthermal stress for 30 min. In in vitro test, antagonism on RBs, SOD and GPx activity of haemocytes were further evidenced through D1, D1, D1+D2 DARs, respectively, in the meantime, no significant difference in PO activity and PA was observed among the treatment groups. These results suggest that the upregulation of DA, glucose and lactate in haemolymph might be the response to acute thermal stress for the demand of energy, and the DAR occupied by its antagonistic action impart no effect on immunological responses except RBs in vivo even though the modulation mediated through D1 DAR was further evidenced in RBs, SOD and GPx activities in vitro. It is therefore concluded that thermal stress mediate stress responses not only through DAR but also via diverse pathways, and DA might modulate the levels of RBs, SOD and GPx activities mainly through D1 DAR. PMID:26766178

  10. Carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus budget in scampi (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) culture ponds.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Bharat Chandra; Adhikari, Subhendu; Mahapatra, Abhijit S; Dey, Lambodar

    2013-12-01

    Experiments were conducted for the study of nutrient budget in ten farmer's ponds (0.2-0.5 ha) in Orissa, India with a mean water depth of 1.0-1.2 m. Scampi (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) were stocked in these ponds at stocking density of 3.75-5.0/m(2). The average initial body weight of scampi was 0.02 mg. The culture period was for 4 months. Feed was the main input. Total feed applied to these ponds ranged from 945 to 2261 kg pond/cycle (crop). The feed conversion ratio varied 1.65 to 1.78. In addition to feed, rice straw, urea, and single super phosphate were applied to these ponds in small amounts for plankton production. At harvest time, the average weight of scampi varied from 60-90 g. The budget showed that feed was the major input of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and carbon in these ponds. The inorganic fertilizer (urea and single super phosphate), organic fertilizer (rice straw and yeast extract), and inlet water, either from the initial fills or from rainwater, were the source of all other N, P, and organic carbon (OC) to these ponds. Total N applied to these ponds through all these inputs ranged from 44.45 to 103.98 kg N per crop, 12.23 to 28.79 kg P per crop, and from 381.54 to 905.22 kg OC per crop, respectively. Among all the inputs, feed alone accounted for 95.34 % N, 97.98 % P, and 94.27 % OC, respectively. Recovery of 16.34 to 38.66 kg N (average 29.27 kg), 1.28 to 3.02 kg P (average 2.29 kg), and 63.21 to 149.51 kg OC (average 113.20 kg), respectively, by the scampi harvest were observed in these ponds. Thus, harvest of scampi accounted for recovery of 35.18 to 39.01 (average 36.85%) of added N, 10.09 to 10.97 (average 10.44%) of added P, and 7.57 to 17.12 (average 16.34%) of added OC, respectively. PMID:23832231

  11. Isolation and characterization of a female-specific DNA marker in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    PubMed Central

    Ventura, T; Aflalo, E D; Weil, S; Kashkush, K; Sagi, A

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a female-specific DNA marker in the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii was identified through amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). The AFLP-derived sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker was tested in over 200 individuals, giving reproducible sex identification. Further molecular characterization of the sex-marker's genomic region (∼3 kb long) revealed the presence of tandem and inverted repeats. The ∼3-kb sequence was identified both in male and female prawns, but with subtle differences: a deletion of 3 bp (present in female prawn but absent in male prawn) identified upstream of the SCAR marker sequence and two female-specific single-nucleotide polymorphisms, both indicating that male prawns are homozygous, whereas female prawns are heterozygous in this locus. Fluorescent in situ hybridization showed the ∼3-kb sequence to be unique: to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a unique sex-specific sequence observed in situ in crustaceans. The sex-specific marker identified in M. rosenbergii may have considerable applied merit for crustacean culture in that it will enable the determination of genetic sex at early developmental stages when phenotypic differences are not identifiable. PMID:21522169

  12. Spermatophore affects the egg-spawning and egg-carrying behavior in the female giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Kruangkum, Thanapong; Vanichviriyakit, Rapeepun; Chotwiwatthanakun, Charoonroj; Saetan, Jirawat; Tinikul, Yotsawan; Wanichanon, Chaitip; Cummins, Scott F; Hanna, Peter J; Sobhon, Prasert

    2015-10-01

    In crustaceans, mating occurs during the ecdysis after female molting. During this period, a male transfers its spermatophore into a female which, in some species, stores the spermatophore for a long period prior to spawning and fertilization. However, in some species including the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, the male deposits its spermataphore onto the external surface of the thoracic segment of the female which affects the spawning time and maternal behavior. This study investigated the spawning behavior of the M. rosenbergii females, which was divided into pre-spawning, spawning, and post-spawning phases. It was revealed that mated female prawns with attached spermatophore exhibited an earlier spawning than unmated individuals, leading to assessment of the factors that may elicit this phenomenon. Four groups of female prawns were allocated to groups including mating females with spermatophore still attached, mating females with the spermatophore removed, artificially inseminated females with spermatophores, and an unmated control. There was a significant reduction in the time of egg-spawning in the presence of spermatophores, and the mating activity was also a contributing factor. Furthermore, over 90% of the mated and artificially inseminated females in which spermatophores were deposited carried the eggs in the abdominal brood chamber until completion of embryonic development while others discarded the eggs within 2 days post-spawning. This study implies that the spermatophore may contain ovulation-inducing factors which stimulate an earlier spawning and fostering of brooding behavior. PMID:26388033

  13. A first insight into temperature stress-induced neuroendocrine and immunological changes in giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Jiang, Jia-Rong; Cheng, Winton

    2015-11-01

    Haemolymph norepinephrine (NE); total haemocyte count (THC); respiratory bursts (RBs); superoxide dismutase (SOD), phenoloxidase (PO), and phagocytic activity; and prophenoloxidase (proPO)-system-related genes (lipopolysaccharide- and β-1,3-glucan-binding protein: LGBP, proPO, peroxinectin: PE, and α2-macroglobulin: α2-M) in haemocytes of Macrobrachium rosenbergii were investigated after transferring them from 28 °C to 22 °C, 28 °C, and 34 °C respectively. The results revealed that haemolymph NE, hyaline cells (HCs), and PO activity per granulocyte increased from 30 to 120 min of exposure, and however, RBs and phagocytic activity significantly decreased from 30 to 120 min of exposure as well as granular cells (GCs), semigranular cells (SGCs), and SOD activity decreased from 60 to 120 min of exposure for the prawns subjected to temperature stress. The proPO-system-related gene expression markedly increased with 60-120 min of exposure for the prawns transferred from 28 °C to 22 °C and 34 °C, except α2M at 120 min. These results provide a first insight into the effects of temperature stress on haemolymph NE level and immune functions in prawns and suggest that temperature-stress-induced acute modulation in immunity is associated with the release of haemolymph NE in M. rosenbergii. PMID:26434711

  14. Developing immunological methods for detecting Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus and extra small virus using a recombinant protein preparation.

    PubMed

    Wang, C-S; Chang, C-Y; Wen, C-M

    2016-06-01

    Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV) have been identified as the causative agents for white tail disease (WTD) of M. rosenbergii. In this study, the gene sequences encoding MrNV and XSV capsid proteins were separately ligated into the pGEX-4T-3 expression vector and transformed into Escherichia coli. After induction, glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-tagged MrNV and XSV fusion proteins were obtained with molecular masses of 68 and 43 kDa, respectively. Specific polyclonal antibodies for MrNV and XSV against viral recombinant proteins and infected prawn tissues were verified using Western blotting. According to immunodot blot assay results, the detection sensitivities of antibodies were approximately 5 ng μL(-1) for both recombinant proteins GST-MrNV and GST-XSV. In additional, MrNV and XSV were detected at dilution levels of 1:2560 and 1:640 in the infected prawn tissues, respectively. No cross-reactions with white spot syndrome virus or grouper nervous necrosis virus were observed using immunodot blot assays. MrNV and XSV in infected muscle tissues were detected using immunohistochemistry. Although the detection limit of the immunodot blot assay was lower than that of nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, these polyclonal antibodies can be useful for confirming MrNV and XSV infections in field tests. PMID:26263892

  15. Single CRD containing lectin from Macrobrachium rosenbergii (MrLec) participates in innate immunity against pathogen infections.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xin; Li, Wen; Jin, Min; Ma, Fu-Tong; Huang, Ying; Shi, Yan-Ru; Zhao, Ling-Ling; Feng, Jin-Ling; Ren, Qian; Wang, Wen

    2016-04-01

    As a type of pattern-recognition proteins, lectins perform important functions in the innate immunity of crustaceans, including prawns. Although several reports showed that C-type lectin domain family (CLEC) importantly functions in host-pathogen interactions, limited research has focused on CLEC in Macrobrachium rosenbergii. In the present study, a new single CRD containing CLEC (designated as MrLec) was reported in freshwater prawns, M. rosenbergii. The full-length cDNA of MrLec consisted of 1027 bp with an open reading frame of 801 bp, which encoded a peptide of 266 amino acid residues. Genomic sequence for MrLec was also obtained from the M. rosenbergii, which contain 4 exons and 3 introns. MrLec was found to contain a single carbohydrate-recognition domain with an EPN motif. MrLec was ubiquitously distributed in various tissues of a normal prawn, particularly in the hepatopancreas and gills. MrLec expression in the gills was significantly upregulated after a challenge with Vibrio parahaemolyticus and downregulated at 24 h after MrLec RNA interference (MrLec-RNAi). The expression levels of some AMPs, including antilipopolysaccharide factor 1 (Alf1) and lysozyme 2 (Lyso2), also markedly decreased after MrLec-RNAi. Recombinant MrLec can agglutinate (Ca(2+)-dependent) and bind both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Results suggested that MrLec participates in the recognition of invading pathogens and functions in the immune response of prawn against pathogen infections. PMID:26923244

  16. Morphological and histological studies on freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de man) irradiated with (60)Co gamma radiation.

    PubMed

    Stalin, A; Broos, K V; Sadiq Bukhari, A; Syed Mohamed, H E; Singhal, R K; Venu-Babu, P

    2013-11-15

    This study was framed to investigate the (60)Co gamma radiation induced morphological and histological variations in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The LD50 value of (60)Co gamma irradiated M. rosenbergii observed (by probit analysis) at 30 Gy. Prawns were irradiated to four different dose levels (3 mGy, 30 mGy, 300 mGy and 3,000 mGy) using Theratron Phoenix TeleCobalt Unit [P-33] and one control group (without irradiation) maintained separately. Irradiated groups exhibited several morphological variations such as discoloration; damaged rostrum; opaque coloration in cephalothorax; black bands and dot formation in abdomen; deformed uropods and telson in tail regions when compared with control group. The Hepato Somatic Index reflected the severity of radiation on hepatopancreas. Histological variations in gills, hepatopancreas and muscles of irradiated groups were observed. In gills, structural changes such as swollen and fused lamellae, abnormal gill tips, hyperplasic, necrotic and clavate-globate lamellae were observed in gamma irradiated prawns. Accumulation of hemocytes in hemocoelic space, interstitial sinuses filled with abnormal infiltrated hemocytes, the tubular epithelium with ruptured basal laminae, abnormal and coagulated lumen, necrotic tubules, thickened basal laminae, tissue debris, necrotic hepatocytes were observed in irradiated prawn hepatopancreas. In muscle, shrinkage of muscular fiber and necrotic musculature were observed in irradiated prawns. These structural alterations of the organs it is felt could affect the vital physiological functions such as respiration, osmotic and ionic regulation in gills and muscles; absorption, storage and secretion of the hepatopancreas which in turn could adversely affect the growth and survival of freshwater prawn M. rosenbergii. PMID:24140570

  17. Optimizing Hybrid de Novo Transcriptome Assembly and Extending Genomic Resources for Giant Freshwater Prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii): The Identification of Genes and Markers Associated with Reproduction.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyungtaek; Yoon, Byung-Ha; Kim, Woo-Jin; Kim, Dong-Wook; Hurwood, David A; Lyons, Russell E; Salin, Krishna R; Kim, Heui-Soo; Baek, Ilseon; Chand, Vincent; Mather, Peter B

    2016-01-01

    The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, a sexually dimorphic decapod crustacean is currently the world's most economically important cultured freshwater crustacean species. Despite its economic importance, there is currently a lack of genomic resources available for this species, and this has limited exploration of the molecular mechanisms that control the M. rosenbergii sex-differentiation system more widely in freshwater prawns. Here, we present the first hybrid transcriptome from M. rosenbergii applying RNA-Seq technologies directed at identifying genes that have potential functional roles in reproductive-related traits. A total of 13,733,210 combined raw reads (1720 Mbp) were obtained from Ion-Torrent PGM and 454 FLX. Bioinformatic analyses based on three state-of-the-art assemblers, the CLC Genomic Workbench, Trans-ABySS, and Trinity, that use single and multiple k-mer methods respectively, were used to analyse the data. The influence of multiple k-mers on assembly performance was assessed to gain insight into transcriptome assembly from short reads. After optimisation, de novo assembly resulted in 44,407 contigs with a mean length of 437 bp, and the assembled transcripts were further functionally annotated to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms and simple sequence repeat motifs. Gene expression analysis was also used to compare expression patterns from ovary and testis tissue libraries to identify genes with potential roles in reproduction and sex differentiation. The large transcript set assembled here represents the most comprehensive set of transcriptomic resources ever developed for reproduction traits in M. rosenbergii, and the large number of genetic markers predicted should constitute an invaluable resource for future genetic research studies on M. rosenbergii and can be applied more widely on other freshwater prawn species in the genus Macrobrachium. PMID:27164098

  18. Optimizing Hybrid de Novo Transcriptome Assembly and Extending Genomic Resources for Giant Freshwater Prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii): The Identification of Genes and Markers Associated with Reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hyungtaek; Yoon, Byung-Ha; Kim, Woo-Jin; Kim, Dong-Wook; Hurwood, David A.; Lyons, Russell E.; Salin, Krishna R.; Kim, Heui-Soo; Baek, Ilseon; Chand, Vincent; Mather, Peter B.

    2016-01-01

    The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, a sexually dimorphic decapod crustacean is currently the world’s most economically important cultured freshwater crustacean species. Despite its economic importance, there is currently a lack of genomic resources available for this species, and this has limited exploration of the molecular mechanisms that control the M. rosenbergii sex-differentiation system more widely in freshwater prawns. Here, we present the first hybrid transcriptome from M. rosenbergii applying RNA-Seq technologies directed at identifying genes that have potential functional roles in reproductive-related traits. A total of 13,733,210 combined raw reads (1720 Mbp) were obtained from Ion-Torrent PGM and 454 FLX. Bioinformatic analyses based on three state-of-the-art assemblers, the CLC Genomic Workbench, Trans-ABySS, and Trinity, that use single and multiple k-mer methods respectively, were used to analyse the data. The influence of multiple k-mers on assembly performance was assessed to gain insight into transcriptome assembly from short reads. After optimisation, de novo assembly resulted in 44,407 contigs with a mean length of 437 bp, and the assembled transcripts were further functionally annotated to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms and simple sequence repeat motifs. Gene expression analysis was also used to compare expression patterns from ovary and testis tissue libraries to identify genes with potential roles in reproduction and sex differentiation. The large transcript set assembled here represents the most comprehensive set of transcriptomic resources ever developed for reproduction traits in M. rosenbergii, and the large number of genetic markers predicted should constitute an invaluable resource for future genetic research studies on M. rosenbergii and can be applied more widely on other freshwater prawn species in the genus Macrobrachium. PMID:27164098

  19. Identification and characterization of differentially expressed transcripts in the gills of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Barman, Hirak Kumar; Patra, Swagat Kumar; Das, Varsha; Mohapatra, Shibani Dutta; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Mohapatra, Chinmayee; Mohanta, Ramya; Panda, Rudra Prasanna; Rath, Surya Narayan

    2012-01-01

    The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is an economically important species. It is a euryhaline shrimp, surviving in wide-range salinity conditions. A change in gene expression has been suggested as an important component for stress management. To better understand the osmoregulatory mechanisms mediated by the gill, a subtractive and suppressive hybridization (SSH) tool was used to identify expressed transcripts linked to adaptations in saline water. A total of 117 transcripts represented potentially expressed under salinity conditions. BLAST analysis identified 22% as known genes, 9% as uncharacterized showing homologous to unannotated ESTs, and 69% as unknown sequences. All the identified known genes representing broad spectrum of biological pathways were particularly linked to stress tolerance including salinity tolerance. Expression analysis of 10 known genes and 7 unknown/uncharacterized genes suggested their upregulation in the gills of prawn exposed to saline water as compared to control indicating that these are likely to be associated with salinity acclimation. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) was used for obtaining full-length cDNA of MRSW-40 clone that was highly upregulated during salt exposure. The sequenced ESTs presented here will have potential implications for future understanding about salinity acclimation and/or tolerance of the prawn. PMID:22619594

  20. Retardation of post-mortem changes of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) stored in ice by legume seed extracts.

    PubMed

    Sriket, Chodsana; Benjakul, Soottawat; Visessanguan, Wonnop; Hara, Kenji; Yoshida, Asami

    2012-11-15

    Meat quality of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) treated with soybean and bambara groundnut extracts at different concentrations was monitored during 10 days of iced storage. During storage, the control sample (without treatment) had a higher pH, TCA-soluble peptide content, heat soluble collagen content, proteolytic activities and psychrophilic bacterial count than did samples treated with soybean and bambara groundnut extracts. Conversely, shear force value and likeness scores of the control sample decreased (p<0.05), more likely associated with softening of muscle. The decrease in myosin heavy chain in the control sample was found after 6 days of storage. However, no changes in protein patterns of samples treated with soybean extracts at 2.5 mg/mL were found after 10 days of storage. Therefore, the injections of legume seed extracts, especially soybean extract, at a sufficient concentration, could be a means to retard muscle softening and maintain the qualities of freshwater prawn during iced storage. PMID:22868130

  1. Expression of biotransformation and oxidative stress genes in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii exposed to chlordecone.

    PubMed

    Gaume, Béatrice; Dodet, Nathalie; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Lemoine, Soazig

    2015-06-01

    Chlordecone is a persistent organochlorine pesticide widely used between 1972 and 1993 in the French West Indies to control the root borer in banana fields. Chlordecone use resulted in long-term pollution of soils, contamination of waters, of aquatic organisms, and of fields. Chlordecone is known to be neurotoxic, to increase prostate cancer, and to have negative effects on cognitive and motor development during infancy. In Guadeloupe, most of the freshwater species living in contaminated rivers exceed the French legal limit of 20 μg·kg(-1) wet weight. In the present study, we chose a transcriptomic approach to study the cellular effects of chlordecone in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, an important economical species in Guadeloupe. Quantitative PCR revealed an induction of genes involved in defense mechanism against oxidative stress (catalase and selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase) in prawns exposed to low environmental concentrations of chlordecone after 12 and 24 h of exposure. In prawns reared in a contaminated farm, transcription of genes involved in the biotransformation process (cytochrome P450 and glutathione-S-transferase (GST)) were induced after 8 days of exposure. Our results provide information on the mechanims of defense induced by chlordecone in aquatic crustacean species. This gene expression study of selected genes should be further strengthened by proteomic analyses and enzymatic activity assays to confirm the response of these biomarkers of stress in crustaceans and to give new insights into the mechanism of toxicity by chlordecone. PMID:24920261

  2. Function of a novel C-type lectin with two CRD domains from Macrobrachium rosenbergii in innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xin; Huang, Ying; Shi, Yan-Ru; Ren, Qian; Wang, Wen

    2015-03-01

    C-type lectins play crucial roles in innate immunity. In the present study, a novel C-type lectin gene, designated as MrCTL, was identified from Macrobrachium rosenbergii. MrCTL contains 2 carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs), namely MrCRD1 and MrCRD2. The MrCRD1 contains a QEP motif and MrCRD2 contains a motif of EPD. MrCTL was mainly expressed in the hepatopancreas. The expression level of MrCTL in hepatopancreas was significantly upregulated after a challenge with Vibrio parahaemolyticus or White spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The recombinant MrCTL, MrCRD1 and MrCRD2 have an ability to agglutinate both Gram-negative (V. parahaemolyticus) and Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus) in a calcium dependent manner. The recombinant MrCTL, MrCRD1 and MrCRD2 bind directly to all tested microorganisms. All these results suggested that MrCTL may have important roles in immune defense against invading pathogens in prawns. PMID:25475962

  3. Identification and Characterization of Differentially Expressed Transcripts in the Gills of Freshwater Prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) under Salt Stress

    PubMed Central

    Barman, Hirak Kumar; Patra, Swagat Kumar; Das, Varsha; Mohapatra, Shibani Dutta; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Mohapatra, Chinmayee; Mohanta, Ramya; Panda, Rudra Prasanna; Rath, Surya Narayan

    2012-01-01

    The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is an economically important species. It is a euryhaline shrimp, surviving in wide-range salinity conditions. A change in gene expression has been suggested as an important component for stress management. To better understand the osmoregulatory mechanisms mediated by the gill, a subtractive and suppressive hybridization (SSH) tool was used to identify expressed transcripts linked to adaptations in saline water. A total of 117 transcripts represented potentially expressed under salinity conditions. BLAST analysis identified 22% as known genes, 9% as uncharacterized showing homologous to unannotated ESTs, and 69% as unknown sequences. All the identified known genes representing broad spectrum of biological pathways were particularly linked to stress tolerance including salinity tolerance. Expression analysis of 10 known genes and 7 unknown/uncharacterized genes suggested their upregulation in the gills of prawn exposed to saline water as compared to control indicating that these are likely to be associated with salinity acclimation. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) was used for obtaining full-length cDNA of MRSW-40 clone that was highly upregulated during salt exposure. The sequenced ESTs presented here will have potential implications for future understanding about salinity acclimation and/or tolerance of the prawn. PMID:22619594

  4. Assessment of Constructed Wetland in Nutrient Reduction, in the Commercial Scale Experiment Ponds of Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Tariq; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Guosen

    2016-03-01

    A free water surface constructed wetland (CW) was integrated into two commercial ponds of Macrobrachium rosenbergii, to evaluate the role of CW in reducing the excess nutrient concentration and other pollutants produced from the aquaculture waste. Hydraulic residence time was kept constant (24 h). There was a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in total suspended solids (TSS, 73.2 ± 15.4 %) and total nitrogen (TN, 39.6 ± 44.2 %) between wetland inflow and wetland outflow. The performance of the CW was highly impacted by the low concentration of dissolved nutrients at the inflow of CW. Results showed about 43.8 ± 24.6 % NO3 (-), 25.7 ± 23.0 % NH4 (+), 14.3 ± 1.0 % NO2 (-), 28.4 ± 18.8 % DIN and 13.1 ± 10.0 % PO4 (3-) were removed. In agreement with previous published investigations, comparing values of pollutants before and after recirculation, this study concludes that a CW system can provide good water quality and minimize external water input. PMID:26679323

  5. Nutrients budget and effluents characteristics in polyculture of scampi (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) and Indian major carps ponds using organic inputs.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Subhendu; Sahu, Bharat Chandra; Dey, Lambodar

    2012-01-01

    Experiments were conducted for the study of nutrient budget in farmers' ponds (0.4-0.6 ha) in Orissa, India, at stocking densities of 0.30-0.38/m(2) for scampi (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) and 0.60-0.70/m(2) for Indian major carps (Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala). The average initial body weights of scampi and the major carps were 0.02 and 8-10 g, respectively. The culture period was 272-292 days. Feed was the main input. The FCR (feed conversion ratio) varied from 1.78 to 1.83. Feed and cow dung were applied to these ponds as organic inputs. At harvest time, the average weight of scampi and carps varied from 73 to 92 g and from 718 to 820 g, respectively. Among all the inputs, feed alone accounted for 97.60% total nitrogen (N), 97.90% total phosphorus (P) and 94.72% total organic carbon (OC), respectively. The harvest of scampi and carps accounted for recovery of 52.45% N, 19.43% P and 18.12% OC, respectively. N, P and OC accumulated in sediment were 38.31, 71.40 and 69.50%, respectively. The median nutrient loads in the fish pond effluents were equivalent to 0.58 kg of inorganic N, 0.135 kg of P and 8.83 kg of total OC per ton of Indian major carps and scampi production. PMID:22864442

  6. Expression Profile of Antioxidant Enzymes in Hemocytes from Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii Exposed to an Elevated Level of Copper.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hui; Miao, Yu-Tao; Xian, Jian-An; Qian, Kun; Wang, An-Li

    2015-10-01

    This study evaluated the expression level of antioxidant enzymes Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu, Zn-SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in hemocytes of Macrobrachium rosenbergii exposed to copper by real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Results showed that the mRNA expression of Cu, Zn-SOD increased to reach a peak at 6 h, then recovered to its normal level at 48 h. CAT expression level was significantly increased at 12 h and reached a peak at 24 h, but recovered to its normal level later. GPx expression level was significantly increased at 6 h and reached the peak at 12 h. GST expression level was significantly induced from 12 to 24 h and then dropped to its normal level at 48 h. These results indicated that antioxidant enzymes were inducible, possibly for removing excessive reactive oxygen species to protect prawn from oxidative stress. PMID:26215459

  7. Characterization of two novel ADP ribosylation factors from giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and their responses to WSSV challenge.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zheng-Feng; Ren, Jie; Tan, Jing-Min; Wang, Zheng; Yin, Shao-Wu; Huang, Ying; Huang, Xin; Wang, Wen; Lan, Jiang-Feng; Ren, Qian

    2015-01-01

    ADP-ribosylation factors (Arfs) are small GTP-binding proteins that have an essential function in intracellular trafficking and organelle structure. To date, little information is available on the Arfs in the economically important giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and their relationship to viral infection. Here we identified two Arf genes from M. rosenbergii (MrArf1 and MrArf2) for the first time. Phylogenetic analysis showed that MrArf1, together with MjArf1 from shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus belonged to Class I Arfs. By contrast, MrArf2 didn't not match any of the Arfs classes of I/II/III, although it could be clustered with an Arf protein from M. japonicas called MjArfn, which may represent an analog of the Arf. MrArf1 was ubiquitously expressed in all the examined tissues, with the highest transcription level in the hepatopancreas, whereas MrArf2 was only highly expressed in the hepatopancreas and exhibited very low levels in the heart, stomach, gills and intestine. The expression level of MrArf1 in the gills was down-regulated post 24 h WSSV challenge, and reached the maximal level at 48 h. MrArf1 in the hepatopancreas went up from 24 to 48 h WSSV challenge. MrArf2 transcript in the gill also went down at 24 h and then was upregulated at 48 h WSSV challenge. MrArf2 increased significantly in the hepatopancreas 24 h after infection and then went down at 48 h WSSV challenge. RNAi results showed that knockdown of MrArf1 or MrArf2 could inhibit the expression of the envelope protein gene vp28 of the WSSV. So, it could be speculated that MrArf1 and MrArf2 might play important roles in the innate immune system against WSSV infection. PMID:25451300

  8. Characterization of a gC1qR from the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Ye, Ting; Huang, Xin; Wang, Xian-Wei; Shi, Yan-Ru; Hui, Kai-Min; Ren, Qian

    2015-03-01

    gC1qR, as a multicompartmental and a multifunctional protein, plays an important role in innate immunity. In this study, a gC1qR homolog (MrgC1qR) in the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii was identified. MrgC1qR, a 258-amino-acid polypeptide, shares high identities with gC1qR from other species. MrgC1qR gene was expressed in different tissues and was highest expressed in the hepatopancreas. In addition, the MrgC1qR transcript was significantly enhanced after 6 h of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection or post 2 h, 24 h of Vibrio anguillarum challenge compared to appropriate controls. Moreover, recombinant MrgC1qR (rMrgC1qR) had bacterial binding activity, the result also revealed that rMrgC1qR could bind pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) such as LPS or PGN, suggesting that MrgC1qRmight function as a pathogen-recognition receptor (PRR). Furthermore, glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down assays showed that rMrgC1qR with GST-tag could bind to rMrFicolin1 or rMrFicolin2 with His-tag. Altogether, these results may demonstrate a role for MrgC1qR in innate immunity in the giant freshwater prawns. PMID:25555810

  9. Gene profiling and characterization of arginine kinase-1 (MrAK-1) from freshwater giant prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii).

    PubMed

    Arockiaraj, Jesu; Vanaraja, Puganeshwaran; Easwvaran, Sarasvathi; Singh, Arun; Alinejaid, Tahereh; Othman, Rofina Yasmin; Bhassu, Subha

    2011-07-01

    Arginine kinase-1 (MrAK-1) was sequenced from the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii using Illumina Solexa Genome Analyzer Technique. MrAK-1 consisted of 1068 bp nucleotide encoded 355 polypeptide with an estimated molecular mass of 40 kDa. MrAK-1 sequence contains a potential ATP:guanido phosphotransferases active domain site. The deduced amino acid sequence of MrAK-1 was compared with other 7 homologous arginine kinase (AK) and showed the highest identity (96%) with AK-1 from cherry shrimp Neocaridina denticulate. The qRT-PCR analysis revealed a broad expression of MrAK-1 with the highest expression in the muscle and the lowest in the eyestalk. The expression of MrAK-1 after challenge with the infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) was tested in muscle. In addition, MrAK-1 was expressed in Escherichia coli by prokaryotic expression plasmid pMAL-c2x. The optimum temperature (30 °C) and pH (8.5) was determined for the enzyme activity assay. MrAK-1 showed significant (P < 0.05) activity towards 10-50 mM ATP concentration. The enzyme activity was inhibited by α-ketoglutarate, glucose and ATP at the concentration of 10, 50 and 100 mM respectively. Conclusively, the findings of this study indicated that MrAK-1 might play an important role in the coupling of energy production and utilization and the immune response in shrimps. PMID:21549198

  10. Effects of dietary administration of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) extracts on the immune responses and disease resistance of giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Tan, Hui-Ching; Cheng, Winton

    2013-07-01

    The hot-water extract of Eichhornia crassipes leaves (ECE) was produced and incorporated into the diet of the prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, as an immunostimulant. Survival rates of prawn against Lactococcus garvieae, and its immune parameters including the total haemocyte count (THC), different haemocyte count (DHC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts (RBs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, transglutaminase (TG) activity, haemolymph coagulation time, and phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency against L. garvieae by M. rosenbergii were determined when prawn (23.0 ± 2.8 g) were fed ECE-containing diets at 0, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 g kg(-1). Prawn fed a diet containing ECE at 2.0 and 3.0 g kg(-1) for 12 days showed significantly increased THC, HC, GC, PO activity, RBs, SOD activity, GPx activity, and TG activity, and a significantly decreased coagulation time. The phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency against L. garvieae of prawn fed the ECE-containing diets at 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 g kg(-1) were significantly higher than those of prawn fed the control diet at 3-12 days. Survival rates of M. rosenbergii fed the diet containing ECE at concentrations of 2 and 3 g kg(-1) were significantly higher than those fed the control diet after challenge with L. garvieae for 48-144 h. The relative percentage survival of prawn fed the 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 g kg(-1) ECE-containing diets for 12 days were 17.5%, 39.1%, and 52.2%. It was concluded that the ECE can be used as an immunostimulant for prawn through dietary administration to enhance immune responses and resistance of M. rosenbergii against L. garvieae. PMID:23603238

  11. De Novo Transcriptome Sequencing Analysis and Comparison of Differentially Expressed Genes (DEGs) in Macrobrachium rosenbergii in China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qigen

    2014-01-01

    Giant freshwater prawn (GFP; Macrobrachium rosenbergii) is an exotic species that was introduced into China in 1976 and thereafter it became a major species in freshwater aquaculture. However the gene discovery in this species has been limited to small-scale data collection in China. We used the next generation sequencing technology for the experiment; the transcriptome was sequenced of samples of hepatopancreas organ in individuals from 4 GFP groups (A1, A2, B1 and B2). De novo transcriptome sequencing generated 66,953 isogenes. Using BLASTX to search the Non-redundant (NR), Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes (STRING), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome (KEGG) databases; 21,224 unigenes were annotated, 9,552 matched unigenes with the Gene Ontology (GO) classification; 5,782 matched unigenes in 25 categories of Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COG) and 20,859 unigenes were consequently assigned to 312 KEGG pathways. Between the A and B groups 147 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified; between the A1 and A2 groups 6,860 DEGs were identified and between the B1 and B2 groups 5,229 DEGs were identified. After enrichment, the A and B groups identified 38 DEGs, but none of them were significantly enriched. The A1 and A2 groups identified 21,856 DEGs in three main categories based on functional groups: biological process, cellular_component and molecular function and the KEGG pathway defined 2,459 genes had a KEGG Ortholog - ID (KO-ID) and could be categorized into 251 pathways, of those, 9 pathways were significantly enriched. The B1 and B2 groups identified 5,940 DEGs in three main categories based on functional groups: biological process, cellular_component and molecular function, and the KEGG pathway defined 1,543 genes had a KO-ID and could be categorized into 240 pathways, of those, 2 pathways were significantly enriched. We investigated 99 queries (GO) which related to growth of GFP in 4 groups. After enrichment we identified 23 DEGs and 1 KEGG PATHWAY ‘ko04711’ relation with GFP growth. PMID:25329319

  12. Ultrastructural changes during spermatogenesis, biochemical and hormonal evidences of testicular toxicity caused by TBT in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1879).

    PubMed

    Revathi, Peranandam; Iyapparaj, Palanisamy; Vasanthi, Lourduraj Arockia; Munuswamy, Natesan; Krishnan, Muthukalingan

    2014-10-01

    The present investigation documents the impact of tributyltin (TBT) on the ultrastructural variation of spermatogenesis in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The environmentally realistic concentration of TBT can cause damages to the endocrine and reproductive physiology of crustaceans. In this context, three concentrations viz. 10, 100, and 1000 ng/L were selected and exposed to prawns for 90 days. The TBT exposed prawn exhibited decrease the reproductive activity as evidenced by sperm count and sperm length compared to control. Histopathological results revealed the retarded testicular development, abnormal structure of seminiferous tubule, decrease in the concentration of spermatozoa, diminution of seminiferous tubule membrane, abundance of spermatocytes and vacuolation in testis of treated prawns. Ultrastructural study also confirmed the impairment of spermatogenesis in treated prawns. Furthermore, radioimmunoassay (RIA) clearly documented the reduction of testosterone level in TBT exposed groups. Thus, TBT substantially reduced the level of male sex hormone as well as biochemical constituents which ultimately led to impairment of spermatogenesis in the freshwater male prawn M. rosenbergii. PMID:23362226

  13. The effect of sugars and free amino acids from the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii hemolymph on lectin activity and on oxidative burst.

    PubMed

    Soria, Frida; Sierra, Claudia; Bouquelet, Stephane; Brassart, Colette; Agundis, Concepción; Zenteno, Edgar; Vázquez, Lorena

    2006-01-01

    We determined the effect of low molecular weight components (LMWC) from healthy juvenile and adult Macrobrachium rosenbergii hemolymph on lectin activity and oxidative burst (OB) in hemocytes. In an attempt to identify the LMWC that affect the lectin's hemagglutinating activity or oxidative burst, we determined the hemolymph carbohydrates and free amino acids (FAA) concentration. The LMWC (<2000 Da) were obtained after dialysis of the hemolymph. Our results showed that LMWC from juveniles exerted a greater inhibition on lectin than LMWC from adult hemolymph. Production of superoxide radicals by hemocytes was lower in the presence of juvenile (p<0.05) as compared to adult LMWC. FAA composition of the hemolymph and of LMWC from adults showed higher proportion of alanine (which corresponded to 25% of total FAA) and proline (>20%); whereas, in juveniles, the main FAA identified were glycine (>40%) and alanine (26%). N-Acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) was the main sugar residue in the hemolymph and LMWC from juveniles; its concentration was 2.4 times higher than glucose (Glc), whereas, in adults, Glc was the main free sugar residue. Our results suggest that the proportion of FAA and carbohydrates in the hemolymph of M. rosenbergii seems to be correlated with the maturation process; furthermore, the high proportion of free GlcNAc and glycine regulate, in the juvenile stage, lectin activity and cellular oxidative mechanisms, respectively. PMID:16290085

  14. Variation of prostaglandin E2 concentrations in ovaries and its effects on ovarian maturation and oocyte proliferation in the giant fresh water prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Sumpownon, Chanudporn; Engsusophon, Attakorn; Siangcham, Tanapan; Sugiyama, Eiji; Soonklang, Nantawan; Meeratana, Prasert; Wanichanon, Chaitip; Hanna, Peter J; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Sobhon, Prasert

    2015-11-01

    Prostaglandins (PGs) are important bioactive mediators for many physiological functions. In some decapod crustaceans, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) has been detected in reproductive organs, and may play a role in the control of ovarian maturation. However, in the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, the presences of PGE2 and key enzymes for PGE2 biosynthesis, as well as its effects on ovarian maturation have not yet been investigated. In this study we reported the presence of PGE2, cyclooxygenase1 (COX1) and prostaglandin E synthase (PGES) in the ovarian tissues of M. rosenbergii, using immunohistochemistry. Intense immunoreactivities of PGE2 (PGE2-ir), COX1 (Cox1-ir) and PGES (PGES-ir) were detected in previtellogenic oocytes (Oc1 and Oc2), while the immunoreactivities were absent in the late vitellogenic oocytes (Oc4). This finding supports the hypothesis that the PGE2 biosynthesis occurs in the ovary of this prawn. To ascertain this finding we used LC-MS/MS to quantitate PGE2 concentrations during ovarian developmental cycle. The levels of PGE2 were significantly higher in the early ovarian stages (St I and II) than in the late stages (St III and IV). Moreover, we found that administration of PGE2 stimulated the ovarian maturation in this species by shortening the length of the ovarian cycle, increasing ovarian-somatic index, oocyte proliferation, and vitellogenin (Vg) level in the hemolymph. PMID:25963041

  15. Isolated and combined exposure to ammonia and nitrite in giant freshwater pawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii): effects on the oxidative stress, antioxidant enzymatic activities and apoptosis in haemocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yufan; Ye, Chaoxia; Wang, Anli; Zhu, Xuan; Chen, Changhong; Xian, Jianan; Sun, Zhenzhu

    2015-10-01

    The residual contaminators such as ammonia and nitrite are widely considered as relevant sources of aquatic environmental pollutants, posing a great threat to shrimp survival. To study the toxicological effects of ammonia and nitrite exposure on the innate immune response in invertebrates, we investigated the oxidative stress and apoptosis in haemocytes of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) under isolated and combined exposure to ammonia and nitrite in order to provide useful information about adult prawn immune responses. M. rosenbergii (13.44 ± 2.75 g) were exposed to 0, 5, and 25 mg/L total ammonia-N (TAN) and 0, 5, and 20 mg/L nitrite-N for 24 h. All ammonia concentrations were combined with all nitrite concentrations, making a total of nine treatments studied. Following the exposure treatment, antioxidant enzyme activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, nitric oxide (NO) generation, and apoptotic cell ratio of haemocytes were measured using flow cytometry. Results indicated that ROS generation was sensitive to the combined effect of ammonia and nitrite, which subsequently affected the Cu-Zn SOD activity. In addition, CAT showed the highest activity at 5 mg/L TAN while GPx decreased at 5 mg/L TAN and returned towards baseline at 25 mg/L. NO generation synchronized with the apoptotic cell ratio in haemocytes, indicating that NO production was closely associated with programmed cell death. Both NO production and apoptotic ratios significantly decreased following 25 mg/L TAN, which may be due to the antagonistic regulation of NO and GPx. We hypothesized that the toxicological effect of nitrite exhibited less change in physiological changes compared to that of ammonia, because of the high tolerance to nitrite exposure in mature M. rosenbergii and/or the competitive effects of chloride ions. Taken together, these results showed that ammonia and nitrite caused a series of combined oxidative stress and apoptosis in M. rosenbergi, but further studies are of great need to explain the mechanisms. PMID:25967939

  16. Simultaneous identification and quantification of 4-cumylphenol, 2,4-bis-(dimethylbenzyl)phenol and bisphenol A in prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Yuegang; Zhu, Zhuo

    2014-07-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), 4-cumylphenol (4-CP) and 2,4-bis-(dimethylbenzyl)phenol (2,4-DCP) are all high production volume chemicals and widely used in plastic and other consumer products. During the past two decades, BPA has attracted a great deal of scientific and public attention due to its presence in the environment and estrogenic property. Although 4-CP and 2,4-DCP are much more estrogenic and toxic than BPA, little information is available about their occurrence and fate in the environment. In this study, a rapid, selective, accurate and reliable analytical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 4-CP, 2,4-DCP and BPA in prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The method comprises an ultrasound-accelerated extraction followed by capillary gas chromatographic (GC) separation. The detection limits range from 1.50 to 36.4 ng kg(-1) for the three alkylphenols. The calibration curves are linear over the concentration range tested with the coefficients of determination, R(2), greater than 0.994. The developed method was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of 4-CP, 2,4-DCP and BPA in prawn samples. The peak identification was confirmed using GC-MS. Bisphenol A, 2,4-bis-(dimethylbenzyl)phenol and 4-cumylphenol were found in prawn samples in the concentration ranges of 0.67-5.51, 0.36-1.61, and 0.00-1.96 ng g(-1) (wet weight), respectively. All relative standard deviations are less than 4.8%. At these environmentally relevant concentration levels, 4-CP, 2,4-DCP and BPA may affect the reproduction and development of aquatic organisms, including negative influence on crustaceans' larval survival, molting, metamorphosis and shell hardening. This is the first study reported on the occurrence of 4-CP, 2,4-DCP and BPA in prawn M. rosenbergii. PMID:24560775

  17. Low pH affects survival, growth, size distribution, and carapace quality of the postlarvae and early juveniles of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Gunzo; Bagarinao, Teodora; Yong, Annita Seok Kian; Chen, Chiau Yu; Noor, Siti Norasidah Mat; Lim, Leong Seng

    2015-06-01

    Acidification of rain water caused by air pollutants is now recognized as a serious threat to aquatic ecosystems. We examined the effects of low pH (control pH 7.5, pH 6, pH 5, pH 4) on the survival, growth, and shell quality of Macrobrachium rosenbergii postlarvae and early juveniles in the laboratory. Hatcheryproduced postlarvae (PL 5) were stocked at 250 PL per aquarium, acclimated over 7 d to experimental pH adjusted with hydrochloric acid, and reared for 30 d. Dead specimens were removed and counted twice a day. After 27 d rearing, all specimens were measured for total length and body weight. Carapace quality was assessed by spectrophotometry. Survival of juveniles was highest at pH 6 (binomial 95% confidence interval 79 - 89%) followed by control pH 7.5 (56 - 68%) and pH 5 (50 - 60%) and was lowest for unmetamorphosed postlarvae and juveniles at pH 4 (43 - 49%). The final median total length and body weight of juveniles were similar at control pH 7.5 (18.2 TL, 50.2 mg BW) and pH 6 (17.7 mm TL, 45.0 mg BW) but significantly less at pH 5 (16.7 mm TL, 38.2 mg BW); at pH 4, the postlarvae did not metamorphose and measured only 9.8 mm TL, 29.3 mg BW. Length frequency distribution showed homogeneous growth at pH 6, positive skew at control pH 7.5 and pH 5, and extreme heterogeneity at pH 4. The carapace showed different transmittance spectra and lower total transmittance (i.e. thicker carapace) in juveniles at pH 7.5, pH 6, and pH 5 than in unmetamorphosed postlarvae and juveniles with thinner carapace at pH 4. Thus, survival, growth, size distribution, and carapace quality of M. rosenbergii postlarvae and early juveniles were negatively affected by pH 5 and especially pH 4. The thinner carapace of the survivors at pH 4 was mostly due to their small size and failure to metamorphose. Natural waters affected by acid rain could decimate M. rosenbergii populations in the wild.

  18. Dietary supplementation of green synthesized manganese-oxide nanoparticles and its effect on growth performance, muscle composition and digestive enzyme activities of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Asaikkutti, Annamalai; Bhavan, Periyakali Saravana; Vimala, Karuppaiya; Karthik, Madhayan; Cheruparambath, Praseeja

    2016-05-01

    The green synthesized Mn3O4 nanoparticles (manganese-oxide nanoparticles) using Ananas comosus (L.) peel extract was characterized by various techniques. HR-SEM photograph showed that manganese-oxide nanoparticles (Mn-oxide NPs) were spherical in shape, with an average size of 40-50nm. The Zeta potential revealed the surface charge of Mn-oxide NPs to be negative. Further, the Mn-oxide NPs were dietary supplemented for freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The experimental basal diets were supplemented with Mn-oxide NPs at the rates of 0 (control), 3.0, 6.0, 9.0, 12, 15 and 18mg/kg dry feed weight. The as-supplemented Mn-oxide NPs were fed in M. rosenbergii for a period of 90 days. The experimental study demonstrated that prawns fed with diet supplemented with 3-18mg Mn-oxide NPs/kg shows enhanced (P<0.05) growth performance, including final weight and weight gain (WG). Significant differences (P<0.05) in feed conversion ratio (FCR) were observed in prawn fed with different diets. Additionally, prawns fed with 3.0-18mg/kg Mn-oxide NPs supplemented diets achieved significant (P<0.05) improvement in growth performance, digestive enzyme activities and muscle biochemical compositions, while, the prawns fed with 16mg/kg of Mn-oxide NPs showed enhanced performance. Prawns fed on diet supplemented with 16mg/kg Mn-oxide NPs showed significantly (P<0.05) higher total protein level. The antioxidants enzymatic activity (SOD and CAT) metabolic enzymes status in muscle and hepatopancreas showed no significant (P>0.05) alterations in prawns fed with 3.0-18mg/kg of Mn-oxide NPs supplemented diets. Consequently, the present work proposed that 16mg/kg of Mn-oxide NPs could be supplemented for flexible enhanced survival, growth and production of M. rosenbergii. Therefore, the data of the present study recommend the addition of 16mg/kg of Mn-oxide NPs diet to developed prawn growth and antioxidant defense system. PMID:27049122

  19. Changes in the levels, expression, and possible roles of serotonin and dopamine during embryonic development in the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Tinikul, Yotsawan; Poljaroen, Jaruwan; Tinikul, Ruchanok; Sobhon, Prasert

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the changes in the levels of serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA), and their possible roles during embryonic development of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The 5-HT and DA concentrations were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD). The levels of 5-HT and DA gradually increased from early developing embryos to late developing embryos. The 5-HT concentrations gradually increased from the pale yellow egg to orange egg stages, and reaching a maximum at the black egg stage. DA concentrations were much lower in the early embryos than those of 5-HT (P<0.05), and gradually increased to reach the highest level at the black egg stage. Immunohistochemically, 5-HT was firstly detected in the early embryonic stages, whereas DA developed later than 5-HT. Functionally, 5-HT-treated female prawns at doses of 2.5×10(-5), 2.5×10(-6) and 2.5×10(-7)mol/prawn, produced embryos with significantly shortened lengths of early embryonic stages, whereas DA-treated prawns at all three doses, exerted its effects by significantly lengthening the period of mid-embryonic stage onwards. These results suggest significant involvement of 5-HT and DA in embryonic developmental processes of this species. PMID:26393313

  20. Cells producing insulin-like androgenic gland hormone of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, proliferate following bilateral eyestalk-ablation.

    PubMed

    Phoungpetchara, Ittipon; Tinikul, Yotsawan; Poljaroen, Jaruwan; Chotwiwatthanakun, Charoonroj; Vanichviriyakit, Rapeepun; Sroyraya, Morakot; Hanna, Peter J; Sobhon, Prasert

    2011-06-01

    We found that the androgenic gland (AG) of Macrobrachium rosenbergii possesses three cell types. Type I cells are small polygonal shaped-cells (13.4 μm in diameter), stain strongly with hematoxylin-eosin (H&E), have abundant multilayered rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER), and nuclei containing mostly heterochromatin. Type II cells are slightly larger (18.6 μm in diameter), stain lightly with H&E, have rER with dilated cisternae, and nuclei containing mostly euchromatin. Type III cells (previously undescribed) are similar in size and shape to type I cells, but the cytoplasm is unstained and they have a high amount of smooth endoplasmic reticulum (sER) and mitochondria with tubular cristae. Bilateral eyestalk-ablation resulted in AG hypertrophy with a proliferation and predominance of type I cells as determined by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) assays. Expression of insulin-like androgenic gland hormone (Mr-IAG), determined by immunohistochemistry, was weak in type I cells, strong in type II cells of both the intact and eyestalk-ablated, and negative in type III cells. It was also detected in spermatogonia, nurse cells, and epithelium lining of the spermatic duct. The function of Mr-IAG in these tissues is yet to be elucidated but the distribution implies a strong role in male reproduction. PMID:21477831

  1. Proteomic analysis of differentially expressed protein in hemocytes of wild giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii infected with infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV).

    PubMed

    Alinejad, T; Bin, Kwong Q; Vejayan, J; Othman, R Y; Bhassu, S

    2015-09-01

    Epizootic diseases cause huge mortality and economical loses at post larvae stages in freshwater prawn aquaculture industry. These prawns seem less susceptible to viral diseases except for infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV). During viral infection in prawns, hemocytes are the primary organ that shows immunological response within the early stages of infection. We applied proteomic approaches to understand differential expression of the proteins in hemocytes during the viral disease outbreak. To aid the goal, we collected Macrobrachium rosenbergii broodstocks from the local grow out hatchery which reported the first incidence of IHHNV viral outbreak during larvae stage. Primarily, application of the OIE primer targeting 389 bp fragments of IHHNV virus was used in identification of the infected and non-infected samples of the prawn breeding line. Analysis of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis showed specific down-regulation of Arginine kinase and Sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein and up/down-regulation of Prophenoloxidase1 and hemocyanin isoforms. These proteins were validated using semi quantitative RT-PCR and gene transcripts at mRNA level. These identified proteins can be used as biomarkers, providing a powerful approach to better understanding of the immunity pathway of viral disease with applications in analytic and observational epidemiology diagnosis. Proteomic profiling allows deep insight into the pathogenesis of IHHNV molecular regulation and mechanism of hemocyte in freshwater prawns. PMID:26106581

  2. L-( sup 3 H) glutamate binding to a membrane preparation from the optic lobe of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man

    SciTech Connect

    Pratumtan, P.; Govitrapong, P.; Withyachumnarnkul, B.; Poolsanguan, B. Mahidol Univ., Nakorn Pathom )

    1991-01-01

    Membrane preparation from the optic lobe of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man, was examined for the presence of specific L-({sup 3}H) glutamate binding. The optic lobes were isolated from live animals. The tissue was homogenized and the membrane fraction isolated by differential centrifugation. The membrane suspension was incubated with 10-1,000 nM of L-({sup 3}H) glutamate at 37{degree}C for 60 min. Nonspecific binding was determined by incubating the mixture with 100 {mu}M L-glutamate. L-({sup 3}H) glutamate specifically bound to the membrane fraction with a dissociation equilibrium constant (Kd) of 205 nM and maximum number of binding sites (Bmax) of 2.04 n mol/mg protein. By using LIGAND computerized program, the saturation isotherm binding pattern indicates a single type of binding. To determine the type of glutamate receptors, competitive inhibition and IC{sub 50} of several glutamate agonists and antagonists were determined. The study reveals a metabotropic type of binding site.

  3. Proteomic analysis of differentially expressed protein in hemocytes of wild giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii infected with infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV)

    PubMed Central

    Alinejad, T.; Bin, Kwong Q.; Vejayan, J.; Othman, R.Y.; Bhassu, S.

    2015-01-01

    Epizootic diseases cause huge mortality and economical loses at post larvae stages in freshwater prawn aquaculture industry. These prawns seem less susceptible to viral diseases except for infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV). During viral infection in prawns, hemocytes are the primary organ that shows immunological response within the early stages of infection. We applied proteomic approaches to understand differential expression of the proteins in hemocytes during the viral disease outbreak. To aid the goal, we collected Macrobrachium rosenbergii broodstocks from the local grow out hatchery which reported the first incidence of IHHNV viral outbreak during larvae stage. Primarily, application of the OIE primer targeting 389 bp fragments of IHHNV virus was used in identification of the infected and non-infected samples of the prawn breeding line. Analysis of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis showed specific down-regulation of Arginine kinase and Sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein and up/down-regulation of Prophenoloxidase1 and hemocyanin isoforms. These proteins were validated using semi quantitative RT-PCR and gene transcripts at mRNA level. These identified proteins can be used as biomarkers, providing a powerful approach to better understanding of the immunity pathway of viral disease with applications in analytic and observational epidemiology diagnosis. Proteomic profiling allows deep insight into the pathogenesis of IHHNV molecular regulation and mechanism of hemocyte in freshwater prawns. PMID:26106581

  4. Evaluation of paraprobiotic applicability of Lactobacillus plantarum in improving the immune response and disease protection in giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man, 1879).

    PubMed

    Dash, Gyanaranjan; Raman, Ram Prakash; Pani Prasad, K; Makesh, M; Pradeep, M A; Sen, Swatipriyanka

    2015-03-01

    Paraprobiotics, also known as ghost probiotics, are non-viable microbial cells which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a benefit on the host. However, the advantage of non-viable microbes over their viable counterparts is a much debated topic in aquaculture. Therefore, the present study was conducted to evaluate paraprobiotic effect of heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum on giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. A 90-day feeding trial was conducted by feeding prawn juveniles (mean weight ± SE: 0.54 ± 0.03 g) with three experimental diets prepared by supplementing basal diet (Crude protein: 38%; Gross energy: 387 kcal 100 g(-1)) with different concentrations of heat-killed probiotics bacteria viz. HKPB1 (10(7) cfu g(-1) diet), HKPB2 (10(8) cfu g(-1) diet), HKPB3 (10(9) cfu g(-1) diet) and control diet (unsupplemented diet). In the present study, growth parameters viz. WG % and SGR and feed utilization parameters viz. FCE, FCR and PER, though improved marginally in all experimental groups, were found to be insignificant (P > 0.05) compared to the control. The immune parameters viz. total hemocyte count (THC), phenol oxidase (PO) activity, respiratory burst (RB) activity and clearance efficiency were significantly improved (P < 0.05) with concurrent decrease (P < 0.05) in cumulative mortality against Aeromonas hydrophila challenge in all the experimental groups except for HKPB1, where PO and RB activity did not improve significantly (P > 0.05) compared to the control. Among the experimental groups, though the improvement in immune parameters was higher (P < 0.05) in HKPB2 and HKPB3 compared to HKPB1 and the control, no significant difference (P > 0.05) was observed between HKPB2 and HKPB3. The results obtained from the present study indicate that the application of heat-killed L. plantarum at a concentration of 10(8) cfu g(-1) diet, though not effective in augmenting the growth and feed utilization parameters, can significantly improve immune parameters and disease resistance of M. rosenbergii in the laboratory condition. PMID:25542379

  5. The acute modulation of norepinephrine on immune responses and genes expressions via adrenergic receptors in the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Tsai, Wan-Lin; Jiang, Jia-Rong; Cheng, Winton

    2015-10-01

    Norepinephrine (NE), immunocompetent parameters (total haemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory burst (RB), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency to Lactococcus garvieae), and prophenoloxidase (proPO) system-related genes (lipopolysaccharide- and β-1,3-glucan-binding protein, LGBP; prophenoloxidase, proPO; peroxinectin, PE; α2-macroglobulin, α2-M) expressions were investigated in Macrobrachium rosenbergii received NE through injection at 50 pmol/prawn after 0, 30, 60, and 120 min. Furthermore, the PO activity, RB, SOD activity, phagocytic activity and proPO system-related genes expressions were determined in haemocytes incubated with cacodylate buffer (CAC), NE, and NE co-treated with various adrenergic receptor (AR) antagonists in vitro. Results showed that NE, THC, granular cells, PO activity, SOD activity, proPO system-related genes expressions, and phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency to L. garvieae increased; PO activity per granulocyte and RB per haemocyte decreased from 30 to 120 min; semigranular cells and RB increased in the initial 30 min, and then decreased at 120 min when the prawns received NE by injection. In vitro studies, all the determined immune parameters and genes expressions were significantly decreased in haemocytes incubated with NE after 30 min. The negative effects of NE were prevented on the PO activity and phagocytic activity by the β-AR antagonist of metoprolol (Met), on the SOD activity by the β-AR antagonist of propranolol (Pro), on the RB by the β-AR antagonist of Met and prazosin (Pra), and on the proPO system-related genes expressions by α-AR antagonist of Pra. These results show that NE modulates prawn haemocytes proPO system-related genes expressions via α1-AR, PO activity and phagocytosis via β1-AR, respiratory burst via α1-and β1-ARs, and SOD activity via β2-AR. It is concluded that NE stimulates the regulation of immunocompetence parameters and proPO system-related genes expressions in an acute response to maintain homeostasis of M. rosenbergii, which is primarily mediated through α1-, β1-and β2-ARs. PMID:26210701

  6. Responses of three very large inducible GTPases to bacterial and white spot syndrome virus challenges in the giant fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Jin, Min; Yin, Shaowu; Ding, Zhengfeng; Wang, Wen; Ren, Qian

    2016-04-01

    Interferons (IFNs) are cytokines secreted by cells in response to invasion by pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, or tumor cells. Very large inducible GTPases (VLIG) are the latest IFN-inducible GTPase family to be discovered and are the largest known GTPases of any species. However, VLIG proteins from invertebrates have yet to be characterized. In this study, three forms of VLIGs designated as MrVLIG1, MrVLIG2, and MrVLIG3 were cloned from the giant fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. MrVLIG1 has a 5445 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding an 1814-amino acid protein. The complete nucleotide sequence of MrVLIG2 cDNA is 7055 bp long consisting of a 5757 bp ORF encoding a protein with 1918 amino acids. The full length of the MrVLIG3 gene consists of 5511 bp with a 3909 bp ORF encoding a peptide with 1302 amino acids. BLASTP and phylogenetic tree analyses showed that the three MrVLIGs are clustered into one subgroup and, together with other vertebrate VLIGs, into a branch. Tissue distribution analysis indicated that the mRNAs of the three MrVLIGs were widely expressed in almost all detected tissues, including the hemocytes, heart, hepatopancreas, gills, stomach, and intestine, with the highest expression in the hepatopancreas. They were also detected in the intestine but with relatively low expression levels. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that the mRNA transcripts of the MrVLIGs in the hepatopancreas were significantly expressed at various time points after infection with Vibrio parahaemolyticus and white spot syndrome virus. In summary, the three isoforms of VLIG genes participate in the innate immune response of the shrimps to bacterial and viral infections. PMID:26850335

  7. Preliminary obervations on use of ethanol distiller's by-products for polyculture of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) and golden shiner (Notemigonus crysoleucas)

    SciTech Connect

    Kohler, C.C.; Lewis, W.M.; Krueger, S.P.

    1983-01-01

    Two major by-products of ethanol distillation, corn distiller's solubles and corn distiller's mash, were evaluated for their potential use as a food source for freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) and golden shiner (Notemigonus crysoleucas) in mid-western United States. Corn distiller's solubles were not found to be highly toxic to aquatic organisms at concentrations ranging up to 10,000 ppM. However, the high biological oxygen demand of the material requires that single applications not exceed 2000 ppM. Yield trials were conducted over a four month period in five 0.1 ha earthen ponds, located in proximity to an ethanol distillery. Each pond was stocked with 2000 postlarval shrimp (0.02 g mean weight). Three of these ponds were also each stocked with 75 adult golden shiner (27.0 g mean weight). One application of corn distiller's solubles (equivalent to approx. 2000 ppM) and three applications of corn distiller's mash (approx. 5 kg/application) were made over the course of the yield trails (approx. 120 days). No other food or fertilizer was added to the ponds. Survival of shrimp ranged from 34 to 75%. Survival of brood fish exceeded 90%. Mean weight of shrimp at harvest was approximately 12 g, and average production was equivalent to approximately 104 kg ha/sup -1/. Golden shiner reared in the same ponds as shrimp had production rates equivalent to approxmately 130 kg ha/sup -1/. The presence of fish did not appear to impede shrimp production. Although production results of fish and shrimp were encouraging, several factors existed which impeded production; these included: (1) little by-product was applied to ponds because the distillery was undergoing its shakedown period; (2) ponds were new and had minimal natural productivity; (3) grass was not fully established on the watershed and ponds became turbid; and (4) lower than normal temperatures prevailed over much of the growing period. 11 references, 2 figures, 8 tables.

  8. Changes of Phosphatidylcholine and Fatty Acids in Germ Cells during Testicular Maturation in Three Developmental Male Morphotypes of Macrobrachium rosenbergii Revealed by Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Siangcham, Tanapan; Chansela, Piyachat; Hayasaka, Takahiro; Masaki, Noritaka; Sroyraya, Morakot; Poljaroen, Jaruwan; Suwansa-ard, Saowaros; Engsusophon, Attakorn; Hanna, Peter J.; Sobhon, Prasert; Setou, Mitsutoshi

    2015-01-01

    Testis maturation, germ cell development and function of sperm, are related to lipid composition. Phosphatidylcholines (PCs) play a key role in the structure and function of testes. As well, increases of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA), especially arachidonic acid (ARA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are essential for male fertility. This study is the first report to show the composition and distribution of PCs and total fatty acids (FAs) in three groups of seminiferous tubules (STs) classified by cellular associations [i.e., A (STs with mostly early germ cells), B (STs with mostly spermatids), and C (STs with spermatozoa)], in three morphotypes of Macrobrachium rosenbergii, [i.e., small male (SM), orange claw male (OC), and blue claw male (BC)]. Thin layer chromatography exhibited levels of PCs reaching maxima in STs of group B. Imaging mass spectrometry showed remarkably high signals corresponding to PC (16:0/18:1), PC (18:0/18:2), PC (18:2/20:5), and PC (16:0/22:6) in STs of groups A and B. Moreover, most signals were detected in the early developing cells and the intertubular area, but not at the area containing spermatozoa. Finally, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry indicated that the major FAs present in the testes were composed of 14:0, 16:0, 17:0, 18:0, 16:1, 18:1, 18:2, 20:1, 20:2, 20:4, 20:5, and 22:6. The testes of OC contained the greatest amounts of these FAs while the testes of BC contained the least amounts of these FAs, and there was more EPA (20:5) in the testes of SM and OC than those in the BC. The increasing amounts of FAs in the SM and OC indicate that they are important for spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis. This knowledge will be useful in formulating diets containing PUFA and HUFA for prawn broodstocks in order to improve testis development, and lead to increased male fecundity. PMID:25781176

  9. Dietary supplement of banana (Musa acuminata) peels hot-water extract to enhance the growth, anti-hypothermal stress, immunity and disease resistance of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Rattanavichai, Wutti; Cheng, Winton

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, Macrobrachium rosenbergii were fed with diets containing extracts of banana, Musa acuminate, fruit's peel (banana peels extract, BPE) at 0, 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1). The non-specific immune parameters, disease resistance and anti-hypothermal stress were evaluated at 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 days of post feeding. Also, we demonstrated the percent weight gain (PWG), percent length gain (PLG), feeding efficiency (FE), and survival rate of giant freshwater prawn at 30, 60, 90, and 120 days of post feeding. The PWG, PLG, FE and survival rate of prawns fed at 0, 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1) BPE-containing diets after 120 days were 69.5%, 75.4%, 77.8% and 83.3%; 21.8%, 23.6%, 27.8% and 33.9%; 0.60, 0.72, 0.75 and 0.90; and 55.4%, 62.2%, 62.3% and 75.3%, respectively. After 32 days of post feeding, a significant increase in total haemocyte count (THC), different haemocyte count (DHC), respiratory bursts (RBs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, phenoloxidase (PO) activity and transglutaminase (TG) activity, and meanwhile, a decreased haemolymph coagulation time was observed. Furthermore, phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency of prawns against Lactococcus garvieae infection were significantly increased. Prawns challenged with L. garvieae after 32 days of feeding at 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1) had a significantly higher survival rate (33.3%, 40.0% and 56.7%) than those fed with the control diet. Subsequently, hypothermal (14 °C) stress was 43.4%, 50.0% and 50.0%, respectively. Altogether, we therefore recommend the dietary BPE administration at 6.0 g kg(-1) promotes growth, anti-hypothermal stress, and enhance immunity and resistance against L. garvieae in M. rosenbergii. PMID:25634258

  10. Macrobrachium rosenbergii mannose binding lectin: synthesis of MrMBL-N20 and MrMBL-C16 peptides and their antimicrobial characterization, bioinformatics and relative gene expression analysis.

    PubMed

    Arockiaraj, Jesu; Chaurasia, Mukesh Kumar; Kumaresan, Venkatesh; Palanisamy, Rajesh; Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Pasupuleti, Mukesh; Kasi, Marimuthu

    2015-04-01

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL), an antimicrobial protein, is an important component of innate immune system which recognizes repetitive sugar groups on the surface of bacteria and viruses leading to activation of the complement system. In this study, we reported a complete molecular characterization of cDNA encoded for MBL from freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Mr). Two short peptides (MrMBL-N20: (20)AWNTYDYMKREHSLVKPYQG(39) and MrMBL-C16: (307)GGLFYVKHKEQQRKRF(322)) were synthesized from the MrMBL polypeptide. The purity of the MrMBL-N20 (89%) and MrMBL-C16 (93%) peptides were confirmed by MS analysis (MALDI-ToF). The purified peptides were used for further antimicrobial characterization including minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay, kinetics of bactericidal efficiency and analysis of hemolytic capacity. The peptides exhibited antimicrobial activity towards all the Gram-negative bacteria taken for analysis, whereas they showed the activity towards only a few selected Gram-positive bacteria. MrMBL-C16 peptides produced the highest inhibition towards both the Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria compared to the MrMBL-N20. Both peptides do not produce any inhibition against Bacillus sps. The kinetics of bactericidal efficiency showed that the peptides drastically reduced the number of surviving bacterial colonies after 24 h incubation. The results of hemolytic activity showed that both peptides produced strong activity at higher concentration. However, MrMBL-C16 peptide produced the highest activity compared to the MrMBL-N20 peptide. Overall, the results indicated that the peptides can be used as bactericidal agents. The MrMBL protein sequence was characterized using various bioinformatics tools including phylogenetic analysis and structure prediction. We also reported the MrMBL gene expression pattern upon viral and bacterial infection in M. rosenbergii gills. It could be concluded that the prawn MBL may be one of the important molecule which is involved in antimicrobial mechanism. Moreover, MrMBL derived MrMBL-N20 and MrMBL-C16 peptides are important antimicrobial peptides for the recognition and eradication of viral and bacterial pathogens. PMID:25575476

  11. The effect of banana (Musa acuminata) peels hot-water extract on the immunity and resistance of giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii via dietary administration for a long term: Activity and gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Rattanavichai, Wutti; Chen, Ying-Nan; Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Cheng, Winton

    2015-10-01

    The non-specific immune parameters, disease resistance and immune genes expressions in Macrobrachium rosenbergii were evaluated at 120 days of post feeding the diets containing the extracts of banana, Musa acuminate, fruit's peel (banana peels extract, BPE) at 0, 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1). Results showed that prawns fed with a diet containing BPE at the level of 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1) for 120 days had a significantly higher survival rate (30.0%, 40.0% and 56.7%, respectively) than those fed with the control diet after challenge with Lactococcus garvieae for 144 h, and the respective relative survival percentages were 22.2%, 33.3%, and 51.9%, respectively. Dietary BPE supplementation at 3.0 and/or 6.0 g kg(-1) for 120 days showed a significant increase total haemocyte count (THC), granular cell (GC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, phenoloxidase (PO) activity, transglutaminase (TG) activity, and phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency to L. garvieae infection, and meanwhile, the significant decrease in haemolymph clotting times and respiratory bursts (RBs) per haemocyte of prawns were revealed. Furthermore, the mRNA expressions of prophenoloxidase (proPO), lipopolysaccharide and β-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP), peroxinectin (PE), transglutaminase (TG), and crustin (CT) were significantly increased. We therefore recommend that BPE can be used as an immunomodulator for prawns through dietary administration at 6.0 g kg(-1) for a long term (over 120 days) to modify immune responses and genes expression following the enhanced resistance against pathogens. PMID:26118934

  12. Identification of novel allergen in edible insect, Gryllus bimaculatus and its cross-reactivity with Macrobrachium spp. allergens.

    PubMed

    Srinroch, Chutima; Srisomsap, Chantragan; Chokchaichamnankit, Daranee; Punyarit, Phaibul; Phiriyangkul, Pharima

    2015-10-01

    Edible insects have recently been promoted as a source of protein and have a high nutrition value. Identification of allergens and cross-reactivity between Macrobrachium spp. and the field cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus) is necessary for food safety control and to assist in the diagnosis and therapy of allergy symptoms. Denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was used to separate proteins. Allergens were determined and identified by IgE-immunoblotting with pooled sera from prawn-allergic patients (n=16) and LC-MS/MS. Arginine kinase (AK) and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) were determined as the important allergens in muscle of Macrobrachium rosenbergii whereas, hemocyanin (HC) was identified as an allergen in Macrobrachium spp. The allergens in Macrobrachium lanchesteri were identified as AK and HC. In addition, hexamerin1B (HEX1B) was identified as a novel and specific allergen in G. bimaculatus. The important allergen in G. bimaculatus and Macrobrachium spp. is AK and was found to cross-react between both species. PMID:25872439

  13. Regulation of laboratory populations of snails (Biomphalaria and Bulinus spp.) by river prawns, Macrobrachium spp. (Decapoda, Palaemonidae): implications for control of schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kuris, Armand M.

    2014-01-01

    Human schistosomiasis is a common parasitic disease endemic in many tropical and subtropical countries. One barrier to achieving long-term control of this disease has been re-infection of treated patients when they swim, bathe, or wade in surface fresh water infested with snails that harbor and release larval parasites. Because some snail species are obligate intermediate hosts of schistosome parasites, removing snails may reduce parasitic larvae in the water, reducing re-infection risk. Here, we evaluate the potential for snail control by predatory freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii and M. vollenhovenii, native to Asia and Africa, respectively. Both prawn species are high value, protein-rich human food commodities, suggesting their cultivation may be beneficial in resource-poor settings where few other disease control options exist. In a series of predation trials in laboratory aquaria, we found both species to be voracious predators of schistosome-susceptible snails, hatchlings, and eggs, even in the presence of alternative food, with sustained average consumption rates of 12% of their body weight per day. Prawns showed a weak preference for Bulinus truncatus over Biomphalaria glabrata snails. Consumption rates were highly predictable based on the ratio of prawn: snail body mass, suggesting satiation-limited predation. Even the smallest prawns tested (0.5–2g) caused snail recruitment failure, despite high snail fecundity. With the World Health Organization turning attention toward schistosomiasis elimination, native prawn cultivation may be a viable snail control strategy that offers a win-win for public health and economic development. PMID:24388955

  14. Acute toxicity of organochlorine insecticide endosulfan to the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrochium rosenbergii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Xilin; Xiong, Zhaodi; Xie, Jian; Ding, Fujiang

    2014-01-01

    Endosulfan, an organochlorine pesticide, is highly toxic and effective at controlling pests in agriculture, horticulture, and public health programs. In this study, static bioassays were used to evaluate the toxicity of endosulfan to freshwater prawns ( Macrobrachium rosenbergii) of various lengths (1.5±0.03, 4±0.08, and 7±0.06 cm). Additionally, the activities of peroxidase (POD), acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and Na+/K+-ATPase were analyzed to reflect the effects of endosulfan exposure. The 96 h LC50 of endosulfan for prawns 1.5, 4, and 7 cm long were 1.86, 4.53, and 6.09 μg/L, respectively, improved tolerance to endosulfan with growth. The POD activities of test organisms exposed to low concentrations of endosulfan were inhibited, indicating the presence of oxygen damaged tissue. Moreover, a notable decrease in AChE activity was observed due to overstimulation of neurotransmission, which might result in abnormal behavior. The effect caused by endosulfan on phosphatase production in the hepatopancreas of prawns 1.5, 4, and 7 cm long was different because the ability of nonspecific immune regulation increased with growth. The 96 h LC50 values obtained in this study could be used in the formulation of water-quality criteria in China. Moreover, the changes in enzymes activities of M. rosenbergii under stress of endosulfan could be applied in the establishment of early warning indicators for bio-safety.

  15. Effect of salt treatments on survival and consumer acceptance of freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Post harvest acclimation of live freshwater prawns to a mixture of water and marine salt increases the consumer acceptability of the finished product. However, the high cost of marine salts prohibits their use in commercial practice. Therefore, the identification of successful, cost effective salt a...

  16. Two Kazal-type protease inhibitors from Macrobrachium nipponense and Eriocheir sinensis: comparative analysis of structure and activities.

    PubMed

    Qian, Ye-Qing; Li, Ye; Yang, Fan; Yu, Yan-Qin; Yang, Jin-Shu; Yang, Wei-Jun

    2012-03-01

    Kazal-type inhibitors (KPIs) play important roles in many biological and physiological processes, such as blood clotting, the immune response and reproduction. In the present study, two male reproductive tract KPIs, termed Man-KPI and Ers-KPI, were identified in Macrobrachium nipponense and Eriocheir sinensis, respectively. The inhibitory activities of recombinant Man-KPI and Ers-KPI against chymotrypsin, elastase, trypsin and thrombin were determined. The results showed that both of them strongly inhibit chymotrypsin and elastase. Kinetic studies were performed to elucidate their inhibition mechanism. Furthermore, individual domains were also expressed to learn further which domain contributes to the inhibitory activities of intact KPIs. Only Man-KPI_domain3 is active in the inhibition of chymotrypsin and elastase. Meanwhile, Ers-KPI_domain2 and 3 are responsible for inhibition of chymotrypsin, and Ers-KPI_domains2, 3 and 4 are responsible for the inhibition of elastase. Meanwhile, the inhibitory activities of these two KPIs toward Macrobrachium rosenbergii, M. nipponense and E. sinensis sperm were compared with that of the Kazal-type peptidase inhibitor (MRPINK) characterized from the M. rosenbergii reproductive tract in a previous study. The results demonstrated that KPIs can completely inhibit the gelatinolytic activities of sperm proteases from their own species, while different levels of cross-inhibition were observed between KPI and proteases from different species. These results may provide new perspective to further clarify the mechanism of KPI-proteases interaction in the male reproductive system. PMID:22200638

  17. Identification of five anti-lipopolysaccharide factors in oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yili; Tang, Ting; Gu, Jihai; Li, Xiang; Yang, Xue; Gao, Xiaobin; Liu, Fengsong; Wang, Jianhui

    2015-10-01

    Anti-lipopolysaccharide factors (ALFs) are a group of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities and antiviral activities mainly found in crustaceans and horseshoe crabs. In the present study, we identified 5 ALF expression sequence tags (ESTs) through analysis of the established M. nipponense transcriptome, and cloned their full-length cDNA sequences using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method. The 5 ALFs were designated as MnALF1-5, and all of them showed high similarity with their Macrobrachium rosenbergii homologs in the phylogenetic analyses, especially in LPS binding domains. In healthy adult prawns, we found the highest expression of MnALF2 and MnALF4 in haemocytes, and the highest expression of MnALF4 and MnALF3 in intestine. Some isoforms of MnALF were down-regulated but the majority was up-regulated in different prawn tissues upon Aeromonas hydrophila challenge. To conform the expected antimicrobial activities harbored in MnALFs' LPS binding domains, we used a synthesized peptide cMnALF24 that corresponds to the LPS binding domain of MnALF2 as a representative molecule for the antibacterial activity test, and found that cMnALF24 possessed strong and broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, but no inhibition activity against fungi; Meanwhile, in the hemolytic test, cMnALF24 showed weak hemolysis activities (around 10%) to the rabbit red blood cells at concentrations of 0.67-33.50 μM. This study provides insights into understanding the antibacterial function of ALFs in the innate immunity of freshwater prawn, and reports a peptide that can be a potential drug candidate with good efficacy against bacterial infection and low toxicity to host cells. PMID:26159095

  18. Molecular perspective on the American transisthmian species of Macrobrachium (Caridea, Palaemonidae)

    PubMed Central

    Pileggi, Leonardo G.; Rossi, Natália; Wehrtmann, Ingo S.; Mantelatto, Fernando L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The closure of the Isthmus of Panama (about 3.1 million years ago) separated previously continuous populations and created two groups of extant species, which live now in the Pacific and Atlantic drainage systems. This relatively recent event was a trigger to diversification of various species in the Neotropics, nonetheless there are exemplars that do not show sufficient morphologic variability to separate them by traditional morphological tools. About 60 years ago, some freshwater decapod species with high morphological similarity were separate by previous researchers, based on geographical distribution, in Pacific and Atlantic and considered as “sister species”. However, the complete isolation of these prawns by this geographical barrier is questionable, and it has generated doubts about the status of the following transisthmian pairs of sibling species: Macrobrachium occidentale × Macrobrachium heterochirus, Macrobrachium americanum × Macrobrachium carcinus, Macrobrachium digueti × Macrobrachium olfersii, Macrobrachium hancocki × Macrobrachium crenulatum, Macrobrachium tenellum × Macrobrachium acanthurus and Macrobrachium panamense × Macrobrachium amazonicum. Here we evaluated the relation among these pairs of sibling species in a molecular phylogenetic context. We generated 95 new sequences: 26 sequences of 16S rDNA, 25 of COI mtDNA and 44 of 18S nDNA. In total, 181 sequences were analyzed by maximum likelihood phylogenetic method, including 12 Macrobrachium transisthmian species, as well as seven other American Macrobrachium species, and two other palaemonids. Our analysis corroborated the morphological proximity of the sibling species. Despite the high degree of morphological similarities and considerable genetic diversification encountered among the transisthmian sister species, our data support the conclusion that all species included in sibling groups studied herein are valid taxonomic entities, but not all pairs of siblings form natural groups. PMID:25561833

  19. Effects of hot-water extract of banana (Musa acuminata) fruit's peel on the antibacterial activity, and anti-hypothermal stress, immune responses and disease resistance of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbegii.

    PubMed

    Rattanavichai, Wutti; Cheng, Winton

    2014-08-01

    The hot-extracts isolated from fruit's peel of banana, Musa acuminata, was evaluated on the antibacterial activity to pathogens from aquatic animals, and immunostimulating potential, disease resistance and anti-hypothermal stress in giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii through injection administration. The banana peel extract (BPE) showed good activity against 1 Gram-positive and 3 Gram-negative pathogens, including Lactococcus garvieae, Photobacteria damsella, Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio parahemolyticus especially in prawn pathogen of L. garvieae strain, which were carried out by a disk diffusion method. Prawn received BPE via injection administration at 1-6 μg (g prawn)(-1) significantly increased total haemocyte count (THC), hyaline cell (HC), granular cell (GC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity and phagocytic activity against L. garvieae from 3 to 6 days, and significantly increased clearance efficiency against L. garvieae and a significantly decreased coagulation time of prawn from 1 to 6 days. Prawn injected with BPE at 6.0 μg (g prawn)(-1) for 6 days showed significantly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, but significantly decreased respiratory bursts (RBs) of per haemocyte. Survival rates of M. rosenbergii injected with BPE at concentrations of 1, 3 and 6 μg (g prawn)(-1) were significantly higher than those injected with saline control after challenge with L. garvieae for 4-6 days, and the respective relative survival percentages of prawn were 28.6%, 38.1%, and 47.8%, respectively at 6 days. The sublethal time of prawns that had received saline and BPE at 1, 3 and 6 μg (g prawn)(-1) for 6 days and then were transferred from 28 °C to 14 °C were 69.4, 79.8, 83.6, and 90.2 h, respectively. It was concluded that the BPE can be used as the bacteriostat, and immunostimulant and physiological regulator for prawn through injection administration to enhance immunity, physiological responses, and resistance against L. garvieae. PMID:24906123

  20. Genetic variability and phylogenetic aspects in species of the genus Macrobrachium.

    PubMed

    Guerra, A L; Lima, A V B; Lucato Júnior, R V; Chiachio, M C; Taddei, F G; Castiglioni, L

    2014-01-01

    The genus Macrobrachium includes prawns, which are widely distributed in lakes, floodplains, and rivers in tropical and subtropical regions of South America. This genus presents nearly 210 known species with great ecological and economic importance. However, few studies are related to the biology of these crustaceans. In this study, we analyzed the genetic variability and phylogenetic relationship between Macrobrachium amazonicum and Macrobrachium jelskii, which are closely related species. Additionally, they are syntopics and their taxonomy poses problems because it is difficult to differentiate between the species. We used the mitochondrial gene sequences COI and 16S rRNA to assess the genetic structure of these species in 3 populations that were collected from Tiete hydrographic basin (São Paulo State, Brazil). The interspecific comparison of samples that were collected at the same and different locations showed a low rate of genetic variability. This similarity was attributed to the recent introduction of these species in the regions that were sampled and the habitat conditions in which they inhabit. In addition, these results may be consistent with the hypothesis that they are a single species, interspecific hybrids, or metapopulation. The dendrogram analyses did not reveal the formation of clusters, confirming the disturbances in the genetic structure of the samples that were analyzed in this study. These data are pioneers to these crustaceans, and they confirm the ecological and evolutionary problems between these Macrobrachium species. PMID:24854444

  1. A new species of Macrobrachium Spence Bate, 1868 (Decapoda, Palaemonidae), M. pantanalense, from the Pantanal, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Antonina; Hayd, Liliam; Anger, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    The neotropical species Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller, 1862) is considered a particularly successful species, showing an extremely wide range of distribution (ca 4.000 km across). Populations assigned to this species live in estuaries along the northern and northeastern coasts of South America as well as in fresh water habitats in the Amazon, Orinoco and Paraná-Paraguay river basins. Following recent comparative studies that showed differential ecological, reproductive, developmental and physiological traits in geographically separated populations from the Amazon delta and the Pantanal region, Brazil, we examined the morphology of adult shrimps from these two regions. Based on significant differences, we conclude that the Pantanal population constitutes a new species, which is described here as Macrobrachium pantanalense. The main differences between M. amazonicum and the new species have been found in the morphology of the second pereiopod, the telson, and in the color patterns of both males and females. A modification on the key of American species of Macrobrachium is provided to accommodate the new species. PMID:26106741

  2. Macrobrachium indianum (Decapoda: Palaemonidae), a new species of hill stream prawn from Pambar River, Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Pillai, P M; Unnikrishnan, V; Prasannan, K

    2015-01-01

    Macrobrachium indianum new species is described from the Pambar River, Kerala, S. India. The species shares certain characters with M. gurudeve Jayachandran & Raji, 2004, M. bombayense Almelker & Sankolli, 2006 and M. kulkarnii Almelker & Sankolli, 2006, while it differs remarkably from these three species in distinctive diagnostic characters: rostral formula 7-8/3-4 with 1 postorbital teeth, one tooth above orbit; carapace smooth with distal end of rostrum directed downwards; cephalothorax longer than rostrum; in second chelate leg, proximal cutting edge of movable finger with two weak denticles, one weak denticle in immovable finger, carpus longer than merus, merus shorter than propodus and longer than ischium; dactylus the shortest podomere. Five thick and a few thin reddish brown bands of chromatophores are seen on carapace. Pigmentation is found mid and ventro-laterally on abdominal segments, pereiopods have chromatophores at the distal part of podomeres. PMID:25947453

  3. Complete larval development of the Monkey River Prawn Macrobrachium lar (Palaemonidae) using a novel greenwater technique.

    PubMed

    Lal, Monal M; Seeto, Johnson; Pickering, Timothy D

    2014-01-01

    This study documents the complete larval development of the Monkey River Prawn Macrobrachium lar using a new greenwater rearing technique. Approximately 6,000 larvae were reared for 110 days at an initial stocking density of 1 ind./6 L. Salinity at hatch was 10 ± 2 ppt and progressively increased to 30 ± 2 ppt until decapodids had metamorphosed. Temperature was maintained at 28 ± 0.5°C, pH at 7.8 ± 0.2, DO2 > 6.5 mg/L and NH(4+) and NH3 ≤ 1.5 and ≤0.1 ppm respectively throughout the culture period. Larval development was extended and occurred through 13 zoeal stages, with the first decapodid measuring 6.2 ± 0.63 mm in total length observed after 77 days. 5 decapodids in total were produced, and overall survival to this stage was 0.08%. Overall, the pattern of larval growth shares similarities with those of other Macrobrachium spp. that have a prolonged/normal type of development, and it is likely that larvae underwent mark time moulting which contributed to the lengthened development duration. While this study represents a significant breakthrough in efforts to domesticate M. lar, improvement of larval survival rates and decreased time till metamorphosis are required before it can become fully viable for commercial scale aquaculture. PMID:25332868

  4. Bioaccumulation and retention kinetics of cadmium in the freshwater decapod Macrobrachium australiense.

    PubMed

    Cresswell, Tom; Simpson, Stuart L; Smith, Ross E W; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Mazumder, Debashish; Twining, John

    2014-03-01

    The potential sources and mechanisms of cadmium bioaccumulation by the native freshwater decapods Macrobrachium species in the waters of the highly turbid Strickland River in Papua New Guinea were examined using (109)Cd-labelled water and food sources and the Australian species Macrobrachium australiense as a surrogate. Synthetic river water was spiked with environmentally relevant concentrations of cadmium and animals were exposed for 7 days with daily renewal of test solutions. Dietary assimilation of cadmium was assessed through pulse-chase experiments where prawns were fed separately (109)Cd-labelled fine sediment, filamentous algae and carrion (represented by cephalothorax tissue of water-exposed prawns). M. australiense readily accumulated cadmium from the dissolved phase and the uptake rate increased linearly with increasing exposure concentration. A cadmium uptake rate constant of 0.10 0.05 L/g/d was determined in synthetic river water. During depuration following exposure to dissolved cadmium, efflux rates were low (0.9 5%/d) and were not dependent on exposure concentration. Assimilation efficiencies of dietary sources were comparable for sediment and algae (48-51%), but lower for carrion (28 5%) and efflux rates were low (0.2-2.6%/d) demonstrating that cadmium was well retained by M. australiense. A biokinetic model of cadmium accumulation by M. australiense predicted that for exposures to environmentally relevant cadmium concentrations in the Strickland River, uptake from ingestion of fine sediment and carrion would be the predominant sources of cadmium to the organism. The model predicted the total dietary route would represent 70-80% of bioaccumulated cadmium. PMID:24508761

  5. Development and functional morphology of the mouthparts and foregut in larvae and post-larvae of Macrobrachium jelskii (Decapoda: Palaemonidae).

    PubMed

    Rocha, Cristina Pantoja; Souza, Adelson Silva de; Maciel, Murilo; Maciel, Cristiana R; Abrunhosa, Fernando Araújo

    2016-05-01

    The morphology of the mouthparts and foregut of the larvae and post-larvae of Macrobrachium jelskii was investigated to determine their functional roles in feeding, in order to understand the larval feeding behaviour and the changes that occur during its development. The mouthparts and foregut of the zoea I and II are morphologically similar, rudimentary and non-functional in feeding. Only in the final larval stage, zoea III, do the external mouthparts and foregut become structurally more complex and thus likely to play a potential role in feeding. Two behavioral trials (point of no return, point of reserve saturation) evaluated the resistance to starvation in zoea I, II, and III. The results indicate that they have sufficient nutritional reserves to permit them to complete metamorphosis without feeding. Overall, our results suggest that the zoea I and II of Macrobrachium jelskii engage in obligate lecithotrophy and zoea III in facultative lecithotrophy. PMID:26899315

  6. A molecular approach towards the taxonomy of fresh water prawns Macrobrachium striatum and M. equidens (Decapoda, Palaemonidae) using mitochondrial markers.

    PubMed

    Jose, Deepak; Nidhin, B; Anil Kumar, K P; Pradeep, P J; Harikrishnan, M

    2016-07-01

    Genus Macrobrachium includes freshwater prawns which inhabit most diverse habitats ranging from low saline areas to inland hill streams and impounded water bodies. Being morphologically conserved, this genus has been exposed to severe disputes related to their taxonomy, systematics and phylogeny. Macrobrachium striatum and M. equidens represent two morphologically related congeneric species within this genus. Earlier, M. striatum was considered as a striped form of M. equidens. Though these species are now well-described morphologically and differentiated into two species, no molecular level investigation has been carried out in support of their speciation. We report a study on M. striatum and M. equidens with emphasis to their molecular data through mitochondrial markers (16S ribosomal RNA and cytochrome oxidase subunit I). Results obtained from developed molecular markers of the two species revealed considerable genetic differentiation between them. Phylogram generated using Minimum evolution and Neighbour joining analyses differentiated M. striatum and M. equidens as two independent species. Genetic distance data showed high interspecific divergence (ranging from 3.9% to 17.0% for 16S rRNA sequences and 13.8% to 21.0% for COI sequences) between M. striatum and M. equidens confirming the findings of phylogram. Hence, it could be delineated that M. striatum and M. equidens represent two distinct species within genus Macrobrachium with emphasis to their morphology and genetics. PMID:26119113

  7. Cultivation of parasites

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Nishat Hussain

    2014-01-01

    Parasite cultivation techniques constitute a substantial segment of present-day study of parasites, especially of protozoa. Success in establishing in vitro and in vivo culture of parasites not only allows their physiology, behavior and metabolism to be studied dynamically, but also allows the nature of the antigenic molecules in the excretory and secretory products to be vigorously pursued and analyzed. The complex life-cycles of various parasites having different stages and host species requirements, particularly in the case of parasitic helminths, often make parasite cultivation an uphill assignment. Culturing of parasites depends on the combined expertise of all types of microbiological cultures. Different parasites require different cultivation conditions such as nutrients, temperature and even incubation conditions. Cultivation is an important method for diagnosis of many clinically important parasites, for example, Entamoeba histolytica, Trichomonas vaginalis, Leishmania spp., Strongyloides stercoralis and free-living amoebae. Many commercial systems like InPouch TV for T. vaginalis, microaerophilous stationary phase culture for Babesia bovis and Harada-Mori culture technique for larval-stage nematodes have been developed for the rapid diagnosis of the parasitic infections. Cultivation also has immense utility in the production of vaccines, testing vaccine efficacy, and antigen - production for obtaining serological reagents, detection of drug-resistance, screening of potential therapeutic agents and conducting epidemiological studies. Though in vitro cultivation techniques are used more often compared with in vivo techniques, the in vivo techniques are sometimes used for diagnosing some parasitic infections such as trypanosomiasis and toxoplasmosis. Parasite cultivation continues to be a challenging diagnostic option. This review provides an overview of intricacies of parasitic culture and update on popular methods used for cultivating parasites. PMID:25250227

  8. Bioaccumulation kinetics and organ distribution of cadmium and zinc in the freshwater decapod crustacean Macrobrachium australiense.

    PubMed

    Cresswell, Tom; Simpson, Stuart L; Mazumder, Debashish; Callaghan, Paul D; Nguyen, An P

    2015-01-20

    This study used the radioisotopes (109)Cd and (65)Zn to explore the uptake, retention and organ distribution of these nonessential and essential metals from solution by the freshwater decapod crustacean Macrobrachium australiense. Three treatments consisting of cadmium alone, zinc alone, and a mixture of cadmium and zinc were used to determine the differences in uptake and efflux rates of each metal individually and in the metal mixture over a three-week period, followed by depuration for 2 weeks in metal-free water using live-animal gamma-spectrometry. Following exposure, prawns were cryosectioned and the spatial distribution of radionuclides visualized using autoradiography. Metal uptake and efflux rates were the same in the individual and mixed-metal exposures, and efflux rates were close to zero. The majority of cadmium uptake was localized within the gills and hepatopancreas, while zinc accumulated in the antennal gland at concentrations orders of magnitude greater than in other organs. This suggested that M. australiense may process zinc much faster than cadmium by internally transporting the accumulated zinc to the antennal gland. The combination of uptake studies and autoradiography greatly increases our understanding of how metal transport kinetics and internal processing may influence the toxicity of essential and nonessential metals in the environment. PMID:25537180

  9. Characterization of the male-specific lethal 3 gene in the oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y P; Sun, S M; Fu, H T; Ge, X P; Qiao, H; Zhang, W Y; Xiong, Y W; Jiang, S F; Gong, Y S; Jin, S B

    2015-01-01

    In this study, male-specific lethal 3 homolog (Mnmsl3) was cloned and characterized from the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium nipponense (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae) by rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The deduced amino acid sequences of Mnmsl3 showed high-sequence homology to the insect Msl3 and contained a conserved chromatin organization modifier domain and an MORF4-related gene domain. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed that the Mnmsl3 gene was expressed in all the investigated tissues, with the highest level of expression in the testis. The expression level of Mnmsl3 between males and females was different in the gonad (testis or ovary), abdominal ganglion, and heart. The results revealed that the Mnmsl3 gene might play roles in regulating chromatin and in dosage compensation of M. nipponense. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction also revealed that Mnmsl3 mRNA expression was significantly increased in both 5 and 20 days post-larvae after metamorphosis, suggesting that Mnmsl3 plays complex and important roles in the early embryonic development and sex differentiation of M. nipponense. PMID:25966075

  10. Assessment of acute toxicity of carbofuran in Macrobrachium olfersii (Wiegmann, 1836) at different temperature levels.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Edison; Moreira, Priscila; Luchini, Luiz Alberto; Hidalgo, Karla Ruiz; Muñoz, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Carbofuran (2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranyl methylcarbamate; C12H15NO3) is one of the most toxic carbamate pesticides. For acute toxicity of carbofuran, juveniles of Macrobrachium olfersii were exposed to different concentrations of carbofuran using the static renewal method at different temperature levels (15, 20 and 25°C) at pH 7.0. The main purpose of the present study was to detect the acute toxicity of carbofuran to M. olfersii and investigate its effects on oxygen consumption and ammonium excretion; these tests have not been carried out in this species before. First, the acute toxicity - median lethal concentration - of carbofuran to M. olfersii for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h was examined, which resulted in the following values: 1.64, 1.22, 0.86 and 0.42 mg L(-1), respectively. Furthermore, we also found that carbofuran caused an inhibition in oxygen consumption of 60.6, 65.3 and 66.2% with respect to the control. In addition, after separate exposures to carbofuran, elevations in ammonium excretion were more than 500% with respect to the control. PMID:23847016

  11. A novel C-type lectin is involved in the innate immunity of Macrobrachium nipponense.

    PubMed

    Xiu, Yunji; Wang, Yinghui; Bi, Jingxiu; Liu, Yuhan; Ning, Mingxiao; Liu, Hui; Li, Shuang; Gu, Wei; Wang, Wen; Meng, Qingguo

    2016-03-01

    C-type lectins (CTLs) play important roles in invertebrate innate immunity by recognizing and eliminating pathogens. In the present study, a low-density lipoprotein receptor class A (LDLa) domain-containing CTL was identified from the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense, designated as MnCTLDcp1. The full-length cDNA of MnCTLDcp1 was composed of 1462 bp, with a 999-bp ORF encoding a 332-aa protein. An LDLa and a single C-type lectin-like domain (CTLD) were found. The mRNA transcripts of MnCTLDcp1 was expressed the highest in heart. After the prawns were challenged by Aeromonas hydrophila and Staphylococcus aureus, the expression level of MnCTLDcp1 in heart and hemocytes were all significantly up-regulated. Sugar binding assay revealed that the MnCTLDcp1 could bind to the glycoconjugates of bacteria surface, such as LPS, PGN and they can compete with bacterial as competitors. The recombinant MnCTLDcp1 agglutinates Gram-positive (S. aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and Gram-negative bacteria (A. hydrophila, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) in the presence of calcium and also could bind to these bacteria. These results clearly suggested that MnCTLDcp1 functions as a pattern-recognition receptor involved in the innate immunity of M. nipponense. PMID:26804648

  12. Growth and antioxidant status of oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense fed with diets containing vitamin E

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Weihong; Wang, Zisheng; Yu, Yebing; Qi, Zhitao; Lü, Linlan; Zhang, Yuxia; Lü, Fu

    2016-05-01

    A feeding trial was carried out to investigate the dietary vitamin E requirement of the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense (weight of 0.3-0.4 g) and its effect role on antioxidant activity. Prawns were fed with seven levels of vitamin E (0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg diet) for 60 days. The results show that dietary vitamin E supplementation could significantly increased the prawn weight ( P < 0.05). The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the hepatopancreas was significantly higher in prawns fed with diets supplemented with ≤75 mg/kg vitamin E than in those fed with diets supplemented with 100-400 mg/kg vitamin E ( P < 0.05). The activity of catalase (CAT) in the hepatopancreas decreased significantly as dietary vitamin E supplementation increased ( P < 0.05), and no significant difference was detected in glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity between different dietary groups ( P >0.05). The contents of vitamin E in the hepatopancreas and in the muscle increased with increasing dietary vitamin E. There was a linear correlation between the vitamin E level in diet and that in muscle, and between the vitamin E level in diet and that in the hepatopancreas. All the above results indicated that dietary vitamin E can be stored in the hepatopancreas and muscle and lower both the activities of SOD and CAT in the hepatopancreas, suggesting that it is a potential antioxidant in M. nipponense. Broken line analysis conducted on the weight gains of prawns in each diet group showed that the dietary vitamin E requirement for maximum growth is 94.10 mg/kg.

  13. Toxicity of cryoprotectants agents in freshwater prawn embryos of Macrobrachium amazonicum.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Arthur Vinícius Lourenço; Castro, Elias José Teles; Barbosa, Mariana Silva Alves; de Sousa, Míriam Luzia Nogueira Martins; de Araújo Neto, Manoel Paiva; Filho, Aldeney Andrade Soares; de Souza Sampaio, Celia Maria

    2015-12-01

    The process of cooling and cryopreservation of prawn embryos is a viable alternative for a continuous supply of larvae for freshwater prawn farming ponds. However, studies involving the application of those techniques as well as on toxicity of cryoprotectants in freshwater prawn embryos are scarce. Thus, this study aims to test the toxicity of methylic alcohol (MET), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and ethylene glycol (EG) on Macrobrachium amazonicum embryos. For the present experiment, pools of embryos were taken from 15 M. amazonicum females and were divided into three groups and tested in duplicate at concentrations of 10, 5, 3; 1, 0.5 or 0.1%. Toxicity tests were conducted for 24 h in Falcon® pipes to obtain the lethal concentration for 50% of the larvae (LC50). After the set period for testing, random samples of embryos were removed for morphological analysis under stereoscopic microscopes. Results were analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's test at a 5% significance level and Trimmed Spearman-Karber Analysis to determine LC50-24 h. DMSO toxicity tests revealed that 5% and 10% concentrations showed the highest toxicity and differed from the control (P ≤ 0.05), 24h-LC50 was 437.4 ± 14.4 µL. MET was less toxic among the tested cryoprotectants and concentrations did not allow the determination of its LC50-24h. For tests with EG, concentrations of 3, 5 or 10% solutions resulted in a 100% mortality to tested embryos; EG was the tested cryoprotectant with the highest toxicity, with an LC50-24h average of 81.91 ± 35.3 µl. PMID:25255785

  14. Effects of Host Phylogeny and Habitats on Gut Microbiomes of Oriental River Prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense).

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Tzong-Der; Pao, Yueh-Yang; Chen, Po-Cheng; Weng, Francis Cheng-Hsuan; Jean, Wen Dar; Wang, Daryi

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbial community is one of the richest and most complex ecosystems on earth, and the intestinal microbes play an important role in host development and health. Next generation sequencing approaches, which rapidly produce millions of short reads that enable the investigation on a culture independent basis, are now popular for exploring microbial community. Currently, the gut microbiome in fresh water shrimp is unexplored. To explore gut microbiomes of the oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) and investigate the effects of host genetics and habitats on the microbial composition, 454 pyrosequencing based on the 16S rRNA gene were performed. We collected six groups of samples, including M. nipponense shrimp from two populations, rivers and lakes, and one sister species (M. asperulum) as an out group. We found that Proteobacteria is the major phylum in oriental river prawn, followed by Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. Compositional analysis showed microbial divergence between the two shrimp species is higher than that between the two populations of one shrimp species collected from river and lake. Hierarchical clustering also showed that host genetics had a greater impact on the divergence of gut microbiome than host habitats. This finding was also congruent with the functional prediction from the metagenomic data implying that the two shrimp species still shared the same type of biological functions, reflecting a similar metabolic profile in their gut environments. In conclusion, this study provides the first investigation of the gut microbiome of fresh water shrimp, and supports the hypothesis of host species-specific signatures of bacterial community composition. PMID:26168244

  15. Effects of ammonia stress in the Amazon river shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum (Decapoda, Palaemonidae).

    PubMed

    Pinto, Marcelo R; Lucena, Malson N; Faleiros, Rogério Oliveira; Almeida, Eduardo Alves; McNamara, John C; Leone, Francisco A

    2016-01-01

    We evaluate the effects of total ammonia nitrogen-N (TAN) exposure for 72h on (Na(+),K(+))- and V(H(+))-ATPase activities and on their subunit expressions in gills of the diadromous freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum. Specific (Na(+),K(+))- and V(H(+))-ATPase activities increased roughly 1.5- to 2-fold, respectively, after exposure to 2.0mmolL(-1) TAN. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses revealed a 2.5-fold increase in V(H(+))-ATPase B subunit mRNA expression while (Na(+),K(+))-ATPase α-subunit expression was unchanged. Immunohistochemical analyses of the gill lamellae located the (Na(+),K(+))-ATPase throughout the intralamellar septal cells, independently of TAN concentration, while the V(H(+))-ATPase was located in both the apical pillar cell flanges and pillar cell bodies. Systemic stress parameters like total hemocyte count decreased by 30% after exposure to 2.0mmolL(-1) TAN, accompanied by increased activities of the oxidative stress enzymes superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in the gills. The stress responses of M. amazonicum to elevated TAN include increases in gill (Na(+),K(+))- and V(H(+))-ATPase activities that are accompanied by changes in oxidative stress enzyme activities, immune system effects and an increase in gill V(H(+))-ATPase gene expression. These findings likely underpin physiological effects in a crustacean like M. amazonicum that exploits multiple ecosystems during its life cycle, as well as under culture conditions that may significantly impact shrimp production by the aquaculture industry. PMID:26571214

  16. Growth and antioxidant status of oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense fed with diets containing vitamin E

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Weihong; Wang, Zisheng; Yu, Yebing; Qi, Zhitao; Lü, Linlan; Zhang, Yuxia; Lü, Fu

    2015-11-01

    A feeding trial was carried out to investigate the dietary vitamin E requirement of the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense (weight of 0.3-0.4 g) and its effect role on antioxidant activity. Prawns were fed with seven levels of vitamin E (0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg diet) for 60 days. The results show that dietary vitamin E supplementation could significantly increased the prawn weight (P<0.05). The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the hepatopancreas was significantly higher in prawns fed with diets supplemented with ≤75 mg/kg vitamin E than in those fed with diets supplemented with 100-400 mg/kg vitamin E (P<0.05). The activity of catalase (CAT) in the hepatopancreas decreased significantly as dietary vitamin E supplementation increased (P<0.05), and no significant difference was detected in glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity between different dietary groups (P>0.05). The contents of vitamin E in the hepatopancreas and in the muscle increased with increasing dietary vitamin E. There was a linear correlation between the vitamin E level in diet and that in muscle, and between the vitamin E level in diet and that in the hepatopancreas. All the above results indicated that dietary vitamin E can be stored in the hepatopancreas and muscle and lower both the activities of SOD and CAT in the hepatopancreas, suggesting that it is a potential antioxidant in M. nipponense. Broken line analysis conducted on the weight gains of prawns in each diet group showed that the dietary vitamin E requirement for maximum growth is 94.10 mg/kg.

  17. Population Structure and Historical Demography of the Oriental River Prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Ta-Jen; Wang, Daryi; Lee, Ying-Chou; Tzeng, Tzong-Der

    2015-01-01

    The oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) is a non-obligatory amphidromous prawn, and it has a wide distribution covering almost the entire Taiwan. Mitochondrial DNA fragment sequences of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and 16S rRNA were combined and used to elucidate the population structure and historical demography of oriental river prawn in Taiwan. A total of 202 individuals from six reservoirs and three estuaries were separately collected. Nucleotide diversity (π) of all populations was 0.01217, with values ranging from 0.00188 (Shihmen Reservoir, SMR, northern Taiwan) to 0.01425 (Mingte Reservoir, MTR, west-central Taiwan). All 76 haplotypes were divided into 2 lineages: lineage A included individuals from all sampling areas except SMR, and lineage B included specimens from all sampling locations except Chengching Lake Reservoir (CLR) and Liyu Lake Reservoir (LLR). All FST values among nine populations were significantly different except the one between Jhonggang River Estuary (JGE, west-central Taiwan) and Kaoping River Estuary (KPE, southern Taiwan). UPGMA tree of nine populations showed two main groups: the first group included the SMR and Tamsui River Estuary (TSE) (both located northern Taiwan), and the second one included the other seven populations (west-central, southern and eastern Taiwan). Demographic analyses implied a population expansion occurred during the recent history of the species. The dispersal route of this species might be from China to west-central and west-southern Taiwan, and then the part individuals belonging to lineage A and B dispersed southerly and northerly, respectively. And then part individuals in west-central Taiwan fell back to and stay at estuaries as the sea level rose about 18,000 years ago. PMID:26716687

  18. Population Structure and Historical Demography of the Oriental River Prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Po-Cheng; Shih, Chun-Han; Chu, Ta-Jen; Wang, Daryi; Lee, Ying-Chou; Tzeng, Tzong-Der

    2015-01-01

    The oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) is a non-obligatory amphidromous prawn, and it has a wide distribution covering almost the entire Taiwan. Mitochondrial DNA fragment sequences of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and 16S rRNA were combined and used to elucidate the population structure and historical demography of oriental river prawn in Taiwan. A total of 202 individuals from six reservoirs and three estuaries were separately collected. Nucleotide diversity (π) of all populations was 0.01217, with values ranging from 0.00188 (Shihmen Reservoir, SMR, northern Taiwan) to 0.01425 (Mingte Reservoir, MTR, west-central Taiwan). All 76 haplotypes were divided into 2 lineages: lineage A included individuals from all sampling areas except SMR, and lineage B included specimens from all sampling locations except Chengching Lake Reservoir (CLR) and Liyu Lake Reservoir (LLR). All FST values among nine populations were significantly different except the one between Jhonggang River Estuary (JGE, west-central Taiwan) and Kaoping River Estuary (KPE, southern Taiwan). UPGMA tree of nine populations showed two main groups: the first group included the SMR and Tamsui River Estuary (TSE) (both located northern Taiwan), and the second one included the other seven populations (west-central, southern and eastern Taiwan). Demographic analyses implied a population expansion occurred during the recent history of the species. The dispersal route of this species might be from China to west-central and west-southern Taiwan, and then the part individuals belonging to lineage A and B dispersed southerly and northerly, respectively. And then part individuals in west-central Taiwan fell back to and stay at estuaries as the sea level rose about 18,000 years ago. PMID:26716687

  19. Effects of Host Phylogeny and Habitats on Gut Microbiomes of Oriental River Prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Po-Cheng; Weng, Francis Cheng-Hsuan; Jean, Wen Dar; Wang, Daryi

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbial community is one of the richest and most complex ecosystems on earth, and the intestinal microbes play an important role in host development and health. Next generation sequencing approaches, which rapidly produce millions of short reads that enable the investigation on a culture independent basis, are now popular for exploring microbial community. Currently, the gut microbiome in fresh water shrimp is unexplored. To explore gut microbiomes of the oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) and investigate the effects of host genetics and habitats on the microbial composition, 454 pyrosequencing based on the 16S rRNA gene were performed. We collected six groups of samples, including M. nipponense shrimp from two populations, rivers and lakes, and one sister species (M. asperulum) as an out group. We found that Proteobacteria is the major phylum in oriental river prawn, followed by Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. Compositional analysis showed microbial divergence between the two shrimp species is higher than that between the two populations of one shrimp species collected from river and lake. Hierarchical clustering also showed that host genetics had a greater impact on the divergence of gut microbiome than host habitats. This finding was also congruent with the functional prediction from the metagenomic data implying that the two shrimp species still shared the same type of biological functions, reflecting a similar metabolic profile in their gut environments. In conclusion, this study provides the first investigation of the gut microbiome of fresh water shrimp, and supports the hypothesis of host species-specific signatures of bacterial community composition. PMID:26168244

  20. Molecular and functional characterization of the vitellogenin receptor in oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense.

    PubMed

    Bai, Hongkun; Qiao, Hui; Li, Fajun; Fu, Hongtuo; Jiang, Sufei; Zhang, Wenyi; Yan, Yuedi; Xiong, Yiwei; Sun, Shengming; Jin, Shubo; Gong, Yongsheng; Wu, Yan

    2016-04-01

    A complementary DNA (cDNA) that encodes the vitellogenin receptor (VgR) in the oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense, was cloned using expressed sequence tag analysis and a rapid amplification of cDNA ends approach. The coding region consists of 5920 base pairs (bp) that encode a 1902 amino acid protein, with a predicted molecular mass of 209kDa. The coding region is flanked by a 45bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR) and a 166bp 3'-UTR. The deduced amino acid sequence of the M. nipponense VgR cDNA had typically conserved domains, such as an extracellular, lipoprotein-binding domain, epidermal growth factor-like and O-glycosylation domains, a transmembrane domain and a short C-terminal, cytosolic tail. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) indicated that Mn-VgR is highly expressed in the female ovary. Expression analysis by qPCR demonstrated the larval and ovarian developmental stage-specific expression pattern. As the ovaries developed, the expression level of Mn-VgR gradually increased during the reproductive cycle (stage I), to reach a peak in stage III. Levels then dropped as a new development cycle was entered after reproduction molting. Eyestalk ablation led to a significant increase in the expression of Mn-VgR during the ovarian development stages (P<0.05), when compared with the eyestalk-intact group. The investigation revealed that eyestalk ablation initially affected Mn-VgR expression and then influenced vitellogenesis. In adult females, VgR RNA interference (RNAi) dramatically delayed the maturation of the ovary, in accordance with the gonad somatic index. In addition, Mn-VgR RNAi led to vitellin depletion in the oocytes and the accumulation of vitellin in the hepatopancreas. PMID:26773480

  1. Osmoregulation in larvae and juveniles of two recently separated Macrobrachium species: Expression patterns of ion transporter genes.

    PubMed

    Boudour-Boucheker, Nesrine; Boulo, Viviane; Charmantier-Daures, Mireille; Anger, Klaus; Charmantier, Guy; Lorin-Nebel, Catherine

    2016-05-01

    In this comparative study, osmoregulatory mechanisms were analyzed in two closely related species of palaemonid shrimp from Brazil, Macrobrachium pantanalense and Macrobrachium amazonicum. A previous investigation showed that all postembryonic stages of M. pantanalense from inland waters of the Pantanal are able to hyper-osmoregulate in fresh water, while this species was not able to hypo-osmoregulate at high salinities. In M. amazonicum originating from the Amazon estuary, in contrast, all stages are able to hypo-osmoregulate, but only first-stage larvae, late juveniles and adults are able to hyper-osmoregulate in fresh water. The underlying molecular mechanisms of these physiological differences have not been known. We therefore investigated the expression patterns of three ion transporters (NKA α-subunit, VHA B-subunit and NHE3) following differential salinity acclimation in different ontogenetic stages (stage-V larvae, juveniles) of both species. Larval NKAα expression was at both salinities significantly higher in M. pantanalense than in M. amazonicum, whereas no difference was noted in juveniles. VHA was also more expressed in larvae of M. pantanalense than in those of M. amazonicum. When NHE3 expression is compared between the larvae of the two species, further salinity-related differences were observed, with generally higher expression in the inland species. Overall, a high expression of ion pumps in M. pantanalense suggests an evolutionary key role of these transporters in freshwater invasion. PMID:26872994

  2. Effects of Artificial Shelter and Chitosan on Growth Performance of Freshwater Prawn (Macrobrachium lanchesteri de Man, 1911).

    PubMed

    Jongyotha, Suriya; Doolgindachbaporn, Sompong; Suraniranat, Prawit

    2015-04-01

    Two experiments were carried out at the Department of Fisheries, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand during September 2013 to February 2014 aiming to pursue both the better growth performance and survival rate of the freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium lanchesteri) where a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three replications was used for each experiment. For experiment 1, different percentages of grass shelter were used, i.e. 0% (Control, T1), 25% (T2), 50% (T3) and 75% (T4). For experiment 2, different percentages of commercial chitosan were used, i.e. 0% (Control, T1), 25% (T2), 50% (T3) and 75% (T4). Both experiments were carried out at the same time and each of them was lasted for 75 days. The results showed that the added grass shelter gave significantly higher Total Weight (TW) and Survival Rate (SR) than the control treatment. However, there were no significant differences found on TW and SR among the added grass shelter treatments (T2 up to T4). Chitosan gave significantly higher TW, AW and Number of Molting (NM) than the control treatment. There were no significant differences on TW, NM and AW found amongst the chitosan treatments. The results of the experiment 1 showed that the best rate of grass shelter for the culturing of the Macrobrachium lanchesteri was at a rate of 25% (T 2) and the best rate of the chitosan was at a rate of 4% (Diet 3) for the Experiment 2. PMID:26506647

  3. Cultivating Leaders from Within

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdette, Maggie; Schertzer, Kristen

    2005-01-01

    A major problem faced by school districts in the US is the paucity of applicants for the posts of school principals. A solution adopted by The Capistrano Unified School District (CUSD) in Orange County California was the cultivation of good leaders from within the district through the Teaching Assistant Principal (TAP) program.

  4. The Cultivated Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilder, Rosalind

    1983-01-01

    Teachers who follow this monthly schedule for starting and cultivating plants in their classrooms can look forward to blooms and greenery throughout the year. Advice on choosing plants, making cuttings, forcing bulbs, rooting sweet potatoes and pineapples, and holding a Mother's Day plant sale is included. (PP)

  5. Cultivation of Plasmodium spp.

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Frederick L.

    2002-01-01

    Cultivation of both human and non-human species of Plasmodium spp., the causal agent of malaria, has been a major research success, leading to a greater understanding of the parasite. Efforts at cultivating the organisms in vitro are complicated by the parasites' alternating between a human host and an arthropod vector, each having its own set of physiological, metabolic, and nutritional parameters. Life cycle stages of the four species that infect humans have been established in vitro. Of these four, P. falciparum remains the only species for which all stages have been cultured in vitro; different degrees of success have been achieved with the other human Plasmodium spp. The life cycle includes the exoerythrocytic stage (within liver cells), the erythrocytic stage (within erythrocytes or precursor reticulocytes), and the sporogonic stage (within the vector). Culture media generally consist of a basic tissue culture medium (e.g., minimal essential medium or RPMI 1640) to which serum and erythrocytes are added. Most of the efforts have been directed toward the stage found in the erythrocyte. This stage has been cultivated in petri plates or other growth vessels in a candle jar to generate elevated CO2 levels or in a more controlled CO2 atmosphere. Later developments have employed continuous-flow systems to reduce the labor-intensive nature of medium changing. The exoerythrocytic and sporogonic life cycle stages have also been cultivated in vitro. A number of avian, rodent, and simian malarial parasites have also been established in vitro. Although cultivation is of great help in understanding the biology of Plasmodium, it does not lend itself to use for diagnostic purposes. PMID:12097244

  6. [Dendrobium officinale stereoscopic cultivation method].

    PubMed

    Si, Jin-Ping; Dong, Hong-Xiu; Liao, Xin-Yan; Zhu, Yu-Qiu; Li, Hui

    2014-12-01

    The study is aimed to make the most of available space of Dendrobium officinale cultivation facility, reveal the yield and functional components variation of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale, and improve quality, yield and efficiency. The agronomic traits and yield variation of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale were studied by operating field experiment. The content of polysaccharide and extractum were determined by using phenol-sulfuric acid method and 2010 edition of "Chinese Pharmacopoeia" Appendix X A. The results showed that the land utilization of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale increased 2.74 times, the stems, leaves and their total fresh or dry weight in unit area of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale were all heavier than those of the ground cultivated ones. There was no significant difference in polysaccharide content between stereoscopic cultivation and ground cultivation. But the extractum content and total content of polysaccharide and extractum were significantly higher than those of the ground cultivated ones. In additional, the polysaccharide content and total content of polysaccharide and extractum from the top two levels of stereoscopic culture matrix were significantly higher than that of the ones from the other levels and ground cultivation. Steroscopic cultivation can effectively improves the utilization of space and yield, while the total content of polysaccharides and extractum were significantly higher than that of the ground cultivated ones. The significant difference in Dendrobium polysaccharides among the plants from different height of stereo- scopic culture matrix may be associated with light factor. PMID:25911804

  7. Cultivating strategic thinking skills.

    PubMed

    Shirey, Maria R

    2012-06-01

    This department highlights change management strategies that may be successful in strategically planning and executing organizational change initiatives. With the goal of presenting practical approaches helpful to nurse leaders advancing organizational change, content includes evidence-based projects, tools, and resources that mobilize and sustain organizational change initiatives. In this article, the author presents an overview of strategic leadership and offers approaches for cultivating strategic thinking skills. PMID:22617694

  8. Cultivating an entrepreneurial mindset.

    PubMed

    Matheson, Sandra A

    2013-01-01

    Now as never before, familiar challenges require bold, novel approaches. Registered dietitians will benefit by cultivating an entrepreneurial mindset that involves being comfortable with uncertainty, learning to take calculated risks, and daring to just try it. An entrepreneur is someone who takes risks to create something new, usually in business. But the entrepreneurial mindset is available to anyone prepared to rely only on their own abilities for their economic security and expect no opportunity without first creating value for others. PMID:24018008

  9. Reproductive and morphometric traits of Macrobrachium amazonicum (Decapoda: Palaemonidae) from the Pantanal, Brazil, suggests initial speciation.

    PubMed

    Hayd, Liliam; Anger, Klaus

    2013-03-01

    The palaemonid shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum shows an unusually large geographic range (ca. 4000km across) living in coastal, estuarine, and limnic inland habitats of the upper Amazon, Orinoco, and La Plata basins. This raises doubts whether allopatric, ecologically diverse populations belong to the same species. While shrimps from estuarine and Amazonian habitats have been studied in great detail, very little is known about hololimnetic inland populations. In the present study, biological traits related to growth (maximum body size, fresh weight, morphometric relationships) and reproduction (sex ratio; occurrence of male morphotypes; minimum sexable size; minimum size of ovigerous females; fecundity; egg size), were studied in M amazonicum collected from a pond culture and two natural freshwater habitats (Rio Miranda; Lagoa Baiazinha) in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. In total, 2270 shrimps were examined (603 males; 1667 females, 157 of these ovigerous). Sex ratio (males:females) was at all sampling sites strongly female-biased, ranging from 0.2-0.6. Maximum body size was larger in natural habitats compared to the pond culture, suggesting reduced growth or a shorter life span under artificial mass rearing conditions. Maximum fecundity observed in our material was 676 eggs, reached by the largest female (TL=65mm; Lagoa Baiazinha). A significant difference between slope parameters of linear regressions describing fecundity, either in terms of numbers of eggs laid or of larvae released, in relation to female fresh weight, indicates egg losses. This may be due in part to a 2.4-fold increase in egg volume occurring during the course of embryonic development, while the available space under the abdomen remains limited. Size-weight relationships differed significantly between males and females, indicating sexspecific morphometric differences. Males appear to have a more slender body shape than females, reaching thus lower weight at equal TL. When reproductive and morphometric traits are compared with literature data from estuarine and inland populations living in the Amazon and Orinoco plains, shrimps from the Pantanal show conspicuous peculiarities differing from other populations: (1) maximum body size is far smaller, suggesting shorter longevity; (2) females are consistently larger than males; (3) different male morphotypes are absent; (4) minimum sexable size and (5) minimum size of ovigerous females are smaller. These traits suggest a heterochronic shift (predisplacement) of sexual maturation and r-selection. In summary, our data show biologically relevant differences in life-history traits of shrimps from the Pantanal compared to M. amazonicum populations in other regions. All these differences persist also in long-term cultures maintained under constant conditions. Altogether, our data support the hypothesis that M amazonicum in the Paraná-Paraguay drainage basin has phylogenetically diverged from allopatric populations that are hydrologically separated by continental watersheds, implying an at least incipient vicariant speciation. PMID:23894962

  10. Effect of salinity on the metabolism and osmoregulation of selected ontogenetic stages of an Amazon population of Macrobrachium amazonicum shrimp (Decapoda, Palaemonidae).

    PubMed

    Mazzarelli, C C M; Santos, M R; Amorim, R V; Augusto, A

    2015-05-01

    Probably as a function of their wide geographical distribution, the different population of Macrobrachium amazonicum shrimp may present distinct physiological, biochemical, reproductive, behavioral, and ecological patterns. These differences are so accentuated that the existence of allopatric speciation has been suggested, although initial studies indicate that the genetic variability of populations happen at an intraspecific level. Among the biological responses described for M. amazonicum populations, those regarding osmoregulation and metabolism play a key role for being related to the occupation of diverse habitats. To this effect, we investigated osmoregulation through the role of free amino acids in cell volume control and metabolism, through oxygen consumption in larvae (zoeae I, II, V and IX) and/or post-larvae of a M. amazonicum population from Amazon, kept in aquaculture fish hatcheries in the state of São Paulo. The results add information regarding the existence of distinct physiological responses among M. amazonicum populations and suggest that possible adjustments to metabolism and to the use of free amino acids as osmolytes of the regulation of the larvae and post-larvae cell volume depend on the appearance of structures responsible for hemolymph osmoregulation like, for example, the gills. In this respect, we verified that zoeae I do not alter their metabolism due to the exposition to fresh or brackish water, but they reduce intracellular concentration of free amino acids when exposed to fresh water, what may suggest the inexistence or inefficient performance of the structures responsible for volume regulation and hemolymph composition. On the other hand, in zoeae II and V exposed to fresh and brackish water, metabolism alterations were not followed by changes in free amino acids concentration. Thus it is possible, as the structures responsible for osmoregulation and ionic regulation become functional, that the role of free amino acids gets diminished and oxygen consumption elevated, probably due to greater energy expenditure with the active transportation of salts through epithelial membranes. Osmotic challenges also seem to alter throughout development, given that in zoeae II oxygen consumption is elevated on brackish water of 18, but in zoeae V it happens in fresh water. After M. amazonicum metamorphosis, free amino acids begin to play an important role as intracellular osmolytes, because we verified an increase of up to 40% in post-larvae exposed to brackish water of 18. The main free amino acids involved in cell volume regulation of ontogenetic stages evaluated were the non essential ones: glutamic acid, glycine, alanine, arginine, and proline. Interestingly, larvae from estuarine population studied here survived until the zoeae V stage in fresh water, but in some populations far from the sea, zoeae die right after eclosion in fresh water or they do not reach zoeae III stage. In addition, given that in favorable conditions caridean shrimp larvae shorten their development, we may infer that the cultivation environment, in which larvae developed in the present work, was appropriate, because almost all zoeae VIII kept on brackish water underwent metamorphosis directly to post-larvae and did not go through zoeae IX stage. PMID:26132021

  11. How to cultivate Ectocarpus.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Susana M; Scornet, Delphine; Rousvoal, Sylvie; Peters, Nick T; Dartevelle, Laurence; Peters, Akira F; Cock, J Mark

    2012-02-01

    This article describes the standard procedure for growing Ectocarpus in the laboratory. The culture is started with partheno-sporophyte (or sporophyte) filaments because this is the stage that is usually maintained in strain collections. The standard medium is Provasoli-enriched natural seawater (PES), but Ectocarpus can also be grown in artificial seawater, which allows more precise control over the culture conditions. The algae can be cultivated either in plastic Petri dishes or in 10-L bottles with bubbling, if large amounts of biomass are required. Standard growth conditions are 13°C with a 12h/12h d/night cycle and 20 µmol photons m(-2) s(-1) irradiance using daylight-type fluorescent tubes. All manipulations of Ectocarpus cultures should be performed in a clean environment (if possible, under a laminar flow hood). Forceps should be dipped in ethanol and allowed to dry under the hood. PMID:22301662

  12. Starting from grape cultivation.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, A

    1992-06-01

    Rapid population growth can only be stopped by lowering the fertility rate. The UNFPA recommends improving the employment opportunities for women as the single best way of achieving this reduction. An example of this phenomenon is the grape cultivation in the Nordeste (Northeastern) region of Brazil. This area is the poorest part of Brazil and has the highest proportion of indigent people. These people have been deforesting the Amazon in search of a better life. What they have done is sterilize the land and turned a tropical rain forest into a desert. In an effort to reverse this trend, grape cultivation has been introduced in an area called Petrolina. The area is very dry with less than 500 mm of precipitation annually. They do have access to a 5000 square kilometer artificial lake (the largest in the world) and the 3rd largest river in Brazil (the Sao Francisco). In an effort to avoid using agricultural medicines, the vines are fertilized with organic matter created on the farm and little or no pesticides are used since pests do not live in such an arid region. It has taken 20 years of trial and error, but the quality of the grapes is now very high and is competitive on the world market. Because of climate and location, harvesting is done year round which increases the productivity of the land. The farm managers have found that married women make the best workers and have the highest level of productivity. Age at 1st marriage averages 24-25, compared with 15-16 for unemployed women in the same area. The fertility rate averages 50% of that for unemployed women in the same area. Agricultural development offers the best opportunity for the women of developing countries. It can pay a high wage, reduce fertility, and replant desert areas. PMID:12285551

  13. Hybrid origins of cultivated potatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild and cultivated potatoes, Solanum section Petota, is taxonomically difficult, partly because of interspecific hybridization at both the diploid and polyploid levels. The taxonomy of cultivated potatoes is particularly controversial. With DNA sequence data of the GBSSI (waxy) gene we here infer r...

  14. Micrometeorological principles of protected cultivation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protected cultivation is a broad term commonly used among producers of specialty crops. Techniques can range from complex fixed structures to field site selection, to straightforward cultural practices in the field. This introduction to the ASHS workshop "Protected cultivation for fruit crops" consi...

  15. Population structure of Macrobrachium australiense (Decapoda: Palaemonidae) in Western Queensland, Australia: the role of contemporary and historical processes.

    PubMed

    Carini, G; Hughes, J M

    2004-10-01

    Rivers of Western Queensland, Australia, represent a discontinuous and variable aquatic habitat for the freshwater fauna of the region. Rivers periodically fluctuate between being highly fragmented, with numerous disconnected waterholes and ephemeral channels, and being highly connected by a dominant system of anastomosing channels. We used mitochondrial sequences to investigate the genetic structure and inferred patterns of dispersal associated with this flow regime for the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium australiense (Decapoda: Palaemonidae), sampling 28 localities throughout eight catchments. Based on a 505 base pair fragment of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, we identified 98 haplotypes in a sample of 402 individuals. The haplotypes clustered into two main clades corresponding geographically to the major drainages: the Lake Eyre and Murray-Darling basins. Populations of M. australiense inhabiting the two basins appear to have diverged around 800,000 years ago (estimated sequence divergence of 1.6%). Analysis of population differentiation indicated contemporary high levels of genetic subdivision and restricted gene flow among populations within and among catchments. Phylogenetic analysis detected a series of historical range expansions in the region and we suggest that climate fluctuations during the Pleistocene have resulted in extensive floods that have promoted historical movements of aquatic organisms across catchment boundaries. PMID:15329659

  16. Ocurrence of male morphotypes of Macrobrachium amazonicum (Caridea, Palaemonidae) in a population with an entirely freshwater life cycle.

    PubMed

    Pantaleão, J A F; Hirose, G L; Costa, R C

    2014-08-01

    This study records, for the first time, the occurrence of all four male morphotypes in a population of Macrobrachium amazonicum from a continental environment, with an entirely freshwater life cycle. The specimens studied came from the Tietê River, state of São Paulo, Brazil, and were collected in a lotic environment downstream from Ibitinga Dam. This population was compared with other continental populations, including a population from the dam itself, collected in a previous study. Four samples of 30 minutes were taken monthly, using a trap, from January to April 2011. Each male specimen was measured with respect to seven body dimensions as follows: carapace length (CL), right cheliped length (RCL), dactyl length (DCL), propodus length (PPL), carpus length (CRL), merus length (ML) and ischium length (IL). The relative growth was analyzed based on the change in growth patterns of certain body parts in relation to the independent variable CL. The four male morphotypes proposed for the species were found using morphological and morphometric analyses. Different biological characteristics were found between the populations studied. The male population of the lake of Ibitinga and from Pantanal presented mean sizes and number of morphotypes lower than the population studied here. These differences seem to be closely related to ecological characteristics of the environments inhabited by these populations. Our results supported the hypothesis that coastal and continental populations of M. amazonicum belong to the same species. PMID:25627389

  17. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of female sterile homeotic gene (fsh) in the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W Y; Jiang, S F; Xiong, Y W; Fu, H T; Qiao, H; Sun, S M; Gong, Y S; Jin, S B

    2015-01-01

    The gene female sterile homeotic (fsh) plays crucial roles in molecular function, including protein kinase activity and DNA binding, which are involved in biological processes such as terminal region determination and negative regulation of DNA-dependent transcription. Although fsh has been found in Drosophila melanogaster, little is known regarding its expression in crustaceans. In this study, a fsh gene homologue, designated as Mnfsh, was cloned and characterized from the testis of the oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense, by using EST analysis and the RACE approach for the first time. The full-length cDNA of Mnfsh was 2029 bp, consisting of a 5' UTR of 361 bp, a 3' UTR of 216 bp, and an ORF of 1452 bp encoding 484 amino acids. qRT-PCR analysis showed that the Mnfsh gene was expressed in the testis, ovary, muscle, heart, eyestalk, and abdominal ganglion, with the highest level of expression in the ovary and the lowest in the heart. qRT-PCR analyses showed that the expression levels of Mnfsh mRNA both significantly increased in the zoea stage, the VII larvae, and 1st day post-larvae after metamorphosis. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that Mnfsh is an arthropod fsh homologue and probably also plays important roles in embryogenesis, organogenesis, and morphological differentiation of M. nipponense. PMID:25966204

  18. Molecular characterization of a novel ovary-specific gene fem-1 homolog from the oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ke-Yi; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Lin, Jing-Yun; Li, Jia-Le; Qiu, Gao-Feng

    2016-01-10

    The feminization-1 (fem-1) gene is characterized by one of the most common protein-protein interaction motifs, ankyrin repeat motifs, displays many expression patterns in vertebrates and invertebrates, and plays an essential role in the sex-determination/differentiation pathway in Caenorhabditis elegans. In this study, a fem-1 homolog, designated as Mnfem-1, was first cloned from the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense. The prawn Mnfem-1 gene consists of six exons and five introns. The full-length cDNA (2603bp) of Mnfem-1 contains an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein of 622 amino acids. The Mnfem-1 RNA and protein are exclusively expressed in the ovary in adult prawns as revealed by RT-PCR and immunofluorescence analysis, respectively. In situ hybridization results showed that strong positive signals were concentrated at the edge of the previtellogenic and vitellogenic oocyte. During embryogenesis, Mnfem-1 is highly expressed in both unfertilized eggs and embryos at cleavage stage and thereafter dropped to a low level from blastula to zoea, indicating that the Mnfem-1 in early embryos is maternal. After hatching, the Mnfem-1 expression significantly increased in the larvae at length of 2cm, an important stage of sex differentiation. Yeast two hybridization results showed that the Mnfem-1 protein can be potentially interactive with cathepsin L and proteins containing the domains of insulinase, ankyrin or ubiquitin. Our results suggested that Mnfem-1 could have roles in prawn ovarian development and sex determination/differentiation. PMID:26367327

  19. Light-mediated DNA Repair Prevents UVB-induced Cell Cycle Arrest in Embryos of the Crustacean Macrobrachium olfersi.

    PubMed

    Zeni, Eliane Cristina; Ammar, Dib; Leal, Mayana Lacerda; da Silva, Heloisa Schramm; Allodi, Silvana; Müller, Yara Maria Rauh; Nazari, Evelise Maria

    2015-01-01

    High levels of ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation can negatively affect aquatic animals. Macrobrachium olfersi is a prawn that lives in clear freshwaters and during the breeding season, females carry eggs in an external brood pouch. Therefore, we hypothesize that eggs are also exposed to environmental UVB radiation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether UVB radiation induces DNA damage and compromises cell cycle in embryos of M. olfersi. In laboratory, UVB irradiance (310 mW. cm(-2) ) that embryos receive in the natural environment was simulated. After irradiation, embryos were kept under different light conditions in order to recognize the presence of cell repair. UVB radiation induces DNA damage, specifically thymine dimers. After 48 h of UVB exposure, a significant decrease in the level of these dimers was observed in embryos kept under visible light while it remained constant in the dark. Moreover, under visible light and darkness, a decrease in proliferation was observed after 48 h of irradiation. An increase in PCNA expression and decrease in p53 expression were observed after, respectively, 1 and 48 h of exposure. Our results showed that UVB radiation disturbs the cell cycle and induces DNA damage in M. olfersi embryos. However, under visible light these embryos showed successful DNA repair. PMID:25869065

  20. Regulation of essential heavy metals (Cu, Cr, and Zn) by the freshwater prawn macrobrachium malcolmsonii (Milne Edwards)

    SciTech Connect

    Vijayram, K.; Geraldine, P.

    1996-02-01

    Despite the low concentrations of heavy metals in the surrounding medium, aquatic organisms take them up and accumulate them in their soft tissues to concentrations several fold higher than those of ambient levels. Knowledge of accumulation patterns of a particular trace metal is a prerequisite for understanding the significance of an observed metal concentration in a particular animal, especially from the aspect of biomonitoring. Many marine invertebrates accumulate heavy metals without any regulation and the accumulation necessarily being associated with mechanisms to store the metals in a detoxified form. Two detoxification mechanisms have been described, both of which may occur in one specimen. Heavy metals can either be bound up in insoluble metalliferous {open_quote}granules{close_quote}, or are bound to soluble metal-binding ligands, such as metallothioneins. Some marine decapod crustaceans have an innate ability to regulate the internal concentrations of essential but potentially toxic metals within a constant level, presumably to meet their metabolic demands. However, at present, there is no such information relating to freshwater decapod crustaceans, especially shrimps which occupy a totally different environment. Macrobrachium malcolmsonii, a potential aquaculture species for freshwater is found in abundance in one of the major Indian rivers, the Cauvery. In the present study, an attempt was made to determine whether the freshwater prawn, M. malcolmsonlii, is able to regulate the three essential elements, copper, chromium and zinc, over a wide range of dissolved concentrations. These three metals were chosen because the Cauvery River receives pollutants containing these metals.

  1. Gene expression profile analysis of testis and ovary of oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense, reveals candidate reproduction-related genes.

    PubMed

    Qiao, H; Xiong, Y W; Jiang, S F; Fu, H T; Sun, S M; Jin, S B; Gong, Y S; Zhang, W Y

    2015-01-01

    This study utilized high-throughput RNA sequencing technology to identify reproduction- and development-related genes of Macrobrachium nipponense by analyzing gene expression profiles of testis and ovary. More than 20 million 1 x 51-bp reads were obtained by Illumina sequencing, generating more than 7.7 and 11.7 million clean reads in the testis and ovary library, respectively. As a result, 10,018 unitags were supposed to be differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between ovary and testis. Compared to the ovary library, 4563 (45.5%) of these DEGs exhibited at least 6-fold upregulated expression, while 5455 (54.5%) DEGs exhibited at least 2-fold downregulated expression in the testis. The Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis showed that 113 GO terms had potential molecular functions in reproduction. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes results revealed that the most important pathways may be relevant to reproduction and included 7 pathways. Forty-two genes were identified as reproduction-, development-, and sex-related genes based on GO classification and sequence comparison with other publications, including male reproductive-related LIM protein, spermatogenesis-associated protein, gametocyte-specific factor 1, VASA-like protein, vitellogenin, sex-determining protein fem-1, and other potential candidates. These results will advance research in the field of molecular genetics in M. nipponense and offer a valuable resource for further research related to reproduction in crustaceans. PMID:25867350

  2. Molecular Analysis of the Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium olfersii (Decapoda, Palaemonidae) Supports the Existence of a Single Species throughout Its Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Natália; Mantelatto, Fernando Luis

    2013-01-01

    Macrobrachium olfersii is an amphidromous freshwater prawn, widespread along the eastern coasts of the Americas. This species shows great morphological modifications during ontogenesis, and several studies have verified the existence of a wide intraspecific variation. Because of this condition, the species is often misidentified, and several synonyms have been documented. To elucidate these aspects, individuals of M. olfersii from different populations along its range of distribution were investigated. The taxonomic limit was established, and the degree of genetic variability of this species was described. We extracted DNA from 53 specimens of M. olfersii, M. americanum, M. digueti and M. faustinum, which resulted in 84 new sequences (22 of 16S mtDNA, 45 of Cythocrome Oxidase I (COI) mtDNA, and 17 of Histone (H3) nDNA). Sequences of three genes (single and concatenated) from these species were used in the Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference phylogenetic analyses and COI sequences from M. olfersii were used in population analysis. The genetic variation was evaluated through the alignment of 554 bp from the 16S, 638 bp from the COI, and 338 bp from the H3. The rates of genetic divergence among populations were lower at the intraspecific level. This was confirmed by the haplotype net, which showed a continuous gene flow among populations. Although a wide distribution and high morphological intraspecific variation often suggest the existence of more than one species, genetic similarity of Caribbean and Brazilian populations of M. olfersii supported them as a single species. PMID:23382941

  3. Molecular analysis of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium olfersii (Decapoda, Palaemonidae) supports the existence of a single species throughout its distribution.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Natália; Mantelatto, Fernando Luis

    2013-01-01

    Macrobrachium olfersii is an amphidromous freshwater prawn, widespread along the eastern coasts of the Americas. This species shows great morphological modifications during ontogenesis, and several studies have verified the existence of a wide intraspecific variation. Because of this condition, the species is often misidentified, and several synonyms have been documented. To elucidate these aspects, individuals of M. olfersii from different populations along its range of distribution were investigated. The taxonomic limit was established, and the degree of genetic variability of this species was described. We extracted DNA from 53 specimens of M. olfersii, M. americanum, M. digueti and M. faustinum, which resulted in 84 new sequences (22 of 16S mtDNA, 45 of Cythocrome Oxidase I (COI) mtDNA, and 17 of Histone (H3) nDNA). Sequences of three genes (single and concatenated) from these species were used in the Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference phylogenetic analyses and COI sequences from M. olfersii were used in population analysis. The genetic variation was evaluated through the alignment of 554 bp from the 16S, 638 bp from the COI, and 338 bp from the H3. The rates of genetic divergence among populations were lower at the intraspecific level. This was confirmed by the haplotype net, which showed a continuous gene flow among populations. Although a wide distribution and high morphological intraspecific variation often suggest the existence of more than one species, genetic similarity of Caribbean and Brazilian populations of M. olfersii supported them as a single species. PMID:23382941

  4. [Artificial cultivation modes for Dendrobium officinale].

    PubMed

    Si, Jin-Ping; Yu, Qiao-Xian; Song, Xian-Shui; Shao, Wei-Jiang

    2013-02-01

    Since the beginning of the new century, the artificial cultivation of Dendrobium officinale has made a breakthrough progress. This paper systematically expounds key technologies, main features and cautions of the cultivation modes e.g. bionic-facility cultivation, the original ecological cultivation, and potting cultivation for D. officinale, which can provide useful information for the development and improvement of D. officinale industry. PMID:23713268

  5. Logistic analysis of algae cultivation.

    PubMed

    Slegers, P M; Leduc, S; Wijffels, R H; van Straten, G; van Boxtel, A J B

    2015-03-01

    Energy requirements for resource transport of algae cultivation are unknown. This work describes the quantitative analysis of energy requirements for water and CO2 transport. Algae cultivation models were combined with the quantitative logistic decision model 'BeWhere' for the regions Benelux (Northwest Europe), southern France and Sahara. For photobioreactors, the energy consumed for transport of water and CO2 turns out to be a small percentage of the energy contained in the algae biomass (0.1-3.6%). For raceway ponds the share for transport is higher (0.7-38.5%). The energy consumption for transport is the lowest in the Benelux due to good availability of both water and CO2. Analysing transport logistics is still important, despite the low energy consumption for transport. The results demonstrate that resource requirements, resource distribution and availability and transport networks have a profound effect on the location choices for algae cultivation. PMID:25549905

  6. Transcriptome Analysis of the Oriental River Prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense Using 454 Pyrosequencing for Discovery of Genes and Markers

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Keyi; Qiu, Gaofeng; Feng, Jianbin; Li, Jiale

    2012-01-01

    Background The oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense, is an economically and nutritionally important species of the Palaemonidae family of decapod crustaceans. To date, the sequencing of its whole genome is unavailable as a non-model organism. Transcriptomic information is also scarce for this species. In this study, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing to produce the first comprehensive expressed sequence tag (EST) dataset for M. nipponense using high-throughput sequencing technologies. Methodology and Principal Findings Total RNA was isolated from eyestalk, gill, heart, ovary, testis, hepatopancreas, muscle, and embryos at the cleavage, gastrula, nauplius and zoea stages. Equal quantities of RNA from each tissue and stage were pooled to construct a cDNA library. Using 454 pyrosequencing technology, we generated a total of 984,204 high quality reads (338.59Mb) with an average length of 344 bp. Clustering and assembly of these reads produced a non-redundant set of 81,411 unique sequences, comprising 42,551 contigs and 38,860 singletons. All of the unique sequences were involved in the molecular function (30,425), cellular component (44,112) and biological process (67,679) categories by GO analysis. Potential genes and their functions were predicted by KEGG pathway mapping and COG analysis. Based on our sequence analysis and published literature, many putative genes involved in sex determination, including DMRT1, FTZ-F1, FOXL2, FEM1 and other potentially important candidate genes, were identified for the first time in this prawn. Furthermore, 6,689 SSRs and 18,107 high-confidence SNPs were identified in this EST dataset. Conclusions The transcriptome provides an invaluable new data for a functional genomics resource and future biological research in M. nipponense. The molecular markers identified in this study will provide a material basis for future genetic linkage and quantitative trait loci analyses, and will be essential for accelerating aquaculture breeding programs with this species. PMID:22745820

  7. Constructing and random sequencing analysis of normalized cDNA library of testis tissue from oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense).

    PubMed

    Qiao, Hui; Fu, Hongtuo; Jin, Shubo; Wu, Yan; Jiang, Sufei; Gong, Yongsheng; Xiong, Yiwei

    2012-09-01

    The oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense, is an important aquaculture species in China. Sexual precocity is a serious problem because of genetic retrogression, which has negative effects on product quality and dramatically affects price. Culture of all-male populations of this species would be economically advantageous, as the males grow faster and reach a much larger size than females. Developing such a culture scheme will require discovery of sex- or reproduction-related genes that affect sexual maturity and sex determination. In this study, a high-quality normalized testis cDNA library was constructed to identify novel transcripts. Of the 5280 successful sequencing reaction yields, 5202 expressed tagged sequences (ESTs) with an average length of 954 bp. Ultimately, 3677 unique sequences, including 891 contigs and 2786 singletons, were identified based on cluster and assembly analyses. Sixteen hundred (43.5%) genes were novel based on the NCBI protein database, thus these unidentified genes may improve basic molecular knowledge about M. nipponense. Of the novel unigenes, 34.4% (715/2077) were homologous to insects, such as Tribolium castaneum, Drosophila spp. and Apis mellifera. Fifty-two genes were identified as sex- or reproduction-related based on Gene Ontology classification and sequence comparison with data from other publications. These genes can be classified into groups based on different functions, including 10 sex-determination related genes, 8 male-reproductive genes, 5 cathepsin-related genes, 20 ubiquitin-related genes, 5 ferritin-related genes, and 4 LRR genes. The results of this study provide new sequence information about M. nipponense, which will be the basis for further genetic studies of this species and other decapods crustaceans. PMID:22632994

  8. Molecular cloning, characterization, and expression analysis of two different types of lectins from the oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense.

    PubMed

    Xiu, Yunji; Wang, Yinghui; Jing, Yunting; Qi, Yakun; Ding, Zhengfeng; Meng, Qingguo; Wang, Wen

    2015-08-01

    Lectins, which are widely expressed in invertebrates, play important roles in many biological processes, including protein trafficking, cell signaling, pathogen recognition, as effector molecules, and so on (Wang and Wang, 2013). This study identified one novel M-type lectin and one L-Type lectin, designated as MnMTL1 and MnLTL1, from the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense. The full-length cDNA of MnMTL1 was 2064 bp with a 1761 bp ORF encoding a putative protein of 586 deduced amino acids. The full-length cDNA of MnLTL1 was 1744 bp with a 972 bp ORF encoding a 323-amino acid peptide. The deduced MnMTL1 protein contained a putative type II transmembrane region and a 440-aa Glycoside hydrolase family 47 (GH47) domain. One luminal carbohydrate recognition domain and a 23-aa type I transmembrane region were identified from the MnLTL1. MnMTL1 shared 78% identity with Marsupenaeus japonicus M-type lectin and MnLTL1 shared 83% similarity with M. japonicus L-type lectin. RT-PCR analysis showed that MnMTL1 and MnLTL1 were expressed in all tested tissues. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that MnMTL1 and MnLTL1 are substantially fluctuant during Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas veronii infections. Based on immune responses and previous literature, we assumed that MnMTL1 and MnLTL1 might be functioned as pattern recognition receptors and play important roles in the immune response of M. nipponense. PMID:25929240

  9. Comparative transcriptome analysis reveals molecular strategies of oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense in response to acute and chronic nitrite stress.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhixin; Li, Tongyu; Li, Erchao; Chen, Ke; Ding, Zhili; Qin, Jian G; Chen, Liqiao; Ye, Jinyun

    2016-01-01

    Macrobrachium nipponense is an economically and nutritionally important species threatened by ambient superfluous nitrite. De novo RNA-Seq was used to explore the molecular mechanism in M. nipponense exposed to the acute nitrite stress (26.05 mg/L nitrite-N) for 24 h and the chronic nitrite stress (1.38 mg/L nitrite-N) for 28 d A total of 175.13 million reads were obtained and assembled into 58,871 unigenes with an average length of 1028.7 bp and N50 of 1294 bp. Under the acute and chronic nitrite stress trials, 2824 and 2610 unigenes were significantly expressed. In GO analysis and KEGG pathway analysis, 30 pathways were significantly different between the two treatments while four pathways were in common and the markedly altered pathways were divided into four sections as immunity, metabolism, cell and others. The immunity section revealing the different depth of immunity provoked by nitrite stress contained the most pathways including the important pathways as phagosome, folate biosynthesis, glycerolipid metabolism, glycine, serine and threonine metabolism, amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism under the acute nitrite stress, and lysosome, alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism, arginine and proline metabolism under the chronic nitrite stress. This is the first report of responses of M. nipponense under acute and chronic nitrite stress through de novo transcriptome sequencing on the transcriptome level. The results of transcriptome analysis improve our understanding on the underlying molecular mechanisms coping with nitrite stress in crustacean species. PMID:26687531

  10. Isolation and characterization of two novel C-type lectins from the oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense.

    PubMed

    Xiu, Yunji; Hou, Libo; Liu, Xiaoqian; Wang, Yinghui; Gu, Wei; Meng, Qingguo; Wang, Wen

    2015-10-01

    C-type lectins are a family of calcium-dependent carbohydrate-binding proteins which are believed to play important roles in the innate immunity of invertebrates. This study identified two novel C-type lectins, designated as MnCTLDcp2 and MnCTLDcp3, from the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense. The full-length cDNA of MnCTLDcp2 was of 1582 bp with an open reading frame (ORF) of 972 bp encoding a polypeptide of 323 amino acids. The complete nucleotide sequence of MnCTLDcp3 cDNA was 583 bp, containing a 555 bp ORF encoding a putative protein of 184 deduced amino acids. The deduced MnCTLDcp2 and MnCTLDcp3 proteins both contained a single C-type lectin-like domain (CTLD). Besides, MnCTLDcp2 contains a signal peptide and an low-density lipoprotein receptor class A (LDLa) domain. Reverse transcription PCR showed that MnCTLDcp2 was expressed in the heart, gill, nerve hepatopancreas and intestine; MnCTLDcp3 was expressed in the hepatopancreas, heart, nerve, gill and muscle. Their expression in the heart tissue was regulated following challenge with bacteria. The microbial agglutination assay showed that both MnCTLDcp2 and MnCTLDcp3 could agglutinated bacteria in the presence of calcium. All these results suggested that MnCTLDcp2 and MnCTLDcp3 functioned as pattern recognition receptors in the immune system of M. nipponense. PMID:26208755

  11. Interactive Cultural Cultivating in FLT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Youwen

    2010-01-01

    Culture cultivating in foreign language teaching (FLT) is usually conducted through factual introductions in the form of articles, books, seminars, lectures or workshops. This approach regards L2 learners as passive receivers of cultural knowledge without their interaction involved. This paper aims at raising an interactive approach to develop L2…

  12. Cultivating Spontaneous Self-Discipline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Shaughnessy, Molly

    1998-01-01

    Draws on contemporary sources to provide strategies for cultivating self-discipline. Advocates self-healing for the adult to be free from destructive attitudes and personal history that can keep adults from being mindful of the child's needs, perspective, and potential. Concludes with ways to facilitate a truly Montessori approach to discipline.…

  13. A kinetic characterization of the gill V(H(+))-ATPase in juvenile and adult Macrobrachium amazonicum, a diadromous palaemonid shrimp.

    PubMed

    Lucena, Malson N; Pinto, Marcelo R; Garçon, Daniela P; McNamara, John C; Leone, Francisco A

    2015-03-01

    Novel kinetic properties of a microsomal gill V(H(+))-ATPase from juvenile and adult Amazon River shrimp, Macrobrachium amazonicum, are described. While protein expression patterns are markedly different, Western blot analysis reveals a sole immunoreactive band, suggesting a single V(H(+))-ATPase subunit isoform, distributed in membrane fractions of similar density in both ontogenetic stages. Immunofluorescence labeling locates the V(H(+))-ATPase in the apical regions of the lamellar pillar cells in both stages in which mRNA expression of the V(H(+))-ATPase B-subunit is identical. Juvenile (36.6±3.3 nmol Pi min(-1) mg(-1)) and adult (41.6±1.3 nmol Pi min(-1) mg(-1)) V(H(+))-ATPase activities are similar, the apparent affinity for ATP of the adult enzyme (K0.5=0.21±0.02 mmol L(-1)) being 3-fold greater than for juveniles (K0.5=0.61±0.01 mmol L(-1)). The K0.5 for Mg(2+) interaction with the juvenile V(H(+))-ATPase (1.40 ± 0.07 mmol L(-1)) is ≈6-fold greater than for adults (0.26±0.02 mmol L(-1)) while the bafilomycin A1 inhibition constant (KI) is 45.0±2.3 nmol L(-1) and 24.2±1.2 nmol L(-1), for juveniles and adults, respectively. Both stages exhibited residual bafilomycin-insensitive ATPase activity of ≈25 nmol Pi min(-1) mg(-1), suggesting the presence of ATPases other than the V(H(+))-ATPase. These differences may reflect a long-term regulatory mechanism of V(H(+))-ATPase activity, and suggest stage-specific enzyme modulation. This is the first kinetic analysis of V(H(+))-ATPase activity in different ontogenetic stages of a freshwater shrimp and allows better comprehension of the biochemical adaptations underpinning the establishment of palaemonid shrimps in fresh water. PMID:25461614

  14. The invasion of five alien species in the Delta do Parnaíba Environmental Protection Area, Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Loebmann, Daniel; Mai, Ana Cecília G; Lee, James T

    2010-09-01

    Marine biological invasions have been regarded as one of the major causes of native biodiversity loss, with shipping and aquaculture being the leading contributors for the introductions of alien species in aquatic ecosystems. In the present study, five aquatic alien species (one mollusk, three crustaceans and one fish species) were detected during dives, shore searches and from the fisheries on the coast of the Delta do Parnaíba Environmental Protection Area, in the States of Piauí and Maranhão, Northeastern Brazil. The species were the bicolor purse-oyster Isognomon bicolor, the whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, the giant river prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, the Indo-Pacific swimming crab Charybdis hellerii and, the muzzled blenny Omobranchus punctatus. Ballast water (I. bicolor, C. hellerii, and O. punctatus) and aquaculture activities (L. vannamei and M. rosenbergii) in adjacent areas are the most likely vectors of introduction. All exotic species found have potential impact risks to the environment because they are able to compete against native species for resources (food and habitat). Isognomon bicolor share the same habitat and food items with the native bivalve species of mussels and barnacles. Litopenaeus vannamei share the same habitat and food items with the native penaeids such as the pinkspot shrimp Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis, the Southern brown shrimp Farfantepenaeus subtilis, and the Southern white shrimp Litopenaeus schmitti, and in the past few years L. vannamei was responsible for a viral epidemics in the cultivation tanks that could be transmitted to native penaeid shrimps. Charybdis hellerii is also able to cause impacts on the local fisheries as the species can decrease the populations of native portunid crabs which are commercialized in the studied region. Macrobrachium rosenbergii may be sharing natural resources with the Amazon River prawn Macrobrachium amazonicum. Omobranchus punctatus shares habit with the native redlip blenny Ophioblennius atlanticus and other fishes, such as the frillfin goby Bathigobius soporator Some immediate remedial measures to prevent further introductions from ballast water and shrimp farm ponds should be: (i) to prevent the release of ballast water by ship/vessels in the region; (ii) to reroute all effluent waters from shrimp rearing facilities through an underground or above-ground dry well; (iii) to install adequate sand and gravel filter which will allow passage of water but not livestock; (iv) outdoor shrimp pounds located on floodable land should be diked, and; (v) to promote environmental awareness of those directly involved with ballast water (crews of ship/vessels) and shrimp farms in the region. PMID:20737846

  15. Toxicity of the organophosphorous insecticide metamidophos (o,s-dimethyl phosphoramidothioate) to larvae of the freshwater prawn and the blue shrimp

    SciTech Connect

    Juarez, L.M.; Sanchez, J. )

    1989-08-01

    The organophosphorous insecticide O,S-dimethyl phosphoramidothioate (Metamidophos, Tamaron, Monitor, Hamidop) is widely used for pest control in tropical crops. If washed down to streams and estuaries its residues could adversely affect populations of commercially important crustaceans, like those of the palaemonid prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and the penaeid shrimp Penaeus stylirostris. This paper presents information on the toxicity of O,S-dimethyl phosphoramidothioate to larvae of M. rosenbergii and P. stylirostris.

  16. Genomic cloning, expression, and single nucleotide polymorphism association analysis of the insulin-like androgenic gland hormone gene in the oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense).

    PubMed

    Li, F J; Jiang, F W; Bai, H K; Fu, H T; Jin, S B; Sun, S M; Qiao, H; Zhang, W Y

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that the insulin-like androgenic gland hormone (IAG) gene plays an important role in male sexual differentiation, metabolism, and growth in crustaceans. In the present study, we isolated the full-length genome sequence of IAG by genome walking based on the cDNA sequence in Macrobrachium nipponense. Four novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were studied, including 509G>T, 529G>T, 590A>T in intron 1, and 2226A>G in intron 2. The association of genetic variation with growth traits [body length (BL) and body weight (BW)] was analyzed. Individuals with GG geno- type at locus 2226A>G maintained higher mean BL (P < 0.01) and BW (P < 0.05) than AA and GA individuals. These results suggest that IAG SNPs may be useful molecular markers for selecting growth traits in M. nipponense. PMID:26125790

  17. The Prawn Macrobrachium vollenhovenii in the Senegal River Basin: Towards Sustainable Restocking of All-Male Populations for Biological Control of Schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Savaya Alkalay, Amit; Rosen, Ohad; Sokolow, Susanne H.; Faye, Yacinthe P. W.; Faye, Djibril S.; Aflalo, Eliahu D.; Jouanard, Nicolas; Zilberg, Dina; Huttinger, Elizabeth; Sagi, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Early malacological literature suggests that the outbreak of schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease transmitted by aquatic snails, in the Senegal River basin occurred due to ecological changes resulting from the construction of the Diama dam. The common treatment, the drug praziquantel, does not protect from the high risk of re-infection due to human contact with infested water on a daily basis. The construction of the dam interfered with the life cycle of the prawn Macrobrachium vollenhovenii by blocking its access to breeding grounds in the estuary. These prawns were demonstrated to be potential biological control agents, being effective predators of Schistosoma-susceptible snails. Here, we propose a responsible restocking strategy using all-male prawn populations which could provide sustainable disease control. Male prawns reach a larger size and have a lower tendency to migrate than females. We, therefore, expect that periodic restocking of all-male juveniles will decrease the prevalence of schistosomiasis and increase villagers' welfare. In this interdisciplinary study, we examined current prawn abundance along the river basin, complemented with a retrospective questionnaire completed by local fishermen. We revealed the current absence of prawns upriver and thus demonstrated the need for restocking. Since male prawns are suggested to be preferable for bio-control, we laid the molecular foundation for production of all-male M. vollenhovenii through a complete sequencing of the insulin-like androgenic gland-encoding gene (IAG), which is responsible for sexual differentiation in crustaceans. We also conducted bioinformatics and immunohistochemistry analyses to demonstrate the similarity of this sequence to the IAG of another Macrobrachium species in which neo-females are produced and their progeny are 100% males. At least 100 million people at risk of schistosomiasis are residents of areas that experienced water management manipulations. Our suggested non-breeding sustainable model of control—if proven successful—could prevent re-infections and thus prove useful throughout the world. PMID:25166746

  18. The prawn Macrobrachium vollenhovenii in the Senegal River basin: towards sustainable restocking of all-male populations for biological control of schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Savaya Alkalay, Amit; Rosen, Ohad; Sokolow, Susanne H; Faye, Yacinthe P W; Faye, Djibril S; Aflalo, Eliahu D; Jouanard, Nicolas; Zilberg, Dina; Huttinger, Elizabeth; Sagi, Amir

    2014-08-01

    Early malacological literature suggests that the outbreak of schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease transmitted by aquatic snails, in the Senegal River basin occurred due to ecological changes resulting from the construction of the Diama dam. The common treatment, the drug praziquantel, does not protect from the high risk of re-infection due to human contact with infested water on a daily basis. The construction of the dam interfered with the life cycle of the prawn Macrobrachium vollenhovenii by blocking its access to breeding grounds in the estuary. These prawns were demonstrated to be potential biological control agents, being effective predators of Schistosoma-susceptible snails. Here, we propose a responsible restocking strategy using all-male prawn populations which could provide sustainable disease control. Male prawns reach a larger size and have a lower tendency to migrate than females. We, therefore, expect that periodic restocking of all-male juveniles will decrease the prevalence of schistosomiasis and increase villagers' welfare. In this interdisciplinary study, we examined current prawn abundance along the river basin, complemented with a retrospective questionnaire completed by local fishermen. We revealed the current absence of prawns upriver and thus demonstrated the need for restocking. Since male prawns are suggested to be preferable for bio-control, we laid the molecular foundation for production of all-male M. vollenhovenii through a complete sequencing of the insulin-like androgenic gland-encoding gene (IAG), which is responsible for sexual differentiation in crustaceans. We also conducted bioinformatics and immunohistochemistry analyses to demonstrate the similarity of this sequence to the IAG of another Macrobrachium species in which neo-females are produced and their progeny are 100% males. At least 100 million people at risk of schistosomiasis are residents of areas that experienced water management manipulations. Our suggested non-breeding sustainable model of control-if proven successful-could prevent re-infections and thus prove useful throughout the world. PMID:25166746

  19. Seaweed cultivation: Traditional way and its reformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Xiu-Geng; Bao, Ying; Lu, Shan

    1999-09-01

    Seaweed cultivation or phycoculture has been developed rather fast in recent years. The total production of cultivated seaweed at present is about 6250×103 tons fresh weight. The total cultivation area is estimated as 200×103 hectare. The annual total value of cultivated seaweeds has been estimated to be more than 3 billion US dollars. Phycoculture provides many job opportunities for the coastal region people, has the potential to improve marine environments and thus even induce global change. All traditional cultivation methods and techniques are based on or start from the individual plant or the cultivated seaweed population. Modern biological science and biotechnology achievements have benefited agriculture a lot, but traditional seaweed cultivation has not changed much since its founding. This is because seaweed cultivation has been quite conservative for quite a long period and has accumulated many problems requiring solution. Four main problems might be the most universal ones holding back further development of the industry. New ways of seaweed cultivation must be developed, new techniques must be perfected, and new problems solved. This paper mainly discusses the main problems of traditional seaweed cultivation at present and its possible further development and reformation in the future.

  20. Enhanced Cultivation Of Stimulated Murine B Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sammons, David W.

    1994-01-01

    Method of in vitro cultivation of large numbers of stimulated murine B lymphocytes. Cells electrofused with other cells to produce hybridomas and monoclonal antibodies. Offers several advantages: polyclonally stimulated B-cell blasts cultivated for as long as 14 days, hybridomas created throughout culture period, yield of hybridomas increases during cultivation, and possible to expand polyclonally in vitro number of B cells specific for antigenic determinants first recognized in vivo.

  1. Cultivation of mammalian cells in bioreactors

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, W.S.; Dodge, T.C.

    1985-12-01

    The use of bioreactors for the cultivation of mammalian cells in vitro has the potential for systematic scale up to meet future demand. The complexity of mammalian cells in culture and their characteristics is described here as is a number of cultivation methods including simple suspension, microcarrier, hollow fiber, ceramic matrix and microencapsulation.

  2. Effects of cultivation frequency on sugarcane yields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reducing the number of cultivations during one or more years of a four year crop cycle reduces production expenses and could increase profitability if yields are not adversely affected. This study was initiated to determine the effects of cultivation on yields of sugarcane grown on a clay soil both ...

  3. Effects of cultivation frequency on sugarcane yields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reducing the number of cultivations during one or more years of a four year crop cycle may potentially reduce production expenses for Louisiana sugarcane growers. This study was initiated to determine the effects of cultivation on yields of sugarcane grown on a clay soil both on an annual basis and ...

  4. Transcriptome Analysis of Androgenic Gland for Discovery of Novel Genes from the Oriental River Prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense, Using Illumina Hiseq 2000

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Shubo; Fu, Hongtuo; Zhou, Qiao; Sun, Shengming; Jiang, Sufei; Xiong, Yiwei; Gong, Yongsheng; Qiao, Hui; Zhang, Wenyi

    2013-01-01

    Background The oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense, is an important aquaculture species in China, even in whole of Asia. The androgenic gland produces hormones that play crucial roles in sexual differentiation to maleness. This study is the first de novo M. nipponense transcriptome analysis using cDNA prepared from mRNA isolated from the androgenic gland. Illumina/Solexa was used for sequencing. Methodology and Principal Finding The total volume of RNA sample was more than 5 ug. We generated 70,853,361 high quality reads after eliminating adapter sequences and filtering out low-quality reads. A total of 78,408 isosequences were obtained by clustering and assembly of the clean reads, producing 57,619 non-redundant transcripts with an average length of 1244.19 bp. In total 70,702 isosequences were matched to the Nr database, additional analyses were performed by GO (33,203), KEGG (17,868), and COG analyses (13,817), identifying the potential genes and their functions. A total of 47 sex-determination related gene families were identified from the M. nipponense androgenic gland transcriptome based on the functional annotation of non-redundant transcripts and comparisons with the published literature. Furthermore, a total of 40 candidate novel genes were found, that may contribute to sex-determination based on their extremely high expression levels in the androgenic compared to other sex glands,. Further, 437 SSRs and 65,535 high-confidence SNPs were identified in this EST dataset from which 14 EST-SSR markers have been isolated. Conclusion Our study provides new sequence information for M. nipponense, which will be the basis for further genetic studies on decapods crustaceans. More importantly, this study dramatically improves understanding of sex-determination mechanisms, and advances sex-determination research in all crustacean species. The huge number of potential SSR and SNP markers isolated from the transcriptome may shed the lights on research in many fields, including the evolution and molecular ecology of Macrobrachium species. PMID:24204682

  5. Potential and limitations of Burgundy truffle cultivation.

    PubMed

    Stobbe, Ulrich; Egli, Simon; Tegel, Willy; Peter, Martina; Sproll, Ludger; Büntgen, Ulf

    2013-06-01

    Burgundy truffles (Tuber aestivum syn. Tuber uncinatum) are the highly prized fruit bodies of subterranean fungi always occurring in ectomycorrhizal symbiosis with host plants. Successful cultivation can be achieved through artificial mycorrhization and outplanting of mostly oaks and hazel on suitable terrain. Here, we review ecological requirements, the influence of environmental factors, and the importance of molecular techniques for a successful cultivation of T. aestivum across Europe. The historical background and current knowledge of T. aestivum cultivation are discussed in light of its socioeconomic relevance. PMID:23666478

  6. Identification of androgenic gland microRNA and their target genes to discover sex-related microRNA in the oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense.

    PubMed

    Jin, S B; Fu, H T; Jiang, S F; Xiong, Y W; Qiao, H; Zhang, W Y; Gong, Y S; Wu, Y

    2015-01-01

    The oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense, is an important aquaculture species in China. The androgenic gland produces hormones that play crucial roles in the differentiation of crustaceans to the male sex. MicroRNA (miRNA) post-transcriptionally regulates many protein-coding genes, influencing important biological and metabolic processes. However, currently, there is no published data identifying miRNA in M. nipponense. In this study, we identified novel miRNA in the androgenic gland of M. nipponense. Using the high-throughput Illumina Solexa system, 1077 miRNA were identified from small RNA libraries by aligning with the de novo androgenic gland transcriptome of M. nipponense (obtained from RNA-Seq) and the sequences in the miRBase21 database. A total of 8,248, 76,011, and 78,307 target genes were predicted in the EST and SRA sequences provided in the NCBI database, and the androgenic gland transcriptome of M. nipponense, respectively. Some potential sex-related miRNA were identified based on the function of the predicted target genes. The results of our study provide new information regarding the miRNA expression in M. nipponense, which could be the basis for further genetic studies on decapod crustaceans. PMID:26782487

  7. Molecular cloning, characterization, and expression analysis of a Broad-Complex homolog during development in the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense.

    PubMed

    Jiang, S F; Zhang, Y P; Sun, S M; Gong, Y S; Xiong, Y W; Qiao, H; Zhang, W Y; Jin, S B; Fu, H T

    2015-01-01

    Broad-Complex (BR-C) is an early ecdysone-responsive gene encoding a family of zinc-finger transcription factors. In this study, we isolated the full-length cDNA of a BR-C homolog from the testes of the oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense), according to established expressed sequence tag information, using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends technique. The homolog was designated as MnBR-C. The full-length cDNA of MnBR-C contained a 1095-bp open reading frame encoding a precursor protein of 365 amino acid residues. Comparative and bioinformatic analyses revealed that MnBR-C exhibited a high degree of homology with BR-C proteins, and contained the BTB and Zf-H2C2-2 domains. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis revealed that the MnBR-C expression level varied significantly in the developing embryo, postembryonic larva, and adult tissue. Real-time qPCR showed that the MnBR-C gene was expressed in all of the tissues investigated, with the highest level of expression in the brain. In addition, MnBR-C was more abundantly expressed in the testes than in the ovaries. PMID:26125707

  8. Use of the Multispecies Freshwater Biomonitor to assess behavioral changes of Poecilia reticulata (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae) and Macrobrachium lanchesteri (Decapoda: Palaemonidae) in response to acid mine drainage: laboratory exposure.

    PubMed

    Mohti, Azmah; Shuhaimi-Othman, Mohammad; Gerhardt, Almut

    2012-09-01

    The behavioral responses of guppy Poecilia reticulata (Poeciliidae) and prawn Macrobrachium lanchesteri (Palaemonidae) individuals exposed to acid mine drainage (AMD) were monitored online in the laboratory with a Multispecies Freshwater Biomonitor™ (MFB). These responses were compared to those to reference water acidified to the respective pH values (ACID). Test animals in the juvenile stage were used for both species and were exposed to AMD and ACID for 24 hours. The stress behaviors of both test animals consisted mainly of decreased activity in AMD and increased activity in ACID, indicating that the metals in the AMD played a role as a stress factor in addition to pH. The locomotor activity levels of guppies and prawns for the ACID treatment were higher than the locomotor activity levels for the AMD treatment with increasing pH value. For guppies, significant differences were observed when specimens were exposed to AMD and ACID at pH 5.0 and 6.0; the percentage activities were only 16% and 12%, respectively, for AMD treatment, whereas for ACID treatment, the percentage activities were 35% and 40%, respectively, similar to the value of 36% for the controls. Similar trends were also observed for prawns, for which the percentage activities were only 6% and 4%, respectively, for AMD treatment, whereas for ACID treatment, the percentage activities were 31% and 38%, respectively, compared to 44% in the controls. This study showed that both species are suitable for use as indicators for ecotoxicity testing with the MFB. PMID:22868673

  9. Geographic information system-based identification of suitable cultivation sites for wood-cultivated ginseng

    PubMed Central

    Beon, Mu Sup; Park, Jun Ho; Kang, Hag Mo; Cho, Sung Jong; Kim, Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Wood-cultivated ginseng, including roots in its dried form, is produced in forest land without using artificial facilities such as light barriers. To identify suitable sites for the propagation of wood-cultivated ginseng, factor combination technique (FCT) and linear combination technique (LCT) were used with geographic information system and the results were superimposed onto an actual wood-cultivated ginseng plantation. The LCT more extensively searched for suitable sites of cultivation than that by the FCT; further, the LCT probed wide areas considering the predominance of precipitous mountains in Korea. In addition, the LCT showed the much higher degree of overlap with the actual cultivation sites; therefore, the LCT more comprehensively reflects the cultivator’s intention for site selection. On the other hand, the inclusion of additional factors for the selection of suitable cultivation sites and experts’ opinions may enhance the effectiveness and accuracy of the LCT for site application. PMID:24235864

  10. Pensions for 'cultivators of science'.

    PubMed

    Crosland, Maurice

    2010-10-01

    The occasional (and belated) concern of the British Government with science in the nineteenth century is a matter of potential interest to historians of science, yet many previous studies have tended to range over a variety of different aspects of the question. There have been too many vague allusions to financial support as 'money for science' in general. It is time that particular parts of the problem were unpacked. For example, the award of money (from the 1820s) to pay a few people of independent means for apparatus was quite distinct from the provision (from the 1830s) of an occasional pension. Even then, to speak of 'pensions' uncovers unfortunate ambiguities. For too long science in Britain was regarded as no more than a private hobby for the well-to-do. As late as 1856 an official government statement seemed to make this attitude official. The English attitude to pensions differed remarkably from the French, who established a precedent in the reward of savants, sometimes quoted enviously by British men of science. In 1837 Robert Peel virtually admitted that, in awarding pensions to 'cultivators of science', he was following the French practice. It may also be useful to emphasise the contrast between the English (often led by Cambridge professors) and the Scots, mostly from Edinburgh, mainly represented here by Whewell and Brewster, respectively. Babbage had a different role in this story from that usually told. A large part in supporting men of science of modest means could have been played by the British Association for the Advancement of Science but it consistently refused to do so, although it supported an elite among its own members. PMID:21466131

  11. Intracellular pH-based controlled cultivation of yeast cells: 2. Cultivation methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Sureshkumar, G.K.; Mutharasan, R. )

    1993-07-01

    Intracellular pH (pH[sub i]) was measured on-line in a bioreactor using a fluorescent pH[sub i] indicator, 9-aminoacridine, and controlled fed-batch cultivations of yeast cells based on pH[sub i] (FB-pH[sub i]) were performed. In FB-pH[sub i] cultivations, automated glucose additions were made to the culture in response to culture pH[sub i]. The average ethanol (anaerobic product) yield was significantly lower [0.12 g g[sup [minus]1] glucose in fed-batch pH[sub i] cultivations with 100 ppm glucose additions (FB-pH[sub i]-100 cultivation) vs. 0.48 g g[sup [minus]1] glucose in batch] and cell yield was higher (0.54 g g[sup [minus]1] glucose in FB-pH[sub 1]-100 cultivation vs. 0.3 g g[sup [minus]1] glucose in batch) compared to batch cultivation. An expression has been derived to calculate changes in pH[sub i] from measured fluorescence values when the cell concentration increases during growth. Cultivations based on pH[sub i], performed with different magnitudes of glucose addition (100, 50, and 10 ppm additions), showed that lower magnitudes of glucose addition resulted in lower ethanol yields while cell yield remained unaffected. The ratio of specific oxygen uptake rate to specific glucose uptake rate (OUR/GUR) increased with decrease in magnitude of glucose additions in FB-pH[sub i] cultivations, suggesting that the culture aerobic state was higher when the magnitude of glucose addition was lower. The average cell productivity in FB-pH[sub i] cultivations was 29% higher than in batch cultivation. Cells were also cultivated at high OUR conditions, and the results are compared with other cultivations.

  12. A Simple "in Vitro" Culture of Freshwater Prawn Embryos for Laboratory Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porntrai, Supaporn; Damrongphol, Praneet

    2008-01-01

    Giant freshwater prawn ("Macrobrachium rosenbergii" De Man) embryos can be cultured "in vitro" to hatching in 15% (v/v) artificial seawater (ASW). This technique can be applied as a bioassay for testing toxicity or for the effects of various substances on embryo development and can be used as a simple and low-cost model for studying embryo

  13. A Simple "in Vitro" Culture of Freshwater Prawn Embryos for Laboratory Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porntrai, Supaporn; Damrongphol, Praneet

    2008-01-01

    Giant freshwater prawn ("Macrobrachium rosenbergii" De Man) embryos can be cultured "in vitro" to hatching in 15% (v/v) artificial seawater (ASW). This technique can be applied as a bioassay for testing toxicity or for the effects of various substances on embryo development and can be used as a simple and low-cost model for studying embryo…

  14. Activity and Transcriptional Responses of Hepatopancreatic Biotransformation and Antioxidant Enzymes in the Oriental River Prawn Macrobrachium nipponense Exposed to Microcystin-LR

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Julin; Wang, Xueqin; Gu, Zhiming; Zhang, Yingying; Wang, Zaizhao

    2015-01-01

    Microcystins (MCs) are a major group of cyanotoxins with side effects in many organisms; thus, compounds in this group are recognized as potent stressors and health hazards in aquatic ecosystems. In order to assess the toxicity of MCs and detoxification mechanism of freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium nipponense, the full-length cDNAs of the glutathione S-transferase (gst) and catalase (cat) genes were isolated from the hepatopancreas. The transcription level and activity changes in the biotransformation enzyme (glutathione S-transferase (GST)) and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx)) in the hepatopancreas of M. nipponense exposed to MC-LR (0.2, 1, 5, and 25 μg/L) for 12, 24, 72 and 96 h were analyzed. The results showed that the isolated full-length cDNAs of cat and gst genes from M. nipponense displayed a high similarity to other crustaceans, and their mRNAs were mainly expressed in the hepatopancreas. MC-LR caused significant increase of GST activity following 48–96 h (p < 0.05) and an increase in SOD activity especially in 24- and 48-h exposures. CAT activity was activated when exposed to MC-LR in 12-, 24- and 48-h exposures and then it was inhibited at 96-h exposure. There was no significant effect on GPx activity after the 12- and 24-h exposures, whereas it was significantly stimulated after the 72- and 96-h exposures (p < 0.05). The transcription was altered similarly to enzyme activity, but the transcriptional response was generally more immediate and had greater amplitude than enzymatic response, particularly for GST. All of the results suggested that MC-LR can induce antioxidative modulation variations in M. nipponense hepatopancreas in order to eliminate oxidative damage. PMID:26457718

  15. An evaluation of replacing fish meal with fermented soybean meal in the diet of Macrobrachium nipponense: Growth, nonspecific immunity, and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhili; Zhang, Yixiang; Ye, Jinyun; Du, Zhenyu; Kong, Youqin

    2015-05-01

    Partial or complete replacement of fish meal (FM) with fermented soybean meal (FSM) was examined in Macrobrachium nipponense over an 8-week growth trial. Growth and immune characteristics were evaluated. Fermented soybean meal replaced 0 (FM, control), 25% (R25), 50% (R50), 75% (R75), or 100% of the FM (R100) in five isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets. Each diet was fed to juvenile prawns (mean weight, 0.103 ± 0.0009 g) twice daily to apparent satiation in five replicates. Weight gain and specific growth rate of M. nipponense were significantly higher in prawns fed the R25 diet than that of prawns fed the FM diet. No significant differences were observed among the other treatments. Total hemocyte count and hemolymph phagocytic activity decreased as the proportion of FSM increased. Total antioxidant activity competence and malondialdehyde level in the hepatopancreas were highest in prawns fed the R100 diet. mRNA levels of the antioxidant genes Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase and catalase, heat shock cognate protein 70, and heat shock protein 90 were significantly differentially regulated in the prawn hepatopancreas. In addition, percent mortality increased after challenge with live Aeromonas hydrophila. Percent mortality of prawns fed the R100 diet was significantly higher than that of prawns fed the FM and R25 diets. These findings demonstrate that (1) M. nipponense growth performance was not affected by including a high proportion of FSM in the diet, and the best growth performance was obtained when 25% of the FM was replaced with FSM; (2) nonspecific immunity was impaired when all of the FM was replaced with FSM. PMID:25707598

  16. Activity and Transcriptional Responses of Hepatopancreatic Biotransformation and Antioxidant Enzymes in the Oriental River Prawn Macrobrachium nipponense Exposed to Microcystin-LR.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Julin; Wang, Xueqin; Gu, Zhiming; Zhang, Yingying; Wang, Zaizhao

    2015-10-01

    Microcystins (MCs) are a major group of cyanotoxins with side effects in many organisms; thus, compounds in this group are recognized as potent stressors and health hazards in aquatic ecosystems. In order to assess the toxicity of MCs and detoxification mechanism of freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium nipponense, the full-length cDNAs of the glutathione S-transferase (gst) and catalase (cat) genes were isolated from the hepatopancreas. The transcription level and activity changes in the biotransformation enzyme (glutathione S-transferase (GST)) and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx)) in the hepatopancreas of M. nipponense exposed to MC-LR (0.2, 1, 5, and 25 μg/L) for 12, 24, 72 and 96 h were analyzed. The results showed that the isolated full-length cDNAs of cat and gst genes from M. nipponense displayed a high similarity to other crustaceans, and their mRNAs were mainly expressed in the hepatopancreas. MC-LR caused significant increase of GST activity following 48-96 h (p < 0.05) and an increase in SOD activity especially in 24- and 48-h exposures. CAT activity was activated when exposed to MC-LR in 12-, 24- and 48-h exposures and then it was inhibited at 96-h exposure. There was no significant effect on GPx activity after the 12- and 24-h exposures, whereas it was significantly stimulated after the 72- and 96-h exposures (p < 0.05). The transcription was altered similarly to enzyme activity, but the transcriptional response was generally more immediate and had greater amplitude than enzymatic response, particularly for GST. All of the results suggested that MC-LR can induce antioxidative modulation variations in M. nipponense hepatopancreas in order to eliminate oxidative damage. PMID:26457718

  17. Identification and comparative analysis of the oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) microRNA expression profile during hypoxia using a deep sequencing approach.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shengming; Fu, Hongtuo; Ge, Xianping; Zhu, Jian; Gu, Zhimin; Xuan, Fujun

    2016-03-01

    Hypoxia refers to a state of oxygen deficiency, which is observed frequently in aquaculture ponds. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that are important effectors in regulating gene expression through posttranscriptional mechanisms. They are key elements in the response to hypoxia. The oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) is an important commercial aquaculture species, and is sensitive to hypoxia. To date, there are no reports describing M. nipponense miRNAs. In this study, Solexa deep sequencing technology was used for high-throughput analysis of miRNAs in a small RNA library isolated from four M. nipponense tissues (gill, hepatopancreas, muscle and hemocytes). In total, 9,227,356 reads were obtained, 4,293,155 of which were related to 267 unique miRNAs, including 203 conserved and 64 prawn-specific miRNAs. Furthermore, miRNA features including length distribution and end variations were characterized. Annotation of targets revealed a broad range of biological processes and signal transduction pathways regulated by M. nipponense miRNAs. In addition, 880 co-expressed and 39 specific (25 normoxia-specific and 14 hypoxia-specific) miRNAs that may be involved in the response to hypoxia were confirmed using miRNA microarray analysis from the four prawn tissues combined. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis of eight miRNAs in the normoxia and hypoxia groups showed good concordance between the sequencing and qPCR data. This study provides the first large-scale identification and characterization of M. nipponense miRNAs and their potential targets, and represents a foundation for further characterization of their roles in the regulation of the diversity of hypoxia processes. PMID:26829004

  18. Molecular characterization and developmental expression of vitellogenin in the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense and the effects of RNA interference and eyestalk ablation on ovarian maturation.

    PubMed

    Bai, Hongkun; Qiao, Hui; Li, Fajun; Fu, Hongtuo; Sun, Shengming; Zhang, Wenyi; Jin, Shubo; Gong, Yongsheng; Jiang, Sufei; Xiong, Yiwei

    2015-05-10

    Vitellogenin (Vg) is the precursor of yolk protein, which functions as a nutritive resource that is important for embryonic growth and gonad development. In this study, the cDNA encoding the Vg gene from the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense was cloned using expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis and the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) approach. The transcript encoded 2536 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 286.810 kDa. Quantitative real-time PCR indicated high expression of Mn-Vg in the female ovary, hemocytes, and hepatopancreas. As ovaries developed, the expression level of Mn-Vg increased in both the hepatopancreas and ovary. In the hepatopancreas, the expression level rose more slowly at the early stage of vitellogenesis and reached the peak more rapidly compared to the expression pattern in ovary. The observed changes in Mn-Vg expression level at different development stages suggest the role of nutrient source in embryonic and larval development. Eyestalk ablation caused the Mn-Vg expression level to increase significantly compared to eyestalk-intact groups during the ovary development stages. Ablation accelerated ovary maturation by removing hormone inhibition of Mn-Vg in the hepatopancreas and ovary. In adult females, Mn-Vg dsRNA injection resulted in decreased expression of Mn-Vg in both the hepatopancreas and ovary, and two injection treatment dramatically delayed ovary maturation. Vg RNA interference down-regulated the vitellogenin receptor (VgR) expression level in the ovary, which illustrates the close relationship between Vg and VgR in the process of vitellogenesis. PMID:25499697

  19. Characterization, expression, and function analysis of gonad-inhibiting hormone in Oriental River prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense and its induced expression by temperature.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Hui; Xiong, Yiwei; Zhang, Wenyi; Fu, Hongtuo; Jiang, Sufei; Sun, Shengming; Bai, Hongkun; Jin, Shubo; Gong, Yongsheng

    2015-07-01

    Gonad-inhibiting hormone (GIH) is a member of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone family and plays a major role in regulating reproduction in crustaceans. In this study, a full-length cDNA of GIH of Oriental River prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense (Mn-GIH) was cloned from the eyestalk. A 1350 bp full-length Mn-GIH cDNA harbored 336 bp of an open reading frame encoding signal peptide of 112 amino acid residues. Sequence analysis revealed that the overall cDNA sequence and specific functional sites of Mn-GIH were highly conserved with those in other crustacean species. Expression analysis by quantitative real-time PCR demonstrated its tissue-specific, larval developmental stage-specific, and ovary developmental stage-specific expression pattern, respectively. The RNAi by GIH-ds-RNA in vivo injection was effective in this study and resulted a 50% (day 1), 83% (day 5) and 63% (day 9) down-regulation compared to control. The obvious changes of gonad somatic index (GSI) rate also provided strong evidence to the inhibition effects of GIH on ovary maturation and spawning. Four temperature gradients (12 °C ± 1 °C, 17 °C ± 1 °C, 22 °C ± 1 °C, 27 °C ± 1 °C) were set to imitate the temperature in breeding and non-breeding seasons. The observed expression profiles suggest that Mn-GIH did not display a high level expression as supposed to maintain an immature ovary state under low temperature (12 °C). The results indicated that GIH was probably activated to concentrating and working by a proper temperature before reaching to breeding season. PMID:25770669

  20. Immunocytochemical localization of V-H(+) -ATPase, Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase, and carbonic anhydrase in gill lamellae of adult freshwater euryhaline shrimp Macrobrachium acanthurus (Decapoda, Palaemonidae).

    PubMed

    Maraschi, Anieli Cristina; Freire, Carolina Arruda; Prodocimo, Viviane

    2015-08-01

    Physiological (organismal), biochemical, and molecular biological contributions to the knowledge of the osmoregulatory plasticity of palaemonid freshwater shrimps has provided a fairly complete model of transporter localization in their branchial epithelium. Direct immunological demonstration of the main enzymes in the gill epithelia of adult palaemonids is, however, still incipient. The diadromous freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium acanthurus was exposed to increased salinity (25‰ for 24 hr), and its responses at the systemic level were evaluated through the assays of hemolymph osmolality and muscle hydration, and at cellular and subcellular levels through the activity and localization of the V-H(+) -ATPase, the Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase, and the carbonic anhydrase. Results showed an increase in hemolymph osmolality (629 ± 5.3 mOsm/kg H2 O) and a decrease in muscle hydration (73.8 ± 0.5%), comparing values after 24 hr in 25‰ with control shrimps in freshwater (respectively 409.5 ± 15.8 mOsm/kg H2 O and 77.5 ± 0.4%). V-H(+) -ATPase was localized in pillar cells, whereas Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase in the septal cells. The main novelty of this study was that carbonic anhydrase was localized in the whole branchial tissue, in pillar and septal cells. Exposure to high salinity for 24 hr led to no detectable changes in their localization or in vitro activity. Immunolocalization data corroborated the literature and current models of palaemonid gill ion transport. The absence of changes reinforces the need for the constant expression of these enzymes to account for the euryhalinity of these shrimps. PMID:26036663

  1. Molecular characterization and mRNA expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1 and cognate inhibiting factor in Macrobrachium nipponense in response to hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shengming; Xuan, Fujun; Fu, Hongtuo; Ge, Xianping; Zhu, Jian; Qiao, Hui; Jin, Shubo; Zhang, Wenyi

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs) are considered to be the master switches of oxygen-dependent gene expression in mammalian species. Currently, very little is known about the function of this important pathway or the molecular structures of key players in the hypoxia-sensitive Oriental River Prawn Macrobrachium nipponense. In this study, HIFs-1α (HIF-1α), -1β (HIF-1β) and HIF 1-alpha inhibitor (FIH-1) from M. nipponense were cloned. The 4903-bp cDNA of M. nipponense HIF-1α (MnHIF-1α) encodes a protein of 1088 aa, M. nipponense HIF-1β (MnHIF-1β) spans 2042bp encoding 663 aa and the 1163bp M. nipponense FIH-1 (MnFIH-1) specifies a polypeptide of 345 aa. MnHIF-1 and MnFIH-1 homologs exhibit significant sequence similarity and share key functional domains with previously described vertebrate and invertebrate isoforms. Phylogenetic analysis identifies that genetic diversification of HIF-1 and FIH-1 occurred within the invertebrate lineage, indicating functional specialization of the oxygen sensing pathways in this group. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR demonstrated that MnHIF-1 and MnFIH-1 mRNA are expressed in different tissues and exhibit transcriptional responses to severe hypoxia in gill and muscle tissue, consistent with their putative role in oxygen sensing and the adaptive response to hypoxia. The role of HIF-1α in response to hypoxia was further investigated in the gills and muscles of prawns using in situ hybridization. These results suggested that HIF-1α plays an important role in oxygen sensing and homeostasis in M. nipponense. PMID:26883381

  2. Long term cultivation of larger benthic Foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wöger, Julia; Eder, Wolfgang; Kinoshita, Shunichi; Antonino, Briguglio; Carles, Ferrandes-Cañadell; Hohenegger, Johann

    2015-04-01

    Benthic Foraminifera are used in a variety of applications employing numerous different methods, i.e. ecological monitoring, studying the effects of ocean acidification, reconstructing palaeo-bathymetry or investigating palaeo-salinity and palaeo-temperature to name only a few. To refine our understanding of ecological influences on larger benthic foraminiferal biology and to review inferences from field observations, culture experiments have become an indispensable tool. While culture experiments on smaller benthic foraminifera have become increasingly frequent in the past century, reports of the cultivation of symbiont bearing larger Foraminifera are rare. Generally, cultivation experiments can be divided into two groups: Culturing of populations and cultivation of single specimens allowing individual investigation. The latter differ form the former by several restrictions resulting from the need to limit individual motility without abridging microenvironmental conditions in the Foraminiferans artificial habitat, necessary to enable the individual to development as unfettered as possible. In this study we present first experiences and preliminary results of the long-term cultivation of larger benthic Foraminifera conducted at the 'Tropical Biosphere Research Station Sesoko Island, University of the Ryukyus', Japan, trying to reproduce natural conditions as closely as possible. Individuals of three species of larger benthic Foraminifera (Heterostegina depressa, Palaeonummulites venosus and Operculina complanata) have been cultured since April 2014. At the time of the general assembly the cultivation experiments will have been going on for more than one year, with the aim to investigate growth rates, longevities and reproduction strategies for comparison with results statistically inferred from application of the of the 'natural laboratory' method. The most important factor influencing foraminiferal health and development was found to be light intensity and light spectrum. The light intensities reaching the Foraminifera in cultivation however largely depend on the substrate provided (e.g. sand and silt where individuals dig close to the surface or coral rubble used as shelter by the Foraminiferans and as an easy way of retaining the organisms within a designated container by the investigator).

  3. Microgravity cultivation of cells and tissues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, L. E.; Pellis, N.; Searby, N.; de Luis, J.; Preda, C.; Bordonaro, J.; Vunjak-Novakovic, G.

    1999-01-01

    In vitro studies of cells and tissues in microgravity, either simulated by cultivation conditions on earth or actual, during spaceflight, are expected to help identify mechanisms underlying gravity sensing and transduction in biological organisms. In this paper, we review rotating bioreactor studies of engineered skeletal and cardiovascular tissues carried out in unit gravity, a four month long cartilage tissue engineering study carried out aboard the Mir Space Station, and the ongoing laboratory development and testing of a system for cell and tissue cultivation aboard the International Space Station.

  4. Cultivation in the Newer Media Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perse, Elizabeth M.; And Others

    Researchers who study television's cultivation effects believe that heavy television viewing exposes people to consistent messages that lead them to be more fearful and mistrustful of others. The widespread adoption and use of new television technologies, such as cable, VCR, and remote control devices (RCD), however, have the potential to alter…

  5. Evolution and classification of the cultivated potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cultivated potato is one of the most important food plants worldwide, yet knowledge of the gene pool structure of the native South American landraces remains largely uninvestigated and has long been controversial. As a result, contrasting taxonomic treatments of the landraces have continued over...

  6. Aggregate stability in soils cultivated with eucalyptus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eucalyptus cultivation has increased in many Brazilian regions. In order to recommend good management practices, it is necessary to understand changes in soil properties where eucalyptus is planted. Aggregate stability analyses have proved to be a useful tool to measure soil effects caused by change...

  7. Genetic variation in cultivated Rheum tanguticum populations

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yanping; Xie, Xiaolong; Wang, Li; Zhang, Huaigang; Yang, Jian; Li, Yi

    2014-01-01

    To examine whether cultivation reduced genetic variation in the important Chinese medicinal plant Rheum tanguticum, the levels and distribution of genetic variation were investigated using ISSR markers. Fifty-eight R. tanguticum individuals from five cultivated populations were studied. Thirteen primers were used and a total of 320 DNA bands were scored. High levels of genetic diversity were detected in cultivated R. tanguticum (PPB = 82.19, H = 0.2498, HB = 0.3231, I = 0.3812) and could be explained by the outcrossing system, as well as long-lived and human-mediated seed exchanges. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that more genetic variation was found within populations (76.1%) than among them (23.9%). This was supported by the coefficient of gene differentiation (Gst = 0.2742) and Bayesian analysis (θB = 0.1963). The Mantel test revealed no significant correlation between genetic and geographic distances among populations (r = 0.1176, p = 0.3686). UPGMA showed that the five cultivated populations were separated into three clusters, which was in good accordance with the results provided by the Bayesian software STRUCTURE (K = 3). A short domestication history and no artificial selection may be an effective way of maintaining and conserving the gene pools of wild R. tanguticum. PMID:25249777

  8. Deforestation and cultivation mobilize mercury from topsoil.

    PubMed

    Gamby, Rebecca L; Hammerschmidt, Chad R; Costello, David M; Lamborg, Carl H; Runkle, James R

    2015-11-01

    Terrestrial biomass and soils are a primary global reservoir of mercury (Hg) derived from natural and anthropogenic sources; however, relatively little is known about the fate and stability of Hg in the surface soil reservoir and its susceptibility to change as a result of deforestation and cultivation. In southwest Ohio, we measured Hg concentrations in soils of deciduous old- and new-growth forests, as well as fallow grassland and agricultural soils that had once been forested to examine how, over decadal to century time scales, man-made deforestation and cultivation influence Hg mobility from temperate surface soils. Mercury concentrations in surficial soils were significantly greater in the old-growth than new-growth forest, and both forest soils had greater Hg concentrations than cultivated and fallow fields. Differences in Hg:lead ratios between old-growth forest and agricultural topsoils suggest that about half of the Hg lost from deforested and cultivated Ohio soils may have been volatilized and the other half eroded. The estimated mobilization potential of Hg as a result of deforestation was 4.1 mg m(-2), which was proportional to mobilization potentials measured at multiple locations in the Amazon relative to concentrations in forested surface soils. Based on this relationship and an estimate of the global average of Hg concentrations in forested soils, we approximate that about 550 M mol of Hg has been mobilized globally from soil as a result of deforestation during the past two centuries. This estimate is comparable to, if not greater than, the amount of anthropogenic Hg hypothesized by others to have been sequestered by the soil reservoir since Industrialization. Our results suggest that deforestation and soil cultivation are significant anthropogenic processes that exacerbate Hg mobilization from soil and its cycling in the environment. PMID:26100725

  9. The medicinal Agaricus mushroom cultivated in Brazil: biology, cultivation and non-medicinal valorisation.

    PubMed

    Largeteau, Michèle L; Llarena-Hernández, Régulo Carlos; Regnault-Roger, Catherine; Savoie, Jean-Michel

    2011-12-01

    Sun mushroom is a cultivated mushroom extensively studied for its medicinal properties for several years and literature abounds on the topic. Besides, agronomical aspects were investigated in Brazil, the country the mushroom comes from, and some studies focus on the biology of the fungus. This review aimed to present an overview of the non-medicinal knowledge on the mushroom. Areas of commercial production and marketing trends are presented. Its specific fragrance, taste, nutritional value and potential use of extracts as food additives are compared to those of the most cultivated fungi and laboratory models. The interest of the mushroom for lignocellulosic enzyme production and source of biomolecules for the control of plant pathogens are shown. Investigation of genetic variability among cultivars is reported. Growing and storage of mycelium, as well as cultivation conditions (substrate and casing generally based on local products; indoor and outdoor cultivation; diseases and disorders) are described and compared to knowledge on Agaricus bisporus. PMID:22005742

  10. High-density cultivation of sporeformers.

    PubMed

    Liu, W M; Bajpai, R; Bihari, V

    1994-05-01

    Sporeformers are sources of a large number of industrially important biological products including enzymes, antibiotics, and bioinsecticides. Cultivation of these microorganisms to high cell densities offers potential for enhancing the rates of formation as well as the concentration of the desired products in the fermentation broths in bioreactors. With this objective, investigations have been carried out involving fed-batch cultivation of Bacillus thuringiensis, which is known to produce an insecticidal crystal protein during sporulation. With appropriate management of aeration and nutrient supply, it was possible to grow the cells to > 50 g DW/l density. Nevertheless, the achievement of high cell density did not enhance the formation of crystal protein in the same proportion as the cell concentration. Further examination of this system suggested a complex interplay of energetic requirements for protein turnover during sporulation. Energy reserve material, poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid, appeared to be linked to formation of spores and crystal protein during the sporulation phase. PMID:8010682

  11. Cultivation and Conservation of Guggulu (Commiphora mukul).

    PubMed

    Thosar, Sheetal L; Yende, Mohan R

    2009-07-01

    Guggulu (Commiphora mukul) is about 2-3.5 mt heighted plant of Burceraceae family. The plant grows wild in the arid, rocky tracts, also in low rainy and hot areas. The part used in medicinal preparation is resin, collected by tapping the barks. Guggulu deserves high values in Ayurvedic medicines. Guggulu is Rasayana, Vatakaphaghna, and used in various diseases. Due to high values and excessive demands, improper methods of collection, uncontrolled forest destruction and poor knowledge of cultivation; number of plants highly decreased. Now it categorized as threatened plant. Hence cultivation and conservation of this plant is necessary. Guggulu can be propagated by seed and vegetative method. Germination through seed is very poor. Vegetative propagation through stem cutting is most common and successful method. Farming care is also necessary f or proper growth. Conservation can be effected by knowledge of collection methods and awareness. PMID:22557340

  12. Human Colon Cancer Cells Cultivated in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Within five days, bioreactor cultivated human colon cancer cells (shown) grown in Microgravity on the STS-70 mission in 1995, had grown 30 times the volume of the control specimens on Earth. The samples grown in space had a higher level of cellular organization and specialization. Because they more closely resemble tumors found in the body, microgravity grown cell cultures are ideal for research purposes.

  13. Parathyroid allotransplantation in rabbits without cultivation

    PubMed Central

    Can, Ismail; Aysan, Erhan; Yucesan, Emrah; Sayitoglu, Muge; Ozbek, Ugur; Ercivan, Merve; Atasoy, Hakan; Buyukpinarbasili, Nur; Muslumanoglu, Mahmut

    2014-01-01

    Permanent hypoparathyroidism is a serious clinical situation. Allotransplantation of the parathyroid cells is relatively new approach to treatment. Non-cultivated allotransplantation in rabbits is not tried before. In this research parathyroidectomy was performed in six female New Zealand white rabbits. After division of surgically removed tissues into two, cryopreservation after cell isolation was done. Non-cultivated cross allotransplantation was performed under immunosuppression. Serum calcium and phosphorus levels were observed 15 days and histopathological analyses of the transplanted parathyroid tissues were studied. Significant changes in serum calcium and phosphorus levels during the experiment were observed (p=0.001 for both). Calcium levels which were significantly dropped to 6.66±0.7 mg/dL after parathyroidectomy and progressively increased up to 15.98±1.25 mg/dL at the end of the experiment (p=0.004). Phosphorus levels which were increased to 9.38±0.63 mg/dL after parathyroidectomy and stabilized to 4.46±1.06 mg/dL at the end of the experiment (p=0.007). All allotransplanted parathyroid tissues showed normal tissue architecture without evidence of cellular rejection. In conclusion allotransplantation of the parathyroid tissues without cultivation may be considered as an alternative and safe approach for the treatment of permanent hypoparathyroidism. PMID:24482717

  14. Uranium uptake by hydroponically cultivated crop plants.

    PubMed

    Soudek, Petr; Petrová, Sárka; Benešová, Dagmar; Dvořáková, Marcela; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2011-06-01

    Hydroponicaly cultivated plants were grown on medium containing uranium. The appropriate concentrations of uranium for the experiments were selected on the basis of a standard ecotoxicity test. The most sensitive plant species was determined to be Lactuca sativa with an EC(50) value about 0.1mM. Cucumis sativa represented the most resistant plant to uranium (EC(50)=0.71 mM). Therefore, we used the uranium in a concentration range from 0.1 to 1mM. Twenty different plant species were tested in hydroponic solution supplemented by 0.1mM or 0.5mM uranium concentration. The uranium accumulation of these plants varied from 0.16 mg/g DW to 0.011 mg/g DW. The highest uranium uptake was determined for Zea mays and the lowest for Arabidopsis thaliana. The amount of accumulated uranium was strongly influenced by uranium concentration in the cultivation medium. Autoradiography showed that uranium is mainly localized in the root system of the plants tested. Additional experiments demonstrated the possibility of influencing the uranium uptake from the cultivation medium by amendments. Tartaric acid was able to increase uranium uptake by Brassica oleracea and Sinapis alba up to 2.8 times or 1.9 times, respectively. Phosphate deficiency increased uranium uptake up to 4.5 times or 3.9 times, respectively, by Brassica oleracea and S. alba. In the case of deficiency of iron or presence of cadmium ions we did not find any increase in uranium accumulation. PMID:21486682

  15. Water Consumption for Biofuel Feedstock Cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fingerman, K. R.; Torn, M. S.

    2008-12-01

    Water use may prove to be a central issue in the global and local development of the biofuel industry. While most literature on biofuel water use only considers the biorefinery phase, we studied water consumption for biofuel feedstock cultivation in major feedstock-producing regions of the United States. Using a spatially explicit Penman-Monteith model informed by field-level eddy covariance measurements, distributed climate data, and land use figures, we estimated water consumption and net water use for a number of scenarios of feedstock, location, and refining processes for biofuel development. We find that in California, for example, average water consumption for biofuels from different feedstocks ranges from about 900 to over 1500 gallons per gallon of fuel produced. Cellulosic feedstocks are found to be less water-intensive on average. Furthermore, we find feedstock cultivation to account for more than 99% of the life-cycle embedded water for fuels in California. In some regions and for some feedstock options, a shift to biofuel feedstock cultivation would reduce the strain on water resources, while in others we project it would greatly increase water demand. We are expanding this analysis to better capture both base-line ET from natural systems and ET of some of the less-studied cellulosic feedstocks, as well as to incorporate other regions in the U.S. and internationally. Thus far, we conclude that while water demand for processing is important for plant location and pollution, water consumption for feedstock growth may be (along with land resources) the limiting factor for bioenergy production in many regions.

  16. [Investigation of Soviet microcarriers for cell cultivation].

    PubMed

    Zhesterev, V I; Sergeev, V A; Khizhinskaia, V P; Grudina, N V; Makarova, S B

    1986-04-01

    Home made and foreign preparations (6 patterns in each) were tested as microcarriers for cultivation of anchorage-dependent cells in the medium supplemented with 0.25% enzymatic hydrolysate of muscles and 10-20% animal serum. The best results were obtained with microcarriers DEAE-2.5, Cytodex-1, and DEAE-cellulose. Using home microcarriers DEAE-2.5, continuous swine embryo kidney cells and primary chick embryo cells yielded, respectively, 9-11 and 3-4 times increase. PMID:3521014

  17. Comparison between cultivated and total bacterial communities associated with Cucurbita pepo using cultivation-dependent techniques and 454 pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Eevers, N; Beckers, B; Op de Beeck, M; White, J C; Vangronsveld, J; Weyens, N

    2016-02-01

    Endophytic bacteria often have beneficial effects on their host plants that can be exploited for bioremediation applications but, according to the literature, only 0.001-1% of all endophytic microbes should be cultivable. This study compared the cultivated endophytic communities of the roots and shoots of Cucurbita pepo with the total endophytic communities as determined by cultivation-dependent techniques and 454 pyrosequencing. The ten most abundant taxa of the total communities aligned well with the cultivated taxa; however, the abundance of these taxa in the two communities differed greatly. Enterobacter showed very low presence in the total communities, whereas they were dominantly present in the cultivated communities. Although Rhizobium dominated in total root and shoot communities, it was poorly cultivable and even then only in growth media containing plant extract. Since endophytes likely contribute to plant-growth promotion, cultivated bacterial strains were tested for their plant-growth promoting capabilities, and the results were correlated with their abundance in the total community. Bacillus and Pseudomonas showed promising results when considering cultivability, abundance in the total community and plant-growth promoting capability. This study demonstrated that, although a limited number of bacterial genera were cultivable, current cultivation-dependent techniques may be sufficient for further isolation and inoculation experiments that aim to improve phytoremediation efficiency. PMID:26656884

  18. Seaweed cultivation: A new applied field for biotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Xiu-Geng; Lu, Shan; Bao, Ying

    1998-03-01

    Seaweeds cultivation has resulted in great achievements, although it has a history of only a few decades. With higher productivity and resulting higher profit, it has become the leading marine exploitation industry with the brightest prospects. The relatively limited species introduced for commercial cultivation showed great biological diversity. Introduction of selected good strains for traditional cultivation and the transformation from cultivation of mixed strains to that of pure cell lines are two certain tendencies in the future. Pure line cultivation of seaweeds in a sort of advanced biotechnology. It provides new opportunities for not only the industry itself, but also the stable market of high quality natural marine products. More work should be done on principles and methods to obtain optimal results from the combination of pure line cultivation techniques with advanced biochemistry. The programmed batch production of fine chemicals such as polysaccharides and proteins will probably become the social demand.

  19. Functional state modelling approach validation for yeast and bacteria cultivations

    PubMed Central

    Roeva, Olympia; Pencheva, Tania

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the functional state modelling approach is validated for modelling of the cultivation of two different microorganisms: yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and bacteria (Escherichia coli). Based on the available experimental data for these fed-batch cultivation processes, three different functional states are distinguished, namely primary product synthesis state, mixed oxidative state and secondary product synthesis state. Parameter identification procedures for different local models are performed using genetic algorithms. The simulation results show high degree of adequacy of the models describing these functional states for both S. cerevisiae and E. coli cultivations. Thus, the local models are validated for the cultivation of both microorganisms. This fact is a strong structure model verification of the functional state modelling theory not only for a set of yeast cultivations, but also for bacteria cultivation. As such, the obtained results demonstrate the efficiency and efficacy of the functional state modelling approach. PMID:26740778

  20. Production of Deuterated Switchgrass by Hydroponic Cultivation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Evans, Barbara R; Bali, Garima; Foston, Marcus B; Ragauskas, Arthur J; O'Neill, Hugh Michael; Shah, Riddhi S; McGaughey, Joseph; Reeves, David T; Rempe, Caroline S; Davison, Brian H

    2015-01-01

    Deuterium enrichment of biological materials can potential enable expanded experimental use of small angle neutron scattering (SANS) to investigate molecular structural transitions of complex systems such as plant cell walls. Two key advances have been made that facilitate cultivation of switchgrass, an important forage and biofuel crop, for controlled isotopic enrichment: (1) perfusion system with individual chambers and (2) hydroponic growth from tiller cuttings. Plants were grown and maintained for several months with periodic harvest. Photosynthetic activity was monitored by measurement of CO2 in outflow from the growth chambers. Plant morphology and composition appeared normal compared to matched controls grownmore » with H2O. Using this improved method, gram quantities of switchgrass leaves and stems were produced by continuous hydroponic cultivation using growth medium consisting of basal mineral salts in 50% D2O. Deuterium incorporation was confirmed by detection of the O-D and C-D stretching peaks with FTIR and quantified by 1H- and 2H-NMR. This capability to produce deuterated lignocellulosic biomass under controlled conditions will enhance investigation of cell wall structure and its deconstruction by neutron scattering and NMR techniques.« less

  1. Production of Deuterated Switchgrass by Hydroponic Cultivation

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Barbara R; Bali, Garima; Foston, Marcus B; Ragauskas, Arthur J; O'Neill, Hugh Michael; Shah, Riddhi S; McGaughey, Joseph; Reeves, David T; Rempe, Caroline S; Davison, Brian H

    2015-01-01

    Deuterium enrichment of biological materials can potential enable expanded experimental use of small angle neutron scattering (SANS) to investigate molecular structural transitions of complex systems such as plant cell walls. Two key advances have been made that facilitate cultivation of switchgrass, an important forage and biofuel crop, for controlled isotopic enrichment: (1) perfusion system with individual chambers and (2) hydroponic growth from tiller cuttings. Plants were grown and maintained for several months with periodic harvest. Photosynthetic activity was monitored by measurement of CO2 in outflow from the growth chambers. Plant morphology and composition appeared normal compared to matched controls grown with H2O. Using this improved method, gram quantities of switchgrass leaves and stems were produced by continuous hydroponic cultivation using growth medium consisting of basal mineral salts in 50% D2O. Deuterium incorporation was confirmed by detection of the O-D and C-D stretching peaks with FTIR and quantified by 1H- and 2H-NMR. This capability to produce deuterated lignocellulosic biomass under controlled conditions will enhance investigation of cell wall structure and its deconstruction by neutron scattering and NMR techniques.

  2. Recent progress in microbial cultivation techniques.

    PubMed

    Park, Enoch Y

    2004-01-01

    Recent advances in the improvement of microbial cultivation are reviewed, with emphasis on biochemical engineering techniques as a means of obtaining high production rate of bioproduct. Possible uses of high cell density culture include their use in food industry as well as in the production of new medicines and in biotechnology. Concentration of microorganisms using a hollow fiber membrane or centrifuge, and increase in cell density by controlling the pH, dissolved oxygen, or carbon source concentrations of the culture broth with control algorithms are discussed. In a culture of filamentous microorganisms the mycelial morphology is hard to define and it is difficult to quantify its amount, and this is one of the bottlenecks hampering the improvement of production rate. Specific features of mycelial cultivation in the presence of highly pulpy mycelia and entangled-pellets are scrutinized by visual inspection through a microscope that is linked to a computer, and using software that can characterize the mycelial morphology. Image analysis technology for analyzing the mycelial image captured by a digital camera is a potential tool for morphological analysis, including analysis of the morphological development of filamentous microorganisms. PMID:15453183

  3. Biphasic culture system for rapid Campylobacter cultivation.

    PubMed Central

    Rollins, D M; Coolbaugh, J C; Walker, R I; Weiss, E

    1983-01-01

    We developed a biphasic culture system consisting of 4 ml of brucella agar (BA) and 6 ml of brucella broth (BB) in 25-cm2 tissue culture flasks, which were incubated in air (BB/BAa) or in a gas mixture of 5% O2, 10% CO2, and 85% N2 (BB/BAg). These media were also used with a supplement consisting of ferrous sulfate, sodium metabisulfite, and sodium pyruvate and incubated as above (FB/FAa and FB/FAg, respectively). Highly satisfactory growth of Campylobacter jejuni 301 was obtained with all medium-gas phase combinations provided that the number of viable cells in the inoculum was large (greater than or equal to 10(6)/ml). The use of FB/FAa permitted the inoculum to be reduced to 100 cells per ml. With an adjusted gas phase (BB/BAg and FB/FAg), near-optimal growth was obtained from an inoculum of 1 to 10 cells per ml. Under most of these conditions the generation time was approximately 90 min. During the logarithmic growth phase, the cells retained their typical spiral morphology and high motility. These media also proved to be highly satisfactory for the cultivation of fresh isolates as well as other stock strains of Campylobacter. When the broth phase of the cultures, after addition of 15% glycerol, was quickly frozen and maintained at -70 degrees C, all strains thus far examined were readily recoverable and satisfactorily cultivated without additional passage. Images PMID:6401980

  4. [Bordetella pertussis agglutinogens in cultivation dynamics].

    PubMed

    Basnak'ian, I A; Aleksakhina, N N; Shelemekh, O V; Miriasova, L V; Siundiukova, R A

    2007-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis growth phases during homogenous batch dynamic cultivation in the liquid medium as well as during the static cultivation on the solid medium were established. The maximal activity of agglutination reaction with antisera to B. pertussis agglutinogens 1, 2, and 3 was detected in bacterial culture at the end of exponential phase of growth. The activity of agglutination reaction decreased when cultures in stationary and death phases were used. During transition from exponential to death phase level of antibodies to agglutinogen 2 decreased by4 - 32 times. 2 - 4-fold decrease of antibodies level was observed when antiserum to agglutinogen 3 was used. Activity of agglutination reaction with antiserum to agglutinogen 1 was high and did not depend from phase of growth. When polyvalent antiserum to B. pertussis was used 4-fold decrease of antibody titers was observed in parallel with change of growth phases. Sera from rabbits immunized with B. pertussis cultures from the middle of exponential growth phase, the end of this phase, and begin of the death phase had high (maximal) level of agglutinating antibodies (6400), which was detected on 101 day after immunization with the former culture and on 31 day after immunization with either of the two latter cultures. To the end of experiment (292 day) titers decreased to 800, 3200, and 1600 respectively. These findings confirm an advisability of use of exponential growth culture for immunization of rabbits in order to obtain highly active diagnostic antisera to B. pertussis. PMID:17672129

  5. Progress in cultivation-independent phyllosphere microbiology.

    PubMed

    Müller, Thomas; Ruppel, Silke

    2014-01-01

    Most microorganisms of the phyllosphere are nonculturable in commonly used media and culture conditions, as are those in other natural environments. This review queries the reasons for their 'noncultivability' and assesses developments in phyllospere microbiology that have been achieved cultivation independently over the last 4 years. Analyses of total microbial communities have revealed a comprehensive microbial diversity. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and metagenomic sequencing were applied to investigate plant species, location and season as variables affecting the composition of these communities. In continuation to culture-based enzymatic and metabolic studies with individual isolates, metaproteogenomic approaches reveal a great potential to study the physiology of microbial communities in situ. Culture-independent microbiological technologies as well advances in plant genetics and biochemistry provide methodological preconditions for exploring the interactions between plants and their microbiome in the phyllosphere. Improving and combining cultivation and culture-independent techniques can contribute to a better understanding of the phyllosphere ecology. This is essential, for example, to avoid human-pathogenic bacteria in plant food. PMID:24003903

  6. Progress in cultivation-independent phyllosphere microbiology

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Thomas; Ruppel, Silke

    2014-01-01

    Most microorganisms of the phyllosphere are nonculturable in commonly used media and culture conditions, as are those in other natural environments. This review queries the reasons for their ‘noncultivability’ and assesses developments in phyllospere microbiology that have been achieved cultivation independently over the last 4 years. Analyses of total microbial communities have revealed a comprehensive microbial diversity. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and metagenomic sequencing were applied to investigate plant species, location and season as variables affecting the composition of these communities. In continuation to culture-based enzymatic and metabolic studies with individual isolates, metaproteogenomic approaches reveal a great potential to study the physiology of microbial communities in situ. Culture-independent microbiological technologies as well advances in plant genetics and biochemistry provide methodological preconditions for exploring the interactions between plants and their microbiome in the phyllosphere. Improving and combining cultivation and culture-independent techniques can contribute to a better understanding of the phyllosphere ecology. This is essential, for example, to avoid human–pathogenic bacteria in plant food. PMID:24003903

  7. Statistical genetics in traditionally cultivated crops.

    PubMed

    Artoisenet, Pierre; Minsart, Laure-Anne

    2014-11-01

    Traditional farming systems have attracted a lot of attention over the past decades as they have been recognized to supply an important component in the maintenance of the genetic diversity worldwide. A broad spectrum of traditionally managed crops has been studied to investigate how reproductive properties in combination with husbandry characteristics shape the genetic structure of the crops over time. However, traditional farms typically involve populations of small size whose genetic evolution is overwhelmed with statistic fluctuations inherent to the stochastic nature of the crossings. Hence there is generally no one-to-one mapping between crop properties and measured genotype data, and claims regarding crop properties on the basis of the observed genetic structure must be stated within a confidence level to be estimated by means of a dedicated statistical analysis. In this paper, we propose a comprehensive framework to carry out such statistical analyses. We illustrate the capabilities of our approach by applying it to crops of C. lanatus var. lanatus oleaginous type cultivated in Côte d׳Ivoire. While some properties such as the effective field size considerably evade the constraints from experimental data, others such as the mating system turn out to be characterized with a higher statistical significance. We discuss the importance of our approach for studies on traditionally cultivated crops in general. PMID:24992232

  8. Domestication of a Mesoamerican cultivated fruit tree, Spondias purpurea

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Allison; Schaal, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    Contemporary patterns of genetic variation in crops reflect historical processes associated with domestication, such as the geographic origin(s) of cultivated populations. Although significant progress has been made in identifying several global centers of domestication, few studies have addressed the issue of multiple origins of cultivated plant populations from different geographic regions within a domestication center. This study investigates the domestication history of jocote (Spondias purpurea), a Mesoamerican cultivated fruit tree. Sequences of the chloroplast spacer trnG–trnS were obtained for cultivated and wild S. purpurea trees, two sympatric taxa (Spondias mombin var. mombin and Spondias radlkoferi), and two outgroups (S. mombin var. globosa and Spondias testudinus). A phylogeographic approach was used and statistically significant associations of clades and geographical location were tested with a nested clade analysis. The sequences confirm that wild populations of S. purpurea are the likely progenitors of cultivated jocote trees. This study provides phylogeographic evidence of multiple domestications of this Mesoamerican cultivated fruit tree. Haplotypes detected in S. purpurea trees form two clusters, each of which includes alleles recovered in both cultivated and wild populations from distinct geographic regions. Cultivated S. purpurea populations have fewer unique trnG–trnS alleles than wild populations; however, five haplotypes were absent in the wild. The presence of unique alleles in cultivation may reflect contemporary extinction of the tropical dry forests of Mesoamerica. These data indicate that some agricultural habitats may be functioning as reservoirs of genetic variation in S. purpurea. PMID:16126899

  9. Microalgae: cultivation techniques and wastewater phycoremediation.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Marcondes M; Hoeltz, Michele; Moraes, Maria S A; Schneider, Rosana C S

    2015-01-01

    Generation of liquid and gaseous effluents is associated with almost all anthropogenic activities. The discharge of these effluents into the environment without treatment has reduced the availability and quality of natural resources, representing a serious threat to the balance of different ecosystems and human health. Universal access to water and global warming are topics of intense concern and are listed as priorities in the vast majority of global scientific, social and political guidelines. Conventional techniques to treat liquid and gaseous effluents pose economic and/or environmental limitations that prevent their use in certain applications. The technique of phycoremediation, which uses microalgae, macroalgae, and cyanobacteria for the removal or biotransformation of pollutants, is an emerging technology that has been highlighted due to its economic viability and environmental sustainability. This literature review discusses different techniques of microalgae cultivation and their use in the phycoremediation of contaminants in wastewater. PMID:25837561

  10. High-power LEDs for plant cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamulaitis, Gintautas; Duchovskis, Pavelas; Bliznikas, Zenius; Breive, Kestutis; Ulinskaite, Raimonda; Brazaityte, Ausra; Novickovas, Algirdas; Zukauskas, Arturas; Shur, Michael S.

    2004-10-01

    We report on high-power solid-state lighting facility for cultivation of greenhouse vegetables and on the results of the study of control of photosynthetic activity and growth morphology of radish and lettuce imposed by variation of the spectral composition of illumination. Experimental lighting modules (useful area of 0.22 m2) were designed based on 4 types of high-power light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with emission peaked in red at the wavelengths of 660 nm and 640 nm (predominantly absorbed by chlorophyll a and b for photosynthesis, respectively), in blue at 455 nm (phototropic function), and in far-red at 735 nm (important for photomorphology). Morphological characteristics, chlorophyll and phytohormone concentrations in radish and lettuce grown in phytotron chambers under lighting with different spectral composition of the LED-based illuminator and under illumination by high pressure sodium lamps with an equivalent photosynthetic photon flux density were compared. A well-balanced solid-state lighting was found to enhance production of green mass and to ensure healthy morphogenesis of plants compared to those grown using conventional lighting. We observed that the plant morphology and concentrations of morphologically active phytohormones is strongly affected by the spectral composition of light in the red region. Commercial application of the LED-based illumination for large-scale plant cultivation is discussed. This technology is favorable from the point of view of energy consumption, controllable growth, and food safety but is hindered by high cost of the LEDs. Large scale manufacturing of high-power red AlInGaP-based LEDs emitting at 650 nm and a further decrease of the photon price for the LEDs emitting in the vicinity of the absorption peak of chlorophylls have to be achieved to promote horticulture applications.

  11. Words as cultivators of others minds

    PubMed Central

    Schilhab, Theresa S. S.

    2015-01-01

    The embodied–grounded view of cognition and language holds that sensorimotor experiences in the form of ‘re-enactments’ or ‘simulations’ are significant to the individual’s development of concepts and competent language use. However, a typical objection to the explanatory force of this view is that, in everyday life, we engage in linguistic exchanges about much more than might be directly accessible to our senses. For instance, when knowledge-sharing occurs as part of deep conversations between a teacher and student, language is the salient tool by which to obtain understanding, through the unfolding of explanations. Here, the acquisition of knowledge is realized through language, and the constitution of knowledge seems entirely linguistic. In this paper, based on a review of selected studies within contemporary embodied cognitive science, I propose that such linguistic exchanges, though occurring independently of direct experience, are in fact disguised forms of embodied cognition, leading to the reconciliation of the opposing views. I suggest that, in conversation, interlocutors use Words as Cultivators (WAC) of other minds as a direct result of their embodied–grounded origin, rendering WAC a radical interpretation of the Words as social Tools (WAT) proposal. The WAC hypothesis endorses the view of language as dynamic, continuously integrating with, and negotiating, cognitive processes in the individual. One such dynamic feature results from the ‘linguification process’, a term by which I refer to the socially produced mapping of a word to its referent which, mediated by the interlocutor, turns words into cultivators of others minds. In support of the linguification process hypothesis and WAC, I review relevant embodied–grounded research, and selected studies of instructed fear conditioning and guided imagery. PMID:26594187

  12. Psychological Processes Underlying Cultivation Effects: Further Tests of Construct Accessibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shrum, L. J.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a study that tested whether the accessibility of information in memory mediates the cultivation effect (the effect of television viewing on social perceptions), consistent with the availability heuristic. Shows that heavy viewers gave higher frequency estimates (cultivation effect) and responded faster (accessibility effect) than did

  13. Taxonomy of cultivated potatoes (solanum section petota: solanaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum tuberosum, the cultivated potato of world commerce, is a primary food crop worldwide. Wild and cultivated potatoes form the germplasm base for international breeding efforts to improve potato in the face of variety of disease, environmental, and agronomic constraints. A series of national an...

  14. Transferring Sclerotinia Resistance Genes from Wild Helianthus into Cultivated Sunflower

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To enhance resistance to Sclerotinia head and stalk rot in cultivated sunflower, mining and introgression of Sclerotinia resistance genes from diverse wild Helianthus accessions into cultivated sunflower has been conducted using backcrossing method since 2004. During the last four years, numerous in...

  15. Micrometeorological principles of protected cultivation for fruit crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protected cultivation is a broad term commonly used among producers of specialty crops. Techniques can range from complex fixed structures to field site selection, to straightforward cultural practices in the field. This introduction to the ASHS workshop "Protected cultivation for fruit crops" consi...

  16. Perpendicular cultivation for improved weed control in organic peanut production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intensive cultivation in organic peanut is partially effective, but in-row weed control remains problematic. In an attempt to improve in-row weed control, trials were conducted to determine the feasibility of early-season cultivation perpendicular to row direction using a tine weeder when integrate...

  17. Becoming Accomplished: Concerted Cultivation among Privately Educated Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Claire; Aggleton, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This paper takes as its starting point the concept of concerted cultivation as coined by Annette Lareau. It examines whether a focus on concerted cultivation adequately captures the various practices observed in young women's experiences of being privately educated in four schools in one area of England. We suggest that a variety of practices of

  18. 36 CFR 34.7 - Cultivation of controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cultivation of controlled substances. 34.7 Section 34.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EL PORTAL ADMINISTRATIVE SITE REGULATIONS § 34.7 Cultivation of controlled substances. In...

  19. 36 CFR 34.7 - Cultivation of controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cultivation of controlled substances. 34.7 Section 34.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EL PORTAL ADMINISTRATIVE SITE REGULATIONS § 34.7 Cultivation of controlled substances. In...

  20. 36 CFR 34.7 - Cultivation of controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cultivation of controlled substances. 34.7 Section 34.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EL PORTAL ADMINISTRATIVE SITE REGULATIONS § 34.7 Cultivation of controlled substances. In...

  1. Cultivating Discontinuity: Pentecostal Pedagogies of Yielding and Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brahinsky, Josh

    2013-01-01

    Exploring missionary study at an Assemblies of God Bible college through ethnography and training manuals demonstrates systematic pedagogies that cultivate sensory capabilities encouraging yielding, opening to rupture, and constraint. Ritual theory and the Anthropology of Christianity shift analytic scales to include "cultivation," a

  2. Ecogeography of Ploidy Variation in Cultivated Potato (Solanum Sect. Petota)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The taxonomy of cultivated potatoes has been highly controversial, with estimates of species numbers ranging from 3-18. Ploidy level has been one of the most important taxonomic characters to recognize cultivated potato species, with diploid (2n = 2x = 24), triploid (2n = 3x = 36), tetraploid (2n = ...

  3. Ecogeography of ploidy variation in cultivated potato (Solanum sect. Petota)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The taxonomy of cultivated potatoes has been highly controversial, with estimates of species numbers ranging from 3 to 17. Ploidy level has been one of the most important taxonomic characters to recognize cultivated potato species, containing diploid (2 n = 2 x = 24), triploid (2 n = 3 x = 36), tetr...

  4. EVOLUTION AND CULTIVAR-GROUP CLASSIFICATION OF CULTIVATED POTATOES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cultivated potato of world commerce, Solanum tuberosum, is one of the most important food crops on earth and forms the staple crop of many societies. It is a cultivated member of Solanum section Petota, a group of tuber-bearing species containing 199 tuber-bearing wild species, and seven cultiva...

  5. Systematics, diversity, genetics, and evolution of wild and cultivated potatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivated potato, Solanum tuberosum L., is the third most important food crop and is grown and consumed worldwide. Indigenous primitive cultivated (landrace) potatoes, and wild potatoes, all classified as Solanum section Petota, are widely used for potato improvement. Members of section Petota are ...

  6. Agronomic performance of five banana cultivars under protected cultivation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Banana has been grown both in open-field and protected cultivation in Turkey. So far protected cultivation is very popular due to the high yield and quality. The objective of the study was to evaluate agronomic performance of five new banana cultivars under plastic greenhouse. ‘MA 13’, ‘Williams’, ‘...

  7. Cultivating Discontinuity: Pentecostal Pedagogies of Yielding and Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brahinsky, Josh

    2013-01-01

    Exploring missionary study at an Assemblies of God Bible college through ethnography and training manuals demonstrates systematic pedagogies that cultivate sensory capabilities encouraging yielding, opening to rupture, and constraint. Ritual theory and the Anthropology of Christianity shift analytic scales to include "cultivation," a…

  8. Taxonomy of Cultivated Potatoes (Solanum section Petota: Solanaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum tuberosum, the cultivated potato of world commerce, is a primary food crop worldwide. Wild and cultivated potatoes form the germplasm base for international breeding efforts to improve potato in the face of variety of disease, environmental, and agronomic constraints. A series of national an...

  9. Differential adjustment in gill Na+/K+- and V-ATPase activities and transporter mRNA expression during osmoregulatory acclimation in the cinnamon shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum (Decapoda, Palaemonidae).

    PubMed

    Faleiros, Rogério Oliveira; Goldman, Maria Helena S; Furriel, Rosa P M; McNamara, John Campbell

    2010-11-15

    We evaluate osmotic and chloride (Cl(-)) regulatory capability in the diadromous shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum, and the accompanying alterations in hemolymph osmolality and [Cl(-)], gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity, and expression of gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase α-subunit and V-ATPase B subunit mRNA during salinity (S) acclimation. We also characterize V-ATPase kinetics and the organization of transport-related membrane systems in the gill epithelium. Macrobrachium amazonicum strongly hyper-regulates hemolymph osmolality and [Cl(-)] in freshwater and in salinities up to 25‰ S. During a 10-day acclimation period to 25‰ S, hemolymph became isosmotic and hypo-chloremic after 5 days, [Cl(-)] alone remaining hyporegulated thereafter. Gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase α-subunit mRNA expression increased 6.5 times initial values after 1 h, then decreased to 3 to 4 times initial values by 24 h and to 1.5 times initial values after 10 days at 25‰ S. This increased expression was accompanied by a sharp decrease at 5 h then recovery of initial Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity within 24 h, declining again after 5 days, which suggests transient Cl(-) secretion. V-ATPase B-subunit mRNA expression increased 1.5-fold within 1 h, then reduced sharply to 0.3 times initial values by 5 h, and remained unchanged for the remainder of the 10-day period. V-ATPase activity dropped sharply and was negligible after a 10-day acclimation period to 21‰ S, revealing a marked downregulation of ion uptake mechanisms. The gill epithelium consists of thick, apical pillar cell flanges, the perikarya of which are coupled to an intralamellar septum. These two cell types respectively exhibit extensive apical evaginations and deep membrane invaginations, both of which are associated with numerous mitochondria, characterizing an ion transporting epithelium. These changes in Na(+)/K(+)- and V-ATPase activities and in mRNA expression during salinity acclimation appear to underpin ion uptake and Cl(-) secretion by the palaemonid shrimp gill. PMID:21037069

  10. Cultivating the cortex in German neuroanatomy.

    PubMed

    Hagner, M

    2001-12-01

    The cerebral localization of mental functions is one of the centerpieces of modern brain research. Though the localization paradigm in its cultural and social interwovenness has been characterized as successful in the last third of the nineteenth century by a variety of historians of the neurosciences, there is also general agreement that localization came under threat around 1900. Besides the so-called holistic protest against the localization of mental functions, the neuroanatomical approach itself was challenged by experimental psychology, psychiatric nosology, and psychoanalysis. This story underestimates the fact that anatomically-based localization remained powerful in response to these multiple challenges. This meant a neuroanatomical revision of tools, concepts, and practices. But this meant also a shift in the cultivation of the cortex from a more philosophical agenda to rather concrete political claims. More specifically, the idea of the cortext as the noblest part of man was supplemented by suggestions concerning its "Höherzüchtung." I will analyze this re-orientation and radicalization in two steps. First, I briefly discuss the anatomical and philosophical account of Theodor Meynert and then turn to Paul Flechsig who in the late nineteenth century inscribed the ability to create culture and civilization into the cortext. Second, I focus on the neuroanatomists Oskar and Cécile Vogt, who began their careers around 1900 and expanded the cultivation of the cortext. Even before World War I, they proclaimed a "cerebral hygiene." Consequently, the Vogts linked their innovative neuroanatomical researches with the rising field of genetics, racial hygiene, and eugenics. In the early Weimar Republic, the Vogts openly supported socialist ideas and were engaged in establishing an Institute for Brain Research in Soviet Moscow, where Lenin's brain was analyzed. By the end of the Weimar Republic, the rhetoric of the Vogts was bluntly authoritarian. Based on a few anatomical examinations of so-called elite brains and the brains of criminals, they made concrete suggestions for eugenics and the breeding of "one-sidedly gifted leaders." Given the remarkable popularity of the Vogts around 1930, their program is an important example of the hubris of predicting and guiding future developments on the basis of scientific authority. It can be regarded as an ironic nemesis that the Vogts - never sympathizing with the political aims of the National Socialists - were forced to finish their careers as influential Kaiser Wilhelm scientists in Nazi-Germany. PMID:12174862

  11. Microfluidic devices for cell cultivation and proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Tehranirokh, Masoomeh; Kouzani, Abbas Z.; Francis, Paul S.; Kanwar, Jagat R.

    2013-01-01

    Microfluidic technology provides precise, controlled-environment, cost-effective, compact, integrated, and high-throughput microsystems that are promising substitutes for conventional biological laboratory methods. In recent years, microfluidic cell culture devices have been used for applications such as tissue engineering, diagnostics, drug screening, immunology, cancer studies, stem cell proliferation and differentiation, and neurite guidance. Microfluidic technology allows dynamic cell culture in microperfusion systems to deliver continuous nutrient supplies for long term cell culture. It offers many opportunities to mimic the cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions of tissues by creating gradient concentrations of biochemical signals such as growth factors, chemokines, and hormones. Other applications of cell cultivation in microfluidic systems include high resolution cell patterning on a modified substrate with adhesive patterns and the reconstruction of complicated tissue architectures. In this review, recent advances in microfluidic platforms for cell culturing and proliferation, for both simple monolayer (2D) cell seeding processes and 3D configurations as accurate models of in vivo conditions, are examined. PMID:24273628

  12. Advanced continuous cultivation methods for systems microbiology.

    PubMed

    Adamberg, Kaarel; Valgepea, Kaspar; Vilu, Raivo

    2015-09-01

    Increasing the throughput of systems biology-based experimental characterization of in silico-designed strains has great potential for accelerating the development of cell factories. For this, analysis of metabolism in the steady state is essential as only this enables the unequivocal definition of the physiological state of cells, which is needed for the complete description and in silico reconstruction of their phenotypes. In this review, we show that for a systems microbiology approach, high-resolution characterization of metabolism in the steady state--growth space analysis (GSA)--can be achieved by using advanced continuous cultivation methods termed changestats. In changestats, an environmental parameter is continuously changed at a constant rate within one experiment whilst maintaining cells in the physiological steady state similar to chemostats. This increases the resolution and throughput of GSA compared with chemostats, and, moreover, enables following of the dynamics of metabolism and detection of metabolic switch-points and optimal growth conditions. We also describe the concept, challenge and necessary criteria of the systematic analysis of steady-state metabolism. Finally, we propose that such systematic characterization of the steady-state growth space of cells using changestats has value not only for fundamental studies of metabolism, but also for systems biology-based metabolic engineering of cell factories. PMID:26220303

  13. Molecular characterization of insulin-like androgenic gland hormone-binding protein gene from the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense and investigation of its transcriptional relationship with the insulin-like androgenic gland hormone gene.

    PubMed

    Li, Fajun; Bai, Hongkun; Xiong, Yiwei; Fu, Hongtuo; Jiang, Sufei; Jiang, Fengwei; Jin, Shubo; Sun, Shengming; Qiao, Hui; Zhang, Wenyi

    2015-05-15

    Insulin-like androgenic gland hormone-binding protein (IAGBP) has been investigated in crustaceans in vitro. However, the relationship between IAGBP and its putative binding protein partner insulin-like androgenic gland hormone (IAG) has not been studied at the transcriptional level in vivo. In the current study, we cloned the full-length cDNA of IAGBP from the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense (Mn-IAGBP) and investigated the transcriptional patterns of Mn-IAGBP and the M. nipponense IAG gene (Mn-IAG) at different developmental stages and in different tissues. Mn-IAGBP mRNA was detected in all examined tissues from adult male prawns, with the highest transcriptional levels in the testis. Mn-IAG mRNA was detected in the androgenic gland and hepatopancreas. The genomic sequences of Mn-IAGBP and Mn-IAG were isolated by genome walking and two gene copies were found in both Mn-IAGBP and Mn-IAG. The relationship between Mn-IAGBP and Mn-IAG at the transcriptional level was studied by RNA interference. Injection of Mn-IAGBP double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) significantly reduced the transcription of Mn-IAG, while injection of Mn-IAG dsRNA significantly reduced the transcription of Mn-IAGBP in testis, muscle, androgenic gland, and hepatopancreas. These results demonstrate the involvement of the IAGBP gene in IAG signaling in M. nipponense. PMID:25558010

  14. Organochlorine Pesticides and Biomarker Responses in Two Fishes Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus (Lacepede, 1803) and an Invertebrate, Macrobrachium vollenhovenii (Herklot, 1857), from the Lake Taabo (Cote d`Ivoire)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roche, Helene; Tidou, Abiba; Persic, Ana

    The concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in muscle samples of two species of fish, tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and the catfish (Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus) and the prawn (Macrobrachium vollenhovenii) found in Lake Taabo (Cote d`Ivoire). Simultaneous measurements of enzymatic biomarkers were made to evaluate the ecotoxicological risk in this hydroelectric reservoir. Lindane and endosulfan were the dominant contaminants, suggesting their current use in neighboring agricultural areas. Other organochlorine (OC) compounds were detected, including some currently banned substances. Ranked in an order of descending concentrations, we found: DDT and its metabolites (17.8-57.2 ng g-1 dry weight), endrin (7.17-25.0 ng g-1 dry weight) and heptachlor (7.36-23.6 ng g-1 dry weight), as well as traces of isomers of chlordane, aldrin and fipronil. The hepatic Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) activity measured in fishes was not correlated with pesticide contamination; whereas the antioxidant biomarkers demonstrated some significant associations, especially hepatic catalase with lindane (R = 0.83) and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) with heptachlor epoxide (R = 0.84) and with pp`DDT (R = 0.81). In the prawns, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity showed significant negative correlations with DDT and its metabolites (R = -0.91). The results of this study emphasize the urgent need for overall environmental risk assessment studies in the region of Taabo and other developing areas.

  15. Identification of putative regulatory region of insulin-like androgenic gland hormone gene (IAG) in the prawn Macrobrachium nipponense and proteins that interact with IAG by using yeast two-hybrid system.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ke-Yi; Li, Jia-Le; Qiu, Gao-Feng

    2016-04-01

    Insulin-like androgenic gland hormone gene (IAG) is a sex regulator specifically expressed in male crustaceans, controlling the male sexual differentiation, spermatogenesis and reproductive strategy. Our previous study reported the cloning and characterization of the prawn Macrobrachium nipponense IAG (MnIAG). In this study, we further identified a 2214-bp MnIAG 5'-flanking region, and analyzed its transcription factor binding sites and transcriptional activity. The results showed that there were two potential promoter core sequences, three TATA boxes and one CAAT box existing in the MnIAG 5'-flanking region as well as many potential transcription factor binding sites, such as SRY, Sox-5, GATA-1, etc. Notably, the transcriptional activity was weak in this region, and a negative regulatory region was found in -604 to -231bp. In addition, we constructed M. nipponense yeast libraries and identified proteins interacting with the MnIAG protein by yeast two hybridization assay. The yeast two-hybrid screening yielded ten positive clones, of which five were annotated by NCBI database, namely heat shock protein 21, NADH dehydrogenase, zinc finger protein, beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase and a hypothetical protein. The identification of MnIAG putative regulatory region and proteins that interact with IAG will facilitate our understanding of the regulatory role of MnIAG and provide a foundation for deep insight into the prawn sex differentiation mechanism and signaling transduction pathways. PMID:26979275

  16. Geothermal aquaculture: a guide to freshwater prawn culture

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, A.; Johnson, W.C.

    1980-05-01

    Biological data of the Malaysian prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, are summarized. A history on its rearing techniques is given, but through the use of geothermal water or industrial warm water effluent, its range can be expanded. The use of wasted geothermal water at the Oregon Institute of Technology for prawn ponds is noted. Pond management and design; the hatchery design and function for larval culture; and geothermal applications (legal aspects and constraints) are discussed. (MCW)

  17. Multi-culture solar heated bio-shelter. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    A rooftop greenhouse (bio-shelter) that is heated with active and passive solar systems is presented. The intent of the greenhouse is to grow vegetables hydroponically the year-round using a nutrient flow technique; and to growth the giant tropical Malaysian prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii in a recycling raceway water system heated with solar power. The produce grown was continuously monitored and the harvests weighed in order to estimate the year-round production potential of the bio-shelter greenhouse.

  18. Studies on the ingestion characteristics of giant freshwater prawn, Chinese prawn and giant tiger prawn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, Wei-Ling; Wang, Wei-Dong; Dai, Xi-Lin; Jiang, Min; Zhu, Zheng-Guo; Yang, Ming-Hui; Liu, Xian-Zhong; Xu, Gui-Rong; Ding, Fu-Jiang

    2000-12-01

    The ingestion of giant freshwater prawn, Chinese prawn and giant tiger prawn had continuity and the ingestion high peak occurred at night. Light and temperature had significant effects on the daily ingestion rate (DIR) of giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Red light and blue light favorably induced favorable ingestion. In the adaptive range of temperature, the DIR increased with rising temperature and feeding frequency, but decreased with rising body weight.

  19. Direct use of low temperature geothermal water by Aquafarms International, Inc. for freshwater aquaculture (prawns and associated species). An operations and maintenance manual

    SciTech Connect

    Broughton, R.; Price, M.; Price, V.; Grajcer, D.

    1984-04-01

    In connection with an ongoing commercial aquaculture project in the Coachella Valley, California; a twelve month prawn growout demonstration project was conducted. This project began in August, 1979 and involved the use of low temperature (85/sup 0/F) geothermal waters to raise freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (deMan), in earthen ponds. The following publication is an operations and maintenance guide which may by useful for those interested in conducting similar enterprises.

  20. Cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus and other edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Carmen

    2010-02-01

    Pleurotus ostreatus is the second most cultivated edible mushroom worldwide after Agaricus bisporus. It has economic and ecological values and medicinal properties. Mushroom culture has moved toward diversification with the production of other mushrooms. Edible mushrooms are able to colonize and degrade a large variety of lignocellulosic substrates and other wastes which are produced primarily through the activities of the agricultural, forest, and food-processing industries. Particularly, P. ostreatus requires a shorter growth time in comparison to other edible mushrooms. The substrate used for their cultivation does not require sterilization, only pasteurization, which is less expensive. Growing oyster mushrooms convert a high percentage of the substrate to fruiting bodies, increasing profitability. P. ostreatus demands few environmental controls, and their fruiting bodies are not often attacked by diseases and pests, and they can be cultivated in a simple and cheap way. All this makes P. ostreatus cultivation an excellent alternative for production of mushrooms when compared to other mushrooms. PMID:19956947

  1. Strawberry Genomics: Botanical History, Cultivation, Traditional Breeding, and New Technologies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter presents an introduction to strawberry (Fragaria L) genomics. Botanical history, nomenclature, cultivation, traditional and mutational breeding, and new technologies are discussed. The taxonomic classification of the broad range of polyploidy species of Fragaria is given and their orig...

  2. SPECIES CONCEPTS AND RELATIONSHIPS IN WILD AND CULTIVATED POTATOES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild and cultivated potatoes (Solanum section Petota) present challenges to taxonomists arising from lack of clearly defined morphological character differences among many species, phenotypic plasticity, a range of ploidy levels from diploid to hexaploid, and hybrid speciation and introgression. Tax...

  3. The Edibility and Cultivation of the Oyster Mushroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenneman, James; Guttman, Mark C.

    1994-01-01

    Describes an enjoyable and fascinating experience that involves the cultivation of oyster mushrooms. By allowing students to participate in this process, the students are able to better understand the biology and utility of fungi. (ZWH)

  4. Continuous microalgae cultivation in a photobioreactor.

    PubMed

    Tang, Haiying; Chen, Meng; Ng, K Y Simon; Salley, Steven O

    2012-10-01

    New biomass sources for alternative fuels has become a subject of increasing importance as the nation strives to resolve the economic and strategic impacts of limited fossil fuel resources on our national security, environment, and global climate. Algae are among the most promising non-food-crop-based biomass feedstocks. However, there are currently no commercially viable microalgae-based production systems for biofuel production that have been developed, as limitations include less-than optimal oil content, growth rates, and cultivation techniques. While batch studies are critical for determining basic growth phases and characteristics of the algal species, steady-state studies are necessary to better understand and measure the specific growth parameters. This study evaluated the effects of dilution rate on microalgal biomass productivity, lipid content, and fatty acid profile under steady-state conditions with continuous illumination and carbon dioxide supplemention for two types of algae. Continuous cultures were conducted for more that 3 months. Our results show that the productivity of Chlorella minutissima varied from 39 to 137 mg/L/day (dry mass) when the dilution rate varied from 0.08 to 0.64 day(-1). The biomass productivity of C. minutissima reached a maximum value (137 mg/L/day) at a dilution rate of 0.33 day(-1), while the productivity of Dunaliella tertiolecta varied from 46 to 91 mg/L/day at a dilution rate of 0.17 to 0.74 day(-1). The biomass productivity of D. tertiolecta reached a maximum value of 91 mg/L/day at a dilution rate of 0.42 day(-1). Moreover, the lipid content had no significant change with various dilution rates. PMID:22488253

  5. Dictyostelium Cultivation, Transfection, Microscopy and Fractionation

    PubMed Central

    Hirst, Jennifer; Kay, Robert R; Traynor, David

    2015-01-01

    The real time visualisation of fluorescently tagged proteins in live cells using ever more sophisticated microscopes has greatly increased our understanding of the dynamics of key proteins during fundamental physiological processes such as cell locomotion, chemotaxis, cell division and membrane trafficking. In addition the fractionation of cells and isolation of organelles or known compartments can often verify any subcellular localisation and the use of tagged proteins as bait for the immunoprecipitation of material from cell fractions can identify specific binding partners and multiprotein complexes thereby helping assign a function to the tagged protein. We have successfully applied these techniques to the Dictyostelium discoideum protein TSPOON that is part of an ancient heterohexamer membrane trafficking complex (Hirst et al., 2013). TSPOON is the product of the tstD gene in Dictyostelium and is not required for growth or the developmental cycle in this organism. Dictyostelium amoebae will exist in a vegetative phase where growth is sustained by the phagocytosis of bacteria. When this food source is spent they enter a developmental phase where the amoebae aggregate, via chemotaxis to extracellular waves of cAMP, into multicellular structures that subsequently form a fruiting body containing viable spores (Muller-Taubenberger et al., 2013). In the laboratory this cycle takes less than 24 h to complete and as a further aid to manipulation the requirement for a bacterial food source has been circumvented by the derivatisation of the wild type and isolation of axenic strains that can also grow in a nutrient rich broth. Axenic strains like Ax2 are the mainstay of laboratory research using Dictyostelium (Muller-Taubenberger et al., 2013). A description of Dictyostelium cell cultivation, the generation of cell lines that overexpress TSPOON-GFP and TSPOON null cells, and subsequent analysis (Muller-Taubenberger and Ishikawa-Ankerhold, 2013) is detailed below. PMID:26167517

  6. In vitro cultivation of Treponema pallidum: a review

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, Thomas

    1981-01-01

    In vitro cultivation of Treponema pallidum would facilitate many different aspects of syphilis research. This review summarizes developments in this field that have been published since 1975. Findings are discussed in terms of treponemes and the oxygen question, treponemal metabolism involving proteins, nucleic acids, and fatty acids, and treponemal interaction with tissue culture cells. Suggested future approaches and potential problem areas pertinent to successful cultivation are discussed. PMID:6172213

  7. Attached cultivation for improving the biomass productivity of Spirulina platensis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lanlan; Chen, Lin; Wang, Junfeng; Chen, Yu; Gao, Xin; Zhang, Zhaohui; Liu, Tianzhong

    2015-04-01

    To improve cultivation efficiency for microalgae Spirulina platensis is related to increase its potential use as food source and as an effective alternative for CO2 fixation. The present work attempted to establish a technique, namely attached cultivation, for S. platensis. Laboratory experiments were made firstly to investigate optimal conditions on attached cultivation. The optimal conditions were found: 25 g m(-2) for initial inoculum density using electrostatic flocking cloth as substrata, light intensity lower than 200 μmol m(-2) s(-1), CO2 enriched air flow (0.5%) at a superficial aeration rate of 0.0056 m s(-1) in a NaHCO3-free Zarrouk medium. An outdoor attached cultivation bench-scale bioreactor was built and a 10d culture of S. platensis was carried out with daily harvesting. A high footprint areal biomass productivity of 60 g m(-2) d(-1) was obtained. The nutrition of S. platensis with attached cultivation is identical to that with conventional liquid cultivation. PMID:25647023

  8. Cultivating the uncultured: limits, advances and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Alain, Karine; Querellou, Joël

    2009-07-01

    Since the invention of the Petri dish, there have been continuous efforts to improve efficiency in microbial cultivation. These efforts were devoted to the attainment for diverse growth conditions, simulation of in situ conditions and achievement of high-throughput rates. As a result, prokaryotes catalysing novel redox reactions as well as representatives of abundant, but not-yet cultured taxa, were isolated. Significant insights into microbial physiology have been made by studying the small number of prokaryotes already cultured. However, despite these numerous breakthroughs, microbial cultivation is still a low-throughput process. The main hindrance to cultivation is likely due to the prevailing lack of knowledge on targeted species. In this review, we focus on the limiting factors surrounding cultivation. We discuss several cultivation obstacles, including the loss of microbial cell-cell communication following species isolation. Future research directions, including the refinement of culture media, strategies based on cell-cell communication and high-throughput innovations, are reviewed. We further propose that a combination of these approaches is urgently required to promote cultivation of uncultured species, thereby dawning a new era in the field. PMID:19548063

  9. Skin explant cultures as a source of keratinocytes for cultivation.

    PubMed

    Dragúňová, J; Kabát, P; Koller, J

    2013-06-01

    Cultivated human keratinocytes can be used successfully in the treatment of burn patients, but efforts to heal burns and other wounds can be hampered by the very small skin biopsies available for cultivation of transplantable keratinocyte sheets. A small biopsy (and correspondingly small number of enzymatically isolated keratinocytes for use in classical cultivation techniques) can lead to a low yield of multilayer sheets for clinical application or unacceptably long cultivation times. One way of addressing this is to make use of skin remnants remaining after enzymatic digestion and culture cells migrating out of these skin explants. Sufficient numbers of explant-derived keratinocytes can be obtained to facilitate additional routine cultivation of these cells. Biopsy remnants can be used to initiate explant cultures repeatedly (we were able to re-use pieces of skin 10 times and still obtain useful numbers of keratinocytes) and this "passaging" yields substantially more cells for classical cultivation than would be available from conventional methodology alone, and in a comparable timeframe. Another advantage of this method is that it does not require additional biopsies to be procured from already-compromised patients and overcomes problems associated with contamination of skin samples with resistant hospital-acquired bacterial infections common during prolonged hospitalization. PMID:22850975

  10. Continuous cultivation of photosynthetic microorganisms: Approaches, applications and future trends.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Bruno D; Mota, Andre; Teixeira, Jose A; Vicente, Antonio A

    2015-11-01

    The possibility of using photosynthetic microorganisms, such as cyanobacteria and microalgae, for converting light and carbon dioxide into valuable biochemical products has raised the need for new cost-efficient processes ensuring a constant product quality. Food, feed, biofuels, cosmetics and pharmaceutics are among the sectors that can profit from the application of photosynthetic microorganisms. Biomass growth in a photobioreactor is a complex process influenced by multiple parameters, such as photosynthetic light capture and attenuation, nutrient uptake, photobioreactor hydrodynamics and gas-liquid mass transfer. In order to optimize productivity while keeping a standard product quality, a permanent control of the main cultivation parameters is necessary, where the continuous cultivation has shown to be the best option. However it is of utmost importance to recognize the singularity of continuous cultivation of cyanobacteria and microalgae due to their dependence on light availability and intensity. In this sense, this review provides comprehensive information on recent breakthroughs and possible future trends regarding technological and process improvements in continuous cultivation systems of microalgae and cyanobacteria, that will directly affect cost-effectiveness and product quality standardization. An overview of the various applications, techniques and equipment (with special emphasis on photobioreactors) in continuous cultivation of microalgae and cyanobacteria are presented. Additionally, mathematical modeling, feasibility, economics as well as the applicability of continuous cultivation into large-scale operation, are discussed. PMID:25777495

  11. A Versatile Medium for Cultivating Methanogenic Archaea

    PubMed Central

    Khelaifia, Saber; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Background Methanobrevibacter smithii, Methanobrevibacter oralis, Methanosphaera stadtmanae, Methanomassilicoccus luminyensis and Methanobrevibacter arboriphilicus have been cultured from human digestive microbiota. Each one of these fastidious methanogenic archaea requires a specific medium for its growth, hampering their routine isolation and the culture. Methodology/Principal Findings A new culture medium here referred as SAB medium was optimized and tested to cultivate methanogens associated with human microbiota, as well as two mesophile methanogens Methanobacterium beijingense and Methanosaeta concilii. It was further tested for the isolation of archaea from 20 human stool specimens including 10 specimens testing positive for PCR detection of M. smithii. After inoculating 105 colony-forming-unit archaea/mL or 1 g stool specimen in parallel in SAB medium and reference DSMZ medium in the presence of negative controls, growth of archaea was determined by optical microscopy and the measurement of methane production by gas chromatography. While the negative controls remained sterile, all tested archaea grew significantly more rapidly in SAB medium than in reference medium in 1–3 days (P<0.05, Student test). Among PCR-positive stool specimens, 10/10 grew in the SAB medium, 6/10 in DSMZ 119 medium, 5/10 in DSMZ 322 medium and 3/10 in DSMZ 334 c medium. Four out of ten PCR-negative stool specimens grew after a 3-week incubation in the SAB-medium whereas no growth was detected in any of the reference media. 16S rRNA gene sequencing yielded 99–100% sequence similarity with reference M. smithii except for one specimen that yielded 99–100% sequence similarity with reference Methanobrevibacter millerae. Conclusions/Significance SAB medium allows for the versatile isolation and growth of methanogenic archaea associated with human gut microbiota including the archaea missed by inoculation of reference media. Implementation of the SAB medium in veterinary and medical microbiology laboratories will ease the routine culture-based detection of methanogenic archaea in clinical and environmental specimens. PMID:23613876

  12. Development and optimization of biofilm based algal cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Martin Anthony

    This dissertation describes research done on biofilm based algal cultivation systems. The system that was developed in this work is the revolving algal biofilm cultivation system (RAB). A raceway-retrofit, and a trough-based pilot-scale RAB system were developed and investigated. Each of the systems significantly outperformed a control raceway pond in side-by-side tests. Furthermore the RAB system was found to require significantly less water than the raceway pond based cultivation system. Lastly a TEA/LCA analysis was conducted to evaluate the economic and life cycle of the RAB cultivation system in comparison to raceway pond. It was found that the RAB system was able to grow algae at a lower cost and was shown to be profitable at a smaller scale than the raceway pond style of algal cultivation. Additionally the RAB system was projected to have lower GHG emissions, and better energy and water use efficiencies in comparison to a raceway pond system. Furthermore, fundamental research was conducted to identify the optimal material for algae to attach on. A total of 28 materials with a smooth surface were tested for initial cell colonization and it was found that the tetradecane contact angle of the materials had a good correlation with cell attachment. The effects of surface texture were evaluated using mesh materials (nylon, polypropylene, high density polyethylene, polyester, aluminum, and stainless steel) with openings ranging from 0.05--6.40 mm. It was found that both surface texture and material composition influence algal attachment.

  13. Biomek Cell Workstation: A Variable System for Automated Cell Cultivation.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, R; Severitt, J C; Roddelkopf, T; Junginger, S; Thurow, K

    2016-06-01

    Automated cell cultivation is an important tool for simplifying routine laboratory work. Automated methods are independent of skill levels and daily constitution of laboratory staff in combination with a constant quality and performance of the methods. The Biomek Cell Workstation was configured as a flexible and compatible system. The modified Biomek Cell Workstation enables the cultivation of adherent and suspension cells. Until now, no commercially available systems enabled the automated handling of both types of cells in one system. In particular, the automated cultivation of suspension cells in this form has not been published. The cell counts and viabilities were nonsignificantly decreased for cells cultivated in AutoFlasks in automated handling. The proliferation of manual and automated bioscreening by the WST-1 assay showed a nonsignificant lower proliferation of automatically disseminated cells associated with a mostly lower standard error. The disseminated suspension cell lines showed different pronounced proliferations in descending order, starting with Jurkat cells followed by SEM, Molt4, and RS4 cells having the lowest proliferation. In this respect, we successfully disseminated and screened suspension cells in an automated way. The automated cultivation and dissemination of a variety of suspension cells can replace the manual method. PMID:26259574

  14. [Construction effect of fertile cultivated layer in black soil].

    PubMed

    Han, Xiao-zeng; Zou, Wen-xiu; Wang, Feng-xian; Wang, Feng-ju

    2009-12-01

    The clayey farmland soil in black soil region of Northeast China, due to the existence of thicker plough pan created by unreasonable tillage, is a main limiting factor for local agricultural production. In this paper, a field experiment was conducted to study the construction effect of fertile cultivated layer on crop yield, soil physical properties, soil moisture content, and soil microbial number. After the construction of fertile cultivated layer, the soil had a thicker cultivated layer, and the crop yield was increased. Comparing with traditional tillage, applying straw and organic manure into 20-35 cm soil layer decreased soil bulk density by 9.88% and 6.20%, increased soil porosity by 9.58% and 6.02%, and enhanced soil saturated hydraulic conductivity by 167.99 and 73.78%, respectively, indicating that the construction of fertile cultivated layer could improve soil aeration and water permeability, and enhance the infiltration of rainfall. The soil moisture content and water use efficiency under the application of straw and organic manure into plough pan were higher than those under traditional tillage, and a positive correlation was observed between the moisture content in 0-35 cm soil layer and the emergence of maize seedlings. Due to the increased organic carbon source and aeration in the constructed fertile cultivated layer, soil microbial number was also increased. PMID:20353068

  15. Membrane technology in microalgae cultivation and harvesting: a review.

    PubMed

    Bilad, M R; Arafat, Hassan A; Vankelecom, Ivo F J

    2014-11-15

    Membrane processes have long been applied in different stages of microalgae cultivation and processing. These processes include microfiltration, ultrafiltration, dialysis, forward osmosis, membrane contactors and membrane spargers. They are implemented in many combinations, both as a standalone and as a coupled system (in membrane biomass retention photobioreactors (BR-MPBRs) or membrane carbonation photobioreactors (C-MPBRs). To provide sufficient background on these applications, an overview of membrane materials and membrane processes of interest in microalgae cultivation and processing is provided in this work first. Afterwards, discussion about specific aspects of membrane applications in microbial cultivation and harvesting is provided, including membrane fouling. Many of the membrane processes were shown to be promising options in microalgae cultivation. Yet, significant process optimizations are still required when they are applied to enable microalgae biomass bulk production to become competitive as a raw material for biofuel production. Recent developments of the coupled systems (BR-MPBR and C-MPBR) bring significant promises to improve the volumetric productivity of a cultivation system and the efficiency of inorganic carbon capture, respectively. PMID:25109678

  16. Raceway cultivation of Spirulina platensis using underground water.

    PubMed

    Kim, Choong-Jae; Jung, Yun-Ho; Ko, So-Ra; Kim, Hong-Ik; Park, Yong-Ha; Oh, Hee-Mock

    2007-05-01

    The semi-outdoor cultivation of Spirulina platensis was attempted using an underground-water-based medium. Occurrence of contaminant organisms such as Chlorella sp. and Chlamydomonas sp. was not found from a microscopic observation and bacteria were not detected from denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rDNA during the cultivation, owing to pH control and the high quality of the underground water. The mean productivity was high at 10.5 g/m2/d with a range of 4.2-12.3 g/m2/d despite the unfavorable weather conditions of the rainy season. The cultivated S. platensis included a normal protein content of 58.9%. Consequently, the underground water improved the biomass productivity and the biomass quality because of an abundant supplementation of natural minerals and through a contaminant-free culture. PMID:18051309

  17. America's red gold: multiple lineages of cultivated cochineal in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Campana, Michael G; Robles García, Nelly M; Tuross, Noreen

    2015-01-01

    Cultivated cochineal (Dactylopius coccus) produces carminic acid, a valuable red dye used to color textiles, cosmetics, and food. Extant native D. coccus is largely restricted to two populations in the Mexican and the Andean highlands, although the insect's ultimate center of domestication remains unclear. Moreover, due to Mexican D. coccus cultivation's near demise during the 19th century, the genetic diversity of current cochineal stock is unknown. Through genomic sequencing, we identified two divergent D. coccus populations in highland Mexico: one unique to Mexico and another that was more closely related to extant Andean cochineal. Relic diversity is preserved in the crops of small-scale Mexican cochineal farmers. Conversely, larger-scale commercial producers are cultivating the Andean-like cochineal, which may reflect clandestine 20th century importation. PMID:25691985

  18. A mini review: photobioreactors for large scale algal cultivation.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Prabuddha L; Lee, Seung-Mok; Choi, Hee-Jeong

    2015-09-01

    Microalgae cultivation has gained much interest in terms of the production of foods, biofuels, and bioactive compounds and offers a great potential option for cleaning the environment through CO2 sequestration and wastewater treatment. Although open pond cultivation is most affordable option, there tends to be insufficient control on growth conditions and the risk of contamination. In contrast, while providing minimal risk of contamination, closed photobioreactors offer better control on culture conditions, such as: CO2 supply, water supply, optimal temperatures, efficient exposure to light, culture density, pH levels, and mixing rates. For a large scale production of biomass, efficient photobioreactors are required. This review paper describes general design considerations pertaining to photobioreactor systems, in order to cultivate microalgae for biomass production. It also discusses the current challenges in designing of photobioreactors for the production of low-cost biomass. PMID:26085485

  19. Studies on the cultivation of influenza virus in vitro*

    PubMed Central

    Veeraraghavan, N.; Kirtikar, M. W.; Sreevalsan, T.

    1961-01-01

    Studies have been carried out since 1959 at the Coonoor Influenza Centre to devise a method of cultivating influenza virus in vitro which would be suitable for large-scale virus production. The authors report the successful cultivation of the virus in tissue cultures of chorioallantoic membrane on glass wool. The method described may be used equally satisfactorily for culture in volumes ranging from 1.0 ml to 350 ml, and is as sensitive as cultivation in eggs for the titration of different strains of influenza virus and their neutralizing antibodies. Relatively pure virus for vaccine production and complement-fixing antigen for diagnostic purposes can be produced in large volumes with ease and economy. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4 PMID:13780568

  20. America's red gold: multiple lineages of cultivated cochineal in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Campana, Michael G; Robles García, Nelly M; Tuross, Noreen

    2015-02-01

    Cultivated cochineal (Dactylopius coccus) produces carminic acid, a valuable red dye used to color textiles, cosmetics, and food. Extant native D. coccus is largely restricted to two populations in the Mexican and the Andean highlands, although the insect's ultimate center of domestication remains unclear. Moreover, due to Mexican D. coccus cultivation's near demise during the 19th century, the genetic diversity of current cochineal stock is unknown. Through genomic sequencing, we identified two divergent D. coccus populations in highland Mexico: one unique to Mexico and another that was more closely related to extant Andean cochineal. Relic diversity is preserved in the crops of small-scale Mexican cochineal farmers. Conversely, larger-scale commercial producers are cultivating the Andean-like cochineal, which may reflect clandestine 20th century importation. PMID:25691985

  1. Allergenic Potential of Tomatoes Cultivated in Organic and Conventional Systems.

    PubMed

    Słowianek, Marta; Skorupa, Marta; Hallmann, Ewelina; Rembiałkowska, Ewa; Leszczyńska, Joanna

    2016-03-01

    Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) are a widely consumed vegetables and contain many health beneficial micronutrients. Unfortunately, they may also cause adverse allergic reactions in sensitized people. Many studies, conducted in recent years, indicate that organically produced vegetables have higher nutritional value, improved sensory quality and contain more health-enhancing bioactive compounds than vegetables grown under the conventional system. However, the relation between organic methods of cultivation and allergenic potential of tomatoes has received little scientific attention. This study analyzed samples of five tomato cultivars taken from organic and conventional systems over three consecutive years. The content of profilin, Bet v 1 and lipid transfer protein (LTP) analogues in tomato samples was determined using an indirect ELISA assay. Substantial quantities of these proteins were found in certain cultivars across all three years of cultivation. On the basis of these findings, organically grown tomatoes appear to offer little advantage over conventionally cultivated plants in terms of reduced allergenic potential. PMID:26590604

  2. Growth and anaerobic digestion characteristics of microalgae cultivated using various types of sewage.

    PubMed

    Hidaka, Taira; Inoue, Kenichiro; Suzuki, Yutaka; Tsumori, Jun

    2014-10-01

    Microalgal cultivation combined with anaerobic digestion at wastewater treatment plants is promising to recover energy. This study investigated the growth and anaerobic digestion characteristics of microalgae cultivated using nutrients in sewage. Microalgae were cultivated using primary effluent, secondary effluent, and dewatering filtrate. Microscopic observation indicated that Chlorella was cultivated using dewatering filtrate of anaerobic digestion without controlling the type of species. Batch anaerobic digestion experiments with digested sludge showed that the methane conversion ratio of the cultivated mixture was approximately 40-65%. Different cultivation time did not affect the microalgal contents. Methane recovery mass was 0.13NL-methane/L-cultivation liquor. The C/N ratio of the cultivated mixture was approximately 3-5, but the apparent ammonia release ratio was smaller than that of sewage sludge during digestion. These results proved the applicability of methane recovery from microalgae cultivated using nutrients included in anaerobically digested sludge. PMID:25127007

  3. Illicit narcotics cultivation and processing: the ignored environmental drama.

    PubMed

    Armstead, L

    1992-01-01

    Drug abuse and the environment are among the most preoccupying issues in today's world. Up to now, relatively little attention has been given to linkages between these two issues, which are at first glance unconnected in any meaningful way. More careful analysis identifies major linkages between the environmental impact of illicit drug cultivation, the rapid expansion of illicit cultivation into tropical forest areas, the efforts to eradicate illicit crops and pollution through the processing of raw materials into drugs of abuse. This article reviews those linkages and recommends measures that might be taken to deal with their consequences. PMID:1302602

  4. Osteoradionecrosis contains a wide variety of cultivable and non-cultivable bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Aas, Jørn A.; Reime, Lars; Pedersen, Kjetil; Eribe, Emenike R.K.; Abesha-Belay, Emnet; Støre, Geir; Olsen, Ingar

    2010-01-01

    Background Direct microscopy, anaerobic culture and DNA–DNA hybridization have previously demonstrated an association between microorganisms and osteoradionecrosis (ORN). The purpose of our study was to use culture independent molecular techniques to detect bacteria in necrotic bone lesions of the mandible after radiation therapy. Design Bacterial DNA was extracted from eight deep medullar specimens from resected mandibles (six cases), including one patient with relapse. 16S rRNA genes were PCR amplified, cloned, transformed into Escherichia coli and sequenced to determine species identity and closest relatives. Results From the analysis of 438 clones, 59 predominant species were detected, 27% of which have not been cultivated. The predominant species detected from radionecrotic mandibles were Campylobacter gracilis, Streptococcus intermedius, Peptostreptococcus sp. oral clone FG014, uncultured bacterium clone RL178, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Prevotella spp. The study demonstrated intersubject variability of the bacteria present in ORN. In contrast to the diverse bacterial profile detected in primary infection, only a few members of the oral indigenous flora were identified from the relapse case. Conclusions Diverse bacterial profiles in specimens of ORN in marrow spaces of the mandible were detected by culture independent molecular techniques. To better understand the pathogenesis and to improve the therapy of the infection, detection of all members of the complex bacterial flora associated with ORN is necessary. PMID:21523230

  5. The President's Role in Cultivating Positive Town-Gown Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weill, Lawrence V.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the benefits and challenges a college president faces when attempting to cultivate relationships with the community in which the college resides. Throughout history, the relationships between institutions of higher education and the communities that house them have often been turbulent, but much good can be realized when true…

  6. Mindful Learning in Geography: Cultivating Balanced Attitudes toward Regions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Dong-min; Ryu, Jaemyong

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the potential of mindful learning in geography education. A hypothesis was developed to form the research topic, and three experiments were performed to analyze it. The experiments supported the hypothesis. In other words, mindful learning was found to be helpful for cultivating balanced attitudes toward regions. In conclusion,

  7. Allelochemicals from the Rhizosphere Soil of Cultivated Astragalus hoantchy.

    PubMed

    Guo, Kai; He, Xiaofeng; Yan, Zhiqiang; Li, Xiuzhuang; Ren, Xia; Pan, Le; Qin, Bo

    2016-05-01

    Astragalus hoantchy, a widely cultivated medicinal plant species in traditional Chinese and Mongolian medicine, has been often hampered by replant failure during cultivation, like many other herbs of the genus Astragalus. Root aqueous extracts of Astragalus herbs were reported to exhibit allelopathic activity against other plants and autotoxic activity on their own seedlings, but the allelochemicals released by Astragalus plants have not been specified so far. Ten compounds were isolated from the rhizosphere soil extract of cultivated A. hoantchy and elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. Compounds 1-6 observably showed allelopathic activity against Lactuca sativa seedlings and autotoxic activity against A. hoantchy seedlings. The isolated compounds were further confirmed and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in the rhizosphere soil, with a total concentration of 9.78 μg/g (dry weight). These results specify and verify the allelochemicals released by cultivated A. hoantchy into the soil environment, which may provide new insights into the allelopathic mechanisms of this medicinal plant and probably assist in clarifying the replant problems of Astragalus plants. PMID:27074954

  8. FAIRY RING DISEASE INCREASES HOST GENETIC DIVERSITY IN CULTIVATED CRANBERRY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fairy ring is a common disease affecting cultivated cranberries in New Jersey and Massachusetts. The disease can cause significant vine dieback and yield loss. Fungicide control is not very effective and the causal agent is unknown. Affected areas spread over the bogs for years as an advancing -ring...

  9. The Cultivation Effects of Television Violence: Further Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Churchill L.

    A study was conducted to explore the hypothesis that heavy television viewing, particularly the viewing of a great deal of violence, cultivates certain misconceptions about social reality. Four counties in Florida were selected for the study on the basis of geographical location and amount of violent crime. Survey questionnaires were administered

  10. Reflecting on Cultivating New Voices among Scholars of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinloch, Valerie

    2011-01-01

    A member of the first cohort of Cultivating New Voices among Scholars of Color (CNV) and now its director, the author details the importance of fostering the work of scholars of color. As recognized by CNV, the presence and scholarship of scholars of color are essential, especially in public debates on education, advocacy, and social (in)justice.…

  11. Kant and Rawls on the Cultivation of Virtue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Talbot

    2013-01-01

    In "Two Conceptions of Virtue," Thomas Hill reconstructs the conceptions of virtue, and of proper moral upbringing, found in Kant and Rawls. Here I offer some brief reflections on these conceptions of virtue and its cultivation. I argue that Kant's conception of virtue is grounded in a mistaken conception of desire, and that this…

  12. The Elaboration of Cultivating Learners' English Communicative Competence in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yuxiang; Wang, Jiling

    2012-01-01

    The communicative competence is the ultimate goal of the Communicative Language Teaching (CLT), which is thought to be the eclectic approach in the place of other approaches and methods and which begins to gain momentum in the recent years. Hence, the comprehensive understanding of the communicative competence is prerequisite to the cultivation of…

  13. Sequential Crop Cultivation Experiment using CEEF for Human Habitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tako, Y.; Arai, R.; Nitta, K.; Shinohara, M.

    The Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF) can be used as a test bed for Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS), because technologies developed for the CEEF system facilitate self-sufficient material circulation. In the experiment conducted from August to December of 2001, rice and soybeans were cultivated sequentially in two chambers and a chamber, each having a cultivation bed area of 30 m 2 and floor area of 43 m 2, inside the Plantation Module with artificial lighting of the CEEF. Stable transplant or seeding and harvest of each crop were maintained during 28 days, after a 110-days preparatory cultivation. Flows of gas and liquid materials to and from the crops were analyzed during the stable cultivation period. Almost all equipments of the Gas Processing Subsystem of the Closed Plantation Experiment Facilities (CPEF) in the CEEF were operated during the period. Stable operation of the subsystem was confirmed during the period. Daily averages of carbohydrate, lipid, and protein contained in edible biomass from harvested rice and soybeans for the 28-days were 2.1, 1.2, and 2.2 of the necessary amount of each for a standard human activity. Stable uptake of CO2 by each crop was confirmed during the 28 -days. Amounts of CO2 taken up by each crop were consistent with produced biomass of both crops. Exchange ratios of CO2 and O2 were also consistent with nutritional compositions of both crops biomass.

  14. Allelopathy as a potential strategy to improve microalgae cultivation.

    PubMed

    Bacellar Mendes, Leonardo Brantes; Vermelho, Alane Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    One of the main obstacles for continuous productivity in microalgae cultivation is the presence of biological contaminants capable of eliminating large numbers of cells in a matter of days or even hours. However, a number of strategies are being used to combat and prevent contamination in microalgae cultivation. These strategies include the use of extreme conditions in the culture media such as high salinity and high pH to create an unfavorable environment for the competitive organisms or predators of the microalgae. Numerous studies have explored the potential of naturally occurring bioactive secondary metabolites, which are natural products from plants and microorganisms, as a source of such compounds. Some of these compounds are herbicides, and marine and freshwater microalgae are a source of these compounds. Microalgae produce a remarkable diversity of biologically active metabolites. Results based on the allelopathic potential of algae have only been described for laboratory-scale production and not for algae cultivation on a pilot scale. The adoption of allelopathy on microalgal strains is an unexplored field and may be a novel solution to improve algae production. Here we present information showing the diversity of allelochemicals from microalgae and the use of an allelopathic approach to control microalgae cultivation on a pilot scale based on R&D activities being carried out in Brazil for biodiesel production. PMID:24499580

  15. Parenting Priorities and Pressures: Furthering Understanding of "Concerted Cultivation"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Carol; Maxwell, Claire

    2016-01-01

    This paper re-examines the purposes of a planned and intentional parenting style--"concerted cultivation"--for different middle-class groups, highlighting that social class fraction, ethnicity, and also individual family disposition, guides understandings of the purposes of enrolling children in particular enrichment activities. We…

  16. Lessons from the Field: Cultivating Nurturing Environments in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Caroline S.

    2015-01-01

    This article explores how a scholarly learning journey, as a student and faculty member, brings one back to an understanding of the value of knowledge gained in one's home community, and provides insight on how to foster settings for others to cultivate knowledge.

  17. SNP Validation and Genetic Diversity in Cultivated Tomatoes and Grapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivated grapes and tomatoes have very different reproductive systems. While grapes are often outcrossed and grafted, tomatoes are generally selfed and propogated by seed. Large-scale public EST datasets were used in both crops to predict SNPs and PCR primers flanking these SNPs. Genomic DNA was a...

  18. Technologies of Self and the Cultivation of Virtues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hattam, Robert; Baker, Bernadette

    2015-01-01

    In this article we engage with and against Foucault's provocation to think about diagrams of subjectivation. With Foucault we take up his meditation on spirituality and propose a Buddhist alternative to Greco-Roman technologies of self. Against Foucault's notion of an "arts of existence" we suggest instead "cultivation of…

  19. "Districts Matter": Cultivating the Principals Urban Schools Need. Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitgang, Lee

    2013-01-01

    An effective school requires an effective leader, but great principals rarely just happen. They are cultivated. This Wallace Perspective draws on a decade of foundation research and work in school leadership to show how urban school districts can play a major role in ensuring they have principals who can boost teaching and learning in troubled…

  20. Engineering considerations for process development in mammalian cell cultivation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hu; Wang, Weixiang; Quan, Chunshan; Fan, Shengdi

    2010-01-01

    Mammalian cell cultivation plays a great role in producing protein therapeutics in the last decades. Many engineering parameters are considered for optimization during process development in mammalian cell cultivation, only shear and mixing are especially highlighted in this paper. It is believed that shear stress due to agitation has been over-estimated to damage cells, but shear may result in nonlethal physiological responses. There is no cell damage in the regions where bubbles form, break up and coalescence, but shear stress becomes significant in the wake of rising bubbles and causes great damage to cells in bubble burst regions. Mixing is not sufficient to provide homogeneous dissolved oxygen tension, pH, CO2 and nutrients in large-scale bioreactors, which can bring severe problems for cell growth, product formation and process control. Scale-down reactors have been developed to address mixing and shear problems for parallel operations. Engineering characterization in conventional and recently developed scale-down bioreactors has been briefly introduced. Process challenges for cultivation of industrial cell lines in high cell densities as well as cultivation of stem cells and other human cells for regenerative medicine, tissue engineering and gene therapy are prospected. Important techniques, such as micromanipulation and nanomanipulation (optical tweezers) for single cell analysis, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for shear and mixing characterization, and miniaturized bioreactors, are being developed to address those challenges. PMID:19929819

  1. Cultivating the Possible: A Tribute to Harry Judge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruner, Jerome

    2008-01-01

    When he arrived in Oxford in the early 1970s, Harry Judge and this author were already good friends. They had spent a lot of time talking about their respective concerns--the author on how "mind" should be conceived, and Judge on how and by whom "mind" should be cultivated in the educational process. The author believed then that schools should…

  2. Genomic Origins of the Cultivated Potato Species: GBSSI Sequencing Data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chromosome pairing relationships within cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum) and its wild tuber-bearing relatives (Solanum sect. Petota) have been interpreted by genome formulas, developed in the early 1900s, through techniques of classic meiotic analysis of interspecific hybrids. Here we reexamine...

  3. Cultivating Critical-Thinking Dispositions throughout the Business Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloch, Janel; Spataro, Sandra E.

    2014-01-01

    Critical thinking is an essential component of managerial literacy, yet business school graduates struggle to apply critical-thinking skills at work to the level that employers desire. This article argues for a dispositional approach to teaching critical thinking, rooted in cultivating a critical-thinking culture. We suggest a two-pronged approach…

  4. Cultivation shapes genetic novelty in a globally important invader.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Genevieve D; Bellstedt, Dirk U; Byrne, Margaret; Millar, Melissa A; Richardson, David M; Wilson, John R U; Le Roux, Johannes J

    2012-07-01

    Acacia saligna is a species complex that has become invasive in a number of countries worldwide where it has caused substantial environmental and economic impacts. Understanding genetic and other factors contributing to its success may allow managers to limit future invasions of closely related species. We used three molecular markers to compare the introduced range (South Africa) to the native range (Western Australia). Nuclear markers showed that invasive populations are divergent from native populations and most closely related to a cultivated population in Western Australia. We also found incongruence between nuclear and chloroplast data that, together with the long history of cultivation of the species, suggest that introgressive hybridization (coupled with chloroplast capture) may have occurred within A. saligna. While we could not definitively prove introgression, the genetic distance between cultivated and native A. saligna populations was comparable to known interspecific divergences among other Acacia species. Therefore, cultivation, multiple large-scale introductions and possibly introgressive hybridization have rapidly given rise to the divergent genetic entity present in South Africa. This may explain the known global variation in invasiveness and inaccuracy of native bioclimatic models in predicting potential distributions. PMID:22582829

  5. Microsatellites as DNA markers in cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    PubMed Central

    He, Guohao; Meng, Ronghua; Newman, Melanie; Gao, Guoqing; Pittman, Roy N; Prakash, CS

    2003-01-01

    Background Genomic research of cultivated peanut has lagged behind other crop species because of the paucity of polymorphic DNA markers found in this crop. It is necessary to identify additional DNA markers for further genetic research in peanut. Results Microsatellite markers in cultivated peanut were developed using the SSR enrichment procedure. The results showed that the GA/CT repeat was the most frequently dispersed microsatellite in peanut. The primer pairs were designed for fifty-six different microsatellites, 19 of which showed a polymorphism among the genotypes studied. The average number of alleles per locus was 4.25, and up to 14 alleles were found at one locus. This suggests that microsatellite DNA markers produce a higher level of DNA polymorphism than other DNA markers in cultivated peanut. Conclusions It is desirable to isolate and characterize more DNA markers in cultivated peanut for more productive genomic studies, such as genetic mapping, marker-assisted selection, and gene discovery. The development of microsatellite markers holds a promise for such studies. PMID:12713672

  6. Do Specialized MBA Programs Cultivate Alumni Relationships and Donations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jennifer Wiggins; Thomas, Veronica; Peck, Joann

    2010-01-01

    A recent trend among universities shifts from traditional MBA programs to specialized MBA offerings. Specialized programs are believed to cultivate stronger relationships with students, which lead to stronger alumni relationships and increased donations. This research tests this empirically by examining relationship perceptions and donation

  7. Cultivating Critical-Thinking Dispositions throughout the Business Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloch, Janel; Spataro, Sandra E.

    2014-01-01

    Critical thinking is an essential component of managerial literacy, yet business school graduates struggle to apply critical-thinking skills at work to the level that employers desire. This article argues for a dispositional approach to teaching critical thinking, rooted in cultivating a critical-thinking culture. We suggest a two-pronged approach

  8. Inferring ancient Agave cultivation practices from contemporary genetic patterns.

    PubMed

    Parker, Kathleen C; Trapnell, Dorset W; Hamrick, J L; Hodgson, Wendy C; Parker, Albert J

    2010-04-01

    Several Agave species have played an important ethnobotanical role since prehistory in Mesoamerica and semiarid areas to the north, including central Arizona. We examined genetic variation in relict Agave parryi populations northeast of the Mogollon Rim in Arizona, remnants from anthropogenic manipulation over 600 years ago. We used both allozymes and microsatellites to compare genetic variability and structure in anthropogenically manipulated populations with putative wild populations, to assess whether they were actively cultivated or the result of inadvertent manipulation, and to determine probable source locations for anthropogenic populations. Wild populations were more genetically diverse than anthropogenic populations, with greater expected heterozygosity, polymorphic loci, effective number of alleles and allelic richness. Anthropogenic populations exhibited many traits indicative of past active cultivation: fixed heterozygosity for several loci in all populations (nonexistent in wild populations); fewer multilocus genotypes, which differed by fewer alleles; and greater differentiation among populations than was characteristic of wild populations. Furthermore, manipulated populations date from a period when changes in the cultural context may have favoured active cultivation near dwellings. Patterns of genetic similarity among populations suggest a complex anthropogenic history. Anthropogenic populations were not simply derived from the closest wild A. parryi stock; instead they evidently came from more distant, often more diverse, wild populations, perhaps obtained through trade networks in existence at the time of cultivation. PMID:20345679

  9. Cultivating Flourishing Lives: A Robust Social Justice Vision of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Carl A.

    2012-01-01

    Presented at AERA 2010 as the Social Justice Award Lecture, this article calls attention to the purposes of education in the 21st century and the need for a robust, social justice vision of education. Here, it is argued that education is about the cultivation of a flourishing life and not only the narrow preparation for employment. To realize…

  10. Autonomous benthic algal cultivator under feedback control of ecosystem metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An autonomous and internally-controlled techno-ecological hybrid was developed that controls primary production of algae in a laboratory-scale cultivator. The technoecosystem is based on an algal turf scrubber (ATS) system that combines engineered feedback control programming with internal feedback...

  11. On Design Experiment Teaching in Engineering Quality Cultivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xiao

    2008-01-01

    Design experiment refers to that designed and conducted by students independently and is surely an important method to cultivate students' comprehensive quality. According to the development and requirements of experimental teaching, this article carries out a study and analysis on the purpose, significance, denotation, connotation and…

  12. The President's Role in Cultivating Positive Town-Gown Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weill, Lawrence V.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the benefits and challenges a college president faces when attempting to cultivate relationships with the community in which the college resides. Throughout history, the relationships between institutions of higher education and the communities that house them have often been turbulent, but much good can be realized when true

  13. Do Specialized MBA Programs Cultivate Alumni Relationships and Donations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jennifer Wiggins; Thomas, Veronica; Peck, Joann

    2010-01-01

    A recent trend among universities shifts from traditional MBA programs to specialized MBA offerings. Specialized programs are believed to cultivate stronger relationships with students, which lead to stronger alumni relationships and increased donations. This research tests this empirically by examining relationship perceptions and donation…

  14. Reflecting on Cultivating New Voices among Scholars of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinloch, Valerie

    2011-01-01

    A member of the first cohort of Cultivating New Voices among Scholars of Color (CNV) and now its director, the author details the importance of fostering the work of scholars of color. As recognized by CNV, the presence and scholarship of scholars of color are essential, especially in public debates on education, advocacy, and social (in)justice.

  15. Mindful Learning in Geography: Cultivating Balanced Attitudes toward Regions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Dong-min; Ryu, Jaemyong

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the potential of mindful learning in geography education. A hypothesis was developed to form the research topic, and three experiments were performed to analyze it. The experiments supported the hypothesis. In other words, mindful learning was found to be helpful for cultivating balanced attitudes toward regions. In conclusion,…

  16. Allelopathy as a potential strategy to improve microalgae cultivation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    One of the main obstacles for continuous productivity in microalgae cultivation is the presence of biological contaminants capable of eliminating large numbers of cells in a matter of days or even hours. However, a number of strategies are being used to combat and prevent contamination in microalgae cultivation. These strategies include the use of extreme conditions in the culture media such as high salinity and high pH to create an unfavorable environment for the competitive organisms or predators of the microalgae. Numerous studies have explored the potential of naturally occurring bioactive secondary metabolites, which are natural products from plants and microorganisms, as a source of such compounds. Some of these compounds are herbicides, and marine and freshwater microalgae are a source of these compounds. Microalgae produce a remarkable diversity of biologically active metabolites. Results based on the allelopathic potential of algae have only been described for laboratory-scale production and not for algae cultivation on a pilot scale. The adoption of allelopathy on microalgal strains is an unexplored field and may be a novel solution to improve algae production. Here we present information showing the diversity of allelochemicals from microalgae and the use of an allelopathic approach to control microalgae cultivation on a pilot scale based on R&D activities being carried out in Brazil for biodiesel production. PMID:24499580

  17. Sharing and Cultivating Tacit Knowledge in an Online Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tee, Meng Yew; Karney, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    Research on knowledge cultivation often focuses on explicit forms of knowledge. However, knowledge can also take a tacit form--a form that is often difficult or impossible to tease out, even when it is considered critical in an educational context. A review of the literature revealed that few studies have examined tacit knowledge issues in online…

  18. Genetic structure and differentiation in cultivated grapes, Vitis vinifera, L.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    222 cultivated (Vitis vinifera) and 22 wild (V. vinifera ssp. sylvestris) grape accessions were analysed for genetic diversity and differentiation at eight microsatellite loci. A total of 94 alleles were detected, with extensive polymorphism among the accessions. Multivariate relationships among acc...

  19. The Distribution of Genetic Variation in Cultivated Tomato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is known to have a narrow genetic base. COSII, EST-based, and several loci related to fruit quality traits were resequenced in a diverse panel of 30 Plant Genetic Resources Unit (PGRU) tomato accessions, line TA496, and Solanum peruvianum accession G 32591...

  20. The case for small-scale domestic cannabis cultivation.

    PubMed

    Decorte, Tom

    2010-07-01

    The shift to (inter)regional production, trade and domestic cultivation has become an irreversible international trend. Until now, the focus of most empirical work has been on large-scale, commercially oriented and professionally organized segments of the cannabis industry, often based on police data and on the perspective of law enforcement agencies. This paper offers a review of recent Dutch-language research that focuses on cannabis cultivation. Empirical studies were identified through literature searches using relevant search terms and Web of Science, Elin, Social Science Research Network and Elsevier ScienceDirect. The paper presents the main findings of Dutch and Belgian empirical work on the factors that stimulated the import substitution process on the cannabis market, aspects related to quality and potency issues, typologies of cannabis growers, and (unintended) effects of pursued policies. In the light of this (selective) review the author offers some commentary and analysis concerning the claims made by different stakeholders, and concludes with some reflections on future research and on policy implications. The author outlines the importance of small-scale, independent or ideologically oriented cannabis cultivation as an under-researched market segment. The author also makes a case for greater toleration of small-scale cannabis cultivation, to secure the least worst of cannabis markets. PMID:20176465

  1. Cultivating Empathy for the Mentally Ill Using Simulated Auditory Hallucinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunn, William; Terpstra, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors address the issue of cultivating medical students' empathy for the mentally ill by examining medical student empathy pre- and postsimulated auditory hallucination experience. Methods: At the University of Utah, 150 medical students participated in this study during their 6-week psychiatry rotation. The Jefferson Scale of…

  2. DETECTION OF ILLEGAL CANNABIS CULTIVATION USING REMOTE SENSING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Detection of illegal Cannabis cultivation by law enforcement agencies currently relies on low flying aircraft manned by trained aerial spotters. This is physically tiring for the aircrew, inefficient for large or complex landscapes, and is often foiled by camouflaged grow sites. A solution for det...

  3. Sequencing of the cultivated tetraploid cotton genome - Gossypium hirsutum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is an important cash crop in the world and it plays an irreplaceable role in China’s national economy. Cultivated upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) represents 95% of world cotton production but it has a complex allotetraploid genome that contains at least 30,000 genes in 2,500 Mb DNA. S...

  4. Negotiating Authority through Cultivating a Classroom Community of Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brubaker, Nathan D.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examines how authority was negotiated in an undergraduate teacher education course. As the teacher of the course, I involved students in on-going processes of collaborative dialogue and deliberation about issues of importance to those involved through cultivating a classroom community of inquiry. The findings suggest that…

  5. Negotiating Authority through Cultivating a Classroom Community of Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brubaker, Nathan D.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examines how authority was negotiated in an undergraduate teacher education course. As the teacher of the course, I involved students in on-going processes of collaborative dialogue and deliberation about issues of importance to those involved through cultivating a classroom community of inquiry. The findings suggest that

  6. Cultivating Teachers' Morality and the Pedagogy of Emotional Rationality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Minkang

    2013-01-01

    Teachers are expected to act ethically and provide moral role models in performing their duties, even though teacher education has often relegated the cultivation of teachers' ethical awareness and moral development to the margins. When it is addressed, the main theoretical assumptions have relied heavily on the cognitivist developmental theories…

  7. Self-Cultivation: Culturally Sensitive Psychotherapies in Confucian Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Kwang-Kuo; Chang, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    This article describes self-cultivation practices originating from the cultural traditions of Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism. It delineates the therapeutic implications of the three states of self pursued by these three traditions: namely, the "relational self", the "authentic self", and the "nonself". Several psychotherapy techniques derived…

  8. Parasitism of lepidopterous stem borers in cultivated and natural habitats.

    PubMed

    Mailafiya, Duna Madu; Le Ru, Bruno Pierre; Kairu, Eunice Waitherero; Dupas, Stéphane; Calatayud, Paul-André

    2011-01-01

    Plant infestation, stem borer density, parasitism, and parasitoid abundance were assessed during two years in two host plants, Zea mays (L.) (Cyperales: Poaceae) and Sorghum bicolor (L.) (Cyperales: Poaceae), in cultivated habitats. The four major host plants (Cyperus spp., Panicum spp., Pennisetum spp., and Sorghum spp.) found in natural habitats were also assessed, and both the cultivated and natural habitat species occurred in four agroecological zones in Kenya. Across habitats, plant infestation (23.2%), stem borer density (2.2 per plant), and larval parasitism (15.0%) were highest in maize in cultivated habitats. Pupal parasitism was not higher than 4.7% in both habitats, and did not vary with locality during each season or with host plant between each season. Cotesia sesamiae (Cameron) and C. flavipes Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) were the key parasitoids in cultivated habitats (both species accounted for 76.4% of parasitized stem borers in cereal crops), but not in natural habitats (the two Cotesia species accounted for 14.5% of parasitized stem borers in wild host plants). No single parasitoid species exerted high parasitism rates on stem borer populations in wild host plants. Low stem borer densities across seasons in natural habitats indicate that cereal stem borer pests do not necessarily survive the non-cropping season feeding actively in wild host plants. Although natural habitats provided refuges for some parasitoid species, stem borer parasitism was generally low in wild host plants. Overall, because parasitoids contribute little in reducing cereal stem borer pest populations in cultivated habitats, there is need to further enhance their effectiveness in the field to regulate these pests. PMID:21526933

  9. Parasitism of Lepidopterous Stem Borers in Cultivated and Natural Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Mailafiya, Duna Madu; Le Ru, Bruno Pierre; Kairu, Eunice Waitherero; Dupas, Stéphane; Calatayud, Paul-André

    2011-01-01

    Plant infestation, stem borer density, parasitism, and parasitoid abundance were assessed during two years in two host plants, Zea mays (L.) (Cyperales: Poaceae) and Sorghum bicolor (L.) (Cyperales: Poaceae), in cultivated habitats. The four major host plants (Cyperus spp., Panicum spp., Pennisetum spp., and Sorghum spp.) found in natural habitats were also assessed, and both the cultivated and natural habitat species occurred in four agroecological zones in Kenya. Across habitats, plant infestation (23.2%), stem borer density (2.2 per plant), and larval parasitism (15.0%) were highest in maize in cultivated habitats. Pupal parasitism was not higher than 4.7% in both habitats, and did not vary with locality during each season or with host plant between each season. Cotesia sesamiae (Cameron) and C. flavipes Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) were the key parasitoids in cultivated habitats (both species accounted for 76.4% of parasitized stem borers in cereal crops), but not in natural habitats (the two Cotesia species accounted for 14.5% of parasitized stem borers in wild host plants). No single parasitoid species exerted high parasitism rates on stem borer populations in wild host plants. Low stem borer densities across seasons in natural habitats indicate that cereal stem borer pests do not necessarily survive the non-cropping season feeding actively in wild host plants. Although natural habitats provided refuges for some parasitoid species, stem borer parasitism was generally low in wild host plants. Overall, because parasitoids contribute little in reducing cereal stem borer pest populations in cultivated habitats, there is need to further enhance their effectiveness in the field to regulate these pests. PMID:21526933

  10. Submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms: bioprocesses and products (review).

    PubMed

    Elisashvili, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Medicinal mushrooms belonging to higher Basidiomycetes are an immensely rich yet largely untapped resource of useful, easily accessible, natural compounds with various biological activities that may promote human well-being. The medicinal properties are found in various cellular components and secondary metabolites (polysaccharides, proteins and their complexes, phenolic compounds, polyketides, triterpenoids, steroids, alkaloids, nucleotides, etc.), which have been isolated and identified from the fruiting bodies, culture mycelium, and culture broth of mushrooms. Some of these compounds have cholesterol-lowering, anti-diabetic, antioxidant, antitumor, immunomodulating, antimicrobial, and antiviral activities ready for industrial trials and further commercialization, while others are in various stages of development. Recently, the submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms has received a great deal of attention as a promising and reproducible alternative for the efficient production of mushroom mycelium and metabolites. Submerged cultivation of mushrooms has significant industrial potential, but its success on a commercial scale depends on increasing product yields and development of novel production systems that address the problems associated with this technique of mushroom cultivation. In spite of many researchers' efforts for the production of bioactive metabolites by mushrooms, the physiological and engineering aspects of submerged cultures are still far from being thoroughly studied. The vast majority of studies have focused on polysaccharide and ganoderic acid production in submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms, and very little has been written so far on the antioxidant and hemagglutinating activity of submerged mushroom cultures. The purpose of this review is to provide an update of the present state of the art and future prospects of submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms to produce mycelium and bioactive metabolites, and to make a contribution for the research and development of new pharmaceutical products from mushrooms. A brief overview of the metabolic diversity and bioactive compounds of mushrooms produced by submerged cultures is also given. PMID:22577974

  11. Investigtion of the metabolic inhibition observed in solid-substrate cultivation of Clostidium thermocellum on avicel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clostridium thermocellum exhibits premature metabolic inhibition during solid-substrate cultivation on Avicel, but the reason for the inhibition is not well understood. Inhibition was investigated by comparing three different cultivation techniques; submerged fermentation (SmF), solid substrate cult...

  12. An Online Process Model of Second-Order Cultivation Effects: How Television Cultivates Materialism and Its Consequences for Life Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shrum, L. J.; Lee, Jaehoon; Burroughs, James E.; Rindfleisch, Aric

    2011-01-01

    Two studies investigated the interrelations among television viewing, materialism, and life satisfaction, and their underlying processes. Study 1 tested an online process model for television's cultivation of materialism by manipulating level of materialistic content. Viewing level influenced materialism, but only among participants who reported…

  13. An Online Process Model of Second-Order Cultivation Effects: How Television Cultivates Materialism and Its Consequences for Life Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shrum, L. J.; Lee, Jaehoon; Burroughs, James E.; Rindfleisch, Aric

    2011-01-01

    Two studies investigated the interrelations among television viewing, materialism, and life satisfaction, and their underlying processes. Study 1 tested an online process model for television's cultivation of materialism by manipulating level of materialistic content. Viewing level influenced materialism, but only among participants who reported

  14. 7 CFR 457.170 - Cultivated wild rice crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cultivated wild rice crop insurance provisions. 457... rice crop insurance provisions. The Cultivated Wild Rice Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2009 and... reinsured policies: Cultivated Wild Rice Crop Provisions. 1. Definitions Approved laboratory. A...

  15. 7 CFR 457.170 - Cultivated wild rice crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cultivated wild rice crop insurance provisions. 457... rice crop insurance provisions. The Cultivated Wild Rice Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2009 and... reinsured policies: Cultivated Wild Rice Crop Provisions. 1. Definitions Approved laboratory. A...

  16. 7 CFR 457.170 - Cultivated wild rice crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cultivated wild rice crop insurance provisions. 457... rice crop insurance provisions. The Cultivated Wild Rice Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2009 and... reinsured policies: Cultivated Wild Rice Crop Provisions. 1. Definitions Approved laboratory. A...

  17. 7 CFR 457.170 - Cultivated wild rice crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cultivated wild rice crop insurance provisions. 457... rice crop insurance provisions. The Cultivated Wild Rice Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2009 and... reinsured policies: Cultivated Wild Rice Crop Provisions. 1. Definitions Approved laboratory. A...

  18. 7 CFR 457.170 - Cultivated wild rice crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cultivated wild rice crop insurance provisions. 457... rice crop insurance provisions. The Cultivated Wild Rice Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2009 and... reinsured policies: Cultivated Wild Rice Crop Provisions. 1. Definitions Approved laboratory. A...

  19. Study on the Cultivation of the Innovational Ability of Practice Teaching in Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Hongxin; Ding, Mengchun

    2010-01-01

    The practice teaching which can not be replaced by others is very important to cultivate students' innovational ability. As viewed from the cultivation of innovational ability, the practice teaching still has many problems. In various forms of the practice teaching, students' innovational thinking should be cultivated mainly, and the practice…

  20. Kinetic analysis of gill (Na⁺,K⁺)-ATPase activity in selected ontogenetic stages of the Amazon River shrimp, Macrobrachium amazonicum (Decapoda, Palaemonidae): interactions at ATP- and cation-binding sites.

    PubMed

    Leone, Francisco Assis; Masui, Douglas Chodi; de Souza Bezerra, Thais Milena; Garçon, Daniela Pereira; Valenti, Wagner Cotroni; Augusto, Alessandra Silva; McNamara, John Campbell

    2012-04-01

    We investigated modulation by ATP, Mg²⁺, Na⁺, K⁺ and NH₄⁺ and inhibition by ouabain of (Na⁺,K⁺)-ATPase activity in microsomal homogenates of whole zoeae I and decapodid III (formerly zoea IX) and whole-body and gill homogenates of juvenile and adult Amazon River shrimps, Macrobrachium amazonicum. (Na⁺,K⁺)-ATPase-specific activity was increased twofold in decapodid III compared to zoea I, juveniles and adults, suggesting an important role in this ontogenetic stage. The apparent affinity for ATP (K(M) = 0.09 ± 0.01 mmol L⁻¹) of the decapodid III (Na⁺,K⁺)-ATPase, about twofold greater than the other stages, further highlights this relevance. Modulation of (Na⁺,K⁺-ATPase activity by K⁺ also revealed a threefold greater affinity for K⁺ (K₀.₅ = 0.91 ± 0.04 mmol L⁻¹) in decapodid III than in other stages; NH₄⁺ had no modulatory effect. The affinity for Na⁺ (K₀.₅ = 13.2 ± 0.6 mmol L⁻¹) of zoea I (Na⁺,K⁺)-ATPase was fourfold less than other stages. Modulation by Na⁺, Mg²⁺ and NH₄⁺ obeyed cooperative kinetics, while K⁺ modulation exhibited Michaelis-Menten behavior. Rates of maximal Mg²⁺ stimulation of ouabain-insensitive ATPase activity differed in each ontogenetic stage, suggesting that Mg²⁺-stimulated ATPases other than (Na⁺,K⁺)-ATPase are present. Ouabain inhibition suggests that, among the various ATPase activities present in the different stages, Na⁺-ATPase may be involved in the ontogeny of osmoregulation in larval M. amazonicum. The NH₄⁺-stimulated, ouabain-insensitive ATPase activity seen in zoea I and decapodid III may reflect a stage-specific means of ammonia excretion since functional gills are absent in the early larval stages. PMID:22544049

  1. Isolation, cultivation, and characterization of adult murine prostate stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Lukacs, Rita U.; Goldstein, Andrew S.; Lawson, Devon A.; Cheng, Donghui; Witte, Owen N.

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT/SUMMARY The successful isolation and cultivation of prostate stem cells will allow us to study their unique biological properties and their application in therapeutic approaches. Here we provide step-by-step procedures on the basis of previous work in our laboratory for: the harvesting of primary prostate cells from adolescent male mice by a modified enzymatic procedure; the isolation of an enriched population of prostate stem cells through cell sorting; the cultivation of prostate stem cells in vitro; and characterization of these cells and their stem-like activity, including in vivo tubule regeneration. Normally it will take approximately 8 hours to harvest prostate cells, isolate the stem cell enriched population, and set up the in vitro sphere assay. It will take up to 8 weeks to analyze the unique properties of the stem cells, including their regenerative capacity in vivo. PMID:20360765

  2. The gastrointestinal phage communities of the cultivated freshwater fishes.

    PubMed

    He, Yang; Yang, Hongjiang

    2015-03-01

    The phage communities in the gut of 62 cultivated freshwater fish were investigated by culture-based methods. Using three selective media, 445 pathogenic bacilli strains were isolated and used as indicators for subsequent phage isolations. Totally, 63 phages were detected and the respective host strains were identified with the comparative sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene, including Aeromonas (29), Vibrio (1), Citrobacter (16), Serratia (4), Enterobacter (2), Proteus (3), Buttiauxella (2), Plesiomonas (2), Kluyvera (1), Morgenella (2) and Providencia (1). The diversity of Aeromonas phages was assessed by discrimination of their host strains with random amplified polymorphic DNA method. Furthermore, the isolated Aeromonas phages were characterized by host range and growth inhibition assay. The results demonstrated that there were abundant and diverse phage populations in the gut environment of the cultivated freshwater fishes. The phages could contribute to the microbiota balance in the gut ecosystem of fishes and provide reliable phage sources for future applications. PMID:25743067

  3. Online automatic tuning and control for fed-batch cultivation.

    PubMed

    Soons, Zita I T A; van Straten, Gerrit; van der Pol, Leo A; van Boxtel, Anton J B

    2008-08-01

    Performance of controllers applied in biotechnological production is often below expectation. Online automatic tuning has the capability to improve control performance by adjusting control parameters. This work presents automatic tuning approaches for model reference specific growth rate control during fed-batch cultivation. The approaches are direct methods that use the error between observed specific growth rate and its set point; systematic perturbations of the cultivation are not necessary. Two automatic tuning methods proved to be efficient, in which the adaptation rate is based on a combination of the error, squared error and integral error. These methods are relatively simple and robust against disturbances, parameter uncertainties, and initialization errors. Application of the specific growth rate controller yields a stable system. The controller and automatic tuning methods are qualified by simulations and laboratory experiments with Bordetella pertussis. PMID:18157554

  4. Cultivation Of Microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris) For Biodiesel Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blinová, Lenka; Bartošová, Alica; Gerulová, Kristína

    2015-06-01

    Production of biofuel from renewable sources is considered to be one of the most sustainable alternatives to petroleum sourced fuels. Biofuels are also viable means of environmental and economic sustainability. Biofuels are divided into four generations, depending on the type of biomass used for biofuels production. At present, microalgae are presented as an ideal third generation biofuel feedstock because of their rapid growth rate. They also do not compete with food or feed crops, and can be produced on non-arable land. Cultivation conditions (temperature, pH, light, nutrient quantity and quality, salinity, aerating) are the major factors that influence photosynthesis activity and behaviour of the microalgae growth rate. In this paper, we present an overview about the effect of cultivation conditions on microalgae growth.

  5. Landscape cultivation alters δ30Si signature in terrestrial ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Vandevenne, Floor I.; Delvaux, Claire; Hughes, Harold J.; André, Luc; Ronchi, Benedicta; Clymans, Wim; Barão, Lúcia; Govers, Gerard; Meire, Patrick; Struyf, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Despite increasing recognition of the relevance of biological cycling for Si cycling in ecosystems and for Si export from soils to fluvial systems, effects of human cultivation on the Si cycle are still relatively understudied. Here we examined stable Si isotope (δ30Si) signatures in soil water samples across a temperate land use gradient. We show that – independent of geological and climatological variation – there is a depletion in light isotopes in soil water of intensive croplands and managed grasslands relative to native forests. Furthermore, our data suggest a divergence in δ30Si signatures along the land use change gradient, highlighting the imprint of vegetation cover, human cultivation and intensity of disturbance on δ30Si patterns, on top of more conventionally acknowledged drivers (i.e. mineralogy and climate). PMID:25583031

  6. Bioreactor Cultivation of Anatomically Shaped Human Bone Grafts

    PubMed Central

    Temple, Joshua P.; Yeager, Keith; Bhumiratana, Sarindr; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana; Grayson, Warren L.

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe a method for engineering bone grafts in vitro with the specific geometry of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) condyle. The anatomical geometry of the bone grafts was segmented from computed tomography (CT) scans, converted to G-code, and used to machine decellularized trabecular bone scaffolds into the identical shape of the condyle. These scaffolds were seeded with human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) using spinner flasks and cultivated for up to 5 weeks in vitro using a custom-designed perfusion bioreactor system. The flow patterns through the complex geometry were modeled using the FloWorks module of SolidWorks to optimize bioreactor design. The perfused scaffolds exhibited significantly higher cellular content, better matrix production, and increased bone mineral deposition relative to non-perfused (static) controls after 5 weeks of in vitro cultivation. This technology is broadly applicable for creating patient-specific bone grafts of varying shapes and sizes. PMID:24014312

  7. Respirable liquid marble for the cultivation of microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Tian, Junfei; Fu, Nan; Chen, Xiao Dong; Shen, Wei

    2013-06-01

    A liquid marble has a porous and superhydrophobic shell, which prevents the liquid core within the marble from making any contact with outside surfaces, but at the same time allows gases to transport freely across the shell. In this study we demonstrated the use of this unique property of liquid marbles to build respirable micro-biological reactors to cultivate microorganisms. Liquid marbles loaded with two kinds of microorganism cultures with different preference to oxygen were studied. Due to the presence of oxygen in the cultivation environment, significant differences in cell proliferation between the two microorganisms were observed within the liquid marbles. Furthermore, we found that this respirable bioreactor provides a more suitable environment for the growth of an aerobe than that in McCartney bottles with shaking incubation; cell concentration increased more rapidly in liquid marbles. PMID:23434711

  8. Seasonality Role on the Phenolics from Cultivated Baccharis dracunculifolia

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, João Paulo B.; Leite, Mateus F.; Jorge, Renata F.; Resende, Dimas O.; da Silva Filho, Ademar A.; Furtado, Niege A. J. C.; Soares, Ademilson E. E.; Spadaro, Augusto C. C.; de Magalhães, Pedro Melillo; Bastos, Jairo K.

    2011-01-01

    Baccharis dracunculifolia is the source of Brazilian green propolis (BGP). Considering the broad spectrum of biological activities attributed to green proplis, B. dracunculifolia has a great potential for the development of new cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. In this work, the cultivation of 10 different populations of native B. dracunculifolia had been undertaken aiming to determine the role of seasonality on its phenolic compounds. For this purpose, fruits of this plant were collected from populations of 10 different regions, and 100 individuals of each population were cultivated in an experimental area of 1800 m2. With respect to cultivation, the yields of dry plant, essential oil and crude extract were measured monthly resulting in mean values of 399 ± 80 g, 0.6 ± 0.1% and 20 ± 4%, respectively. The HPLC analysis allowed detecting seven phenolic compounds: caffeic acid, ferulic acid, aromadendrin-4′-methyl ether (AME), isosakuranetin, artepillin C, baccharin and 2-dimethyl-6-carboxyethenyl-2H-1-benzopyran acid, which were the major ones throughout the 1-year monthly analysis. Caffeic acid was detected in all cultivated populations with mean of 4.0%. AME displayed the wide variation in relation to other compounds showing means values of 0.65 ± 0.13% at last quarter. Isosakuranetin and artepillin C showed increasing concentrations with values between 0% and 1.4% and 0% and 1.09%, respectively. The obtained results allow suggesting that the best time for harvesting this plant, in order to obtain good qualitative and quantitative results for these phenolic compounds, is between December and April. PMID:19605554

  9. Cultivating tomorrow's leaders: comprehensive development strategies ensure continued success.

    PubMed

    Squazzo, Jessica D

    2010-01-01

    It's no secret that strong leaders are the backbone of any successful organization. Watch a high-performing healthcare organization in action, and you know a team of talented leaders is at the helm. But successful organizations not only have to have top talent in place--they have to know how to identify high-potential leaders, cultivate them and retain them. PMID:20614680

  10. [Prevention of soil deterioration during cultivation of medicinal plants].

    PubMed

    Guo, Lan-ping; Huang, Lu-qi; Jiang, You-xu; Lv, Dong-mei

    2006-05-01

    This paper summarized the aspects of the soil deterioration due to continuous growth of medicinal plants, such as nutrition insufficient, pH variation, harmful salt accumulating, harmful microbe and allelopathic substance increasing, soil physics and chemistry properties variation. And the ways to prevent and rehabilitate the deteriorated soil was indicated, which included anti-adversity species selecting, scientific management such as whorl cropping, nutrient elements supplement, usage of physical methods, nutrient liquid cultivating and VAM inoculating etc. PMID:17048673

  11. Monoterpenoid Indole Alkaloids from Catharanthus roseus Cultivated in Yunnan.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bei; Liu, Lu; Chen, Ying-ying; Li, Qiong; Li, Dan; Liu, Va-ping; Luo, Xiao-dong

    2015-12-01

    A new monoterpenoid indole alkaloid, 15,20-dehydro-3α-(2-oxopropyl) coronaridine (1), along with sixteen analogues (2-17) were isolated from the leaves of Catharanthus roseus cultivated in Yunnan. The new alkaloid was elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis, and the known alkaloids were identified by comparison with the reported spectroscopic data. Among them, alkaloid 16 was isolated from Catharanthus for the first time. PMID:26882670

  12. Fed-batch cultivation of Cellulomonas on sugarcane bagasse pith

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, H.; Enriquez, A.

    1985-02-01

    A high biomass concentration (19.9 g/L) was obtained with the fed-batch cultivation of Cellulomonas on pretreated sugarcane bagasse pith. Similar results in biomass concentration, yield, and substrate consumption were obtained with the discontinuous feed of bagasse as with discontinuous feed supplemented with a partial continuous addition of salts. Two or more growth phases were detected, probably caused by the differential utilization of bagasse components. An acceptably low content of bagasse components remained in the biomass after separation.

  13. Environmental profile of paddy rice cultivation with different straw management.

    PubMed

    Fusi, Alessandra; Bacenetti, Jacopo; González-García, Sara; Vercesi, Annamaria; Bocchi, Stefano; Fiala, Marco

    2014-10-01

    Italy is the most important European country in terms of paddy rice production. North Italian districts such as Vercelli, Pavia, Novara, and Milano are known as some of the world's most advanced rice cultivation sites. In 2013 Italian rice cultivation represented about 50% of all European rice production by area, and paddy fields extended for over 216,000 ha. Cultivation of rice involves different agricultural activities which have environmental impacts mainly due to fossil fuels and agrochemical requirements as well as the methane emission associated with the fermentation of organic material in the flooded rice fields. In order to assess the environmental consequences of rice production in the District of Vercelli, the cultivation practices most frequently carried out were inventoried and evaluated. The general approach of this study was not only to gather the inventory data for rice production and quantify their environmental impacts, but also to identify the key environmental factors where special attention must be paid. Life Cycle Assessment methodology was applied in this study from a cradle-to-farm gate perspective. The environmental profile was analyzed in terms of seven different impact categories: climate change, ozone depletion, human toxicity, terrestrial acidification, freshwater eutrophication, marine eutrophication, and fossil depletion. Regarding straw management, two different scenarios (burial into the soil of the straw versus harvesting) were compared. The analysis showed that the environmental impact was mainly due to field emissions, the fuel consumption needed for the mechanization of field operations, and the drying of the paddy rice. The comparison between the two scenarios highlighted that the collection of the straw improves the environmental performance of rice production except that for freshwater eutrophication. To improve the environmental performance of rice production, solutions to save fossil fuel and reduce the emissions from fertilizers (leaching, volatilization) as well as methane emissions should be implemented. PMID:25038430

  14. ESA Experiments with the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brillouet, Claude; Briganti, Luca; Schwarzwalder, Achim

    2008-06-01

    The European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS) is an ESA developed facility dedicated to gravitational biology and especially to plant research. However, experiments using small animals, like insects and small invertebrates are also possible. EMCS is onboard the International Space Station (ISS) since July 2006 and four experiments, including two from ESA, have been already performed. Several others are in their final development phase and shall be flown within the next following years.

  15. [Biotechnological cultivation of edible macrofungi: an alternative for obtaining nutraceutics].

    PubMed

    Suárez Arango, Carolina; Nieto, Ivonne Jeannette

    2013-01-01

    Macromycetes have been part of the human culture for thousand years, and have been reported as food in the most important civilizations in history. Many nutraceutical properties of macromycetes have been described, such as anti-cancer, anti-tumour, cholesterol lowering, antiviral, antibacterial, or immunomodulatory, among others. Given that production of mushrooms by traditional cultivation and extraction of bioactive metabolites is very difficult in some cases, biotechnology is essential for the development of profitable and productive techniques for obtaining these metabolites. It is the development of this technology, and the ease in which it enables the use of its variables that has allowed mycelium to be cultivated in liquid medium of macrofungi, with a significant reduction in time and an increased production of metabolites. This increased production has led to the study of compounds that have medicinal, nutriceutical and quasi-farmaceutical potential, in the exhausted media and the mycelium. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the use of liquid-state fermentation as a technological tool for obtaining edible fungi, and the study of these and their metabolites, by describing the different cultivation conditions used in recent years, as well as the results obtained. The relevance of Agaricus, Flammulina, Grifola, Pleurotus and Lentinula genera, will also be discussed, with emphasis on the last one, since Shiitake has been always considered as the ultimate medicinal mushroom. PMID:22449697

  16. Miniaturized Cultivation of Microbiota for Antimalarial Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Waterman, Carrie; Calcul, Laurent; Beau, Jeremy; Ma, Wai Sheung; Lebar, Matthew D; von Salm, Jacqueline L; Harter, Charles; Mutka, Tina; Morton, Lindsay C; Maignan, Patrick; Barisic, Betty; van Olphen, Alberto; Kyle, Dennis E; Vrijmoed, Lilian; Pang, Ka-Lai; Pearce, Cedric J; Baker, Bill J

    2016-01-01

    The ongoing search for effective antiplasmodial agents remains essential in the fight against malaria worldwide. Emerging parasitic drug resistance places an urgent need to explore chemotherapies with novel structures and mechanisms of action. Natural products have historically provided effective antimalarial drug scaffolds. In an effort to search nature's chemical potential for antiplasmodial agents, unconventionally sourced organisms coupled with innovative cultivation techniques were utilized. Approximately 60,000 niche microbes from various habitats (slow-growing terrestrial fungi, Antarctic microbes, and mangrove endophytes) were cultivated on a small-scale, extracted, and used in high-throughput screening to determine antimalarial activity. About 1% of crude extracts were considered active and 6% partially active (≥ 67% inhibition at 5 and 50 μg/mL, respectively). Active extracts (685) were cultivated on a large-scale, fractionated, and screened for both antimalarial activity and cytotoxicity. High interest fractions (397) with an IC50 < 1.11 μg/mL were identified and subjected to chromatographic separation for compound characterization and dereplication. Identifying active compounds with nanomolar antimalarial activity coupled with a selectivity index tenfold higher was accomplished with two of the 52 compounds isolated. This microscale, high-throughput screening project for antiplasmodial agents is discussed in the context of current natural product drug discovery efforts. PMID:25545963

  17. Agricultural intensification and changes in cultivated areas, 1970–2005

    PubMed Central

    Rudel, Thomas K.; Schneider, Laura; Uriarte, Maria; Turner, B. L.; DeFries, Ruth; Lawrence, Deborah; Geoghegan, Jacqueline; Hecht, Susanna; Ickowitz, Amy; Lambin, Eric F.; Birkenholtz, Trevor; Baptista, Sandra; Grau, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    Does the intensification of agriculture reduce cultivated areas and, in so doing, spare some lands by concentrating production on other lands? Such sparing is important for many reasons, among them the enhanced abilities of released lands to sequester carbon and provide other environmental services. Difficulties measuring the extent of spared land make it impossible to investigate fully the hypothesized causal chain from agricultural intensification to declines in cultivated areas and then to increases in spared land. We analyze the historical circumstances in which rising yields have been accompanied by declines in cultivated areas, thereby leading to land-sparing. We use national-level United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization data on trends in cropland from 1970–2005, with particular emphasis on the 1990–2005 period, for 10 major crop types. Cropland has increased more slowly than population during this period, but paired increases in yields and declines in cropland occurred infrequently, both globally and nationally. Agricultural intensification was not generally accompanied by decline or stasis in cropland area at a national scale during this time period, except in countries with grain imports and conservation set-aside programs. Future projections of cropland abandonment and ensuing environmental services cannot be assumed without explicit policy intervention. PMID:19955435

  18. Use of diluted urine for cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Jaatinen, Sanna; Lakaniemi, Aino-Maija; Rintala, Jukka

    2016-05-01

    Our aim was to study the biomass growth of microalga Chlorella vulgaris using diluted human urine as a sole nutrient source. Batch cultivations (21 days) were conducted in five different urine dilutions (1:25-1:300), in 1:100-diluted urine as such and with added trace elements, and as a reference, in artificial growth medium. The highest biomass density was obtained in 1:100-diluted urine with and without additional trace elements (0.73 and 0.60 g L(-1), respectively). Similar biomass growth trends and densities were obtained with 1:25- and 1:300-diluted urine (0.52 vs. 0.48 gVSS L(-1)) indicating that urine at dilution 1:25 can be used to cultivate microalgal based biomass. Interestingly, even 1:300-diluted urine contained sufficiently nutrients and trace elements to support biomass growth. Biomass production was similar despite pH-variation from < 5 to 9 in different incubations indicating robustness of the biomass growth. Ammonium formation did not inhibit overall biomass growth. At the beginning of cultivation, the majority of the biomass consisted of living algal cells, while towards the end, their share decreased and the estimated share of bacteria and cell debris increased. PMID:26508358

  19. Recycling produced water for algal cultivation for biofuels

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, Justin N.; Sullivan, Enid J.; Dean, Cynthia A.; Steichen, Seth A.

    2012-08-09

    Algal growth demands a continuous source of water of appropriate salinity and nutritional content. Fresh water sources are scarce in the deserts of the Southwestern United States, hence, salt water algae species are being investigated as a renewable biofuel source. The use of produced water from oil wells (PW) could offset the demand for fresh water in cultivation. Produced water can contain various concentrations of dissolved solids, metals and organic contaminants and often requires treatment beyond oil/water separation to make it suitable for algae cultivation. The produced water used in this study was taken from an oil well in Jal, New Mexico. An F/2-Si (minus silica) growth media commonly used to cultivate Nannochloropsis salina 1776 (NS 1776) was prepared using the produced water (F/2-Si PW) taking into account the metals and salts already present in the water. NS 1776 was seeded into a bioreactor containing 5L of the (F/2-Si PW) media. After eleven days the optical density at 750 nm (an indicator of algal growth) increased from 0 to 2.52. These results indicate algae are able to grow, though inhibited when compared with non-PW media, in the complex chemical conditions found in produced water. Savings from using nutrients present in the PW, such as P, K, and HCO{sub 3}{sup -}, results in a 44.38% cost savings over fresh water to mix the F/2-Si media.

  20. Algae biomass cultivation in nitrogen rich biogas digestate.

    PubMed

    Krustok, I; Diaz, J G; Odlare, M; Nehrenheim, E

    2015-01-01

    Because microalgae are known for quick biomass growth and nutrient uptake, there has been much interest in their use in research on wastewater treatment methods. While many studies have concentrated on the algal treatment of wastewaters with low to medium ammonium concentrations, there are several liquid waste streams with high ammonium concentrations that microalgae could potentially treat. The aim of this paper was to test ammonium tolerance of the indigenous algae community of Lake Mlaren and to use this mixed consortia of algae to remove nutrients from biogas digestate. Algae from Lake Mlaren were cultivated in Jaworski's Medium containing a range of ammonium concentrations and the resulting algal growth was determined. The algae were able to grow at NH4-N concentrations of up to 200 mg L(-1) after which there was significant inhibition. To test the effectiveness of the lake water algae on the treatment of biogas digestate, different pre-cultivation set-ups and biogas digestate concentrations were tested. It was determined that mixing pre-cultivated suspension algae with 25% of biogas digestate by volume, resulting in an ammonium concentration of around 300 mg L(-1), produced the highest algal growth. The algae were effective in removing 72.82.2% of NH4-N and 41.441.4% of PO4-P. PMID:26540532

  1. A trap for in situ cultivation of filamentous actinobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Gavrish, Ekaterina; Bollmann, Annette; Epstein, Slava; Lewis, Kim

    2008-01-01

    The approach of growing microorganisms in situ, or in a simulated natural environment is appealing, and different versions of it have been described by several groups. The major difficulties with these approaches are that they are not selective for actinomycetes – a group of gram-positive bacteria well known as a rich source of antibiotics. In order to efficiently access actinomycetes, a trap for specifically capturing and cultivating these microorganisms in situ has been developed, based on the ability of these bacteria to form hyphae and penetrate solid environments. The trap is formed by two semi-permeable membranes (0.2 – 0.6 μm pore-size bottom membrane and 0.03 μm pore-size top membrane) glued to a plastic washer with sterile agar or gellan gum inside. The trap is placed on top of soil, and filamentous microorganisms selectively penetrate into the device and form colonies. Decreasing the size of the pores of the lower membrane to 0.2 μm restricted penetration of fungi. The trap produced more filamentous actinobacteria, and a higher variety of them, as compared to a conventional Petri dish cultivation from the same soil sample. Importantly, the trap cultivation resulted in the isolation of unusual and rare actinomycetes. PMID:18255181

  2. Cultivation of cell-polymer tissue constructs in simulated microgravity.

    PubMed

    Freed, L E; Vunjak-Novakovic, G

    1995-05-20

    Tissue-engineered cartilage was cultivated under conditions of simulated microgravity using rotating bioreactors. Rotation randomized the effects of gravity on inoculated cells (chondrocytes) and permitted their attachment to three-dimensional (3D) synthetic, biodegradable polymer scaffolds that were freely suspended within the vessel. After 1 week of cultivation, the cells regenerated a cartilaginous extracellular matrix (ECM) consisting of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and collagen types I and II. Tissue constructs grown in simulated microgravity had higher GAG contents and thinner outer capsules than control constructs grown in turbulent spinner flasks. Two fluid dynamic regimes of simulated microgravity were identified, depending on the vessel rotation speed: (i) a settling regime in which the constructs were maintained in a state of continuous free-fall close to a stationary point within the vessel and (ii) an orbiting regime in which the constructs orbited around the vessel spin axis. In the settling regime, the numerically calculated relative fluid-construct velocity was comparable to the experimentally measured construct settling velocity (2-3 cm/s). A simple mathematical model was used in conjunction with measured construct physical properties to determine the hydrodynamic drag force and to estimate the hydrodynamic stress at the construct surface (1.5 dyn/cm(2)). Rotating bioreactors thus provide a powerful research tool for cultivating tissue-engineered cartilage and studying 3D tissue morphogenesis under well-defined fluid dynamic conditions. (c) 1995 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:18623317

  3. The Population Genetics of Cultivation: Domestication of a Traditional Chinese Medicine, Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl. (Scrophulariaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chuan; Li, Pan; Wang, Rui-Hong; Schaal, Barbara A.; Fu, Cheng-Xin

    2014-01-01

    Background Domestic cultivation of medicinal plants is an important strategy for protecting these species from over harvesting. Some species of medicinal plants have been brought into cultivation for more than hundreds years. Concerns about severe loss of genetic diversity and sustainable cultivation can potentially limit future use of these valuable plants. Genetic studies with comprehensive sampling of multiple medicinal species by molecular markers will allow for assessment and management of these species. Here we examine the population genetic consequences of cultivation and domestication in Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl. We used chloroplast DNA and genomic AFLP markers to clarify not only the effects of domestication on genetic diversity, but also determine the geographic origins of cultivars and their genetic divergence from native populations. These results will allow both better management of cultivated populations, but also provide insights for crop improvement. Results Twenty-one cpDNA haplotypes of S. ningpoensis were identified. Wild populations contain all haplotypes, whereas only three haplotypes were found in cultivated populations with wild populations having twice the haplotype diversity of cultivated populations. Genetic differentiation between cultivated populations and wild populations was significant. Genomic AFLP markers revealed similar genetic diversity patterns. Furthermore, Structure analysis grouped all wild populations into two gene pools; two of which shared the same gene pool with cultivated S. ningpoensis. The result of Neighbor-Joining analysis was consistent with the structure analysis. In principal coordinate analysis, three cultivated populations from Zhejiang Province grouped together and were separated from other cultivated populations. Conclusions These results suggest that cultivated S. ningpoensis has experienced dramatic loss of genetic diversity under anthropogenic influence. We postulate that strong artificial selection for medicinal quality has resulted in genetic differentiation between cultivated and wild populations. Furthermore, it appears that wild populations in Jiangxi-Hunan area were involved in the origin of cultivated S. ningpoensis. PMID:25157628

  4. Hydroponic cultivation of soybean for Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSSs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Pascale, Stefania; De Micco, Veronica; Aronne, Giovanna; Paradiso, Roberta

    For long time our research group has been involved in experiments aiming to evaluate the possibility to cultivate plants in Space to regenerate resources and produce food. Apart from investigating the response of specific growth processes (at morpho-functional levels) to space factors (namely microgravity and ionising radiation), wide attention has been dedicated to agro-technologies applied to ecologically closed systems. Based on technical and human dietary requirements, soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is studied as one of the candidate species for hydroponic (soilless) cultivation in the research program MELiSSA (Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative) of the European Space Agency (ESA). Soybean seeds show high nutritional value, due to the relevant content of protein, lipids, dietary fiber and biologically active substances such as isoflavones. They can produce fresh sprouts or be transformed in several edible products (soymilk and okara or soy pulp). Soybean is traditionally grown in open field where specific interactions with soil microrganisms occur. Most available information on plant growth, seed productivity and nutrient composition relate to cultivated varieties (cultivars) selected for soil cultivation. However, in a space outpost, plant cultivation would rely on soilless systems. Given that plant growth, seed yield and quality strictly depend on the environmental conditions, to make successful the cultivation of soybean in space, it was necessary to screen all agronomic information according to space constraints. Indeed, selected cultivars have to comply with the space growth environment while providing a suitable nutritional quality to fulfill the astronauts needs. We proposed an objective criterion for the preliminary theoretical selection of the most suitable cultivars for seed production, which were subsequently evaluated in bench tests in hydroponics. Several Space-oriented experiments were carried out in a closed growth chamber to evaluate the adaptation of soybean plants to hydroponics under controlled environment, as well as the plant response to changing cultural parameters, in order to identify the best cultivation protocol for BLSSs. The optimisation of growth conditions in hydroponics has been pursued being aware that environmental factors acting at sub-optimal levels may also increase the sensitivity of plants to space factors. The influence of the following parameters on plant growth and yield was also studied: - the hydroponic system: sole liquid solution (Nutrient Film Technique, NFT) vs solid substrate (rockwool); - the source of nitrogen in the nutrient solution: nitrate fertilizers vs urea; - the root symbiosis with atmospheric nitrogen-fixing bacteria: absence or presence of Bradyrhizobium japonicum; - the influence of microbes in the rhizosphere: inoculation with a mix containing mycorrhizal and trichoderma species, and beneficial bacteria vs a non-inoculated control. All the treatments were evaluated in terms of agronomic traits (e.g. plant size and seed production), physiological traits (gas exchange, nutrient uptake), chemical composition of seeds and their products, and technical parameters such as resource use efficiency and non-edible biomass production (waste).

  5. Exposure of Cucurbita pepo to DDE-contamination alters the endophytic community: A cultivation dependent vs a cultivation independent approach.

    PubMed

    Eevers, N; Hawthorne, J R; White, J C; Vangronsveld, J; Weyens, N

    2016-02-01

    2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloro-ethylene (DDE) is the most abundant and persistent degradation product of the pesticide 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (DDT) and is encountered in contaminated soils worldwide. Both DDE and DDT are classified as Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) due to their high hydrophobicity and potential for bioaccumulation and biomagnification in the food chain. Zucchini (Cucurbita pepo ssp. pepo) has been shown to accumulate high concentrations of DDE and other POPs and has been proposed as a phytoremediation tool for contaminated soils. The endophytic bacteria associated with this plant may play an important role in the remedial process. Therefore, this research focuses on changes in endophytic bacterial communities caused by the exposure of C. pepo to DDE. The total bacterial community was investigated using cultivation-independent 454 pyrosequencing, while the cultivable community was identified using cultivation-dependent isolation procedures. For both procedures, increasing numbers of endophytic bacteria, as well as higher diversities of genera were observed when plants were exposed to DDE. Several bacterial genera such as Stenotrophomonas sp. and Sphingomonas sp. showed higher abundance when DDE was present, while, for example Pseudomonas sp. showed a significantly lower abundance in the presence of DDE. These findings suggest tolerance of different bacterial strains to DDE, which might be incorporated in further investigations to optimize phytoremediation with the possible use of DDE-degrading endophytes. PMID:26683261

  6. Cultivable bacteria isolated from apple trees cultivated under different crop systems: Diversity and antagonistic activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.

    PubMed

    Dos Passos, João Frederico M; da Costa, Pedro B; Costa, Murilo D; Zaffari, Gilmar R; Nava, Gilberto; Boneti, José Itamar; de Oliveira, Andréia Mara R; Passaglia, Luciane M P

    2014-09-01

    This study evaluated the diversity of cultivable plant growth-promoting (PGP) bacteria associated with apple trees cultivated under different crop management systems and their antagonistic ability against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Samples of roots and rhizospheric soil from apple trees cultivated in organic and conventional orchards in southern Brazil were collected, together with soil samples from an area never used for agriculture (native field). Bacteria were identified at the genus level by PCR-RFLP and partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA, and were evaluated for some PGP abilities. The most abundant bacterial genera identified were Enterobacter (27.7%), Pseudomonas (18.7%), Burkholderia (13.7%), and Rahnella (12.3%). Sixty-nine isolates presented some antagonist activity against C. gloeosporioides. In a greenhouse experiment, five days after exposure to C. gloeosporioides, an average of 30% of the leaf area of plants inoculated with isolate 89 (identified as Burkholderia sp.) were infected, whereas 60 to 73% of the leaf area of untreated plants was affected by fungal attack. Our results allowed us to infer how anthropogenic activity is affecting the bacterial communities in soil associated with apple tree crop systems, and to obtain an isolate that was able to delay the emergence of an important disease for this culture. PMID:25249780

  7. Cultivable bacteria isolated from apple trees cultivated under different crop systems: Diversity and antagonistic activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

    PubMed Central

    dos Passos, João Frederico M.; da Costa, Pedro B.; Costa, Murilo D.; Zaffari, Gilmar R.; Nava, Gilberto; Boneti, José Itamar; de Oliveira, Andréia Mara R.; Passaglia, Luciane M.P.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the diversity of cultivable plant growth-promoting (PGP) bacteria associated with apple trees cultivated under different crop management systems and their antagonistic ability against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Samples of roots and rhizospheric soil from apple trees cultivated in organic and conventional orchards in southern Brazil were collected, together with soil samples from an area never used for agriculture (native field). Bacteria were identified at the genus level by PCR-RFLP and partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA, and were evaluated for some PGP abilities. The most abundant bacterial genera identified were Enterobacter (27.7%), Pseudomonas (18.7%), Burkholderia (13.7%), and Rahnella (12.3%). Sixty-nine isolates presented some antagonist activity against C. gloeosporioides. In a greenhouse experiment, five days after exposure to C. gloeosporioides, an average of 30% of the leaf area of plants inoculated with isolate 89 (identified as Burkholderia sp.) were infected, whereas 60 to 73% of the leaf area of untreated plants was affected by fungal attack. Our results allowed us to infer how anthropogenic activity is affecting the bacterial communities in soil associated with apple tree crop systems, and to obtain an isolate that was able to delay the emergence of an important disease for this culture. PMID:25249780

  8. Application of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) to the Cultivation Line of Mushroom and Other Cultivated Edible Fungi.

    PubMed

    Pardo, José E; de Figueirêdo, Vinícius Reis; Alvarez-Ortí, Manuel; Zied, Diego C; Peñaranda, Jesús A; Dias, Eustáquio Souza; Pardo-Giménez, Arturo

    2013-09-01

    The Hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) is a preventive system which seeks to ensure food safety and security. It allows product protection and correction of errors, improves the costs derived from quality defects and reduces the final overcontrol. In this paper, the system is applied to the line of cultivation of mushrooms and other edible cultivated fungi. From all stages of the process, only the reception of covering materials (stage 1) and compost (stage 3), the pre-fruiting and induction (step 6) and the harvest (stage 7) have been considered as critical control point (CCP). The main hazards found were the presence of unauthorized phytosanitary products or above the permitted dose (stages 6 and 7), and the presence of pathogenic bacteria (stages 1 and 3) and/or heavy metals (stage 3). The implementation of this knowledge will allow the self-control of their productions based on the system HACCP to any plant dedicated to mushroom or other edible fungi cultivation. PMID:24426137

  9. Deciphering Community Structure of Methanotrophs Dwelling in Rice Rhizospheres of an Indian Rice Field Using Cultivation and Cultivation-Independent Approaches.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Pranitha S; Rahalkar, Monali C; Dhakephalkar, Prashant K; Ranade, Dilip R; Pore, Soham; Arora, Preeti; Kapse, Neelam

    2016-04-01

    Methanotrophs play a crucial role in filtering out methane from habitats, such as flooded rice fields. India has the largest area under rice cultivation in the world; however, to the best of our knowledge, methanotrophs have not been isolated and characterized from Indian rice fields. A cultivation strategy composing of a modified medium, longer incubation time, and serial dilutions in microtiter plates was used to cultivate methanotrophs from a rice rhizosphere sample from a flooded rice field in Western India. We compared the cultured members with the uncultured community as revealed by three culture-independent methods. A novel type Ia methanotroph (Sn10-6), at the rank of a genus, and a putative novel species of a type II methanotroph (Sn-Cys) were cultivated from the terminal positive dilution (10(-6)). From lower dilution (10(-4)), a strain of Methylomonas spp. was cultivated. All the three culture-independent analyses, i.e., pmoA clone library, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), and metagenomics approach, revealed the dominance of type I methanotrophs. Only metagenomic analysis showed significant presence of type II methanotrophs, albeit in lower proportion (37 %). All the three isolates showed relevance to the methanotrophic community as depicted by uncultured methods; however, the cultivated members might not be the most dominant ones. In conclusion, a combined cultivation and cultivation-independent strategy yielded us a broader picture of the methanotrophic community from rice rhizospheres of a flooded rice field in India. PMID:26547567

  10. 29 CFR 780.110 - Operations included in “cultivation and tillage of the soil.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Operations included in âcultivation and tillage of the soil... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Cultivation and Tillage of the Soil § 780.110 Operations included in “cultivation and tillage of the soil.” “Cultivation and tillage of the soil”...

  11. 29 CFR 780.110 - Operations included in “cultivation and tillage of the soil.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Operations included in âcultivation and tillage of the soil... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Cultivation and Tillage of the Soil § 780.110 Operations included in “cultivation and tillage of the soil.” “Cultivation and tillage of the soil”...

  12. 29 CFR 780.110 - Operations included in “cultivation and tillage of the soil.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Operations included in âcultivation and tillage of the soil... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Cultivation and Tillage of the Soil § 780.110 Operations included in “cultivation and tillage of the soil.” “Cultivation and tillage of the soil”...

  13. 29 CFR 780.110 - Operations included in “cultivation and tillage of the soil.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Operations included in âcultivation and tillage of the soil... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Cultivation and Tillage of the Soil § 780.110 Operations included in “cultivation and tillage of the soil.” “Cultivation and tillage of the soil”...

  14. 29 CFR 780.110 - Operations included in “cultivation and tillage of the soil.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operations included in âcultivation and tillage of the soil... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Cultivation and Tillage of the Soil § 780.110 Operations included in “cultivation and tillage of the soil.” “Cultivation and tillage of the soil”...

  15. Surface modification of closed plastic bags for adherent cell cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachmann, K.; Dohse, A.; Thomas, M.; Pohl, S.; Meyring, W.; Dittmar, K. E. J.; Lindenmeier, W.; Klages, C.-P.

    2011-07-01

    In modern medicine human mesenchymal stem cells are becoming increasingly important. However, a successful cultivation of this type of cells is only possible under very specific conditions. Of great importance, for instance, are the absence of contaminants such as foreign microbiological organisms, i.e., sterility, and the chemical functionalization of the ground on which the cells are grown. As cultivation of these cells makes high demands, a new procedure for cell cultivation has been developed in which closed plastic bags are used. For adherent cell growth chemical functional groups have to be introduced on the inner surface of the plastic bag. This can be achieved by a new, atmospheric-pressure plasma-based method presented in this paper. The method which was developed jointly by the Fraunhofer IST and the Helmholtz HZI can be implemented in automated equipment as is also shown in this contribution. Plasma process gases used include helium or helium-based gas mixtures (He + N2 + H2) and vapors of suitable film-forming agents or precursors such as APTMS, DACH, and TMOS in helium. The effect of plasma treatment is investigated by FTIR-ATR spectroscopy as well as surface tension determination based on contact angle measurements and XPS. Plasma treatment in nominally pure helium increases the surface tension of the polymer foil due to the presence of oxygen traces in the gas and oxygen diffusing through the gas-permeable foil, respectively, reacting with surface radical centers formed during contact with the discharge. Primary amino groups are obtained on the inner surface by treatment in mixtures with nitrogen and hydrogen albeit their amount is comparably small due to diffusion of oxygen through the gas-permeable bag, interfering with the plasma-amination process. Surface modifications introducing amino groups on the inner surface turned out to be most efficient in the promotion of cell growth.

  16. Candidate OP Phyla: Importance, Ecology and Cultivation Prospects.

    PubMed

    Rohini Kumar, M; Saravanan, V S

    2010-10-01

    OP phyla were created in the domain bacteria, based on the group of 16S rRNA gene sequences recovered from the Obsidian Pool. However, due to the lack of cultured representative it is referred to as candidate phyla. Wider ecological occurrence was predicted for the OP phyla, especially OP3, OP10 and OP11. Recently, members of phylum OP5 and OP10 were cultured, providing clues to their cultivation prospects. At last the bioprospecting potentials of the OP members are discussed herein. PMID:22282618

  17. How resilient are African woodlands to disturbance from shifting cultivation?

    PubMed

    McNicol, Iain M; Ryan, Casey M; Williams, Mathew

    2015-12-01

    Large parts of sub-Saharan Africa are experiencing rapid changes in land use and land cover, driven largely by the expansion of small-scale shifting cultivation. This practice creates complex mosaic landscapes with active agricultural fields and patches of mature woodland, interspersed with remnant patches in various stages of regrowth. Our objective here was to examine the rate and extent to which carbon stocks in trees and soils recover after cultivation, and detail how this disturbance and regrowth affect patterns in tree species composition and diversity over 40 years of succession in a miombo woodland landscape in southeast Tanzania. We sampled 67 areas, including plots previously cleared for cultivation, active fields, and mature woodlands for reference purposes. Sites were further stratified by soil texture to test for associated effects. Tree carbon stocks accumulated at an average rate of 0.83 ± 0.10 Mg C x ha(-1) x yr(-1), with soil texture having no clear impact on accumulation rates. Bulk soil carbon stocks on both soil types appeared unaffected by both the initial land clearance and the subsequent regrowth, which resulted in no significant changes over time. Tree species diversity in regrowing plots developed rapidly and within -10 years was equivalent to that of mature woodland. Many of the species found in mature woodlands reappeared relatively quickly after abandonment, although species composition is expected to take considerably longer to recover, with at least 60-80 years required for the compositional similarity between regrowing and mature woodlands to reach levels similar to that among nearby mature woodlands. Through impacts on β-diversity, disturbance was also found to increase the total number of tree species present in the landscape, with many of the recorded species only found in regrowing woodlands. Our results are of relevance to carbon sequestration projects by helping to inform the potential future carbon and biodiversity benefits of restoring disturbed habitats (REDD+). At a time where the use of shifting cultivation is threatened by shifts to larger-scale, commercial agriculture, we show that secondary woodland habitats can retain considerable biodiversity value, and act as carbon sinks. PMID:26910958

  18. Cultivating the next generation of tobacco endgame advocates.

    PubMed

    Tam, Jamie

    2013-05-01

    Long-term success for any tobacco endgame is contingent not only on acquiring political will, but also on sustaining it over a long period of time, perhaps even for decades. Future cohorts of public health professionals with knowledge of tobacco issues are therefore needed to carry on with the endgame strategy (should early attempts fail) and to keep tobacco control salient after an endgame strategy has initially been implemented. The endgame itself offers a unique pedagogical opportunity that could revive interest in tobacco control at schools of public health--an important first step in cultivating the future advocacy base for a tobacco endgame. PMID:23591510

  19. [Effect of cultivation conditions on the adhesive activity of rhodococci towards n-hexadecane].

    PubMed

    Rubtsova, E V; Kuiukina, M S; Ivshina, I B

    2012-01-01

    The effect of cultivation conditions (the composition, acidity, and salinity of the cultivation medium; temperature; and the hydrodynamic conditions of cultivation) on the adhesion of actinobacteria of the genus Rhodococcus to n-hexadecane has been investigated. A study performed showed that the adhesive activity of rhodococci depends on the composition of the cultivation medium and on the cultivation temperature. The possible mechanisms underlying the effect of growth conditions on the adhesion ofrhodococci to liquid hydrocarbons and involving changes in the cell lipid content or the zeta potential of cells are addressed. Rhodococcal strains displaying high adhesive activity (80-90%) at a low temperature (18 degrees C), high salinity (5.0% NaCl), and acidity (pH 6.0) of the cultivation medium have been selected as a result of the present work; these strains have a considerable potential for use in bioremediation of soil and water contaminated by hydrocarbons. PMID:23101387

  20. The genome sequences of Arachis duranensis and Arachis ipaensis, the diploid ancestors of cultivated peanut.

    PubMed

    Bertioli, David John; Cannon, Steven B; Froenicke, Lutz; Huang, Guodong; Farmer, Andrew D; Cannon, Ethalinda K S; Liu, Xin; Gao, Dongying; Clevenger, Josh; Dash, Sudhansu; Ren, Longhui; Moretzsohn, Márcio C; Shirasawa, Kenta; Huang, Wei; Vidigal, Bruna; Abernathy, Brian; Chu, Ye; Niederhuth, Chad E; Umale, Pooja; Araújo, Ana Cláudia G; Kozik, Alexander; Do Kim, Kyung; Burow, Mark D; Varshney, Rajeev K; Wang, Xingjun; Zhang, Xinyou; Barkley, Noelle; Guimarães, Patrícia M; Isobe, Sachiko; Guo, Baozhu; Liao, Boshou; Stalker, H Thomas; Schmitz, Robert J; Scheffler, Brian E; Leal-Bertioli, Soraya C M; Xun, Xu; Jackson, Scott A; Michelmore, Richard; Ozias-Akins, Peggy

    2016-04-01

    Cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is an allotetraploid with closely related subgenomes of a total size of ∼2.7 Gb. This makes the assembly of chromosomal pseudomolecules very challenging. As a foundation to understanding the genome of cultivated peanut, we report the genome sequences of its diploid ancestors (Arachis duranensis and Arachis ipaensis). We show that these genomes are similar to cultivated peanut's A and B subgenomes and use them to identify candidate disease resistance genes, to guide tetraploid transcript assemblies and to detect genetic exchange between cultivated peanut's subgenomes. On the basis of remarkably high DNA identity of the A. ipaensis genome and the B subgenome of cultivated peanut and biogeographic evidence, we conclude that A. ipaensis may be a direct descendant of the same population that contributed the B subgenome to cultivated peanut. PMID:26901068

  1. Hollow-fiber membrane chamber as a device for in situ environmental cultivation.

    PubMed

    Aoi, Yoshiteru; Kinoshita, Tomoyuki; Hata, Toru; Ohta, Hiroaki; Obokata, Haruko; Tsuneda, Satoshi

    2009-06-01

    A hollow-fiber membrane chamber (HFMC) was developed as an in situ cultivation device for environmental microorganisms. The HFMC system consists of 48 to 96 pieces of porous hollow-fiber membrane connected with injectors. The system allows rapid exchange of chemical compounds, thereby simulating a natural environment. Comparative analysis through the cultivation of three types of environmental samples was performed using this newly designed device and a conventional agar-based petri dish. The results show that the ratios of novel phylotypes in isolates, species-level diversities, and cultivabilities in HFMC-based cultivation are higher than those in an agar-based petri dish for all three samples, suggesting that the new in situ cultivation device is effective for cultivation of various environmental microorganisms. PMID:19329655

  2. [Dynamics of recent cultivated land in Zhejiang Province and relevant driving factors].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-dong; Yu, Dong-sheng; Shi, Xue-zheng; Liu, Ying-an; Wang, Shi-hang; Zhang, Guang-xing; Liu, Yang

    2010-12-01

    Through the human-computer interactive interpretation of the 2000, 2005, and 2008 remote sensing images of Zhejiang Province with the help of RS and GIS techniques, the dynamic database of cultivated land change in the province in, 2000-2008 was established, and the driving factors of the cultivated land change were analyzed by ridge regression analysis. There was a notable cultivated land change in the province in 2000-2008. In 2000-2005 and 2005-2008, the annual cultivated land change in the province arrived -1.42% and -1.46%, respectively, and most of the cultivated land was changed into residential and industrial land. Non-agricultural population rate, real estate investment, urban green area, and orchard area were thought to be the main driving factors of the cultivated land change in Zhejiang Province, and even, in the developed areas of east China. PMID:21442998

  3. Gel microbead cultivation with a subenrichment procedure can yield better bacterial cultivability from a seawater sample than standard plating method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Shiqi; Zhao, Rui; Yin, Qi; Zhao, Yuan; Liu, Chenguang; Xiao, Tian; Zhang, Xiaohua

    2012-03-01

    A gel microbead (GMD) cultivation method was employed to cultivate microorganisms from an amphioxus breeding zone in Qingdao, P. R. China. The culture results were compared with those by standard plating method. In the GMD-based method, the microcolony-forming GMDs were sorted by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). To further get pure cultures, a subsequent enrichment culture and a streaking purification procedure were conducted on marine R2A medium. Eighty bacterial strains isolated by the GMD-based method were randomly selected for sequencing. These isolates belonged to Alphaproteobacteria (33%), Gammaproteobacteria (44%), Bacteroidetes (11%), Actinobacteria (5%), Firmicutes (5%), Epsilonproteobacteria (1%), and Verrucomicrobia (1%), the last two groups being usually difficult to culture. The 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed a diverse community with 91.1%-100% of the bacterial rRNAs similarities. Thirteen strains were sharing 16S rRNA gene sequence which was less than 97% similar to any other rRNA genes currently deposited in TYP16S database. Seventy isolates derived from the standard plating method fell into 4 different taxonomic groups: Alphaproteobacteria (9%), Gammaproteobacteria (81%), Bacteroidetes (7%) and Firmicutes (3%) with a 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities between 95.8%-100%, in which only 3 strains were sharing 16S rRNA gene sequence of less than 97%. The results indicated that the GMD-based method with subenrichment culture yielded more taxonomic groups and more novel microbial strains, including members of previously rarely cultured groups, when compared with the standard plating method, and that this method markedly improved the bacterial cultivability.

  4. A new strategy for lipid production by mix cultivation of Spirulina platensis and Rhodotorula glutinis.

    PubMed

    Xue, Feiyan; Miao, Jinxin; Zhang, Xu; Tan, Tianwei

    2010-01-01

    Mix cultivation of microalgae (Spirulina platensis) and yeast (Rhodotorula glutinis) for lipid production was studied. Mixing cultivation of the two microorganisms significantly increased the accumulation of total biomass and total lipid yield. Dissolved oxygen and medium components in the mixed fermentation medium were analyzed. Mix cultivation in monosodium glutamate wastewater was further studied. Result indicated 1,600 mg/L of biomass was obtained and 73% of COD were removed. PMID:18931954

  5. Application of oxygen vectors to Claviceps purpurea cultivation.

    PubMed

    Menge, M; Mukherjee, J; Scheper, T

    2001-05-01

    The application of a two-phase fermentation system for the production of ergot peptide alkaloids by Claviceps purpurea is described. Perfluorocarbons (PFC) are used as oxygen vectors in Claviceps fermentation for the first time. In shake-flask cultivations, the inclusion of PFC in the medium brings about a five-fold increase in the total alkaloid production and a six-fold increase in the pharmaceutically important component, ergotamine. This rise cannot be correlated with the concentration of the added PFC and it is thought that the enhancement is due to a combination of factors, including the influence of PFC. Other oxygen vectors, such as several hydrocarbons, prove to be poor oxygen carriers in our study. Cultivations with PFC in a bioreactor are reproducible, the maximum total alkaloid and ergotamine production being attained on the 11th and 9th days, respectively. The relatively lower increase in the total alkaloid production in the bioreactor as compared to the shake-flasks is attributed to the unequal oxygen availability in the reactor. Processes with PFC offer the operational advantage of a five-fold reduction in aeration rate. PMID:11398919

  6. Phytochemical Investigation of Vinca minor Cultivated in Iran.

    PubMed

    Farahanikia, Behnaz; Akbarzadeh, Tahmineh; Jahangirzadeh, Akbar; Yassa, Narguess; Shams Ardekani, Mohammad Reza; Mirnezami, Tahmineh; Hadjiakhoondi, Abbas; Khanavi, Mahnaz

    2011-01-01

    Lesser Periwinkle (Vinca minor L.), a member of Apocynaceae, is not only an ornamental plant with lilac-blue flowers, but also a medical plant producing an important alkaloid, vincamine, found in the leaves which shows a pronounced cerebrovasodilatory and neuroprotective activity. This plant is native to northern Spain, western France, central and southern Europe, and Caucasus. It has been recently cultivated for pharmaceutical purposes by Zardband Botanical Garden in Iran. Since the quality of herb material and alkaloid concentration is greatly influenced by environmental conditions, in this study, we report the isolation and identification of major alkaloids along with the quantification of vincamine as the pharmacologically most important component. Alkaloids from the aerial parts of V. minor were isolated and purified using different chromatographic methods. The structures of these alkaloids were determined on the basis of their physical and spectroscopic data. The concentration of vincamine was determined by high performance liquid chromatography using Tracer Excel 120 ODS A C18 column. Five indole alkaloids including vincaminorine, vincaminoreine, minovine, minovincine, and vincamine (Figure 1) were isolated from the aerial parts of V. minor. Vincamine was found to be the dominant alkaloid in this plant with the content of 0.057% of the dried plant mass. This plant may be used as a natural source for pharmaceutical purposes in Iran, due to the presence of biologically active alkaloids especially vincamine as the major alkaloid in Lesser Periwinkle cultivated. PMID:24250413

  7. Phytochemical Investigation of Vinca minor Cultivated in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Farahanikia, Behnaz; Akbarzadeh, Tahmineh; Jahangirzadeh, Akbar; Yassa, Narguess; Shams Ardekani, Mohammad Reza; Mirnezami, Tahmineh; Hadjiakhoondi, Abbas; Khanavi, Mahnaz

    2011-01-01

    Lesser Periwinkle (Vinca minor L.), a member of Apocynaceae, is not only an ornamental plant with lilac-blue flowers, but also a medical plant producing an important alkaloid, vincamine, found in the leaves which shows a pronounced cerebrovasodilatory and neuroprotective activity. This plant is native to northern Spain, western France, central and southern Europe, and Caucasus. It has been recently cultivated for pharmaceutical purposes by Zardband Botanical Garden in Iran. Since the quality of herb material and alkaloid concentration is greatly influenced by environmental conditions, in this study, we report the isolation and identification of major alkaloids along with the quantification of vincamine as the pharmacologically most important component. Alkaloids from the aerial parts of V. minor were isolated and purified using different chromatographic methods. The structures of these alkaloids were determined on the basis of their physical and spectroscopic data. The concentration of vincamine was determined by high performance liquid chromatography using Tracer Excel 120 ODS A C18 column. Five indole alkaloids including vincaminorine, vincaminoreine, minovine, minovincine, and vincamine (Figure 1) were isolated from the aerial parts of V. minor. Vincamine was found to be the dominant alkaloid in this plant with the content of 0.057% of the dried plant mass. This plant may be used as a natural source for pharmaceutical purposes in Iran, due to the presence of biologically active alkaloids especially vincamine as the major alkaloid in Lesser Periwinkle cultivated. PMID:24250413

  8. Productivity of wet soils: Biomass of cultivated and natural vegetation

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, C.A.

    1988-12-01

    Wet soils, soils which have agronomic limitations because of excess water, comprise 105 million acres of non-federal land in the conterminous United States. Wet soils which support hydrophytic plants are ''wetlands'', and are some of the most productive natural ecosystems in the world. When both above- and belowground productivity are considered, cattail (Typha latifolia) is the most productive temperate wetland species (26.4 Mg/ha/year). Both cattail and reed (Phragmites australis) have aboveground productivities of about 13 Mg/ha/year. Although average aboveground yields of reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea) are lower (9.5 Mg/ha/year), techniques for its establishment and cultivation are well-developed. Other herbaceous wetland species which show promise as biomass crops include sedge (Carex spp.), river bulrush (Scirpus fluviatilis) and prairie cordgrass (Spartina pectinata). About 40% of wet soils in the conterminous US are currently cultivated, and they produce one-quarter of the major US crops. Most of this land is artificially drained for crops such as corn, soybeans, and vegetables. US wetlands are drained for agriculture at the rate of 223,000 ha/yr. Paddies flooded with water are used to grow rice, cranberries, and wild rice. Forage and live sphagnum moss are products of undrained wetlands. A number of federal and state regulations apply to the draining or irrigation of wetlands, but most do not seriously restrict their use for agriculture. 320 refs., 36 tabs.

  9. Cultivation and quantitative proteomic analyses of acidophilic microbial communities

    SciTech Connect

    Belnap, Christopher P.; Pan, Chongle; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Power, Mary E.; Samatova, Nagiza F; Carver, Rudolf L.; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2010-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD), an extreme environment characterized by low pH and high metal concentrations, can support dense acidophilic microbial biofilm communities that rely on chemoautotrophic production based on iron oxidation. Field determined production rates indicate that, despite the extreme conditions, these communities are sufficiently well adapted to their habitats to achieve primary production rates comparable to those of microbial communities occurring in some non-extreme environments. To enable laboratory studies of growth, production and ecology of AMD microbial communities, a culturing system was designed to reproduce natural biofilms, including organisms recalcitrant to cultivation. A comprehensive metabolic labeling-based quantitative proteomic analysis was used to verify that natural and laboratory communities were comparable at the functional level. Results confirmed that the composition and core metabolic activities of laboratory-grown communities were similar to a natural community, including the presence of active, low abundance bacteria and archaea that have not yet been isolated. However, laboratory growth rates were slow compared with natural communities, and this correlated with increased abundance of stress response proteins for the dominant bacteria in laboratory communities. Modification of cultivation conditions reduced the abundance of stress response proteins and increased laboratory community growth rates. The research presented here represents the first description of the application of a metabolic labeling-based quantitative proteomic analysis at the community level and resulted in a model microbial community system ideal for testing physiological and ecological hypotheses.

  10. Biochar from commercially cultivated seaweed for soil amelioration

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, David A.; Paul, Nicholas A.; Dworjanyn, Symon A.; Bird, Michael I.; de Nys, Rocky

    2015-01-01

    Seaweed cultivation is a high growth industry that is primarily targeted at human food and hydrocolloid markets. However, seaweed biomass also offers a feedstock for the production of nutrient-rich biochar for soil amelioration. We provide the first data of biochar yield and characteristics from intensively cultivated seaweeds (Saccharina, Undaria and Sargassum – brown seaweeds, and Gracilaria, Kappaphycus and Eucheuma – red seaweeds). While there is some variability in biochar properties as a function of the origin of seaweed, there are several defining and consistent characteristics of seaweed biochar, in particular a relatively low C content and surface area but high yield, essential trace elements (N, P and K) and exchangeable cations (particularly K). The pH of seaweed biochar ranges from neutral (7) to alkaline (11), allowing for broad-spectrum applications in diverse soil types. We find that seaweed biochar is a unique material for soil amelioration that is consistently different to biochar derived from ligno-cellulosic feedstock. Blending of seaweed and ligno-cellulosic biochar could provide a soil ameliorant that combines a high fixed C content with a mineral-rich substrate to enhance crop productivity. PMID:25856799

  11. Impacts of biofuel cultivation on mortality and crop yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashworth, K.; Wild, O.; Hewitt, C. N.

    2013-05-01

    Ground-level ozone is a priority air pollutant, causing ~ 22,000 excess deaths per year in Europe, significant reductions in crop yields and loss of biodiversity. It is produced in the troposphere through photochemical reactions involving oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The biosphere is the main source of VOCs, with an estimated 1,150TgCyr-1 (~ 90% of total VOC emissions) released from vegetation globally. Isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene) is the most significant biogenic VOC in terms of mass (around 500TgCyr-1) and chemical reactivity and plays an important role in the mediation of ground-level ozone concentrations. Concerns about climate change and energy security are driving an aggressive expansion of bioenergy crop production and many of these plant species emit more isoprene than the traditional crops they are replacing. Here we quantify the increases in isoprene emission rates caused by cultivation of 72Mha of biofuel crops in Europe. We then estimate the resultant changes in ground-level ozone concentrations and the impacts on human mortality and crop yields that these could cause. Our study highlights the need to consider more than simple carbon budgets when considering the cultivation of biofuel feedstock crops for greenhouse-gas mitigation.

  12. Cultivation of microalgae in dairy farm wastewater without sterilization.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jinfeng; Zhao, Fengmin; Cao, Youfu; Xing, Li; Liu, Wei; Mei, Shuai; Li, Shujun

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the feasibility of cultivating microalgae in dairy farm wastewater. The growth of microalgae and the removal rate of the nutrient from the wastewater were examined. The wastewater was diluted 20, 10 and 5 times before applied to cultivate microalgae. A 5 dilution yielded 0.86 g/L dry weight in 6 days with a relative growth rate of 0.28 d(-1), the 10×dilution gave 0.74 g/L and a relative growth rate of 0.26 d(-1) while the 20×dilution 0.59 g/L and a relative growth rate 0.23 d(-1). The nutrients in the wastewater could be removed effectively in different diluted dairy wastewater. The greatest dilution (20×) showed the removal rates: ammonia, 99.26%; P, 89.92%; COD, 84.18%. A 10×dilution removal% was: ammonia 93; P 91 and COD 88. The 5× dilution removal% was: ammonia 83; P 92; COD 90. PMID:25397979

  13. Cancer risk and residential proximity to cranberry cultivation in Massachusetts.

    PubMed Central

    Aschengrau, A; Ozonoff, D; Coogan, P; Vezina, R; Heeren, T; Zhang, Y

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the relationship between cancer risk and residential proximity to cranberry cultivation. METHODS: A population-based case-control study was conducted. Cases, diagnosed during 1983 through 1986 among residents of the Upper Cape Cod area of Massachusetts, involved incident cancers of the lung (n = 252), breast (n = 265), colon-rectum (n = 326), bladder (n = 63), kidney (n = 35), pancreas (n = 37), and brain (n = 37), along with leukemia (n = 35). Control subjects were randomly selected from among telephone subscribers (n = 184), Medicare beneficiaries (n = 464), and deceased individuals (n = 723). RESULTS: No meaningful increases in risk were seen for any of the cancer sites except for the brain. When latency was considered, subjects who had ever lived within 2600 ft (780 m) of a cranberry bog had a twofold increased risk of brain cancer overall (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.8, 4.9) and a 6.7-fold increased risk of astrocytoma (95% CI = 1.6, 27.8). CONCLUSIONS: Residential proximity to cranberry bog cultivation was not associated with seven of the eight cancers investigated; however, an association was observed with brain cancer, particularly astrocytoma. Larger, more detailed studies are necessary to elucidate this relationship. PMID:8806382

  14. Cultivating the uncultured: growing the recalcitrant cluster-2 Frankia strains.

    PubMed

    Gtari, Maher; Ghodhbane-Gtari, Faten; Nouioui, Imen; Ktari, Amir; Hezbri, Karima; Mimouni, Wajdi; Sbissi, Imed; Ayari, Amani; Yamanaka, Takashi; Normand, Philippe; Tisa, Louis S; Boudabous, Abdellatif

    2015-01-01

    The repeated failures reported in cultivating some microbial lineages are a major challenge in microbial ecology and probably linked, in the case of Frankia microsymbionts to atypical patterns of auxotrophy. Comparative genomics of the so far uncultured cluster-2 Candidatus Frankia datiscae Dg1, with cultivated Frankiae has revealed genome reduction, but no obvious physiological impairments. A direct physiological assay on nodule tissues from Coriaria myrtifolia infected with a closely-related strain permitted the identification of a requirement for alkaline conditions. A high pH growth medium permitted the recovery of a slow-growing actinobacterium. The strain obtained, called BMG5.1, has short hyphae, produced diazovesicles in nitrogen-free media, and fulfilled Koch's postulates by inducing effective nodules on axenically grown Coriaria spp. and Datisca glomerata. Analysis of the draft genome confirmed its close proximity to the Candidatus Frankia datiscae Dg1 genome with the absence of 38 genes (trehalose synthase, fumarylacetoacetase, etc) in BMG5.1 and the presence of 77 other genes (CRISPR, lanthionine synthase, glutathione synthetase, catalase, Na+/H+ antiporter, etc) not found in Dg1. A multi-gene phylogeny placed the two cluster-2 strains together at the root of the Frankia radiation. PMID:26287281

  15. Cultivation of Spirulina maxima in medium supplemented with sugarcane vinasse.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Raquel Rezende; Araújo, Ofélia de Queiroz Fernandes; de Medeiros, José Luiz; Chaloub, Ricardo Moreira

    2016-03-01

    The feasibility of sugarcane vinasse as supplement in growth medium of Spirulina maxima was investigated. The cell was cultivated under autotrophic (no vinasse, 70 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1)), heterotrophic (no light, culture medium supplemented with vinasse at 0.1% v/v and 1.0% v/v) and mixotrophic conditions (70 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1), vinasse at 0.1% v/v and 1.0% v/v). These preliminary results suggested a cyclic two-stage cultivation - CTSC, with autotrophic condition during light phase of the photoperiod (12 h, 70-200 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1)) and heterotrophic condition during dark phase (12h, 3.0% v/v vinasse). The adopted CTSC strategy consisted in three cycles with 75% withdrawal of suspension and reposition of medium containing 3.0% v/v vinasse, separated by autotrophic rest periods of few days between cycles. Results show an increase of biomass concentration between 0.495 g L(-1) and 0.609 g L(-1) at the 7th day of each cycle and high protein content (between 74.3% and 77.3% w/w). PMID:26773377

  16. Beginning with the end in mind: cultivating minority nurse leaders.

    PubMed

    Carter, Brigit Maria; Powell, Dorothy L; Derouin, Anne L; Cusatis, Julie

    2015-01-01

    In response to the need for increased racial and ethnic diversity in the nursing profession, the Duke University School of Nursing (DUSON) established the Making a Difference in Nursing II (MADIN II) Program. The aim of the MADIN II Program is to improve the diversity of the nursing workforce by expanding nursing education opportunities for economically disadvantaged underrepresented minority (URM) students to prepare for, enroll in, and graduate from the DUSON's Accelerated Bachelors of Science in Nursing program. Adapted from the highly successful Meyerhoff Scholarship Program model, the program is to cultivate URM nursing graduates with advanced knowledge and leadership skills who can address health disparities and positively influence health care issues currently plaguing underrepresented populations. The article discusses the MADIN II framework consisting of four unique components: recruitment of students, the Summer Socialization Nursing Preentry Program, the Continued Connectivity Program, and the Succeed to Excellence Program, providing a framework for other academic programs interested in cultivating a pipeline of minority nurse leaders. PMID:25839948

  17. Allelopathic effects of ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) on cultivated plants.

    PubMed

    Lehoczky, E; Gólya, G; Szabó, R; Szalai, A

    2011-01-01

    During the past years ragweed has been coming to the forefront of interest in Hungary and in other European countries as well because its serious health risk. Results of the 5th National Weed Survey has proven that ragweed is the most important weed species on Hungarian field lands, its coverage shows a rising tendency in cereals moreover it not only occurs in cultivated plants. Allelopathic effects of aqueous extracts derived from different parts of ragweed plants (air dried leafy stems, seeds) on the germination and growth of other cultivated plants [maize (Zea mays L.), winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), rye (Secale cereale L.), oat (Avena sativa L.)] were studied. The extracts made for the trials were prepared with distilled water. Petri dishes were used for the germination experiments and distilled water was used as a control treatment. The seven days long experiment was carried out within a Binder-type thermostat under dark conditions. The germination percentage was checked in every two days and the growth of sprouts was evaluated after a week counting the germinated seeds and measuring the length of the radicle and plumule. The measured data were statistically analysed and the effect of extracts on germinating and length of sprouts were assessed. PMID:22696964

  18. Optimization of Cultivating Conditions for Triterpenoids Production from Antrodia cinnmomea.

    PubMed

    He, Yuan-Chuan; He, Kai-Ze; Pu, Qiang; Li, Jing; Zhao, Zong-Jie

    2012-12-01

    The submerged cultivating conditions for triterpenoids production from Antrodia cinnamomea were optimized using uniform design method and the one-factor-at-a-time method was adopted to investigate the effect of plants oils and glucose supply on triterpenoids production and mycelia growth. Corn starch and culturing time were identified as more significant variables for triterpenoids production. The optimal conditions for triterpenoids production was 20.0g/L corn starch, 20.0g/L wheat bran, 1.85g/L MgSO4, initial pH 3 and 16days of cultivation. In addition, investigation of plant oils and glucose supply showed that 0.3% (v/v) olive oil supply at the beginning of fermentation stimulated mycelia growth and significantly increased triterpenoids production; 0.2% (w/v) glucose supplement at 10thday enhanced production of triterpenoids with slight effect on biomass, which is reported for the first time. The triterpenoids production experimentally obtained under the optimal conditions was 7.23% (w/w). The uniform design method may be used to optimize many environmental and genetic factors such as temperature and agitation that can also affect the triterpenoids production from A. cinnamomea. PMID:24293725

  19. Cultivating the uncultured: growing the recalcitrant cluster-2 Frankia strains

    PubMed Central

    Gtari, Maher; Ghodhbane-Gtari, Faten; Nouioui, Imen; Ktari, Amir; Hezbri, Karima; Mimouni, Wajdi; Sbissi, Imed; Ayari, Amani; Yamanaka, Takashi; Normand, Philippe; Tisa, Louis S; Boudabous, Abdellatif

    2015-01-01

    The repeated failures reported in cultivating some microbial lineages are a major challenge in microbial ecology and probably linked, in the case of Frankia microsymbionts to atypical patterns of auxotrophy. Comparative genomics of the so far uncultured cluster-2 Candidatus Frankia datiscae Dg1, with cultivated Frankiae has revealed genome reduction, but no obvious physiological impairments. A direct physiological assay on nodule tissues from Coriaria myrtifolia infected with a closely-related strain permitted the identification of a requirement for alkaline conditions. A high pH growth medium permitted the recovery of a slow-growing actinobacterium. The strain obtained, called BMG5.1, has short hyphae, produced diazovesicles in nitrogen-free media, and fulfilled Koch’s postulates by inducing effective nodules on axenically grown Coriaria spp. and Datisca glomerata. Analysis of the draft genome confirmed its close proximity to the Candidatus Frankia datiscae Dg1 genome with the absence of 38 genes (trehalose synthase, fumarylacetoacetase, etc) in BMG5.1 and the presence of 77 other genes (CRISPR, lanthionine synthase, glutathione synthetase, catalase, Na+/H+ antiporter, etc) not found in Dg1. A multi-gene phylogeny placed the two cluster-2 strains together at the root of the Frankia radiation. PMID:26287281

  20. Bacterial community analysis of Tatsoi cultivated by hydroponics.

    PubMed

    Koo, Ok K; Kim, Hun; Kim, Hyun J; Baker, Christopher A; Ricke, Steven C

    2016-07-01

    Tatsoi (Brassica narinosa) is a popular Asian salad green that is mostly consumed as a source of fresh produce. The purpose of this study was to assess the microbial diversity of Tatsoi cultivated in a hydroponic system and of its ecosystem. Tatsoi leaves, nutrient solution, and perlite/earth samples from a trickle feed system (TFS) and an ebb-and-flow system (EFS) were collected and their microbial communities were analyzed by pyrosequencing analysis. The results showed that most bacteria in the leaves from the TFS contained genus Sporosarcina (99.6%), while Rhizobium (60.4%) was dominant in the leaves from the EFS. Genus Paucibacter (18.21%) and Pelomonas (12.37%) were the most abundant microbiota in the nutrient solution samples of the TFS. In the EFS, the nutrient solution samples contained mostly genus Rhodococcus and Acinetobacter. Potential microbial transfer between the leaves and the ecosystem was observed in the EFS, while samples in the TFS were found to share only one species between the leaves, nutrient solution, and earth. Together, these results show that the bacterial populations in Tatsoi and in its ecosystem are highly diverse based on the cultivation system. PMID:27070460

  1. Biochar from commercially cultivated seaweed for soil amelioration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, David A.; Paul, Nicholas A.; Dworjanyn, Symon A.; Bird, Michael I.; de Nys, Rocky

    2015-04-01

    Seaweed cultivation is a high growth industry that is primarily targeted at human food and hydrocolloid markets. However, seaweed biomass also offers a feedstock for the production of nutrient-rich biochar for soil amelioration. We provide the first data of biochar yield and characteristics from intensively cultivated seaweeds (Saccharina, Undaria and Sargassum - brown seaweeds, and Gracilaria, Kappaphycus and Eucheuma - red seaweeds). While there is some variability in biochar properties as a function of the origin of seaweed, there are several defining and consistent characteristics of seaweed biochar, in particular a relatively low C content and surface area but high yield, essential trace elements (N, P and K) and exchangeable cations (particularly K). The pH of seaweed biochar ranges from neutral (7) to alkaline (11), allowing for broad-spectrum applications in diverse soil types. We find that seaweed biochar is a unique material for soil amelioration that is consistently different to biochar derived from ligno-cellulosic feedstock. Blending of seaweed and ligno-cellulosic biochar could provide a soil ameliorant that combines a high fixed C content with a mineral-rich substrate to enhance crop productivity.

  2. Significance, progress and prospects for research in simplified cultivation technologies for rice in China

    PubMed Central

    HUANG, M.; IBRAHIM, MD.; XIA, B.; ZOU, Y.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Simplified cultivation technologies for rice have become increasingly attractive in recent years in China because of their social, economical and environmental benefits. To date, several simplified cultivation technologies, such as conventional tillage and seedling throwing (CTST), conventional tillage and direct seeding (CTDS), no-tillage and seedling throwing (NTST), no-tillage and direct seeding (NTDS) and no-tillage and transplanting (NTTP), have been developed in China. Most studies have shown that rice grown under each of these simplified cultivation technologies can produce a grain yield equal to or higher than traditional cultivation (conventional tillage and transplanting). Studies that have described the influences of agronomic practices on yield formation of rice under simplified cultivation have demonstrated that optimizing agronomy practices would increase the efficiencies of simplified cultivation systems. Further research is needed to optimize the management strategies for CTST, CTDS and NTST rice which have developed quickly in recent years, to strengthen basic research for those simplified cultivation technologies that are rarely used at present (such as NTTP and NTDS), to select and breed cultivars suitable for simplified cultivation and to compare the practicability and effectiveness of different simplified cultivation technologies in different rice production regions. PMID:22505773

  3. Runoff generation and flow paths on an inclined cultivated soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zumr, David; Strouhal, Luděk; Kavka, Petr

    2015-04-01

    The hydrology of cultivated catchments has its specific features due to the temporary variable topsoil properties and a sharp divide between topsoil and compacted subsoil. Under various conditions (actual topsoil physical properties, initial soil saturation, rainfall characteristics, surface roughness or vegetation stage) the prevailing runoff mechanisms may vary from surface runoff to subsurface runoff or deep percolation. To investigate the runoff generation and flow pathways and to quantify the runoff components on an inclined cultivated field under various rainfall and field conditions we conducted plot scale rainfall simulations. The experiments were done on the experimental plots Bykovice in Central Bohemia (Czech Republic), where the soil is classified as Cambisol with a clear divide between the topsoil and compacted subsoil at a depth of approximately 14 cm. We used a mobile rainfall simulator (designed at the CTU in Prague) equipped with four solenoid-controlled nozzles positioned 2.65 m above the soil. An inclined experimental plot (8 x 2 m, 9% slope) was successively exposed to uniform simulated rainfall with intensity ranging from 23 to 64 mm h-1 and duration ranging from 1 h to 2.5 h. These simulated rainfall parameters were selected to represent intensive rainfall events observed in the study locality, to generate surface runoff and to initiate soil erosion. The dynamics of surface and shallow subsurface runoff and the soil water regime at three soil depths were monitored. Various initial soil moisture conditions, and vegetation stages; from cultivated fallow to stubble, delimited the simulations. Variable proportions of both monitored runoff components were observed in relation to rainfall intensity and duration, ranging from zero surface runoff to a distinct dominance of surface runoff. Both components reacted very dynamically to the precipitation: shallow subsurface runoff was formed first under all tested conditions on the given soil profile. Even with the highest tested precipitation intensities, surface runoff always formed due to saturation excess of the topsoil, irrespective of the topsoil properties and crops. The experiments were numerically modelled and analysed to understand the effect of temporal variability in the macropores and intra-aggregate voids ratio within the topsoil. We used a combination of physically based macroscopic models S1D and HYPO. In the S1D the dual permeability approach with two coupled Richards equations is used, the simultaneously operating HYPO code is based on a diffusion wave (Boussinesq eq.). Additional comparison of the experiments results with whole experimental catchment runoff regime (Nucice, Czech Republic) proves that lateral runoff through the shallow topsoil can easily cause a very quick increase of stream discharge. The research was performed within the framework of a postdoctoral project granted by Czech Science Foundation No. 13-20388P.

  4. Wheat cultivation: Identification and estimation of areas using LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Mendonca, F. J.; Cottrell, D. A.; Tardin, A. T.; Lee, D. C. L.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Moreira, M. A.; Delimaefernandocelsosoaresmaia, A. M.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of using automatically processed multispectral data obtained from LANDSAT to identify wheat and estimate the areas planted with this grain was investigated. Three 20 km by 40 km segments in a wheat growing region of Rio Grande do Sul were aerially photographed using type 2443 Aerochrome film. Three maps corresponding to each segment were obtained from the analysis of the photographs which identified wheat, barley, fallow land, prepared soil, forests, and reforested land. Using basic information about the fields and maps made from the photographed areas, an automatic classification of wheat was made using MSS data from two different periods: July to September and July to October 1979. Results show that orbital data is not only useful in characterizing the growth of wheat, but also provides information of the intensity and extent of adverse climate which affects cultivation. The temporal and spatial characteristics of LANDSAR data are also demonstrated.

  5. Assessment of Reclaimed Municipal Wastewater Application on Rice Cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, Frantzis; Parissopoulos, George; Papadopoulos, Aristotelis; Ζdragas, Αntonios; Ntanos, Dimitrios; Prochaska, Chara; Metaxa, Irene

    2009-01-01

    Field research was carried out to assess the effects of the application of reclaimed municipal wastewater on rice cultivation in Thessaloniki, Greece during a 2-year period (1999-2000). Effects on production cost, soil composition, and health risk were examined. A randomized complete block design was used for the paddy field with three treatments and four replicates. The treatments were (1) river irrigation water with N-P fertilization, (2) reclaimed wastewater irrigation with surface N fertilization, and (3) reclaimed wastewater irrigation without fertilization. The results showed that the total production cost decreased 8.8% and 11.9% by applying the second and third treatments, respectively, compared to the first treatment, without significant differences in the agronomic and rice quality traits. Soil composition showed discrepancies between the 2 years and the three treatments, whereas the pathogens of the reclaimed wastewater and rice tissues posed a low human risk when taking the needed precautions.

  6. Assessment of reclaimed municipal wastewater application on rice cultivation.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Frantzis; Parissopoulos, George; Papadopoulos, Aristotelis; Zdragas, Antonios; Ntanos, Dimitrios; Prochaska, Chara; Metaxa, Irene

    2009-01-01

    Field research was carried out to assess the effects of the application of reclaimed municipal wastewater on rice cultivation in Thessaloniki, Greece during a 2-year period (1999-2000). Effects on production cost, soil composition, and health risk were examined. A randomized complete block design was used for the paddy field with three treatments and four replicates. The treatments were (1) river irrigation water with N-P fertilization, (2) reclaimed wastewater irrigation with surface N fertilization, and (3) reclaimed wastewater irrigation without fertilization. The results showed that the total production cost decreased 8.8% and 11.9% by applying the second and third treatments, respectively, compared to the first treatment, without significant differences in the agronomic and rice quality traits. Soil composition showed discrepancies between the 2 years and the three treatments, whereas the pathogens of the reclaimed wastewater and rice tissues posed a low human risk when taking the needed precautions. PMID:18946697

  7. Improving the growth of Rubrivivax gelatinosus cultivated in sewage environment.

    PubMed

    Wu, Pan; Li, Jian-zheng; Wang, Yan-ling; Tong, Qing-yue; Liu, Xian-shu; Du, Cong; Li, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Rubrivivax gelatinosus cultivated in wastewater environment can combine the biomass resource recycling for generating chemicals with sewage purification. However, low biomass accumulation restricts the exertion of this advantage. Thus, this paper investigated Fe(3+) advancement for biomass production in starch wastewater under light-anaerobic condition. Results showed that addition of Fe(3+) was successful in enhancing biomass production, which certainly improved the feasibility of biomass recycling in R. gelatinosus starch wastewater treatment. With optimal Fe(3+) dosage (20 mg/L), biomass production reached 4,060 mg/L, which was 1.63 times that of control group. Amylase activity was improved by 48 %. Both COD removal and starch removal reached 90 %. Hydraulic retention time was shortened by 25 %. Proper Fe(3+) dosage enhanced biomass production, but excess Fe(3+) was harmful for biomass accumulation. PMID:25060412

  8. Biofilm cultivation of the oleaginous microalgae Pseudochlorococcum sp.

    PubMed

    Ji, Bei; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Ningning; Wang, Junfeng; Lutzu, Giovanni Antonio; Liu, Tianzhong

    2014-07-01

    The cultivation of microalgae in biofilm has been a potential way to overcome the shortcoming of conventional algal culture modes of open pond and photobioreactors in liquid suspension. However, the growth characteristics and related effect factors of the biofilm are still far from being understood. In this work, oleaginous microalgae species Pseudochlorococcum was cultured in an attached biofilm and influential factors on the growth rate of biofilm were investigated. The results showed that Pseudochlorococcum sp. preferred to accumulate more biomass on hydrophilic substrata than on hydrophobic one. The photon flux density of 100 μmol m(-2 )s(-1) was its light saturation point. The optimal inoculum density was about 3-5 g m(-2). The appropriate concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus in medium and CO(2) in aerated gas were determined as 8.8, 0.22 mmol L(-1) and 1 %, respectively. PMID:24362561

  9. A tangible programming tool for children to cultivate computational thinking.

    PubMed

    Wang, Danli; Wang, Tingting; Liu, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Game and creation are activities which have good potential for computational thinking skills. In this paper we present T-Maze, an economical tangible programming tool for children aged 5-9 to build computer programs in maze games by placing wooden blocks. Through the use of computer vision technology, T-Maze provides a live programming interface with real-time graphical and voice feedback. We conducted a user study with 7 children using T-Maze to play two levels of maze-escape games and create their own mazes. The results show that T-Maze is not only easy to use, but also has the potential to help children cultivate computational thinking like abstraction, problem decomposition, and creativity. PMID:24719575

  10. Neural networks and the experience and cultivation of mind.

    PubMed

    Werbos, Paul J

    2012-08-01

    Hard core neural network research includes development of mathematical models of cognitive prediction and optimization aimed at dual use, both as models of what we see in brain circuits and behavior, and as useful general-purpose engineering technology. The pathway and principles now exist to let us someday replicate learning abilities as elevated as what we see in the brain of the mouse-but how can this help us today in understanding and maximizing the much greater potential of the human mind, as addressed by many schools of thought all over the world for centuries? This paper discusses how we might use what we have learned at a lower level to better illuminate key phenomena in first person and clinical human experience such as Freud's "psychic energy", the role of traumatic experience, the interpretation of dreams, creativity, the cultivation of sanity and sensitivity, and the biological foundations of language. PMID:22386781

  11. Microalgal Cultivation in Treating Liquid Digestate from Biogas Systems.

    PubMed

    Xia, Ao; Murphy, Jerry D

    2016-04-01

    Biogas production via anaerobic digestion (AD) has rapidly developed in recent years. In addition to biogas, digestate is an important byproduct. Liquid digestate is the major fraction of digestate and may contain high levels of ammonia nitrogen. Traditional processing technologies (such as land application) require significant energy inputs and raise environmental risks (such as eutrophication). Alternatively, microalgae can efficiently remove the nutrients from digestate while producing high-value biomass that can be used for the production of biochemicals and biofuels. Both inorganic and organic carbon sources derived from biogas production can significantly improve microalgal production. Land requirement for microalgal cultivation is estimated as 3% of traditional direct land application of digestate. PMID:26776247

  12. A Tangible Programming Tool for Children to Cultivate Computational Thinking

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Danli; Liu, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Game and creation are activities which have good potential for computational thinking skills. In this paper we present T-Maze, an economical tangible programming tool for children aged 5–9 to build computer programs in maze games by placing wooden blocks. Through the use of computer vision technology, T-Maze provides a live programming interface with real-time graphical and voice feedback. We conducted a user study with 7 children using T-Maze to play two levels of maze-escape games and create their own mazes. The results show that T-Maze is not only easy to use, but also has the potential to help children cultivate computational thinking like abstraction, problem decomposition, and creativity. PMID:24719575

  13. [DNA quantification in nuclei of cultivated mushroom with DAPI staining].

    PubMed

    Pancheva, E V; Volkova, V N; Kamzolkina, O V

    2004-01-01

    Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach is actively cultivated amphithallic basidiomycete, in which various strains are primary homothallic, heterothallic or secondary homothallic. Countings of relative nuclear DNA content by means of DAPI stain and its comparison in different strains can help to understand the mushroom's life cycle features. The authors for the first time observed change of nuclear phases in basidia of A. bisporus strains with different types of life cycle and revealed that DNA content in diploid nuclei is about 1.3 times higher than in haploid ones. The method is highly sensitive and can be used for quantitative measurings of nuclear DNA even in objects with nuclei of about 1 mkm in diameter. PMID:15346797

  14. Cultivating healthy growth and nutrition through the gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Sathish; Blanton, Laura V; Frese, Steven A; Charbonneau, Mark; Mills, David A; Gordon, Jeffrey I

    2015-03-26

    Microbiota assembly is perturbed in children with undernutrition, resulting in persistent microbiota immaturity that is not rescued by current nutritional interventions. Evidence is accumulating that this immaturity is causally related to the pathogenesis of undernutrition and its lingering sequelae. Preclinical models in which human gut communities are replicated in gnotobiotic mice have provided an opportunity to identify and predict the effects of different dietary ingredients on microbiota structure, expressed functions, and host biology. This capacity sets the stage for proof-of-concept tests designed to deliberately shape the developmental trajectory and configurations of microbiota in children representing different geographies, cultural traditions, and states of health. Developing these capabilities for microbial stewardship is timely given the global health burden of childhood undernutrition, the effects of changing eating practices brought about by globalization, and the realization that affordable nutritious foods need to be developed to enhance our capacity to cultivate healthier microbiota in populations at risk for poor nutrition. PMID:25815983

  15. Genetic diversity in cultivated plants-loss or stability?

    PubMed

    Khlestkina, E K; Huang, X Q; Quenum, F J-B; Chebotar, S; Röder, M S; Börner, A

    2004-05-01

    Human activities like urbanisation, the replacement of traditional agriculture systems by modern industrial methods or the introduction of modern high-yielding varieties may pose a danger to the biological diversity. Using microsatellite markers, we analysed samples of cultivated wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) collected over an interval of 40-50 years in four comparable geographical regions of Europe and Asia. No significant differences in both the total number of alleles per locus and in the PIC values were detected when the material collected in the repeated collection missions in all four regions were compared. About two-thirds of the alleles were common to both collection periods, while one-third represented collection mission-specific alleles. These findings demonstrate that an allele flow took place during the adaptation of traditional agriculture to modern systems, whereas the level of genetic diversity was not significantly influenced. PMID:14740091

  16. Recycling of food waste as nutrients in Chlorella vulgaris cultivation.

    PubMed

    Lau, Kin Yan; Pleissner, Daniel; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2014-10-01

    Heterotrophic cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris was investigated in food waste hydrolysate. The highest exponential growth rate in terms of biomass of 0.8day(-1) was obtained in a hydrolysate consisting of 17.9gL(-1) glucose, 0.1gL(-1) free amino nitrogen, 0.3gL(-1) phosphate and 4.8mgL(-1) nitrate, while the growth rate was reduced in higher concentrated hydrolysates. C. vulgaris utilized the nutrients recovered from food waste for the formation of biomass and 0.9g biomass was produced per gram glucose consumed. The microalgal biomass produced in nutrient sufficient batch cultures consisted of around 400mgg(-1) carbohydrates, 200mgg(-1) proteins and 200mgg(-1) lipids. The conversion of nutrients derived from food waste and the balanced biomass composition make C. vulgaris a promising strain for the recycling of food waste in food, feed and fuel productions. PMID:25128844

  17. Cultivating Healthy Growth and Nutrition through the Gut Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Sathish; Blanton, Laura; Frese, Steven A.; Charbonneau, Mark; Mills, David A.; Gordon, Jeffrey I.

    2015-01-01

    Microbiota assembly is perturbed in children with undernutrition, resulting in persistent microbiota immaturity that is not rescued by current nutritional interventions. Evidence is accumulating that this immaturity is causally related to the pathogenesis of undernutrition and its lingering sequelae. Preclinical models in which human gut communities are replicated in gnotobiotic mice have provided an opportunity to identify and predict the effects of different dietary ingredients on microbiota structure, expressed functions, and host biology. This capacity sets the stage for proof-of-concept tests designed to deliberately shape the developmental trajectory and configurations of microbiota in children representing different geographies, cultural traditions, and states of health. Developing these capabilities for microbial stewardship is timely given the global health burden of childhood undernutrition, the effects of changing eating practices brought about by globalization, and the realization that affordable nutritious foods need to be developed to enhance our capacity to cultivate healthier microbiota in populations at risk for poor nutrition. PMID:25815983

  18. Microfluidic reactor for continuous cultivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Edlich, Astrid; Magdanz, Veronika; Rasch, Detlev; Demming, Stefanie; Aliasghar Zadeh, Shobeir; Segura, Rodrigo; Kähler, Christian; Radespiel, Rolf; Büttgenbach, Stephanus; Franco-Lara, Ezequiel; Krull, Rainer

    2010-01-01

    A diffusion-based microreactor system operated with a reaction volume of 8 μL is presented and characterized to intensify the process understanding in microscale cultivations. Its potential as screening tool for biological processes is evaluated. The advantage of the designed microbioreactor is the use for the continuous cultivation mode by integrating online measurement technique for dissolved oxygen (DO) and optical density (OD). A further advantage is the broaden application for biological systems. The bioreactor geometry was chosen to achieve homogeneous flow during continuous process operation. The device consisted of a microstructured top layer made of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), which was designed and fabricated using UV-depth and soft lithography assembled with a glass bottom. CFD simulation data used for geometry design were verified via microparticle-image-velocimetry (μPIV). In the used microreactor geometry no concentration gradients occurred along the entire reaction volume because of rapid diffusive mixing, the homogeneous medium flow inside the growth chamber of the microreactor could be realized. Undesirable bubble formation before and during operation was reduced by using degassed medium as well as moistened and moderate incident air flow above the gas permeable PDMS membrane. Because of this a passive oxygen supply of the culture medium in the device is ensured by diffusion through the PDMS membrane. The oxygen supply itself was monitored online via integrated DO sensors based on a fluorescent dye complex. An adequate overall volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient K(L)a as well as mechanical stability of the device were accomplished for a membrane thickness of 300 μm. Experimental investigations considering measurements of OD (online) and several metabolite concentrations (offline) in a modified Verduyn medium. The used model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae DSM 2155 tended to strong reactor wall growth resembling a biofilm. PMID:20945484

  19. Patterns of Nucleotide Diversity in Wild and Cultivated Sunflower

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Aizhong; Burke, John M.

    2006-01-01

    Interest in the level and organization of nucleotide diversity in domesticated plant lineages has recently been motivated by the potential for using association-based mapping techniques as a means for identifying the genes underlying complex traits. To date, however, such data have been available only for a relatively small number of well-characterized plant taxa. Here we provide the first detailed description of patterns of nucleotide polymorphism in wild and cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus), using sequence data from nine nuclear genes. The resuflts of this study indicate that wild sunflower harbors at least as much nucleotide diversity as has been reported in other wild plant taxa, with randomly selected sequence pairs being expected to differ at 1 of every 70 bp. In contrast, cultivated sunflower has retained only 40–50% of the diversity present in the wild. Consistent with this dramatic reduction in polymorphism, a phylogenetic analysis of our data revealed that the cultivars form a monophyletic clade, adding to the growing body of evidence that sunflower is the product of a single domestication. Eight of the nine loci surveyed appeared to be evolving primarily under purifying selection, while the remaining locus may have been the subject of positive selection. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) decayed very rapidly in the self-incompatible wild sunflower, with the expected LD falling to negligible levels within 200 bp. The cultivars, on the other hand, exhibited somewhat higher levels of LD, with nonrandom associations persisting up to ∼1100 bp. Taken together, these results suggest that association-based approaches will provide a high degree of resolution for the mapping of functional variation in sunflower. PMID:16322511

  20. Human energy expenditure in lowland rice cultivation in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Nawi, N M; Yahya, A; Chen, G; Bockari-Gevao, S M; Maraseni, T N

    2012-01-01

    A study was undertaken to evaluate the human energy consumption of various field operations involved in lowland rice cultivation in Malaysia. Based on recorded average heart rates, fertilizing was found to be the most strenuous operation, with an average heart rate of 138 beats min(-1). There were no significant differences in the average heart rates of the subjects among the individual tasks within the first plowing, second plowing, and harvesting operations, with the average heart rates for these three tasks being 116, 106, and 106 beats min(-1), respectively. The corresponding energy expenditures were 3.90, 3.43, and 3.35 kcal min(-1). Loading the seed into the blower tank and broadcasting the seed were the most critical tasks for the seed broadcasting operation, with average heart rates of 124 and 136 beats min(-1), respectively. The highest energy expenditure of 418.38 kcal ha(-1) was observed for seed broadcasting, and the lowest energy expenditure of 127.96 kcal ha(-1) was for second plowing. The total seasonal human energy expenditure for rice cultivation was estimated to be 5810.71 kcal ha(-1), 55.7% of which was spent on pesticide spraying. Although the sample size in this study was relatively small, the results indicated that human energy expenditure per unit area (kcal ha(-1)) was positively linked to the average heart rate of the subjects and negatively linked to the field capacity. Thus, mechanization of certain tasks could decrease worker physical effort and fatigue and increase production. PMID:22458015

  1. Microalgal and cyanobacterial cultivation: the supply of nutrients.

    PubMed

    Markou, Giorgos; Vandamme, Dries; Muylaert, Koenraad

    2014-11-15

    Microalgae and cyanobacteria are a promising new source of biomass that may complement agricultural crops to meet the increasing global demand for food, feed, biofuels and chemical production. Microalgae and cyanobacteria cultivation does not interfere directly with food production, but care should be taken to avoid indirect competition for nutrient (fertilizer) supply. Microalgae and cyanobacteria production requires high concentrations of essential nutrients (C,N,P,S,K,Fe, etc.). In the present paper the application of nutrients and their uptake by microalgae and cyanobacteria is reviewed. The main focus is on the three most significant nutrients, i.e. carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus; however other nutrients are also reviewed. Nutrients are generally taken up in the inorganic form, but several organic forms of them are also assimilable. Some nutrients do not display any inhibition effect on microalgal or cyanobacterial growth, while others, such as NO2 or NH3 have detrimental effects when present in high concentrations. Nutrients in the gaseous form, such as CO2 and NO face a major limitation which is related mainly to their mass transfer from the gaseous to the liquid state. Since the cultivation of microalgae and cyanobacteria consumes considerable quantities of nutrients, strategies to improve the nutrient application efficiency are needed. Additionally, a promising strategy to improve microalgal and cyanobacterial production sustainability is the utilization of waste streams by recycling of waste nutrients. However, major constraints of using waste streams are the reduction of the range of the biomass applications due to production of contaminated biomass and the possible low bio-availability of some nutrients. PMID:25113948

  2. Transferring sclerotinia resistance genes from wild perennial Helianthus species into cultivated sunflower

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to the lack of highly tolerant cultivated sunflower germplasm, new sources of Sclerotinia resistance from wild Helianthus species need to be identified and incorporated into a cultivated background. Wild perennial Helianthus species are highly resistant to Sclerotinia and have provided good sou...

  3. VOLUNTEER POTATO (SOLANUM TUBEROSUM) CONTROL WITH HERBICIDES AND CULTIVATION IN ONION (ALLIUM CEPA)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Volunteer potatoes are difficult to control in onions and can greatly reduce onion growth and yield. Herbicides and cultivation were evaluated for control of simulated volunteer potatoes in onions in 1996 and 2000. Three inter-row cultivations did not control potatoes in the onion row and remaini...

  4. Cultivating Self-Awareness in Counselors-in-Training through Group Supervision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Moro, Ronald R.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated processes, strategies, and frameworks that took place during group supervision classes, which best cultivate the self-awareness of Mental Health and Marriage and Family Counselors-in-Training (CITs). It was designed to explore factors across multiple theoretical models, which contributed to the cultivation of self-awareness…

  5. Construction and Practice of the New Business Specialty Talent Cultivation Mode

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Xiaokong

    2009-01-01

    The vocational education of business should actively adapt the demands of the domestic and foreign business development to cultivate high-quality applicable talents with international knowledge. The traditional business specialty teaching and the talent cultivation mode have not followed the domestic and foreign market demands, and are difficult…

  6. Aggregate Stability of Tropical Soils Under Long-Term Eucalyptus Cultivation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eucalyptus cultivation has increased in all Brazilian regions. Despite the large amount of cultivated area, little is known about how this kind of management system affects soil properties, mainly the aggregate stability. Aggregate stability analyses have proved to be a sensitive tool to measure soi...

  7. A Noble Quest: Cultivating Christian Spirituality in Catholic Adolescents and the Usefulness of 12 Pastoral Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canales, Arthur David

    2009-01-01

    The essay considers the process of cultivating Christian spirituality in Catholic adolescents. It will integrate and document official Catholic Church teachings on the subject and also unofficial scholarly reflections. The expose briefly defines adolescent spirituality and situates the process of cultivating adolescent spirituality in Catholic…

  8. Cultivating Demand for the Arts: Arts Learning, Arts Engagement, and State Arts Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zakaras, Laura; Lowell, Julia F.

    2008-01-01

    To shed light on the decline in demand for the nonprofit arts, the authors describe what it means to cultivate demand for the arts, examine how well U.S. institutions are serving this function, and discuss whether it is in the public interest to make such cultivation a higher priority than it has been in the past. The authors propose that a strong…

  9. On Cultivation of Characteristic Talents in Law in Institutes of Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Hong

    2011-01-01

    For the time being, professional education of law offered by institutes of technology has become an important component of cultivation of professional talents in law in China. Only if institutes of technology face up with their disadvantages, make full use of their resource advantages and cultivate characteristic talents in law, are they able to…

  10. "CULTIVATION OF ENDOSYMBIONT BACTERIA IN A BEMISIA TABACI B BIOTYPE CELL LINE".

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A complement of eubacterial endosymbionts were cultivated in a whitefly cell line. Endosymbiont identification was verified using diagnostic PCR, DNA sequencing, Western Blot analysis and real time RT-PCR. This is the first report of in-vitro cultivation of at least two of these arthropod endosymb...

  11. A TROPICAL GARDEN FLORA, PLANTS CULTIVATED IN THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS AND OTHER TROPICAL AREAS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pemberton, R.W. A Tropical Garden Flora, Plants Cultivated in the Hawaiian Islands and Other Tropical Areas. Economic Botany This is an invited book review of an important new reference book on plants cultivated in the tropical and subtropical areas of the world. This is the long awaited update of ...

  12. Simulating the hydrologic response of a semiarid watershed to switchgrass cultivation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The conversion of land for biofuel cultivation is expected to increase given concerns about the sustainability of current fossil-fuel supplies. Nonetheless, research into the environmental impacts of biofuel crops, primarily the hydrological impacts of their cultivation, is in its infancy. To inve...

  13. Cultivating Demand for the Arts: Arts Learning, Arts Engagement, and State Arts Policy. Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zakaras, Laura; Lowell, Julia F.

    2008-01-01

    The findings summarized in this report are intended to shed light on what it means to cultivate demand for the arts, why it is necessary and important to cultivate this demand, and what state arts agencies (SAAs) and other arts and education policymakers can do to help. The research considered only the benchmark arts central to public policy:…

  14. Bacterial Diversity and Community Structure in Korean Ginseng Field Soil Are Shifted by Cultivation Time

    PubMed Central

    Hoang, Van-An; Subramaniyam, Sathiyamoorthy; Kang, Jong-Pyo; Kang, Chang Ho; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Traditional molecular methods have been used to examine bacterial communities in ginseng-cultivated soil samples in a time-dependent manner. Despite these efforts, our understanding of the bacterial community is still inadequate. Therefore, in this study, a high-throughput sequencing approach was employed to investigate bacterial diversity in various ginseng field soil samples over cultivation times of 2, 4, and 6 years in the first and second rounds of cultivation. We used non-cultivated soil samples to perform a comparative study. Moreover, this study assessed changes in the bacterial community associated with soil depth and the health state of the ginseng. Bacterial richness decreased through years of cultivation. This study detected differences in relative abundance of bacterial populations between the first and second rounds of cultivation, years of cultivation, and health states of ginseng. These bacterial populations were mainly distributed in the classes Acidobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Sphingobacteria. In addition, we found that pH, available phosphorus, and exchangeable Ca+ seemed to have high correlations with bacterial class in ginseng cultivated soil. PMID:27187071

  15. Adulteration and cultivation region identification of American ginseng using HPLC coupled with multivariate analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chunhao; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Zhou, Chun-Jie; Wang, Bin; Han, Lide; Zhang, Chun-Feng; Wu, Xiao-Hui; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2014-01-01

    American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) is originally grown in North America. Due to price difference and supply shortage, American ginseng recently has been cultivated in northern China. Further, in the market, some Asian ginsengs are labeled as American ginseng. In this study, forty-three American ginseng samples cultivated in the USA, Canada or China were collected and 14 ginseng saponins were determined using HPLC. HPLC coupled with hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis was developed to identify the species. Subsequently, an HPLC-linear discriminant analysis was established to discriminate cultivation regions of American ginseng. This method was successfully applied to identify the sources of 6 commercial American ginseng samples. Two of them were identified as Asian ginseng, while 4 others were identified as American ginseng, which were cultivated in the USA (3) and China (1). Our newly developed method can be used to identify American ginseng with different cultivation regions. PMID:25044150

  16. Adulteration and cultivation region identification of American ginseng using HPLC coupled with multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chunhao; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Zhou, Chun-Jie; Wang, Bin; Han, Lide; Zhang, Chun-Feng; Wu, Xiao-Hui; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2014-10-01

    American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) is originally grown in North America. Due to price difference and supply shortage, American ginseng recently has been cultivated in northern China. Further, in the market, some Asian ginsengs are labeled as American ginseng. In this study, forty-three American ginseng samples cultivated in the USA, Canada or China were collected and 14 ginseng saponins were determined using HPLC. HPLC coupled with hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis was developed to identify the species. Subsequently, an HPLC-linear discriminant analysis was established to discriminate cultivation regions of American ginseng. This method was successfully applied to identify the sources of 6 commercial American ginseng samples. Two of them were identified as Asian ginseng, while 4 others were identified as American ginseng, which were cultivated in the USA (3) and China (1). Our newly developed method can be used to identify American ginseng with different cultivation regions. PMID:25044150

  17. Cultivation of marine microalgae using shale gas flowback water and anaerobic digestion effluent as the cultivation medium.

    PubMed

    Racharaks, Ratanachat; Ge, Xumeng; Li, Yebo

    2015-09-01

    The potential of shale gas flowback water and anaerobic digestion (AD) effluent to reduce the water and nutrient requirements for marine microalgae cultivation was evaluated with the following strains: Nannochloropsis salina, Dunaliella tertiolecta, and Dunaliella salina. N. salina and D. tertiolecta achieved the highest biomass productivity in the medium composed of flowback water and AD effluent (6% v/v). Growth in the above unsterilized medium was found to be comparable to that in sterilized commercial media with similar initial inorganic nitrogen concentrations, salinity, and pH levels. Specific growth rates of 0.293 and 0.349 day(-1) and average biomass productivities of 225 and 275 mg L(-1)day(-1) were obtained for N. salina and D. tertiolecta, respectively. The lipid content and fatty acid profile of both strains in the medium were also comparable to those obtained with commercial nutrients and salts. PMID:25989090

  18. Physiomics Array: A Platform for Genome Research and Cultivation of Difficult-to-Cultivate Microorganisms Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jay D. Keasling

    2006-07-10

    A scalable array technology for parametric control of high-throughput cell cultivations is demonstrated. The technology makes use of commercial printed circuit board (PCB) technology, integrated circuit sensors, and an electrochemical gas generation system. We present results for an array of eight 250 μl microbioreactors. Each bioreactor contains an independently addressable suite that provides closed-loop temperature control, generates feed gas electrochemically, and continuously monitors optical density. The PCB technology allows for the assembly of additional off-the-shelf components into the microbioreactor array; we demonstrate the use of a commercial ISFET chip to continuously monitor culture pH. The electrochemical dosing system provides a powerful paradigm for reproducible gas delivery to high-density arrays of microreactors. We have scaled the technology to a standard 96-well format and have constructed a system that could be easily assembled.

  19. [Effects of stereoscopic cultivation on soil microorganism, enzyme activity and the agronomic characters of Panax notoginseng].

    PubMed

    Liao, Pei-ran; Cui, Xiu-ming; Lan, Lei; Chen, Wei-dong; Wang, Cheng-xiao; Yang, Xiao-yan; Liu, Da-hui; Yang, Ye

    2015-08-01

    Compartments of soil microorganism and enzymes between stereoscopic cultivation (three storeys) and field cultivation (CK) of Panax notoginseng were carried out, and the effects on P. notoginseng agronomic characters were also studied. Results show that concentration of soil microorganism of stereoscopic cultivation was lower than field cultivation; the activity of soil urea enzyme, saccharase and neutral phosphatase increased from lower storey to upper storey; the activity of soil urea enzyme and saccharase of lower and upper storeys were significantly lower than CK; agronomic characters of stereoscopic cultivated P. notoginsengin were inferior to field cultivation, the middle storey with the best agronomic characters among the three storeys. The correlation analysis showed that fungi, actinomycetes and neutral phosphatase were significantly correlated with P. notoginseng agronomic characters; concentration of soil fungi and bacteria were significantly correlated with the soil relative water content; actinomycete and neutral phosphatase were significantly correlated with soil pH and relative water content, respectively; the activities of soil urea enzyme and saccharase were significantly correlated with the soil daily maximum temperature difference. Inconclusion, The current research shows that the imbalance of soil microorganism and the acutely changing of soil enzyme activity were the main reasons that caused the agronomic characters of stereoscopic cultivated P. notoginseng were worse than field cultivation. Thus improves the concentration of soil microorganism and enzyme activity near to field soil by improving the structure of stereoscopic cultivation is very important. And it was the direction which we are endeavoring that built better soil ecological environment for P. notoginseng of stereoscopic cultivation. PMID:26677687

  20. The Practice of Jhum Cultivation and Its Relationship to Plasmodium falciparum Infection in the Chittagong Hill Districts of Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Galagan, Sean R.; Prue, Chai Shwai; Khyang, Jacob; Khan, Wasif Ali; Ahmed, Sabeena; Ram, Malathi; Alam, Mohammad Shafiul; Haq, M. Zahirul; Akter, Jasmin; Streatfield, Peter Kim; Glass, Gregory; Norris, Douglas E.; Nyunt, Myaing Myaing; Shields, Timothy; Sullivan, David J.; Sack, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Malaria is endemic in the Chittagong Hill Districts of southeastern Bangladesh. Previous epidemiological analyses identified the agricultural practice of jhum cultivation as a potential risk factor for malaria infection. We conducted qualitative interviews with jhum cultivators and surveillance workers to describe jhum cultivation and used demographic and malaria surveillance in two study unions from May of 2010 to August of 2012 to better understand the relationship between jhum cultivation and malaria infection. Qualitative interviews revealed that jhum cultivation is conducted on remote, steep hillsides by ethnic tribal groups. Quantitative analyses found that adult jhum cultivators and individuals who live in the same residence had significantly higher incidence rates of symptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infection compared with non-cultivators. These results confirm that jhum cultivation is an independent risk factor for malaria infection and underscore the need for malaria testing and treatment services to reach remote populations in the Chittagong Hill Districts. PMID:24821843

  1. Genetic structure and differentiation in cultivated fig (Ficus carica L.)

    PubMed Central

    Stover, Ed; Velasco, Dianne; Koehmstedt, Anne

    2010-01-01

    One hundred ninety-four germplasm accessions of fig representing the four fig types, Common, Smyrna, San Pedro, and Caprifig were analyzed for genetic diversity, structure, and differentiation using genetic polymorphism at 15 microsatellite loci. The collection showed considerable polymorphism with observed number of alleles per locus ranging from four for five different loci, MFC4, LMFC14, LMFC22, LMFC31 and LMFC35 to nine for LMFC30 with an average of 4.9 alleles per locus. Seven of the 15 loci included in the genetic structure analyses exhibited significant deviation from panmixia, of which two showed excess and five showed deficiency of heterozygote. The cluster analysis (CA) revealed ten groups with 32 instances of synonymy among cultivars and groups differed significantly for frequency and composition of alleles for different loci. The principal components analysis (PCA) confirmed the results of CA with some groups more differentiated than the others. Further, the model based Bayesian approach clustering suggested a subtle population structure with mixed ancestry for most figs. The gene diversity analysis indicated that much of the total variation is found within groups (HG/HT = 0.853; 85.3%) and the among groups within total component (GGT = 0.147) accounted for the remaining 14.7%, of which ~64% accounted for among groups within clusters (GGC = 0.094) and ~36% among clusters (GCT = 0.053). The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed approximately similar results with nearly 87% of variation within groups and ~10% among groups within clusters, and ~3% among clusters. Overall, the gene pool of cultivated fig analyzed possesses substantial genetic polymorphism but exhibits narrow differentiation. It is evident that fig accessions from Turkmenistan are somewhat genetically different from the rest of the Mediterranean and the Caucasus figs. The long history of domestication and cultivation with widespread dispersal of cultivars with many synonyms has resulted in a great deal of confusion in the identification and classification of cultivars in fig. PMID:20217187

  2. Impacts of Surface Water Diversions for Marijuana Cultivation on Aquatic Habitat in Four Northwestern California Watersheds

    PubMed Central

    Cockrill, Adam; van Hattem, Michael; Miller, Linda; Tauzer, Margaret; Leppig, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Marijuana (Cannabis sativa L.) cultivation has proliferated in northwestern California since at least the mid-1990s. The environmental impacts associated with marijuana cultivation appear substantial, yet have been difficult to quantify, in part because cultivation is clandestine and often occurs on private property. To evaluate the impacts of water diversions at a watershed scale, we interpreted high-resolution aerial imagery to estimate the number of marijuana plants being cultivated in four watersheds in northwestern California, USA. Low-altitude aircraft flights and search warrants executed with law enforcement at cultivation sites in the region helped to validate assumptions used in aerial imagery interpretation. We estimated the water demand of marijuana irrigation and the potential effects water diversions could have on stream flow in the study watersheds. Our results indicate that water demand for marijuana cultivation has the potential to divert substantial portions of streamflow in the study watersheds, with an estimated flow reduction of up to 23% of the annual seven-day low flow in the least impacted of the study watersheds. Estimates from the other study watersheds indicate that water demand for marijuana cultivation exceeds streamflow during the low-flow period. In the most impacted study watersheds, diminished streamflow is likely to have lethal or sub-lethal effects on state-and federally-listed salmon and steelhead trout and to cause further decline of sensitive amphibian species. PMID:25785849

  3. Cultivated land information extraction from high-resolution unmanned aerial vehicle imagery data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lei; Cheng, Liang; Han, Wenquan; Zhong, Lishan; Li, Manchun

    2014-01-01

    The development of precision agriculture demands high accuracy and efficiency of cultivated land information extraction. Simultaneously, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have been increasingly used for natural resource applications in recent years as a result of their greater availability, the miniaturization of sensors, and the ability to deploy UAVs relatively quickly and repeatedly at low altitudes. We examine the potential of utilizing a small UAV for the characterization, assessment, and monitoring of cultivated land. Because most UAV images lack spectral information, we propose a novel cultivated land information extraction method based on a triangulation for cultivated land information extraction (TCLE) method. Thus, the information on more spatial properties of a region is incorporated into the classification process. The TCLE comprises three main steps: image segmentation, triangulation construction, and triangulation clustering using AUTOCLUST. Experiments were conducted on three UAV images in Deyang, China, using TCLE and eCognition for cultivated land information extraction (ECLE). Experimental results show that TCLE, which does not require training samples and has a much higher level of automation, can obtain accuracies equivalent to ECLE. Comparing with ECLE, TCLE also extracts coherent cultivated land with much less noise. As such, cultivated land information extraction based on high-resolution UAV images can be effectively and efficiently conducted using the proposed method.

  4. Impacts of surface water diversions for marijuana cultivation on aquatic habitat in four northwestern California watersheds.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Scott; Olson, Jennifer; Cockrill, Adam; van Hattem, Michael; Miller, Linda; Tauzer, Margaret; Leppig, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Marijuana (Cannabis sativa L.) cultivation has proliferated in northwestern California since at least the mid-1990s. The environmental impacts associated with marijuana cultivation appear substantial, yet have been difficult to quantify, in part because cultivation is clandestine and often occurs on private property. To evaluate the impacts of water diversions at a watershed scale, we interpreted high-resolution aerial imagery to estimate the number of marijuana plants being cultivated in four watersheds in northwestern California, USA. Low-altitude aircraft flights and search warrants executed with law enforcement at cultivation sites in the region helped to validate assumptions used in aerial imagery interpretation. We estimated the water demand of marijuana irrigation and the potential effects water diversions could have on stream flow in the study watersheds. Our results indicate that water demand for marijuana cultivation has the potential to divert substantial portions of streamflow in the study watersheds, with an estimated flow reduction of up to 23% of the annual seven-day low flow in the least impacted of the study watersheds. Estimates from the other study watersheds indicate that water demand for marijuana cultivation exceeds streamflow during the low-flow period. In the most impacted study watersheds, diminished streamflow is likely to have lethal or sub-lethal effects on state- and federally-listed salmon and steelhead trout and to cause further decline of sensitive amphibian species. PMID:25785849

  5. Sample Processing Impacts the Viability and Cultivability of the Sponge Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Esteves, Ana I. S.; Amer, Nimra; Nguyen, Mary; Thomas, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    Sponges host complex microbial communities of recognized ecological and biotechnological importance. Extensive cultivation efforts have been made to isolate sponge bacteria, but most still elude cultivation. To identify the bottlenecks of sponge bacterial cultivation, we combined high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing with a variety of cultivation media and incubation conditions. We aimed to determine the extent to which sample processing and cultivation conditions can impact bacterial viability and recovery in culture. We isolated 325 sponge bacteria from six specimens of Cymbastela concentrica and three specimens of Scopalina sp. These isolates were distributed over 37 different genera and 47 operational taxonomic units (defined at 97% 16S rRNA gene sequence identity). The cultivable bacterial community was highly specific to its sponge host and different media compositions yielded distinct microbial isolates. Around 97% of the isolates could be detected in the original sponge and represented a large but highly variable proportion (0.5–92% total abundance, depending on sponge species) of viable bacteria obtained after sample processing, as determined by propidium monoazide selective DNA modification of compromised cells. Our results show that the most abundant viable bacteria are also the most predominant groups found in cultivation, reflecting, to some extent, the relative abundances of the viable bacterial community, rather than the overall community estimated by direct molecular approaches. Cultivation is therefore shaped not only by the growth conditions provided, but also by the different cell viabilities of the bacteria that constitute the cultivation inoculum. These observations highlight the need to perform experiments to assess each method of sample processing for its accurate representation of the actual in situ bacterial community and its yield of viable cells.

  6. [The Theory and Practice of Health Cultivation Qigong Exercise in Traditional Chinese Medicine].

    PubMed

    Chang, Mei-Ying

    2015-12-01

    The health cultivation qigong exercise in traditional Chinese medicine refers to a traditional, integrated method of illness prevention and body strengthening, which promotes the functions of qi and the blood, smooths the meridians (energy channels), and balances the viscera and bowels through the regulation of the mind, the breathing, and the body. The concept of using qi to cultivate human life is part of the health cultivation practices of ancient Chinese codes and of Chinese medicine. This concept includes the principles, methods, essences, and clinical applications of the practice. In addition, traditional health cultivation references the concepts of yinyang, viscera and bowels, qi and blood, meridians, and essential energy spirit theory in order to explain the human biological phenomena, the theoretical and practical perspectives of qigong, and the basis of the treatment principle. The health cultivation qigong exercise of Chinese medicine utilizes the concept of the "unity of nature and human beings" in traditional Chinese thinking in its practice, which emphasizes the conformity to nature and seasons. In order to fully leverage the benefits from the purpose of health cultivation in qigong practice, the priority is to understand the health cultivation mechanism, the essentials/matters, and the precautions of qigong practices. Recently, the evidence regarding both the biological and the psychological benefits of qigong practices have been demonstrated in numbers of research articles. In particular, qigong is currently considered to be one of the best mild exercises that is suited to all age groups. Professional nurses are suggested to include the health cultivation qigong exercise as part of activities that target health improvement and illness prevention. Due to the diversity in qigong as practiced by different health cultivation qigong exercise sects, it is essential to accumulate more clinical evidence by conducting greater numbers of rigorous studies that may be referenced in evidence-based nursing practices. PMID:26645440

  7. Training Programmes Can Change Behaviour and Encourage the Cultivation of Over-Harvested Plant Species

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Sophie J.; Jones, Julia P. G.; Clubbe, Colin; Gibbons, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Cultivation of wild-harvested plant species has been proposed as a way of reducing over-exploitation of wild populations but lack of technical knowledge is thought to be a barrier preventing people from cultivating a new species. Training programmes are therefore used to increase technical knowledge to encourage people to adopt cultivation. We assessed the impact of a training programme aiming to encourage cultivation of xaté (Chamaedorea ernesti-augusti), an over-harvested palm from Central America. Five years after the training programme ended, we surveyed untrained and trained individuals focusing on four potential predictors of behaviour: technical knowledge, attitudes (what individuals think about a behaviour), subjective norms (what individuals perceive others to think of a behaviour) and perceived behavioural control (self assessment of whether individuals can enact the behaviour successfully). Whilst accounting for socioeconomic variables, we investigate the influence of training upon these behavioural predictors and examine the factors that determine whether people adopt cultivation of a novel species. Those who had been trained had higher levels of technical knowledge about xaté cultivation and higher belief in their ability to cultivate it while training was not associated with differences in attitudes or subjective norms. Technical knowledge and perceived behavioural control (along with socio-economic variables such as forest ownership and age) were predictors of whether individuals cultivate xaté. We suggest that training programmes can have a long lasting effect on individuals and can change behaviour. However, in many situations other barriers to cultivation, such as access to seeds or appropriate markets, will need to be addressed. PMID:22431993

  8. Cloning and characterization of the tiger shrimp lysozyme.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xing; Gao, Feng-Ying; Zheng, Qing-Mei; Bai, Jun-Jie; Wang, Huan; Lao, Hai-Hua; Jian, Qing

    2009-07-01

    Lysozymes are key proteins to invertebrates in the innate immune responses against bacterial infections. A lysozyme gene isolated from tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, was cloned, sequenced and characterized. The cDNA consists of a signal peptide of 18 amino acids and a mature peptide of 140 amino acids. The lysozyme is presumed to be a chicken-type lysozyme for it possesses two catalytic sites and eight cysteine residues which are highly conserved across species of chicken-type lysozymes. The lysozyme cDNAs of Penaeus semisulcatus, Litopenaeus vannamei, Macrobrachium nipponense and Macrobrachium rosenbergii were also cloned. High similarities existed among shrimp and prawn lysozymes but phylogenetic relationship of shrimps and prawns based on lysozyme molecules did not quite consistent with traditional taxonomic classification. High mRNA expression was detected in hepatopancreas, haemocytes and gill of tiger shrimp. Recombinant lysozyme exhibited potent lytic activities against fish pathogens providing evidence of the involvement of lysozyme in shrimp immunity. PMID:18618291

  9. Genetic Factors for Enhancement of Nicotine Levels in Cultivated Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bingwu; Lewis, Ramsey S.; Shi, Junli; Song, Zhongbang; Gao, Yulong; Li, Wenzheng; Chen, Hongxia; Qu, Rongda

    2015-01-01

    Nicotine has practical applications relating to smoking cessation devices and alternative nicotine products. Genetic manipulation for increasing nicotine content in cultivated tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) may be of value for industrial purposes, including the possibility of enhancing the efficiency of nicotine extraction. Biotechnological approaches have been evaluated in connection with this objective, but field-based results are few. Here, we report characterization of two genes encoding basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors (TFs), NtMYC2a and NtMYC2b from tobacco. Overexpression of NtMYC2a increased leaf nicotine levels in T1 transgenic lines approximately 2.3-fold in greenhouse-grown plants of tobacco cultivar ‘NC 95′. Subsequent field testing of T2 and T3 generations of transgenic NtMYC2a overexpression lines showed nicotine concentrations were 76% and 58% higher than control lines, respectively. These results demonstrated that the increased nicotine trait was stably inherited to the T2 and T3 generations, indicating the important role that NtMYC2a plays in regulating nicotine accumulation in N. tabacum and the great potential of NtMYC2a overexpression in tobacco plants for industrial nicotine production. Collected data in this study also indicated a negative feedback inhibition of nicotine biosynthesis. Further enhancement of nicotine accumulation in tobacco leaf may require modification of the processes of nicotine transport and deposition. PMID:26626731

  10. High cell density cultivation of the chemolithoautotrophic bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea.

    PubMed

    Papp, Benedek; Török, Tibor; Sándor, Erzsébet; Fekete, Erzsébet; Flipphi, Michel; Karaffa, Levente

    2016-05-01

    Nitrosomonas europaea is a chemolithoautotrophic nitrifier, a gram-negative bacterium that can obtain all energy required for growth from the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite, and this may be beneficial for various biotechnological and environmental applications. However, compared to other bacteria, growth of ammonia oxidizing bacteria is very slow. A prerequisite to produce high cell density N. europaea cultures is to minimize the concentrations of inhibitory metabolic by-products. During growth on ammonia nitrite accumulates, as a consequence, N. europaea cannot grow to high cell concentrations under conventional batch conditions. Here, we show that single-vessel dialysis membrane bioreactors can be used to obtain substantially increased N. europaea biomasses and substantially reduced nitrite levels in media initially containing high amounts of the substrate. Dialysis membrane bioreactor fermentations were run in batch as well as in continuous mode. Growth was monitored with cell concentration determinations, by assessing dry cell mass and by monitoring ammonium consumption as well as nitrite formation. In addition, metabolic activity was probed with in vivo acridine orange staining. Under continuous substrate feed, the maximal cell concentration (2.79 × 10(12)/L) and maximal dry cell mass (0.895 g/L) achieved more than doubled the highest values reported for N. europaea cultivations to date. PMID:26358065

  11. A Brazilian social bee must cultivate fungus to survive.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Cristiano; Vollet-Neto, Ayrton; Marsaioli, Anita Jocelyne; Zampieri, Davila; Fontoura, Isabela Cardoso; Luchessi, Augusto Ducati; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera Lucia

    2015-11-01

    The nests of social insects provide suitable microenvironments for many microorganisms as they offer stable environmental conditions and a rich source of food [1-4]. Microorganisms in turn may provide several benefits to their hosts, such as nutrients and protection against pathogens [1, 4-6]. Several examples of symbiosis between social insects and microorganisms have been found in ants and termites. These symbioses have driven the evolution of complex behaviors and nest structures associated with the culturing of the symbiotic microorganisms [5, 7, 8]. However, while much is known about these relationships in many species of ants and termites, symbiotic relationships between microorganisms and social bees have been poorly explored [3, 4, 9, 10]. Here, we report the first case of an obligatory relationship between the Brazilian stingless bee Scaptotrigona depilis and a fungus of the genus Monascus (Ascomycotina). Fungal mycelia growing on the provisioned food inside the brood cell are eaten by the larva. Larvae reared in vitro on sterilized larval food supplemented with fungal mycelia had a much higher survival rate (76%) compared to larvae reared under identical conditions but without fungal mycelia (8% survival). The fungus was found to originate from the material from which the brood cells are made. Since the bees recycle and transport this material between nests, fungus would be transferred to newly built cells and also to newly founded nests. This is the first report of a fungus cultivation mutualism in a social bee. PMID:26592344

  12. Controversial medical and agri-food biotechnology: a cultivation analysis.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Martin W

    2002-04-01

    Whether biotechnology is one or several developments is not clear. Once distinctions are required, the question is: Which one prevails? When the good, the bad, and the ugly settle, where do they fall? Evaluation implies distinction, and representation drives attitude. The controversies over biotechnology are fertile ground on which to study these issues. The imports of genetically modified (GM) soya into Europe in 1996-97 and the cloning of Dolly the sheep from adult cells in 1997 changed the symbolic environment for genetic engineering. The ensuing public controversies came to focus mainly on field trials of GM crops and food labeling. This paper will explore the relationship between quality press coverage and public perception, in particular the cultivation of the contrast between "desirable" biomedical (RED) and "undesirable" agri-food (GREEN) biotechnology in Britain. The argument draws on a systematic analysis of the British press coverage of biotechnology from 1973 to 1999 and analysis of public perceptions in 1996 and 1999. The paper concludes that the debate over GM crops and food ingredients fostered the RED-GREEN contrast among the newspaper-reading public, thereby shielding RED biotechnology from public controversy, and ushered in a realignment of the regulatory framework in 2000. PMID:14621673

  13. Amino acids in the cultivation of mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Andrew; Keusgen, Michael; von Hagen, Jörg

    2016-05-01

    Amino acids are crucial for the cultivation of mammalian cells. This importance of amino acids was realized soon after the development of the first cell lines, and a solution of a mixture of amino acids has been supplied to cultured cells ever since. The importance of amino acids is further pronounced in chemically defined mammalian cell culture media, making the consideration of their biological and chemical properties necessary. Amino acids concentrations have been traditionally adjusted to their cellular consumption rates. However, since changes in the metabolic equilibrium of amino acids can be caused by changes in extracellular concentrations, metabolomics in conjunction with flux balance analysis is being used in the development of culture media. The study of amino acid transporters is also gaining importance since they control the intracellular concentrations of these molecules and are influenced by conditions in cell culture media. A better understanding of the solubility, stability, dissolution kinetics, and interactions of these molecules is needed for an exploitation of these properties in the development of dry powdered chemically defined media for mammalian cells. Due to the complexity of these mixtures however, this has proven to be challenging. Studying amino acids in mammalian cell culture media will help provide a better understanding of how mammalian cells in culture interact with their environment. It would also provide insight into the chemical behavior of these molecules in solutions of complex mixtures, which is important in the understanding of the contribution of individual amino acids to protein structure. PMID:26832172

  14. The carbon count of 2000 years of rice cultivation.

    PubMed

    Kalbitz, Karsten; Kaiser, Klaus; Fiedler, Sabine; Kölbl, Angelika; Amelung, Wulf; Bräuer, Tino; Cao, Zhihong; Don, Axel; Grootes, Piet; Jahn, Reinhold; Schwark, Lorenz; Vogelsang, Vanessa; Wissing, Livia; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid

    2013-04-01

    More than 50% of the world's population feeds on rice. Soils used for rice production are mostly managed under submerged conditions (paddy soils). This management, which favors carbon sequestration, potentially decouples surface from subsurface carbon cycling. The objective of this study was to elucidate the long-term rates of carbon accrual in surface and subsurface soil horizons relative to those of soils under nonpaddy management. We assessed changes in total soil organic as well as of inorganic carbon stocks along a 2000-year chronosequence of soils under paddy and adjacent nonpaddy management in the Yangtze delta, China. The initial organic carbon accumulation phase lasts much longer and is more intensive than previously assumed, e.g., by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Paddy topsoils accumulated 170-178 kg organic carbon ha(-1) a(-1) in the first 300 years; subsoils lost 29-84 kg organic carbon ha(-1) a(-1) during this period of time. Subsoil carbon losses were largest during the first 50 years after land embankment and again large beyond 700 years of cultivation, due to inorganic carbonate weathering and the lack of organic carbon replenishment. Carbon losses in subsoils may therefore offset soil carbon gains or losses in the surface soils. We strongly recommend including subsoils into global carbon accounting schemes, particularly for paddy fields. PMID:23504888

  15. Metabolism and the rise of fungus cultivation by ants.

    PubMed

    Shik, Jonathan Z; Santos, Juan C; Seal, Jon N; Kay, Adam; Mueller, Ulrich G; Kaspari, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Most ant colonies are comprised of workers that cooperate to harvest resources and feed developing larvae. Around 50 million years ago (MYA), ants of the attine lineage adopted an alternative strategy, harvesting resources used as compost to produce fungal gardens. While fungus cultivation is considered a major breakthrough in ant evolution, the associated ecological consequences remain poorly understood. Here, we compare the energetics of attine colony-farms and ancestral hunter-gatherer colonies using metabolic scaling principles within a phylogenetic context. We find two major energetic transitions. First, the earliest lower-attine farmers transitioned to lower mass-specific metabolic rates while shifting significant fractions of biomass from ant tissue to fungus gardens. Second, a transition 20 MYA to specialized cultivars in the higher-attine clade was associated with increased colony metabolism (without changes in garden fungal content) and with metabolic scaling nearly identical to hypometry observed in hunter-gatherer ants, although only the hunter-gatherer slope was distinguishable from isometry. Based on these evolutionary transitions, we propose that shifting living-tissue storage from ants to fungal mutualists provided energetic storage advantages contributing to attine diversification and outline critical assumptions that, when tested, will help link metabolism, farming efficiency, and colony fitness. PMID:25141145

  16. Evaluation of High Density Algal Cultivation for Secondary Wastewater Polishing.

    PubMed

    Xu, Meng; Xu, Shengnan; Bernards, Matthew; Hu, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the performance of an algal membrane bioreactor (A-MBR) for secondary wastewater effluent polishing and determined the membrane fouling behavior and dominance of algae in the A-MBR. The continuous flow A-MBR (effective volume = 7.2 L) was operated with low biomass wastage for more than 180 days, resulting in an average algal mixed liquor suspended solid concentration of 4922 mg/L. At the influent concentrations of 43 mg/L COD, 1.6 mg/L total phosphorus (TP), and 11.8 mg/L total nitrogen (TN), the effluent COD, TP and TN concentrations were 26 6 mg/L, 0.7 0.3 mg/L, and 9.6 1.2 mg/L, respectively. High-density algae cultivation facilitated P adsorption and chemical precipitation. However, the TN removal efficiency was only 14% because of low biomass wastage. Although bacteria represented less than 2% of the total biomass in the A-MBR, bacterial growth in the secondary wastewater effluent accelerated membrane fouling. PMID:26803026

  17. Cultivation of an Arthrospira platensis with digested piggery wastewater.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Guo, Qingqing; Zheng, Wei; Chen, Ljun; Luo, Jinfei

    2015-01-01

    An Arthrospira platensis strain ZJWST-S1 was isolated in Jiaxing City, China, which proved able to proliferate quickly in undiluted digested piggery wastewater (DPW), and the protein content in the algal biomass was high. Single factor experiments showed that the strain was able to quickly grow in a Zarrouk medium as the dosage of sodium bicarbonate, nitrate-nitrogen and phosphate-phosphorus was not less than 4.0 mgL(-1), 40 mgL(-1) and 10 mgL(-1), respectively. No growth inhibition was observed when the culturing medium contained nitrite nitrogen of 0-120 mgL(-1) and ammonium nitrogen of below 20 mgL(-1). Five runs of semi-continuous cultivation with DPW as the culturing medium in a 250 L raceway pond showed that the biomass yield in a 9-day semi-continuous culturing was up to 45.2-64.7 gm(-2)d(-1), higher than the yields obtained by other researchers, and the crude protein content in biomass was over 50%, meeting the national animal feed grade standard. Total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) were removed from DPW at a rate of 10.9-14.0 mgL(-1)d(-1) and 1.3-1.8 mgL(-1)d(-1), respectively. The mass balance revealed that 80-93% of TN and 84-98% of TP reduced from DPW were converted to A. platensis biomass. PMID:26540538

  18. Agrotechniques for the cultivation of curcuma zedoaria (berg.) rosc.

    PubMed

    Joy, P P; Thomas, J; Mathew, Samuvel; Skaria, Baby P

    2002-04-01

    Curcumazedoaria (Berg) Rose. (wild turmeric or kastoorimanjal of commerce rhizome is used as appetizer, tonic, blood purifier and cosmetic. It is useful in flatulence and dyspepsia and also for worms and skin diseases a study on the agrotechniques for its cultivation at the aromatic and Medicinal plants Research Station, Odakkali during 1996-1999 revealed that it is highly adaptable to a wide range of spacings, producing similar yields by adjusting the number of plants/hill. It produces maximum yield of rhizome (34t/ha), essential oil (0.33%) and oleoresin (5.%%) when 1.5 t/ha of seed rhizomes are planted at 60 ×40 cm spacing with the receipt of premonsoon showers in May and harvested in January. Application of 20/ha of FYM, 100:50:50 kg N:P:K/ha. Biofertilisers, green manuring and mulching maximize the yields. Combination and interaction effects of the various manorial treatments are to be studied further in detail. The nutrient removal by the crop for the production of rhizomes was115.96:9. 46:111.23 kg NPK/ha. PMID:22557065

  19. Studies on the in vitro cultivation of coccidia

    SciTech Connect

    Schmatz, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    New approaches to the in vitro cultivation of coccidian parasites are described here, specifically for avian coccidia of the genus Eimeria. Firstly, an improved method of purifying the infectious stage of these parasites, known as sporozoites, over a DEAE-52 cellulose anion exchange column to eliminate toxic debris generated during excystation is described. The cultured cells used to support the intracellular development of these parasites, Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney Cells (MDBK), were cloned and it was demonstrated that some clones were more susceptible than others to infection with sporozoites. The use of sub-lethal doses of gamma radiation to pre-treat host cell monolayers prior to infecting has been found to prevent host cell overgrowth and subsequent peeling of the monolayers while not interfering with parasite development. Utilizing in vitro culture techniques developed here in conjunction with radiolabeling studies, an assay has been development using the parasite-specific incorporation of /sup 3/H-uracil to assess the intracellular development of E. tenella and E. acervulina in vitro. As shown by both scintillation counts and autoradiography, /sup 3/H-uracil was incorporated specifically into the intracellular parasites from the onset of infection and continued throughout the development of the first generation schizonts. Based on these findings, a semi-automated microscale incorporation assay was developed to determine parasite viability. The assay system is used in this study to investigate the effects of known anticoccidials, sporozoite antiserum, and varying the composition of the cell culture medium on parasite development.

  20. Cultivating professional responsibility in a dental hygiene curriculum.

    PubMed

    Blue, Christine M

    2013-08-01

    To prepare dental hygienists for future roles in the health care system, dental hygiene education must prepare graduates with skills, ethics, and values that align with professional responsibility. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of curricular changes designed to develop professional identity and responsibility over the entire span of the dental hygiene curriculum. Twenty-four dental hygiene students at the University of Minnesota were surveyed about their attitudes toward access to dental care, society's and health professionals' responsibility to care for the underserved, and their personal efficacy to provide care for the underserved. Surveys were conducted at three time points in the curriculum. The Attitudes Toward Health Care instrument adapted by Holtzman for dental use was used to survey the students. The findings indicate that this institution's curricular changes were effective in cultivating professional responsibility among these students. Their attitude scores increased across the six-semester curriculum, and students in their last semester of the program believed that all individuals have a right to dental care and that society has an obligation to provide dental care. These students' sense of obligation to care for the needy became stronger and their perceptions of their own ability to impact the community and act as an agent of change also increased. PMID:23929574

  1. Parkinson's Disease Prevalence and Proximity to Agricultural Cultivated Fields

    PubMed Central

    Yitshak Sade, Maayan; Zlotnik, Yair; Kloog, Itai; Novack, Victor; Peretz, Chava; Ifergane, Gal

    2015-01-01

    The risk for developing Parkinson's disease (PD) is a combination of multiple environmental and genetic factors. The Negev (Southern Israel) contains approximately 252.5 km2 of agricultural cultivated fields (ACF). We aimed to estimate the prevalence and incidence of PD and to examine possible geographical clustering and associations with agricultural exposures. We screened all “Clalit” Health Services members in the Negev (70% of the population) between the years 2000 and 2012. Individual demographic, clinical, and medication prescription data were available. We used a refined medication tracer algorithm to identify PD patients. We used mixed Poisson models to calculate the smoothed standardized incidence rates (SIRs) for each locality. We identified ACF and calculate the size and distance of the fields from each locality. We identified 3,792 cases of PD. SIRs were higher than expected in Jewish rural localities (median SIR [95% CI]: 1.41 [1.28; 1.53] in 2001–2004, 1.62 [1.48; 1.76] in 2005–2008, and 1.57 [1.44; 1.80] in 2009–2012). Highest SIR was observed in localities located in proximity to large ACF (SIR 1.54, 95% CI 1.32; 1.79). In conclusion, in this population based study we found that PD SIRs were higher than expected in rural localities. Furthermore, it appears that proximity to ACF and the field size contribute to PD risk. PMID:26357584

  2. Micropropagation of commercially cultivated Henna (Lawsonia inermis) using nodal explants.

    PubMed

    Ram, Kheta; Shekhawat, N S

    2011-07-01

    Lawsonia inermis Linn. (Mehandi) is cultivated as cash crop in India particularly in Sojat area of Pali district, Rajasthan. Present investigation describes an efficient regeneration system for elite genotype of L. inermis using nodal segments. Optimum response in terms of percent cultures responding, days to bud break and average shoot length was observed on MS medium supplemented with 6-benzylaminopurine (BA; 2.0 mg l(-1)). Shoot multiplication was influenced by plant growth regulators, repeated transfer of explants and addition of ammonium sulphate. Maximum shoots were regenerated on MS medium supplemented with BA (0.25 mg l(-1)), kinetin (Kn; 0.25 mg l(-1)), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA; 0.1 mg l(-1)) and ammonium sulphate (150 mg l(-1)). To reduce resources, time and labours costs, we have also attempted ex vitro rooting of shoots. About 95 % shoots were rooted ex vitro on soilrite after treatment with indole-3-butyric acid (IBA; 300 mg l(-1)) and 2-naphthoxy acetic acid (NOA; 100 mg l(-1)) and establishment in soil successfully. PMID:23573020

  3. AGROTECHNIQUES FOR THE CULTIVATION OF CURCUMA ZEDOARIA (BERG.) ROSC

    PubMed Central

    Joy, P.P.; Thomas, J.; Mathew, Samuvel; Skaria, Baby P.

    2002-01-01

    Curcumazedoaria (Berg) Rose. (wild turmeric or kastoorimanjal of commerce rhizome is used as appetizer, tonic, blood purifier and cosmetic. It is useful in flatulence and dyspepsia and also for worms and skin diseases a study on the agrotechniques for its cultivation at the aromatic and Medicinal plants Research Station, Odakkali during 1996-1999 revealed that it is highly adaptable to a wide range of spacings, producing similar yields by adjusting the number of plants/hill. It produces maximum yield of rhizome (34t/ha), essential oil (0.33%) and oleoresin (5.%%) when 1.5 t/ha of seed rhizomes are planted at 60 ×40 cm spacing with the receipt of premonsoon showers in May and harvested in January. Application of 20/ha of FYM, 100:50:50 kg N:P:K/ha. Biofertilisers, green manuring and mulching maximize the yields. Combination and interaction effects of the various manorial treatments are to be studied further in detail. The nutrient removal by the crop for the production of rhizomes was115.96:9. 46:111.23 kg NPK/ha. PMID:22557065

  4. Cassava genome from a wild ancestor to cultivated varieties

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenquan; Feng, Binxiao; Xiao, Jingfa; Xia, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Xincheng; Li, Pinghua; Zhang, Weixiong; Wang, Ying; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Zhang, Peng; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Xiao, Gong; Liu, Jingxing; Yang, Jun; Chen, Songbi; Rabinowicz, Pablo D.; Chen, Xin; Zhang, Hong-Bin; Ceballos, Henan; Lou, Qunfeng; Zou, Meiling; Carvalho, Luiz J.C.B.; Zeng, Changying; Xia, Jing; Sun, Shixiang; Fu, Yuhua; Wang, Haiyan; Lu, Cheng; Ruan, Mengbin; Zhou, Shuigeng; Wu, Zhicheng; Liu, Hui; Kannangara, Rubini Maya; Jørgensen, Kirsten; Neale, Rebecca Louise; Bonde, Maya; Heinz, Nanna; Zhu, Wenli; Wang, Shujuan; Zhang, Yang; Pan, Kun; Wen, Mingfu; Ma, Ping-An; Li, Zhengxu; Hu, Meizhen; Liao, Wenbin; Hu, Wenbin; Zhang, Shengkui; Pei, Jinli; Guo, Anping; Guo, Jianchun; Zhang, Jiaming; Zhang, Zhengwen; Ye, Jianqiu; Ou, Wenjun; Ma, Yaqin; Liu, Xinyue; Tallon, Luke J.; Galens, Kevin; Ott, Sandra; Huang, Jie; Xue, Jingjing; An, Feifei; Yao, Qingqun; Lu, Xiaojing; Fregene, Martin; López-Lavalle, L. Augusto Becerra; Wu, Jiajie; You, Frank M.; Chen, Meili; Hu, Songnian; Wu, Guojiang; Zhong, Silin; Ling, Peng; Chen, Yeyuan; Wang, Qinghuang; Liu, Guodao; Liu, Bin; Li, Kaimian; Peng, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Cassava is a major tropical food crop in the Euphorbiaceae family that has high carbohydrate production potential and adaptability to diverse environments. Here we present the draft genome sequences of a wild ancestor and a domesticated variety of cassava and comparative analyses with a partial inbred line. We identify 1,584 and 1,678 gene models specific to the wild and domesticated varieties, respectively, and discover high heterozygosity and millions of single-nucleotide variations. Our analyses reveal that genes involved in photosynthesis, starch accumulation and abiotic stresses have been positively selected, whereas those involved in cell wall biosynthesis and secondary metabolism, including cyanogenic glucoside formation, have been negatively selected in the cultivated varieties, reflecting the result of natural selection and domestication. Differences in microRNA genes and retrotransposon regulation could partly explain an increased carbon flux towards starch accumulation and reduced cyanogenic glucoside accumulation in domesticated cassava. These results may contribute to genetic improvement of cassava through better understanding of its biology. PMID:25300236

  5. [A novel flat plate photobioreactor for microalgae cultivation].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qinghua; Yan, Chenghu; Xue, Shengzhang; Wu, Xia; Wang, Zhihui; Cong, Wei

    2015-02-01

    Flashing light effect on microalgae could significantly improve the light efficiency and biomass productivity of microalgae. In this paper, the baffles were introduced into the traditional flat plate photobioreactor so as to enhance the flashing light effect of microalgae. Making Chlorella sp. as the model microalgae, the effect of light intensity and inlet velocity on the biomass concentration of Chlorella sp. and light efficiency were evaluated. The results showed that, when the inlet velocity was 0.16 m/s, with the increase of light intensity, the cell dry weight of Chlorella sp. increased and light efficiency decreased. With increasing the inlet velocity, the cell dry weight of Chlorella sp. and light efficiency both increased under the condition of 500 μmol/(m2 x s) light intensity. The cell dry weight of Chlorella sp. cultivated in the novel flat plate photobioreactor was 39.23% higher than that of the traditional one, which showed that the flashing light effect of microalgae could be improved in the flat plate photobioreactor with inclined baffles built-in. PMID:26062346

  6. Parkinson's Disease Prevalence and Proximity to Agricultural Cultivated Fields.

    PubMed

    Yitshak Sade, Maayan; Zlotnik, Yair; Kloog, Itai; Novack, Victor; Peretz, Chava; Ifergane, Gal

    2015-01-01

    The risk for developing Parkinson's disease (PD) is a combination of multiple environmental and genetic factors. The Negev (Southern Israel) contains approximately 252.5 km(2) of agricultural cultivated fields (ACF). We aimed to estimate the prevalence and incidence of PD and to examine possible geographical clustering and associations with agricultural exposures. We screened all "Clalit" Health Services members in the Negev (70% of the population) between the years 2000 and 2012. Individual demographic, clinical, and medication prescription data were available. We used a refined medication tracer algorithm to identify PD patients. We used mixed Poisson models to calculate the smoothed standardized incidence rates (SIRs) for each locality. We identified ACF and calculate the size and distance of the fields from each locality. We identified 3,792 cases of PD. SIRs were higher than expected in Jewish rural localities (median SIR [95% CI]: 1.41 [1.28; 1.53] in 2001-2004, 1.62 [1.48; 1.76] in 2005-2008, and 1.57 [1.44; 1.80] in 2009-2012). Highest SIR was observed in localities located in proximity to large ACF (SIR 1.54, 95% CI 1.32; 1.79). In conclusion, in this population based study we found that PD SIRs were higher than expected in rural localities. Furthermore, it appears that proximity to ACF and the field size contribute to PD risk. PMID:26357584

  7. Anammox cultivation in a closed sponge-bed trickling filter.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Guillén, J A; Cuéllar Guardado, P R; Lopez Vazquez, C M; de Oliveira Cruz, L M; Brdjanovic, D; van Lier, J B

    2015-06-01

    A feasibility study was carried out to assess the cultivation of Anammox bacteria in lab-scale closed sponge-bed trickling filter (CSTF) reactors, namely: CSTF-1 at 20°C and CSTF-2 at 30°C. Stable conditions were reached from day 66 in CSTF-2 and from day 104 in CSTF-1. The early stability of CSTF-2 is attributable to the influence of temperature; nevertheless, by day 405, the nitrogen removal performed by CSTF-1 increased up to similar values of CSTF-2. The maximum total nitrogen removal efficiency was 82% in CSTF-1 and 84% in CSTF-2. After more than 400 days of operation, CSTF-1 and CSTF-2 were capable to attain a total nitrogen removal efficiency of 74±5% and 78±4% with a total nitrogen conversion rate of 1.52 and 1.60kg-N/m(sponge)(3)d, respectively. The proposed technology could be a suitable alternative for mainstream nitrogen removal in post-treatment units via the Anammox conversion pathway. PMID:25836033

  8. Predominant cultivable microflora of human dental fissure plaque.

    PubMed Central

    Theilade, E; Fejerskov, O; Karring, T; Theilade, J

    1982-01-01

    Plaque developed in 10 occlusal fissures from unerupted third molars during implantation for 200 to 270 days in lower molars of dental students was studied. To characterize the predominant cultivable flora, 592 isolates (51 to 67 from each fissure) were subcultured from anaerobic roll tubes. Twenty-eight of the isolates were lost. Streptococci constituted 8 to 86% (median, 45%) of the isolates, Streptococcus mutans constituted 0 to 86% (median, 25%) and S. sanguis constituted 0 to 15% (median, 1%). A few isolates of "S. mitior" and "S. milleri" were found, but no S. salivarius. Staphylococci made up 0 to 23% (median, 9%). Gram-positive rods constituted 6 to 59% (median, 35%). Of these, 0 to 46% (median, 18%) were Actinomyces naeslundii and A. viscosus, but no anaerobic actinomyces were isolated. Arachnia and propionibacteria made up small proportions, lactobacilli were isolated from two fissures, constituting 10 and 29%, and eubacteria were isolated from one fissure (27%). Gram-negative cocci made up 0 to 46% (media, 4%). Only two isolates of gram-negative rods were found, both facultative anaerobes. Although 8 of the 10 fissures had large proportions of S. mutans, lactobacilli, or both, no caries was found even with microradiography. The large individual variation probably reflects differences in initial colonization from saliva and in growth conditions in each fissure. PMID:7095858

  9. Spaceflight studies of tropisms in the European Modular Cultivation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, J. Z.; Correll, M. J.; Edelmann, R. E.

    Phototropism and gravitropism play key roles in the oriented growth of roots in flowering plants. In blue or white light, roots exhibit negative phototropism, but red light induces positive phototropism in Arabidopsis roots. The blue-light response is controlled by the phototropins while the red-light response is mediated by the phytochrome family of photoreceptors. In order to better characterize root phototropism, we plan to perform experiments in microgravity so that this tropism can be more effectively studied without the interactions with the gravity response. Our experiments are to be performed on the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS), which provides an incubator, lighting system, and high resolution video that are on a centrifuge palette. These experiments will be performed at μ g, 1g (control) and fractional g-levels. In order to ensure success of this mission on the International Space Station (ISS), we have been performing ground-based studies on growth, phototropism, and gravitropism in experimental unique equipment (EUE) that was designed for our experiments that will use Arabidopsis seedlings. Currently, the EMCS and our EUE are scheduled for launch on space shuttle mission STS-121. This project should provide insight into how the blue-light and red-light signaling systems interact with each other, and also with the gravisensing system.

  10. Air-quality and Climatic Consequences of Bioenergy Crop Cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, William Christian

    Bioenergy is expected to play an increasingly significant role in the global energy budget. In addition to the use of liquid energy forms such as ethanol and biodiesel, electricity generation using processed energy crops as a partial or full coal alternative is expected to increase, requiring large-scale conversions of land for the cultivation of bioenergy feedstocks such as cane, grasses, or short rotation coppice. With land-use change identified as a major contributor to changes in the emission of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), many of which are known contributors to the pollutants ozone (O 3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5), careful review of crop emission profiles and local atmospheric chemistry will be necessary to mitigate any unintended air-quality consequences. In this work, the atmospheric consequences of bioenergy crop replacement are examined using both the high-resolution regional chemical transport model WRF/Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry) and the global climate model CESM (Community Earth System Model). Regional sensitivities to several representative crop types are analyzed, and the impacts of each crop on air quality and climate are compared. Overall, the high emitting crops (eucalyptus and giant reed) were found to produce climate and human health costs totaling up to 40% of the value of CO 2 emissions prevented, while the related costs of the lowest-emitting crop (switchgrass) were negligible.

  11. Nutrient composition of strawberry genotypes cultivated in a horticulture farm.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Ashrafi; Begum, Parveen; Salma Zannat, M; Hafizur Rahman, Md; Ahsan, Monira; Islam, Sheikh Nazrul

    2016-05-15

    This article decribes the nutrient composition of four strawberry genotypes cultivated at the Sher-e-Bangla Agriculture University horticulture farm in Dhaka (Bangladesh). AOAC and standard validated methods were employed to analyse the nutrient composition. Protein, fat and ash contents were found to be vary significantly (LSD<0.05), while the variation in moisture (LSD<1.33), dietary fibre (LSD<0.15) and total sugar (LSD<0.09) were found to be insignificant among the genotypes. Vitamin C content ranged from 26.46 mg to 37.77 mg per 100g edible strawberries (LSD<0.060). Amount of carotenoids were found to be very low being in a range of 0.99-3.30 μg per 100g edible fruit. Analysis of mineral revealed that strawberry genotypes contained a wide array of minerals including Ca, Mg, Na, K, P, Mn, Zn, Cu and Fe; most of which varied significantly (LSD<0.05) among the genotypes. Strawberries could be a potential dietary supplement for vitamin C along with minerals, particularly for the children who do not like local fruits, but love to eat the colourful strawberries. PMID:26776020

  12. Continuous cultivation of photosynthetic bacteria for fatty acids production.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Hoon; Lee, Ji-Hye; Hwang, Yuhoon; Kang, Seoktae; Kim, Mi-Sun

    2013-11-01

    In the present work, we introduced a novel approach for microbial fatty acids (FA) production. Photosynthetic bacteria, Rhodobacter sphaeroides KD131, were cultivated in a continuous-flow, stirred-tank reactor (CFSTR) at various substrate (lactate) concentrations. At hydraulic retention time (HRT) 4d, cell concentration continuously increased from 0.97 g dcw/L to 2.05 g dcw/L as lactate concentration increased from 30 mM to 60mM. At 70 mM, however, cell concentration fluctuated with incomplete substrate degradation. By installing a membrane unit to CFSTR, a stable performance was observed under much higher substrate loading (lactate 100mM and HRT 1.5d). A maximum cell concentration of 16.2g dcw/L, cell productivity of 1.9 g dcw/L/d, and FA productivity of 665 mg FA/L/d were attained, and these values were comparable with those achieved using microalgae. The FA content of R. sphaeroides was around 35% of dry cell weight, mainly composed of vaccenic acid (C18:1, omega-7). PMID:24055970

  13. [Review on application of plant growth retardants in medicinal plants cultivation].

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yu-Yao; Guo, Bao-Lin; Cheng, Ming

    2013-09-01

    Plant growth retardants are widely used in cultivation of medicinal plant, but there is still lack of scientific guidance. In order to guide the use of plant growth retardants in medicinal plant cultivation efficiently and reasonably, this paper reviewed the mechanism, function characteristic, plant and soil residue of plant growth retardants, such as chlorocholine chloride, mepiquat chloride, paclobutrazol, unicnazle and succinic acid, and summarized the application of plant growth retardants in medicinal plants cultivation in recent years, with focus on the effect of growth and yield of the officinal organs and secondary metabolites. PMID:24380290

  14. Treatment of anaerobic digestion effluent of sewage sludge using soilless cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchimura, Koki; Sago, Yuki; Kamahara, Hirotsugu; Atsuta, Yoichi; Daimon, Hiroyuki

    2014-02-01

    Soilless cultivation was carried out using anaerobic digestion effluent of sewage sludge as liquid fertilizer, with a preparation which cultures microorganisms in nutrient solution. As a result, ammonium ions contained in the effluent were nitrified into nitrate ions by the microorganisms. And then, Japanese mustard spinach (Brassica rapa var. perviridis) was cultivated by soilless cultivation system. The plants were grown well using microbial nutrient solution, which similar to the plants using conventional inorganic nutrient solution. In contrast, the plants were grown poorly using the effluent as liquid fertilizer without microorganisms.

  15. [OPTIMIZATION OF CULTIVATION CONDITIONS OF PENICILLIUM TARDUM--THE α-L- RHAMNOSIDASE PRODUCER].

    PubMed

    Gudsenko, O V; Varbanets, L D

    2015-01-01

    The influence of some technological cultivation parameters of Penicillium tardum to synthesize of the extracellular α.-L-rhamnosidase were studied. It was shown that rhamnose (0.8%), yeasts autolysate (0.2%), temperature of the cultivation 25 degrees C, pH 5.0 are necessary for maximal α-L-rhamnosidase production. The enzyme reaches the maximal activity level in 96 hours with sulphitic number equal 0.44. At cultivation of P. tardum in the picked up conditions the α-L-rhamnosidase synthesis has raised in 4 times. PMID:26422921

  16. Cultivation-dependent and cultivation-independent characterization of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in Guaymas Basin sediments

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Tony; Biddle, Jennifer F.; Teske, Andreas; Aitken, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Marine hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria perform a fundamental role in the biodegradation of crude oil and its petrochemical derivatives in coastal and open ocean environments. However, there is a paucity of knowledge on the diversity and function of these organisms in deep-sea sediment. Here we used stable-isotope probing (SIP), a valuable tool to link the phylogeny and function of targeted microbial groups, to investigate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading bacteria under aerobic conditions in sediments from Guaymas Basin with uniformly labeled [13C]-phenanthrene (PHE). The dominant sequences in clone libraries constructed from 13C-enriched bacterial DNA (from PHE enrichments) were identified to belong to the genus Cycloclasticus. We used quantitative PCR primers targeting the 16S rRNA gene of the SIP-identified Cycloclasticus to determine their abundance in sediment incubations amended with unlabeled PHE and showed substantial increases in gene abundance during the experiments. We also isolated a strain, BG-2, representing the SIP-identified Cycloclasticus sequence (99.9% 16S rRNA gene sequence identity), and used this strain to provide direct evidence of PHE degradation and mineralization. In addition, we isolated Halomonas, Thalassospira, and Lutibacterium sp. with demonstrable PHE-degrading capacity from Guaymas Basin sediment. This study demonstrates the value of coupling SIP with cultivation methods to identify and expand on the known diversity of PAH-degrading bacteria in the deep-sea. PMID:26217326

  17. Production of recombinant miraculin using transgenic tomatoes in a closed cultivation system.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Tadayoshi; Fukukawa, Go; Kakuta, Hideo; Fukuda, Naoya; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2010-05-26

    We constructed a cultivation system with a controlled light period, light intensity, temperature, and CO(2) concentration for mass production of the taste-modifying protein miraculin from transgenic tomatoes. The tomato plants exhibited normal growth and produced over 270 g of fresh weight (FW) fruit per plant, with the recombinant miraculin concentration reaching up to 90 microg per g FW of tomatoes. The recombinant miraculin content of transgenic tomatoes was compared to that of plants grown in a netted greenhouse. The recombinant miraculin content of transgenic tomatoes grown in a closed cultivation system was more stable than that of tomatoes grown in a netted greenhouse, suggesting that the closed cultivation system is suitable for the production of recombinant miraculin. We estimate that 45 tFW of tomatoes and 4 kg of recombinant miraculin per 1,000 m(2) of cultivation area can be harvested per year. PMID:20426470

  18. Water use and its recycling in microalgae cultivation for biofuel application.

    PubMed

    Farooq, Wasif; Suh, William I; Park, Min S; Yang, Ji-Won

    2015-05-01

    Microalgal biofuels are not yet economically viable due to high material and energy costs associated with production process. Microalgae cultivation is a water-intensive process compared to other downstream processes for biodiesel production. Various studies found that the production of 1 L of microalgal biodiesel requires approximately 3000 L of water. Water recycling in microalgae cultivation is desirable not only to reduce the water demand, but it also improves the economic feasibility of algal biofuels as due to nutrients and energy savings. This review highlights recently published studies on microalgae water demand and water recycling in microalgae cultivation. Strategies to reduce water footprint for microalgal cultivation, advantages and disadvantages of water recycling, and approaches to mitigate the negative effects of water reuse within the context of water and energy saving are also discussed. PMID:25465788

  19. Incorporating Sclerotinia stalk rot resistance from diverse perennial wild Helianthus species into cultivated sunflower

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaluation of the wild sunflower germplasms indicated that most perennial wild species, including diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid, possess high level of resistance to Sclerotinia stalk rot. Selected resistant wild species were crossed with cultivated sunflower to transfer Sclerotinia resistance ge...

  20. Biology of Parasitoids (Hymenoptera) Attacking Dasineura oxycoccana and Prodiplosis vaccinii (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in Cultivated Blueberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cranberry tipworm, Dasineura oxycoccana (Johnson), and the blueberry tipworm, Prodiplosis vaccinii (Felt) are recurring cecidomyiid pests of cultivated blueberries in the Southern United States and Mediterranean Europe. Insecticides can give short-term tipworm control, but overlap in parasitoid ...

  1. Spatial and temporal water quality variability in aquatic habitats of a cultivated floodplain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Floodplains of lowland rivers contain diverse aquatic habitats that provide valuable ecosystem services, but are perturbed when intensively cultivated. Hydrologic, water quality and biological (fish) conditions in five aquatic habitats along the Coldwater River, Mississippi were measured over four ...

  2. GIS-based weight of evidence modeling for cultivated land suitability mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Li-na; Zheng, Xinqi

    The cultivated land protection has become a leading concern influencing the actions of the Chinese government and people. This study introduces a method named as the weight of evidence (WOE) using natural and geographical location factors to evaluate the suitability of Jinan cultivated land. Evaluation results show that: (1) weight of evidence method as a pure data-driven approach is suitable for confirming each index's weight in the cultivated land suitability evaluation, and the weights are objective and easy to be explained; (2) weight of evidence method uses raster data which are convenient for spatial analysis and does not need to unify the evaluation unit; (3)About 60.25% of land in Jinan has superior suitability as cultivated land. The technical ideas and methods proposed in this paper can provide support for taking a fresh look at land suitability evaluation and policy making. It will also help decision-makers optimize land allocation and make better land-use planning decisions.

  3. Culture cultivating culture: the four products of the meaning-made world.

    PubMed

    Carriere, Kevin R

    2014-09-01

    Culture, in a semiotic cultural psychology, is defined from the viewpoint of cultivation--the meaning making processes that give meaning to the world (Valsiner 2000, 2007a). However, the individual is not simply a process-machine in an empty world--there are both the external outcomes of meaning making (individual and group based) as well as the collective influence on the cultivation process. I argue to examine the cultivation process more completely, one must look at these external influences that catalyze future cultivation processes. By examining the power of the external (environmental Umwelten) and group-internal (myths, morals), a much greater understanding of the behavior of individuals can be accomplished beyond examining the individual's process of meaning making. Further work into examining the objects that affectively activate the individual as well as group action and meaning making is called for and examples of such studies are given. PMID:24132664

  4. Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and physiological stress among adult, male potato cultivators of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Das, Banibrata; Gangopadhyay, Somnath

    2015-03-01

    A total of 70 male potato cultivators were selected randomly from the villages of West Bengal, India, to evaluate musculoskeletal disorder (MSD), thermal stress, and physiological stress and were compared with 70 controls from the urban sector of West Bengal. Modified Nordic questionnaire studies and a posture analysis were performed in for the male potato cultivators by the Rapid Entire Body Assessment method. Most of the participants suffered discomfort at different parts of the body, especially in the lower back, knee, ankle, and feet regions. Potato cultivators suffered maximum discomfort during spading, planting seeds, weeding, picking crops, and sprinkling water. Therefore, it can be concluded that prolonged work activity, high repetitiveness, and remaining constantly in an awkward posture for a prolonged period of time may lead to MSDs. This study also revealed that a significant physiological load is exerted on the potato cultivators, as shown by increased heart rates. PMID:22247108

  5. Optimization of in vitro cultivation strategies for human adipocyte derived stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Storck, K; Ell, J; Regn, S; Rittler-Ungetüm, B; Mayer, H; Schantz, T; Müller, D; Buchberger, M

    2015-01-01

    With adipose-derived stem cells being in the focus of research in regenerative medicine, the need arises for fast reliable cultivation protocols. We have tested the cultivation of human adipose-derived stem cells in endothelial cell growth medium prior to induction and differentiation, against the long-established use of DMEM/F12 medium-based cultivation protocols. We found that cultivation in endothelial cell growth medium not only accelerates growth before induction and differentiation, but also allows shorter induction and differentiation times than those following precultivation with DMEM/F12 medium with regard to the formation of mature adipocytes and to the viability undifferentiated cells. These results were first observed morphologically but could be confirmed by performing adiponectin ELISA and cell proliferation assays. PMID:26257991

  6. Cultivation Conditions for Phytase Production from Recombinant Escherichia coli DH5α

    PubMed Central

    Ariff, Rafidah Mohd; Fitrianto, Anwar; Abd. Manap, Mohd Yazid; Ideris, Aini; Kassim, Azhar; Suhairin, Afinah; Hussin, Anis Shobirin Meor

    2013-01-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the cultivation conditions for the production of phytase by recombinant Escherichia coli DH5α. The optimum predicted cultivation conditions for phytase production were at 3 hours seed age, a 2.5% inoculum level, an L-arabinose concentration of 0.20%, a cell concentration of 0.3 (as measured at 600 nm) and 17 hours post-induction time with a predicted phytase activity of 4194.45 U/mL. The model was validated and the results showed no significant difference between the experimental and the predicted phytase activity (P = 0.305). Under optimum cultivation conditions, the phytase activity of the recombinant E. coli DH5α was 364 times higher compared to the phytase activity of the wild-type producer, Enterobacter sakazakii ASUIA279. Hence, optimization of the cultivation conditions using RSM positively increased phytase production from recombinant E. coli DH5α. PMID:24826071

  7. Ecological aspects of swidden cultivation among the Andoke and Witoto indians of the Colombian Amazon

    SciTech Connect

    Eden, M.J.; Andrade, A.

    1987-09-01

    The investigation of crop and soil-crop conditions among Andoke and Witoto cultivators in southeast Colombia is used as a basis for assessing Geertz' (1963) model of swidden cultivation. In this respect, the extent to which manioc-dominated swiddens in the study area simulate the structure and composition of the forest climax community is questioned. As Geertz (1963) indicates, and initial nutrient boost for crop cultivation results from the preliminary burning of forest debris, but weed competition, rather than progressive loss of soil fertility, is reported to be the primary cause of abandoning manioc cultivation after 2-3 years. While the Andoke and Witoto crop system remains adaptive at the individual field level, particularly in its constituent species, its fundamental adaptation is considered to be its integration into the broader field and fallow system that juxtaposes crop production with extended periods of forest regeneration.

  8. UPTAKE AND PHYTOTRANSFORMATION OF ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES BY AXENICALLY CULTIVATED AQUATIC PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The uptake and phytotransformation of organophosphorus (OP) pesticides (malathion, demeton-S-methyl, and crufomate) was investigated in vitro using the axenically aquatic cultivated plants parrot feather (Myriophyllum aquaticum), duckweed (Spirodela oligorrhiza L.), and elodea (E...

  9. Heterotrophic microalgae cultivation to synergize biodiesel production with waste remediation: progress and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Venkata Mohan, S; Rohit, M V; Chiranjeevi, P; Chandra, Rashmi; Navaneeth, B

    2015-05-01

    Microalgae are inexhaustible feedstock for synthesis of biodiesel rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and valuable bioactive compounds. Their cultivation is critical in sustaining the global economy in terms of human consumption of food and fuel. When compared to autotrophic cultivation, heterotrophic systems are more suitable for producing high cell densities of microalgae for accumulation of large quantities of lipids (triacylglycerols) which can be converted into biodiesel. Consorted efforts are made in this communication to converge recent literature on heterotrophic cultivation systems with simultaneous wastewater treatment and algal oil production. Challenges faced during large scale production and limiting factors which hinder the microalgae growth are enumerated. A strategic deployment of integrated closed loop biorefinery concept with multi-product recovery is proposed to exploit the full potential of algal systems. Sustainable algae cultivation is essential to produce biofuels leading to green future. PMID:25497058

  10. [Effects of substrate-aeration cultivation pattern on tomato growth].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xu; Li, Tian-Lai; Sun, Zhou-Ping

    2010-01-01

    Aeroponics can increase the fruit yield of tomato plant, but its cost is very high. In this paper, tomato seedlings were planted with three cultures, i. e., whole perlite culture (CK), perlite-aeration culture (T1), and aeroponics (T2), and a comparative study was made on the seedlings growth. Compared with CK, T1 improved the gas environment in root zone significantly, with the CO2 and O2 concentrations in root zone being 0.2 and 1.17 times higher, and increased the plant height and stem diameter after 60 days of transplanting by 5.1% and 8.4%, respectively. The plant net photosynthetic rate of T1 was significantly higher than that of CK, with the maximum value after transplanting 45 days increased by 13%. T1 also increased the root activity and ion absorbing ability significantly, with the root activity after transplanting 45 days being 1.23 times of CK, and the root K, Ca, and Mg contents after transplanting 60 days increased by 31%, 37%, and 27%, respectively. The fruit yield of T1 was 1.16 times of CK. No significant differences in these indices were observed between T1 and T2, and less difference in the fruit soluble sugar and organic acid contents as well as the sugar-acid ratio was found among CK, T1, and T2. It was suggested that perlite-aeration cultivation pattern was an easy and feasible way to markedly improve the fruit yield of tomato plant. PMID:20387426

  11. Cultivable anaerobic microbiota of severe early childhood caries.

    PubMed

    Tanner, A C R; Mathney, J M J; Kent, R L; Chalmers, N I; Hughes, C V; Loo, C Y; Pradhan, N; Kanasi, E; Hwang, J; Dahlan, M A; Papadopolou, E; Dewhirst, F E

    2011-04-01

    Severe early childhood caries (ECC), while strongly associated with Streptococcus mutans using selective detection (culture, PCR), has also been associated with a widely diverse microbiota using molecular cloning approaches. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiota of severe ECC using anaerobic culture. The microbial composition of dental plaque from 42 severe ECC children was compared with that of 40 caries-free children. Bacterial samples were cultured anaerobically on blood and acid (pH 5) agars. Isolates were purified, and partial sequences for the 16S rRNA gene were obtained from 5,608 isolates. Sequence-based analysis of the 16S rRNA isolate libraries from blood and acid agars of severe ECC and caries-free children had >90% population coverage, with greater diversity occurring in the blood isolate library. Isolate sequences were compared with taxon sequences in the Human Oral Microbiome Database (HOMD), and 198 HOMD taxa were identified, including 45 previously uncultivated taxa, 29 extended HOMD taxa, and 45 potential novel groups. The major species associated with severe ECC included Streptococcus mutans, Scardovia wiggsiae, Veillonella parvula, Streptococcus cristatus, and Actinomyces gerensceriae. S. wiggsiae was significantly associated with severe ECC children in the presence and absence of S. mutans detection. We conclude that anaerobic culture detected as wide a diversity of species in ECC as that observed using cloning approaches. Culture coupled with 16S rRNA identification identified over 74 isolates for human oral taxa without previously cultivated representatives. The major caries-associated species were S. mutans and S. wiggsiae, the latter of which is a candidate as a newly recognized caries pathogen. PMID:21289150

  12. Cultivable Anaerobic Microbiota of Severe Early Childhood Caries?

    PubMed Central

    Tanner, A. C. R.; Mathney, J. M. J.; Kent, R. L.; Chalmers, N. I.; Hughes, C. V.; Loo, C. Y.; Pradhan, N.; Kanasi, E.; Hwang, J.; Dahlan, M. A.; Papadopolou, E.; Dewhirst, F. E.

    2011-01-01

    Severe early childhood caries (ECC), while strongly associated with Streptococcus mutans using selective detection (culture, PCR), has also been associated with a widely diverse microbiota using molecular cloning approaches. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiota of severe ECC using anaerobic culture. The microbial composition of dental plaque from 42 severe ECC children was compared with that of 40 caries-free children. Bacterial samples were cultured anaerobically on blood and acid (pH 5) agars. Isolates were purified, and partial sequences for the 16S rRNA gene were obtained from 5,608 isolates. Sequence-based analysis of the 16S rRNA isolate libraries from blood and acid agars of severe ECC and caries-free children had >90% population coverage, with greater diversity occurring in the blood isolate library. Isolate sequences were compared with taxon sequences in the Human Oral Microbiome Database (HOMD), and 198 HOMD taxa were identified, including 45 previously uncultivated taxa, 29 extended HOMD taxa, and 45 potential novel groups. The major species associated with severe ECC included Streptococcus mutans, Scardovia wiggsiae, Veillonella parvula, Streptococcus cristatus, and Actinomyces gerensceriae. S. wiggsiae was significantly associated with severe ECC children in the presence and absence of S. mutans detection. We conclude that anaerobic culture detected as wide a diversity of species in ECC as that observed using cloning approaches. Culture coupled with 16S rRNA identification identified over 74 isolates for human oral taxa without previously cultivated representatives. The major caries-associated species were S. mutans and S. wiggsiae, the latter of which is a candidate as a newly recognized caries pathogen. PMID:21289150

  13. The influence of bisphenol A on mammalian cell cultivation.

    PubMed

    Stiefel, Fabian; Paul, Albert Jesuran; Jacopo, Troisi; Sgueglia, Angelo; Stützle, Martina; Herold, Eva Maria; Hesse, Friedemann

    2016-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) plays a substantial role in industry, as it is used for polycarbonate (PC) plastics and epoxy resins which are required for various plastic consumer products. However, BPA is known to be an endocrine disruptor, and its influence on humans, animals, and various cell lines was addressed in diverse studies. As the burden of BPA can be increased by using disposable plastic articles and single-use technologies for cultivation, it is essential to examine the consequences of BPA presence on mammalian cells, as they are a contributing factor in the production of complex pharmaceutical therapeutics. We selected three industrially relevant cell lines and analyzed systemic effects of BPA by comparing cell culture performance in BPA-free poly-ethylene terephthalate glycol (PETG) and in PC shaking flasks. We focused on the influence of BPA on cellular growth, viability, and several metabolic parameters. In addition, we determined the product concentration and aggregation behavior of the recombinant proteins expressed by these cell lines and the BPA concentration within the medium caused by leaching. Moreover, we performed EC50 studies to determine the toxic concentration of BPA. Our results indicated that leached BPA had no effect on specific growth rates and viability and toxicity appeared at about 10(4) times higher concentrations; however, it influenced the specific productivity rate and metabolic activity parameters of our Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line. Consequently, one can neglect BPA from leaching in the culture as long as the selected cell line is BPA tolerant. Otherwise, BPA can be a hurdle for pharmaceutical production, as it can influence the specific productivity of recombinant proteins. PMID:26381666

  14. Tropical soils cultivated with tomato: fractionation and speciation of Al.

    PubMed

    Nogueirol, Roberta Corrêa; Monteiro, Francisco Antonio; Azevedo, Ricardo Antunes

    2015-04-01

    Soil acidity and the associated problems of aluminum (Al) toxicity and scarce exchangeable bases are typically the most important limiting factors of agricultural yield in wet tropical regions. The goals of this study were to test how soil lime rates affect the forms and distribution of Al in the soil fractions and how different levels of bioavailable Al affect two tomato genotypes grown in wet tropical soils. The tomato genotypes CNPH 0082 and Calabash Rouge were grown in two wet tropical soils in a greenhouse. Soil lime rates of 0, 560, and 2240 mg kg(-1) soil (clay soil) and 0, 280, and 1120 mg kg(-1) soil (sandy soil) were applied to modify Al concentrations. Dry mass production and Al concentrations were determined in shoots and roots. Al was fractionated in the soil, and the soil solution was speciated after cultivation. The Calabash Rouge genotype possesses mechanisms to tolerate Al3+, absorbed less Al, exhibited smaller reduction in growth, and lower Al concentrations in plant parts than the CNPH 0082. Increased soil pH reduced the exchangeable Al fraction and increased the fraction mainly linked to organic matter. Al in the soil in the form of complexes with organic compounds and Al(SO4)+ (at the highest lime rate) did not affect plant development. Soil acidity can be easily neutralized by liming the soil, which transforms toxic Al3+ in the soil into forms that do not harm tomato plants, thereby avoiding oxidative stress in the plants. Al-induced stress in tomatoes varies with genotypes and soil type. PMID:25740686

  15. Enhancement of efficiency in the use of light for cultivation of plants in controlled ecological systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mashinsky, A. L.; Oreshkin, V. I.; Nechitailo, G. S.

    1994-01-01

    The problems of plant cultivation with the use of artificial lighting are related to energetics and, initially, to the lack of effective sources for photosynthesis, secondly to the necessity to supply a system with a considerable power in the form of light energy and to remove transformed thermal energy, and finally to economic considerations. These problems are solved by three ways: by the choice of effective radiation sources, design approaches, and technological methods of cultivation. Here we shall consider the first two ways.

  16. Effect of Rj Genotype and Cultivation Temperature on the Community Structure of Soybean-Nodulating Bradyrhizobia

    PubMed Central

    Shiro, Sokichi; Yamamoto, Akihiro; Umehara, Yosuke; Hayashi, Masaki; Yoshida, Naoto; Nishiwaki, Aya; Yamakawa, Takeo

    2012-01-01

    The nodulation tendency and community structure of indigenous bradyrhizobia on Rj genotype soybean cultivars at cultivation temperatures of 33/28°C, 28/23°C, and 23/18°C for 16/8 h (day/night degrees, hours) were investigated using 780 bradyrhizobial DNA samples from an Andosol with 13 soybean cultivars of four Rj genotypes (non-Rj, Rj2Rj3, Rj4, and Rj2Rj3Rj4). A dendrogram was constructed based on restriction fragment length polymorphism of the PCR products (PCR-RFLP) of the 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer region. Eleven Bradyrhizobium U.S. Department of Agriculture strains were used as a reference. The dendrogram indicated seven clusters based on similarities among the reference strains. The occupancy rate of the Bj123 cluster decreased with increasing cultivation temperature, whereas the occupancy rates of the Bj110 cluster, Be76 cluster, and Be94 cluster increased with increasing cultivation temperature. In particular, the Rj2Rj3Rj4 genotype soybeans were infected with a number of Bj110 clusters, regardless of the increasing cultivation temperature, compared to other Rj genotype soybean cultivars. The ratio of beta diversity to gamma diversity (H′β/H′γ), which represents differences in the bradyrhizobial communities by pairwise comparison among cultivation temperature sets within the same soybean cultivar, indicated that the bradyrhizobial communities tended to be different among cultivation temperatures. Multidimensional scaling analysis indicated that the infection of the Bj110 cluster and the Bj123 cluster by host soybean genotype and the cultivation temperature affected the bradyrhizobial communities. These results suggested that the Rj genotypes and cultivation temperatures affected the nodulation tendency and community structures of soybean-nodulating bradyrhizobia. PMID:22156423

  17. [Transformation of mouse lymphocytes stimulated by phytohemagglutin depending on their cultivation conditions].

    PubMed

    Meshcheriakova, I E; Surkova, E A; Poliak, R Ia

    1979-08-01

    Conditions were elaborated to cultivate splenocytes of mice in medium-199 (Soviet production) changed a little by the addition of 200 mM of glutamine, 6 mM glucose, 60 unit/l of insulin, 5.10(-5) M 2-mercaptoethanol (final concentration), and of 5% serum of new-born calf. In such conditions of cultivation the value of the lymphocyte transformation coefficient lies within 3 and 10. PMID:315124

  18. [Cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus and allied species (Fungi: Pleurotaceae) upon semi-sterile natural media].

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Macaya-Lizano AV

    1988-11-01

    Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) Quélet and its allies are edible mushrooms whose cultivation is successful in parts of Europe and Asia. In Costa Rica only Agaricus bisporus has been commercially cultured, but requires elaborate facilities. The use of waste material (e.g. sawdust, rice straw, sugar cane debris) and non-controlled environmental conditions suitable for easy artisanal cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus is reported here.

  19. Seasonal cultivated and fallow cropland mapping using MODIS-based automated cropland classification algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhuoting; Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Mueller, Rick; Zakzeski, Audra; Melton, Forrest; Johnson, Lee; Rosevelt, Carolyn; Dwyer, John; Jones, Jeanine; Verdin, James P.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing drought occurrences and growing populations demand accurate, routine, and consistent cultivated and fallow cropland products to enable water and food security analysis. The overarching goal of this research was to develop and test automated cropland classification algorithm (ACCA) that provide accurate, consistent, and repeatable information on seasonal cultivated as well as seasonal fallow cropland extents and areas based on the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer remote sensing data. Seasonal ACCA development process involves writing series of iterative decision tree codes to separate cultivated and fallow croplands from noncroplands, aiming to accurately mirror reliable reference data sources. A pixel-by-pixel accuracy assessment when compared with the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) cropland data showed, on average, a producer's accuracy of 93% and a user's accuracy of 85% across all months. Further, ACCA-derived cropland maps agreed well with the USDA Farm Service Agency crop acreage-reported data for both cultivated and fallow croplands with R-square values over 0.7 and field surveys with an accuracy of ≥95% for cultivated croplands and ≥76% for fallow croplands. Our results demonstrated the ability of ACCA to generate cropland products, such as cultivated and fallow cropland extents and areas, accurately, automatically, and repeatedly throughout the growing season.

  20. Bioremediation efficiency of the largest scale artificial Porphyra yezoensis cultivation in the open sea in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hailong; Huo, Yuanzi; Zhang, Jianheng; Liu, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Yating; He, Peimin

    2015-06-15

    The bioremediation efficiency of China's largest scale Porphyra yezoensis cultivation for removing dissolved nutrients and controlling harmful algae was studied in the radial sandbanks waters of Jiangsu Province in the year 2012-2013. Mean nutrient concentration values in the P. yezoensis cultivation area were significantly lower than those in the non-cultivation area, especially during the cultivation season (p<0.05). Tissue nitrogen and phosphorus contents of seaweeds were 5.99-0.80% (dry weight (DW)) and 0.16-0.19% (DW), respectively. Production of P. yezoensis was 58950.87tons DW. Based on these values, 3688.15tons of tissue nitrogen and 105.61tons of tissue phosphorus were removed by harvesting P. yezoensis. The richness index of the red tide species Skeleton emacostatum declined from 0.32 to 0.05 during the P. yezoensis cultivation season. These results indicate that large-scale cultivation of P. yezoensis can be used to efficiently alleviate eutrophication and control harmful algae blooms in open sea. PMID:25865344

  1. POTENTIAL OF GREENHOUSE GASES REDUCTION BY FUEL CROP CULTIVATION UTILIZING SEWAGE SLUDGE IN JAPAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, Ryo; Fukushi, Kensuke

    Potential of greenhouse gases (GHG) reduction was estimated and compared in six scenarios of fuel crop cultivation by utilizing sewage sludge in Japan. Bioethanol from corn and biodiesel fuel from soybean was selected as biofuel produced. When all the sludge discharged from sewage treatment plants in 18 major cities was utilized for soybean cultivation and subsequent biodiesel fuel production, produced biofuel corresponded to 4.0% of GHG emitted from sewage treatment in Japan. On the other hand, cultivation area for fuel crop cultivation was found to be the regulating factor. When fuel crop was cultivated only in abandoned agricultural fields, produced biofuel corresponded to 0.60% and 0.62%, respectively, in the case that corn and soybean was cultivated. Production of biodiesel fuel from soybean was estimated to have more net reduction potential than bioehanol production from corn when sludge production is limited, because required sewage sludge compost was 2.5-times larger in corn although reduction potential per crop area was 2-times larger in bioethanol production from corn.

  2. Proteomic analysis of amino acid metabolism differences between wild and cultivated Panax ginseng

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hang; Liu, Fangbing; Sun, Liwei; Liu, Jianzeng; Wang, Manying; Chen, Xuenan; Xu, Xiaohao; Ma, Rui; Feng, Kai; Jiang, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Background The present study aimed to compare the relative abundance of proteins and amino acid metabolites to explore the mechanisms underlying the difference between wild and cultivated ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) at the amino acid level. Methods Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation were used to identify the differential abundance of proteins between wild and cultivated ginseng. Total amino acids in wild and cultivated ginseng were compared using an automated amino acid analyzer. The activities of amino acid metabolism-related enzymes and the contents of intermediate metabolites between wild and cultivated ginseng were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and spectrophotometric methods. Results Our results showed that the contents of 14 types of amino acids were higher in wild ginseng compared with cultivated ginseng. The amino acid metabolism-related enzymes and their derivatives, such as glutamate decarboxylase and S-adenosylmethionine, all had high levels of accumulation in wild ginseng. The accumulation of sulfur amino acid synthesis-related proteins, such as methionine synthase, was also higher in wild ginseng. In addition, glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid cycle-related enzymes as well as their intermediates had high levels of accumulation in wild ginseng. Conclusion This study elucidates the differences in amino acids between wild and cultivated ginseng. These results will provide a reference for further studies on the medicinal functions of wild ginseng.

  3. Evaluating lek occupancy of greater sage-grouse in relation to landscape cultivation in the Dakotas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Joe T.; Flake, Lester D.; Higgins, Kenneth F.; Kobriger, Gerald D.; Homer, Collin G.

    2005-01-01

    Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) have been declining in many states and provinces of North America, and North and South Dakota hold no exception to these declines. We studied effects of cultivated land on Greater Sage-Grouse lek abandonment in North and South Dakota. Landscape-level data were assessed using satellite imagery within a geographic information system. Comparisons were made of 1972-1976 and 1999-2000 percent cultivated and noncultivated land. These comparisons were made between land uses surrounding active leks versus inactive leks, active leks versus random locations, and abandoned regions versus active regions. The 1999-2000 imagery illustrated that percent cultivated land was greater near abandoned leks (4-km buffers) than near active leks in North Dakota or random sites, but this did not hold true in South Dakota. Comparison of an extensive region of abandoned leks with a region of active leks in North Dakota illustrated a similar increase as well as dispersion of cultivation within the abandoned region. However, 1972-1976 imagery revealed that this relationship between percentage of cultivated land and lek activity in North Dakota has been static over the last 30 years. Thus, if the decline of Greater Sage-Grouse is the result of cultivated land infringements, it occurred prior to 1972 in North Dakota.

  4. Seasonal cultivated and fallow cropland mapping using MODIS-based automated cropland classification algorithm

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, Zhuoting; Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Mueller, Rick; Zakzeski, Audra; Melton, Forrest; Johnson, Lee; Rosevelt, Carolyn; Dwyer, John; Jones, Jeanine; Verdin, James P.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing drought occurrences and growing populations demand accurate, routine, and consistent cultivated and fallow cropland products to enable water and food security analysis. The overarching goal of this research was to develop and test automated cropland classification algorithm (ACCA) that provide accurate, consistent, and repeatable information on seasonal cultivated as well as seasonal fallow cropland extents and areas based on the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer remote sensing data. Seasonal ACCA development process involves writing series of iterative decision tree codes to separate cultivated and fallow croplands from noncroplands, aiming to accurately mirror reliable reference data sources. A pixel-by-pixel accuracy assessment when compared with the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) cropland data showed, on average, a producer’s accuracy of 93% and a user’s accuracy of 85% across all months. Further, ACCA-derived cropland maps agreed well with the USDA Farm Service Agency crop acreage-reported data for both cultivated and fallow croplands with R-square values over 0.7 and field surveys with an accuracy of ≥95% for cultivated croplands and ≥76% for fallow croplands. Our results demonstrated the ability of ACCA to generate cropland products, such as cultivated and fallow cropland extents and areas, accurately, automatically, and repeatedly throughout the growing season.

  5. Effective Suppression of Methane Emission by 2-Bromoethanesulfonate during Rice Cultivation

    PubMed Central

    Waghmode, Tatoba R.; Haque, Md. Mozammel; Kim, Sang Yoon; Kim, Pil Joo

    2015-01-01

    2-bromoethanesulfonate (BES) is a structural analogue of coenzyme M (Co-M) and potent inhibitor of methanogenesis. Several studies confirmed, BES can inhibit CH4 prodcution in rice soil, but the suppressing effectiveness of BES application on CH4 emission under rice cultivation has not been studied. In this pot experiment, different levels of BES (0, 20, 40 and 80 mg kg-1) were applied to study its effect on CH4 emission and plant growth during rice cultivation. Application of BES effectively suppressed CH4 emission when compared with control soil during rice cultivation. The CH4 emission rates were significantly (P<0.001) decreased by BES application possibly due to significant (P<0.001) reduction of methnaogenic biomarkers like Co-M concentration and mcrA gene copy number (i.e. methanogenic abunadance). BES significantly (P<0.001) reduced methanogen activity, while it did not affect soil dehydrogenase activity during rice cultivation. A rice plant growth and yield parameters were not affected by BES application. The maximum CH4 reduction (49% reduction over control) was found at 80 mg kg-1 BES application during rice cultivation. It is, therefore, concluded that BES could be a suitable soil amendment for reducing CH4 emission without affecting rice plant growth and productivity during rice cultivation. PMID:26562416

  6. Polypropylene Bundle Attached Multilayered Stigeoclonium Biofilms Cultivated in Untreated Sewage Generate High Biomass and Lipid Productivity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung-Hyuk; Kim, Dong-Ho; Choi, Jung-Woon; Kang, Zion; Cho, Dae-Hyun; Kim, Ji-Young; Oh, Hee-Mock; Kim, Hee-Sik

    2015-09-01

    The potential of microalgae biofuel has not been realized because of the low productivity and high costs associated with the current cultivation systems. In this study, a new low-cost and transparent attachment material was tested for cultivation of a filamentous algal strain, Stigeoclonium sp., isolated from wastewater. Initially, the different materials tested for Stigeoclonium cultivation in untreated wastewater were nylon mesh, polyethylene mesh, polypropylene bundle (PB), polycarbonate plate, and viscose rayon. Among the materials tested, PB led to a firm attachment, high biomass (53.22 g/m(2), dry cell weight), and total lipid yield (5.8 g/m(2)) with no perceivable change in FAME profile. The Stigeoclonium-dominated biofilm consisted of bacteria and extracellular polysaccharide, which helped in biofilm formation and for effective wastewater treatment (viz., removal efficiency of total nitrogen and total phosphorus corresponded to ~38% and ~90%, respectively). PB also demonstrated high yields under multilayered cultivation in a single reactor treating wastewater. Hence, this system has several advantages over traditional suspended and attached systems, with possibility of increasing areal productivity three times using Stigeoclonium sp. Therefore, multilayered attached growth algal cultivation systems seem to be the future cultivation model for large-scale biodiesel production and wastewater treatment. PMID:25951844

  7. In vitro digestibility and some physicochemical properties of starch from wild and cultivated amadumbe corms.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, K; Amonsou, E O; Oyeyinka, S A

    2015-07-10

    Amadumbe, commonly known as taro, is an indigenous underutilised tuber to Southern Africa. In this study, starch functional properties and in vitro starch digestibility of processed products from wild and cultivated amadumbe were determined. Starch extracts from both amadumbe types had similar contents of total starch (approx. 95%). Wild and cultivated amadumbe starch granules were polygonal and very small in size (2.7 ± 0.9 μm). Amylose content of wild amadumbe (20%) was about double that of cultivated (12%). By DSC, the peak gelatinisation temperatures of wild and cultivated amadumbe starches were 81 and 85°C, respectively. The slowly digestible starch (SDS); 20% and resistant starch (RS); 64% contents of wild amadumbe appeared slightly higher than those of cultivated. Processing amadumbe into boiled and baked products did not substantially affect SDS and RS contents. Estimated glycaemic index of processed products ranged from 40 to 44%. Thus, amadumbe, both wild and cultivated, present some potential in the formulation of products for diabetics and weight management. PMID:25857954

  8. Simple rain-shelter cultivation prolongs accumulation period of anthocyanins in wine grape berries.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Xi; He, Fei; Wang, Jun; Li, Zheng; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Simple rain-shelter cultivation is normally applied during the grape growth season in continental monsoon climates aiming to reduce the occurrence of diseases caused by excessive rainfall. However, whether or not this cultivation practice affects the composition and concentration of phenolic compounds in wine grapes remains unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on the accumulation of anthocyanins in wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon) grown in eastern China. The results showed that rain-shelter cultivation, compared with the open-field, extended the period of rapid accumulation of sugar, increased the soluble solid content in the grape berries, and delayed the senescence of the green leaves at harvest. The concentrations of most anthocyanins were significantly enhanced in the rain-shelter cultivated grapes, and their content increases were closely correlated with the accumulation of sugar. However, the compositions of anthocyanins in the berries were not altered. Correspondingly, the expressions of VvF3'H, VvF3'5'H, and VvUFGT were greatly up-regulated and this rising trend appeared to continue until berry maturation. These results suggested that rain-shelter cultivation might help to improve the quality of wine grape berries by prolonging the life of functional leaves and hence increasing the assimilation products. PMID:25232706

  9. Rice cultivation and methane emission: Documentation of distributed geographic data sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, Elaine; John, Jasmin; Fung, Inez

    1994-01-01

    High-resolution global data bases on the geographic and seasonal distribution of rice cultivation and associated methane emission, compiled by Matthews et al., were archived for public use. In addition to the primary data sets identifying location, seasonality, and methane emission from rice cultivation, a series of supporting data sets is included, allowing users not only to replicate the work of Matthews et al. but to investigate alternative cultivation and emission scenarios. The suite of databases provided, at 1 latitude by 1 longitude resolution for the globe, includes (1) locations of rice cultivation, (2) monthly arrays of actively growing rice areas, (3) countries and political subdivisions, and (4) monthly arrays of methane emission from rice cultivation. Ancillary data include (1) a listing, by country, of harvested rice areas and seasonal distribution of crop cycles and (2) country names and codes. Summary tables of zonal/monthly distributions of actively growing rice areas and of methane emissions are presented. Users should consult original publications for complete discussion of the data bases. This short paper is designed only to document formats of the distributed information and briefly describe the contents of the data sets and their initial application to evaluating the role of rice cultivation in the methane budget.

  10. Origins and Domestication of Cultivated Banana Inferred from Chloroplast and Nuclear Genes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Cui; Wang, Xin-Feng; Shi, Feng-Xue; Chen, Wen-Na; Ge, Xue-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Background Cultivated bananas are large, vegetatively-propagated members of the genus Musa. More than 1,000 cultivars are grown worldwide and they are major economic and food resources in numerous developing countries. It has been suggested that cultivated bananas originated from the islands of Southeast Asia (ISEA) and have been developed through complex geodomestication pathways. However, the maternal and parental donors of most cultivars are unknown, and the pattern of nucleotide diversity in domesticated banana has not been fully resolved. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied the genetics of 16 cultivated and 18 wild Musa accessions using two single-copy nuclear (granule-bound starch synthase I, GBSS I, also known as Waxy, and alcohol dehydrogenase 1, Adh1) and two chloroplast (maturase K, matK, and the trnL-F gene cluster) genes. The results of phylogenetic analyses showed that all A-genome haplotypes of cultivated bananas were grouped together with those of ISEA subspecies of M. acuminata (A-genome). Similarly, the B- and S-genome haplotypes of cultivated bananas clustered with the wild species M. balbisiana (B-genome) and M. schizocarpa (S-genome), respectively. Notably, it has been shown that distinct haplotypes of each cultivar (A-genome group) were nested together to different ISEA subspecies M. acuminata. Analyses of nucleotide polymorphism in the Waxy and Adh1 genes revealed that, in comparison to the wild relatives, cultivated banana exhibited slightly lower nucleotide diversity both across all sites and specifically at silent sites. However, dramatically reduced nucleotide diversity was found at nonsynonymous sites for cultivated bananas. Conclusions/Significance Our study not only confirmed the origin of cultivated banana as arising from multiple intra- and inter-specific hybridization events, but also showed that cultivated banana may have not suffered a severe genetic bottleneck during the domestication process. Importantly, our findings suggested that multiple maternal origins and a reduction in nucleotide diversity at nonsynonymous sites are general attributes of cultivated bananas. PMID:24260405

  11. Type of in vitro cultivation influences cytoadhesion, knob structure, protein localization and transcriptome profile of Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Tilly, Ann-Kathrin; Thiede, Jenny; Metwally, Nahla; Lubiana, Pedro; Bachmann, Anna; Roeder, Thomas; Rockliffe, Nichola; Lorenzen, Stephan; Tannich, Egbert; Gutsmann, Thomas; Bruchhaus, Iris

    2015-01-01

    In vitro cultivation of Plasmodium falciparum is critical for studying the biology of this parasite. However, it is likely that different in vitro cultivation conditions influence various aspects of the parasite’s life cycle. In the present study two P. falciparum isolates were cultivated using the two most common methods, in which AlbuMAX or human serum as additives are used, and the results were compared. The type of cultivation influenced the knob structure of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes (IEs). IEs cultivated with AlbuMAX had fewer knobs than those cultivated with human serum. Furthermore, knob size varied between isolates and is also depended on the culture medium. In addition, there was a greater reduction in the cytoadhesion of IEs to various endothelial receptors in the presence of AlbuMAX than in the presence of human serum. Surprisingly, cytoadhesion did not correlate with the presence or absence of knobs. Greater numbers of the variant surface antigen families RIFIN, STEVOR, and PfMC-2TM were found at the IE membrane when cultivated in the presence of AlbuMAX. Moreover, the type of cultivation had a marked influence on the transcriptome profile. Compared with cultivation with human serum, cultivation with AlbuMAX increased the expression of approximately 500–870 genes. PMID:26568166

  12. Cultivating Citizen Scientists in the Undergraduate Science Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egger, A. E.

    2007-12-01

    Several studies indicate a strong correlation between the number of college science courses and science literacy. It is not surprising, then, that the majority of participants in citizen science projects are college graduates who enrolled in at least two science courses. If one goal of citizen science projects is to increase civic science literacy, research suggests that most are preaching to the choir. Attracting a wider audience to citizen science is, therefore, a key challenge. One way to address this challenge is to attract students to enroll and succeed in science courses in college, even if they do not pursue a major in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines. In fact, only 20% of students receive a degree in STEM, yet virtually all undergraduates are required to take at least one science course. Introductory science courses are therefore critical to cultivating citizen scientists, as they include a large proportion of non- STEM majors. Indeed, a major thrust of recent undergraduate STEM educational reform has been the promotion of 'science for all'. The science for all concept goes beyond recruiting students into the STEM disciplines to promoting a level of scientific literacy necessary to make informed decisions. A clear implication of this inclusive attitude is the need to redesign introductory science courses to make them accessible and explicitly related to scientific literacy. This does not mean dumbing down courses; on the contrary, it means engaging students in real scientific investigations and incorporating explicit teaching about the process of science, thus fostering a lifelong appreciation for (and, hopefully, participation in) science. Unfortunately, many students enter college with minimal understanding of the process of science. And when they arrive in their introductory classes, science is presented to them as a system of facts to be memorized - comparable to memorizing a poem in a foreign language without understanding the vocabulary. New resources available through the Visionlearning project (http://www.visionlearning.com) provide the means to incorporate teaching about the process of science into disciplinary content, thus facilitating the reform the way that undergraduate students are taught science at the introductory level. This kind of educational reform may be a long-term approach to developing citizen scientists, but research from several different disciplines and perspectives suggests it is a critical step in building scientific literacy and lifelong participation in science.

  13. Long-term Black Carbon Dynamics in Cultivated Soil

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Binh T; Lehmann, Johannes C; Kinyangi, James; Smernik, Ron; Riha, Susan J; Engelhard, Mark H

    2008-07-01

    Black carbon (BC) is a quantitatively important C pool in the global carbon cycle due to its relative recalcitrance against decay compared with other C pools. However, how rapidly BC is oxidized and in what way the molecular structure changes during decomposition over decadal time scales, is largely unknown. In the present study, the long-term dynamics in quality and quantity of BC were investigated in cultivated soil using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) techniques. BC particles, obtained from soil samples at 8 conversion ages stretching over 100 years and from a forest soil sample from Kenya, were manually picked under a light microscope for characterization and quantification. BC contents rapidly decreased from 12.7 to 3.8 mg C g⁻¹ soil during the first 30 years since conversion, after which they slowly decreased to a steady state at 3.51 mg C g ⁻¹soil. BC-derived C losses over 100 years were estimated at 6000 kg C ha⁻¹ to a depth of 0.1 m. The initial rapid changes in BC stocks resulted in a mean residence time of only around 8.3 years, which was likely a function of both decomposition as well as transport processes. The molecular properties of BC changed more rapidly on surfaces than in the interior of BC particles and more rapidly during the first 30 years than during the following 70 years. The Oc/C ratios (Oc is O bound to C) and carbonyl groups (C=O) increased over time by 133 and 192 %, respectively, indicating oxidation was an important degradation process controlling BC quality. Al, Si, polysaccharides, and to a lesser extent Fe were rapidly adsorbed on BC particle surfaces within the first few years after BC deposition to soil. The protection by physical and chemical stabilization was apparently sufficient to not only minimize decomposition below detection between 30 and 100 years after deposition, but also physical export by erosion and vertical transport below 0.1 m.

  14. Assessing the fate of radioactive nickel in cultivated soil cores.

    PubMed

    Denys, Sébastien; Echevarria, Guillaume; Florentin, Louis; Leclerc, Elisabeth; Morel, Jean-Louis

    2009-10-01

    Parameters regarding fate of (63)Ni in the soil-plant system (soil: solution distribution coefficient, K(d) and soil plant concentration ratio, CR) are mostly determined in controlled pot experiments or from simple models involving a limited set of soil parameters. However, as migration of pollutants in soil is strongly linked to the water migration, variation of soil structure in the field and seasonal variation of evapotranspiration will affect these two parameters. The aim of this work was to explore to what extent the downward transfer of (63)Ni and its uptake by plants from surface-contaminated undisturbed soil cores under cultivation can be explained by isotopic dilution of this radionuclide in the pool of stable Ni of soils. Undisturbed soil cores (50 cm x 50 cm) were sampled from a brown rendzina (Rendzic Leptosol), a colluvial brown soil (Fluvic Cambisol) and an acidic brown soil (Dystric Cambisol) using PVC lysimeter tubes (three lysimeters sampled per soil type). Each core was equipped with a leachate collector. Cores were placed in a greenhouse and maize (DEA, Pioneer) was sown. After 44 days, an irrigation was simulated at the core surfaces to supply 10 000 Bq (63)NiCl(2). Maize was harvested 135 days after (63)Ni input and radioactivity determined in both vegetal and water samples. Effective uptake of (63)Ni by maize was calculated for leaves and kernels. Water drainage and leaching of (63)Ni were monitored over the course of the experiment. Values of K(d) in surface soil samples were calculated from measured parameters of isotopic exchange kinetics. Results confirmed that (63)Ni was strongly retained at the soil surface. Prediction of the (63)Ni downward transfer could not be reliably assessed using the K(d) values, since the soil structure, which controls local water fluxes, also affected both water and Ni transport. In terms of (63)Ni plant uptake, the effective uptake in undisturbed soil cores is controlled by isotope dilution as previously shown at the pot experiment scale. PMID:19632751

  15. Landscape cultivation alters δ30Si signature in terrestrial ecosystems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandevenne, F. I.; Delvaux, C.; Huyghes, H.; Ronchi, B.; Govers, G.; Barão, A. L.; Clymans, W.; Meire, P.; André, L.; Struyf, E.

    2014-12-01

    Despite increasing recognition of the importance of biological Si cycling in controlling dissolved Si (DSi) in soil and stream water, effects of human cultivation on the Si cycle remain poorly understood. Sensitive tracer techniques to identify and quantify Si in the soil-plant-water system could be highly relevant in addressing these uncertainties. Stable Si isotopes are promising tools to define Si sources and sinks along the ecosystem flow path, as intense fractionation occurs during chemical weathering and uptake of dissolved Si in plants. Yet they remain underexploited in the end product of the soil-plant system: the soil water. Here, stable Si isotope ratios (δ30Si) of dissolved Si in soil water were measured along a land use gradient (continuous forest, continuous pasture, young cropland and continuous cropland) with similar parent material (loess) and homogenous bulk mineralogical and climatological properties (Belgium). Soil water δ30Si signatures are clearly separated along the gradient, with highest average signatures in continuous cropland (+1.61‰), intermediate in pasture (+1.05‰) and young cropland (+0.89 ‰) and lowest in forest soil water (+0.62‰). Our data do not allow distinguishing biological from pedogenic/lithogenic processes, but point to a strong interaction of both. We expect that increasing export of light isotopes in disturbed land uses (i.e. through agricultural harvest), and higher recycling of 28Si and elevated weathering intensity (including clay dissolution) in forest systems will largely determine soil water δ30Si signatures of our systems. Our results imply that soil water δ30Si signature is biased through land management before it reaches rivers and coastal zones, where other fractionation processes take over (e.g. diatom uptake and reverse weathering in floodplains). In particular, a direct role of agriculture systems in lowering export Si fluxes towards rivers and coastal systems has been shown. Stable Si isotopes have a large potential to track human disturbance on the Si cycle, including subtle changes in clay evolution and biogenic sink/source functions as induced by land use conversions.

  16. Landscape cultivation alters δ30Si signature in terrestrial ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandevenne, Floor; Delvaux, Claire; Hughes, Harold; Ronchi, Benedicta; Clymans, Wim; Barao, Ana Lucia; Govers, Gerard; Cornelis, Jean Thomas; André, Luc; Struyf, Eric

    2015-04-01

    Despite increasing recognition of the importance of biological Si cycling in controlling dissolved Si (DSi) in soil and stream water, effects of human cultivation on the Si cycle remain poorly understood. Sensitive tracer techniques to identify and quantify Si in the soil-plant-water system could be highly relevant in addressing these uncertainties. Stable Si isotopes are promising tools to define Si sources and sinks along the ecosystem flow path, as intense fractionation occurs during chemical weathering and uptake of dissolved Si in plants. Yet they remain underexploited in the end product of the soil-plant system: the soil water. Here, stable Si isotope ratios (δ30Si) of dissolved Si in soil water were measured along a land use gradient (continuous forest, continuous pasture, young cropland and continuous cropland) with similar parent material (loess) and homogenous bulk mineralogical and climatological (Belgium). Soil water δ30Si signatures are clearly separated along the gradient, with highest average signatures in continuous cropland (+1.61%), intermediate in pasture (+1.05%) and young cropland (+0.89%) and lowest in forest soil water (+0.62%). Our data do not allow distinguishing biological from pedogenic/lithogenic processes, but point to a strong interaction of both. We expect that increasing export of light isotopes in disturbed land uses (i.e. through agricultural harvest), and higher recycling of 28Si and elevated weathering intensity (including clay dissolution) in forest systems will largely determine soil water δ30Si signatures of our systems. Our results imply that soil water δ30Si signature is biased through land management before it reaches rivers and coastal zones, where other fractionation processes take over (e.g. diatom uptake and reverse weathering in floodplains). In particular, a direct role of agriculture systems in lowering export Si fluxes towards rivers and coastal systems has been shown. Stable Si isotopes have a large potential to track human disturbance on the Si cycle, including subtle changes in clay evolution and biogenic sink/source functions as induced by land use conversions.

  17. Potential Air Quality Impacts of Global Bioenergy Crop Cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, W. C.; Rosenstiel, T. N.; Barsanti, K. C.

    2012-12-01

    The use of bioenergy crops as a replacement for traditional coal-powered electricity generation will require large-scale land-use change, and the resulting changes in emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) may have negative impacts on local to regional air quality. BVOCs contribute to the formation of both ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5), with magnitudes of specific compound emissions governed largely by plant speciation and land coverage. For this reason, large-scale land-use change has the potential to markedly alter regional O3 and PM2.5 levels, especially if there are large differences between the emission profiles of the replacement bioenergy crops (many of which are high BVOC emitters) and the previous crops or land cover. In this work, replacement areas suitable for the cultivation of the bioenergy crops switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and giant reed (Arundo donax) were selected based on existing global inventories of under-utilized cropland and local climatological conditions. These two crops are among the most popular current candidates for bioenergy production, and provide contrasting examples of energy densities and emissions profiles. While giant reed has been selected in an ongoing large-scale coal-to-biocharcoal conversion in the Northwestern United States due to its high crop yields and energy density, it is also among the highest biogenic emitters of isoprene. On the other hand, switchgrass produces less biomass per acre, but also emits essentially no isoprene and low total BVOCs. The effects of large-scale conversion to these crops on O3 and PM2.5 were simulated using version 1.1 of the Community Earth System Model (CESM) coupled with version 2.1 of the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN). By comparing crop replacement scenarios involving A. donax and P. virgatum, the sensitivities of O3 and PM2.5 levels to worldwide increases in bioenergy production were examined, providing an initial assessment of regions in which higher-yield, higher-emitting crops may lead to unacceptable reductions in regional air quality, as well as the potential for mitigation of those unintended consequences with lower-yield, lower-emitting crops.

  18. Definition of management zones for enhancing cultivated land conservation using combined spatial data.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Shi, Zhou; Wu, Hao-Xiang; Li, Feng; Li, Hong-Yi

    2013-10-01

    The loss of cultivated land has increasingly become an issue of regional and national concern in China. Definition of management zones is an important measure to protect limited cultivated land resource. In this study, combined spatial data were applied to define management zones in Fuyang city, China. The yield of cultivated land was first calculated and evaluated and the spatial distribution pattern mapped; the limiting factors affecting the yield were then explored; and their maps of the spatial variability were presented using geostatistics analysis. Data were jointly analyzed for management zone definition using a combination of principal component analysis with a fuzzy clustering method, two cluster validity functions were used to determine the optimal number of cluster. Finally one-way variance analysis was performed on 3,620 soil sampling points to assess how well the defined management zones reflected the soil properties and productivity level. It was shown that there existed great potential for increasing grain production, and the amount of cultivated land played a key role in maintaining security in grain production. Organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, elevation, thickness of the plow layer, and probability of irrigation guarantee were the main limiting factors affecting the yield. The optimal number of management zones was three, and there existed significantly statistical differences between the crop yield and field parameters in each defined management zone. Management zone I presented the highest potential crop yield, fertility level, and best agricultural production condition, whereas management zone III lowest. The study showed that the procedures used may be effective in automatically defining management zones; by the development of different management zones, different strategies of cultivated land management and practice in each zone could be determined, which is of great importance to enhance cultivated land conservation, stabilize agricultural production, promote sustainable use of cultivated land and guarantee food security. PMID:23921549

  19. Definition of Management Zones for Enhancing Cultivated Land Conservation Using Combined Spatial Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; Shi, Zhou; Wu, Hao-Xiang; Li, Feng; Li, Hong-Yi

    2013-10-01

    The loss of cultivated land has increasingly become an issue of regional and national concern in China. Definition of management zones is an important measure to protect limited cultivated land resource. In this study, combined spatial data were applied to define management zones in Fuyang city, China. The yield of cultivated land was first calculated and evaluated and the spatial distribution pattern mapped; the limiting factors affecting the yield were then explored; and their maps of the spatial variability were presented using geostatistics analysis. Data were jointly analyzed for management zone definition using a combination of principal component analysis with a fuzzy clustering method, two cluster validity functions were used to determine the optimal number of cluster. Finally one-way variance analysis was performed on 3,620 soil sampling points to assess how well the defined management zones reflected the soil properties and productivity level. It was shown that there existed great potential for increasing grain production, and the amount of cultivated land played a key role in maintaining security in grain production. Organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, elevation, thickness of the plow layer, and probability of irrigation guarantee were the main limiting factors affecting the yield. The optimal number of management zones was three, and there existed significantly statistical differences between the crop yield and field parameters in each defined management zone. Management zone I presented the highest potential crop yield, fertility level, and best agricultural production condition, whereas management zone III lowest. The study showed that the procedures used may be effective in automatically defining management zones; by the development of different management zones, different strategies of cultivated land management and practice in each zone could be determined, which is of great importance to enhance cultivated land conservation, stabilize agricultural production, promote sustainable use of cultivated land and guarantee food security.

  20. Growth characteristics of Cannabis sativa L. cultivated in a phytotron and in the field.

    PubMed

    Yoshimatsu, Kayo; Iida, Osamu; Kitazawa, Takashi; Sekine, Tsutomu; Kojoma, Mareshige; Makino, Yukiko; Kiuchi, Fumiyuki

    2004-01-01

    Growth characteristics of Cannabis saliva L. are indispensable factors to verify the statements by the criminals of illegal cannabis cultivation. To investigate growth characteristics of C. sativa, two varieties, cannabidiolic acid (CBDA)-rich (CBDA-type) which being cultivated for fiber production and delta9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA)-rich (THCA-type) which is used for drug abuse, were cultivated from seeds under the same growth environment in a phytotron. THCA-type showed high germination rate (100%) whereas only 39% of the CBDA-type seeds germinated 6 days after sowing. Plant height, number of true leaves, number of nodes, number of axillary buds and flowering of these two varieties were periodically observed. THCA-type grew more rapidly (plant height: 125.8 cm for THCA-type, 84.7 cm for CBDA-type, 75 days after cultivation) demonstrating vigorous axillary bud formation and earlier male-flowering (63 days for THCA-type, 106 days for CBDA-type, after sowing). Propagation of THCA-type was tested using the axillary shoot cuttings of female plants either with or without the main stem. All the cuttings with the main stem rooted after 21 days and grew healthily in a phytotron. However, all the newly developed leaves were single instead of palmate. In the field, THCA-type male-flowered after 155 days of cultivation after sowing on March 31. The height of the field-cultivated plants reached 260.9 cm 163 days after sowing. Despite the great differences in final plant heights, the increases of plant height per day during the vegetative growth stage were similar in the field and in the phytotron. Thus estimating the starting time of illegal cannabis cultivation might be possible if the plant is in the vegetative growth stage. PMID:15940897

  1. Improving bioreactor cultivation conditions for sensitive cell lines by dynamic membrane aeration.

    PubMed

    Frahm, Björn; Brod, Helmut; Langer, Uwe

    2009-01-01

    Although the importance of animal cell culture for the industrial (large scale) production of pharmaceutical products is continuously increasing, the sensibility of the cells towards their cultivation environment is still a challenging issue. In comparison to microbial cultures, cell cultures which are not protected by a cell wall are much more sensitive to shear stress and foam formation. Reactor design as well as the selection of 'robust' cell lines is particularly important for these circumstances. Nevertheless, even 'sensitive' cell lines are selected for certain pharmaceutical processes due to various reasons. These sensitive cell lines have even higher requirements regarding their cultivation environment. Important characteristics for the corresponding reactor design are a high (volumetric) gas mass transfer coefficient, low volumetric power input, low shear stress, low susceptibility to bio-fouling, the ability to cultivate sticky cells and sufficient mixing properties. Membrane aeration has been a long-known possibility to meet some of these requirements, but has not often been applied in recent years. The reasons lie mainly in low gas mass transfer rates, a limited installable volume-specific membrane surface area, restrictions in scalability and problems with membrane fouling. The dynamic membrane aeration bioreactor aeration is a simple concept for bubble-free oxygen supply of such sensitive cultures. It overcomes limitations and draw-backs of previous systems. Consisting of an oscillating, centrally arranged rotor (stirrer) that is wrapped with silicone membrane tubing, it enables doubling the gas mass transfer at the same shear stress in the investigated cultivation scales of 12, 20, 100, and 200 L. Continuous cultivation at these scales allows the same product output as fed-batch cultivation does at tremendously larger reactor volumes. Apart from introducing this novel technology, the presentation comprises selected cultivation results obtained for blood coagulation factor VIII in continuous mode and a therapeutic monoclonal antibody in fed-batch mode in comparison to reference trials. PMID:19319654

  2. Groundwater level deterioration issues and suggested solution for the water curtain cultivation area in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yongcheol; Lee, Bongju; Ha, Kucheol; Yoon, Yunyeol; Moon, Sangho; Cho, Suyoung; Kim, Seongyun

    2013-04-01

    Protected water curtain cultivation system is an energy saving technique for winter season by splashing groundwater on the inner roof of the green house. But the issue is that the method results in groundwater level deterioration because it disposes the used groundwater to nearby stream. Reuse of the groundwater for water curtain cultivation is important Groundwater level, steam level, and groundwater usage rate are investigated at the five green house concentrated areas such as Cheongwon, Namyangju, Choongju, Namwon, Jinju. Groundwater usage rate is estimated using a ultrasonic flowmeter for a specific well and using the combination of pressure sensor and propeller type velocity counting equipment at a water disposal channel from November to April which is water curtain cultivating season. Groundwater usage rate ranges from 46.9m3/d to 108.0m3/d for a 10a greenhouse. Groundwater level change is strongly influenced by seasonal variation of rainfall and concentrated pumping activities in winter but the level is lower than stream level all year long resulting in all year around losing stream at Cheongwon, Namyangju, Jinju. At Nanwon, the stream is converted from losing one in winter to gaining one in summer. Groundwater level deterioration at concentrated water curtain cultivation area is found to be severe for some area where circulating water curtain cultivation system is need to be applied for groundwater restoration and sustainable cultivation in winter. Circulating water curtain cultivation system can restore the groundwater level by recharging the used groundwater through injection well and then pumping out from pumping well.

  3. Integration of microalgae cultivation with industrial waste remediation for biofuel and bioenergy production: opportunities and limitations.

    PubMed

    McGinn, Patrick J; Dickinson, Kathryn E; Bhatti, Shabana; Frigon, Jean-Claude; Guiot, Serge R; O'Leary, Stephen J B

    2011-09-01

    There is currently a renewed interest in developing microalgae as a source of renewable energy and fuel. Microalgae hold great potential as a source of biomass for the production of energy and fungible liquid transportation fuels. However, the technologies required for large-scale cultivation, processing, and conversion of microalgal biomass to energy products are underdeveloped. Microalgae offer several advantages over traditional 'first-generation' biofuels crops like corn: these include superior biomass productivity, the ability to grow on poor-quality land unsuitable for agriculture, and the potential for sustainable growth by extracting macro- and micronutrients from wastewater and industrial flue-stack emissions. Integrating microalgal cultivation with municipal wastewater treatment and industrial CO(2) emissions from coal-fired power plants is a potential strategy to produce large quantities of biomass, and represents an opportunity to develop, test, and optimize the necessary technologies to make microalgal biofuels more cost-effective and efficient. However, many constraints on the eventual deployment of this technology must be taken into consideration and mitigating strategies developed before large scale microalgal cultivation can become a reality. As a strategy for CO(2) biomitigation from industrial point source emitters, microalgal cultivation can be limited by the availability of land, light, and other nutrients like N and P. Effective removal of N and P from municipal wastewater is limited by the processing capacity of available microalgal cultivation systems. Strategies to mitigate against the constraints are discussed. PMID:21461850

  4. The relationship between lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase production capacities and cultivation periods of mushrooms

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jian Z; Zhang, Jun L; Hu, Kai H; Zhang, Wei G

    2013-01-01

    Mushrooms are able to secrete lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP), and able to use the cellulose as sources of carbon. This article focuses on the relation between peroxidase-secreting capacity and cultivation period of mushrooms with non-laccase activity. Methylene blue and methyl catechol qualitative assay and spectrophotometry quantitative assay show LiP secreting unvaryingly accompanies the MnP secreting in mushroom strains. The growth rates of hyphae are detected by detecting the dry hyphal mass. We link the peroxidase activities to growth rate of mushrooms and then probe into the relationship between them. The results show that there are close relationships between LiP- and/or MnP-secretory capacities and the cultivation periods of mushrooms. The strains with high LiP and MnP activities have short cultivation periods. However, those strains have long cultivation periods because of the low levels of secreted LiP and/or MnP, even no detectable LiP and/or MnP activity. This study provides the first evidence on the imitate relation between the level of secreted LiP and MnP activities and cultivation periods of mushrooms with non-laccase activity. Our study has significantly increased the understanding of the role of LiP and MnP in the growth and development of mushrooms with non-laccase activity. PMID:22966760

  5. Genetic and Epigenetic Diversities Shed Light on Domestication of Cultivated Ginseng (Panax ginseng).

    PubMed

    Li, Ming-Rui; Shi, Feng-Xue; Zhou, Yu-Xin; Li, Ya-Ling; Wang, Xin-Feng; Zhang, Cui; Wang, Xu-Tong; Liu, Bao; Xiao, Hong-Xing; Li, Lin-Feng

    2015-11-01

    Chinese ginseng (Panax ginseng) is a medically important herb within Panax and has crucial cultural values in East Asia. As the symbol of traditional Chinese medicine, Chinese ginseng has been used as a herbal remedy to restore stamina and capacity in East Asia for thousands of years. To address the evolutionary origin and domestication history of cultivated ginseng, we employed multiple molecular approaches to investigate the genetic structures of cultivated and wild ginseng across their distribution ranges in northeastern Asia. Phylogenetic and population genetic analyses revealed that the four cultivated ginseng landraces, COMMON, BIANTIAO, SHIZHU, and GAOLI (also known as Korean ginseng), were not domesticated independently and Fusong Town is likely one of the primary domestication centers. In addition, our results from population genetic and epigenetic analyses demonstrated that cultivated ginseng maintained high levels of genetic and epigenetic diversity, but showed distinct cytosine methylation patterns compared with wild ginseng. The patterns of genetic and epigenetic variation revealed by this study have shed light on the domestication history of cultivated ginseng, which may serve as a framework for future genetic improvements. PMID:26278367

  6. Cultivation of marine shrimp in biofloc technology (BFT) system under different water alkalinities.

    PubMed

    Piérri, V; Valter-Severino, D; Goulart-de-Oliveira, K; Manoel-do-Espírito-Santo, C; Nascimento-Vieira, F; Quadros-Seiffert, W

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different levels of alkalinity for the superintensive cultivation of marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in biofloc system. A total of 12 experimental circular units of 1000L were used supplied with 850L water from a nursery, populated at a density of 165 shrimps.m-3 and average weight of 5.6 g. The treatments, in triplicate, consisted in four levels of alkalinity in the water: 40, 80, 120 and 160 mg.L-1 of calcium carbonate. To correct the alkalinity was used calcium hydroxide (CaOH). It was observed a decrease in pH of the water in the treatments with lower alkalinity (p<0.05). The total suspended settleable solids were also lower in the treatment of low alkalinity. No significant difference was observed in other physico-chemical and biological parameters in the water quality assessed, as well as the zootechnical parameters of cultivation between treatments (p≥0.05). The results of survival and growth rate of shrimps were considered suitable for the cultivation system used in the different treatments. The cultivation of marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in biofloc at density of 165 shrimps.m-3 can be performed in waters with alkalinity between 40 and 160 mg.L-1 of CaCO3, without compromising the zootechnical indexes of cultivation. PMID:26292104

  7. A modular segmented-flow platform for 3D cell cultivation.

    PubMed

    Lemke, Karen; Förster, Tobias; Römer, Robert; Quade, Mandy; Wiedemeier, Stefan; Grodrian, Andreas; Gastrock, Gunter

    2015-07-10

    In vitro 3D cell cultivation is promised to equate tissue in vivo more realistically than 2D cell cultivation corresponding to cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. Therefore, a scalable 3D cultivation platform was developed. This platform, called pipe-based bioreactors (pbb), is based on the segmented-flow technology: aqueous droplets are embedded in a water-immiscible carrier fluid. The droplet volumes range from 60 nL to 20 μL and are used as bioreactors lined up in a tubing like pearls on a string. The modular automated platform basically consists of several modules like a fluid management for a high throughput droplet generation for self-assembly or scaffold-based 3D cell cultivation, a storage module for incubation and storage, and an analysis module for monitoring cell aggregation and proliferation basing on microscopy or photometry. In this report, the self-assembly of murine embryonic stem cells (mESCs) to uniformly sized embryoid bodies (EBs), the cell proliferation, the cell viability as well as the influence on the cell differentiation to cardiomyocytes are described. The integration of a dosage module for medium exchange or agent addition will enable pbb as long-term 3D cell cultivation system for studying stem cell differentiation, e.g. cardiac myogenesis or for diagnostic and therapeutic testing in personalized medicine. PMID:25562423

  8. Vitreoscilla hemoglobin expression in engineered Escherichia coli: improved performance in high cell-density batch cultivations.

    PubMed

    Pablos, Tania E; Mora, Eugenio Meza; Le Borgne, Sylvie; Ramírez, Octavio T; Gosset, Guillermo; Lara, Alvaro R

    2011-08-01

    High cell-density cultivations are the preferred system for biomolecules production by Escherichia coli. It has been previously demonstrated that a strain of E. coli with a modified substrate transport system is able to attain high cell densities in batch mode, due to the very low overflow metabolism displayed. The use of elevated amounts of glucose from the beginning of the cultivation, eliminates the existence of substrate gradients due to deficient mixing at large-scale. However, the large amounts of oxygen demanded resulted in microaerobic conditions after some hours of cultivation, even at small-scale. In this work, the effect of expressing the Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (VHb) in the engineered strain during batch cultures using high-glucose concentrations was tested. Together, the expression of VHb and the modified substrate transport system resulted in a 33% increase of biomass production compared to the parental strain (W3110) lacking the VHb in batch cultivations using 25 g/L of glucose. When 50 g/L of glucose were used, expression of VHb in the modified strain led to 11% higher biomass production compared to W3110. The VHb also increased the growth rates of the strains by about 30% in the aerobic phase and more than 200% in the microaerobic phase of batch cultivation. PMID:21744499

  9. Cultivation-independent detection of autotrophic hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria by DNA stable-isotope probing.

    PubMed

    Pumphrey, Graham M; Ranchou-Peyruse, Anthony; Spain, Jim C

    2011-07-01

    Knallgas bacteria are a physiologically defined group that is primarily studied using cultivation-dependent techniques. Given that current cultivation techniques fail to grow most bacteria, cultivation-independent techniques that selectively detect and identify knallgas bacteria will improve our ability to study their diversity and distribution. We used stable-isotope probing (SIP) to identify knallgas bacteria in rhizosphere soil of legumes and in a microbial mat from Obsidian Pool in Yellowstone National Park. When samples were incubated in the dark, incorporation of (13)CO(2) was H(2) dependent. SIP enabled the detection of knallgas bacteria that were not detected by cultivation, and the majority of bacteria identified in the rhizosphere soils were betaproteobacteria predominantly related to genera previously known to oxidize hydrogen. Bacteria in soil grew on hydrogen at concentrations as low as 100 ppm. A hydB homolog encoding a putative high-affinity NiFe hydrogenase was amplified from (13)C-labeled DNA from both vetch and clover rhizosphere soil. The results indicate that knallgas bacteria can be detected by SIP and populations that respond to different H(2) concentrations can be distinguished. The methods described here should be applicable to a variety of ecosystems and will enable the discovery of additional knallgas bacteria that are resistant to cultivation. PMID:21622787

  10. [Fractal characteristics of mature aerobic granular sludge cultivated by different carbon sources].

    PubMed

    Gao, Jing-feng; Su, Kai; Zhang, Qian; Chen, Ran-ni; Wang, Jin-hui; Peng, Yong-zhen

    2010-08-01

    In order to characterize the dense and regular level of aerobic granular sludge (AGS) which was cultivated by different carbon sources, the SEM images of mature AGS were used in the study. The calculation process using Photoshop and Fips2 on fractal characteristics of these granules was built. The lowest box-counting dimension was bulking aerobic granular sludge cultivated by glucose (No. 1), which was 1.794 +/- 0.011; the box-counting dimension of AGS cultivated by peptone (No. 3) and domestic sewage (No. 5) were reached up to 1.866 +/- 0.018 and 1.880 +/- 0.015. The boundary box-counting dimension of the AGS was also calculated and the average value was 1.14. The AGS cultivated by beer (No. 6) was more regular in shape and the boundary box-counting dimension was 1.115 +/- 0.003. The AGS cultivated by landfill leachate (No. 7) was the most irregular in shape. This study indicates that fractal dimension provides an approach for quantification of dense and regular level of AGS, furthermore, it could be used to characterize the status of AGS, such as bulking. PMID:21090307

  11. Greenhouse gas emissions from shifting cultivation in the tropics, including uncertainty and sensitivity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, J. M. N.; Carreiras, J. M. B.; Rosa, I.; Pereira, J. M. C.

    2011-10-01

    Annual emissions of CO2, CH4, CO, N2O, and NOx from biomass burning in shifting cultivation systems in tropical Asia, Africa, and America were estimated at national and continental levels as the product of area burned, aboveground biomass, combustion completeness, and emission factor. The total area of shifting cultivation in each country was derived from the Global Land Cover 2000 map, while the area cleared and burned annually was obtained by multiplying the total area by the rotation cycle of shifting cultivation, calculated using cropping and fallow lengths reported in the literature. Aboveground biomass accumulation was estimated as a function of the duration and mean temperature of the growing season, soil texture type, and length of the fallow period. The uncertainty associated with each model variable was estimated, and an uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of greenhouse gas estimates was performed with Monte Carlo and variance decomposition techniques. Our results reveal large uncertainty in emission estimates for all five gases. In the case of CO2, mean (standard deviation) emissions from shifting cultivation in Asia, Africa, and America were estimated at 241 (132), 205 (139), and 295 (197) Tg yr-1, respectively. Combustion completeness and emission factors were the model inputs that contributed the most to the uncertainty of estimates. Our mean estimates are lower than the literature values for atmospheric emission from biomass burning in shifting cultivation systems. Only mean values could be compared since other studies do not provide any measure of uncertainty.

  12. High-throughput micro-scale cultivations and chromatography modeling: Powerful tools for integrated process development.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Pascal; Hahn, Tobias; Hubbuch, Jrgen

    2015-10-01

    Upstream processes are rather complex to design and the productivity of cells under suitable cultivation conditions is hard to predict. The method of choice for examining the design space is to execute high-throughput cultivation screenings in micro-scale format. Various predictive in silico models have been developed for many downstream processes, leading to a reduction of time and material costs. This paper presents a combined optimization approach based on high-throughput micro-scale cultivation experiments and chromatography modeling. The overall optimized system must not necessarily be the one with highest product titers, but the one resulting in an overall superior process performance in up- and downstream. The methodology is presented in a case study for the Cherry-tagged enzyme Glutathione-S-Transferase from Escherichia coli SE1. The Cherry-Tag (Delphi Genetics, Belgium) which can be fused to any target protein allows for direct product analytics by simple VIS absorption measurements. High-throughput cultivations were carried out in a 48-well format in a BioLector micro-scale cultivation system (m2p-Labs, Germany). The downstream process optimization for a set of randomly picked upstream conditions producing high yields was performed in silico using a chromatography modeling software developed in-house (ChromX). The suggested in silico-optimized operational modes for product capturing were validated subsequently. The overall best system was chosen based on a combination of excellent up- and downstream performance. PMID:25988478

  13. Unintended cultivation, shifting baselines, and conflict between objectives for fisheries and conservation.

    PubMed

    Brown, Christopher J; Trebilco, Rowan

    2014-06-01

    The effects of fisheries on marine ecosystems, and their capacity to drive shifts in ecosystem states, have been widely documented. Less well appreciated is that some commercially valuable species respond positively to fishing-induced ecosystem change and can become important fisheries resources in modified ecosystems. Thus, the ecological effects of one fishery can unintentionally increase the abundance and productivity of other fished species (i.e., cultivate). We reviewed examples of this effect in the peer-reviewed literature. We found 2 underlying ecosystem drivers of the effect: trophic release of prey species when predators are overfished and habitat change. Key ecological, social, and economic conditions required for one fishery to unintentionally cultivate another include strong top-down control of prey by predators, the value of the new fishery, and the capacity of fishers to adapt to a new fishery. These unintended cultivation effects imply strong trade-offs between short-term fishery success and conservation efforts to restore ecosystems toward baseline conditions because goals for fisheries and conservation may be incompatible. Conflicts are likely to be exacerbated if fisheries baselines shift relative to conservation baselines and there is investment in the new fishery. However, in the long-term, restoration toward ecosystem baselines may often benefit both fishery and conservation goals. Unintended cultivation can be identified and predicted using a combination of time-series data, dietary studies, models of food webs, and socioeconomic data. Identifying unintended cultivation is necessary for management to set compatible goals for fisheries and conservation. PMID:24665891

  14. Effect of rice cultivation systems on indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal community structure.

    PubMed

    Watanarojanaporn, Nantida; Boonkerd, Nantakorn; Tittabutr, Panlada; Longtonglang, Aphakorn; Young, J Peter W; Teaumroong, Neung

    2013-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in an agricultural ecosystem are necessary for proper management of beneficial symbiosis. Here we explored how the patterns of the AMF community in rice roots were affected by rice cultivation systems (the system of rice intensification [SRI] and the conventional rice cultivation system [CS]), and by compost application during growth stages. Rice plants harvested from SRI-managed plots exhibited considerably higher total biomass, root dry weight, and seed fill than those obtained from conventionally managed plots. Our findings revealed that all AMF sequences observed from CS plots belonged (only) to the genus Glomus, colonizing in rice roots grown under this type of cultivation, while rice roots sown in SRI showed sequences belonging to both Glomus and Acaulospora. The AMF community was compared between the different cultivation types (CS and SRI) and compost applications by principle component analysis. In all rice growth stages, AMF assemblages of CS management were not separated from those of SRI management. The distribution of AMF community composition based on T-RFLP data showed that the AMF community structure was different among four cultivation systems, and there was a gradual increase of Shannon-Weaver indices of diversity (H') of the AMF community under SRI during growth stages. The results of this research indicated that rice grown in SRI-managed plots had more diverse AMF communities than those grown in CS plots. PMID:23719585

  15. Gene Flow from Cultivated Rice (Oryza sativa) to its Weedy and Wild Relatives

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, LI JUAN; LEE, DONG SUN; SONG, ZHI PING; SUH, HAK SOO; LU, BAO?RONG

    2004-01-01

    Background and Aims Transgene escape through gene flow from genetically modified (GM) crops to their wild relative species may potentially cause environmental biosafety problems. The aim of this study was to assess the extent of gene flow between cultivated rice and two of its close relatives under field conditions. Methods Experiments were conducted at two sites in Korea and China to determine gene flow from cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) to weedy rice (O. sativa f. spontanea) and common wild rice (O. rufipogon Griff.), respectively, under special field conditions mimicking the natural occurrence of the wild relatives in Asia. Herbicide resistance (bar) and SSR molecular finger printing were used as markers to accurately determine gene flow frequencies from cultivated rice varieties to their wild relatives. Key Results Gene flow frequency from cultivated rice was detected as between approx. 0011 and 0046% to weedy rice and between approx. 121 and 219% to wild rice under the field conditions. Conclusions Gene flow occurs with a noticeable frequency from cultivated rice to its weedy and wild relatives, and this might cause potential ecological consequences. It is recommended that isolation zones should be established with sufficient distances between GM rice varieties and wild rice populations to avoid potential outcrosses. Also, GM rice should not be released when it has inserted genes that can significantly enhance the ecological fitness of weedy rice in regions where weedy rice is already abundant and causing great problems. PMID:14602665

  16. Introducing cultivated trees into the wild: Wood pigeons as dispersers of domestic olive seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perea, Ramón; Gutiérrez-Galán, Alejandro

    2016-02-01

    Animals may disperse cultivated trees outside the agricultural land, favoring the naturalization or, even, the invasiveness of domestic plants. However, the ecological and conservation implications of new or unexplored mutualisms between cultivated trees and wild animals are still far from clear. Here, we examine the possible role of an expanding and, locally, overabundant pigeon species (Columba palumbus) as an effective disperser of domestic olive trees (Olea europaea), a widespread cultivated tree, considered a naturalized and invasive species in many areas of the world. By analyzing crop and gizzard content we found that olive fruits were an important food item for pigeons in late winter and spring. A proportion of 40.3% pigeons consumed olive seeds, with an average consumption of 7.8 seeds per pigeon and day. Additionally, most seed sizes (up to 0.7 g) passed undamaged through the gut and were dispersed from cultivated olive orchards to areas covered by protected Mediterranean vegetation, recording minimal dispersal distances of 1.8-7.4 km. Greenhouse experiments showed that seeds dispersed by pigeons significantly favored the germination and establishment in comparison to non-ingested seeds. The ability of pigeons to effectively disperse domestic olive seeds may facilitate the introduction of cultivated olive trees into natural systems, including highly-protected wild olive woodlands. We recommend harvesting ornamental olive trees to reduce both pigeon overpopulation and the spread of artificially selected trees into the natural environment.

  17. Effect of Rice Cultivation Systems on Indigenous Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Community Structure

    PubMed Central

    Watanarojanaporn, Nantida; Boonkerd, Nantakorn; Tittabutr, Panlada; Longtonglang, Aphakorn; Young, J. Peter W.; Teaumroong, Neung

    2013-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in an agricultural ecosystem are necessary for proper management of beneficial symbiosis. Here we explored how the patterns of the AMF community in rice roots were affected by rice cultivation systems (the system of rice intensification [SRI] and the conventional rice cultivation system [CS]), and by compost application during growth stages. Rice plants harvested from SRI-managed plots exhibited considerably higher total biomass, root dry weight, and seed fill than those obtained from conventionally managed plots. Our findings revealed that all AMF sequences observed from CS plots belonged (only) to the genus Glomus, colonizing in rice roots grown under this type of cultivation, while rice roots sown in SRI showed sequences belonging to both Glomus and Acaulospora. The AMF community was compared between the different cultivation types (CS and SRI) and compost applications by principle component analysis. In all rice growth stages, AMF assemblages of CS management were not separated from those of SRI management. The distribution of AMF community composition based on T-RFLP data showed that the AMF community structure was different among four cultivation systems, and there was a gradual increase of Shannon-Weaver indices of diversity (H′) of the AMF community under SRI during growth stages. The results of this research indicated that rice grown in SRI-managed plots had more diverse AMF communities than those grown in CS plots. PMID:23719585

  18. Cultivation of Anaerobic and Facultatively Anaerobic Bacteria from Spacecraft-Associated Clean Rooms▿

    PubMed Central

    Stieglmeier, Michaela; Wirth, Reinhard; Kminek, Gerhard; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

    2009-01-01

    In the course of this biodiversity study, the cultivable microbial community of European spacecraft-associated clean rooms and the Herschel Space Observatory located therein were analyzed during routine assembly operations. Here, we focused on microorganisms capable of growing without oxygen. Anaerobes play a significant role in planetary protection considerations since extraterrestrial environments like Mars probably do not provide enough oxygen for fully aerobic microbial growth. A broad assortment of anaerobic media was used in our cultivation strategies, which focused on microorganisms with special metabolic skills. The majority of the isolated strains grew on anaerobic, complex, nutrient-rich media. Autotrophic microorganisms or microbes capable of fixing nitrogen were also cultivated. A broad range of facultatively anaerobic bacteria was detected during this study and also, for the first time, some strictly anaerobic bacteria (Clostridium and Propionibacterium) were isolated from spacecraft-associated clean rooms. The multiassay cultivation approach was the basis for the detection of several bacteria that had not been cultivated from these special environments before and also led to the discovery of two novel microbial species of Pseudomonas and Paenibacillus. PMID:19363082

  19. Monitoring of soil water content and quality inside and outside the water curtain cultivation facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, K.; Kim, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Water curtain cultivation system is an energy saving technique for winter season by splashing groundwater on the inner roof of green house. Artificial groundwater recharge application to the water curtain cultivation facilities was adopted and tested to use groundwater sustainably in a rural region of Korea. The groundwater level in the test site shows natural trend corresponding rainfall pattern except during mid-November to early April when groundwater levels decline sharply due to groundwater abstraction for water curtain cultivation. Groundwater levels are also affected by surface water such as stream, small dams in the stream and agricultural ditches. Infiltration data were collected from lysimeter installation and monitoring inside and outside water cultivation facility and compared with each other. The infiltration data were well correlated with rainfall outside the facility, but the data in the facility showed very different from the other. The missing infiltration data were attributed to groundwater level rise and level sensor location below water table. Soil water contents in the unsaturated zone indicated rainfall infiltration propagation at depth and with time outside the facility. According to rainfall amount and water condition at the initial stage of a rainfall event, the variation of soil water content was shown differently. Soil water contents and electrical conductivities were closely correlated with each other, and they reflected rainfall infiltration through the soil and water quality changes. The monitoring results are useful to reveal the hydrological processes from the infiltration to groundwater recharge, and water management planning in the water cultivation areas.

  20. Fire and flood management of coastal swamp enabled first rice paddy cultivation in east China.

    PubMed

    Zong, Y; Chen, Z; Innes, J B; Chen, C; Wang, Z; Wang, H

    2007-09-27

    The adoption of cereal cultivation was one of the most important cultural processes in history, marking the transition from hunting and gathering by Mesolithic foragers to the food-producing economy of Neolithic farmers. In the Lower Yangtze region of China, a centre of rice domestication, the timing and system of initial rice cultivation remain unclear. Here we report detailed evidence from Kuahuqiao that reveals the precise cultural and environmental context of rice cultivation at this earliest known Neolithic site in eastern China, 7,700 calibrated years before present (cal. yr bp). Pollen, algal, fungal spore and micro-charcoal data from sediments demonstrate that these Neolithic communities selected lowland swamps for their rice cultivation and settlement, using fire to clear alder-dominated wetland scrub and prepare the site for occupation, then to maintain wet grassland vegetation of paddy type. Regular flooding by slightly brackish water was probably controlled by 'bunding' to maintain crop yields. The site's exploitation ceased when it was overwhelmed by marine inundation 7,550 cal. yr bp. Our results establish that rice cultivation began in coastal wetlands of eastern China, an ecosystem vulnerable to coastal change but of high fertility and productivity, attractions maximized for about two centuries by sustained high levels of cultural management of the environment. PMID:17898767