Sample records for macrobrachium rosenbergii cultivated

  1. Monodon baculovirus (MBV) infects the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii cultivated in Thailand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Warachin Gangnonngiw; Kesinee Laisutisan; Siriporn Sriurairatana; Saengchan Senapin; Niti Chuchird; Chalor Limsuwan; Parin Chaivisuthangkura; Timothy W. Flegel

    2010-01-01

    Field specimens of post-larvae of the giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) from Thailand showed hepatopancreatic tubule epithelial cells that contained central, eosinophilic inclusions within enlarged nuclei and marginated chromatin. These inclusions resembled those produced by some baculoviruses prior to formation of occlusion bodies that enclose virions in a polyhedrin protein matrix. By electron microscopy, the intranuclear inclusions contained bacilliform, enveloped

  2. Monodon baculovirus (MBV) infects the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii cultivated in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Gangnonngiw, Warachin; Laisutisan, Kesinee; Sriurairatana, Siriporn; Senapin, Saengchan; Chuchird, Niti; Limsuwan, Chalor; Chaivisuthangkura, Parin; Flegel, Timothy W

    2010-03-01

    Field specimens of post-larvae of the giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) from Thailand showed hepatopancreatic tubule epithelial cells that contained central, eosinophilic inclusions within enlarged nuclei and marginated chromatin. These inclusions resembled those produced by some baculoviruses prior to formation of occlusion bodies that enclose virions in a polyhedrin protein matrix. By electron microscopy, the intranuclear inclusions contained bacilliform, enveloped virions (approximately 327+/-29nmx87+/-12nm) with evenly dense, linear nucleocapsids surrounded by trilaminar envelopes with lateral pockets containing nucleoproteinic filaments. In some cases, these were accompanied by moderately electron dense, spherical particles of approximately 20nm diameter resembling polyhedrin subunits of occlusion bodies (OB) of a bacilliform virus of the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon, previously reported from Thailand and called monodon baculovirus (MBV). It is currently listed by the International Committee on Taxonomy of viruses as Penaeus monodon nucleopolyhedrovirus (PemoNPV). Two polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for MBV gave positive results with DNA extracts prepared from M. rosenbergii samples using the hot phenol technique. One of these assays targeted the polyhedrin gene of MBV to which the resulting amplicon showed 100% sequence identity. Presence of the Penaeus monodon virus polyhedrin gene was confirmed by in situ hybridization assays and by positive immunohistochemical reactions in one sample batch. The data revealed that MBV can be found but may rarely produce polyhedrin occlusion bodies in M. rosenbergii. PMID:19963025

  3. Toxicity of rotenone to giant river freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquaculturists have often suffered predation losses in the production of freshwater giant river prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii due to the presence of wild fish species in culture ponds. The piscicide rotenone is widely used to remove undesirable fish species from ponds. Although evidence in the t...

  4. White Tail Disease of Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Sahul Hameed, A S; Bonami, Jean-Robert

    2012-09-01

    Macrobrachium rosenbergii is the most important cultured freshwater prawn in the world and it is now farmed on a large scale in many countries. Generally, freshwater prawn is considered to be tolerant to diseases but a disease of viral origin is responsible for severe mortalities in larval, post-larval and juvenile stages of prawn. This viral infection namely white tail disease (WTD) was reported in the island of Guadeloupe in 1995 and later in Martinique (FrenchWest Indies) in Taiwan, the People's Republic of China, India, Thailand, Australia and Malaysia. Two viruses, Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus-like particle (XSV) have been identified as causative agents of WTD. MrNV is a small icosahedral non-enveloped particle, 26-27 nm in diameter, identified in the cytoplasm of connective cells. XSV is also an icosahedral virus and 15 nm in diameter. Clinical signs observed in the infected animals include lethargy, opaqueness of the abdominal muscle, degeneration of the telson and uropods, and up to 100 % within 4 days. The available diagnostic methods to detect WTD include RT-PCR, dot-blot hybridization, in situ hybridization and ELISA. In experimental infection, these viruses caused 100 % mortality in post-larvae but failed to cause mortality in adult prawns. The reported hosts for these viruses include marine shrimp, Artemia and aquatic insects. Experiments were carried out to determine the possibility of vertical transmission of MrNV and XSV in M. rosenbergii. The results indicate that WTD may be transferred from infected brooders to their offspring during spawning. Replication of MrNV and XSV was investigated in apparently healthy C6/36 Aedes albopictus and SSN-1 cell lines. The results revealed that C6/36 and SSN-1cells were susceptible to these viruses. No work has been carried out on control and prevention of WTD and dsRNA against protein B2 produced RNAi that was able to functionally prevent and reduce mortality in WTD-infected redclaw crayfish. PMID:23997437

  5. Feasibility of direct utilization of selected geothermal water for aquaculture of macrobrachium rosenbergii. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Spinosa, C.

    1984-05-01

    The feasibility was tested of direct utilization of geothermal water for the aquaculture of Malaysian freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). A problem with using geothermal water for aquaculture is the chemical composition of the water with high flouride levels being a particular problem. Results show that (1) some geothermal water in Idaho can be used directly for the aquaculture of Macrobrachium rosenbergii, (2) high flouride levels cannot be directly correlated with high mortality rates and (3) low flouride levels do not correlate with high growth rates.

  6. Routine Metabolic Rate and Limiting Oxygen Concentration of Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii Larvae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Malaysian prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, are hatched and raised indoors in small tanks. Prawns may be raised and shipped at high densities which could result in low dissolved oxygen (DO) conditions. Because DO may play an important role in prawn development and survival, we measured routine me...

  7. Responses of Giant Freshwater Prawn ( Macrobrachium rosenbergii) to Challenge by Two Strains of Aeromonas spp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hung-Hung Sung; Shu-Fen Hwang; Fu-Ming Tasi

    2000-01-01

    The virulence of two Aeromonas strains (A. veronii and A. caviae) isolated from the hepatopancreas of apparently healthy giant freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) was compared using a challenge by injections. For the A. veronii strain, challenge with 3.7 × 105 cells\\/g of body weight led to 100% mortality; for the A. caviae strain, 3.8 × 106 cells\\/g produced 100% mortality.

  8. Antibiotic administration by osmotic infiltration in the freshwater shrimp, Macrobrachium rosenbergii 

    E-print Network

    Llobrera, Alcestis Trillo

    1980-01-01

    in this study. The shrimp were held in holding facilities at the Texas A&M University, Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology, Aquatic Animal Medicine Laboratory. Ralston Purina Experimental Marine Ration No. 25 (Checkerboard Square, St... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1980 Major Subject: Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology ANTIBIOTIC ADMINISTRATION BY OSMOTIC INFILTRATION IN THE FRESHWATER SHRIMP, MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERGII A Thesis by ALCESTIS TRILLO LLOBRERA Approved...

  9. Grooming as a secondary behavior in the shrimp Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Crustacea, Decapoda, Caridea)

    PubMed Central

    VanMaurik, Lauren N.; Wortham, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is a large shrimp extensively used in aquaculture whose grooming behaviors were analyzed in this study. Macrobrachium rosenbergii exhibits three unique male morphotypes that differ in their behavior, morphology and physiology: small-clawed males (SM), orange-clawed males (OC) and blue-clawed males (BC). The largest and most dominant males, BC males, are predicted to have significantly different grooming behaviors compared to females and the other two male morphotypes. These BC males may be too large and bulky to efficiently groom and may dedicate more time to mating and agonistic interactions than grooming behaviors. Observations were conducted to look at the prevalence of grooming behaviors in the absence and presence of conspecifics and to determine if any differences in grooming behavior exist among the sexes and male morphotypes. Significant differences in the grooming behaviors of all individuals (females and male morphotypes) were found. BC males tended to have the highest grooming time budget (percent of time spent grooming) while SM males had a relatively low grooming time budget. The grooming behaviors of the male morphotypes differed, indicating while these males play distinct, separate roles in the social hierarchy, they also have different grooming priorities. The conditions in which Macrobrachium rosenbergii are cultured may result in increased body fouling, which may vary, depending on the grooming efficiencies and priorities of these male morphotypes. Overall, grooming behaviors were found to be a secondary behavior which only occurred when primary behaviors such as mating, feeding or fighting were not present. PMID:25561831

  10. Effect of saponin on hematological and immunological parameters of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shinn-Pyng Yeh; Chun-Hung Liu; Tzeng-Gan Sung; Pai-Po Lee; Winton Cheng

    2006-01-01

    Giant freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (17.9±2.7 g), exposed to different concentrations of saponin at 0, 0.3, 0.6, 0.9 and 1.2 mg l?1 for 168 h were examined for osmolality, electrolyte levels, oxyhemocyanin, protein levels, acid-base balance status, total hemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase activity, and respiratory bursts. Hemolymph oxyhemocyanin, protein, and pO2 were inversely related to the saponin concentration. Hemolymph oxyhemocyanin, protein, pO2, pCO2,

  11. Norepinephrine depresses the immunity and disease-resistance ability via ?1- and ?1-adrenergic receptors of Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chin-Chyuan Chang; Ming-Di Hung; Winton Cheng

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we determined the effects of norepinephrine (NE) on immunity and the pathway of its function in the freshwater giant prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The total hemocyte count (THC), differential hemocyte count (DHC), phenoloxidase activity, respiratory bursts, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, phagocytic activity, and clearance efficiency in response to the pathogen, Lactococcus garvieae, were measured when the freshwater giant

  12. Genetic diversity of cultured and wild populations of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii based on microsatellite analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii culture in the Western Hemisphere is primarily, if not entirely, based on thirty-six individual prawn introduced to Hawaii from Malaysia in 1965 and 1966. Little information is available regarding the genetic background or current population status of cult...

  13. REPRODUCTIVE MECHANISMS IN THE GIANT FRESHWATER PRAWN, MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERGII AND COOPERATIVE RESEARCH TO IMPROVE SEED PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY IN THE MEKONG DELTA REGION OF VIETNAM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcy N. Wilder; Wei-Jun Yang; Do Thi Thanh Huong; Masachika Maeda

    The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii , is a commercially important species of crustacean cultured extensively throughout Southeast Asia. In Vietnam, where Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences (JIRCAS) is currently implementing a comprehensive project entitled \\

  14. Production of monoclonal antibodies specific to Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus using recombinant capsid protein.

    PubMed

    Wangman, Pradit; Senapin, Saengchan; Chaivisuthangkura, Parin; Longyant, Siwaporn; Rukpratanporn, Sombat; Sithigorngul, Paisarn

    2012-03-20

    The gene encoding the capsid protein of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) was cloned into pGEX-6P-1 expression vector and then transformed into the Escherichia coli strain BL21. After induction, capsid protein-glutathione-S-transferase (GST-MrNV; 64 kDa) was produced. The recombinant protein was separated using SDS-PAGE, excised from the gel, electro-eluted and then used for immunization for monoclonal antibody (MAb) production. Four MAbs specific to the capsid protein were selected and could be used to detect natural MrNV infections in M. rosenbergii by dot blotting, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry without cross-reaction with uninfected shrimp tissues or other common shrimp viruses. The detection sensitivity of the MAbs was 10 fmol µl-1 of the GST-MrNV, as determined using dot blotting. However, the sensitivity of the MAb on dot blotting with homogenate from naturally infected M. rosenbergii was approximately 200-fold lower than that of 1-step RT-PCR. Immunohistochemical analysis using these MAbs with infected shrimp tissues demonstrated staining in the muscles, nerve cord, gill, heart, loose connective tissue and inter-tubular tissue of the hepatopancreas. Although the positive reactions occurred in small focal areas, the immunoreactivity was clearly demonstrated. The MAbs targeted different epitopes of the capsid protein and will be used to develop a simple immunoassay strip test for rapid detection of MrNV. PMID:22436460

  15. Identification and function of 11 Rab GTPases in giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Ren, Qian

    2015-03-01

    Rab GTPases, members of the Ras-like GTPase superfamily, are central elements in endocytic membrane trafficking. However, little is known of the Rab genes in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. In this study, 11 Rab genes were identified from M. rosenbergii. All MrRabs have a RAB domain. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these 11 MrRabs were divided into different groups. The MrRab genes were ubiquitously expressed in heart, hemocytes, hepatopancreas, gills, stomach, and intestines. Real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed that the MrRab genes were significantly upregulated by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in the prawns, indicating that MrRabs might play an important role in innate immune response against WSSV. Moreover, after challenge with Vibrio parahaemolyticus, the expression levels of all MrRabs in the hepatopancreas were also upregulated, which might indicated the involvement of MrRabs in prawns antibacterial immunity. In all, these preliminary results showed that MrRabs were involved in innate immunity of M. rosenbergii. PMID:25542378

  16. Monoclonal antibodies against extra small virus show that it co-localizes with Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus.

    PubMed

    Longyant, Siwaporn; Senapin, Saengchan; Sanont, Sirijantra; Wangman, Pradit; Chaivisuthangkura, Parin; Rukpratanporn, Sombat; Sithigorngul, Paisarn

    2012-07-25

    The capsid protein (CP) gene of extra small virus (XSV) expressed in Escherichia coli as a 42 kDa glutathione S-transferase (GST)-fusion protein (GST-XCP) or a 20 kDa His6-fusion protein (His6-XCP) were purified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), combined, and used to immunize Swiss mice to produce monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Using dot blot, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) methods, 4 MAbs specific to the XSV CP detected XSV in the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii without cross-reaction to host proteins or to proteins of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) or 5 of the most pathogenic viruses of penaeid shrimp. In dot blots, the combined MAbs could detect down to ~10 to 20 fmol µl-1 of purified GST-XCP protein, which was somewhat more sensitive compared to any single MAb. Used in conjunction with an MrNV-specific MAb, white tail disease (WTD) was diagnosed more effectively. However, the sensitivity at which the combined 4 MAbs detected XSV CP was 1000-fold lower than XSV RNA detected by RT-PCR. IHC analysis of M. rosenbergii tissue sections using the MAbs showed XSV infection to co-localize at variable loads with MrNV infection in heart and muscle cells as well as cells of connective tissues in the hepatopancreas. Since XSV histopathology remained prominent in tissues of some prawns in which MAb reactivity for MrNV was low compared to MAb reactivity for XSV, XSV might play some role in WTD severity. PMID:22832718

  17. First report on vertical transmission of a plasmid DNA in freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Labrechai Mog; Gireesh-Babu, P; Pavan-Kumar, A; Suresh Babu, P P; Chaudhari, Aparna

    2014-09-01

    Outbreak of WSSV disease is one of the major stumbling blocks in shrimp aquaculture. DNA vaccines have shown potential for mass scale vaccination owing to their stability, cost effectiveness and easy maintenance. Development of economically feasible delivery strategies remains to be a major challenge. This study demonstrates vertical transmission of a plasmid DNA in a decapod Macrobrachium rosenbergii for the first time. Females at three different maturation stages (immature, matured and berried) and mature males were injected with a plasmid DNA and allowed to spawn with untreated counterparts. Using specific primers the plasmid DNA could be amplified from the offspring of all groups except that of berried females. For this confirmation genomic DNA was isolated from 3 pools of 10 post larvae in each group. This presents an ideal strategy to protect young ones at zero stress. PMID:24933022

  18. Effect of cadmium on the ovarian development in the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man).

    PubMed

    Revathi, Peranandam; Vasanthi, Lourduraj Arockia; Munuswamy, Natesan

    2011-05-01

    In this investigation, effect of cadmium chloride (25 ?g/l) on oogenesis of freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii was studied. In vivo experiments were performed with both intact and eyestalk ablated prawns. The intact, cadmium-exposed prawns exhibited decrease in Gonado Somatic Index (GSI) and ovarian development compared to controls. Whereas, ablated treated ovary showed reduction of yolk material and oocyte membrane thickness at the end of 15 days exposure. Interestingly, the control prawn showed normal cellular architecture of gills, hepatopancreas and ovary with mature oocytes. But, the gills of treated prawns showed lamellar hypertrophy, cuticular dystrophy and irregular arrangement of epithelial cells. Hepatopancreas showed reduction in both tubular diameter and basement membrane thickness. Conspicuously, ovary showed hypertrophied primary oocytes with more vacuoles in intact-treated group. Cadmium had increased gonad inhibiting hormone (GIH) secretion and decreased gonad stimulating hormone (GSH) release as evident with the retardation of gonadal maturation in the intact prawns. PMID:21296420

  19. Preparation of Two Recombinant Crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormones from the Giant Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and Their Hyperglycemic Activities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsuyoshi Ohira; Naoaki Tsutsui; Hiromichi Nagasawa; Marcy N. Wilder

    2006-01-01

    Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) is released from the X-organ\\/sinus gland complex located in the eyestalks, and regulates glucose levels in the hemolymph. In the giant freshwater prawn ( Macrobrachium rosenbergii ), two cDNAs encoding different CHH molecules were previously cloned by other workers. One of these (Mar-CHH-2) was expressed only in the eyestalks, whereas the other (Mar-CHH-L) was expressed in

  20. Cloning of Two Crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone Isoforms in Freshwater Giant Prawn ( Macrobrachium rosenbergii ): Evidence of Alternative Splicing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shu-Hwa Chen; Chung-Yen Lin; Ching Ming Kuo

    2004-01-01

    A full-length chh cDNA was cloned from the eyestalk of Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The 991-bp cDNA contains an open reading frame of 408 bp that encodes the prepro-CHH. The tissue-specific expression pattern was examined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Positive signals were detected in the eyestalk, heart, gills, antennal glands, and thoracic ganglion but not in muscle and hepatopancreas. However, two

  1. Isolation and characterization of a female-specific DNA marker in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T Ventura; E D Aflalo; S Weil; K Kashkush; A Sagi

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a female-specific DNA marker in the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii was identified through amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). The AFLP-derived sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker was tested in over 200 individuals, giving reproducible sex identification. Further molecular characterization of the sex-marker's genomic region (?3 kb long) revealed the presence of tandem and inverted repeats. The ?3-kb sequence

  2. Effects of Water-Borne Copper on Digestive and Metabolic Enzymes of the Giant Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Na Li; Yunlong Zhao; Jian Yang

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential utility of enzyme parameters as indicators of water-borne copper\\u000a (Cu2+) contamination in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Activities of the digestive enzymes of tryptase, pepsin, cellulase, amylase, and metabolic enzymes of alkaline phosphatase\\u000a (AKP), acid phosphatase (ACP), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were measured in the hepatopancreas

  3. Involvement of Relish gene from Macrobrachium rosenbergii in the expression of anti-microbial peptides.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yan-Ru; Jin, Min; Ma, Fu-Tong; Huang, Ying; Huang, Xin; Feng, Jin-Ling; Zhao, Ling-Ling; Chen, Yi-Hong; Ren, Qian

    2015-10-01

    Relish is an NF-kB transcription factor involved in immune-deficiency (IMD) signal pathway. In this study, a Relish gene (MrRelish) was identified from Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The full length of MrRelish comprises 5072 bp, including a 3510 bp open reading frame encoding a 1169 bp amino acid protein. MrRelish contains a Rel homology domain (RHD), a nucleus localization signal, an I?B-like domain (6 ankyrin repeats), and a death domain. Phylogenetic analysis showed that MrRelish and other Relish from crustaceans belong to one group. MrRelish was expressed in all detected tissues, with the highest expression level in hemocytes and intestines. MrRelish was also upregulated in hepatopancreas at 6?h after Vibrio anguillarum challenge. The over-expression of MrRelish could induce the expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), such as Drosophila Metchnikowin (Mtk), Attacin (Atta), Drosomycin (Drs), and Cecropin (CecA) and shrimp Penaeidin (Pen4). The RNAi of MrRelish in gills showed that the expression of crustin (cru) 2, Cru5, Cru8, lysozyme (Lyso) 1, and Lyso2 was inhibited. However, the expression of anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF) 1 and ALF3 did not change when MrRelish was knocked down. These results indicate that MrRelish may play an important role in innate immune defense against V. anguillarum in M. rosenbergii. PMID:26026243

  4. Toxicity of phenol on Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) eggs, larvae, and post-larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Law, A.T.; Yeo, M.E. [Universiti Kolej Terengganu (UPM), Darul Iman (Malaysia)] [Universiti Kolej Terengganu (UPM), Darul Iman (Malaysia)

    1997-03-01

    Literature on the toxicities of phenol on aquatic organisms is very limited. USEPA reported that the acute and chronic toxicities of phenol to freshwater aquatic life occur at concentrations as low as 10.2 mg/L and 2.56 mg/L, respectively. While for the saltwater aquatic life the acute toxicity occurs at concentrations as low as 5.8 mg/L. No data are available for the chronic toxicity of phenol to saltwater aquatic life. Sublethal concentrations of phenol have significant effects on the physiological and histological processes of the aquatic organisms: such as gill necrosis; destruction of erythrocyte cells; inhibition of sexual activities; suppression on growth and reduction of resistance to diseases. Macrobrachium rosenbergii(de Man) is the sole freshwater prawn cultured in Malaysia. Occasionally, the hatcheries are unable to produce the post-larvae because of undefined pollutants present in the water supplies. It has been observed that the use of cracked fiberglass tanks for larvae rearing is correlated with high mortality. This high mortality is probably due to the toxicity of the phenolic compounds which are leached out from the fiber glass tank into the water. This study was undertaken to evaluate the toxicity of phenol on eggs, larvae and post-larvae of M. rosenbergii and to set the water quality criteria of phenol for the said species. 16 refs., 3 tabs.

  5. A cytosolic glutathione s-transferase, GST-theta from freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii: molecular and biochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Arockiaraj, Jesu; Gnanam, Annie J; Palanisamy, Rajesh; Bhatt, Prasanth; Kumaresan, Venkatesh; Chaurasia, Mukesh Kumar; Pasupuleti, Mukesh; Ramaswamy, Harikrishnan; Arasu, Abirami; Sathyamoorthi, Akila

    2014-08-10

    Glutathione S-transferases play an important role in cellular detoxification and may have evolved to protect cells against reactive oxygen metabolites. In this study, we report the molecular characterization of glutathione s-transferase-theta (GST-?) from freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. A full length cDNA of GSTT (1417 base pairs) was isolated and characterized bioinformatically. Exposure to virus (white spot syndrome baculovirus or M. rosenbergii nodovirus), bacteria (Aeromonas hydrophila or Vibrio harveyi) or heavy metals (cadmium or lead) significantly increased the expression of GSTT (P<0.05) in hepatopancreas. Recombinant GST-? with monochlorobimane substrate had an optimum activity at pH7.5 and 35 °C. Furthermore recombinant GST-? activity was abolished by the denaturants triton X-100, Gua-HCl, Gua-thiocyanate, SDS and urea in a dose-dependent manner. Overall, the results suggest a potential role for M. rosenbergii GST-? in detoxification and possibly conferring immune protection. PMID:24879918

  6. Transcriptomics of a Giant Freshwater Prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii): De Novo Assembly, Annotation and Marker Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hyungtaek; Lyons, Russell E.; Dinh, Hung; Hurwood, David A.; McWilliam, Sean; Mather, Peter B.

    2011-01-01

    Background Giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii or GFP), is the most economically important freshwater crustacean species. However, as little is known about its genome, 454 pyrosequencing of cDNA was undertaken to characterise its transcriptome and identify genes important for growth. Methodology and Principal Findings A collection of 787,731 sequence reads (244.37 Mb) obtained from 454 pyrosequencing analysis of cDNA prepared from muscle, ovary and testis tissues taken from 18 adult prawns was assembled into 123,534 expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Of these, 46% of the 8,411 contigs and 19% of 115,123 singletons possessed high similarity to sequences in the GenBank non-redundant database, with most significant (E value < 1e–5) contig (80%) and singleton (84%) matches occurring with crustacean and insect sequences. KEGG analysis of the contig open reading frames identified putative members of several biological pathways potentially important for growth. The top InterProScan domains detected included RNA recognition motifs, serine/threonine-protein kinase-like domains, actin-like families, and zinc finger domains. Transcripts derived from genes such as actin, myosin heavy and light chain, tropomyosin and troponin with fundamental roles in muscle development and construction were abundant. Amongst the contigs, 834 single nucleotide polymorphisms, 1198 indels and 658 simple sequence repeats motifs were also identified. Conclusions The M. rosenbergii transcriptome data reported here should provide an invaluable resource for improving our understanding of this species' genome structure and biology. The data will also instruct future functional studies to manipulate or select for genes influencing growth that should find practical applications in aquaculture breeding programs. PMID:22174756

  7. Cloning and characterization of two different ficolins from the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Wen; Wang, Xian-Wei; Huang, Ying; Hui, Kai-Min; Shi, Yan-Ru; Wang, Wen; Ren, Qian

    2014-06-01

    Ficolins, a kind of lectin containing collagen-like and fibrinogen-related domains (FReDs, also known as FBG or FREP), are involved in the first line of host defense against pathogens. In this study, two ficolins, namely, MrFico1 and MrFico2, from the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii were identified. In contrast to other ficolins, these two ficolins have no collagen-like domain, but such ficolins contain a coiled region and a FReD domain. Phylogenetic analysis showed that MrFico1 and MrFico2, together with two ficolin-like proteins from Pacifastacus leniusculus, belonged to one group. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) showed that both MrFico1 and MrFico2 were expressed in hepatopancreas, stomach and intestine, with the highest expression in stomach for MrFico1, compared to the highest expression in hepatopancreas for MrFico2. qRT-PCR analysis also showed that MrFico1 was obviously upregulated upon Vibrio anguillarium challenge, while MrFico2 was upregulated after challenged by V. anguillarium or white spot syndrome virus. Bacterium-binding experiment showed that MrFico1 and MrFico2 could bind to different microbes, and sugar-binding assay revealed that these two ficolins could also bind to lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycan, the glycoconjugates of bacteria surface. Moreover, these two ficolins could agglutinate bacteria in a calcium-dependent manner, and the results of bacteria clearance experiment showed that both ficolins could facilitate the clearance of injected bacteria in the prawn. Our results suggested that MrFico1 and MrFico2 may function as pattern-recognition receptors in the immune system of M. rosenbergii. PMID:24462836

  8. The history of the introduction of the giant river prawn, Macrobrachium cf. rosenbergii (Decapoda, Palaemonidae), in Brazil: New insights from molecular data

    PubMed Central

    Iketani, Gabriel; Pimentel, Luciana; Silva-Oliveira, Glaúcia; Maciel, Cristiana; Valenti, Wagner; Schneider, Horacio; Sampaio, Iracilda

    2011-01-01

    The giant river prawn, Macrobrachium cf. rosenbergii, is one of the most cultivated freshwater prawns in the world and has been introduced into more than 40 countries. In some countries, this prawn is considered an invasive species that requires close monitoring. Recent changes in the taxonomy of this species (separation of M. rosenbergii and M. dacqueti) require a re-evaluation of introduced taxa. In this work, molecular analyses were used to determine which of these two species was introduced into Brazil and to establish the geographic origin of the introduced populations that have invaded Amazonian coastal waters. The species introduced into Brazil was M. dacqueti through two introduction events involving prawns originating from Vietnam and either Bangladesh or Thailand. These origins differ from historical reports of the introductions and underline the need to confirm the origin of other exotic populations around the world. The invading populations in Amazonia require monitoring not only because the biodiversity of this region may be affected by the introduction, but also because admixture of different native haplotypes can increase the genetic variability and the likelihood of persistence of the invading species in new habitats. PMID:21637558

  9. Molecular cloning and characterisation of peroxinectin, a cell adhesion molecule, from the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Pei-I; Liu, Chun-Hung; Tseng, Deng-Yu; Lee, Pai-Po; Cheng, Winton

    2006-07-01

    Expression of peroxinectin cDNA was determined from haemocytes of giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii using oligonucleotide primers and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) based on the peroxinectin sequence of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon, and freshwater crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus. The peroxinectin of M. rosenbergii was constitutively expressed. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence revealed that the cDNA clone has an open reading frame of 2,403 bp encoding a protein of 801 amino acids including a 20 amino acid signal peptide. The calculated molecular mass of the mature protein (781 amino acids) was 88.7 kDa with an estimated pI of 6.8. A putative peroxidase domain and a putative integrin-binding motif, KGD (Lys-Gly-Asp) were observed in prawn peroxinectin at the C-terminal. Sequence comparison showed that peroxinectin deduced amino acid of M. rosenbergii had an overall similarity of 62%, 64%, and 66% to that of P. leniusculus, P. monodon, and L. vannamei, respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that peroxinectin transcript in haemocyte of M. rosenbergii decreased significantly after 3, 6 and 12h injection with Lactococcus garvieae. PMID:16377210

  10. Peroxinectin gene transcription of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii under intrinsic, immunostimulant, and chemotherapeutant influences.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun-Hung; Yeh, Shinn-Pyng; Hsu, Pei-Yi; Cheng, Winton

    2007-04-01

    Peroxinectin (PE) gene expressions were determined using real-time PCR in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii based on moulting; prawns were fed diets containing different concentrations of sodium alginate, and were exposed to different concentrations of copper sulphate, benzalkonium chloride (BKC), and trichlorfon. Results showed that PE mRNA expression of prawns was the highest in stage A, significantly decreased in stage B, and reached the lowest level in stages D0/D1. The PE transcript was significantly higher in prawns fed the 1.0 gkg(-1) sodium alginate-containing diet than those fed the 2.0 gkg(-1) sodium alginate-containing diet and those fed the control diet. PE transcripts significantly decreased in prawns exposed to 0.1-0.4 mgL(-1) copper sulphate after 96 h, 0.3-1.0 mgL(-1) BKC after 96 h, and 0.2-0.4 mgL(-1) trichlorfon after 48 h. It was concluded that the status of PE gene expression was seriously affected by the moult cycle, immunostimulant, and chemotherapeutants. PMID:17056274

  11. Effect of hypoxia on the immune response of giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and its susceptibility to pathogen Enterococcus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Winton Cheng; Chun-Hung Liu; Jung-Ping Hsu; Jiann-Chu Chen

    2002-01-01

    Giant freshwater prawns Macrobrachium rosenbergii (14–19g) were challenged withEnterococcus (3×105cfu prawn?1) previously incubated in TSB medium for 24h, then placed in water having concentrations of dissolved oxygen (DO) at 7·75, 4·75, 2·75 and 1·75mg l?1. Onset of mortality occurred after 6h exposure to 1·75mg l?1 DO, and after 12h exposure to 2·75mg l?1 DO. Cumulative mortality of prawns at 1·75mg

  12. Osmotic and ionic regulation in the giant Malaysian fresh water prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man), with special reference to strontium and bromine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. Funge-Smith; A. C. Taylor; J. Whitley; J. H. Brown

    1995-01-01

    Macrobrachium rosenbergii is able to exert a high degree of control over the osmotic pressure and the ionic concentration of its haemolymph when exposed to a wide range of salinity between fresh water and its isosmotic point. Sodium and chloride ions were regulated at almost identical concentrations over most of the salinity range tested. Calcium and potassium ions were hyperregulated

  13. Impact of TBT on the vitellogenesis and sex hormones in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1879)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tributyltin (TBT) is a ubiquitous persistent xenobiotic that can be found in freshwater, estuarine and marine ecosystem. TBT is a strong endocrine disrupting compound (EDC) that can cause toxic threat to aquatic organisms. Imposex, sexual deformities and endocrine dysfunctions are the causes of TBT to most of the aquatic organisms. Effect of TBT on the vitellogenesis and sex hormonal changes in Macrobrachium rosenbergii has never been reported. Hence, the present investigation was undertaken to find out the impact of TBT on histological changes in the different reproductive tissues, sex hormonal alterations and level of biomarkers like vitellogenin and vitellin in M. rosenbergii. Results The present investigation documents the possible impact of tributyltin (TBT) on the vitellogenesis in freshwater female prawn M. rosenbergii. TBT at 10 ng/l, 100 ng/l and 1000 ng/l concentrations were exposed individually to prawns for a period of three months. At higher concentration of 1000 ng/l, the ovarian development was arrested and ovary remained at spent stage. At lower concentration of TBT (10 ng/l), the development proceeded up to early vitellogenic stage. At intermediate concentration of 100 ng/l TBT, the ovary remained at pre vitellogenic stage and thereafter no development was noticed. Histological results indicated the normal ovarian development with vitellogenic oocytes, filled with yolk globules in control prawn. On the other hand, the TBT treated groups showed reduction in yolk globules, fusion of developing oocytes and abundance of immature oocytes. Immunofluorescence staining denoted the remarkable reduction in vitellin content in ovary of TBT treated prawn. Hence, TBT had conspicuously inhibited the vitellogenesis by causing hormonal imbalance in M. rosenbergii. Conclusion TBT had notably inhibited the vitellogenesis due to hormonal imbalance. This endocrine dysfunction ultimately impaired the oogenesis in the freshwater female prawn M. rosenbergii. PMID:23634699

  14. Identification of the major allergen of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (giant freshwater prawn)

    PubMed Central

    Yadzir, Zailatul Hani Mohamad; Misnan, Rosmilah; Abdullah, Noormalin; Bakhtiar, Faizal; Arip, Masita; Murad, Shahnaz

    2012-01-01

    Objective To characterize the major allergens of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (giant freshwater prawn). Methods Raw and cooked extracts of the giant freshwater prawn were prepared. The IgE reactivity pattern was identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting technique with the sera of 20 skin prick test (SPT) positive patients. The major allergen identified was then characterized using the proteomics approach involving a combination of two-dimensional (2-DE) electrophoresis, mass spectrometry and bioinformatics tools. Results SDS-PAGE of the raw extract showed 23 protein bands (15–250 kDa) but those ranging from 40 to 100 kDa were not found in the cooked extract. From immunoblotting experiments, raw and cooked extracts demonstrated 11 and 5 IgE-binding proteins, respectively, with a molecular mass ranging from 15 to 155 kDa. A heat-resistant 36 kDa protein was identified as the major allergen of both extracts. In addition, a 42 kDa heat-sensitive protein was shown to be a major allergen of the raw extract. The 2-DE gel fractionated the prawn proteins to more than 50 different protein spots. Of these, 10 spots showed specific IgE reactivity with patients' sera. Matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) analysis led to identification of 2 important allergens, tropomyosin and arginine kinase. Conclusions It can be concluded that the availability of such allergens would help in component-based diagnosis and therapy of prawn allergies. PMID:23569834

  15. Flow cytometry studies on the Macrobrachium rosenbergii hemocytes sub-populations and immune responses to novel pathogen spiroplasma MR-1008.

    PubMed

    Du, Jie; Zhu, Huanxi; Ren, Qian; Liu, Peng; Chen, Jing; Xiu, Yunji; Yao, Wei; Meng, Qingguo; Gu, Wei; Wang, Wen

    2012-10-01

    Flow cytometry provides rapid and reproducible methods for analyzing crustacean cellular immune responses to pathogens. We used this method to investigate the hemocytes sub-populations of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and their immune responses to a novel pathogen spiroplasma MR-1008. M. rosenbergii inoculated with 100 ?l spiroplasma strain MR-1008 in logarithmic phase (10(8) spiroplasmas ml(-1)) were examined for total hemocytes count (THC) and changes in differential involvement of hemocytes sub-populations during 1-28 d after inoculation. The results showed that THC was dramatically lowered 1 d after inoculation, and it obviously increased at the 5 d after inoculation; thereafter, a high level of THC was maintained to 15 d. Three morphologically distinct hemocytes sub-populations including granular cells (GC), semigranular cells (SGC) and hyaline cells (HC) could be identified by flow cytometry, and the proportions of the 3 kinds of cell categories varied obviously during the infection of spiroplasma suggesting differential involvement according to the pathogen. The flow cytometry used in this study confirmed that the semigranular cells were the main hemocytes involved in the cellular defense against spiroplasma in the M. rosenbergii. PMID:22842149

  16. In silico Neuropeptidome of Female Macrobrachium rosenbergii Based on Transcriptome and Peptide Mining of Eyestalk, Central Nervous System and Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tianfang; Zhao, Min; Elizur, Abigail; Sretarugsa, Prapee; Cummins, Scott F.; Sobhon, Prasert

    2015-01-01

    Macrobrachium rosenbergii is the most economically important of the cultured freshwater crustacean species, yet there is currently a deficiency in genomic and transcriptomic information for research requirements. In this study, we present an in silico analysis of neuropeptide genes within the female M. rosenbergii eyestalk, central nervous system, and ovary. We could confidently predict 37 preproneuropeptide transcripts, including those that encode bursicons, crustacean cardioactive peptide, crustacean hyperglycemic hormones, eclosion hormone, pigment-dispersing hormones, diuretic hormones, neuropeptide F, neuroparsins, SIFamide, and sulfakinin. These transcripts are most prominent within the eyestalk and central nervous system. Transcript tissue distribution as determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed the presence of selected neuropeptide genes of interest mainly in the nervous tissues while others were additionally present in the non-nervous tissues. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of eyestalk peptides confirmed the presence of the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone precursor. This data set provides a strong foundation for further studies into the functional roles of neuropeptides in M. rosenbergii, and will be especially helpful for developing methods to improve crustacean aquaculture. PMID:26023789

  17. Interaction study of a novel Macrobrachium rosenbergii effector caspase with B2 and capsid proteins of M. rosenbergii nodavirus reveals their roles in apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Youngcharoen, Supak; Senapin, Saengchan; Lertwimol, Tareerat; Longyant, Siwaporn; Sithigorngul, Paisarn; Flegel, Timothy W; Chaivisuthangkura, Parin

    2015-08-01

    Apoptosis is an essential immune response to protect invertebrates from virus infected cells. In shrimp, virus infection has been reported to induce apoptosis. Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Mr) was considered to be a disease-resistant host when compared to penaeid shrimps. Caspase-3 was classified as an executioner caspase which played a key role in virus-induced apoptosis. In this study, an effector caspase gene of M. rosenbergii (Mrcasp) was cloned and characterized. The open reading frame (ORF) of Mrcasp was 957 nucleotide encoding 318 amino acid with a deduced molecular mass of 35.87 kDa. RT-PCR analysis showed the presence of Mrcasp in all examined tissues. The phylogenetic tree indicated that Mrcasp was closely related with caspase 3 of shrimp. The functions of the Mrcasp, B2 and capsid proteins of M. rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) were assayed in Sf-9 cells. The results showed that Mrcasp induce apoptotic morphology cells; however, capsid protein of MrNV could inhibit apoptotic cells whereas B2 could neither induce nor inhibit apoptotic cells by DAPI staining. The protein interaction between Mrcasp and viral MrNV structure revealed that Mrcasp did not bind to B2 or capsid protein whereas B2 and capsid proteins could bind directly to each other. This study reported a novel sequence of a full-length Mrcasp and its functional studies indicated that Mrcasp could induce apoptotic cells. Our data is the first report demonstrating the direct protein-protein interaction between capsid protein and B2 protein of MrNV. PMID:25982399

  18. Identification and cloning of a transglutaminase from giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and its transcription during pathogen infection and moulting.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun-Hung; Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Chiu, Yun-Chih; Cheng, Winton; Yeh, Maw-Sheng

    2011-12-01

    Complementary (c)DNA encoding transglutaminase (TG) messenger (m)RNA of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, was cloned from haemocytes by a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) using oligonucleotide primers based on the TG sequence of the horseshoe crab, Tachypleus tridentatus; tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon; kuruma shrimp, Marsupenaeus japonicus; and crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus. The 2722-bp cDNA contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 2334 bp, a 72-bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), and a 316-bp 3'-UTR containing a stop codon and a poly A tail. The molecular mass of the deduced amino acid (aa) sequence (778 aa) was 86.67 kDa with an estimated pI of 5.4. The M. rosenbergii TG (abbreviated MrTG, accession no.: JF309296) contains a typical transglutaminase-like homologue, two putative integrin-binding motifs (RGD), ten glycosylation sites, and four calcium-binding sites; a catalytic triad is present as in arthropod TGs. Sequence comparison and a phylogenetic analysis revealed that shrimp TG can be separated into three subgroups, penaeid TG1, freshwater crustacean TG2 and marine crustacean TG2, and MrTG was more closely related to TG2 than to TG1. MrTG mRNA and TG activities were detected in all tested tissues of M. rosenbergii, with MrTG mainly being synthesised by haemocytes. There was a negative correlation between clotting time of haemolymph, and MrTG expression and TG activity of haemocytes in prawn injected with Lactococcus garvieae. The pattern of MrTG mRNA expression and TG activity in haemocytes exhibited a contrary tendency with clotting time of haemolymph during the moult stages. Those results indicate that cloned MrTG is involved in the defence response, and is probably the major functional TG for haemolymph coagulation in M. rosenbergii. PMID:21854853

  19. Molecular and immunological responses of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, to the organophosphorus insecticide, trichlorfon.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Rahmawaty, Atiek; Chang, Zhong-Wen

    2013-04-15

    Trichlorfon is an organophosphorus (OP) insecticide that is used as an agriculture pesticide to destroy insects, a human medicine to combat internal parasites, and an ectoparasiticide in the livestock and aquaculture industries, but which has caused aquatic toxicity in the prawn industry. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of trichlorfon on molecular and enzymatic processes of the immunological response of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, at 0, 0.2, and 0.4mgL(-1) with 0, 3, 6, 12, and 24h of exposure. The total hemocyte count (THC), respiratory bursts (RBs), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were examined to evaluate immunological responses and oxidative stress. Results showed that THCs of the prawn exposed to trichlorfon at both concentrations (0.2 and 0.4mgL(-1)) had increased after 12 and 24h; SOD and PO activities had significantly increased at 3h, whereas production of RBs had dramatically increased as oxidative stress at each sampling time after exposure to trichlorfon compared to the control. A potential biomarker of OPs, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) revealed a significant decrease after exposure for 6h, and showed a time-dependent tendency. Immune gene expressions, including prophenoloxidase (proPO), the lipopolysaccharide- and ?-1,3-glucan-binding protein (LGBP), peroxinectin (PE), ?2-macroglubulin (?2M), transglutaminase (TG), and copper, zinc (Cu,Zn)-SOD, of prawns exposed to trichlorfon at 0, 0.2, and 0.4mgL(-1) for 0, 6, and 24h were further evaluated. Expressions of all of the immune genes significantly decreased when prawns were exposed to 0.4mgL(-1) trichlorfon for 24h, and among them, an increase in SOD expression was seen after exposure to 0.4mgL(-1) for 6h. Prawns exposed to trichlorfon within 24h exhibited the decrease of circulating hemocytes, and also the induction of oxidative stress, which caused subsequent damage to DNA formation of immune genes. From these results, we concluded that immunological responses and immune gene expressions of prawn exposed to trichlorfon at 0.4mgL(-1) for 24h were perturbed, thus causing a deficiency in immunity and subsequent increased susceptibility to pathogen infections. PMID:23340335

  20. The increase of immunity and disease resistance of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii by feeding with selenium enriched-diet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shieh-Tsung Chiu; Shu-Ling Hsieh; Shinn-Pyng Yeh; Shun-Ji Jian; Winton Cheng; Chun-Hung Liu

    2010-01-01

    The effects of inorganic selenium (Se) (sodium selenate, SSe) and organic selenium (seleno-l-methionine, MSe) supplementation on the immune response, antioxidant status, and disease resistance of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, were studied. Five experimental diets, including a control diet (without Se enrichment), 0.5 mg (kg diet)?1 of MSe, 1 mg (kg diet)?1 of MSe, 0.5 mg (kg diet)?1 of SSe, and 1 mg

  1. Immunomodulatory effect of Withania somnifera supplementation diet in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) against Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Balasundaram, Chellam; Jawahar, Sundaram; Heo, Moon-Soo

    2012-01-01

    The effect of Withania somnifera extract supplementation diets on innate immune response in giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) against Aeromonas hydrophila was investigated. The bacterial clearance efficiency significantly increased in prawn fed with 0.1% and 1.0% doses of W. somnifera supplementation diet against pathogen from weeks 1-4 as compared to the control. The innate immune parameters such as, phenoloxidase activity, superoxide anion level, superoxide dismutase activity, nitrate, and nitrite concentrations were significantly enhanced in prawn fed with 0.1% and 1.0% doses of W. somnifera supplementation diet from weeks 1-4 against pathogen. The total hemocyte counts (THC) significantly increased in prawn fed with 0.1% and 1.0% doses diet from weeks 1-4 against pathogen as compared to the control. These results strongly suggested that administration of W. somnifera through supplementation diet positively enhances the innate immune system and enhanced survival rate in M. rosenbergii against A. hydrophila infection. PMID:22118967

  2. Isolation and characterization of a female-specific DNA marker in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    PubMed Central

    Ventura, T; Aflalo, E D; Weil, S; Kashkush, K; Sagi, A

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a female-specific DNA marker in the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii was identified through amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). The AFLP-derived sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker was tested in over 200 individuals, giving reproducible sex identification. Further molecular characterization of the sex-marker's genomic region (?3?kb long) revealed the presence of tandem and inverted repeats. The ?3-kb sequence was identified both in male and female prawns, but with subtle differences: a deletion of 3?bp (present in female prawn but absent in male prawn) identified upstream of the SCAR marker sequence and two female-specific single-nucleotide polymorphisms, both indicating that male prawns are homozygous, whereas female prawns are heterozygous in this locus. Fluorescent in situ hybridization showed the ?3-kb sequence to be unique: to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a unique sex-specific sequence observed in situ in crustaceans. The sex-specific marker identified in M. rosenbergii may have considerable applied merit for crustacean culture in that it will enable the determination of genetic sex at early developmental stages when phenotypic differences are not identifiable. PMID:21522169

  3. Norepinephrine depresses the immunity and disease-resistance ability via ?1- and ?1-adrenergic receptors of Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Hung, Ming-Di; Cheng, Winton

    2011-06-01

    In this study, we determined the effects of norepinephrine (NE) on immunity and the pathway of its function in the freshwater giant prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The total hemocyte count (THC), differential hemocyte count (DHC), phenoloxidase activity, respiratory bursts, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, phagocytic activity, and clearance efficiency in response to the pathogen, Lactococcus garvieae, were measured when the freshwater giant prawn, M. rosenbergii (16.2±2.1 g) was individually injected with saline or NE at 0.5, 5.0, and 50.0 pmol prawn(-1). Results showed that semi-granular cells, respiratory bursts and phagocytic activity at 2 h, PO activity and clearance efficiency from 2 to 4 h, THC at 8 h, and SOD activity from 4 to 8 h significantly decreased, but hyaline cells at 2 h, and respiratory bursts at 8 h had significantly increased after injection of NE at 50.0 pmol prawn(-1). In prawns that had received 5.0 pmol NE prawn(-1), the PO activity had decreased at 2 h, SOD activity at 8 h, and the clearance efficiency at 2 h. PO activity had decreased at 2 h after prawns had received 0.5 pmol NE prawn(-1). All of the immune parameters had returned to control values by 16 h after receiving NE. However, no significant differences were observed in the granular cells during the experimental period. An injection of NE also significantly increased the mortality of prawns challenged with L. garvieae, which appeared to be dose dependent. In another experiment, NE co-injected with prazosin, metoprolol, or propranolol significantly decreased the mortality of challenged prawns, especially when co-injected with prazosin and metoprolol. These results suggest that stress-inducing NE suppresses the immune system, which in turn promotes the susceptibility of M. rosenbergii to L. garvieae via both ?1- and ?1-adrenergic receptors. PMID:21295067

  4. Effect of benzalkonium chloride stress on immune resistance and susceptibility to Lactococcus garvieae in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Winton; Wang, Ching-Hsien; Chen, Jiann-Chu

    2003-02-27

    Addition of benzalkonium chloride (BKC) at 0, 0.3, 0.6 and 1.0 mg l(-1) to tryptic soy broth (TSB) had no effect on growth of Lactococcus garvieae, a bacterial pathogen of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. However, injection of the cultured cells into prawns at a dose of 4 x 10(6) colony-forming units (cfu) prawn(-1) resulted in significantly higher mortality at 120 h (p < 0.05) in prawns injected with cells grown in the absence of BKC than in prawns injected with cells grown in the presence of BKC. In other experiments, prawns were injected with TSB-grown L. garvieae (4 x 10(6) and 3 x 10(5) cfu prawn(-1)) and then held in water containing BKC at 0, 0.3, 0.6 and 1.0 mg l(-1). After 120 h, mortality was significantly higher in all the BKC treatments than in the control without BKC. Prawns showed no significant differences in total hemocyte count (THC) or differential hemocyte count (DHC) amongst treatment and control groups. However, 96 h exposure to 0.3 mg l(-1) BKC or more resulted in a decrease in phenoloxidase activity and an increase in respiratory burst to levels considered to be cytoxic. In summary, exposure of L. garvieae to BKC at 0.3 mg l(-1) or more decreased its virulence to M. rosenbergii, while exposure of M. rosenbergii to BKC at 0.3 mg l(-1) or more increased its susceptibility to L. garvieae infection. PMID:12691193

  5. [Rapid detection of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus isolated in China by a reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay combined with a lateral flow dipstick method].

    PubMed

    Lin, Feng; Liu, Li; Hao, Gui-Jie; Cao, Zheng; Sheng, Peng-Cheng; Wu, Ying-Lei; Shen, Jin-Yu

    2014-09-01

    White coloration of the muscle of the giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) is a serious problem in China. The Macrobrachium rosenbergii Nodavirus (MrNV) has been confirmed to be the pathogen that causes this disorder. To develop a rapid, sensitive and specific technology for the detection of Macrobrachium rosenbergii Nodavirus isolated from China (MrNV-China), a reverse-transcription loop- mediated isothermal amplification assay combined with a lateral flow dipstick (RT-LAMP-LFD) assay method is described. A set of four primers and a labeled probe were designed specifically to recognize six distinct regions of the MrNV RNA2 gene. Results showed the sensitivity of the RT-LAMP-LFD assay was ten-times higher than the reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay (RT-LAMP) with agarose gel electrophoresis. The assay was conducted with one-step amplification at 61°C in a single tube within 45 min. No product was generated from shrimps infected with other viruses, including DNA viruses (infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV); white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)) and RNA viruses (Taura syndrome virus (TSV); infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV); yellow head virus (YHV)). Results were visualized by the LFD method. Therefore, the described rapid and sensitive assay is potentially useful for MrNV detection. PMID:25562958

  6. Characterization of two novel ADP ribosylation factors from giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and their responses to WSSV challenge.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zheng-Feng; Ren, Jie; Tan, Jing-Min; Wang, Zheng; Yin, Shao-Wu; Huang, Ying; Huang, Xin; Wang, Wen; Lan, Jiang-Feng; Ren, Qian

    2015-01-01

    ADP-ribosylation factors (Arfs) are small GTP-binding proteins that have an essential function in intracellular trafficking and organelle structure. To date, little information is available on the Arfs in the economically important giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and their relationship to viral infection. Here we identified two Arf genes from M.?rosenbergii (MrArf1 and MrArf2) for the first time. Phylogenetic analysis showed that MrArf1, together with MjArf1 from shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus belonged to Class I Arfs. By contrast, MrArf2 didn't not match any of the Arfs classes of I/II/III, although it could be clustered with an Arf protein from M.?japonicas called MjArfn, which may represent an analog of the Arf. MrArf1 was ubiquitously expressed in all the examined tissues, with the highest transcription level in the hepatopancreas, whereas MrArf2 was only highly expressed in the hepatopancreas and exhibited very low levels in the heart, stomach, gills and intestine. The expression level of MrArf1 in the gills was down-regulated post 24?h WSSV challenge, and reached the maximal level at 48?h. MrArf1 in the hepatopancreas went up from 24 to 48?h WSSV challenge. MrArf2 transcript in the gill also went down at 24?h and then was upregulated at 48?h WSSV challenge. MrArf2 increased significantly in the hepatopancreas 24?h after infection and then went down at 48?h WSSV challenge. RNAi results showed that knockdown of MrArf1 or MrArf2 could inhibit the expression of the envelope protein gene vp28 of the WSSV. So, it could be speculated that MrArf1 and MrArf2 might play important roles in the innate immune system against WSSV infection. PMID:25451300

  7. Function of a novel C-type lectin with two CRD domains from Macrobrachium rosenbergii in innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xin; Huang, Ying; Shi, Yan-Ru; Ren, Qian; Wang, Wen

    2015-03-01

    C-type lectins play crucial roles in innate immunity. In the present study, a novel C-type lectin gene, designated as MrCTL, was identified from Macrobrachium rosenbergii. MrCTL contains 2 carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs), namely MrCRD1 and MrCRD2. The MrCRD1 contains a QEP motif and MrCRD2 contains a motif of EPD. MrCTL was mainly expressed in the hepatopancreas. The expression level of MrCTL in hepatopancreas was significantly upregulated after a challenge with Vibrio parahaemolyticus or White spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The recombinant MrCTL, MrCRD1 and MrCRD2 have an ability to agglutinate both Gram-negative (V. parahaemolyticus) and Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus) in a calcium dependent manner. The recombinant MrCTL, MrCRD1 and MrCRD2 bind directly to all tested microorganisms. All these results suggested that MrCTL may have important roles in immune defense against invading pathogens in prawns. PMID:25475962

  8. Identification and Characterization of Differentially Expressed Transcripts in the Gills of Freshwater Prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) under Salt Stress

    PubMed Central

    Barman, Hirak Kumar; Patra, Swagat Kumar; Das, Varsha; Mohapatra, Shibani Dutta; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Mohapatra, Chinmayee; Mohanta, Ramya; Panda, Rudra Prasanna; Rath, Surya Narayan

    2012-01-01

    The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is an economically important species. It is a euryhaline shrimp, surviving in wide-range salinity conditions. A change in gene expression has been suggested as an important component for stress management. To better understand the osmoregulatory mechanisms mediated by the gill, a subtractive and suppressive hybridization (SSH) tool was used to identify expressed transcripts linked to adaptations in saline water. A total of 117 transcripts represented potentially expressed under salinity conditions. BLAST analysis identified 22% as known genes, 9% as uncharacterized showing homologous to unannotated ESTs, and 69% as unknown sequences. All the identified known genes representing broad spectrum of biological pathways were particularly linked to stress tolerance including salinity tolerance. Expression analysis of 10 known genes and 7 unknown/uncharacterized genes suggested their upregulation in the gills of prawn exposed to saline water as compared to control indicating that these are likely to be associated with salinity acclimation. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) was used for obtaining full-length cDNA of MRSW-40 clone that was highly upregulated during salt exposure. The sequenced ESTs presented here will have potential implications for future understanding about salinity acclimation and/or tolerance of the prawn. PMID:22619594

  9. Cloning and identification of four Mu-type glutathione S-transferases from the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Hui, Kai-Min; Hao, Fang-Yuan; Li, Wen; Zhang, Zhao; Zhang, Chi-Yu; Wang, Wen; Ren, Qian

    2013-08-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are essential components of the cellular detoxification system because of their capability to protect organisms against the toxicity of reactive oxygen species (ROSs). Four different GSTs (MrMuGST1-MrMuGST4) showing similarities with Mu-type GSTs were cloned from the hepatopancreas of Macrobrachium rosenbergii. These four GSTs have 219, 216, 218 and 219 amino acids in length, respectively. MrMuGST1-MrMuGST4 proteins all have a G-site in the N-terminus and an H-site in the C-terminus. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that four Mu-type GSTs are classified into two different clades (MrMuGST2 one clade; MrMuGST1, MrMuGST3 and MrMuGST4 other clades). Nonetheless, no site under positive selection was detected but rapid evolution was found in the few of MuGST genes. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results showed that MrMuGST1 and MrMuGST2 transcripts were expressed in all detected tissues, however, MrMuGST3 and MrMuGST4 were just mainly expressed in hepatopancreas and intestines. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that MrMuGST1 and MrMuGST2 were down-regulated upon Vibrio anguillarum challenge, whereas MrMuGST3 and MrMuGST4 were quickly up-regulated 2 h after the Vibrio challenge. Our results imply that different Mu-type GSTs may respond to Vibrio challenge with different manners. PMID:23727284

  10. Characterization of a gC1qR from the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Ye, Ting; Huang, Xin; Wang, Xian-Wei; Shi, Yan-Ru; Hui, Kai-Min; Ren, Qian

    2015-03-01

    gC1qR, as a multicompartmental and a multifunctional protein, plays an important role in innate immunity. In this study, a gC1qR homolog (MrgC1qR) in the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii was identified. MrgC1qR, a 258-amino-acid polypeptide, shares high identities with gC1qR from other species. MrgC1qR gene was expressed in different tissues and was highest expressed in the hepatopancreas. In addition, the MrgC1qR transcript was significantly enhanced after 6 h of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection or post 2 h, 24 h of Vibrio anguillarum challenge compared to appropriate controls. Moreover, recombinant MrgC1qR (rMrgC1qR) had bacterial binding activity, the result also revealed that rMrgC1qR could bind pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) such as LPS or PGN, suggesting that MrgC1qRmight function as a pathogen-recognition receptor (PRR). Furthermore, glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down assays showed that rMrgC1qR with GST-tag could bind to rMrFicolin1 or rMrFicolin2 with His-tag. Altogether, these results may demonstrate a role for MrgC1qR in innate immunity in the giant freshwater prawns. PMID:25555810

  11. Effects of dietary administration of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) extracts on the immune responses and disease resistance of giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Tan, Hui-Ching; Cheng, Winton

    2013-07-01

    The hot-water extract of Eichhornia crassipes leaves (ECE) was produced and incorporated into the diet of the prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, as an immunostimulant. Survival rates of prawn against Lactococcus garvieae, and its immune parameters including the total haemocyte count (THC), different haemocyte count (DHC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts (RBs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, transglutaminase (TG) activity, haemolymph coagulation time, and phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency against L. garvieae by M. rosenbergii were determined when prawn (23.0 ± 2.8 g) were fed ECE-containing diets at 0, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 g kg(-1). Prawn fed a diet containing ECE at 2.0 and 3.0 g kg(-1) for 12 days showed significantly increased THC, HC, GC, PO activity, RBs, SOD activity, GPx activity, and TG activity, and a significantly decreased coagulation time. The phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency against L. garvieae of prawn fed the ECE-containing diets at 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 g kg(-1) were significantly higher than those of prawn fed the control diet at 3-12 days. Survival rates of M. rosenbergii fed the diet containing ECE at concentrations of 2 and 3 g kg(-1) were significantly higher than those fed the control diet after challenge with L. garvieae for 48-144 h. The relative percentage survival of prawn fed the 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 g kg(-1) ECE-containing diets for 12 days were 17.5%, 39.1%, and 52.2%. It was concluded that the ECE can be used as an immunostimulant for prawn through dietary administration to enhance immune responses and resistance of M. rosenbergii against L. garvieae. PMID:23603238

  12. De novo transcriptome sequencing analysis and comparison of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in Macrobrachium rosenbergii in China.

    PubMed

    Nguyen Thanh, Hai; Zhao, Liangjie; Liu, Qigen

    2014-01-01

    Giant freshwater prawn (GFP; Macrobrachium rosenbergii) is an exotic species that was introduced into China in 1976 and thereafter it became a major species in freshwater aquaculture. However the gene discovery in this species has been limited to small-scale data collection in China. We used the next generation sequencing technology for the experiment; the transcriptome was sequenced of samples of hepatopancreas organ in individuals from 4 GFP groups (A1, A2, B1 and B2). De novo transcriptome sequencing generated 66,953 isogenes. Using BLASTX to search the Non-redundant (NR), Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes (STRING), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome (KEGG) databases; 21,224 unigenes were annotated, 9,552 matched unigenes with the Gene Ontology (GO) classification; 5,782 matched unigenes in 25 categories of Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COG) and 20,859 unigenes were consequently assigned to 312 KEGG pathways. Between the A and B groups 147 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified; between the A1 and A2 groups 6,860 DEGs were identified and between the B1 and B2 groups 5,229 DEGs were identified. After enrichment, the A and B groups identified 38 DEGs, but none of them were significantly enriched. The A1 and A2 groups identified 21,856 DEGs in three main categories based on functional groups: biological process, cellular_component and molecular function and the KEGG pathway defined 2,459 genes had a KEGG Ortholog-ID (KO-ID) and could be categorized into 251 pathways, of those, 9 pathways were significantly enriched. The B1 and B2 groups identified 5,940 DEGs in three main categories based on functional groups: biological process, cellular_component and molecular function, and the KEGG pathway defined 1,543 genes had a KO-ID and could be categorized into 240 pathways, of those, 2 pathways were significantly enriched. We investigated 99 queries (GO) which related to growth of GFP in 4 groups. After enrichment we identified 23 DEGs and 1 KEGG PATHWAY 'ko04711' relation with GFP growth. PMID:25329319

  13. Function of an anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF) isoform isolated from the hemocytes of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii in protecting against bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chia-Chen; Chung, Chien-Pang; Lin, Chang-Yi; Sung, Hung-Hung

    2014-02-01

    In this study, a 780-bp full-length cDNA encoding Macrobrachium rosenbergii anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (MrALF) from hemocytes was cloned and identified. The ALF isoform exhibited immune activities, and its concentration in hemolymph was determined. An in vivo expression study showed that the ALF mRNA level of hemocytes could be induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) in an exposure time-dependent manner. Purified recombinant MrALF (rMrALF) expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris SMD1168 eukaryotic protein expression system demonstrated antibacterial activity against the Gram-negative prawn pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)=0.806?M, minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC)=1.606?M) but not the Gram-positive pathogen Lactococcus garvieae exposed to 25.696?M of rALF. However, rMrALF can bind to Gram-negative and -positive bacteria. An in vivo expression study demonstrated that the ALF concentrations in prawn hemocytes and plasma were 0.176?M and 0.168?M, respectively; following LPS treatment for 6h, the corresponding concentrations were 0.133?M in hemocytes and 0.272?M in plasma. Furthermore, the percentage of hemocytes phagocytosing bacteria cells was higher in hemoyctes previously treated with MrALF than those treated with sterile medium. These results suggest that in the innate immune response of M. rosenbergii, the MrALF from hemocytes may play an opsonin during a bacterial invasion. PMID:24333685

  14. The effects of serotonin, dopamine, gonadotropin-releasing hormones, and corazonin, on the androgenic gland of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Siangcham, Tanapan; Tinikul, Yotsawan; Poljaroen, Jaruwan; Sroyraya, Morakot; Changklungmoa, Narin; Phoungpetchara, Ittipon; Kankuan, Wilairat; Sumpownon, Chanudporn; Wanichanon, Chaitip; Hanna, Peter J; Sobhon, Prasert

    2013-11-01

    Neurotransmitters and neurohormones are agents that control gonad maturation in decapod crustaceans. Of these, serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) are neurotransmitters with known antagonist roles in female reproduction, whilst gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRHs) and corazonin (Crz) are neurohormones that exercise both positive and negative controls in some invertebrates. However, the effects of these agents on the androgenic gland (AG), which controls testicular maturation and male sex development in decapods, via insulin-like androgenic gland hormone (IAG), are unknown. Therefore, we set out to assay the effects of 5-HT, DA, l-GnRH-III, oct-GnRH and Crz, on the AG of small male Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Mr), using histological studies, a BrdU proliferative cell assay, immunofluorescence of Mr-IAG, and ELISA of Mr-IAG. The results showed stimulatory effects by 5-HT and l-GnRH-III through significant increases in AG size, proliferation of AG cells, and Mr-IAG production (P<0.05). In contrast, DA and Crz caused inhibitory effects on the AG through significant decreases in AG size, proliferation of AG cells, and Mr-IAG production (P<0.05). Moreover, the prawns treated with Crz died before day 16 of the experimental period. We propose that 5-HT and certain GnRHs can be now used to stimulate reproduction in male M. rosenbergii, as they induce increases in AG and testicular size, IAG production, and spermatogenesis. The mechanisms by which these occur are part of our on-going research. PMID:23867230

  15. The increase of immunity and disease resistance of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii by feeding with selenium enriched-diet.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Shieh-Tsung; Hsieh, Shu-Ling; Yeh, Shinn-Pyng; Jian, Shun-Ji; Cheng, Winton; Liu, Chun-Hung

    2010-10-01

    The effects of inorganic selenium (Se) (sodium selenate, SSe) and organic selenium (seleno-l-methionine, MSe) supplementation on the immune response, antioxidant status, and disease resistance of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, were studied. Five experimental diets, including a control diet (without Se enrichment), 0.5 mg (kg diet)(-1) of MSe, 1 mg (kg diet)(-1) of MSe, 0.5 mg (kg diet)(-1) of SSe, and 1 mg (kg diet)(-1) of SSe, were used. After 75 days of culture, prawn fed the Se-enriched diets had lower mortality compared to that of prawn fed the control diet after being challenged by the pathogen, Debaryomyces hansenii. No significant differences in the total hemocyte count, superoxide dismutase activity, or clearance efficiency of prawn were recorded among the control and treated groups. Significantly increased phenoloxidase and phagocytic activities in prawn fed the Se-enriched diets were found compared to the controls. Respiratory bursts of prawn fed both forms of 1 mg Se (kg diet)(-1) significantly increased compared to control prawns. For the antioxidant status analysis, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione s-transferase of prawn fed the SSe-enriched diet at 1 mg (kg diet)(-1) were significantly increased. The results indicated that the cheaper selenium, SSe is recommended to be added in prawn feed at the concentration of 0.5 mg resulting in 1.5 mg SSe (kg diet)(-1) increased prawn immunity and disease resistance against the pathogen, D. hansenii. PMID:20561587

  16. Proteomic analysis of differentially expressed protein in hemocytes of wild giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii infected with infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV)

    PubMed Central

    Alinejad, T.; Bin, Kwong Q.; Vejayan, J.; Othman, R.Y.; Bhassu, S.

    2015-01-01

    Epizootic diseases cause huge mortality and economical loses at post larvae stages in freshwater prawn aquaculture industry. These prawns seem less susceptible to viral diseases except for infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV). During viral infection in prawns, hemocytes are the primary organ that shows immunological response within the early stages of infection. We applied proteomic approaches to understand differential expression of the proteins in hemocytes during the viral disease outbreak. To aid the goal, we collected Macrobrachium rosenbergii broodstocks from the local grow out hatchery which reported the first incidence of IHHNV viral outbreak during larvae stage. Primarily, application of the OIE primer targeting 389 bp fragments of IHHNV virus was used in identification of the infected and non-infected samples of the prawn breeding line. Analysis of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis showed specific down-regulation of Arginine kinase and Sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein and up/down-regulation of Prophenoloxidase1 and hemocyanin isoforms. These proteins were validated using semi quantitative RT-PCR and gene transcripts at mRNA level. These identified proteins can be used as biomarkers, providing a powerful approach to better understanding of the immunity pathway of viral disease with applications in analytic and observational epidemiology diagnosis. Proteomic profiling allows deep insight into the pathogenesis of IHHNV molecular regulation and mechanism of hemocyte in freshwater prawns. PMID:26106581

  17. Proteomic analysis of differentially expressed protein in hemocytes of wild giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii infected with infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV).

    PubMed

    Alinejad, T; Bin, Kwong Q; Vejayan, J; Othman, R Y; Bhassu, S

    2015-09-01

    Epizootic diseases cause huge mortality and economical loses at post larvae stages in freshwater prawn aquaculture industry. These prawns seem less susceptible to viral diseases except for infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV). During viral infection in prawns, hemocytes are the primary organ that shows immunological response within the early stages of infection. We applied proteomic approaches to understand differential expression of the proteins in hemocytes during the viral disease outbreak. To aid the goal, we collected Macrobrachium rosenbergii broodstocks from the local grow out hatchery which reported the first incidence of IHHNV viral outbreak during larvae stage. Primarily, application of the OIE primer targeting 389 bp fragments of IHHNV virus was used in identification of the infected and non-infected samples of the prawn breeding line. Analysis of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis showed specific down-regulation of Arginine kinase and Sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein and up/down-regulation of Prophenoloxidase1 and hemocyanin isoforms. These proteins were validated using semi quantitative RT-PCR and gene transcripts at mRNA level. These identified proteins can be used as biomarkers, providing a powerful approach to better understanding of the immunity pathway of viral disease with applications in analytic and observational epidemiology diagnosis. Proteomic profiling allows deep insight into the pathogenesis of IHHNV molecular regulation and mechanism of hemocyte in freshwater prawns. PMID:26106581

  18. The toxic effect of phthalate esters on immune responses of giant freshwater prawn ( Macrobrachium rosenbergii) via oral treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wen-Liang Chen; Hung-Hung Sung

    2005-01-01

    A previous in vitro study has indicated that four phthalate esters (PAEs) could damage hemocytes and decreases the cellular immunity of prawns [Sung, H.H., Kao, W.Y., Su, Y.J., 2003. Effects and toxicity of phthalate esters to hemocytes of giant freshwater prawn, Macrobranchium rosenbergii. Aquat. Toxicol. 64, 25–37]. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vivo effect of

  19. Cloning and immunoreactivity of the 5-HT1Mac and 5-HT2Mac receptors in the central nervous system of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez-Acevedo, Nietzell; Reyes-Colón, Dalynés; Ruíz-Rodríguez, Eduardo A.; Rivera, Nilsa M.; Rosenthal, Joshua; Kohn, Andrea B.; Moroz, Leonid L.; Sosa, María A.

    2009-01-01

    Biogenic amines are implicated in several mental disorders, many of which involve social interactions. Simple model systems, such as crustaceans, are often more amenable than vertebrates for studying mechanisms underlying behaviors. Although various cellular responses of biogenic amines have been characterized in crustaceans, the mechanisms linking these molecules to behavior remain largely unknown. Observed effects of serotonin receptor agonists and antagonists in abdomen posture, escape responses, and fighting have led to the suggestion that biogenic amine receptors may play a role in modulating interactive behaviors. As a first step in understanding this potential role of such receptors, we have cloned and fully sequenced two serotonin receptors, 5-HT1Mac and 5-HT2Mac, from the CNS of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and have mapped their CNS immunohistochemical distribution. 5-HT1Mac was found primarily on the membranes of subsets of cells in all CNS ganglia, in fibers that traverse all CNS regions, and in the cytoplasm of a small number of cells in the brain, circum- and subesophageal ganglia (SEG), most of which also appear to contain dopamine. The pattern of 5-HT2Mac immunoreactivity was found to differ significantly, being found mostly in the central neuropil area of all ganglia, in glomeruli of the brain’s olfactory lobes, and in the cytoplasm of a small number of neurons in the SEG, thoracic and some abdominal ganglia. The observed differences in terms of localization, distribution within cells, and intensity of immunoreactive staining throughout the prawn’s CNS suggest that these receptors are likely to play different roles. PMID:19184976

  20. Dietary supplement of banana (Musa acuminata) peels hot-water extract to enhance the growth, anti-hypothermal stress, immunity and disease resistance of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Rattanavichai, Wutti; Cheng, Winton

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, Macrobrachium rosenbergii were fed with diets containing extracts of banana, Musa acuminate, fruit's peel (banana peels extract, BPE) at 0, 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1). The non-specific immune parameters, disease resistance and anti-hypothermal stress were evaluated at 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 days of post feeding. Also, we demonstrated the percent weight gain (PWG), percent length gain (PLG), feeding efficiency (FE), and survival rate of giant freshwater prawn at 30, 60, 90, and 120 days of post feeding. The PWG, PLG, FE and survival rate of prawns fed at 0, 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1) BPE-containing diets after 120 days were 69.5%, 75.4%, 77.8% and 83.3%; 21.8%, 23.6%, 27.8% and 33.9%; 0.60, 0.72, 0.75 and 0.90; and 55.4%, 62.2%, 62.3% and 75.3%, respectively. After 32 days of post feeding, a significant increase in total haemocyte count (THC), different haemocyte count (DHC), respiratory bursts (RBs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, phenoloxidase (PO) activity and transglutaminase (TG) activity, and meanwhile, a decreased haemolymph coagulation time was observed. Furthermore, phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency of prawns against Lactococcus garvieae infection were significantly increased. Prawns challenged with L. garvieae after 32 days of feeding at 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1) had a significantly higher survival rate (33.3%, 40.0% and 56.7%) than those fed with the control diet. Subsequently, hypothermal (14 °C) stress was 43.4%, 50.0% and 50.0%, respectively. Altogether, we therefore recommend the dietary BPE administration at 6.0 g kg(-1) promotes growth, anti-hypothermal stress, and enhance immunity and resistance against L. garvieae in M. rosenbergii. PMID:25634258

  1. Ozone treatment in a closed culture system for Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    E-print Network

    Yamaguchi, Ryoji

    1978-01-01

    , turbidity and other organic substances was very effective, but no significant reduction in ammonia nitrogen content wss achieved, unless an oyster shell filter was introduced in the media. fea lty f tf 1 * 9 11 9 b*Mt ~btt demonstrated. Ozone... in the concentration range of 7 to 14 ppb was found t b btfhly *t M. ~b* tt. Possible mechanisms for the observed reaction of ozone are discussed. iv ACKNOWLDEGEMENTS I thank Dr. Richard Weaver and Dr. Richard Noble for their guidance in this study. Dr. Robert...

  2. Ozone treatment in a closed culture system for Macrobrachium rosenbergii 

    E-print Network

    Yamaguchi, Ryoji

    1978-01-01

    the basic Lowther plate principle. The rate of ozone input into a solution by the generator was found to be 0. 62 mg/min under an applied power supply of 14 watts/hour. Ozonation of culture media was analyzed. Ozonation of COD including ni. trite... or at 450 ppm COD. 18 7. Effects of ozonation on NH3-N in culture radium made from dechlorinated tap water 20 8. Effects of ozonation on COD in culture medium made from dechlorinated tap water. 22 9. Effects of ozone on COD and NH3-N in culture medium...

  3. Regulation of laboratory populations of snails (Biomphalaria and Bulinus spp.) by river prawns, Macrobrachium spp. (Decapoda, Palaemonidae): implications for control of schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Sokolow, Susanne H; Lafferty, Kevin D; Kuris, Armand M

    2014-04-01

    Human schistosomiasis is a common parasitic disease endemic in many tropical and subtropical countries. One barrier to achieving long-term control of this disease has been re-infection of treated patients when they swim, bathe, or wade in surface fresh water infested with snails that harbor and release larval parasites. Because some snail species are obligate intermediate hosts of schistosome parasites, removing snails may reduce parasitic larvae in the water, reducing re-infection risk. Here, we evaluate the potential for snail control by predatory freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii and M. vollenhovenii, native to Asia and Africa, respectively. Both prawn species are high value, protein-rich human food commodities, suggesting their cultivation may be beneficial in resource-poor settings where few other disease control options exist. In a series of predation trials in laboratory aquaria, we found both species to be voracious predators of schistosome-susceptible snails, hatchlings, and eggs, even in the presence of alternative food, with sustained average consumption rates of 12% of their body weight per day. Prawns showed a weak preference for Bulinus truncatus over Biomphalaria glabrata snails. Consumption rates were highly predictable based on the ratio of prawn: snail body mass, suggesting satiation-limited predation. Even the smallest prawns tested (0.5-2g) caused snail recruitment failure, despite high snail fecundity. With the World Health Organization turning attention toward schistosomiasis elimination, native prawn cultivation may be a viable snail control strategy that offers a win-win for public health and economic development. PMID:24388955

  4. Acute toxicity of organochlorine insecticide endosulfan to the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrochium rosenbergii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Xilin; Xiong, Zhaodi; Xie, Jian; Ding, Fujiang

    2014-01-01

    Endosulfan, an organochlorine pesticide, is highly toxic and effective at controlling pests in agriculture, horticulture, and public health programs. In this study, static bioassays were used to evaluate the toxicity of endosulfan to freshwater prawns ( Macrobrachium rosenbergii) of various lengths (1.5±0.03, 4±0.08, and 7±0.06 cm). Additionally, the activities of peroxidase (POD), acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and Na+/K+-ATPase were analyzed to reflect the effects of endosulfan exposure. The 96 h LC50 of endosulfan for prawns 1.5, 4, and 7 cm long were 1.86, 4.53, and 6.09 ?g/L, respectively, improved tolerance to endosulfan with growth. The POD activities of test organisms exposed to low concentrations of endosulfan were inhibited, indicating the presence of oxygen damaged tissue. Moreover, a notable decrease in AChE activity was observed due to overstimulation of neurotransmission, which might result in abnormal behavior. The effect caused by endosulfan on phosphatase production in the hepatopancreas of prawns 1.5, 4, and 7 cm long was different because the ability of nonspecific immune regulation increased with growth. The 96 h LC50 values obtained in this study could be used in the formulation of water-quality criteria in China. Moreover, the changes in enzymes activities of M. rosenbergii under stress of endosulfan could be applied in the establishment of early warning indicators for bio-safety.

  5. Two Kazal-type protease inhibitors from Macrobrachium nipponense and Eriocheir sinensis: comparative analysis of structure and activities.

    PubMed

    Qian, Ye-Qing; Li, Ye; Yang, Fan; Yu, Yan-Qin; Yang, Jin-Shu; Yang, Wei-Jun

    2012-03-01

    Kazal-type inhibitors (KPIs) play important roles in many biological and physiological processes, such as blood clotting, the immune response and reproduction. In the present study, two male reproductive tract KPIs, termed Man-KPI and Ers-KPI, were identified in Macrobrachium nipponense and Eriocheir sinensis, respectively. The inhibitory activities of recombinant Man-KPI and Ers-KPI against chymotrypsin, elastase, trypsin and thrombin were determined. The results showed that both of them strongly inhibit chymotrypsin and elastase. Kinetic studies were performed to elucidate their inhibition mechanism. Furthermore, individual domains were also expressed to learn further which domain contributes to the inhibitory activities of intact KPIs. Only Man-KPI_domain3 is active in the inhibition of chymotrypsin and elastase. Meanwhile, Ers-KPI_domain2 and 3 are responsible for inhibition of chymotrypsin, and Ers-KPI_domains2, 3 and 4 are responsible for the inhibition of elastase. Meanwhile, the inhibitory activities of these two KPIs toward Macrobrachium rosenbergii, M. nipponense and E. sinensis sperm were compared with that of the Kazal-type peptidase inhibitor (MRPINK) characterized from the M. rosenbergii reproductive tract in a previous study. The results demonstrated that KPIs can completely inhibit the gelatinolytic activities of sperm proteases from their own species, while different levels of cross-inhibition were observed between KPI and proteases from different species. These results may provide new perspective to further clarify the mechanism of KPI-proteases interaction in the male reproductive system. PMID:22200638

  6. Identification and cloning of a selenium dependent glutathione peroxidase from giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Shinn-Pyng; Liu, Kuan-Fu; Chiu, Shieh-Tsung; Jian, Shun-Ji; Cheng, Winton; Liu, Chun-Hung

    2009-08-01

    A selenium dependent glutathione peroxidase (Se-GPx) cDNA was cloned from haemocyte by a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA (RACE). The 913 bp cDNA contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 558 bp encoded a deduced amino acid sequence of 186 amino acids. The prawn Se-GPx sequence contains a selenocysteine (Sec) residue which is encoded by the unusual stop codon, (115)TGA(117). According to the molecular modeling analysis, the active site Sec residue, located in the loop between beta3 and alpha2 in a pocket on the protein surface, and hydrogen bonded to Gln(73) and Trp(141). A GPx signature motif 2, (63)LAFPCNQF(70) and active site motif, (151)WNFEKF(156), two arginine (R) residues, R(89) and R(167) contribute to the electrostatic architecture that directs the glutathione donor substrate, and two putative N-glycosylation site, (75)NNT(77) and (107)NGS(109) were observed in the prawn Se-GPx sequence. In addition, the eukaryotic selenocysteine insertion sequence element is conserved in the 3'-UTR. Comparison of amino acid sequences showed that prawn Se-GPx is more closely related to vertebrate GPx 1. The prawn Se-GPx was synthesized in haemocyte, hepatopancreas, muscle, stomach, gill, intestine, eyestalk, heart, epidermis, lymph organ, ventral nerve cord, testis and ovary. The increase of respiratory burst in haemocyte was observed in pathogen, Debaryomyces hansenii-injected prawn in order to kill the pathogen, and the up-regulation in SOD and GPx acitivity, and prawn Se-GPx mRNA transcription were involved with the protection against damage from oxidation. PMID:19376233

  7. Toxicity of ammonia to larvae of the freshwater shrimp, Macrobrachium rosenbergii 

    E-print Network

    Llobrera, Jose Alvarez

    1979-01-01

    concentrations of ammonia and other toxic substances as well as levels that can be safely maintained in the cul- ture system under a variety of environmental conditions. This will allow proper management of the system and efficient utilization of resources... not be the exclusive toxic agent. When IC50 values obtained for the three levels of pH (6. 83, 7. 6, and 8. 34) were expressed in terms of un-ionized ammonia in that study, it would appear that the larvae exposed to the lowest NH3 concentrations (pH 6. 83) were...

  8. The ecdysteroid titer in the female prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii during the molt cycle 

    E-print Network

    Newitt, Richard Allen

    1981-01-01

    of labeled and unlabeled ecdysone through purification. Experiment 49: Ecdysteroid titer of prawn carcasses with determination of recovery. 38 39 TABLE 5. Experiment 410: HPLC analysis of zone E from TLC separations 45 TABLE 6. Experiment iI11... on scheme for ecdysteroi ds from car cass or ovaries Molt cycle stages A, 8, and C Molt cycle stages 0 and D I 0 Molt cycle stages Dl and Dl II III Molt cycle stage D3. 15 22 26 28 FIGURE 9: Contamination of HPLC system with ecdyster aids...

  9. Antibiotic administration by osmotic infiltration in the freshwater shrimp, Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    E-print Network

    Llobrera, Alcestis Trillo

    1980-01-01

    minutes exposure time 20 INTRODUCTION Fish populations maintained under crowded conditions inherent to aquaculture are subject to a variety of inf'ectious diseases (Hanson and Goodwin, 1977). Sometimes these diseases develop into epizootics causing.... and Amend, D. F. , 1978. Hyperosmotic infiltra- tiond Factors influencing uptake of bovine serum albumin by ' b * * )S 1 B d '). J. F' h. R* . B* d Can. , g5: 871-874. Goodwin, H. L. and Hanson, J. A. , 1975. The Aquaculture of Freshwater Prawns...

  10. The ecdysteroid titer in the female prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii during the molt cycle

    E-print Network

    Newitt, Richard Allen

    1981-01-01

    Whinnie et al. , 1972), Palaemonetes ~u io (Freeman and Bartell, 1975), 1976; Hubschman and Armstrong, 1972), Gammarus ~s . (Ducruet, 1975), Homarus americanus (Rao et al. , 1973), Procambrus ~s . (Lowe et al. , 1968; Krishnakumaran and Schneiderman, 1970...

  11. The microbial flora of pond-reared shrimp (Penaeus stylirostris, P. setiferus, P. vannamei, and Macrobrachium rosenbergii)

    E-print Network

    Christopher, Frank Mitchell

    1976-01-01

    For Foods (36 ) were followed. For the isolation and enumeration of coliform bacteria samples were introduced into Lauryl Sulfate Tryptone Broth (ISTB, BBL). Contents of positive tubes (gas formation within 48 hours at 35 C) were inoculated...

  12. Screening of parasitic and IHHNV infections in wild giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii from Rejang River at Kuching, Sarawak.

    PubMed

    Kua, Beng Chu; Choong, F C; Hazreen Nita, M K; Muhd Faizul H, A H; Bhassu, S; Imelda, R R; Mohammed, M

    2011-04-01

    A preliminary survey of parasitic and infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) infections in giant freshwater prawn from the Damak Sea of Rejang River, Kuching, Sarawak was conducted. Symptoms of black spots/patches on the rostrum, carapace, pleopods or telson were observed in most of the 107 samples collected. Parasitic examination revealed sessiline peritrichs such as (Zoothamnium sp.), nematode larvae, gregarine stage and cocoon of leech with prevalences of 1.2%, 1.2%, 5% and 17% respectively. Under histopathological examination, changes like accumulation of hemocytes around hepatopancreatic tubules due to vibriosis, basophilic intranuclear inclusions in the epithelium and E-cell of hepatopancreatic tubules as a result of HPV were seen through the section. No positive infection of IHHNV was detected in 78 samples. As such, the wild giant freshwater prawns in Damak Sea of Rejang River in Kuching are IHHNV-free though infections of parvo-like virus and bacteria were seen in histopathology. PMID:21602773

  13. The microbial flora of pond-reared shrimp (Penaeus stylirostris, P. setiferus, P. vannamei, and Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    E-print Network

    Christopher, Frank Mitchell

    1976-01-01

    to their initial level af- 2 ter 21-22 days and continued to increase with counts at 28 days ranging from 10 -10 per gram. Although Aeromonas 6 7 and Pseudomonas species continued to dominate the microbial flora after 7 days, Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas... the principal isolates from the drip. After 6 days storage, Moraxella-Acinetobacter, Micrococcus, and Cor ebacterium were the predominant genera. After 10 days, Pseudomonas dominated the microbial flora of the drip. These studies illustrate the relationship...

  14. Geometric morphometrics of carapace of Macrobrachium australe (Crustacea: Palaemonidae) from Reunion Island

    E-print Network

    Debat, Vincent

    Geometric morphometrics of carapace of Macrobrachium australe (Crustacea: Palaemonidae) from Keywords: phenotypic plasticity, crustaceans, amphidr- omy, morphometrics, shape, carapace Accepted, V. 2012. Geometric morphometrics of carapace of Macrobrachium australe (Crustacea: Palaemonidae

  15. Histopathology of the hepatopancreas and gills of the prawn Macrobrachium malcolmsonii exposed to endosulfan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P Saravana Bhavan; P Geraldine

    2000-01-01

    The tissue damage induced by various organic pollutants in aquatic animals is well-documented, but there is a dearth of information relating to the histological alterations induced by pesticides in freshwater prawns of the genus Macrobrachium. In the present study intermoult juveniles of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium malcolmsonii (total length, 4.5–5.0 cm; weight, 1.0–1.25 g) were exposed to three sublethal concentrations

  16. Rapid and sensitive detection of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus in giant freshwater prawns by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification combined with a lateral flow dipstick.

    PubMed

    Puthawibool, Teeranart; Senapin, Saengchan; Flegel, Timothy W; Kiatpathomchai, Wansika

    2010-10-01

    Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) allows rapid amplification of nucleic acids under isothermal conditions. It can be combined with a chromatographic lateral flow dipstick (LFD) for much more efficient, field-friendly detection of MrNV. In this work, RT-LAMP was performed at 65 degrees C for 40 min, followed by 5 min for hybridization with an FITC-labeled DNA probe and 5 min for LFD resulted in visualization of DNA amplicons trapped at the LFD test line. Thus, total assay time, including 10 min for rapid RNA extraction was approximately 60 min. In addition to advantages of short assay time, confirmation of amplicon identity by hybridization and elimination of electrophoresis with carcinogenic ethidium bromide, the RT-LAMP-LFD was more sensitive than an existing RT-PCR method for detection of MrNV. The RT-LAMP-LFD method gave negative test results with nucleic acid extracts from normal shrimp and from shrimp infected with other viruses including DNA viruses [PstDNV (IHHNV), PemoNPV (MBV), PmDNV (HPV), WSSV] and RNA viruses (TSV, IMNV, YHV/GAV). PMID:20655379

  17. Electrochemical measurement of hydrogen peroxide in plasma: evaluation of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) and crucian carp (Cyprinus carpio) phagocytes under natural conditions.

    PubMed

    Pinhong, Wang; Wei, Ji; Yaqing, Chang

    2007-12-01

    An electrochemical technique for the real-time detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was employed to describe respiratory burst activity (RBA) of phagocytes in plasma which can be used to evaluate the ability of immune system and disease resistance. The method is based upon the electric current changes, by redox reaction on platinum electrode of extracellular hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) released from phagocytes stimulated by the zymosan at 680 mV direct current (d.c.). Compared with the control, activation of respiratory burst by zymosan particles results in a high amperometric response, and a current peak was obtained during the whole monitoring process. The peak current was proved by addition of Cu2+ and other controls, to be the result of intense release of H2O2 from phagocytes. The peak area was calculated and used to evaluate the quantity of effective H2O2, which represents the quantity of H2O2 beyond the clearance of related enzymes in plasma. According to Faraday's law, the phagocytes' ability of prawns to generate effective H2O2 was evaluated from 1.253 x 10(-14) mol/cell to 6.146 x 10(-14) mol/cell, and carp from 1.689 x 10(-15) mol/cell to 7.873 x 10(-15) mol/cell. This method is an acute and quick detection of extracellular effective H2O2 in plasma and reflects the capacity of phagocytes under natural conditions, which could be applied for selecting species and parents with high immunity for breeding in aquaculture. PMID:17728150

  18. Experiments on seed production and commercial culture of the freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nguyen Quoc An; Phan Dinh Phuc; Phan Thi Le Anh; Nguyen Thi Tu; Ly Ngoc Tuyen; Le Phuoc

    Aquaculture of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium nipponense has potential to develop into a high value enterprise. However, this commercial development faces the constraints of insufficient stocking material and a lack of suitable culture technology. This paper presents preliminary results of experiments designed to address these two problems. The experiments on prawn seed production used eight small (each 2 m2 in

  19. Antioxidant enzymes in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium malcolmsonii during embryonic and larval development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Arun; P. Subramanian

    1998-01-01

    Activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase (selenium-dependent and selenium-independent) and glutathione-S-transferases were analysed in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium malcolmsonii during embryonic and larval development. An elevated level of these enzymes was encountered in the larval stage of M. malcolmsonii when compared to its preceding embryonic stages. Enzyme activities were also analysed in hepatopancreas, muscle and gill of M. malcolmsonii sub-adults

  20. Biochemical Stress Responses in Tissues of the Prawn Macrobrachium malcolmsonii on Exposure to Endosulfan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Saravana Bhavan; P. Geraldine

    2001-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the induction of biochemical stress responses in Macrobrachium malcolmsonii following exposure to endosulfan and to determine the most sensitive parameter of endosulfan-induced stress in this species of prawn. Intermolt juvenile prawns were exposed to three sublethal concentrations of endosulfan (10.6, 16.0, and 32.0 ng\\/L) for a period of 21 days. Samples were taken from

  1. Species composition and gear characteristics of the Macrobrachium fishery of the Cross River Estuary, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nwosu, Francis M.

    2010-03-01

    The Cross River Estuary, Nigeria, is an important shrimping area for artisanal fishermen of the coastal communities. The multi-species Macrobrachium fishery is exploited with three main gears, namely beach seine, push net and trap. Studies on species composition of this fishery recorded thirteen shrimp species, one swimming crab ( Callinectes amnicola) and two fish species ( Eleotris sp. and Pellonula leonensis). The shrimp species identified included Macrobrachium macrobrachion (83.39% and 55.69% by number and weight, respectively), M. vollenhovenii (9.66% and 37.18%), M. equidens (3.8% and 2.87%), juveniles-sub-adults of Penaeus notialis (1.11% and 1.3%), M. dux, M. felicinum, Palaemonetes africanus, Palaemon maculatus, Palaemon elegans, Desmocaris sp., Leander sp., Nematopalaemon hastatus and Alpheus pontederiae. While the selectivity index for trap was 0.25, beach seine and push net had a lower index of 0.063. The results present the first comprehensive and representative report for the Estuary shrimp fishery and will assist in the management of the biodiversity of this ecosystem.

  2. Complete larval development of the Monkey River Prawn Macrobrachium lar (Palaemonidae) using a novel greenwater technique.

    PubMed

    Lal, Monal M; Seeto, Johnson; Pickering, Timothy D

    2014-01-01

    This study documents the complete larval development of the Monkey River Prawn Macrobrachium lar using a new greenwater rearing technique. Approximately 6,000 larvae were reared for 110 days at an initial stocking density of 1 ind./6 L. Salinity at hatch was 10?±?2 ppt and progressively increased to 30?±?2 ppt until decapodids had metamorphosed. Temperature was maintained at 28?±?0.5°C, pH at 7.8?±?0.2, DO2?>?6.5 mg/L and NH(4+) and NH3???1.5 and ?0.1 ppm respectively throughout the culture period. Larval development was extended and occurred through 13 zoeal stages, with the first decapodid measuring 6.2?±?0.63 mm in total length observed after 77 days. 5 decapodids in total were produced, and overall survival to this stage was 0.08%. Overall, the pattern of larval growth shares similarities with those of other Macrobrachium spp. that have a prolonged/normal type of development, and it is likely that larvae underwent mark time moulting which contributed to the lengthened development duration. While this study represents a significant breakthrough in efforts to domesticate M. lar, improvement of larval survival rates and decreased time till metamorphosis are required before it can become fully viable for commercial scale aquaculture. PMID:25332868

  3. Spirulina cultivation in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bo-Tang, Wu; Wen-Zhou, Xiang; Cheng-Kui, Zeng

    1998-03-01

    This paper reviews and discusses the development and many problems of Spirulina cultivation in China, points out the advantages and disadvantages of open photobioreactor system, and predicts that seawater Spirulina cultivation will be a new trend to be strengthened and emphasized due to its special physiological characteristics, easier management, lower fertilizer cost, and higher resistance to contaminants and rare pollution of chemicals.

  4. Dianthus caryophyllus (Cultivated

    E-print Network

    James R. Manhart

    2011-08-10

    plants, with the exception of those brought into cultivation, are placed in a second group designated as "Non-cultivated Plants." The organization of the two lists is identical and is essentially an alphabetical arrangement of species according..... ..... / ............. I Iberis amara L.. ............. I. odorata L.. ................ Canna indica L.. ............. C. edulis Ker.. ............... Campanrrla medium L.. ....... Gardenia veitchii Hort.. ....... Lobelia cardinalis L.. ......... Dianthus...

  5. How to Cultivate Moss

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-03-03

    In this activity, to learn about the biological needs of mosses, students will grow and maintain their own moss terrarium. Through daily maintenance and observation, students will identify those factors necessary for the successful cultivation of moss.

  6. A Methodological Investigation of Cultivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Alan M.; And Others

    Cultivation theory states that television engenders negative emotions in heavy viewers. Noting that cultivation methodology contains an apparent response bias, a study examined relationships between television exposure and positive restatements of cultivation concepts and tested a more instrumental media uses and effects model. Cultivation was…

  7. Bioaccumulation and retention kinetics of cadmium in the freshwater decapod Macrobrachium australiense.

    PubMed

    Cresswell, Tom; Simpson, Stuart L; Smith, Ross E W; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Mazumder, Debashish; Twining, John

    2014-03-01

    The potential sources and mechanisms of cadmium bioaccumulation by the native freshwater decapods Macrobrachium species in the waters of the highly turbid Strickland River in Papua New Guinea were examined using (109)Cd-labelled water and food sources and the Australian species Macrobrachium australiense as a surrogate. Synthetic river water was spiked with environmentally relevant concentrations of cadmium and animals were exposed for 7 days with daily renewal of test solutions. Dietary assimilation of cadmium was assessed through pulse-chase experiments where prawns were fed separately (109)Cd-labelled fine sediment, filamentous algae and carrion (represented by cephalothorax tissue of water-exposed prawns). M. australiense readily accumulated cadmium from the dissolved phase and the uptake rate increased linearly with increasing exposure concentration. A cadmium uptake rate constant of 0.10 ± 0.05 L/g/d was determined in synthetic river water. During depuration following exposure to dissolved cadmium, efflux rates were low (0.9 ± 5%/d) and were not dependent on exposure concentration. Assimilation efficiencies of dietary sources were comparable for sediment and algae (48-51%), but lower for carrion (28 ± 5%) and efflux rates were low (0.2-2.6%/d) demonstrating that cadmium was well retained by M. australiense. A biokinetic model of cadmium accumulation by M. australiense predicted that for exposures to environmentally relevant cadmium concentrations in the Strickland River, uptake from ingestion of fine sediment and carrion would be the predominant sources of cadmium to the organism. The model predicted the total dietary route would represent 70-80% of bioaccumulated cadmium. PMID:24508761

  8. Shrimp Farming in the Classroom

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lovelle Ruggiero

    2000-01-01

    In inquiry-based instruction, discovery and learning belong to the students. In this exploration, jumbo shrimp are the source of inspiration. The magic in this project lies not in successfully culturing these shrimp, known as Macrobrachium rosenbergii

  9. Cultivating Leaders from Within

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdette, Maggie; Schertzer, Kristen

    2005-01-01

    A major problem faced by school districts in the US is the paucity of applicants for the posts of school principals. A solution adopted by The Capistrano Unified School District (CUSD) in Orange County California was the cultivation of good leaders from within the district through the Teaching Assistant Principal (TAP) program.

  10. CULTIVATING NETWORKS: IMPLEMENTING SURGICAL

    E-print Network

    Sahay, Sundeep

    i CULTIVATING NETWORKS: IMPLEMENTING SURGICAL TELEMEDICINE Margunn Aanestad THE INTERVENTIONAL TELEMEDICINE by Margunn Aanestad Submitted as partial fulfilment of the requirements of the degree Doctor;iii TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Introduction 1 2. Telemedicine ­ visions and challenges 3 3. Related research

  11. Autonomous Cultivation Before Domestication

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ehud Weiss (Bar-Ilan University; )

    2006-06-12

    Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Early Near Eastern crop cultivation was a trial-and-error process. Some crops continued until full domestication, while others were abandoned and later adopted independently by distant societies.

  12. The Cultivated Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilder, Rosalind

    1983-01-01

    Teachers who follow this monthly schedule for starting and cultivating plants in their classrooms can look forward to blooms and greenery throughout the year. Advice on choosing plants, making cuttings, forcing bulbs, rooting sweet potatoes and pineapples, and holding a Mother's Day plant sale is included. (PP)

  13. Davallia trichomanoides (Cultivated) 3 

    E-print Network

    Robert W. Corbett

    2011-08-02

    at 3-week intervals under low soil moisture conditions; cultivations at 2-week intervals were required under good moisture conditions. Sweep-type plows severed all the bindweed tops from the roots and left, crop residues on the soil surface to aid... ............................................................................................................................................................................... Digest 2 Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................... 3 . . Descrlpt~on of Bindweed...

  14. [Dendrobium officinale stereoscopic cultivation method].

    PubMed

    Si, Jin-Ping; Dong, Hong-Xiu; Liao, Xin-Yan; Zhu, Yu-Qiu; Li, Hui

    2014-12-01

    The study is aimed to make the most of available space of Dendrobium officinale cultivation facility, reveal the yield and functional components variation of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale, and improve quality, yield and efficiency. The agronomic traits and yield variation of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale were studied by operating field experiment. The content of polysaccharide and extractum were determined by using phenol-sulfuric acid method and 2010 edition of "Chinese Pharmacopoeia" Appendix X A. The results showed that the land utilization of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale increased 2.74 times, the stems, leaves and their total fresh or dry weight in unit area of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale were all heavier than those of the ground cultivated ones. There was no significant difference in polysaccharide content between stereoscopic cultivation and ground cultivation. But the extractum content and total content of polysaccharide and extractum were significantly higher than those of the ground cultivated ones. In additional, the polysaccharide content and total content of polysaccharide and extractum from the top two levels of stereoscopic culture matrix were significantly higher than that of the ones from the other levels and ground cultivation. Steroscopic cultivation can effectively improves the utilization of space and yield, while the total content of polysaccharides and extractum were significantly higher than that of the ground cultivated ones. The significant difference in Dendrobium polysaccharides among the plants from different height of stereo- scopic culture matrix may be associated with light factor. PMID:25911804

  15. Study of biochemical biomarkers in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium borellii (Crustacea: Palaemonidae) exposed to organophosphate fenitrothion.

    PubMed

    Lavarías, S; García, C; Crespo, R; Pedrini, N; Heras, H

    2013-10-01

    Several agrochemicals like organophosphates are extensively used to control pests in agricultural practices but they also adversely affect non-target fauna. The effect of organophosphorous fenitrothion on the prawn Macrobrachium borellii was evaluated. The 96-h LC50 was determined. Activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase and lipid oxidation levels, were evaluated in the hepatopancreas from adults exposed to sublethal fenitrothion concentrations for 1, 2, 4 and 7 days. In addition, superoxide dismutase mRNA expression, acetylcholinesterase inhibition and haemocyte DNA damage were determined. The 96-h LC50 was 4.24?g/l of fenitrothion. Prawn exposed to sublethal FS concentrations showed an increase of both catalase and superoxide dismutase activities, mainly after 2 and 4 days exposure and an increase of glutathione-S-transferase activity from day 2 to day 7 while lipid oxidation levels increased mainly on day 1. Superoxide dismutase transcripts were significantly higher in fenitrothion -treated prawns, indicating an induction mechanism. Hemolymph analysis showed that while acetylcholinesterase activity decreased after 2 days, haemocytes displayed most DNA damage after 7-day exposure to fenitrothion. These results indicate that prawn enzymes are highly sensitive to fenitrothion exposure, and these biological responses in M. borellii could be valuable biomarkers to monitor organophosphorous contamination in estuarine environments. PMID:23876938

  16. Effect of crude oil petroleum hydrocarbons on protein expression of the prawn Macrobrachium borellii.

    PubMed

    Pasquevich, M Y; Dreon, M S; Gutierrez Rivera, J N; Vázquez Boucard, C; Heras, H

    2013-05-01

    Hydrocarbon pollution is a major environmental threat to ecosystems in marine and freshwater environments, but its toxicological effect on aquatic organisms remains little studied. A proteomic approach was used to analyze the effect of a freshwater oil spill on the prawn Macrobrachium borellii. To this aim, proteins were extracted from midgut gland (hepatopancreas) of male and female prawns exposed 7 days to a sublethal concentration (0.6 ppm) of water-soluble fraction of crude oil (WSF). Exposure to WSF induced responses at the protein expression level. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) revealed 10 protein spots that were differentially expressed by WSF exposure. Seven proteins were identified using MS/MS and de novo sequencing. Nm23 oncoprotein, arginine methyltransferase, fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase and glutathione S-transferase were down-regulated, whereas two glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase isoforms and a lipocalin-like crustacyanin (CTC) were up-regulated after WSF exposure. CTC mRNA levels were further analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR showing an increased expression after WSF exposure. The proteins identified are involved in carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, detoxification, transport of hydrophobic molecules and cellular homeostasis among others. These results provide evidence for better understanding the toxic mechanisms of hydrocarbons. Moreover, some of these differentially expressed proteins would be employed as potential novel biomarkers. PMID:23570752

  17. Short-term responses of Oryzias latipes (Pisces: Adrianichthyidae) and Macrobrachium nipponense (Crustacea: Palaemonidae) to municipal and pharmaceutical waste water in Beijing, China: survival, behaviour, biochemical biomarkers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Gerhardt; L. Janssens de Bisthoven; Z. Mo; C. Wang; M. Yang; Z. Wang

    2002-01-01

    Whole effluent toxicity was assessed for the fish Oryzias latipes and the prawn Macrobrachium nipponense for 18 h in a dilution series (0–66%) of the inflow and effluent of a municipal waste water treatment plant as well as waste water from a teramycin producing pharmaceutical industry, before, during and after a pilot laboratory purification process. The waste waters caused acute

  18. Toxicity, Uptake, and Release of the Water-Soluble Fraction of Crude Oil in Different Developing Stages of the Prawn Macrobrachium borellii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Lavarías; H. Heras; R. J. Pollero

    2004-01-01

    The effects of a water-soluble fraction of light crude oil dissolved in freshwater (WSF) on Macrobrachium borellii exposed at three life stages was evaluated. Adults, larvae (PL), and embryos were exposed to five levels of WSF for 96 h. At 48 and 72 h PL were significantly more sensitive to WSF than adults, though values for 96-h LC50 were not

  19. Subcellular\\/tissue distribution and responses to oil exposure of the cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase system and glutathione S-transferase in freshwater prawns ( Macrobrachium malcolmsonii, M. lamarrei lamarrei )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Arun; A. Rajendran; P. Subramanian

    2006-01-01

    Subcellular fractions (mitochondrial, cytosolic and microsomal) prepared from the tissues (hepatopancreas, muscle and gill) of freshwater prawns Macrobrachium malcolmsonii and Macrobrachium lamarrei lamarrei were scrutinized to investigate the presence of mixed function oxygenase (MFO) and conjugating enzymes (glutathione-S-transferase, GST). Cytochrome P450 (CYP) and other components (cytochrome b5; NADPH-cytochrome c (CYP) reductase and NADH-cytochrome c-reductase activities) of the MFO system were

  20. Raphanus sativus (Cultivated

    E-print Network

    Hugh D. Wilson

    2011-08-10

    , each plant is placed where it belongs. In field plantings thinning is resorted to, vhich neces- sitates a loss of many good plants. The above conditions existing as to the t~vo methods effect a saving of 33+ per cent. in amonnt of seed required... in the cultivation of the onion crop are inserted, which are quite effective and not so expen- sive as to prevent their use by any truck grower desiring to economize labor. \\Trhile we have hacl no general and practical experience with adjustable . . vator tools...

  1. Effects of Host Phylogeny and Habitats on Gut Microbiomes of Oriental River Prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Po-Cheng; Weng, Francis Cheng-Hsuan; Jean, Wen Dar; Wang, Daryi

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbial community is one of the richest and most complex ecosystems on earth, and the intestinal microbes play an important role in host development and health. Next generation sequencing approaches, which rapidly produce millions of short reads that enable the investigation on a culture independent basis, are now popular for exploring microbial community. Currently, the gut microbiome in fresh water shrimp is unexplored. To explore gut microbiomes of the oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) and investigate the effects of host genetics and habitats on the microbial composition, 454 pyrosequencing based on the 16S rRNA gene were performed. We collected six groups of samples, including M. nipponense shrimp from two populations, rivers and lakes, and one sister species (M. asperulum) as an out group. We found that Proteobacteria is the major phylum in oriental river prawn, followed by Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. Compositional analysis showed microbial divergence between the two shrimp species is higher than that between the two populations of one shrimp species collected from river and lake. Hierarchical clustering also showed that host genetics had a greater impact on the divergence of gut microbiome than host habitats. This finding was also congruent with the functional prediction from the metagenomic data implying that the two shrimp species still shared the same type of biological functions, reflecting a similar metabolic profile in their gut environments. In conclusion, this study provides the first investigation of the gut microbiome of fresh water shrimp, and supports the hypothesis of host species-specific signatures of bacterial community composition. PMID:26168244

  2. Hybrid origins of cultivated potatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild and cultivated potatoes, Solanum section Petota, is taxonomically difficult, partly because of interspecific hybridization at both the diploid and polyploid levels. The taxonomy of cultivated potatoes is particularly controversial. With DNA sequence data of the GBSSI (waxy) gene we here infer r...

  3. Stressor-specific induction of heat shock protein 70 in the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium malcolmsonii (H. Milne Edwards) exposed to the pesticides endosulfan and carbaryl

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Selvakumar; P. Geraldine; S. Shanju; T. Jayakumar

    2005-01-01

    Agricultural run off that is contaminated with pesticides enters water bodies, thereby polluting the aquatic environment. The sensitivity of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium malcolmsonii, to such pesticides is well-documented. However, the stress response to sublethal concentrations of pesticides has scarcely been investigated. In the present study, the effect of two different sublethal concentrations (1\\/5th and 1\\/10th of LC50 value) of

  4. Alterations in Concentrations of Protein, Carbohydrate, Glycogen, Free Sugar, and Lipid in the Prawn Macrobrachium malcolmsoniion Exposure to Sublethal Concentrations of Endosulfan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Saravana Bhavan; P. Geraldine

    1997-01-01

    Juveniles ofMacrobrachium malcolmsonii(4.5–5.0 cm in size and 1.0–1.25 g in weight) were exposed to three sublethal concentrations of endosulfan (10.6, 16.0, and 32.0 ng\\/L) for 21 days. Samples were taken from the hemolymph, hepatopancreas, gills, and muscle of representative prawns from each test and control group on the 1st, 8th, 15th, and 21st day after the start of the experiment.

  5. [Artificial cultivation modes for Dendrobium officinale].

    PubMed

    Si, Jin-Ping; Yu, Qiao-Xian; Song, Xian-Shui; Shao, Wei-Jiang

    2013-02-01

    Since the beginning of the new century, the artificial cultivation of Dendrobium officinale has made a breakthrough progress. This paper systematically expounds key technologies, main features and cautions of the cultivation modes e.g. bionic-facility cultivation, the original ecological cultivation, and potting cultivation for D. officinale, which can provide useful information for the development and improvement of D. officinale industry. PMID:23713268

  6. Gelidium cultivation in the sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Melo; B. W. W. Harger; M. Neushul

    1991-01-01

    Gelidium fronds were grown in the sea under a variety of experimental conditions: on rigid, damped and tensioned test farms of various designs, in calmer and more turbulent habitats, at various depths, with and without commercial fertilizer supply. Initially, the effectiveness of a given cultivation strategy was based on the survival and growth of the fronds, here termed ‘bio-assay’ mariculture.

  7. Inside this issue: Cultivating Cumberland

    E-print Network

    Goodman, Robert M.

    Inside this issue: Cultivating Cumberland May - 2013 VOL. 18, ISSUE 5 Jersey Fresh Produce 1 Pepper Produce Safety Course 6 Perennial Weed Manage- ment 7 Recycling Nursery Pots 7 Recycling Agricultural of the South Jersey Healthcare Food and Nutrition De- partment by email: gagliardid@sjhs.com. Pepper Disease

  8. Cultivating Spontaneous Self-Discipline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Shaughnessy, Molly

    1998-01-01

    Draws on contemporary sources to provide strategies for cultivating self-discipline. Advocates self-healing for the adult to be free from destructive attitudes and personal history that can keep adults from being mindful of the child's needs, perspective, and potential. Concludes with ways to facilitate a truly Montessori approach to discipline.…

  9. Cultivating Change The Boston College Community Garden

    E-print Network

    Huang, Jianyu

    Cultivating Change The Boston College Community Garden 2008ANNUALREPORT2008ANNUALREPORT Cultivating THE GARDEN TO REST....................................29 PUBLICITY............................30 GOALS Garden Annual Report! We are very excited to share our report on the numerous ways the garden has become

  10. Seaweed cultivation: Traditional way and its reformation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiu-Geng Fei; Ying Bao; Shan Lu

    1999-01-01

    Seaweed cultivation or phycoculture has been developed rather fast in recent years. The total production of cultivated seaweed\\u000a at present is about 6250×103 tons fresh weight. The total cultivation area is estimated as 200×103 hectare. The annual total value of cultivated seaweeds has been estimated to be more than 3 billion US dollars. Phycoculture\\u000a provides many job opportunities for the

  11. Antioxidant response and oxidative stress levels in Macrobrachium borellii (Crustacea: Palaemonidae) exposed to the water-soluble fraction of petroleum.

    PubMed

    Lavarías, S; Heras, H; Pedrini, N; Tournier, H; Ansaldo, M

    2011-05-01

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of the water soluble fraction of hydrocarbons (WSF) on the antioxidant status of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium borellii. First, seasonal variations were studied in a non-polluted area. Hepatopancreas and gills showed season-related fluctuations in catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities and in lipid peroxidation levels (LPO), but not in superoxide dismutase (SOD). Then, adults were exposed semi-statically to sublethal doses for 7days. CAT, SOD, GST, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities and LPO, reduced glutathione (GSH) and protein oxidation (PO) levels were determined. Exposed individuals showed significant increases in CAT, SOD, and GST activities in hepatopancreas and CAT activity in gills. GPx activity did not vary in either tissues. While LPO levels increased, GSH levels decreased significantly in hepatopancreas of exposed animals, but PO levels showed no variation. Induction of SOD was also assessed by Real-time PCR mRNA expression in hepatopancreas. The non-enzymatic antioxidant activity was also tested; ABTS 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) was higher in hemolymph of treated-prawns compared to controls, but ferric reducing activity of plasma assay (FRAP) values did not change. Taken together, the present results indicated that the antioxidant defenses of M. borellii, mainly in hepatopancreas, were significantly affected by aquatic hydrocarbon contamination, regardless of the season. PMID:21320634

  12. cDNA Cloning and Expression Analysis of Gustavus Gene in the Oriental River Prawn Macrobrachium nipponense

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fengying; Chen, Liqiao; Qin, Jianguang; Zhao, Weihong; Wu, Ping; Yu, Na; Ma, Lingbo

    2011-01-01

    The gustavus gene is required for localizing pole plasm and specifying germ cells. Research on gustavus gene expression will advance our understanding of the biological function of gustavus in animals. A cDNA encoding gustavus protein was identified and termed MnGus in the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense. Bioinformatic analyses showed that this gene encoded a protein of 262 amino acids and the protein belongs to the Spsb1 family. Real-time quantitative PCR analyses revealed that the expression level of MnGus in prawn embryos was slightly higher at the cleavage stage than at the blastula stage, and reached the maximum level during the zoea stage of embryos. The minimum level of MnGus expression occurred during the perinucleolus stage in the ovary, while the maximum was at the oil globule stage, and then the level of MnGus expression gradually decreased with the advancement of ovarian development. The expression level of MnGus in muscle was much higher than that in other tissues in mature prawn. The gustavus cDNA sequence was firstly cloned from the oriental river prawn and the pattern of gene expression was described during oocyte maturation, embryonic development, and in other tissues. The differential expression patterns of MnGus in the embryo, ovary and other somatic tissues suggest that the gustavus gene performs multiple physiological functions in the oriental river prawn. PMID:21359189

  13. Gene expression profile analysis of testis and ovary of oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense, reveals candidate reproduction-related genes.

    PubMed

    Qiao, H; Xiong, Y W; Jiang, S F; Fu, H T; Sun, S M; Jin, S B; Gong, Y S; Zhang, W Y

    2015-01-01

    This study utilized high-throughput RNA sequencing technology to identify reproduction- and development-related genes of Macrobrachium nipponense by analyzing gene expression profiles of testis and ovary. More than 20 million 1 x 51-bp reads were obtained by Illumina sequencing, generating more than 7.7 and 11.7 million clean reads in the testis and ovary library, respectively. As a result, 10,018 unitags were supposed to be differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between ovary and testis. Compared to the ovary library, 4563 (45.5%) of these DEGs exhibited at least 6-fold upregulated expression, while 5455 (54.5%) DEGs exhibited at least 2-fold downregulated expression in the testis. The Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis showed that 113 GO terms had potential molecular functions in reproduction. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes results revealed that the most important pathways may be relevant to reproduction and included 7 pathways. Forty-two genes were identified as reproduction-, development-, and sex-related genes based on GO classification and sequence comparison with other publications, including male reproductive-related LIM protein, spermatogenesis-associated protein, gametocyte-specific factor 1, VASA-like protein, vitellogenin, sex-determining protein fem-1, and other potential candidates. These results will advance research in the field of molecular genetics in M. nipponense and offer a valuable resource for further research related to reproduction in crustaceans. PMID:25867350

  14. Molecular analysis of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium olfersii (Decapoda, Palaemonidae) supports the existence of a single species throughout its distribution.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Natália; Mantelatto, Fernando Luis

    2013-01-01

    Macrobrachium olfersii is an amphidromous freshwater prawn, widespread along the eastern coasts of the Americas. This species shows great morphological modifications during ontogenesis, and several studies have verified the existence of a wide intraspecific variation. Because of this condition, the species is often misidentified, and several synonyms have been documented. To elucidate these aspects, individuals of M. olfersii from different populations along its range of distribution were investigated. The taxonomic limit was established, and the degree of genetic variability of this species was described. We extracted DNA from 53 specimens of M. olfersii, M. americanum, M. digueti and M. faustinum, which resulted in 84 new sequences (22 of 16S mtDNA, 45 of Cythocrome Oxidase I (COI) mtDNA, and 17 of Histone (H3) nDNA). Sequences of three genes (single and concatenated) from these species were used in the Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference phylogenetic analyses and COI sequences from M. olfersii were used in population analysis. The genetic variation was evaluated through the alignment of 554 bp from the 16S, 638 bp from the COI, and 338 bp from the H3. The rates of genetic divergence among populations were lower at the intraspecific level. This was confirmed by the haplotype net, which showed a continuous gene flow among populations. Although a wide distribution and high morphological intraspecific variation often suggest the existence of more than one species, genetic similarity of Caribbean and Brazilian populations of M. olfersii supported them as a single species. PMID:23382941

  15. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of female sterile homeotic gene (fsh) in the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W Y; Jiang, S F; Xiong, Y W; Fu, H T; Qiao, H; Sun, S M; Gong, Y S; Jin, S B

    2015-01-01

    The gene female sterile homeotic (fsh) plays crucial roles in molecular function, including protein kinase activity and DNA binding, which are involved in biological processes such as terminal region determination and negative regulation of DNA-dependent transcription. Although fsh has been found in Drosophila melanogaster, little is known regarding its expression in crustaceans. In this study, a fsh gene homologue, designated as Mnfsh, was cloned and characterized from the testis of the oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense, by using EST analysis and the RACE approach for the first time. The full-length cDNA of Mnfsh was 2029 bp, consisting of a 5' UTR of 361 bp, a 3' UTR of 216 bp, and an ORF of 1452 bp encoding 484 amino acids. qRT-PCR analysis showed that the Mnfsh gene was expressed in the testis, ovary, muscle, heart, eyestalk, and abdominal ganglion, with the highest level of expression in the ovary and the lowest in the heart. qRT-PCR analyses showed that the expression levels of Mnfsh mRNA both significantly increased in the zoea stage, the VII larvae, and 1st day post-larvae after metamorphosis. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that Mnfsh is an arthropod fsh homologue and probably also plays important roles in embryogenesis, organogenesis, and morphological differentiation of M. nipponense. PMID:25966204

  16. Cultivated Areas- Remote Sensing Lesson

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lesson from iGETT will contribute to remote sensing curriculum. This particular unit uses ENVI software to extract data on cultivated land from Landsat 7 imagery. The materials include a learning unit summary, instructor and student guides, supporting documents and a series of data files. The lesson plan will be helpful for students looking at the issue of heat islands in the remote sensing context. A quick, free registration is required to view or download any of the materials.

  17. Toxicity of the organophosphorous insecticide metamidophos (o,s-dimethyl phosphoramidothioate) to larvae of the freshwater prawn and the blue shrimp

    SciTech Connect

    Juarez, L.M.; Sanchez, J. (Monterrey Institute of Technology, Sonora (Mexico))

    1989-08-01

    The organophosphorous insecticide O,S-dimethyl phosphoramidothioate (Metamidophos, Tamaron, Monitor, Hamidop) is widely used for pest control in tropical crops. If washed down to streams and estuaries its residues could adversely affect populations of commercially important crustaceans, like those of the palaemonid prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and the penaeid shrimp Penaeus stylirostris. This paper presents information on the toxicity of O,S-dimethyl phosphoramidothioate to larvae of M. rosenbergii and P. stylirostris.

  18. Current status of freshwater prawn culture in Vietnam and the development and transfer of seed production technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nguyen Thanh Phuong; Tran Ngoc Hai; Tran Thi Thanh Hien; Tran Van Bui; Do Thi Thanh Huong; Vu Nam Son; Yoshinori Morooka; Yutaka Fukuda; Marcy N. Wilder

    2006-01-01

    In Vietnam, the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii is becoming an increasingly important targeted species, as its culture, especially in rice fields, is considered to have\\u000a the potential to raise income among improverished farmers. The production of M. rosenbergii based on aquaculture reached over 10 000 tons per year in 2002, having increased from about 2500 tons since the 1990s.

  19. Effect of thermal acclimation on organ mass, tissue respiration, and allometry in Leichhardtian river prawns Macrobrachium tolmerum (Riek, 1951).

    PubMed

    Crispin, Taryn S; White, Craig R

    2013-01-01

    Changes to an animal's abiotic environment-and consequent changes in the allometry of metabolic rate in the whole animal and its constituent parts-has considerable potential to reveal important patterns in both intraspecific and interindividual variation of metabolic rates. This study demonstrates that, after 6 wk of thermal acclimation at replicate treatments of 16°, 21°, and 25°C, standard metabolic rate (SMR) scales allometrically in Leichhardtian river prawns Macrobrachium tolmerum ([Formula: see text]) and that the scaling exponent and normalization constant of the relationship between SMR and body mass is not significantly different among acclimation treatments when measured at 21°C. There is, however, significant variation among individuals in whole-animal metabolic rate. We hypothesized that these observations may arise because of changes in the metabolic rate and allometry of metabolic rate or mass of organ tissues within the animal. To investigate this hypothesis, rates of oxygen consumption in a range of tissues (gills, gonads, hepatopancreas, chelae muscle, tail muscle) were measured at 21°C and related to the body mass (M) and whole-animal SMR of individual prawns. We demonstrate that thermal acclimation had no effect on organ and tissue mass, that most organ and tissue (gills, gonads, hepatopancreas) respiration rates do not change with acclimation temperature, and that residual variation in the allometry of M. tolmerum SMR is not explained by differences in organ and tissue mass and respiration rates. These results suggest that body size and ambient temperature may independently affect metabolic rate in this species. Both chelae and tail muscle, however, exhibited a reduction in respiration rate in animals acclimated to 25° relative to those acclimated to 16° and 21°C. This reduction in respiration rates of muscle at higher temperatures is evidence of a tissue-specific acclimation response that was not detectable at the whole-animal level. PMID:23799841

  20. Molecular cloning, characterization, and expression analysis of two different types of lectins from the oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense.

    PubMed

    Xiu, Yunji; Wang, Yinghui; Jing, Yunting; Qi, Yakun; Ding, Zhengfeng; Meng, Qingguo; Wang, Wen

    2015-08-01

    Lectins, which are widely expressed in invertebrates, play important roles in many biological processes, including protein trafficking, cell signaling, pathogen recognition, as effector molecules, and so on (Wang and Wang, 2013). This study identified one novel M-type lectin and one L-Type lectin, designated as MnMTL1 and MnLTL1, from the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense. The full-length cDNA of MnMTL1 was 2064 bp with a 1761 bp ORF encoding a putative protein of 586 deduced amino acids. The full-length cDNA of MnLTL1 was 1744 bp with a 972 bp ORF encoding a 323-amino acid peptide. The deduced MnMTL1 protein contained a putative type II transmembrane region and a 440-aa Glycoside hydrolase family 47 (GH47) domain. One luminal carbohydrate recognition domain and a 23-aa type I transmembrane region were identified from the MnLTL1. MnMTL1 shared 78% identity with Marsupenaeus japonicus M-type lectin and MnLTL1 shared 83% similarity with M. japonicus L-type lectin. RT-PCR analysis showed that MnMTL1 and MnLTL1 were expressed in all tested tissues. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that MnMTL1 and MnLTL1 are substantially fluctuant during Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas veronii infections. Based on immune responses and previous literature, we assumed that MnMTL1 and MnLTL1 might be functioned as pattern recognition receptors and play important roles in the immune response of M. nipponense. PMID:25929240

  1. Exciting Course Cultivating the Power of Emotional

    E-print Network

    Niebur, Ernst

    ..........................................................................13 E-Learning, Department Training, Diversity Training for the High-Pressure Workplace Negativity: Creating Optimism in the Workplace Cultivating the Power of Emotional Intelligence The Downside

  2. Cultivated land conversion and bioproductivity in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jikun; Deng, Xiangzheng; Rozelle, Scott

    2004-11-01

    International experience shows that rapid economic growth is accompanied by a large shift of agricultural land to other uses. The overall goal of this study is to examine the changes of the area and bioproductivity of cultivated land in China where the size of the economy doubled every 8 years. Based on Landsat TM/ETM digital images covering China"s territory in the past 15 years and by utilizing the AEZ methodology, our study finds that contrary to many people"s expectations, China recorded a net increase of cultivated land by 2.65 million hectares in 1986-2000 and accounted for nearly 2% of all cultivated land. We also found that the average productivity of cultivated land declined by about 0.31%, as the bioproductivity of new cultivated land converted from other uses was generally lower than that of cultivated land converted to other uses. Despite a decline in land bioproductivity in the past and a likely decline in total cultivated land in the future, their impact on agricultural production will be minimal. China can maintain a healthy cultivated land base for food and agricultural production in the long term.

  3. Effects of cultivation frequency on sugarcane yields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reducing the number of cultivations during one or more years of a four year crop cycle reduces production expenses and could increase profitability if yields are not adversely affected. This study was initiated to determine the effects of cultivation on yields of sugarcane grown on a clay soil both ...

  4. Effects of cultivation frequency on sugarcane yields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reducing the number of cultivations during one or more years of a four year crop cycle may potentially reduce production expenses for Louisiana sugarcane growers. This study was initiated to determine the effects of cultivation on yields of sugarcane grown on a clay soil both on an annual basis and ...

  5. --,--,_._--.-.. _-_._-----~_ ..." ..._'".__.-_._.----~ ------'-." ....--_._----.--_.----________~ .__.__ .._u.__._ . _ ~ ._._. .. , _.. .__._..._._ A METHOD OF CULTIVATING RAINBOW TROUT

    E-print Network

    ._·_·._· . _ ~ ._._. .. , _.. .__._..._._ A METHOD OF CULTIVATING RAINBOW TROUT AND OTHER SALMONOIDS .;It By Charles L. Paige .;It Paper presented _._------~----_.,,-_. __...--_.._~--_.--. -_.__._~--_._---.~. __._.... _---,--_._--_._-------.,.._--_._.------------- #12;Blank page retained for pagination #12;A METHOD OF CULTIVATING RAINBOW TROUT AND OTHER SALMONOIDS Creek, in the Shasta Mountains, in Shasta County, Ca1., in water to which the rainbow trout is native

  6. The Prawn Macrobrachium vollenhovenii in the Senegal River Basin: Towards Sustainable Restocking of All-Male Populations for Biological Control of Schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Savaya Alkalay, Amit; Rosen, Ohad; Sokolow, Susanne H.; Faye, Yacinthe P. W.; Faye, Djibril S.; Aflalo, Eliahu D.; Jouanard, Nicolas; Zilberg, Dina; Huttinger, Elizabeth; Sagi, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Early malacological literature suggests that the outbreak of schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease transmitted by aquatic snails, in the Senegal River basin occurred due to ecological changes resulting from the construction of the Diama dam. The common treatment, the drug praziquantel, does not protect from the high risk of re-infection due to human contact with infested water on a daily basis. The construction of the dam interfered with the life cycle of the prawn Macrobrachium vollenhovenii by blocking its access to breeding grounds in the estuary. These prawns were demonstrated to be potential biological control agents, being effective predators of Schistosoma-susceptible snails. Here, we propose a responsible restocking strategy using all-male prawn populations which could provide sustainable disease control. Male prawns reach a larger size and have a lower tendency to migrate than females. We, therefore, expect that periodic restocking of all-male juveniles will decrease the prevalence of schistosomiasis and increase villagers' welfare. In this interdisciplinary study, we examined current prawn abundance along the river basin, complemented with a retrospective questionnaire completed by local fishermen. We revealed the current absence of prawns upriver and thus demonstrated the need for restocking. Since male prawns are suggested to be preferable for bio-control, we laid the molecular foundation for production of all-male M. vollenhovenii through a complete sequencing of the insulin-like androgenic gland-encoding gene (IAG), which is responsible for sexual differentiation in crustaceans. We also conducted bioinformatics and immunohistochemistry analyses to demonstrate the similarity of this sequence to the IAG of another Macrobrachium species in which neo-females are produced and their progeny are 100% males. At least 100 million people at risk of schistosomiasis are residents of areas that experienced water management manipulations. Our suggested non-breeding sustainable model of control—if proven successful—could prevent re-infections and thus prove useful throughout the world. PMID:25166746

  7. Mammalian cell cultivation in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gmünder, Felix K.; Suter, Robert N.; Kiess, M.; Urfer, R.; Nordau, C.-G.; Cogoli, A.

    Equipment used in space for the cultivation of mammalian cells does not meet the usual standard of earth bound bioreactors. Thus, the development of a space worthy bioreactor is mandatory for two reasons: First, to investigate the effect on single cells of the space environment in general and microgravity conditions in particular, and second, to provide researchers on long term missions and the Space Station with cell material. However, expertise for this venture is not at hand. A small and simple device for animal cell culture experiments aboard Spacelab (Dynamic Cell Culture System; DCCS) was developed. It provides 2 cell culture chambers, one is operated as a batch system, the other one as a perfusion system. The cell chambers have a volume of 200 ?l. Medium exchange is achieved with an automatic osmotic pump. The system is neither mechanically stirred nor equipped with sensors. Oxygen for cell growth is provided by a gas chamber that is adjacent to the cell chambers. The oxygen gradient produced by the growing cells serves to maintain the oxygen influx by diffusion. Hamster kidney cells growing on microcarriers were used to test the biological performance of the DCCS. On ground tests suggest that this system is feasible.

  8. Hopped Beer: The Case For Cultivation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Y. Delyser; W. J. Kasper

    1994-01-01

    The history of hops, hopped beer, and hop cultivation is unclear and ambiguous. An assessment of the available literature\\u000a reveals many contradictions, especially regarding the first use of hops in beer and the earliest incidence of hop cultivation.\\u000a Historically, hops were used for a variety of purposes; now their primary use is as a preservative and flavoring in beer.\\u000a Hop

  9. Changes in soil carbon storage after cultivation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. K. MANN

    1986-01-01

    Previously published data from 625 paired soil samples were used to predict carbon in cultivated soil as a function of initial carbon content. A 30-cm sampling depth provided a less variable estimate (r² = 0.9) of changes in carbon than a 15-cm sampling depth (r² = 0.6). Regression analyses of changes in carbon storage in relation to years of cultivation

  10. THE TRANSITION TO CONTINUOUS RICE CULTIVATION IN KALIMANTAN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RONALD E. SEAVOY

    1973-01-01

    Population pressure induces Dyaks and Malay subsistence cultivators on the island of Kalimantan (Borneo) in Indonesia to make the transition from shifting to continuous wet cultivation of rice (sawah). The techniques used for continuous cultivation of rice are adapted from those used in wet shifting cultivation.

  11. Effect of Bacillus subtilis on the growth and survival rate of shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hadi Zokaei Far; Roos B. Saad; Hassan Mohd Daud; Sharr Azni Harmin

    2009-01-01

    The effect of Bacillus subtilis, isolated from digestive tract of Macrobrachium rosenbergii was investigated on growth and survival rate of Litopenaeus vannamei during 60 days of culture. Sixteen aquaria with four replicates were used for treatments and controls. Treatment groups were consisted of ?) shrimp fed diet with B. subtilis (T1), and ii) shrimp fed diet mixed with B. subtilis

  12. A Simple "in Vitro" Culture of Freshwater Prawn Embryos for Laboratory Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porntrai, Supaporn; Damrongphol, Praneet

    2008-01-01

    Giant freshwater prawn ("Macrobrachium rosenbergii" De Man) embryos can be cultured "in vitro" to hatching in 15% (v/v) artificial seawater (ASW). This technique can be applied as a bioassay for testing toxicity or for the effects of various substances on embryo development and can be used as a simple and low-cost model for studying embryo…

  13. Sensory Enhancement of Freshwater Prawns Through Post Harvest Salt Acclimation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Wes Schilling; Juan L. Silva; Alessandra J. Pham; Taejo Kim; Louis R. DAbramo; Viodelda Jackson

    2012-01-01

    Freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, were harvested and transferred to holding tanks containing aerated well water. One group of prawns was held in the well water without any addition of salt (control). For post harvest salt acclimation, experimental treatments consisted of different salt sources (solar, halite, marine) that were initially added to achieve a salinity of 10 ppt. Then 5 ppt

  14. Biofilm-based algal cultivation systems.

    PubMed

    Gross, Martin; Jarboe, Darren; Wen, Zhiyou

    2015-07-01

    Biofilm-based algal cultivation has received increased attention as a potential platform for algal production and other applications such as wastewater treatment. Algal biofilm cultivation systems represent an alternative to the suspension-based systems that have yet to become economically viable. One major advantage of algal biofilm systems is that algae can be simply harvested through scraping and thus avoid the expensive harvesting procedures used in suspension-based harvesting such as flocculation and centrifugation. In recent years, an assortment of algal biofilm systems have been developed with various design configurations and biomass production capacities. This review summarizes the state of the art of different algal biofilm systems in terms of their design and operation. Perspectives for future research needs are also discussed to provide guidance for further development of these unique cultivation systems. PMID:26078112

  15. Transcriptome Analysis of Androgenic Gland for Discovery of Novel Genes from the Oriental River Prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense, Using Illumina Hiseq 2000

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Shubo; Fu, Hongtuo; Zhou, Qiao; Sun, Shengming; Jiang, Sufei; Xiong, Yiwei; Gong, Yongsheng; Qiao, Hui; Zhang, Wenyi

    2013-01-01

    Background The oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense, is an important aquaculture species in China, even in whole of Asia. The androgenic gland produces hormones that play crucial roles in sexual differentiation to maleness. This study is the first de novo M. nipponense transcriptome analysis using cDNA prepared from mRNA isolated from the androgenic gland. Illumina/Solexa was used for sequencing. Methodology and Principal Finding The total volume of RNA sample was more than 5 ug. We generated 70,853,361 high quality reads after eliminating adapter sequences and filtering out low-quality reads. A total of 78,408 isosequences were obtained by clustering and assembly of the clean reads, producing 57,619 non-redundant transcripts with an average length of 1244.19 bp. In total 70,702 isosequences were matched to the Nr database, additional analyses were performed by GO (33,203), KEGG (17,868), and COG analyses (13,817), identifying the potential genes and their functions. A total of 47 sex-determination related gene families were identified from the M. nipponense androgenic gland transcriptome based on the functional annotation of non-redundant transcripts and comparisons with the published literature. Furthermore, a total of 40 candidate novel genes were found, that may contribute to sex-determination based on their extremely high expression levels in the androgenic compared to other sex glands,. Further, 437 SSRs and 65,535 high-confidence SNPs were identified in this EST dataset from which 14 EST-SSR markers have been isolated. Conclusion Our study provides new sequence information for M. nipponense, which will be the basis for further genetic studies on decapods crustaceans. More importantly, this study dramatically improves understanding of sex-determination mechanisms, and advances sex-determination research in all crustacean species. The huge number of potential SSR and SNP markers isolated from the transcriptome may shed the lights on research in many fields, including the evolution and molecular ecology of Macrobrachium species. PMID:24204682

  16. Long term cultivation of larger benthic Foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wöger, Julia; Eder, Wolfgang; Kinoshita, Shunichi; Antonino, Briguglio; Carles, Ferrandes-Cañadell; Hohenegger, Johann

    2015-04-01

    Benthic Foraminifera are used in a variety of applications employing numerous different methods, i.e. ecological monitoring, studying the effects of ocean acidification, reconstructing palaeo-bathymetry or investigating palaeo-salinity and palaeo-temperature to name only a few. To refine our understanding of ecological influences on larger benthic foraminiferal biology and to review inferences from field observations, culture experiments have become an indispensable tool. While culture experiments on smaller benthic foraminifera have become increasingly frequent in the past century, reports of the cultivation of symbiont bearing larger Foraminifera are rare. Generally, cultivation experiments can be divided into two groups: Culturing of populations and cultivation of single specimens allowing individual investigation. The latter differ form the former by several restrictions resulting from the need to limit individual motility without abridging microenvironmental conditions in the Foraminiferans artificial habitat, necessary to enable the individual to development as unfettered as possible. In this study we present first experiences and preliminary results of the long-term cultivation of larger benthic Foraminifera conducted at the 'Tropical Biosphere Research Station Sesoko Island, University of the Ryukyus', Japan, trying to reproduce natural conditions as closely as possible. Individuals of three species of larger benthic Foraminifera (Heterostegina depressa, Palaeonummulites venosus and Operculina complanata) have been cultured since April 2014. At the time of the general assembly the cultivation experiments will have been going on for more than one year, with the aim to investigate growth rates, longevities and reproduction strategies for comparison with results statistically inferred from application of the of the 'natural laboratory' method. The most important factor influencing foraminiferal health and development was found to be light intensity and light spectrum. The light intensities reaching the Foraminifera in cultivation however largely depend on the substrate provided (e.g. sand and silt where individuals dig close to the surface or coral rubble used as shelter by the Foraminiferans and as an easy way of retaining the organisms within a designated container by the investigator).

  17. Anammox Organisms: Enrichment, Cultivation, and Environmental Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mike Jetten; Markus Schmid; Jaap Sinninghe Damsté; Marc Strous

    2005-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is the microbial oxidation of ammonium with nitrite to dinitrogen gas under strict anoxic conditions mediated by planctomycete?like bacteria. Anammox is not only important in the oceanic nitrogen cycle, but can also contribute substantially to nitrogen removal in municipal and industrial wastewater treatment. This chapter addresses the enrichment and cultivation of anammox bacteria in a sequencing

  18. Bivalve cultivation: criteria for selecting a site

    E-print Network

    , private study or for internal circulation within an organisation. This is subject to it being re (flat) oysters 5 Scallops 5 Harvesting clams using a hand held suction device 6 Oyster dredger, (Stanswood Bay, The Solent, Hampshire) 7 Pacific oysters cultivated on firm, intertidal ground (Goldhanger

  19. Evolution and classification of the cultivated potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cultivated potato is one of the most important food plants worldwide, yet knowledge of the gene pool structure of the native South American landraces remains largely uninvestigated and has long been controversial. As a result, contrasting taxonomic treatments of the landraces have continued over...

  20. Analyses on Regional Cultivated Land Changebased on Quantitative Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yingui; Yuan, Chun; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Jing

    Three Gorges Project is the great project in the world, which accelerates economic development in the reservoir area of Three Gorges Project. In the process of development in the reservoir area of Three Gorges Project, cultivated land has become the important resources, a lot of cultivated land has been occupied and become the constructing land. In the same time, a lot of cultivated land has been flooded because of the rising of the water level. This paper uses the cultivated land areas and social economic indicators of reservoir area of Three Gorges in 1990-2004, takes the statistic analyses and example research in order to analyze the process of cultivated land, get the driving forces of cultivated land change, find the new methods to stimulate and forecast the cultivated land areas in the future, and serve for the cultivated land protection and successive development in reservoir area of Three Gorges. The results indicate as follow, firstly, in the past 15 years, the cultivated land areas has decreased 200142 hm2, the decreasing quantity per year is 13343 hm2. The whole reservoir area is divided into three different areas, they are upper reaches area, belly area and lower reaches area. The trends of cultivated land change in different reservoir areas are similar to the whole reservoir area. Secondly, the curve of cultivated land areas and per capita GDP takes on the reverse U, and the steps between the change rate of cultivated land and the change rate of GDP are different in some years, which indicates that change of cultivated land and change of GDP are decoupling, besides that, change of cultivated land is connection with the development of urbanization and the policy of returning forestry greatly. Lastly, the precision of multi-regression is lower than the BP neural network in the stimulation of cultivated land, then takes use of the BP neural network to forecast the cultivated land areas in 2005, 2010 and 2015, and the forecasting results are reasonable.

  1. Forest recovery following shifting cultivation: an overview of existing research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teegalapalli Karthik; Gopi Govindhan Veeraswami; Prasanna Kumar Samal

    2009-01-01

    Shifting cultivation is a predominant practice in the majority of tropical hilly tracts. Relatively few studies have examined forest recovery following shifting cultivation and we have reviewed these studies to identify and synthesize general recovery patterns. Most studies report that, although pioneer tree species recover relatively faster, woody biomass of mature forest trees recovers several decades after suspension of cultivation.

  2. Molecular characterization and developmental expression of vitellogenin in the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense and the effects of RNA interference and eyestalk ablation on ovarian maturation.

    PubMed

    Bai, Hongkun; Qiao, Hui; Li, Fajun; Fu, Hongtuo; Sun, Shengming; Zhang, Wenyi; Jin, Shubo; Gong, Yongsheng; Jiang, Sufei; Xiong, Yiwei

    2015-05-10

    Vitellogenin (Vg) is the precursor of yolk protein, which functions as a nutritive resource that is important for embryonic growth and gonad development. In this study, the cDNA encoding the Vg gene from the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense was cloned using expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis and the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) approach. The transcript encoded 2536 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 286.810 kDa. Quantitative real-time PCR indicated high expression of Mn-Vg in the female ovary, hemocytes, and hepatopancreas. As ovaries developed, the expression level of Mn-Vg increased in both the hepatopancreas and ovary. In the hepatopancreas, the expression level rose more slowly at the early stage of vitellogenesis and reached the peak more rapidly compared to the expression pattern in ovary. The observed changes in Mn-Vg expression level at different development stages suggest the role of nutrient source in embryonic and larval development. Eyestalk ablation caused the Mn-Vg expression level to increase significantly compared to eyestalk-intact groups during the ovary development stages. Ablation accelerated ovary maturation by removing hormone inhibition of Mn-Vg in the hepatopancreas and ovary. In adult females, Mn-Vg dsRNA injection resulted in decreased expression of Mn-Vg in both the hepatopancreas and ovary, and two injection treatment dramatically delayed ovary maturation. Vg RNA interference down-regulated the vitellogenin receptor (VgR) expression level in the ovary, which illustrates the close relationship between Vg and VgR in the process of vitellogenesis. PMID:25499697

  3. Immunocytochemical localization of V-H(+) -ATPase, Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase, and carbonic anhydrase in gill lamellae of adult freshwater euryhaline shrimp Macrobrachium acanthurus (Decapoda, Palaemonidae).

    PubMed

    Maraschi, Anieli Cristina; Freire, Carolina Arruda; Prodocimo, Viviane

    2015-08-01

    Physiological (organismal), biochemical, and molecular biological contributions to the knowledge of the osmoregulatory plasticity of palaemonid freshwater shrimps has provided a fairly complete model of transporter localization in their branchial epithelium. Direct immunological demonstration of the main enzymes in the gill epithelia of adult palaemonids is, however, still incipient. The diadromous freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium acanthurus was exposed to increased salinity (25‰ for 24?hr), and its responses at the systemic level were evaluated through the assays of hemolymph osmolality and muscle hydration, and at cellular and subcellular levels through the activity and localization of the V-H(+) -ATPase, the Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase, and the carbonic anhydrase. Results showed an increase in hemolymph osmolality (629?±?5.3?mOsm/kg H2 O) and a decrease in muscle hydration (73.8?±?0.5%), comparing values after 24?hr in 25‰ with control shrimps in freshwater (respectively 409.5?±?15.8?mOsm/kg H2 O and 77.5?±?0.4%). V-H(+) -ATPase was localized in pillar cells, whereas Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase in the septal cells. The main novelty of this study was that carbonic anhydrase was localized in the whole branchial tissue, in pillar and septal cells. Exposure to high salinity for 24?hr led to no detectable changes in their localization or in vitro activity. Immunolocalization data corroborated the literature and current models of palaemonid gill ion transport. The absence of changes reinforces the need for the constant expression of these enzymes to account for the euryhalinity of these shrimps. J. Exp. Zool. 323A: 414-421, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26036663

  4. Uranium uptake by hydroponically cultivated crop plants.

    PubMed

    Soudek, Petr; Petrová, Sárka; Benešová, Dagmar; Dvo?áková, Marcela; Van?k, Tomáš

    2011-06-01

    Hydroponicaly cultivated plants were grown on medium containing uranium. The appropriate concentrations of uranium for the experiments were selected on the basis of a standard ecotoxicity test. The most sensitive plant species was determined to be Lactuca sativa with an EC(50) value about 0.1mM. Cucumis sativa represented the most resistant plant to uranium (EC(50)=0.71 mM). Therefore, we used the uranium in a concentration range from 0.1 to 1mM. Twenty different plant species were tested in hydroponic solution supplemented by 0.1mM or 0.5mM uranium concentration. The uranium accumulation of these plants varied from 0.16 mg/g DW to 0.011 mg/g DW. The highest uranium uptake was determined for Zea mays and the lowest for Arabidopsis thaliana. The amount of accumulated uranium was strongly influenced by uranium concentration in the cultivation medium. Autoradiography showed that uranium is mainly localized in the root system of the plants tested. Additional experiments demonstrated the possibility of influencing the uranium uptake from the cultivation medium by amendments. Tartaric acid was able to increase uranium uptake by Brassica oleracea and Sinapis alba up to 2.8 times or 1.9 times, respectively. Phosphate deficiency increased uranium uptake up to 4.5 times or 3.9 times, respectively, by Brassica oleracea and S. alba. In the case of deficiency of iron or presence of cadmium ions we did not find any increase in uranium accumulation. PMID:21486682

  5. Teacher's Toolkit: A blueprint for cultivating inquiry

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bill Metz

    2008-09-01

    Scientific inquiry , a methodology that can trace its roots back to the time and teachings of Socrates, has been an elusive and evolving part of our education lexicon for many years. The Socratic approach to teaching, in its simplest form, can be thought of as instruction that involves the use of open-ended questions and investigative queries of students rather than a teacher-centered, lecture format. For some reason, however, this straightforward idea has been difficult to translate into practice. Therefore, this article provides a blueprint for cultivating inquiry in the science classroom.

  6. Constituents of the cultivated mulberry tree.

    PubMed

    Nomura, T; Fukai, T; Matsumoto, J; Imashimizu, A; Terada, S; Hama, M

    1982-11-01

    From the ethyl acetate extract of root bark of the Japanese cultivated mulberry tree (a variety of Morus alba L.), a novel chalcone derivative with a fused dihydrochalcone partial moiety was isolated and named kuwanon I. The structure was shown to be I on the basis of chemical and spectral data. Kuwanon I (I) is the first example which is regarded biogenetically as a Diels-Alder adduct of a prenylchalcone derivative and a dehydroprenylchalcone derivative. NMR variable temperature studies of I suggested that kuwanon I (I) exists as an equilibrium mixture of conformational isomers in solution. PMID:17396966

  7. Origin, dispersal, cultivation and variation of rice.

    PubMed

    Khush, G S

    1997-09-01

    There are two cultivated and twenty-one wild species of genus Oryza. O. sativa, the Asian cultivated rice is grown all over the world. The African cultivated rice, O. glaberrima is grown on a small scale in West Africa. The genus Oryza probably originated about 130 million years ago in Gondwanaland and different species got distributed into different continents with the breakup of Gondwanaland. The cultivated species originated from a common ancestor with AA genome. Perennial and annual ancestors of O. sativa are O. rufipogon and O. nivara and those of O. glaberrima are O. longistaminata, O. breviligulata and O. glaberrima probably domesticated in Niger river delta. Varieties of O. sativa are classified into six groups on the basis of genetic affinity. Widely known indica rices correspond to group I and japonicas to group VI. The so called javanica rices also belong to group VI and are designated as tropical japonicas in contrast to temperate japonicas grown in temperate climate. Indica and japonica rices had a polyphyletic origin. Indicas were probably domesticated in the foothills of Himalayas in Eastern India and japonicas somewhere in South China. The indica rices dispersed throughout the tropics and subtropics from India. The japonica rices moved northward from South China and became the temperate ecotype. They also moved southward to Southeast Asia and from there to West Africa and Brazil and became tropical ecotype. Rice is now grown between 55 degrees N and 36 degrees S latitudes. It is grown under diverse growing conditions such as irrigated, rainfed lowland, rainfed upland and floodprone ecosystems. Human selection and adaptation to diverse environments has resulted in numerous cultivars. It is estimated that about 120,000 varieties of rice exist in the world. After the establishment of International Rice Research Institute in 1960, rice varietal improvement was intensified and high yielding varieties were developed. These varieties are now planted to 70% of world's riceland. Rice production doubled between 1966 and 1990 due to large scale adoption of these improved varieties. Rice production must increase by 60% by 2025 to feed the additional rice consumers. New tools of molecular and cellular biology such as anther culture, molecular marker aided selection and genetic engineering will play increasing role in rice improvement. PMID:9291957

  8. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science was established in 1876 and remained the only high quality research facility for the basic sciences until the early decades of the twentieth century. Visitors can discover an abundance of information on its research in the fields of Material Science, Solid State Physics, Inorganic Chemistry, Biological Chemistry, Energy Research, and much more. Scientists can find out about upcoming conferences such as the Colloquium for Young Physicists. The web site features a description of the Institute's recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physics, Professor CV Raman.

  9. Domestication of a Mesoamerican cultivated fruit tree, Spondias purpurea

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Allison; Schaal, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    Contemporary patterns of genetic variation in crops reflect historical processes associated with domestication, such as the geographic origin(s) of cultivated populations. Although significant progress has been made in identifying several global centers of domestication, few studies have addressed the issue of multiple origins of cultivated plant populations from different geographic regions within a domestication center. This study investigates the domestication history of jocote (Spondias purpurea), a Mesoamerican cultivated fruit tree. Sequences of the chloroplast spacer trnG–trnS were obtained for cultivated and wild S. purpurea trees, two sympatric taxa (Spondias mombin var. mombin and Spondias radlkoferi), and two outgroups (S. mombin var. globosa and Spondias testudinus). A phylogeographic approach was used and statistically significant associations of clades and geographical location were tested with a nested clade analysis. The sequences confirm that wild populations of S. purpurea are the likely progenitors of cultivated jocote trees. This study provides phylogeographic evidence of multiple domestications of this Mesoamerican cultivated fruit tree. Haplotypes detected in S. purpurea trees form two clusters, each of which includes alleles recovered in both cultivated and wild populations from distinct geographic regions. Cultivated S. purpurea populations have fewer unique trnG–trnS alleles than wild populations; however, five haplotypes were absent in the wild. The presence of unique alleles in cultivation may reflect contemporary extinction of the tropical dry forests of Mesoamerica. These data indicate that some agricultural habitats may be functioning as reservoirs of genetic variation in S. purpurea. PMID:16126899

  10. Production of Deuterated Switchgrass by Hydroponic Cultivation

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Barbara R [ORNL; Bali, Garima [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta; Foston, Marcus B [ORNL; Ragauskas, Arthur J [ORNL; O'Neill, Hugh Michael [ORNL; Shah, Riddhi S [ORNL; McGaughey, Joseph [ORNL; Reeves, David T [ORNL; Rempe, Caroline S [ORNL; Davison, Brian H [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Deuterium enrichment of biological materials can potential enable expanded experimental use of small angle neutron scattering (SANS) to investigate molecular structural transitions of complex systems such as plant cell walls. Two key advances have been made that facilitate cultivation of switchgrass, an important forage and biofuel crop, for controlled isotopic enrichment: (1) perfusion system with individual chambers and (2) hydroponic growth from tiller cuttings. Plants were grown and maintained for several months with periodic harvest. Photosynthetic activity was monitored by measurement of CO2 in outflow from the growth chambers. Plant morphology and composition appeared normal compared to matched controls grown with H2O. Using this improved method, gram quantities of switchgrass leaves and stems were produced by continuous hydroponic cultivation using growth medium consisting of basal mineral salts in 50% D2O. Deuterium incorporation was confirmed by detection of the O-D and C-D stretching peaks with FTIR and quantified by 1H- and 2H-NMR. This capability to produce deuterated lignocellulosic biomass under controlled conditions will enhance investigation of cell wall structure and its deconstruction by neutron scattering and NMR techniques.

  11. Connectivity of cultivated areas in bocage watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viel, V.; Douvinet, J.; Delahaye, D.; Le Gouee, P.

    2009-04-01

    In bocage watersheds, the relationships between runoff producting areas and suspended sediments measurements are generally more difficult to assess than in openfield areas. Land use organisation and connectivity are the major controlling factors because man-made linear structures like hedges, roads or ditches networks strongly impact runoff pathways on slopes. These structures can block runoff or connect areas localized at an important distance to the river. In order to highlight such influence, we study three catchments of same size (fifteen square kilometres) with same lithological characteristics (shist) but with various hedge, road and drainage network densities in Normandy (France). Results underline that the cultivated areas directly connected to the fluvial system are preferentially localized on watersheds of 1st Strahler order classification, but the percentage remains weak at the global scale (less than 5 percent). Therefore, percents of cultivated areas indirectly connected ranged from 6 to 10 percent are more important. Locally, the spatial organisation of roads and ditches aggravate the degree of connectivity. As a consequence, localising areas indirectly connected within the catchments is a fundamental step to better understand slopes contribution to the global sedimentary budget.

  12. Ecogeography of ploidy variation in cultivated potato (Solanum sect. Petota)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The taxonomy of cultivated potatoes has been highly controversial, with estimates of species numbers ranging from 3 to 17. Ploidy level has been one of the most important taxonomic characters to recognize cultivated potato species, containing diploid (2 n = 2 x = 24), triploid (2 n = 3 x = 36), tetr...

  13. Taxonomy of Cultivated Potatoes (Solanum section Petota: Solanaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum tuberosum, the cultivated potato of world commerce, is a primary food crop worldwide. Wild and cultivated potatoes form the germplasm base for international breeding efforts to improve potato in the face of variety of disease, environmental, and agronomic constraints. A series of national an...

  14. Cultivating Solutions An Investment in the UW Botany Greenhouse

    E-print Network

    Carrington, Emily

    Cultivating Solutions An Investment in the UW Botany Greenhouse Cultivating Answers An Investment in the UW Biology Greenhouse College of Arts & Sciences DEPARTMENT OF BIOLOGY #12;"The UW Biology Greenhouse agriculture, global health, and environmental sustainability. For more than 65 years, the Biology Greenhouse

  15. Ecogeography of Ploidy Variation in Cultivated Potato (Solanum Sect. Petota)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The taxonomy of cultivated potatoes has been highly controversial, with estimates of species numbers ranging from 3-18. Ploidy level has been one of the most important taxonomic characters to recognize cultivated potato species, with diploid (2n = 2x = 24), triploid (2n = 3x = 36), tetraploid (2n = ...

  16. Artificial sporeling and field cultivation of Gelidium in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. G. Fei; L. J. Huang

    1991-01-01

    The supply of Gelidium resources is dependent on collection from natural habitats. As these resources are very limited, one possible means of augmenting production is by implementation of artificial cultivation as has been done with Laminaria, Porphyra and Eucheuma. Chinese phycologists have conducted research on sporeling and field cultivation of Gelidium for many years. Trials have been made using: (1)

  17. Taxonomy of cultivated potatoes (solanum section petota: solanaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum tuberosum, the cultivated potato of world commerce, is a primary food crop worldwide. Wild and cultivated potatoes form the germplasm base for international breeding efforts to improve potato in the face of variety of disease, environmental, and agronomic constraints. A series of national an...

  18. Experimental Studies on the Origin of Cultivated Rice

    PubMed Central

    Oka, Hiko-Ichi

    1974-01-01

    1) Contributions to the origin of cultivated rice made by the author and his colleagues were briefly reviewed under several headlines.—2) Two parallel series of evolution of cultivated species, the Asian form of Oryza perennis to O. sativa and O. breviligulata to O. glaberrima, were pointed out compared.—3) In both the two series, a continuous array of intergrades between wild and cultivated species is found in a particular region. The pattern of character variations among those intermediate plants was considered as indicating the evolutionary path, and the monophyletic origin of the Indica and Japonica types of O. sativa was discussed.—4) The conditions of establishment of a weedy form of O. perennis found in India were discussed. It was noticed that cultivation by man in itself works as a selective agent for cultivated types. PMID:17248664

  19. Isolation, cultivation and transfection of human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Zare, Sona; Zarei, Mohammad Ali; Ghadimi, Tayyeb; Fathi, Fardin; Jalili, Ali; Hakhamaneshi, Mohammad Saeed

    2014-04-01

    Human keratinocytes could be used in the repair of damaged skin, in tissue engineering applications, gene therapy and recently, the generation of iPS cells. We isolated human keratinocytes from foreskin and subsequently cultured them on fibronectin, collagen type I, gelatin and laminin-coated dishes that contained three different types of serum-free medium (epilife, KSM or CnT). We developed improved conditions for efficient transfection of these human keratinocytes by testing three common transfection methods and a GFP plasmid vector. The isolated cells showed typical keratinocyte morphology and expressed the epithelial cell specific antigen, cytokeratin 14. Collagen type 1, epilife medium and lipofectamin 2000 gave the best results for isolation and transfection of human keratinocytes. Our protocol can be used as a reproducible, simple and efficient method for isolation, cultivation and genetic manipulation of human keratinocytes, which may be useful in cell and gene therapy applications. PMID:24323435

  20. Cultivating Careers: Professional Development for Campus IT

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Cultivating Careers: Professional Development for Campus IT provides an overview of current principles and practices for mentoring and developing IT professionals in higher education. Edited by EDUCAUSE Vice President Cynthia Golden and written by top leaders in the industry who have distinguished themselves and their organizations for sharpening others' skills, institutional savvy, and ability to lead, the book's chapters are organized into two sections: the organizational perspective and the individual perspective. In addition, the online site for the book will have exclusive audio interviews with CIOs and other senior IT leaders in higher education who give advice for future leaders and talk about how they overcame challenges and moved ahead in their own careers.

  1. High-power LEDs for plant cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamulaitis, Gintautas; Duchovskis, Pavelas; Bliznikas, Zenius; Breive, Kestutis; Ulinskaite, Raimonda; Brazaityte, Ausra; Novickovas, Algirdas; Zukauskas, Arturas; Shur, Michael S.

    2004-10-01

    We report on high-power solid-state lighting facility for cultivation of greenhouse vegetables and on the results of the study of control of photosynthetic activity and growth morphology of radish and lettuce imposed by variation of the spectral composition of illumination. Experimental lighting modules (useful area of 0.22 m2) were designed based on 4 types of high-power light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with emission peaked in red at the wavelengths of 660 nm and 640 nm (predominantly absorbed by chlorophyll a and b for photosynthesis, respectively), in blue at 455 nm (phototropic function), and in far-red at 735 nm (important for photomorphology). Morphological characteristics, chlorophyll and phytohormone concentrations in radish and lettuce grown in phytotron chambers under lighting with different spectral composition of the LED-based illuminator and under illumination by high pressure sodium lamps with an equivalent photosynthetic photon flux density were compared. A well-balanced solid-state lighting was found to enhance production of green mass and to ensure healthy morphogenesis of plants compared to those grown using conventional lighting. We observed that the plant morphology and concentrations of morphologically active phytohormones is strongly affected by the spectral composition of light in the red region. Commercial application of the LED-based illumination for large-scale plant cultivation is discussed. This technology is favorable from the point of view of energy consumption, controllable growth, and food safety but is hindered by high cost of the LEDs. Large scale manufacturing of high-power red AlInGaP-based LEDs emitting at 650 nm and a further decrease of the photon price for the LEDs emitting in the vicinity of the absorption peak of chlorophylls have to be achieved to promote horticulture applications.

  2. Cultivating the cortex in German neuroanatomy.

    PubMed

    Hagner, M

    2001-12-01

    The cerebral localization of mental functions is one of the centerpieces of modern brain research. Though the localization paradigm in its cultural and social interwovenness has been characterized as successful in the last third of the nineteenth century by a variety of historians of the neurosciences, there is also general agreement that localization came under threat around 1900. Besides the so-called holistic protest against the localization of mental functions, the neuroanatomical approach itself was challenged by experimental psychology, psychiatric nosology, and psychoanalysis. This story underestimates the fact that anatomically-based localization remained powerful in response to these multiple challenges. This meant a neuroanatomical revision of tools, concepts, and practices. But this meant also a shift in the cultivation of the cortex from a more philosophical agenda to rather concrete political claims. More specifically, the idea of the cortext as the noblest part of man was supplemented by suggestions concerning its "Höherzüchtung." I will analyze this re-orientation and radicalization in two steps. First, I briefly discuss the anatomical and philosophical account of Theodor Meynert and then turn to Paul Flechsig who in the late nineteenth century inscribed the ability to create culture and civilization into the cortext. Second, I focus on the neuroanatomists Oskar and Cécile Vogt, who began their careers around 1900 and expanded the cultivation of the cortext. Even before World War I, they proclaimed a "cerebral hygiene." Consequently, the Vogts linked their innovative neuroanatomical researches with the rising field of genetics, racial hygiene, and eugenics. In the early Weimar Republic, the Vogts openly supported socialist ideas and were engaged in establishing an Institute for Brain Research in Soviet Moscow, where Lenin's brain was analyzed. By the end of the Weimar Republic, the rhetoric of the Vogts was bluntly authoritarian. Based on a few anatomical examinations of so-called elite brains and the brains of criminals, they made concrete suggestions for eugenics and the breeding of "one-sidedly gifted leaders." Given the remarkable popularity of the Vogts around 1930, their program is an important example of the hubris of predicting and guiding future developments on the basis of scientific authority. It can be regarded as an ironic nemesis that the Vogts - never sympathizing with the political aims of the National Socialists - were forced to finish their careers as influential Kaiser Wilhelm scientists in Nazi-Germany. PMID:12174862

  3. SPECIES CONCEPTS AND RELATIONSHIPS IN WILD AND CULTIVATED POTATOES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild and cultivated potatoes (Solanum section Petota) present challenges to taxonomists arising from lack of clearly defined morphological character differences among many species, phenotypic plasticity, a range of ploidy levels from diploid to hexaploid, and hybrid speciation and introgression. Tax...

  4. 36 CFR 34.7 - Cultivation of controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...substances. 34.7 Section 34.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EL PORTAL ADMINISTRATIVE SITE REGULATIONS § 34.7 Cultivation of controlled substances. In addition to the provisions...

  5. Experimental nursery pond cultivation of the seagrass Halodule beaudettei 

    E-print Network

    Rosen, David J.

    1998-01-01

    Experiments were conducted from April through July of hics. l 998 to assess the cultivation of Halodule beaudettei (den Hartog) den Hartog (shoal-grass) in experimental nursery ponds. The effects of pond flow-regime, water ...

  6. The Edibility and Cultivation of the Oyster Mushroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenneman, James; Guttman, Mark C.

    1994-01-01

    Describes an enjoyable and fascinating experience that involves the cultivation of oyster mushrooms. By allowing students to participate in this process, the students are able to better understand the biology and utility of fungi. (ZWH)

  7. Attached cultivation of Haematococcus pluvialis for astaxanthin production.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenduo; Wang, Junfeng; Wang, Jialin; Liu, Tianzhong

    2014-04-01

    Haematococcus pluvialis, the best natural source for astaxanthin, was cultivated with an immobilized biofilm method, viz. "attached cultivation", which was high in photosynthetic efficiency. A practical operational protocol for this "attached cultivation" method was investigated by studying the effects of inoculum density, light intensity, nitrogen quantity as well as medium volume on growth and astaxanthin accumulation. Results indicated the optimized inoculum density and light intensity were 10 g m(-2) and 100 ?mol m(-2)s(-1), respectively. The optimized nitrogen supply strategy was circulating ca. 30 L of BG-11 medium with initial sodium nitrate concentration of ca. 1.8mM for 1m(2) of cultivation surface. With this strategy, the maximum astaxanthin productivity reached ca. 160 mg m(-2)d(-1) which is much higher than many other indoor researches. Both of the red and green cells were found in the biofilm with red cells on the top. PMID:24632411

  8. Patterns of nucleotide diversity in wild and cultivated rice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xianran Li; Lubin Tan; Zuofeng Zhu; Haiyan Huang; Ying Liu; Songnian Hu; Chuanqing Sun

    2009-01-01

    There are few reports of the patterns of polymorphism in the non-coding regions of plant genomes. In this study, we explored\\u000a nucleotide diversity and linkage disequilibrium (LD) in 47 non-coding regions on chromosome 4 of wild and cultivated rice.\\u000a The cultivated rice retained about 70% of the diversity of wild rice, which was verified by coalescent simulations with one\\u000a population

  9. Influence of ecological cultivation on virgin olive oil quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francisca Gutiérrez; Teresa Arnaud; Miguel A. Albi

    1999-01-01

    The quality of oil extracted from ecologically cultivated olives of the Picual variety was compared with oil extracted from\\u000a Picual olives cultivated using conventional methods. Olive trees were grown in a two-section plot. Fruits from each plot were\\u000a harvested at various stages of ripeness, and acidity value, peroxide index, ultraviolet absorption at 232 and 270 nm, stability\\u000a to oxidation, sensory

  10. Geothermal aquaculture: a guide to freshwater prawn culture

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, A.; Johnson, W.C.

    1980-05-01

    Biological data of the Malaysian prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, are summarized. A history on its rearing techniques is given, but through the use of geothermal water or industrial warm water effluent, its range can be expanded. The use of wasted geothermal water at the Oregon Institute of Technology for prawn ponds is noted. Pond management and design; the hatchery design and function for larval culture; and geothermal applications (legal aspects and constraints) are discussed. (MCW)

  11. Differential expression of CMG peptide and crustacean hyperglycemic hormones (CHHs) in the eyestalk of the giant tiger prawn Penaeus monodon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paisarn Sithigorngul; Nanthika Panchan; Parin Chaivisuthangkura; Siwaporn Longyant; Weerawan Sithigorngul; Amorn Petsom

    2002-01-01

    Mouse antiserum against C-terminal amide of Pem-CMG (a peptide in the family of CHH\\/MIH\\/GIH) penta-deca peptide (RPRQRNQYRAALQRLamide=CMG-15) was generated and used for localization of the peptide in tissue and extract of the eyestalk of Penaeus monodon by means of immunohistochemistry and dot-ELISA in comparison with anti-T+ antiserum (T+=YANAVQTVamide: the putative C-terminal amide of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) of Macrobrachium rosenbergii).

  12. Multi-culture solar heated bio-shelter. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    A rooftop greenhouse (bio-shelter) that is heated with active and passive solar systems is presented. The intent of the greenhouse is to grow vegetables hydroponically the year-round using a nutrient flow technique; and to growth the giant tropical Malaysian prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii in a recycling raceway water system heated with solar power. The produce grown was continuously monitored and the harvests weighed in order to estimate the year-round production potential of the bio-shelter greenhouse.

  13. Rice-Freshwater Prawn Integrated Culture in Tan Phu Thanh Village, Chau Thanh A district, Can Tho Province

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nguyen Thanh Phuong; Vu Nam; Vo Thanh Toan; Tran Thi; Thanh Hien; Pham Minh Duc

    Trials of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) farming in rice field and garden ditch is being conducted at JIRCAS project research site, Tan Phu Thanh village, Chau Thanh A, Can Tho province. It includes three rice-prawn farms and one garden ditch prawn farm. Juvenile prawns of 0,045 g\\/prawn in average were stocked at a density of 2 prawn\\/m2 in rice-prawn farms,

  14. Continuous microalgae cultivation in a photobioreactor.

    PubMed

    Tang, Haiying; Chen, Meng; Ng, K Y Simon; Salley, Steven O

    2012-10-01

    New biomass sources for alternative fuels has become a subject of increasing importance as the nation strives to resolve the economic and strategic impacts of limited fossil fuel resources on our national security, environment, and global climate. Algae are among the most promising non-food-crop-based biomass feedstocks. However, there are currently no commercially viable microalgae-based production systems for biofuel production that have been developed, as limitations include less-than optimal oil content, growth rates, and cultivation techniques. While batch studies are critical for determining basic growth phases and characteristics of the algal species, steady-state studies are necessary to better understand and measure the specific growth parameters. This study evaluated the effects of dilution rate on microalgal biomass productivity, lipid content, and fatty acid profile under steady-state conditions with continuous illumination and carbon dioxide supplemention for two types of algae. Continuous cultures were conducted for more that 3 months. Our results show that the productivity of Chlorella minutissima varied from 39 to 137 mg/L/day (dry mass) when the dilution rate varied from 0.08 to 0.64 day(-1). The biomass productivity of C. minutissima reached a maximum value (137 mg/L/day) at a dilution rate of 0.33 day(-1), while the productivity of Dunaliella tertiolecta varied from 46 to 91 mg/L/day at a dilution rate of 0.17 to 0.74 day(-1). The biomass productivity of D. tertiolecta reached a maximum value of 91 mg/L/day at a dilution rate of 0.42 day(-1). Moreover, the lipid content had no significant change with various dilution rates. PMID:22488253

  15. Dictyostelium Cultivation, Transfection, Microscopy and Fractionation

    PubMed Central

    Hirst, Jennifer; Kay, Robert R; Traynor, David

    2015-01-01

    The real time visualisation of fluorescently tagged proteins in live cells using ever more sophisticated microscopes has greatly increased our understanding of the dynamics of key proteins during fundamental physiological processes such as cell locomotion, chemotaxis, cell division and membrane trafficking. In addition the fractionation of cells and isolation of organelles or known compartments can often verify any subcellular localisation and the use of tagged proteins as bait for the immunoprecipitation of material from cell fractions can identify specific binding partners and multiprotein complexes thereby helping assign a function to the tagged protein. We have successfully applied these techniques to the Dictyostelium discoideum protein TSPOON that is part of an ancient heterohexamer membrane trafficking complex (Hirst et al., 2013). TSPOON is the product of the tstD gene in Dictyostelium and is not required for growth or the developmental cycle in this organism. Dictyostelium amoebae will exist in a vegetative phase where growth is sustained by the phagocytosis of bacteria. When this food source is spent they enter a developmental phase where the amoebae aggregate, via chemotaxis to extracellular waves of cAMP, into multicellular structures that subsequently form a fruiting body containing viable spores (Muller-Taubenberger et al., 2013). In the laboratory this cycle takes less than 24 h to complete and as a further aid to manipulation the requirement for a bacterial food source has been circumvented by the derivatisation of the wild type and isolation of axenic strains that can also grow in a nutrient rich broth. Axenic strains like Ax2 are the mainstay of laboratory research using Dictyostelium (Muller-Taubenberger et al., 2013). A description of Dictyostelium cell cultivation, the generation of cell lines that overexpress TSPOON-GFP and TSPOON null cells, and subsequent analysis (Muller-Taubenberger and Ishikawa-Ankerhold, 2013) is detailed below.

  16. A Versatile Medium for Cultivating Methanogenic Archaea

    PubMed Central

    Khelaifia, Saber; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Background Methanobrevibacter smithii, Methanobrevibacter oralis, Methanosphaera stadtmanae, Methanomassilicoccus luminyensis and Methanobrevibacter arboriphilicus have been cultured from human digestive microbiota. Each one of these fastidious methanogenic archaea requires a specific medium for its growth, hampering their routine isolation and the culture. Methodology/Principal Findings A new culture medium here referred as SAB medium was optimized and tested to cultivate methanogens associated with human microbiota, as well as two mesophile methanogens Methanobacterium beijingense and Methanosaeta concilii. It was further tested for the isolation of archaea from 20 human stool specimens including 10 specimens testing positive for PCR detection of M. smithii. After inoculating 105 colony-forming-unit archaea/mL or 1 g stool specimen in parallel in SAB medium and reference DSMZ medium in the presence of negative controls, growth of archaea was determined by optical microscopy and the measurement of methane production by gas chromatography. While the negative controls remained sterile, all tested archaea grew significantly more rapidly in SAB medium than in reference medium in 1–3 days (P<0.05, Student test). Among PCR-positive stool specimens, 10/10 grew in the SAB medium, 6/10 in DSMZ 119 medium, 5/10 in DSMZ 322 medium and 3/10 in DSMZ 334 c medium. Four out of ten PCR-negative stool specimens grew after a 3-week incubation in the SAB-medium whereas no growth was detected in any of the reference media. 16S rRNA gene sequencing yielded 99–100% sequence similarity with reference M. smithii except for one specimen that yielded 99–100% sequence similarity with reference Methanobrevibacter millerae. Conclusions/Significance SAB medium allows for the versatile isolation and growth of methanogenic archaea associated with human gut microbiota including the archaea missed by inoculation of reference media. Implementation of the SAB medium in veterinary and medical microbiology laboratories will ease the routine culture-based detection of methanogenic archaea in clinical and environmental specimens. PMID:23613876

  17. Membrane technology in microalgae cultivation and harvesting: a review.

    PubMed

    Bilad, M R; Arafat, Hassan A; Vankelecom, Ivo F J

    2014-11-15

    Membrane processes have long been applied in different stages of microalgae cultivation and processing. These processes include microfiltration, ultrafiltration, dialysis, forward osmosis, membrane contactors and membrane spargers. They are implemented in many combinations, both as a standalone and as a coupled system (in membrane biomass retention photobioreactors (BR-MPBRs) or membrane carbonation photobioreactors (C-MPBRs). To provide sufficient background on these applications, an overview of membrane materials and membrane processes of interest in microalgae cultivation and processing is provided in this work first. Afterwards, discussion about specific aspects of membrane applications in microbial cultivation and harvesting is provided, including membrane fouling. Many of the membrane processes were shown to be promising options in microalgae cultivation. Yet, significant process optimizations are still required when they are applied to enable microalgae biomass bulk production to become competitive as a raw material for biofuel production. Recent developments of the coupled systems (BR-MPBR and C-MPBR) bring significant promises to improve the volumetric productivity of a cultivation system and the efficiency of inorganic carbon capture, respectively. PMID:25109678

  18. Growth and anaerobic digestion characteristics of microalgae cultivated using various types of sewage.

    PubMed

    Hidaka, Taira; Inoue, Kenichiro; Suzuki, Yutaka; Tsumori, Jun

    2014-10-01

    Microalgal cultivation combined with anaerobic digestion at wastewater treatment plants is promising to recover energy. This study investigated the growth and anaerobic digestion characteristics of microalgae cultivated using nutrients in sewage. Microalgae were cultivated using primary effluent, secondary effluent, and dewatering filtrate. Microscopic observation indicated that Chlorella was cultivated using dewatering filtrate of anaerobic digestion without controlling the type of species. Batch anaerobic digestion experiments with digested sludge showed that the methane conversion ratio of the cultivated mixture was approximately 40-65%. Different cultivation time did not affect the microalgal contents. Methane recovery mass was 0.13NL-methane/L-cultivation liquor. The C/N ratio of the cultivated mixture was approximately 3-5, but the apparent ammonia release ratio was smaller than that of sewage sludge during digestion. These results proved the applicability of methane recovery from microalgae cultivated using nutrients included in anaerobically digested sludge. PMID:25127007

  19. America's red gold: multiple lineages of cultivated cochineal in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Campana, Michael G; Robles García, Nelly M; Tuross, Noreen

    2015-02-01

    Cultivated cochineal (Dactylopius coccus) produces carminic acid, a valuable red dye used to color textiles, cosmetics, and food. Extant native D. coccus is largely restricted to two populations in the Mexican and the Andean highlands, although the insect's ultimate center of domestication remains unclear. Moreover, due to Mexican D. coccus cultivation's near demise during the 19th century, the genetic diversity of current cochineal stock is unknown. Through genomic sequencing, we identified two divergent D. coccus populations in highland Mexico: one unique to Mexico and another that was more closely related to extant Andean cochineal. Relic diversity is preserved in the crops of small-scale Mexican cochineal farmers. Conversely, larger-scale commercial producers are cultivating the Andean-like cochineal, which may reflect clandestine 20th century importation. PMID:25691985

  20. Engineering considerations for process development in mammalian cell cultivation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hu; Wang, Weixiang; Quan, Chunshan; Fan, Shengdi

    2010-01-01

    Mammalian cell cultivation plays a great role in producing protein therapeutics in the last decades. Many engineering parameters are considered for optimization during process development in mammalian cell cultivation, only shear and mixing are especially highlighted in this paper. It is believed that shear stress due to agitation has been over-estimated to damage cells, but shear may result in nonlethal physiological responses. There is no cell damage in the regions where bubbles form, break up and coalescence, but shear stress becomes significant in the wake of rising bubbles and causes great damage to cells in bubble burst regions. Mixing is not sufficient to provide homogeneous dissolved oxygen tension, pH, CO2 and nutrients in large-scale bioreactors, which can bring severe problems for cell growth, product formation and process control. Scale-down reactors have been developed to address mixing and shear problems for parallel operations. Engineering characterization in conventional and recently developed scale-down bioreactors has been briefly introduced. Process challenges for cultivation of industrial cell lines in high cell densities as well as cultivation of stem cells and other human cells for regenerative medicine, tissue engineering and gene therapy are prospected. Important techniques, such as micromanipulation and nanomanipulation (optical tweezers) for single cell analysis, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for shear and mixing characterization, and miniaturized bioreactors, are being developed to address those challenges. PMID:19929819

  1. Cultivation of Cannabis sativa L. in northern Morocco

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Stambouli; A. El Bouri; M. A. Bellimam; T. Bouayoun; N. El Karni

    Field studies on cannabis cultivation have provided socio-economic data relating to, inter alia, production, yield and income. But only laboratory analyses of cannabis plants can provide information on their chemical composition and their levels of psychoactive constituents, thus enabling them to be classed as a drug type or a fibre type. The present study, which covers cannabis in its fresh,

  2. ORIGINAL PAPER Genetic diversity and population structure in cultivated sunflower

    E-print Network

    Burke, John M.

    to its wild progenitor, Helianthus annuus L J. R. Mandel · J. M. Dechaine · L. F. Marek · J. M. Burke of the primary gene pool of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) based on a broad sampling of 433 cultivated diversity present within the primary gene pool of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) based on a broad sampling

  3. Impact of Continuous Axenic Cultivation in Leishmania infantum Virulence

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Impact of Continuous Axenic Cultivation in Leishmania infantum Virulence Diana Moreira1. , Nuno´ Montpellier II, Montpellier, France Abstract Experimental infections with visceral Leishmania spp of Leishmania spp. in vitro results in a progressive loss of virulence that can be reverted by passage

  4. High field NMR microscopic imaging of cultivated strawberry fruit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. A. Goodman; B. Williamson; E. J. Simpson; J. A. Chudek; G. Hunter; D. A. M. Prior

    1996-01-01

    The experimental conditions required for discrimination of various types of tissue in fruits of cultivated strawberry (Fragaria × Ananassa) at high fields (ca. 7 T) have been investigated. In marked contrast to soft fruits of other species, from which informative images have been derived at high fields using a variety of pulse sequences and acquisition parameters, appreciable image intensities from

  5. The Distribution of Genetic Variation in Cultivated Tomato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is known to have a narrow genetic base. COSII, EST-based, and several loci related to fruit quality traits were resequenced in a diverse panel of 30 Plant Genetic Resources Unit (PGRU) tomato accessions, line TA496, and Solanum peruvianum accession G 32591...

  6. Sequencing of the cultivated tetraploid cotton genome - Gossypium hirsutum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is an important cash crop in the world and it plays an irreplaceable role in China’s national economy. Cultivated upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) represents 95% of world cotton production but it has a complex allotetraploid genome that contains at least 30,000 genes in 2,500 Mb DNA. S...

  7. Genetic structure and differentiation in cultivated grapes, Vitis vinifera, L.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    222 cultivated (Vitis vinifera) and 22 wild (V. vinifera ssp. sylvestris) grape accessions were analysed for genetic diversity and differentiation at eight microsatellite loci. A total of 94 alleles were detected, with extensive polymorphism among the accessions. Multivariate relationships among acc...

  8. Mystic Chords of Memory: Cultivating America's Unique Form of Patriotism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berns, Walter

    2002-01-01

    Describes the history of U.S. patriotism, asserting that anchored though it is to a set of ideas, there are unique challenges to educating patriots. Suggests the importance of telling the nation's stories through civics education. Explains that patriotism is cultivated when students learn about democratic values, people and events shaping the…

  9. FAIRY RING DISEASE INCREASES HOST GENETIC DIVERSITY IN CULTIVATED CRANBERRY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fairy ring is a common disease affecting cultivated cranberries in New Jersey and Massachusetts. The disease can cause significant vine dieback and yield loss. Fungicide control is not very effective and the causal agent is unknown. Affected areas spread over the bogs for years as an advancing -ring...

  10. ORIGINAL ARTICLE New vineyard cultivation practices create patchy ground

    E-print Network

    Richner, Heinz

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE New vineyard cultivation practices create patchy ground vegetation, favouring for many animal species, has led to a widespread collapse of farmland biodiversity. Vineyards in central has led to more vegetation cover on the ground, although most vineyards remain bare, especially

  11. DETECTION OF ILLEGAL CANNABIS CULTIVATION USING REMOTE SENSING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Detection of illegal Cannabis cultivation by law enforcement agencies currently relies on low flying aircraft manned by trained aerial spotters. This is physically tiring for the aircrew, inefficient for large or complex landscapes, and is often foiled by camouflaged grow sites. A solution for det...

  12. Computer as Chalk Cultivating and Sustaining Communities of Youth

    E-print Network

    1 Computer as Chalk Cultivating and Sustaining Communities of Youth as Designers of Tangible User by Pattie Maes Associate Academic Head Program in Media Arts and Sciences #12;2 #12;3 Computer as Chalk that the ways in which people use chalk (e.g., drawing hopscotch grids) can serve as an inspiration

  13. Monoculture, polyculture, and polyvariety in tropical forest Swidden cultivation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raymond Hames

    1983-01-01

    A number of researchers have suggested that polyculture is characteristic of native tropical forest swiddens and have adduced theory from community ecology to account for its adaptiveness. Ye'kwana and Yanomamö swidden cultivation is examined, and it is shown that polyculture is not practiced to any significant degree. Instead, the concept of polyvariety is introduced along with a number of other

  14. Agricultural diversification among smallholder rattan cultivators in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ricardo A. Godoy; Tan Ching Feaw

    1991-01-01

    Many developing countries are trying to promote agricultural diversification among smallholders because they feel that smallholders are too dependent upon a narrow range of crops. Fieldwork among smallholder rattan cultivators in Southern Borneo, Indonesia, suggests that smallholders do maintain a poorly diversified portfolio of agricultural activities. Farmers rely heavily upon rattan because of its superior profitability. A number of economic

  15. Current status of in vitro cultivation of Cowdria ruminantium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. E. Yunker

    1995-01-01

    Heartwater caused by Cowdria ruminantium infection is the most important tick-borne disease of ruminants in southern Africa. TThe in vitro culture system for this rickettsia, developed less than a decade ago, is responsible for the great majority of research accomplishments currently being reported in the areas of epidemiology, diagnosis and control of heartwater. Despite this progress, cultivation of C. ruminantium

  16. Sharing and Cultivating Tacit Knowledge in an Online Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tee, Meng Yew; Karney, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    Research on knowledge cultivation often focuses on explicit forms of knowledge. However, knowledge can also take a tacit form--a form that is often difficult or impossible to tease out, even when it is considered critical in an educational context. A review of the literature revealed that few studies have examined tacit knowledge issues in online…

  17. Patterns of allozyme variation in cultivated and wild Sorghum bicolor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. R. Aldrich; J. Doebley; K. F. Schertz; A. Stec

    1992-01-01

    Patterns of allozyme variation were surveyed in collections of cultivated and wild sorghum from Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. Data for 30 isozyme loci from a total of 2067 plants representing 429 accessions were analyzed. Regional levels of genetic diversity in the cultivars are greater in northern and central Africa compared to southern Africa, the Middle East, or Asia.

  18. Cultivating Teachers' Morality and the Pedagogy of Emotional Rationality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Minkang

    2013-01-01

    Teachers are expected to act ethically and provide moral role models in performing their duties, even though teacher education has often relegated the cultivation of teachers' ethical awareness and moral development to the margins. When it is addressed, the main theoretical assumptions have relied heavily on the cognitivist developmental theories…

  19. Piriformospora indica, a Cultivable Plant-Growth-Promoting Root Endophyte

    Microsoft Academic Search

    AJIT VARMA; SAVITA VERMA; NIRMAL SAHAY; BRITTA BUTEHORN; PHILIPP FRANKEN

    1999-01-01

    Fungi interact with plants as pathogens or benefactors and may influence yields in agroforestry and floriculture. Knowl- edge concerning plant-growth-promoting cultivable root endo- phytes is low (7), and most studies have been conducted with mycorrhizal fungi. These mutualists improve the growth of crops on poor soils with lower inputs of chemical fertilizers and pesticides (2, 9). Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi,

  20. Lessons from the Field: Cultivating Nurturing Environments in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Caroline S.

    2015-01-01

    This article explores how a scholarly learning journey, as a student and faculty member, brings one back to an understanding of the value of knowledge gained in one's home community, and provides insight on how to foster settings for others to cultivate knowledge.

  1. Technologies of Self and the Cultivation of Virtues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hattam, Robert; Baker, Bernadette

    2015-01-01

    In this article we engage with and against Foucault's provocation to think about diagrams of subjectivation. With Foucault we take up his meditation on spirituality and propose a Buddhist alternative to Greco-Roman technologies of self. Against Foucault's notion of an "arts of existence" we suggest instead "cultivation of…

  2. Web-based cultivation of undergraduates' autonomous English learning capability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zheng Hui; Yang Yali; Mi Sha; Yang Dongling

    2010-01-01

    The integration of modern educational technology and English teaching became a necessity because of the rapid development of multimedia and network technology, the widening scale of undergraduate training, as well as cultivating innovative talents demands in the 21st century. Therefore, in the web-based environment, how to develop students' autonomous learning ability under the guidance of constructivism theory is becoming the

  3. Hypersensitivity Pneumonitisamong Workers CultivatingTricholoma conglobatum (Shimeji)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norikazu Akizuki; Naohiko Inase; Nobuo Ishiwata; Yasuto Jin; Kenichi Atarashi; Masahiko Ichioka; Yasuyuki Yoshizawa; Fumiaki Marumo

    1999-01-01

    We report five cases of hypersensitivity pneumonitis among workers cultivating Tricholoma conglobatum (shimeji). After having worked for 5 to 20 years, they began to notice symptoms of cough, sputum, and dyspnea. They were diagnosed as having a hypersensitivity pneumonitis based on clinical features, bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial lung biopsy. By the double immunodiffusion test, precipitating lines between shimeji spore antigen

  4. Self-Cultivation: Culturally Sensitive Psychotherapies in Confucian Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Kwang-Kuo; Chang, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    This article describes self-cultivation practices originating from the cultural traditions of Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism. It delineates the therapeutic implications of the three states of self pursued by these three traditions: namely, the "relational self", the "authentic self", and the "nonself". Several psychotherapy techniques derived…

  5. Allelopathy as a potential strategy to improve microalgae cultivation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    One of the main obstacles for continuous productivity in microalgae cultivation is the presence of biological contaminants capable of eliminating large numbers of cells in a matter of days or even hours. However, a number of strategies are being used to combat and prevent contamination in microalgae cultivation. These strategies include the use of extreme conditions in the culture media such as high salinity and high pH to create an unfavorable environment for the competitive organisms or predators of the microalgae. Numerous studies have explored the potential of naturally occurring bioactive secondary metabolites, which are natural products from plants and microorganisms, as a source of such compounds. Some of these compounds are herbicides, and marine and freshwater microalgae are a source of these compounds. Microalgae produce a remarkable diversity of biologically active metabolites. Results based on the allelopathic potential of algae have only been described for laboratory-scale production and not for algae cultivation on a pilot scale. The adoption of allelopathy on microalgal strains is an unexplored field and may be a novel solution to improve algae production. Here we present information showing the diversity of allelochemicals from microalgae and the use of an allelopathic approach to control microalgae cultivation on a pilot scale based on R&D activities being carried out in Brazil for biodiesel production. PMID:24499580

  6. Shifting cultivation and “deforestation”: A study from Indonesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arild Angelsen

    1995-01-01

    About half of tropical deforestation is commonly explained by the expansion of traditional agriculture (shifting cultivation). This article first questions the share of responsibility assigned to traditional agriculture — it may well be overestimated because of unclear definitions, uncertain estimates, and potential political biases. Second, a simple framework based on a theory of land rent capture is developed to explain

  7. The President's Role in Cultivating Positive Town-Gown Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weill, Lawrence V.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the benefits and challenges a college president faces when attempting to cultivate relationships with the community in which the college resides. Throughout history, the relationships between institutions of higher education and the communities that house them have often been turbulent, but much good can be realized when true…

  8. Original article Effects of soil, climate and cultivation techniques

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    that soil order, topsoil and subsoil texture, carbonates, cultivar, previous uses of the sampling sitesOriginal article Effects of soil, climate and cultivation techniques on cotton yield in Central Greece, using different statistical methods Dionissios P. KALIVAS*, Vassiliki J. KOLLIAS Department

  9. Allelopathy as a potential strategy to improve microalgae cultivation.

    PubMed

    Bacellar Mendes, Leonardo Brantes; Vermelho, Alane Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    One of the main obstacles for continuous productivity in microalgae cultivation is the presence of biological contaminants capable of eliminating large numbers of cells in a matter of days or even hours. However, a number of strategies are being used to combat and prevent contamination in microalgae cultivation. These strategies include the use of extreme conditions in the culture media such as high salinity and high pH to create an unfavorable environment for the competitive organisms or predators of the microalgae. Numerous studies have explored the potential of naturally occurring bioactive secondary metabolites, which are natural products from plants and microorganisms, as a source of such compounds. Some of these compounds are herbicides, and marine and freshwater microalgae are a source of these compounds. Microalgae produce a remarkable diversity of biologically active metabolites. Results based on the allelopathic potential of algae have only been described for laboratory-scale production and not for algae cultivation on a pilot scale. The adoption of allelopathy on microalgal strains is an unexplored field and may be a novel solution to improve algae production. Here we present information showing the diversity of allelochemicals from microalgae and the use of an allelopathic approach to control microalgae cultivation on a pilot scale based on R&D activities being carried out in Brazil for biodiesel production. PMID:24499580

  10. Original article Cultivation of shiitake mushroom, Lentinula edodes,

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Cultivation of shiitake mushroom, Lentinula edodes, in several lignocellulosic Lentinula edodes (IE-40 and IE-105) was evaluated on bar- ley straw, corn cob, corn stover, rice bran-98 % in sugarcane leaves and 36-37 % in bracts of pineapple crown. (© Inra/Elsevier, Paris.) Lentinula edodes

  11. Agrobotanical Features and Oil Content of Wild and Cultivated Forms of Caraway (Carum carvi L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bertalan Galambosi; Pekka Peura

    1996-01-01

    Twenty-four wild and 19 cultivated caraway (Carum carvi L.) populations\\/cultivars were cultivated at Mikkeli, Finland (61°44'N, 27°18'E) during 1990-1991. Twenty-eight of the populations studied were of Northern European origin and 15 were of Central European origin. Clear agrobotanical differences were observed between the wild and cultivated populations. The cultivated populations were characterized by a 10-14 days longer growing period, differences

  12. Grass control with DPX-79406 and cultivation in corn (Zea mays L.)

    E-print Network

    Locke, James Mitchell

    1990-01-01

    at early and/or late corn growth stages. Treatments included: broadcast DPX-79406 at both stages; banded over-the-top DPX-79406 plus cultivation at the early stage; postdirected DPX-79406 plus cultivation at the late stage; cultivation at both stages... of rhizome johnsongrass was with broadcast herbicide applications. The panicums and seedling johnsongrass were controlled as effectively by limited herbicide applications plus cultivation as by broadcast herbicide applications. In the reduced tillage...

  13. Exploiting combinatorial cultivation conditions to infer transcriptional regulation

    PubMed Central

    Knijnenburg, Theo A; de Winde, Johannes H; Daran, Jean-Marc; Daran-Lapujade, Pascale; Pronk, Jack T; Reinders, Marcel JT; Wessels, Lodewyk FA

    2007-01-01

    Background Regulatory networks often employ the model that attributes changes in gene expression levels, as observed across different cellular conditions, to changes in the activity of transcription factors (TFs). Although the actual conditions that trigger a change in TF activity should form an integral part of the generated regulatory network, they are usually lacking. This is due to the fact that the large heterogeneity in the employed conditions and the continuous changes in environmental parameters in the often used shake-flask cultures, prevent the unambiguous modeling of the cultivation conditions within the computational framework. Results We designed an experimental setup that allows us to explicitly model the cultivation conditions and use these to infer the activity of TFs. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was cultivated under four different nutrient limitations in both aerobic and anaerobic chemostat cultures. In the chemostats, environmental and growth parameters are accurately controlled. Consequently, the measured transcriptional response can be directly correlated with changes in the limited nutrient or oxygen concentration. We devised a tailor-made computational approach that exploits the systematic setup of the cultivation conditions in order to identify the individual and combined effects of nutrient limitations and oxygen availability on expression behavior and TF activity. Conclusion Incorporating the actual growth conditions when inferring regulatory relationships provides detailed insight in the functionality of the TFs that are triggered by changes in the employed cultivation conditions. For example, our results confirm the established role of TF Hap4 in both aerobic regulation and glucose derepression. Among the numerous inferred condition-specific regulatory associations between gene sets and TFs, also many novel putative regulatory mechanisms, such as the possible role of Tye7 in sulfur metabolism, were identified. PMID:17241460

  14. Parasitism of Lepidopterous Stem Borers in Cultivated and Natural Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Mailafiya, Duna Madu; Le Ru, Bruno Pierre; Kairu, Eunice Waitherero; Dupas, Stéphane; Calatayud, Paul-André

    2011-01-01

    Plant infestation, stem borer density, parasitism, and parasitoid abundance were assessed during two years in two host plants, Zea mays (L.) (Cyperales: Poaceae) and Sorghum bicolor (L.) (Cyperales: Poaceae), in cultivated habitats. The four major host plants (Cyperus spp., Panicum spp., Pennisetum spp., and Sorghum spp.) found in natural habitats were also assessed, and both the cultivated and natural habitat species occurred in four agroecological zones in Kenya. Across habitats, plant infestation (23.2%), stem borer density (2.2 per plant), and larval parasitism (15.0%) were highest in maize in cultivated habitats. Pupal parasitism was not higher than 4.7% in both habitats, and did not vary with locality during each season or with host plant between each season. Cotesia sesamiae (Cameron) and C. flavipes Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) were the key parasitoids in cultivated habitats (both species accounted for 76.4% of parasitized stem borers in cereal crops), but not in natural habitats (the two Cotesia species accounted for 14.5% of parasitized stem borers in wild host plants). No single parasitoid species exerted high parasitism rates on stem borer populations in wild host plants. Low stem borer densities across seasons in natural habitats indicate that cereal stem borer pests do not necessarily survive the non-cropping season feeding actively in wild host plants. Although natural habitats provided refuges for some parasitoid species, stem borer parasitism was generally low in wild host plants. Overall, because parasitoids contribute little in reducing cereal stem borer pest populations in cultivated habitats, there is need to further enhance their effectiveness in the field to regulate these pests. PMID:21526933

  15. Parasitism of lepidopterous stem borers in cultivated and natural habitats.

    PubMed

    Mailafiya, Duna Madu; Le Ru, Bruno Pierre; Kairu, Eunice Waitherero; Dupas, Stéphane; Calatayud, Paul-André

    2011-01-01

    Plant infestation, stem borer density, parasitism, and parasitoid abundance were assessed during two years in two host plants, Zea mays (L.) (Cyperales: Poaceae) and Sorghum bicolor (L.) (Cyperales: Poaceae), in cultivated habitats. The four major host plants (Cyperus spp., Panicum spp., Pennisetum spp., and Sorghum spp.) found in natural habitats were also assessed, and both the cultivated and natural habitat species occurred in four agroecological zones in Kenya. Across habitats, plant infestation (23.2%), stem borer density (2.2 per plant), and larval parasitism (15.0%) were highest in maize in cultivated habitats. Pupal parasitism was not higher than 4.7% in both habitats, and did not vary with locality during each season or with host plant between each season. Cotesia sesamiae (Cameron) and C. flavipes Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) were the key parasitoids in cultivated habitats (both species accounted for 76.4% of parasitized stem borers in cereal crops), but not in natural habitats (the two Cotesia species accounted for 14.5% of parasitized stem borers in wild host plants). No single parasitoid species exerted high parasitism rates on stem borer populations in wild host plants. Low stem borer densities across seasons in natural habitats indicate that cereal stem borer pests do not necessarily survive the non-cropping season feeding actively in wild host plants. Although natural habitats provided refuges for some parasitoid species, stem borer parasitism was generally low in wild host plants. Overall, because parasitoids contribute little in reducing cereal stem borer pest populations in cultivated habitats, there is need to further enhance their effectiveness in the field to regulate these pests. PMID:21526933

  16. INITIATION AND EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF FIBER IN WILD AND CULTIVATED COTTON

    E-print Network

    Wendel, Jonathan F.

    INITIATION AND EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF FIBER IN WILD AND CULTIVATED COTTON Kara M. Butterworth,1.S.A. Cultivated cotton fiber has undergone transformation from short, coarse fibers found in progenitor wild in cultivated cotton may have facilitated both yield and uniformity of the crop. However, for the taxa

  17. RANGE-WIDE USE OF CULTIVATED FIELDS BY MOUNTAIN PLOVERS DURING THE BREEDING SEASON

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOHN S. SI-IACKFORD; DAVID M. LESLIE; WARREN D. HARDEN

    During six summers from 1986 through 1995, we searched cultivated fields in Montana, Wyoming, Nebraska, Colorado, Kansas, Oklahoma, New Mexico, and Texas for Mountain Plovers (Charadrius montanus) during the breeding and premigratory seasons. We observed 2208 Mountain Plovers on 416 cultivated fields, 96.9% of which were observed in seven counties in four states. We located 52 nests on cultivated fields:

  18. Impacts of recent cultivation on genetic diversity pattern of a medicinal plant, Scutellaria baicalensis (Lamiaceae)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cultivation of medicinal plants is not only a means for meeting current and future demands for large volume production of plant-based drug and herbal remedies, but also a means of relieving harvest pressure on wild populations. Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (Huang-qin or Chinese skullcap) is a very important medicinal plant in China. Over the past several decades, wild resource of this species has suffered rapid declines and large-scale cultivation was initiated to meet the increasing demand for its root. However, the genetic impacts of recent cultivation on S. baicalensis have never been evaluated. In this study, the genetic diversity and genetic structure of 28 wild and 22 cultivated populations were estimated using three polymorphic chloroplast fragments. The objectives of this study are to provide baseline data for preserving genetic resource of S. baicalensis and to evaluate the genetic impacts of recent cultivation on medicinal plants, which may be instructive to future cultivation projects of traditional Chinese medicinal plants. Results Thirty-two haplotypes of S. baicalensis (HapA-Y and Hap1-7) were identified when three chloroplast spacers were combined. These haplotypes constituted a shallow gene tree without obvious clusters for cultivated populations, suggesting multiple origins of cultivated S. baicalensis. Cultivated populations (hT = 0.832) maintained comparable genetic variation with wild populations (hT = 0.888), indicating a slight genetic bottleneck due to multiple origins of cultivation. However, a substantial amount of rare alleles (10 out of 25 haplotypes within wild populations) lost during the course of S. baicalensis cultivation. The genetic differentiation for cultivated group (GST = 0.220) was significantly lower than that of wild group (GST = 0.701). Isolation by distance analysis showed that the effect of geographical isolation on genetic structure was significant in wild populations (r = 0.4346, P < 0.0010), but not in cultivated populations (r = 0.0599, P = 0.2710). These genetic distribution patterns suggest that a transient cultivation history and the extensive seed change among different geographical areas during the course of S. baicalensis cultivation. Conclusions Although cultivated S. baicalensis maintains comparable genetic diversity relative to wild populations, recent cultivation has still imposed profound impacts on genetic diversity patterns of the cultivated S. baicalensis populations, i.e., the loss of rare alleles and homogenization of cultivated populations. This study suggests that conservation-by-cultivation is an effective means for protecting genetic resources of S. baicalensis, however, the wild resources still need to be protected in situ and the evolutionary consequences of extensive seed exchange mediated by human being should be monitored carefully. PMID:20429879

  19. Isolation, cultivation, and characterization of adult murine prostate stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Lukacs, Rita U.; Goldstein, Andrew S.; Lawson, Devon A.; Cheng, Donghui; Witte, Owen N.

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT/SUMMARY The successful isolation and cultivation of prostate stem cells will allow us to study their unique biological properties and their application in therapeutic approaches. Here we provide step-by-step procedures on the basis of previous work in our laboratory for: the harvesting of primary prostate cells from adolescent male mice by a modified enzymatic procedure; the isolation of an enriched population of prostate stem cells through cell sorting; the cultivation of prostate stem cells in vitro; and characterization of these cells and their stem-like activity, including in vivo tubule regeneration. Normally it will take approximately 8 hours to harvest prostate cells, isolate the stem cell enriched population, and set up the in vitro sphere assay. It will take up to 8 weeks to analyze the unique properties of the stem cells, including their regenerative capacity in vivo. PMID:20360765

  20. Landscape cultivation alters ?³?Si signature in terrestrial ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Vandevenne, Floor I; Delvaux, Claire; Hughes, Harold J; André, Luc; Ronchi, Benedicta; Clymans, Wim; Barão, Lúcia; Govers, Gerard; Meire, Patrick; Struyf, Eric; Cornelis, Jean-Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Despite increasing recognition of the relevance of biological cycling for Si cycling in ecosystems and for Si export from soils to fluvial systems, effects of human cultivation on the Si cycle are still relatively understudied. Here we examined stable Si isotope (?(30)Si) signatures in soil water samples across a temperate land use gradient. We show that - independent of geological and climatological variation - there is a depletion in light isotopes in soil water of intensive croplands and managed grasslands relative to native forests. Furthermore, our data suggest a divergence in ?(30)Si signatures along the land use change gradient, highlighting the imprint of vegetation cover, human cultivation and intensity of disturbance on ?(30)Si patterns, on top of more conventionally acknowledged drivers (i.e. mineralogy and climate). PMID:25583031

  1. Landscape cultivation alters ?30Si signature in terrestrial ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Vandevenne, Floor I.; Delvaux, Claire; Hughes, Harold J.; André, Luc; Ronchi, Benedicta; Clymans, Wim; Barão, Lúcia; Govers, Gerard; Meire, Patrick; Struyf, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Despite increasing recognition of the relevance of biological cycling for Si cycling in ecosystems and for Si export from soils to fluvial systems, effects of human cultivation on the Si cycle are still relatively understudied. Here we examined stable Si isotope (?30Si) signatures in soil water samples across a temperate land use gradient. We show that – independent of geological and climatological variation – there is a depletion in light isotopes in soil water of intensive croplands and managed grasslands relative to native forests. Furthermore, our data suggest a divergence in ?30Si signatures along the land use change gradient, highlighting the imprint of vegetation cover, human cultivation and intensity of disturbance on ?30Si patterns, on top of more conventionally acknowledged drivers (i.e. mineralogy and climate). PMID:25583031

  2. Bioreactor Cultivation of Anatomically Shaped Human Bone Grafts

    PubMed Central

    Temple, Joshua P.; Yeager, Keith; Bhumiratana, Sarindr; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana; Grayson, Warren L.

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe a method for engineering bone grafts in vitro with the specific geometry of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) condyle. The anatomical geometry of the bone grafts was segmented from computed tomography (CT) scans, converted to G-code, and used to machine decellularized trabecular bone scaffolds into the identical shape of the condyle. These scaffolds were seeded with human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) using spinner flasks and cultivated for up to 5 weeks in vitro using a custom-designed perfusion bioreactor system. The flow patterns through the complex geometry were modeled using the FloWorks module of SolidWorks to optimize bioreactor design. The perfused scaffolds exhibited significantly higher cellular content, better matrix production, and increased bone mineral deposition relative to non-perfused (static) controls after 5 weeks of in vitro cultivation. This technology is broadly applicable for creating patient-specific bone grafts of varying shapes and sizes. PMID:24014312

  3. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis among workers cultivating Tricholoma conglobatum (shimeji).

    PubMed

    Akizuki, N; Inase, N; Ishiwata, N; Jin, Y; Atarashi, K; Ichioka, M; Yoshizawa, Y; Marumo, F

    1999-01-01

    We report five cases of hypersensitivity pneumonitis among workers cultivating Tricholoma conglobatum (shimeji). After having worked for 5 to 20 years, they began to notice symptoms of cough, sputum, and dyspnea. They were diagnosed as having a hypersensitivity pneumonitis based on clinical features, bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial lung biopsy. By the double immunodiffusion test, precipitating lines between shimeji spore antigen and sera were observed in all of the patients. By enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, the antibody activities against shimeji and three species of fungi (Cladosporium sphaerospermum, Penicillium frequentans, and Scopulariopsis species) were significantly higher in the sera of the patients than in those of normal subjects who were cultivating shimeji. Although it is not clear what causes this disease, these findings may be helpful in determining the specific antigen. PMID:10364747

  4. The Socioeconomic Impact of Truffle Cultivation in Rural Spain 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicklas Samils; Antoni Olivera; Eric Danell; Susan J. Alexander; Christine Fischer; Carlos Colinas

    2008-01-01

    The Socioeconomic Impact of Truffle Cultivation in Rural Spain. Commercial black truffle (Tuber melanosporum) plantations have been promoted in Europe with the intention of benefiting rural economies while conserving biodiversity\\u000a through the expansion of oak woodlands. In this context, a socioeconomic study was conducted around the town of Sarrión in\\u000a eastern Spain, where government subsidies have supported oak reforestation and

  5. Fed-batch cultivation of Cellulomonas on sugarcane bagasse pith

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, H.; Enriquez, A.

    1985-02-01

    A high biomass concentration (19.9 g/L) was obtained with the fed-batch cultivation of Cellulomonas on pretreated sugarcane bagasse pith. Similar results in biomass concentration, yield, and substrate consumption were obtained with the discontinuous feed of bagasse as with discontinuous feed supplemented with a partial continuous addition of salts. Two or more growth phases were detected, probably caused by the differential utilization of bagasse components. An acceptably low content of bagasse components remained in the biomass after separation.

  6. Germination characters in wild and cultivated Anemone coronaria L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Auguste Horovitz; Susan Bullowa; Moshe Negbi

    1975-01-01

    Achenes of wild forms of Anemone coronaria growing in Israel differ in their germination requirements from achenes of the cultivated de Caen type. The optimum temperature for dark germination was between 10–15°C in the former and between 15–20°C in the latter. Maximum daily rates of germination were higher, reaching 16% per day, and the minimum lag period between sowing and

  7. Effect of Rice Cultivation on Malaria Transmission in Central Kenya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ephantus J. Muturi; Simon Muriu; Josephat Shililu; Joseph Mwangangi; Benjamin G. Jacob; Charles Mbogo; John Githure; Robert J. Novak

    2008-01-01

    A 12-month field study was conducted between April 2004 and March 2005 to determine the association between irrigated rice cultivation and malaria transmission in Mwea, Kenya. Adult mosquitoes were collected indoors twice per month in three villages representing non-irrigated, planned, and unplanned rice agro-ecosystems and screened for blood meal sources and Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite proteins. Anopheles arabiensis Patton and An.

  8. Cultivating the uncultured: limits, advances and future challenges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karine Alain; Joël Querellou

    2009-01-01

    Since the invention of the Petri dish, there have been continuous efforts to improve efficiency in microbial cultivation.\\u000a These efforts were devoted to the attainment for diverse growth conditions, simulation of in situ conditions and achievement\\u000a of high-throughput rates. As a result, prokaryotes catalysing novel redox reactions as well as representatives of abundant,\\u000a but not-yet cultured taxa, were isolated. Significant

  9. Cultivation of Spirulina in sewage for poultry feed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. N. Saxena; M. R. Ahmad; R. Shyam; D. V. Amla

    1983-01-01

    Summary A method for cultivatingSpirulina platensis in domestic raw sewage, coupled with pisciculture and water reclamation in an integrated recycling system, has been standardized. The alga is grown in an indigenously designed open-air pilot production unit consisting of 4 concrete basins with a total surface area of 450 m2. The harvesting and processing methods are based on simple filtration and

  10. Seed proteins of the wild and the cultivated Amaranthus species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. V. Zheleznov; L. P. Solonenko; N. B. Zheleznova

    1997-01-01

    The 13–21% variation in seed protein content was observed in wild and cultivated forms of amaranth. Seed proteins of amaranth\\u000a are highly nutritive and composed presumably of easily digestable albumins and globulins (over 50% of total protein); of 20.8%\\u000a alkali-soluble proteins-glutelins with similar nutritive value and only of 12% alcohol-soluble proteins-prolamins which are\\u000a lacking in essential amino acids. The results

  11. Early Holocene cultivation before domestication in northern Syria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George Willcox; Sandra Fornite; Linda Herveux

    2008-01-01

    Charred plant remains from the sites of Tell Qaramel, Jerf el Ahmar, Dja’de and Tell ‘Abr situated in northern Syria and dated\\u000a to the tenth and ninth millennia cal b.c. demonstrate that a wide variety of wild pulses, cereals, fruits and nuts was exploited. Five lines of evidence suggest that\\u000a cultivation was practised at three of the sites. (1) Wild

  12. [Prevention of soil deterioration during cultivation of medicinal plants].

    PubMed

    Guo, Lan-ping; Huang, Lu-qi; Jiang, You-xu; Lv, Dong-mei

    2006-05-01

    This paper summarized the aspects of the soil deterioration due to continuous growth of medicinal plants, such as nutrition insufficient, pH variation, harmful salt accumulating, harmful microbe and allelopathic substance increasing, soil physics and chemistry properties variation. And the ways to prevent and rehabilitate the deteriorated soil was indicated, which included anti-adversity species selecting, scientific management such as whorl cropping, nutrient elements supplement, usage of physical methods, nutrient liquid cultivating and VAM inoculating etc. PMID:17048673

  13. Fluorescent chromosome banding in the cultivated species of Capsicum ( Solanaceae )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eduardo A. Moscone; Maria Lambrou; Friedrich Ehrendorfer

    1996-01-01

    Fluorochrome chromosome banding is applied for the first time to 15 samples of five cultivatedCapsicum species, all with 2n = 24, and allows a detailed analysis of the karyotypes (Tables 2–3, Fig. 8). Banding patterns differ between cytotypes, species and groups, reflecting the dynamics of chromosomal differentiation and evolutionary divergence. Taxa have from 1 to 4 NOR-bearing satellited chromosome pairs

  14. Relationships among cultivated and wild lentils revealed by RAPD analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. K. Sharma; I. K. Dawson; R. Waugh

    1995-01-01

    RAPD markers were used to distinguish between six different Lens taxa, representing cultivated lentil and its wild relatives. Twenty-four arbitrary sequence 10-mer primers were identified which revealed robust and easily interpretable amplification-product profiles. These generated a total of 88 polymorphic bands in 54 accessions and were used to partition variation within and among Lens taxa. The data showed that, of

  15. Cultivating tomorrow's leaders: comprehensive development strategies ensure continued success.

    PubMed

    Squazzo, Jessica D

    2010-01-01

    It's no secret that strong leaders are the backbone of any successful organization. Watch a high-performing healthcare organization in action, and you know a team of talented leaders is at the helm. But successful organizations not only have to have top talent in place--they have to know how to identify high-potential leaders, cultivate them and retain them. PMID:20614680

  16. The Population Genetics of Cultivation: Domestication of a Traditional Chinese Medicine, Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl. (Scrophulariaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chuan; Li, Pan; Wang, Rui-Hong; Schaal, Barbara A.; Fu, Cheng-Xin

    2014-01-01

    Background Domestic cultivation of medicinal plants is an important strategy for protecting these species from over harvesting. Some species of medicinal plants have been brought into cultivation for more than hundreds years. Concerns about severe loss of genetic diversity and sustainable cultivation can potentially limit future use of these valuable plants. Genetic studies with comprehensive sampling of multiple medicinal species by molecular markers will allow for assessment and management of these species. Here we examine the population genetic consequences of cultivation and domestication in Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl. We used chloroplast DNA and genomic AFLP markers to clarify not only the effects of domestication on genetic diversity, but also determine the geographic origins of cultivars and their genetic divergence from native populations. These results will allow both better management of cultivated populations, but also provide insights for crop improvement. Results Twenty-one cpDNA haplotypes of S. ningpoensis were identified. Wild populations contain all haplotypes, whereas only three haplotypes were found in cultivated populations with wild populations having twice the haplotype diversity of cultivated populations. Genetic differentiation between cultivated populations and wild populations was significant. Genomic AFLP markers revealed similar genetic diversity patterns. Furthermore, Structure analysis grouped all wild populations into two gene pools; two of which shared the same gene pool with cultivated S. ningpoensis. The result of Neighbor-Joining analysis was consistent with the structure analysis. In principal coordinate analysis, three cultivated populations from Zhejiang Province grouped together and were separated from other cultivated populations. Conclusions These results suggest that cultivated S. ningpoensis has experienced dramatic loss of genetic diversity under anthropogenic influence. We postulate that strong artificial selection for medicinal quality has resulted in genetic differentiation between cultivated and wild populations. Furthermore, it appears that wild populations in Jiangxi-Hunan area were involved in the origin of cultivated S. ningpoensis. PMID:25157628

  17. Agricultural intensification and changes in cultivated areas, 1970–2005

    PubMed Central

    Rudel, Thomas K.; Schneider, Laura; Uriarte, Maria; Turner, B. L.; DeFries, Ruth; Lawrence, Deborah; Geoghegan, Jacqueline; Hecht, Susanna; Ickowitz, Amy; Lambin, Eric F.; Birkenholtz, Trevor; Baptista, Sandra; Grau, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    Does the intensification of agriculture reduce cultivated areas and, in so doing, spare some lands by concentrating production on other lands? Such sparing is important for many reasons, among them the enhanced abilities of released lands to sequester carbon and provide other environmental services. Difficulties measuring the extent of spared land make it impossible to investigate fully the hypothesized causal chain from agricultural intensification to declines in cultivated areas and then to increases in spared land. We analyze the historical circumstances in which rising yields have been accompanied by declines in cultivated areas, thereby leading to land-sparing. We use national-level United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization data on trends in cropland from 1970–2005, with particular emphasis on the 1990–2005 period, for 10 major crop types. Cropland has increased more slowly than population during this period, but paired increases in yields and declines in cropland occurred infrequently, both globally and nationally. Agricultural intensification was not generally accompanied by decline or stasis in cropland area at a national scale during this time period, except in countries with grain imports and conservation set-aside programs. Future projections of cropland abandonment and ensuing environmental services cannot be assumed without explicit policy intervention. PMID:19955435

  18. [Biotechnological cultivation of edible macrofungi: an alternative for obtaining nutraceutics].

    PubMed

    Suárez Arango, Carolina; Nieto, Ivonne Jeannette

    2013-01-01

    Macromycetes have been part of the human culture for thousand years, and have been reported as food in the most important civilizations in history. Many nutraceutical properties of macromycetes have been described, such as anti-cancer, anti-tumour, cholesterol lowering, antiviral, antibacterial, or immunomodulatory, among others. Given that production of mushrooms by traditional cultivation and extraction of bioactive metabolites is very difficult in some cases, biotechnology is essential for the development of profitable and productive techniques for obtaining these metabolites. It is the development of this technology, and the ease in which it enables the use of its variables that has allowed mycelium to be cultivated in liquid medium of macrofungi, with a significant reduction in time and an increased production of metabolites. This increased production has led to the study of compounds that have medicinal, nutriceutical and quasi-farmaceutical potential, in the exhausted media and the mycelium. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the use of liquid-state fermentation as a technological tool for obtaining edible fungi, and the study of these and their metabolites, by describing the different cultivation conditions used in recent years, as well as the results obtained. The relevance of Agaricus, Flammulina, Grifola, Pleurotus and Lentinula genera, will also be discussed, with emphasis on the last one, since Shiitake has been always considered as the ultimate medicinal mushroom. PMID:22449697

  19. Light scattering application for bacterial cell monitoring during cultivation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotsyumbas, Igor Ya.; Kushnir, Igor M.; Bilyy, Rostyslav O.; Yarynovska, Ivanna H.; Getman, Vasyl'B.; Bilyi, Alexander I.

    2007-07-01

    Monitoring of bacterial cell numbers is of great importance not only in microbiological industry but also for control of liquids contamination in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Here we describe a novel low-cost and highly efficient technology for bacterial cell monitoring during cultivation process. The technology incorporates previously developed monitoring device and algorithm of its action. The devise analyses light scattered by suspended bacterial cells. Current stage utilizes monochromatic coherent light and detects amplitudes and durations of scattered light impulses, it does not require any labeling of bacterial cell. The system is calibrated using highly purificated bacteria-free water as standard. Liquid medial are diluted and analyzed by the proposed technology to determine presence of bacteria. Detection is done for a range of particle size from 0.1 to 10 ?m, and thus particles size distribution is determined. We analyzed a set of different bacterial suspensions and also their changes in quantity and size distribution during cultivation. Based on the obtained results we conclude that proposed technology can be very effective for bacteria monitoring during cultivation process, providing benefits of low simplicity and low cost of analysis with simultaneous high detection precision.

  20. Application of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) to the Cultivation Line of Mushroom and Other Cultivated Edible Fungi.

    PubMed

    Pardo, José E; de Figueirêdo, Vinícius Reis; Alvarez-Ortí, Manuel; Zied, Diego C; Peñaranda, Jesús A; Dias, Eustáquio Souza; Pardo-Giménez, Arturo

    2013-09-01

    The Hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) is a preventive system which seeks to ensure food safety and security. It allows product protection and correction of errors, improves the costs derived from quality defects and reduces the final overcontrol. In this paper, the system is applied to the line of cultivation of mushrooms and other edible cultivated fungi. From all stages of the process, only the reception of covering materials (stage 1) and compost (stage 3), the pre-fruiting and induction (step 6) and the harvest (stage 7) have been considered as critical control point (CCP). The main hazards found were the presence of unauthorized phytosanitary products or above the permitted dose (stages 6 and 7), and the presence of pathogenic bacteria (stages 1 and 3) and/or heavy metals (stage 3). The implementation of this knowledge will allow the self-control of their productions based on the system HACCP to any plant dedicated to mushroom or other edible fungi cultivation. PMID:24426137

  1. The microbial population in the air of cultivation facility of oyster mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Chun, Se Chul; Ahn, Yu Na; Khan, Sajid Mohamad; Chung, Il Min; Won, Hyang Yoen; Jhune, Chang Sung; Park, Yool Jin

    2012-12-01

    The microbial population in the air of mushroom cultivation facility was studied to understand the population structure and size depending on the cultivation methods and regions. The air contents of ten farmers' oyster mushroom cultivation facilities in Kyunggi province were sampled. The results indicated that there was no difference in population size depending on the regions of mushroom cultivation. In addition, the population size of bacteria in the growth room was bigger than that of the cooling room and outside of the mushroom house, but the fungal population was similar in size between cultivation stages. With regard to population structure, Pseudomonas and Penicillium species were most frequently isolated from the air of oyster mushroom cultivation facility. PMID:23274995

  2. Candidate OP Phyla: Importance, Ecology and Cultivation Prospects.

    PubMed

    Rohini Kumar, M; Saravanan, V S

    2010-10-01

    OP phyla were created in the domain bacteria, based on the group of 16S rRNA gene sequences recovered from the Obsidian Pool. However, due to the lack of cultured representative it is referred to as candidate phyla. Wider ecological occurrence was predicted for the OP phyla, especially OP3, OP10 and OP11. Recently, members of phylum OP5 and OP10 were cultured, providing clues to their cultivation prospects. At last the bioprospecting potentials of the OP members are discussed herein. PMID:22282618

  3. Environmental life cycle assessment of Ethiopian rose cultivation.

    PubMed

    Sahle, Abiy; Potting, José

    2013-01-15

    A life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted for Ethiopian rose cultivation. The LCA covered the cradle-to-gate production of all inputs to Ethiopian rose cultivation up to, and including transport to the Ethiopian airport. Primary data were collected about materials and resources used as inputs to, and about the product outputs from 21 farms in 4 geographical regions (i.e. Holleta, Sebeta, Debre Ziet, and Ziway). The primary data were imported in, and analyzed with the SimaPro7.3 software. Data for the production of used inputs were taken from the EcoInvent®2.0 database. Emissions from input use on the farms were quantified based on estimates and emission factors from various studies and guidelines. The resulting life cycle inventory (LCI) table was next evaluated with the CML 2 baseline 2000 V2/world, 1990/characterization method to quantify the contribution of the rose cultivation chain to 10 environmental impact categories. The set of collected primary data was comprehensive and of high quality. The data point to an intensive use of fertilizers, pesticides, and greenhouse plastic. Production and use of these inputs also represent the major contributors in all environmental impact categories. The largest contribution comes from the production of the used fertilizers, specifically nitrogen-based fertilizers. The use of calcium nitrate dominates Abiotic Depletion (AD), Global Warming (GW), Human Toxicity (HT) and Marine Aquatic Ecotoxicity (MAET). It also makes a large contribution to Ozone Depletion (OD), Acidification (AD) and Fresh water Aquatic Ecotoxicity (FAET). Acidification (AC) and Eutrophication (EU) are dominated by the emission of fertilizers. The emissions from the use of pesticides, especially insecticides dominate Terrestrial Ecotoxicity (TE) and make a considerable contribution to Freshwater Aquatic Ecotoxicity (FAET) and Photochemical Oxidation (PhO). There is no visible contribution from the use of pesticides to the other toxicity categories. Production and use of greenhouse plastic are another important contributors, and just a bit less than the contribution of calcium nitrate to Abiotic Depletion (AD). The results of this study clearly indicate nutrient management and emissions from pesticide use, especially insecticides, as a focus point for environmental optimization of the rose cultivation sector in Ethiopia. PMID:23183227

  4. Solid state cultivation of Streptomyces clavuligerus for cephamycin C production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krishna Prasad Kota; Padma Sridhar

    1999-01-01

    Solid state cultivation of Streptomyces clavuligerus for cephamycin C production was carried out in a system consisting of wheat rawa 5 g; cotton seed deoiled cake 5 g; sunflower cake 0·5 g; corn steep liquor 1 g; MgSO4.7H2O 0·06 g; CaCO3 0·1 g; K2HPO4 4·4 g; with initial moisture content of 80%, initial pH 6·5 and a fermentation temperature in

  5. Processes affecting genetic structure and conservation: a case study of wild and cultivated Brassica rapa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naja Steen Andersen; Gert Poulsen; Bente Anni Andersen; Lars Pødenphant Kiær; Tina D’Hertefeldt; Mike J. Wilkinson; Rikke Bagger Jørgensen

    2009-01-01

    When planning optimal conservation strategies for wild and cultivated types of a plant species, a number of influencing biological\\u000a and environmental factors should be considered from the outset. In the present study Brassica rapa was used to illustrate this: to develop Scandinavian conservation strategies for wild and cultivated B. rapa, DNA-marker analysis was performed on 15 cultivated and 17 wild

  6. Restriction enzyme analysis of the nuclear 45s ribosomal DNA of six cultivated Alliums ( Alliaceae )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Havey

    1992-01-01

    Estimates of the phylogenetic relationships among cultivated and wildAllium species would benefit from identification of objective molecular characters. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms in the nuclear 45s ribosomal DNA (rDNA) were identified among two of five accessions of each of six cultivated Alliums. Restriction enzyme sites forBamHI,DraI,EcoRI,EcoRV,SacI, andXbaI were mapped. Different lengths of the rDNA repeat unit among the cultivated Alliums

  7. A new strategy for lipid production by mix cultivation of Spirulina platensis and Rhodotorula glutinis.

    PubMed

    Xue, Feiyan; Miao, Jinxin; Zhang, Xu; Tan, Tianwei

    2010-01-01

    Mix cultivation of microalgae (Spirulina platensis) and yeast (Rhodotorula glutinis) for lipid production was studied. Mixing cultivation of the two microorganisms significantly increased the accumulation of total biomass and total lipid yield. Dissolved oxygen and medium components in the mixed fermentation medium were analyzed. Mix cultivation in monosodium glutamate wastewater was further studied. Result indicated 1,600 mg/L of biomass was obtained and 73% of COD were removed. PMID:18931954

  8. The importance of cultivated land for spreading of allergenic plants in Italy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krunica Hruska; Lara Staffolani

    2010-01-01

    We studied the ecological characteristics of the plants of Italian cultivated land that cause allergies in sensitized individuals.\\u000a Differences between the allergenic flora of annual and perennial cultivations were found. Prevalence of annual therophytes\\u000a was found in seasonal and annual crops subjected to soil tillage and to strong human disturbance. Plants growing in stable,\\u000a moderately disturbed cultivations (citrus and olive

  9. [Effects of different cultivation patterns on soil aggregates and organic carbon fractions].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xiao-Lei; Zong, Liang-Gang; Liu, Yi-Fan; Du, Xia-Fei; Luo, Min; Wang, Run-Chi

    2015-03-01

    Combined with the research in an organic farm in the past 10 years, differences of soil aggregates composition, distribution and organic carbon fractions between organic and conventional cultivation were studied by simultaneous sampling analysis. The results showed that the percentages of aggregates (> 1 mm, 1-0.5 mm, 0.5-0.25 mm and < 0.25 mm) in the conventional cultivation were 23.75%, 15.15%, 19.98% and 38.09%, while those in organic cultivation were 9.73%, 18.41%, 24.46% and 43.90%, respectively. The percentage of < 0.25 mm micro-aggregates was significantly higher in organic cultivation than that in conventional cultivation. Organic cultivation increased soil organic carbon (average of 17.95 g x kg(-1)) and total nitrogen contents (average of 1.51 g x kg(-1)). Among the same aggregates in organic cultivation, the average content of heavy organic carbon fraction was significantly higher than that in conventional cultivation. This fraction accumulated in < 0. 25 mm micro-aggregates, which were main storage sites of stable organic carbon. In organic cultivation, the content of labile organic carbon in > 1 mm macro-aggregates was significantly higher than that in conventional cultivation, while no significant difference was found among the other aggregates, indicating that the labile organic carbon was enriched in > 1 mm macro-aggregates. Organic cultivation increased the amounts of organic carbon and its fractions, reduced tillage damage to aggregates, and enhanced the stability of organic carbon. Organic cultivation was therefore beneficial for soil carbon sequestration. The findings of this research may provide theoretical basis for further acceleration of the organic agriculture development. PMID:25929075

  10. Antioxidants enhanced production of destruxin E from cultivation of Metarhizium anisopliae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yerra Koteswara Rao; Chia-Heng Tsou; Yew-Min Tzeng

    2006-01-01

    The effect of antioxidants on the production of an important cyclohexadepsipeptide congener destruxin E (dtx E) was investigated using the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae F061. In shaker flask cultivations, 0.015% of menadione-enhanced dtx E production of 220.4 mg\\/l compared to the control cultivation 90.2 mg\\/l, which was illustrated by stimulation of dtx E biosynthesis through two electron reduction DT-diaphorase processes in cultivation

  11. Phaseolin variability among wild and cultivated common beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris ) from Colombia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Gepts; F. A. Bliss

    1986-01-01

    Phaseolin seed protein variability in a group of 8 wild and 77 cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) accessions was determined using 1-dimensional SDS\\/ PAGE and 2-dimensional IEF-SDS\\/PAGE. Wild common bean accessions exhibited\\u000a the 'CH' and 'B' patterns, previously undescribed among either wild or cultivated common beans. The cultivated genotypes showed\\u000a (in decreasing frequency) the previously described 'S,' T,' and 'C

  12. Nymph and adult biology of Dichelops melacanthus (Dallas) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) feeding on cultivated and non-cultivated host plants.

    PubMed

    Chocorosqui, Viviane R; Panizzi, Antônio R

    2008-01-01

    The biology of the pentatomid Dichelops melacanthus (Dallas) feeding on cultivated and non-cultivated plants was studied in the laboratory. Nymph mortality varied from approximately 60 on corn (seed mature) to 77% on wheat (ear immature); no nymphs survived on seedlings of corn or wheat. Nymph developmental time on soybean, corn or wheat (seed, pod or ear) varied from 25.5 to 32.8 days. Body weight at adult emergence was similar and greater on most foods than on wheat ear. Nymphs fed preferentially on soybean (pod immature). On non-cultivated hosts, nymphs showed high mortality (73%) on crotalaria (pod immature); on tropical spiderwort (stem) all nymphs died. Nymphs took longer time to develop on crotalaria and/or on spiderwort than on soybean. Body weight at adult emergence did not differ on crotalaria or soybean. Survivorship decreased with time on most foods, with approximately 50% of adults alive at day 30. On corn and wheat seedlings approximately 80% of adults were dead on day 20. Adult longevity ranged 31-43 days, except on corn and wheat seedlings < 15 days. Females % ovipositing peaked ( approximately 76%) on soybean (pod or seed immature), and was minimum ( approximately 9%) on wheat ear (immature); no females reproduced on seedlings of corn or wheat. Preoviposition period was shorter ( approximately 12 days) on soybean (immature pod or seed) and longer ( approximately 37 days) on wheat (ear immature). Fecundity was similar and higher on all foods than on wheat (ear immature). Body weigh gain occurred on all foods, but on corn and wheat seedlings. Adults fed preferably on soybean (pod immature and seed mature); wheat (seedling) was the least preferred food. PMID:18813735

  13. Multilayered heparin hydrogel microwells for cultivation of primary hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    You, Jungmok; Shin, Dong-Sik; Patel, Dipali; Gao, Yandong; Revzin, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The biomaterial scaffolds for regenerative medicine need to be rationally designed to achieve the desired cell fate and function. This paper describes the development of hydrogel microstructures for cultivation of primary hepatocytes. Four different micropatterned surfaces are tested: 1) poly(ethyelene glycol) (PEG) microwells patterned on glass, 2) heparin hydrogel microwells patterned on glass, 3) PEG microwells patterned on heparin hydrogel-coated substrates, and 4) heparin hydrogel microwells patterned on heparin hydrogel-coated substrates. The latter surfaces are constructed by a combination of micromolding and microcontact printing techniques to create microwells with both walls and floor composed of heparin hydrogel. Individual microwell dimensions are 200 ?m diameter and 20 ?m in height. In all cases, the floor of the microwells is modified with collagen I to promote cell adhesion. Cultivation of hepatocytes followed by analysis of hepatic markers (urea production, albumin synthesis, and E-cadherin expression) reveals that the all-heparin gel microwells are most conducive to hepatic phenotype maintenance. For example, ELISA analysis shows 2.3 to 13.1 times higher levels of albumin production in all-heparin gel wells compared with other micropatterned surfaces. Importantly, hepatic phenotype expression can be further enhanced by culturing fibroblasts on the heparin gel walls of the microwells. In the future, multicomponent all-heparin gel microstructures may be employed in designing hepatic niche for liver-specific differentiation of stem cells. PMID:23828859

  14. Biochar from commercially cultivated seaweed for soil amelioration

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, David A.; Paul, Nicholas A.; Dworjanyn, Symon A.; Bird, Michael I.; de Nys, Rocky

    2015-01-01

    Seaweed cultivation is a high growth industry that is primarily targeted at human food and hydrocolloid markets. However, seaweed biomass also offers a feedstock for the production of nutrient-rich biochar for soil amelioration. We provide the first data of biochar yield and characteristics from intensively cultivated seaweeds (Saccharina, Undaria and Sargassum – brown seaweeds, and Gracilaria, Kappaphycus and Eucheuma – red seaweeds). While there is some variability in biochar properties as a function of the origin of seaweed, there are several defining and consistent characteristics of seaweed biochar, in particular a relatively low C content and surface area but high yield, essential trace elements (N, P and K) and exchangeable cations (particularly K). The pH of seaweed biochar ranges from neutral (7) to alkaline (11), allowing for broad-spectrum applications in diverse soil types. We find that seaweed biochar is a unique material for soil amelioration that is consistently different to biochar derived from ligno-cellulosic feedstock. Blending of seaweed and ligno-cellulosic biochar could provide a soil ameliorant that combines a high fixed C content with a mineral-rich substrate to enhance crop productivity. PMID:25856799

  15. Allelopathic effects of ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) on cultivated plants.

    PubMed

    Lehoczky, E; Gólya, G; Szabó, R; Szalai, A

    2011-01-01

    During the past years ragweed has been coming to the forefront of interest in Hungary and in other European countries as well because its serious health risk. Results of the 5th National Weed Survey has proven that ragweed is the most important weed species on Hungarian field lands, its coverage shows a rising tendency in cereals moreover it not only occurs in cultivated plants. Allelopathic effects of aqueous extracts derived from different parts of ragweed plants (air dried leafy stems, seeds) on the germination and growth of other cultivated plants [maize (Zea mays L.), winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), rye (Secale cereale L.), oat (Avena sativa L.)] were studied. The extracts made for the trials were prepared with distilled water. Petri dishes were used for the germination experiments and distilled water was used as a control treatment. The seven days long experiment was carried out within a Binder-type thermostat under dark conditions. The germination percentage was checked in every two days and the growth of sprouts was evaluated after a week counting the germinated seeds and measuring the length of the radicle and plumule. The measured data were statistically analysed and the effect of extracts on germinating and length of sprouts were assessed. PMID:22696964

  16. Acylhomoserine lactone production by bacteria associated with cultivated mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Prashanth, Shanmugam N; Bianco, Giuliana; Cataldi, Tommaso R I; Iacobellis, Nicola S

    2011-11-01

    The main bacterial pathogens of cultivated mushroom as well as mushroom-associated bacteria, which were isolated from Agaricus bisporus, Pleurotus ostreatus and Pleurotus eryngii mushroom niches, were evaluated for the production of N-acyl-L-homoserine lactones (AHLs) by using four bioreporters. Furthermore, identification of AHLs by LC-ESI-FTICR MS was performed on culture filtrates of selected pathogens and mushroom-associated bacteria strains, which resulted in inducing at least one of the four bioreporters. Strains of Burkolderia gladioli pv. agariciola, Pseudomonas agarici and Pseudomonas gingeri, but not those of Pseudomonas tolaasii and Pseudomonas reactans, produced an array of AHLs depending on the strain. This is the first report of AHL production by mushroom bacterial pathogens. Forty-four of 236 bacterial isolates obtained from different niches of cultivated mushrooms, in part identified by the Biolog identification system, were demonstrated to produce AHLs. Among them, seven mushroom-associated bacterial species were for the first time demonstrated to produce the above signal molecules. In the culture filtrates of a certain number of isolates/strains the AHL-hydrolyzed forms were also present. The minimal signal inducing concentration (MSIC) of selected pure AHLs was also determined for the four bioreporters used in this study. PMID:21942309

  17. Cultivation and quantitative proteomic analyses of acidophilic microbial communities

    SciTech Connect

    Belnap, Christopher P. [University of California, Berkeley; Pan, Chongle [ORNL; Verberkmoes, Nathan C [ORNL; Power, Mary E. [University of California, Berkeley; Samatova, Nagiza F [ORNL; Carver, Rudolf L. [Iron Mountain Superfund Facility, Redding; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L [ORNL; Banfield, Jillian F. [University of California, Berkeley

    2010-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD), an extreme environment characterized by low pH and high metal concentrations, can support dense acidophilic microbial biofilm communities that rely on chemoautotrophic production based on iron oxidation. Field determined production rates indicate that, despite the extreme conditions, these communities are sufficiently well adapted to their habitats to achieve primary production rates comparable to those of microbial communities occurring in some non-extreme environments. To enable laboratory studies of growth, production and ecology of AMD microbial communities, a culturing system was designed to reproduce natural biofilms, including organisms recalcitrant to cultivation. A comprehensive metabolic labeling-based quantitative proteomic analysis was used to verify that natural and laboratory communities were comparable at the functional level. Results confirmed that the composition and core metabolic activities of laboratory-grown communities were similar to a natural community, including the presence of active, low abundance bacteria and archaea that have not yet been isolated. However, laboratory growth rates were slow compared with natural communities, and this correlated with increased abundance of stress response proteins for the dominant bacteria in laboratory communities. Modification of cultivation conditions reduced the abundance of stress response proteins and increased laboratory community growth rates. The research presented here represents the first description of the application of a metabolic labeling-based quantitative proteomic analysis at the community level and resulted in a model microbial community system ideal for testing physiological and ecological hypotheses.

  18. Runoff generation and flow paths on an inclined cultivated soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zumr, David; Strouhal, Lud?k; Kavka, Petr

    2015-04-01

    The hydrology of cultivated catchments has its specific features due to the temporary variable topsoil properties and a sharp divide between topsoil and compacted subsoil. Under various conditions (actual topsoil physical properties, initial soil saturation, rainfall characteristics, surface roughness or vegetation stage) the prevailing runoff mechanisms may vary from surface runoff to subsurface runoff or deep percolation. To investigate the runoff generation and flow pathways and to quantify the runoff components on an inclined cultivated field under various rainfall and field conditions we conducted plot scale rainfall simulations. The experiments were done on the experimental plots Bykovice in Central Bohemia (Czech Republic), where the soil is classified as Cambisol with a clear divide between the topsoil and compacted subsoil at a depth of approximately 14 cm. We used a mobile rainfall simulator (designed at the CTU in Prague) equipped with four solenoid-controlled nozzles positioned 2.65 m above the soil. An inclined experimental plot (8 x 2 m, 9% slope) was successively exposed to uniform simulated rainfall with intensity ranging from 23 to 64 mm h-1 and duration ranging from 1 h to 2.5 h. These simulated rainfall parameters were selected to represent intensive rainfall events observed in the study locality, to generate surface runoff and to initiate soil erosion. The dynamics of surface and shallow subsurface runoff and the soil water regime at three soil depths were monitored. Various initial soil moisture conditions, and vegetation stages; from cultivated fallow to stubble, delimited the simulations. Variable proportions of both monitored runoff components were observed in relation to rainfall intensity and duration, ranging from zero surface runoff to a distinct dominance of surface runoff. Both components reacted very dynamically to the precipitation: shallow subsurface runoff was formed first under all tested conditions on the given soil profile. Even with the highest tested precipitation intensities, surface runoff always formed due to saturation excess of the topsoil, irrespective of the topsoil properties and crops. The experiments were numerically modelled and analysed to understand the effect of temporal variability in the macropores and intra-aggregate voids ratio within the topsoil. We used a combination of physically based macroscopic models S1D and HYPO. In the S1D the dual permeability approach with two coupled Richards equations is used, the simultaneously operating HYPO code is based on a diffusion wave (Boussinesq eq.). Additional comparison of the experiments results with whole experimental catchment runoff regime (Nucice, Czech Republic) proves that lateral runoff through the shallow topsoil can easily cause a very quick increase of stream discharge. The research was performed within the framework of a postdoctoral project granted by Czech Science Foundation No. 13-20388P.

  19. Fire and flood management of coastal swamp enabled first rice paddy cultivation in east China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Zong; Z. Chen; J. B. Innes; C. Chen; Z. Wang; H. Wang

    2007-01-01

    The adoption of cereal cultivation was one of the most important cultural processes in history, marking the transition from hunting and gathering by Mesolithic foragers to the food-producing economy of Neolithic farmers. In the Lower Yangtze region of China, a centre of rice domestication, the timing and system of initial rice cultivation remain unclear. Here we report detailed evidence from

  20. Discrimination of cultivated silk and wild silk by conventional instrumental analyses.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, Yuji; Nagatani, Yoshiaki; Goto, Toshiyuki; Suzuki, Shinichi

    2013-09-10

    In Japan, recent trends have seen wild silk preferred over cultivated silk because of its texture. Some cases of fraud have occurred where cultivated silk garments are sold as wild silk. Samples from these cases, morphological observation using light microscope and polarized microscope have been conducted in forensic science laboratories. Sometimes scanning electron microscopy was also carried out. However, the morphology of silk shows quite wide variation, which makes it difficult to discriminate wild and cultivated silks by this method. In this report, silk discrimination was investigated using conventional instrumental analyses commonly available in forensic laboratories, such as Fourier-transfer infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (pyr-GC/MS) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). By FT-IR, cultivated and wild silk gave similar infrared spectra, but wild silk had a characteristic peak at 965 cm(-1) from the deformation vibration of the carbon-carbon double bond of the indole ring. Comparison of the pyrograms of cultivated and wild silk showed that wild silk had large indole and skatole peaks that cultivated silk did not, and these peaks might arise from tryptophan. The results of thermogravimetry/DTA showed that the endothermic peak was about 40 °C higher for wild silk than for cultivated silk. Using a combination of these results, cultivated and wild silk could be discriminated by common forensic instrumental techniques. PMID:23742990

  1. American Journal of Botany 93(1): 127133. 2006. CULTIVATED HELIANTHUS ANNUUS (ASTERACEAE)

    E-print Network

    Snow, Allison A.

    127 American Journal of Botany 93(1): 127­133. 2006. CULTIVATED HELIANTHUS ANNUUS (ASTERACEAE cultivated and wild sunflower (both Helianthus annuus, Asteraceae) is well documented, but the role of seed words: crop­wild gene flow; Helianthus annuus; seed dispersal; volunteers. The development and wide

  2. The Research of Case Teaching in Computer Curricula for Cultivating Students' Practical Ability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Jian; Zhang Jianmin

    2010-01-01

    The traditional teaching in the computer teaching generally emphasizes the theory, while paying little attention on the cultivation of students' ability to solve practical problems. Consequently, to cultivate students' practical ability in computer teaching is an urgent problem. Case teaching is kind of heuristic teaching method, which focuses on the development of the students' practical ability. On the basis of

  3. VOLUNTEER POTATO (SOLANUM TUBEROSUM) CONTROL WITH HERBICIDES AND CULTIVATION IN ONION (ALLIUM CEPA)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Volunteer potatoes are difficult to control in onions and can greatly reduce onion growth and yield. Herbicides and cultivation were evaluated for control of simulated volunteer potatoes in onions in 1996 and 2000. Three inter-row cultivations did not control potatoes in the onion row and remaini...

  4. The origin, evolution, cultivation, dissemination, and diversification of Asian and African rices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Te-Tzu Chang

    1976-01-01

    Available evidences drawn from biosystematics, evolutionary biology, biogeography, archaeology, history, anthropology, paleo-geology and paleo-meteorology are pooled to reconstruct the series of events that led to the cosmopolitan cultivation of the Asian cultivated rice (O. sativa) and the regionalized planting of the African cultigen (O. glaberrima) in West Africa. The genus Oryza originated in the Gondwanaland continents and, following the fracture

  5. Quantification of net carbon flux from plastic greenhouse vegetable cultivation: A full carbon cycle analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan Wang; Hao Xu; Xu Wu; Yimei Zhu; Baojing Gu; Xiaoyin Niu; Anqin Liu; Changhui Peng; Ying Ge; Jie Chang

    2011-01-01

    Plastic greenhouse vegetable cultivation (PGVC) has played a vital role in increasing incomes of farmers and expanded dramatically in last several decades. However, carbon budget after conversion from conventional vegetable cultivation (CVC) to PGVC has been poorly quantified. A full carbon cycle analysis was used to estimate the net carbon flux from PGVC systems based on the combination of data

  6. Photoautotrophic high-density cultivation of vegetative cells of Haematococcus pluvialis in airlift bioreactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kamonpan Kaewpintong; Artiwan Shotipruk; Sorawit Powtongsook; Prasert Pavasant

    2007-01-01

    This work aimed to investigate the effects of the bioreactor configurations and their design variables on the cultivation of vegetative cells Haematococcus pluvialis to achieve sustainable high cell density. The addition of vitamin B to F1 growth medium could appreciably enhance the final cell density. Employing this medium, the cultivation in the airlift bioreactor was demonstrated to outperform the bubble

  7. Investigation of Flow Characteristics in an Airlift-Driven Raceway Reactor for Algae Cultivation

    E-print Network

    Investigation of Flow Characteristics in an Airlift-Driven Raceway Reactor for Algae Cultivation are the most common choice for outdoor algae cultivation due to their low cost relative to enclosed. Algae require adequate mixing in order to maximize exposure to essential nutrients for growth

  8. Cultivation and grazing altered evapotranspiration and dynamics in Inner Mongolia steppes

    E-print Network

    Chen, Jiquan

    Cultivation and grazing altered evapotranspiration and dynamics in Inner Mongolia steppes Haixia Grazing Steppe Inner Mongolia A B S T R A C T To examine the effects of cultivation and grazing in Duolun and a fenced and a degraded steppe in Xilinhot, Inner Mongolia, China. The ET of the four

  9. A perfusion air-lift bioreactor for high density plant cell cultivation and secreted protein production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Wen Su; Bing Jun He; Hua Liang; Sam Sun

    1996-01-01

    A new bioreactor design that allows continuous perfusion cultivation of plant cell suspensions is described in this paper. This design incorporates an internal cell settling zone with an external-loop air-lift bioreactor. The settling zone is created by inserting a baffle plate into the upper portion of the downcomer. Using this bioreactor, Anchusa officinalis suspension culture was cultivated to a cell

  10. A Behavioral Change Perspective of Maroon Soil Fertility Management in Traditional Shifting Cultivation in Suriname.

    PubMed

    Fleskens, Luuk; Jorritsma, Fedde

    2010-04-01

    In Suriname, the Maroons have practiced shifting cultivation for generations, but now the increasing influence of modern society is causing a trend of decreasing fallow periods with potentially adverse effects for the vulnerable tropical soils. Adoption of appropriate soil fertility management (SFM) practices is currently slow. Combining methods from cultural ecology and environmental psychology, this study identifies two groups with divergent behavioral intentions which we term semi-permanent cultivators and shifting cultivators. Semi-permanent cultivators intend to practice more permanent agriculture and experiment individually with plot-level SFM. Shifting cultivators rely on traditional knowledge that is not adequate for their reduced fallow periods, but perceive constraints that prevent them practicing more permanent agriculture. Semi-permanent cultivators act as a strong reference group setting a subjective norm, yet feel no need to exchange knowledge with shifting cultivators who are in danger of feeling marginalized. Drawing on a political ecology perspective, we conclude that cultural ecological knowledge declined due to negative perceptions of external actors setting a strong subjective norm. Semi-permanent cultivators who wish to enter the market economy are most likely to adopt SFM. We conclude that any future SFM intervention must be based on an in-depth understanding of each group's behavior, in order to avoid exacerbating processes of marginalization. PMID:20390029

  11. The cultivating of innovation capacity and practice in SCM curriculum design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kaisheng Zhang; Wei Tang; Yihong Qian; Xiaojie Lian; Wenbo Ma

    2010-01-01

    Arounding the problems caused by innovation cultivation on the course named Single Chip Microcomputer Principle and Application, the authors carried out teaching reforms. This article analyzed the problems of the students' course design, introduced some measures to improve innovation ability. The teaching practice proved that these teaching methods could develop students' study interest and cultivate student' independent innovation ability. It

  12. Transferring sclerotinia resistance genes from wild perennial Helianthus species into cultivated sunflower

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to the lack of highly tolerant cultivated sunflower germplasm, new sources of Sclerotinia resistance from wild Helianthus species need to be identified and incorporated into a cultivated background. Wild perennial Helianthus species are highly resistant to Sclerotinia and have provided good sou...

  13. Cultivation of Methanogens under Low-Hydrogen Conditions by Using the Coculture Method? †

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Sanae; Imachi, Hiroyuki; Sekiguchi, Yuji; Tseng, I-Cheng; Ohashi, Akiyoshi; Harada, Hideki; Kamagata, Yoichi

    2009-01-01

    We previously reported the isolation of novel methanogens by using a new cultivation method, referred to as the coculture method. Here, we extended our coculture method to various anaerobic environmental samples. As a result, we successfully cultivated some uncharacterized methanogens in coculture enrichments and eventually isolated a new methanogen, within the order Methanomicrobiales. PMID:19465530

  14. Carabid beetles in sustainable agriculture: a review on pest control efficacy, cultivation impacts and enhancement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernhard Kromp

    1999-01-01

    This review article on carabids in sustainable agro-ecosystems of the temperate Northern hemisphere presents a compilation of the available knowledge on the significance of carabids for natural pest control and the effects of cultivation methods (except pesticides) and landscape structural elements.Field carabids are species rich and abundant in arable sites, but are affected by intensive agricultural cultivation. For sampling, fenced

  15. A TROPICAL GARDEN FLORA, PLANTS CULTIVATED IN THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS AND OTHER TROPICAL AREAS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pemberton, R.W. A Tropical Garden Flora, Plants Cultivated in the Hawaiian Islands and Other Tropical Areas. Economic Botany This is an invited book review of an important new reference book on plants cultivated in the tropical and subtropical areas of the world. This is the long awaited update of ...

  16. "CULTIVATION OF ENDOSYMBIONT BACTERIA IN A BEMISIA TABACI B BIOTYPE CELL LINE".

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A complement of eubacterial endosymbionts were cultivated in a whitefly cell line. Endosymbiont identification was verified using diagnostic PCR, DNA sequencing, Western Blot analysis and real time RT-PCR. This is the first report of in-vitro cultivation of at least two of these arthropod endosymb...

  17. Market potential and research in cultivation of some endangered medicinal plants Literature survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bertalan Galambosi; Kirsi Jokela

    2002-01-01

    Due to the uncontrolled exploitation of wild plants several medicinal plant species are endangered in some countries in Europe and efforts have been made to encourage their cultivation (Lange 1998). Some of these medicinal plants originate from the cooler parts of Europe and they seem to be climati- cally suitable for cultivation in the southern part of Finland. This review

  18. GENE POOL STRUCTURE OF CULTIVATED POTATOES ASSESSED BY SSR MARKER ANALYSES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The high throughput genotyping facility established in 2004 has produced a large dataset of microsatellite (SSR) markers for cultivated potato. The objectives of this research were to analyze the gene pool structure of the cultivated potato as well as increase the number of SSR markers for potato ge...

  19. Aerated swine lagoon wastewater: a promising alternative medium for Botryococcus braunii cultivation in open system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Junzhi; Ge, Yaming; Cheng, Haixiang; Wu, Lianghuan; Tian, Guangming

    2013-07-01

    To understand the potential of using swine lagoon wastewater to cultivate Botryococcus braunii for biofuel production, growth characteristics of B. braunii 765 cultivated in aerated swine lagoon wastewater (ASLW) without sterilization and pH adjustment were investigated. The results showed that the alga strain could maintain competitive advantage over the 26-day cultivation. The highest dry biomass of alga grown in ASLW was 0.94 mg L(-1) at day 24, which was 1.73 times that grown in BG11 medium, an artificial medium normally used for B. braunii cultivation. And the algal hydrocarbon content was 23.8%, being more than twice that in BG11 medium. Additionally, after the 26-day cultivation, about 40.8% of TN and 93.3% of TP in ASLW were removed, indicating also good environmental benefits of algal bioremediation. PMID:23660382

  20. Adulteration and cultivation region identification of American ginseng using HPLC coupled with multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chunhao; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Zhou, Chun-Jie; Wang, Bin; Han, Lide; Zhang, Chun-Feng; Wu, Xiao-Hui; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2014-10-01

    American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) is originally grown in North America. Due to price difference and supply shortage, American ginseng recently has been cultivated in northern China. Further, in the market, some Asian ginsengs are labeled as American ginseng. In this study, forty-three American ginseng samples cultivated in the USA, Canada or China were collected and 14 ginseng saponins were determined using HPLC. HPLC coupled with hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis was developed to identify the species. Subsequently, an HPLC-linear discriminant analysis was established to discriminate cultivation regions of American ginseng. This method was successfully applied to identify the sources of 6 commercial American ginseng samples. Two of them were identified as Asian ginseng, while 4 others were identified as American ginseng, which were cultivated in the USA (3) and China (1). Our newly developed method can be used to identify American ginseng with different cultivation regions. PMID:25044150

  1. PERSPECTIVE: Cultivating Strategic Foresight for Energy and Environmental Security

    SciTech Connect

    Bray, David A.; Costigan, Sean; Daum, Keith; Lavoix, Helene; Malone, Elizabeth L.; Pallaris, Chris

    2009-10-01

    Disastrous social, economic, and political instability can result from limited energy resources or deteriorating environmental conditions. Historically, understanding and preparing for potential turbulent events posed significant challenges for governments, due in part to complex connections and dependencies associated with multiple, inter-related issues. Moving forward, we propose world governments can better mitigate and even avert energy and environmental disasters by cultivating a shared, diverse community of physical and social scientists, engineers, security analysts, and other professionals from related fields to share concerns, discuss ideas, and coalesce key concepts from the vast amount of data available about energy and environmental issues. Bringing relevant parties from multiple disciplines into a dynamic, diverse, and more transparent forum will produce a greater range of discussion, deliberation, and feasible solutions to help address uncertain, global energy and environmental concerns of both the present-day and our future.

  2. Wheat cultivation: Identification and estimation of areas using LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (principal investigator); Mendonca, F. J.; Cottrell, D. A.; Tardin, A. T.; Lee, D. C. L.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Moreira, M. A.; Delimaefernandocelsosoaresmaia, A. M.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of using automatically processed multispectral data obtained from LANDSAT to identify wheat and estimate the areas planted with this grain was investigated. Three 20 km by 40 km segments in a wheat growing region of Rio Grande do Sul were aerially photographed using type 2443 Aerochrome film. Three maps corresponding to each segment were obtained from the analysis of the photographs which identified wheat, barley, fallow land, prepared soil, forests, and reforested land. Using basic information about the fields and maps made from the photographed areas, an automatic classification of wheat was made using MSS data from two different periods: July to September and July to October 1979. Results show that orbital data is not only useful in characterizing the growth of wheat, but also provides information of the intensity and extent of adverse climate which affects cultivation. The temporal and spatial characteristics of LANDSAR data are also demonstrated.

  3. A Tangible Programming Tool for Children to Cultivate Computational Thinking

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Danli; Liu, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Game and creation are activities which have good potential for computational thinking skills. In this paper we present T-Maze, an economical tangible programming tool for children aged 5–9 to build computer programs in maze games by placing wooden blocks. Through the use of computer vision technology, T-Maze provides a live programming interface with real-time graphical and voice feedback. We conducted a user study with 7 children using T-Maze to play two levels of maze-escape games and create their own mazes. The results show that T-Maze is not only easy to use, but also has the potential to help children cultivate computational thinking like abstraction, problem decomposition, and creativity. PMID:24719575

  4. Recycling of food waste as nutrients in Chlorella vulgaris cultivation.

    PubMed

    Lau, Kin Yan; Pleissner, Daniel; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2014-10-01

    Heterotrophic cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris was investigated in food waste hydrolysate. The highest exponential growth rate in terms of biomass of 0.8day(-1) was obtained in a hydrolysate consisting of 17.9gL(-1) glucose, 0.1gL(-1) free amino nitrogen, 0.3gL(-1) phosphate and 4.8mgL(-1) nitrate, while the growth rate was reduced in higher concentrated hydrolysates. C. vulgaris utilized the nutrients recovered from food waste for the formation of biomass and 0.9g biomass was produced per gram glucose consumed. The microalgal biomass produced in nutrient sufficient batch cultures consisted of around 400mgg(-1) carbohydrates, 200mgg(-1) proteins and 200mgg(-1) lipids. The conversion of nutrients derived from food waste and the balanced biomass composition make C. vulgaris a promising strain for the recycling of food waste in food, feed and fuel productions. PMID:25128844

  5. Genetic structure and differentiation in cultivated fig (Ficus carica L.)

    PubMed Central

    Stover, Ed; Velasco, Dianne; Koehmstedt, Anne

    2010-01-01

    One hundred ninety-four germplasm accessions of fig representing the four fig types, Common, Smyrna, San Pedro, and Caprifig were analyzed for genetic diversity, structure, and differentiation using genetic polymorphism at 15 microsatellite loci. The collection showed considerable polymorphism with observed number of alleles per locus ranging from four for five different loci, MFC4, LMFC14, LMFC22, LMFC31 and LMFC35 to nine for LMFC30 with an average of 4.9 alleles per locus. Seven of the 15 loci included in the genetic structure analyses exhibited significant deviation from panmixia, of which two showed excess and five showed deficiency of heterozygote. The cluster analysis (CA) revealed ten groups with 32 instances of synonymy among cultivars and groups differed significantly for frequency and composition of alleles for different loci. The principal components analysis (PCA) confirmed the results of CA with some groups more differentiated than the others. Further, the model based Bayesian approach clustering suggested a subtle population structure with mixed ancestry for most figs. The gene diversity analysis indicated that much of the total variation is found within groups (HG/HT = 0.853; 85.3%) and the among groups within total component (GGT = 0.147) accounted for the remaining 14.7%, of which ~64% accounted for among groups within clusters (GGC = 0.094) and ~36% among clusters (GCT = 0.053). The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed approximately similar results with nearly 87% of variation within groups and ~10% among groups within clusters, and ~3% among clusters. Overall, the gene pool of cultivated fig analyzed possesses substantial genetic polymorphism but exhibits narrow differentiation. It is evident that fig accessions from Turkmenistan are somewhat genetically different from the rest of the Mediterranean and the Caucasus figs. The long history of domestication and cultivation with widespread dispersal of cultivars with many synonyms has resulted in a great deal of confusion in the identification and classification of cultivars in fig. PMID:20217187

  6. Impacts of rodenticide and insecticide toxicants from marijuana cultivation sites on fisher survival rates in the Sierra National

    E-print Network

    Fried, Jeremy S.

    LETTER Impacts of rodenticide and insecticide toxicants from marijuana cultivation sites on fisher rodenticide; fisher; marijuana; Pekania pennanti; pesticide; survival. Correspondence Craig Thompson, USDA. Further investigation indicated that the most likely source was the numerous illegal marijuana cultivation

  7. Cultivation of marine microalgae using shale gas flowback water and anaerobic digestion effluent as the cultivation medium.

    PubMed

    Racharaks, Ratanachat; Ge, Xumeng; Li, Yebo

    2015-09-01

    The potential of shale gas flowback water and anaerobic digestion (AD) effluent to reduce the water and nutrient requirements for marine microalgae cultivation was evaluated with the following strains: Nannochloropsis salina, Dunaliella tertiolecta, and Dunaliella salina. N. salina and D. tertiolecta achieved the highest biomass productivity in the medium composed of flowback water and AD effluent (6% v/v). Growth in the above unsterilized medium was found to be comparable to that in sterilized commercial media with similar initial inorganic nitrogen concentrations, salinity, and pH levels. Specific growth rates of 0.293 and 0.349day(-1) and average biomass productivities of 225 and 275mgL(-1)day(-1) were obtained for N. salina and D. tertiolecta, respectively. The lipid content and fatty acid profile of both strains in the medium were also comparable to those obtained with commercial nutrients and salts. PMID:25989090

  8. Physiomics Array: A Platform for Genome Research and Cultivation of Difficult-to-Cultivate Microorganisms Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jay D. Keasling

    2006-07-10

    A scalable array technology for parametric control of high-throughput cell cultivations is demonstrated. The technology makes use of commercial printed circuit board (PCB) technology, integrated circuit sensors, and an electrochemical gas generation system. We present results for an array of eight 250 ?l microbioreactors. Each bioreactor contains an independently addressable suite that provides closed-loop temperature control, generates feed gas electrochemically, and continuously monitors optical density. The PCB technology allows for the assembly of additional off-the-shelf components into the microbioreactor array; we demonstrate the use of a commercial ISFET chip to continuously monitor culture pH. The electrochemical dosing system provides a powerful paradigm for reproducible gas delivery to high-density arrays of microreactors. We have scaled the technology to a standard 96-well format and have constructed a system that could be easily assembled.

  9. Influence of water table level and soil properties on emissions of greenhouse gases from cultivated peat soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ö. Berglund; K. Berglund

    2011-01-01

    A lysimeter method using undisturbed soil columns was used to investigate the effect of water table depth and soil properties on soil organic matter decomposition and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from cultivated peat soils. The study was carried out using cultivated organic soils from two locations in Sweden: Örke, a typical cultivated fen peat with low pH and high organic

  10. Impacts of surface water diversions for marijuana cultivation on aquatic habitat in four northwestern California watersheds.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Scott; Olson, Jennifer; Cockrill, Adam; van Hattem, Michael; Miller, Linda; Tauzer, Margaret; Leppig, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Marijuana (Cannabis sativa L.) cultivation has proliferated in northwestern California since at least the mid-1990s. The environmental impacts associated with marijuana cultivation appear substantial, yet have been difficult to quantify, in part because cultivation is clandestine and often occurs on private property. To evaluate the impacts of water diversions at a watershed scale, we interpreted high-resolution aerial imagery to estimate the number of marijuana plants being cultivated in four watersheds in northwestern California, USA. Low-altitude aircraft flights and search warrants executed with law enforcement at cultivation sites in the region helped to validate assumptions used in aerial imagery interpretation. We estimated the water demand of marijuana irrigation and the potential effects water diversions could have on stream flow in the study watersheds. Our results indicate that water demand for marijuana cultivation has the potential to divert substantial portions of streamflow in the study watersheds, with an estimated flow reduction of up to 23% of the annual seven-day low flow in the least impacted of the study watersheds. Estimates from the other study watersheds indicate that water demand for marijuana cultivation exceeds streamflow during the low-flow period. In the most impacted study watersheds, diminished streamflow is likely to have lethal or sub-lethal effects on state- and federally-listed salmon and steelhead trout and to cause further decline of sensitive amphibian species. PMID:25785849

  11. Cultivated land information extraction from high-resolution unmanned aerial vehicle imagery data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lei; Cheng, Liang; Han, Wenquan; Zhong, Lishan; Li, Manchun

    2014-01-01

    The development of precision agriculture demands high accuracy and efficiency of cultivated land information extraction. Simultaneously, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have been increasingly used for natural resource applications in recent years as a result of their greater availability, the miniaturization of sensors, and the ability to deploy UAVs relatively quickly and repeatedly at low altitudes. We examine the potential of utilizing a small UAV for the characterization, assessment, and monitoring of cultivated land. Because most UAV images lack spectral information, we propose a novel cultivated land information extraction method based on a triangulation for cultivated land information extraction (TCLE) method. Thus, the information on more spatial properties of a region is incorporated into the classification process. The TCLE comprises three main steps: image segmentation, triangulation construction, and triangulation clustering using AUTOCLUST. Experiments were conducted on three UAV images in Deyang, China, using TCLE and eCognition for cultivated land information extraction (ECLE). Experimental results show that TCLE, which does not require training samples and has a much higher level of automation, can obtain accuracies equivalent to ECLE. Comparing with ECLE, TCLE also extracts coherent cultivated land with much less noise. As such, cultivated land information extraction based on high-resolution UAV images can be effectively and efficiently conducted using the proposed method.

  12. Training Programmes Can Change Behaviour and Encourage the Cultivation of Over-Harvested Plant Species

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Sophie J.; Jones, Julia P. G.; Clubbe, Colin; Gibbons, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Cultivation of wild-harvested plant species has been proposed as a way of reducing over-exploitation of wild populations but lack of technical knowledge is thought to be a barrier preventing people from cultivating a new species. Training programmes are therefore used to increase technical knowledge to encourage people to adopt cultivation. We assessed the impact of a training programme aiming to encourage cultivation of xaté (Chamaedorea ernesti-augusti), an over-harvested palm from Central America. Five years after the training programme ended, we surveyed untrained and trained individuals focusing on four potential predictors of behaviour: technical knowledge, attitudes (what individuals think about a behaviour), subjective norms (what individuals perceive others to think of a behaviour) and perceived behavioural control (self assessment of whether individuals can enact the behaviour successfully). Whilst accounting for socioeconomic variables, we investigate the influence of training upon these behavioural predictors and examine the factors that determine whether people adopt cultivation of a novel species. Those who had been trained had higher levels of technical knowledge about xaté cultivation and higher belief in their ability to cultivate it while training was not associated with differences in attitudes or subjective norms. Technical knowledge and perceived behavioural control (along with socio-economic variables such as forest ownership and age) were predictors of whether individuals cultivate xaté. We suggest that training programmes can have a long lasting effect on individuals and can change behaviour. However, in many situations other barriers to cultivation, such as access to seeds or appropriate markets, will need to be addressed. PMID:22431993

  13. [Review on application of plant growth retardants in medicinal plants cultivation].

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yu-Yao; Guo, Bao-Lin; Cheng, Ming

    2013-09-01

    Plant growth retardants are widely used in cultivation of medicinal plant, but there is still lack of scientific guidance. In order to guide the use of plant growth retardants in medicinal plant cultivation efficiently and reasonably, this paper reviewed the mechanism, function characteristic, plant and soil residue of plant growth retardants, such as chlorocholine chloride, mepiquat chloride, paclobutrazol, unicnazle and succinic acid, and summarized the application of plant growth retardants in medicinal plants cultivation in recent years, with focus on the effect of growth and yield of the officinal organs and secondary metabolites. PMID:24380290

  14. Effect of cultivation mode on a bioprocess for chromium yeast biomass enrichment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Batic; Peter Raspor

    2000-01-01

    Defined cultivation media for yeast growth which contained 278.8 mM of glucose and 0.1 mM of chromium(III) added as K2Cr(SO4)2 · 12 H2O was used in batch and combined batch\\/fed-batch cultivation mode. In fed batch cultivation mode the rate of substrate addition remained constant during growth of yeast and corresponded to a growth rate of 0.25 hу. In both cases

  15. [South America's genetic reserves for the breeding of cultivated plants].

    PubMed

    Brücher, H

    1968-01-01

    The genetic reserves of South America, a continent that has contributed more than 100 crop plants to the world, are by no means exhausted. On the contrary; among the native wild varieties are many potentially useful plants whose improvement through breeding is worth undertaking. Among the Solanaceae are especiallyS. muricatum, S. topiro, andS. quitoense, furthermoreCyphomandra betacea and certain species ofPhysalis, some of which are being subjected to mutation experiments, hybridization and selection in order to create new crop varieties for tropical latitudes (including the "cool tropical mountains"). Contrary to other Solanaceae like tomato and potato (not discussed in this paper) they are immune to viruses and other pathogens. The ancient Andean grains from populations ofAmaranthaceae andChenopodiaceae with their hundreds of different "landrassen" and types are in danger of losing their wealth of genes, because grain import to the Andean states has greatly decreased the extent of their cultivation. From both families, on which no genetic or breeding experiments have yet been undertaken, frost- and droughtresistant fodder plants could be developed for marginal areas. Some of the numerous South American indigenous rootcrops have already been extended to all continents, others, like the umbelliferousArracacia, are hardly known outside of their local areas of growth. Among the South AmericanLeguminosae, protein-rich green fodder plants can be developed fromPhaseolus candidus andCanavalia ensiformis, similarly from some drought-resistant perennialArachis species. Among the numerous South American species of lupines are some semi-domesticated ones, likeLupinus perennis andLupinus mutabilis, with softshell seeds and non-opening pods but with high alkaloid content. Mutation experiments have been initiated successfully at Caracas for obtaining nonpoisonous biotypes. There is hope that the protein shortage of the South American Andes region can be alleviated by "autochthonous sweet lupines", since the sweet lupine strainsL. luteus andL. albus developed byV. SENGBUSCH are not suited to the photoperiodic conditions of South America. Finally, it must seriously be pointed out that the rich potencies of the South American gene pool are quickly decreasing. In some cases the extermination of valuable gene carriers is in full course. No more time should therefore be lost in carrying out a practical, feasible program to save the gene pools of cultivated plants in South America. PMID:24442061

  16. Analytical subcellular fractionation of cultivated mouse resident peritoneal macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Darte, C; Beaufay, H

    1983-01-01

    Resident peritoneal macrophages of the mouse, cultivated for 3 d, have been studied by quantitative subcellular fractionation using differential centrifugation and density equilibration in linear gradients of sucrose. Density equilibration experiments were carried out on untreated cytoplasmic extracts, on cytoplasmic extracts treated with digitonin or sodium pyrophosphate, and on cytoplasmic extracts derived from cells cultivated for 24 h in the presence of Triton WR-1339. The enzyme distributions obtained distinguished six typical behaviors characteristic of distinct subcellular entities. Acid ?-galactosidase and other acid hydrolases displayed the highest average velocity of sedimentation and equilibrium density. Culturing in a medium that contained Triton WR-1339 markedly decreased their density, most likely as a result of Triton WR-1339 accumulation within lysosomes. Cytochrome c oxidase and the sedimentable activity of malate dehydrogenase showed a narrow density distribution centered around 1.17, very similar under all the experimental situations; their rate of sedimentation fell within the range expected for mitochondria. Catalase was particle-bound and exhibited structure-linked latency (80 percent); it was released in soluble and fully active form by digitonin, but this required a much higher concentration than in the case of lysosomal enzymes. Differences relative to all the other enzymes studied suggest the existence of a particular species of organelles, distinctly smaller than mitochondria, and possibly related to peroxisomes. Many enzymes were microsomal in the sense that the specific activities, but not the yields, were greater in microsomes than in other fractions obtained by differential centrifugation. These enzymes were distinguished in three groups by their properties in density equilibration experiments. NAD glycohydrolase, alkaline phosphodiesterase I, and 5’-nucleotidase had low equilibrium densities but became noticeably more dense after addition of digitonin. The other microsomal enzymes were not shifted by digitonin, in particular N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase and galactosyltransferase, which otherwise equilibrated at the same position in the gradient. We assign the digitonin-sensitive enzymes to plasma membranes and possibly to related endomembranes of the cells, and the two glycosyltransferases to elements derived from the Golgi apparatus. Finally, ?-glucosidase, sulphatase C, NADH cytochrome c reductase, NADPH cytochrome c reductase, and mannosyltransferase, equilibrated at a relatively high density but were shifted to lower density values after addition of sodium pyrophosphate. These properties support their association with elements derived from the endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:6300279

  17. Effect of revulsive cultivation on the yield and quality of newly formed sclerotia in medicinal Wolfiporia cocos.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhangyi; Tang, Wenrui; Xiong, Bin; Wang, Keqin; Bian, Yinbing

    2014-07-01

    Wolfiporia cocos is a well-known medicinal mushroom widely used in China, Japan and other Asiatic countries for its various therapeutic effects. 'Revulsive cultivation' is a newly developed method for promoting sclerotia growth in W. cocos field cultivation in China. In this report, we have systematically examined the effects of 'revulsive cultivation' on the yield and quality of newly formed sclerotia. The results showed that the genetic differences between the cultivated strain and the revulsive strain of T1 used in this study did not affect the formation process of new, large sclerotia in which the mycelia of the cultivated strain grew on pine logs directionally assembled on the revulsive strain. Additionally, 'revulsive cultivation', in which the cultivated strain and the revulsive strain used had the same or different genotypes, could remarkably increase the yield, lower the water content, and increase the water-soluble polysaccharide content of the newly formed sclerotia. Moreover, we observed that the changes in the values of the tested economic traits obtained from different genotype combinations through 'revulsive cultivation' were dissimilar. The correlations of these changes with the original sclerotium-forming ability of the cultivated strains and the genetic differences between the cultivated strain and the revulsive strain were not significant. These results will broaden our knowledge regarding the field cultivation of this medical fungus, stimulate new thinking on the study of sclerotium formation in some sclerotium-forming fungi, and promote further studies on the mechanism of sclerotium formation in W. cocos. PMID:24799082

  18. Air-quality and Climatic Consequences of Bioenergy Crop Cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, William Christian

    Bioenergy is expected to play an increasingly significant role in the global energy budget. In addition to the use of liquid energy forms such as ethanol and biodiesel, electricity generation using processed energy crops as a partial or full coal alternative is expected to increase, requiring large-scale conversions of land for the cultivation of bioenergy feedstocks such as cane, grasses, or short rotation coppice. With land-use change identified as a major contributor to changes in the emission of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), many of which are known contributors to the pollutants ozone (O 3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5), careful review of crop emission profiles and local atmospheric chemistry will be necessary to mitigate any unintended air-quality consequences. In this work, the atmospheric consequences of bioenergy crop replacement are examined using both the high-resolution regional chemical transport model WRF/Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry) and the global climate model CESM (Community Earth System Model). Regional sensitivities to several representative crop types are analyzed, and the impacts of each crop on air quality and climate are compared. Overall, the high emitting crops (eucalyptus and giant reed) were found to produce climate and human health costs totaling up to 40% of the value of CO 2 emissions prevented, while the related costs of the lowest-emitting crop (switchgrass) were negligible.

  19. pH-controlled continuous cultivation of mycoplasmas.

    PubMed Central

    Krebs, B; Schütz, M; Fischer, M; Sommer, G; Kirchhoff, H

    1989-01-01

    The continuous cultivation of mycoplasmas in a pH-controlled metabolistat was investigated with the fermentative strain Mycoplasma mobile 163K and the nonfermentative strain Mycoplasma arthritidis ISR1. The addition of medium and the removal of culture suspension were regulated by acid production from glucose by M. mobile 163K and by ammonium production from arginine by M. arthritidis ISR1, respectively. For both strains the optimal pH for continuous growth was 7.0. The steady state could be maintained for at least 21 days. With CFU of 8.4 X 10(9) ml-1 (M. mobile 163K) and 3.2 X 10(9) ml-1 (M. arthritidis ISR1), the cell concentrations were slightly higher than those obtained in batch cultures. The dependence on the adjusted pH values was measured for several parameters, such as flow rate, CFU, glucose fermentation or production of ammonia, and gliding velocity. Since the long lag phases of batch cultures can be avoided, pH-controlled continuous cultures provide an appropriate system for the production of mycoplasma cells. PMID:2729987

  20. Proteome of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus co-cultivated with sugarcane plantlets.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Marise Fonseca; Muniz de Pádua, Vânia Lúcia; de Matos Nogueira, Eduardo; Hemerly, Adriana Silva; Domont, Gilberto Barbosa

    2010-03-10

    Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is a micro-aerobic bacterium able to fix atmospheric nitrogen in endophytic mode. A proteomic approach was used to analyze proteins differentially expressed in the presence and absence of sugarcane plantlets. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) showed 42 spots with altered levels of expression. Analysis of these spots by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight in tandem (MALDI-TOF-TOF) identified 38 proteins. Differentially expressed proteins were associated with carbohydrate and energy metabolism, folding, sorting and degradation processes, and transcription and translation. Among proteins expressed in co-cultivated bacteria, four belong to membrane systems; others, like a transcription elongation factor (GreA), a 60 kDa chaperonin (GroEL), and an outer membrane lipoprotein (Omp16) have also been described in other plant-bacteria associations, indicating a common protein expression pattern as a result of symbiosis. A high protein content of 60kDa chaperonin isoforms was detected as non-differentially expressed proteins of the bacteria proteome. These results allow the assessment of the physiological significance of specific proteins to G. diazotrophicus metabolism and to the pathways involved in bacteria-host endophytic interaction. PMID:20026003

  1. Cultivation of aerobic granular sludge for rubber wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Rosman, Noor Hasyimah; Nor Anuar, Aznah; Othman, Inawati; Harun, Hasnida; Sulong Abdul Razak, Muhammad Zuhdi; Elias, Siti Hanna; Mat Hassan, Mohd Arif Hakimi; Chelliapan, Shreesivadass; Ujang, Zaini

    2013-02-01

    Aerobic granular sludge (AGS) was successfully cultivated at 27±1 °C and pH 7.0±1 during the treatment of rubber wastewater using a sequential batch reactor system mode with complete cycle time of 3 h. Results showed aerobic granular sludge had an excellent settling ability and exhibited exceptional performance in the organics and nutrients removal from rubber wastewater. Regular, dense and fast settling granule (average diameter, 1.5 mm; settling velocity, 33 m h(-1); and sludge volume index, 22.3 mL g(-1)) were developed in a single reactor. In addition, 96.5% COD removal efficiency was observed in the system at the end of the granulation period, while its ammonia and total nitrogen removal efficiencies were up to 94.7% and 89.4%, respectively. The study demonstrated the capabilities of AGS development in a single, high and slender column type-bioreactor for the treatment of rubber wastewater. PMID:23317554

  2. Optimization of heterotrophic cultivation of Chlorella sp. for oil production.

    PubMed

    Xie, Tonghui; Sun, Yuan; Du, Kaifeng; Liang, Bin; Cheng, Rong; Zhang, Yongkui

    2012-08-01

    The oleaginous microalga Chlorella sp. LAM-H screened from freshwater was proven to be a prospective feedstock for oil production according to its fatty acid composition. In order to enhance lipid production, response surface methodology (RSM) was used with central composite design (CCD) to optimize the heterotrophic cultivation of microalgae. The experiment results showed that a satisfactory second-order polynomial regression equation was achieved with a high coefficient of determination (R(2)=0.9911) in analysis of variance. The effects of individual factors and their interactions on lipid productivity were successfully revealed. The greatest lipid productivity reached 247.16 mg l(-1) d(-1) under the optimal conditions of glucose concentration 26.2 g l(-1), sodium nitrate concentration 2.06 g l(-1) and temperature 28.18 °C. Moreover, validation tests were performed and the results were very close to the predicted values. It was demonstrated that the obtained model was effective for predicting lipid productivity of the isolated microalga. PMID:22705529

  3. Controversial medical and agri-food biotechnology: a cultivation analysis.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Martin W

    2002-04-01

    Whether biotechnology is one or several developments is not clear. Once distinctions are required, the question is: Which one prevails? When the good, the bad, and the ugly settle, where do they fall? Evaluation implies distinction, and representation drives attitude. The controversies over biotechnology are fertile ground on which to study these issues. The imports of genetically modified (GM) soya into Europe in 1996-97 and the cloning of Dolly the sheep from adult cells in 1997 changed the symbolic environment for genetic engineering. The ensuing public controversies came to focus mainly on field trials of GM crops and food labeling. This paper will explore the relationship between quality press coverage and public perception, in particular the cultivation of the contrast between "desirable" biomedical (RED) and "undesirable" agri-food (GREEN) biotechnology in Britain. The argument draws on a systematic analysis of the British press coverage of biotechnology from 1973 to 1999 and analysis of public perceptions in 1996 and 1999. The paper concludes that the debate over GM crops and food ingredients fostered the RED-GREEN contrast among the newspaper-reading public, thereby shielding RED biotechnology from public controversy, and ushered in a realignment of the regulatory framework in 2000. PMID:14621673

  4. [Submerged cultivation and chemical composition of Hericium erinaceus mycelium].

    PubMed

    Avtonomova, A V; Bakanov, A V; Shuktueva, M I; Vinokurov, V A; Popova, O V; Usov, A I; Krasnopol'skaia, L M

    2012-01-01

    Submerged cultivation of Hericium erinaceus in various media was studied. The yield of the biomass was shown to depend mainly on the carbon source, whereas the content of water soluble polysaccharides depended mainly on the nitrogen source. The optimal medium composition provided the biomass yield of 21-23 g/l in 7 days. The biomass was characterized by the content of total protein, lipids and carbohydrates. In addition, the amino acid composition of the biomass was determined and shown to meet all the requirements of FAO/WHO concerning the amounts of essential amino acids (with exception of tryptophane). Oleinic and linoleic acids were identified as the main components of the fatty acids. Two water soluble polysaccharide fractions differing in solubility in aqueous ethanol were isolated and shown to contain rhamnose, fucose, xylose, glucose and galactose in different proportions. Vitamins B1, B2, B6, PP and E, ergosterol and coenzyme Q were also detected in the biomass of H. erinaceus. PMID:23350189

  5. Identification of cultivable microorganisms from primary teeth with necrotic pulps.

    PubMed

    Ledezma-Rasillo, Gildardo; Flores-Reyes, Hector; Gonzalez-Amaro, Ana M; Garrocho-Rangel, Arturo; Ruiz-Rodriguez, M del Socorro; Pozos-Guillen, Amaury J

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify cultivable microorganisms from primary teeth with necrotic pulps. This experimental study included 21 patients of both sexes between 4 and 7 years of age with necrotic pulps in primary teeth. Twenty-one maxillary and mandibular molars containing at least 1 necrotic canal, an abscess or sinus tract, one or more radiolucent areas in the furcation or periapical region, teeth having at least two thirds of root length, and carious lesions directly exposed to the oral environment were included. After antisepsis of the oral cavity, anesthesia of the affected tooth, and isolation and disinfection of the operative field, 3 sterile absorbent paper points were sequentially placed for 30 seconds for the collection of samples. The samples were immediately processed in an anaerobic chamber, and all isolated microorganisms were identified. Anaerobic species (anaerobic facultative and moderate anaerobes) were isolated in all root canals; 68.4% of root canal samples studied showed a polymicrobial nature. Most of the isolate consisted of Bifidobacterium Spp2 and Streptococcus intermedius. Other less frequently encountered species were Actinomyces israelii, Bifidobacterium spp 1, Clostridium spp, and Candida albicans. Results indicate the existence of combinations of bacterial species in root canal infections of the primary dentition with necrotic pulps, anaerobic bacteria predominating. PMID:20831135

  6. [Characteristics of Papaver somniferum L. cv. ikkanshu cultivated in Izu].

    PubMed

    Iida, O; Sekine, T; Inoue, O; Yoshimatsu, K; Shimomura, K

    2000-01-01

    The seeds of Papaver somniferum L. cv. Ikkanshu were sown in November (Autumn sowing: AS) and March (Spring sowing: SS) in a field at Izu Experimental Station for Medicinal Plants of National Institute of Health Sciencs, and both AS and SS plants were cultivated to investigate their growth, opium yield and alkaloid content in the opium. Growing periods from the sowing to the opium harvest were approximately six months for AS plants and three months for SS plants. Sizes of plants and capsules in AS were bigger than those in SS, reflecting their growth period. Opium yields per an are in AS and SS were 212.09 g and 142.03 g, respectively. The opium was able to be collected four times in the AS plants though the SS plants ceased to exude opium after the second incision. Therefore higher yield of opium in AS plants seems to be attributed to an amount of opium in the third and fourth incision. Average morphine content in the total opium was 15.61% in AS plants and 15.04% in SS plants, and the estimated amounts of morphine per an are in AS and SS plants were 33.16 g and 21.38 g, respectively. PMID:11534131

  7. Transport of mercury from a cultivated field during snowmelt

    SciTech Connect

    Balogh, S.J.; Meyer, M.L.; Hansen, N.C.; Moncrief, J.F.; Gupta, S.C.

    2000-06-01

    Total mercury (THg) was determined in snow, overland snowmelt runoff, and soil from a small-cultivated catchment. Total mercury concentrations in snow were low [mean concentration = 1.04 ng/L (liquid basis); n = 9; CV = 23%], while THg concentrations in snow-melt runoff were much higher, ranging from 16 to 22 ng/L. The THg concentration of suspended particulates in the runoff was much higher than observed surface soil THg concentrations (mean concentration = 26 {micro}g/kg; n = 6; CV = 16%). Particle size analysis showed the clay content of the runoff sediment was approximately twice that of the bulk surficial soil. These results suggest that snowmelt runoff preferentially mobilizes very fine soil particles (clays) that have a THg concentration that is greater than that of the bulk surficial soil. The total mass of THg in the snow pack prior to snowmelt was 1.26 mg, and that delivered from the catchment during the snowmelt event was 0.36 mg. This suggests there was a net accumulation of THg in the catchment soil over the winter. Soil erosion and transport are the primary mechanisms that control THg delivery from this catchment during snowmelt events.

  8. [A novel flat plate photobioreactor for microalgae cultivation].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qinghua; Yan, Chenghu; Xue, Shengzhang; Wu, Xia; Wang, Zhihui; Cong, Wei

    2015-02-01

    Flashing light effect on microalgae could significantly improve the light efficiency and biomass productivity of microalgae. In this paper, the baffles were introduced into the traditional flat plate photobioreactor so as to enhance the flashing light effect of microalgae. Making Chlorella sp. as the model microalgae, the effect of light intensity and inlet velocity on the biomass concentration of Chlorella sp. and light efficiency were evaluated. The results showed that, when the inlet velocity was 0.16 m/s, with the increase of light intensity, the cell dry weight of Chlorella sp. increased and light efficiency decreased. With increasing the inlet velocity, the cell dry weight of Chlorella sp. and light efficiency both increased under the condition of 500 ?mol/(m2 x s) light intensity. The cell dry weight of Chlorella sp. cultivated in the novel flat plate photobioreactor was 39.23% higher than that of the traditional one, which showed that the flashing light effect of microalgae could be improved in the flat plate photobioreactor with inclined baffles built-in. PMID:26062346

  9. Production of recombinant miraculin using transgenic tomatoes in a closed cultivation system.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Tadayoshi; Fukukawa, Go; Kakuta, Hideo; Fukuda, Naoya; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2010-05-26

    We constructed a cultivation system with a controlled light period, light intensity, temperature, and CO(2) concentration for mass production of the taste-modifying protein miraculin from transgenic tomatoes. The tomato plants exhibited normal growth and produced over 270 g of fresh weight (FW) fruit per plant, with the recombinant miraculin concentration reaching up to 90 microg per g FW of tomatoes. The recombinant miraculin content of transgenic tomatoes was compared to that of plants grown in a netted greenhouse. The recombinant miraculin content of transgenic tomatoes grown in a closed cultivation system was more stable than that of tomatoes grown in a netted greenhouse, suggesting that the closed cultivation system is suitable for the production of recombinant miraculin. We estimate that 45 tFW of tomatoes and 4 kg of recombinant miraculin per 1,000 m(2) of cultivation area can be harvested per year. PMID:20426470

  10. Marijuana National Forest: Encroachment on California Public Lands for Cannabis Cultivation

    E-print Network

    Mallery, Mark

    2011-01-01

    marijuana garden obstructs firefighting efforts due to safetyand safety hazards. The spread of information concerning the problems caused by industrial scale marijuanaMarijuana cultivation on public lands has become an increasingly prominent issue affecting natural resources and public safety

  11. Reduction of water and energy requirement of algae cultivation using an algae biofilm photobioreactor.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Altan; Kinney, Kerry; Katz, Lynn; Berberoglu, Halil

    2012-06-01

    This paper reports the construction and performance of an algae biofilm photobioreactor that offers a significant reduction of the energy and water requirements of cultivation. The green alga Botryococcus braunii was cultivated as a biofilm. The system achieved a direct biomass harvest concentration of 96.4 kg/m(3) with a total lipid content 26.8% by dry weight and a productivity of 0.71 g/m(2) day, representing a light to biomass energy conversion efficiency of 2.02%. Moreover, it reduced the volume of water required to cultivate a kilogram of algal biomass by 45% and reduced the dewatering energy requirement by 99.7% compared to open ponds. Finally, the net energy ratio of the cultivation was 6.00 including dewatering. The current issues of this novel photobioreactor are also identified to further improve the system productivity and scaleup. PMID:22503193

  12. Scale-up cultivation of Chlorella ellipsoidea from indoor to outdoor in bubble column bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shi-Kai; Hu, Yi-Ru; Wang, Feng; Stiles, Amanda R; Liu, Chun-Zhao

    2014-03-01

    The cultivation of Chlorella ellipsoidea in bubble column bioreactors was investigated at different scales under indoor and outdoor conditions. The algal cells were able to quickly adapt to the outdoor conditions and achieved a growth rate of 31.55mg L(-1)day(-1). Due to differences in light and temperature, the outdoor culture produced a higher percentage of unsaturated fatty acids compared to the indoor cultures, while the amino acid composition was unaffected. The overall cost of the biomass produced by the 200L outdoor cultivation (58.70US$/kg-dry weight) was estimated to be more than 7 times lower than that of the 20L indoor cultivation (431.39US$/kg-dry weight). Together these results provide a basis for the cultivation of C. ellipsoidea for the large-scale production of biofuels, high-value nutrients and/or recombinant proteins. PMID:24495537

  13. The artificial cultivation of medicinal Caterpillar Fungus, Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Ascomycetes): a review.

    PubMed

    Yue, Kai; Ye, Meng; Lin, Xiao; Zhou, Zuji

    2013-01-01

    Caterpillar fungus, Ophiocordyceps sinensis (syn. Cordyceps sinensis), is highly valued in China as a dietary supplement or tonic food and natural remedy. The combination of the fungus and dead insect has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine for centuries, and evidence shows its efficacy on immunomodulatory potentials. The price of O. sinensis has continued to increase over the last few years due to growing worldwide demand, driving research to determine methods of artificial cultivation to make O. sinensis a more affordable material for commercial trade. This study highlights many aspects of artificial cultivation of O. sinensis, including separation of the anamorph, culture of the mycelium, cultivation of the fruiting bodies, bioecological characteristics of the host insect, and two patterns of artificial cultivation. In addition, this review discusses the current state, limitations, remedies, and future prospects, aiming to draw researchers' attention to the new frontier of research needs in this context. PMID:24266368

  14. Water and nitrate exchange between cultivated ecosystems and groundwater in the Rolling Pampas

    E-print Network

    Nacional de San Luis, Universidad

    Water and nitrate exchange between cultivated ecosystems and groundwater in the Rolling Pampas as through transpiration by vegetation (biological discharge). In this situation, soil and ground- water online 26 August 2009 Keywords: Water table level Groundwater hydrology Evaporative discharge Nitrate

  15. Assessment of soil and water conservation methods applied to the cultivated steeplands of southern Honduras 

    E-print Network

    Smith, James E

    1997-01-01

    Erosion associated with burning and cultivating steepland fields is a common problem throughout Central America. Quantifying the magnitude of effectiveness of soil and water conservation practices such as vetiver grass hedgerows and mulching...

  16. GIS-based weight of evidence modeling for cultivated land suitability mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Li-na; Zheng, Xinqi

    The cultivated land protection has become a leading concern influencing the actions of the Chinese government and people. This study introduces a method named as the weight of evidence (WOE) using natural and geographical location factors to evaluate the suitability of Jinan cultivated land. Evaluation results show that: (1) weight of evidence method as a pure data-driven approach is suitable for confirming each index's weight in the cultivated land suitability evaluation, and the weights are objective and easy to be explained; (2) weight of evidence method uses raster data which are convenient for spatial analysis and does not need to unify the evaluation unit; (3)About 60.25% of land in Jinan has superior suitability as cultivated land. The technical ideas and methods proposed in this paper can provide support for taking a fresh look at land suitability evaluation and policy making. It will also help decision-makers optimize land allocation and make better land-use planning decisions.

  17. Alkaloid patterns in Leucojum aestivum shoot culture cultivated at temporary immersion conditions.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Ivan; Georgiev, Vasil; Berkov, Strahil; Pavlov, Atanas

    2012-01-15

    The alkaloid patterns in Leucojum aestivum L. shoot culture cultivated at temporary immersion conditions were investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. 18 alkaloids were identified, and galanthamine, hamayne and lycorine were dominant. The L. aestivum 80 shoot culture, cultivated at temporary immersion conditions, is a prospective biological matrix for obtaining wide range Amaryllidaceae alkaloids, showing valuable biological and pharmacological activities. The temperature of cultivation influenced enzyme activities, catalyzing phenol oxidative coupling of 4'-O-methylnorbelladine and formation of the different groups Amaryllidaceae alkaloids. Decreasing the temperature of cultivation of L. aestivum 80 shoot culture led to activation of para-ortho' phenol oxidative coupling (formation of galanthamine type alkaloids) and inhibited ortho-para' and para-para' phenol oxidative coupling (formation of lycorine and haemanthamine types alkaloids). PMID:22118817

  18. Spatial and temporal water quality variability in aquatic habitats of a cultivated floodplain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Floodplains of lowland rivers contain diverse aquatic habitats that provide valuable ecosystem services, but are perturbed when intensively cultivated. Hydrologic, water quality and biological (fish) conditions in five aquatic habitats along the Coldwater River, Mississippi were measured over four ...

  19. UPTAKE AND PHYTOTRANSFORMATION OF ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES BY AXENICALLY CULTIVATED AQUATIC PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The uptake and phytotransformation of organophosphorus (OP) pesticides (malathion, demeton-S-methyl, and crufomate) was investigated in vitro using the axenically aquatic cultivated plants parrot feather (Myriophyllum aquaticum), duckweed (Spirodela oligorrhiza L.), and elodea (E...

  20. Novel Phaseolin Types in Wild and Cultivated Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, Fabaceae) 1

    E-print Network

    Gepts, Paul

    ; Loveless and Hamrick 1984). Hamrick and Allard (1972) used protein polymorphisms in Avena fatua L. and A allozyme variation among 31 collections of cultivated Lactuca sativa L. and wild Lactuca species to assess

  1. Biology of Parasitoids (Hymenoptera) Attacking Dasineura oxycoccana and Prodiplosis vaccinii (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in Cultivated Blueberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cranberry tipworm, Dasineura oxycoccana (Johnson), and the blueberry tipworm, Prodiplosis vaccinii (Felt) are recurring cecidomyiid pests of cultivated blueberries in the Southern United States and Mediterranean Europe. Insecticides can give short-term tipworm control, but overlap in parasitoid ...

  2. Change of cultivated land and its implications on food security in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bohua Yu; Changhe Lu

    2006-01-01

    The population growth and demand for high living standard not only increase food demand but also cause more loss of the limited\\u000a cultivated land resources. Cultivated land loss caused by disasters and the implementation of the “Conversion of Cropland\\u000a to Forest or Grassland” project make this situation even worse in China. Thus, there is a problem to be solved imminently

  3. Photolithotrophic cultivation of Laminaria japonica gametophyte cells in a silicone tubular membrane-aerated photobioreactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siye Chen; Hanshi Qi

    2008-01-01

    Gametophyte cells of brown algae Laminaria japonica were employed both in a modified silicone tubular membrane-aerated photobioreactor (bubble-less cultivation mode) and a bubble-column\\u000a photobioreactor (bubbling cultivation mode), to study different gas–liquid mixing modes on cell growth rate and cell physiological\\u000a status. With an inoculum density of 50 mg DCW l?1, in modified artificial Pacific seawater (APSW) medium at 13°C, light intensity

  4. Cultivation of methanogenic community from subseafloor sediments using a continuous-flow bioreactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroyuki Imachi; Ken Aoi; Eiji Tasumi; Yumi Saito; Yuko Yamanaka; Yayoi Saito; Takashi Yamaguchi; Hitoshi Tomaru; Rika Takeuchi; Yuki Morono; Fumio Inagaki; Ken Takai

    2011-01-01

    Microbial methanogenesis in subseafloor sediments is a key process in the carbon cycle on the Earth. However, the cultivation-dependent evidences have been poorly demonstrated. Here we report the cultivation of a methanogenic microbial consortium from subseafloor sediments using a continuous-flow-type bioreactor with polyurethane sponges as microbial habitats, called down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor. We anaerobically incubated methane-rich core sediments collected

  5. The influence of cultivation methods on Shewanella oneidensis physiology and proteome expression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dwayne A. Elias; Sandra L. Tollaksen; David W. Kennedy; Heather M. Mottaz; Carol S. Giometti; Jeffrey S. McLean; Eric A. Hill; Grigoriy E. Pinchuk; Mary S. Lipton; James K. Fredrickson; Yuri A. Gorby

    2008-01-01

    High-throughput analyses that are central to microbial systems biology and ecophysiology research benefit from highly homogeneous\\u000a and physiologically well-defined cell cultures. While attention has focused on the technical variation associated with high-throughput\\u000a technologies, biological variation introduced as a function of cell cultivation methods has been largely overlooked. This\\u000a study evaluated the impact of cultivation methods, controlled batch or continuous culture

  6. Performance of purebred and crossbred sheep on accelerated lambing on cultivated pastures in Peru 

    E-print Network

    Coronado Seminario, Luis Felipe

    1983-01-01

    PERFORMANCE OF PUREBRED AND CROSSBRED SHEEP ON ACCELERATED LANSING ON CULTIVATED PASTURES IN PERU A Thes1s by LUIS FELIPE CORONADO SEMINARIO Subm1tted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in part1al fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1983 Major Subject: Animal Breeding PERFORMANCE OF PUREBRED AND CROSSBRED SHEEP ON ACCELERATED LAMBING ON CULTIVATED PASTURES IN PERU A Thesis by LUIS FELIPE CORONADO SEMINARIO Approved as to style and content...

  7. Inhibiting Effect of Bioactive Metabolites Produced by Mushroom Cultivation on Bacterial Quorum Sensing-Regulated Behaviors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hu Zhu; Shou-xian Wang; Shuai-shuai Zhang; Chun-xu Cao

    2011-01-01

    Aims: This study aimed to search for novel quorum sensing (QS) inhibitors from mushroom and to analyze their inhibitory activity, with a view to their possible use in controlling detrimental infections. Methods: The bioactive metabolites produced by mushroom cultivation were tested for their abilities to inhibit QS-regulated behavior. All mushroom strains were cultivated in potato-dextrose medium by large-scale submerged fermentation.

  8. Bark salicylates and condensed tannins reduce vole browsing amongst cultivated dark-leaved willows ( Salix myrsinifolia )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susanne Heiska; Olli-Pekka Tikkanen; Matti Rousi; Riitta Julkunen-Tiitto

    2007-01-01

    Summary.  Vole feeding amongst herbal willows that have a high concentration of salicylates in their bark and leaves, and may therefore\\u000a be cultivated for use as raw material for herbal medicine was tested in the field and in laboratory conditions. Eight clones\\u000a of dark-leaved willow (Salix myrsinifolia Salisb.) were cultivated for two years with six different methods combining three fertilisation levels

  9. Physiological and chemical characteristics of field-and mountain-cultivated ginseng roots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong Eui Choi; Yong Suk Kim; Myong Jong Yi; Wan Geun Park; Jae Seon Yi; Seong Ryeol Chun; Sang Sup Han; Sung Jae Lee

    2007-01-01

    Demand is increasing for mountain-cultivatedPanax ginseng (MCG) because its quality is considered superior to that of field-cultivated ginseng (FCG). However, MCG grows very slowly,\\u000a and the factors that might affect this are unknown. In addition, little information is available about the physiological characteristics\\u000a of its roots. Here, we investigated local soil environments and compared the histological and chemical properties of

  10. High concentration cultivation of Bifidobacterium longum in fermenter with cross-flow filtration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masayuki Taniguchi; Nobuharu Kotani; Takeshi Kobayashi

    1987-01-01

    High concentration cultivation of Bifidobacterium longum in a fermenter with cross-flow filtration using a ceramic filter is described. Continuous cross-flow filtration allowed complete recycling of the cells to the fermenter and also continuous separation of inhibitory metabolites. The final cell concentration attained in the cultivation was 54.4 g dry wt.\\/l; this was seven times as high as that without cross-flow

  11. High density cultivation of Anchusa officinalis in a stirred-tank bioreactor with in situ filtration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. W. Su; F. Lei; N. P. Kao

    1995-01-01

    Previously, Su et al. [Biotechnol Bioeng 42: 884–890 (1993)] reported improved production of rosmarinic acid by Anchusa officinalis in shake-flask cultures using a cultivation strategy that involved intermittent medium exchange. Implementation of this cultivation strategy in 2.5-1 stirred-tank bioreactor cultures is investigated in the present study. Intermittent cell\\/medium separation in the bioreactor was accomplished by means of automated in situ

  12. Influence of cultivation and induction conditions on ?-lactamase production in Acinetobacter calcoaceticus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernd Blechschmidt; Petra Borneleit; Hans-Peter Kleber

    1991-01-01

    The formation and localization of the ß-lactamase of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus CCM 5593 is strongly affected by cultivation and induction conditions. Optimal parameters for enzyme yield are cultivation on minimal salts medium with acetate (10 g·1-1) as carbon source and addition of yeast extract (5–10 g·l-1), induction by cefotaxime (50µg·ml-1) immediately after inoculation and growth for 24 h at 25° C.

  13. Continuous in vitro cultivation of Babesia caballi in serum-free medium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Zweygarth; C. J. van Niekerk; D. T. de Waal

    1999-01-01

    Experiments were undertaken to develop a serum-free medium for the in vitro cultivation of Babesia caballi, a tick-borne hemoprotozoan parasite, one of the causative agents of equine piroplasmosis. A modified HL-1 medium supplemented\\u000a with horse serum, L-glutamine, antibiotics, and hypoxanthine was used. B. caballi organisms were continuously cultivated at 37?°C in microaerophilous stationary-phase culture in a humidified atmosphere containing\\u000a 5%

  14. Restriction fragment variation in the nuclear and chloroplast genomes of cultivated and wild Sorghum bicolor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. R. Aldrich; J. Doebley

    1992-01-01

    Fifty-six accessions of cultivated and wild sorghum were surveyed for genetic diversity using 50 low-copy-number nuclear DNA sequence probes to detect restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs). These probes revealed greater genetic diversity in wild sorghum than in cultivated sorghum, including a larger number of alleles per locus and a greater portion of polymorphic loci in wild sorghum. In comparison to

  15. The inheritance and expression of sterility in hybrids of dihaploid and cultivated diploid potatoes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. P. Carroll

    1975-01-01

    When dihaploids of EuropeanSolanum tuberosum are used as female parents in crosses with South American cultivated diploid potatoes (Group Phureja\\/Stenotomum), various kinds and degrees of male sterility are found in the offspring. The effect of using different dihaploid and cultivated diploid parents on shrivelled microspore sterility of F1 hybrid progenies was studied. Variation in the character was continuous and statistical

  16. Evaluating lek occupancy of greater sage-grouse in relation to landscape cultivation in the Dakotas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, J.T.; Flake, L.D.; Higgins, K.F.; Kobriger, G.D.; Homer, C.G.

    2005-01-01

    Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) have been declining in many states and provinces of North America, and North and South Dakota hold no exception to these declines. We studied effects of cultivated land on Greater Sage-Grouse lek abandonment in North and South Dakota. Landscape-level data were assessed using satellite imagery within a geographic information system. Comparisons were made of 1972-1976 and 1999-2000 percent cultivated and noncultivated land. These comparisons were made between land uses surrounding active leks versus inactive leks, active leks versus random locations, and abandoned regions versus active regions. The 1999-2000 imagery illustrated that percent cultivated land was greater near abandoned leks (4-km buffers) than near active leks in North Dakota or random sites, but this did not hold true in South Dakota. Comparison of an extensive region of abandoned leks with a region of active leks in North Dakota illustrated a similar increase as well as dispersion of cultivation within the abandoned region. However, 1972-1976 imagery revealed that this relationship between percentage of cultivated land and lek activity in North Dakota has been static over the last 30 years. Thus, if the decline of Greater Sage-Grouse is the result of cultivated land infringements, it occurred prior to 1972 in North Dakota.

  17. Bioremediation efficiency of the largest scale artificial Porphyra yezoensis cultivation in the open sea in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hailong; Huo, Yuanzi; Zhang, Jianheng; Liu, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Yating; He, Peimin

    2015-06-15

    The bioremediation efficiency of China's largest scale Porphyra yezoensis cultivation for removing dissolved nutrients and controlling harmful algae was studied in the radial sandbanks waters of Jiangsu Province in the year 2012-2013. Mean nutrient concentration values in the P. yezoensis cultivation area were significantly lower than those in the non-cultivation area, especially during the cultivation season (p<0.05). Tissue nitrogen and phosphorus contents of seaweeds were 5.99-0.80% (dry weight (DW)) and 0.16-0.19% (DW), respectively. Production of P. yezoensis was 58950.87tons DW. Based on these values, 3688.15tons of tissue nitrogen and 105.61tons of tissue phosphorus were removed by harvesting P. yezoensis. The richness index of the red tide species Skeleton emacostatum declined from 0.32 to 0.05 during the P. yezoensis cultivation season. These results indicate that large-scale cultivation of P. yezoensis can be used to efficiently alleviate eutrophication and control harmful algae blooms in open sea. PMID:25865344

  18. POTENTIAL OF GREENHOUSE GASES REDUCTION BY FUEL CROP CULTIVATION UTILIZING SEWAGE SLUDGE IN JAPAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, Ryo; Fukushi, Kensuke

    Potential of greenhouse gases (GHG) reduction was estimated and compared in six scenarios of fuel crop cultivation by utilizing sewage sludge in Japan. Bioethanol from corn and biodiesel fuel from soybean was selected as biofuel produced. When all the sludge discharged from sewage treatment plants in 18 major cities was utilized for soybean cultivation and subsequent biodiesel fuel production, produced biofuel corresponded to 4.0% of GHG emitted from sewage treatment in Japan. On the other hand, cultivation area for fuel crop cultivation was found to be the regulating factor. When fuel crop was cultivated only in abandoned agricultural fields, produced biofuel corresponded to 0.60% and 0.62%, respectively, in the case that corn and soybean was cultivated. Production of biodiesel fuel from soybean was estimated to have more net reduction potential than bioehanol production from corn when sludge production is limited, because required sewage sludge compost was 2.5-times larger in corn although reduction potential per crop area was 2-times larger in bioethanol production from corn.

  19. Rice cultivation and methane emission: Documentation of distributed geographic data sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, Elaine; John, Jasmin; Fung, Inez

    1994-01-01

    High-resolution global data bases on the geographic and seasonal distribution of rice cultivation and associated methane emission, compiled by Matthews et al., were archived for public use. In addition to the primary data sets identifying location, seasonality, and methane emission from rice cultivation, a series of supporting data sets is included, allowing users not only to replicate the work of Matthews et al. but to investigate alternative cultivation and emission scenarios. The suite of databases provided, at 1 latitude by 1 longitude resolution for the globe, includes (1) locations of rice cultivation, (2) monthly arrays of actively growing rice areas, (3) countries and political subdivisions, and (4) monthly arrays of methane emission from rice cultivation. Ancillary data include (1) a listing, by country, of harvested rice areas and seasonal distribution of crop cycles and (2) country names and codes. Summary tables of zonal/monthly distributions of actively growing rice areas and of methane emissions are presented. Users should consult original publications for complete discussion of the data bases. This short paper is designed only to document formats of the distributed information and briefly describe the contents of the data sets and their initial application to evaluating the role of rice cultivation in the methane budget.

  20. Seasonal cultivated and fallow cropland mapping using MODIS-based automated cropland classification algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhuoting; Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Mueller, Rick; Zakzeski, Audra; Melton, Forrest; Johnson, Lee; Rosevelt, Carolyn; Dwyer, John; Jones, Jeanine; Verdin, James P.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing drought occurrences and growing populations demand accurate, routine, and consistent cultivated and fallow cropland products to enable water and food security analysis. The overarching goal of this research was to develop and test automated cropland classification algorithm (ACCA) that provide accurate, consistent, and repeatable information on seasonal cultivated as well as seasonal fallow cropland extents and areas based on the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer remote sensing data. Seasonal ACCA development process involves writing series of iterative decision tree codes to separate cultivated and fallow croplands from noncroplands, aiming to accurately mirror reliable reference data sources. A pixel-by-pixel accuracy assessment when compared with the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) cropland data showed, on average, a producer's accuracy of 93% and a user's accuracy of 85% across all months. Further, ACCA-derived cropland maps agreed well with the USDA Farm Service Agency crop acreage-reported data for both cultivated and fallow croplands with R-square values over 0.7 and field surveys with an accuracy of ?95% for cultivated croplands and ?76% for fallow croplands. Our results demonstrated the ability of ACCA to generate cropland products, such as cultivated and fallow cropland extents and areas, accurately, automatically, and repeatedly throughout the growing season.

  1. Ex situ cultivation affects genetic structure and diversity in arable plants.

    PubMed

    Brütting, C; Hensen, I; Wesche, K

    2013-05-01

    Worldwide, botanical gardens cultivate around 80,000 taxa, corresponding to approximately one-quarter of all vascular plants. Most cultivated taxa are, however, held in a small number of collections, and mostly only in small populations. Lack of genetic exchange and stochastic processes in small populations make them susceptible to detrimental genetic effects, which should be most severe in annual species, as sowing cycles are often short. In order to assess whether ex situ cultivation affects genetic diversity of annuals, five annual arable species with similar breeding systems were assessed with 42 in situ populations being compared to 20 ex situ populations using a random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis approach. Population sizes tended to be lower under ex situ cultivation and levels of genetic diversity also tended to be lower in four of the five species, with differences being significant in only two. Ex situ populations showed incomplete representation of alleles found in the wild. The duration of cultivation did not indicate any effect on genetic diversity. This implies that cultivation strategies resulted in different genetic structures in the garden populations. Although not unequivocally pronounced, differences nonetheless imply that conservation strategies in the involved gardens may need improvement. One option is cold storage of seeds, a practice that is not currently followed in the studied ex situ collections. This may reflect that the respective gardens focus on displaying living plant populations. PMID:22882447

  2. Effect of 3D Cultivation Conditions on the Differentiation of Endodermal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Petrakova, O. S.; Ashapkin, V. V.; Voroteliak, E. A.; Bragin, E. Y.; Shtratnikova, V. Y.; Chernioglo, E. S.; Sukhanov, Y. V.; Terskikh, V. V.; Vasiliev, A. V.

    2012-01-01

    Cellular therapy of endodermal organs is one of the most important issues in modern cellular biology and biotechnology. One of the most promising directions in this field is the study of the transdifferentiation abilities of cells within the same germ layer. A method for anin vitroinvestigation of the cell differentiation potential (the cell culture in a three-dimensional matrix) is described in this article. Cell cultures of postnatal salivary gland cells and postnatal liver progenitor cells were obtained; their comparative analysis under 2D and 3D cultivation conditions was carried out. Both cell types have high proliferative abilities and can be cultivated for more than 20 passages. Under 2D cultivation conditions, the cells remain in an undifferentiated state. Under 3D conditions, they undergo differentiation, which was confirmed by a lower cell proliferation and by an increase in the differentiation marker expression. Salivary gland cells can undergo hepatic and pancreatic differentiation under 3D cultivation conditions. Liver progenitor cells also acquire a pancreatic differentiation capability under conditions of 3D cultivation. Thus, postnatal salivary gland cells exhibit a considerable differentiation potential within the endodermal germ layer and can be used as a promising source of endodermal cells for the cellular therapy of liver pathologies. Cultivation of cells under 3D conditions is a useful model for thein vitroanalysis of the cell differentiation potential. PMID:23346379

  3. In vitro digestibility and some physicochemical properties of starch from wild and cultivated amadumbe corms.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, K; Amonsou, E O; Oyeyinka, S A

    2015-07-10

    Amadumbe, commonly known as taro, is an indigenous underutilised tuber to Southern Africa. In this study, starch functional properties and in vitro starch digestibility of processed products from wild and cultivated amadumbe were determined. Starch extracts from both amadumbe types had similar contents of total starch (approx. 95%). Wild and cultivated amadumbe starch granules were polygonal and very small in size (2.7 ± 0.9 ?m). Amylose content of wild amadumbe (20%) was about double that of cultivated (12%). By DSC, the peak gelatinisation temperatures of wild and cultivated amadumbe starches were 81 and 85°C, respectively. The slowly digestible starch (SDS); 20% and resistant starch (RS); 64% contents of wild amadumbe appeared slightly higher than those of cultivated. Processing amadumbe into boiled and baked products did not substantially affect SDS and RS contents. Estimated glycaemic index of processed products ranged from 40 to 44%. Thus, amadumbe, both wild and cultivated, present some potential in the formulation of products for diabetics and weight management. PMID:25857954

  4. Seasonal cultivated and fallow cropland mapping using MODIS-based automated cropland classification algorithm

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, Zhuoting; Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Mueller, Rick; Zakzeski, Audra; Melton, Forrest; Johnson, Lee; Rosevelt, Carolyn; Dwyer, John; Jones, Jeanine; Verdin, James P.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing drought occurrences and growing populations demand accurate, routine, and consistent cultivated and fallow cropland products to enable water and food security analysis. The overarching goal of this research was to develop and test automated cropland classification algorithm (ACCA) that provide accurate, consistent, and repeatable information on seasonal cultivated as well as seasonal fallow cropland extents and areas based on the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer remote sensing data. Seasonal ACCA development process involves writing series of iterative decision tree codes to separate cultivated and fallow croplands from noncroplands, aiming to accurately mirror reliable reference data sources. A pixel-by-pixel accuracy assessment when compared with the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) cropland data showed, on average, a producer’s accuracy of 93% and a user’s accuracy of 85% across all months. Further, ACCA-derived cropland maps agreed well with the USDA Farm Service Agency crop acreage-reported data for both cultivated and fallow croplands with R-square values over 0.7 and field surveys with an accuracy of ?95% for cultivated croplands and ?76% for fallow croplands. Our results demonstrated the ability of ACCA to generate cropland products, such as cultivated and fallow cropland extents and areas, accurately, automatically, and repeatedly throughout the growing season.

  5. Salicylate and biomass yield, and leaf phenolics of dark-leaved willow ( Salix myrsinifolia Salisb.) clones under different cultivation methods after the second cultivation cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ria Paunonen; Riitta Julkunen-Tiitto; Riitta Tegelberg; Matti Rousi; Susanne Heiska

    2009-01-01

    Willow based herbal products containing salicin and its derivatives can be used to alleviate aches and fevers. To guarantee the high quality of the willow drugs and moderate low cultivation and transportation costs, the willows with high salicylate concentrations are recommended for herbal production. Dark-leaved willow (Salix myrsinifolia Salisb.) with its high salicylate content is a promising source of herbal

  6. Origins and Domestication of Cultivated Banana Inferred from Chloroplast and Nuclear Genes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Cui; Wang, Xin-Feng; Shi, Feng-Xue; Chen, Wen-Na; Ge, Xue-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Background Cultivated bananas are large, vegetatively-propagated members of the genus Musa. More than 1,000 cultivars are grown worldwide and they are major economic and food resources in numerous developing countries. It has been suggested that cultivated bananas originated from the islands of Southeast Asia (ISEA) and have been developed through complex geodomestication pathways. However, the maternal and parental donors of most cultivars are unknown, and the pattern of nucleotide diversity in domesticated banana has not been fully resolved. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied the genetics of 16 cultivated and 18 wild Musa accessions using two single-copy nuclear (granule-bound starch synthase I, GBSS I, also known as Waxy, and alcohol dehydrogenase 1, Adh1) and two chloroplast (maturase K, matK, and the trnL-F gene cluster) genes. The results of phylogenetic analyses showed that all A-genome haplotypes of cultivated bananas were grouped together with those of ISEA subspecies of M. acuminata (A-genome). Similarly, the B- and S-genome haplotypes of cultivated bananas clustered with the wild species M. balbisiana (B-genome) and M. schizocarpa (S-genome), respectively. Notably, it has been shown that distinct haplotypes of each cultivar (A-genome group) were nested together to different ISEA subspecies M. acuminata. Analyses of nucleotide polymorphism in the Waxy and Adh1 genes revealed that, in comparison to the wild relatives, cultivated banana exhibited slightly lower nucleotide diversity both across all sites and specifically at silent sites. However, dramatically reduced nucleotide diversity was found at nonsynonymous sites for cultivated bananas. Conclusions/Significance Our study not only confirmed the origin of cultivated banana as arising from multiple intra- and inter-specific hybridization events, but also showed that cultivated banana may have not suffered a severe genetic bottleneck during the domestication process. Importantly, our findings suggested that multiple maternal origins and a reduction in nucleotide diversity at nonsynonymous sites are general attributes of cultivated bananas. PMID:24260405

  7. Growth characteristics of Cannabis sativa L. cultivated in a phytotron and in the field.

    PubMed

    Yoshimatsu, Kayo; Iida, Osamu; Kitazawa, Takashi; Sekine, Tsutomu; Kojoma, Mareshige; Makino, Yukiko; Kiuchi, Fumiyuki

    2004-01-01

    Growth characteristics of Cannabis saliva L. are indispensable factors to verify the statements by the criminals of illegal cannabis cultivation. To investigate growth characteristics of C. sativa, two varieties, cannabidiolic acid (CBDA)-rich (CBDA-type) which being cultivated for fiber production and delta9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA)-rich (THCA-type) which is used for drug abuse, were cultivated from seeds under the same growth environment in a phytotron. THCA-type showed high germination rate (100%) whereas only 39% of the CBDA-type seeds germinated 6 days after sowing. Plant height, number of true leaves, number of nodes, number of axillary buds and flowering of these two varieties were periodically observed. THCA-type grew more rapidly (plant height: 125.8 cm for THCA-type, 84.7 cm for CBDA-type, 75 days after cultivation) demonstrating vigorous axillary bud formation and earlier male-flowering (63 days for THCA-type, 106 days for CBDA-type, after sowing). Propagation of THCA-type was tested using the axillary shoot cuttings of female plants either with or without the main stem. All the cuttings with the main stem rooted after 21 days and grew healthily in a phytotron. However, all the newly developed leaves were single instead of palmate. In the field, THCA-type male-flowered after 155 days of cultivation after sowing on March 31. The height of the field-cultivated plants reached 260.9 cm 163 days after sowing. Despite the great differences in final plant heights, the increases of plant height per day during the vegetative growth stage were similar in the field and in the phytotron. Thus estimating the starting time of illegal cannabis cultivation might be possible if the plant is in the vegetative growth stage. PMID:15940897

  8. Landscape cultivation alters ?30Si signature in terrestrial ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandevenne, Floor; Delvaux, Claire; Hughes, Harold; Ronchi, Benedicta; Clymans, Wim; Barao, Ana Lucia; Govers, Gerard; Cornelis, Jean Thomas; André, Luc; Struyf, Eric

    2015-04-01

    Despite increasing recognition of the importance of biological Si cycling in controlling dissolved Si (DSi) in soil and stream water, effects of human cultivation on the Si cycle remain poorly understood. Sensitive tracer techniques to identify and quantify Si in the soil-plant-water system could be highly relevant in addressing these uncertainties. Stable Si isotopes are promising tools to define Si sources and sinks along the ecosystem flow path, as intense fractionation occurs during chemical weathering and uptake of dissolved Si in plants. Yet they remain underexploited in the end product of the soil-plant system: the soil water. Here, stable Si isotope ratios (?30Si) of dissolved Si in soil water were measured along a land use gradient (continuous forest, continuous pasture, young cropland and continuous cropland) with similar parent material (loess) and homogenous bulk mineralogical and climatological (Belgium). Soil water ?30Si signatures are clearly separated along the gradient, with highest average signatures in continuous cropland (+1.61%), intermediate in pasture (+1.05%) and young cropland (+0.89%) and lowest in forest soil water (+0.62%). Our data do not allow distinguishing biological from pedogenic/lithogenic processes, but point to a strong interaction of both. We expect that increasing export of light isotopes in disturbed land uses (i.e. through agricultural harvest), and higher recycling of 28Si and elevated weathering intensity (including clay dissolution) in forest systems will largely determine soil water ?30Si signatures of our systems. Our results imply that soil water ?30Si signature is biased through land management before it reaches rivers and coastal zones, where other fractionation processes take over (e.g. diatom uptake and reverse weathering in floodplains). In particular, a direct role of agriculture systems in lowering export Si fluxes towards rivers and coastal systems has been shown. Stable Si isotopes have a large potential to track human disturbance on the Si cycle, including subtle changes in clay evolution and biogenic sink/source functions as induced by land use conversions.

  9. Cultivating Citizen Scientists in the Undergraduate Science Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egger, A. E.

    2007-12-01

    Several studies indicate a strong correlation between the number of college science courses and science literacy. It is not surprising, then, that the majority of participants in citizen science projects are college graduates who enrolled in at least two science courses. If one goal of citizen science projects is to increase civic science literacy, research suggests that most are preaching to the choir. Attracting a wider audience to citizen science is, therefore, a key challenge. One way to address this challenge is to attract students to enroll and succeed in science courses in college, even if they do not pursue a major in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines. In fact, only 20% of students receive a degree in STEM, yet virtually all undergraduates are required to take at least one science course. Introductory science courses are therefore critical to cultivating citizen scientists, as they include a large proportion of non- STEM majors. Indeed, a major thrust of recent undergraduate STEM educational reform has been the promotion of 'science for all'. The science for all concept goes beyond recruiting students into the STEM disciplines to promoting a level of scientific literacy necessary to make informed decisions. A clear implication of this inclusive attitude is the need to redesign introductory science courses to make them accessible and explicitly related to scientific literacy. This does not mean dumbing down courses; on the contrary, it means engaging students in real scientific investigations and incorporating explicit teaching about the process of science, thus fostering a lifelong appreciation for (and, hopefully, participation in) science. Unfortunately, many students enter college with minimal understanding of the process of science. And when they arrive in their introductory classes, science is presented to them as a system of facts to be memorized - comparable to memorizing a poem in a foreign language without understanding the vocabulary. New resources available through the Visionlearning project (http://www.visionlearning.com) provide the means to incorporate teaching about the process of science into disciplinary content, thus facilitating the reform the way that undergraduate students are taught science at the introductory level. This kind of educational reform may be a long-term approach to developing citizen scientists, but research from several different disciplines and perspectives suggests it is a critical step in building scientific literacy and lifelong participation in science.

  10. Long-term Black Carbon Dynamics in Cultivated Soil

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Binh T.; Lehmann, Johannes C.; Kinyangi, James; Smernik, Ron; Riha, Susan J.; Engelhard, Mark H.

    2008-07-01

    Black carbon (BC) is a quantitatively important C pool in the global carbon cycle due to its relative recalcitrance against decay compared with other C pools. However, how rapidly BC is oxidized and in what way the molecular structure changes during decomposition over decadal time scales, is largely unknown. In the present study, the long-term dynamics in quality and quantity of BC were investigated in cultivated soil using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) techniques. BC particles, obtained from soil samples at 8 conversion ages stretching over 100 years and from a forest soil sample from Kenya, were manually picked under a light microscope for characterization and quantification. BC contents rapidly decreased from 12.7 to 3.8 mg C g?¹ soil during the first 30 years since conversion, after which they slowly decreased to a steady state at 3.51 mg C g ?¹soil. BC-derived C losses over 100 years were estimated at 6000 kg C ha?¹ to a depth of 0.1 m. The initial rapid changes in BC stocks resulted in a mean residence time of only around 8.3 years, which was likely a function of both decomposition as well as transport processes. The molecular properties of BC changed more rapidly on surfaces than in the interior of BC particles and more rapidly during the first 30 years than during the following 70 years. The Oc/C ratios (Oc is O bound to C) and carbonyl groups (C=O) increased over time by 133 and 192 %, respectively, indicating oxidation was an important degradation process controlling BC quality. Al, Si, polysaccharides, and to a lesser extent Fe were rapidly adsorbed on BC particle surfaces within the first few years after BC deposition to soil. The protection by physical and chemical stabilization was apparently sufficient to not only minimize decomposition below detection between 30 and 100 years after deposition, but also physical export by erosion and vertical transport below 0.1 m.

  11. Assessing the fate of radioactive nickel in cultivated soil cores.

    PubMed

    Denys, Sébastien; Echevarria, Guillaume; Florentin, Louis; Leclerc, Elisabeth; Morel, Jean-Louis

    2009-10-01

    Parameters regarding fate of (63)Ni in the soil-plant system (soil: solution distribution coefficient, K(d) and soil plant concentration ratio, CR) are mostly determined in controlled pot experiments or from simple models involving a limited set of soil parameters. However, as migration of pollutants in soil is strongly linked to the water migration, variation of soil structure in the field and seasonal variation of evapotranspiration will affect these two parameters. The aim of this work was to explore to what extent the downward transfer of (63)Ni and its uptake by plants from surface-contaminated undisturbed soil cores under cultivation can be explained by isotopic dilution of this radionuclide in the pool of stable Ni of soils. Undisturbed soil cores (50 cm x 50 cm) were sampled from a brown rendzina (Rendzic Leptosol), a colluvial brown soil (Fluvic Cambisol) and an acidic brown soil (Dystric Cambisol) using PVC lysimeter tubes (three lysimeters sampled per soil type). Each core was equipped with a leachate collector. Cores were placed in a greenhouse and maize (DEA, Pioneer) was sown. After 44 days, an irrigation was simulated at the core surfaces to supply 10 000 Bq (63)NiCl(2). Maize was harvested 135 days after (63)Ni input and radioactivity determined in both vegetal and water samples. Effective uptake of (63)Ni by maize was calculated for leaves and kernels. Water drainage and leaching of (63)Ni were monitored over the course of the experiment. Values of K(d) in surface soil samples were calculated from measured parameters of isotopic exchange kinetics. Results confirmed that (63)Ni was strongly retained at the soil surface. Prediction of the (63)Ni downward transfer could not be reliably assessed using the K(d) values, since the soil structure, which controls local water fluxes, also affected both water and Ni transport. In terms of (63)Ni plant uptake, the effective uptake in undisturbed soil cores is controlled by isotope dilution as previously shown at the pot experiment scale. PMID:19632751

  12. Cultivation of anaerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria from spacecraft-associated clean rooms.

    PubMed

    Stieglmeier, Michaela; Wirth, Reinhard; Kminek, Gerhard; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

    2009-06-01

    In the course of this biodiversity study, the cultivable microbial community of European spacecraft-associated clean rooms and the Herschel Space Observatory located therein were analyzed during routine assembly operations. Here, we focused on microorganisms capable of growing without oxygen. Anaerobes play a significant role in planetary protection considerations since extraterrestrial environments like Mars probably do not provide enough oxygen for fully aerobic microbial growth. A broad assortment of anaerobic media was used in our cultivation strategies, which focused on microorganisms with special metabolic skills. The majority of the isolated strains grew on anaerobic, complex, nutrient-rich media. Autotrophic microorganisms or microbes capable of fixing nitrogen were also cultivated. A broad range of facultatively anaerobic bacteria was detected during this study and also, for the first time, some strictly anaerobic bacteria (Clostridium and Propionibacterium) were isolated from spacecraft-associated clean rooms. The multiassay cultivation approach was the basis for the detection of several bacteria that had not been cultivated from these special environments before and also led to the discovery of two novel microbial species of Pseudomonas and Paenibacillus. PMID:19363082

  13. Cultivation-independent detection of autotrophic hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria by DNA stable-isotope probing.

    PubMed

    Pumphrey, Graham M; Ranchou-Peyruse, Anthony; Spain, Jim C

    2011-07-01

    Knallgas bacteria are a physiologically defined group that is primarily studied using cultivation-dependent techniques. Given that current cultivation techniques fail to grow most bacteria, cultivation-independent techniques that selectively detect and identify knallgas bacteria will improve our ability to study their diversity and distribution. We used stable-isotope probing (SIP) to identify knallgas bacteria in rhizosphere soil of legumes and in a microbial mat from Obsidian Pool in Yellowstone National Park. When samples were incubated in the dark, incorporation of (13)CO(2) was H(2) dependent. SIP enabled the detection of knallgas bacteria that were not detected by cultivation, and the majority of bacteria identified in the rhizosphere soils were betaproteobacteria predominantly related to genera previously known to oxidize hydrogen. Bacteria in soil grew on hydrogen at concentrations as low as 100 ppm. A hydB homolog encoding a putative high-affinity NiFe hydrogenase was amplified from (13)C-labeled DNA from both vetch and clover rhizosphere soil. The results indicate that knallgas bacteria can be detected by SIP and populations that respond to different H(2) concentrations can be distinguished. The methods described here should be applicable to a variety of ecosystems and will enable the discovery of additional knallgas bacteria that are resistant to cultivation. PMID:21622787

  14. Molecular Characterization of Cultivated Bromeliad Accessions with Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) Markers

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fei; Ge, Yaying; Wang, Weiyong; Yu, Xinying; Shen, Xiaolan; Liu, Jianxin; Liu, Xiaojing; Tian, Danqing; Shen, Fuquan; Yu, Yongming

    2012-01-01

    Bromeliads are of great economic importance in flower production; however little information is available with respect to genetic characterization of cultivated bromeliads thus far. In the present study, a selection of cultivated bromeliads was characterized via inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers with an emphasis on genetic diversity and population structure. Twelve ISSR primers produced 342 bands, of which 287 (~84%) were polymorphic, with polymorphic bands per primer ranging from 17 to 34. The Jaccard’s similarity ranged from 0.08 to 0.89 and averaged ~0.30 for the investigated bromeliads. The Bayesian-based approach, together with the un-weighted paired group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA)-based clustering and the principal coordinate analysis (PCoA), distinctly grouped the bromeliads from Neoregelia, Guzmania, and Vriesea into three separately clusters, well corresponding with their botanical classifications; whereas the bromeliads of Aechmea other than the recently selected hybrids were not well assigned to a cluster. Additionally, ISSR marker was proven efficient for the identification of hybrids and bud sports of cultivated bromeliads. The findings achieved herein will further our knowledge about the genetic variability within cultivated bromeliads and therefore facilitate breeding for new varieties of cultivated bromeliads in future as well. PMID:22754348

  15. Molecular characterization of cultivated bromeliad accessions with Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) Markers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fei; Ge, Yaying; Wang, Weiyong; Yu, Xinying; Shen, Xiaolan; Liu, Jianxin; Liu, Xiaojing; Tian, Danqing; Shen, Fuquan; Yu, Yongming

    2012-01-01

    Bromeliads are of great economic importance in flower production; however little information is available with respect to genetic characterization of cultivated bromeliads thus far. In the present study, a selection of cultivated bromeliads was characterized via inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers with an emphasis on genetic diversity and population structure. Twelve ISSR primers produced 342 bands, of which 287 (~84%) were polymorphic, with polymorphic bands per primer ranging from 17 to 34. The Jaccard's similarity ranged from 0.08 to 0.89 and averaged ~0.30 for the investigated bromeliads. The Bayesian-based approach, together with the un-weighted paired group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA)-based clustering and the principal coordinate analysis (PCoA), distinctly grouped the bromeliads from Neoregelia, Guzmania, and Vriesea into three separately clusters, well corresponding with their botanical classifications; whereas the bromeliads of Aechmea other than the recently selected hybrids were not well assigned to a cluster. Additionally, ISSR marker was proven efficient for the identification of hybrids and bud sports of cultivated bromeliads. The findings achieved herein will further our knowledge about the genetic variability within cultivated bromeliads and therefore facilitate breeding for new varieties of cultivated bromeliads in future as well. PMID:22754348

  16. Microbial cultivation and the role of microbial resource centers in the omics era.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Om; Shouche, Yogesh; Jangid, Kamlesh; Kostka, Joel E

    2013-01-01

    Despite tremendous advances in microbial ecology over the past two decades, traditional cultivation methods have failed to grow ecologically more relevant microorganisms in the laboratory, leading to a predominance of weed-like species in the world's culture collections. In this review, we highlight the gap between culture-based and culture-independent methods of microbial diversity analysis, especially in investigations of slow growers, oligotrophs, and fastidious and recalcitrant microorganisms. Furthermore, we emphasize the importance of microbial cultivation and the acquisition of the cultivation-based phenotypic data for the testing of hypotheses arising from genomics and proteomics approaches. Technical difficulties in cultivating novel microorganisms and how modern approaches have helped to overcome these limitations are highlighted. After cultivation, adequate preservation without changes in genotypic and phenotypic features of these microorganisms is necessary for future research and training. Hence, the contribution of microbial resource centers in the handling, preservation, and distribution of this novel diversity is discussed. Finally, we explore the concept of microbial patenting and requisite guidelines of the "Budapest Treaty" for establishment of an International Depositary Authority. PMID:23138712

  17. Modeling cultivation impacts on soil organic carbon under different management practices with the Community Land Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drewniak, B. A.; Mishra, U.

    2013-12-01

    The impact of cultivation on the terrestrial carbon cycle is an important factor for evaluating the environmental and economic impacts of increased biofuel use. The Community Land Model version 3.5, was updated to include representation of managed croplands growing maize, soybean, and spring wheat. In this study, the new CLM crop model (CLM-Crop) is used to estimate the impacts of cultivation on soil organic carbon storage for various management practices including fertilizer use and residue (leaves and stems) returned to litter pools. Simulations indicate that under current management practices, U.S. soils have already lost over 8 Pg (10%) of soil organic carbon. After long periods of cultivation, individual plots of maize and soybean have lost up to 65% of the soil carbon. These results indicate that disturbance through cultivation will always result in a loss of soil carbon and management practices will have a large influence on the magnitude of loss. The model derived impacts of cultivation and management practices will be presented with comparisons to baseline soil organic carbon data collected from the continental U.S. croplands. We will also include results from the CLM4.5 crop model, which contains a new belowground biogeochemistry scheme. Changes to soil organic carbon will be evaluated for both the standard version of the model, without a full harvest, and a modified version, that includes a realistic harvest and incorporates alternate residue management practices.

  18. Gene Flow from Cultivated Rice (Oryza sativa) to its Weedy and Wild Relatives

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, LI JUAN; LEE, DONG SUN; SONG, ZHI PING; SUH, HAK SOO; LU, BAO?RONG

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Transgene escape through gene flow from genetically modified (GM) crops to their wild relative species may potentially cause environmental biosafety problems. The aim of this study was to assess the extent of gene flow between cultivated rice and two of its close relatives under field conditions. • Methods Experiments were conducted at two sites in Korea and China to determine gene flow from cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) to weedy rice (O. sativa f. spontanea) and common wild rice (O. rufipogon Griff.), respectively, under special field conditions mimicking the natural occurrence of the wild relatives in Asia. Herbicide resistance (bar) and SSR molecular finger printing were used as markers to accurately determine gene flow frequencies from cultivated rice varieties to their wild relatives. • Key Results Gene flow frequency from cultivated rice was detected as between approx. 0·011 and 0·046 % to weedy rice and between approx. 1·21 and 2·19 % to wild rice under the field conditions. • Conclusions Gene flow occurs with a noticeable frequency from cultivated rice to its weedy and wild relatives, and this might cause potential ecological consequences. It is recommended that isolation zones should be established with sufficient distances between GM rice varieties and wild rice populations to avoid potential outcrosses. Also, GM rice should not be released when it has inserted genes that can significantly enhance the ecological fitness of weedy rice in regions where weedy rice is already abundant and causing great problems. PMID:14602665

  19. Greenhouse gas emissions from shifting cultivation in the tropics, including uncertainty and sensitivity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, J. M. N.; Carreiras, J. M. B.; Rosa, I.; Pereira, J. M. C.

    2011-10-01

    Annual emissions of CO2, CH4, CO, N2O, and NOx from biomass burning in shifting cultivation systems in tropical Asia, Africa, and America were estimated at national and continental levels as the product of area burned, aboveground biomass, combustion completeness, and emission factor. The total area of shifting cultivation in each country was derived from the Global Land Cover 2000 map, while the area cleared and burned annually was obtained by multiplying the total area by the rotation cycle of shifting cultivation, calculated using cropping and fallow lengths reported in the literature. Aboveground biomass accumulation was estimated as a function of the duration and mean temperature of the growing season, soil texture type, and length of the fallow period. The uncertainty associated with each model variable was estimated, and an uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of greenhouse gas estimates was performed with Monte Carlo and variance decomposition techniques. Our results reveal large uncertainty in emission estimates for all five gases. In the case of CO2, mean (standard deviation) emissions from shifting cultivation in Asia, Africa, and America were estimated at 241 (132), 205 (139), and 295 (197) Tg yr-1, respectively. Combustion completeness and emission factors were the model inputs that contributed the most to the uncertainty of estimates. Our mean estimates are lower than the literature values for atmospheric emission from biomass burning in shifting cultivation systems. Only mean values could be compared since other studies do not provide any measure of uncertainty.

  20. Monitoring of soil water content and quality inside and outside the water curtain cultivation facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, K.; Kim, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Water curtain cultivation system is an energy saving technique for winter season by splashing groundwater on the inner roof of green house. Artificial groundwater recharge application to the water curtain cultivation facilities was adopted and tested to use groundwater sustainably in a rural region of Korea. The groundwater level in the test site shows natural trend corresponding rainfall pattern except during mid-November to early April when groundwater levels decline sharply due to groundwater abstraction for water curtain cultivation. Groundwater levels are also affected by surface water such as stream, small dams in the stream and agricultural ditches. Infiltration data were collected from lysimeter installation and monitoring inside and outside water cultivation facility and compared with each other. The infiltration data were well correlated with rainfall outside the facility, but the data in the facility showed very different from the other. The missing infiltration data were attributed to groundwater level rise and level sensor location below water table. Soil water contents in the unsaturated zone indicated rainfall infiltration propagation at depth and with time outside the facility. According to rainfall amount and water condition at the initial stage of a rainfall event, the variation of soil water content was shown differently. Soil water contents and electrical conductivities were closely correlated with each other, and they reflected rainfall infiltration through the soil and water quality changes. The monitoring results are useful to reveal the hydrological processes from the infiltration to groundwater recharge, and water management planning in the water cultivation areas.

  1. Effect of rice cultivation systems on indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal community structure.

    PubMed

    Watanarojanaporn, Nantida; Boonkerd, Nantakorn; Tittabutr, Panlada; Longtonglang, Aphakorn; Young, J Peter W; Teaumroong, Neung

    2013-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in an agricultural ecosystem are necessary for proper management of beneficial symbiosis. Here we explored how the patterns of the AMF community in rice roots were affected by rice cultivation systems (the system of rice intensification [SRI] and the conventional rice cultivation system [CS]), and by compost application during growth stages. Rice plants harvested from SRI-managed plots exhibited considerably higher total biomass, root dry weight, and seed fill than those obtained from conventionally managed plots. Our findings revealed that all AMF sequences observed from CS plots belonged (only) to the genus Glomus, colonizing in rice roots grown under this type of cultivation, while rice roots sown in SRI showed sequences belonging to both Glomus and Acaulospora. The AMF community was compared between the different cultivation types (CS and SRI) and compost applications by principle component analysis. In all rice growth stages, AMF assemblages of CS management were not separated from those of SRI management. The distribution of AMF community composition based on T-RFLP data showed that the AMF community structure was different among four cultivation systems, and there was a gradual increase of Shannon-Weaver indices of diversity (H') of the AMF community under SRI during growth stages. The results of this research indicated that rice grown in SRI-managed plots had more diverse AMF communities than those grown in CS plots. PMID:23719585

  2. Aerobic batch cultivation in micro bioreactor with integrated electrochemical sensor array.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, Michiel; Krommenhoek, Erik E; Heijnen, Joseph J; Gardeniers, Han; van der Wielen, Luuk A M; van Gulik, Walter M

    2010-01-01

    Aerobic batch cultivations of Candida utilis were carried out in two micro bioreactors with a working volume of 100 muL operated in parallel. The dimensions of the micro bioreactors were similar as the wells in a 96-well microtiter plate, to preserve compatibility with the current high-throughput cultivation systems. Each micro bioreactor was equipped with an electrochemical sensor array for the online measurement of temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, and viable biomass concentration. Furthermore, the CO(2) production rate was obtained from the online measurement of cumulative CO(2) production during the cultivation. The online data obtained by the sensor array and the CO(2) production measurements appeared to be very reproducible for all batch cultivations performed and were highly comparable to measurement results obtained during a similar aerobic batch cultivation carried out in a conventional 4L bench-scale bioreactor. Although the sensor chip certainly needs further improvement on some points, this work clearly shows the applicability of electrochemical sensor arrays for the monitoring of parallel micro-scale fermentations, e.g. using the 96-well microtiterplate format. PMID:19924767

  3. Cultivation of Anaerobic and Facultatively Anaerobic Bacteria from Spacecraft-Associated Clean Rooms?

    PubMed Central

    Stieglmeier, Michaela; Wirth, Reinhard; Kminek, Gerhard; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

    2009-01-01

    In the course of this biodiversity study, the cultivable microbial community of European spacecraft-associated clean rooms and the Herschel Space Observatory located therein were analyzed during routine assembly operations. Here, we focused on microorganisms capable of growing without oxygen. Anaerobes play a significant role in planetary protection considerations since extraterrestrial environments like Mars probably do not provide enough oxygen for fully aerobic microbial growth. A broad assortment of anaerobic media was used in our cultivation strategies, which focused on microorganisms with special metabolic skills. The majority of the isolated strains grew on anaerobic, complex, nutrient-rich media. Autotrophic microorganisms or microbes capable of fixing nitrogen were also cultivated. A broad range of facultatively anaerobic bacteria was detected during this study and also, for the first time, some strictly anaerobic bacteria (Clostridium and Propionibacterium) were isolated from spacecraft-associated clean rooms. The multiassay cultivation approach was the basis for the detection of several bacteria that had not been cultivated from these special environments before and also led to the discovery of two novel microbial species of Pseudomonas and Paenibacillus. PMID:19363082

  4. [The study of daughter rediae Echinostoma caproni (Trematoda) in vitro cultivation].

    PubMed

    Ataev, G L

    2014-01-01

    Methods of in vitro cultivation were used to examine the feeding and reproductive behaviors of daughter rediae of Echinostoma caproni. It was noted that under conditions of in vitro cultivation, rediae fed on tissues of the mollusc Biomphalaria glabrata, on rediae and cercariae of E. daikenaensis and E. congoensis, and on sporocysts and cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni. No cases of cannibalism of daughter rediae E. caproni by their offspring rediae were observed, although they could feed on their own cercariae. When kept in mediae containing (B. glabrata embryonic) Bge cells, rediae E. caproni gradually turned to feeding on these cells and stayed away other objects. Under conditions of in vitro cultivation, daughter rediae E. caproni were capable of forming redial and cercarial embryos. However, no cases of return from producing of cercariae to producing of rediae were observed. These in vitro data confirm the results of previous studies of this species's parthenithae performed in vivo (ATaeB and dp., 2007). PMID:25936167

  5. A sensitive monitoring system for mammalian cell cultivation processes: a PAT approach.

    PubMed

    Winckler, Silvia; Krueger, Rolf; Schnitzler, Thomas; Zang, Werner; Fischer, Rainer; Biselli, Manfred

    2014-05-01

    Biopharmaceuticals such as antibodies are produced in cultivated mammalian cells, which must be monitored to comply with good manufacturing practice. We, therefore, developed a fully automated system comprising a specific exhaust gas analyzer, inline analytics and a corresponding algorithm to precisely determine the oxygen uptake rate, carbon dioxide evolution rate, carbon dioxide transfer rate, transfer quotient and respiratory quotient without interrupting the ongoing cultivation, in order to assess its reproducibility. The system was verified using chemical simulation experiments and was able to measure the respiratory activity of hybridoma cells and DG44 cells (derived from Chinese hamster ovary cells) with satisfactory results at a minimum viable cell density of ~2.0 × 10(5) cells ml(-1). The system was suitable for both batch and fed-batch cultivations in bubble-aerated and membrane-aerated reactors, with and without the control of pH and dissolved oxygen. PMID:24136042

  6. Simplified and lower cost methods for culinary-medicinal mushrooms cultivation.

    PubMed

    Cleaver, Phillip D; Bailey, Cody; Holliday, John C

    2012-01-01

    The importance and prospect of growing mushrooms through utilization of low-cost, technologically simple methods for developing Third World countries has recently been outlined. Three different species from genus Pleurotus (P. djamor, P. pulmonarius, and P. sajor-caju) and one from genus Hypsizygus (H. ulmarius) were studied. Whole stalk wheat straw, shredded wheat straw, and ground maize cob (Zea mays) were used as the substrates. Wheat straw is the post-harvest stalk of Triticum aestivum. Biological efficiency (BE), growth dynamics, and photographs are provided for each cultivated strain, on different substrates, and substrate treatment comparisons are made. From several experiments conducted with various technologically simple methods of cultivation, it was found that all above mentioned species can be successfully cultivated at the village level in any country, be it highly developed or the poorest country on earth. PMID:22577981

  7. The investigation of sloping cultivated land on the Loess Plateau with 3S technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dengke; Liu, Anlin; Deng, Fengdong; Zhang, Jinghong; Zhuo, Jing

    2003-07-01

    The hill and ravine area on the Loess Plateau is the typical region of serious soil erosion, excess reclamation, and deteriorated eco-environment in middle reaches of Yellow River. The main project of eco-environment construction is that recover vegetation, and quit high sloping cultivated land to forest or meadow. The local government in the concerned region poses that sloping cultivated land higher than 15 degree should quit. How many are there qualified and how about their distribution? These are the basis problems of the execution of the eco-environment construction project. In this paper, using TM image and digital relief map, the interpretation of land use classification and the calculation of slope are made for Baota , Yan"an, with the software of ARC/INFO and ERDAS IMAGINE. And also the sloping cultivated land is mapped, basing on the composite analysis of land use map and slope map.

  8. Enhancement of ?-Glucan Content in the Cultivation of Cauliflower Mushroom (Sparassis latifolia) by Elicitation.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun; Ka, Kang-Hyeon; Ryu, Sung-Ryul

    2014-03-01

    The effectiveness of three kinds of enzymes (chitinase, ?-glucuronidase, and lysing enzyme complex), employed as elicitors to enhance the ?-glucan content in the sawdust-based cultivation of cauliflower mushroom (Sparassis latifolia), was examined. The elicitors were applied to the cauliflower mushroom after primordium formation, by spraying the enzyme solutions at three different levels on the sawdust-based medium. Mycelial growth was fully accomplished by the treatments, but the metabolic process during the growth of fruiting bodies was affected. The application of a lysing enzyme resulted in an increase in the ?-glucan concentration by up to 31% compared to that of the control. However, the treatment resulted in a decrease in mushroom yield, which necessitated the need to evaluate its economic efficiency. Although we still need to develop a more efficient way for using elicitors to enhance functional metabolites in mushroom cultivation, the results indicate that the elicitation technique can be applied in the cultivation of medicinal/edible mushrooms. PMID:24808733

  9. Mixotrophic cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris using industrial dairy waste as organic carbon source.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Ana P; Fernandes, Bruno; Vicente, António A; Teixeira, José; Dragone, Giuliano

    2012-08-01

    Growth parameters and biochemical composition of the green microalga Chlorella vulgaris cultivated under different mixotrophic conditions were determined and compared to those obtained from a photoautotrophic control culture. Mixotrophic microalgae showed higher specific growth rate, final biomass concentration and productivities of lipids, starch and proteins than microalgae cultivated under photoautotrophic conditions. Moreover, supplementation of the inorganic culture medium with hydrolyzed cheese whey powder solution led to a significant improvement in microalgal biomass production and carbohydrate utilization when compared with the culture enriched with a mixture of pure glucose and galactose, due to the presence of growth promoting nutrients in cheese whey. Mixotrophic cultivation of C. vulgaris using the main dairy industry by-product could be considered a feasible alternative to reduce the costs of microalgal biomass production, since it does not require the addition of expensive carbohydrates to the culture medium. PMID:22705507

  10. Enhancement of ?-Glucan Content in the Cultivation of Cauliflower Mushroom (Sparassis latifolia) by Elicitation

    PubMed Central

    Ka, Kang-Hyeon; Ryu, Sung-Ryul

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of three kinds of enzymes (chitinase, ?-glucuronidase, and lysing enzyme complex), employed as elicitors to enhance the ?-glucan content in the sawdust-based cultivation of cauliflower mushroom (Sparassis latifolia), was examined. The elicitors were applied to the cauliflower mushroom after primordium formation, by spraying the enzyme solutions at three different levels on the sawdust-based medium. Mycelial growth was fully accomplished by the treatments, but the metabolic process during the growth of fruiting bodies was affected. The application of a lysing enzyme resulted in an increase in the ?-glucan concentration by up to 31% compared to that of the control. However, the treatment resulted in a decrease in mushroom yield, which necessitated the need to evaluate its economic efficiency. Although we still need to develop a more efficient way for using elicitors to enhance functional metabolites in mushroom cultivation, the results indicate that the elicitation technique can be applied in the cultivation of medicinal/edible mushrooms. PMID:24808733

  11. Coupled cultivation and pre-harvesting of microalgae in a membrane photobioreactor (MPBR).

    PubMed

    Bilad, M R; Discart, V; Vandamme, D; Foubert, I; Muylaert, K; Vankelecom, Ivo F J

    2014-03-01

    A new and effective concept is proposed for microalgae cultivation and pre-harvesting using a membrane photobioreactor (MPBR), in which the bioreactor is coupled to membrane filtration by cultivating Chlorella vulgaris. A basic simulation was first performed to understand the behavior of the hybrid system. The effectiveness of the MPBR for cultivation and pre-harvesting was proven. The membrane completely retained the biomass, which then was partly recycled into the bioreactor to maintain a high biomass concentration, thus enhancing flexibility and robustness of the system. The MPBR can operate at both higher dilution and higher growth rates, resulting in a 9× higher biomass productivity. In addition, pre-harvesting can be achieved by applying variable concentration factors in the filtration stage. The membrane permeate was recycled to the reactor as feed medium without affecting the algae growth, which offers a substantial reduction of 77% in the water footprint. PMID:24559585

  12. Differences in energy transfer of a cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002, grown in different cultivation media.

    PubMed

    Niki, Kenta; Aikawa, Shimpei; Yokono, Makio; Kondo, Akihiko; Akimoto, Seiji

    2015-08-01

    Currently, cyanobacteria are regarded as potential biofuel sources. Large-scale cultivation of cyanobacteria in seawater is of particular interest because seawater is a low-cost medium. In the present study, we examined differences in light-harvesting and energy transfer processes in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 grown in different cultivation media, namely modified A medium (the optimal growth medium for Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002) and f/2 (a seawater medium). The concentrations of nitrate and phosphate ions were varied in both media. Higher nitrate ion and/or phosphate ion concentrations yielded high relative content of phycobilisome. The cultivation medium influenced the energy transfers within phycobilisome, from phycobilisome to photosystems, within photosystem II, and from photosystem II to photosystem I. We suggest that the medium also affects charge recombination at the photosystem II reaction center and formation of a chlorophyll-containing complex. PMID:25577255

  13. Screening, growth medium optimisation and heterotrophic cultivation of microalgae for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Jia, Zongchao; Liu, Ying; Daroch, Maurycy; Geng, Shu; Cheng, Jay J

    2014-08-01

    This article presents a study on screening of microalgal strains from the Peking University Algae Collection and heterotrophic cultivation for biodiesel production of a selected microalgal strain. Among 89 strains, only five were capable of growing under heterotrophic conditions in liquid cultures and Chlorella sp. PKUAC 102 was found the best for the production of heterotrophic algal biodiesel. Composition of the growth medium was optimised using response surface methodology and optimised growth conditions were successfully used for cultivation of the strain in a fermentor. Conversion of algal lipids to fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) showed that the lipid profile of the heterotrophically cultivated Chlorella sp. PKUAC 102 contains fatty acids suitable for biodiesel production. PMID:24845038

  14. Application of ozonated piggery wastewater for cultivation of oil-rich Chlorella pyrenoidosa.

    PubMed

    Gan, Ke; Mou, Xiaoqing; Xu, Yan; Wang, Haiying

    2014-11-01

    Ozonated and autoclaved piggery wastewaters were compared for cultivation of oil-rich Chlorella pyrenoidosa by measuring nutrient removal from the medium and growth rate and lipid production of the microalgae. The removal rates of chemical oxygen demand, NH4(+)-N, total nitrogen and total phosphorus by C. pyrenoidosa were not influenced by both sterilisation methods. The specific growth rate and biomass of C. pyrenoidosa were determined by analysing the chlorophyll concentration for eliminating the disturbance of bacteria growth in culture system. Bacteria raised from the residue in the ozonated medium achieved 30% of the total microorganisms at the end of cultivation. They reduced the growth of C. pyrenoidosa by 10.4%, but contributed to a faster decline of the nutrient content on the first day. Lipid production and fatty acid profile did not change markedly in both sterilisation methods. The results suggest that ozonation is acceptable for piggery wastewater treatment for C. pyrenoidosa cultivation. PMID:25212822

  15. Use of extracts from oyster shell and soil for cultivation of Spirulina maxima.

    PubMed

    Jung, Joo-Young; Kim, Sunmin; Lee, Hansol; Kim, Kyochan; Kim, Woong; Park, Min S; Kwon, Jong-Hee; Yang, Ji-Won

    2014-12-01

    Calcium ion and trace metals play important roles in various metabolisms of photosynthetic organisms. In this study, simple methods were developed to extract calcium ion and micronutrients from oyster shell and common soil, and the prepared extracts were tested as a replacement of the corresponding chemicals that are essential for growth of microalgae. The oyster shell and soil were treated with 0.1 M sodium hydroxide or with 10 % hydrogen peroxide, respectively. The potential application of these natural sources to cultivation was investigated with Spirulina maxima. When compared to standard Zarrouk medium, the Spirulina maxima cultivated in a modified Zarrouk media with elements from oyster shell and soil extract exhibited increases in biomass, chlorophyll, and phycocyanin by 17, 16, and 64 %, respectively. These results indicate that the extracts of oyster shell and soil provide sufficient amounts of calcium and trace metals for successful cultivation of Spirulina maxima. PMID:24871274

  16. Comparative assessment of sugar and malic acid composition in cultivated and wild apples.

    PubMed

    Ma, Baiquan; Chen, Jie; Zheng, Hongyu; Fang, Ting; Ogutu, Collins; Li, Shaohua; Han, Yuepeng; Wu, Benhong

    2015-04-01

    Soluble sugar and malic acid contents in mature fruits of 364 apple accessions were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Fructose and sucrose represented the major components of soluble sugars in cultivated fruits, whilst fructose and glucose were the major items of sugars in wild fruits. Wild fruits were significantly more acidic than cultivated fruits, whilst the average concentration of total sugars and sweetness index were quite similar between cultivated and wild fruits. Thus, our study suggests that fruit acidity rather than sweetness is likely to have undergone selection during apple domestication. Additionally, malic acid content was positively correlated with glucose content and negatively correlated with sucrose content. This suggests that selection of fruit acidity must have an effect on the proportion of sugar components in apple fruits. Our study provides information that could be helpful for future apple breeding. PMID:25442527

  17. Parental material and cultivation determine soil bacterial community structure and fertility.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li; Gao, Jusheng; Huang, Ting; Kendall, Joshua R A; Shen, Qirong; Zhang, Ruifu

    2015-01-01

    Microbes are the key components of the soil environment, playing important roles during soil development. Soil parent material provides the foundation elements that comprise the basic nutritional environment for the development of microbial community. After 30 years artificial maturation of cultivation, the soil developments of three different parental materials were evaluated and bacterial community compositions were investigated using the high-throughput sequencing approach. Thirty years of cultivation increased the soil fertility and soil microbial biomass, richness and diversity, greatly changed the soil bacterial communities, the proportion of phylum Actinobacteria decreased significantly, while the relative abundances of the phyla Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes, Armatimonadetes and Nitrospira were significantly increased. Soil bacterial communities of parental materials were separated with the cultivated ones, and comparisons of different soil types, granite soil and quaternary red clay soil were similar and different with purple sandy shale soil in both parental materials and cultivated treatments. Bacterial community variations in the three soil types were affected by different factors, and their alteration patterns in the soil development also varied with soil type. Soil properties (except total potassium) had a significant effect on the soil bacterial communities in all three soil types and a close relationship with abundant bacterial phyla. The amounts of nitrogen-fixing bacteria as well as the abundances of the nifH gene in all cultivated soils were higher than those in the parental materials; Burkholderia and Rhizobacte were enriched significantly with long-term cultivation. The results suggested that crop system would not deplete the nutrients of soil parental materials in early stage of soil maturation, instead it increased soil fertility and changed bacterial community, specially enriched the nitrogen-fixing bacteria to accumulate nitrogen during soil development. PMID:25764534

  18. Negotiating ownership: Understanding the cultivation of student ownership in an urban science video project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neill, Tara Breckenridge

    The intention of this study is to define student ownership in an informal science learning setting in a low performing middle school in New York City, to investigate what characterizes such ownership, and to determine how to cultivate it. In addition, I am interested in investigating the effects of the students' sense of ownership on their sense of self, in relation to the study and the practice of science and the role of race in power in framing the context in which ownership is cultivated. This is a qualitative study; specifically I apply a critical ethnography framework for both data collection an analysis. This study is based in an informal science video project lasting three years in which two groups of sixth and seventh grade students, made three movies about their perceptions of science, who they felt knew science, and how science related to their lives. In chapter IV, I explain that students' expression of ownership is visible via five main themes. (1) Students viewed themselves in relation to science in ways that are positive, empowering, and full of self-awareness. (2) Students actively and purposefully chose to expend their capital. (3) Students expressed pride around the multiple contexts. (4) Students used the video project to effect positive changes in their lives. (5) Students expressed positive and realistic vision for the role that science played in their lives. In chapter V, I explain that student agency and student ownership share a dialectic relationship in which student agency must be valued to cultivate student ownership and the cultivation of student ownership expands student agency. Lastly, in chapter VII, I explore the role race and power play in framing the context in which ownership is cultivated. Specifically, I argue that in order to cultivate ownership in high-poverty urban science learning environments, the teacher in this environment must be critically reflective of her/his practice and pay particular attention to issues of race and power.

  19. Education for Cultivating Future Factory Managers by Industry-College Cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tennichi, Michio; Yamada, Hirofumi; Matsui, Hiroshi; Furuya, Shigehiko; Ito, Kouhei

    In 2007, Kanazawa Technical College was designated by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology as an institute on a Project to the Cultivation of Practical Engineers by Cooperative Education and is to complete the project. Our project aims at accomplishing “Education Program Development and Practice for Cultivating Future Factory Managers Beginning at Age 16” , with the object of the cooperative project by local businesses, Ishikawa Prefecture and Kanazawa Institute of Technology. This paper reports as follows. (1) Outline of this project (2) Results from the project we have tackled. (3) Safety education in order to begin mechanical hands-on training at the first grade.

  20. A comparative study on growth pattern of Langali (Gloriosa superba Linn.) under wild and cultivated conditions

    PubMed Central

    Asha, K. V.; Rajashekhara, N.; Chauhan, M.G.; Ravishankar, B.; Sharma, P. P.

    2010-01-01

    Langali (Gloriosa superba Linn.), obtained from wild habitat and by experimental cultivation under three groups, viz., control, cultivated as per the modern agricultural guidelines and as per the norms of Vriksha-ayurveda was compared and analyzed. Methods of Vriksha-ayurveda give good result in the case of Langali in terms of yield. Failure of control groups both in seed and tuber batches denotes that this plant needs some treatment for vegetative propagation under artificial conditions. Ayurveda group may be considered as a better one in the assessment of reproduction capacity in terms of yield of seeds. PMID:22131723

  1. [Optimization of cultivation conditions of the alpha-amylase producer Bacillus subtilis 147].

    PubMed

    Avdiiuk, K V; Varbanets', L D

    2008-01-01

    The influence of some technological parameters of cultivation of the producer Bacillus subtilis 147 on the process of extracellular enzymes alpha-amylase synthesis was investigated. The optimum sources of carbon (0.1% insoluble starch) and nitrogen (0.2% sodium nitrate) for maximum production of alpha-amylase are established. It was shown, that the temperature 42 degrees C, the carbon nitrogen ratio 1:2, pH 7.0, volume of a nutritious medium 100 ml, rotation rate 220 rev/min during 4-6 days are optimum parameters of the producer cultivation. As a result the enzyme activity was increased 14 times. PMID:18416149

  2. The wild progenitor and the place of origin of the cultivated lentil: Lens culinaris

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Zohary

    1972-01-01

    Summary  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a The wild species of the genusLens were surveyed. WildL. orientalis was found to be morphologically closest to cultivatedL. culinaris. It is also the only wild species interconnected to the cultivated lentil by a series of intermediate types.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. \\u000a \\u000a Archaeologically lentil was established as one of the primary domesticants that founded the neolithic agricultural revolution\\u000a in the Near East

  3. Effects of Serpentine on the Growth and Allocation of Raphanus sativus var. radocula Seedlings in Cultivation Medium Including Cu

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mitsuo KAWABATA

    This study investigated the effects of serpentine on the growth and morphology of Raphanus sativus var. radocula (R. sativus) seedlings in cultivation medium including Cu, which is toxic heavy metal or micro elemental nutrient. R sativus was raised on hydroponic condition using Hoagland cultivation medium including Cu of concentration levels ranging 0.005-1ppm with particles of serpentine, Mitate conglomerate or silica

  4. Greenhouse production of nectarines for early harvest in France: a cultivation system with shallow rest or no rest

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Greenhouse production of nectarines for early harvest in France: a cultivation system with shallow.?9 Clermont-Ferrand Cedex, France Introduction The greenhouse cultivation system was started in France 5 yr. The feasibility of heating the greenhouse earlier or increasing the temperature is often questioned but

  5. Impact of cultivation legacies on rehabilitation seedings and native species re-establishment in Great Basin desert shrublands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about how cultivation legacies affect the outcome of rehabilitation seedings in the Great Basin, even though both frequently co-occur on the same lands. We examined these cultivation legacies by comparing the density of seeded Agropyron cristatum (crested wheatgrass), vegetation com...

  6. Declining Cotton Cultivation in Maricopa County, Arizona: An Examination of Macro and Micro-Scale Driving Forces*

    E-print Network

    Hall, Sharon J.

    Declining Cotton Cultivation in Maricopa County, Arizona: An Examination of Macro and Micro-Scale Driving Forces* Abstract Once the dominant location of cotton cultivation within the state of Arizona within the regional agricultural economy. The dramatic decline in cotton over the last nine years has

  7. Benchmarking the cultivation approach to video game effects: a comparison of the correlates of TV viewing and game play

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Van Mierlo; Jan Van den Bulck

    2004-01-01

    This study found significant relationships between first- and second-order cultivation measures and TV viewing, but found a relationship with video game play for only two variables in a sample of 322 Flemish 3rd and 6th year secondary school children. This suggests that the absence of a relationship with video game play is not the result of the absence of cultivation

  8. Differential response of cultivated and weedy (red) rice to recent and projected increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a principle resource for plant growth; as such, the ongoing increase in its concentration may differentially affect the growth of cultivated and wild types of the same species. Red rice in the U.S. is a weedy relative of cultivated rice that represents a major production con...

  9. Competitive interactions between cultivated and red rice as a function of recent and projected increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although carbon dioxide represents a fundamental resource for plant function, increases in atmospheric concentration may differentially stimulate cultivated and weedy types of the same species. Because wild types often represent a weedy constraint to cultivated crops in the field, any differential ...

  10. Polyphenolic extract and essential oil quality of Thymus zygis ssp. gracilis shrubs cultivated under different watering levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    María J. Jordán; Rosa M. Martínez; C. Martínez; I. Moñino; Jose A. Sotomayor

    2009-01-01

    Thymus zygis ssp. gracilis shrubs were cultivated as an experimental crop under different watering level, in order to achieve 81, 63, 44 and 30% of the local potential evapotranspiration (ETo). After 4 years of cultivation, thyme leaves were analyzed on the basis of their essential oil (yield and quality), total phenolic content, free radical-scavenging activity and polyphenolic profile.Essential oil yield

  11. Influence of strain and cultivation procedure on the performance of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of steam pretreated spruce

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Malek Alkasrawi; Andreas Rudolf; Gunnar Lidén; Guido Zacchi

    2006-01-01

    Yeast to be used in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of lignocelluloses materials has to be prepared in a separate cultivation step. The effects of the cultivation procedure on the performance of SSF of steam pretreated softwood were studied in the current work. The yeast used in the SSF was either directly commercially available Baker's yeast (as packaged yeast) or

  12. The impact of shifting cultivation on a rainforest landscape in West Kalimantan: spatial and temporal dynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deborah Lawrence; David R. Peart; Mark Leighton

    1998-01-01

    To assess the role of shifting cultivation in the loss of rainforests in Indonesia, we examined the spatial and temporal dynamics of traditional land-use north of Gunung Palung National Park in West Kalimantan. We analyzed the abundance, size, frequency, and stature (by tree size) of discrete management units (patches) as a function of land-use category and distance from the village.

  13. Cultivating the Spirit through Resilience: Vision of Effective Schools and Mission of Caring Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gafoor, K. Abdul; Kottalil, Neena K.

    2011-01-01

    Arguing that education, as being practiced today is generally fearful of spirituality, and that real education ought to cultivate inner lives in an integrated way; this paper put forwards a way for integrating spirituality to everyday life of schools in secular societies. It explores the meaning of spirituality, spiritual intelligence, and…

  14. Achieving Building Cultivating D i v e r s i t y

    E-print Network

    Acton, Scott

    Achieving · Building · Cultivating D i v e r s i t y 2008 Annual report Office for Diversity in a respectful and constructive manner. By embracing, rather than resisting diversity, we maximize Earthquake Relief Concert Series Coalition of Hispanic/Latino Leaders Daniel Hale Williams Pre-Med Society

  15. Phylogenetic relationships among cultivated Allium species from restriction enzyme analysis of the chloroplast genome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Havey

    1991-01-01

    The genus Allium contains many economically important species, including the bulb onion, chive, garlic, Japanese bunching onion, and leek. Phylogenetic relationships among the cultivated alliums are not well understood, and taxonomic classifications are based on relatively few morphological characters. Chloroplast DNA is highly conserved and useful in determining phylogenetic relationships. The size of the chloroplast genome of Allium cepa was

  16. Cultivation of the oyster mushroom ( Pleurotus ostreatus ) on wood substrates in Hawaii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tracy E. Tisdale; Susan C. Miyasaka; Don E. Hemmes

    2006-01-01

    Summary  Five non-native, aggressively growing trees, Falcataria moluccana (Miquel) Barneby & Grimes, Casuarina equisetifolia L. ex J. R. & G. Forst, Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maid, Psidium cattleianum Sabine, and Trema orientalis (L.) Blume, were evaluated for suitability as substrate for outdoor cultivation of the oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) Kumm., in Hawaii. An existing shade house was modified for

  17. Assessment of cultivation factors that affect biomass and geraniol production in transgenic tobacco cell suspension cultures.

    PubMed

    Vasilev, Nikolay; Schmitz, Christian; Grömping, Ulrike; Fischer, Rainer; Schillberg, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    A large-scale statistical experimental design was used to determine essential cultivation parameters that affect biomass accumulation and geraniol production in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Samsun NN) cell suspension cultures. The carbohydrate source played a major role in determining the geraniol yield and factors such as filling volume, inoculum size and light were less important. Sucrose, filling volume and inoculum size had a positive effect on geraniol yield by boosting growth of plant cell cultures whereas illumination of the cultures stimulated the geraniol biosynthesis. We also found that the carbohydrates sucrose and mannitol showed polarizing effects on biomass and geraniol accumulation. Factors such as shaking frequency, the presence of conditioned medium and solubilizers had minor influence on both plant cell growth and geraniol content. When cells were cultivated under the screened conditions for all the investigated factors, the cultures produced ? 5.2 mg/l geraniol after 12 days of cultivation in shaking flasks which is comparable to the yield obtained in microbial expression systems. Our data suggest that industrial experimental designs based on orthogonal arrays are suitable for the selection of initial cultivation parameters prior to the essential medium optimization steps. Such designs are particularly beneficial in the early optimization steps when many factors must be screened, increasing the statistical power of the experiments without increasing the demand on time and resources. PMID:25117009

  18. The skin ulceration disease in cultivated juveniles of Holothuria scabra (Holothuroidea, Echinodermata)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Becker; D. Gillan; D. Lanterbecq; M. Jangoux; R. Rasolofonirina; J. Rakotovao; I. Eeckhaut

    2004-01-01

    It is frequently reported that cultivated holothuroids can suffer from a disease affecting their integument. We report here on a disease of juvenile Holothuria scabra, the widely marketed edible sea cucumber, reared in the Aqua-Lab hatchery of Toliara, Madagascar. This disease, which has been called skin ulceration disease, is very contagious and results from a severe bacterial infection that causes

  19. Incorporating Sclerotinia stalk rot resistance from diverse perennial wild Helianthus species into cultivated sunflower

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Feng; G. J. Seiler; T. J. Gulya; X. Cai; C. C. Jan

    Evaluation of the wild sunflower germplasms indicated that most perennial wild species, including diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid, possess high level of resistance to Sclerotinia stalk rot. Selected resistant wild species were crossed with cultivated sunflower to transfer Sclerotinia resistance genes, though the frequency of successful crosses was relatively low. Hexaploid H. californicus was crossed with HA 410, a moderately stalk

  20. Molecular characterization of diversity and relationships within and among seven cultivated species of Prunus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Analysis of genetic variability and differentiation within and among seven cultivated species and seven wild species of Prunus using amplified fragment length polymorphism revealed four well-supported groups corresponding to the four sections Amygdalus, Armeniaca, Cerasus and Prunophora described wi...

  1. Genetic diversity and origin of cultivated potatoes based on plastid microsatellite polymorphism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined, with 15 plastid microsatellite loci and with the 241 bp deletion marker characteristic of Chilean S. tuberosum, 392 accessions of cultivated and wild potato species, mostly from the experimental subset of the Russian National potato collection, recently characterized by nuclear microsat...

  2. USING A WILD SPECIES, SOLANUM MICRODONTUM, TO MOVE HIGH TUBER CALCIUM TRAIT TO THE CULTIVATED POTATOES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CULTIVATED potato tuber tissue is naturally deficient in calcium, resulting in many physiological defects and pathogen susceptibilities that affect the quality of the crop. Recent studies have demonstrated that tuber quality of potatoes can be significantly improved by in-season calcium application....

  3. Molecular and Morpho-Physiological Characterization of Sea, Ruderal and Cultivated Beets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beta vulgaris genetic resources are essential for broadening genetic base of sugar beet and developing cultivars adapted to adverse environmental conditions. Wild beets (sea beets, B. vulgaris spp. maritima and their naturalized introgressions with cultivated beets known as ruderal beets) harbor su...

  4. Manufacturing Vaccines: An Illustration of Using PAT Tools for Controlling the Cultivation of Bordetella pertussis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric N. M. van Sprang; Mathieu Streefland; Henk-Jan Ramaker; Leo A. van der Pol; E. Coen Beuvery; Age. K. Smilde

    2007-01-01

    An illustration of the operational consistency of the upstream part of a biopharmaceutical process is given. For this purpose four batch cultivations of Bordetella pertussis have been executed under identical conditions. The batches have been monitored by means of two fundamentally different process sensors. First, common single channel measurements such as temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), and flow rates are

  5. THE EFFECT OF 6BENZYLADENINE ON Astilbe ? arendsii ARENDS 'AMETHYST' FLOWERING CULTIVATED FOR CUT FLOWERS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elbieta Pogroszewska; Patrycja Sadkowska

    The effect of benzyladenine on Astilbe ? arendsii Arends flowering was deter- mined. The cultivation of Astilbe ? arendsii in an unheated plastic tunnel reduces the in- florescence yield in the first and second year of flowering as compared to the field, but in- creases the fresh weight and lenght of inflorescence stems.

  6. Molecular mapping of an apical branching gene of cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercial hybrids of cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) are obtained by crossing a cytoplasmic male-sterile line (A-line) with a restorer pollinator (R-line). The incorporation of a recessive branching trait to extend the pollination period of R-lines during hybrid seed production is labor...

  7. Characterization of quantity-quality grade conversion coefficient of supplementary cultivated land in Jianghan Plain, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shougeng; Wang, Jue; Wang, Zhanqi

    2010-11-01

    Relating supplementary cultivated land (SCL) quantity and quality with the occupied cultivated land (OCL) grade as well as realizing conversion between them are crucial to keep the balance between SCL and OCL, to protect the limited farming resources, to guarantee the security of national food, to harmonize the relationship between human and land resources, and to promote sustainable economic development. The Jianhan plain, one of China's grain production bases, was chosen for a case study to quantify the relationships between the grade index of farmland utilization and standard food output based on the resulting grade of agricultural land. Linear regression is used to model the relationships for 2778 samples from the grade of agricultural land obtained by field mapping. The average of grade index for different utilization grades was estimated by the area weighted average method. The results demonstrate that quantity-quality grade conversion coefficient of supplementary cultivated land, and the method used in this study are powerful tools to quantify the relationship between the quantity and quality of the SCL and the grade and realize conversion of OCL. Theses results can be used for protecting the quantity and quality of cultivated land and optimizing design for land consolidation project as well as determining the reasonable scale and layout of land use planning in the Jianghan plain.

  8. Characterization of quantity-quality grade conversion coefficient of supplementary cultivated land in Jianghan Plain, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shougeng; Wang, Jue; Wang, Zhanqi

    2009-09-01

    Relating supplementary cultivated land (SCL) quantity and quality with the occupied cultivated land (OCL) grade as well as realizing conversion between them are crucial to keep the balance between SCL and OCL, to protect the limited farming resources, to guarantee the security of national food, to harmonize the relationship between human and land resources, and to promote sustainable economic development. The Jianhan plain, one of China's grain production bases, was chosen for a case study to quantify the relationships between the grade index of farmland utilization and standard food output based on the resulting grade of agricultural land. Linear regression is used to model the relationships for 2778 samples from the grade of agricultural land obtained by field mapping. The average of grade index for different utilization grades was estimated by the area weighted average method. The results demonstrate that quantity-quality grade conversion coefficient of supplementary cultivated land, and the method used in this study are powerful tools to quantify the relationship between the quantity and quality of the SCL and the grade and realize conversion of OCL. Theses results can be used for protecting the quantity and quality of cultivated land and optimizing design for land consolidation project as well as determining the reasonable scale and layout of land use planning in the Jianghan plain.

  9. Redistribution of crop residues during row cultivation creates a biologically enhanced environment for soil microorganisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Formation of ridges during row cultivation creates microsites that could enhance spatial heterogeneity of soil properties, such as organic C, and thereby influence soil microbial communities. A study was conducted during 2003 near Shelton, NE, on a corn (Zea mays L.) field mapped using apparent elec...

  10. Impacts of recent cultivation on genetic diversity pattern of a medicinal plant, Scutellaria baicalensis (Lamiaceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qing-Jun Yuan; Zhi-Yong Zhang; Juan Hu; Lan-Ping Guo; Ai-Juan Shao; Lu-Qi Huang

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cultivation of medicinal plants is not only a means for meeting current and future demands for large volume production of plant-based drug and herbal remedies, but also a means of relieving harvest pressure on wild populations. Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (Huang-qin or Chinese skullcap) is a very important medicinal plant in China. Over the past several decades, wild resource of

  11. Cultivating National Leaders in an Elite School: Deploying the Transnational in the National Interest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Aaron; Kenway, Jane

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the leadership cultivation practices of one elite school in Singapore. We point to the links between the habitus of the Singapore state and that of the school showing how different components of the school's leadership curriculum deploy the transnational in order to produce leaders for the nation. In essence, we argue that the…

  12. OPTIMIZATION OF VERMICOMPOST AND WORM-BED LEACHATE FOR THE ORGANIC CULTIVATION OF RADISH

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Federico Antonio Gutiérrez-Miceli; María Angela Oliva Llaven; Paula Mendoza Nazar; Benigno Ruíz Sesma; José David Álvarez-Solís; Luc Dendooven

    2011-01-01

    Vermicompost and worm-bed leachate (WBL) are two products obtained from vermicomposting. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different combinations of vermicompost and WBL on cultivating radish (Raphanus sativus L.). A multilevel factorial design with 25 treatments was used to investigate the effect of vermicompost at 0, 10, 20, 30, or 40% and WBL at 0,

  13. Taxonomy and genetic differentiation among wild and cultivated germplasm of Solanum sect. Petota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to their adaptation to a diverse set of habitats and stresses, wild species of cultivated crops offer new sources of genetic diversity for germplasm improvement. Using an Infinium array representing a genome-wide set of 8303 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we evaluated phylogenetic relat...

  14. In vitro cultivation of a newly recognized Babesia sp. in dogs in North Carolina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel large Babesia sp. from an infected dog was cultivated in vitro by microaerophilous stationary phase culture methodology. uRPMI-1640 medium supplemented with 40% canine serum, Albumax, hypoxanthine and thymidine with antibiotics and buffered with HEPES supported the primary culture of the pa...

  15. Cultivation of Medicinal Plants from the Wild Flora in Bulgaria-Possibilities and Prospects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siya Angelova; Kana Varbanova; Ivanka Peeva; Yana Guteva; Dimitriya Dimitrova

    1994-01-01

    Research on the preservation and conservation of wild, medicinal plants in natural habitats has been used to select species for collections (ex situ and in situ) and cultivation. After 2 years study, the species could be grouped as those selections being widely distributed with adequate population size and suitable for in situ conservation (such as Clinopodium vulgare, Origanum vulgare, and

  16. PROTEOMIC AND GENOMIC CHARACTERIZATION OF KUNITZ TRYPSIN INHIBITORS IN WILD AND CULTIVATED SOYBEAN GENOTYPES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we investigated protein and genetic profiles of Kunitz trypsin inhibitors (KTIs) in seeds of sixteen different soybean genotypes that included four groups consisting of wild soybean (Glycine soja), the cultivated soybean (G. max) ancestors of modern N. American soybean cultivars, mode...

  17. Brand Fundamentals Before you cultivate your brand, you need to be able

    E-print Network

    Rohs, Remo

    Brand it Brand Fundamentals Before you cultivate your brand, you need to be able to identify it. Answering the following three questions will help get you started with your personal brand. What do you of work or business Do what you say Conduct an on-line search of your name. Address content that may

  18. Characterization of xanthans from selected Xanthomonas strains cultivated under constant dissolved oxygen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Sa´nchez; M. E. Rami´rez; L. G. Torres; E. Galindo

    1997-01-01

    Seventeen wild-type Xanthomonas isolates were screened in terms of broth viscosity in shake-flasks. As culture conditions affect polymer characteristics, a fair comparison among isolates required their cultivation in a fermenter under controlled dissolved oxygen tension. Three isolates and a reference strain were studied. The mean molecular weights and molecular weight distributions of their xanthans were determined. Products showed different pyruvate

  19. [Bromatological characteristics of pecan nuts (Carya illinoensis Koch) cultivated in Brazil].

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, V D

    1975-01-01

    The A. studied pecan nuts cultivated in Brazil: two samples represented North American varieties and three others Brazilian hybrids. The comparison between physical classification and chemical composition, specially amino acid contents pointed to non significant differences, all beeing useful for commercial purposes. The A. stresses the importance of the culture of pecan nuts in Brazil. PMID:1233594

  20. Preferential cultivation of type II methanotrophic bacteria from littoral sediments (Lake Constance)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ingeborg Bussmann; Michael Pester; Andreas Brune; Bernhard Schink

    2004-01-01

    Most widely used medium for cultivation of methanotrophic bacteria from various environments is that proposed in 1970 by Whittenbury. In order to adapt and optimize medium for culturing of methanotrophs from freshwater sediment, media with varying concentrations of substrates, phosphate, nitrate, and other mineral salts were used to enumerate methanotrophs by the most probable number method. High concentrations (>1 mM)

  1. Sesquiterpene lactone composition of wild and cultivated sunflowers and biological activity against an insect pest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sesquiterpene lactones in sunflowers, Helianthus spp., are important to interactions with pathogens, weeds and insects. Across a broad range of H. annuus, differences in composition of sesquiterpene lactones extracted from florets were found between wild and cultivated sunflowers, but also between d...

  2. Assessing the regional impacts of increased energy maize cultivation on farmland birds.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Karoline; Glemnitz, Michael

    2014-02-01

    The increasing cultivation of energy crops in Germany substantially affects the habitat function of agricultural landscapes. Precise ex ante evaluations regarding the impacts of this cultivation on farmland bird populations are rare. The objective of this paper was to implement a methodology to assess the regional impacts of increasing energy maize cultivation on the habitat quality of agricultural lands for farmland birds. We selected five farmland bird indicator species with varying habitat demands. Using a crop suitability modelling approach, we analysed the availability of potential habitat areas according to different land use scenarios for a real landscape in Northeast Germany. The model was based on crop architecture, cultivation period, and landscape preconditions. Our results showed that the habitat suitability of different crops varied between bird species, and scenario calculations revealed an increase and a decrease in the size of the potential breeding and feeding habitats, respectively. The effects observed in scenario 1 (increased energy maize by 15%) were not reproduced in all cases in scenario 2 (increased energy maize by 30%). Spatial aggregation of energy maize resulted in a negative effect for some species. Changes in the composition of the farmland bird communities, the negative effects on farmland bird species limited in distribution and spread and the relevance of the type of agricultural land use being replaced by energy crops are also discussed. In conclusion, we suggest a trade-off between biodiversity and energy targets by identifying biodiversity-friendly energy cropping systems. PMID:24323319

  3. The communities of endophytic diazotrophic bacteria in cultivated rice ( Oryza sativa L .)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janpen Prakamhang; Kiwamu Minamisawa; Kamonluck Teamtaisong; Nantakorn Boonkerd; Neung Teaumroong

    2009-01-01

    Even though attempts have been made to use endophytic diazotrophic bacteria as biofertilizers for rice cultivation, their community structure and complexity in rice tissues is not well understood. In this study, the diversity and the community structure of endophytic diazotrophs as well as the nifH gene expression within each plant part and growth stage of rice under different soil conditions

  4. Practical poetry: Thich Nhat Hanh and the cultivation of a problem?oriented officer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. DeValve; Elizabeth Quinn

    2010-01-01

    This essay argues for a more formal relationship between policing and mindful practice as taught by the Zen monk Thich Nhat Hanh. The paper explores the value of Nhat Hanh’s teachings for improving the daily implementation of police services by individual officers, and the transformation of the suffering witnessed and experienced by those officers. Practical tools for the cultivation of

  5. The research and practice with talents cultivation of system simulation discipline

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hua Xiang; Kang Feng-ju; Song Qiang; Wang Jiao-yan

    2008-01-01

    Cultivating high quality talents major in simulation is important to developing simulation discipline. Combined with the Northwestern Polytechnical Universitypsilas education on master and doctor of simulation discipline recently, this paper presents the education goals, methods and products etc, Having analyzed it and giving some solutions on the problems such as studentpsilas subject changing, governmentpsilas investment, discipline system building. The paper

  6. Gene-targeted microfluidic cultivation validated by isolation of a gut bacterium listed in Human

    E-print Network

    Ismagilov, Rustem F.

    Gene-targeted microfluidic cultivation validated by isolation of a gut bacterium listed in Human and Chemical Engineering and b Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, 2014) This paper describes a microfluidics-based workflow for geneti- cally targeted isolation

  7. The Energy Balance and Energy-Saving Measures in Greenhouse Tomato Cultivation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Elings; F. L. K. Kempkes; R. C. Kaarsemaker; M. N. A. Ruijs; Braak van de N. J; T. A. Dueck

    2005-01-01

    Reliable and quick assessment of energy conservation measures in greenhouse cultivation supports growers in their operations. Such an overview should quantify the consequences of changes in energy flows for total energy consumption, amount and quality of production, and farm economy. Using tomato as an example crop, comprehensive energy balances were developed for a reference situation in The Netherlands. Solar radiation,

  8. Cultivation of Anaerobic and Facultatively Anaerobic Bacteria from Spacecraft-Associated Clean Rooms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michaela Stieglmeier; Reinhard Wirth; Gerhard Kminek; Christine Moissl-Eichinger

    2009-01-01

    In the course of this biodiversity study, the cultivable microbial community of European spacecraft-associ- ated clean rooms and the Herschel Space Observatory located therein were analyzed during routine assembly operations. Here, we focused on microorganisms capable of growing without oxygen. Anaerobes play a signif- icant role in planetary protection considerations since extraterrestrial environments like Mars probably do not provide enough

  9. INTROGRESSION OF OAT CROWN RUST RESISTANCE FROM DIPLOID AND TETRAPLOID AVENA SPECIES INTO CULTIVATED OAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accessions of a diploid oat (2n = 2x = 14) Avena strigosa L. (CI 6954SP) and a tetraploid oat (2n = 4x = 28) A. murphyi Ladiz. (P12) were identified as possible new sources of resistance to oat crown rust (Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae) for introgression into cultivated hexaploid (2n = 6x = 42) oa...

  10. A SSR-based genetic linkage map of cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to construct a molecular linkage map of cultivated tetraploid peanut using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers derived primarily from peanut genomic sequences, expressed sequence tags (ESTs), and by "data mining" sequences released in GenBank. Three recombinant inbre...

  11. Heavy Metal Content in Plants from Family Lamiaceae Cultivated in an Industrially Polluted Region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Angelova; K. Ivanov; R. Ivanova

    2006-01-01

    Peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.), sage (Salvia officinalis L.), and clary sage (Salvia sclarea L.), cultivated at selected distances from a heavy metal pollution source (the Non-Ferrous Metal Works near Plovdiv, Bulgaria) were examined for heavy metal accumulation. The content of heavy metals in the roots, stems, leaves, and inflorescences, plus the heavy metal concentration in the essential oils obtained

  12. Plant cultivation and forest clearance by prehistoric North Americans: pollen evidence from Fort Ancient, Ohio, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kendra McLauchlan

    2003-01-01

    Archaeological records show that, as early as 2000–1500 bc, Native Americans in the eastern USA domesticated a group of native plant species with starchy or oily seeds that helped support extensive Woodland societies. Previously, the location and extent of cultivation of these ancient crop plants has been unknown, but was hypothesized to be small clearances on river floodplains. Here, pollen

  13. RARE EARTH ELEMENTS AFFECTING THE BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES AND YIELDING ABILITIES OF CULTIVATED CROPS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rare earth elements affecting the biological processes and yielding abilities of cultivated crops. The research work was conducted at the Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture in 1997-2002. For the trials a high- concentration original solution of rare earth elements (REE), resulting from the production process of AS Silmet, was used. REE solutions of different concentrations were used to treat the

  14. Characterisation of the microbial population at different stages of Kefir production and Kefir grain mass cultivation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C. Witthuhn; T. Schoeman; T. J. Britz

    2005-01-01

    Kefir is a fermented milk that is produced by adding Kefir grains, consisting of bacteria and yeasts, to milk. The aim of this study was to determine the microbial population at different stages of traditional Kefir production and Kefir grain mass cultivation. Seven different selective growth media, morphological and biochemical characteristics were used for the isolation and identification of the

  15. Wild and Cultivated Potato (Solanum sect. Petota) Escaped and Persistent Outside of its Natural Range

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild potato (Solanum section Petota) contains about 110 species that are native to the Americas from the southwestern United States to central Chile and adjacent Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, and southern Brazil. Landrace populations of the cultivated potato, Solanum tuberosum, are native to the Ame...

  16. Rc-g: A new allele for red pericarp discovered in cultivated rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The occurrence of grain with red pericarp in rice production is normal where red rice is a common weed problem. Classic weedy red rice can usually be distinguished morphologically without the need to de-hull seed to reveal pericarp color. However, rice with red pericarp is also found in cultivated ...

  17. Gene flow from weedy rice populations to cultivated rice varies by plant type

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gene transfer from crops to its weedy and/or wild relatives has been the research focal point during the last decade. Little is known about the rate and consequences of gene transfer from wild or weedy relatives to the cultivated crops. Red rice, a weed which infests ~ 40% of rice acreage in the sou...

  18. Cultivation, Genetic, Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of Moringa oleifera Leaves: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Leone, Alessandro; Spada, Alberto; Battezzati, Alberto; Schiraldi, Alberto; Aristil, Junior; Bertoli, Simona

    2015-01-01

    Moringa oleifera is an interesting plant for its use in bioactive compounds. In this manuscript, we review studies concerning the cultivation and production of moringa along with genetic diversity among different accessions and populations. Different methods of propagation, establishment and cultivation are discussed. Moringa oleifera shows diversity in many characters and extensive morphological variability, which may provide a resource for its improvement. Great genetic variability is present in the natural and cultivated accessions, but no collection of cultivated and wild accessions currently exists. A germplasm bank encompassing the genetic variability present in Moringa is needed to perform breeding programmes and develop elite varieties adapted to local conditions. Alimentary and medicinal uses of moringa are reviewed, alongside the production of biodiesel. Finally, being that the leaves are the most used part of the plant, their contents in terms of bioactive compounds and their pharmacological properties are discussed. Many studies conducted on cell lines and animals seem concordant in their support for these properties. However, there are still too few studies on humans to recommend Moringa leaves as medication in the prevention or treatment of diseases. Therefore, further studies on humans are recommended. PMID:26057747

  19. Production of fungal alpha-amylase by Saccharomyces kluyveri in glucose-limited cultivations.

    PubMed

    Møller, Kasper; Sharif, Mostafa Z; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2004-08-01

    Heterologous protein production by the yeast Saccharomyces kluyveri was investigated under aerobic glucose-limited conditions. Alpha-amylase from Aspergillus oryzae was used as model protein and the gene was expressed from a S. cerevisiae 2 micro plasmid. For comparison, strains of both S. kluyveri and S. cerevisiae were transformed with the same plasmid, which led to secretion of active alpha-amylase in both cases. The S. cerevisiae 2 micro plasmid was found to be stable in S. kluyveri as evaluated by a constant alpha-amylase productivity in a continuous cultivation for more than 40 generations. S. kluyveri and S. cerevisiae secreted alpha-amylase with similar yields during continuous cultivations at dilution rates of 0.1 and 0.2 h(-1) (4.8-5.7 mg (g dry weight)(-1)). At a dilution rate of 0.3 h(-1) the metabolism of S. kluyveri was fully respiratory, whereas S. cerevisiae produced significant amounts of ethanol. A fed-batch cultivation was carried out with S. kluyveri where the biomass concentration reached 85 g l(-1) and the alpha-amylase concentration reached 320 mg l(-1). Even though S. kluyveri could be grown to high cell density, it was also observed that it has a high maintenance coefficient, which resulted in low biomass yields at the low specific growth rates prevailing towards the end of the fed-batch cultivation. PMID:15246667

  20. A SEMISYNTHETIC FETAL CALF SERUM-FREE LIQUID MEDIUM FOR IN VITRO CULTIVATION OF LEISHMANIAPROMASTIGOTES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. ATIF ALI; JAVEID IQBAL; BASHIR AHMAD; M. MASOOM

    A semisynthetic, autoclavable, liquid medium that does not require inclusion of fetal calf serum (FCS) for the successful cultivation of Leishmania promastigotes in vitro is described. The parasites were grown in com- mercially available medium 199 supplemented with 10% FCS and 2% mammalian urine and the growth was compared with the same medium without FCS. The growth of the parasites

  1. The impact of shifting cultivation on a rainforest landscape in West Kalimantan: spatial and temporal dynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deborah Lawrence; David R. Peart; Mark Leighton

    1998-01-01

    To assess the role of shifting cultivation in the loss of rainforests in Indonesia, we examined the spatial and temporal dynamics of traditional land-use north of Gunung Palung National Park in West Kalimantan. We analyzed the abundance, size, frequency, and stature (by tree size) of discrete management units (patches) as a function of land- use category and distance from the

  2. A Mode of Government-Enterprise-University-Institute-Employer Cooperation for Innovative Postgraduate Cultivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tu, Yaqing; Yang, Huiyue; Shu, Li; Tu, Wangshu; Chen, Baoxin

    2015-01-01

    Innovative talent training is an important task of postgraduate education. From the survey of innovative postgraduate training in China, we conclude that there is still much room for improvement in the innovative postgraduate cultivation. The survey shows that insufficient professional practice, simplex training mode and a mismatch between…

  3. Antioxidative properties and flavonoid composition of Chenopodium quinoa seeds cultivated in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuko Hirose; Tomoyuki Fujita; Toshiyuki Ishii; Naoya Ueno

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the nutritional advantages of quinoa seeds (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) cultivated in Japan, antioxidative properties and flavonoid composition were determined and compared to corresponding data for conventionally-used cereals and pseudo-cereals, including quinoa seeds from South America. The antioxidant activities of these grains against DPPH radicals were strongly associated with the total phenolic content of the tested samples. The crude

  4. Dissolved organic carbon, total carbon and nitrogen in pomegranate cultivation under drip irrigation systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the past six years, pomegranate (POM) cultivation has become a popular commercial crop in San Joaquin Valley, California. The rising demand for this permanent crop is primarily due to POM juice high nutritional and antioxidants properties. In addition, it has been found POM trees are drought tole...

  5. Cultivation of Scenedesmus dimorphus with domestic secondary effluent and energy evaluation for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Zhang, S S; Liu, H; Fan, J F; Yu, H

    2015-04-01

    Microalgae cultivation in wastewater has gained significant attention as a cost-saving means for algae-based biofuel production. To evaluate the performance of Scenedesmus dimorphus cultivated in a 100-L continuously operated photobioreactor using domestic secondary effluent (DSE), algal growth, nutrients removal and energy evaluation were conducted in four scenarios. Prior to the application of continuous cultivation, S. dimorphus was grown in a batch operated 1.5-L bubble column photobioreactor to test the growth feasibility and lipids accumulation of S. dimorphus in DSE. The highest biomass achieved in DSE was 244?mg L(-1)with lipid content at 26.06%. Simultaneously, 98.72% of total phosphorus (TP) and 98.04% of total nitrogen (TN) in DSE were removed. Then, S. dimorphus were inoculated in the 100-L continuously operated photobioreactor using BG11, unsterilized DSE, N, P-added DSE and UV-sterilized DSE as the medium, respectively. Results showed that the highest biomass gained were 567, 174, 276 and 198?mg L(-1), respectively. TP removal rates in four scenarios were all above 90%. With adjustment to DSE, the overall TN removal rates increased up to 80%. Finally, energy evaluation demonstrated that although the case of BG11 as the medium provided the most energy production, the case using DSE with N and P supplementation was of the highest net energy rate, suggesting that microalgae cultivation for biodiesel production by DSE is of obvious potential and advantage over the synthesis medium like BG11. PMID:25253291

  6. A Challenge to Education for Creativity Cultivation by Racing Solar Car Production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroyuki Ogura; Futoshi Yamada; Shouichi Suzuki; Yushi Nakamura; Kunikazu Kondo; Yasoshi Ito

    2006-01-01

    In the engineering education, it is very difficult that creativity is cultivated to the students. A mean for the creativity training seems to be that the students experience the engineering technology of various fields. We consider the creativity in the students is fostered from various experiences. We have regarded that production and the race entry of the racing solar car

  7. Cultivating "Una Persona Educada: A Sentipensante" (Sensing/Thinking) Vision of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rendon, Laura I.

    2011-01-01

    This essay focuses on the need to educate the new "persona educada", a dignified, honorable person with a good measure of social and personal responsibility who also possesses the habits of the mind and heart. To cultivate "una persona educada" requires a newly formed vision of education and pedagogy. Examples of three entrenched agreements that…

  8. La multiplication vgtative in vitro des vgtaux ligneux cultivs : cas des arbres fruitiers et discussion gnrale

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    in vitro, de les cultiver en verger, sur leurs propres racines et d'obtenir des ren- dements très des plantes cultivées (MOREL, 1963; MARTIN, 1977, 1980, 1981 ; CARRÉ et al., 1979), fille de la culture de méristè- mes (MOREL & MARTIN 1952, 1955 ; MARTINet al., 1967), a pris une extension

  9. Biomarker evidence for recent turf cultivation in Northeast Brazil (Lagoa do Boqueiro, RN)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Biomarker evidence for recent turf cultivation in Northeast Brazil (Lagoa do Boqueirão, RN or anthropogenic causes. Molecular biomarkers have revealed useful to track changes ecosystems (e.g. Fisher et al., 2003; Meyers, 2003; Jacob et al, 2008 a; b). Upon molecular biomarkers, pentacyclic triterpenes

  10. Closed and continuous algae cultivation system for food production and gas exchange in CELSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oguchi, Mitsuo; Otsubo, Koji; Nitta, Keiji; Shimada, Atsuhiro; Fujii, Shigeo; Koyano, Takashi; Miki, Keizaburo

    In CELSS (Controlled Ecological Life Support System), utilization of photosynthetic algae is an effective means for obtaining food and oxygen at the same time. We have chosen Spirulina, a blue-green alga, and have studied possibilities of algae utilization. We have developed an advanced algae cultivation system, which is able to produce algae continuously in a closed condition. Major features of the new system are as follows. o (1)In order to maintain homogeneous culture conditions, the cultivator was designed so as to cause a swirl on medium circulation. (2)Oxygen gas separation and carbon dioxide supply are conducted by a newly designed membrane module. (3)Algae mass and medium are separated by a specially designed harvester. (4)Cultivation conditions, such as pH, temperature, algae growth rate, light intensity and quanlity of generated oxygen gas are controlled by a computer system and the data are automatically recorded. This equipment is a primary model for ground experiments in order to obtain some design data for space use. A feasibility of algae cultivation in a closed condition is discussed on the basis of data obtained by use of this new system.

  11. Comparative Performance of Three Carrier Based Blue Green Algal Biofertilizers for Sustainable Rice Cultivation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dolly Wattal Dhar; Radha Prasanna; B. V. Singh

    2007-01-01

    Nitrogen fixing cyanobacteria or blue green algae are ecologically significant inputs in rice cultivation in the tropics. Field experiments were conducted to compare the efficiency of two newly developed carrier based blue green algal (BGA) biofertilizers (wheat straw and multani mitti), with the traditional soil based BGA biofertilizer, on the grain yield of rice for a period of three years.

  12. Genetic diversity of wild and cultivated grapevine accessions from southeast Turkey.

    PubMed

    Karata?, Dilek De?irmenci; Karata?, Hüseyin; Laucou, Valérie; Sarikami?, Gölge; Riahi, Leila; Bacilieri, Roberto; This, Patrice

    2014-10-01

    Wild grapevine genetic diversity in southeast Turkey has not been documented to date. In the present work, in order to clarify the relationships between wild and cultivated grape accessions from southeastern Turkey, 22 nuclear and three chloroplast microsatellite loci were used on 21 wild grapevine Vitis vinifera L. ssp. sylvestris (Gmelin) and 13 cultivated grapevine Vitis vinifera ssp. sativa accessions. The number of alleles per SSR locus ranged from 4 (VVIn16) to 20 (VVIv67) and the mean allele number per locus was 10.09. Expected locus heterozygosity ranged from 0.586 (locus VVIb01) to 0.898 (locus (VVIv67)). The three cpSSR molecular markers presented variation in size both in cultivars and in wild Turkish accessions. Two size variants were detected for cpSSR3 (106 and 107 bp) for cpSSR5 (104 and 105 bp), and for cpSSR10 (115 and 116 bp). The six alleles in wild grapevines fell into three haplotypes B, C and D. A genetic structure according to accessions taxonomic status (wild or cultivated) was revealed by UPGMA analysis. This highlighted a clear separation between domesticated and wild accessions in Turkish germplasm. The results pointed out the need to further collect and characterize this wild and cultivated grapevine germplasm. PMID:25363274

  13. An Occupation's Responsibility: The Role of Social Foundations in the Cultivation of Professionalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunzenhauser, Michael G.

    2013-01-01

    In this essay, the author argues that inquiry and engagement in the social foundations of education is fundamental to cultivating professionalism in education. As many commentators on the subject have noted, teaching does not meet many of the criteria of a profession derived from the sociological study of fields of work. As Joseph Newman observes,…

  14. [Growth of three-dimensional complexes of living cells in the process of rotational cultivation].

    PubMed

    Larina, O N; Sidorenko, L A; Sukhachev, V I; Manuilova, E S; Inozemtseva, L S; Grivennikov, I A

    2002-01-01

    Unlike the monolayer cultures, three-dimensional (multilayer) cultures of living cells make it possible to more closely imitate events occurring in native tissues. Rotating cultivators for three-dimensional cultures create analogous conditions of reduced gravity and, therefore, can be used in ground-based investigations of the biological effects of space flight. We have designed a disposable cultivation cell with diffused gas exchange and a device to rotate the cell at a controlled speed about the horizontal axis. Immortalized CH-fibroblasts were attached to a glass carrier pretreated with polylysine. Cultivation was performed for 2-3 days at 8 rot./min. A rapid growth of three-dimensional cell complexes was observed during the cultivation. The investigation demonstrated that multilayer cultures of immortalized CH-fibroblasts represent a convenient model for studies in cell biology and development of technologies of growing d-dimensional living cell complexes as a source of implants from autologic cells (including stem cells) thus resolving the problem of donator materials. PMID:12442593

  15. Diversity of Archaea in hypersaline environments characterized by molecular-phylogenetic and cultivation studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Torsten Ochsenreiter; Felicitas Pfeifer; Christa Schleper

    2002-01-01

    The diversity of Archaea from three different hypersaline environments was analyzed and compared by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based molecular phylogenetic techniques and cultivation approaches. The samples originated from a crystallization pond of a solar saltern in Spain (FC); an alkaline lake in Nevada, USA, (EMF); and a small pond from a slag heap of a potassium mine in Germany (DIE).

  16. Cacao domestication I: the origin of the cacao cultivated by the Mayas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J C Motamayor; A M Risterucci; P A Lopez; C F Ortiz; A Moreno; C Lanaud

    2002-01-01

    Criollo cacao (Theobroma cacao ssp. cacao) was cultivated by the Mayas over 1500 years ago. It has been suggested that Criollo cacao originated in Central America and that it evolved independently from the cacao populations in the Amazon basin. Cacao populations from the Amazon basin are included in the second morphogeographic group: Forastero, and assigned to T. cacao ssp. sphaerocarpum.

  17. Stable isotope models to predict geographic origin and cultivation conditions of marijuana

    E-print Network

    Ehleringer, Jim

    Stable isotope models to predict geographic origin and cultivation conditions of marijuana Janet M: Marijuana Geographic origin Drug trafficking Drug intelligence Stable isotopes Isotope ratio mass geographic region-of-origin and growth environment for marijuana, with the intent of applying these models

  18. Airborne observations of methane emissions from rice cultivation in the Sacramento Valley of California

    E-print Network

    Cohen, Ronald C.

    , Colorado, USA. 3 Earth System Research Laboratory, Global Monitoring Division, National Oceanic cultivation derived in this study. We attribute this difference to decreased burning of the residual rice crop in California are regulated under Assembly Bill 32, signed into law as the Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006

  19. Insecticide Concentrations in Ecosystem Components of an Intensively Cultivated Watershed in Mississippi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles M. Cooper

    1991-01-01

    Concentrations of three currently used insecticides (fenvalerate, permethrin, and methyl parathion) were documented in major watershed components of Moon Lake, Mississippi and its 166 km watershed over a three year period. Moon Lake (10.1 km), an oxbow of the Mississippi River, receives flow through a series of wetlands from a flatland watershed intensively cultivated in cotton, soybeans, and rice. None

  20. Transferring Sclerotinia Resistance Genes from Wild Helianthus Species into Cultivated Sunflower

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivated sunflower lacks a sufficient level of resistance to both Sclerotinia stalk and head rot, but abundant resistance in perennial Helianthus species has been confirmed. The objectives of this project were to transfer Sclerotinia head and stalk rot resistance from resistant wild perennial hexa...

  1. Chemical composition and biological activity of ripe pumpkin fruits (Cucurbita pepo L.) cultivated in Egyptian habitats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sherif E. A. Badr; Mohamed Shaaban; Yehya M. Elkholy; Maher H. Helal; Akila S. Hamza; Mohamed S. Masoud; Mounir M. El Safty

    2010-01-01

    The chemical composition and biological activity of three parts (rind, flesh and seeds) of pumpkin fruits (Cucurbita pepo L.) cultivated in Egypt were studied. Chemical analysis of fibre, protein, ?-carotene, carbohydrates, minerals and fatty acids present in the rind, flesh, seeds and defatted seeds meal was conducted. Chemical, GC-MS and biological assays of organic extracts of the main fruit parts,

  2. CHANGES IN FOREST BIOMASS, LITTER DYNAMICS AND SOILS FOLLOWING SHIFTING CULTIVATION IN SOUTHERN MEXICO: AN OVERVIEW

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DEBORAH LAWRENCE; DAVID FOSTER

    2002-01-01

    ver the past four de- cades the southern Yuca- tan peninsular region has undergone increasing amounts and inten- sity of land use change, ranging from se- lective logging to widespread shifting cultivation agriculture to land clearing for intensive agriculture and village establish- ment. These land uses alter the structure and function of forested lands and often generate new feedbacks in

  3. Tropical forests and shifting cultivation: secondary forest fallow dynamics among traditional farmers of the Peruvian Amazon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oliver T. Coomes; Franque Grimard; Graeme J. Burt

    2000-01-01

    Tropical secondary forests created by swidden-fallow agriculture cover extensive areas in the humid tropics and yield significant ecological and economic benefits, yet forest fallowing behaviour among swidden cultivators remains poorly understood. This paper reports on a study of forest fallow management among Amazonian peasant farmers in a traditional, riverside community near Iquitos, Peru. Data were gathered through in-depth household interviews

  4. In vitro azadirachtin production by hairy root cultivation of Azadirachta indica in nutrient mist bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Smita; Srivastava, A K

    2012-01-01

    Azadirachtin, a well-known biopesticide is a secondary metabolite conventionally extracted from the seeds of Azadirachta indica. The present study involved in vitro azadirachtin production by developing hairy roots of A. indica via Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation of A. indica explants. Liquid culture of hairy roots was established in shake flask to study the kinetics of growth and azadirachtin production. A biomass production of 13.3 g/L dry weight (specific growth rate of 0.7 day(-1)) was obtained after 25 days of cultivation period with an azadirachtin yield of 3.3 mg/g root biomass. To overcome the mass transfer limitation in conventionally used liquid-phase reactors, batch cultivation of hairy roots was carried out in gas-phase reactors (nutrient spray and nutrient mist bioreactor) to investigate the possible scale-up of A. indica hairy root culture. The nano-size nutrient mist particles generated from the nozzle of the nutrient mist bioreactor could penetrate till the inner core of the inoculated root matrix, facilitating uniform growth during high-density cultivation of hairy roots. A biomass production of 9.8 g/L dry weight with azadirachtin accumulation of 2.8 mg/g biomass (27.4 mg/L) could be achieved in 25 days of batch cultivation period, which was equivalent to a volumetric productivity of 1.09 mg/L per day of azadirachtin. PMID:22083394

  5. Ten Years of Scentless Chamomile: Prospects for the Biological Control of a Weed of Cultivated Land

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. L. HINZ

    In 1988, scentless chamomile (Matricaria perforata = Tripleurospermum perforatum) was proposed as a new target weed for biological control in Canada. Scentless chamomile is mainly a weed of cultivated land, where it reduces crop yield. But it also forms dense, semi-permanent stands in periodically disturbed sites, such as slough margins, field depressions or roadsides, from which seeds spread into adjacent

  6. Cultivating a Teacher Community of Practice for Sustainable Professional Development: Beyond Planned Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mak, Barley; Pun, Shuk-Han

    2015-01-01

    This ethnographic study-cum-action research documents the cultivation of a community of practice for sustainable professional development among a group of 18 teachers of English as second language in Hong Kong through a series of planned efforts over 10?months. By juxtaposing the theory-driven planned efforts and the spontaneous actions and…

  7. Growth, nitrogen fixation and relative efficiency of nitrogenase in Alnus incana grown in different cultivation systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anita Sellstedt; Kerstin Huss-Danell

    1984-01-01

    Three cultivation systems were compared. In one system the alders were grown hydroponically. In the two other systems the alders were planted in gravel and either given water and nutrients at intervals or the nutrient solution was continuously supplied. Alders continuously supplied with nutrients and water showed a significantly more rapid growth, higher biomass production and higher nitrogen content than

  8. Adsorption and Desorption of Atrazine, Desethylatrazine, Deisopropylatrazine, and Hydroxyatrazine in Vegetated Filter Strip and Cultivated Soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larry Jason Krutz; Scott Allen Senseman; Kevin Joseph McInnes; David Allen Zuberer; Dennis Patrick Tierney

    2003-01-01

    Adsorption and desorption of atrazine and its metabolites in vegetated filter strip soil (VFS) has not been evaluated, yet these data are needed to predict the transport of these compounds through the VFS. Adsorption and desorption parameters for atrazine, desethylatrazine (DEA), deisopropylatrazine (DIA), and hydroxyatrazine (HA) were compared between a cultivated Houston Black clay (CS) and an adjacent 12-year-old VFS

  9. How to Design and Present Texts to Cultivate Balanced Regional Images in Geography Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Dong-Min; Ryu, Jaemyong

    2013-01-01

    This article examines possibilities associated with the cultivation of balanced regional images via the use of simple methods. Two experiments based on the primacy effect and the painting picture rule, or visual depiction of regions, were conducted. The results show significant differences in the formation of regional images. More specifically,…

  10. An Integrated Linkage Map for Cultivated Peanut Derived from Two RILs Populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A comparable integrated map for cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) was constructed from the integration of two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations in which two runner type cultivars, one Spanish type cultivar and one breeding line derived from a cross of Virginia type and hirsuta type wer...

  11. Validation of a novel sequential cultivation method for the production of enzymatic cocktails from Trichoderma strains.

    PubMed

    Florencio, C; Cunha, F M; Badino, A C; Farinas, C S

    2015-02-01

    The development of new cost-effective bioprocesses for the production of cellulolytic enzymes is needed in order to ensure that the conversion of biomass becomes economically viable. The aim of this study was to determine whether a novel sequential solid-state and submerged fermentation method (SF) could be validated for different strains of the Trichoderma genus. Cultivation of the Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30 reference strain under SF using sugarcane bagasse as substrate was shown to be favorable for endoglucanase (EGase) production, resulting in up to 4.2-fold improvement compared with conventional submerged fermentation. Characterization of the enzymes in terms of the optimum pH and temperature for EGase activity and comparison of the hydrolysis profiles obtained using a synthetic substrate did not reveal any qualitative differences among the different cultivation conditions investigated. However, the thermostability of the EGase was influenced by the type of carbon source and cultivation system. All three strains of Trichoderma tested (T. reesei Rut-C30, Trichoderma harzianum, and Trichoderma sp INPA 666) achieved higher enzymatic productivity when cultivated under SF, hence validating the proposed SF method for use with different Trichoderma strains. The results suggest that this bioprocess configuration is a very promising development for the cellulosic biofuels industry. PMID:25399068

  12. Cultivating Student Skills in Self-Regulated Learning through Evaluation of Task Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belski, Regina; Belski, Iouri

    2014-01-01

    In order to self-regulate, students need to honestly reflect on their learning and to take appropriate corrective action. A simple procedure to cultivate student skills in self-regulated learning, known as the Task Evaluation and Reflection Instrument for Student Self-Assessment (TERISSA) is discussed in this paper. TERISSA guides students through…

  13. Presence of multiple viruses in non-diseased, cultivated shrimp at harvest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy W. Flegel; Linda Nielsen; Vitaya Thamavit; Suraphol Kongtim; Tirasak Pasharawipas

    2004-01-01

    Histological examinations were carried out with 400 cultivated black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) from 12 commercial rearing ponds from three different areas in Thailand over a period of 3 years. The shrimp were collected at or near harvest time as two arbitrary size groups of 10–20 each from each pond. Aside from size difference, they showed no gross signs of

  14. Factors affecting the occurrence and distribution of entomopathogenic fungi in natural and cultivated soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Enrique Quesada-Moraga; Juan A. Navas-Cortés; Elizabeth A. A. Maranhao; Almudena Ortiz-Urquiza; Cándido Santiago-Álvarez

    2007-01-01

    Factors affecting the occurrence and distribution of entomopathogenic fungi in 244 soil samples collected from natural and cultivated areas in Spain were studied using an integrated approach based on univariate and multivariate analyses. Entomopathogenic fungi were isolated from 175 of the 244 (71.7%) soil samples, with only two species found, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae. Of the 244 soil samples,

  15. Microbial toxicity and impacts on soil enzyme activities of pesticides used in potato cultivation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Maarit Niemi; Ilse Heiskanen; Jukka H. Ahtiainen; Anne Rahkonen; Keijo Mäntykoski; Leena Welling; Pirkko Laitinen; Pentti Ruuttunen

    2009-01-01

    In the conventional cultivation of potatoes, weed control and the control of potato late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans are carried out by the application of herbicides and fungicides. We investigated the impacts of the herbicides metribuzin and linuron and the fungicide fluazinam on soil microbiota in microcosms, in mesocosms and in the field. The toxicity of each pesticide in

  16. Robotic platform for parallelized cultivation and monitoring of microbial growth parameters in microwell plates.

    PubMed

    Knepper, Andreas; Heiser, Michael; Glauche, Florian; Neubauer, Peter

    2014-12-01

    The enormous variation possibilities of bioprocesses challenge process development to fix a commercial process with respect to costs and time. Although some cultivation systems and some devices for unit operations combine the latest technology on miniaturization, parallelization, and sensing, the degree of automation in upstream and downstream bioprocess development is still limited to single steps. We aim to face this challenge by an interdisciplinary approach to significantly shorten development times and costs. As a first step, we scaled down analytical assays to the microliter scale and created automated procedures for starting the cultivation and monitoring the optical density (OD), pH, concentrations of glucose and acetate in the culture medium, and product formation in fed-batch cultures in the 96-well format. Then, the separate measurements of pH, OD, and concentrations of acetate and glucose were combined to one method. This method enables automated process monitoring at dedicated intervals (e.g., also during the night). By this approach, we managed to increase the information content of cultivations in 96-microwell plates, thus turning them into a suitable tool for high-throughput bioprocess development. Here, we present the flowcharts as well as cultivation data of our automation approach. PMID:25208534

  17. Denitrification and N2O emission from forested and cultivated alluvial clay soil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ullah, S.; Breitenbeck, G.A.; Faulkner, S.P.

    2005-01-01

    Restored forested wetlands reduce N loads in surface discharge through plant uptake and denitrification. While removal of reactive N reduces impact on receiving waters, it is unclear whether enhanced denitrification also enhances emissions of the greenhouse gas N2O, thus compromising the water-quality benefits of restoration. This study compares denitrification rates and N2O:N2 emission ratios from Sharkey clay soil in a mature bottomland forest to those from an adjacent cultivated site in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley. Potential denitrification of forested soil was 2.4 times of cultivated soil. Using intact soil cores, denitrification rates of forested soil were 5.2, 6.6 and 2.0 times those of cultivated soil at 70, 85 and 100% water-filled pore space (WFPS), respectively. When NO3 was added, N2O emissions from forested soil were 2.2 times those of cultivated soil at 70% WFPS. At 85 and 100% WFPS, N2O emissions were not significantly different despite much greater denitrification rates in the forested soil because N2O:N2 emission ratios declined more rapidly in forested soil as WFPS increased. These findings suggest that restoration of forested wetlands to reduce NO3 in surface discharge will not contribute significantly to the atmospheric burden of N2O. ?? Springer 2005.

  18. Cultivating Teachers' Beliefs, Knowledge and Skills for Leading Change in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrington, Suzanne; Deppeler, Joanne; Moss, Julianne

    2010-01-01

    Australian policy initiatives and state curriculum reform efforts affirm a commitment to address student disengagement through the development of inclusive school environments, curriculum, and pedagogy. This paper, drawing on critical social theory, describes three Australian projects that support the cultivation of teachers' beliefs, knowledge…

  19. Semi-forest coffee cultivation and the conservation of Ethiopian Afromontane rainforest fragments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raf Aerts; Kitessa Hundera; Gezahegn Berecha; Pieter Gijbels; Marieke Baeten; Maarten Van Mechelen; Martin Hermy; Bart Muys; Olivier Honnay

    2011-01-01

    Coffea arabica shrubs are indigenous to the understorey of the moist evergreen montane rainforest of Ethiopia. Semi-forest coffee is harvested from semi-wild plants in forest fragments where farmers thin the upper canopy and annually slash the undergrowth. This traditional method of coffee cultivation is a driver for preservation of indigenous forest cover, differing from other forms of agriculture and land

  20. An experimental investigation of the multiphase flows in a photobioreactor for algae cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zifeng; Hu, Hui; Del Ninno, Matteo; Wen, Zhiyou

    2011-11-01

    Algal biomass is a promising feedstock for biofuels production, with photobioreactors being one of the major cultivation systems for algal cells. Light absorption, fluid dynamics, and algal metabolism are three key factors in determining the overall performance of a photobioreactor. The behavior of the multiphase flow (i.e., liquid phase - water, gas phase - CO2 and O2, and solid phase - algal cells) and turbulent mixing inside the reactor are the core connecting the three factors together. One of the major challenges in the optimal design of photobioreactors for algae cultivation is the lack of in-depth understanding of the characteristics of the multiphase flows and turbulent mixing. In this study, we present a comprehensive experimental study to investigate the effects of turbulent mixing in photobioreactors on the performance of a photobioreactor for algae cultivation. A high-resolution particle image velocity (PIV) system is used to achieve time-resolved, in-situ flow field measurements to quantify the turbulent mixing of the multiphase flows inside the bioreactor, while algal cultures are also grown in the same reactor with the same experimental settings. The mixing characteristics of the multiphase flow are correlated with the algal growth performance in the bioreactors to elucidate the underlying physics to explore/optimize design paradigms for the optimization of photobioreactor designs for algae cultivation.

  1. Variation in nuclear DNA content in Malus species and cultivated apples

    E-print Network

    Korban, Schuyler S.

    Variation in nuclear DNA content in Malus species and cultivated apples Tatiana C. Tatum, Svetlana sikkimensis to 2.57 pg / 3C for M. ioensis. Given the complexity of the apple genome and its suggested haploid nuclear DNA content with in- creased polyploidy. Key words: apple, DNA content, flow cytometry

  2. Post-cultivation Secondary Succession in a Venezuelan Lower Montane Rain Forest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard T. Howorth; Colin A. Pendry

    2006-01-01

    Since tropical rain forests are widely threatened by conversion to agriculture, even within protected areas, an understanding of recovery processes is important for restoration of forest ecosystems and thus conservation of their biodiversity. Secondary succession following land clearance and crop cultivation was studied in a lower montane rain forest in a protected area of the Venezuelan Cordillera de la Costa

  3. Hazelnut husk as a substrate for the cultivation of shiitake mushroom ( Lentinula edodes)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elif Özçelik; Aysun Pek?en

    2007-01-01

    The possibility of using hazelnut husk (HH) as a new basal ingredient for substrate preparation in Lentinula edodes cultivation was investigated. Some chemical properties of the substrates prepared by HH alone and its mixtures with wheat straw (WS), beech wood-chip (BWC) and wheat bran (WB) in different ratios were compared, and their effects on spawn run time, days to first

  4. Extracellular enzyme activities in six Lentinula edodes strains during cultivation in wheat straw

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Mata; J.-M. Savoie

    1998-01-01

    Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler is found in nature on dead broadleaf trees, but it is commercially produced on different substrates. The question of adaptation to different lignocellulosic substrates was addressed by measuring enzyme activities produced by six strains that were cultivated on wheat straw and that were able to produce sporophores. Despite quantitative variations, each strain of L. edodes had

  5. Preliminary evaluation of annually cultivated forage legumes for organic farming in Finland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Nykänen-Kurki; P. Leinonen; A. Nykänen

    In Finland, the most common legume in organic farming is Trifolium pratense, which cultivation needs to be broken regularly to maintain high productivity. Use of annuals also decreases peaks of field work and increases open field area for manure. In 1998-2001, 19 forage legume species (Lupinus albus, Lupinus angustifolius, Lupinus luteus, Medicago littoralis, Medicago scutellata, Melilotus albus, Melilotus officinalis, Pisum

  6. Cultivating New-type Farmers Based on the Theory of Human Resources Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Under the direction of theory of human resources development, this thesis analyzes the impact of rural human resources development on cultivating new-type farmers. Firstly, it increases the input of rural basic education; secondly, it reinforces the vocational education and technology training; thirdly, it promotes the rural medical and public health services; fourthly, it quickens the rural labor transfer. The status

  7. Long-term in vitro cultivation of Echinococcus multilocularis metacestodes under axenic conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Markus Spiliotis; Dennis Tappe; Lukas Sesterhenn; Klaus Brehm

    2004-01-01

    We report here on the development of an in vitro system for the long-term cultivation of Echinococcus multilocularis larvae under axenic conditions. In the absence of feeder cells from the host, long-term survival of the parasite depended strictly on low oxygen conditions and the presence of reducing agents in the medium. Host serum supported survival of the parasite but the

  8. Microbiota of radish plants, cultivated in closed and open ecological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirranen, L. S.

    It is common knowledge that microorganisms respond to environmental changes faster than other representatives of the living world. The major aim of this work was to examine and analyze the characteristics of the microbiota of radish culture, cultivated in the closed ecological system of human life-support Bios-3 and in an open system in different experiments. Microbial community of near-root, root zone and phyllosphere of radish were studied at the phases of seedlings, root formation, technical ripeness—by washing-off method—like microbiota of the substrate (expanded clay aggregate) and of the seeds of radish culture. Inoculation on appropriate media was made to count total quantity of anaerobic and aerobic bacteria, bacteria of coliform group, spore-forming, Proteus group, fluorescent, phytopathogenic bacteria, growing on Fermi medium, yeasts, microscopic fungi, Actinomyces. It was revealed that formation of the microbiota of radish plants depends on the age, plant cultivation technology and the specific conditions of the closed system. Composition of microbial conveyor-cultivated in phytotrons varied in quality and in quantity with plant growth phases—in the same manner as cultivation of even-aged soil and hydroponics monocultures which was determined by different qualitative and quantitative composition of root emissions in the course of plant vegetation. The higher plant component formed its own microbial complex different from that formed prior to closure. The microbial complex of vegetable polyculture is more diverse and stable than the monoculture of radish. We registered the changes in the species composition and microorganism quantity during plant cultivation in the closed system on a long-used solution. It was demonstrated that during the short-term (7 days) use of the nutrient solution in the experiments without system closing, the species composition of the microbiota of radish plants was more diverse in a multiple-aged vegetable polyculture (61 species of bacteria), than in an even-aged monoculture (32 species). Long-term use (120 days) of the solution for cultivation of multiple-aged vegetable polyculture from different radish parts in the experiment without system closing revealed 50 species, while in the experiment with the closed ecosystem only 39 species of bacteria were detected. It was found out that plant cultivation in a polyculture consisting of nine vegetable cultures is more preferable than in a monoculture, because the microbial complex is more stable, the functioning of elements is more accurate and the crop is higher.

  9. Effects of organic and conventional cultivation methods on composition of eggplant fruits.

    PubMed

    Raigón, María D; Rodríguez-Burruezo, Adrián; Prohens, Jaime

    2010-06-01

    Organic food is associated by the general public with improved nutritional properties, and this has led to increasing demand for organic vegetables. The effects of organic and conventional cultivation methods on dry matter, protein, minerals, and total phenolic content has been studied for two successive years in two landraces and one commercial hybrid of eggplant. In the first year, organically produced eggplants had higher mean contents (expressed on a fresh weight basis) of K (196 vs 171 mg 100 g(-1)), Ca (11.1 vs 8.7 mg 100 g(-1)), Mg (6.0 vs 4.6 mg 100 g(-1)), and total phenolics (49.8 vs 38.2 mg 100 g(-1)) than conventionally grown eggplants. In the second year, in which matched plots having a history of organic management were cultivated following organic or conventional fertilization practices, organically produced eggplants still had higher contents of K (272 vs 249 mg 100 g(-1)) and Mg (8.8 vs 7.6), as well as of Cu (0.079 vs 0.065 mg 100 g(-1)), than conventionally fertilized eggplants. Conventionally cultivated eggplants had a higher polyphenol oxidase activity than organically cultivated ones (3.19 vs 2.17 enzyme activity units), although no differences in browning were observed. Important differences in mineral concentrations between years were detected, which resulted in many correlations among mineral contents being significant. The first component of the principal component analysis separates the eggplants according to year, whereas the second component separates them according to the cultivation method (organic or conventional). Overall, the results show that organic management and fertilization have a positive effect on the accumulation of certain beneficial minerals and phenolic compounds in eggplant and that organically and conventionally produced eggplants might be distinguished according to their composition profiles. PMID:20443597

  10. Quantitative Analysis of Dynamic Change of Cultivated Land Pressure in Arid and Semi-arid Areas Based on Food Security - A Case of Jiuquan City, Gansu Province, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shibo Fu; Haihong Wang; Qiong Ma

    2009-01-01

    Taking the Jiuquan City, Guansu Provice, China as an example, according to the 1997-2007 Gansu Statistical Yearbook, Jiuquan Statistical Yearbook, the Second National Land Investigation in Jiuquan City and other relevant statistical data, models of minimum cultivated area per capita and pressure index of cultivated land are used based on food security. Cultivated land area, population, grain output, sowing area

  11. Using Thematic Mapper data for change detection and sustainable use of cultivated land: a case study in the Yellow River delta, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. X. Zhao; G. Lin; T. Warner

    2004-01-01

    Preservation of cultivated land is one of China's four basic strategic policies. Timely land use monitoring is a prerequisite of cultivated land management and sustainable utilization. Using digital satellite remote sensing techniques, the intention is to develop a workable procedure for cultivated land change detection in the Yellow River delta region. Four detection methods were assessed. The assessment, in general,

  12. THE CULTIVATION OF AMŒBÆ IN PURE CULTURE UPON AUTOLYZED TISSUES

    PubMed Central

    Couret, Maurice; Walker, James

    1913-01-01

    Since the purpose of this paper is to record the cultivation of amœbæ upon autolyzed tissue without bacterial association, the morphological characteristics, life cycle, means of differentiating species, and pathogenicity of the protozoa have been omitted. These subjects will be considered in later publications. The result of this study proves that some species of amœbæ from liver abscesses and the human intestine can be cultivated upon various autolyzed tissues of man and some of the lower animals without a symbiotic microorganism. Their cultivation from liver abscesses upon such bacteria-free autolyzed tissue indicates that their multiplication in these lesions depends upon some product or products in the process of dissociation of the liver cells. That such a process exists in amœbic liver abscesses cannot be questioned when histological and biochemical studies are made of such lesions, and this explains not only why the multiplication of the parasites in the organ occurs, but suggests the probable origin of the lesion. It has long been known that tissue kept for several days in a perfectly aseptic condition and at body heat, or preferably at slightly higher temperature undergoes softening and final disintegration of its cells. Wells and others who have made a thorough study of this phenomenon find that different enzymic actions take place in this process: thus in the liver they find that soluble nitrogen compounds are greatly increased, the nucleoproteids are altered by nuclease, the purin bases are freed and in their turn acted upon by the guanase and adenase, the fats are split and fatty acids set free, the glycogen gives rise to glucose and undergoes further splitting. lecithin is cleaved, and allied bodies appear, and there is a marked appearance of cholin and cholesterin. Similar changes varying only in degree occur in the process of autolysis of other tissues. Furthermore, Duval in his experiments upon the cultivation of Bacillus lepræ found that the initial multiplication was accomplished when the specific organism was in symbiosis with an associated bacterium capable of hydrolyzing the leprous tissue. In later experiments he noted that the products of split proteins supply what is actually required for the growth of this particular obligate cell parasite, and that while this end is reached with bacteria through their proteolytic action equally good results can be obtained with tissue free from contaminating microörganisms provided that it is allowed to autolyze. The separation of amœbæ cultivated from the human intestine from their bacterial symbiont, and their development upon various autolyzed tissues indicate that it is not the bacterium that is essential for the life of these protozoa, but the action of the living bacteria upon the protein contained in the media. This would explain the failure of many investigators to cultivate amœbæ with dead bacteria or bacterial filtrates. Mention has been made that the autolyzed tissue used in the cultivation experiments gave a distinct acid reaction. The multiplication of amœbæ upon a medium with such a reaction appears contradictory to the findings of Musgrave and Clegg, Walker, and others, who have emphasized the necessity of an alkaline medium for the successful cultivation of amœbæ with a bacterial symbiont, though in accord with what is known to be the reaction of the contents from amœbic liver abscesses and of the bloody stools in intestinal amœbiosis. The fact should not be lost sight of that, in the cultivation of amœbæ, these authors lay stress upon the selectiveness of amœbæ for a special microörganism. A comparison of their work with our own results indicates that bacteria known to possess strong hydrolyzing properties, e. g., Vibrio choleræ, Bacillus coli, Bacillus subtilis, Vibrio proteus (Finkler-Prior), etc., furnish the best symbionts to the amœbæ. It is well known that these bacteria growing upon gelatin or blood se

  13. Soil air carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide concentrations in profiles under tallgrass prairie and cultivation

    SciTech Connect

    Sotomayor, D. [Univ. of Puerto Rico, Mayagueez (Puerto Rico). Agronomy and Soils Dept.; Rice, C.W. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States). Dept. of Agronomy

    1999-05-01

    Assessing the dynamics of gaseous production in soils is of interest because they are important sources and sinks of greenhouse gases. Changes in soil air carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) concentrations were studied in a Reading silt loam under prairie and cultivation. Concentrations were measured in situ over a 17-mo period to a depth of 3 m. Multilevel samples permitted collection of gases with subsequent measurement by gas chromatography in the laboratory. Soil air N{sub 2}O concentrations were near atmospheric levels for a majority of the study period in the prairie site but were significantly higher in the cultivated site. Annual mean N{sub 2}O concentrations were 0.403 and 1.09 {micro}L L{sup {minus}1} in the prairie and cultivated sites, respectively. Soil air CO{sub 2} annual mean concentrations were 1.56 {times} 10{sup 4} and 1.10 {times} 10{sup 4} {micro}L L{sup {minus}1} and ranged from 0.096 {times} 10{sup 4} to 6.45 {times} 10{sup 4} {micro}L L{sup {minus}1} and 0.087 {times} 10{sup 4} to 3.59 {times} 10{sup 4} {micro}L L{sup {minus}1} in the prairie and cultivated sites, respectively. Concentrations generally increased with depth, with maximum soil air N{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} concentrations at 1.0 m in the prairie site and 0.5 m in the cultivated site. Nitrous oxide in the cultivated site and CO{sub 2} at both sites did not change markedly over winter months, but CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O concentrations reached maximums during the summer months and decreased as the year progressed. Although soil air concentrations peaked and decreased faster at shallower depths, deeper depths exhibited relative maximum concentrations for longer time periods.

  14. Phytochemical evaluation of the wild and cultivated varieties of Eranda Mula (Roots of Ricinus communis Linn.)

    PubMed Central

    Doshi, Krunal A.; Acharya, Rabinarayan; Shukla, V. J.; Kalyani, Renuka; Khanpara, Komal

    2013-01-01

    In Ayurveda, the roots of Eranda (Ricinus communis Linn.) are used in the treatment Amavata (rheumatism), Sotha (inflammation), Katisula (backache), Udararoga (disease of abdomen), Jwara (fever), etc, Due to high demand, root of the cultivated variety is mainly used in place of wild. But, a comparative phytochemical profile of both varieties is not available till date. Considering this, a preliminary study has been done to ensure basic phytochemical profile of both the varieties. Preliminary physicochemical parameters, phytochemical screening, quantitative estimation of alkaloid, high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), and heavy metal analysis were carried-out in the study. Analysis of physicochemical data reveals no significant difference in between both varieties of roots, while alkaloid was found to be more in cultivated variety (0.34%) than wild one (0.15%). Though, the analytical profiles are almost identical, except the quantity of alkaloid; inferences should be made through well designed pharmacological and clinical studies. PMID:24250131

  15. Comparative study on Allium schoenoprasum cultivated plant and Allium schoenoprasum tissue culture organs antioxidant status.

    PubMed

    Stajner, D; Popovi?, B M; Cali?-Dragosavac, D; Malen?i?, D; Zdravkovi?-Kora?, S

    2011-11-01

    This study was designed to examine Allium schoenoprasum tissue culture organs antioxidant and scavenging activity and to make a comparison between Allium schoenoprasum cultivated plant and Allium schoenoprasum tissue culture organs antioxidant activity. This study reports the results on the root, stalk and leaf antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, guaiacol peroxidase and glutathione peroxidase), reduced glutathione quantity, flavonoids and soluble protein contents and quantities of malonyldialdehyde and ·OH radical. In Allium schoenoprasum tissue culture organs the total antioxidant capacity was determined by the FRAP method and scavenger activity by the DPPH method. The present results indicated that the crude extract of Allium schoenoprasum tissue culture exhibited antioxidant and scavenging abilities in all investigated plant parts, especially in the roots. According to our results, the tissue culture plants exhibited the highest activities in the roots in contrast to the cultivated plants where highest activities were observed in the leaves. PMID:21438046

  16. Nonpolar lipid composition of Chenopodium album grown in continuously cultivated and nondisturbed soils.

    PubMed

    Leicach, S R; Yaber Grass, M A; Corbino, G B; Pomilio, A B; Vitale, A A

    2003-05-01

    Chenopodium album L. plants grown in continuously cultivated and in nondisturbed soils were compared in terms of the compositions of nonpolar extracts of the corresponding aerial parts. Both light petroleum ether extracts of C. album L. were analyzed by high-performance thin-layer LC, capillary GC, and capillary GC-EI-MS. Further percolation and medium-pressure LC, along with EI-MS analysis, permitted the separation and identification of the chemical constituents. Differences were observed between mean contents of the chemical constituents of C. album L., with respect to nonpolar extracts, obtained from continuously cultivated and from nondisturbed soils, in particular in linear and branched long-chain hydrocarbons, FA and their esters, and long-chain linear alcohols and aldehydes. The most remarkable features of the disturbed soils were a pronounced increase in the amounts of linear hydrocarbons and a decrease in the relative proportions of FA. PMID:12880114

  17. Detection of airborne bacteria in a German turkey house by cultivation-based and molecular methods.

    PubMed

    Fallschissel, Kerstin; Klug, Kerstin; Kämpfer, Peter; Jäckel, Udo

    2010-11-01

    Today's large-scale poultry production with densely stocked and enclosed production buildings is often accompanied by very high concentrations of airborne microorganisms leading to a clear health hazard for employees working in such environments. Depending on the expected exposure to microorganisms, work has to be performed under occupational safety conditions. In this study, turkey houses bioaerosols were investigated by cultivation-based and molecular methods in parallel to determine the concentrations and the composition of bacterial community. Results obtained with the molecular approach showed clearly its applicability for qualitative exposure measurements. With both, cultivation-based and molecular methods species of microorganism with a potential health risk for employees (Acinetobacter johnsonii, Aerococcus viridans, Pantoea agglomerans, and Shigella flexneri) were identified. These results underline the necessity of adequate protection measures, including the recommendation to wear breathing masks during work in poultry houses. PMID:20720091

  18. Utilization of carbon dioxide in industrial flue gases for the cultivation of microalga Chlorella sp.

    PubMed

    Kao, Chien-Ya; Chen, Tsai-Yu; Chang, Yu-Bin; Chiu, Tzai-Wen; Lin, Hsiun-Yu; Chen, Chun-Da; Chang, Jo-Shu; Lin, Chih-Sheng

    2014-08-01

    The biomass and lipid productivity of Chlorella sp. MTF-15 cultivated using aeration with flue gases from a coke oven, hot stove or power plant in a steel plant of the China Steel Corporation in Taiwan were investigated. Using the flue gas from the coke oven, hot stove or power plant for cultivation, the microalgal strain obtained a maximum specific growth rate and lipid production of (0.827 d(-1), 0.688 g L(-1)), (0.762 d(-1), 0.961 g L(-1)), and (0.728 d(-1), 0.792 g L(-1)), respectively. This study demonstrated that Chlorella sp. MTF-15 could efficiently utilize the CO?, NOX and SO? present in the different flue gases. The results also showed that the growth potential, lipid production and fatty acid composition of the microalgal strain were dependent on the composition of the flue gas and on the operating strategy deployed. PMID:24950094

  19. Chemical and ultrastructural studies of lignocellulose biodegradation during Agaricus bisporus cultivation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Wang, Hexiang; Liu, Qinghong; Ng, TziBun

    2014-01-01

    During Agaricus bisporus cultivation, lignocellulose degradation is the result of the activity of both the mushroom and microbial communities developed during the composting. To investigate the lignocellulose degradation in detail from the beginning to the end of the process, the functional groups of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin have been studied with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and the morphological changes of lignocelluloses were elucidated with scanning electron microscopy. The aperture of lignin and cellulose increased to enable the mycelia of A. bisporus to penetrate into the medium and to degrade lignocelluloses in a more direct way. The chemical structure changes implied a preferential use of lignin that could make for better use of cellulose to boost growth of A. bisporus. Changes in chemical structure together with ultrastructural changes induced by the microbial flora during cultivation substrate production by the composting substrate are important in promoting the utilization of lignocelluloses by A. bisporus. PMID:24033911

  20. Cultivation of oleaginous yeast using aqueous fractions derived from hydrothermal pretreatments of biomass.

    PubMed

    Espinosa-Gonzalez, Isabel; Parashar, Archana; Chae, Michael; Bressler, David C

    2014-10-01

    This study addresses some of the current challenges in producing biofuels from yeast oils. Specifically, it valorizes byproduct waste streams of biomass processing technologies by integrating them as alternative carbon or nutrient sources in oleaginous yeast cultivation. Crude glycerol recovered from the thermal hydrolysis of various fats and oils was successfully used in culturing of the oleaginous yeast Cryptococcus curvatus, with growth and lipid accumulation occurring at levels identical to those achieved when commercially purchased glycerol was used. The aqueous byproduct stream from the hydrothermal processing of C. curvatus can also be recycled as a growth substrate for subsequent C. curvatus cultures. The addition of this stream promoted higher biomass production without affecting lipid accumulation and only moderately changing the fatty acid profile. Use of these recycling strategies reduces costs and environmental impact of current microbial biofuels production by providing accessible, non-expensive carbon sources and nutrients for oleaginous yeast cultivation. PMID:25156878