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1

Toxicity of rotenone to giant river freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aquaculturists have often suffered predation losses in the production of freshwater giant river prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii due to the presence of wild fish species in culture ponds. The piscicide rotenone is widely used to remove undesirable fish species from ponds. Although evidence in the t...

2

RNA-binding region of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus capsid protein.  

PubMed

White tail disease (WTD) kills prawn larvae and causes drastic losses to the freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) industry. The main causative agent of WTD is Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV). The N-terminal end of the MrNV capsid protein is very rich in positively charged amino acids and is postulated to interact with RNA molecules. N-terminal and internal deletion mutagenesis revealed that the RNA-binding region is located at positions 20-29, where 80?% of amino acids are positively charged. Substitution of all these positively charged residues with alanine abolished the RNA binding. Mutants without the RNA-binding region still assembled into virus-like particles, suggesting that this region is not a part of the capsid assembly domain. This paper is, to the best of our knowledge, the first to report the specific RNA-binding region of MrNV capsid protein. PMID:24878641

Goh, Zee Hong; Mohd, Nur Azmina Syakirin; Tan, Soon Guan; Bhassu, Subha; Tan, Wen Siang

2014-09-01

3

Tolerance of Macrobrachium rosenbergii to white spot syndrome virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The susceptibility of Macrobrachium idella, M. lamerrae and M. rosenbergii to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was tested by immersion challenge, oral route and intramuscular injection. Their susceptibility to WSSV was compared with that of Penaeus indicus and P. monodon. The WSSV caused 43.3% and 53.3% mortality in M. lamerrae and M. idella, respectively, by immersion method and 53.3% and

A. S Sahul Hameed; M. Xavier Charles; M Anilkumar

2000-01-01

4

Optimisation of reverse transcriptase loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid detection of Macrobrachium rosenbergii noda virus and extra small virus in Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The standardisation and optimisation of a one step single tube reverse transcriptase loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) procedure is described for rapid diagnosis of white tail disease, a viral disease caused by Macrobrachium rosenbergii noda virus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV), in giant fresh water prawn, M. rosenbergii. Time, temperature and quantity of each reagent were optimised for the detection

Divya V. Haridas; Devika Pillai; B. Manojkumar; C. Mohanakumaran Nair; P. M. Sherief

2010-01-01

5

Feasibility of direct utilization of selected geothermal water for aquaculture of macrobrachium rosenbergii. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility was tested of direct utilization of geothermal water for the aquaculture of Malaysian freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). A problem with using geothermal water for aquaculture is the chemical composition of the water with high flouride levels being a particular problem. Results show that (1) some geothermal water in Idaho can be used directly for the aquaculture of Macrobrachium rosenbergii, (2) high flouride levels cannot be directly correlated with high mortality rates and (3) low flouride levels do not correlate with high growth rates.

Spinosa, C.

1984-05-01

6

Effects of Handling Methods on Quality Changes of Giant Freshwater Prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) were subjected to conditions, which simulated domestic and export handling practices. Prawns were mixed with crushed ice to maintain the prawn samples temperature at 0°C and were stored at room temperature (25 ±2°C) for 48 hr for the domestic handling trial, while for export handling, the samples were kept in a cold room at (0 ±1°C) for

Punchira Vongsawasdi; Athapol Noomhorm

2000-01-01

7

Bacterial agglutination by the sialic acid specific serum lectin from Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have isolated a serum lectin from the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii that agglutinates Bacillus cereus and Aeromona sp. This lectin also agglutinates other bacteria such as Pasteurella haemolytica biotype A (capsular serotype 12), several serotypes from P. multocida and Staphylococcus aureus and to a lesser extent Escherichia coli and Salmonella arizona.Lectin recognition of well known polysaccharide components seems to

Lorena Vazquez; Laura Jaramillo; Ricardo Lascurain; Edwin L. Cooper; Patricia Rosas; Edgar Zenteno

1996-01-01

8

Routine Metabolic Rate and Limiting Oxygen Concentration of Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii Larvae  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Malaysian prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, are hatched and raised indoors in small tanks. Prawns may be raised and shipped at high densities which could result in low dissolved oxygen (DO) conditions. Because DO may play an important role in prawn development and survival, we measured routine me...

9

Development of cell culture system from the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new cell culture system (MRH) was developed for the first time from 2 months old freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Primary cultures were developed from heart tissues by explant culture technique. Cell outgrowth was obtained from the heart\\u000a explant after 14 days of explant culture. The culture medium used was Leibovitz-15 supplemented with 20% Fetal Bovine Serum\\u000a along with 1% prawn hemolymph

Mukunda Goswami; Wazir S. Lakra; T. Rajaswaminathan; Gourav Rathore

2010-01-01

10

Quantification of lectin in freshwater prawn ( Macrobrachium rosenbergii) hemolymph by ELISA  

Microsoft Academic Search

An enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay was developed to quantify the lectin present in the hemolymph of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. This method involves the use of murine monoclonal IgG1 with ? light chain (designated as 3G1) antibodies raised against the purified lectin, the assay that we developed recognized as little as 30 ng\\/ml of lectin, and was used to measure

Concepción Agundis; Ali Pereyra; Roberto Zenteno; Colette Brassart; Claudia Sierra; Lorena Vazquez; Edgar Zenteno

2000-01-01

11

Transcriptomics of a Giant Freshwater Prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii): De Novo Assembly, Annotation and Marker Discovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundGiant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii or GFP), is the most economically important freshwater crustacean species. However, as little is known about its genome, 454 pyrosequencing of cDNA was undertaken to characterise its transcriptome and identify genes important for growth.Methodology and Principal FindingsA collection of 787,731 sequence reads (244.37 Mb) obtained from 454 pyrosequencing analysis of cDNA prepared from muscle, ovary

Hyungtaek Jung; Russell E. Lyons; Hung Dinh; David A. Hurwood; Sean McWilliam; Peter B. Mather

2011-01-01

12

Effects of anthraquinones extracted from Rheum officinale Bail on the growth, non-specific immune response of Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of anthraquinone extracted from Rheum officinale Bail on growth, some non-specific immunite parameters, and disease resistance of Macrobrachium rosenbergii were studied in this experiment. M. rosenbergii were randomly divided into five groups: a control group was fed with basal diet, and four treated groups fed with basal diet supplemented with 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.4% anthraquinone extract for

Bo Liu; Xianping Ge; Yanhui He; Jun Xie; Pao Xu; Yijin He; Qunlan Zhou; Liangkun Pan; Ruli Chen

2010-01-01

13

The microbial flora of pond-reared shrimp (Penaeus stylirostris, P. setiferus, P. vannamei, and Macrobrachium rosenbergii)  

E-print Network

THE MICROBIAL FLORA OF POND-REARED SHRIMP (PENAEUS STYLIROSTRIS, P. SETIFERUS, P. VANNAMEI, AND MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERQII) A Thesis Frank Mitchell Christopher Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1976 Major Subjectc Microbiology THE MICROBIAL FLORA OF POND-REARED SHRIMP ( PENAEUS STYLI ROSTR I S P SET I FERUS ~ P VANNAME I y AND MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERGII ) A Thesis Frank Mitchell...

Christopher, Frank Mitchell

1976-01-01

14

Grooming as a secondary behavior in the shrimp Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Crustacea, Decapoda, Caridea)  

PubMed Central

Abstract The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is a large shrimp extensively used in aquaculture whose grooming behaviors were analyzed in this study. Macrobrachium rosenbergii exhibits three unique male morphotypes that differ in their behavior, morphology and physiology: small-clawed males (SM), orange-clawed males (OC) and blue-clawed males (BC). The largest and most dominant males, BC males, are predicted to have significantly different grooming behaviors compared to females and the other two male morphotypes. These BC males may be too large and bulky to efficiently groom and may dedicate more time to mating and agonistic interactions than grooming behaviors. Observations were conducted to look at the prevalence of grooming behaviors in the absence and presence of conspecifics and to determine if any differences in grooming behavior exist among the sexes and male morphotypes. Significant differences in the grooming behaviors of all individuals (females and male morphotypes) were found. BC males tended to have the highest grooming time budget (percent of time spent grooming) while SM males had a relatively low grooming time budget. The grooming behaviors of the male morphotypes differed, indicating while these males play distinct, separate roles in the social hierarchy, they also have different grooming priorities. The conditions in which Macrobrachium rosenbergii are cultured may result in increased body fouling, which may vary, depending on the grooming efficiencies and priorities of these male morphotypes. Overall, grooming behaviors were found to be a secondary behavior which only occurred when primary behaviors such as mating, feeding or fighting were not present. PMID:25561831

VanMaurik, Lauren N.; Wortham, Jennifer L.

2014-01-01

15

Cloning and expression analysis of an anti-lipopolysaccharide factor from giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

Anti-lipopolysaccharide factors (ALFs) are a group of effector molecules that are classified as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). They are found in limulids and crustaceans and show a broad range of antimicrobial activity. In the current study, an ALF gene from Macrobrachium rosenbergii (MrALF) was identified. Its full length was 690 bp and it encoded a 124 amino acid protein. A signal peptide and a conserved LPS-binding domain with two conserved cysteine residues that comprise a cluster of positive charged residues within a disulfide loop were predicted in MrALF. The M. rosenbergii ALF clusters with the Macrobrachium olfersii ALF and further clusters with most crustacean ALFs, suggesting that they should originate from one common ancestor. Positive selections should have sharpen the evolution of M. rosenbergii and M. olfersii ALF genes. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that MrALF was expressed in all detected tissues. In the epidermis, MrALF was obviously upregulated 24 h after the LPS challenge. In the stomach and gills, MrALF was upregulated upon LPS challenge. The results show that MrALF might have important roles in the immune defense against invading bacteria. The positive selections that occur in the ALFs of crustaceans might have resulted from a Red Queen's race with its pathogens. We found evidence of positive selection acting to drive functional divergence during the evolution crustacean ALF genes, especially in the M. rosenbergii ALF gene. The evolutionary changes might correspond to the challenges induced by pathogens that infect crustaceans. PMID:22350161

Ren, Qian; Du, Zhi-Qiang; Li, Meng; Zhang, Chi-Yu; Chen, Ke-Ping

2012-07-01

16

Nitrogenous excretion in Macrobrachium rosenbergii at different pH levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macrobrachium rosenbergii (31.1 ± 1.9 g) were maintained individually in freshwater with pH levels of 4.15, 5.55, 7.10, 8.61 and 10.15 for 7 days, and then nitrogenous excretions from each animal for one day were measured. Ammonia-N excretion (?g g?1 h?1) and total nitrogen excretion (?g g?1 h?1) decreased with increased pH level, whereas urea-N excretion (?g g?1 h?1), nitrite-N

Jiann-Chu Chen; Chu-Tau Kou

1996-01-01

17

Genetic diversity of cultured and wild populations of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii based on microsatellite analysis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii culture in the Western Hemisphere is primarily, if not entirely, based on thirty-six individual prawn introduced to Hawaii from Malaysia in 1965 and 1966. Little information is available regarding the genetic background or current population status of cult...

18

TBT Effects on the Development of Intersex (Ovotestis) in Female Fresh Water Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

PubMed Central

The impact of tributyltin (TBT) on the female gonad and the endocrine system in Macrobrachium rosenbergii was studied. Prawns were exposed to environmentally realistic concentrations of 10, 100, and 1000?ng/L of TBT for 6 months. Dose dependent effects were noticed in TBT exposed prawns. At 1000?ng/L TBT caused ovotestis formation (formation of male germ cells in ovary). Presence immature oocytes, fusion of developing oocytes, increase in interstitial connective tissues, and its modification into tubular like structure and abundance of spermatogonia in the ovary of TBT treated prawns. The control prawn ovary showed normal architecture of cellular organelles such as mature oocytes with type 2 yolk globules, lipid droplets, normal appearance of yolk envelop, and uniformly arranged microvilli. On the other hand, type 1 yolk globules, reduced size of microvilli, spermatogonial cells in ovary, spermatogonia with centrally located nucleus, and chromatin distribution throughout the nucleoplasm were present in the TBT treated group. Immunofluorescence staining indicated a reduction in vitellin content in ovary of TBT treated prawn. Moreover, TBT had inhibited the vitellogenesis by causing hormonal imbalance in M. rosenbergii. Thus, the present investigation demonstrates that TBT substantially affects sexual differentiation and gonadal development in M. rosenbergii. PMID:25121096

Peranandam, Revathi; Palanisamy, Iyapparaj; Lourdaraj, Arockia Vasanthi; Natesan, Munuswamy; Vimalananthan, Arun Prasanna; Thangaiyan, Suganya; Perumal, Anantharaman; Muthukalingan, Krishnan

2014-01-01

19

Identification and function of 11 Rab GTPases in giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

Rab GTPases, members of the Ras-like GTPase superfamily, are central elements in endocytic membrane trafficking. However, little is known of the Rab genes in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. In this study, 11 Rab genes were identified from M. rosenbergii. All MrRabs have a RAB domain. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these 11 MrRabs were divided into different groups. The MrRab genes were ubiquitously expressed in heart, hemocytes, hepatopancreas, gills, stomach, and intestines. Real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed that the MrRab genes were significantly upregulated by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in the prawns, indicating that MrRabs might play an important role in innate immune response against WSSV. Moreover, after challenge with Vibrio parahaemolyticus, the expression levels of all MrRabs in the hepatopancreas were also upregulated, which might indicated the involvement of MrRabs in prawns antibacterial immunity. In all, these preliminary results showed that MrRabs were involved in innate immunity of M. rosenbergii. PMID:25542378

Huang, Ying; Ren, Qian

2015-03-01

20

TBT effects on the development of intersex (ovotestis) in female fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

The impact of tributyltin (TBT) on the female gonad and the endocrine system in Macrobrachium rosenbergii was studied. Prawns were exposed to environmentally realistic concentrations of 10, 100, and 1000?ng/L of TBT for 6 months. Dose dependent effects were noticed in TBT exposed prawns. At 1000?ng/L TBT caused ovotestis formation (formation of male germ cells in ovary). Presence immature oocytes, fusion of developing oocytes, increase in interstitial connective tissues, and its modification into tubular like structure and abundance of spermatogonia in the ovary of TBT treated prawns. The control prawn ovary showed normal architecture of cellular organelles such as mature oocytes with type 2 yolk globules, lipid droplets, normal appearance of yolk envelop, and uniformly arranged microvilli. On the other hand, type 1 yolk globules, reduced size of microvilli, spermatogonial cells in ovary, spermatogonia with centrally located nucleus, and chromatin distribution throughout the nucleoplasm were present in the TBT treated group. Immunofluorescence staining indicated a reduction in vitellin content in ovary of TBT treated prawn. Moreover, TBT had inhibited the vitellogenesis by causing hormonal imbalance in M. rosenbergii. Thus, the present investigation demonstrates that TBT substantially affects sexual differentiation and gonadal development in M. rosenbergii. PMID:25121096

Peranandam, Revathi; Palanisamy, Iyapparaj; Lourdaraj, Arockia Vasanthi; Natesan, Munuswamy; Vimalananthan, Arun Prasanna; Thangaiyan, Suganya; Perumal, Anantharaman; Muthukalingan, Krishnan

2014-01-01

21

First report on vertical transmission of a plasmid DNA in freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

Outbreak of WSSV disease is one of the major stumbling blocks in shrimp aquaculture. DNA vaccines have shown potential for mass scale vaccination owing to their stability, cost effectiveness and easy maintenance. Development of economically feasible delivery strategies remains to be a major challenge. This study demonstrates vertical transmission of a plasmid DNA in a decapod Macrobrachium rosenbergii for the first time. Females at three different maturation stages (immature, matured and berried) and mature males were injected with a plasmid DNA and allowed to spawn with untreated counterparts. Using specific primers the plasmid DNA could be amplified from the offspring of all groups except that of berried females. For this confirmation genomic DNA was isolated from 3 pools of 10 post larvae in each group. This presents an ideal strategy to protect young ones at zero stress. PMID:24933022

Chowdhury, Labrechai Mog; Gireesh-Babu, P; Pavan-Kumar, A; Suresh Babu, P P; Chaudhari, Aparna

2014-09-01

22

First report on interferon related developmental regulator-1 from Macrobrachium rosenbergii: bioinformatic analysis and gene expression.  

PubMed

This study reports the first full length gene of interferon related developmental regulator-1 (designated as MrIRDR-1), identified from the transcriptome of Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The complete gene sequence of the MrIRDR-1 is 2459 base pair long with an open reading frame of 1308 base pairs and encoding a predicted protein of 436 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 48 kDa. The MrIRDR-1 protein contains a long interferon related developmental regulator super family domain between 30 and 330. The mRNA expressions of MrIRDR-1 in healthy and the infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) infected M. rosenbergii were examined using qRT-PCR. The MrIRDR-1 is highly expressed in hepatopancreas along with all other tissues (walking leg, gills, muscle, haemocyte, pleopods, brain, stomach, intestine and eye stalk). After IHHNV infection, the expression is highly upregulated in hepatopancreas. This result indicates an important role of MrIRDR-1 in prawn defense system. PMID:22361112

Arockiaraj, Jesu; Easwvaran, Sarasvathi; Vanaraja, Puganeshwaran; Singh, Arun; Othman, Rofina Yasmin; Bhassu, Subha

2012-05-01

23

Toxicity of phenol on Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) eggs, larvae, and post-larvae  

SciTech Connect

Literature on the toxicities of phenol on aquatic organisms is very limited. USEPA reported that the acute and chronic toxicities of phenol to freshwater aquatic life occur at concentrations as low as 10.2 mg/L and 2.56 mg/L, respectively. While for the saltwater aquatic life the acute toxicity occurs at concentrations as low as 5.8 mg/L. No data are available for the chronic toxicity of phenol to saltwater aquatic life. Sublethal concentrations of phenol have significant effects on the physiological and histological processes of the aquatic organisms: such as gill necrosis; destruction of erythrocyte cells; inhibition of sexual activities; suppression on growth and reduction of resistance to diseases. Macrobrachium rosenbergii(de Man) is the sole freshwater prawn cultured in Malaysia. Occasionally, the hatcheries are unable to produce the post-larvae because of undefined pollutants present in the water supplies. It has been observed that the use of cracked fiberglass tanks for larvae rearing is correlated with high mortality. This high mortality is probably due to the toxicity of the phenolic compounds which are leached out from the fiber glass tank into the water. This study was undertaken to evaluate the toxicity of phenol on eggs, larvae and post-larvae of M. rosenbergii and to set the water quality criteria of phenol for the said species. 16 refs., 3 tabs.

Law, A.T.; Yeo, M.E. [Universiti Kolej Terengganu (UPM), Darul Iman (Malaysia)] [Universiti Kolej Terengganu (UPM), Darul Iman (Malaysia)

1997-03-01

24

Development of chitosan conjugated DNA vaccine against nodavirus in Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1879).  

PubMed

The protective efficacy of a DNA construct containing extra small virus antisense (XSVAS) gene of nodavirus encapsulated with chitosan nanoparticles (NPs) was investigated in giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1879). The delivery was carried out using oral and immersion methods. A plasmid concentration of 100 ng ?L(-1) when conjugated with chitosan NPs was found to be more effective in increasing the survivability of the infected prawn. The particle mean size, zeta potential and loading efficiency percentage were 297 nm, 27 mV and 85%, respectively. The ability of the chitosan to form a complex with the plasmid was studied by agarose gel electrophoresis. The NPs were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Persistence study showed the presence of the DNA construct up to 30th day post-treatment. The oral treatment was found to be better than the immersion treatment for delivery of the chitosan-conjugated DNA construct. This is probably the first report on the delivery of nanoconjugated DNA construct in M. rosenbergii, against nodavirus. PMID:24117511

Ramya, V L; Sharma, R; Gireesh-Babu, P; Patchala, S R; Rather, A; Nandanpawar, P C; Eswaran, S

2014-09-01

25

Performance of Giant Freshwater Prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man) Reared in Earthen Ponds Beneath Plastic Film Shelters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effects of using plastic film shelters on the survival, growth and production cost of giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). Three ponds were covered with plastic shelters, whilst three other were left unsheltered as controls. The surface area of all ponds was 100 square meters (6x16.7),with a water depth of 1.0 meter. Post larvae (0.012 g. mean

Niwooti Whangchai

26

Dopamine depresses the immune ability and increases susceptibility to Lactococcus garvieae in the freshwater giant prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total haemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase activity, respiratory burst (release of superoxide anion), superoxide dismutase activity, and phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency to the pathogen Lactococcus garvieae were measured when freshwater giant prawns Macrobrachium rosenbergii (16.2±2.1 g) were individually injected with saline, or dopamine at 0.5, 5.0, or 50.0 pmol prawn?1. The results show that a transient period of immunosuppression

Jian-Tong Li; Pai-Po Lee; Ou-Chuan Chen; Winton Cheng; Ching-Ming Kuo

2005-01-01

27

Trichlorfon, an organophosphorus insecticide, depresses the immune responses and resistance to Lactococcus garvieae of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total haemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase activity, respiratory bursts (release of superoxide anions), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency to the pathogen Lactococcus garvieae were measured when freshwater giant prawns Macrobrachium rosenbergii (18.2±2.1g) were individually reared in water containing concentrations of trichlorfon of 0, 0.2, or 0.4mgL?1 for a 144-h period. No significant differences in the

Chin-Chyuan Chang; Pai-Po Lee; Chun Hung Liu; Winton Cheng

2006-01-01

28

Effect of Densities and Culture Systems on Growth, Survival, Yield, and Economic Return of Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergiiFarming in the Rice Field in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postlarvae of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man 1879) were stocked at 2, 4, and 6 postlarvae (PL)\\/m into rice fields under two culture systems, the integrated and the rotational prawn-rice system. Prawn was fed pellet feed twice daily. The growth of Macrobrachium rosenbergii decreased at higher stocking densities. Prawns in the rotational system grew faster than those in the integrated system.

Lam My Lan; Jean-Claude Micha; Duong Nhut Long; Pham Truong Yen

2006-01-01

29

A cytosolic glutathione s-transferase, GST-theta from freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii: molecular and biochemical properties.  

PubMed

Glutathione S-transferases play an important role in cellular detoxification and may have evolved to protect cells against reactive oxygen metabolites. In this study, we report the molecular characterization of glutathione s-transferase-theta (GST-?) from freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. A full length cDNA of GSTT (1417 base pairs) was isolated and characterized bioinformatically. Exposure to virus (white spot syndrome baculovirus or M. rosenbergii nodovirus), bacteria (Aeromonas hydrophila or Vibrio harveyi) or heavy metals (cadmium or lead) significantly increased the expression of GSTT (P<0.05) in hepatopancreas. Recombinant GST-? with monochlorobimane substrate had an optimum activity at pH7.5 and 35 °C. Furthermore recombinant GST-? activity was abolished by the denaturants triton X-100, Gua-HCl, Gua-thiocyanate, SDS and urea in a dose-dependent manner. Overall, the results suggest a potential role for M. rosenbergii GST-? in detoxification and possibly conferring immune protection. PMID:24879918

Arockiaraj, Jesu; Gnanam, Annie J; Palanisamy, Rajesh; Bhatt, Prasanth; Kumaresan, Venkatesh; Chaurasia, Mukesh Kumar; Pasupuleti, Mukesh; Ramaswamy, Harikrishnan; Arasu, Abirami; Sathyamoorthi, Akila

2014-08-10

30

Cloning and characterization of two different ficolins from the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

Ficolins, a kind of lectin containing collagen-like and fibrinogen-related domains (FReDs, also known as FBG or FREP), are involved in the first line of host defense against pathogens. In this study, two ficolins, namely, MrFico1 and MrFico2, from the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii were identified. In contrast to other ficolins, these two ficolins have no collagen-like domain, but such ficolins contain a coiled region and a FReD domain. Phylogenetic analysis showed that MrFico1 and MrFico2, together with two ficolin-like proteins from Pacifastacus leniusculus, belonged to one group. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) showed that both MrFico1 and MrFico2 were expressed in hepatopancreas, stomach and intestine, with the highest expression in stomach for MrFico1, compared to the highest expression in hepatopancreas for MrFico2. qRT-PCR analysis also showed that MrFico1 was obviously upregulated upon Vibrio anguillarium challenge, while MrFico2 was upregulated after challenged by V. anguillarium or white spot syndrome virus. Bacterium-binding experiment showed that MrFico1 and MrFico2 could bind to different microbes, and sugar-binding assay revealed that these two ficolins could also bind to lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycan, the glycoconjugates of bacteria surface. Moreover, these two ficolins could agglutinate bacteria in a calcium-dependent manner, and the results of bacteria clearance experiment showed that both ficolins could facilitate the clearance of injected bacteria in the prawn. Our results suggested that MrFico1 and MrFico2 may function as pattern-recognition receptors in the immune system of M. rosenbergii. PMID:24462836

Zhang, Xiao-Wen; Wang, Xian-Wei; Huang, Ying; Hui, Kai-Min; Shi, Yan-Ru; Wang, Wen; Ren, Qian

2014-06-01

31

Transcriptomics of a Giant Freshwater Prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii): De Novo Assembly, Annotation and Marker Discovery  

PubMed Central

Background Giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii or GFP), is the most economically important freshwater crustacean species. However, as little is known about its genome, 454 pyrosequencing of cDNA was undertaken to characterise its transcriptome and identify genes important for growth. Methodology and Principal Findings A collection of 787,731 sequence reads (244.37 Mb) obtained from 454 pyrosequencing analysis of cDNA prepared from muscle, ovary and testis tissues taken from 18 adult prawns was assembled into 123,534 expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Of these, 46% of the 8,411 contigs and 19% of 115,123 singletons possessed high similarity to sequences in the GenBank non-redundant database, with most significant (E value < 1e–5) contig (80%) and singleton (84%) matches occurring with crustacean and insect sequences. KEGG analysis of the contig open reading frames identified putative members of several biological pathways potentially important for growth. The top InterProScan domains detected included RNA recognition motifs, serine/threonine-protein kinase-like domains, actin-like families, and zinc finger domains. Transcripts derived from genes such as actin, myosin heavy and light chain, tropomyosin and troponin with fundamental roles in muscle development and construction were abundant. Amongst the contigs, 834 single nucleotide polymorphisms, 1198 indels and 658 simple sequence repeats motifs were also identified. Conclusions The M. rosenbergii transcriptome data reported here should provide an invaluable resource for improving our understanding of this species' genome structure and biology. The data will also instruct future functional studies to manipulate or select for genes influencing growth that should find practical applications in aquaculture breeding programs. PMID:22174756

Jung, Hyungtaek; Lyons, Russell E.; Dinh, Hung; Hurwood, David A.; McWilliam, Sean; Mather, Peter B.

2011-01-01

32

Post-Embryonic Transcriptomes of the Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii: Multigenic Succession through Metamorphosis  

PubMed Central

Like many metazoans, the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii begins its post-embryonic life with a set of morphologically distinct planktonic larval stages, followed by a benthic post-larval stage during which the maturing organism differs from the larvae both ecologically and physiologically. Understanding of the molecular basis underlying morphogenesis in crustaceans is limited to the observation that methyl farnesoate, the non-epoxidated form of the insect juvenile hormone, acts as the active crustacean juvenoid. Molt steroids were also linked to morphogenesis and several other molecular pathways, such as Hedgehog and Wnt, are known to underlie morphogenesis in all metazoans examined and, as such, are thought to do the same in crustaceans. Using next generation sequencing, we deep-sequenced the transcriptomes of several larval and post-larval stages. De novo assembly, followed by bioinformatics analysis, revealed that many novel transcripts are over-expressed in either larvae- or post-larvae-stage prawn, shedding light on the molecular basis underlying M. rosenbergii metamorphosis. Fast larval molting rates and periodic morphological changes were reflected in over-expression of transcripts annotated to the cell cycle, DNA replication and morphogenic pathways (i.e., Hedgehog and Wnt). Further characterization of transcripts assigned to morphogenic pathways by real-time RT-PCR reconfirmed their over-expression in larvae, albeit with a more complex expression pattern when examined in the individual developmental stages. The expression level of an orthologue of cytochrome P450, 15A1, known to epoxidize methyl farnesoate in insects, was increased in the late larval and early post-larval stages, in accordance with the role of methyl farnesoate in crustacean metamorphosis. This study exemplifies the applicability of a high-throughput sequencing approach for studying complex traits, including metamorphosis, providing new insight into this unexplored area of crustacean research. PMID:23372848

Ventura, Tomer; Manor, Rivka; Aflalo, Eliahu D.; Chalifa-Caspi, Vered; Weil, Simy; Sharabi, Omri; Sagi, Amir

2013-01-01

33

Nutrient budgets and effluent characteristics in giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) culture ponds.  

PubMed

It is important to understand nutrient budgets of aquaculture practices for efficiency of input resources and to utilize all output nutrient sources. The aim of the present study was to develop a nutrient budget for giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) culture ponds. The study was conducted in farmer's ponds (0.25-0.5 ha) of Odisha, India, and the results showed that feed accounted 97% total nitrogen (N), 98.7% total phosphorus (P) and 90% total organic carbon (OC), respectively. The harvested prawn accounted for recovery of 37% N, 10% P and 15% OC, respectively. The N, P and OC accumulated in sediment were 52%, 76%, and 65%, respectively. Nutrient loads in the effluents were 2.22 ± 0.66 kg inorganic N, 0.40 ± 0.15 kg P, and 21.01 ± 6.4 kg OC per ton of prawn production. The present study implicated that high nutrient values observed in both water and sediment provide important opportunities for nutrient reuse through pond sediment applications to croplands as an organic manure, as well as pond water irrigation to crops as a "liquid fertilizer". PMID:24522829

Adhikari, Subhendu; Sahu, Bharat Chandra; Mahapatra, Abhijit S; Dey, Lambodar

2014-05-01

34

Molecular cloning and characterisation of peroxinectin, a cell adhesion molecule, from the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

Expression of peroxinectin cDNA was determined from haemocytes of giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii using oligonucleotide primers and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) based on the peroxinectin sequence of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon, and freshwater crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus. The peroxinectin of M. rosenbergii was constitutively expressed. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence revealed that the cDNA clone has an open reading frame of 2,403 bp encoding a protein of 801 amino acids including a 20 amino acid signal peptide. The calculated molecular mass of the mature protein (781 amino acids) was 88.7 kDa with an estimated pI of 6.8. A putative peroxidase domain and a putative integrin-binding motif, KGD (Lys-Gly-Asp) were observed in prawn peroxinectin at the C-terminal. Sequence comparison showed that peroxinectin deduced amino acid of M. rosenbergii had an overall similarity of 62%, 64%, and 66% to that of P. leniusculus, P. monodon, and L. vannamei, respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that peroxinectin transcript in haemocyte of M. rosenbergii decreased significantly after 3, 6 and 12h injection with Lactococcus garvieae. PMID:16377210

Hsu, Pei-I; Liu, Chun-Hung; Tseng, Deng-Yu; Lee, Pai-Po; Cheng, Winton

2006-07-01

35

Influence of short term exposure of TBT on the male reproductive activity in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man).  

PubMed

In the present study, the effect of tributyltin (TBT) on the histopathological and hormonal changes during spermatogenesis in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii was documented. Three experimental concentrations such as 10, 100 and 1,000 ng/L were selected and exposed to prawns for 45 days. After TBT exposure, the reproductive activities like sperm count and sperm length were decreased when compared with control. Further, abnormal structure of the seminiferous tubule, decrease in spermatozoa concentration, diminution of the seminiferous tubule membrane and the abundance of spermatocytes in the testis were noticed in treated prawns. Interestingly, radioimmunoassay clearly revealed the reduction of testosterone level in TBT exposed groups. Thus, TBT has considerably reduced the level of testosterone and caused the impairment of spermatogenesis in the freshwater male prawn M. rosenbergii. PMID:25016935

Revathi, Peranandam; Iyapparaj, Palanisamy; Vasanthi, Lourduraj Arockia; Munuswamy, Natesan; Prasanna, Vimalanathan Arun; Pandiyarajan, Jayaraj; Krishnan, Muthukalingan

2014-10-01

36

Cloning and characterisation of mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase (mtMnSOD) from the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

A cDNA encoding a mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase (mtMnSOD) was cloned from the hepatopancreas of giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) by degenerate primers. Both 3'- and 5'-regions were isolated by rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE) PCR method. Analysis of nucleotide sequence revealed that the mtMnSOD full-length cDNA consists of 1202bp containing an open reading frame of 654bp, which encodes a protein consisting of 218 amino acids including a signal peptide of 16 amino acid residues. The calculated molecular mass of the mature proteins (202 amino acids) is 24kDa with an estimated pI of 7.12. Two putative N-glycosylation sites, NXT and NXS were observed in the mtMnSOD. Manganese superoxide dismutase signatures from 180 to 187 (DVWEHAYY), and four conserved amino acids responsible for binding manganese were observed (H48, H96, D180 and H184). Sequence comparison showed that the mtMnSOD deduced amino acid sequence of Macrobrachium rosenbergii has similarity of 88%, 78%, 56%, 54% and 46% to that of blue crab Callinectes sapidus, crucifix crab Charybdis feriatus, brown shrimp Farfantepenaeus aztecus, European lobster Palinurus vulgaris, and grass shrimp Palaemontes pugio, respectively, and has similarity of 45%, 44%, 43%, 26% and 25% to cytMnSOD (cytosolic MnSOD) deduced amino acid sequence of blue crab C. sapidus, prawn M. rosenbergii, tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon, grass shrimp P. pugio and brown shrimp F. aztecus, respectively. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that levels of mtMn-SOD transcripts in hepatopancreas and haemocytes were not significantly different between the M. rosenbergii injected with Lactococcus garvieae, and that injected with saline after 3h to 24h. PMID:16621606

Cheng, Winton; Tung, Ying-Hsiu; Chiou, Tzu-Ting; Chen, Jiann-Chu

2006-10-01

37

Embryonic development, hatching, mineral consumption, and survival of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) reared in artificial seawater in closed recirculating water system at different levels of salinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experiment aims to study the effect of different levels of salinity (5, 15 and 25 ppt) using artificial sea water on the embryonic development and hatching percentage of the eggs of unripe berried female giant freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) with an average size of 14.3+0.6 cm TL. After incubation through the heart beating stage (grayish black eggs), the brooders

Krasindh Hangsapreurke; Thon Thamrongnawasawat; Sorawit Powtongsook; Prajuab Lumubol

38

Effects of Two Densities of Caged Monosex Nile Tilapia Oreochromis Niloticus on Water Quality, Phytoplankton Populations and Production When Polycultured With Macrobrachium rosenbergii in Temperate Ponds  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Elevated pH levels from the photosynthetic activity of phytoplankton can be a major problem in semi-intensive freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) production systems. Phytoplanktontiverous fish may be able to graze excess phytoplankton and lower pH. The effect of different densities of cag...

39

Impact of TBT on the vitellogenesis and sex hormones in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1879)  

PubMed Central

Background Tributyltin (TBT) is a ubiquitous persistent xenobiotic that can be found in freshwater, estuarine and marine ecosystem. TBT is a strong endocrine disrupting compound (EDC) that can cause toxic threat to aquatic organisms. Imposex, sexual deformities and endocrine dysfunctions are the causes of TBT to most of the aquatic organisms. Effect of TBT on the vitellogenesis and sex hormonal changes in Macrobrachium rosenbergii has never been reported. Hence, the present investigation was undertaken to find out the impact of TBT on histological changes in the different reproductive tissues, sex hormonal alterations and level of biomarkers like vitellogenin and vitellin in M. rosenbergii. Results The present investigation documents the possible impact of tributyltin (TBT) on the vitellogenesis in freshwater female prawn M. rosenbergii. TBT at 10 ng/l, 100 ng/l and 1000 ng/l concentrations were exposed individually to prawns for a period of three months. At higher concentration of 1000 ng/l, the ovarian development was arrested and ovary remained at spent stage. At lower concentration of TBT (10 ng/l), the development proceeded up to early vitellogenic stage. At intermediate concentration of 100 ng/l TBT, the ovary remained at pre vitellogenic stage and thereafter no development was noticed. Histological results indicated the normal ovarian development with vitellogenic oocytes, filled with yolk globules in control prawn. On the other hand, the TBT treated groups showed reduction in yolk globules, fusion of developing oocytes and abundance of immature oocytes. Immunofluorescence staining denoted the remarkable reduction in vitellin content in ovary of TBT treated prawn. Hence, TBT had conspicuously inhibited the vitellogenesis by causing hormonal imbalance in M. rosenbergii. Conclusion TBT had notably inhibited the vitellogenesis due to hormonal imbalance. This endocrine dysfunction ultimately impaired the oogenesis in the freshwater female prawn M. rosenbergii. PMID:23634699

2013-01-01

40

Identification of the major allergen of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (giant freshwater prawn)  

PubMed Central

Objective To characterize the major allergens of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (giant freshwater prawn). Methods Raw and cooked extracts of the giant freshwater prawn were prepared. The IgE reactivity pattern was identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting technique with the sera of 20 skin prick test (SPT) positive patients. The major allergen identified was then characterized using the proteomics approach involving a combination of two-dimensional (2-DE) electrophoresis, mass spectrometry and bioinformatics tools. Results SDS-PAGE of the raw extract showed 23 protein bands (15–250 kDa) but those ranging from 40 to 100 kDa were not found in the cooked extract. From immunoblotting experiments, raw and cooked extracts demonstrated 11 and 5 IgE-binding proteins, respectively, with a molecular mass ranging from 15 to 155 kDa. A heat-resistant 36 kDa protein was identified as the major allergen of both extracts. In addition, a 42 kDa heat-sensitive protein was shown to be a major allergen of the raw extract. The 2-DE gel fractionated the prawn proteins to more than 50 different protein spots. Of these, 10 spots showed specific IgE reactivity with patients' sera. Matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) analysis led to identification of 2 important allergens, tropomyosin and arginine kinase. Conclusions It can be concluded that the availability of such allergens would help in component-based diagnosis and therapy of prawn allergies. PMID:23569834

Yadzir, Zailatul Hani Mohamad; Misnan, Rosmilah; Abdullah, Noormalin; Bakhtiar, Faizal; Arip, Masita; Murad, Shahnaz

2012-01-01

41

Genetic Inheritance of Female and Male Morphotypes in Giant Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

PubMed Central

Giant freshwater prawn (GFP) Macrobrachium rosenbergii is unique with males categorized in five different morphotypes (small claw, orange claw, blue claw, old blue claw and no claw males) and females in three reproductive statuses (mature ovary, berried and spawned females). In the present study we examined genetic inheritance of female and male morphotypes, their body weights and genetic associations between morphotypes and body traits. Restricted maximum likelihood fitting a multi-trait animal model was performed on a total of 21,459 body records collected over five generations in a GFP population selected for high growth rate. The estimates of variance components showed that there were substantial differences in additive genetic variance in body weight between male morphotypes. The low and significantly different from one genetic correlations between the expressions of body weight in male morphotypes also suggest that these traits should be treated as genetically different traits in selective breeding programs. By contrast, body weights of female types are essentially the same characters as indicated by the high genetic correlations between homologous trait expressions. In addition to body weight, male morphotypes and female reproductive statuses were treated as traits in themselves and were analysed as binary observations using animal and sire linear mixed models, and logit and probit threshold models. The estimates of heritability back-transformed from the liability scale were in good agreement with those obtained from linear mixed models, ranging from 0.02 to 0.43 for male morphotypes and 0.06 to 0.10 for female types. The genetic correlations among male morphoptypes were generally favourable. Body weight showed negative genetic associations with SM (?0.96), whereas those of body weight with other male morphotypes were positive (0.25 to 0.76). Our results showed that there is existence of heritable (additive genetic) component for male morphotypes, giving prospects for genetic selection to change population structure of GFP. PMID:24587246

2014-01-01

42

Identification and cloning of a transglutaminase from giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and its transcription during pathogen infection and moulting.  

PubMed

Complementary (c)DNA encoding transglutaminase (TG) messenger (m)RNA of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, was cloned from haemocytes by a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) using oligonucleotide primers based on the TG sequence of the horseshoe crab, Tachypleus tridentatus; tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon; kuruma shrimp, Marsupenaeus japonicus; and crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus. The 2722-bp cDNA contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 2334 bp, a 72-bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), and a 316-bp 3'-UTR containing a stop codon and a poly A tail. The molecular mass of the deduced amino acid (aa) sequence (778 aa) was 86.67 kDa with an estimated pI of 5.4. The M. rosenbergii TG (abbreviated MrTG, accession no.: JF309296) contains a typical transglutaminase-like homologue, two putative integrin-binding motifs (RGD), ten glycosylation sites, and four calcium-binding sites; a catalytic triad is present as in arthropod TGs. Sequence comparison and a phylogenetic analysis revealed that shrimp TG can be separated into three subgroups, penaeid TG1, freshwater crustacean TG2 and marine crustacean TG2, and MrTG was more closely related to TG2 than to TG1. MrTG mRNA and TG activities were detected in all tested tissues of M. rosenbergii, with MrTG mainly being synthesised by haemocytes. There was a negative correlation between clotting time of haemolymph, and MrTG expression and TG activity of haemocytes in prawn injected with Lactococcus garvieae. The pattern of MrTG mRNA expression and TG activity in haemocytes exhibited a contrary tendency with clotting time of haemolymph during the moult stages. Those results indicate that cloned MrTG is involved in the defence response, and is probably the major functional TG for haemolymph coagulation in M. rosenbergii. PMID:21854853

Liu, Chun-Hung; Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Chiu, Yun-Chih; Cheng, Winton; Yeh, Maw-Sheng

2011-12-01

43

Carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus budget in scampi (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) culture ponds.  

PubMed

Experiments were conducted for the study of nutrient budget in ten farmer's ponds (0.2-0.5 ha) in Orissa, India with a mean water depth of 1.0-1.2 m. Scampi (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) were stocked in these ponds at stocking density of 3.75-5.0/m(2). The average initial body weight of scampi was 0.02 mg. The culture period was for 4 months. Feed was the main input. Total feed applied to these ponds ranged from 945 to 2261 kg pond/cycle (crop). The feed conversion ratio varied 1.65 to 1.78. In addition to feed, rice straw, urea, and single super phosphate were applied to these ponds in small amounts for plankton production. At harvest time, the average weight of scampi varied from 60-90 g. The budget showed that feed was the major input of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and carbon in these ponds. The inorganic fertilizer (urea and single super phosphate), organic fertilizer (rice straw and yeast extract), and inlet water, either from the initial fills or from rainwater, were the source of all other N, P, and organic carbon (OC) to these ponds. Total N applied to these ponds through all these inputs ranged from 44.45 to 103.98 kg N per crop, 12.23 to 28.79 kg P per crop, and from 381.54 to 905.22 kg OC per crop, respectively. Among all the inputs, feed alone accounted for 95.34 % N, 97.98 % P, and 94.27 % OC, respectively. Recovery of 16.34 to 38.66 kg N (average 29.27 kg), 1.28 to 3.02 kg P (average 2.29 kg), and 63.21 to 149.51 kg OC (average 113.20 kg), respectively, by the scampi harvest were observed in these ponds. Thus, harvest of scampi accounted for recovery of 35.18 to 39.01 (average 36.85%) of added N, 10.09 to 10.97 (average 10.44%) of added P, and 7.57 to 17.12 (average 16.34%) of added OC, respectively. PMID:23832231

Sahu, Bharat Chandra; Adhikari, Subhendu; Mahapatra, Abhijit S; Dey, Lambodar

2013-12-01

44

Setal morphology of the grooming appendages of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea: Palaemonidae) and review of decapod setal classification.  

PubMed

Setae are vital in grooming activities and aiding in the removal of epibionts and sedimentary fouling from the body surfaces of decapod crustaceans. Thus, the setal structures and their arrangement on the grooming appendages and sensory structures of the commercially important shrimp, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, were examined using scanning electron microscopy. Macrobrachium rosenbergii is extensively grown in aquaculture and exhibits unique male morphological forms, termed morphotypes. The three male morphotypes are termed blue-clawed males, orange-clawed males, and small-clawed or undifferentiated males and all three differ in their dominance, behavior, body morphology, and reproductive success. Seven setal types, two of which have never been described in the literature, are identified on the grooming appendages (third maxillipeds, first, second, and fifth pereopods) and antennae: simple, serrate, serrulate, spiniform, pappose, crinoid, and spinulate. The latter two setae are newly identified. Certain setal types, such as serrate and serrulate setae were located and associated with specific grooming appendages such as the first pereopods. The types of setae on the grooming appendages varied among females and male morphotypes and the novel setal types (crinoid and spinulate) were found only on two of the male morphotypes. A literature review of terminology related to the structure of setae and setal types in decapod crustaceans is offered as the usage of various terms is ambiguous and conflicting in the literature. The intention of this review is to provide future authors with a comprehensive collection of terms and images that can be used to describe various aspects of setal morphology in decapods. PMID:24500885

Wortham, Jennifer L; Vanmaurik, Lauren N; Wayne Price, W

2014-06-01

45

Isolation and characterization of a female-specific DNA marker in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

PubMed Central

In this study, a female-specific DNA marker in the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii was identified through amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). The AFLP-derived sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker was tested in over 200 individuals, giving reproducible sex identification. Further molecular characterization of the sex-marker's genomic region (?3?kb long) revealed the presence of tandem and inverted repeats. The ?3-kb sequence was identified both in male and female prawns, but with subtle differences: a deletion of 3?bp (present in female prawn but absent in male prawn) identified upstream of the SCAR marker sequence and two female-specific single-nucleotide polymorphisms, both indicating that male prawns are homozygous, whereas female prawns are heterozygous in this locus. Fluorescent in situ hybridization showed the ?3-kb sequence to be unique: to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a unique sex-specific sequence observed in situ in crustaceans. The sex-specific marker identified in M. rosenbergii may have considerable applied merit for crustacean culture in that it will enable the determination of genetic sex at early developmental stages when phenotypic differences are not identifiable. PMID:21522169

Ventura, T; Aflalo, E D; Weil, S; Kashkush, K; Sagi, A

2011-01-01

46

Morphological and histological studies on freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de man) irradiated with (60)Co gamma radiation.  

PubMed

This study was framed to investigate the (60)Co gamma radiation induced morphological and histological variations in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The LD50 value of (60)Co gamma irradiated M. rosenbergii observed (by probit analysis) at 30 Gy. Prawns were irradiated to four different dose levels (3 mGy, 30 mGy, 300 mGy and 3,000 mGy) using Theratron Phoenix TeleCobalt Unit [P-33] and one control group (without irradiation) maintained separately. Irradiated groups exhibited several morphological variations such as discoloration; damaged rostrum; opaque coloration in cephalothorax; black bands and dot formation in abdomen; deformed uropods and telson in tail regions when compared with control group. The Hepato Somatic Index reflected the severity of radiation on hepatopancreas. Histological variations in gills, hepatopancreas and muscles of irradiated groups were observed. In gills, structural changes such as swollen and fused lamellae, abnormal gill tips, hyperplasic, necrotic and clavate-globate lamellae were observed in gamma irradiated prawns. Accumulation of hemocytes in hemocoelic space, interstitial sinuses filled with abnormal infiltrated hemocytes, the tubular epithelium with ruptured basal laminae, abnormal and coagulated lumen, necrotic tubules, thickened basal laminae, tissue debris, necrotic hepatocytes were observed in irradiated prawn hepatopancreas. In muscle, shrinkage of muscular fiber and necrotic musculature were observed in irradiated prawns. These structural alterations of the organs it is felt could affect the vital physiological functions such as respiration, osmotic and ionic regulation in gills and muscles; absorption, storage and secretion of the hepatopancreas which in turn could adversely affect the growth and survival of freshwater prawn M. rosenbergii. PMID:24140570

Stalin, A; Broos, K V; Sadiq Bukhari, A; Syed Mohamed, H E; Singhal, R K; Venu-Babu, P

2013-11-15

47

Norepinephrine depresses the immunity and disease-resistance ability via ?1- and ?1-adrenergic receptors of Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

In this study, we determined the effects of norepinephrine (NE) on immunity and the pathway of its function in the freshwater giant prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The total hemocyte count (THC), differential hemocyte count (DHC), phenoloxidase activity, respiratory bursts, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, phagocytic activity, and clearance efficiency in response to the pathogen, Lactococcus garvieae, were measured when the freshwater giant prawn, M. rosenbergii (16.2±2.1 g) was individually injected with saline or NE at 0.5, 5.0, and 50.0 pmol prawn(-1). Results showed that semi-granular cells, respiratory bursts and phagocytic activity at 2 h, PO activity and clearance efficiency from 2 to 4 h, THC at 8 h, and SOD activity from 4 to 8 h significantly decreased, but hyaline cells at 2 h, and respiratory bursts at 8 h had significantly increased after injection of NE at 50.0 pmol prawn(-1). In prawns that had received 5.0 pmol NE prawn(-1), the PO activity had decreased at 2 h, SOD activity at 8 h, and the clearance efficiency at 2 h. PO activity had decreased at 2 h after prawns had received 0.5 pmol NE prawn(-1). All of the immune parameters had returned to control values by 16 h after receiving NE. However, no significant differences were observed in the granular cells during the experimental period. An injection of NE also significantly increased the mortality of prawns challenged with L. garvieae, which appeared to be dose dependent. In another experiment, NE co-injected with prazosin, metoprolol, or propranolol significantly decreased the mortality of challenged prawns, especially when co-injected with prazosin and metoprolol. These results suggest that stress-inducing NE suppresses the immune system, which in turn promotes the susceptibility of M. rosenbergii to L. garvieae via both ?1- and ?1-adrenergic receptors. PMID:21295067

Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Hung, Ming-Di; Cheng, Winton

2011-06-01

48

Effects of anthraquinone extract from Rheum officinale Bail on the growth performance and physiological responses of Macrobrachium rosenbergii under high temperature stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to study the effects of anthraquinone extract from Rheum officinale Bail on Macrobrachium rosenbergii under high temperature stress, freshwater prawns were randomly divided into five groups: a control group was fed with basal diet, and four treatment groups fed with basal diet supplemented with 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.4% anthraquinone extracts for 10 weeks, respectively. Then, freshwater prawns

Bo Liu; Jun Xie; Xianping Ge; Pao Xu; Aiming Wang; Yijin He; Qunlan Zhou; Liangkun Pan; Ruli Chen

2010-01-01

49

Effects of temperature, pH, salinity and ammonia on the phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency of giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii to Lactococcus garvieae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (14–17 g) was exposed to different temperatures (20, 25, 30 and 35 °C), pH values (4.22, 7.27 and 9.31), salinity levels (0‰, 5‰, 10‰ and 15‰) and different concentrations (0.02 (control), 0.55, 1.20 and 3.07 mg l?1) of ammonia-N (ammonia as nitrogen) for 7 days. They were then examined for phagocytic activity and clearance

Winton Cheng; Su-Mei Chen; Feng-I Wang; Pei-I Hsu; Chun-Hung Liu; Jiann-Chu Chen

2003-01-01

50

The immune response of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and its susceptibility to Lactococcus garvieae in relation to the moult stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (12–18 g) was examined for phenoloxidase activity, respiratory burst (release of superoxide anion), phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency for the pathogen Lactococcus garvieae at 28 °C. Phenoloxidase activity was higher at intermoult (C stage), whereas respiratory burst was the lowest at C stage among the moult stages of A, B, C, D1\\/D2 and D3.

Winton Cheng; Feng-Ming Juang; Jian-Tong Li; Meng-Chung Lin; Chun-Hung Liu; Jiann-Chu Chen

2003-01-01

51

[Rapid detection of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus isolated in China by a reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay combined with a lateral flow dipstick method].  

PubMed

White coloration of the muscle of the giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) is a serious problem in China. The Macrobrachium rosenbergii Nodavirus (MrNV) has been confirmed to be the pathogen that causes this disorder. To develop a rapid, sensitive and specific technology for the detection of Macrobrachium rosenbergii Nodavirus isolated from China (MrNV-China), a reverse-transcription loop- mediated isothermal amplification assay combined with a lateral flow dipstick (RT-LAMP-LFD) assay method is described. A set of four primers and a labeled probe were designed specifically to recognize six distinct regions of the MrNV RNA2 gene. Results showed the sensitivity of the RT-LAMP-LFD assay was ten-times higher than the reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay (RT-LAMP) with agarose gel electrophoresis. The assay was conducted with one-step amplification at 61°C in a single tube within 45 min. No product was generated from shrimps infected with other viruses, including DNA viruses (infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV); white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)) and RNA viruses (Taura syndrome virus (TSV); infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV); yellow head virus (YHV)). Results were visualized by the LFD method. Therefore, the described rapid and sensitive assay is potentially useful for MrNV detection. PMID:25562958

Lin, Feng; Liu, Li; Hao, Gui-Jie; Cao, Zheng; Sheng, Peng-Cheng; Wu, Ying-Lei; Shen, Jin-Yu

2014-09-01

52

Dietary supplementation of zinc nanoparticles and its influence on biology, physiology and immune responses of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to assess the influence of dietary zinc nanoparticles (size 50 nm) on the growth, biochemical constituents, enzymatic antioxidant levels and the nonspecific immune response of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii post larvae (PL). The concentrations of dietary supplement zinc nanoparticles (ZnNPs) were 0, 10, 20, 40, 60 and 80 mg kg(-1) with the basal diet, and the level of Zn in ZnNP-supplemented diets were 0.71, 10.61, 20.73, 40.73, 60.61 and 80.60 mg kg(-1), respectively. ZnNP-incorporated diets were fed to M. rosenbergii PL (initial body weight, 0.18 ± 0.02 g) in a triplicate experimental setup for a period of 90 days. ZnNP supplemented feed fed PL up to 60 mg kg(-1) showed significantly (P < 0.05) improved performance in survival, growth and activities of digestive enzymes (protease, amylase and lipase). The concentrations of biochemical constituents (total protein, total amino acid, total carbohydrate and total lipid), total haemocyte count and differential haemocyte count were elevated in 10-60 mg kg(-1) ZnNP supplemented feed fed PL. However, the PL fed with 80 mg ZnNPs kg(-1) showed negative results. Activities of enzymatic antioxidants [superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT)], metabolic enzymes [glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (GPT)] and the process of lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the hepatopancreas and muscle showed no significant alterations in 10-60 mg kg(-1) ZnNP supplemented feed fed PL. Whereas, 80 mg ZnNPs kg(-1) supplemented feed fed PL showed significant elevations in SOD, CAT, LPO, GOT and GPT. Therefore, 80 mg ZnNPs kg(-1) was found to be toxic to M. rosenbergii PL. Thus, the study suggests that up to 60 mg ZnNPs kg(-1) can be supplemented for regulating survival, growth and immunity of M. rosenbergii. PMID:24874230

Muralisankar, Thirunavukkarasu; Bhavan, Periyakali Saravana; Radhakrishnan, Subramanian; Seenivasan, Chandirasekar; Manickam, Narasimman; Srinivasan, Veeran

2014-07-01

53

A candidate gene association study for growth performance in an improved giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii ) culture line.  

PubMed

A candidate gene approach using type I single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers can provide an effective method for detecting genes and gene regions that underlie phenotypic variation in adaptively significant traits. In the absence of available genomic data resources, transcriptomes were recently generated in Macrobrachium rosenbergii to identify candidate genes and markers potentially associated with growth. The characterisation of 47 candidate loci by ABI re-sequencing of four cultured and eight wild samples revealed 342 putative SNPs. Among these, 28 SNPs were selected in 23 growth-related candidate genes to genotype in 200 animals selected for improved growth performance in an experimental GFP culture line in Vietnam. The associations between SNP markers and individual growth performance were then examined. For additive and dominant effects, a total of three exonic SNPs in glycogen phosphorylase (additive), heat shock protein 90 (additive and dominant) and peroxidasin (additive), and a total of six intronic SNPs in ankyrin repeats-like protein (additive and dominant), rolling pebbles (dominant), transforming growth factor-? induced precursor (dominant), and UTP-glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase 2 (dominant) genes showed significant associations with the estimated breeding values in the experimental animals (P =0.001-0.031). Individually, they explained 2.6-4.8 % of the genetic variance (R²=0.026-0.048). This is the first large set of SNP markers reported for M. rosenbergii and will be useful for confirmation of associations in other samples or culture lines as well as having applications in marker-assisted selection in future breeding programs. PMID:24122143

Jung, Hyungtaek; Lyons, Russell E; Li, Yutao; Thanh, Nguyen Minh; Dinh, Hung; Hurwood, David A; Salin, Krishna R; Mather, Peter B

2014-04-01

54

Characterization of two novel ADP ribosylation factors from giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and their responses to WSSV challenge.  

PubMed

ADP-ribosylation factors (Arfs) are small GTP-binding proteins that have an essential function in intracellular trafficking and organelle structure. To date, little information is available on the Arfs in the economically important giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and their relationship to viral infection. Here we identified two Arf genes from M.?rosenbergii (MrArf1 and MrArf2) for the first time. Phylogenetic analysis showed that MrArf1, together with MjArf1 from shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus belonged to Class I Arfs. By contrast, MrArf2 didn't not match any of the Arfs classes of I/II/III, although it could be clustered with an Arf protein from M.?japonicas called MjArfn, which may represent an analog of the Arf. MrArf1 was ubiquitously expressed in all the examined tissues, with the highest transcription level in the hepatopancreas, whereas MrArf2 was only highly expressed in the hepatopancreas and exhibited very low levels in the heart, stomach, gills and intestine. The expression level of MrArf1 in the gills was down-regulated post 24?h WSSV challenge, and reached the maximal level at 48?h. MrArf1 in the hepatopancreas went up from 24 to 48?h WSSV challenge. MrArf2 transcript in the gill also went down at 24?h and then was upregulated at 48?h WSSV challenge. MrArf2 increased significantly in the hepatopancreas 24?h after infection and then went down at 48?h WSSV challenge. RNAi results showed that knockdown of MrArf1 or MrArf2 could inhibit the expression of the envelope protein gene vp28 of the WSSV. So, it could be speculated that MrArf1 and MrArf2 might play important roles in the innate immune system against WSSV infection. PMID:25451300

Ding, Zheng-Feng; Ren, Jie; Tan, Jing-Min; Wang, Zheng; Yin, Shao-Wu; Huang, Ying; Huang, Xin; Wang, Wen; Lan, Jiang-Feng; Ren, Qian

2015-01-01

55

Predation and control of laboratory populations of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata by the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

Laboratory experiments were conducted on predation by the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, on Biomphalaria glabrata, a snail intermediate host of human schistosomiasis. Prawns greater than 22 mm carapace length could consume snails of any size. Smaller prawns exhibited a size-specific upper limit on the size of snail they could kill. Below the maximum size of prey consumed, little selectivity for prey size was demonstrated. All prawns heavier than 2.5 g killed the largest size of snail offered (16 mm diameter). Consumption, in terms of the numbers of snails killed, and the snails' wet weight and percentage of prawn body weight eaten per day, increased with prawn size. Large prawns consumed snails at a high rate (39% of body weight per day). Population experiments demonstrated that a prawn of 25 mm carapace length could eliminate 95% of a population of 80 snails in a 20-1 aquarium within 20 days and all snails by day 40. A prawn of 15 mm carapace length could not eliminate all snails. Large snails (24% of the initial population) had some protection from predation because of their size. Although the snails bred continuously, no snails were able to recruit to these populations in the presence of small prawns. In contrast, snail populations in control aquaria without prawns expanded to a mean of 919 snails by the end of the experiment (day 70). Since M. rosenbergii are voracious predators on B. glabrata, exhibit considerable habitat overlap with the snail prey, and are likely to treat snails as highly preferred food, further experimentation on these prawns in the context of biological control of schistosomiasis is warranted. The ready availability of prawns through established prawn hatcheries and the synergistic use of these prawns in aquaculture may ensure the reliability of stocking procedures and meet the standards of availability and cost-effectiveness required of a biological control agent. Polyculture of Macrobrachium with fin fish (Tilapia) indicates that these prawns may be a particularly useful control agent in aquacultural environments. PMID:2260905

Roberts, J K; Kuris, A M

1990-08-01

56

Production of recombinant capsid protein of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (r-MCP43) of giant freshwater prawn, M. rosenbergii (de Man) for immunological diagnostic methods.  

PubMed

White tail disease (WTD) caused by Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV) is a serious problem in prawn hatcheries. The gene for capsid protein of MrNV (MCP43) was cloned into pRSET B expression vector. The MCP43 protein was expressed as a protein with a 6-histidine tag in Escherichia coli GJ1158 with NaCl induction. This recombinant protein, which was used to raise the antiserum in rabbits, recognized capsid protein in different WTD-infected post-larvae and adult prawn. Various immunological methods such as Western blot, dot blot and ELISA techniques were employed to detect MrNV in infected samples using the antiserum raised against recombinant MCP43 of MrNV. The dot blot assay using anti-rMCP43 was found to be capable of detecting MrNV in WTD-infected post-larvae as early as at 24 h post-infection. The antiserum raised against r-MCP43 could detect the MrNV in the infected samples at the level of 100 pg of total protein. The capsid protein of MrNV estimated by ELISA using anti-rMCP43 and pure r-MCP43 as a standard was found to increase gradually during the course of infection from 24 h p.i. to moribund stage. The results of immunological diagnostic methods employed in this study were compared with that of RT-PCR to test the efficiency of antiserum raised against r-MCP43 for the detection of MrNV. The Western blot, dot blot and ELISA detected all MrNV-positive coded samples as detected by RT-PCR. PMID:23952017

Farook, M A; Madan, N; Taju, G; Majeed, S Abdul; Nambi, K S N; Raj, N Sundar; Vimal, S; Hameed, A S Sahul

2014-08-01

57

Identification and Characterization of Differentially Expressed Transcripts in the Gills of Freshwater Prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) under Salt Stress  

PubMed Central

The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is an economically important species. It is a euryhaline shrimp, surviving in wide-range salinity conditions. A change in gene expression has been suggested as an important component for stress management. To better understand the osmoregulatory mechanisms mediated by the gill, a subtractive and suppressive hybridization (SSH) tool was used to identify expressed transcripts linked to adaptations in saline water. A total of 117 transcripts represented potentially expressed under salinity conditions. BLAST analysis identified 22% as known genes, 9% as uncharacterized showing homologous to unannotated ESTs, and 69% as unknown sequences. All the identified known genes representing broad spectrum of biological pathways were particularly linked to stress tolerance including salinity tolerance. Expression analysis of 10 known genes and 7 unknown/uncharacterized genes suggested their upregulation in the gills of prawn exposed to saline water as compared to control indicating that these are likely to be associated with salinity acclimation. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) was used for obtaining full-length cDNA of MRSW-40 clone that was highly upregulated during salt exposure. The sequenced ESTs presented here will have potential implications for future understanding about salinity acclimation and/or tolerance of the prawn. PMID:22619594

Barman, Hirak Kumar; Patra, Swagat Kumar; Das, Varsha; Mohapatra, Shibani Dutta; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Mohapatra, Chinmayee; Mohanta, Ramya; Panda, Rudra Prasanna; Rath, Surya Narayan

2012-01-01

58

Expression of biotransformation and oxidative stress genes in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii exposed to chlordecone.  

PubMed

Chlordecone is a persistent organochlorine pesticide widely used between 1972 and 1993 in the French West Indies to control the root borer in banana fields. Chlordecone use resulted in long-term pollution of soils, contamination of waters, of aquatic organisms, and of fields. Chlordecone is known to be neurotoxic, to increase prostate cancer, and to have negative effects on cognitive and motor development during infancy. In Guadeloupe, most of the freshwater species living in contaminated rivers exceed the French legal limit of 20 ?g·kg(-1) wet weight. In the present study, we chose a transcriptomic approach to study the cellular effects of chlordecone in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, an important economical species in Guadeloupe. Quantitative PCR revealed an induction of genes involved in defense mechanism against oxidative stress (catalase and selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase) in prawns exposed to low environmental concentrations of chlordecone after 12 and 24 h of exposure. In prawns reared in a contaminated farm, transcription of genes involved in the biotransformation process (cytochrome P450 and glutathione-S-transferase (GST)) were induced after 8 days of exposure. Our results provide information on the mechanims of defense induced by chlordecone in aquatic crustacean species. This gene expression study of selected genes should be further strengthened by proteomic analyses and enzymatic activity assays to confirm the response of these biomarkers of stress in crustaceans and to give new insights into the mechanism of toxicity by chlordecone. PMID:24920261

Gaume, Béatrice; Dodet, Nathalie; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Lemoine, Soazig

2014-06-13

59

Function of a novel C-type lectin with two CRD domains from Macrobrachium rosenbergii in innate immunity.  

PubMed

C-type lectins play crucial roles in innate immunity. In the present study, a novel C-type lectin gene, designated as MrCTL, was identified from Macrobrachium rosenbergii. MrCTL contains 2 carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs), namely MrCRD1 and MrCRD2. The MrCRD1 contains a QEP motif and MrCRD2 contains a motif of EPD. MrCTL was mainly expressed in the hepatopancreas. The expression level of MrCTL in hepatopancreas was significantly upregulated after a challenge with Vibrio parahaemolyticus or White spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The recombinant MrCTL, MrCRD1 and MrCRD2 have an ability to agglutinate both Gram-negative (V. parahaemolyticus) and Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus) in a calcium dependent manner. The recombinant MrCTL, MrCRD1 and MrCRD2 bind directly to all tested microorganisms. All these results suggested that MrCTL may have important roles in immune defense against invading pathogens in prawns. PMID:25475962

Huang, Xin; Huang, Ying; Shi, Yan-Ru; Ren, Qian; Wang, Wen

2015-03-01

60

Toxicity study of the oil dispersant Corexit 9527 on Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) egg hatchability by using a flow-through bioassay technique.  

PubMed

The effect of the oil-spill dispersant Corexit 9527 on egg-hatching rate of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) was studied by using an innovated flow-through bioassay technique. This bioassay method relies on the fact that M. rosenbergii fertilized eggs when detached from the mother prawn were able to hatch artificially. The flow-through system generated a stable and good water quality environment for hatching the eggs successfully. The Corexit 9527 had a pronounced effect on hatching rate of the M. rosenbergii eggs. In the control, the hatching rate of the eggs was 95.55% +/- 1.74%. However, it was reduced drastically with increasing concentrations of Corexit 9527. A 100% inhibition of egg hatchability was found when the level of Corexit 9527 was higher than 250 mg litre(-1). The EC(50) and the EC(95) values estimated by the probit method were 80.4 +/- 5.5 mg litre(-1) and 193.5 +/- 39.9 mg litre(-1) respectively (P = 0.05). The recommended safety level of Corexit 9527 for M. rosenbergii in Malaysian estuarine waters is below 40 mg litre(-1). PMID:15091547

Law, A T

1995-01-01

61

Prophenoloxidase activating enzyme-III from giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii: characterization, expression and specific enzyme activity.  

PubMed

The prophenoloxidase activating system is an important innate immune response against microbial infections in invertebrates. The major enzyme, phenoloxidase, is synthesized as an inactive precursor and its activation to an active enzyme is mediated by a cascade of clip domain serine proteinases. In this study, a cDNA encoding a prophenoloxidase activating enzyme-III from the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, designated as MrProAE-III, was identified and characterized. The full-length cDNA contains an open reading frame of 1110 base pair (bp) encoding a predicted protein of 370 amino acids including an 22 amino acid signal peptide. The MrProAE-III protein exhibits a characteristic sequence structure of a long serine proteases-trypsin domain and an N- and C-terminal serine proteases-trypsin family histidine active sites, respectively, which together are the characteristics of the clip-serin proteases. Sequence analysis showed that MrProAE-III exhibited the highest amino acid sequence similarity (63%) to a ProAE-III from Atlantic blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. MrProAE-III mRNA and enzyme activity of MrProAE-III were detectable in all examined tissues, including hepatopancreas, hemocytes, pleopods, walking legs, eye stalk, gill, stomach, intestine, brain and muscle with the highest level of both in hepatopancreas. This is regulated after systemic infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus infection supporting that it is an immune-responsive gene. These results indicate that MrProAE-III functions in the proPO system and is an important component in the prawn immune system. PMID:21614523

Arockiaraj, Jesu; Easwvaran, Sarasvathi; Vanaraja, Puganeshwaran; Singh, Arun; Othman, Rofina Yasmin; Bhassu, Subha

2012-02-01

62

Characterization of a gC1qR from the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

gC1qR, as a multicompartmental and a multifunctional protein, plays an important role in innate immunity. In this study, a gC1qR homolog (MrgC1qR) in the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii was identified. MrgC1qR, a 258-amino-acid polypeptide, shares high identities with gC1qR from other species. MrgC1qR gene was expressed in different tissues and was highest expressed in the hepatopancreas. In addition, the MrgC1qR transcript was significantly enhanced after 6 h of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection or post 2 h, 24 h of Vibrio anguillarum challenge compared to appropriate controls. Moreover, recombinant MrgC1qR (rMrgC1qR) had bacterial binding activity, the result also revealed that rMrgC1qR could bind pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) such as LPS or PGN, suggesting that MrgC1qRmight function as a pathogen-recognition receptor (PRR). Furthermore, glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down assays showed that rMrgC1qR with GST-tag could bind to rMrFicolin1 or rMrFicolin2 with His-tag. Altogether, these results may demonstrate a role for MrgC1qR in innate immunity in the giant freshwater prawns. PMID:25555810

Ye, Ting; Huang, Xin; Wang, Xian-Wei; Shi, Yan-Ru; Hui, Kai-Min; Ren, Qian

2015-03-01

63

Gene expression and functional studies of small heat shock protein 37 (MrHSP37) from Macrobrachium rosenbergii challenged with infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV).  

PubMed

In this study, we have reported a full length of small heat shock protein 37 (designated MrHSP37) gene, identified from the transcriptome database of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The complete gene sequence of the MrHSP37 is 2,425 base pairs in length, and encodes 338 amino acids. MrHSP37 contains a long heat shock protein family profile in the amino acid sequence between 205 and 288. The mRNA expressions of MrHSP37 in healthy and the infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) challenged M. rosenbergii were examined using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). MrHSP37 is highly expressed in hepatopancreas and all the other tissues (walking leg, gills, muscle, stomach, haemocyte, intestine, pleopods, brain and eye stalk) of M. rosenbergii taken for analysis. The expression is strongly up-regulated after IHHNV challenge. To understand its biological activity, the recombinant MrHSP37 gene was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The results of ATPase assay showed that the recombinant MrHSP37 protein exhibited apparent ATPase activity which increased with the concentration of the protein. And also the purified recombinant MrHSP37 protein was used for thermal aggregation assay (chaperone activity). It showed that the recombinant MrHSP37 protein is an active chaperone in this assay. Taken together, these results suggest that MrHSP37 is potentially involved in the immune responses against IHHNV challenge in M. rosenbergii. PMID:22290288

Arockiaraj, Jesu; Vanaraja, Puganeshwaran; Easwvaran, Sarasvathi; Singh, Arun; Othman, Rofina Yasmin; Bhassu, Subha

2012-06-01

64

Effects of dietary administration of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) extracts on the immune responses and disease resistance of giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

The hot-water extract of Eichhornia crassipes leaves (ECE) was produced and incorporated into the diet of the prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, as an immunostimulant. Survival rates of prawn against Lactococcus garvieae, and its immune parameters including the total haemocyte count (THC), different haemocyte count (DHC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts (RBs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, transglutaminase (TG) activity, haemolymph coagulation time, and phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency against L. garvieae by M. rosenbergii were determined when prawn (23.0 ± 2.8 g) were fed ECE-containing diets at 0, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 g kg(-1). Prawn fed a diet containing ECE at 2.0 and 3.0 g kg(-1) for 12 days showed significantly increased THC, HC, GC, PO activity, RBs, SOD activity, GPx activity, and TG activity, and a significantly decreased coagulation time. The phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency against L. garvieae of prawn fed the ECE-containing diets at 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 g kg(-1) were significantly higher than those of prawn fed the control diet at 3-12 days. Survival rates of M. rosenbergii fed the diet containing ECE at concentrations of 2 and 3 g kg(-1) were significantly higher than those fed the control diet after challenge with L. garvieae for 48-144 h. The relative percentage survival of prawn fed the 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 g kg(-1) ECE-containing diets for 12 days were 17.5%, 39.1%, and 52.2%. It was concluded that the ECE can be used as an immunostimulant for prawn through dietary administration to enhance immune responses and resistance of M. rosenbergii against L. garvieae. PMID:23603238

Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Tan, Hui-Ching; Cheng, Winton

2013-07-01

65

De Novo Transcriptome Sequencing Analysis and Comparison of Differentially Expressed Genes (DEGs) in Macrobrachium rosenbergii in China  

PubMed Central

Giant freshwater prawn (GFP; Macrobrachium rosenbergii) is an exotic species that was introduced into China in 1976 and thereafter it became a major species in freshwater aquaculture. However the gene discovery in this species has been limited to small-scale data collection in China. We used the next generation sequencing technology for the experiment; the transcriptome was sequenced of samples of hepatopancreas organ in individuals from 4 GFP groups (A1, A2, B1 and B2). De novo transcriptome sequencing generated 66,953 isogenes. Using BLASTX to search the Non-redundant (NR), Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes (STRING), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome (KEGG) databases; 21,224 unigenes were annotated, 9,552 matched unigenes with the Gene Ontology (GO) classification; 5,782 matched unigenes in 25 categories of Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COG) and 20,859 unigenes were consequently assigned to 312 KEGG pathways. Between the A and B groups 147 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified; between the A1 and A2 groups 6,860 DEGs were identified and between the B1 and B2 groups 5,229 DEGs were identified. After enrichment, the A and B groups identified 38 DEGs, but none of them were significantly enriched. The A1 and A2 groups identified 21,856 DEGs in three main categories based on functional groups: biological process, cellular_component and molecular function and the KEGG pathway defined 2,459 genes had a KEGG Ortholog - ID (KO-ID) and could be categorized into 251 pathways, of those, 9 pathways were significantly enriched. The B1 and B2 groups identified 5,940 DEGs in three main categories based on functional groups: biological process, cellular_component and molecular function, and the KEGG pathway defined 1,543 genes had a KO-ID and could be categorized into 240 pathways, of those, 2 pathways were significantly enriched. We investigated 99 queries (GO) which related to growth of GFP in 4 groups. After enrichment we identified 23 DEGs and 1 KEGG PATHWAY ‘ko04711’ relation with GFP growth. PMID:25329319

Liu, Qigen

2014-01-01

66

Effects of nitrite exposure on acid-base balance, respiratory protein, and ion concentrations of giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii at low pH.  

PubMed

Macrobrachium rosenbergii that had been exposed individually for 24 h to 0 (control), 2, 5, 10 mg/L nitrite-N (nitrite as nitrogen) at 4. 3 and 7.7 pH levels were examined for hemolymph nitrite-N, oxyhemocyanin, protein, acid-base balance, ion concentrations, and ammonia-N (ammonia as nitrogen) excretion. Hemolymph oxyhemocyanin, protein, pH, HCO3- , TCO2, osmolality, and ion concentrations were inversely related to ambient nitrite-N concentration and were lower at pH 4.3. However, hemolymph nitrite-N, PO2 and PCO2 levels, and ammonia-N excretion were directly related to ambient nitrite-N, and were higher at pH 4.3. Ambient nitrite-N and pH level interacted to cause changes in hemolymph nitrite-N, oxyhemocyanin, protein, PO2, and pH levels. It is concluded that for M. rosenbergii following nitrite exposure, the incorporated nitrite causes a decrease of pH and an increase of PO2 in the hemolymph where it reduces oxyhemocyanin level; disturbs nitrogen excretion, ion regulation, and respiratory gas exchange; and may lead to a decrease of oxygen-carrying capacity, which are affected more at low pH. PMID:9353207

Chen, J C; Lee, Y

1997-10-01

67

Ultrastructural changes during spermatogenesis, biochemical and hormonal evidences of testicular toxicity caused by TBT in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1879).  

PubMed

The present investigation documents the impact of tributyltin (TBT) on the ultrastructural variation of spermatogenesis in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The environmentally realistic concentration of TBT can cause damages to the endocrine and reproductive physiology of crustaceans. In this context, three concentrations viz. 10, 100, and 1000 ng/L were selected and exposed to prawns for 90 days. The TBT exposed prawn exhibited decrease the reproductive activity as evidenced by sperm count and sperm length compared to control. Histopathological results revealed the retarded testicular development, abnormal structure of seminiferous tubule, decrease in the concentration of spermatozoa, diminution of seminiferous tubule membrane, abundance of spermatocytes and vacuolation in testis of treated prawns. Ultrastructural study also confirmed the impairment of spermatogenesis in treated prawns. Furthermore, radioimmunoassay (RIA) clearly documented the reduction of testosterone level in TBT exposed groups. Thus, TBT substantially reduced the level of male sex hormone as well as biochemical constituents which ultimately led to impairment of spermatogenesis in the freshwater male prawn M. rosenbergii. PMID:23362226

Revathi, Peranandam; Iyapparaj, Palanisamy; Vasanthi, Lourduraj Arockia; Munuswamy, Natesan; Krishnan, Muthukalingan

2014-10-01

68

Function of an anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF) isoform isolated from the hemocytes of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii in protecting against bacterial infection.  

PubMed

In this study, a 780-bp full-length cDNA encoding Macrobrachium rosenbergii anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (MrALF) from hemocytes was cloned and identified. The ALF isoform exhibited immune activities, and its concentration in hemolymph was determined. An in vivo expression study showed that the ALF mRNA level of hemocytes could be induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) in an exposure time-dependent manner. Purified recombinant MrALF (rMrALF) expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris SMD1168 eukaryotic protein expression system demonstrated antibacterial activity against the Gram-negative prawn pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)=0.806?M, minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC)=1.606?M) but not the Gram-positive pathogen Lactococcus garvieae exposed to 25.696?M of rALF. However, rMrALF can bind to Gram-negative and -positive bacteria. An in vivo expression study demonstrated that the ALF concentrations in prawn hemocytes and plasma were 0.176?M and 0.168?M, respectively; following LPS treatment for 6h, the corresponding concentrations were 0.133?M in hemocytes and 0.272?M in plasma. Furthermore, the percentage of hemocytes phagocytosing bacteria cells was higher in hemoyctes previously treated with MrALF than those treated with sterile medium. These results suggest that in the innate immune response of M. rosenbergii, the MrALF from hemocytes may play an opsonin during a bacterial invasion. PMID:24333685

Liu, Chia-Chen; Chung, Chien-Pang; Lin, Chang-Yi; Sung, Hung-Hung

2014-02-01

69

Dietary administration of bovine lactoferrin influences the immune ability of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) and its resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila infection and nitrite stress.  

PubMed

Haemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity, agglutinin levels, total protein content, bacterial clearance efficiency, resistance to the pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila and nitrite stress were measured in the giant freshwater inter-moult sub-adult prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (15-20 g) which had been fed diets containing bovine lactoferrin (Lf) at 50, 100, 200mg kg(-1) feed for 7 or 14 days. M. rosenbergii fed a diet containing 100mg Lf kg(-1) diet for 7 days showed significant (P<0.05) increase in total protein levels, agglutination titres against bacteria A. hydrophila and rabbit RBC, phenoloxidase activity, bacterial clearance (as observed through reduced number of circulating bacteria) as well as survival against A. hydrophila challenge. Increased bacterial clearance was also noticed in prawns fed Lf at 50 or 200mg kg(-1) for 14 days compared to control. Feeding of Lf at 50mg kg(-1) diet for 7 or 14 days was able to enhance only PO activity and reduce percent mortality against A. hydrophila challenge compared to its control. Total haemocyte count was higher in the lowest dose of Lf feeding, i.e. 50mg kg(-1) for 7 days. However, there was no significant alteration in the differential haemocyte population with respect to graded levels of Lf feeding for 7 or 14 days. A notable reduction in mortality percent after 120 h of nitrite stress was observed in prawn fed Lf at 100mg kg(-1) diet for 14 days. On the contrary, feeding of the highest dose of Lf, i.e. 200mg kg(-1) diet for 14 days failed to stimulate most of the innate immune parameters or reduce the percent mortality against A. hydrophila challenge or nitrite stress. It is therefore concluded that administration of Lf in the diet at 100mg kg(-1) for 7 days could enhance the immune ability of M. rosenbergii and increase its resistance to A. hydrophila infection or nitrite stress. PMID:16413208

Chand, R K; Sahoo, P K; Kumari, Jaya; Pillai, Bindu R; Mishra, B K

2006-08-01

70

Molecular cloning and characterisation of prophenoloxidase cDNA from haemocytes of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and its transcription in relation with the moult stage.  

PubMed

Expression of prophenoloxidase (proPO) cDNA was determined from haemocytes of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii by a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA using oligonucleotide primers based on the proPO sequence of tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon, freshwater crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus, green tiger shrimp Penaeus semisulcatus, kuruma shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus, and white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. The proPO of M. rosenbergii was constitutively expressed. The 2,547-bp cDNA contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 2,013 bp, a 96-bp 5'-untranslated region, and a 438-bp 3'-untranslated region containing the poly A tail. The molecular mass of the deduced amino acid (aa) sequence (671 aa) was 76.7 kDa with an estimated pI of 7.05. It contained putative copper-binding sites, a complement-like motif (GCGWPRHM), a proteolytic activation site, and a conserved C-terminal region common to all known proPOs. However, no signal peptide sequence was detected in giant freshwater prawn proPO. Comparison of amino acid sequences showed that prawn proPO is similar to the proPO of penaeid, crayfish and lobster. Prawn proPO was only synthesised in haemocytes. The proPO transcript was significantly increased in the A stage and achieved the highest level in the B stage, and then declined sharply in the C stage and reached the lowest level in the D(2)/D(3) stage. PMID:16376571

Liu, Chun-Hung; Tseng, Deng-Yu; Lai, Ching-Yi; Cheng, Winton; Kuo, Ching-Ming

2006-07-01

71

Simultaneous identification and quantification of 4-cumylphenol, 2,4-bis-(dimethylbenzyl)phenol and bisphenol A in prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

Bisphenol A (BPA), 4-cumylphenol (4-CP) and 2,4-bis-(dimethylbenzyl)phenol (2,4-DCP) are all high production volume chemicals and widely used in plastic and other consumer products. During the past two decades, BPA has attracted a great deal of scientific and public attention due to its presence in the environment and estrogenic property. Although 4-CP and 2,4-DCP are much more estrogenic and toxic than BPA, little information is available about their occurrence and fate in the environment. In this study, a rapid, selective, accurate and reliable analytical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 4-CP, 2,4-DCP and BPA in prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The method comprises an ultrasound-accelerated extraction followed by capillary gas chromatographic (GC) separation. The detection limits range from 1.50 to 36.4 ng kg(-1) for the three alkylphenols. The calibration curves are linear over the concentration range tested with the coefficients of determination, R(2), greater than 0.994. The developed method was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of 4-CP, 2,4-DCP and BPA in prawn samples. The peak identification was confirmed using GC-MS. Bisphenol A, 2,4-bis-(dimethylbenzyl)phenol and 4-cumylphenol were found in prawn samples in the concentration ranges of 0.67-5.51, 0.36-1.61, and 0.00-1.96 ng g(-1) (wet weight), respectively. All relative standard deviations are less than 4.8%. At these environmentally relevant concentration levels, 4-CP, 2,4-DCP and BPA may affect the reproduction and development of aquatic organisms, including negative influence on crustaceans' larval survival, molting, metamorphosis and shell hardening. This is the first study reported on the occurrence of 4-CP, 2,4-DCP and BPA in prawn M. rosenbergii. PMID:24560775

Zuo, Yuegang; Zhu, Zhuo

2014-07-01

72

L-( sup 3 H) glutamate binding to a membrane preparation from the optic lobe of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man  

SciTech Connect

Membrane preparation from the optic lobe of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man, was examined for the presence of specific L-({sup 3}H) glutamate binding. The optic lobes were isolated from live animals. The tissue was homogenized and the membrane fraction isolated by differential centrifugation. The membrane suspension was incubated with 10-1,000 nM of L-({sup 3}H) glutamate at 37{degree}C for 60 min. Nonspecific binding was determined by incubating the mixture with 100 {mu}M L-glutamate. L-({sup 3}H) glutamate specifically bound to the membrane fraction with a dissociation equilibrium constant (Kd) of 205 nM and maximum number of binding sites (Bmax) of 2.04 n mol/mg protein. By using LIGAND computerized program, the saturation isotherm binding pattern indicates a single type of binding. To determine the type of glutamate receptors, competitive inhibition and IC{sub 50} of several glutamate agonists and antagonists were determined. The study reveals a metabotropic type of binding site.

Pratumtan, P.; Govitrapong, P.; Withyachumnarnkul, B.; Poolsanguan, B. (Mahidol Univ., Bangkok (Thailand) Mahidol Univ., Nakorn Pathom (Thailand))

1991-01-01

73

Evaluation of paraprobiotic applicability of Lactobacillus plantarum in improving the immune response and disease protection in giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man, 1879).  

PubMed

Paraprobiotics, also known as ghost probiotics, are non-viable microbial cells which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a benefit on the host. However, the advantage of non-viable microbes over their viable counterparts is a much debated topic in aquaculture. Therefore, the present study was conducted to evaluate paraprobiotic effect of heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum on giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. A 90-day feeding trial was conducted by feeding prawn juveniles (mean weight ± SE: 0.54 ± 0.03 g) with three experimental diets prepared by supplementing basal diet (Crude protein: 38%; Gross energy: 387 kcal 100 g(-1)) with different concentrations of heat-killed probiotics bacteria viz. HKPB1 (10(7) cfu g(-1) diet), HKPB2 (10(8) cfu g(-1) diet), HKPB3 (10(9) cfu g(-1) diet) and control diet (unsupplemented diet). In the present study, growth parameters viz. WG % and SGR and feed utilization parameters viz. FCE, FCR and PER, though improved marginally in all experimental groups, were found to be insignificant (P > 0.05) compared to the control. The immune parameters viz. total hemocyte count (THC), phenol oxidase (PO) activity, respiratory burst (RB) activity and clearance efficiency were significantly improved (P < 0.05) with concurrent decrease (P < 0.05) in cumulative mortality against Aeromonas hydrophila challenge in all the experimental groups except for HKPB1, where PO and RB activity did not improve significantly (P > 0.05) compared to the control. Among the experimental groups, though the improvement in immune parameters was higher (P < 0.05) in HKPB2 and HKPB3 compared to HKPB1 and the control, no significant difference (P > 0.05) was observed between HKPB2 and HKPB3. The results obtained from the present study indicate that the application of heat-killed L. plantarum at a concentration of 10(8) cfu g(-1) diet, though not effective in augmenting the growth and feed utilization parameters, can significantly improve immune parameters and disease resistance of M. rosenbergii in the laboratory condition. PMID:25542379

Dash, Gyanaranjan; Raman, Ram Prakash; Pani Prasad, K; Makesh, M; Pradeep, M A; Sen, Swatipriyanka

2015-03-01

74

Molecular cloning and characterization of lipopolysaccharide- and beta-1,3-glucan-binding protein from the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and its transcription in relation to foreign material injection and the molt stage.  

PubMed

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and beta-1,3-glucan-binding protein (LGBP) complementary (c)DNA was cloned from the hepatopancreas of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii using oligonucleotide primers and a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Both 3'- and 5'-regions were isolated by the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence revealed that the cDNA clone has an open reading frame of 1389 bp encoding a protein of 378 amino acids (aa) including a 15-aa signal peptide. The calculated molecular mass of the mature protein (363 aa) was 41.2 kDa with an estimated pI of 4.73. The M. rosenbergii LGBP sequence contains (1) three putative integrin-binding motifs, (2) a glucanase motif, (3) a putative N-glycosylation site, (4) four protein kinase C phosphorylation sites, (5) four casein kinase II phosphorylation sites, and (6) a putative recognition motif. Sequence comparison showed that the deduced amino acids of LGBP of M. rosenbergii had overall similarities of 60-71% to those of known crustacean LGBPs and beta-1,3-glucan-binding proteins (BGBPs). The LGBP of M. rosenbergii was mainly expressed in the hepatopancreas. The LGBP transcript of M. rosenbergii was downregulated in haemocytes, but was upregulated in the hepatopancreas when injected with LPS and poly:IC after 12 h. The LGBP messenger (m)RNA expression of prawns in the postmolt stage was significantly upregulated in haemocytes, but downregulated in the hepatopancreas, which revealed a complementary relationship between haemocytes and the hepatopancreas in the molt cycle. PMID:19766194

Yeh, Maw-Sheng; Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Cheng, Winton

2009-12-01

75

Cloning and immunoreactivity of the 5-HT1Mac and 5-HT2Mac receptors in the central nervous system of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

PubMed Central

Biogenic amines are implicated in several mental disorders, many of which involve social interactions. Simple model systems, such as crustaceans, are often more amenable than vertebrates for studying mechanisms underlying behaviors. Although various cellular responses of biogenic amines have been characterized in crustaceans, the mechanisms linking these molecules to behavior remain largely unknown. Observed effects of serotonin receptor agonists and antagonists in abdomen posture, escape responses, and fighting have led to the suggestion that biogenic amine receptors may play a role in modulating interactive behaviors. As a first step in understanding this potential role of such receptors, we have cloned and fully sequenced two serotonin receptors, 5-HT1Mac and 5-HT2Mac, from the CNS of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and have mapped their CNS immunohistochemical distribution. 5-HT1Mac was found primarily on the membranes of subsets of cells in all CNS ganglia, in fibers that traverse all CNS regions, and in the cytoplasm of a small number of cells in the brain, circum- and subesophageal ganglia (SEG), most of which also appear to contain dopamine. The pattern of 5-HT2Mac immunoreactivity was found to differ significantly, being found mostly in the central neuropil area of all ganglia, in glomeruli of the brain’s olfactory lobes, and in the cytoplasm of a small number of neurons in the SEG, thoracic and some abdominal ganglia. The observed differences in terms of localization, distribution within cells, and intensity of immunoreactive staining throughout the prawn’s CNS suggest that these receptors are likely to play different roles. PMID:19184976

Vázquez-Acevedo, Nietzell; Reyes-Colón, Dalynés; Ruíz-Rodríguez, Eduardo A.; Rivera, Nilsa M.; Rosenthal, Joshua; Kohn, Andrea B.; Moroz, Leonid L.; Sosa, María A.

2009-01-01

76

Changes of Phosphatidylcholine and Fatty Acids in Germ Cells during Testicular Maturation in Three Developmental Male Morphotypes of Macrobrachium rosenbergii Revealed by Imaging Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Testis maturation, germ cell development and function of sperm, are related to lipid composition. Phosphatidylcholines (PCs) play a key role in the structure and function of testes. As well, increases of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA), especially arachidonic acid (ARA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are essential for male fertility. This study is the first report to show the composition and distribution of PCs and total fatty acids (FAs) in three groups of seminiferous tubules (STs) classified by cellular associations [i.e., A (STs with mostly early germ cells), B (STs with mostly spermatids), and C (STs with spermatozoa)], in three morphotypes of Macrobrachium rosenbergii, [i.e., small male (SM), orange claw male (OC), and blue claw male (BC)]. Thin layer chromatography exhibited levels of PCs reaching maxima in STs of group B. Imaging mass spectrometry showed remarkably high signals corresponding to PC (16:0/18:1), PC (18:0/18:2), PC (18:2/20:5), and PC (16:0/22:6) in STs of groups A and B. Moreover, most signals were detected in the early developing cells and the intertubular area, but not at the area containing spermatozoa. Finally, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry indicated that the major FAs present in the testes were composed of 14:0, 16:0, 17:0, 18:0, 16:1, 18:1, 18:2, 20:1, 20:2, 20:4, 20:5, and 22:6. The testes of OC contained the greatest amounts of these FAs while the testes of BC contained the least amounts of these FAs, and there was more EPA (20:5) in the testes of SM and OC than those in the BC. The increasing amounts of FAs in the SM and OC indicate that they are important for spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis. This knowledge will be useful in formulating diets containing PUFA and HUFA for prawn broodstocks in order to improve testis development, and lead to increased male fecundity. PMID:25781176

Siangcham, Tanapan; Chansela, Piyachat; Hayasaka, Takahiro; Masaki, Noritaka; Sroyraya, Morakot; Poljaroen, Jaruwan; Suwansa-ard, Saowaros; Engsusophon, Attakorn; Hanna, Peter J.; Sobhon, Prasert; Setou, Mitsutoshi

2015-01-01

77

Effects of anthraquinone extract from Rheum officinale Bail on the growth performance and physiological responses of Macrobrachium rosenbergii under high temperature stress.  

PubMed

In order to study the effects of anthraquinone extract from Rheum officinale Bail on Macrobrachium rosenbergii under high temperature stress, freshwater prawns were randomly divided into five groups: a control group was fed with basal diet, and four treatment groups fed with basal diet supplemented with 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.4% anthraquinone extracts for 10 weeks, respectively. Then, freshwater prawns were exposed to high temperature stress at 35 degrees C for 48h. The growth, changes in haemolymph total protein, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lysozyme, nitrogen monoxide (NO) and hepatic catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were investigated. The results showed that compared the control group, the specific growth rates, feed conversion efficiency, haemolymph ALP and lysozyme activities, total protein contents, hepatic CAT and SOD activities increased while haemolymph AST, ALT and hepatic MDA contents decreased in treatment groups before the stress, but their levels did not correlate with the doses of anthraquinone extracts. The specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion efficiency and haemolymph lysozyme activity significantly increased but haemolymph AST activity decreased in 0.1% dose group; whereas haemolymph ALP activity and feed conversion efficiency increased but ALT activity and hepatic MDA contents significantly decreased in 0.2% dose group before the stress compared with the control. After high temperature stress, 0.1-0.2% anthraquinone extract also could improve the haemolymph total proteins, lysozyme and ALP activities, hepatic catalase, and superoxide dismutase, and reduce haemolymph ALT and AST activities, hepatic malondialdehyde contents. The cumulative mortality in the control was about 100% at 48h after high temperature stress while the cumulative mortality in the treatment groups supplemented with 0.1-0.2% anthraquinone extract were about 48-65%. The artificial infection with Vibrio anguillarum also showed the cumulative mortality in the control was about 100% while the cumulative mortality in the treatment groups supplemented with 0.1-0.2% anthraquinone extracts were about 57-80%. The present study suggested that ingestion of a basal diet supplemented with 0.1-0.20% anthraquinone extracts could prevent high temperature stress and promote the growth of prawns. PMID:20219682

Liu, Bo; Xie, Jun; Ge, Xianping; Xu, Pao; Wang, Aiming; He, Yijin; Zhou, Qunlan; Pan, Liangkun; Chen, Ruli

2010-07-01

78

Changes of Phosphatidylcholine and Fatty Acids in Germ Cells during Testicular Maturation in Three Developmental Male Morphotypes of Macrobrachium rosenbergii Revealed by Imaging Mass Spectrometry.  

PubMed

Testis maturation, germ cell development and function of sperm, are related to lipid composition. Phosphatidylcholines (PCs) play a key role in the structure and function of testes. As well, increases of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA), especially arachidonic acid (ARA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are essential for male fertility. This study is the first report to show the composition and distribution of PCs and total fatty acids (FAs) in three groups of seminiferous tubules (STs) classified by cellular associations [i.e., A (STs with mostly early germ cells), B (STs with mostly spermatids), and C (STs with spermatozoa)], in three morphotypes of Macrobrachium rosenbergii, [i.e., small male (SM), orange claw male (OC), and blue claw male (BC)]. Thin layer chromatography exhibited levels of PCs reaching maxima in STs of group B. Imaging mass spectrometry showed remarkably high signals corresponding to PC (16:0/18:1), PC (18:0/18:2), PC (18:2/20:5), and PC (16:0/22:6) in STs of groups A and B. Moreover, most signals were detected in the early developing cells and the intertubular area, but not at the area containing spermatozoa. Finally, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry indicated that the major FAs present in the testes were composed of 14:0, 16:0, 17:0, 18:0, 16:1, 18:1, 18:2, 20:1, 20:2, 20:4, 20:5, and 22:6. The testes of OC contained the greatest amounts of these FAs while the testes of BC contained the least amounts of these FAs, and there was more EPA (20:5) in the testes of SM and OC than those in the BC. The increasing amounts of FAs in the SM and OC indicate that they are important for spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis. This knowledge will be useful in formulating diets containing PUFA and HUFA for prawn broodstocks in order to improve testis development, and lead to increased male fecundity. PMID:25781176

Siangcham, Tanapan; Chansela, Piyachat; Hayasaka, Takahiro; Masaki, Noritaka; Sroyraya, Morakot; Poljaroen, Jaruwan; Suwansa-Ard, Saowaros; Engsusophon, Attakorn; Hanna, Peter J; Sobhon, Prasert; Setou, Mitsutoshi

2015-01-01

79

Macrobrachium rosenbergii mannose binding lectin: Synthesis of MrMBL-N20 and MrMBL-C16 peptides and their antimicrobial characterization, bioinformatics and relative gene expression analysis.  

PubMed

Mannose-binding lectin (MBL), an antimicrobial protein, is an important component of innate immune system which recognizes repetitive sugar groups on the surface of bacteria and viruses leading to activation of the complement system. In this study, we reported a complete molecular characterization of cDNA encoded for MBL from freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Mr). Two short peptides (MrMBL-N20: (20)AWNTYDYMKREHSLVKPYQG(39) and MrMBL-C16: (307)GGLFYVKHKEQQRKRF(322)) were synthesized from the MrMBL polypeptide. The purity of the MrMBL-N20 (89%) and MrMBL-C16 (93%) peptides were confirmed by MS analysis (MALDI-ToF). The purified peptides were used for further antimicrobial characterization including minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay, kinetics of bactericidal efficiency and analysis of hemolytic capacity. The peptides exhibited antimicrobial activity towards all the Gram-negative bacteria taken for analysis, whereas they showed the activity towards only a few selected Gram-positive bacteria. MrMBL-C16 peptides produced the highest inhibition towards both the Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria compared to the MrMBL-N20. Both peptides do not produce any inhibition against Bacillus sps. The kinetics of bactericidal efficiency showed that the peptides drastically reduced the number of surviving bacterial colonies after 24 h incubation. The results of hemolytic activity showed that both peptides produced strong activity at higher concentration. However, MrMBL-C16 peptide produced the highest activity compared to the MrMBL-N20 peptide. Overall, the results indicated that the peptides can be used as bactericidal agents. The MrMBL protein sequence was characterized using various bioinformatics tools including phylogenetic analysis and structure prediction. We also reported the MrMBL gene expression pattern upon viral and bacterial infection in M. rosenbergii gills. It could be concluded that the prawn MBL may be one of the important molecule which is involved in antimicrobial mechanism. Moreover, MrMBL derived MrMBL-N20 and MrMBL-C16 peptides are important antimicrobial peptides for the recognition and eradication of viral and bacterial pathogens. PMID:25575476

Arockiaraj, Jesu; Chaurasia, Mukesh Kumar; Kumaresan, Venkatesh; Palanisamy, Rajesh; Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Pasupuleti, Mukesh; Kasi, Marimuthu

2015-04-01

80

Dietary supplement of banana (Musa acuminata) peels hot-water extract to enhance the growth, anti-hypothermal stress, immunity and disease resistance of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

In the present study, Macrobrachium rosenbergii were fed with diets containing extracts of banana, Musa acuminate, fruit's peel (banana peels extract, BPE) at 0, 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1). The non-specific immune parameters, disease resistance and anti-hypothermal stress were evaluated at 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 days of post feeding. Also, we demonstrated the percent weight gain (PWG), percent length gain (PLG), feeding efficiency (FE), and survival rate of giant freshwater prawn at 30, 60, 90, and 120 days of post feeding. The PWG, PLG, FE and survival rate of prawns fed at 0, 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1) BPE-containing diets after 120 days were 69.5%, 75.4%, 77.8% and 83.3%; 21.8%, 23.6%, 27.8% and 33.9%; 0.60, 0.72, 0.75 and 0.90; and 55.4%, 62.2%, 62.3% and 75.3%, respectively. After 32 days of post feeding, a significant increase in total haemocyte count (THC), different haemocyte count (DHC), respiratory bursts (RBs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, phenoloxidase (PO) activity and transglutaminase (TG) activity, and meanwhile, a decreased haemolymph coagulation time was observed. Furthermore, phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency of prawns against Lactococcus garvieae infection were significantly increased. Prawns challenged with L. garvieae after 32 days of feeding at 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1) had a significantly higher survival rate (33.3%, 40.0% and 56.7%) than those fed with the control diet. Subsequently, hypothermal (14 °C) stress was 43.4%, 50.0% and 50.0%, respectively. Altogether, we therefore recommend the dietary BPE administration at 6.0 g kg(-1) promotes growth, anti-hypothermal stress, and enhance immunity and resistance against L. garvieae in M. rosenbergii. PMID:25634258

Rattanavichai, Wutti; Cheng, Winton

2015-04-01

81

Protein metabolism and energetics in the freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

E-print Network

% in diets for P. setiferus based on menhaden meal resulted in reduced growth rates unless carbohydrate or lipid levels were also increased (Andrews et al. , 1972). Mhen 30K starch was provided in lipid-free diets as a replacement for cellulose...% with lipid:carbohydrate ratios (L:C) of 1:2 in addition to isonitrogenous diets containing L:C Table 1. tlutrient and energy cuntent of expertaentaI diet foruelattons. ingredients tlenltdden aledl Soybean seal Menhaden otl Aeylose starch Egg albuaen...

Clifford, Henry Charles

1979-01-01

82

Ozone treatment in a closed culture system for Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

E-print Network

of its high reactivity, ozone has been used for treating water to remove dissolved organic and inorganic wastes (Torricelli, 1959; Diaper, 1972) . The effectiveness of ozonation has been discussed by Dickerman et al. (1954), Fetner and Ingols (1959... the ozone yield and accelerates the formation of nitrogen oxides which affect the electrodes and the life span of the dielectric material (Diaper, 1972). 37 The decomposition of ozone to oxygen is very temperature-sensitive, so that high temperatures...

Yamaguchi, Ryoji

1978-01-01

83

Identification of novel allergen in edible insect, Gryllus bimaculatus and its cross-reactivity with Macrobrachium spp. allergens.  

PubMed

Edible insects have recently been promoted as a source of protein and have a high nutrition value. Identification of allergens and cross-reactivity between Macrobrachium spp. and the field cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus) is necessary for food safety control and to assist in the diagnosis and therapy of allergy symptoms. Denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was used to separate proteins. Allergens were determined and identified by IgE-immunoblotting with pooled sera from prawn-allergic patients (n=16) and LC-MS/MS. Arginine kinase (AK) and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) were determined as the important allergens in muscle of Macrobrachium rosenbergii whereas, hemocyanin (HC) was identified as an allergen in Macrobrachium spp. The allergens in Macrobrachium lanchesteri were identified as AK and HC. In addition, hexamerin1B (HEX1B) was identified as a novel and specific allergen in G. bimaculatus. The important allergen in G. bimaculatus and Macrobrachium spp. is AK and was found to cross-react between both species. PMID:25872439

Srinroch, Chutima; Srisomsap, Chantragan; Chokchaichamnankit, Daranee; Punyarit, Phaibul; Phiriyangkul, Pharima

2015-10-01

84

Regulation of laboratory populations of snails (Biomphalaria and Bulinus spp.) by river prawns, Macrobrachium spp. (Decapoda, Palaemonidae): implications for control of schistosomiasis  

PubMed Central

Human schistosomiasis is a common parasitic disease endemic in many tropical and subtropical countries. One barrier to achieving long-term control of this disease has been re-infection of treated patients when they swim, bathe, or wade in surface fresh water infested with snails that harbor and release larval parasites. Because some snail species are obligate intermediate hosts of schistosome parasites, removing snails may reduce parasitic larvae in the water, reducing re-infection risk. Here, we evaluate the potential for snail control by predatory freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii and M. vollenhovenii, native to Asia and Africa, respectively. Both prawn species are high value, protein-rich human food commodities, suggesting their cultivation may be beneficial in resource-poor settings where few other disease control options exist. In a series of predation trials in laboratory aquaria, we found both species to be voracious predators of schistosome-susceptible snails, hatchlings, and eggs, even in the presence of alternative food, with sustained average consumption rates of 12% of their body weight per day. Prawns showed a weak preference for Bulinus truncatus over Biomphalaria glabrata snails. Consumption rates were highly predictable based on the ratio of prawn: snail body mass, suggesting satiation-limited predation. Even the smallest prawns tested (0.5–2g) caused snail recruitment failure, despite high snail fecundity. With the World Health Organization turning attention toward schistosomiasis elimination, native prawn cultivation may be a viable snail control strategy that offers a win-win for public health and economic development. PMID:24388955

Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kuris, Armand M.

2014-01-01

85

Regulation of laboratory populations of snails (Biomphalaria and Bulinus spp.) by river prawns, Macrobrachium spp. (Decapoda, Palaemonidae): implications for control of schistosomiasis.  

PubMed

Human schistosomiasis is a common parasitic disease endemic in many tropical and subtropical countries. One barrier to achieving long-term control of this disease has been re-infection of treated patients when they swim, bathe, or wade in surface fresh water infested with snails that harbor and release larval parasites. Because some snail species are obligate intermediate hosts of schistosome parasites, removing snails may reduce parasitic larvae in the water, reducing re-infection risk. Here, we evaluate the potential for snail control by predatory freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii and M. vollenhovenii, native to Asia and Africa, respectively. Both prawn species are high value, protein-rich human food commodities, suggesting their cultivation may be beneficial in resource-poor settings where few other disease control options exist. In a series of predation trials in laboratory aquaria, we found both species to be voracious predators of schistosome-susceptible snails, hatchlings, and eggs, even in the presence of alternative food, with sustained average consumption rates of 12% of their body weight per day. Prawns showed a weak preference for Bulinus truncatus over Biomphalaria glabrata snails. Consumption rates were highly predictable based on the ratio of prawn: snail body mass, suggesting satiation-limited predation. Even the smallest prawns tested (0.5-2g) caused snail recruitment failure, despite high snail fecundity. With the World Health Organization turning attention toward schistosomiasis elimination, native prawn cultivation may be a viable snail control strategy that offers a win-win for public health and economic development. PMID:24388955

Sokolow, Susanne H; Lafferty, Kevin D; Kuris, Armand M

2014-04-01

86

Acute toxicity of organochlorine insecticide endosulfan to the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrochium rosenbergii  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Endosulfan, an organochlorine pesticide, is highly toxic and effective at controlling pests in agriculture, horticulture, and public health programs. In this study, static bioassays were used to evaluate the toxicity of endosulfan to freshwater prawns ( Macrobrachium rosenbergii) of various lengths (1.5±0.03, 4±0.08, and 7±0.06 cm). Additionally, the activities of peroxidase (POD), acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and Na+/K+-ATPase were analyzed to reflect the effects of endosulfan exposure. The 96 h LC50 of endosulfan for prawns 1.5, 4, and 7 cm long were 1.86, 4.53, and 6.09 ?g/L, respectively, improved tolerance to endosulfan with growth. The POD activities of test organisms exposed to low concentrations of endosulfan were inhibited, indicating the presence of oxygen damaged tissue. Moreover, a notable decrease in AChE activity was observed due to overstimulation of neurotransmission, which might result in abnormal behavior. The effect caused by endosulfan on phosphatase production in the hepatopancreas of prawns 1.5, 4, and 7 cm long was different because the ability of nonspecific immune regulation increased with growth. The 96 h LC50 values obtained in this study could be used in the formulation of water-quality criteria in China. Moreover, the changes in enzymes activities of M. rosenbergii under stress of endosulfan could be applied in the establishment of early warning indicators for bio-safety.

Dai, Xilin; Xiong, Zhaodi; Xie, Jian; Ding, Fujiang

2014-01-01

87

Two Kazal-type protease inhibitors from Macrobrachium nipponense and Eriocheir sinensis: comparative analysis of structure and activities.  

PubMed

Kazal-type inhibitors (KPIs) play important roles in many biological and physiological processes, such as blood clotting, the immune response and reproduction. In the present study, two male reproductive tract KPIs, termed Man-KPI and Ers-KPI, were identified in Macrobrachium nipponense and Eriocheir sinensis, respectively. The inhibitory activities of recombinant Man-KPI and Ers-KPI against chymotrypsin, elastase, trypsin and thrombin were determined. The results showed that both of them strongly inhibit chymotrypsin and elastase. Kinetic studies were performed to elucidate their inhibition mechanism. Furthermore, individual domains were also expressed to learn further which domain contributes to the inhibitory activities of intact KPIs. Only Man-KPI_domain3 is active in the inhibition of chymotrypsin and elastase. Meanwhile, Ers-KPI_domain2 and 3 are responsible for inhibition of chymotrypsin, and Ers-KPI_domains2, 3 and 4 are responsible for the inhibition of elastase. Meanwhile, the inhibitory activities of these two KPIs toward Macrobrachium rosenbergii, M. nipponense and E. sinensis sperm were compared with that of the Kazal-type peptidase inhibitor (MRPINK) characterized from the M. rosenbergii reproductive tract in a previous study. The results demonstrated that KPIs can completely inhibit the gelatinolytic activities of sperm proteases from their own species, while different levels of cross-inhibition were observed between KPI and proteases from different species. These results may provide new perspective to further clarify the mechanism of KPI-proteases interaction in the male reproductive system. PMID:22200638

Qian, Ye-Qing; Li, Ye; Yang, Fan; Yu, Yan-Qin; Yang, Jin-Shu; Yang, Wei-Jun

2012-03-01

88

The ecdysteroid titer in the female prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii during the molt cycle  

E-print Network

~ g of 20-hydroxyecdysone were injected onto the HPLC column. Fractions were collected from 5 to 18 min. , evaporated by vacuum centrifugation, and assayed. Data from three runs are shown in Figure 10. It is clear that. both ecdysone and 20... of labeled and unlabeled ecdysone through purification. Experiment 49: Ecdysteroid titer of prawn carcasses with determination of recovery. 38 39 TABLE 5. Experiment 410: HPLC analysis of zone E from TLC separations 45 TABLE 6. Experiment iI11...

Newitt, Richard Allen

1981-01-01

89

Identification and cloning of a selenium dependent glutathione peroxidase from giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

A selenium dependent glutathione peroxidase (Se-GPx) cDNA was cloned from haemocyte by a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA (RACE). The 913 bp cDNA contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 558 bp encoded a deduced amino acid sequence of 186 amino acids. The prawn Se-GPx sequence contains a selenocysteine (Sec) residue which is encoded by the unusual stop codon, (115)TGA(117). According to the molecular modeling analysis, the active site Sec residue, located in the loop between beta3 and alpha2 in a pocket on the protein surface, and hydrogen bonded to Gln(73) and Trp(141). A GPx signature motif 2, (63)LAFPCNQF(70) and active site motif, (151)WNFEKF(156), two arginine (R) residues, R(89) and R(167) contribute to the electrostatic architecture that directs the glutathione donor substrate, and two putative N-glycosylation site, (75)NNT(77) and (107)NGS(109) were observed in the prawn Se-GPx sequence. In addition, the eukaryotic selenocysteine insertion sequence element is conserved in the 3'-UTR. Comparison of amino acid sequences showed that prawn Se-GPx is more closely related to vertebrate GPx 1. The prawn Se-GPx was synthesized in haemocyte, hepatopancreas, muscle, stomach, gill, intestine, eyestalk, heart, epidermis, lymph organ, ventral nerve cord, testis and ovary. The increase of respiratory burst in haemocyte was observed in pathogen, Debaryomyces hansenii-injected prawn in order to kill the pathogen, and the up-regulation in SOD and GPx acitivity, and prawn Se-GPx mRNA transcription were involved with the protection against damage from oxidation. PMID:19376233

Yeh, Shinn-Pyng; Liu, Kuan-Fu; Chiu, Shieh-Tsung; Jian, Shun-Ji; Cheng, Winton; Liu, Chun-Hung

2009-08-01

90

Antibiotic administration by osmotic infiltration in the freshwater shrimp, Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

E-print Network

in 0. 1 N HC1 to give a concentration of' 1 mg/ml. Sarcina lutea ATCC 9341 was used to assay the antibiotic erythro- mycin and Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778 for oxytetracycline. Antibiotic medium 1 (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, Michigan) was used...

Llobrera, Alcestis Trillo

1980-01-01

91

Toxicity of ammonia to larvae of the freshwater shrimp, Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

E-print Network

-*1d 1 of M. ~b in six hours and calculated food consumption rate of each larva XI Mean cumulative percentage recovery of larval M. ~st?'' 'n aaa n' -f e at r of various pH levels after immobilization by 180 mg/I ammonia-N 38 INTR ODUCT I.... (1977) reported a 96-hour LC50 of 49 mg/I ammonia-N for larval lobsters (Homarus americanus). In addition to its lethal effect at elevated concentra- tions, sublethal levels of ammonia have been shown to adversely affect exposed organisms. Burrows...

Llobrera, Jose Alvarez

1979-01-01

92

Effect of salt treatments on survival and consumer acceptance of freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Post harvest acclimation of live freshwater prawns to a mixture of water and marine salt increases the consumer acceptability of the finished product. However, the high cost of marine salts prohibits their use in commercial practice. Therefore, the identification of successful, cost effective salt a...

93

Molecular cloning and characterization of the lipopolysaccharide and ?-1,3-glucan binding protein from oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense.  

PubMed

The lipopolysaccharide and ?-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP), one of the pattern recognition proteins, plays an important role in the innate immune response of invertebrates. A 1,506 bp full-length cDNA of a LGBP gene was cloned and characterized from the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense (named as MnLGBP). Analysis of the nucleotide sequence revealed that the cDNA clone has an open reading frame of 1,119 bp, encoding a protein of 372 amino acids including a 21-aa signal peptide. The calculated molecular mass of the mature protein (351 aa) was 39.9 kDa with an estimated pI of 4.63. The MnLGBP sequence contains: (1) two putative integrin-binding motifs, (2) a glucanase motif, (3) two putative N-glycosylation sites, (4) one protein kinase C phosphorylation site, and (5) a putative recognition motif for ?-1,3-linkage of polysaccharides. Sequence comparison based on the deduced amino acid sequence of MnLGBP showed varied identity of 89, 76 and 74% with those of Macrobrachium rosenbergii LGBP, Marsupenaeus japonicus ?-1,3-glucan binding proteins, and Fenneropenaeus chinensis LGBP, respectively. Quantitative RT-PCR results showed that MnLGBP was expressed in nerve, intestine, muscle, gill, heart, haemocytes and at the highest level in hepatopancreas. After challenge with the pathogen, Aeromonas hydrophila and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, the expression of MnLGBP mRNA was significantly upregulated in the hepatopancreas compared to the control group. At the same time, the mRNA level of MnproPO increased dramatically at 48 h after injection of bacteria. These data should be helpful to better understand the function of MnLGBP in the prawn immune system. PMID:24584659

Xiu, Yunji; Wu, Ting; Liu, Peng; Huang, Ying; Ren, Qian; Gu, Wei; Meng, Qingguo; Wang, Wen

2014-06-01

94

Comparing trace metal bioaccumulation characteristics of three freshwater decapods of the genus Macrobrachium.  

PubMed

Potential sources and kinetics of metal bioaccumulation by the three Macrobrachium prawn species M. australiense, M. rosenbergii and M. latidactylus were assessed in laboratory experiments. The prawns were exposed to two scenarios: cadmium in water only; and exposure to metal-rich mine tailings in the same water. The cadmium accumulation from the dissolved exposure during 7 days, followed by depuration in cadmium-free water for 7 days, was compared with predictions from a biokinetic model that had previously been developed for M. australiense. M. australiense and M. latidactylus accumulated significant tissue cadmium during the exposure phase, albeit with different uptake rates. All three species retained >95% of the bioaccumulated cadmium during the depuration phase, indicating very slow efflux rates. Following exposure to tailings, there were significant (p<0.05) differences in tissue arsenic, cadmium, lead and zinc concentrations among species. Cadmium and zinc concentrations were increased relative to controls for all three species but were not different between treatments (direct/indirect contact with tailings), suggesting these metals were primarily accumulated via the dissolved phase. All species bioaccumulated significantly greater arsenic and lead when in direct contact with mine tailings, demonstrating the importance of an ingestion pathway for these metals. Copper was not bioaccumulated above control concentrations for any species. The differences between the metal accumulation of the three prawns indicated that a biokinetic model of cadmium bioaccumulation for M. australiense could potentially be used to describe the metal bioaccumulation of the other two prawn species, albeit with an over-prediction of 3-9 times. Despite these being the same genus of decapod crustacean, the study highlights the issues with using surrogate species, even under controlled laboratory conditions. It is recommended that future studies using surrogate species quantify the metal bioaccumulation characteristics of each species in order to account for any differences between species. PMID:24800868

Cresswell, Tom; Smith, Ross E W; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Simpson, Stuart L

2014-07-01

95

Molecular perspective on the American transisthmian species of Macrobrachium (Caridea, Palaemonidae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract The closure of the Isthmus of Panama (about 3.1 million years ago) separated previously continuous populations and created two groups of extant species, which live now in the Pacific and Atlantic drainage systems. This relatively recent event was a trigger to diversification of various species in the Neotropics, nonetheless there are exemplars that do not show sufficient morphologic variability to separate them by traditional morphological tools. About 60 years ago, some freshwater decapod species with high morphological similarity were separate by previous researchers, based on geographical distribution, in Pacific and Atlantic and considered as “sister species”. However, the complete isolation of these prawns by this geographical barrier is questionable, and it has generated doubts about the status of the following transisthmian pairs of sibling species: Macrobrachium occidentale × Macrobrachium heterochirus, Macrobrachium americanum × Macrobrachium carcinus, Macrobrachium digueti × Macrobrachium olfersii, Macrobrachium hancocki × Macrobrachium crenulatum, Macrobrachium tenellum × Macrobrachium acanthurus and Macrobrachium panamense × Macrobrachium amazonicum. Here we evaluated the relation among these pairs of sibling species in a molecular phylogenetic context. We generated 95 new sequences: 26 sequences of 16S rDNA, 25 of COI mtDNA and 44 of 18S nDNA. In total, 181 sequences were analyzed by maximum likelihood phylogenetic method, including 12 Macrobrachium transisthmian species, as well as seven other American Macrobrachium species, and two other palaemonids. Our analysis corroborated the morphological proximity of the sibling species. Despite the high degree of morphological similarities and considerable genetic diversification encountered among the transisthmian sister species, our data support the conclusion that all species included in sibling groups studied herein are valid taxonomic entities, but not all pairs of siblings form natural groups. PMID:25561833

Pileggi, Leonardo G.; Rossi, Natália; Wehrtmann, Ingo S.; Mantelatto, Fernando L.

2014-01-01

96

Effects of hot-water extract of banana (Musa acuminata) fruit's peel on the antibacterial activity, and anti-hypothermal stress, immune responses and disease resistance of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbegii.  

PubMed

The hot-extracts isolated from fruit's peel of banana, Musa acuminata, was evaluated on the antibacterial activity to pathogens from aquatic animals, and immunostimulating potential, disease resistance and anti-hypothermal stress in giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii through injection administration. The banana peel extract (BPE) showed good activity against 1 Gram-positive and 3 Gram-negative pathogens, including Lactococcus garvieae, Photobacteria damsella, Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio parahemolyticus especially in prawn pathogen of L. garvieae strain, which were carried out by a disk diffusion method. Prawn received BPE via injection administration at 1-6 ?g (g prawn)(-1) significantly increased total haemocyte count (THC), hyaline cell (HC), granular cell (GC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity and phagocytic activity against L. garvieae from 3 to 6 days, and significantly increased clearance efficiency against L. garvieae and a significantly decreased coagulation time of prawn from 1 to 6 days. Prawn injected with BPE at 6.0 ?g (g prawn)(-1) for 6 days showed significantly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, but significantly decreased respiratory bursts (RBs) of per haemocyte. Survival rates of M. rosenbergii injected with BPE at concentrations of 1, 3 and 6 ?g (g prawn)(-1) were significantly higher than those injected with saline control after challenge with L. garvieae for 4-6 days, and the respective relative survival percentages of prawn were 28.6%, 38.1%, and 47.8%, respectively at 6 days. The sublethal time of prawns that had received saline and BPE at 1, 3 and 6 ?g (g prawn)(-1) for 6 days and then were transferred from 28 °C to 14 °C were 69.4, 79.8, 83.6, and 90.2 h, respectively. It was concluded that the BPE can be used as the bacteriostat, and immunostimulant and physiological regulator for prawn through injection administration to enhance immunity, physiological responses, and resistance against L. garvieae. PMID:24906123

Rattanavichai, Wutti; Cheng, Winton

2014-08-01

97

Cultivating Virtue  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay focuses on the influence of Catharine Macaulay's analysis of sexual difference in the Letters on Education(1790) on Mary Wollstonecraft's argument for the civic education of women in A Vindication of the Rights of Woman(1792). Macaulay attempts to cultivate the mind of her female reader, Hortensia, by devising a plan for domestic education based on a classical curriculum. Wollstonecraft

2003-01-01

98

Electrochemical measurement of hydrogen peroxide in plasma: evaluation of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) and crucian carp (Cyprinus carpio) phagocytes under natural conditions.  

PubMed

An electrochemical technique for the real-time detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was employed to describe respiratory burst activity (RBA) of phagocytes in plasma which can be used to evaluate the ability of immune system and disease resistance. The method is based upon the electric current changes, by redox reaction on platinum electrode of extracellular hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) released from phagocytes stimulated by the zymosan at 680 mV direct current (d.c.). Compared with the control, activation of respiratory burst by zymosan particles results in a high amperometric response, and a current peak was obtained during the whole monitoring process. The peak current was proved by addition of Cu2+ and other controls, to be the result of intense release of H2O2 from phagocytes. The peak area was calculated and used to evaluate the quantity of effective H2O2, which represents the quantity of H2O2 beyond the clearance of related enzymes in plasma. According to Faraday's law, the phagocytes' ability of prawns to generate effective H2O2 was evaluated from 1.253 x 10(-14) mol/cell to 6.146 x 10(-14) mol/cell, and carp from 1.689 x 10(-15) mol/cell to 7.873 x 10(-15) mol/cell. This method is an acute and quick detection of extracellular effective H2O2 in plasma and reflects the capacity of phagocytes under natural conditions, which could be applied for selecting species and parents with high immunity for breeding in aquaculture. PMID:17728150

Pinhong, Wang; Wei, Ji; Yaqing, Chang

2007-12-01

99

The status of the species Hyphomonas rosenbergii Weiner et al. 2000. Request for an Opinion.  

PubMed

On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and several key phenotypic features, it was ascertained that the culture cited as the type strain of the species Hyphomonas rosenbergii, ATCC 43869(T), does not conform to the description of the species, [Weiner, R. M., Melick, M., O'Neill, K. & Quintero, E. (2000). Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 50, 459-469]. The type strain does not exist in any other established culture collection or with the authors who described this species. Therefore, it cannot be included in any scientific study. It is proposed that the Judicial Commission place the name Hyphomonas rosenbergii on the list of rejected names if a suitable replacement type strain is not found or a neotype is not proposed within two years following the publication of this Request for an Opinion. PMID:25602083

Lai, Qiliang; Li, Chongping; Shao, Zongze

2015-01-01

100

Influence of bilateral eyestalk ablation on gonads of fresh water prawn, Macrobrachium dayanum.  

PubMed

The study was carried out in laboratory for one month to know the effect of bilateral eyestalk ablation on gonads of Macrobrachium dayanum. Healthy specimens of Macrobrachium dayanum in the size group of (4-6 cm in length) were taken for the experiment. The eyestalk ablation was done by cutting away the eyestalks from their bases with sterilized scissor. The results here obtained indicated positive effects of eyestalk ablation on ovary and testes of Macrobrachium dayanum. The histological details of the female prawns which were ablated showed post-vitellogenic oocytes; where as unablated females prawn never developed beyond pre-vitellogenic oocytes. Similarly in males, testes showed pronounced development of different cells as compared to unablated ones. Fully developed spermatozoa were seen in ablated ones. Gonadosomatic studies also showed that ovarian and testicular cells developed better as compared to control and these findings suggest the fact that the eyestalks of M. dayanum contain ovary and testis inhibiting factors. PMID:25204053

Pervaiz, Pervaiz Ahmed; Sikdar, Malabika

2014-09-01

101

77 FR 20358 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

2012-04-04

102

75 FR 75965 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

2010-12-07

103

75 FR 37757 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Vietnam: Initiation and Preliminary Results of Changed-Circumstances...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

2010-06-30

104

75 FR 61122 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Amended Final Results of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted [[Page 61123

2010-10-04

105

78 FR 33346 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Countervailing...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

2013-06-04

106

78 FR 33344 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Preliminary Countervailing Duty Determination  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

2013-06-04

107

75 FR 47546 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

2010-08-06

108

77 FR 23222 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

2012-04-18

109

75 FR 3446 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Intent To...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

2010-01-21

110

78 FR 33347 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Ecuador: Preliminary Negative Countervailing Duty Determination  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

2013-06-04

111

78 FR 33349 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Indonesia: Negative Preliminary Countervailing Duty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

2013-06-04

112

78 FR 35643 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

2013-06-13

113

75 FR 74684 - Notice of Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review: Certain Frozen...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

2010-12-01

114

75 FR 52718 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

2010-08-27

115

75 FR 54847 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Thailand: Final Results and Partial Rescission of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

2010-09-09

116

78 FR 33342 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

2013-06-04

117

78 FR 50379 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Thailand: Final Negative Countervailing Duty Determination  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

2013-08-19

118

78 FR 33350 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Thailand: Preliminary Countervailing Duty Determination  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

2013-06-04

119

76 FR 64307 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Amended Final Results and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

2011-10-18

120

75 FR 16436 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

2010-04-01

121

76 FR 12033 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Thailand: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

2011-03-04

122

77 FR 64953 - Notice of Initiation and Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

2012-10-24

123

77 FR 40574 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Thailand: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

2012-07-10

124

75 FR 51756 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Changed...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

2010-08-23

125

75 FR 36635 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Rescission of New Shipper...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

2010-06-28

126

75 FR 49889 - Notice of Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed-Circumstances Review: Frozen Warmwater Shrimp...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

2010-08-16

127

75 FR 13492 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed-Circumstances...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

2010-03-22

128

76 FR 40881 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Thailand: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

2011-07-12

129

75 FR 61702 - Notice of Initiation and Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

2010-10-06

130

77 FR 73619 - Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review: Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

2012-12-11

131

77 FR 13082 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Thailand: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

2012-03-05

132

76 FR 30648 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

2011-05-26

133

75 FR 44229 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Changed...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

2010-07-28

134

76 FR 45775 - Fourth New Shipper Review of Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

2011-08-01

135

Genetic variability and phylogenetic aspects in species of the genus Macrobrachium.  

PubMed

The genus Macrobrachium includes prawns, which are widely distributed in lakes, floodplains, and rivers in tropical and subtropical regions of South America. This genus presents nearly 210 known species with great ecological and economic importance. However, few studies are related to the biology of these crustaceans. In this study, we analyzed the genetic variability and phylogenetic relationship between Macrobrachium amazonicum and Macrobrachium jelskii, which are closely related species. Additionally, they are syntopics and their taxonomy poses problems because it is difficult to differentiate between the species. We used the mitochondrial gene sequences COI and 16S rRNA to assess the genetic structure of these species in 3 populations that were collected from Tiete hydrographic basin (São Paulo State, Brazil). The interspecific comparison of samples that were collected at the same and different locations showed a low rate of genetic variability. This similarity was attributed to the recent introduction of these species in the regions that were sampled and the habitat conditions in which they inhabit. In addition, these results may be consistent with the hypothesis that they are a single species, interspecific hybrids, or metapopulation. The dendrogram analyses did not reveal the formation of clusters, confirming the disturbances in the genetic structure of the samples that were analyzed in this study. These data are pioneers to these crustaceans, and they confirm the ecological and evolutionary problems between these Macrobrachium species. PMID:24854444

Guerra, A L; Lima, A V B; Lucato Júnior, R V; Chiachio, M C; Taddei, F G; Castiglioni, L

2014-01-01

136

Spirulina cultivation in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reviews and discusses the development and many problems of Spirulina cultivation in China, points out the advantages and disadvantages of open photobioreactor system, and predicts that seawater Spirulina cultivation will be a new trend to be strengthened and emphasized due to its special physiological characteristics, easier management, lower fertilizer cost, and higher resistance to contaminants and rare pollution of chemicals.

Bo-Tang, Wu; Wen-Zhou, Xiang; Cheng-Kui, Zeng

1998-03-01

137

How to Cultivate Moss  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, to learn about the biological needs of mosses, students will grow and maintain their own moss terrarium. Through daily maintenance and observation, students will identify those factors necessary for the successful cultivation of moss.

2014-03-03

138

A Methodological Investigation of Cultivation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cultivation theory states that television engenders negative emotions in heavy viewers. Noting that cultivation methodology contains an apparent response bias, a study examined relationships between television exposure and positive restatements of cultivation concepts and tested a more instrumental media uses and effects model. Cultivation was…

Rubin, Alan M.; And Others

139

The Cultivated Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers who follow this monthly schedule for starting and cultivating plants in their classrooms can look forward to blooms and greenery throughout the year. Advice on choosing plants, making cuttings, forcing bulbs, rooting sweet potatoes and pineapples, and holding a Mother's Day plant sale is included. (PP)

Schilder, Rosalind

1983-01-01

140

Cultivating Leaders from Within  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A major problem faced by school districts in the US is the paucity of applicants for the posts of school principals. A solution adopted by The Capistrano Unified School District (CUSD) in Orange County California was the cultivation of good leaders from within the district through the Teaching Assistant Principal (TAP) program.

Burdette, Maggie; Schertzer, Kristen

2005-01-01

141

CULTIVATING NETWORKS: IMPLEMENTING SURGICAL  

E-print Network

i CULTIVATING NETWORKS: IMPLEMENTING SURGICAL TELEMEDICINE Margunn Aanestad THE INTERVENTIONAL TELEMEDICINE by Margunn Aanestad Submitted as partial fulfilment of the requirements of the degree Doctor;iii TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Introduction 1 2. Telemedicine ­ visions and challenges 3 3. Related research

Sahay, Sundeep

142

Cultivation of Plasmodium spp.  

PubMed Central

Cultivation of both human and non-human species of Plasmodium spp., the causal agent of malaria, has been a major research success, leading to a greater understanding of the parasite. Efforts at cultivating the organisms in vitro are complicated by the parasites' alternating between a human host and an arthropod vector, each having its own set of physiological, metabolic, and nutritional parameters. Life cycle stages of the four species that infect humans have been established in vitro. Of these four, P. falciparum remains the only species for which all stages have been cultured in vitro; different degrees of success have been achieved with the other human Plasmodium spp. The life cycle includes the exoerythrocytic stage (within liver cells), the erythrocytic stage (within erythrocytes or precursor reticulocytes), and the sporogonic stage (within the vector). Culture media generally consist of a basic tissue culture medium (e.g., minimal essential medium or RPMI 1640) to which serum and erythrocytes are added. Most of the efforts have been directed toward the stage found in the erythrocyte. This stage has been cultivated in petri plates or other growth vessels in a candle jar to generate elevated CO2 levels or in a more controlled CO2 atmosphere. Later developments have employed continuous-flow systems to reduce the labor-intensive nature of medium changing. The exoerythrocytic and sporogonic life cycle stages have also been cultivated in vitro. A number of avian, rodent, and simian malarial parasites have also been established in vitro. Although cultivation is of great help in understanding the biology of Plasmodium, it does not lend itself to use for diagnostic purposes. PMID:12097244

Schuster, Frederick L.

2002-01-01

143

Species composition and gear characteristics of the Macrobrachium fishery of the Cross River Estuary, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cross River Estuary, Nigeria, is an important shrimping area for artisanal fishermen of the coastal communities. The multi-species Macrobrachium fishery is exploited with three main gears, namely beach seine, push net and trap. Studies on species composition of this fishery recorded thirteen shrimp species, one swimming crab ( Callinectes amnicola) and two fish species ( Eleotris sp. and Pellonula leonensis). The shrimp species identified included Macrobrachium macrobrachion (83.39% and 55.69% by number and weight, respectively), M. vollenhovenii (9.66% and 37.18%), M. equidens (3.8% and 2.87%), juveniles-sub-adults of Penaeus notialis (1.11% and 1.3%), M. dux, M. felicinum, Palaemonetes africanus, Palaemon maculatus, Palaemon elegans, Desmocaris sp., Leander sp., Nematopalaemon hastatus and Alpheus pontederiae. While the selectivity index for trap was 0.25, beach seine and push net had a lower index of 0.063. The results present the first comprehensive and representative report for the Estuary shrimp fishery and will assist in the management of the biodiversity of this ecosystem.

Nwosu, Francis M.

2010-03-01

144

Cultivation of Marine Sponges.  

PubMed

There is increasing interest in biotechnological production of marine sponge biomass owing to the discovery of many commercially important secondary metabolites in this group of animals. In this article, different approaches to producing sponge biomass are reviewed, and several factors that possibly influence culture success are evaluated. In situ sponge aquacultures, based on old methods for producing commercial bath sponges, are still the easiest and least expensive way to obtain sponge biomass in bulk. However, success of cultivation with this method strongly depends on the unpredictable and often suboptimal natural environment. Hence, a better-defined production system would be desirable. Some progress has been made with culturing sponges in semicontrolled systems, but these still use unfiltered natural seawater. Cultivation of sponges under completely controlled conditions has remained a problem. When designing an in vitro cultivation method, it is important to determine both qualitatively and quantitatively the nutritional demands of the species that is to be cultured. An adequate supply of food seems to be the key to successful sponge culture. Recently, some progress has been made with sponge cell cultures. The advantage of cell cultures is that they are completely controlled and can easily be manipulated for optimal production of the target metabolites. However, this technique is still in its infancy: a continuous cell line has yet to be established. Axenic cultures of sponge aggregates (primmorphs) may provide an alternative to cell culture. Some sponge metabolites are, in fact, produced by endosymbiotic bacteria or algae that live in the sponge tissue. Only a few of these endosymbionts have been cultivated so far. The biotechnology for the production of sponge metabolites needs further development. Research efforts should be continued to enable commercial exploitation of this valuable natural resource in the near future. PMID:10612677

Osinga; Tramper; Wijffels

1999-11-01

145

Cultivating an entrepreneurial mindset.  

PubMed

Now as never before, familiar challenges require bold, novel approaches. Registered dietitians will benefit by cultivating an entrepreneurial mindset that involves being comfortable with uncertainty, learning to take calculated risks, and daring to just try it. An entrepreneur is someone who takes risks to create something new, usually in business. But the entrepreneurial mindset is available to anyone prepared to rely only on their own abilities for their economic security and expect no opportunity without first creating value for others. PMID:24018008

Matheson, Sandra A

2013-01-01

146

Molecular perspective on the American transisthmian species of Macrobrachium (Caridea, Palaemonidae).  

PubMed

The closure of the Isthmus of Panama (about 3.1 million years ago) separated previously continuous populations and created two groups of extant species, which live now in the Pacific and Atlantic drainage systems. This relatively recent event was a trigger to diversification of various species in the Neotropics, nonetheless there are exemplars that do not show sufficient morphologic variability to separate them by traditional morphological tools. About 60 years ago, some freshwater decapod species with high morphological similarity were separate by previous researchers, based on geographical distribution, in Pacific and Atlantic and considered as "sister species". However, the complete isolation of these prawns by this geographical barrier is questionable, and it has generated doubts about the status of the following transisthmian pairs of sibling species: Macrobrachiumoccidentale × Macrobrachiumheterochirus, Macrobrachiumamericanum × Macrobrachiumcarcinus, Macrobrachiumdigueti × Macrobrachiumolfersii, Macrobrachiumhancocki × Macrobrachiumcrenulatum, Macrobrachiumtenellum × Macrobrachiumacanthurus and Macrobrachiumpanamense × Macrobrachiumamazonicum. Here we evaluated the relation among these pairs of sibling species in a molecular phylogenetic context. We generated 95 new sequences: 26 sequences of 16S rDNA, 25 of COI mtDNA and 44 of 18S nDNA. In total, 181 sequences were analyzed by maximum likelihood phylogenetic method, including 12 Macrobrachium transisthmian species, as well as seven other American Macrobrachium species, and two other palaemonids. Our analysis corroborated the morphological proximity of the sibling species. Despite the high degree of morphological similarities and considerable genetic diversification encountered among the transisthmian sister species, our data support the conclusion that all species included in sibling groups studied herein are valid taxonomic entities, but not all pairs of siblings form natural groups. PMID:25561833

Pileggi, Leonardo G; Rossi, Natália; Wehrtmann, Ingo S; Mantelatto, Fernando L

2014-01-01

147

Bioaccumulation and retention kinetics of cadmium in the freshwater decapod Macrobrachium australiense.  

PubMed

The potential sources and mechanisms of cadmium bioaccumulation by the native freshwater decapods Macrobrachium species in the waters of the highly turbid Strickland River in Papua New Guinea were examined using (109)Cd-labelled water and food sources and the Australian species Macrobrachium australiense as a surrogate. Synthetic river water was spiked with environmentally relevant concentrations of cadmium and animals were exposed for 7 days with daily renewal of test solutions. Dietary assimilation of cadmium was assessed through pulse-chase experiments where prawns were fed separately (109)Cd-labelled fine sediment, filamentous algae and carrion (represented by cephalothorax tissue of water-exposed prawns). M. australiense readily accumulated cadmium from the dissolved phase and the uptake rate increased linearly with increasing exposure concentration. A cadmium uptake rate constant of 0.10 ± 0.05 L/g/d was determined in synthetic river water. During depuration following exposure to dissolved cadmium, efflux rates were low (0.9 ± 5%/d) and were not dependent on exposure concentration. Assimilation efficiencies of dietary sources were comparable for sediment and algae (48-51%), but lower for carrion (28 ± 5%) and efflux rates were low (0.2-2.6%/d) demonstrating that cadmium was well retained by M. australiense. A biokinetic model of cadmium accumulation by M. australiense predicted that for exposures to environmentally relevant cadmium concentrations in the Strickland River, uptake from ingestion of fine sediment and carrion would be the predominant sources of cadmium to the organism. The model predicted the total dietary route would represent 70-80% of bioaccumulated cadmium. PMID:24508761

Cresswell, Tom; Simpson, Stuart L; Smith, Ross E W; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Mazumder, Debashish; Twining, John

2014-03-01

148

Shrimp Farming in the Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In inquiry-based instruction, discovery and learning belong to the students. In this exploration, jumbo shrimp are the source of inspiration. The magic in this project lies not in successfully culturing these shrimp, known as Macrobrachium rosenbergii

Lovelle Ruggiero

2000-01-01

149

[Artificial cultivation modes for Dendrobium officinale].  

PubMed

Since the beginning of the new century, the artificial cultivation of Dendrobium officinale has made a breakthrough progress. This paper systematically expounds key technologies, main features and cautions of the cultivation modes e.g. bionic-facility cultivation, the original ecological cultivation, and potting cultivation for D. officinale, which can provide useful information for the development and improvement of D. officinale industry. PMID:23713268

Si, Jin-Ping; Yu, Qiao-Xian; Song, Xian-Shui; Shao, Wei-Jiang

2013-02-01

150

Cellular signalling of PCH-induced pigment aggregation in the crustacean Macrobrachium potiuna erythrophores.  

PubMed

The cellular system responsible for the transduction of the pigment-concentrating hormone (PCH) signal was investigated in erythrophores of the freshwater shrimp, Macrobrachium potiuna. Dose-response curves to the hormone were determined in the absence and in the presence of several drugs that affect sequential steps of the Ca(2+)-dependent signalling pathway. Additionally, the ability of forskolin to induce pigment dispersion was evaluated. Neomycin sulphate (10(-4) and 10(-3) mol.l-1), trifluoperazine (10(-5) and 10(-4) mol.l-1), 1-(5-isoquinolinesulfonlyl)-2-methylpiperazine (10(-7) and 10(-5) mol.l-1) and okadaic acid (10(-7) mol.l-1) significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the responses to PCH. However, okadaic acid at low concentration (10(-9) mol.l-1) and cyclosporin A (10(-6) and 10(-5) mol.l-1) did not significantly (P > 0.05) affect PCH activity. Forskolin (10(-4) mol.l-1) was able to half-maximally reverse the hormone-induced aggregation. Our results suggest that the pigment-concentrating hormone induces pigment aggregation through a Ca(2+)-dependent pathway with a posteriori phosphatase activation, probably the serine/threonine phosphatase 1. PMID:9404017

Nery, L E; da Silva, M A; Josefsson, L; Castrucci, A M

1997-11-01

151

Structural changes of oviduct of freshwater shrimp, Macrobrachium nipponense (Decapoda, Palaemonidae), during spawning*  

PubMed Central

The structural change of the oviduct of freshwater shrimp (Macrobrachium nipponense) during spawning was examined by electron microscopy. The oviduct wall structural characteristics seem to be influenced significantly by the spawning process. Before the parturition and ovulation, two types of epithelial cells (types I and II) are found in the epithelium. The free surfaces of type I and type II cells have very dense long microvilli. Under the type I and type II cells, are a relatively thick layer of secreting material and a layer of mostly dead cells. After ovulation, two other types of epithelial cells (types III and IV) are found in the oviduct wall epithelium. The free surface of type III cells only has short microvilli scattered on the surface. The thick layer with secreting material and the dead cell layer disappeared at this stage. In some type III cells, the leaking out of cytoplasm from broken cell membrane led to the death of these type III cells. The transformation of all four types of epithelial cells was in the order: IV?I?II?III. PMID:16365928

Lu, Jian-ping; Zhang, Xiao-hui; Yu, Xiao-yun

2006-01-01

152

Adaptation to freshwater in the palaemonid shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum: comparative ontogeny of osmoregulatory organs.  

PubMed

The ontogeny of osmoregulatory organs was studied in two geographically isolated populations of the palaemonid shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum, one originating from the Amazon estuary (A) and the other from inland waters of the Pantanal (P) in northeastern and southwestern Brazil, respectively. A previous investigation had shown that the estuarine population is able to hypo-osmoregulate in seawater, whereas the hololimnetic inland population has lost this physiological function. In the present study, the structural development of the branchial chamber and excretory glands and the presence of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) were compared between populations and between larval and juvenile stages after exposure to two salinities representing hypo- and hypertonic environments. In the newly hatched zoea I stage of both populations, gills were absent and NKA was localized along the inner epithelium of the branchiostegite. In intermediate (zoea V) and late larval stages (decapodids), significant differences between the two populations were observed in gill development and NKA expression. In juveniles, NKA was detected in the gills and branchiostegite, with no differences between populations. At all developmental stages and in both populations, NKA was present in the antennal glands upon hatching. The strong hypo-osmoregulatory capacity of the early developmental stages in population A could be linked to ion transport along the inner side of the branchiostegite; this seemed to be absent or weak in population P. The presence of fully functional gills expressing NKA appears to be essential for efficient hyper-osmoregulation in late developmental stages during successful freshwater adaptation and colonization. PMID:23616029

Boudour-Boucheker, Nesrine; Boulo, Viviane; Lorin-Nebel, Catherine; Elguero, Camille; Grousset, Evelyse; Anger, Klaus; Charmantier-Daures, Mireille; Charmantier, Guy

2013-07-01

153

Logistic analysis of algae cultivation.  

PubMed

Energy requirements for resource transport of algae cultivation are unknown. This work describes the quantitative analysis of energy requirements for water and CO2 transport. Algae cultivation models were combined with the quantitative logistic decision model 'BeWhere' for the regions Benelux (Northwest Europe), southern France and Sahara. For photobioreactors, the energy consumed for transport of water and CO2 turns out to be a small percentage of the energy contained in the algae biomass (0.1-3.6%). For raceway ponds the share for transport is higher (0.7-38.5%). The energy consumption for transport is the lowest in the Benelux due to good availability of both water and CO2. Analysing transport logistics is still important, despite the low energy consumption for transport. The results demonstrate that resource requirements, resource distribution and availability and transport networks have a profound effect on the location choices for algae cultivation. PMID:25549905

Slegers, P M; Leduc, S; Wijffels, R H; van Straten, G; van Boxtel, A J B

2015-03-01

154

Toxicity of cryoprotectants agents in freshwater prawn embryos of Macrobrachium amazonicum.  

PubMed

Summary The process of cooling and cryopreservation of prawn embryos is a viable alternative for a continuous supply of larvae for freshwater prawn farming ponds. However, studies involving the application of those techniques as well as on toxicity of cryoprotectants in freshwater prawn embryos are scarce. Thus, this study aims to test the toxicity of methylic alcohol (MET), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and ethylene glycol (EG) on Macrobrachium amazonicum embryos. For the present experiment, pools of embryos were taken from 15 M. amazonicum females and were divided into three groups and tested in duplicate at concentrations of 10, 5, 3; 1, 0.5 or 0.1%. Toxicity tests were conducted for 24 h in Falcon® pipes to obtain the lethal concentration for 50% of the larvae (LC50). After the set period for testing, random samples of embryos were removed for morphological analysis under stereoscopic microscopes. Results were analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's test at a 5% significance level and Trimmed Spearman-Karber Analysis to determine LC50-24 h. DMSO toxicity tests revealed that 5% and 10% concentrations showed the highest toxicity and differed from the control (P ? 0.05), 24h-LC50 was 437.4 ± 14.4 µL. MET was less toxic among the tested cryoprotectants and concentrations did not allow the determination of its LC50-24h. For tests with EG, concentrations of 3, 5 or 10% solutions resulted in a 100% mortality to tested embryos; EG was the tested cryoprotectant with the highest toxicity, with an LC50-24h average of 81.91 ± 35.3 µl. PMID:25255785

Ferreira, Arthur Vinícius Lourenço; Castro, Elias José Teles; Barbosa, Mariana Silva Alves; de Sousa, Míriam Luzia Nogueira Martins; de Araújo Neto, Manoel Paiva; Filho, Aldeney Andrade Soares; de Souza Sampaio, Celia Maria

2014-09-26

155

Identification and characterization of a Macrobrachium nipponense ferritin subunit regulated by iron ion and pathogen challenge.  

PubMed

Ferritin, a major iron storage protein in most living organisms, plays a crucial role in iron metabolism. In this study, the ferritin subunit MnFer was identified in the oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) and functionally characterized. The full-length cDNA of MnFer is 999 bp in size with a 122-bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), a 364-bp 3'-UTR and a 513-bp open reading frame that encodes a protein possessing 171 amino acids and a deduced molecular weight of 19.40 kDa. Prawn ferritin transcripts are expressed in muscle, heart, hepatopancreas, gill, hemocytes, ovary and testis. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that the abundance of ferritin transcript was highest in the hepatopancreas followed by muscle. Ferritin transcript expression in muscle increased six-fold 3 h after the injection of iron. In the gill, a four-fold increase in ferritin transcript expression was detected 3 h post-injection; the expression remained elevated for 48 h. Heart ferritin mRNA expression increased up to seven-fold at 24 h post-injection. No significant difference was found in the hepatopancreas. The iron binding capacity of recombinant ferritin protein was also demonstrated in this study. In hemocyte experiments, the transcriptional expression of MnFer showed the strongest response to Aeromonas hydrophila. As a whole, our study suggested that the ferritin from M. nipponense may play critical roles in cellular and organismic iron homeostasis along with in innate immune defense. PMID:25038282

Sun, Shengming; Gu, Zhimin; Fu, Hongtuo; Zhu, Jian; Xuan, Fujun; Ge, Xianping

2014-09-01

156

Inside this issue: Cultivating Cumberland  

E-print Network

the treadmill demonstration, learn all about equine anatomy with RU Wish Bone, the life-sized horse skeletonInside this issue: Cultivating Cumberland July - 2013 VOL. 18, ISSUE 7 Equine Center Open House 1 Farm Market Employee Professional Development 9 Calendar of Important Events 10-11 Regularly Scheduled

Goodman, Robert M.

157

A Methodological Examination of Cultivation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers two issues in cultivation research. Examines relationships between television exposure and positive statements of social perceptions, and tests a model of instrumental media uses and effects. Finds television exposure to be unrelated to social attitudes, while program selectivity is related to all social attitudes except interpersonal…

Rubin, Alan M.; And Others

1988-01-01

158

Cultivating Audiences: Taming, Teaching, Transforming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Satisfying and successful school concerts require an active, empathic, and cooperative partnership between performers and audience members. As music educators work to prepare artful, dignified, and confident performers, "audiences" for these performers must be cultivated just as purposefully. Concertgoers can be motivated to consume school…

Nicolucci, Sandra

2010-01-01

159

Origin, dispersal, cultivation and variation of rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are two cultivated and twenty-one wild species of genus Oryza. O. sativa, the Asian cultivated rice is grown all over the world. The African cultivated rice, O. glaberrima is grown on a small scale in West Africa. The genus Oryza probably originated about 130 million years ago in Gondwanaland and different species got distributed into different continents with the

Gurdev S. Khush

1997-01-01

160

Factors affecting the distribution and abundance of Macrobrachium petersi (Hilgendorf) in the Keiskamma River and estuary, South Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A dry (1979-1980) and a wet (1980-1981) season had a marked effect on the freshwater inflow into the Keiskamma estuary. Under low inflow conditions, which results in elevated salinities in the upper reaches, an upstream migration of adult Macrobrachium petersi (Hilgendorf) to freshwater takes place. During periods of increased river inflow adult M. petersi move downstream to the more saline reaches of the estuary. These two migratory responses have been interpreted as (a) a breeding migration under high inflow conditions which ensures that larvae are in close proximity to salinities that favour growth and development, and (b) an adult upstream migration back to freshwater to escape elevated estuarine salinities as a result of the low freshwater inflow.

Read, G. H. L.

1985-09-01

161

Aspects of larval, post-larval and juvenile ecology of Macrobrachium petersi (Hilgendorf) in the Keiskamma estuary, South Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although Macrobrachium petersi has nine larval stages, only stage I and a minimal number of stage II M. petersi larvae were caught in the Keiskamma estuary. Stage I larvae undergo a vertical migration at night which is markedly influenced by salinity, especially under stratified conditions. Larvae remain in the water column on the ebb tide, a behavioural pattern which effectively carried them to favourable salinities for growth and development. Stage I larvae show an association with salt front regions. The sudden decline in larval abundance from stage I to stage II downstream from the front suggests a change from a pelagic to an epibenthic existence. Later larval stages failed to appear in the plankton. However, post-larvae were caught in the estuary and a juvenile migration from the estuary to freshwater was monitored.

Read, G. H. L.

1985-10-01

162

Cultivation of Clinically Significant Hemoflagellates  

PubMed Central

The hemoflagellates, Trypanosoma spp. and Leishmania spp., are causal agents of a number of parasitic diseases having a major impact on humans and domestic animals over vast areas of the globe. Among the diseases are some of the most pernicious and deadly of human afflictions: African sleeping sickness, Chagas' disease, kala-azar, and Oriental sore. The organisms have complex, pleomorphic life cycles typically involving a vertebrate and an invertebrate host, the latter serving as a vector. In the vertebrate host, they are primarily blood and tissue parasites. In their transition from one host to another, the hemoflagellates undergo morphological, physiological, and biochemical changes that facilitate their growth and subsequent transmission. A major goal in the study of the hemoflagellates has been the cultivation in vitro of both vertebrate and invertebrate stages of the organisms. The first types of media used in their cultivation, and still useful for establishment of cultures, were undefined and contained a complex of ingredients. These gave way to semidefined formulations which included tissue culture media as a base and, as a next step, addition of tissue culture cells as a feeder layer to promote parasite growth. More recently developed media are completely defined, having replaced the feeder cells with various supplements. Serum, a sometimes-variable component of the media, can be replaced by various serum substitutes. This review focuses on the hemoflagellates that infect humans, describing stages in the development of media leading to the fully defined formulations that are now available for the cultivation of many of these organisms. PMID:12097246

Schuster, Frederick L.; Sullivan, James J.

2002-01-01

163

Seaweed cultivation for renewable resources  

SciTech Connect

In the 1970's and 80's, major research and development programs were launched to explore the possibility of using marine biomass as a source of energy. This volume, not only reviews the accomplishments of the aforementioned programs, but also describes how this research relates to seaweed cultivation for other products, such as food, feed, and high value chemicals. Topics covered include the features of marine biomass production, biotechnological manipulations of marine algae, and marine biomass conversion to energy, as well as economics. The chapters synthesize a large number of technical reports, journal articles, symposia and conference proceedings and technology transfer meetings.

Bird, K.T.; Benson, P.H.

1987-01-01

164

Raft cultivation of Gracilaria edulis (Gmel.) Silva  

Microsoft Academic Search

The single-rope floating raft cultivation ofGracilaria edulis was tried at Krusadai Island for one year. In 3 harvests mean biomass annual yield of 4 kg (wet) m-1 was obtained which is the highest recorded for the alga. The raft cultivation of the alga at different levels has shown that\\u000a maintaining the cultivation ropes at the top level will give better

K Subbaramaiah; P C Thomas

1990-01-01

165

Reproductive and morphometric traits of Macrobrachium amazonicum (Decapoda: Palaemonidae) from the Pantanal, Brazil, suggests initial speciation.  

PubMed

The palaemonid shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum shows an unusually large geographic range (ca. 4000km across) living in coastal, estuarine, and limnic inland habitats of the upper Amazon, Orinoco, and La Plata basins. This raises doubts whether allopatric, ecologically diverse populations belong to the same species. While shrimps from estuarine and Amazonian habitats have been studied in great detail, very little is known about hololimnetic inland populations. In the present study, biological traits related to growth (maximum body size, fresh weight, morphometric relationships) and reproduction (sex ratio; occurrence of male morphotypes; minimum sexable size; minimum size of ovigerous females; fecundity; egg size), were studied in M amazonicum collected from a pond culture and two natural freshwater habitats (Rio Miranda; Lagoa Baiazinha) in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. In total, 2270 shrimps were examined (603 males; 1667 females, 157 of these ovigerous). Sex ratio (males:females) was at all sampling sites strongly female-biased, ranging from 0.2-0.6. Maximum body size was larger in natural habitats compared to the pond culture, suggesting reduced growth or a shorter life span under artificial mass rearing conditions. Maximum fecundity observed in our material was 676 eggs, reached by the largest female (TL=65mm; Lagoa Baiazinha). A significant difference between slope parameters of linear regressions describing fecundity, either in terms of numbers of eggs laid or of larvae released, in relation to female fresh weight, indicates egg losses. This may be due in part to a 2.4-fold increase in egg volume occurring during the course of embryonic development, while the available space under the abdomen remains limited. Size-weight relationships differed significantly between males and females, indicating sexspecific morphometric differences. Males appear to have a more slender body shape than females, reaching thus lower weight at equal TL. When reproductive and morphometric traits are compared with literature data from estuarine and inland populations living in the Amazon and Orinoco plains, shrimps from the Pantanal show conspicuous peculiarities differing from other populations: (1) maximum body size is far smaller, suggesting shorter longevity; (2) females are consistently larger than males; (3) different male morphotypes are absent; (4) minimum sexable size and (5) minimum size of ovigerous females are smaller. These traits suggest a heterochronic shift (predisplacement) of sexual maturation and r-selection. In summary, our data show biologically relevant differences in life-history traits of shrimps from the Pantanal compared to M. amazonicum populations in other regions. All these differences persist also in long-term cultures maintained under constant conditions. Altogether, our data support the hypothesis that M amazonicum in the Paraná-Paraguay drainage basin has phylogenetically diverged from allopatric populations that are hydrologically separated by continental watersheds, implying an at least incipient vicariant speciation. PMID:23894962

Hayd, Liliam; Anger, Klaus

2013-03-01

166

Bivalve cultivation: criteria for selecting a site  

E-print Network

Bivalve cultivation: criteria for selecting a site Science Series Technical Report no.136 I. Laing and B.E. Spencer #12;Bivalve cultivation: criteria for selecting a site science series technical report 13 Toxic algae 13 2.3 Chemical factors 14 Dissolved nutrients 14 Oxygen 14 Pollutants 1 5 3. Economic

167

Cultivating Change The Boston College Community Garden  

E-print Network

Cultivating Change The Boston College Community Garden 2008ANNUALREPORT2008ANNUALREPORT Cultivating a hub of student activity over the past year. The Community Garden has become a key educational space for years to come. The community garden is an 1200 square foot space located on the Brighton Campus

Huang, Jianyu

168

--,--,_._--.-.. _-_._-----~_ ..." ..._'".__.-_._.----~ ------'-." ....--_._----.--_.----________~ .__.__ .._u.__._ . _ ~ ._._. .. , _.. .__._..._._ A METHOD OF CULTIVATING RAINBOW TROUT  

E-print Network

._·_·._· . _ ~ ._._. .. , _.. .__._..._._ A METHOD OF CULTIVATING RAINBOW TROUT AND OTHER SALMONOIDS .;It By Charles L. Paige .;It Paper presented _._------~----_.,,-_. __...--_.._~--_.--. -_.__._~--_._---.~. __._.... _---,--_._--_._-------.,.._--_._.------------- #12;Blank page retained for pagination #12;A METHOD OF CULTIVATING RAINBOW TROUT AND OTHER SALMONOIDS Creek, in the Shasta Mountains, in Shasta County, Ca1., in water to which the rainbow trout is native

169

Lawn Clippings for Cultivation of Oyster Mushroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus var. sajor caju (Fr.) Singer, can be cultivated on a wide variety of substrates containing lignin and cellulose. Oyster mushroom cultivation can play an important role in managing organic waste. Oyster mushroom was grown on five substrates: sedge (Carex remota L.), lawn clippings (mix of Bermuda grass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.], ryegrass [Lolium persicum L.], meadow

J. A. Olfati; Gh. Peyvast

2008-01-01

170

Potential and limitations of Burgundy truffle cultivation.  

PubMed

Burgundy truffles (Tuber aestivum syn. Tuber uncinatum) are the highly prized fruit bodies of subterranean fungi always occurring in ectomycorrhizal symbiosis with host plants. Successful cultivation can be achieved through artificial mycorrhization and outplanting of mostly oaks and hazel on suitable terrain. Here, we review ecological requirements, the influence of environmental factors, and the importance of molecular techniques for a successful cultivation of T. aestivum across Europe. The historical background and current knowledge of T. aestivum cultivation are discussed in light of its socioeconomic relevance. PMID:23666478

Stobbe, Ulrich; Egli, Simon; Tegel, Willy; Peter, Martina; Sproll, Ludger; Büntgen, Ulf

2013-06-01

171

Antioxidant response and oxidative stress levels in Macrobrachium borellii (Crustacea: Palaemonidae) exposed to the water-soluble fraction of petroleum.  

PubMed

The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of the water soluble fraction of hydrocarbons (WSF) on the antioxidant status of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium borellii. First, seasonal variations were studied in a non-polluted area. Hepatopancreas and gills showed season-related fluctuations in catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities and in lipid peroxidation levels (LPO), but not in superoxide dismutase (SOD). Then, adults were exposed semi-statically to sublethal doses for 7days. CAT, SOD, GST, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities and LPO, reduced glutathione (GSH) and protein oxidation (PO) levels were determined. Exposed individuals showed significant increases in CAT, SOD, and GST activities in hepatopancreas and CAT activity in gills. GPx activity did not vary in either tissues. While LPO levels increased, GSH levels decreased significantly in hepatopancreas of exposed animals, but PO levels showed no variation. Induction of SOD was also assessed by Real-time PCR mRNA expression in hepatopancreas. The non-enzymatic antioxidant activity was also tested; ABTS 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) was higher in hemolymph of treated-prawns compared to controls, but ferric reducing activity of plasma assay (FRAP) values did not change. Taken together, the present results indicated that the antioxidant defenses of M. borellii, mainly in hepatopancreas, were significantly affected by aquatic hydrocarbon contamination, regardless of the season. PMID:21320634

Lavarías, S; Heras, H; Pedrini, N; Tournier, H; Ansaldo, M

2011-05-01

172

cDNA Cloning and Expression Analysis of Gustavus Gene in the Oriental River Prawn Macrobrachium nipponense  

PubMed Central

The gustavus gene is required for localizing pole plasm and specifying germ cells. Research on gustavus gene expression will advance our understanding of the biological function of gustavus in animals. A cDNA encoding gustavus protein was identified and termed MnGus in the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense. Bioinformatic analyses showed that this gene encoded a protein of 262 amino acids and the protein belongs to the Spsb1 family. Real-time quantitative PCR analyses revealed that the expression level of MnGus in prawn embryos was slightly higher at the cleavage stage than at the blastula stage, and reached the maximum level during the zoea stage of embryos. The minimum level of MnGus expression occurred during the perinucleolus stage in the ovary, while the maximum was at the oil globule stage, and then the level of MnGus expression gradually decreased with the advancement of ovarian development. The expression level of MnGus in muscle was much higher than that in other tissues in mature prawn. The gustavus cDNA sequence was firstly cloned from the oriental river prawn and the pattern of gene expression was described during oocyte maturation, embryonic development, and in other tissues. The differential expression patterns of MnGus in the embryo, ovary and other somatic tissues suggest that the gustavus gene performs multiple physiological functions in the oriental river prawn. PMID:21359189

Zhang, Fengying; Chen, Liqiao; Qin, Jianguang; Zhao, Weihong; Wu, Ping; Yu, Na; Ma, Lingbo

2011-01-01

173

Ocurrence of male morphotypes of Macrobrachium amazonicum (Caridea, Palaemonidae) in a population with an entirely freshwater life cycle.  

PubMed

This study records, for the first time, the occurrence of all four male morphotypes in a population of Macrobrachium amazonicum from a continental environment, with an entirely freshwater life cycle. The specimens studied came from the Tietê River, state of São Paulo, Brazil, and were collected in a lotic environment downstream from Ibitinga Dam. This population was compared with other continental populations, including a population from the dam itself, collected in a previous study. Four samples of 30 minutes were taken monthly, using a trap, from January to April 2011. Each male specimen was measured with respect to seven body dimensions as follows: carapace length (CL), right cheliped length (RCL), dactyl length (DCL), propodus length (PPL), carpus length (CRL), merus length (ML) and ischium length (IL). The relative growth was analyzed based on the change in growth patterns of certain body parts in relation to the independent variable CL. The four male morphotypes proposed for the species were found using morphological and morphometric analyses. Different biological characteristics were found between the populations studied. The male population of the lake of Ibitinga and from Pantanal presented mean sizes and number of morphotypes lower than the population studied here. These differences seem to be closely related to ecological characteristics of the environments inhabited by these populations. Our results supported the hypothesis that coastal and continental populations of M. amazonicum belong to the same species. PMID:25627389

Pantaleão, J A F; Hirose, G L; Costa, R C

2014-08-01

174

Identification of spliced mRNA isoforms of retinoid X receptor (RXR) in the Oriental freshwater prawn Macrobrachium nipponense.  

PubMed

Retinoid X receptors (RXR) are members of the nuclear receptor family that are conserved from invertebrates to vertebrates, and they play an essential role in regulating reproductive maturation, molting, and embryo development. In this study, five RXR isoforms, named RXRL2 (L, long form), RXRL3, RXRS1 (S, short form), RXRS2, and RXRS3, containing six domains from A to F, were cloned from the prawn Macrobrachium nipponense using 5'- and 3'- rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Differences among their structures were observed not only in the D and E domains but also in the A/B domain, which were previously found in insects but not in crustaceans. This is the first report to show that differences occur in the A/B domain of RXR in crustaceans. RXR expressions were also examined in various tissues including the ovary, testis, muscle, hepatopancreas, heart, gill, stomach, intestine, and cuticle. Expression pattern investigations indicated that the five isoforms were differentially expressed. RXRS3 was only detected in the ovary, and the other RXRs were abundant in the ovary and testis. These data suggested that RXR mediates a series of processes related to reproduction. PMID:24938602

Li, Z; Wang, W Q; Zhang, E F; Qiu, G F

2014-01-01

175

Calcium-calmodulin dependent protein kinase I from Macrobrachium nipponense: cDNA cloning and involvement in molting.  

PubMed

Calcium-calmodulin dependent protein kinase I is a component of a calmodulin-dependent protein kinase cascade and involved in many physiological processes. The full-length cDNA of calcium-calmodulin dependent protein kinase I (MnCaMKI) was cloned from the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium nipponense and its expression pattern during the molt cycle and after eyestalk ablation is described. The full-length cDNA of MnCaMKI is 3,262 bp in length and has an open reading frame (ORF) of 1,038 bp, encoding a 345 amino acid protein. The expression of MnCaMKI in three examined tissues was upregulated in the premolt stage of the molt cycle. Its expression was induced after eyestalk ablation (ESA): the highest expression level was reached 1 day after ESA in hepatopancreas, and 3 days after ESA in muscle. By dsRNA-mediated RNA interference assay, expression of MnCaMKI and ecydone receptor gene (MnEcR) was significantly decreased in prawns treated by injection of dsMnCaMKI, while expression of these two genes was also significantly decreased in prawns treated by injection of dsMnEcR, demonstrating a close correlation between the expression of these two genes. These results suggest that CaMKI in M. nipponense is involved in molting. PMID:24491503

Shen, Huaishun; Hu, Yacheng; Zhang, Yuanqin; Zhou, Xin; Xu, Zenghong

2014-04-01

176

Feeding and larval growth of an exotic freshwater prawn Macrobrachium equidens (Decapoda: Palaemonidae), from Northeastern Pará, Amazon Region.  

PubMed

In the present study, we carried out experiments on the diet of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium equidens. We tested which type of food and which density of food is suitable for larval development. For the experiment on the type of food, eight treatments were carried out: (I) starvation, (AL) microalgae, (RO) rotifers, (AN) Artemia, (RO + AN) rotifers + Artemia, (AL + RO) microalgae + rotifers, (AL + AN) microalgae + Artemia, (AL + RO + AN) microalgae + rotifers + Artemia. For the experiment on the density of food, we used the type of food, which had resulted in a high survival rate in the previous experiment. Three treatments were carried out: 4, 8 and 16 Artemia nauplii /mL. The rate of feeding during larval development was observed. The survival, weight and percentage of juveniles of each feeding experiment were determined. We found that larvae are carnivores; however, they have requirements with respect to the type of food, because larvae completed their cycle from the zoeal to the juvenile stage only when Artemia nauplii were available. We also verified that the larvae feed mainly during the day-time, and are opportunistic with respect to the density of food offered. PMID:25119734

Gomes, Jean N; Abrunhosa, Fernando A; Costa, Anne K; Maciel, Cristiana R

2014-09-01

177

The Cultivation of Sensibility in Art Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is no natural or genetically determined talent for aesthetic appreciation, but at most a widely distributed capacity that, fortified by interest, can be developed. The aesthetic experience should be cultivated but for its own sake. (RM)

Osborne, Harold

1984-01-01

178

Effect of thermal acclimation on organ mass, tissue respiration, and allometry in Leichhardtian river prawns Macrobrachium tolmerum (Riek, 1951).  

PubMed

Changes to an animal's abiotic environment-and consequent changes in the allometry of metabolic rate in the whole animal and its constituent parts-has considerable potential to reveal important patterns in both intraspecific and interindividual variation of metabolic rates. This study demonstrates that, after 6 wk of thermal acclimation at replicate treatments of 16°, 21°, and 25°C, standard metabolic rate (SMR) scales allometrically in Leichhardtian river prawns Macrobrachium tolmerum ([Formula: see text]) and that the scaling exponent and normalization constant of the relationship between SMR and body mass is not significantly different among acclimation treatments when measured at 21°C. There is, however, significant variation among individuals in whole-animal metabolic rate. We hypothesized that these observations may arise because of changes in the metabolic rate and allometry of metabolic rate or mass of organ tissues within the animal. To investigate this hypothesis, rates of oxygen consumption in a range of tissues (gills, gonads, hepatopancreas, chelae muscle, tail muscle) were measured at 21°C and related to the body mass (M) and whole-animal SMR of individual prawns. We demonstrate that thermal acclimation had no effect on organ and tissue mass, that most organ and tissue (gills, gonads, hepatopancreas) respiration rates do not change with acclimation temperature, and that residual variation in the allometry of M. tolmerum SMR is not explained by differences in organ and tissue mass and respiration rates. These results suggest that body size and ambient temperature may independently affect metabolic rate in this species. Both chelae and tail muscle, however, exhibited a reduction in respiration rate in animals acclimated to 25° relative to those acclimated to 16° and 21°C. This reduction in respiration rates of muscle at higher temperatures is evidence of a tissue-specific acclimation response that was not detectable at the whole-animal level. PMID:23799841

Crispin, Taryn S; White, Craig R

2013-01-01

179

Transcriptome Analysis of the Oriental River Prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense Using 454 Pyrosequencing for Discovery of Genes and Markers  

PubMed Central

Background The oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense, is an economically and nutritionally important species of the Palaemonidae family of decapod crustaceans. To date, the sequencing of its whole genome is unavailable as a non-model organism. Transcriptomic information is also scarce for this species. In this study, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing to produce the first comprehensive expressed sequence tag (EST) dataset for M. nipponense using high-throughput sequencing technologies. Methodology and Principal Findings Total RNA was isolated from eyestalk, gill, heart, ovary, testis, hepatopancreas, muscle, and embryos at the cleavage, gastrula, nauplius and zoea stages. Equal quantities of RNA from each tissue and stage were pooled to construct a cDNA library. Using 454 pyrosequencing technology, we generated a total of 984,204 high quality reads (338.59Mb) with an average length of 344 bp. Clustering and assembly of these reads produced a non-redundant set of 81,411 unique sequences, comprising 42,551 contigs and 38,860 singletons. All of the unique sequences were involved in the molecular function (30,425), cellular component (44,112) and biological process (67,679) categories by GO analysis. Potential genes and their functions were predicted by KEGG pathway mapping and COG analysis. Based on our sequence analysis and published literature, many putative genes involved in sex determination, including DMRT1, FTZ-F1, FOXL2, FEM1 and other potentially important candidate genes, were identified for the first time in this prawn. Furthermore, 6,689 SSRs and 18,107 high-confidence SNPs were identified in this EST dataset. Conclusions The transcriptome provides an invaluable new data for a functional genomics resource and future biological research in M. nipponense. The molecular markers identified in this study will provide a material basis for future genetic linkage and quantitative trait loci analyses, and will be essential for accelerating aquaculture breeding programs with this species. PMID:22745820

Ma, Keyi; Qiu, Gaofeng; Feng, Jianbin; Li, Jiale

2012-01-01

180

Molecular cloning of two tropomyosin family genes and expression analysis during development in oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense.  

PubMed

This paper reports that Slow-tonic S2 tropomyosin (Sst) and Slow tropomyosin isoform (Sti) was highly expressed in androgenic gland transcriptome of Macrobrachium nipponense, which may play crucial roles in sexual differentiation to maleness. In this study, two Sst and Sti gene homologues designated as Mnsst and Mnsti were cloned and characterized from a freshwater prawn M. nipponense. The full-length cDNA of Mnsst and Mnsti consists of 997 bp and 1926 bp, respectively, with an ORF of 852 bp encoding 284 amino acids, and the similarity in ORF reached to 95.82%. The deduced amino acid sequences of Mnsst and Mnsti shared the highest identity with Slow-tonic S2 tropomyosin and Slow tropomyosin isoform of Homarus americanus. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR showed that the Mnsst and Mnsti genes were expressed in different tissues with the highest level of expression in the androgenic gland, implying that these two genes may be related to sex-determination in M. nipponense. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR revealed that in addition, Mnsst and Mnsti were speculated to be related with embryonic organogenesis of M. nipponense, especially for the formation of complete mouthpart and digestive organ and stimulating larval changes of morphology and initiate metamorphosis, the results of present study implied that the two genes may play complex and important roles in sex differentiation of M. nipponense. Thus, we isolated two candidate genes that may advance the studies of sex-determination mechanism in M. nipponense and even the whole crustacean species, as well as promoting the all-male population culture of M. nipponense. PMID:24809964

Jin, Shubo; Jiang, Sufei; Xiong, Yiwei; Qiao, Hui; Sun, Shengming; Zhang, Wenyi; Li, Fajun; Gong, Yongsheng; Fu, Hongtuo

2014-08-10

181

A kinetic characterization of the gill V(H(+))-ATPase in juvenile and adult Macrobrachium amazonicum, a diadromous palaemonid shrimp.  

PubMed

Novel kinetic properties of a microsomal gill V(H(+))-ATPase from juvenile and adult Amazon River shrimp, Macrobrachium amazonicum, are described. While protein expression patterns are markedly different, Western blot analysis reveals a sole immunoreactive band, suggesting a single V(H(+))-ATPase subunit isoform, distributed in membrane fractions of similar density in both ontogenetic stages. Immunofluorescence labeling locates the V(H(+))-ATPase in the apical regions of the lamellar pillar cells in both stages in which mRNA expression of the V(H(+))-ATPase B-subunit is identical. Juvenile (36.6±3.3 nmol Pi min(-1) mg(-1)) and adult (41.6±1.3 nmol Pi min(-1) mg(-1)) V(H(+))-ATPase activities are similar, the apparent affinity for ATP of the adult enzyme (K0.5=0.21±0.02 mmol L(-1)) being 3-fold greater than for juveniles (K0.5=0.61±0.01 mmol L(-1)). The K0.5 for Mg(2+) interaction with the juvenile V(H(+))-ATPase (1.40 ± 0.07 mmol L(-1)) is ?6-fold greater than for adults (0.26±0.02 mmol L(-1)) while the bafilomycin A1 inhibition constant (KI) is 45.0±2.3 nmol L(-1) and 24.2±1.2 nmol L(-1), for juveniles and adults, respectively. Both stages exhibited residual bafilomycin-insensitive ATPase activity of ?25 nmol Pi min(-1) mg(-1), suggesting the presence of ATPases other than the V(H(+))-ATPase. These differences may reflect a long-term regulatory mechanism of V(H(+))-ATPase activity, and suggest stage-specific enzyme modulation. This is the first kinetic analysis of V(H(+))-ATPase activity in different ontogenetic stages of a freshwater shrimp and allows better comprehension of the biochemical adaptations underpinning the establishment of palaemonid shrimps in fresh water. PMID:25461614

Lucena, Malson N; Pinto, Marcelo R; Garçon, Daniela P; McNamara, John C; Leone, Francisco A

2015-03-01

182

Microgravity cultivation of cells and tissues  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In vitro studies of cells and tissues in microgravity, either simulated by cultivation conditions on earth or actual, during spaceflight, are expected to help identify mechanisms underlying gravity sensing and transduction in biological organisms. In this paper, we review rotating bioreactor studies of engineered skeletal and cardiovascular tissues carried out in unit gravity, a four month long cartilage tissue engineering study carried out aboard the Mir Space Station, and the ongoing laboratory development and testing of a system for cell and tissue cultivation aboard the International Space Station.

Freed, L. E.; Pellis, N.; Searby, N.; de Luis, J.; Preda, C.; Bordonaro, J.; Vunjak-Novakovic, G.

1999-01-01

183

The invasion of five alien species in the Delta do Parnaíba Environmental Protection Area, Northeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

Marine biological invasions have been regarded as one of the major causes of native biodiversity loss, with shipping and aquaculture being the leading contributors for the introductions of alien species in aquatic ecosystems. In the present study, five aquatic alien species (one mollusk, three crustaceans and one fish species) were detected during dives, shore searches and from the fisheries on the coast of the Delta do Parnaíba Environmental Protection Area, in the States of Piauí and Maranhão, Northeastern Brazil. The species were the bicolor purse-oyster Isognomon bicolor, the whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, the giant river prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, the Indo-Pacific swimming crab Charybdis hellerii and, the muzzled blenny Omobranchus punctatus. Ballast water (I. bicolor, C. hellerii, and O. punctatus) and aquaculture activities (L. vannamei and M. rosenbergii) in adjacent areas are the most likely vectors of introduction. All exotic species found have potential impact risks to the environment because they are able to compete against native species for resources (food and habitat). Isognomon bicolor share the same habitat and food items with the native bivalve species of mussels and barnacles. Litopenaeus vannamei share the same habitat and food items with the native penaeids such as the pinkspot shrimp Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis, the Southern brown shrimp Farfantepenaeus subtilis, and the Southern white shrimp Litopenaeus schmitti, and in the past few years L. vannamei was responsible for a viral epidemics in the cultivation tanks that could be transmitted to native penaeid shrimps. Charybdis hellerii is also able to cause impacts on the local fisheries as the species can decrease the populations of native portunid crabs which are commercialized in the studied region. Macrobrachium rosenbergii may be sharing natural resources with the Amazon River prawn Macrobrachium amazonicum. Omobranchus punctatus shares habit with the native redlip blenny Ophioblennius atlanticus and other fishes, such as the frillfin goby Bathigobius soporator Some immediate remedial measures to prevent further introductions from ballast water and shrimp farm ponds should be: (i) to prevent the release of ballast water by ship/vessels in the region; (ii) to reroute all effluent waters from shrimp rearing facilities through an underground or above-ground dry well; (iii) to install adequate sand and gravel filter which will allow passage of water but not livestock; (iv) outdoor shrimp pounds located on floodable land should be diked, and; (v) to promote environmental awareness of those directly involved with ballast water (crews of ship/vessels) and shrimp farms in the region. PMID:20737846

Loebmann, Daniel; Mai, Ana Cecília G; Lee, James T

2010-09-01

184

Does aposymbiotically cultivated fungus Ramalina produce isolichenan?  

PubMed

The main ?-glucan synthesized by lichens of the genera Ramalina in the symbiotic state is isolichenan. This polysaccharide was not found in the aposymbiotically cultivated symbionts. It is still unknown if this glucan is produced by the mycobiont only in the presence of a photobiont, in a lichen thallus, or if the isolichenan suppression is influenced by the composition of culture medium used in its aposymbiotic cultive. Consequently, the latter hypothesis is tested in this study. Cultures of the mycobiont Ramalina complanata were obtained from germinated ascospores and cultivated on 4% glucose Lilly and Barnett medium. Freeze-dried colonies were defatted and their carbohydrates extracted successively with hot water and aqueous 10% KOH, each at 100 °C. The polysaccharides nigeran, laminaran and galactomannan were liberated, along with a lentinan-type ?-glucan and a heteropolysaccharide (Man : Gal : Glc, 21 : 28 : 51). Nevertheless, the ?-glucan isolichenan was not found in the extracts. It follows that it was probably a symbiotic product, synthesized by the mycobiont only in this particular microenvironment, in the presence of the photobiont in the lichen thallus. A discussion about polysaccharides found in the symbiotic thallus as well as in other aposymbiotic cultivated Ramalina mycobionts is also included. PMID:21585515

Cordeiro, Lucimara M C; Messias, Douglas; Sassaki, Guilherme L; Gorin, Phillip A J; Iacomini, Marcello

2011-08-01

185

Genetic variation in cultivated Rheum tanguticum populations.  

PubMed

To examine whether cultivation reduced genetic variation in the important Chinese medicinal plant Rheum tanguticum, the levels and distribution of genetic variation were investigated using ISSR markers. Fifty-eight R. tanguticum individuals from five cultivated populations were studied. Thirteen primers were used and a total of 320 DNA bands were scored. High levels of genetic diversity were detected in cultivated R. tanguticum (PPB = 82.19, H = 0.2498, HB = 0.3231, I = 0.3812) and could be explained by the outcrossing system, as well as long-lived and human-mediated seed exchanges. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that more genetic variation was found within populations (76.1%) than among them (23.9%). This was supported by the coefficient of gene differentiation (Gst = 0.2742) and Bayesian analysis (? B = 0.1963). The Mantel test revealed no significant correlation between genetic and geographic distances among populations (r = 0.1176, p = 0.3686). UPGMA showed that the five cultivated populations were separated into three clusters, which was in good accordance with the results provided by the Bayesian software STRUCTURE (K = 3). A short domestication history and no artificial selection may be an effective way of maintaining and conserving the gene pools of wild R. tanguticum. PMID:25249777

Hu, Yanping; Xie, Xiaolong; Wang, Li; Zhang, Huaigang; Yang, Jian; Li, Yi

2014-09-01

186

VIII. Cultivation of tamogitake (Pleurotus comucopiae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tamogitake (Pleurotus comucopiae) grows close together. It is crispy, flavorful, and has a pleasing color. This mushroom is cultivated in the Tohoku and Hokkaido regions in Japan from June to September. Broadleaved trees, especially of the genus Ulmus, can be used. When the spawn of Pleurotus comucopiae are inoculated between January to April, fruiting bodies appear about middle to late

Kiyoshige Date

1997-01-01

187

HIGHLY POLYMORPHIC GENES IN CULTIVATED TOMATO  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cultivated tomato varieties are genetically extremely similar. We identified 764 Unigenes with potential single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) among more than 15 cultivars from public expressed tomato data. By sequencing regions from 53 of these Unigenes in two to three cultivars, we discovered an ...

188

Cultivating Cohort Studies for Observational Translational Research  

PubMed Central

Background “Discovery” research about molecular markers for diagnosis, prognosis, or prediction of response to therapy has frequently produced results that were not reproducible in subsequent studies. What are the reasons, and can observational cohorts be cultivated to provide strong and reliable answers to those questions? Methods Selected examples are used to illustrate: 1) What features of research design provide strength and reliability in observational studies about markers of diagnosis, prognosis, and response to therapy? 2) How can those design features be cultivated in existing observational cohorts, for example within RCTs, other existing observational research studies, or practice settings like HMOs? Results Examples include a study of RNA expression profiles of tumor tissue to predict prognosis of breast cancer; a study of serum proteomics profiles to diagnose ovarian cancer; and a study of stool-based DNA assays to screen for colon cancer. Strengths and weaknesses of observational study design features are discussed, along with lessons about how features that help assure strength might be “cultivated” in the future. Conclusions and Impact By considering these examples and others, it may be possible to develop a process of “cultivating cohorts” - in on-going RCTs, observational cohort studies, and practice settings like HMOs - that have strong features of study design. Such an effort could produce sources of data and specimens to reliably answer questions about the use of molecular markers in diagnosis, prognosis, and response to therapy. PMID:23462919

Ransohoff, David F.

2013-01-01

189

Cultivating Entrepreneurs: A Shift in Corporate Fundraising.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contends that corporate giving is on the downswing, and community colleges must make adjustments. States that entrepreneurs have become venture philanthropists, and are a source community colleges should cultivate. Describes Springfield Technical Community College's (Massachusetts) two-pronged approach in this effort: It created an Enterprise…

Carberry, Gail E.

2002-01-01

190

Cultivation of Polypore Mushroom ( Ganoderma resinaceum )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polypore mushroom was found to be rich in protein, fiber and cellulose. Polypore mushroom is found to grow on rotting hard wood logs. So, attempt was made to cul- tivate the species in laboratory condition. The present paper describes the process of cultivation of polypore mushroom in laboratory condition. The selected substrates (e.g. mango saw dust, rice hull, different kinds

Fauzia Hafiz; Fauzia Begum; Sahana Parveen; Majeda Begum; Zaibun Nessa; Motahar Hossain; John Liton Munshi

2007-01-01

191

The medicinal Agaricus mushroom cultivated in Brazil: biology, cultivation and non-medicinal valorisation.  

PubMed

Sun mushroom is a cultivated mushroom extensively studied for its medicinal properties for several years and literature abounds on the topic. Besides, agronomical aspects were investigated in Brazil, the country the mushroom comes from, and some studies focus on the biology of the fungus. This review aimed to present an overview of the non-medicinal knowledge on the mushroom. Areas of commercial production and marketing trends are presented. Its specific fragrance, taste, nutritional value and potential use of extracts as food additives are compared to those of the most cultivated fungi and laboratory models. The interest of the mushroom for lignocellulosic enzyme production and source of biomolecules for the control of plant pathogens are shown. Investigation of genetic variability among cultivars is reported. Growing and storage of mycelium, as well as cultivation conditions (substrate and casing generally based on local products; indoor and outdoor cultivation; diseases and disorders) are described and compared to knowledge on Agaricus bisporus. PMID:22005742

Largeteau, Michèle L; Llarena-Hernández, Régulo Carlos; Regnault-Roger, Catherine; Savoie, Jean-Michel

2011-12-01

192

Toxicity of the organophosphorous insecticide metamidophos (o,s-dimethyl phosphoramidothioate) to larvae of the freshwater prawn and the blue shrimp  

SciTech Connect

The organophosphorous insecticide O,S-dimethyl phosphoramidothioate (Metamidophos, Tamaron, Monitor, Hamidop) is widely used for pest control in tropical crops. If washed down to streams and estuaries its residues could adversely affect populations of commercially important crustaceans, like those of the palaemonid prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and the penaeid shrimp Penaeus stylirostris. This paper presents information on the toxicity of O,S-dimethyl phosphoramidothioate to larvae of M. rosenbergii and P. stylirostris.

Juarez, L.M.; Sanchez, J. (Monterrey Institute of Technology, Sonora (Mexico))

1989-08-01

193

Analyses on Regional Cultivated Land Changebased on Quantitative Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three Gorges Project is the great project in the world, which accelerates economic development in the reservoir area of Three Gorges Project. In the process of development in the reservoir area of Three Gorges Project, cultivated land has become the important resources, a lot of cultivated land has been occupied and become the constructing land. In the same time, a lot of cultivated land has been flooded because of the rising of the water level. This paper uses the cultivated land areas and social economic indicators of reservoir area of Three Gorges in 1990-2004, takes the statistic analyses and example research in order to analyze the process of cultivated land, get the driving forces of cultivated land change, find the new methods to stimulate and forecast the cultivated land areas in the future, and serve for the cultivated land protection and successive development in reservoir area of Three Gorges. The results indicate as follow, firstly, in the past 15 years, the cultivated land areas has decreased 200142 hm2, the decreasing quantity per year is 13343 hm2. The whole reservoir area is divided into three different areas, they are upper reaches area, belly area and lower reaches area. The trends of cultivated land change in different reservoir areas are similar to the whole reservoir area. Secondly, the curve of cultivated land areas and per capita GDP takes on the reverse U, and the steps between the change rate of cultivated land and the change rate of GDP are different in some years, which indicates that change of cultivated land and change of GDP are decoupling, besides that, change of cultivated land is connection with the development of urbanization and the policy of returning forestry greatly. Lastly, the precision of multi-regression is lower than the BP neural network in the stimulation of cultivated land, then takes use of the BP neural network to forecast the cultivated land areas in 2005, 2010 and 2015, and the forecasting results are reasonable.

Cao, Yingui; Yuan, Chun; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Jing

194

Microbe observation and cultivation array (MOCA) for cultivating and analyzing environmental microbiota  

PubMed Central

Background The use of culture-independent nucleic acid techniques, such as ribosomal RNA gene cloning library analysis, has unveiled the tremendous microbial diversity that exists in natural environments. In sharp contrast to this great achievement is the current difficulty in cultivating the majority of bacterial species or phylotypes revealed by molecular approaches. Although recent new technologies such as metagenomics and metatranscriptomics can provide more functionality information about the microbial communities, it is still important to develop the capacity to isolate and cultivate individual microbial species or strains in order to gain a better understanding of microbial physiology and to apply isolates for various biotechnological applications. Results We have developed a new system to cultivate bacteria in an array of droplets. The key component of the system is the microbe observation and cultivation array (MOCA), which consists of a Petri dish that contains an array of droplets as cultivation chambers. MOCA exploits the dominance of surface tension in small amounts of liquid to spontaneously trap cells in well-defined droplets on hydrophilic patterns. During cultivation, the growth of the bacterial cells across the droplet array can be monitored using an automated microscope, which can produce a real-time record of the growth. When bacterial cells grow to a visible microcolony level in the system, they can be transferred using a micropipette for further cultivation or analysis. Conclusions MOCA is a flexible system that is easy to set up, and provides the sensitivity to monitor growth of single bacterial cells. It is a cost-efficient technical platform for bioassay screening and for cultivation and isolation of bacteria from natural environments. PMID:24468000

2013-01-01

195

The effect of astaxanthin on resistance of juvenile prawns Macrobrachium nipponense (Decapoda: Palaemonidae) to physical and chemical stress.  

PubMed

In recent years, the use of new scientific techniques has effectively improved aquaculture production processes. Astaxanthin has various properties in aquaculture and its antioxidant benefits have been closely related to stress resistance; besides, it is an essential factor for growth in many crustaceans and fish. The objective of this study was to evaluate the resistance of prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) fed diets containing different amounts of astaxanthin (AX) to the shock and stress of different physicochemical environments. A 70-day trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplementation of a source of astaxanthin (Carophyll Pink, 10% astaxanthin, w/w, Hoffman-La Roche, Switzerland) at various levels in the diet of M. nipponense juveniles. Four dry diets were prepared: AX0 without astaxanthin, AX50 with 50 mg/kg, AX100 with 100 mg/kg, and AX150 with 150 mg/kg astaxanthin. The feeding trial was conducted in a recirculation water system consisting of 12 fiberglass tanks (1000L) used for holding prawns. Three replicate aquaria were initially stocked with 36 org/m2 per tank. During the trial, prawns were maintained on a 12:12-h light:dark photoperiod with an ordinary incandescent lamp, and the water quality parameters were maintained as follows: water temperature, 25-26°C; salinity, 1 g/L; pH, 8.5-8.8; dissolved oxygen, 6.0-6.5 mg/L; and ammonia-nitrogen, 0.05 mg/L. Incorporation of AX, production output, and physiological condition were recorded after 10 weeks of feeding. At the end of the growing period, the prawns were exposed to thermal shock (0°C), ammonia (0.75 mg/L), and reduced oxygen (0.5 mg/L). The time to lethargy and the time to complete death of the prawns were recorded. The results showed that control prawns had the shortest time to lethargy and death compared with prawns subjected to the other treatments. The results of this study have shown that the amount of muscle tissue and gill carotenoids in prawn fed with an AX150 diet showed greater reduction than those exposed to other treatments. It is possible that higher levels of astaxanthin in the body under oxygen reduction stress can be beneficial for prawns. These results suggest that male prawns showed lethargy earlier than females, and the percentage of carotenoid reduction in muscle and gill tissues was higher in males. PMID:25720170

Tizkar, Babak; Seidavi, Alireza; Ponce-Palafox, Jesús Trinidad; Pourashoori, Parastoo

2014-12-01

196

A model of shifting cultivation: can soil conservation reduce deforestation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shifting cultivators manage soil not only by adjusting soil use on already-cleared lands, as in continuous cultivation, but also by clearing forests to obtain new fertile soils. This study examines the crucial link between on-farm soil conservation and deforestation in shifting cultivation by modeling forest clearing as an investment in soil for a private farmer. More generally, by doing so

Yoshito Takasaki

2006-01-01

197

Cultivated land conversion and potential agricultural productivity in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In China there is a growing debate on the role of cultivated land conversion on food security. This paper uses satellite images to examine the changes of the area of cultivated land and its potential agricultural productivity in China. We find that between 1986 and 2000 China recorded a net increase of cultivated land (+1.9%), which almost offset the decrease

Xiangzheng Deng; Jikun Huang; Scott Rozelle; Emi Uchida

2006-01-01

198

Use of Whey Permeate for Cultivating Ganoderma lucidum Mycelia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel approach to utilizing whey permeate, the cultivation of mycelia of the edible mushroom Gano- derma lucidum, is introduced. The major objective of this research was to use whey permeate as an alterna- tive growth medium for the cultivation of mycelia of edible mushroom G. lucidum and to find an optimum condition for solid-state cultivation. Response surface analysis was

M. Song; N. Kim; S. Lee; S. Hwang

2007-01-01

199

ASSESSING THE IMPACTS OF CULTIVATED LAND LOSS AND CLIMATE CHANGE ON CULTIVATED LAND POTENTIAL PRODUCTIVITY IN BEIJING, CHINA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultivated Land Potential Productivity (CLPP) is an important indicator to reflect the cultivated land's ability to support food produce. At present, driven by rapid economic development and continuous population increase, mass urban expansion by occupying cultivated land brings stress to China's food security. In addition, climate change also becomes an important factor to disturb China's food security. Assessing impacts of

Yuanyuan Zhao; Chunyang He; Xiaobing Li; Qingxu Huang; Yang Yang

200

Comparative acute toxicity of gallium(III), antimony(III), indium(III), cadmium(II), and copper(II) on freshwater swamp shrimp (Macrobrachium nipponense)  

PubMed Central

Background Acute toxicity testing were carried out the freshwater swamp shrimp, Macrobrachium nipponense, as the model animal for the semiconductor applied metals (gallium, antimony, indium, cadmium, and copper) to evaluate if the species is an suitable experimental animal of pollution in aquatic ecosystem. Results The static renewal test method of acute lethal concentrations determination was used, and water temperature was maintained at 24.0?±?0.5°C. Data of individual metal obtained from acute toxicity tests were determined using probit analysis method. The median lethal concentration (96-h LC50) of gallium, antimony, indium, cadmium, and copper for M. nipponense were estimated as 2.7742, 1.9626, 6.8938, 0.0539, and 0.0313 mg/L, respectively. Conclusions Comparing the toxicity tolerance of M. nipponense with other species which exposed to these metals, it is obviously that the M. nipponense is more sensitive than that of various other aquatic animals. PMID:25027256

2014-01-01

201

The Prawn Macrobrachium vollenhovenii in the Senegal River Basin: Towards Sustainable Restocking of All-Male Populations for Biological Control of Schistosomiasis  

PubMed Central

Early malacological literature suggests that the outbreak of schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease transmitted by aquatic snails, in the Senegal River basin occurred due to ecological changes resulting from the construction of the Diama dam. The common treatment, the drug praziquantel, does not protect from the high risk of re-infection due to human contact with infested water on a daily basis. The construction of the dam interfered with the life cycle of the prawn Macrobrachium vollenhovenii by blocking its access to breeding grounds in the estuary. These prawns were demonstrated to be potential biological control agents, being effective predators of Schistosoma-susceptible snails. Here, we propose a responsible restocking strategy using all-male prawn populations which could provide sustainable disease control. Male prawns reach a larger size and have a lower tendency to migrate than females. We, therefore, expect that periodic restocking of all-male juveniles will decrease the prevalence of schistosomiasis and increase villagers' welfare. In this interdisciplinary study, we examined current prawn abundance along the river basin, complemented with a retrospective questionnaire completed by local fishermen. We revealed the current absence of prawns upriver and thus demonstrated the need for restocking. Since male prawns are suggested to be preferable for bio-control, we laid the molecular foundation for production of all-male M. vollenhovenii through a complete sequencing of the insulin-like androgenic gland-encoding gene (IAG), which is responsible for sexual differentiation in crustaceans. We also conducted bioinformatics and immunohistochemistry analyses to demonstrate the similarity of this sequence to the IAG of another Macrobrachium species in which neo-females are produced and their progeny are 100% males. At least 100 million people at risk of schistosomiasis are residents of areas that experienced water management manipulations. Our suggested non-breeding sustainable model of control—if proven successful—could prevent re-infections and thus prove useful throughout the world. PMID:25166746

Savaya Alkalay, Amit; Rosen, Ohad; Sokolow, Susanne H.; Faye, Yacinthe P. W.; Faye, Djibril S.; Aflalo, Eliahu D.; Jouanard, Nicolas; Zilberg, Dina; Huttinger, Elizabeth; Sagi, Amir

2014-01-01

202

The prawn Macrobrachium vollenhovenii in the Senegal River basin: towards sustainable restocking of all-male populations for biological control of schistosomiasis.  

PubMed

Early malacological literature suggests that the outbreak of schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease transmitted by aquatic snails, in the Senegal River basin occurred due to ecological changes resulting from the construction of the Diama dam. The common treatment, the drug praziquantel, does not protect from the high risk of re-infection due to human contact with infested water on a daily basis. The construction of the dam interfered with the life cycle of the prawn Macrobrachium vollenhovenii by blocking its access to breeding grounds in the estuary. These prawns were demonstrated to be potential biological control agents, being effective predators of Schistosoma-susceptible snails. Here, we propose a responsible restocking strategy using all-male prawn populations which could provide sustainable disease control. Male prawns reach a larger size and have a lower tendency to migrate than females. We, therefore, expect that periodic restocking of all-male juveniles will decrease the prevalence of schistosomiasis and increase villagers' welfare. In this interdisciplinary study, we examined current prawn abundance along the river basin, complemented with a retrospective questionnaire completed by local fishermen. We revealed the current absence of prawns upriver and thus demonstrated the need for restocking. Since male prawns are suggested to be preferable for bio-control, we laid the molecular foundation for production of all-male M. vollenhovenii through a complete sequencing of the insulin-like androgenic gland-encoding gene (IAG), which is responsible for sexual differentiation in crustaceans. We also conducted bioinformatics and immunohistochemistry analyses to demonstrate the similarity of this sequence to the IAG of another Macrobrachium species in which neo-females are produced and their progeny are 100% males. At least 100 million people at risk of schistosomiasis are residents of areas that experienced water management manipulations. Our suggested non-breeding sustainable model of control-if proven successful-could prevent re-infections and thus prove useful throughout the world. PMID:25166746

Savaya Alkalay, Amit; Rosen, Ohad; Sokolow, Susanne H; Faye, Yacinthe P W; Faye, Djibril S; Aflalo, Eliahu D; Jouanard, Nicolas; Zilberg, Dina; Huttinger, Elizabeth; Sagi, Amir

2014-08-01

203

Bioremediation of industrial waste through mushroom cultivation.  

PubMed

Handmade paper and cardboard industries are involved in processing of cellulosic and ligno-cellulosic substances for making paper by hand or simple machinery. In the present study solid sludge and effluent of both cardboard and handmade paper industries was collected for developing a mushroom cultivation technique to achieve zero waste discharges. Findings of present research work reveals that when 50% paper industries waste is used by mixing with 50% (w/w) wheat straw, significant increase (96.38%) in biological efficiency over control of wheat straw was observed. Further, cultivated basidiocarps showed normal morphology of stipe and pileus. Cross section of lamellae did not show any abnormality in the attachment of basidiospores, hymenal trama and basidium. No toxicity was found when fruiting bodies were tested chemically. PMID:21186717

Kulshreshtha, Shweta; Mathur, Nupur; Bhatnagar, Pradeep; Jain, B L

2010-07-01

204

Human Colon Cancer Cells Cultivated in Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Within five days, bioreactor cultivated human colon cancer cells (shown) grown in Microgravity on the STS-70 mission in 1995, had grown 30 times the volume of the control specimens on Earth. The samples grown in space had a higher level of cellular organization and specialization. Because they more closely resemble tumors found in the body, microgravity grown cell cultures are ideal for research purposes.

1995-01-01

205

Experimental tank cultivation of Porphyra in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outdoor tank cultivation of several Porphyra (nori) species was carried out from late November 2002 through early May 2003 using 40 L (with a surface of 0.25 m2), 600 L (1 m2), and 24,000 L (30 m2) fiberglass or PVC tanks provided with continuous aeration and seawater flow. Sexual and asexual spores produced from cultured conchocelis and frozen thalli in

A. Israel; I. Levy; M. Friedlander

2006-01-01

206

Experimental tank cultivation of Porphyra in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outdoor tank cultivation of several Porphyra (nori) species was carried out from late November 2002 through early May 2003 using 40 L (with a surface of 0.25m2), 600 L (1m2), and 24,000 L (30m2) fiberglass or PVC tanks provided with continuous aeration and seawater flow. Sexual and asexual spores produced from cultured\\u000a conchocelis and frozen thalli in the laboratory, respectively,

A. Israel; I. Levy; M. Friedlander

207

High-power LEDs for plant cultivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on high-power solid-state lighting facility for cultivation of greenhouse vegetables and on the results of the study of control of photosynthetic activity and growth morphology of radish and lettuce imposed by variation of the spectral composition of illumination. Experimental lighting modules (useful area of 0.22 m2) were designed based on 4 types of high-power light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with

Gintautas Tamulaitis; Pavelas Duchovskis; Zenius Bliznikas; Kestutis Breive; Raimonda Ulinskaite; Ausra Brazaityte; Algirdas Novickovas; Arturas Zukauskas; Michael S. Shur

2004-01-01

208

Soil properties of cultivation sites for mountain-cultivated ginseng at local level  

PubMed Central

Background Identifying suitable site for growing mountain-cultivated ginseng is a concern for ginseng producers. This study was conducted to evaluate the soil properties of cultivation sites for mountain-cultivated ginseng in Hamyang-gun, which is one of the most well-known areas for mountain-cultivated ginseng in Korea. Methods The sampling plots from 30 sites were randomly selected on or near the center of the ginseng growing sites in July and August 2009. Soil samples for the soil properties analysis were collected from the top 20 cm at five randomly selected points. Results Mountain-cultivated ginseng was grown in soils that varied greatly in soil properties on coniferous, mixed, and deciduous broad-leaved stand sites of elevations between > 200 m and < 1,000 m. The soil bulk density was higher in Pinus densiflora than in Larix leptolepis stand sites and higher in the < 700-m sites than in > 700-m sites. Soil pH was unaffected by the type of stand sites (pH 4.35–4.55), whereas the high-elevation sites of > 700 m were strongly acidified, with pH 4.19. The organic carbon and total nitrogen content were lower in the P. densiflora stand sites than in the deciduous broad-leaved stand sites. Available phosphorus was low in all of the stand sites. The exchangeable cation was generally higher in the mixed and low-elevation sites than in the P. densiflora and high-elevation sites, respectively. Conclusion These results indicate that mountain-cultivated ginseng in Korea is able to grow in very acidic, nutrient-depleted forest soils. PMID:25535480

Kim, Choonsig; Choo, Gap Chul; Cho, Hyun Seo; Lim, Jong Teak

2014-01-01

209

Seaweed cultivation: A new applied field for biotechnology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seaweeds cultivation has resulted in great achievements, although it has a history of only a few decades. With higher productivity and resulting higher profit, it has become the leading marine exploitation industry with the brightest prospects. The relatively limited species introduced for commercial cultivation showed great biological diversity. Introduction of selected good strains for traditional cultivation and the transformation from cultivation of mixed strains to that of pure cell lines are two certain tendencies in the future. Pure line cultivation of seaweeds in a sort of advanced biotechnology. It provides new opportunities for not only the industry itself, but also the stable market of high quality natural marine products. More work should be done on principles and methods to obtain optimal results from the combination of pure line cultivation techniques with advanced biochemistry. The programmed batch production of fine chemicals such as polysaccharides and proteins will probably become the social demand.

Fei, Xiu-Geng; Lu, Shan; Bao, Ying

1998-03-01

210

Teacher's Toolkit: A blueprint for cultivating inquiry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Scientific inquiry , a methodology that can trace its roots back to the time and teachings of Socrates, has been an elusive and evolving part of our education lexicon for many years. The Socratic approach to teaching, in its simplest form, can be thought of as instruction that involves the use of open-ended questions and investigative queries of students rather than a teacher-centered, lecture format. For some reason, however, this straightforward idea has been difficult to translate into practice. Therefore, this article provides a blueprint for cultivating inquiry in the science classroom.

Bill Metz

2008-09-01

211

Cultivating nursing leadership for our envisioned future.  

PubMed

Nurses have been called upon to lead and partner in the transformation of health care. Leadership is a component of the scope of nursing practice; however, the optimal approach to development of leadership competency has not been established. A metasynthesis of qualitative studies on leadership development was conducted to enhance an understanding of conditions that nurses reported to support or hinder their development as leaders. Noblit and Hare's approach was used for the metasynthesis process. Three overarching themes emerged. Opportunity structure, the relationship factor, and organizational culture are essential factors contributing to the successful cultivation of leadership competencies in nurses. PMID:23107990

Galuska, Lee A

2012-01-01

212

Progress in cultivation-independent phyllosphere microbiology  

PubMed Central

Most microorganisms of the phyllosphere are nonculturable in commonly used media and culture conditions, as are those in other natural environments. This review queries the reasons for their ‘noncultivability’ and assesses developments in phyllospere microbiology that have been achieved cultivation independently over the last 4?years. Analyses of total microbial communities have revealed a comprehensive microbial diversity. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and metagenomic sequencing were applied to investigate plant species, location and season as variables affecting the composition of these communities. In continuation to culture-based enzymatic and metabolic studies with individual isolates, metaproteogenomic approaches reveal a great potential to study the physiology of microbial communities in situ. Culture-independent microbiological technologies as well advances in plant genetics and biochemistry provide methodological preconditions for exploring the interactions between plants and their microbiome in the phyllosphere. Improving and combining cultivation and culture-independent techniques can contribute to a better understanding of the phyllosphere ecology. This is essential, for example, to avoid human–pathogenic bacteria in plant food. PMID:24003903

Müller, Thomas; Ruppel, Silke

2014-01-01

213

Transcriptome Analysis of Androgenic Gland for Discovery of Novel Genes from the Oriental River Prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense, Using Illumina Hiseq 2000  

PubMed Central

Background The oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense, is an important aquaculture species in China, even in whole of Asia. The androgenic gland produces hormones that play crucial roles in sexual differentiation to maleness. This study is the first de novo M. nipponense transcriptome analysis using cDNA prepared from mRNA isolated from the androgenic gland. Illumina/Solexa was used for sequencing. Methodology and Principal Finding The total volume of RNA sample was more than 5 ug. We generated 70,853,361 high quality reads after eliminating adapter sequences and filtering out low-quality reads. A total of 78,408 isosequences were obtained by clustering and assembly of the clean reads, producing 57,619 non-redundant transcripts with an average length of 1244.19 bp. In total 70,702 isosequences were matched to the Nr database, additional analyses were performed by GO (33,203), KEGG (17,868), and COG analyses (13,817), identifying the potential genes and their functions. A total of 47 sex-determination related gene families were identified from the M. nipponense androgenic gland transcriptome based on the functional annotation of non-redundant transcripts and comparisons with the published literature. Furthermore, a total of 40 candidate novel genes were found, that may contribute to sex-determination based on their extremely high expression levels in the androgenic compared to other sex glands,. Further, 437 SSRs and 65,535 high-confidence SNPs were identified in this EST dataset from which 14 EST-SSR markers have been isolated. Conclusion Our study provides new sequence information for M. nipponense, which will be the basis for further genetic studies on decapods crustaceans. More importantly, this study dramatically improves understanding of sex-determination mechanisms, and advances sex-determination research in all crustacean species. The huge number of potential SSR and SNP markers isolated from the transcriptome may shed the lights on research in many fields, including the evolution and molecular ecology of Macrobrachium species. PMID:24204682

Jin, Shubo; Fu, Hongtuo; Zhou, Qiao; Sun, Shengming; Jiang, Sufei; Xiong, Yiwei; Gong, Yongsheng; Qiao, Hui; Zhang, Wenyi

2013-01-01

214

Cultivating Discontinuity: Pentecostal Pedagogies of Yielding and Control  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Exploring missionary study at an Assemblies of God Bible college through ethnography and training manuals demonstrates systematic pedagogies that cultivate sensory capabilities encouraging yielding, opening to rupture, and constraint. Ritual theory and the Anthropology of Christianity shift analytic scales to include "cultivation," a…

Brahinsky, Josh

2013-01-01

215

Taxonomy of cultivated potatoes (solanum section petota: solanaceae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Solanum tuberosum, the cultivated potato of world commerce, is a primary food crop worldwide. Wild and cultivated potatoes form the germplasm base for international breeding efforts to improve potato in the face of variety of disease, environmental, and agronomic constraints. A series of national an...

216

Ecogeography of ploidy variation in cultivated potato (Solanum sect. Petota)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The taxonomy of cultivated potatoes has been highly controversial, with estimates of species numbers ranging from 3 to 17. Ploidy level has been one of the most important taxonomic characters to recognize cultivated potato species, containing diploid (2 n = 2 x = 24), triploid (2 n = 3 x = 36), tetr...

217

Cultivated land loss arising from the rapid urbanization in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

China is short of cultivated land considering its huge population. Since the reform in the late 1970s, China has been experiencing rapid nation-wide ur- banization. A large amount of cultivated land has been lost in this social and economic transition of the past 25 years. Utilizing the first national land re- source survey results for 1996, official land use statistics

Leif Söderlund; Wu Peilin; Li Juan

218

Transferring Sclerotinia Resistance Genes from Wild Helianthus into Cultivated Sunflower  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To enhance resistance to Sclerotinia head and stalk rot in cultivated sunflower, mining and introgression of Sclerotinia resistance genes from diverse wild Helianthus accessions into cultivated sunflower has been conducted using backcrossing method since 2004. During the last four years, numerous in...

219

Hydrolase production by Aspergillus niger in solid-state cultivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A production of macerating enzymes which liquefy and hydrolyze the mandarin orange peel was studied in a solid state cultivation of Aspergillus niger on wheat bran substrate. Solid state cultivation in a 2 l drum fermenter capable of interchangeable operation under dynamic or static conditions were carried out maintaining the moisture content of the substrate at 32, 39, 46, 56,

Naomichi Nishio; Kiyoshi Tai; Shiro Nagai

1979-01-01

220

Taxonomy of Cultivated Potatoes (Solanum section Petota: Solanaceae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Solanum tuberosum, the cultivated potato of world commerce, is a primary food crop worldwide. Wild and cultivated potatoes form the germplasm base for international breeding efforts to improve potato in the face of variety of disease, environmental, and agronomic constraints. A series of national an...

221

EVOLUTION AND CULTIVAR-GROUP CLASSIFICATION OF CULTIVATED POTATOES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The cultivated potato of world commerce, Solanum tuberosum, is one of the most important food crops on earth and forms the staple crop of many societies. It is a cultivated member of Solanum section Petota, a group of tuber-bearing species containing 199 tuber-bearing wild species, and seven cultiva...

222

Systematics, diversity, genetics, and evolution of wild and cultivated potatoes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cultivated potato, Solanum tuberosum L., is the third most important food crop and is grown and consumed worldwide. Indigenous primitive cultivated (landrace) potatoes, and wild potatoes, all classified as Solanum section Petota, are widely used for potato improvement. Members of section Petota are ...

223

The cultivation remains beneath the North Mains, Strathallan barrow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultivation ridges found beneath a barrow of the early second millennium be are described. When the massive burial mound at North Mains, Strathallan, Perthshire was excavated (Barclay 1983) clear traces of cultivation ridges were found beneath it. They were described in the North Mains report (ibid, 191): The ridges were a maximum of 0-15 m high and measured 1-8 to

Gordon J Barclay

224

Sunflower seed hull based compost for Agaricus blazei Murrill cultivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agaricus blazei Murrill is actually one of the most promising mushrooms species. An adaptation from the traditional biphasic compost fermentation method for Agaricus bisporus cultivation has been used for its cultivation. To make mushroom production profitable, the selection of compost materials from each region is essential. Sunflower seed hulls are an abundant lignocellulosic waste from the edible oil industry. It

R. González Matute; D. Figlas; N. Curvetto

2010-01-01

225

Cultivation Techniques and Medicinal Properties of Pleurotus spp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The genus Pleurotus (oyster mushroom) comprises some the most popular edible mush- rooms due to their favourable organoleptic and medicinal properties, vigorous growth and undemanding cultivation conditions. It can be cultivated on log and a wide variety of agroforestry (by-)products, weeds and wastes for the production of food, feed, enzymes and medicinal compounds, or for waste degradation and detoxification.

Andrej Gregori; Jure Pohleven

2007-01-01

226

C. Ohs Page 1 Cortney L. Ohs  

E-print Network

: Development of Methodology to Control Gender Differentiation and Male Morphotypic Expression in the Freshwater of a spray-dried artificial diet for larval culture of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), hybrid rhomboides) at different stocking densities and salinities in recirculating aquaculture systems. North

Watson, Craig A.

227

A Simple "in Vitro" Culture of Freshwater Prawn Embryos for Laboratory Investigations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Giant freshwater prawn ("Macrobrachium rosenbergii" De Man) embryos can be cultured "in vitro" to hatching in 15% (v/v) artificial seawater (ASW). This technique can be applied as a bioassay for testing toxicity or for the effects of various substances on embryo development and can be used as a simple and low-cost model for studying embryo…

Porntrai, Supaporn; Damrongphol, Praneet

2008-01-01

228

Microalgae: Cultivation techniques and wastewater phycoremediation.  

PubMed

Generation of liquid and gaseous effluents is associated with almost all anthropogenic activities. The discharge of these effluents into the environment without treatment has reduced the availability and quality of natural resources, representing a serious threat to the balance of different ecosystems and human health. Universal access to water and global warming are topics of intense concern and are listed as priorities in the vast majority of global scientific, social and political guidelines. Conventional techniques to treat liquid and gaseous effluents pose economic and/or environmental limitations that prevent their use in certain applications. The technique of phycoremediation, which uses microalgae, macroalgae, and cyanobacteria for the removal or biotransformation of pollutants, is an emerging technology that has been highlighted due to its economic viability and environmental sustainability. This literature review discusses different techniques of microalgae cultivation and their use in the phycoremediation of contaminants in wastewater. PMID:25837561

Pacheco, Marcondes M; Hoeltz, Michele; Moraes, Maria S A; Schneider, Rosana C S

2015-05-12

229

Controlled drainage on a cultivated peat soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Controlled drainage can delay the decomposition of organic material in peat soils, as high water table means a thin oxidized layer in the soil surface. Therefore, greenhouse gas emissions, and mineralization of nutrients will be decreased. There will also be less outflow from the field. These mean less nutrient leaching. However, controlled drainage systems may not always manage to keep the water table on the desired level in practical field conditions. In this study, the water tables in two controlled drainage systems were monitored on a cultivated peat soil in southern Finland around a year. Results show how the water table reacts to the changes of the water height in the control wells, and to the surrounding weather conditions. The data collection is still going on.

Myllys, Merja; Regina, Kristiina

2014-05-01

230

Isolation, cultivation and transfection of human keratinocytes.  

PubMed

Human keratinocytes could be used in the repair of damaged skin, in tissue engineering applications, gene therapy and recently, the generation of iPS cells. We isolated human keratinocytes from foreskin and subsequently cultured them on fibronectin, collagen type I, gelatin and laminin-coated dishes that contained three different types of serum-free medium (epilife, KSM or CnT). We developed improved conditions for efficient transfection of these human keratinocytes by testing three common transfection methods and a GFP plasmid vector. The isolated cells showed typical keratinocyte morphology and expressed the epithelial cell specific antigen, cytokeratin 14. Collagen type 1, epilife medium and lipofectamin 2000 gave the best results for isolation and transfection of human keratinocytes. Our protocol can be used as a reproducible, simple and efficient method for isolation, cultivation and genetic manipulation of human keratinocytes, which may be useful in cell and gene therapy applications. PMID:24323435

Zare, Sona; Zarei, Mohammad Ali; Ghadimi, Tayyeb; Fathi, Fardin; Jalili, Ali; Hakhamaneshi, Mohammad Saeed

2014-04-01

231

USDA: Insect Pollination of Cultivated Crop Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is home to an extensive online USDA text authored by S.E. McGregor, titled Insect Pollination Of Cultivated Crop Plants. Although originally written in 1976, the text is continually updated with new content. Chapters are organized by plant type (legumes, tree fruits, nuts, clovers, etc.), and provide a table of contents that allows users to jump directly to sections within each chapter. The introduction contains information on wild bees, pesticides, and other related information. Some of the basic sections include "Flowering and Fruiting of Plants", "Wild Bees and Wild Bee Culture". Additionally, new materials within the book are listed by crop and date of addition. This site contains information on pollination of numerous plants from Avocado to Zigzag Clover and everything in between. It is a great source to consult for amateur and professional gardeners alike.

McGregor, S.E.

232

Cultivating Careers: Professional Development for Campus IT  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cultivating Careers: Professional Development for Campus IT provides an overview of current principles and practices for mentoring and developing IT professionals in higher education. Edited by EDUCAUSE Vice President Cynthia Golden and written by top leaders in the industry who have distinguished themselves and their organizations for sharpening others' skills, institutional savvy, and ability to lead, the book's chapters are organized into two sections: the organizational perspective and the individual perspective. In addition, the online site for the book will have exclusive audio interviews with CIOs and other senior IT leaders in higher education who give advice for future leaders and talk about how they overcame challenges and moved ahead in their own careers.

233

High-power LEDs for plant cultivation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on high-power solid-state lighting facility for cultivation of greenhouse vegetables and on the results of the study of control of photosynthetic activity and growth morphology of radish and lettuce imposed by variation of the spectral composition of illumination. Experimental lighting modules (useful area of 0.22 m2) were designed based on 4 types of high-power light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with emission peaked in red at the wavelengths of 660 nm and 640 nm (predominantly absorbed by chlorophyll a and b for photosynthesis, respectively), in blue at 455 nm (phototropic function), and in far-red at 735 nm (important for photomorphology). Morphological characteristics, chlorophyll and phytohormone concentrations in radish and lettuce grown in phytotron chambers under lighting with different spectral composition of the LED-based illuminator and under illumination by high pressure sodium lamps with an equivalent photosynthetic photon flux density were compared. A well-balanced solid-state lighting was found to enhance production of green mass and to ensure healthy morphogenesis of plants compared to those grown using conventional lighting. We observed that the plant morphology and concentrations of morphologically active phytohormones is strongly affected by the spectral composition of light in the red region. Commercial application of the LED-based illumination for large-scale plant cultivation is discussed. This technology is favorable from the point of view of energy consumption, controllable growth, and food safety but is hindered by high cost of the LEDs. Large scale manufacturing of high-power red AlInGaP-based LEDs emitting at 650 nm and a further decrease of the photon price for the LEDs emitting in the vicinity of the absorption peak of chlorophylls have to be achieved to promote horticulture applications.

Tamulaitis, Gintautas; Duchovskis, Pavelas; Bliznikas, Zenius; Breive, Kestutis; Ulinskaite, Raimonda; Brazaityte, Ausra; Novickovas, Algirdas; Zukauskas, Arturas; Shur, Michael S.

2004-10-01

234

29 CFR 780.110 - Operations included in “cultivation and tillage of the soil.”  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...included in âcultivation and tillage of the soil.â 780.110 Section 780.110 ...Agriculture Cultivation and Tillage of the Soil § 780.110 Operations included in “cultivation and tillage of the soil.” “Cultivation and tillage of...

2010-07-01

235

Levels of platinum group metals in selected species (Sarotherodon melanotheron, Chonophorus lateristriga, Macrobrachium vollenhovenii and Crassostrea tulipa) in some estuaries and lagoons along the coast of Ghana.  

PubMed

The use of some biota as bioindicators of heavy metal pollution has been demonstrated as particularly adequate due to their capacity of bioconcentration. This study evaluated the levels of platinum group metals (PGMs) in some selected species along the coastal belt of Ghana, using the neutron activation analysis (NAA) method. The result was processed to evaluate pollution indices in order to map the distribution of the metals in those species in the lagoons and estuaries along the costal belt of Ghana. The analysis showed significant levels of all PGMs in blackchin tilapia (Sarotherodon melanotheron Cichlidae), brown goby (Chonophorus lateristriga Gobiidae), shrimp (Macrobrachium vollenhovenii Palaemonidae), and mangrove oysters (Crassostrea tulipa Ostreidae) in the lagoons and river Pra estuary. However, the oysters showed an elevated mean concentration of 0.13 ?g/g (dry weight) Pd. From the pollution indices, most of the sampling sites registered mean contamination factor (CF) values between 1.20 and 3.00 for Pt, Pd, and Rh. The pollution load index (PLI) conducted also gave an average pollution index between 0.79 and 2.37, indicating progressive contamination levels. The results revealed that anthropogenic sources, industrial and hospital effluent, etc., together with vehicular emissions, could be the contributing factors to the deposition of PGMs along the Ghanaian coast. PMID:20953547

Essumang, D K; Adokoh, C K; Boamponsem, L

2010-01-01

236

A clip-domain serine proteinase homolog (SPH) in oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense provides insights into its role in innate immune response.  

PubMed

In this study, a clip-domain serine proteinase homolog designated as MnSPH was cloned and characterized from a freshwater prawn Macrobrachium nipponense. The full-length cDNA of MnSPH was 1897 bp and contained a 1701 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein of 566 amino acids, a 103 bp 5'-untranslated region, and a 93 bp 3'-untranslated region. Sequence comparison showed that the deduced amino acids of MnSPH shared 30-59% identity with sequences reported in other animals. Tissue distribution analysis indicated that the MnSPH transcripts were present in all detected tissues with highest in the hepatopancreas and ovary. The MnSPH mRNA levels in the developing ovary were stable at the initial three developmental stages, then increased gradually from stage IV (later vitellogenesis), and reached a maximum at stage VI (paracmasis). Furthermore, the expression of MnSPH mRNA in hemocytes was significantly up-regulated at 1.5 h, 6 h, 12 h and 48 h post Aeromonas hydrophila injection. The increased phenoloxidase activity also demonstrated a clear time-dependent pattern after A. hydrophila challenge. These results suggest that MnSPH participates in resisting to pathogenic microorganisms and plays a pivotal role in host defense against microbe invasion in M. nipponense. PMID:24878742

Ding, Zhili; Kong, Youqin; Chen, Liqiao; Qin, Jianguang; Sun, Shengming; Li, Ming; Du, Zhenyu; Ye, Jinyun

2014-08-01

237

Land-use legacies of cultivation in sagebrush ecosystems affect soil nutrients and plant growth nearly a century after cultivation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The native vegetation in formerly cultivated areas of the Great Basin, USA remains altered nearly a century after fields were abandoned. We hypothesized that the legacy of cultivation affects plant-soil relationships through altered soil fertility. To test this hypothesis, we compared soil fertili...

238

Modelling interrill erosion in small cultivated catchments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the cultivated plateau of the loess belt area, the redistribution of precipitation is controlled by topography, cultural techniques and sealing processes. Recent multi-scale studies carried out in northern France have provided quantitative references of interrill erosion rates. These experimental references have highlighted significant differences and evolution trends of mean sediment concentration in interrill flow between different defined categories of soil surface conditions, vegetation and rainfall characteristics. Thus, a classification of sediment concentration in interrill flow has been elaborated (Cerdan O, et al. 2002. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 27(2): 193-205). The objective of this paper is to incorporate these results in the elaboration of the interrill erosion module of the STREAM model. At the field scale, this classification is used to assign a potential sediment concentration value to each agricultural field. For situations where there is no, or insufficient, experimental references, the classification is completed using a fuzzy logic approach. At the catchment scale, sediment is transported in proportion of the runoff volumes computed with the STREAM runoff module, and is deposited as a function of topography (vertical curvature, slope gradient), or vegetation cover. Sediment concentration thresholds were defined after field experiments; these thresholds define the limits above which sediment mass is deposited. The erosion component of the model has been tested with a data set from a small (ca 90 ha) intensively cultivated catchment. The quality of prediction given by the root-mean-square error (RMSE) is ca 8 t of precision on sediment delivery at the catchment outlet for observed sediment delivery that goes from 0·075 to 21 t (with an RMSE of ca 0·9 t for observed sediment delivery below 1 t and of ca 10·6 t for observed sediment delivery between 1 and ca 21 t). The evaluation also showed that the results at the outlet of the catchment are more sensitive to the concentration thresholds of the deposition rules than to the potential sediment concentration values assigned to each field.

Cerdan, O.; Le Bissonnais, Y.; Couturier, A.; Saby, N.

2002-11-01

239

In Vitro Cultivation of Microsporidia of Clinical Importance  

PubMed Central

Although attempts to develop methods for the in vitro cultivation of microsporidia began as early as 1937, the interest in the culture of these organisms was confined mostly to microsporidia that infect insects. The successful cultivation in 1969 of Encephalitozoon cuniculi, a microsporidium of mammalian origin, and the subsequent identification of these organisms as agents of human disease heightened interest in the cultivation of microsporidia. I describe the methodology as well as the cell lines, the culture media, and culture conditions used in the in vitro culture of microsporidia such as Brachiola (Nosema) algerae, Encephalitozoon cuniculi, E. hellem, E. intestinalis, Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Trachipleistophora hominis, and Vittaforma corneae that cause human disease. PMID:12097248

Visvesvara, Govinda S.

2002-01-01

240

Microfluidic devices for cell cultivation and proliferation  

PubMed Central

Microfluidic technology provides precise, controlled-environment, cost-effective, compact, integrated, and high-throughput microsystems that are promising substitutes for conventional biological laboratory methods. In recent years, microfluidic cell culture devices have been used for applications such as tissue engineering, diagnostics, drug screening, immunology, cancer studies, stem cell proliferation and differentiation, and neurite guidance. Microfluidic technology allows dynamic cell culture in microperfusion systems to deliver continuous nutrient supplies for long term cell culture. It offers many opportunities to mimic the cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions of tissues by creating gradient concentrations of biochemical signals such as growth factors, chemokines, and hormones. Other applications of cell cultivation in microfluidic systems include high resolution cell patterning on a modified substrate with adhesive patterns and the reconstruction of complicated tissue architectures. In this review, recent advances in microfluidic platforms for cell culturing and proliferation, for both simple monolayer (2D) cell seeding processes and 3D configurations as accurate models of in vivo conditions, are examined. PMID:24273628

Tehranirokh, Masoomeh; Kouzani, Abbas Z.; Francis, Paul S.; Kanwar, Jagat R.

2013-01-01

241

36 CFR 34.7 - Cultivation of controlled substances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 34.7 Section 34.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EL PORTAL ADMINISTRATIVE SITE REGULATIONS § 34.7 Cultivation of controlled substances. In addition to the provisions of §...

2013-07-01

242

36 CFR 34.7 - Cultivation of controlled substances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 34.7 Section 34.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EL PORTAL ADMINISTRATIVE SITE REGULATIONS § 34.7 Cultivation of controlled substances. In addition to the provisions of §...

2012-07-01

243

36 CFR 34.7 - Cultivation of controlled substances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 34.7 Section 34.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EL PORTAL ADMINISTRATIVE SITE REGULATIONS § 34.7 Cultivation of controlled substances. In addition to the provisions of §...

2011-07-01

244

36 CFR 34.7 - Cultivation of controlled substances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 34.7 Section 34.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EL PORTAL ADMINISTRATIVE SITE REGULATIONS § 34.7 Cultivation of controlled substances. In addition to the provisions of §...

2010-07-01

245

36 CFR 34.7 - Cultivation of controlled substances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 34.7 Section 34.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EL PORTAL ADMINISTRATIVE SITE REGULATIONS § 34.7 Cultivation of controlled substances. In addition to the provisions of §...

2014-07-01

246

Strawberry Genomics: Botanical History, Cultivation, Traditional Breeding, and New Technologies  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This chapter presents an introduction to strawberry (Fragaria L) genomics. Botanical history, nomenclature, cultivation, traditional and mutational breeding, and new technologies are discussed. The taxonomic classification of the broad range of polyploidy species of Fragaria is given and their orig...

247

Diversity of cultivable actinobacteria in geographically widespread marine sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reports describing actinobacteria isolated from marine environments have been dominated by Micromonospora, Rhodococcus and Streptomyces species. Recent culture-independent studies have shown that marine environments contain a high diversity of actinobacterial species that are rarely, if at all, recovered by cultivation-based methods. In this study, it is shown that cultivation-independent methods can be used to guide the application of selective isolation

Luis A. Maldonado; James E. M. Stach; Wasu Pathom-aree; Alan C. Ward; Alan T. Bull; Michael Goodfellow

2005-01-01

248

ANALYSES ON REGIONAL CULTIVATED LAND CHANGEBASED ON QUANTITATIVE METHOD  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Three Gorges Project is the great project in the world, which accelerates economic development in the reservoir area of Three\\u000a Gorges Project. In the process of development in the reservoir area of Three Gorges Project, cultivated land has become the\\u000a important resources, a lot of cultivated land has been occupied and become the constructing land. In the same time, a

Yingui Cao; Chun Yuan; Wei Zhou; Jing Wang

2009-01-01

249

Two fucoidans in the holdfast of cultivated Laminaria japonica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two fucoidans have been isolated from the holdfast of cultivated Laminaira japonica. One (L-fucoidan) is rich in fucose and sulfate; the other (GA-fucoidan) is rich in uronate. L-fucoidan was found in the fronds of L. japonica (cultivated and wild), L. angustata, and Kjellmaniella crassifolia whereas GA-fucoidan was not detected in these fronds and may be a fucoidan specific to the

Tomohiro Ozawa; Jynji Yamamoto; Takashi Yamagishi; Noriyuki Yamazaki; Makoto Nishizawa

2006-01-01

250

Patterns of nucleotide diversity in wild and cultivated rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are few reports of the patterns of polymorphism in the non-coding regions of plant genomes. In this study, we explored\\u000a nucleotide diversity and linkage disequilibrium (LD) in 47 non-coding regions on chromosome 4 of wild and cultivated rice.\\u000a The cultivated rice retained about 70% of the diversity of wild rice, which was verified by coalescent simulations with one\\u000a population

Xianran Li; Lubin Tan; Zuofeng Zhu; Haiyan Huang; Ying Liu; Songnian Hu; Chuanqing Sun

2009-01-01

251

Cultivation of Pleurotus spp. on various agro-residues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three species of Pleurotus, P. sajor-caju, P. platypus and P. citrinopileatus, were cultivated on various agro-residues such as paddy straw, maize stover, sugarcane bagasse, coir pith and a mixture of these wastes. Primordium initiation was observed on 22nd–27th day after spawning. Maximum yield was obtained in P. sajor-caju cultivated on paddy straw. P. platypus yielded its maximum on coir pith

R. Ragunathan; R. Gurusamy; M. Palaniswamy; K. Swaminathan

1996-01-01

252

Personality Traits, Television Viewing, and the Cultivation Effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research investigates the impact of 3 personality traits—trait anxiety, sensation seeking, and psychoticism—on cultivation effects regarding perceptions of violence. A survey measuring violence prevalence estimates, personality traits, television consumption, and genre preferences was completed by 427 undergraduates. Results indicate that low trait–anxious individuals, and to a lesser extent high sensation seekers, are more susceptible to cultivation regarding personal vulnerability

Robin L. Nabi; Karyn Riddle

2008-01-01

253

Attached cultivation for improving the biomass productivity of Spirulina platensis.  

PubMed

To improve cultivation efficiency for microalgae Spirulina platensis is related to increase its potential use as food source and as an effective alternative for CO2 fixation. The present work attempted to establish a technique, namely attached cultivation, for S. platensis. Laboratory experiments were made firstly to investigate optimal conditions on attached cultivation. The optimal conditions were found: 25gm(-2) for initial inoculum density using electrostatic flocking cloth as substrata, light intensity lower than 200?molm(-2)s(-1), CO2 enriched air flow (0.5%) at a superficial aeration rate of 0.0056ms(-1) in a NaHCO3-free Zarrouk medium. An outdoor attached cultivation bench-scale bioreactor was built and a 10d culture of S. platensis was carried out with daily harvesting. A high footprint areal biomass productivity of 60gm(-2)d(-1) was obtained. The nutrition of S. platensis with attached cultivation is identical to that with conventional liquid cultivation. PMID:25647023

Zhang, Lanlan; Chen, Lin; Wang, Junfeng; Chen, Yu; Gao, Xin; Zhang, Zhaohui; Liu, Tianzhong

2015-04-01

254

Determination of microcystin-LR and its metabolites in snail (Bellamya aeruginosa), shrimp (Macrobrachium nipponensis) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) from Lake Taihu, China.  

PubMed

This paper describes seasonal changes of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and its glutathione (MC-LR-GSH) and cysteine conjugates (MC-LR-Cys) in three aquatic animals--snail (Bellamya aeruginosa), shrimp (Macrobrachium nipponensis) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) collected from Lake Taihu, China. MC-LR, MC-LR-GSH, and MC-LR-Cys were determined by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrum (LC-ESI-MS). The mean MC-LR concentrations in the hepatopancreas of snail and shrimp and liver of silver carp were 6.61, 0.24, and 0.027 microg g(-1) dry weight (DW), respectively; while the average MC-LR-Cys concentrations were 0.50, 0.97, and 5.72 microg g(-1) DW, respectively. MC-LR-GSH was usually not detectable in these samples. The above results suggest that: (1) in aquatic animals, especially fish, the main excretion form of MC-LR could be MC-LR-Cys, but not MC-LR-GSH, whereas MC-LR-Cys might play an important role in detoxication of MC-LR and (2) that efficiency of MC-LR-Cys formation differs among species. The main detoxication pathway of MC-LR in aquatic animals is suggested as follows: when MC-LR enters into liver/hepatopancreas, it firstly conjugates with polypeptide or protein (including GSH, PP-1 and 2A) containing Cys residues, perhaps also some free cysteine; subsequently, MC-LR-Cys is degraded from these polypeptide or protein; and finally is excreted from animals by the compound of MC-LR-Cys. PMID:19473685

Zhang, Dawen; Xie, Ping; Chen, Jun; Dai, Ming; Qiu, Tong; Liu, Yaqin; Liang, Gaodao

2009-08-01

255

Molecular characterization and developmental expression of vitellogenin in the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense and the effects of RNA interference and eyestalk ablation on ovarian maturation.  

PubMed

Vitellogenin (Vg) is the precursor of yolk protein, which functions as a nutritive resource that is important for embryonic growth and gonad development. In this study, the cDNA encoding the Vg gene from the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense was cloned using expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis and the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) approach. The transcript encoded 2536 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 286.810kDa. Quantitative real-time PCR indicated high expression of Mn-Vg in the female ovary, hemocytes, and hepatopancreas. As ovaries developed, the expression level of Mn-Vg increased in both the hepatopancreas and ovary. In the hepatopancreas, the expression level rose more slowly at the early stage of vitellogenesis and reached the peak more rapidly compared to the expression pattern in ovary. The observed changes in Mn-Vg expression level at different development stages suggest the role of nutrient source in embryonic and larval development. Eyestalk ablation caused the Mn-Vg expression level to increase significantly compared to eyestalk-intact groups during the ovary development stages. Ablation accelerated ovary maturation by removing hormone inhibition of Mn-Vg in the hepatopancreas and ovary. In adult females, Mn-Vg dsRNA injection resulted in decreased expression of Mn-Vg in both the hepatopancreas and ovary, and two injection treatment dramatically delayed ovary maturation. Vg RNA interference down-regulated the vitellogenin receptor (VgR) expression level in the ovary, which illustrates the close relationship between Vg and VgR in the process of vitellogenesis. PMID:25499697

Bai, Hongkun; Qiao, Hui; Li, Fajun; Fu, Hongtuo; Sun, Shengming; Zhang, Wenyi; Jin, Shubo; Gong, Yongsheng; Jiang, Sufei; Xiong, Yiwei

2015-05-10

256

An evaluation of replacing fish meal with fermented soybean meal in the diet of Macrobrachium nipponense: Growth, nonspecific immunity, and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila.  

PubMed

Partial or complete replacement of fish meal (FM) with fermented soybean meal (FSM) was examined in Macrobrachium nipponense over an 8-week growth trial. Growth and immune characteristics were evaluated. Fermented soybean meal replaced 0 (FM, control), 25% (R25), 50% (R50), 75% (R75), or 100% of the FM (R100) in five isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets. Each diet was fed to juvenile prawns (mean weight, 0.103 ± 0.0009 g) twice daily to apparent satiation in five replicates. Weight gain and specific growth rate of M. nipponense were significantly higher in prawns fed the R25 diet than that of prawns fed the FM diet. No significant differences were observed among the other treatments. Total hemocyte count and hemolymph phagocytic activity decreased as the proportion of FSM increased. Total antioxidant activity competence and malondialdehyde level in the hepatopancreas were highest in prawns fed the R100 diet. mRNA levels of the antioxidant genes Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase and catalase, heat shock cognate protein 70, and heat shock protein 90 were significantly differentially regulated in the prawn hepatopancreas. In addition, percent mortality increased after challenge with live Aeromonas hydrophila. Percent mortality of prawns fed the R100 diet was significantly higher than that of prawns fed the FM and R25 diets. These findings demonstrate that (1) M. nipponense growth performance was not affected by including a high proportion of FSM in the diet, and the best growth performance was obtained when 25% of the FM was replaced with FSM; (2) nonspecific immunity was impaired when all of the FM was replaced with FSM. PMID:25707598

Ding, Zhili; Zhang, Yixiang; Ye, Jinyun; Du, Zhenyu; Kong, Youqin

2015-05-01

257

[Nondestructive recognization of mountain cultivated ginseng and garden cultivated ginseng by FTIR microspectroscopy].  

PubMed

Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy technology is the combination of the FTIR spectrometer and the microscope. This technology is of simple preparation of the samples, can be used in micro-area analysis and micro-samples, and reflect the nature of the samples spectra. Panax ginseng include mountain cultivated ginseng (MCG), garden cultivated ginseng (GCG) and mountain wild ginseng (MWG), but the excavation of MWG is prohibited in China. So, only MCG and GCG were collected and recorded in Chinese pharmacopoeia. In this study, we developed a discriminant analysis (DA) method for recognition of MCG and GCG using FTIR microspectroscopy technology. Twenty MCG samples and twenty four GCG samples were obtained, and their spectra of IR microspectroscopy were collected. Then 33 samples were randomly selected into calibration set and the remaining 11 of the samples were selected into validation set. The authors optimized the pretreatment method, the principal components, the modeling region and the scanning parts when developing the models. The optimized model of discriminant analysis was developed using the pretreatment multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) + Savitzky-Golay filter (SG) smoothing, the region 3 932.14-669.18 cm(-1), 4 principal components and the rhizome part. The accuracy of the optimized model got up to 100%. The result demonstrated that infrared microspectroscopy technology combined with DA is of simple operation, rapid, nondestructive and effective, and can be applied to recognize MCG and GCG. PMID:24555374

Bu, Hai-Bo; Wang, Feng; Lin, Hong-Ying; Guo, Zhi-Yong; Yuan, Shao-Xiong; Pan, Li-Li; Xu, Xiao-Jia; Li, Xiang-Ri; Wang, Gang-Li; Lin, Rui-Chao

2013-11-01

258

An Anthropological Perspective on Shifting Cultivation: A case Study of Khoriya Cultivation in the Arun Valley of Eastern Nepal  

E-print Network

. settlement and shifting cultivation. The deterioration of micro­ biological conditions, surface runoff. ground water runoff and loss of soil fertility are said to be some of the obvious consequences of the slash-and- burn cultivation in Nepalese hills... is also referred to as slash-::md-burl1. swidden agriculture and, so on. In contemporary anthropological work, the term 'swidden' (An old English dcrivative of ·Swithen'. meaning to singe or to burn the surface) has been revived to replace 'shifting...

Dhakal, Suresh

2000-01-01

259

Membrane technology in microalgae cultivation and harvesting: a review.  

PubMed

Membrane processes have long been applied in different stages of microalgae cultivation and processing. These processes include microfiltration, ultrafiltration, dialysis, forward osmosis, membrane contactors and membrane spargers. They are implemented in many combinations, both as a standalone and as a coupled system (in membrane biomass retention photobioreactors (BR-MPBRs) or membrane carbonation photobioreactors (C-MPBRs). To provide sufficient background on these applications, an overview of membrane materials and membrane processes of interest in microalgae cultivation and processing is provided in this work first. Afterwards, discussion about specific aspects of membrane applications in microbial cultivation and harvesting is provided, including membrane fouling. Many of the membrane processes were shown to be promising options in microalgae cultivation. Yet, significant process optimizations are still required when they are applied to enable microalgae biomass bulk production to become competitive as a raw material for biofuel production. Recent developments of the coupled systems (BR-MPBR and C-MPBR) bring significant promises to improve the volumetric productivity of a cultivation system and the efficiency of inorganic carbon capture, respectively. PMID:25109678

Bilad, M R; Arafat, Hassan A; Vankelecom, Ivo F J

2014-11-15

260

Growth and anaerobic digestion characteristics of microalgae cultivated using various types of sewage.  

PubMed

Microalgal cultivation combined with anaerobic digestion at wastewater treatment plants is promising to recover energy. This study investigated the growth and anaerobic digestion characteristics of microalgae cultivated using nutrients in sewage. Microalgae were cultivated using primary effluent, secondary effluent, and dewatering filtrate. Microscopic observation indicated that Chlorella was cultivated using dewatering filtrate of anaerobic digestion without controlling the type of species. Batch anaerobic digestion experiments with digested sludge showed that the methane conversion ratio of the cultivated mixture was approximately 40-65%. Different cultivation time did not affect the microalgal contents. Methane recovery mass was 0.13NL-methane/L-cultivation liquor. The C/N ratio of the cultivated mixture was approximately 3-5, but the apparent ammonia release ratio was smaller than that of sewage sludge during digestion. These results proved the applicability of methane recovery from microalgae cultivated using nutrients included in anaerobically digested sludge. PMID:25127007

Hidaka, Taira; Inoue, Kenichiro; Suzuki, Yutaka; Tsumori, Jun

2014-10-01

261

Probing control of glucose feeding in Vibrio cholerae cultivations.  

PubMed

Infection with Vibrio cholerae is a significant problem in many developing countries. Cultivation of V. cholerae is used in production of cholera toxin B subunit, which is a component in a cholera vaccine. Fed-batch cultivations with V. cholerae in defined media have been conducted and reproducible results were obtained. A probing feeding strategy developed by Akesson for Escherichia coli cultivations has been tested. The strategy is working as well for V. cholerae as for E. coli in minimizing the amount of acetic acid formed and avoiding anaerobic conditions. At 2 h after the feed start most of the acetic acid accumulated during the batch phase is consumed. The resulting feed rate tends to be the highest possible with respect to the constraints from cell metabolism and mass transfer, thus maximizing productivity in terms of biomass. A cell dry weight of 20-23 g/l is obtained after 12 h of feeding. PMID:14505000

de Maré, L; Andersson, L; Hagander, P

2003-01-01

262

Raceway cultivation of Spirulina platensis using underground water.  

PubMed

The semi-outdoor cultivation of Spirulina platensis was attempted using an underground-water-based medium. Occurrence of contaminant organisms such as Chlorella sp. and Chlamydomonas sp. was not found from a microscopic observation and bacteria were not detected from denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rDNA during the cultivation, owing to pH control and the high quality of the underground water. The mean productivity was high at 10.5 g/m2/d with a range of 4.2-12.3 g/m2/d despite the unfavorable weather conditions of the rainy season. The cultivated S. platensis included a normal protein content of 58.9%. Consequently, the underground water improved the biomass productivity and the biomass quality because of an abundant supplementation of natural minerals and through a contaminant-free culture. PMID:18051309

Kim, Choong-Jae; Jung, Yun-Ho; Ko, So-Ra; Kim, Hong-Ik; Park, Yong-Ha; Oh, Hee-Mock

2007-05-01

263

America's red gold: multiple lineages of cultivated cochineal in Mexico  

PubMed Central

Cultivated cochineal (Dactylopius coccus) produces carminic acid, a valuable red dye used to color textiles, cosmetics, and food. Extant native D. coccus is largely restricted to two populations in the Mexican and the Andean highlands, although the insect's ultimate center of domestication remains unclear. Moreover, due to Mexican D. coccus cultivation's near demise during the 19th century, the genetic diversity of current cochineal stock is unknown. Through genomic sequencing, we identified two divergent D. coccus populations in highland Mexico: one unique to Mexico and another that was more closely related to extant Andean cochineal. Relic diversity is preserved in the crops of small-scale Mexican cochineal farmers. Conversely, larger-scale commercial producers are cultivating the Andean-like cochineal, which may reflect clandestine 20th century importation. PMID:25691985

Campana, Michael G; Robles García, Nelly M; Tuross, Noreen

2015-01-01

264

America's red gold: multiple lineages of cultivated cochineal in Mexico.  

PubMed

Cultivated cochineal (Dactylopius coccus) produces carminic acid, a valuable red dye used to color textiles, cosmetics, and food. Extant native D. coccus is largely restricted to two populations in the Mexican and the Andean highlands, although the insect's ultimate center of domestication remains unclear. Moreover, due to Mexican D. coccus cultivation's near demise during the 19th century, the genetic diversity of current cochineal stock is unknown. Through genomic sequencing, we identified two divergent D. coccus populations in highland Mexico: one unique to Mexico and another that was more closely related to extant Andean cochineal. Relic diversity is preserved in the crops of small-scale Mexican cochineal farmers. Conversely, larger-scale commercial producers are cultivating the Andean-like cochineal, which may reflect clandestine 20th century importation. PMID:25691985

Campana, Michael G; Robles García, Nelly M; Tuross, Noreen

2015-02-01

265

Attached cultivation technology of microalgae for efficient biomass feedstock production.  

PubMed

The potential of microalgae biofuel has not been realized because of low productivity and high costs associated with the current cultivation systems. In this paper, an attached cultivation method was introduced, in which microalgae cells grew on the surface of vertical artificial supporting material to form algal film. Multiple of the algal films were assembled in an array fashion to dilute solar irradiation to facilitate high photosynthetic efficiency. Results showed that a broad range of microalgae species can grow with this attached method. A biomass productivity of 50-80 g m(-2) d(-1) was obtained outdoors for Scenedesmus obliquus, corresponding to the photosynthetic efficiency of 5.2-8.3% (total solar radiation). This attached method also offers lots of possible advantages over traditional open ponds, such as on water saving, harvesting, contamination controlling and scale-up. The attached cultivation represents a promising technology for economically viable production of microalgae biofuels. PMID:23131644

Liu, Tianzhong; Wang, Junfeng; Hu, Qiang; Cheng, Pengfei; Ji, Bei; Liu, Jinli; Chen, Yu; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Xiaoling; Chen, Lin; Gao, Lili; Ji, Chunli; Wang, Hui

2013-01-01

266

Diatom cultivation and biotechnologically relevant products. Part I: cultivation at various scales.  

PubMed

Biotechnological applications of diatoms are still in development. Further development at the industrial scale will depend on optimisation of the culture process with the aim of reducing costs. Because of the photoautotrophic status of the majority of diatoms, microalgal cultures suffer from the limitation of light diffusion, which requires the development of suitable photobioreactors. Thus, genetically engineered microalgae that may be cultivated in heterotrophic conditions present a new opportunity. Other limiting factors, such as nutrients (phosphate, nitrogen, silicon), pH, temperature, bioturbation and many more must be taken into account. Most of the time, metabolic stress conditions lead to an overproduction of the products of interest, with a decrease in biomass production as a consequence. Outdoor cultures in open ponds are usually devoted to aquaculture for the feeding of shrimps and bivalve molluscs (commercial production), while closed axenic indoor/outdoor photobioreactors are used for biotechnological compounds of homogeneous composition (still at the laboratory scale). In addition to the optimum culture conditions that have to be taken into account for photobioreactor design, the localisation of produced metabolites (intra- or extracellular) may also be taken into account when choosing the design. Microalgal cell immobilisation may be a suitable technique for application to benthic diatoms, which are usually sensitive to bioturbation and/or metabolites which may be overexpressed. PMID:12664139

Lebeau, Thierry; Robert, Jean-Michel

2003-02-01

267

Do Specialized MBA Programs Cultivate Alumni Relationships and Donations?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recent trend among universities shifts from traditional MBA programs to specialized MBA offerings. Specialized programs are believed to cultivate stronger relationships with students, which lead to stronger alumni relationships and increased donations. This research tests this empirically by examining relationship perceptions and donation…

Johnson, Jennifer Wiggins; Thomas, Veronica; Peck, Joann

2010-01-01

268

Rice cultivation in the farming systems of Sukumaland, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis investigates options for sustainable rice cultivation and general agricultural development in the Mwanza and Shinyanga regions in northwestern Tanzania, often called Sukumaland due to the predominance of Wasukuma people. Generally Sukumaland has a semi-arid climate; agriculture is constrained by unreliable and low rainfall. In the past fifty years the population density has doubled in most parts. This has

H. C. C. Meertens

1999-01-01

269

FAIRY RING DISEASE INCREASES HOST GENETIC DIVERSITY IN CULTIVATED CRANBERRY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fairy ring is a common disease affecting cultivated cranberries in New Jersey and Massachusetts. The disease can cause significant vine dieback and yield loss. Fungicide control is not very effective and the causal agent is unknown. Affected areas spread over the bogs for years as an advancing -ring...

270

Computer as Chalk Cultivating and Sustaining Communities of Youth  

E-print Network

1 Computer as Chalk Cultivating and Sustaining Communities of Youth as Designers of Tangible User by Pattie Maes Associate Academic Head Program in Media Arts and Sciences #12;2 #12;3 Computer as Chalk that the ways in which people use chalk (e.g., drawing hopscotch grids) can serve as an inspiration

271

Cultivating the Possible: A Tribute to Harry Judge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When he arrived in Oxford in the early 1970s, Harry Judge and this author were already good friends. They had spent a lot of time talking about their respective concerns--the author on how "mind" should be conceived, and Judge on how and by whom "mind" should be cultivated in the educational process. The author believed then that schools should…

Bruner, Jerome

2008-01-01

272

Cultivating Empathy for the Mentally Ill Using Simulated Auditory Hallucinations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The authors address the issue of cultivating medical students' empathy for the mentally ill by examining medical student empathy pre- and postsimulated auditory hallucination experience. Methods: At the University of Utah, 150 medical students participated in this study during their 6-week psychiatry rotation. The Jefferson Scale of…

Bunn, William; Terpstra, Jan

2009-01-01

273

Genetic structure and differentiation in cultivated grape, Vitis vinifera L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 222 cultivated (Vitis vinifera) and 22 wild (V. vinifera ssp. sylvestris) grape accessions were analysed for genetic diversity and differentiation at eight microsatellite loci. A total of 94 alleles were detected, with extensive polymorphism among the accessions. Multivariate relationships among accessions revealed 16 genetic groups structured into three clusters, supporting the classical eco-geographic grouping of grape cultivars : occidentalis,

MALLIKARJUNA K. ARADHYA; GERALD S. DANGL; BERNARD H. PRINS; JEAN-MICHEL BOURSIQUOT; M. ANDREW WALKER; CAROLE P. MEREDITH; CHARLES J. SIMON

2003-01-01

274

Cultivation and Care of Trees on the Farm in Texas.  

E-print Network

of Fruitfulness 61 ...... . The Fruit-bearing Shoot of the Pear and Its Management 62 The Fruit-bearing Shoots in the Peach and Grape and their Management .......................................... 65 The Grape... ................................................. 73 ...................................... The Methley Plum $4 Grapes ................................................. 75 Figs ................................................... $6 CULTIVATION AND CARE OF TREES ON THE FARM IN TEXAS THE PRESENT...

Ness, H. (Helge)

1922-01-01

275

New Strategies for Cultivation and Detection of Previously Uncultured Microbes  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrative approach was used to obtain pure cultures of previously uncultivated members of the divi- sions Acidobacteria and Verrucomicrobia from agricultural soil and from the guts of wood-feeding termites. Some elements of the cultivation procedure included the following: the use of agar media with little or no added nutrients; relatively long periods of incubation (more than 30 days); protection

Bradley S. Stevenson; Stephanie A. Eichorst; John T. Wertz; Thomas M. Schmidt; John A. Breznak

2004-01-01

276

Cultivating Critical-Thinking Dispositions throughout the Business Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Critical thinking is an essential component of managerial literacy, yet business school graduates struggle to apply critical-thinking skills at work to the level that employers desire. This article argues for a dispositional approach to teaching critical thinking, rooted in cultivating a critical-thinking culture. We suggest a two-pronged approach…

Bloch, Janel; Spataro, Sandra E.

2014-01-01

277

Cable and the role of program distribution in media cultivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the 1960s social scientists have demonstrated that exposure to television programming correlates with certain beliefs about the world that differ from statistical measures that define reality. Much of this research on the role of television in socialization, known as media cultivation, was conducted during a time in American history when television programming was dominated by three networks and distributed

Christina Leigh Nelson

2000-01-01

278

Sequencing of the cultivated tetraploid cotton genome - Gossypium hirsutum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton is an important cash crop in the world and it plays an irreplaceable role in China’s national economy. Cultivated upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) represents 95% of world cotton production but it has a complex allotetraploid genome that contains at least 30,000 genes in 2,500 Mb DNA. S...

279

The case for small-scale domestic cannabis cultivation.  

PubMed

The shift to (inter)regional production, trade and domestic cultivation has become an irreversible international trend. Until now, the focus of most empirical work has been on large-scale, commercially oriented and professionally organized segments of the cannabis industry, often based on police data and on the perspective of law enforcement agencies. This paper offers a review of recent Dutch-language research that focuses on cannabis cultivation. Empirical studies were identified through literature searches using relevant search terms and Web of Science, Elin, Social Science Research Network and Elsevier ScienceDirect. The paper presents the main findings of Dutch and Belgian empirical work on the factors that stimulated the import substitution process on the cannabis market, aspects related to quality and potency issues, typologies of cannabis growers, and (unintended) effects of pursued policies. In the light of this (selective) review the author offers some commentary and analysis concerning the claims made by different stakeholders, and concludes with some reflections on future research and on policy implications. The author outlines the importance of small-scale, independent or ideologically oriented cannabis cultivation as an under-researched market segment. The author also makes a case for greater toleration of small-scale cannabis cultivation, to secure the least worst of cannabis markets. PMID:20176465

Decorte, Tom

2010-07-01

280

The wild genetic resources of cultivated lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven wild Lactuca species: L. serriola L., L. aculeata Boiss. & Ky., L. scarioloides Boiss., L. azerbaijanica Rech., L. georgica Grossh., L. dregeana DC. and L. altaica Fisch. & C.A. Mey., are taxonomically closely related to the cultivated lettuce. Together with L. sativa they form a distinct natural group. Only scanty information is available on genetic affinities among the various

Daniel Zohary

1991-01-01

281

Reflecting on Cultivating New Voices among Scholars of Color  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A member of the first cohort of Cultivating New Voices among Scholars of Color (CNV) and now its director, the author details the importance of fostering the work of scholars of color. As recognized by CNV, the presence and scholarship of scholars of color are essential, especially in public debates on education, advocacy, and social (in)justice.…

Kinloch, Valerie

2011-01-01

282

Relating caesium-137 and soil loss from cultivated land  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of the limitations associated with traditional methods of measuring rates of soil erosion, such as erosion plots, the fallout radionuclide caesium-137 (137Cs) has been increasingly used in recent years as an alternative approach to estimating rates of soil redistribution on both cultivated and noncultivated areas. The successful application of the 137Cs approach depends heavily on the availability of reliable

P. Porto; D. E. Walling; V. Tamburino; G. Callegari

2003-01-01

283

SUICIDES OF FARMERS AND COTTON CULTIVATION IN INDIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

An attempt is made in this paper to study the phenomenon of suicides of farmers in the country in the background of domestic and trade liberalisation and in a macro economic perspective by studying the changes brought about in the cultivation of cotton crop. This paper argues that it is necessary to study all the policies- agricultural, industrial, employment and

N CHANDRASEKHARA RAO

2004-01-01

284

Autonomous benthic algal cultivator under feedback control of ecosystem metabolism  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An autonomous and internally-controlled techno-ecological hybrid was developed that controls primary production of algae in a laboratory-scale cultivator. The technoecosystem is based on an algal turf scrubber (ATS) system that combines engineered feedback control programming with internal feedback...

285

Television News and the Cultivation of Fear of Crime  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why has the public persisted in believing that violent crime is a widespread na- tional problem in the U.S. despite declining trends in crime and the fact that crime is concentrated in urban locations? Cultivation theory suggests that widespread fear of crime is fueled in part by heavy exposure to violent dramatic programming on prime-time television. Here we explore a

Daniel Romer; Kathleen Hall Jamieson; Sean Aday

2003-01-01

286

The Implications of Survey Method for Measuring Cultivation Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The magnitude of the cultivation effect for perceptual estimates of social reality has been shown to be affected by a number of contextual factors such as source priming and motivation to process information during judgment construction, and these contextual factors have been linked to the use of heuristic processing strategies when constructing…

Shrum, L. J.

2007-01-01

287

Experimental indoor cultivation of the carrageenophytic red alga Gigartina skottsbergii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exploitation of carrageenophytic seaweeds in Chile has increased significantly over the past few years. Gigartina skottsbergii is one of the species exploited and the harvesting pressure could have negative consequences on the sustainability of this resource. Although demand for raw material of G. skottsbergii continues to increase, basic knowledge needed to cultivate this unique carrageenophyte is lacking. In this study,

Alejandro H. Buschmann; Daniel Varela; Marcos Cifuentes; Maria del Carmen Hernandez-Gonzalez; Luis Henriquez; Renato Westermeier; Juan A. Correa

288

Experimental indoor cultivation of the carrageenophytic red alga Gigartina skottsbergii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exploitation of carrageenophytic seaweeds in Chile has increased significantly over the past few years. Gigartina skottsbergii is one of the species exploited and the harvesting pressure could have negative consequences on the sustainability of this resource. Although demand for raw material of G. skottsbergii continues to increase, basic knowledge needed to cultivate this unique carrageenophyte is lacking. In this study,

Alejandro H. Buschmann; Daniel Varela; Marcos Cifuentes; María del Carmen Hernández-González; Luis Henríquez; Renato Westermeier; Juan A. Correa

2004-01-01

289

Use of whey permeate for cultivating Ganoderma lucidum mycelia.  

PubMed

A novel approach to utilizing whey permeate, the cultivation of mycelia of the edible mushroom Ganoderma lucidum, is introduced. The major objective of this research was to use whey permeate as an alternative growth medium for the cultivation of mycelia of edible mushroom G. lucidum and to find an optimum condition for solid-state cultivation. Response surface analysis was applied to determine the combination of substrate concentration (25 to 45 g of lactose/L), pH (3.5 to 5.5), and temperature (25 to 35 degrees C) resulting in a maximal mycelial growth. The radial extension rates, estimated by measuring the diameters of growing colonies on the Petri dishes, were used as the growth of the mycelia at different conditions. In the model, pH and temperature significantly affected mycelial growth, but lactose concentration did not. The condition predicted to maximize the radial extension rate of 17.6 +/- 0.4 mm/d was determined to be pH 4.4 and temperature 29.4 degrees C. Therefore, the results suggest that whey permeate could be utilized as a growth substrate for the cultivation of mycelia from the edible mushroom G. lucidum, enhancing the use of this by-product by the cheese manufacturing industry. PMID:17430911

Song, M; Kim, N; Lee, S; Hwang, S

2007-05-01

290

Oyster mushroom cultivation with rice and wheat straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultivation of the oyster mushroom, Pleurotus sajor-caju, on rice and wheat straw without nutrient supplementation was investigated. The effects of straw size reduction method and particle size, spawn inoculation level, and type of substrate (rice straw versus wheat straw) on mushroom yield, biological efficiency, bioconversion efficiency, and substrate degradation were determined. Two size reduction methods, grinding and chopping, were compared.

Ruihong Zhang; Xiujin Li; J. G Fadel

2002-01-01

291

Production of recombinant protein therapeutics in cultivated mammalian cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultivated mammalian cells have become the dominant system for the production of recombinant proteins for clinical applications because of their capacity for proper protein folding, assembly and post-translational modification. Thus, the quality and efficacy of a protein can be superior when expressed in mammalian cells versus other hosts such as bacteria, plants and yeast. Recently, the productivity of mammalian cells

Florian M Wurm

2004-01-01

292

Agroforestry pathways for the intensification of shifting cultivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a system of land use which entails the deliberate association of trees with herbaceous field crops in time, shifting cultivation is one of the most ancient, widespread and, until recently, ecologically stable forms of agroforestry. However, under pressure of population and competing uses for land and labour, traditional swidden systems have been observed historically to undergo more or less

J. B. Raintree; K. Warner

1986-01-01

293

Cultivating health’: therapeutic landscapes and older people in northern England  

Microsoft Academic Search

While gardening is seen, essentially, as a leisure activity it has also been suggested that the cultivation of a garden plot offers a simple way of harnessing the healing power of nature (The therapeutic garden, Bantam Press, London, 2000). One implication of this is that gardens and gardening activity may offer a key site of comfort and a vital opportunity

Christine Milligan; Anthony Gatrell; Amanda Bingley

2004-01-01

294

Genetic relationship among cultivated and wild grapevine accessions from Tunisia.  

PubMed

We have used nuclear and chloroplast molecular markers to genotype cultivated and wild accessions of Vitis vinifera L. from Tunisia and assess their genetic relationships. Fifty-five distinct genotypes were identified among 80 cultivated accessions, including 18 genotypic groups containing between 2 and 5 accessions per group. They could represent a total of 60 distinct cultivars owing to berry colour variation found within identical genotype groups. Most of the 55 genotypes represent unique table grape genotypes except for one of them that was found identical to the genotype of table grape cultivar Rosseti. Hybridization among cultivars as well as self pollinations seems to have played an important role in their origin since several groups of closely related cultivars were observed. Furthermore, a parentage analysis showed a high probability for a parent hybrid relationship within two groups of three cultivars. No strong genetic similarities were found between cultivated and wild samples indicating that the cultivated accessions do not derive from local Vitis vinifera L. populations but could have been introduced from other regions in historic times. PMID:15644980

Snoussi, H; Slimane, M Harbi Ben; Ruiz-García, L; Martínez-Zapater, J M; Arroyo-García, R

2004-12-01

295

ORIGINAL PAPER Variation in fibre properties of cultivated Siberian larch  

E-print Network

challenges involved (Saimovaara 2001). When Siberian larch is cultivated in Finland, fertile sites, for example former fields, are recommended because at such sites the species grows generally faster than the species in fertile places emphasises its fast growth, particularly when the trees are young, and, thus

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

296

What's the Next Step: Cultivating Relationships with Native American Peoples  

E-print Network

What's the Next Step: Cultivating Relationships with Native American Peoples Abstract The Native of NAGPRA. A project was devised to bring more interaction between SDAM and Native American peoples. Phase one included a reorganization that better emphasizes the diversity of Native American peoples

Rock, Chris

297

Disease Resistance in Cultivated Sunflower Derived from Public Germplasm Collections  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The incorporation of disease resistance into cultivated sunflower has been a major goal of private and public plant breeders. With several dozen fungal pathogens and a few bacterial and viral problems, the primary means of managing sunflower diseases has been through genetic resistance. While the ul...

298

Cultural influence on relationship cultivation strategies: Multinational companies in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study of multinational companies in China focuses on the role culture plays in relationship cultivation. The author interviewed 40 participants from 36 multinational companies in China. The findings revealed that characteristics of Chinese culture, such as family orientation, guanxi, relational orientation (role formalisation, relational interdependence, face, favour, relational harmony, relational fatalism and relational determination) had an influence on multinational

Chun-ju Flora Hung

2004-01-01

299

Self-Cultivation: Culturally Sensitive Psychotherapies in Confucian Societies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes self-cultivation practices originating from the cultural traditions of Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism. It delineates the therapeutic implications of the three states of self pursued by these three traditions: namely, the "relational self", the "authentic self", and the "nonself". Several psychotherapy techniques derived…

Hwang, Kwang-Kuo; Chang, Jeffrey

2009-01-01

300

Genomic Origins of the Cultivated Potato Species: GBSSI Sequencing Data  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Chromosome pairing relationships within cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum) and its wild tuber-bearing relatives (Solanum sect. Petota) have been interpreted by genome formulas, developed in the early 1900s, through techniques of classic meiotic analysis of interspecific hybrids. Here we reexamine...

301

Piriformospora indica, a Cultivable Plant-Growth-Promoting Root Endophyte  

PubMed Central

Piriformospora indica (Hymenomycetes, Basidiomycota) is a newly described cultivable endophyte that colonizes roots. Inoculation with the fungus and application of fungal culture filtrate promotes plant growth and biomass production. Due to its ease of culture, this fungus provides a model organism for the study of beneficial plant-microbe interactions and a new tool for improving plant production systems. PMID:10347070

Varma, Ajit; Savita Verma; Sudha; Sahay, Nirmal; Bütehorn, Britta; Franken, Philipp

1999-01-01

302

Irreversible ecosystem change, species competition, and shifting cultivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the impact of resource use on species competition and the resulting effect on the regeneration of a renewable resource. In the case of shifting cultivation, agricultural activities alter the subsequent recovery of biomass during fallow upon which agricultural fertility depends. This paper introduces a model of agriculture's impact on species competition and discontinuous ecological change, identifies conditions

H. J. Albers; M. J. Goldbach

2000-01-01

303

Allelopathy as a potential strategy to improve microalgae cultivation  

PubMed Central

One of the main obstacles for continuous productivity in microalgae cultivation is the presence of biological contaminants capable of eliminating large numbers of cells in a matter of days or even hours. However, a number of strategies are being used to combat and prevent contamination in microalgae cultivation. These strategies include the use of extreme conditions in the culture media such as high salinity and high pH to create an unfavorable environment for the competitive organisms or predators of the microalgae. Numerous studies have explored the potential of naturally occurring bioactive secondary metabolites, which are natural products from plants and microorganisms, as a source of such compounds. Some of these compounds are herbicides, and marine and freshwater microalgae are a source of these compounds. Microalgae produce a remarkable diversity of biologically active metabolites. Results based on the allelopathic potential of algae have only been described for laboratory-scale production and not for algae cultivation on a pilot scale. The adoption of allelopathy on microalgal strains is an unexplored field and may be a novel solution to improve algae production. Here we present information showing the diversity of allelochemicals from microalgae and the use of an allelopathic approach to control microalgae cultivation on a pilot scale based on R&D activities being carried out in Brazil for biodiesel production. PMID:24499580

2013-01-01

304

Status and Cultivation of Sandalwood in India1  

E-print Network

Status and Cultivation of Sandalwood in India1 Shobha N. Ral2 Abstract: Sandalwood (Santalum album increment of 1 kg per year. The sandalwood resource in India is currently threatened by four factors: fire was intro- duced in India from Timor Island of Indonesia. But sandalwood has such inextricable links

Standiford, Richard B.

305

Genetic structure and differentiation in cultivated grapes, Vitis vinifera, L.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

222 cultivated (Vitis vinifera) and 22 wild (V. vinifera ssp. sylvestris) grape accessions were analysed for genetic diversity and differentiation at eight microsatellite loci. A total of 94 alleles were detected, with extensive polymorphism among the accessions. Multivariate relationships among acc...

306

Utilization of grass plants for cultivation of Pleurotus citrinopileatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stalks of several grass plants, such as Panicum repens (PRS), Pennisetum purpureum (PPS) and Zea mays (ZMS), were used for producing Pleurotus citrinopileatus. Mycelial growth rate, biological efficiency and mushroom weight obtained from the cultivation of P. citrinopileatus under different combination substrates were investigated. The most suitable substrate for mycelial growth was 30 ZMS+60 S, followed by 60 ZMS+30

Zeng-Chin Liang; Chiu-Yeh Wu; Zheng-Liang Shieh; Shou-Liang Cheng

2009-01-01

307

The cultivation and nutritional value of Pleurotus sajor-caju  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for the cultivation of Pleurotus sajorcaju on a relatively large scale using cotton waste as substrate has been developed, and the mushroom so obtained has higher protein content than and comparable carbohydrate content to Agaricus bisporus, Volvariella volvacea, Lentinus edodes and Pleurotus ostreatus. The crude fats, ash, energy value, vitamin and mineral contents are lower and yet the

S. T. Chang; O. W. Lau; K. Y. Cho

1981-01-01

308

Investigtion of the metabolic inhibition observed in solid-substrate cultivation of Clostidium thermocellum on avicel  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Clostridium thermocellum exhibits premature metabolic inhibition during solid-substrate cultivation on Avicel, but the reason for the inhibition is not well understood. Inhibition was investigated by comparing three different cultivation techniques; submerged fermentation (SmF), solid substrate cult...

309

Assessing the past: the importance of cultivation history in EBIPM success  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Exotic disturbances; such as, historical cultivation, modifies an ecosystem and may lead to irreversible species loss because the environment becomes mismatched with the plant species traits. These cultivation legacies can represent novel environmental conditions that are initiated by the disturban...

310

Development of cultivation strategies for friulimicin production in Actinoplanes friuliensis.  

PubMed

Actinoplanes friuliensis is a rare actinomycete which produces the highly potent lipopeptide antibiotic friulimicin. This lipopeptide antibiotic is active against a broad range of multi-resistant gram-positive bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Enterococcus sp. and Staphylococcus aureus (MRE, MRSA) strains. Antibiotic biosynthesis and regulation in actinomycetes is very complex. In order to study the biosynthesis of these species and to develop efficient production processes, standardized cultivation conditions are a prerequisite. For this reason a chemically defined production medium for A. friuliensis was developed. With this chemically defined medium it was possible to analyze the influence of medium components on growth and antibiotic biosynthesis. These findings were used to develop process strategies for friulimicin production. The focus of the project presented here was to develop cultivation strategies which included fed-batch and continuous cultivation processes. In fed-batch processes, volumetric productivities for friulimicin of 1-2 mg/l h were achieved. In a perfusion process, a very simple cell retention system, which works via sedimentation of the mycelial cell pellets, was used. With this system, stable continuous cultivations with cell retention were dependent on the dilution rate. With a dilution rate of 0.05 h(-1), cell retention worked well and volumetric productivity of friulimicin was enhanced to 3-5 mg/l h. With a higher dilution rate of 0.1 h(-1), friulimicin production ceased because cell retention was not possible any longer with this simple cell retention system. In order to support process development, cultivation data were used to characterize metabolic fluxes in the developed friulimicin production processes. PMID:25541462

Steinkämper, Anne; Schmid, Joachim; Schwartz, Dirk; Biener, Richard

2015-02-10

311

An Online Process Model of Second-Order Cultivation Effects: How Television Cultivates Materialism and Its Consequences for Life Satisfaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies investigated the interrelations among television viewing, materialism, and life satisfaction, and their underlying processes. Study 1 tested an online process model for television's cultivation of materialism by manipulating level of materialistic content. Viewing level influenced materialism, but only among participants who reported…

Shrum, L. J.; Lee, Jaehoon; Burroughs, James E.; Rindfleisch, Aric

2011-01-01

312

INITIATION AND EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF FIBER IN WILD AND CULTIVATED COTTON  

E-print Network

INITIATION AND EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF FIBER IN WILD AND CULTIVATED COTTON Kara M. Butterworth,1.S.A. Cultivated cotton fiber has undergone transformation from short, coarse fibers found in progenitor wild in cultivated cotton may have facilitated both yield and uniformity of the crop. However, for the taxa

Wendel, Jonathan F.

313

The Research on ERP Talents Delaminating Cultivation in Industrial Engineering Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the authors first analyze the demand for ERP talents in the society, then propose enterprise resources planning (ERP) talents delaminating cultivation in industrial engineering (IE) specialty according to students' differences in their interests and abilities. Based on the cultivation of ERP application talents, ERP research and development (R&D) talents are cultivated by constructing the ERP practice platform

Zhou Min; Liu Junwei

2008-01-01

314

Linking yields of upland rice in shifting cultivation to fallow length and soil properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many tropical cultivation systems, fallowing is a prerequisite for maintaining long-term plant-available nutrient pools and crop yields. This study examines the relationships between length of fallows, soil nutrient levels and yields of upland rice in a shifting cultivation system in Sarawak, Malaysia. A farmer managed field trial included 12 fields cultivated by means of slash and burn. Sites had

Thilde Bech Bruun; Ole Mertz; Bo Elberling

2006-01-01

315

STUDIES ON CULTIVATION AND BIOLOGICAL EFFICIENCY OF MUSHROOMS GROWN ON DIFFERENT AGRO-RESIDUES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The several white rot fungi are edible mushrooms and are saprophytic basidiomycetes, which have been successfully cultivated at commercial level worldwide using lignocellulose wastes as substrates for their cultivation. Pleurotus species is a wood digesting fungi, which was first cultivated on logs. Today it has become practice to prepare Pleurotus substrate from shredded wheat straw. Present paper discusses biochemical analysis

Arun INGALE; Anita RAMTEKE

2010-01-01

316

A decision support tool for modifications in crop cultivation method based on life cycle assessment: a case study on greenhouse gas emission reduction in Taiwanese sugarcane cultivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim, and scope  Nowadays, various crops are cultivated to supply emerging needs in sustainable fuels and materials. In addition to the development\\u000a of crop processing technologies, cultivation processes in a cropping system could be modified to meet the emerging needs,\\u000a along with the conventional needs in food supply. This study provides a decision tool for modifications in cultivation of\\u000a crops

Yasuhiro Fukushima; Shih-Ping Chen

2009-01-01

317

Robust, small-scale cultivation platform for Streptomyces coelicolor  

PubMed Central

Background For fermentation process and strain improvement, where one wants to screen a large number of conditions and strains, robust and scalable high-throughput cultivation systems are crucial. Often, the time lag between bench-scale cultivations to production largely depends on approximate estimation of scalable physiological traits. Microtiter plate (MTP) based screening platforms have lately become an attractive alternative to shake flasks mainly because of the ease of automation. However, there are very few reports on applications for filamentous organisms; as well as efforts towards systematic validation of physiological behavior compared to larger scale are sparse. Moreover, available small-scale screening approaches are typically constrained by evaluating only an end point snapshot of phenotypes. Results To address these issues, we devised a robust, small-scale cultivation platform in the form of MTPs (24-square deepwell) for the filamentous bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor and compared its performance to that of shake flasks and bench-scale reactors. We observed that re-designing of medium and inoculum preparation recipes resulted in improved reproducibility. Process turnaround time was significantly reduced due to the reduction in number of unit operations from inoculum to cultivation. The incorporation of glass beads (ø 3 mm) in MTPs not only improved the process performance in terms of improved oxygen transfer improving secondary metabolite production, but also helped to transform morphology from pellet to disperse, resulting in enhanced reproducibility. Addition of MOPS into the medium resulted in pH maintenance above 6.50, a crucial parameter towards reproducibility. Moreover, the entire trajectory of the process was analyzed for compatibility with bench-scale reactors. The MTP cultivations were found to behave similar to bench-scale in terms of growth rate, productivity and substrate uptake rate and so was the onset of antibiotic synthesis. Shake flask cultivations however, showed discrepancy with respect to morphology and had considerably reduced volumetric production rates of antibiotics. Conclusion We observed good agreement of the physiological data obtained in the developed MTP platform with bench-scale. Hence, the described MTP-based screening platform has a high potential for investigation of secondary metabolite biosynthesis in Streptomycetes and other filamentous bacteria and the use may significantly reduce the workload and costs. PMID:22252012

2012-01-01

318

Combined use of cultivation-dependent and cultivation-independent methods indicates that members of most haloarchaeal groups in an Australian crystallizer pond are cultivable.  

PubMed

Haloarchaea are the dominant microbial flora in hypersaline waters with near-saturating salt levels. The haloarchaeal diversity of an Australian saltern crystallizer pond was examined by use of a library of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes and by cultivation. High viable counts (10(6) CFU/ml) were obtained on solid media. Long incubation times (> or =8 weeks) appeared to be more important than the medium composition for maximizing viable counts and diversity. Of 66 isolates examined, all belonged to the family Halobacteriaceae, including members related to species of the genera Haloferax, Halorubrum, and Natronomonas. In addition, isolates belonging to a novel group (the ADL group), previously detected only as 16S rRNA genes in an Antarctic hypersaline lake (Deep Lake), were cultivated for the first time. The 16S rRNA gene library identified the following five main groups: Halorubrum groups 1 and 2 (49%), the SHOW (square haloarchaea of Walsby) group (33%), the ADL group (16%), and the Natronomonas group (2%). There were two significant differences between the organisms detected in cultivation and 16S rRNA sequence results. Firstly, Haloferax spp. were frequently isolated on plates (15% of all isolates) but were not detected in the 16S rRNA sequences. Control experiments indicated that a bias against Haloferax sequences in the generation of the 16S rRNA gene library was unlikely, suggesting that Haloferax spp. readily form colonies, even though they were not a dominant group. Secondly, while the 16S rRNA gene library identified the SHOW group as a major component of the microbial community, no isolates of this group were obtained. This inability to culture members of the SHOW group remains an outstanding problem in studying the ecology of hypersaline environments. PMID:15345408

Burns, D G; Camakaris, H M; Janssen, P H; Dyall-Smith, M L

2004-09-01

319

Impacts of recent cultivation on genetic diversity pattern of a medicinal plant, Scutellaria baicalensis (Lamiaceae)  

PubMed Central

Background Cultivation of medicinal plants is not only a means for meeting current and future demands for large volume production of plant-based drug and herbal remedies, but also a means of relieving harvest pressure on wild populations. Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (Huang-qin or Chinese skullcap) is a very important medicinal plant in China. Over the past several decades, wild resource of this species has suffered rapid declines and large-scale cultivation was initiated to meet the increasing demand for its root. However, the genetic impacts of recent cultivation on S. baicalensis have never been evaluated. In this study, the genetic diversity and genetic structure of 28 wild and 22 cultivated populations were estimated using three polymorphic chloroplast fragments. The objectives of this study are to provide baseline data for preserving genetic resource of S. baicalensis and to evaluate the genetic impacts of recent cultivation on medicinal plants, which may be instructive to future cultivation projects of traditional Chinese medicinal plants. Results Thirty-two haplotypes of S. baicalensis (HapA-Y and Hap1-7) were identified when three chloroplast spacers were combined. These haplotypes constituted a shallow gene tree without obvious clusters for cultivated populations, suggesting multiple origins of cultivated S. baicalensis. Cultivated populations (hT = 0.832) maintained comparable genetic variation with wild populations (hT = 0.888), indicating a slight genetic bottleneck due to multiple origins of cultivation. However, a substantial amount of rare alleles (10 out of 25 haplotypes within wild populations) lost during the course of S. baicalensis cultivation. The genetic differentiation for cultivated group (GST = 0.220) was significantly lower than that of wild group (GST = 0.701). Isolation by distance analysis showed that the effect of geographical isolation on genetic structure was significant in wild populations (r = 0.4346, P < 0.0010), but not in cultivated populations (r = 0.0599, P = 0.2710). These genetic distribution patterns suggest that a transient cultivation history and the extensive seed change among different geographical areas during the course of S. baicalensis cultivation. Conclusions Although cultivated S. baicalensis maintains comparable genetic diversity relative to wild populations, recent cultivation has still imposed profound impacts on genetic diversity patterns of the cultivated S. baicalensis populations, i.e., the loss of rare alleles and homogenization of cultivated populations. This study suggests that conservation-by-cultivation is an effective means for protecting genetic resources of S. baicalensis, however, the wild resources still need to be protected in situ and the evolutionary consequences of extensive seed exchange mediated by human being should be monitored carefully. PMID:20429879

2010-01-01

320

Landscape cultivation alters ?30Si signature in terrestrial ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite increasing recognition of the relevance of biological cycling for Si cycling in ecosystems and for Si export from soils to fluvial systems, effects of human cultivation on the Si cycle are still relatively understudied. Here we examined stable Si isotope (?30Si) signatures in soil water samples across a temperate land use gradient. We show that - independent of geological and climatological variation - there is a depletion in light isotopes in soil water of intensive croplands and managed grasslands relative to native forests. Furthermore, our data suggest a divergence in ?30Si signatures along the land use change gradient, highlighting the imprint of vegetation cover, human cultivation and intensity of disturbance on ?30Si patterns, on top of more conventionally acknowledged drivers (i.e. mineralogy and climate).

Vandevenne, Floor I.; Delvaux, Claire; Hughes, Harold J.; André, Luc; Ronchi, Benedicta; Clymans, Wim; Barão, Lúcia; Govers, Gerard; Meire, Patrick; Struyf, Eric

2015-01-01

321

Landscape cultivation alters ?30Si signature in terrestrial ecosystems  

PubMed Central

Despite increasing recognition of the relevance of biological cycling for Si cycling in ecosystems and for Si export from soils to fluvial systems, effects of human cultivation on the Si cycle are still relatively understudied. Here we examined stable Si isotope (?30Si) signatures in soil water samples across a temperate land use gradient. We show that – independent of geological and climatological variation – there is a depletion in light isotopes in soil water of intensive croplands and managed grasslands relative to native forests. Furthermore, our data suggest a divergence in ?30Si signatures along the land use change gradient, highlighting the imprint of vegetation cover, human cultivation and intensity of disturbance on ?30Si patterns, on top of more conventionally acknowledged drivers (i.e. mineralogy and climate). PMID:25583031

Vandevenne, Floor I.; Delvaux, Claire; Hughes, Harold J.; André, Luc; Ronchi, Benedicta; Clymans, Wim; Barão, Lúcia; Govers, Gerard; Meire, Patrick; Struyf, Eric

2015-01-01

322

Isolation, cultivation, and characterization of adult murine prostate stem cells  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT/SUMMARY The successful isolation and cultivation of prostate stem cells will allow us to study their unique biological properties and their application in therapeutic approaches. Here we provide step-by-step procedures on the basis of previous work in our laboratory for: the harvesting of primary prostate cells from adolescent male mice by a modified enzymatic procedure; the isolation of an enriched population of prostate stem cells through cell sorting; the cultivation of prostate stem cells in vitro; and characterization of these cells and their stem-like activity, including in vivo tubule regeneration. Normally it will take approximately 8 hours to harvest prostate cells, isolate the stem cell enriched population, and set up the in vitro sphere assay. It will take up to 8 weeks to analyze the unique properties of the stem cells, including their regenerative capacity in vivo. PMID:20360765

Lukacs, Rita U.; Goldstein, Andrew S.; Lawson, Devon A.; Cheng, Donghui; Witte, Owen N.

2010-01-01

323

Landscape cultivation alters ?³?Si signature in terrestrial ecosystems.  

PubMed

Despite increasing recognition of the relevance of biological cycling for Si cycling in ecosystems and for Si export from soils to fluvial systems, effects of human cultivation on the Si cycle are still relatively understudied. Here we examined stable Si isotope (?(30)Si) signatures in soil water samples across a temperate land use gradient. We show that - independent of geological and climatological variation - there is a depletion in light isotopes in soil water of intensive croplands and managed grasslands relative to native forests. Furthermore, our data suggest a divergence in ?(30)Si signatures along the land use change gradient, highlighting the imprint of vegetation cover, human cultivation and intensity of disturbance on ?(30)Si patterns, on top of more conventionally acknowledged drivers (i.e. mineralogy and climate). PMID:25583031

Vandevenne, Floor I; Delvaux, Claire; Hughes, Harold J; André, Luc; Ronchi, Benedicta; Clymans, Wim; Barão, Lúcia; Govers, Gerard; Meire, Patrick; Struyf, Eric

2015-01-01

324

The gastrointestinal phage communities of the cultivated freshwater fishes.  

PubMed

The phage communities in the gut of 62 cultivated freshwater fish were investigated by culture-based methods. Using three selective media, 445 pathogenic bacilli strains were isolated and used as indicators for subsequent phage isolations. Totally, 63 phages were detected and the respective host strains were identified with the comparative sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene, including Aeromonas (29), Vibrio (1), Citrobacter (16), Serratia (4), Enterobacter (2), Proteus (3), Buttiauxella (2), Plesiomonas (2), Kluyvera (1), Morgenella (2) and Providencia (1). The diversity of Aeromonas phages was assessed by discrimination of their host strains with random amplified polymorphic DNA method. Furthermore, the isolated Aeromonas phages were characterized by host range and growth inhibition assay. The results demonstrated that there were abundant and diverse phage populations in the gut environment of the cultivated freshwater fishes. The phages could contribute to the microbiota balance in the gut ecosystem of fishes and provide reliable phage sources for future applications. PMID:25743067

He, Yang; Yang, Hongjiang

2015-03-01

325

Sharing and cultivating tacit knowledge in an online learning environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on knowledge cultivation often focuses on explicit forms of knowledge. However, knowledge can also take a tacit form—a\\u000a form that is often difficult or impossible to tease out, even when it is considered critical in an educational context. A\\u000a review of the literature revealed that few studies have examined tacit knowledge issues in online learning environments. The\\u000a purpose of

Meng Yew Tee; Dennis Karney

2010-01-01

326

The Origin and Early Cultivation of Sorghums in Africa.  

E-print Network

.7 The Origin and Early Cultivation of Sorghums in Africa L'BR Bulletin 1454 December 1983 The Texas Agricultural Experiment Station / Neville P. Clarl~e , Director / The Texas A&M University System / College Station, Te xas Contents... A&M University, and Professor/Sorghum Breeder, The Texas Agricultural Experiment Station INDI N OCE 1 "';a '" Milior physical features of Africa identified in the text. jy , r :--' -', MALI ALGERIA " / - "" / , / .. '-"l.,.- '/ ,I...

Mann, J.A.; Kimber, C.T.; Miller, F.R.

1983-01-01

327

Carbon Dioxide Fixation by Algal Cultivation Using Wastewater Nutrients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlorella vulgaris was cultivated in wastewater discharged from a steel- making plant with the aim of developing an economically feasible system to remove ammonia from wastewater and from Ñue gas simultaneously. Since CO 2 no phosphorus compounds existed in wastewater, external phosphate (15É3È 46É 0gm ~3) was added to the wastewater. After adaptation to 5% (v\\/v) the CO 2 ,

Sun Bok Lee; Jong Moon Park

1997-01-01

328

Cultivation of oyster mushrooms ( Pleurotus spp.) on various lignocellulosic wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultivation of speciality mushrooms on lignocellulosic wastes represents one of the most economically and cost-effective organic recycling processes. Three species of Pleurotus, namely P. columbinus, P. sajor-caju and P. ostreatus were experimentally evaluated on untreated organic wastes including chopped office papers, cardboard, sawdust and plant fibres. Production studies were carried out in polyethylene bags of about 1?kg wet weight with

Q. A. Mandeel; A. A. Al-Laith; S. A. Mohamed

2005-01-01

329

IX. Cultivation of houbitake (Pleurotus sajor?caju)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spawn from China was cultivated in Japan in bottles filled with a medium composed of Japanese oak sawdust, wheat bran, and corn bran. The spawn was incubated at 60–70% to 80–90% humidity and temperature ranges of 17–24°C and 17–18°C with aeration for about 35 days. Fruiting bodies were grown in a culture room maintained at 95–98% humidity and temperature range

Chiharu Suzuki; Takashi Mizuno

1997-01-01

330

Maintenance, cultivation, and excystation of echinostomes: 2000-2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This review covers the salient studies on maintenance, cultivation, and excystation of echinostomes from 2000 to 2007. Some\\u000a significant studies on these topics prior to 2000 are also included in the review. Ways to obtain echinostome material from\\u000a the wild are discussed. The names of scientists and their laboratories where known species of echinostome life cycles are\\u000a maintained are given.

Bernard Fried; Robert C. Peoples

331

Cultivating Positive Emotions to Optimize Health and Well-Being  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article develops the hypothesis that intervention strategies that cultivate positive emotions are particularly suited for preventing and treating problems rooted in negative emotions, such as anxiety, depression, aggression, and stress-related health problems. Fredrickson's (1998) broaden-and-build modelof positive emotions provides the foundation for this application. According to this model, the form and function of positive and negative emotions are distinct

Barbara L. Fredrickson

2000-01-01

332

Environmental profile of paddy rice cultivation with different straw management.  

PubMed

Italy is the most important European country in terms of paddy rice production. North Italian districts such as Vercelli, Pavia, Novara, and Milano are known as some of the world's most advanced rice cultivation sites. In 2013 Italian rice cultivation represented about 50% of all European rice production by area, and paddy fields extended for over 216,000 ha. Cultivation of rice involves different agricultural activities which have environmental impacts mainly due to fossil fuels and agrochemical requirements as well as the methane emission associated with the fermentation of organic material in the flooded rice fields. In order to assess the environmental consequences of rice production in the District of Vercelli, the cultivation practices most frequently carried out were inventoried and evaluated. The general approach of this study was not only to gather the inventory data for rice production and quantify their environmental impacts, but also to identify the key environmental factors where special attention must be paid. Life Cycle Assessment methodology was applied in this study from a cradle-to-farm gate perspective. The environmental profile was analyzed in terms of seven different impact categories: climate change, ozone depletion, human toxicity, terrestrial acidification, freshwater eutrophication, marine eutrophication, and fossil depletion. Regarding straw management, two different scenarios (burial into the soil of the straw versus harvesting) were compared. The analysis showed that the environmental impact was mainly due to field emissions, the fuel consumption needed for the mechanization of field operations, and the drying of the paddy rice. The comparison between the two scenarios highlighted that the collection of the straw improves the environmental performance of rice production except that for freshwater eutrophication. To improve the environmental performance of rice production, solutions to save fossil fuel and reduce the emissions from fertilizers (leaching, volatilization) as well as methane emissions should be implemented. PMID:25038430

Fusi, Alessandra; Bacenetti, Jacopo; González-García, Sara; Vercesi, Annamaria; Bocchi, Stefano; Fiala, Marco

2014-10-01

333

CULTIVATION OF OYSTER MUSHROOM (Pleurotus flabellatus) ON DIFFERENT SUBSTRATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Islam M. Z., Rahman M. H. and Hafiz F. 2009. Cultivation of Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus flabellatus) on Different Substrates. Int. J. Sustain. Crop Prod. 4(1):45-48 The study was conducted at the laboratory of Food Microbiology, Institute of Food Science and Technology, BCSIR, Dhanmondi, Dhaka-1205 during July 2000 to May 2001 to find suitable sawdust as substrate for growing Mushroom. Seven

M. Z. ISLAM; M. H. RAHMAN; F. HAFIZ

334

Agricultural intensification and changes in cultivated areas, 1970–2005  

PubMed Central

Does the intensification of agriculture reduce cultivated areas and, in so doing, spare some lands by concentrating production on other lands? Such sparing is important for many reasons, among them the enhanced abilities of released lands to sequester carbon and provide other environmental services. Difficulties measuring the extent of spared land make it impossible to investigate fully the hypothesized causal chain from agricultural intensification to declines in cultivated areas and then to increases in spared land. We analyze the historical circumstances in which rising yields have been accompanied by declines in cultivated areas, thereby leading to land-sparing. We use national-level United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization data on trends in cropland from 1970–2005, with particular emphasis on the 1990–2005 period, for 10 major crop types. Cropland has increased more slowly than population during this period, but paired increases in yields and declines in cropland occurred infrequently, both globally and nationally. Agricultural intensification was not generally accompanied by decline or stasis in cropland area at a national scale during this time period, except in countries with grain imports and conservation set-aside programs. Future projections of cropland abandonment and ensuing environmental services cannot be assumed without explicit policy intervention. PMID:19955435

Rudel, Thomas K.; Schneider, Laura; Uriarte, Maria; Turner, B. L.; DeFries, Ruth; Lawrence, Deborah; Geoghegan, Jacqueline; Hecht, Susanna; Ickowitz, Amy; Lambin, Eric F.; Birkenholtz, Trevor; Baptista, Sandra; Grau, Ricardo

2009-01-01

335

Recycling produced water for algal cultivation for biofuels  

SciTech Connect

Algal growth demands a continuous source of water of appropriate salinity and nutritional content. Fresh water sources are scarce in the deserts of the Southwestern United States, hence, salt water algae species are being investigated as a renewable biofuel source. The use of produced water from oil wells (PW) could offset the demand for fresh water in cultivation. Produced water can contain various concentrations of dissolved solids, metals and organic contaminants and often requires treatment beyond oil/water separation to make it suitable for algae cultivation. The produced water used in this study was taken from an oil well in Jal, New Mexico. An F/2-Si (minus silica) growth media commonly used to cultivate Nannochloropsis salina 1776 (NS 1776) was prepared using the produced water (F/2-Si PW) taking into account the metals and salts already present in the water. NS 1776 was seeded into a bioreactor containing 5L of the (F/2-Si PW) media. After eleven days the optical density at 750 nm (an indicator of algal growth) increased from 0 to 2.52. These results indicate algae are able to grow, though inhibited when compared with non-PW media, in the complex chemical conditions found in produced water. Savings from using nutrients present in the PW, such as P, K, and HCO{sub 3}{sup -}, results in a 44.38% cost savings over fresh water to mix the F/2-Si media.

Neal, Justin N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sullivan, Enid J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dean, Cynthia A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Steichen, Seth A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-09

336

[Biotechnological cultivation of edible macrofungi: an alternative for obtaining nutraceutics].  

PubMed

Macromycetes have been part of the human culture for thousand years, and have been reported as food in the most important civilizations in history. Many nutraceutical properties of macromycetes have been described, such as anti-cancer, anti-tumour, cholesterol lowering, antiviral, antibacterial, or immunomodulatory, among others. Given that production of mushrooms by traditional cultivation and extraction of bioactive metabolites is very difficult in some cases, biotechnology is essential for the development of profitable and productive techniques for obtaining these metabolites. It is the development of this technology, and the ease in which it enables the use of its variables that has allowed mycelium to be cultivated in liquid medium of macrofungi, with a significant reduction in time and an increased production of metabolites. This increased production has led to the study of compounds that have medicinal, nutriceutical and quasi-farmaceutical potential, in the exhausted media and the mycelium. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the use of liquid-state fermentation as a technological tool for obtaining edible fungi, and the study of these and their metabolites, by describing the different cultivation conditions used in recent years, as well as the results obtained. The relevance of Agaricus, Flammulina, Grifola, Pleurotus and Lentinula genera, will also be discussed, with emphasis on the last one, since Shiitake has been always considered as the ultimate medicinal mushroom. PMID:22449697

Suárez Arango, Carolina; Nieto, Ivonne Jeannette

2013-01-01

337

Chitin-glucan complex production by Schizophyllum commune submerged cultivation.  

PubMed

Chitin-glucan complex is a fungal origin copolymer that finds application in medicine and cosmetics. Traditionally, the mycelium of Micromycetes is considered as an industrial chitin-glucan complex source. Basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune submerged cultivation for chitin-glucan complex production was studied. In different S. commune strains chitin-glucan complex composed 15.2 +/- 0.4 to 30.2 +/- 0.2% of mycelium dry weight. Optimized conditions for chitin-glucan complex production (nutrient medium composition in g/l: sucrose - 35, yeast extract - 4, Na2HPO4*12H2O - 2.5, MgSO4*7 H2O - 0.5; medium initial pH 6.5; aeration intensity 21 of air per 11 of medium; 144 hours of cultivation) resulted in 3.5 +/- 0.3 g/l complex yield. Redirection of fungal metabolism from exopolysaccharide synthesis to chitin-glucan complex accumulation was achieved most efficiently by aeration intensity increase. Chitin-glucan complex from S. commune had the structure of microfibers with diameter 1-2 microm, had water-swelling capacity of 18 g/g, and was composed of 16.63% chitin and 83.37% glucan with a degree of chitin deacetylation of 26.9%. S. commune submerged cultivation is a potent alternative to Micromycetes for industrial-scale chitin-glucan complex production. PMID:22184929

Smirnou, Dzianis; Krcmar, Martin; Prochazkova, Eva

2011-01-01

338

Energy-water nexus for mass cultivation of algae.  

PubMed

Microalgae are currently considered a potential feedstock for the production of biofuels. This work addresses the energy needed to manage the water used in the mass cultivation of saline, eukaryotic algae grown in open pond systems. Estimates of both direct and upstream energy requirements for obtaining, containing, and circulating water within algae cultivation systems are developed. Potential productivities are calculated for each of the 48 states within the continental U.S. based on theoretical photosynthetic efficiencies, growing season, and total available land area. Energy output in the form of algal biodiesel and the total energy content of algal biomass are compared to energy inputs required for water management. The analysis indicates that, for current technologies, energy required for water management alone is approximately seven times greater than energy output in the form of biodiesel and more than double that contained within the entire algal biomass. While this analysis addresses only currently identified species grown in an open-pond system, the water management requirements of any algae system will be substantial; therefore, it is critical that an energy assessment of water management requirements be performed for any cultivation technology and algal type in order to fully understand the energy balance of algae-derived biofuels. PMID:21671675

Murphy, Cynthia Folsom; Allen, David T

2011-07-01

339

The Population Genetics of Cultivation: Domestication of a Traditional Chinese Medicine, Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl. (Scrophulariaceae)  

PubMed Central

Background Domestic cultivation of medicinal plants is an important strategy for protecting these species from over harvesting. Some species of medicinal plants have been brought into cultivation for more than hundreds years. Concerns about severe loss of genetic diversity and sustainable cultivation can potentially limit future use of these valuable plants. Genetic studies with comprehensive sampling of multiple medicinal species by molecular markers will allow for assessment and management of these species. Here we examine the population genetic consequences of cultivation and domestication in Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl. We used chloroplast DNA and genomic AFLP markers to clarify not only the effects of domestication on genetic diversity, but also determine the geographic origins of cultivars and their genetic divergence from native populations. These results will allow both better management of cultivated populations, but also provide insights for crop improvement. Results Twenty-one cpDNA haplotypes of S. ningpoensis were identified. Wild populations contain all haplotypes, whereas only three haplotypes were found in cultivated populations with wild populations having twice the haplotype diversity of cultivated populations. Genetic differentiation between cultivated populations and wild populations was significant. Genomic AFLP markers revealed similar genetic diversity patterns. Furthermore, Structure analysis grouped all wild populations into two gene pools; two of which shared the same gene pool with cultivated S. ningpoensis. The result of Neighbor-Joining analysis was consistent with the structure analysis. In principal coordinate analysis, three cultivated populations from Zhejiang Province grouped together and were separated from other cultivated populations. Conclusions These results suggest that cultivated S. ningpoensis has experienced dramatic loss of genetic diversity under anthropogenic influence. We postulate that strong artificial selection for medicinal quality has resulted in genetic differentiation between cultivated and wild populations. Furthermore, it appears that wild populations in Jiangxi-Hunan area were involved in the origin of cultivated S. ningpoensis. PMID:25157628

Chen, Chuan; Li, Pan; Wang, Rui-Hong; Schaal, Barbara A.; Fu, Cheng-Xin

2014-01-01

340

Cultivable bacteria isolated from apple trees cultivated under different crop systems: Diversity and antagonistic activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides  

PubMed Central

This study evaluated the diversity of cultivable plant growth-promoting (PGP) bacteria associated with apple trees cultivated under different crop management systems and their antagonistic ability against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Samples of roots and rhizospheric soil from apple trees cultivated in organic and conventional orchards in southern Brazil were collected, together with soil samples from an area never used for agriculture (native field). Bacteria were identified at the genus level by PCR-RFLP and partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA, and were evaluated for some PGP abilities. The most abundant bacterial genera identified were Enterobacter (27.7%), Pseudomonas (18.7%), Burkholderia (13.7%), and Rahnella (12.3%). Sixty-nine isolates presented some antagonist activity against C. gloeosporioides. In a greenhouse experiment, five days after exposure to C. gloeosporioides, an average of 30% of the leaf area of plants inoculated with isolate 89 (identified as Burkholderia sp.) were infected, whereas 60 to 73% of the leaf area of untreated plants was affected by fungal attack. Our results allowed us to infer how anthropogenic activity is affecting the bacterial communities in soil associated with apple tree crop systems, and to obtain an isolate that was able to delay the emergence of an important disease for this culture. PMID:25249780

dos Passos, João Frederico M.; da Costa, Pedro B.; Costa, Murilo D.; Zaffari, Gilmar R.; Nava, Gilberto; Boneti, José Itamar; de Oliveira, Andréia Mara R.; Passaglia, Luciane M.P.

2014-01-01

341

Cultivable bacteria isolated from apple trees cultivated under different crop systems: Diversity and antagonistic activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the diversity of cultivable plant growth-promoting (PGP) bacteria associated with apple trees cultivated under different crop management systems and their antagonistic ability against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Samples of roots and rhizospheric soil from apple trees cultivated in organic and conventional orchards in southern Brazil were collected, together with soil samples from an area never used for agriculture (native field). Bacteria were identified at the genus level by PCR-RFLP and partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA, and were evaluated for some PGP abilities. The most abundant bacterial genera identified were Enterobacter (27.7%), Pseudomonas (18.7%), Burkholderia (13.7%), and Rahnella (12.3%). Sixty-nine isolates presented some antagonist activity against C. gloeosporioides. In a greenhouse experiment, five days after exposure to C. gloeosporioides, an average of 30% of the leaf area of plants inoculated with isolate 89 (identified as Burkholderia sp.) were infected, whereas 60 to 73% of the leaf area of untreated plants was affected by fungal attack. Our results allowed us to infer how anthropogenic activity is affecting the bacterial communities in soil associated with apple tree crop systems, and to obtain an isolate that was able to delay the emergence of an important disease for this culture. PMID:25249780

Dos Passos, João Frederico M; da Costa, Pedro B; Costa, Murilo D; Zaffari, Gilmar R; Nava, Gilberto; Boneti, José Itamar; de Oliveira, Andréia Mara R; Passaglia, Luciane M P

2014-09-01

342

Hydroponic cultivation of soybean for Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSSs)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For long time our research group has been involved in experiments aiming to evaluate the possibility to cultivate plants in Space to regenerate resources and produce food. Apart from investigating the response of specific growth processes (at morpho-functional levels) to space factors (namely microgravity and ionising radiation), wide attention has been dedicated to agro-technologies applied to ecologically closed systems. Based on technical and human dietary requirements, soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is studied as one of the candidate species for hydroponic (soilless) cultivation in the research program MELiSSA (Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative) of the European Space Agency (ESA). Soybean seeds show high nutritional value, due to the relevant content of protein, lipids, dietary fiber and biologically active substances such as isoflavones. They can produce fresh sprouts or be transformed in several edible products (soymilk and okara or soy pulp). Soybean is traditionally grown in open field where specific interactions with soil microrganisms occur. Most available information on plant growth, seed productivity and nutrient composition relate to cultivated varieties (cultivars) selected for soil cultivation. However, in a space outpost, plant cultivation would rely on soilless systems. Given that plant growth, seed yield and quality strictly depend on the environmental conditions, to make successful the cultivation of soybean in space, it was necessary to screen all agronomic information according to space constraints. Indeed, selected cultivars have to comply with the space growth environment while providing a suitable nutritional quality to fulfill the astronauts needs. We proposed an objective criterion for the preliminary theoretical selection of the most suitable cultivars for seed production, which were subsequently evaluated in bench tests in hydroponics. Several Space-oriented experiments were carried out in a closed growth chamber to evaluate the adaptation of soybean plants to hydroponics under controlled environment, as well as the plant response to changing cultural parameters, in order to identify the best cultivation protocol for BLSSs. The optimisation of growth conditions in hydroponics has been pursued being aware that environmental factors acting at sub-optimal levels may also increase the sensitivity of plants to space factors. The influence of the following parameters on plant growth and yield was also studied: - the hydroponic system: sole liquid solution (Nutrient Film Technique, NFT) vs solid substrate (rockwool); - the source of nitrogen in the nutrient solution: nitrate fertilizers vs urea; - the root symbiosis with atmospheric nitrogen-fixing bacteria: absence or presence of Bradyrhizobium japonicum; - the influence of microbes in the rhizosphere: inoculation with a mix containing mycorrhizal and trichoderma species, and beneficial bacteria vs a non-inoculated control. All the treatments were evaluated in terms of agronomic traits (e.g. plant size and seed production), physiological traits (gas exchange, nutrient uptake), chemical composition of seeds and their products, and technical parameters such as resource use efficiency and non-edible biomass production (waste).

De Pascale, Stefania; De Micco, Veronica; Aronne, Giovanna; Paradiso, Roberta

343

Cultivating Creativity: I Can't Promise You a Rose Garden; and Cultivating Creativity: A Gardener's Guide for the Complete English Teacher.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Creativity, a means of communicating a personal and unique response to life, should be nurtured and cultivated in the classroom. This document discusses the nature of creativity and, using the analogy of a gardener cultivating a garden, outlines nine steps a teacher may take in developing students' creativity--prepare the soil, plant the garden…

Haley, Beverly

344

Artificial Seed Production and Cultivation of the Edible Brown Alga, Sargassum Fulvellum (Turner) C. Agardh: Developing a new Species for Seaweed Cultivation in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sargassum fulvellum is a brown alga recently introduced to the seaweed cultivation industry in Korea. There is current interest in the commercial scale of aquaculture of this species. For the artificial seeding and cultivation of this alga, growth and maturation were investigated from September 2002 to August 2003. Indoor culture experiments for maturation induction were also conducted at temperatures of

Eun Kyoung Hwang; Chan Sun Park; Jae Min Baek

2006-01-01

345

Cultivation of shear stress sensitive microorganisms in disposable bag reactor systems.  

PubMed

Technical scale (?5l) cultivations of shear stress sensitive microorganisms are often difficult to perform, as common bioreactors are usually designed to maximize the oxygen input into the culture medium. This is achieved by mechanical stirrers, causing high shear stress. Examples for shear stress sensitive microorganisms, for which no specific cultivation systems exist, are many anaerobic bacteria and fungi, such as basidiomycetes. In this work a disposable bag bioreactor developed for cultivation of mammalian cells was investigated to evaluate its potential to cultivate shear stress sensitive anaerobic Eubacterium ramulus and shear stress sensitive basidiomycetes Flammulina velutipes and Pleurotus sapidus. All cultivations were compared with conventional stainless steel stirred tank reactors (STR) cultivations. Good growth of all investigated microorganisms cultivated in the bag reactor was found. E. ramulus showed growth rates of ?=0.56 h?¹ (bag) and ?=0.53 h?¹ (STR). Differences concerning morphology, enzymatic activities and growth in fungal cultivations were observed. In the bag reactor growth in form of small, independent pellets was observed while STR cultivations showed intense aggregation. F. velutipes reached higher biomass concentrations (21.2 g l?¹ DCW vs. 16.8 g l?¹ DCW) and up to 2-fold higher peptidolytic activities in comparison to cell cultivation in stirred tank reactors. PMID:23892193

Jonczyk, Patrick; Takenberg, Meike; Hartwig, Steffen; Beutel, Sascha; Berger, Ralf G; Scheper, Thomas

2013-09-20

346

Cultivating corn in clumps increases water efficiency, yield  

E-print Network

and Production Research Laboratory (CPRL) in Bushland, which is a unit of U.S. Department of Agriculture?s Agricultural Research Service. Story by Kathy Wythe Cultivating corn in clumps increases water e#30;ciency, yield | pg. 26 tx H2O | pg. 27 Saving... agricultural water in the Texas High Plains is a high priority, as the main source for its water is the Ogallala Aquifer. The portion of the aquifer that extends from Texas up to western Kansas is declining at a rela- tively rapid rate with depletion of 1...

Wythe, Kathy

2008-01-01

347

Environmental life cycle assessment of Ethiopian rose cultivation.  

PubMed

A life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted for Ethiopian rose cultivation. The LCA covered the cradle-to-gate production of all inputs to Ethiopian rose cultivation up to, and including transport to the Ethiopian airport. Primary data were collected about materials and resources used as inputs to, and about the product outputs from 21 farms in 4 geographical regions (i.e. Holleta, Sebeta, Debre Ziet, and Ziway). The primary data were imported in, and analyzed with the SimaPro7.3 software. Data for the production of used inputs were taken from the EcoInvent®2.0 database. Emissions from input use on the farms were quantified based on estimates and emission factors from various studies and guidelines. The resulting life cycle inventory (LCI) table was next evaluated with the CML 2 baseline 2000 V2/world, 1990/characterization method to quantify the contribution of the rose cultivation chain to 10 environmental impact categories. The set of collected primary data was comprehensive and of high quality. The data point to an intensive use of fertilizers, pesticides, and greenhouse plastic. Production and use of these inputs also represent the major contributors in all environmental impact categories. The largest contribution comes from the production of the used fertilizers, specifically nitrogen-based fertilizers. The use of calcium nitrate dominates Abiotic Depletion (AD), Global Warming (GW), Human Toxicity (HT) and Marine Aquatic Ecotoxicity (MAET). It also makes a large contribution to Ozone Depletion (OD), Acidification (AD) and Fresh water Aquatic Ecotoxicity (FAET). Acidification (AC) and Eutrophication (EU) are dominated by the emission of fertilizers. The emissions from the use of pesticides, especially insecticides dominate Terrestrial Ecotoxicity (TE) and make a considerable contribution to Freshwater Aquatic Ecotoxicity (FAET) and Photochemical Oxidation (PhO). There is no visible contribution from the use of pesticides to the other toxicity categories. Production and use of greenhouse plastic are another important contributors, and just a bit less than the contribution of calcium nitrate to Abiotic Depletion (AD). The results of this study clearly indicate nutrient management and emissions from pesticide use, especially insecticides, as a focus point for environmental optimization of the rose cultivation sector in Ethiopia. PMID:23183227

Sahle, Abiy; Potting, José

2013-01-15

348

Fishing for Prawn Larvae in Bangladesh: An Important Coastal Livelihood Causing Negative Effects on the Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) farming in Bangladesh has, to a large extent, been dependent on the supply of wild larvae. Although there are 81 freshwater\\u000a prawn hatcheries in the country, a lack of technical knowledge, inadequate skilled manpower, and an insufficient supply of\\u000a wild broods have limited hatchery production. Many thousands of coastal poor people, including women, are engaged in

Nesar Ahmed; Max Troell

2010-01-01

349

Geothermal aquaculture: a guide to freshwater prawn culture  

SciTech Connect

Biological data of the Malaysian prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, are summarized. A history on its rearing techniques is given, but through the use of geothermal water or industrial warm water effluent, its range can be expanded. The use of wasted geothermal water at the Oregon Institute of Technology for prawn ponds is noted. Pond management and design; the hatchery design and function for larval culture; and geothermal applications (legal aspects and constraints) are discussed. (MCW)

Hayes, A.; Johnson, W.C.

1980-05-01

350

Effects of temperature and dissolved oxygen content on oxygen consumption rate of Chinese prawn, giant tiger prawn and giant freshwater prawn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temperature and the dissolved oxygen content affect the oxygen consumption of juveniles of Chinese prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant tiger prawn (P. monodon) and giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). There is good correlation between the oxygen consumption rate (V, mg\\/g·h) of the above three prawn species and the water temperature, and dissolved oxygen. In the range of test temperature,V increased with

Xi-Lin Dai; Wei-Ling Zang; Wei-Dong Wang; Yong-Hai Shi; Wen-Cui Liu; Gui-Rong Xu; Shi-Hua Li

1999-01-01

351

Studies on the ingestion characteristics of giant freshwater prawn, Chinese prawn and giant tiger prawn  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ingestion of giant freshwater prawn, Chinese prawn and giant tiger prawn had continuity and the ingestion high peak occurred at night. Light and temperature had significant effects on the daily ingestion rate (DIR) of giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Red light and blue light favorably induced favorable ingestion. In the adaptive range of temperature, the DIR increased with rising temperature and feeding frequency, but decreased with rising body weight.

Zang, Wei-Ling; Wang, Wei-Dong; Dai, Xi-Lin; Jiang, Min; Zhu, Zheng-Guo; Yang, Ming-Hui; Liu, Xian-Zhong; Xu, Gui-Rong; Ding, Fu-Jiang

2000-12-01

352

Direct use of low temperature geothermal water by Aquafarms International, Inc. for freshwater aquaculture (prawns and associated species). An operations and maintenance manual  

SciTech Connect

In connection with an ongoing commercial aquaculture project in the Coachella Valley, California; a twelve month prawn growout demonstration project was conducted. This project began in August, 1979 and involved the use of low temperature (85/sup 0/F) geothermal waters to raise freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (deMan), in earthen ponds. The following publication is an operations and maintenance guide which may by useful for those interested in conducting similar enterprises.

Broughton, R.; Price, M.; Price, V.; Grajcer, D.

1984-04-01

353

Processes affecting genetic structure and conservation: a case study of wild and cultivated Brassica rapa  

Microsoft Academic Search

When planning optimal conservation strategies for wild and cultivated types of a plant species, a number of influencing biological\\u000a and environmental factors should be considered from the outset. In the present study Brassica rapa was used to illustrate this: to develop Scandinavian conservation strategies for wild and cultivated B. rapa, DNA-marker analysis was performed on 15 cultivated and 17 wild

Naja Steen Andersen; Gert Poulsen; Bente Anni Andersen; Lars Pødenphant Kiær; Tina D’Hertefeldt; Mike J. Wilkinson; Rikke Bagger Jørgensen

2009-01-01

354

The relationship between length of fallow and crop yields in shifting cultivation: a rethinking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rethinking the relationship between length of fallow and crop yields inshifting cultivation?The theory that a correlation\\u000a between shortened fallow periods and yielddecline in shifting cultivation exists is questioned in this paper. Thisrelationship\\u000a has been taken for granted, and because it shows that shiftingcultivation will break down under pressure, it has partly been\\u000a responsible fornegative government views on shifting cultivation. Yield

O. Mertz

2002-01-01

355

Heavy metal bioaccumulation by cultivated Agaricus bisporus from artificially enriched substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultivated Agaricus bisporus possess the ability to bioaccumulate seven heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Hg, Fe, Cu, Mn, and Zn). The cultivated champignon mushroom\\u000a A. bisporus was grown in soil composts of 16 different compositions. An edible mushroom, A. bisporus was also cultivated on humic compost artificially fortified with the seven heavy metals at five different concentrations\\u000a (0.1 mg\\/kg, 0.5 mg\\/kg,

Mustafa Tüzen; Mustafa Özdemir; A. Demirba?

1998-01-01

356

Gel microbead cultivation with a subenrichment procedure can yield better bacterial cultivability from a seawater sample than standard plating method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A gel microbead (GMD) cultivation method was employed to cultivate microorganisms from an amphioxus breeding zone in Qingdao, P. R. China. The culture results were compared with those by standard plating method. In the GMD-based method, the microcolony-forming GMDs were sorted by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). To further get pure cultures, a subsequent enrichment culture and a streaking purification procedure were conducted on marine R2A medium. Eighty bacterial strains isolated by the GMD-based method were randomly selected for sequencing. These isolates belonged to Alphaproteobacteria (33%), Gammaproteobacteria (44%), Bacteroidetes (11%), Actinobacteria (5%), Firmicutes (5%), Epsilonproteobacteria (1%), and Verrucomicrobia (1%), the last two groups being usually difficult to culture. The 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed a diverse community with 91.1%-100% of the bacterial rRNAs similarities. Thirteen strains were sharing 16S rRNA gene sequence which was less than 97% similar to any other rRNA genes currently deposited in TYP16S database. Seventy isolates derived from the standard plating method fell into 4 different taxonomic groups: Alphaproteobacteria (9%), Gammaproteobacteria (81%), Bacteroidetes (7%) and Firmicutes (3%) with a 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities between 95.8%-100%, in which only 3 strains were sharing 16S rRNA gene sequence of less than 97%. The results indicated that the GMD-based method with subenrichment culture yielded more taxonomic groups and more novel microbial strains, including members of previously rarely cultured groups, when compared with the standard plating method, and that this method markedly improved the bacterial cultivability.

Ji, Shiqi; Zhao, Rui; Yin, Qi; Zhao, Yuan; Liu, Chenguang; Xiao, Tian; Zhang, Xiaohua

2012-03-01

357

Organochlorine Pesticides and Biomarker Responses in Two Fishes Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus (Lacepede, 1803) and an Invertebrate, Macrobrachium vollenhovenii (Herklot, 1857), from the Lake Taabo (Cote d`Ivoire)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in muscle samples of two species of fish, tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and the catfish (Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus) and the prawn (Macrobrachium vollenhovenii) found in Lake Taabo (Cote d`Ivoire). Simultaneous measurements of enzymatic biomarkers were made to evaluate the ecotoxicological risk in this hydroelectric reservoir. Lindane and endosulfan were the dominant contaminants, suggesting their current use in neighboring agricultural areas. Other organochlorine (OC) compounds were detected, including some currently banned substances. Ranked in an order of descending concentrations, we found: DDT and its metabolites (17.8-57.2 ng g-1 dry weight), endrin (7.17-25.0 ng g-1 dry weight) and heptachlor (7.36-23.6 ng g-1 dry weight), as well as traces of isomers of chlordane, aldrin and fipronil. The hepatic Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) activity measured in fishes was not correlated with pesticide contamination; whereas the antioxidant biomarkers demonstrated some significant associations, especially hepatic catalase with lindane (R = 0.83) and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) with heptachlor epoxide (R = 0.84) and with pp`DDT (R = 0.81). In the prawns, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity showed significant negative correlations with DDT and its metabolites (R = -0.91). The results of this study emphasize the urgent need for overall environmental risk assessment studies in the region of Taabo and other developing areas.

Roche, Helene; Tidou, Abiba; Persic, Ana

358

Impacts of biofuel cultivation on mortality and crop yields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ground-level ozone is a priority air pollutant, causing ~ 22,000 excess deaths per year in Europe, significant reductions in crop yields and loss of biodiversity. It is produced in the troposphere through photochemical reactions involving oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The biosphere is the main source of VOCs, with an estimated 1,150TgCyr-1 (~ 90% of total VOC emissions) released from vegetation globally. Isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene) is the most significant biogenic VOC in terms of mass (around 500TgCyr-1) and chemical reactivity and plays an important role in the mediation of ground-level ozone concentrations. Concerns about climate change and energy security are driving an aggressive expansion of bioenergy crop production and many of these plant species emit more isoprene than the traditional crops they are replacing. Here we quantify the increases in isoprene emission rates caused by cultivation of 72Mha of biofuel crops in Europe. We then estimate the resultant changes in ground-level ozone concentrations and the impacts on human mortality and crop yields that these could cause. Our study highlights the need to consider more than simple carbon budgets when considering the cultivation of biofuel feedstock crops for greenhouse-gas mitigation.

Ashworth, K.; Wild, O.; Hewitt, C. N.

2013-05-01

359

Gliadin polymorphism in wild and cultivated einkorn wheats.  

PubMed

To study the relationships between different species of the Einkorn group, 408 accessions of Triticum monococcum, T. boeoticum, T. boeoticum ssp. thauodar and T. urartu were analyzed electrophoretically for their protein composition at the Gli-1 and Gli-2 loci. In all the species the range of allelic variation at the loci examined is remarkable. The gliadin patterns of T. monococcum and T. boeoticum were very similar to one another but differed substantially from those of T. urartu. Several accessions of T. boeoticum and T. monococcum were shown to share the same alleles at the Gli-1 and Gli-2 loci, confirming the recent nomenclature that considers these wheats as different subspecies of the same species, T. monococcum. The gliadin composition of T. urartu resembled that of the A genome of polyploid wheats more than did T. boeoticum or T. monococcum, supporting the hypothesis that T. urartu, rather than T. boeoticum, is the donor of the A genome in cultivated wheats. Because of their high degree of polymorphism the gliadin markers may help in selecting breeding parents from diploid wheat germ plasm collections and can be used both to search for valuable genes linked to the gliadin-coding loci and to monitor the transfer of alien genes into cultivated polyploid wheats. PMID:19352747

Ciaffi, M; Dominici, L; Lafiandra, D

1997-01-01

360

Allelopathic effects of ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) on cultivated plants.  

PubMed

During the past years ragweed has been coming to the forefront of interest in Hungary and in other European countries as well because its serious health risk. Results of the 5th National Weed Survey has proven that ragweed is the most important weed species on Hungarian field lands, its coverage shows a rising tendency in cereals moreover it not only occurs in cultivated plants. Allelopathic effects of aqueous extracts derived from different parts of ragweed plants (air dried leafy stems, seeds) on the germination and growth of other cultivated plants [maize (Zea mays L.), winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), rye (Secale cereale L.), oat (Avena sativa L.)] were studied. The extracts made for the trials were prepared with distilled water. Petri dishes were used for the germination experiments and distilled water was used as a control treatment. The seven days long experiment was carried out within a Binder-type thermostat under dark conditions. The germination percentage was checked in every two days and the growth of sprouts was evaluated after a week counting the germinated seeds and measuring the length of the radicle and plumule. The measured data were statistically analysed and the effect of extracts on germinating and length of sprouts were assessed. PMID:22696964

Lehoczky, E; Gólya, G; Szabó, R; Szalai, A

2011-01-01

361

Biochar from commercially cultivated seaweed for soil amelioration  

PubMed Central

Seaweed cultivation is a high growth industry that is primarily targeted at human food and hydrocolloid markets. However, seaweed biomass also offers a feedstock for the production of nutrient-rich biochar for soil amelioration. We provide the first data of biochar yield and characteristics from intensively cultivated seaweeds (Saccharina, Undaria and Sargassum – brown seaweeds, and Gracilaria, Kappaphycus and Eucheuma – red seaweeds). While there is some variability in biochar properties as a function of the origin of seaweed, there are several defining and consistent characteristics of seaweed biochar, in particular a relatively low C content and surface area but high yield, essential trace elements (N, P and K) and exchangeable cations (particularly K). The pH of seaweed biochar ranges from neutral (7) to alkaline (11), allowing for broad-spectrum applications in diverse soil types. We find that seaweed biochar is a unique material for soil amelioration that is consistently different to biochar derived from ligno-cellulosic feedstock. Blending of seaweed and ligno-cellulosic biochar could provide a soil ameliorant that combines a high fixed C content with a mineral-rich substrate to enhance crop productivity. PMID:25856799

Roberts, David A.; Paul, Nicholas A.; Dworjanyn, Symon A.; Bird, Michael I.; de Nys, Rocky

2015-01-01

362

Rate of cultivable subgingival periodontopathogenic bacteria in chronic periodontitis.  

PubMed

Although microbiological studies have identified more than 400 bacterial species in periodontal pockets, only a limited number have been implicated as periodontal pathogens. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of cultivable subgingival periodontopathogenic bacteria in chronic periodontitis. Bacterial samples were collected with sterile paper points from the deepest periodontal pockets ((5 mm) of 203 patients: 92 males and 111 females, aged 35-55 years. The samples were cultured under anaerobic and capnophilic conditions using selective and non-selective media. Isolates were characterized to species level by conventional biochemical tests and a commercial rapid test system. The isolates were Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (26.8%), Porphyromonas gingivalis (21.9%), Capnocytophaga sputigena (16.7%), Eikenella corrodens (13.2%), Prevotella intermedia (10.5 %), Prevotella disiens (3.1%), Peptostreptococcus micros (2.9%), Capnocytophaga gingivalis (2.2%), Prevotella corporis (1.8%), Peptostreptococcus magnus (1.3%) and Fusobacterium nucleatum (0.4%). No periodontopathogenic bacterial growth was observed in 14 of the samples (6.2%). The number of samples associated with monobacterial growth and polybacterial growth were 74.9% and 18.2% respectively. It is concluded that the bacterial composition associated with a number of patients' samples is quite complex, and that some of cultivable anaerobic and capnophilic bacteria act as periodontal pathogens in chronic periodontitis. PMID:15508748

Salari, Mohammad Hossein; Kadkhoda, Zainab

2004-09-01

363

Cultivation and quantitative proteomic analyses of acidophilic microbial communities  

SciTech Connect

Acid mine drainage (AMD), an extreme environment characterized by low pH and high metal concentrations, can support dense acidophilic microbial biofilm communities that rely on chemoautotrophic production based on iron oxidation. Field determined production rates indicate that, despite the extreme conditions, these communities are sufficiently well adapted to their habitats to achieve primary production rates comparable to those of microbial communities occurring in some non-extreme environments. To enable laboratory studies of growth, production and ecology of AMD microbial communities, a culturing system was designed to reproduce natural biofilms, including organisms recalcitrant to cultivation. A comprehensive metabolic labeling-based quantitative proteomic analysis was used to verify that natural and laboratory communities were comparable at the functional level. Results confirmed that the composition and core metabolic activities of laboratory-grown communities were similar to a natural community, including the presence of active, low abundance bacteria and archaea that have not yet been isolated. However, laboratory growth rates were slow compared with natural communities, and this correlated with increased abundance of stress response proteins for the dominant bacteria in laboratory communities. Modification of cultivation conditions reduced the abundance of stress response proteins and increased laboratory community growth rates. The research presented here represents the first description of the application of a metabolic labeling-based quantitative proteomic analysis at the community level and resulted in a model microbial community system ideal for testing physiological and ecological hypotheses.

Belnap, Christopher P. [University of California, Berkeley; Pan, Chongle [ORNL; Verberkmoes, Nathan C [ORNL; Power, Mary E. [University of California, Berkeley; Samatova, Nagiza F [ORNL; Carver, Rudolf L. [Iron Mountain Superfund Facility, Redding; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L [ORNL; Banfield, Jillian F. [University of California, Berkeley

2010-01-01

364

Productivity of wet soils: Biomass of cultivated and natural vegetation  

SciTech Connect

Wet soils, soils which have agronomic limitations because of excess water, comprise 105 million acres of non-federal land in the conterminous United States. Wet soils which support hydrophytic plants are ''wetlands'', and are some of the most productive natural ecosystems in the world. When both above- and belowground productivity are considered, cattail (Typha latifolia) is the most productive temperate wetland species (26.4 Mg/ha/year). Both cattail and reed (Phragmites australis) have aboveground productivities of about 13 Mg/ha/year. Although average aboveground yields of reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea) are lower (9.5 Mg/ha/year), techniques for its establishment and cultivation are well-developed. Other herbaceous wetland species which show promise as biomass crops include sedge (Carex spp.), river bulrush (Scirpus fluviatilis) and prairie cordgrass (Spartina pectinata). About 40% of wet soils in the conterminous US are currently cultivated, and they produce one-quarter of the major US crops. Most of this land is artificially drained for crops such as corn, soybeans, and vegetables. US wetlands are drained for agriculture at the rate of 223,000 ha/yr. Paddies flooded with water are used to grow rice, cranberries, and wild rice. Forage and live sphagnum moss are products of undrained wetlands. A number of federal and state regulations apply to the draining or irrigation of wetlands, but most do not seriously restrict their use for agriculture. 320 refs., 36 tabs.

Johnston, C.A.

1988-12-01

365

Oyster mushroom cultivation with rice and wheat straw.  

PubMed

Cultivation of the oyster mushroom, Pleurotus sajor-caju, on rice and wheat straw without nutrient supplementation was investigated. The effects of straw size reduction method and particle size, spawn inoculation level, and type of substrate (rice straw versus wheat straw) on mushroom yield, biological efficiency, bioconversion efficiency, and substrate degradation were determined. Two size reduction methods, grinding and chopping, were compared. The ground straw yielded higher mushroom growth rate and yield than the chopped straw. The growth cycles of mushrooms with the ground substrate were five days shorter than with the chopped straw for a similar particle size. However, it was found that when the straw was ground into particles that were too small, the mushroom yield decreased. With the three spawn levels tested (12%, 16% and 18%), the 12% level resulted in significantly lower mushroom yield than the other two levels. Comparing rice straw with wheat straw, rice straw yielded about 10% more mushrooms than wheat straw under the same cultivation conditions. The dry matter loss of the substrate after mushroom growth varied from 30.1% to 44.3%. The straw fiber remaining after fungal utilization was not as degradable as the original straw fiber, indicating that the fungal fermentation did not improve the feed value of the straw. PMID:11991077

Zhang, Ruihong; Li, Xiujin; Fadel, J G

2002-05-01

366

Cultivation of microalgae in dairy farm wastewater without sterilization.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the feasibility of cultivating microalgae in dairy farm wastewater. The growth of microalgae and the removal rate of the nutrient from the wastewater were examined. The wastewater was diluted 20, 10 and 5 times before applied to cultivate microalgae. A 5 dilution yielded 0.86 g/L dry weight in 6 days with a relative growth rate of 0.28 d(-1), the 10× dilution gave 0.74 g/L and a relative growth rate of 0.26 d(-1) while the 20× dilution 0.59 g/L and a relative growth rate 0.23 d(-1). The nutrients in the wastewater could be removed effectively in different diluted dairy wastewater. The greatest dilution (20×) showed the removal rates: ammonia, 99.26%; P, 89.92%; COD, 84.18%. A 10× dilution removal% was: ammonia 93; P 91 and COD 88. The 5× dilution removal% was: ammonia 83; P 92; COD 90. PMID:25397979

Ding, Jinfeng; Zhao, Fengmin; Cao, Youfu; Xing, Li; Liu, Wei; Mei, Shuai; Li, Shujun

2015-01-01

367

Multilayered Heparin Hydrogel Microwells for Cultivation of Primary Hepatocytes  

PubMed Central

The biomaterial scaffolds for regenerative medicine need to be rationally designed to achieve the desired cell fate and function. This paper describes the development of hydrogel microstructures for cultivation of primary hepatocytes. Four different micropatterned surfaces are tested: 1) poly(ethyelene glycol) (PEG) microwells patterned on glass, 2) heparin hydrogel microwells patterned on glass, 3) PEG microwells patterned on heparin hydrogel-coated substrates, and 4) heparin hydrogel microwells patterned on heparin hydrogelcoated substrates. The latter surfaces are constructed by a combination of micromolding and microcontact printing techniques to create microwells with both walls and floor composed of heparin hydrogel. Individual microwell dimensions are 200 ?m diameter and 20 ?m in height. In all cases, the floor of the microwells is modified with collagen I to promote cell adhesion. Cultivation of hepatocytes followed by analysis of hepatic markers (urea production, albumin synthesis, and E-cadherin expression) reveals that the all-heparin gel microwells are most conducive to hepatic phenotype maintenance. For example, ELISA analysis shows 2.3 to 13.1 times higher levels of albumin production in all-heparin gel wells compared with other micropatterned surfaces. Importantly, hepatic phenotype expression can be further enhanced by culturing fibroblasts on the heparin gel walls of the microwells. In the future, multicomponent all-heparin gel microstructures may be employed in designing hepatic niche for liver-specific differentiation of stem cells. PMID:23828859

You, Jungmok; Shin, Dong-Sik; Patel, Dipali; Gao, Yandong; Revzin, Alexander

2015-01-01

368

Practical and affordable ways to cultivate leadership in your organization.  

PubMed

Leadership can be cultivated through the intentional actions of managers and others in public health organizations. This article provides a rationale for taking innovative and proactive steps to build leadership, discusses four general strategies for doing so, and presents seven practical, creative, and affordable actions that can have a positive influence on efforts to cultivate leadership qualities in the public health workforce. Each action is illustrated with an actual contemporary example from a local public health agency. The actions include providing formal or informal coaching/mentoring opportunities; assigning staff to lead new projects or collaborations, projects outside their disciplines, projects that cause growth in their information technology capacity, or orphan or struggling projects; facilitating a book club; and institutionalizing reflection. The best way to ensure that effective leadership is available when the organization needs it is to intentionally develop it through an ongoing process. Leadership growth can be supported during the ordinary course of business in a public health organization through thoughtful challenges, sharing ideas and experiences, and especially through the example set by managers and those in positions of authority. PMID:20150799

Gaufin, Joyce R; Kennedy, Kathy I; Struthers, Ellen D

2010-01-01

369

Cultivable psychrotolerant yeasts associated with Antarctic marine sponges.  

PubMed

Unlike filamentous fungi and bacteria, very little is known about cultivable yeasts associated with marine sponges, especially those from Antarctic seas. During an expedition to King George Island, in the Antarctica, samples of 11 marine sponges were collected by scuba-diving. From these sponges, 20 psychrotolerant yeast isolates were obtained. Phylogenetic analyses of D1/D2 and ITS rRNA gene sequences revealed that the marine ascomycetous yeast Metschnikowia australis is the predominant organism associated with these invertebrates. Other species found belonged to the Basidiomycota phylum: Cystofilobasidium infirmominiatum, Rhodotorula pinicola, Leucosporidiella creatinivora and a new yeast from the Leucosporidiella genus. None of these yeasts have been previously associated with marine sponges. A screening to estimate the ability of these yeasts as producers of extracellular enzymatic activities at several pH and temperature conditions was performed. Several yeast isolates demonstrated amylolytic, proteolytic, lipolytic or cellulolytic activity, but none of them showed xylanolytic activity under the conditions assayed. To our knowledge, this work is the first description of cultivable yeasts associated with marine sponges from the Antarctic sea. PMID:22927015

Vaca, Inmaculada; Faúndez, Carolina; Maza, Felipe; Paillavil, Braulio; Hernández, Valentina; Acosta, Fermín; Levicán, Gloria; Martínez, Claudio; Chávez, Renato

2013-01-01

370

Beginning with the end in mind: cultivating minority nurse leaders.  

PubMed

In response to the need for increased racial and ethnic diversity in the nursing profession, the Duke University School of Nursing (DUSON) established the Making a Difference in Nursing II (MADIN II) Program. The aim of the MADIN II Program is to improve the diversity of the nursing workforce by expanding nursing education opportunities for economically disadvantaged underrepresented minority (URM) students to prepare for, enroll in, and graduate from the DUSON's Accelerated Bachelors of Science in Nursing program. Adapted from the highly successful Meyerhoff Scholarship Program model, the program is to cultivate URM nursing graduates with advanced knowledge and leadership skills who can address health disparities and positively influence health care issues currently plaguing underrepresented populations. The article discusses the MADIN II framework consisting of four unique components: recruitment of students, the Summer Socialization Nursing Preentry Program, the Continued Connectivity Program, and the Succeed to Excellence Program, providing a framework for other academic programs interested in cultivating a pipeline of minority nurse leaders. PMID:25839948

Carter, Brigit Maria; Powell, Dorothy L; Derouin, Anne L; Cusatis, Julie

2015-01-01

371

Biochar from commercially cultivated seaweed for soil amelioration.  

PubMed

Seaweed cultivation is a high growth industry that is primarily targeted at human food and hydrocolloid markets. However, seaweed biomass also offers a feedstock for the production of nutrient-rich biochar for soil amelioration. We provide the first data of biochar yield and characteristics from intensively cultivated seaweeds (Saccharina, Undaria and Sargassum - brown seaweeds, and Gracilaria, Kappaphycus and Eucheuma - red seaweeds). While there is some variability in biochar properties as a function of the origin of seaweed, there are several defining and consistent characteristics of seaweed biochar, in particular a relatively low C content and surface area but high yield, essential trace elements (N, P and K) and exchangeable cations (particularly K). The pH of seaweed biochar ranges from neutral (7) to alkaline (11), allowing for broad-spectrum applications in diverse soil types. We find that seaweed biochar is a unique material for soil amelioration that is consistently different to biochar derived from ligno-cellulosic feedstock. Blending of seaweed and ligno-cellulosic biochar could provide a soil ameliorant that combines a high fixed C content with a mineral-rich substrate to enhance crop productivity. PMID:25856799

Roberts, David A; Paul, Nicholas A; Dworjanyn, Symon A; Bird, Michael I; de Nys, Rocky

2015-01-01

372

Water Use in Wetland Kalo Cultivation in Hawai`i  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ten cultivation areas (8 windward, 2 leeward) were selected for a kalo water-use study, primarily on the basis of the diversity of environmental and agricultural conditions under which wetland kalo is grown and landowner permission and availability. Flow and water-temperature data were collected at the lo`i complex level and at the individual lo`i level. To ensure that flow and temperature data collected at different lo`i reflect similar irrigation conditions (continuous flooding of the mature crop), only lo`i with crops near the harvesting stage were selected for water-temperature data collection. The water need for kalo cultivation varies depending on the crop stage. In this study, data were collected during the dry season (June-October), when water requirements for cooling kalo approach upper limits. Flow measurements generally were made during the warmest part of the day, and temperature measurements were made every 15 minutes at each site for about a two-month period. Flow and temperature data were collected from kalo cultivation areas on four islands - Kaua`i, O`ahu, Maui, and Hawai`i. The average inflow value for the 19 lo`i complexes measured in this study is 260,000 gallons per acre per day, and the median inflow value is 150,000 gallons per acre per day. The average inflow value for the 17 windward sites is 270,000 gallons per acre per day, and the median inflow value is 150,000 gallons per acre per day. The average inflow value for the two leeward sites is 150,000 gallons per acre per day. The average inflow value measured for six individual lo`i is 350,000 gallons per acre per day, and the median inflow value is 270,000 gallons per acre per day. The average inflow value for the five windward lo`i is 370,000 gallons per acre per day, and the median inflow value is 320,000 gallons per acre per day. The inflow value for the one leeward lo`i is 210,000 gallons per acre per day. These inflow values are consistent with previously reported values for inflow and are significantly higher than values generally estimated for water consumption during kalo cultivation. These measurements of inflow are important for future considerations of water-use requirements for successful kalo cultivation. Of the 17 lo`i complexes where water inflow temperature was measured, only 3 had inflow temperatures that rose above 27 ?C, the threshold temperature above which wetland kalo is more susceptible to fungi and associated rotting diseases. The coldest mean inflow temperature was 20.0 ?C and the warmest inflow temperature was 24.9 ?C. All 15 of the sites where outflow temperatures were measured had some temperatures greater than 27 ?C. Outflow temperatures exceeded 27 ?C between 2.5 percent and about 40 percent of the time. Mean outflow temperatures ranged from 23.0 ?C to 26.7 ?C.

Gingerich, Stephen B.; Yeung, Chiu W.; Ibarra, Tracy-Joy N.; Engott, John A.

2007-01-01

373

The denitrification properties of soils under three different shelterbelts and in adjoining cultivated fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The investigations were carried out in Agroecological Landscape Park in Turew (40 km South-West of Poznan). Intensively agricultural is observed in this region. Characteristic features of this landscape are shelterbelts created in the XIX century by general Dezydery Chlapowski. All shelterbelts and adjoining cultivated fields were introduced on Hapludalfs soils. Three shelterbelts and adjoining cultivated fields were selected for this

L. Szajdak; J. Augustin; W. Gaca; T. Meysner; K. Styla

2009-01-01

374

Genetic diversity of wild, weedy and cultivated forms of Brassica rapa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms (RFLPs) were used to study the genetic diversity within and between accessions of 'wild' and cultivated B. rapa. Two of the wild accessions were likely to be escapes from cultivation because of their geographical origins (Argentina and California). The nature of the other three wild accessions (from Turkey, Algeria and Sicily) was not known. Principal components

J H Crouch; B G Lewis; D J Lydiate; R Mithen

1995-01-01

375

VOLUNTEER POTATO (SOLANUM TUBEROSUM) CONTROL WITH HERBICIDES AND CULTIVATION IN ONION (ALLIUM CEPA)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Volunteer potatoes are difficult to control in onions and can greatly reduce onion growth and yield. Herbicides and cultivation were evaluated for control of simulated volunteer potatoes in onions in 1996 and 2000. Three inter-row cultivations did not control potatoes in the onion row and remaini...

376

A concept for reduced energy demand of greenhouses: the next generation greenhouse cultivation in the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

In high tech greenhouse cultivation like in The Netherlands, large amounts of fossil energy are used to optimize climate conditions like temperature and humidity. To achieve a more sustainable greenhouse horticulture, a considerable reduction in energy use is needed, but tradeoffs with production and quality are not acceptable. Therefore, we developed a novel cultivation system for tomato to meet the

Gelder de A; E. H. Poot; J. A. Dieleman; Zwart de H. F

2012-01-01

377

Aggregate Stability of Tropical Soils Under Long-Term Eucalyptus Cultivation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Eucalyptus cultivation has increased in all Brazilian regions. Despite the large amount of cultivated area, little is known about how this kind of management system affects soil properties, mainly the aggregate stability. Aggregate stability analyses have proved to be a sensitive tool to measure soi...

378

Calorimetric control for high cell density cultivation of a recombinant Escherichia coli strain  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to achieve maximum productivity of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli high cell density cultivation (HCDC) strategies have been the subject of many studies. The aim of this work was the application of calorimetric methods to HCDC. The specific growth rate of a recombinant E. coli strain producing green fluorescent protein (GFP) was controlled during fed-batch cultivations by estimating

Richard Biener; Anne Steinkämper; Johannes Hofmann

2010-01-01

379

Transferring sclerotinia resistance genes from wild perennial Helianthus species into cultivated sunflower  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Due to the lack of highly tolerant cultivated sunflower germplasm, new sources of Sclerotinia resistance from wild Helianthus species need to be identified and incorporated into a cultivated background. Wild perennial Helianthus species are highly resistant to Sclerotinia and have provided good sou...

380

A TROPICAL GARDEN FLORA, PLANTS CULTIVATED IN THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS AND OTHER TROPICAL AREAS.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pemberton, R.W. A Tropical Garden Flora, Plants Cultivated in the Hawaiian Islands and Other Tropical Areas. Economic Botany This is an invited book review of an important new reference book on plants cultivated in the tropical and subtropical areas of the world. This is the long awaited update of ...

381

Investigation of Flow Characteristics in an Airlift-Driven Raceway Reactor for Algae Cultivation  

E-print Network

Investigation of Flow Characteristics in an Airlift-Driven Raceway Reactor for Algae Cultivation are the most common choice for outdoor algae cultivation due to their low cost relative to enclosed. Algae require adequate mixing in order to maximize exposure to essential nutrients for growth

382

Acclimation of brown seaweeds in an outdoor cultivation system and their cytokinin-like activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four of the most abundant intertidal eastern Mediterranean brown seaweeds were repeatedly inoculated in an outdoor cultivation system for acclimatization. Diciyopteris membranacea was best acclimated and survived for nine months in the system. D. membranacea growth rate showed a positive relationship with irradiance and temperature during nine months of cultivation. Cystoseira sp., Sargassum vulgare and Padina pavonia were not acclimated

M. Friedlander; A. Ben-Amotz

1990-01-01

383

Integrated cultivation of the red alga Kappaphycus alvarezii and the pearl oyster Pinctada martensi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of simultaneously cultivating the pearl oyster Pinctada martensi and the red alga Kappaphycus alvarezii on growth rates of both species was investigated in laboratory and field studies conducted from December 1993 to June 1995. The two study sites were in subtidal areas 100 km apart off the east coast of Hainan Island, China. Pearl oysters were cultivated in

Pei-Yuan Qian; C. Y. Wu; Madeline Wu; Y. K. Xie

1996-01-01

384

Introducing Cash Crops in Shifting Cultivation Regions – The Experience with Cardamom in Laos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Farmers are often blamed for destroying the tropical forest, especially in Laos. Converting shifting cultivation into cash crop based agriculture is frequently presented as the solution for merging forest protection and poverty alleviation, but many attempts have ended in failure. A rural development project has attempted to introduce medicinal cardamom (Amomum villosum) cultivation in the notably remote region of Phongsaly

Olivier Ducourtieux; Phoui Visonnavong; Julien Rossard

2006-01-01

385

Carabid beetles in sustainable agriculture: a review on pest control efficacy, cultivation impacts and enhancement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review article on carabids in sustainable agro-ecosystems of the temperate Northern hemisphere presents a compilation of the available knowledge on the significance of carabids for natural pest control and the effects of cultivation methods (except pesticides) and landscape structural elements.Field carabids are species rich and abundant in arable sites, but are affected by intensive agricultural cultivation. For sampling, fenced

Bernhard Kromp

1999-01-01

386

"CULTIVATION OF ENDOSYMBIONT BACTERIA IN A BEMISIA TABACI B BIOTYPE CELL LINE".  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A complement of eubacterial endosymbionts were cultivated in a whitefly cell line. Endosymbiont identification was verified using diagnostic PCR, DNA sequencing, Western Blot analysis and real time RT-PCR. This is the first report of in-vitro cultivation of at least two of these arthropod endosymb...

387

Submerged cultivation of Ganoderma lucidum biomass and immunostimulatory effects of fungal polysaccharides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Original Ganoderma lucidum strain MZKI G97 isolated from Slovenian forests was cultivated in a liquid substrate based on potato dextrose and olive oil. The influences of inoculum and oxygen partial pressure in batch and fed batch cultivation in a 10-l laboratory stirred tank reactor were studied. Fungal biomass was found to be oxygen and shear sensible. Using a 17% (wet

Marin Berovi?; Jožica Habijani?; Irena Zore; Branka Wraber; Damjan Hodžar; Bojana Boh; Franc Pohleven

2003-01-01

388

Genetic variation in the olive tree (Olea europaea L.) cultivated in Morocco  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic variation was studied using enzyme polymorphism at 8 loci in ancient olive trees. These were being cultivated in 10 sites along a transect from North (Pre-Rif) to South (Anti-Atlas), involving the main ecological areas where the species is cultivated in Morocco. For the 328 trees studied, 16 alleles and 68 multilocus genotypes, of which one was present in more

N. Ouazzani; R. Lumaret; P. Villemur

1996-01-01

389

Cultivating Demand for the Arts: Arts Learning, Arts Engagement, and State Arts Policy. Summary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The findings summarized in this report are intended to shed light on what it means to cultivate demand for the arts, why it is necessary and important to cultivate this demand, and what state arts agencies (SAAs) and other arts and education policymakers can do to help. The research considered only the benchmark arts central to public policy:…

Zakaras, Laura; Lowell, Julia F.

2008-01-01

390

Gene-targeted microfluidic cultivation validated by isolation of a gut bacterium listed in Human  

E-print Network

Gene-targeted microfluidic cultivation validated by isolation of a gut bacterium listed in Human suggest the existence of previously unidentified bacterial taxa and functional genes with high biomedical that cultivates, in a targeted fashion, microbes carrying genes of interest identi- fied in metagenomic data sets

Ismagilov, Rustem F.

391

Outcrossing and hybridization in wild and cultivated foxtail millets: consequences for the release of transgenic crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outcrossing rates within the wild green foxtail, Setaria viridis, and the cultivated foxtail millet, S. italica, are very low. However, spontaneous interspecific hybridizations in the experimental garden occurred in both directions at rates ranging from 0.002% to 0.6% according to plant density and distance between parents. Offtypes found in farmers' fields where foxtail millet is cultivated were shown to have

I. Till-Bottraud; X. Reboud; P. Brabant; M. Lefranc; B. Rherissi; F. Vedel; H. Darmency

1992-01-01

392

A Tangible Programming Tool for Children to Cultivate Computational Thinking  

PubMed Central

Game and creation are activities which have good potential for computational thinking skills. In this paper we present T-Maze, an economical tangible programming tool for children aged 5–9 to build computer programs in maze games by placing wooden blocks. Through the use of computer vision technology, T-Maze provides a live programming interface with real-time graphical and voice feedback. We conducted a user study with 7 children using T-Maze to play two levels of maze-escape games and create their own mazes. The results show that T-Maze is not only easy to use, but also has the potential to help children cultivate computational thinking like abstraction, problem decomposition, and creativity. PMID:24719575

Wang, Danli; Liu, Zhen

2014-01-01

393

PERSPECTIVE: Cultivating Strategic Foresight for Energy and Environmental Security  

SciTech Connect

Disastrous social, economic, and political instability can result from limited energy resources or deteriorating environmental conditions. Historically, understanding and preparing for potential turbulent events posed significant challenges for governments, due in part to complex connections and dependencies associated with multiple, inter-related issues. Moving forward, we propose world governments can better mitigate and even avert energy and environmental disasters by cultivating a shared, diverse community of physical and social scientists, engineers, security analysts, and other professionals from related fields to share concerns, discuss ideas, and coalesce key concepts from the vast amount of data available about energy and environmental issues. Bringing relevant parties from multiple disciplines into a dynamic, diverse, and more transparent forum will produce a greater range of discussion, deliberation, and feasible solutions to help address uncertain, global energy and environmental concerns of both the present-day and our future.

Bray, David A.; Costigan, Sean; Daum, Keith; Lavoix, Helene; Malone, Elizabeth L.; Pallaris, Chris

2009-10-01

394

Neural networks and the experience and cultivation of mind.  

PubMed

Hard core neural network research includes development of mathematical models of cognitive prediction and optimization aimed at dual use, both as models of what we see in brain circuits and behavior, and as useful general-purpose engineering technology. The pathway and principles now exist to let us someday replicate learning abilities as elevated as what we see in the brain of the mouse-but how can this help us today in understanding and maximizing the much greater potential of the human mind, as addressed by many schools of thought all over the world for centuries? This paper discusses how we might use what we have learned at a lower level to better illuminate key phenomena in first person and clinical human experience such as Freud's "psychic energy", the role of traumatic experience, the interpretation of dreams, creativity, the cultivation of sanity and sensitivity, and the biological foundations of language. PMID:22386781

Werbos, Paul J

2012-08-01

395

Recycling of food waste as nutrients in Chlorella vulgaris cultivation.  

PubMed

Heterotrophic cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris was investigated in food waste hydrolysate. The highest exponential growth rate in terms of biomass of 0.8day(-1) was obtained in a hydrolysate consisting of 17.9gL(-1) glucose, 0.1gL(-1) free amino nitrogen, 0.3gL(-1) phosphate and 4.8mgL(-1) nitrate, while the growth rate was reduced in higher concentrated hydrolysates. C. vulgaris utilized the nutrients recovered from food waste for the formation of biomass and 0.9g biomass was produced per gram glucose consumed. The microalgal biomass produced in nutrient sufficient batch cultures consisted of around 400mgg(-1) carbohydrates, 200mgg(-1) proteins and 200mgg(-1) lipids. The conversion of nutrients derived from food waste and the balanced biomass composition make C. vulgaris a promising strain for the recycling of food waste in food, feed and fuel productions. PMID:25128844

Lau, Kin Yan; Pleissner, Daniel; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

2014-10-01

396

Food waste as nutrient source in heterotrophic microalgae cultivation.  

PubMed

Glucose, free amino nitrogen (FAN), and phosphate were recovered from food waste by fungal hydrolysis using Aspergillus awamori and Aspergillus oryzae. Using 100g food waste (dry weight), 31.9 g glucose, 0.28 g FAN, and 0.38 g phosphate were recovered after 24h of hydrolysis. The pure hydrolysate has then been used as culture medium and nutrient source for the two heterotrophic microalgae Schizochytrium mangrovei and Chlorella pyrenoidosa, S. mangrovei and C. pyrenoidosa grew well on the complex food waste hydrolysate by utilizing the nutrients recovered. At the end of fermentation 10-20 g biomass were produced rich in carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Results of this study revealed the potential of food waste hydrolysate as culture medium and nutrient source in microalgae cultivation. PMID:23587816

Pleissner, Daniel; Lam, Wan Chi; Sun, Zheng; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

2013-06-01

397

Biofilm cultivation of the oleaginous microalgae Pseudochlorococcum sp.  

PubMed

The cultivation of microalgae in biofilm has been a potential way to overcome the shortcoming of conventional algal culture modes of open pond and photobioreactors in liquid suspension. However, the growth characteristics and related effect factors of the biofilm are still far from being understood. In this work, oleaginous microalgae species Pseudochlorococcum was cultured in an attached biofilm and influential factors on the growth rate of biofilm were investigated. The results showed that Pseudochlorococcum sp. preferred to accumulate more biomass on hydrophilic substrata than on hydrophobic one. The photon flux density of 100 ?mol m(-2 )s(-1) was its light saturation point. The optimal inoculum density was about 3-5 g m(-2). The appropriate concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus in medium and CO(2) in aerated gas were determined as 8.8, 0.22 mmol L(-1) and 1 %, respectively. PMID:24362561

Ji, Bei; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Ningning; Wang, Junfeng; Lutzu, Giovanni Antonio; Liu, Tianzhong

2014-07-01

398

A simple procedure for preparing substrate for Pleurotus ostreatus cultivation.  

PubMed

The use of wooden crates for composting a mixture of 70% grass, (Digitaria decumbens), and 30% coffee pulp, combined with 2% Ca(OH)(2), was studied as a method for preparing substrate for the cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus. Crate composting considerably modified the temperature pattern of the substrate in process, as compared to pile composting, where lower temperatures and less homogeneous distributions were observed. Biological efficiencies varied between 59.79% and 93% in the two harvests. Based on statistical analysis significant differences were observed between the treatments, composting times and in the interactions between these two factors. We concluded that it is possible to produce P. ostreatus on a lignocellulosic, non-composted, non-pasteurized substrate with an initial pH of 8.7, and that composting for two to three days improves the biological efficiency. PMID:12895557

Hernández, Daniel; Sánchez, José E; Yamasaki, Keiko

2003-11-01

399

Wheat cultivation: Identification and estimation of areas using LANDSAT data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of using automatically processed multispectral data obtained from LANDSAT to identify wheat and estimate the areas planted with this grain was investigated. Three 20 km by 40 km segments in a wheat growing region of Rio Grande do Sul were aerially photographed using type 2443 Aerochrome film. Three maps corresponding to each segment were obtained from the analysis of the photographs which identified wheat, barley, fallow land, prepared soil, forests, and reforested land. Using basic information about the fields and maps made from the photographed areas, an automatic classification of wheat was made using MSS data from two different periods: July to September and July to October 1979. Results show that orbital data is not only useful in characterizing the growth of wheat, but also provides information of the intensity and extent of adverse climate which affects cultivation. The temporal and spatial characteristics of LANDSAR data are also demonstrated.

Dejesusparada, N. (principal investigator); Mendonca, F. J.; Cottrell, D. A.; Tardin, A. T.; Lee, D. C. L.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Moreira, M. A.; Delimaefernandocelsosoaresmaia, A. M.

1981-01-01

400

Genetic structure and differentiation in cultivated fig (Ficus carica L.)  

PubMed Central

One hundred ninety-four germplasm accessions of fig representing the four fig types, Common, Smyrna, San Pedro, and Caprifig were analyzed for genetic diversity, structure, and differentiation using genetic polymorphism at 15 microsatellite loci. The collection showed considerable polymorphism with observed number of alleles per locus ranging from four for five different loci, MFC4, LMFC14, LMFC22, LMFC31 and LMFC35 to nine for LMFC30 with an average of 4.9 alleles per locus. Seven of the 15 loci included in the genetic structure analyses exhibited significant deviation from panmixia, of which two showed excess and five showed deficiency of heterozygote. The cluster analysis (CA) revealed ten groups with 32 instances of synonymy among cultivars and groups differed significantly for frequency and composition of alleles for different loci. The principal components analysis (PCA) confirmed the results of CA with some groups more differentiated than the others. Further, the model based Bayesian approach clustering suggested a subtle population structure with mixed ancestry for most figs. The gene diversity analysis indicated that much of the total variation is found within groups (HG/HT = 0.853; 85.3%) and the among groups within total component (GGT = 0.147) accounted for the remaining 14.7%, of which ~64% accounted for among groups within clusters (GGC = 0.094) and ~36% among clusters (GCT = 0.053). The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed approximately similar results with nearly 87% of variation within groups and ~10% among groups within clusters, and ~3% among clusters. Overall, the gene pool of cultivated fig analyzed possesses substantial genetic polymorphism but exhibits narrow differentiation. It is evident that fig accessions from Turkmenistan are somewhat genetically different from the rest of the Mediterranean and the Caucasus figs. The long history of domestication and cultivation with widespread dispersal of cultivars with many synonyms has resulted in a great deal of confusion in the identification and classification of cultivars in fig. PMID:20217187

Stover, Ed; Velasco, Dianne; Koehmstedt, Anne

2010-01-01

401

Bioreactor cultivation of a thermophilic bacterium capable of degrading BTEX  

SciTech Connect

The thermophillic bacterium, Thermus species ATCC 27978, which is capable iof degrading the fuel-spill contaminants benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and the xylenes (BTEX) was cultured in 5-L-bioreactors. The goal was to optimize the production of Thermus sp. cells possessing maximal degradative activity for their subsequent potential application in a thermally-enhanced in situ BTEX bioremediation process. The effects of two bioreactor cultivation modes, batch and fed batch, on the generation of BTEX-active biomass were investigated. More biomass and more thermophillic BTEX-degrading activity were produced in the fed-batch cultures than in the batch cultures. Catabolite inhibition or repression is the cause for the limited growth of Thermus sp. in batch reactors. However, the addition to the medium of O-cresol, a possible intermediate in BTEX metabolism, stabilized the cellular BTEX-degrading activity in such cultures. The fed-batch mode of cultivations yielded a biomass concentration of 2.5 g/L and a catalytic specific activities of 7.6 {+-} 1.3, 10.1 {+-} 1.9. 9.8 {+-} 2.1, 2.3 {+-} 0.5, and 4.6 {+-} 0.9 nmol of compound degraded/mg of dry cell wt-min at 60{degrees}C for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m-xylene, and the o-plus p-xylenes (unresolved mixture), respectively. Although the formation of BTEX-degrading activity is growth associated, the prior rate of bioreactor growth affects the level of susequent washed, whole-cell BTEX-degrading activity. A slow to moderate specific growth rate (0.02-0.07 h{sup -1}) favors the formation of cellular BTEX-degrading activity, while a high specific growth rate ({approx}0.16 h{sup -1}) is detrimental to its production.

Chen, C.; Taylor, R.T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1996-10-01

402

Microalgal and cyanobacterial cultivation: the supply of nutrients.  

PubMed

Microalgae and cyanobacteria are a promising new source of biomass that may complement agricultural crops to meet the increasing global demand for food, feed, biofuels and chemical production. Microalgae and cyanobacteria cultivation does not interfere directly with food production, but care should be taken to avoid indirect competition for nutrient (fertilizer) supply. Microalgae and cyanobacteria production requires high concentrations of essential nutrients (C,N,P,S,K,Fe, etc.). In the present paper the application of nutrients and their uptake by microalgae and cyanobacteria is reviewed. The main focus is on the three most significant nutrients, i.e. carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus; however other nutrients are also reviewed. Nutrients are generally taken up in the inorganic form, but several organic forms of them are also assimilable. Some nutrients do not display any inhibition effect on microalgal or cyanobacterial growth, while others, such as NO2 or NH3 have detrimental effects when present in high concentrations. Nutrients in the gaseous form, such as CO2 and NO face a major limitation which is related mainly to their mass transfer from the gaseous to the liquid state. Since the cultivation of microalgae and cyanobacteria consumes considerable quantities of nutrients, strategies to improve the nutrient application efficiency are needed. Additionally, a promising strategy to improve microalgal and cyanobacterial production sustainability is the utilization of waste streams by recycling of waste nutrients. However, major constraints of using waste streams are the reduction of the range of the biomass applications due to production of contaminated biomass and the possible low bio-availability of some nutrients. PMID:25113948

Markou, Giorgos; Vandamme, Dries; Muylaert, Koenraad

2014-11-15

403

Effects of light and temperature on open cultivation of desert cyanobacterium Microcoleus vaginatus.  

PubMed

Microalgae cultivation has recently been recognized as an important issue to deal with the increasingly prominent resource and environmental problems. In this study, desert cyanobacterium Microcoleus vaginatus was open cultivated in 4 different cultivation conditions in Qubqi Desert, and it was found Chlorella sp., Scenedesmus sp. and Navicula sp. were the main contaminating microalgal species during the cultivation. High light intensity alone was responsible for the green algae contamination, but the accompanied high temperature was beneficial to cyanobacterial growth, and the maximum biomass productivity acquired was 41.3mgL(-1)d(-1). Low temperature was more suitable for contaminating diatoms' growth, although all the microalgae (including the target and contaminating) are still demand for a degree of light intensity, at least average daily light intensity >5?Em(-2)s(-1). As a whole, cultivation time, conditions and their interaction had a significant impact on microalgal photosynthetic activity (Fv/Fm), biomass and exopolysaccharides content (P<0.001). PMID:25689308

Lan, Shubin; Wu, Li; Zhang, Delu; Hu, Chunxiang

2015-04-01

404

Adulteration and cultivation region identification of American ginseng using HPLC coupled with multivariate analysis.  

PubMed

American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) is originally grown in North America. Due to price difference and supply shortage, American ginseng recently has been cultivated in northern China. Further, in the market, some Asian ginsengs are labeled as American ginseng. In this study, forty-three American ginseng samples cultivated in the USA, Canada or China were collected and 14 ginseng saponins were determined using HPLC. HPLC coupled with hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis was developed to identify the species. Subsequently, an HPLC-linear discriminant analysis was established to discriminate cultivation regions of American ginseng. This method was successfully applied to identify the sources of 6 commercial American ginseng samples. Two of them were identified as Asian ginseng, while 4 others were identified as American ginseng, which were cultivated in the USA (3) and China (1). Our newly developed method can be used to identify American ginseng with different cultivation regions. PMID:25044150

Yu, Chunhao; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Zhou, Chun-Jie; Wang, Bin; Han, Lide; Zhang, Chun-Feng; Wu, Xiao-Hui; Yuan, Chun-Su

2014-10-01

405

Impacts of rodenticide and insecticide toxicants from marijuana cultivation sites on fisher survival rates in the Sierra National  

E-print Network

LETTER Impacts of rodenticide and insecticide toxicants from marijuana cultivation sites on fisher rodenticide; fisher; marijuana; Pekania pennanti; pesticide; survival. Correspondence Craig Thompson, USDA. Further investigation indicated that the most likely source was the numerous illegal marijuana cultivation

Fried, Jeremy S.

406

Physiomics Array: A Platform for Genome Research and Cultivation of Difficult-to-Cultivate Microorganisms Final Technical Report  

SciTech Connect

A scalable array technology for parametric control of high-throughput cell cultivations is demonstrated. The technology makes use of commercial printed circuit board (PCB) technology, integrated circuit sensors, and an electrochemical gas generation system. We present results for an array of eight 250 ?l microbioreactors. Each bioreactor contains an independently addressable suite that provides closed-loop temperature control, generates feed gas electrochemically, and continuously monitors optical density. The PCB technology allows for the assembly of additional off-the-shelf components into the microbioreactor array; we demonstrate the use of a commercial ISFET chip to continuously monitor culture pH. The electrochemical dosing system provides a powerful paradigm for reproducible gas delivery to high-density arrays of microreactors. We have scaled the technology to a standard 96-well format and have constructed a system that could be easily assembled.

Jay D. Keasling

2006-07-10

407

Influence of water table level and soil properties on emissions of greenhouse gases from cultivated peat soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lysimeter method using undisturbed soil columns was used to investigate the effect of water table depth and soil properties on soil organic matter decomposition and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from cultivated peat soils. The study was carried out using cultivated organic soils from two locations in Sweden: Örke, a typical cultivated fen peat with low pH and high organic

Ö. Berglund; K. Berglund

2011-01-01

408

Agronomy of a rice-based vegetable cultivation system in Vietnam. Constraints and recommendations for commercial market integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description of the vegetable cultivation system in two villages in the Red River Delta, Hanoi, Vietnam is provided. The production of dry land vegetables takes place in the cool winter season, while in the warm wet summer season, rice is cultivated. Major vegetable crops cultivated belong to the Brassicaceae, Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae. Most of the crops are transplanted. Soil

A. P. Everaarts; Thi Thu Ha Nguyen; Pham Van Hoi

2006-01-01

409

The tumbling reactor: a new reactor design for biotechnology Cultivation of the phototrophic micro-alga Scenedesmus communis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new system for the growth of mammalian cells was developed and its biotechnological suitability was proven by the sterile cultivation of the phototrophic micro-alga Scenedesmus communis, as an easy to cultivate model organism. For this purpose, the bioreactor was combined with a newly developed equipment for irradiation of large scale cultures of phototrophic micro-organisms. Cultivation was performed in a

V Gorenflo; S Schulze; AM Braun; W Stahl

1998-01-01

410

Kinetic analysis of gill (Na?,K?)-ATPase activity in selected ontogenetic stages of the Amazon River shrimp, Macrobrachium amazonicum (Decapoda, Palaemonidae): interactions at ATP- and cation-binding sites.  

PubMed

We investigated modulation by ATP, Mg²?, Na?, K? and NH?? and inhibition by ouabain of (Na?,K?)-ATPase activity in microsomal homogenates of whole zoeae I and decapodid III (formerly zoea IX) and whole-body and gill homogenates of juvenile and adult Amazon River shrimps, Macrobrachium amazonicum. (Na?,K?)-ATPase-specific activity was increased twofold in decapodid III compared to zoea I, juveniles and adults, suggesting an important role in this ontogenetic stage. The apparent affinity for ATP (K(M) = 0.09 ± 0.01 mmol L?¹) of the decapodid III (Na?,K?)-ATPase, about twofold greater than the other stages, further highlights this relevance. Modulation of (Na?,K?-ATPase activity by K? also revealed a threefold greater affinity for K? (K?.? = 0.91 ± 0.04 mmol L?¹) in decapodid III than in other stages; NH?? had no modulatory effect. The affinity for Na? (K?.? = 13.2 ± 0.6 mmol L?¹) of zoea I (Na?,K?)-ATPase was fourfold less than other stages. Modulation by Na?, Mg²? and NH?? obeyed cooperative kinetics, while K? modulation exhibited Michaelis-Menten behavior. Rates of maximal Mg²? stimulation of ouabain-insensitive ATPase activity differed in each ontogenetic stage, suggesting that Mg²?-stimulated ATPases other than (Na?,K?)-ATPase are present. Ouabain inhibition suggests that, among the various ATPase activities present in the different stages, Na?-ATPase may be involved in the ontogeny of osmoregulation in larval M. amazonicum. The NH??-stimulated, ouabain-insensitive ATPase activity seen in zoea I and decapodid III may reflect a stage-specific means of ammonia excretion since functional gills are absent in the early larval stages. PMID:22544049

Leone, Francisco Assis; Masui, Douglas Chodi; de Souza Bezerra, Thais Milena; Garçon, Daniela Pereira; Valenti, Wagner Cotroni; Augusto, Alessandra Silva; McNamara, John Campbell

2012-04-01

411

Impacts of Surface Water Diversions for Marijuana Cultivation on Aquatic Habitat in Four Northwestern California Watersheds  

PubMed Central

Marijuana (Cannabis sativa L.) cultivation has proliferated in northwestern California since at least the mid-1990s. The environmental impacts associated with marijuana cultivation appear substantial, yet have been difficult to quantify, in part because cultivation is clandestine and often occurs on private property. To evaluate the impacts of water diversions at a watershed scale, we interpreted high-resolution aerial imagery to estimate the number of marijuana plants being cultivated in four watersheds in northwestern California, USA. Low-altitude aircraft flights and search warrants executed with law enforcement at cultivation sites in the region helped to validate assumptions used in aerial imagery interpretation. We estimated the water demand of marijuana irrigation and the potential effects water diversions could have on stream flow in the study watersheds. Our results indicate that water demand for marijuana cultivation has the potential to divert substantial portions of streamflow in the study watersheds, with an estimated flow reduction of up to 23% of the annual seven-day low flow in the least impacted of the study watersheds. Estimates from the other study watersheds indicate that water demand for marijuana cultivation exceeds streamflow during the low-flow period. In the most impacted study watersheds, diminished streamflow is likely to have lethal or sub-lethal effects on state-and federally-listed salmon and steelhead trout and to cause further decline of sensitive amphibian species. PMID:25785849

Cockrill, Adam; van Hattem, Michael; Miller, Linda; Tauzer, Margaret; Leppig, Gordon

2015-01-01

412

Impacts of surface water diversions for marijuana cultivation on aquatic habitat in four northwestern california watersheds.  

PubMed

Marijuana (Cannabis sativa L.) cultivation has proliferated in northwestern California since at least the mid-1990s. The environmental impacts associated with marijuana cultivation appear substantial, yet have been difficult to quantify, in part because cultivation is clandestine and often occurs on private property. To evaluate the impacts of water diversions at a watershed scale, we interpreted high-resolution aerial imagery to estimate the number of marijuana plants being cultivated in four watersheds in northwestern California, USA. Low-altitude aircraft flights and search warrants executed with law enforcement at cultivation sites in the region helped to validate assumptions used in aerial imagery interpretation. We estimated the water demand of marijuana irrigation and the potential effects water diversions could have on stream flow in the study watersheds. Our results indicate that water demand for marijuana cultivation has the potential to divert substantial portions of streamflow in the study watersheds, with an estimated flow reduction of up to 23% of the annual seven-day low flow in the least impacted of the study watersheds. Estimates from the other study watersheds indicate that water demand for marijuana cultivation exceeds streamflow during the low-flow period. In the most impacted study watersheds, diminished streamflow is likely to have lethal or sub-lethal effects on state-and federally-listed salmon and steelhead trout and to cause further decline of sensitive amphibian species. PMID:25785849

Bauer, Scott; Olson, Jennifer; Cockrill, Adam; van Hattem, Michael; Miller, Linda; Tauzer, Margaret; Leppig, Gordon

2015-01-01

413

The cultivation of the mushroom Agaricus bisporus (Champignon) and some environmental and health aspects.  

PubMed

The cultivation of the mushroom Agaricus bisporus, also known as button mushroom, requires the use of substrates for its cultivation, such as chicken and/or horse manure and the application of manufacturing steps, such as storage and composting that produce odours. The odours may cause disturbance to people living near the plant and may be a problem for workers. This article examines some measures that can be taken to reduce the odorous emissions during the production of Agaricus bisporus. The possibility of recovery of some organic matter left from the cultivation is examined. Finally, some occupational hazards for workers are highlighted. PMID:23064140

Zicari, Giuseppe; Rivetti, Daniela; Soardo, Vincenzo; Cerrato, Elena

2012-01-01

414

Treatment of anaerobic digestion effluent of sewage sludge using soilless cultivation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soilless cultivation was carried out using anaerobic digestion effluent of sewage sludge as liquid fertilizer, with a preparation which cultures microorganisms in nutrient solution. As a result, ammonium ions contained in the effluent were nitrified into nitrate ions by the microorganisms. And then, Japanese mustard spinach (Brassica rapa var. perviridis) was cultivated by soilless cultivation system. The plants were grown well using microbial nutrient solution, which similar to the plants using conventional inorganic nutrient solution. In contrast, the plants were grown poorly using the effluent as liquid fertilizer without microorganisms.

Uchimura, Koki; Sago, Yuki; Kamahara, Hirotsugu; Atsuta, Yoichi; Daimon, Hiroyuki

2014-02-01

415

[Review on application of plant growth retardants in medicinal plants cultivation].  

PubMed

Plant growth retardants are widely used in cultivation of medicinal plant, but there is still lack of scientific guidance. In order to guide the use of plant growth retardants in medicinal plant cultivation efficiently and reasonably, this paper reviewed the mechanism, function characteristic, plant and soil residue of plant growth retardants, such as chlorocholine chloride, mepiquat chloride, paclobutrazol, unicnazle and succinic acid, and summarized the application of plant growth retardants in medicinal plants cultivation in recent years, with focus on the effect of growth and yield of the officinal organs and secondary metabolites. PMID:24380290

Zhai, Yu-Yao; Guo, Bao-Lin; Cheng, Ming

2013-09-01

416

Cassava genome from a wild ancestor to cultivated varieties.  

PubMed

Cassava is a major tropical food crop in the Euphorbiaceae family that has high carbohydrate production potential and adaptability to diverse environments. Here we present the draft genome sequences of a wild ancestor and a domesticated variety of cassava and comparative analyses with a partial inbred line. We identify 1,584 and 1,678 gene models specific to the wild and domesticated varieties, respectively, and discover high heterozygosity and millions of single-nucleotide variations. Our analyses reveal that genes involved in photosynthesis, starch accumulation and abiotic stresses have been positively selected, whereas those involved in cell wall biosynthesis and secondary metabolism, including cyanogenic glucoside formation, have been negatively selected in the cultivated varieties, reflecting the result of natural selection and domestication. Differences in microRNA genes and retrotransposon regulation could partly explain an increased carbon flux towards starch accumulation and reduced cyanogenic glucoside accumulation in domesticated cassava. These results may contribute to genetic improvement of cassava through better understanding of its biology. PMID:25300236

Wang, Wenquan; Feng, Binxiao; Xiao, Jingfa; Xia, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Xincheng; Li, Pinghua; Zhang, Weixiong; Wang, Ying; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Zhang, Peng; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Xiao, Gong; Liu, Jingxing; Yang, Jun; Chen, Songbi; Rabinowicz, Pablo D; Chen, Xin; Zhang, Hong-Bin; Ceballos, Henan; Lou, Qunfeng; Zou, Meiling; Carvalho, Luiz J C B; Zeng, Changying; Xia, Jing; Sun, Shixiang; Fu, Yuhua; Wang, Haiyan; Lu, Cheng; Ruan, Mengbin; Zhou, Shuigeng; Wu, Zhicheng; Liu, Hui; Kannangara, Rubini Maya; Jørgensen, Kirsten; Neale, Rebecca Louise; Bonde, Maya; Heinz, Nanna; Zhu, Wenli; Wang, Shujuan; Zhang, Yang; Pan, Kun; Wen, Mingfu; Ma, Ping-An; Li, Zhengxu; Hu, Meizhen; Liao, Wenbin; Hu, Wenbin; Zhang, Shengkui; Pei, Jinli; Guo, Anping; Guo, Jianchun; Zhang, Jiaming; Zhang, Zhengwen; Ye, Jianqiu; Ou, Wenjun; Ma, Yaqin; Liu, Xinyue; Tallon, Luke J; Galens, Kevin; Ott, Sandra; Huang, Jie; Xue, Jingjing; An, Feifei; Yao, Qingqun; Lu, Xiaojing; Fregene, Martin; López-Lavalle, L Augusto Becerra; Wu, Jiajie; You, Frank M; Chen, Meili; Hu, Songnian; Wu, Guojiang; Zhong, Silin; Ling, Peng; Chen, Yeyuan; Wang, Qinghuang; Liu, Guodao; Liu, Bin; Li, Kaimian; Peng, Ming

2014-01-01

417

Transport of mercury from a cultivated field during snowmelt  

SciTech Connect

Total mercury (THg) was determined in snow, overland snowmelt runoff, and soil from a small-cultivated catchment. Total mercury concentrations in snow were low [mean concentration = 1.04 ng/L (liquid basis); n = 9; CV = 23%], while THg concentrations in snow-melt runoff were much higher, ranging from 16 to 22 ng/L. The THg concentration of suspended particulates in the runoff was much higher than observed surface soil THg concentrations (mean concentration = 26 {micro}g/kg; n = 6; CV = 16%). Particle size analysis showed the clay content of the runoff sediment was approximately twice that of the bulk surficial soil. These results suggest that snowmelt runoff preferentially mobilizes very fine soil particles (clays) that have a THg concentration that is greater than that of the bulk surficial soil. The total mass of THg in the snow pack prior to snowmelt was 1.26 mg, and that delivered from the catchment during the snowmelt event was 0.36 mg. This suggests there was a net accumulation of THg in the catchment soil over the winter. Soil erosion and transport are the primary mechanisms that control THg delivery from this catchment during snowmelt events.

Balogh, S.J.; Meyer, M.L.; Hansen, N.C.; Moncrief, J.F.; Gupta, S.C.

2000-06-01

418

[Study on chemical constituents from cultivated Gynura nepalensis].  

PubMed

Taking application of some isolation and purification technologies, such as solvent extraction, preliminary solvent isolation, column chromatographies over silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 gel and preparative HPLC, 10 compounds were obtained from Gynura nepalensis cultivated in the suburban area of Beijing. Their structures were identified by spectroscopic methods and comparison with literature as (3R) -3-hydroxy-?-ionone (1), (3S,5R, 6S, 7E) -5, 6-epoxy-3-hydroxy-7-megastigmen-9-one (2), (+) -boscialin (3), 3, 6-trans-3-hydroxy-?-ionone (4), 3, 6-cis-3-hydroxy-?-ionone (5), 3, 4-cis-3, 4-dihydroxy-?-ionone (6), ethyl caffeate (7), loliolide (8), 1H-indole-3-carbaldehyde (9), and 3-(hydroxyacetyl)indole (10), respectively. All compounds were isolated from the title plant for the first time, and with compounds 1, 2, 4-7, 9 and 10 being isolated from Gynura species for the first time. Structurally, the above compounds 1-6 belong to C13 nor-sesquiterpenoids, sharing the same carbon skeleton of megastigmane. According to this study, they are one of major kinds of chemical constituents of Gynura nepalensis and have important reference value for the investigation on phytotaxonomy of this species. PMID:25612439

Lu, Yao; Li, Zhi-Hong; Ma, Lin; Deng, An-Jun; Wu, Feng; Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Qin, Hai-Lin

2014-10-01

419

Cultivating professional responsibility in a dental hygiene curriculum.  

PubMed

To prepare dental hygienists for future roles in the health care system, dental hygiene education must prepare graduates with skills, ethics, and values that align with professional responsibility. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of curricular changes designed to develop professional identity and responsibility over the entire span of the dental hygiene curriculum. Twenty-four dental hygiene students at the University of Minnesota were surveyed about their attitudes toward access to dental care, society's and health professionals' responsibility to care for the underserved, and their personal efficacy to provide care for the underserved. Surveys were conducted at three time points in the curriculum. The Attitudes Toward Health Care instrument adapted by Holtzman for dental use was used to survey the students. The findings indicate that this institution's curricular changes were effective in cultivating professional responsibility among these students. Their attitude scores increased across the six-semester curriculum, and students in their last semester of the program believed that all individuals have a right to dental care and that society has an obligation to provide dental care. These students' sense of obligation to care for the needy became stronger and their perceptions of their own ability to impact the community and act as an agent of change also increased. PMID:23929574

Blue, Christine M

2013-08-01

420

Triple hybridization with cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).  

PubMed

A crossing programme for trispecific hybridization including cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) as the third parent was carried out. The primary hybrids comprised 11 interspecific combinations, each of which had either H. jubatum or H. lechleri as one of the parents. The second parent represented species closely or distantly related to H. jubatum and H. lechleri. In trispecific crosses with diploid barley, the seed set was 5.7%. Crosses with tetraploid barley were highly unsuccessful (0.2% seed set). Three lines of diploid barley were used in the crosses, i.e. 'Gull', 'Golden Promise' and 'Vada'. Generally, cv 'Gull' had high crossability in crosses with related species in the primary hybrid. It is suggested that 'Gull' has a genetic factor for crossability not present in cv 'Vada' and cv 'Golden Promise'. One accession of H. brachyantherum used in the primary hybrid had a very high crossability (seed set 54.7%) in combination with cv 'Vada' but no viable offspring was produced. In all, two trispecific hybrids were raised, viz. (H. lechleri x H. brevisubulatum) x 'Gull' (2n=7-30) and (H. jubatum x H. lechleri) x 'Gull' (2n=20-22). The first combination invariably had a full complement of seven barley chromosomes plus an additional chromosome no. 7, but a varying number of chromosomes (19-22) of the wild-species hybrid. The second combination had a full set of barley chromosomes. The meiotic pairing was low in both combinations. PMID:24226012

von Bothmer, R; Claesson, L; Flink, J; Linde-Laursen, I

1989-12-01

421

Genetic consequences of selection during the evolution of cultivated sunflower.  

PubMed

We mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling differences in seed oil content and composition between cultivated and wild sunflower and used the results, along with those of a previous study of domestication-related QTL, to guide a genome-wide analysis of genetic variation for evidence of past selection. The effects of the seed oil QTL were almost exclusively in the expected direction with respect to the parental phenotypes. A major, oil-related QTL cluster mapped near a cluster of domestication-related QTL on linkage group six (LG06), the majority of which have previously been shown to have effects that are inconsistent with the parental phenotypes. To test the hypothesis that this region was the target of a past selective sweep, perhaps resulting in the fixation of the antagonistic domestication-related QTL, we analyzed simple sequence repeat (SSR) diversity from 102 markers dispersed throughout the sunflower genome. Our results indicate that LG06 was most likely the target of multiple selective sweeps during the postdomestication era. Strong directional selection in concert with genetic hitchhiking therefore offers a possible explanation for the occurrence of numerous domestication-related QTL with apparently maladaptive phenotypic effects. PMID:15965259

Burke, John M; Knapp, Steven J; Rieseberg, Loren H

2005-12-01

422

Agrotechniques for the cultivation of curcuma zedoaria (berg.) rosc.  

PubMed

Curcumazedoaria (Berg) Rose. (wild turmeric or kastoorimanjal of commerce rhizome is used as appetizer, tonic, blood purifier and cosmetic. It is useful in flatulence and dyspepsia and also for worms and skin diseases a study on the agrotechniques for its cultivation at the aromatic and Medicinal plants Research Station, Odakkali during 1996-1999 revealed that it is highly adaptable to a wide range of spacings, producing similar yields by adjusting the number of plants/hill. It produces maximum yield of rhizome (34t/ha), essential oil (0.33%) and oleoresin (5.%%) when 1.5 t/ha of seed rhizomes are planted at 60 ×40 cm spacing with the receipt of premonsoon showers in May and harvested in January. Application of 20/ha of FYM, 100:50:50 kg N:P:K/ha. Biofertilisers, green manuring and mulching maximize the yields. Combination and interaction effects of the various manorial treatments are to be studied further in detail. The nutrient removal by the crop for the production of rhizomes was115.96:9. 46:111.23 kg NPK/ha. PMID:22557065

Joy, P P; Thomas, J; Mathew, Samuvel; Skaria, Baby P

2002-04-01

423

AGROTECHNIQUES FOR THE CULTIVATION OF CURCUMA ZEDOARIA (BERG.) ROSC  

PubMed Central

Curcumazedoaria (Berg) Rose. (wild turmeric or kastoorimanjal of commerce rhizome is used as appetizer, tonic, blood purifier and cosmetic. It is useful in flatulence and dyspepsia and also for worms and skin diseases a study on the agrotechniques for its cultivation at the aromatic and Medicinal plants Research Station, Odakkali during 1996-1999 revealed that it is highly adaptable to a wide range of spacings, producing similar yields by adjusting the number of plants/hill. It produces maximum yield of rhizome (34t/ha), essential oil (0.33%) and oleoresin (5.%%) when 1.5 t/ha of seed rhizomes are planted at 60 ×40 cm spacing with the receipt of premonsoon showers in May and harvested in January. Application of 20/ha of FYM, 100:50:50 kg N:P:K/ha. Biofertilisers, green manuring and mulching maximize the yields. Combination and interaction effects of the various manorial treatments are to be studied further in detail. The nutrient removal by the crop for the production of rhizomes was115.96:9. 46:111.23 kg NPK/ha. PMID:22557065

Joy, P.P.; Thomas, J.; Mathew, Samuvel; Skaria, Baby P.

2002-01-01

424

Occurrence of Clostridium perfringens from different cultivated soils.  

PubMed

The occurrence of Clostridium perfringens was estimated in 750 samples originated from a variety of soils bearing various bulb crops: Brawnica oderacea (vegetable), Olea europaea, Daucus carota (carote), Solanum tuberosum (potato), Phaseolus vulgaris (green haricot), Beta vulgaris var. rapaceum (beetroot), Cucurbita pepo (squash), Allium cepa (onion), Cucumis sativus (cucumber) and Capsicum annum (pepper). All isolated strains were tested for their antimicrobial activities to amoxicillin, penicillin G, kanamycin, tetracycline, streptomycin, erythromycin, chloramphenicol and metronidazole. When considering the type of the bulb production, it was observed increased number of C. perfringens spore densities in the most undersurface bulb soils. Moreover, C. perfringens spore are likely to occur in particularly large numbers in soil contaminated by fecal matter. Additionally, there is a close relationship between the spore amount and nature of organic content. Presence of C. perfringens was associated with acidic soil. Most of our strains showed resistance to the studied antibiotics applied usually for human and veterinary care. A systematic monitoring of the cultivated soil ecosystems must include bacteriological parameters together with chemical indices of organic pollution in order to obtain information adequate for assessing their overall quality. PMID:21621626

Voidarou, C; Bezirtzoglou, E; Alexopoulos, A; Plessas, S; Stefanis, C; Papadopoulos, I; Vavias, S; Stavropoulou, E; Fotou, K; Tzora, A; Skoufos, I

2011-12-01

425

Metabolism and the rise of fungus cultivation by ants.  

PubMed

Most ant colonies are comprised of workers that cooperate to harvest resources and feed developing larvae. Around 50 million years ago (MYA), ants of the attine lineage adopted an alternative strategy, harvesting resources used as compost to produce fungal gardens. While fungus cultivation is considered a major breakthrough in ant evolution, the associated ecological consequences remain poorly understood. Here, we compare the energetics of attine colony-farms and ancestral hunter-gatherer colonies using metabolic scaling principles within a phylogenetic context. We find two major energetic transitions. First, the earliest lower-attine farmers transitioned to lower mass-specific metabolic rates while shifting significant fractions of biomass from ant tissue to fungus gardens. Second, a transition 20 MYA to specialized cultivars in the higher-attine clade was associated with increased colony metabolism (without changes in garden fungal content) and with metabolic scaling nearly identical to hypometry observed in hunter-gatherer ants, although only the hunter-gatherer slope was distinguishable from isometry. Based on these evolutionary transitions, we propose that shifting living-tissue storage from ants to fungal mutualists provided energetic storage advantages contributing to attine diversification and outline critical assumptions that, when tested, will help link metabolism, farming efficiency, and colony fitness. PMID:25141145

Shik, Jonathan Z; Santos, Juan C; Seal, Jon N; Kay, Adam; Mueller, Ulrich G; Kaspari, Michael

2014-09-01

426

[Antioxidant capacity of fruits and vegetables cultivated in Chile].  

PubMed

The high prevalence of non transmissible chronic diseases (NCD) related to food consumption had increased the studies conducted to investigate the relationship between diet and health. A smaller incidence of NCD, with food patterns with high consumption of fruits and vegetables has been observed and chemical compounds of these foods have been one of the main subjects of the actual research in the reaqltion between food consumption and health. The effect of vegetable foods has been attributed to various nutrients and bioactive compounds with antioxidant activity. In order to determine the antioxidant capacity of vegetable foods cultivated in Chile, natural fruits and vegetables were analyzed according to the FRAP (ferric reducing activity power) method, reading to the 4 minutes. In vegetables, the values were between 0.002 and 1.91 milimoles of Fe/l00 g for cooked carrot and red pepper respectively. The values of the fruits ranged between 0.02 milimoles of Fe/100 g for the cucumber and 12.32 for maqui, the berries studies showed values between 3.10 for strawberry and 3.55 for wild blackberry. Lemmon and quince with 0.25 and 0.23 respectively are located in the intermediate level and the lowest values within the fruits corresponded to apple (fuji variety) and peaches. PMID:17425182

Araya, Héctor; Clavijo, Carolina; Herrera, Claudia

2006-12-01

427

Cassava genome from a wild ancestor to cultivated varieties  

PubMed Central

Cassava is a major tropical food crop in the Euphorbiaceae family that has high carbohydrate production potential and adaptability to diverse environments. Here we present the draft genome sequences of a wild ancestor and a domesticated variety of cassava and comparative analyses with a partial inbred line. We identify 1,584 and 1,678 gene models specific to the wild and domesticated varieties, respectively, and discover high heterozygosity and millions of single-nucleotide variations. Our analyses reveal that genes involved in photosynthesis, starch accumulation and abiotic stresses have been positively selected, whereas those involved in cell wall biosynthesis and secondary metabolism, including cyanogenic glucoside formation, have been negatively selected in the cultivated varieties, reflecting the result of natural selection and domestication. Differences in microRNA genes and retrotransposon regulation could partly explain an increased carbon flux towards starch accumulation and reduced cyanogenic glucoside accumulation in domesticated cassava. These results may contribute to genetic improvement of cassava through better understanding of its biology. PMID:25300236

Wang, Wenquan; Feng, Binxiao; Xiao, Jingfa; Xia, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Xincheng; Li, Pinghua; Zhang, Weixiong; Wang, Ying; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Zhang, Peng; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Xiao, Gong; Liu, Jingxing; Yang, Jun; Chen, Songbi; Rabinowicz, Pablo D.; Chen, Xin; Zhang, Hong-Bin; Ceballos, Henan; Lou, Qunfeng; Zou, Meiling; Carvalho, Luiz J.C.B.; Zeng, Changying; Xia, Jing; Sun, Shixiang; Fu, Yuhua; Wang, Haiyan; Lu, Cheng; Ruan, Mengbin; Zhou, Shuigeng; Wu, Zhicheng; Liu, Hui; Kannangara, Rubini Maya; Jørgensen, Kirsten; Neale, Rebecca Louise; Bonde, Maya; Heinz, Nanna; Zhu, Wenli; Wang, Shujuan; Zhang, Yang; Pan, Kun; Wen, Mingfu; Ma, Ping-An; Li, Zhengxu; Hu, Meizhen; Liao, Wenbin; Hu, Wenbin; Zhang, Shengkui; Pei, Jinli; Guo, Anping; Guo, Jianchun; Zhang, Jiaming; Zhang, Zhengwen; Ye, Jianqiu; Ou, Wenjun; Ma, Yaqin; Liu, Xinyue; Tallon, Luke J.; Galens, Kevin; Ott, Sandra; Huang, Jie; Xue, Jingjing; An, Feifei; Yao, Qingqun; Lu, Xiaojing; Fregene, Martin; López-Lavalle, L. Augusto Becerra; Wu, Jiajie; You, Frank M.; Chen, Meili; Hu, Songnian; Wu, Guojiang; Zhong, Silin; Ling, Peng; Chen, Yeyuan; Wang, Qinghuang; Liu, Guodao; Liu, Bin; Li, Kaimian; Peng, Ming

2014-01-01

428

[Characteristics of Papaver somniferum L. cv. ikkanshu cultivated in Izu].  

PubMed

The seeds of Papaver somniferum L. cv. Ikkanshu were sown in November (Autumn sowing: AS) and March (Spring sowing: SS) in a field at Izu Experimental Station for Medicinal Plants of National Institute of Health Sciencs, and both AS and SS plants were cultivated to investigate their growth, opium yield and alkaloid content in the opium. Growing periods from the sowing to the opium harvest were approximately six months for AS plants and three months for SS plants. Sizes of plants and capsules in AS were bigger than those in SS, reflecting their growth period. Opium yields per an are in AS and SS were 212.09 g and 142.03 g, respectively. The opium was able to be collected four times in the AS plants though the SS plants ceased to exude opium after the second incision. Therefore higher yield of opium in AS plants seems to be attributed to an amount of opium in the third and fourth incision. Average morphine content in the total opium was 15.61% in AS plants and 15.04% in SS plants, and the estimated amounts of morphine per an are in AS and SS plants were 33.16 g and 21.38 g, respectively. PMID:11534131

Iida, O; Sekine, T; Inoue, O; Yoshimatsu, K; Shimomura, K

2000-01-01

429

Air-quality and Climatic Consequences of Bioenergy Crop Cultivation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bioenergy is expected to play an increasingly significant role in the global energy budget. In addition to the use of liquid energy forms such as ethanol and biodiesel, electricity generation using processed energy crops as a partial or full coal alternative is expected to increase, requiring large-scale conversions of land for the cultivation of bioenergy feedstocks such as cane, grasses, or short rotation coppice. With land-use change identified as a major contributor to changes in the emission of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), many of which are known contributors to the pollutants ozone (O 3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5), careful review of crop emission profiles and local atmospheric chemistry will be necessary to mitigate any unintended air-quality consequences. In this work, the atmospheric consequences of bioenergy crop replacement are examined using both the high-resolution regional chemical transport model WRF/Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry) and the global climate model CESM (Community Earth System Model). Regional sensitivities to several representative crop types are analyzed, and the impacts of each crop on air quality and climate are compared. Overall, the high emitting crops (eucalyptus and giant reed) were found to produce climate and human health costs totaling up to 40% of the value of CO 2 emissions prevented, while the related costs of the lowest-emitting crop (switchgrass) were negligible.

Porter, William Christian

430

Anammox cultivation in a closed sponge-bed trickling filter.  

PubMed

A feasibility study was carried out to assess the cultivation of Anammox bacteria in lab-scale closed sponge-bed trickling filter (CSTF) reactors, namely: CSTF-1 at 20°C and CSTF-2 at 30°C. Stable conditions were reached from day 66 in CSTF-2 and from day 104 in CSTF-1. The early stability of CSTF-2 is attributable to the influence of temperature; nevertheless, by day 405, the nitrogen removal performed by CSTF-1 increased up to similar values of CSTF-2. The maximum total nitrogen removal efficiency was 82% in CSTF-1 and 84% in CSTF-2. After more than 400days of operation, CSTF-1 and CSTF-2 were capable to attain a total nitrogen removal efficiency of 74±5% and 78±4% with a total nitrogen conversion rate of 1.52 and 1.60kg-N/msponge(3)d, respectively. The proposed technology could be a suitable alternative for mainstream nitrogen removal in post-treatment units via the Anammox conversion pathway. PMID:25836033

Sánchez Guillén, J A; Cuéllar Guardado, P R; Lopez Vazquez, C M; de Oliveira Cruz, L M; Brdjanovic, D; van Lier, J B

2015-06-01

431

A cultivation technique for E. coli fed-batch cultivations operating close to the maximum oxygen transfer capacity of the reactor.  

PubMed

A cultivation strategy combining the advantages of temperature-limited fed-batch and probing feeding control is presented. The technique was evaluated in fed-batch cultivations with E. coli BL21(DE3) producing xylanase in a 3 liter bioreactor. A 20% increase in cell mass was achieved and the usual decrease in specific enzyme activity normally observed during the late production phase was diminished with the new technique. The method was further tested by growing E. coli W3110 in a larger bioreactor (50 l). It is a suitable cultivation technique when the O2 transfer capacity of the reactor is reached and it is desired to continue to produce the recombinant protein. PMID:16132841

de Maré, L; Velut, S; Ledung, E; Cimander, C; Norrman, B; Karlsson, E Nordberg; Holst, O; Hagander, P

2005-07-01

432

7 CFR 457.170 - Cultivated wild rice crop insurance provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Cultivated wild rice crop insurance provisions. 457.170 Section 457...Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.170...

2013-01-01

433

7 CFR 457.170 - Cultivated wild rice crop insurance provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Cultivated wild rice crop insurance provisions. 457.170 Section 457...Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.170...

2011-01-01

434

Liquid cultivation techniques for enhancing the effectiveness of yeast biocontrol agents  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Biocontrol agents will gain broader acceptance into integrated pest management programs if products with enhanced efficacy and consistency of performance are developed. Though given comparatively little research attention, liquid cultivation environments and protocols can and should be optimized to...

435

Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and physiological stress among adult, male potato cultivators of west bengal, India.  

PubMed

A total of 70 male potato cultivators were selected randomly from the villages of West Bengal, India, to evaluate musculoskeletal disorder (MSD), thermal stress, and physiological stress and were compared with 70 controls from the urban sector of West Bengal. Modified Nordic questionnaire studies and a posture analysis were performed in for the male potato cultivators by the Rapid Entire Body Assessment method. Most of the participants suffered discomfort at different parts of the body, especially in the lower back, knee, ankle, and feet regions. Potato cultivators suffered maximum discomfort during spading, planting seeds, weeding, picking crops, and sprinkling water. Therefore, it can be concluded that prolonged work activity, high repetitiveness, and remaining constantly in an awkward posture for a prolonged period of time may lead to MSDs. This study also revealed that a significant physiological load is exerted on the potato cultivators, as shown by increased heart rates. PMID:22247108

Das, Banibrata; Gangopadhyay, Somnath

2015-03-01

436

Effective growth of dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum by cultivating the cells using municipal wastewater as nutrient source.  

PubMed

Several studies have been conducted worldwide in order to develop a more economical method for mass algal cultivation so that more cost-effective biomass production can be accessed. One of the directions is to reduce production costs by using wastewater as a nutrient source in algal cell cultivation. The growth ability of a red-tide causative dinoflagellate species, Prorocentrum minimum, in various concentrations of local urban wastewater was examined in this study. The highest exponential growth rate and maximum cell density (MCD) were achieved when autoclaved 10% wastewater was used for cell cultivation, although the cells could survive in 0.01-100% wastewater. Both growth rate and MCD of the cells in wastewater were found to be substantially higher than that in optimized L1 culture medium. This research highlights the potential of using wastewater as a cost-effective approach for mass cultivation of dinoflagellate cells with consequent production of valuable microalgal biomass. PMID:24037162

Ho, Kin-Chung; Xu, Steven Jing-Liang; Wu, Kam-Chau; Lee, Fred Wang-Fat

2013-01-01

437

Cultivation Conditions for Phytase Production from Recombinant Escherichia coli DH5?  

PubMed Central

Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the cultivation conditions for the production of phytase by recombinant Escherichia coli DH5?. The optimum predicted cultivation conditions for phytase production were at 3 hours seed age, a 2.5% inoculum level, an L-arabinose concentration of 0.20%, a cell concentration of 0.3 (as measured at 600 nm) and 17 hours post-induction time with a predicted phytase activity of 4194.45 U/mL. The model was validated and the results showed no significant difference between the experimental and the predicted phytase activity (P = 0.305). Under optimum cultivation conditions, the phytase activity of the recombinant E. coli DH5? was 364 times higher compared to the phytase activity of the wild-type producer, Enterobacter sakazakii ASUIA279. Hence, optimization of the cultivation conditions using RSM positively increased phytase production from recombinant E. coli DH5?. PMID:24826071

Ariff, Rafidah Mohd; Fitrianto, Anwar; Abd. Manap, Mohd Yazid; Ideris, Aini; Kassim, Azhar; Suhairin, Afinah; Hussin, Anis Shobirin Meor

2013-01-01

438

Submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms for production of valuable bioactive metabolites.  

PubMed

Mushrooms are abundant sources of a wide range of useful natural products. Nowadays, commercial mushroom products are from mushrooms collected from field cultivation, which is a time-consuming and labor-intensive process. Submerged cultivation of mushrooms has significant industrial potential, but its success on a commercial scale depends on cost compared with existing technology. Increasing product yields and development of novel production systems that address the problems associated with this new technology will certainly facilitate expansion. This article outlines the major valuable metabolites produced by mushroom cultivation and advances in submerged culture of mushrooms, taking Ganoderma lucidum, a popular folk and an oriental medicine used to treat many diseases, as a typical example. Our latest data on mushroom cultivation for efficient production of bioactive ganoderic acids and Ganoderma polysaccharides in bioreactors are presented. PMID:15217103

Zhong, Jian-Jiang; Tang, Ya-Jie

2004-01-01

439

Scale-up cultivation of Chlorella ellipsoidea from indoor to outdoor in bubble column bioreactors.  

PubMed

The cultivation of Chlorella ellipsoidea in bubble column bioreactors was investigated at different scales under indoor and outdoor conditions. The algal cells were able to quickly adapt to the outdoor conditions and achieved a growth rate of 31.55mg L(-1)day(-1). Due to differences in light and temperature, the outdoor culture produced a higher percentage of unsaturated fatty acids compared to the indoor cultures, while the amino acid composition was unaffected. The overall cost of the biomass produced by the 200L outdoor cultivation (58.70US$/kg-dry weight) was estimated to be more than 7 times lower than that of the 20L indoor cultivation (431.39US$/kg-dry weight). Together these results provide a basis for the cultivation of C. ellipsoidea for the large-scale production of biofuels, high-value nutrients and/or recombinant proteins. PMID:24495537

Wang, Shi-Kai; Hu, Yi-Ru; Wang, Feng; Stiles, Amanda R; Liu, Chun-Zhao

2014-03-01

440

Reduction of water and energy requirement of algae cultivation using an algae biofilm photobioreactor.  

PubMed

This paper reports the construction and performance of an algae biofilm photobioreactor that offers a significant reduction of the energy and water requirements of cultivation. The green alga Botryococcus braunii was cultivated as a biofilm. The system achieved a direct biomass harvest concentration of 96.4 kg/m(3) with a total lipid content 26.8% by dry weight and a productivity of 0.71 g/m(2) day, representing a light to biomass energy conversion efficiency of 2.02%. Moreover, it reduced the volume of water required to cultivate a kilogram of algal biomass by 45% and reduced the dewatering energy requirement by 99.7% compared to open ponds. Finally, the net energy ratio of the cultivation was 6.00 including dewatering. The current issues of this novel photobioreactor are also identified to further improve the system productivity and scaleup. PMID:22503193

Ozkan, Altan; Kinney, Kerry; Katz, Lynn; Berberoglu, Halil

2012-06-01

441

Whole-Genome Shotgun Sequence of Arthrospira platensis Strain Paraca, a Cultivated and Edible Cyanobacterium  

PubMed Central

Here we report the whole-genome shotgun sequence of a Peruvian strain of Arthrospira platensis (Paraca), a cultivated and edible haloalkaliphilic cyanobacterium of great scientific, technical, and economic potential. PMID:25103760

Calmin, Gautier; Crovadore, Julien; Falquet, Jacques; Hurni, Jean-Pierre; Osteras, Magne; Haldemann, Francois; Farinelli, Laurent

2014-01-01

442

Online monitoring of microcarrier based fibroblast cultivations with in situ microscopy.  

PubMed

Animal cell culture is widely used in biotechnology for the production of many biological products. In situ microscopes acquire images directly from cell suspensions and analyze the images in matters of cell concentration, cell size distribution and cell morphology. Their applicability was already proven for yeast and suspended mammalian cell cultivations. In this work the in situ microscope was utilized to measure the level of colonization of fibroblasts on microcarrier surfaces during cultivation. For this study the murine cell line NIH-3T3 was used in combination with Cytodex 1 microcarriers. Cultivations were carried out in a 5 L stirred tank bioreactor equipped with the in situ microscope. Images were obtained sequentially with the in situ microscope over the whole cultivation time (900 images per sequence, 7.5 h per sequence on average). For the microcarrier analysis an image analysis algorithm based on a neural network was developed and implemented in the microscope analysis software. PMID:17546690

Rudolph, Guido; Lindner, Patrick; Gierse, Alexander; Bluma, Arne; Martinez, Geovanni; Hitzmann, Bernd; Scheper, Thomas

2008-01-01

443

Production of recombinant miraculin using transgenic tomatoes in a closed cultivation system.  

PubMed

We constructed a cultivation system with a controlled light period, light intensity, temperature, and CO(2) concentration for mass production of the taste-modifying protein miraculin from transgenic tomatoes. The tomato plants exhibited normal growth and produced over 270 g of fresh weight (FW) fruit per plant, with the recombinant miraculin concentration reaching up to 90 microg per g FW of tomatoes. The recombinant miraculin content of transgenic tomatoes was compared to that of plants grown in a netted greenhouse. The recombinant miraculin content of transgenic tomatoes grown in a closed cultivation system was more stable than that of tomatoes grown in a netted greenhouse, suggesting that the closed cultivation system is suitable for the production of recombinant miraculin. We estimate that 45 tFW of tomatoes and 4 kg of recombinant miraculin per 1,000 m(2) of cultivation area can be harvested per year. PMID:20426470

Hirai, Tadayoshi; Fukukawa, Go; Kakuta, Hideo; Fukuda, Naoya; Ezura, Hiroshi

2010-05-26

444

UPTAKE AND PHYTOTRANSFORMATION OF ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES BY AXENICALLY CULTIVATED AQUATIC PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The uptake and phytotransformation of organophosphorus (OP) pesticides (malathion, demeton-S-methyl, and crufomate) was investigated in vitro using the axenically aquatic cultivated plants parrot feather (Myriophyllum aquaticum), duckweed (Spirodela oligorrhiza L.), and elodea (E...

445

7 CFR 457.170 - Cultivated wild rice crop insurance provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...processor, or stored for seed. Harvest. Combining or threshing the cultivated wild rice for grain or seed. Initially planted...share; (2) That is planted for harvest as grain; and (3) That is grown in...

2010-01-01

446

Biology of Parasitoids (Hymenoptera) Attacking Dasineura oxycoccana and Prodiplosis vaccinii (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in Cultivated Blueberries  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The cranberry tipworm, Dasineura oxycoccana (Johnson), and the blueberry tipworm, Prodiplosis vaccinii (Felt) are recurring cecidomyiid pests of cultivated blueberries in the Southern United States and Mediterranean Europe. Insecticides can give short-term tipworm control, but overlap in parasitoid ...

447

Novel Phaseolin Types in Wild and Cultivated Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, Fabaceae) 1  

E-print Network

; Loveless and Hamrick 1984). Hamrick and Allard (1972) used protein polymorphisms in Avena fatua L. and A allozyme variation among 31 collections of cultivated Lactuca sativa L. and wild Lactuca species to assess

Gepts, Paul

448

Whole-Genome Shotgun Sequence of Arthrospira platensis Strain Paraca, a Cultivated and Edible Cyanobacterium.  

PubMed

Here we report the whole-genome shotgun sequence of a Peruvian strain of Arthrospira platensis (Paraca), a cultivated and edible haloalkaliphilic cyanobacterium of great scientific, technical, and economic potential. PMID:25103760

Lefort, Francois; Calmin, Gautier; Crovadore, Julien; Falquet, Jacques; Hurni, Jean-Pierre; Osteras, Magne; Haldemann, Francois; Farinelli, Laurent

2014-01-01

449

Fertilization of Epichloe typhina in cultivated Dactylis glomerata by factors besides Botanophila flies  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Epichloë typhina, an endophytic fungus native to Europe, requires spermatia transfer between opposite mating types for fertilization. In wild grasses, Botanophila flies are recognized as vectors for spermatial transfer. However, in cultivated seed production fields of Dactylis glomerata (orchardgras...

450

Outcrossing and hybridization in wild and cultivated foxtail millets: consequences for the release of transgenic crops.  

PubMed

Outcrossing rates within the wild green foxtail, Setaria viridis, and the cultivated foxtail millet, S. italica, are very low. However, spontaneous interspecific hybridizations in the experimental garden occurred in both directions at rates ranging from 0.002% to 0.6% according to plant density and distance between parents. Offtypes found in farmers' fields where foxtail millet is cultivated were shown to have originated from such interspecific crosses. Differences in the EcoR1 patterns of chloroplast DNA between cultivated and wild plants indicated that reciprocal crosses do occur in the field. These findings indicate that even a largely selfing cultivated species may exchange genetic information with wild relatives at rates that may cause problems if transgenic cultivars are released. PMID:24202917

Till-Bottraud, I; Reboud, X; Brabant, P; Lefranc, M; Rherissi, B; Vedel, F; Darmency, H

1992-05-01

451

Effect of Rj Genotype and Cultivation Temperature on the Community Structure of Soybean-Nodulating Bradyrhizobia  

PubMed Central

The nodulation tendency and community structure of indigenous bradyrhizobia on Rj genotype soybean cultivars at cultivation temperatures of 33/28°C, 28/23°C, and 23/18°C for 16/8 h (day/night degrees, hours) were investigated using 780 bradyrhizobial DNA samples from an Andosol with 13 soybean cultivars of four Rj genotypes (non-Rj, Rj2Rj3, Rj4, and Rj2Rj3Rj4). A dendrogram was constructed based on restriction fragment length polymorphism of the PCR products (PCR-RFLP) of the 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer region. Eleven Bradyrhizobium U.S. Department of Agriculture strains were used as a reference. The dendrogram indicated seven clusters based on similarities among the reference strains. The occupancy rate of the Bj123 cluster decreased with increasing cultivation temperature, whereas the occupancy rates of the Bj110 cluster, Be76 cluster, and Be94 cluster increased with increasing cultivation temperature. In particular, the Rj2Rj3Rj4 genotype soybeans were infected with a number of Bj110 clusters, regardless of the increasing cultivation temperature, compared to other Rj genotype soybean cultivars. The ratio of beta diversity to gamma diversity (H??/H??), which represents differences in the bradyrhizobial communities by pairwise comparison among cultivation temperature sets within the same soybean cultivar, indicated that the bradyrhizobial communities tended to be different among cultivation temperatures. Multidimensional scaling analysis indicated that the infection of the Bj110 cluster and the Bj123 cluster by host soybean genotype and the cultivation temperature affected the bradyrhizobial communities. These results suggested that the Rj genotypes and cultivation temperatures affected the nodulation tendency and community structures of soybean-nodulating bradyrhizobia. PMID:22156423

Shiro, Sokichi; Yamamoto, Akihiro; Umehara, Yosuke; Hayashi, Masaki; Yoshida, Naoto; Nishiwaki, Aya; Yamakawa, Takeo

2012-01-01

452

Inhibiting Effect of Bioactive Metabolites Produced by Mushroom Cultivation on Bacterial Quorum Sensing-Regulated Behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: This study aimed to search for novel quorum sensing (QS) inhibitors from mushroom and to analyze their inhibitory activity, with a view to their possible use in controlling detrimental infections. Methods: The bioactive metabolites produced by mushroom cultivation were tested for their abilities to inhibit QS-regulated behavior. All mushroom strains were cultivated in potato-dextrose medium by large-scale submerged fermentation.

Hu Zhu; Shou-xian Wang; Shuai-shuai Zhang; Chun-xu Cao

2011-01-01

453

The first SSR-based genetic linkage map for cultivated groundnut ( Arachis hypogaea L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular markers and genetic linkage maps are pre-requisites for molecular breeding in any crop species. In case of peanut\\u000a or groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.), an amphidiploid (4X) species, not a single genetic map is, however, available based on a mapping population derived\\u000a from cultivated genotypes. In order to develop a genetic linkage map for tetraploid cultivated groundnut, a total of

R. K. Varshney; D. J. Bertioli; M. C. Moretzsohn; V. Vadez; L. Krishnamurthy; R. Aruna; S. N. Nigam; B. J. Moss; K. Seetha; K. Ravi; G. He; S. J. Knapp; D. A. Hoisington

2009-01-01

454

On-line biomass measurements in bioreactor cultivations: comparison study of two on-line probes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two on-line probes for biomass measurement in bioreactor cultivations were evaluated. One probe is based on near infrared\\u000a (NIR) light absorption and the other on dielectric spectroscopy. The probes were used to monitor biomass production in cultivations\\u000a of several different microorganisms. Differences in NIR probe response compared to off-line measurement methods revealed that\\u000a the most significant factor affecting the response

K. Kiviharju; K. Salonen; U. Moilanen; E. Meskanen; M. Leisola; T. Eerikäinen

2007-01-01

455

Pomological and Nutraceutical Properties in Apricot Fruit: Cultivation Systems and Cold Storage Fruit Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the effect of cultivation systems and fruit post-harvest management on the antioxidant properties of\\u000a apricot fruits. Trees of five cultivars ‘Tyrinthos’, ‘Cafona’, ‘Bella d’Italia’, ‘Vitillo’ and ‘Pellecchiella’ were cultivated\\u000a under integrated and organic systems. Fruits were collected at full maturity stage and analyzed either immediately or after\\u000a storage at 4±0.5 °C and 85% of relative humidity for

Annamaria Leccese; Sylvie Bureau; Maryse Reich; M. G. C. Catherine Renard; Jean-Marc Audergon; Carmelo Mennone; Susanna Bartolini; Raffaella Viti

2010-01-01

456

Environmental Evaluation of Metals in Sediments and Dragonflies Due to Sugar Cane Cultivation in Neotropical Streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of fertilizers, containing different metals ions such as lead(II), chromium(III), cadmium(II), copper(II) and zinc(II),\\u000a in the soil, for sugar cane cultivation, may cause impacts on the hydric resources of the adjacent areas. The scope of this\\u000a study was to evaluate the impacts of sugar cane cultivation based on metal concentrations in sediments and dragonflies (Odonata).\\u000a The bioavailability of

Juliano José Corbi; Susana Trivinho-Strixino; Ademir dos Santos

2008-01-01

457

Optimization of medium and cultivation conditions for enhanced exopolysaccharide yield by marine Cyanothece sp. 113  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyanothece sp. 113 is a unicellular, aerobic, diazotrophic and photosynthetic marine cyanobacterium. The optimal medium for exopolysaccharide\\u000a yield by the strain was 70.0 g\\/L of NaCl, and 0.9 g\\/L of MgSO4 based on the modified F\\/2 medium for cultivation of marine algae. The optimal cultivation condition for exopolysaccharide\\u000a yield by this cyanobacterial strain was 29?C, aeration, and continuous illumination at

Chuandong Su; Zhenming Chi; Weidong Lu

2007-01-01

458

Ecological Impacts of Genetically Modified Crops: Ten Years of Field Research and Commercial Cultivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The worldwide commercial cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops has raised concerns about\\u000a potential adverse effects on the environment resulting from the use of these crops. Consequently, the risks\\u000a of GM crops for the environment, and especially for biodiversity, have been extensively assessed before\\u000a and during their commercial cultivation. Substantial scientific data on the environmental effects of the\\u000a currently commercialized

Olivier Sanvido; Jörg Romeis; Franz Bigler

459

Indoor cultivation of a marine algae species in a thin-layer unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Chlorella capsulata UTEX LB 2074 was cultivated in a thin-layer intensive algae cultivation unit located indoors. The specific growth rate of the species under the applied conditions was found to be about 0.11 d-1. A steady maximum cell number of about 15×106ml-1 was observed. Nutritional analysis revealed 33.12% amino-acids and 21.17%w 3 highly unsaturated fatty acids

Suresh T. Nesaratnam; Baher Saleem; Reyadh Al-Daher

1986-01-01

460

Enhancement of efficiency in the use of light for cultivation of plants in controlled ecological systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problems of plant cultivation with the use of artificial lighting are related to energetics and, initially, to the lack of effective sources for photosynthesis, secondly to the necessity to supply a system with a considerable power in the form of light energy and to remove transformed thermal energy, and finally to economic considerations. These problems are solved by three ways: by the choice of effective radiation sources, design approaches, and technological methods of cultivation. Here we shall consider the first two ways.

Mashinsky, A. L.; Oreshkin, V. I.; Nechitailo, G. S.

1994-01-01

461

Economic and Constraint Analysis of Rice Cultivation in Kaithal District of Haryana  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study on economics and major constraints in rice cultivation in Kaithal district of Haryana was conducted during 2007-08. The study covered four villages of two blocks and data on constraints and cost-return aspects of rice cultivation were collected from 80 farmers. Total costs in rice production amounted to be Rs. 33778.68\\/ha. Average yield was 4.99 t\\/ha. Benefit-cost ratio worked

B. Nirmala; P. Muthuraman

462

Naturalization of plant populations: the role of cultivation and population size and density  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field experimentation is required to assess the effects of environmental stochasticity on small immigrant plant populations—a\\u000a widely understood but largely unexplored aspect of predicting any species’ likelihood of naturalization and potential invasion.\\u000a Cultivation can mitigate this stochasticity, although the outcome for a population under cultivation nevertheless varies enormously\\u000a from extinction to persistence. Using factorial experiments, we investigated the effects of

Mark S. MintonRichard; Richard N. Mack

2010-01-01

463

Effects of cultivation conditions on acid–base titration properties of Shewanella putrefaciens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid–base titrations were conducted on pure strain laboratory cultures of the Gram-negative, facultatively aerobic bacterium Shewanella putrefaciens, cultivated under a range of conditions. Bacteria used in acid–base titrations were cultivated for periods of 24 to 100 h (exponential growth phase to late stationary phase), in varying media compositions (rich to minimal), and under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. In addition, two

Johnson R Haas

2004-01-01

464