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White tail disease (WTD) is a serious problem in Macrobrachiumrosenbergii hatcheries and nursery ponds in Asia. The causative agents have been identified as M. rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and its associated extra small virus. This is the first re- port demonstrating MrNV virus in M. rosenbergii displaying WTD signs in Taiwan by reverse tran- scriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Amplified fragments
The freshwater prawn, Macrobrachiumrosenbergii, is being increasingly cultured in tropical regions and has aquacultural potential in temperate zones. In this study, frozen glazed prawns were stored whole (both raw and precooked) and deheaded (raw) for 9 ...
The value of algal supplements in rearing Macrobrachiumrosenbergii larvae in static water systems was investigated. Larvae were reared in 60 liter fiberglass rounded bottom tanks at concentrations ranging from 50 to 67 larvae/liter. Standard culture meth...
The feasibility was tested of direct utilization of geothermal water for the aquaculture of Malaysian freshwater prawns (Macrobrachiumrosenbergii). A problem with using geothermal water for aquaculture is the chemical composition of the water with high f...
Under certain predictable conditions Macrobrachiumrosenbergii kill one another. Under other 'field' conditions these prawns appear to segregate by molt state into different microhabitats. Experiments were conducted to determine if this segregation was th...
The feasibility was tested of direct utilization of geothermal water for the aquaculture of Malaysian freshwater prawns (Macrobrachiumrosenbergii). A problem with using geothermal water for aquaculture is the chemical composition of the water with high flouride levels being a particular problem. Results show that (1) some geothermal water in Idaho can be used directly for the aquaculture of Macrobrachium
Macrobrachiumrosenbergii is the most important cultured freshwater prawn in the world and it is now farmed on a large scale in many countries. Generally, freshwater prawn is considered to be tolerant to diseases but a disease of viral origin is responsible for severe mortalities in larval, post-larval and juvenile stages of prawn. This viral infection namely white tail disease (WTD) was reported in the island of Guadeloupe in 1995 and later in Martinique (FrenchWest Indies) in Taiwan, the People's Republic of China, India, Thailand, Australia and Malaysia. Two viruses, Macrobrachiumrosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus-like particle (XSV) have been identified as causative agents of WTD. MrNV is a small icosahedral non-enveloped particle, 26-27 nm in diameter, identified in the cytoplasm of connective cells. XSV is also an icosahedral virus and 15 nm in diameter. Clinical signs observed in the infected animals include lethargy, opaqueness of the abdominal muscle, degeneration of the telson and uropods, and up to 100 % within 4 days. The available diagnostic methods to detect WTD include RT-PCR, dot-blot hybridization, in situ hybridization and ELISA. In experimental infection, these viruses caused 100 % mortality in post-larvae but failed to cause mortality in adult prawns. The reported hosts for these viruses include marine shrimp, Artemia and aquatic insects. Experiments were carried out to determine the possibility of vertical transmission of MrNV and XSV in M. rosenbergii. The results indicate that WTD may be transferred from infected brooders to their offspring during spawning. Replication of MrNV and XSV was investigated in apparently healthy C6/36 Aedes albopictus and SSN-1 cell lines. The results revealed that C6/36 and SSN-1cells were susceptible to these viruses. No work has been carried out on control and prevention of WTD and dsRNA against protein B2 produced RNAi that was able to functionally prevent and reduce mortality in WTD-infected redclaw crayfish. PMID:23997437
The feasibility was tested of direct utilization of geothermal water for the aquaculture of Malaysian freshwater prawns (Macrobrachiumrosenbergii). A problem with using geothermal water for aquaculture is the chemical composition of the water with high flouride levels being a particular problem. Results show that (1) some geothermal water in Idaho can be used directly for the aquaculture of Macrobrachiumrosenbergii, (2) high flouride levels cannot be directly correlated with high mortality rates and (3) low flouride levels do not correlate with high growth rates.
The objective of this study was to review the state of grow-out production for giant river prawns (Macrobrachiumrosenbergii) in Thailand, assess the perceived ecological impacts of the industry, and suggest avenues by which farmers might adopt more environmentally sound culture systems. A socioeconomic and technical survey of 100 prawn farmers was conducted during 1 May to 31 July 2005
The microbiological changes in farm reared freshwater prawn (Macrobrachiumrosenbergii de Man) during ice storage were studied. A total of 156 bacterial cultures from fresh and ice-stored farmed freshwater prawn were isolated and characterized. Total aerobic, mesophilic and psychrotrophic counts and hydrogen sulphide producing bacterial counts were determined. The total aerobic counts at 20 and 37°C on fresh prawn was
Malaysian prawns, Macrobrachiumrosenbergii, are hatched and raised indoors in small tanks. Prawns may be raised and shipped at high densities which could result in low dissolved oxygen (DO) conditions. Because DO may play an important role in prawn development and survival, we measured routine me...
Postlarval and juvenile Macrobrachiumrosenbergii were stocked in twelve 0.025 ha earthen ponds to study the effects of stocking size and density on growth and survival. The experiment was comprised of four treatments, three replicates each. One treatment...
Disease epizootics in freshwater cultured crustaceans, including freshwater prawns (Macrobrachiumrosenbergii), gained high attention recently in Jiangsu, China due to intensive development of freshwater aquaculture and their susceptibility to massive mortalities. Morphological observation indicated that the pathogen in diseased M. rosenbergii had a helical morphology and lacked a cell wall. The agent could infect hemocytes and all the connective tissues
Tingming Liang; Xinlun Li; Jie Du; Wei Yao; Guiyao Sun; Xuehong Dong; Zhiguo Liu; Jiangtao Ou; Qingguo Meng; Wei Gu; Wen Wang
White tail disease (WTD) is a serious problem in hatcheries and nursery ponds of Macrobrachiumrosenbergii in India. Experiments were carried out to determine the possibility of vertical transmission of M. rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV) in M. rosenbergii and Artemia. Prawn broodstock inoculated with MrNV and XSV by oral or immersion challenge survived without any clinical signs of WTD. The brooders spawned 5-7 days after inoculation and the eggs hatched. The survival rate of larvae gradually decreased, and 100% mortality was observed at the post-larvae (PL) stage. Whitish muscle, the typical sign of WTD, was seen in advanced larval developmental stages. The ovarian tissue and fertilized eggs were found to be positive for MrNV/XSV by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) whereas the larval stages showed positive by RT nested PCR (nRT-PCR). In Artemia, reproductive cysts and nauplii derived from challenged brooders were normal and survival rates were within the expected range for normal rearing conditions. The reproductive cysts were found to be positive for MrNV/XSV by RT-PCR whereas the nauplii showed MrNV/XSV-positive by nRT-PCR. The PL of M. rosenbergii fed nauplii derived from challenged Artemia brooders died at 9 days post-inoculum with clinical signs of WTD. PMID:17241402
Sudhakaran, R; Ishaq Ahmed, V P; Haribabu, P; Mukherjee, S C; Sri Widada, J; Bonami, J R; Sahul Hameed, A S
Five developmental stages of Artemia were exposed to Macrobrachiumrosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV) by immersion and oral routes in order to investigate the possibility of Artemia acting as a reservoir or carrier of these viruses. The second objective was to determine if virus-exposed Artemia were capable of transmitting the disease to post-larvae (PL) of M. rosenbergii. There was no significant difference in percent mortality between Artemia control groups and groups challenged with these viruses. On the other hand, all the developmental stages of Artemia were positive for both viruses by nested RT-PCR, regardless of the challenge route. In horizontal transmission experiments, 100% mortality was observed in M. rosenbergii PL fed with Artemia nauplii exposed to MrNV and XSV by either challenge route. However, no mortality was observed in PL fed with virus-free Artemia. RT-PCR analysis of the M. rosenbergii PL confirmed the presence of MrNV and XSV in the challenge group and absence in the control group. PMID:16875403
Sudhakaran, R; Yoganandhan, K; Ahmed, V P Ishaq; Hameed, A S Sahul
In this investigation, effect of cadmium chloride (25?g\\/l) on oogenesis of freshwater prawn, Macrobrachiumrosenbergii was studied. In vivo experiments were performed with both intact and eyestalk ablated prawns. The intact, cadmium-exposed prawns exhibited decrease in Gonado Somatic Index (GSI) and ovarian development compared to controls. Whereas, ablated treated ovary showed reduction of yolk material and oocyte membrane thickness at
Water quality effects of high densities of silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, and water hyacinths Eichhornia crassipes in semi-intensive pond culture of prawns Macrobrachiumrosenbergii were examined. Additional effects of isonitrogenous additions (8 kg N?hectare?week) of dried chicken manure and chicken broiler feed were evaluated. Excretion, grazing, and sediment resuspension by the carps stimulated phytoplankton productivity and
Barry A. Costa-Pierce; Spencer R. Malecha; Edward A. Laws
A comparative studies regarding prevalence of microbial flora in the muscle of locally available tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) and giant water prawn (Macrobrachiumrosenbergii) have been analyzed in terms of aerobic plate count (APC), enterobacteriaceae and Salmonella-Shigella (SS) counts. The total counts ranged from 2.04x10 to 4.5x10 CFU\\/ml for shrimp and 1.08x10 to 1.2x10 CFU\\/ml for prawn. The total coliforms
The objectives of the present study were to determine the effect of supplementary vitamin-E (200, 400 and 600 mg\\/kg feed) on lipid peroxidation (LPX) and antioxidant defence system in gills and hepatopancreas of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachiumrosenbergii. Results indicated that vitamin-E inhibited LPX in the hepatopancreas in a comparatively lower dose than gills. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was decreased
Jagneshwar Dandapat; Gagan B. N. Chainy; K. Janardhana Rao
Experiment on rearing of giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachiumrosenbergii, with and without aeration were conducted in 1 rai earthen ponds at Kanchanadit Suratthani Thailand during July to December 2002. The paddle wheel aerator was used in the aeration treatment. Giant freshwater prawn, an initial size of 1.38 + 0.20 cm in length and 0.023 + 0.007 g in weight, were
In this study, we investigated the effect of poly ?-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) on the culture performance of larvae of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachiumrosenbergii and on the bacterial levels inside the larval gut. Instar II Artemia nauplii were cultured with or without PHB (5gl?1) and\\/or a lipid emulsion rich in highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) for 24h. The effect of
Dinh The Nhan; Mathieu Wille; Peter De Schryver; Tom Defoirdt; Peter Bossier; Patrick Sorgeloos
Five different species of aquatic insects were collected from nursery ponds containing the freshwater prawn Macrobrachiumrosenbergii infected with Macrobrachiumrosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV). The insects were screened as potential natural carriers of MrNV and XSV. RT-PCR (reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction) analysis gave positive results for MrNV and XSV in Belostoma sp., Aesohna sp., Cybister sp. and Notonecta sp., and negative results for Nepa sp. An Aedes albopictus mosquito cell line (C6/36) was used for infectivity assays, with viral inoculum prepared from the aquatic insects, since C6/36 cells have recently been shown to be susceptible to infection with MrNV and XSV. The C6/36 cells were harvested 4 d post-challenge for examination by electron microscopy. This revealed aggregation of viral particles throughout the cytoplasm for cells challenged with inocula from all the insect species except Nepa sp. Our results indicate that several aquatic insect species may present a risk for MrNV and XSV transmission to M. rosenbergii. PMID:18500030
Sudhakaran, R; Haribabu, P; Kumar, S Rajesh; Sarathi, M; Ahmed, V P Ishaq; Babu, V Sarath; Venkatesan, C; Hameedl, A S Sahul
Quantitative and qualitative analyses of bacterial flora associated with larval rearing of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachiumrosenbergii, along with important water quality parameters, were carried out over a larval cycle. Total viable counts (TVC) varied between 1.1±0.6×104 and 9.8±1.5×106 colony forming units (cfu) ml?1 in water, 2.4±0.4×105 and 8.6±1.6×106 cfu g?1 in eggs and 2.5±1.4×104 and 1.6±1.0×108 cfu g?1
P. V. Phatarpekar; V. D. Kenkre; R. A. Sreepada; U. M. Desai; C. T. Achuthankutty
Macrobrachiumrosenbergii (31.1 ± 1.9 g) were maintained individually in freshwater with pH levels of 4.15, 5.55, 7.10, 8.61 and 10.15 for 7 days, and then nitrogenous excretions from each animal for one day were measured. Ammonia-N excretion (?g g?1 h?1) and total nitrogen excretion (?g g?1 h?1) decreased with increased pH level, whereas urea-N excretion (?g g?1 h?1), nitrite-N
Chaperonin (MrChap) was identified from a constructed transcriptome dataset of freshwater prawn Macrobrachiumrosenbergii. The MrChap peptide contains a long chaperone super family domain between 11 and 525. Three chaperone tailless complex polypeptide (TCP-1) signatures are present in the MrChap peptide sequence at 36-48, 57-73 and 85-93. The gene expressions of MrChap in both healthy M. rosenbergii and those infected with infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) were examined using qRT-PCR. To understand its biological activity, the recombinant MrChap gene was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The results of ATPase assay showed that the recombinant MrChap protein exhibited apparent ATPase activity. Chaperone activity assay showed that the recombinant MrChap protein is an active chaperone. These results suggest that MrChap is potentially involved in the immune responses against viral infection in M. rosenbergii. These findings indicate that the recombinant MrChap protein may be used in immunotherapeutic approaches. PMID:22903032
The 24-, 48-, 72- and 96-h LC50s (median lethal concentrations) of pH on Macrobrachiumrosenbergii juveniles (0.13±0.01 g) were 4.00, 4.05, 4.07 and 4.08, respectively. Survival rates of M. rosenbergii juveniles (2.65±0.06 g) following 56 days exposure to pH 8.2, 7.4, 6.8, 6.2 and 5.6 were 100%, 88.9%, 94.4%, 94.4% and 94.4%, respectively. After 42 days of exposure, the body
In this investigation, effect of cadmium chloride (25 ?g/l) on oogenesis of freshwater prawn, Macrobrachiumrosenbergii was studied. In vivo experiments were performed with both intact and eyestalk ablated prawns. The intact, cadmium-exposed prawns exhibited decrease in Gonado Somatic Index (GSI) and ovarian development compared to controls. Whereas, ablated treated ovary showed reduction of yolk material and oocyte membrane thickness at the end of 15 days exposure. Interestingly, the control prawn showed normal cellular architecture of gills, hepatopancreas and ovary with mature oocytes. But, the gills of treated prawns showed lamellar hypertrophy, cuticular dystrophy and irregular arrangement of epithelial cells. Hepatopancreas showed reduction in both tubular diameter and basement membrane thickness. Conspicuously, ovary showed hypertrophied primary oocytes with more vacuoles in intact-treated group. Cadmium had increased gonad inhibiting hormone (GIH) secretion and decreased gonad stimulating hormone (GSH) release as evident with the retardation of gonadal maturation in the intact prawns. PMID:21296420
Literature on the toxicities of phenol on aquatic organisms is very limited. USEPA reported that the acute and chronic toxicities of phenol to freshwater aquatic life occur at concentrations as low as 10.2 mg/L and 2.56 mg/L, respectively. While for the saltwater aquatic life the acute toxicity occurs at concentrations as low as 5.8 mg/L. No data are available for the chronic toxicity of phenol to saltwater aquatic life. Sublethal concentrations of phenol have significant effects on the physiological and histological processes of the aquatic organisms: such as gill necrosis; destruction of erythrocyte cells; inhibition of sexual activities; suppression on growth and reduction of resistance to diseases. Macrobrachiumrosenbergii(de Man) is the sole freshwater prawn cultured in Malaysia. Occasionally, the hatcheries are unable to produce the post-larvae because of undefined pollutants present in the water supplies. It has been observed that the use of cracked fiberglass tanks for larvae rearing is correlated with high mortality. This high mortality is probably due to the toxicity of the phenolic compounds which are leached out from the fiber glass tank into the water. This study was undertaken to evaluate the toxicity of phenol on eggs, larvae and post-larvae of M. rosenbergii and to set the water quality criteria of phenol for the said species. 16 refs., 3 tabs.
Immunohistochemistry was used to identify the distribution of both APGWamide-like and RFamide-like peptides in the central\\u000a nervous system (CNS) and ovary of the mature female giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachiumrosenbergii. APGWamide-like immunoreactivity (ALP-ir) was found only within the sinus gland (SG) of the eyestalk, in small- and medium-sized\\u000a neurons of cluster 4, as well as their varicosed axons. RFamide-like immunoreactivity
The toxicity of trichlorfon was determined in Macrobrachiumrosenbergii and the 24-, 48-, 72-, and 96-h LC50 values were 0.7739, 0.3513, 0.2697, and 0.2555 mg l?1, respectively. Prawns were exposed for 24 h to 0, 0.2, and 0.4 mg l?1 trichlorfon. Then, certain biochemical and physiological parameters, including acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, glucose, lactate, and glycogen contents, and the hemolymph osmolality,
The prophenoloxidase activating system is an important innate immune response against microbial infections in invertebrates.\\u000a The major enzyme, phenoloxidase, is synthesized as an inactive precursor and its activation to an active enzyme is mediated\\u000a by a cascade of clip domain serine proteinases. In this study, a cDNA encoding a prophenoloxidase activating enzyme-III from\\u000a the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachiumrosenbergii, designated
Cathepsin L (MrCathL) was identified from a constructed cDNA library of freshwater prawn Macrobrachiumrosenbergii. MrCathL full-length cDNA is 1161 base pairs (bp) with an ORF of 1026bp which encodes a polypeptide of 342 amino acid (aa) long. The eukaryotic cysteine proteases, histidine and asparagine active site residues were identified in the aa sequence of MrCathL at 143-154, 286-296 and 304-323, respectively. The pair wise clustalW analysis of MrCathL showed the highest similarity (97%) with the homologous cathepsin L from Macrobrachium nipponense and the lowest similarity (70%) from human. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two distinct clusters of the invertebrates and vertebrates cathepsin L in the phylogenetic tree. MrCathL and cathepsin L from M. nipponense were clustered together, formed a sister group to cathepsin L of Penaeus monodon, and finally clustered to Lepeophtheirus salmonis. High level of (P<0.05) MrCathL gene expression was noticed in haemocyte and lowest in eyestalk. Furthermore, the MrCathL gene expression in M. rosenbergii was up-regulated in haemocyte by virus [M. rosenbergii nodovirus (MrNV) and white spot syndrome baculovirus (WSBV)] and bacteria (Vibrio harveyi and Aeromonas hydrophila). The recombinant MrCathL exhibited a wide range of activity in various pH between 3 and 10 and highest at pH 7.5. Cysteine proteinase (stefin A, stefin B and antipain) showed significant influence (100%) on recombinant MrCathL enzyme activity. The relative activity and residual activity of recombinant MrCathL against various metal ions or salts and detergent tested at different concentrations. These results indicated that the metal ions, salts and detergent had an influence on the proteinase activity of recombinant MrCathL. Conclusively, the results of this study imply that MrCathL has high pH stability and is fascinating object for further research on the function of cathepsin L in prawn innate immune system. PMID:23669240
Males of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachiumrosenbergii grow faster and reach higher weights at harvest than females a fact which makes the culture of all-male populations desirable. All-male populations were produced by mating sex-reversed males, i.e., neofemales, with normal males. Neofemales capable of mating and spawning were produced by removal of the androgenic gland (AG) from immature M. rosenbergii
E. D. Aflalo; T. T. T. Hoang; V. H. Nguyen; Q. Lam; D. M. Nguyen; Q. S. Trinh; S. Raviv; A. Sagi
The effect of the oil-spill dispersant Corexit 9527 on egg-hatching rate of Macrobrachiumrosenbergii (de Man) was studied by using an innovated flow-through bioassay technique. This bioassay method relies on the fact that M. rosenbergii fertilized eggs when detached from the mother prawn were able to hatch artificially. The flow-through system generated a stable and good water quality environment for
Like many metazoans, the freshwater prawn Macrobrachiumrosenbergii begins its post-embryonic life with a set of morphologically distinct planktonic larval stages, followed by a benthic post-larval stage during which the maturing organism differs from the larvae both ecologically and physiologically. Understanding of the molecular basis underlying morphogenesis in crustaceans is limited to the observation that methyl farnesoate, the non-epoxidated form of the insect juvenile hormone, acts as the active crustacean juvenoid. Molt steroids were also linked to morphogenesis and several other molecular pathways, such as Hedgehog and Wnt, are known to underlie morphogenesis in all metazoans examined and, as such, are thought to do the same in crustaceans. Using next generation sequencing, we deep-sequenced the transcriptomes of several larval and post-larval stages. De novo assembly, followed by bioinformatics analysis, revealed that many novel transcripts are over-expressed in either larvae- or post-larvae-stage prawn, shedding light on the molecular basis underlying M. rosenbergii metamorphosis. Fast larval molting rates and periodic morphological changes were reflected in over-expression of transcripts annotated to the cell cycle, DNA replication and morphogenic pathways (i.e., Hedgehog and Wnt). Further characterization of transcripts assigned to morphogenic pathways by real-time RT-PCR reconfirmed their over-expression in larvae, albeit with a more complex expression pattern when examined in the individual developmental stages. The expression level of an orthologue of cytochrome P450, 15A1, known to epoxidize methyl farnesoate in insects, was increased in the late larval and early post-larval stages, in accordance with the role of methyl farnesoate in crustacean metamorphosis. This study exemplifies the applicability of a high-throughput sequencing approach for studying complex traits, including metamorphosis, providing new insight into this unexplored area of crustacean research.
The giant river prawn, Macrobrachium cf. rosenbergii, is one of the most cultivated freshwater prawns in the world and has been introduced into more than 40 countries. In some countries, this prawn is considered an invasive species that requires close monitoring. Recent changes in the taxonomy of this species (separation of M. rosenbergii and M. dacqueti) require a re-evaluation of introduced taxa. In this work, molecular analyses were used to determine which of these two species was introduced into Brazil and to establish the geographic origin of the introduced populations that have invaded Amazonian coastal waters. The species introduced into Brazil was M. dacqueti through two introduction events involving prawns originating from Vietnam and either Bangladesh or Thailand. These origins differ from historical reports of the introductions and underline the need to confirm the origin of other exotic populations around the world. The invading populations in Amazonia require monitoring not only because the biodiversity of this region may be affected by the introduction, but also because admixture of different native haplotypes can increase the genetic variability and the likelihood of persistence of the invading species in new habitats.
The freshwater prawn Macrobrachiumrosenbergii is a tropical crustacean with characteristics similar to those of lobsters and crayfish. Adult males develop through three morphological types-small (SC), yellow (YC), and blue claws (BC)-with each representing a level in the dominance hierarchy of a group, BC males being the most dominant. We are interested in understanding the role played by neuropeptides in the mechanisms underlying aggressive behavior and the establishment of dominance hierarchies in this type of prawn. SIFamides are a family of arthropod peptides recently identified in the central nervous system of insects and crustaceans, where it has been linked to olfaction, sexual behavior, and gut endocrine functions. One of the six SIFamide isoforms, GYRKPPFNGSIFamide (Gly-SIFamide), is highly conserved among decapod crustaceans such as crabs and crayfish. We wanted to determine whether Gly-SIFamide plays a role in modulating aggression and dominant behavior in the prawn. To do this, we performed behavioral experiments in which interactions between BC/YC pairs were recorded and quantified before and after injecting Gly-SIFamide directly into the circulating hemolymph of the living animal. Behavioral data showed that aggression among interacting BC/YC prawns was enhanced by injection of Gly-SIFamide, suggesting that this neuropeptide does have a modulatory role for this type of behavior in the prawn. PMID:20040755
Vázquez-Acevedo, Nietzell; Rivera, Nilsa M; Torres-González, Alejandra M; Rullan-Matheu, Yarely; Ruíz-Rodríguez, Eduardo A; Sosa, María A
White tail disease (WTD) is found to cause immense economic losses in hatcheries and farms, with mortalities often reaching 100% within 2 or 3 days. The pathogenic agents have been identified as Macrobrachiumrosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) associated with extra small virus (XSV), which are 27 and 15 nm in diameter, respectively. Experiments were carried out to characterize an Indian isolate of XSV capsid protein of 17 kDa (CP-17). The gene encoding CP-17 was cloned and its sequence analysed with sequences of other isolates such as French, Chinese, Taiwanese and Thai available in the GenBank using Bioinformatics tools such as BLASTn, clustal W and phylogenetic analysis. When compared with other isolates, 18-point mutations were observed in Indian isolate (XSV-IN) with few changes in amino acid residues. Homology comparison showed 99-96% identity with other isolates. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Indian isolate was closely related to Taiwanese and Chinese isolates than French and Thai. This shows that the possible origin of the disease in India was from Taiwan and China through the import of prawn seed decades ago. PMID:17928085
Sudhakaran, R; Syed Musthaq, S; Rajesh Kumar, S; Sarathi, M; Sahul Hameed, A S
A molecular marker for germ cells of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachiumrosenbergii, was studied. A vasa-like gene, Mrvlg, from the ovary was isolated and characterized by a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method. A full-length sequence was obtained by the rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE) method. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence revealed that Mrvlg comprises 2,686 bps with an open reading frame of 2,130 bps encoding 710 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains four arginine-glycine-glycine motifs and eight conserved motifs belonging to the DEAD-box protein family. The MrVLG sequence shows high similarity to Vasa homologue of zebrafish (73%). In the adult tissues, the Mrvlg transcripts were specifically detected in the germ cells. In situ hybridization analysis showed that Mrvlg RNA was detected in the cytoplasm of oogonia, previtellogenic, and vitellogenic oocytes and was also detected in the nucleoplasm of mature oocytes. In the testis, the Mrvlg transcript was detected in the cytoplasm of spermatogonia and primary spermatocytes but was detected in the nuclei of secondary spermatocytes and sperm. Sequence similarity and specific localization in the germ cells suggest that Mrvlg is the prawn vasa homologue of the Drosophila gene and can be used as a molecular marker for prawn germ cells. PMID:17186538
Macrobrachiumrosenbergii (de Man) is an important commercial species whose larvae develop through several stages in brackish water, after which they metamorphose and the postlarvae migrate into fresh water. Modelling the multiple factor interactions which may affect the ontogeny of physiological adaptation during larval development provides an opportunity to evaluate Alderdice's concept (Alderdice, D.F., 1972. Factor combinations: responses of marine
A systematic study has been carried out on the quantitative and morphological variations of carbonate and phosphate compounds in giant prawn (Macrobrachiumrosenbergii) skeletons during the moulting period on the basis of infrared spectroscopy and X ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. Skeletons samples were prepared from adult giant prawns, extracted from the intact skeletons of the prawns at the ages of
Background Tributyltin (TBT) is a ubiquitous persistent xenobiotic that can be found in freshwater, estuarine and marine ecosystem. TBT is a strong endocrine disrupting compound (EDC) that can cause toxic threat to aquatic organisms. Imposex, sexual deformities and endocrine dysfunctions are the causes of TBT to most of the aquatic organisms. Effect of TBT on the vitellogenesis and sex hormonal changes in Macrobrachiumrosenbergii has never been reported. Hence, the present investigation was undertaken to find out the impact of TBT on histological changes in the different reproductive tissues, sex hormonal alterations and level of biomarkers like vitellogenin and vitellin in M. rosenbergii. Results The present investigation documents the possible impact of tributyltin (TBT) on the vitellogenesis in freshwater female prawn M. rosenbergii. TBT at 10 ng/l, 100 ng/l and 1000 ng/l concentrations were exposed individually to prawns for a period of three months. At higher concentration of 1000 ng/l, the ovarian development was arrested and ovary remained at spent stage. At lower concentration of TBT (10 ng/l), the development proceeded up to early vitellogenic stage. At intermediate concentration of 100 ng/l TBT, the ovary remained at pre vitellogenic stage and thereafter no development was noticed. Histological results indicated the normal ovarian development with vitellogenic oocytes, filled with yolk globules in control prawn. On the other hand, the TBT treated groups showed reduction in yolk globules, fusion of developing oocytes and abundance of immature oocytes. Immunofluorescence staining denoted the remarkable reduction in vitellin content in ovary of TBT treated prawn. Hence, TBT had conspicuously inhibited the vitellogenesis by causing hormonal imbalance in M. rosenbergii. Conclusion TBT had notably inhibited the vitellogenesis due to hormonal imbalance. This endocrine dysfunction ultimately impaired the oogenesis in the freshwater female prawn M. rosenbergii.
BACKGROUND: Tributyltin (TBT) is a ubiquitous persistent xenobiotic that can be found in freshwater, estuarine and marine ecosystem. TBT is a strong endocrine disrupting compound (EDC) that can cause toxic threat to aquatic organisms. Imposex, sexual deformities and endocrine dysfunctions are the causes of TBT to most of the aquatic organisms. Effect of TBT on the vitellogenesis and sex hormonal changes in Macrobrachiumrosenbergii has never been reported. Hence, the present investigation was undertaken to find out the impact of TBT on histological changes in the different reproductive tissues, sex hormonal alterations and level of biomarkers like vitellogenin and vitellin in M. rosenbergii. RESULTS: The present investigation documents the possible impact of tributyltin (TBT) on the vitellogenesis in freshwater female prawn M. rosenbergii. TBT at 10 ng/l, 100 ng/l and 1000 ng/l concentrations were exposed individually to prawns for a period of three months. At higher concentration of 1000 ng/l, the ovarian development was arrested and ovary remained at spent stage. At lower concentration of TBT (10 ng/l), the development proceeded up to early vitellogenic stage. At intermediate concentration of 100 ng/l TBT, the ovary remained at pre vitellogenic stage and thereafter no development was noticed. Histological results indicated the normal ovarian development with vitellogenic oocytes, filled with yolk globules in control prawn. On the other hand, the TBT treated groups showed reduction in yolk globules, fusion of developing oocytes and abundance of immature oocytes. Immunofluorescence staining denoted the remarkable reduction in vitellin content in ovary of TBT treated prawn. Hence, TBT had conspicuously inhibited the vitellogenesis by causing hormonal imbalance in M. rosenbergii. CONCLUSION: TBT had notably inhibited the vitellogenesis due to hormonal imbalance. This endocrine dysfunction ultimately impaired the oogenesis in the freshwater female prawn M. rosenbergii. PMID:23634699
In this study, we have reported the first histone characterized at molecular level from freshwater prawn Macrobrachiumrosenbergii (MrHis). A full length cDNA of MrHis (751 base pairs) was identified from an established M. rosenbergii cDNA library using GS-FLX™ technique. It encodes 137 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 15 kDa and an isoelectric point of 10.5. MrHis peptide contains a histone H2A signature between 21 and 27 amino acids. Homologous analysis showed that MrHis had a significant sequence identity (99%) with other known histone H2A groups especially from Penaeus monodon. Phylogenetic analysis of MrHis showed a strong relationship with other amino acid sequences from histone H2A arthropod groups. Further phylogenetic analysis showed that the MrHis belongs to histone H2A superfamily and H2A1A sub-family. Secondary structure of MrHis showed that the protein contains 50.36% ?-helical region and 49.64% coils. The 3D model of MrHis was predicted by I-Tasser program and the model was evaluated for quality analysis including C-score analysis, Ramachandran plot analysis and RMSD analysis. The surface view analysis of MrHis showed the active domain at the N terminal. The antimicrobial property of MrHis protein was confirmed by the helical structure and the total hydrophobic surface along with its net charge. The MFE of the predicted RNA structure of MrHis is -128.62 kcal/mol, shows its mRNA stability. Schiffer-Edmundson helical wheel analysis of the N-terminal of MrHis showed a perfect amphipathic nature of the peptide. Significantly (P < 0.05) highest gene expression was noticed in the hemocyte and is induced with viral (WSBV and MrNV) and bacteria (A eromonas hydrophila and Vibrio harveyi) infections. The coding sequence of recombinant MrHis protein was expressed in a pMAL vector and purified to study the antimicrobial properties. The recombinant product showed antimicrobial activity against both Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria. In this study, the recombinant MrHis protein displayed antimicrobial activity in its entirety. Hence, it is possible to suggest that the activity may be due to the direct defense role of histone or its N-terminal antimicrobial property. However, this remains to be verified by detailed investigations. PMID:23994279
Experiments were conducted for the study of nutrient budget in ten farmer's ponds (0.2-0.5 ha) in Orissa, India with a mean water depth of 1.0-1.2 m. Scampi (Macrobrachiumrosenbergii) were stocked in these ponds at stocking density of 3.75-5.0/m(2). The average initial body weight of scampi was 0.02 mg. The culture period was for 4 months. Feed was the main input. Total feed applied to these ponds ranged from 945 to 2261 kg pond/cycle (crop). The feed conversion ratio varied 1.65 to 1.78. In addition to feed, rice straw, urea, and single super phosphate were applied to these ponds in small amounts for plankton production. At harvest time, the average weight of scampi varied from 60-90 g. The budget showed that feed was the major input of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and carbon in these ponds. The inorganic fertilizer (urea and single super phosphate), organic fertilizer (rice straw and yeast extract), and inlet water, either from the initial fills or from rainwater, were the source of all other N, P, and organic carbon (OC) to these ponds. Total N applied to these ponds through all these inputs ranged from 44.45 to 103.98 kg N per crop, 12.23 to 28.79 kg P per crop, and from 381.54 to 905.22 kg OC per crop, respectively. Among all the inputs, feed alone accounted for 95.34 % N, 97.98 % P, and 94.27 % OC, respectively. Recovery of 16.34 to 38.66 kg N (average 29.27 kg), 1.28 to 3.02 kg P (average 2.29 kg), and 63.21 to 149.51 kg OC (average 113.20 kg), respectively, by the scampi harvest were observed in these ponds. Thus, harvest of scampi accounted for recovery of 35.18 to 39.01 (average 36.85 %) of added N, 10.09 to 10.97 (average 10.44 %) of added P, and 7.57 to 17.12 (average 16.34 %) of added OC, respectively. PMID:23832231
The giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachiumrosenbergii was injected with an inoculum containing LD, 96 hr dose of 10' Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC 1688) to determine the histopathological effects in vivo. The comparison of tissues of both the control and the bacterial endotoxin treated prawns after 96 hr revealed significant degenerative changes in treated prawns. Both light microscopic and electron microscopic observations revealed the infiltration of the tissues of Pseudomonas sp in the muscular and hepatopancreatic tissues of prawn. The muscular tissue changes in the myofibrillar arrangement with blockage at the gap junctions and necrotic lesions were observed. The hepatopancreatic cells were vacuolated with hypertrophied nucleus. Atrophy of hepatopancreatic tubules was conspicuous. The pathogenicity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is attributed to its infiltration and multiplication inside the tissues and the consequent release of extra-cellular enzymes for its metabolism. The degeneration of host tissues is also attributed to the latter. PMID:18380087
White tail disease (WTD) is a serious problem in hatcheries and nursery ponds of Macrobrachiumrosenbergii in India and many parts of the world. The pathogenic agents have been identified as M. rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) associated with extra small virus (XSV), which is 27nm and 15nm in diameter, respectively. Replication of MrNV and XSV was investigated in apparently healthy C6/36 subclone of Aedes albopictus cell line. The results revealed that C6/36 cells were susceptible to these viruses. The replication of these viruses in C6/36 cells was confirmed by RT-PCR, acridine orange staining, infectivity study and electron microscopy. Cytoplasmic ribonucleic acid (RNA) stained by acridine orange increased by 48h, and by 72h larger proportion of cells which indicated alterations in quantity and localization of RNA in the infected cells. Post-larvae, challenged by immersion method using inoculum prepared from infected cells, exhibited lethargy, anorexia and opaqueness of abdominal muscle and 100% mortality was observed at 6 days post-infection. Experimentally infected C6/36 cells and post-larvae showed positive by RT-PCR, whereas control cells and healthy post-larvae showed negative. This is the first study to report the multiplication of MrNV and XSV in C6/36 cell line. PMID:17651820
In this study, a female-specific DNA marker in the freshwater prawn Macrobrachiumrosenbergii was identified through amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). The AFLP-derived sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker was tested in over 200 individuals, giving reproducible sex identification. Further molecular characterization of the sex-marker's genomic region (?3?kb long) revealed the presence of tandem and inverted repeats. The ?3-kb sequence was identified both in male and female prawns, but with subtle differences: a deletion of 3?bp (present in female prawn but absent in male prawn) identified upstream of the SCAR marker sequence and two female-specific single-nucleotide polymorphisms, both indicating that male prawns are homozygous, whereas female prawns are heterozygous in this locus. Fluorescent in situ hybridization showed the ?3-kb sequence to be unique: to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a unique sex-specific sequence observed in situ in crustaceans. The sex-specific marker identified in M. rosenbergii may have considerable applied merit for crustacean culture in that it will enable the determination of genetic sex at early developmental stages when phenotypic differences are not identifiable.
Ventura, T; Aflalo, E D; Weil, S; Kashkush, K; Sagi, A
The effect of Withania somnifera extract supplementation diets on innate immune response in giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachiumrosenbergii (de Man) against Aeromonas hydrophila was investigated. The bacterial clearance efficiency significantly increased in prawn fed with 0.1% and 1.0% doses of W. somnifera supplementation diet against pathogen from weeks 1-4 as compared to the control. The innate immune parameters such as, phenoloxidase activity, superoxide anion level, superoxide dismutase activity, nitrate, and nitrite concentrations were significantly enhanced in prawn fed with 0.1% and 1.0% doses of W. somnifera supplementation diet from weeks 1-4 against pathogen. The total hemocyte counts (THC) significantly increased in prawn fed with 0.1% and 1.0% doses diet from weeks 1-4 against pathogen as compared to the control. These results strongly suggested that administration of W. somnifera through supplementation diet positively enhances the innate immune system and enhanced survival rate in M. rosenbergii against A. hydrophila infection. PMID:22118967
In the present study, we demonstrated the existence of GnRH-like peptides in the central nervous system (CNS) and ovary of\\u000a the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachiumrosenbergii using immunocytochemistry. The immunoreactivity (ir) of lamprey (l) GnRH-III was detected in the soma of medium-sized neurons\\u000a located in neuronal cluster number 11 in the middle part of supraesophageal ganglion (deutocerebrum), whereas ir-octopus (oct)
Apichart Ngernsoungnern; Piyada Ngernsoungnern; Scott Kavanaugh; Stacia A. Sower; Prasert Sobhon; Prapee Sretarugsa
Three experiments, each of 8-days, were conducted to evaluate the effects of (5) N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) either alone or in combination on the development and survival of Macrobrachiumrosenbergii larvae. Experiment 1 was carried out as preliminary trial to confirm whether AHL mixture added daily at 1 mg\\/L concentration could have any negative effect on the larval performance. In experiment
Kartik Baruah; Dang T. V. Cam; Kristof Dierckens; Mathieu Wille; Tom Defoirdt; Patrick Sorgeloos; Peter Bossier
The effects of different densities of caged Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, on water quality, phytoplankton populations, prawn, and total pond production were evaluated in freshwater prawn, Macrobrachiumrosenbergii, production ponds. The experiment consisted of three treatments with three 0.04-ha replicates each. All ponds were stocked with graded, nursed juvenile prawn (0.9 6 0.6 g) at 69,000\\/ha. Control (CTL) ponds contained
Jason J. Danaher; James H. Tidwell; Shawn D. Coyle; Siddhartha Dasgupta; Paul V. Zimba
A time course experimental challenge of WSSV was carried out to examine the clearance of WSSV in Macrobrachiumrosenbergii and the consequent immunological changes. The experimental animals were injected with WSSV and the samples of gills, pleopods, head soft tissue and hemolymph were collected at different intervals of 1, 3, 5, 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100 days post infection (p.i.). WSSV infection and clearing were confirmed by single step PCR, nested PCR and bioassay. At 3 days p.i., M. rosenbergii became lethargic and stopped feeding in contrast to the control prawns that behaved and fed normally. However, the WSSV-injected prawns suffered no mortality during the experimental period and recovered without any further gross signs of disease or any mortality over a period of 100 days p.i. The single step PCR analysis showed positive at 1, 3 and 5 days p.i. in gills, head soft tissue, pleopods and hemolymph, and all the organs showed negative at 10 days p.i. onwards. The nested PCR results showed that all organs were positive for WSSV from 3 days p.i. and extended up to 25 days p.i. At 50 days p.i, head soft tissue sample alone showed WSSV-positive while all other organs were negative by nested PCR. All the organs at 75 and 100 days p.i. showed nested PCR negative for WSSV as observed in the control prawn. The hemolymph collected from experimentally infected M. rosenbergii at 1, 3 and 5 days p.i. caused 100% mortality at 40 h p.i., 55 h p.i. and 72 h p.i, respectively in Penaeus monodon whereas hemolymph collected at 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100 days p.i. failed to cause mortality in shrimp. The moribund shrimp showed WSSV-positive and surviving shrimp showed negative by PCR. Immunological parameters such as proPO, O(2)(-) and clotting time in WSSV-injected M. rosenbergii were found to be significantly higher than those of the control groups, whereas THC and superoxide dismutase were significantly lower when compared to control groups. PMID:18603447
Sarathi, M; Nazeer Basha, A; Ravi, M; Venkatesan, C; Senthil Kumar, B; Sahul Hameed, A S
The effect of the oil-spill dispersant Corexit 9527 on egg-hatching rate of Macrobrachiumrosenbergii (de Man) was studied by using an innovated flow-through bioassay technique. This bioassay method relies on the fact that M. rosenbergii fertilized eggs when detached from the mother prawn were able to hatch artificially. The flow-through system generated a stable and good water quality environment for hatching the eggs successfully. The Corexit 9527 had a pronounced effect on hatching rate of the M. rosenbergii eggs. In the control, the hatching rate of the eggs was 95.55% +/- 1.74%. However, it was reduced drastically with increasing concentrations of Corexit 9527. A 100% inhibition of egg hatchability was found when the level of Corexit 9527 was higher than 250 mg litre(-1). The EC(50) and the EC(95) values estimated by the probit method were 80.4 +/- 5.5 mg litre(-1) and 193.5 +/- 39.9 mg litre(-1) respectively (P = 0.05). The recommended safety level of Corexit 9527 for M. rosenbergii in Malaysian estuarine waters is below 40 mg litre(-1). PMID:15091547
The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachiumrosenbergii, is an economically important species. It is a euryhaline shrimp, surviving in wide-range salinity conditions. A change in gene expression has been suggested as an important component for stress management. To better understand the osmoregulatory mechanisms mediated by the gill, a subtractive and suppressive hybridization (SSH) tool was used to identify expressed transcripts linked to adaptations in saline water. A total of 117 transcripts represented potentially expressed under salinity conditions. BLAST analysis identified 22% as known genes, 9% as uncharacterized showing homologous to unannotated ESTs, and 69% as unknown sequences. All the identified known genes representing broad spectrum of biological pathways were particularly linked to stress tolerance including salinity tolerance. Expression analysis of 10 known genes and 7 unknown/uncharacterized genes suggested their upregulation in the gills of prawn exposed to saline water as compared to control indicating that these are likely to be associated with salinity acclimation. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) was used for obtaining full-length cDNA of MRSW-40 clone that was highly upregulated during salt exposure. The sequenced ESTs presented here will have potential implications for future understanding about salinity acclimation and/or tolerance of the prawn. PMID:22619594
The effects of feeding two Bacillus spp. isolated from the intestine of the giant freshwater prawn on the growth of Giant Freshwater Prawns (Macrobrachiumrosenbergii de Man) was examined. The isolated Bacillus KKU02 and Bacillus KKU03 (approximately 10(7) CFU mL(-1)) were mixed into commercial prawn feed (200 mL kg(-1)). After rearing shrimp with the bacteria in four feed treatments, (Bacillus KKU03, Bacillus KKU02, mixed culture and control groups) for 120 days, body length and weight of the prawns in mixed culture tanks were significantly higher (p = 0.05) than in the control tanks (7.48 cm and 3.32 g, vs 6.6 cm and 2.1 g, respectively). Both isolates were found to produce amylase and protease. The stabilities of the single Bacillus sp., mixed culture and commercial probiotic in the feeds were examined during storage at 4 degrees C and room temperature. The percentage viability of Bacillus KKU02, Bacillus KKU03 and mixed culture stored at room temperature declined dramatically to 2.54, 21.88 and 10.92% within 2 weeks, respectively. At 4 degrees C however, the percentage viability of the tested probiotics reduced slowly. The survival of the commercial probiotics was the same at both temperatures about 50% after 70 days' storage. PMID:19069961
Deeseenthum, Sirirat; Leelavatcharamas, Vichai; Brookes, John D
Freshwater prawn Macrobrachiumrosenbergii inoculated with 100 ?l novel pathogen spiroplasma strain MR-1008 in logarithmic phase (10(8) spiroplasmas ml(-1)) were examined for alkaline phosphatase (AKP) activity, acid phosphatase (ACP) activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, catalase (CAT) activity, as well as expressions of 7 immune related genes in hepatopancreas after 1-28 d. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining showed obvious pathological features in hepatopancreas connective and epithelial tissue. Enzyme activity analyze showed that hepatopancreas AKP and ACP activity increased markedly (P < 0.05) when inoculated with spiroplasma MR-1008 after 5 d and 10 d, respectively. SOD enzyme activity changed less obviously and slightly increased at 1 day post-inoculation, but CAT activity decreased significantly after 5 d inoculation. The expression levels of lipopolysaccharide and ?-1,3-glucan-binding protein (LGBP), peroxinectin (PE), ?2-macroglobulin (?2M), AKP, ACP, CAT, and copper/zinc SOD (Cu, Zn-SOD) genes in the hepatopancreas were examined by Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR) and the results demonstrated that these immune related genes were induced by challenge with spiroplasma MR-1008. The results suggested that the prawn immune responses could be activated or inhibited by spiroplasma MR-1008, and that the hepatopancreas also plays key roles in innate immunity for defense against the pathogen. PMID:23178264
Four 0.02-ha earthen ponds at the UNESP Aquaculture Center, Jaboticabal, S5o Paulo, Brazil, were stocked with newly metamorphosed Mac- robrachium rosenbergii post-larvae at 1.5 animals\\/m2. After 8 mo, prawn density at harvest ranged from 0.3\\/ mz to 0.8\\/m2. Growth curves were determined for each population using von Bertalanffy growth functions. Asymptotic maximum length and asymptotic maxi- mum weight increased as
. \\u000a \\u000a Macrobrachiumrosenbergii that had been exposed individually for 24 h to 0 (control), 2, 5, 10 mg\\/L nitrite-N (nitrite as nitrogen) at 4.3 and 7.7\\u000a pH levels were examined for hemolymph nitrite-N, oxyhemocyanin, protein, acid–base balance, ion concentrations, and ammonia-N\\u000a (ammonia as nitrogen) excretion. Hemolymph oxyhemocyanin, protein, pH, HCO3\\u000a \\u000a ? , TCO2, osmolality, and ion concentrations were inversely related
Macrobrachiumrosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) that causes white tail disease (WTD) is an emerging disease that contributes to serious production losses in Macrobrachium hatcheries worldwide. Mosquito cell lines (C6/36) have been reported to support the growth of MrNV and used to observe the cytopathic effects (CPE) in infected cells. This study determined the susceptibility of C6/36 mosquito cells to the Australian isolate of MrNV in order to use fewer animals in further investigations. Different staining methods were used to observe MrNV viral activity in C6/36 cells. Typical cytopathic effects such as vacuolation and viral inclusion bodies were observed in infected C6/36 cells with H&E and Giemsa staining. With acridine orange, it was easier to detect presumptive MrNV messenger ribonucleic acid in the infected cells. Using neutral red staining to measure mitochondrial activity showed light absorption of infected cells maximized at day 4 (O.D. = 0.6) but was significantly lower (chi-square = 41.265, df = 1, P < 0.05) than control groups (O.D. = 2) which maximized at day 12. Using trypan blue staining to count the number of cells with disrupted cell membranes, the maximum number of presumptively dead cells at day 8 (4 × 10(5) cells) in infected treatments was higher than the control treatment at day 10 (1.8 × 10(5) cells). However, TaqMan real-time PCR did not confirm the replication of MrNV in the cells over 14 days. The mean viral copies and mean cycle times of positive samples were stable at 2.07 × 10(4) and 24.12, respectively. Limited evidence of viral replication was observed during four serial passages. This study determined the mortality of the C6/36 cell line to the Australian isolate of MrNV but suggests limited patent replication was occurring. Trying different cell lines or adapting the virus to the C6/36 cells may be necessary to successfully replicate Australian MrNV in cell lines. PMID:23134578
We determined the cross-reactivity of a monoclonal antibody against the Macrobrachiumrosenbergii lectin with proteins in the hemolymph from Procambarus clarkii (Pc), Procambarus americanus (Pa), Litopenaeus setiferus (Ls), and Pseudothelphusa americana (Psa). Crustaceans' hemolymph agglutinated erythrocytes from rat, mouse, guinea pig, and rabbit. Decapods' hemolymph hemagglutinating activity was inhibited by N-acetylated carbohydrates as well as by antibodies. Western blot assays indicated that the antibodies recognized two main proteins of 97.5 and 80.9 kDa in all hemolymphs studied; moreover, ELISA assays indicated that, in PSa, 7.2% of total proteins showed crossreactivity with antibodies in Pa, Pc, and Lc hemolymphs represented 4.2, 3.1%, and 2.5%, respectively. Our results suggested that antibodies recognize the lectin active site in the crustacean species tested; we propose the use of antibodies as an immunological marker for lectin identification and quantification among crustaceans. PMID:19431046
This study was carried out to study the impact of phased harvesting on the population structure, feed intake pattern and growth\\u000a performance of Macrobrachiumrosenbergii in polyculture with carps in a deepwater rice–fish system. There were two experimental conditions—rice–fish culture with\\u000a phased harvesting (T1) and rice–fish culture without phased harvesting (T2)— and a control, which consisted of rice monoculture without
Cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks) are key regulators of the cell cycle. In mammals, cdk2 plays an essential role in the meiosis of spermatocytes and oocytes. To investigate the role of cdk2 kinase during gametogenesis in crustaceans, we cloned a complete cDNA sequence of cdk2 from the freshwater giant prawn, Macrobrachiumrosenbergii, and examined its localization and expression in the developing gonads. The prawn cdk2 cDNA is 1,745 bp in length and encodes a putative protein of 305 amino acids. The deduced protein contains a conserved cyclin binding motif PSTAIRE and shares high homology with reported cdk2 kinases of other species. RT-PCR analysis showed a wide distribution of the cdk2 mRNA in all tested organs including the testis, ovary, heart, muscles, hepatopancreas and gills, and the highest level of expression in the ovary and testis. Localization by in situ hybridization of cdk2 mRNA in the ovary showed high expression in the ooplasm of previtellogenic and the nuclei of late vitellogenic oocytes. In testicular sections, cdk2 transcript is low in spermatogonia, high in spermatocytes, but reduced in spermatids and sperm. The high expression of the cdk2 transcripts in meiotic spermatocytes and oocytes indicated that the cdk2 gene has the conservative function in the germ cells meiosis during gametogenesis. PMID:23653005
Nm23 is a family of genes encoding the nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase, which functions in a wide variety of biological processes, including growth, development, differentiation and tumor metastasis. In this study, a novel nm23 gene, designated as Mrnm23, was identified from the freshwater giant prawn Macrobrachiumrosenbergii. The full-length cDNA was 776bp in length, encoding for a protein of 176 amino acids with one typical NDP kinase domain that harbored all the crucial residues for nucleotide binding and enzymatic activity. Like human novel nm23-H1B, the putative protein contained a unique 21-amino-acid NH2-terminal extension as compared to human nm23 (nm23-H1) homologs. Further, 3 extra amino acid residues prolonged the COOH-terminus. The Mrnm23 was ubiquitously expressed in all tissues examined, including androgenic gland, gill, heart, liver, muscle, ovary, and testis. In situ hybridization to gonad sections indicated that the Mrnm23 mRNA was localized in the cytoplasm of cup-base of differentiating spermatids, in the spike of the umbrella-shaped spermatozoa and in the cytoplasm of the early previtellogenic oocytes, suggesting that the Mrnm23 has potential roles in spermiogenesis and early differentiation of oocyte. PMID:23994193
The full-length cDNA of the pacifastin heavy chain gene from giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachiumrosenbergii, Mr-PHC) was cloned and characterized. The full sequence of the Mr-PHC cDNA was 4331 bp and contained a 119-bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), a 3990-bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 1329 amino acid residues and a 222-bp 3' UTR. The Mr-PHC protein predicted by its full ORF, exhibited a unique transferrin-like protein structure containing 4 different lobes that have not been previously identified. Three of the four lobes contained highly conserved of iron/anion binding residues. Expression analyses by conventional RT-PCR demonstrated that Mr-PHC was expressed predominantly during postlarval stage 45 and also in the foregut and gills of the adult prawn. Interestingly, dose response analyses that were quantified using quantitative real-time PCR indicated a significant upregulation of Mr-PHC during postlarval stage 45 in prawn grown at hour 24 after challenging with 10(9) cfu/ml of Aeromonas hydrophila, which is a pathogenic bacterium. Mr-HPC in the adult prawn was significantly upregulated at both hour 12 and day 7 after stimulation with A. hydrophila (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). Additionally, a delayed induction response of the Mr-PHC gene was observed at 14 days when the experimental adult prawns were fed with ?-glucan-supplemented feed. Based on results of this study, the transferrin-like protein encoded by the pacifastin heavy chain gene may exist in all decapod crustaceans. Even though the function as an iron transporter is not proven, immune response studies are clearly indicated that PHC is critically involved in the immune system in these animals. PMID:23198290
Two major by-products of ethanol distillation, corn distiller's solubles and corn distiller's mash, were evaluated for their potential use as a food source for freshwater prawn (Macrobrachiumrosenbergii) and golden shiner (Notemigonus crysoleucas) in mid-western United States. Corn distiller's solubles were not found to be highly toxic to aquatic organisms at concentrations ranging up to 10,000 ppM. However, the high biological oxygen demand of the material requires that single applications not exceed 2000 ppM. Yield trials were conducted over a four month period in five 0.1 ha earthen ponds, located in proximity to an ethanol distillery. Each pond was stocked with 2000 postlarval shrimp (0.02 g mean weight). Three of these ponds were also each stocked with 75 adult golden shiner (27.0 g mean weight). One application of corn distiller's solubles (equivalent to approx. 2000 ppM) and three applications of corn distiller's mash (approx. 5 kg/application) were made over the course of the yield trails (approx. 120 days). No other food or fertilizer was added to the ponds. Survival of shrimp ranged from 34 to 75%. Survival of brood fish exceeded 90%. Mean weight of shrimp at harvest was approximately 12 g, and average production was equivalent to approximately 104 kg ha/sup -1/. Golden shiner reared in the same ponds as shrimp had production rates equivalent to approxmately 130 kg ha/sup -1/. The presence of fish did not appear to impede shrimp production. Although production results of fish and shrimp were encouraging, several factors existed which impeded production; these included: (1) little by-product was applied to ponds because the distillery was undergoing its shakedown period; (2) ponds were new and had minimal natural productivity; (3) grass was not fully established on the watershed and ponds became turbid; and (4) lower than normal temperatures prevailed over much of the growing period. 11 references, 2 figures, 8 tables.
There is ample evidence linking octopamine (OA) and tyramine (TA) to several neurophysiological functions in arthropods. In our laboratory we use the freshwater prawn Macrobrachiumrosenbergii to study the neural basis of aggressive behavior. As a first step towards understanding the possible role of these amines and their receptors in the modulation of interactive behaviors, we have cloned a putative octopamine/tyramine receptor. The predicted sequence of the cloned OA/TAMac receptor consists of 1,579 base pairs (bp), with an open reading frame of 1,350 bp that encodes a 450 amino acid protein. This putative protein displays sequence identities of 70% to an Aedes aegypti mosquito TA receptor, followed by 60% to a Stegomyia aegypti mosquito OA receptor, 59% and 58% to the migratory locust TA-1 and -2 receptors respectively, and 57% with the silkworm OA receptor. We also mapped the OA/TAMac receptor distribution by in-situ hybridization to the receptor’s mRNA, and by immunohistochemistry to its protein. We observed stained cell bodies for the receptor’s mRNA, mainly in the midline region of the thoracic and in the abdominal ganglia, as well as diffuse staining in the brain ganglia. For the receptor’s protein, we observed extensive punctate staining within the neuropil and on the membrane of specific groups of neurons in all ganglia throughout the CNS, including the brain, the midline region and neuropiles of the thoracic ganglia, and ventral part and neuropiles of the abdominal ganglia. The same pattern of stained cells was observed on the thoracic and abdominal ganglia in both in-situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry experiments. Diffuse staining observed with in-situ hybridization also coincides with punctate staining observed in brain, SEG, thoracic, and abdominal ganglia in immunohistochemical preparations. This work provides the first step towards characterizing the neural networks that mediate octopaminergic signaling in prawn.
Reyes-Colon, Dalynes; Vazquez-Acevedo, Nietzell; Rivera, Nilsa M.; Jezzini, Sami H.; Rosenthal, Joshua; Ruiz-Rodriguez, Eduardo A.; Baro, Deborah J.; Kohn, Andrea B.; Moroz, Leonid; Sosa, Maria A.
Phenotypic identification of fifty Vibrio bacterial strains, isolated from diseased and healthy larval prawn as well as larval rearing water in prawn hatcheries, together with twenty-two reference strains were investigated by Euclidean distance with unweighted average linkage clustering. Comparison based on fourty-seven phenotypic characters showed that these isolates mainly clustered in five groups of which four were equated with the
A selenium dependent glutathione peroxidase (Se-GPx) cDNA was cloned from haemocyte by a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA (RACE). The 913 bp cDNA contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 558 bp encoded a deduced amino acid sequence of 186 amino acids. The prawn Se-GPx sequence contains a selenocysteine (Sec) residue which is encoded by the unusual stop codon, (115)TGA(117). According to the molecular modeling analysis, the active site Sec residue, located in the loop between beta3 and alpha2 in a pocket on the protein surface, and hydrogen bonded to Gln(73) and Trp(141). A GPx signature motif 2, (63)LAFPCNQF(70) and active site motif, (151)WNFEKF(156), two arginine (R) residues, R(89) and R(167) contribute to the electrostatic architecture that directs the glutathione donor substrate, and two putative N-glycosylation site, (75)NNT(77) and (107)NGS(109) were observed in the prawn Se-GPx sequence. In addition, the eukaryotic selenocysteine insertion sequence element is conserved in the 3'-UTR. Comparison of amino acid sequences showed that prawn Se-GPx is more closely related to vertebrate GPx 1. The prawn Se-GPx was synthesized in haemocyte, hepatopancreas, muscle, stomach, gill, intestine, eyestalk, heart, epidermis, lymph organ, ventral nerve cord, testis and ovary. The increase of respiratory burst in haemocyte was observed in pathogen, Debaryomyces hansenii-injected prawn in order to kill the pathogen, and the up-regulation in SOD and GPx acitivity, and prawn Se-GPx mRNA transcription were involved with the protection against damage from oxidation. PMID:19376233
Based on the light microscopic observations of cells' sizes, chromatin patterns, amount of lipid droplets and yolk granules, the female germ cells could be classified into four different phases, which include 1) oogonia (Oog), 2) primary oocytes (pOc), 3) secondary oocytes (sOc), and 4) mature oocyte (mOc). Oog are small oval-shaped cells with irregular-shaped nuclei sizing 4–6 ?m in diameter. They
The present study was carried out on the seasonal abundance and diversity of zooplankton in a semi- intensive prawn farm of Bagerhat district from July to December, 2008. Plankton samples were collected by conical shaped monofilament nylon net (Plankton net) and Lugol's solution was used for preservation. The zooplankton abundance was influenced by physico-chemical factors. During the study period 11 genera of zooplankton under 5 orders were recorded from the study ponds namely Copepoda, Rotifera, Cladocera, Ostracoda and Crustacean Larvae. Among all groups copepod was the dominant order. The percentages of Copepoda, Rotifera, Cladocera, Ostracoda and Crustacean Larvae in semi-intensive culture system were 54%, 28%, 12%, 4% and 2% respectively. But the genera Brachionus under the order of Rotifer was dominant among all other genera. Cyclops and Helidiaptomus under the order of Copepod were the 2nd dominant genera. Numbers of zooplankton species were recorded to be the highest in summer season and minimum at early winter season. Highest number of zooplankton found at the month of October. Total zooplankton shows significant positive relationship with water temperature ((r?=?+0.384), Dissolve Oxygen(r?=?+0.113), pH(r?=?+0.320), Free CO2 (r?=?+0.319), Alkalinity(r?=?+0.269), Hardness (r?=?+0.402) and negative relationship with Salinity(r?=?-0.486), Transparency(r?=?-0.693). The findings of the present study will help to improve the management strategies of shrimp culture system. PMID:23667823
Shil, Jadobendro; Ghosh, Alokesh Kumar; Rahaman, S M Bazlur
Biogenic amines such as dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) are able to affect numerous physiological processes in crustaceans through their actions as neuroregulators. Both DA and serotonin have been shown to be involved in the synthesis and release of neurohormones such as crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH), vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone (VIH), molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH) and those related to pigmentation which in
In Brazil, studies with native freshwater prawn species were discontinued due to great importance of Macrobrachiumrosenbergii. Therefore, it is necessary to continue investigations about our species, in order to develop technology adequate to our reality and in a future allow prawn farmers to culture other species. The aim of this study was to determine the fecundity and fertility of Macrobrachium amazonicum captured monthly from June 1999 to June 2001 from Jaguaribe River, Itaiçaba, Ceará, Brazil. Prawns were collected using fishing net and transferred at Biological Science Laboratory, Ceara State University (Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil). Among the ovigerous M. amazonicum females, 60 were randomly selected to determine fecundity. The eggs adhered to the pleopods were taken out and they were then placed in a Gilson solution, and then stored in alcohol 70%. Individual fecundity was determined from the total egg counting, using a stereoscopic microscope. To determine fertility, ovigerous M. amazonicum females were stored in individual 10 L-glass tanks maintained under strong aeration. After the hatching, the larvae were siphoned and counted. The data referring to total length and weight of all the females, storage date, coloration and number of eggs, weight and coloration of gonad and number of hatched larvae were noted. With respect to average fecundity (F) by length classes, the lowest and highest number of eggs observed was 696 and 1,554, respectively. As for fecundity by weight classes, the lowest number of eggs observed was 760 and the highest, 1,690. The highest number of eggs observed individually per hatching was 2,193. Average fecundity/total length (L) and average fecundity/total weight (W) may be expressed by a linear relationship. The adjusted equations are: F = -411.6 + 203.1 L (p < 0.0001) and F = 566.4 + 157.3 W (p < 0.0001), respectively. In the analysis of average fertility (N) per length classes, the lowest and highest number of larvae observed was 374 and 1,301, respectively. With respect to fertility per weight classes, the lowest number of larvae was 581 and the highest, 1,391. In this work, the maximum number of larvae observed per hatching for females kept in laboratory was 2,594. Average fertility/total length and average fertility/total weight may be expressed by a linear relationship. The adjusted equations are: N = -1042.7 + 264.9 L (p < 0.0002); N = 384.1 + 160.3 W (p < 0.003). From these results we can deduced that fecundity and fertility of M. amazonicum are lower than ones commercial species, never-the-less it can be captured during all year long. The number of captured prawns was large in the months whose level of water was low; the inverse was observed in the months that the river was with a high volume of water. PMID:15622846
A preliminary survey of parasitic and infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) infections in giant freshwater prawn from the Damak Sea of Rejang River, Kuching, Sarawak was conducted. Symptoms of black spots/patches on the rostrum, carapace, pleopods or telson were observed in most of the 107 samples collected. Parasitic examination revealed sessiline peritrichs such as (Zoothamnium sp.), nematode larvae, gregarine stage and cocoon of leech with prevalences of 1.2%, 1.2%, 5% and 17% respectively. Under histopathological examination, changes like accumulation of hemocytes around hepatopancreatic tubules due to vibriosis, basophilic intranuclear inclusions in the epithelium and E-cell of hepatopancreatic tubules as a result of HPV were seen through the section. No positive infection of IHHNV was detected in 78 samples. As such, the wild giant freshwater prawns in Damak Sea of Rejang River in Kuching are IHHNV-free though infections of parvo-like virus and bacteria were seen in histopathology. PMID:21602773
Kua, Beng Chu; Choong, F C; Hazreen Nita, M K; Muhd Faizul H, A H; Bhassu, S; Imelda, R R; Mohammed, M
Macrobrachium amazonicum is considered a favorite Brazilian species of freshwater prawn for cultivation as a result of its quick development and because it is easy to maintain in captivity. The aim of this work is to describe the sexual cycle stages and determine maturation age of the female M. amazonicum, which was collected monthly from June, 2002 to May, 2003 in the Jaguaribe River, Itaiçaba, Ceará. A monthly sample of water was also collected to determine the following parameters: temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and salinity. A monthly sample of females was selected among the individuals caught, to determine the total weight (W(T)), carapace length (L( C)) and abdomen+telson length (L(A+T)) and to register the number of non-ovigerous females (NOF) and ovigerous females (OF). Determining ovarian maturation stages of M. amazonicum was done in a laboratory by observing macroscopic characters such as coloring, size, location and appearance of ovarians examined by transparent carapace. The first maturation age was determined from the relative frequency of the total length (L(T)) of young and adult females. The environmental parameters of the Jaguaribe River did not hold any influence in the number of individuals collected. A total of 1,337 prawns were sampled, 513 males (38.4%) and 824 females (61.6%). The proportion between males and females in the studied population was of 1:1.6. Among the collected females, 492 (50.7%) did not carry eggs in their abdomens (NOF) and 332 (40.3%) carried eggs in their abdomens (OF). There was no record of intact females. Non-ovigerous females with mature ovaries were recorded throughout all the months of collection. The female ovaries were classified as immature (IM), rudimentary (RU), intermediary (IN) and mature (M). M. amazonicum females reach their first sexual maturity between 4.5 and 5.5 cm of total length. PMID:18094840
Sampaio, C M S; Silva, R R; Santos, J A; Sales, S P
In the present study, it was sought to compare yeast microbiota of wild and captive Macrobrachium amazonicum and evaluate the antifungal susceptibility and production of virulence factors by the recovered isolates of Candida spp. Additionally, cultivation water was monitored for the presence of fungi. Overall, 26 yeast isolates belonging to three genera and seven species were obtained, out of which 24 were Candida spp., with Candida famata as the most prevalent species for both wild and captive prawns. From cultivation water, 28 isolates of filamentous fungi were obtained, with Penicillium spp., Cladosporium spp. and Aspergillus spp. as the most frequent genera. Eight out of 24 Candida spp. isolates were resistant to azole derivatives, out of which four were recovered from wild-harvested prawns. As for production of virulence factors, three (12.5%) and eight (33.3%) isolates presented phospholipase and protease activity, respectively. This is the first comparative study between wild and captive prawns and the first report on yeast microbiota of M. amazonicum. The most relevant finding was the high percentage of resistant Candida spp., including from wild individuals, which suggests the occurrence of an environmental imbalance in the area where these prawns were captured. PMID:21241340
Brilhante, Raimunda S N; Paiva, Manoel A N; Sampaio, Célia M S; Teixeira, Carlos E C; Castelo-Branco, Débora S C M; Leite, João J G; Moreira, Camila A; Silva, Liliane P; Cordeiro, Rossana A; Monteiro, André J; Sidrim, José J C; Rocha, Marcos F G
Peptidase inhibitors in the male reproductive tract are well known in mammals, in which they play roles in protecting the\\u000a tract epithelium against proteolytic damage or in regulating the fertilization process. By screening the subtracted cDNA clones\\u000a enriched for male reproductive tract-specific transcripts, one clone encoding a putative protein that showed significant similarity\\u000a to Kazal-type peptidase inhibitor (KPI) was obtained.
Jun-Xia Cao; Jie-Qiong Dai; Zhong-Min Dai; Guo-Li Yin; Wei-Jun Yang
The selective breeding of Macrobrachium acanthurus resulted in the rearing of the F2 and F3 generations to maturity, and the F4 generation to the juvenile stage. A comparison of the growth of the F1 and F3 generations reared during roughly comparable peri...
Until about the 1930s, the Ohio shrimp, Macrobrachium ohione, was common in the Mississippi River between Chester and Cairo, and also occurred in the Ohio and lower Wabash rivers bordering southern Illinois, but since then, the species declined sharply in abundance. Two specimens were captured in May 2001 from the Ohio River at Joppa, Massac Co., Illinois, and represent the
The population dynamics of Macrobrachium felicinum (Holthuis, 1949) in Lower Taylor Creek, Niger Delta, Nigeria, was analysed using monthly length-frequency data (June 2008 – May 2010). This study was aimed at determining the status of fishery and establishing the levels of exploitation that will give sustainable yields. The FAO-ICLARM stock assessment tool (FISAT II) software was used to estimate population
The cellular system responsible for the transduction of the pigment-concentrating hormone (PCH) signal was investigated in\\u000a erythrophores of the freshwater shrimp, Macrobrachium potiuna. Dose-response curves to the hormone were determined in the absence and in the presence of several drugs that affect sequential\\u000a steps of the Ca2+-dependent signalling pathway. Additionally, the ability of forskolin to induce pigment dispersion was evaluated.
Luiz Eduardo Maia Nery; Marcelo Alves da Silva; Lars Josefsson; Ana Maria Lauro Castrucci
Energy partitioning, composition of lipids and fatty acids, and their utilization by embryos were determined in the lecithotrophic\\u000a shrimp Macrobrachium borellii during seven development stages. The biochemical composition at stage I is represented by lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates,\\u000a with 29.3, 28.7, and 0.2% dry weight, respectively. The former two were identified as the major energy-providing components,\\u000a contributing 131 and 60
Horacio Heras; M. R. Gonzalez-Baró; Ricardo J. Pollero
Cultivation analysis investigates television's contributions to viewers' conceptions of social reality. Developed by George Gerbner in the 1960s, cultivation research continues to expand in numerous directions, with over 125 new studies published since 2000. This article reviews the history of cultivation theory and takes stock of recent trends in the field. We argue that cultivation has taken on certain paradigmatic
The participation of cyclic nucleotide-dependent intracellular signalling pathways in the pigment translocation induced by\\u000a pigment-dispersing hormone (? -PDH) or pigment-concentrating hormone (PCH) was investigated in the erythrophores of the freshwater\\u000a shrimp, Macrobrachium potiuna. Cholera toxin, forskolin and dibutyryl cyclic adenosine 3?5? monophosphate (dbcAMP) were able to induce pigment dispersion\\u000a with effective agonist concentrations for half maximal response (EC50?s) of 2.8?·?10?11
L. E. M. Nery; M. A. da Silva; A. M. de Lauro Castrucci
Brood stock of Macrobrachium acanthurus and M. carcinus was caught in Spring, 1973 by dip netting at night in local canals. Larvae secured from ovigerous females were raised primarily in 946-liter tanks, and were fed Artemia nauplii, Tetramin, and ground ...
The Cross River Estuary, Nigeria, is an important shrimping area for artisanal fishermen of the coastal communities. The multi-species Macrobrachium fishery is exploited with three main gears, namely beach seine, push net and trap. Studies on species composition of this fishery recorded thirteen shrimp species, one swimming crab ( Callinectes amnicola) and two fish species ( Eleotris sp. and Pellonula leonensis). The shrimp species identified included Macrobrachium macrobrachion (83.39% and 55.69% by number and weight, respectively), M. vollenhovenii (9.66% and 37.18%), M. equidens (3.8% and 2.87%), juveniles-sub-adults of Penaeus notialis (1.11% and 1.3%), M. dux, M. felicinum, Palaemonetes africanus, Palaemon maculatus, Palaemon elegans, Desmocaris sp., Leander sp., Nematopalaemon hastatus and Alpheus pontederiae. While the selectivity index for trap was 0.25, beach seine and push net had a lower index of 0.063. The results present the first comprehensive and representative report for the Estuary shrimp fishery and will assist in the management of the biodiversity of this ecosystem.
The prawn genus Macrobrachium belongs to the family Palaemonidae. Its species are widely distributed in lakes, reservoirs, floodplains, and rivers in tropical and subtropical regions of South America. Globally, the genus Macrobrachium includes nearly 210 known species, many of which have economic and ecological importance. We analyzed three species of this genus (M. jelskii, M. amazonicum and M. brasiliense) using RAPD-PCR to assess their genetic variability, genetic structure and the phylogenetic relationship between them and to look for molecular markers that enable separation of M. jelskii and M. amazonicum, which are closely related syntopic species. Ten different random decamer primers were used for DNA amplification, yielding 182 fragments. Three of these fragments were monomorphic and exclusive to M. amazonicum or M. jelskii and can be used as specific molecular markers to identify and separate these two species. Similarity indices and a phylogenetic tree showed that M. amazonicum and M. jelskii are closest to each other, while M. brasiliense was the most differentiated species among them; this may be attributed to the different habitat conditions to which these species have been submitted. This information will be useful for further studies on these important crustacean species. PMID:21128212
Guerra, A L; Lima, A V B; Taddei, F G; Castiglioni, L
This paper reviews and discusses the development and many problems of Spirulina cultivation in China, points out the advantages and disadvantages of open photobioreactor system, and predicts that seawater Spirulina cultivation will be a new trend to be strengthened and emphasized due to its special physiological characteristics, easier management, lower fertilizer cost, and higher resistance to contaminants and rare pollution of chemicals.
The Domestic Cannabis Cultivation Assessment 2007 is a national-level strategic assessment of cannabis cultivation and marijuana production in the United States. This assessment addresses major trends in domestic cannabis cultivation, both indoor and outd...
The lucid handbook is designed for volunteers of all backgrounds seeking to understand mushroom culture. Topics include mushroom cultivation in beds, logs, and plastic bags; mushroom spawn propagation; and control of pests. Appendices provide examples of ...
Contents: Effects of Environmental Factors in the Immune Responses of Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachiumrosenbergii and Other Decapod Crustaceans; Selectivity and Accessibility of Prey in Captive Juvenile Red Drum, Sciaenops ocellatus Linnaeus; Fatty Acid De...
The recent application of molecular phylogeny to environmental samples has resulted in the discovery of an abundance of unique and previously unrecognized microorganisms. The vast majority of this microbial diversity has proved refractory to cultivation. Here, we describe a universal method that provides access to this immense reservoir of untapped microbial diversity. This technique combines encapsulation of cells in gel
Karsten Zengler; Gerardo Toledo; Michael Rappé; James Elkins; Eric J. Mathur; Jay M. Short; Martin Keller
Cultivation of both human and non-human species of Plasmodium spp., the causal agent of malaria, has been a major research success, leading to a greater understanding of the parasite. Efforts at cultivating the organisms in vitro are complicated by the parasites' alternating between a human host and an arthropod vector, each having its own set of physiological, metabolic, and nutritional parameters. Life cycle stages of the four species that infect humans have been established in vitro. Of these four, P. falciparum remains the only species for which all stages have been cultured in vitro; different degrees of success have been achieved with the other human Plasmodium spp. The life cycle includes the exoerythrocytic stage (within liver cells), the erythrocytic stage (within erythrocytes or precursor reticulocytes), and the sporogonic stage (within the vector). Culture media generally consist of a basic tissue culture medium (e.g., minimal essential medium or RPMI 1640) to which serum and erythrocytes are added. Most of the efforts have been directed toward the stage found in the erythrocyte. This stage has been cultivated in petri plates or other growth vessels in a candle jar to generate elevated CO2 levels or in a more controlled CO2 atmosphere. Later developments have employed continuous-flow systems to reduce the labor-intensive nature of medium changing. The exoerythrocytic and sporogonic life cycle stages have also been cultivated in vitro. A number of avian, rodent, and simian malarial parasites have also been established in vitro. Although cultivation is of great help in understanding the biology of Plasmodium, it does not lend itself to use for diagnostic purposes.
Domestic cannabis cultivation is occurring at high levels and eradication is increasing across the United States, according to the most recent eradication data. Cannabis cultivation operations currently appear to be most prevalent in western states but ar...
Whole effluent toxicity was assessed for the fish Oryzias latipes and the prawn Macrobrachium nipponense for 18 h in a dilution series (0–66%) of the inflow and effluent of a municipal waste water treatment plant as well as waste water from a teramycin producing pharmaceutical industry, before, during and after a pilot laboratory purification process. The waste waters caused acute
A. Gerhardt; L. Janssens de Bisthoven; Z. Mo; C. Wang; M. Yang; Z. Wang
The shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller 1862) has an extremely large geographic range (>4000?km across) in northern and central South America, comprising estuarine and fully limnic inland populations, which are hydrologically isolated from each other. Significant variations in ecology, physiology, reproduction, and larval development suggest an at least incipient allopatric speciation due to limited genetic exchange. In a comparative experimental investigation
A model for intracellular transport of pigment granules in the red ovarian chromatophores of the freshwa- ter shrimp Macrobrachium olfersi is proposed on the basis of shifts in the equilibrium of resting forces acting on an elastic pigment matrix. The model describes a pigment- transport mechanism in which mechanochemical protein motors like kinesin and myosin alternately stretch and com- press
The invention relates to the cultivation of shellfish. A first type of shellfish capable of securing themselves to a cultch such as by producing byssus are seeded onto a culture rope together with a second type of shellfish which are not capable of securing themselves. The seeding process is carried out using a seeding machine, and the shellfish are retained against the culture rope by way of a seeding stocking. The seeding stocking, the culture rope, and all of the shellfish, are then transferred to a suitable environment for cultivation. The first type of shellfish produce byssus and thereby secure themselves to the culture rope. The second type of shellfish are also secured by way of the byssus produced by the first type of shellfish. The seeding stocking is then no longer required and degrades or is burst by both types of the shellfish.
Vibrio foetus is non-pathogenic for small laboratory animals. As it can cause abortion in sheep and cattle, and is then found in the embryo, cultivation in incubated chicken eggs was attempted. The organism grows easily in the allantoic fluid of seven-to-nine-day eggs. Three days after inoculation, there is a rich growth of Vibrio foetus in the allantoic fluid. The organism
This study determines the toxic effect of carbaryl (Sevin50% W.P) on the food utilization parameters in intermoult juveniles of the prawn, Macrobrachium malcolmsonii. The prawns (4.5-5.0 cm in length and 1.0-1.25 g wet wt.) were exposed to three sub-lethal concentrations of carbaryl (5.15, 7.73 and 15.47 microgl-1) for duration of 40 days. The toxic medium was renewed daily. The prawns were fed ad libitum with known energy quantity of boiled goat liver on daily basis. The overall wet weight gain was calculated. The energy lost through unconsumed food (15-60%), faeces (15-109%), ammonia excretion (9-27%) and moults (13-26%) of the prawns were calculated. The feeding rate, the rate and efficiency of absorption, the metabolic and food conversion rates and the gross and net food conversions efficiencies were found to be significantly declined (p<0.05) in test prawns when compared to that of the control. The energy lost through faeces, ammonia excretion and exuvia was found to be significantly elevated (p<0.05) in test prawns than that of the control. The effectof carbaryl on the bioenergetics parameters was severe in the highest sub-lethal concentration, less in the intermediate concentration and least in the lowest sub-lethal concentration. The results indicated that decrease in feeding, absorption, metabolism and food conversion are interdependent and toxicity of carbaryl diverting energy from production to maintenance pathways, which ultimately resulting in declined growth of M. malcolmsonii. PMID:22167951
Glutathione transferase from the hepatopancreas of fresh water crayfish Macrobrachium vollenhovenii was purified to apparent homogeneity by ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and by gel filtration on Sephadex G-100. The enzyme appeared to be a homodimer with molecular weight (Mr) of 46.0 +/- 1.4 kDa and a subunit Mr of 24.1 +/- 0.35 kDa. Chromatofocusing of the apparently pure enzyme revealed microheterogeneity and resolved it into two isozymic peaks, which were eluted at pH 8.36 and 8.22 respectively. Inhibition studies showed that the I50 value for cibacron blue, S-hexylglutathione, hematin, and N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) were 0.01 microM, 340 microM, 5 microM and 33 mM respectively. Out of the several substrates tested, only 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and 7-chloro-4-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole could be conjugated with glutathione. Chemical modification studies with DTNB revealed that two sulphydryl groups per dimer were essential to the activity of the enzymes. On the basis of structural and catalytic characteristics, M. vollenhovenii GST seems close, tentatively, to the omega and zeta classes of GST. Initial-velocity studies of the enzyme are consistent with a steady-state random kinetic mechanism. Denaturation and renaturation studies with guanidine HCl (Gdn-HCl) revealed that though low Gdn-HCl concentrations (less than 0.5 M) denatured the enzyme, the enzyme was able to renature completely (100%). At higher concentration of the denaturant (0.5-4 M), refolding studies indicated that complete renaturation was not achieved. The extent of renaturation was however a function of protein concentration. Our results are consistent with a three-state unfolding process. PMID:15674845
This article describes the standard procedure for growing Ectocarpus in the laboratory. The culture is started with partheno-sporophyte (or sporophyte) filaments because this is the stage that is usually maintained in strain collections. The standard medium is Provasoli-enriched natural seawater (PES), but Ectocarpus can also be grown in artificial seawater, which allows more precise control over the culture conditions. The algae can be cultivated either in plastic Petri dishes or in 10-L bottles with bubbling, if large amounts of biomass are required. Standard growth conditions are 13°C with a 12h/12h d/night cycle and 20 µmol photons m(-2) s(-1) irradiance using daylight-type fluorescent tubes. All manipulations of Ectocarpus cultures should be performed in a clean environment (if possible, under a laminar flow hood). Forceps should be dipped in ethanol and allowed to dry under the hood. PMID:22301662
Coelho, Susana M; Scornet, Delphine; Rousvoal, Sylvie; Peters, Nick T; Dartevelle, Laurence; Peters, Akira F; Cock, J Mark
Adult Macrobrachium lanchesteri were exposed for a four-day period in the laboratory condition to a range of copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni) concentrations. The mortality was assessed and median lethal times (LT50) and concentrations (LC50) were calculated. At the end of four-day period, the survived prawns were used to determine bioconcentration of the metals. LT50 and LC50 increased with decrease
M. SHUHAIMI-OTHMAN; Y. NADZIFAH; R. NUR-AMALINA; A. AHMAD
Agricultural run off that is contaminated with pesticides enters water bodies, thereby polluting the aquatic environment. The sensitivity of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium malcolmsonii, to such pesticides is well-documented. However, the stress response to sublethal concentrations of pesticides has scarcely been investigated. In the present study, the effect of two different sublethal concentrations (1\\/5th and 1\\/10th of LC50 value) of
S. Selvakumar; P. Geraldine; S. Shanju; T. Jayakumar
This paper describes seasonal changes of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and its glutathione (MC-LR-GSH) and cysteine conjugates (MC-LR-Cys) in three aquatic animals – snail (Bellamya aeruginosa), shrimp (Macrobrachium nipponensis) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) collected from Lake Taihu, China. MC-LR, MC-LR-GSH, and MC-LR-Cys were determined by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrum (LC–ESI-MS). The mean MC-LR concentrations in the hepatopancreas of snail
Dawen Zhang; Ping Xie; Jun Chen; Ming Dai; Tong Qiu; Yaqin Liu; Gaodao Liang
The intracellular build-up of thermally damaged proteins following exposure to heat stress results in the synthesis of heat shock proteins (Hsps). In the present study, the upper thermal tolerance and expression of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) were examined in juveniles of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium malcolmsonii that had been acclimated at two different temperatures, i.e. 20 °C (group A)
The palaemonid shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum shows an unusually large geographic range (ca. 4000km across) living in coastal, estuarine, and limnic inland habitats of the upper Amazon, Orinoco, and La Plata basins. This raises doubts whether allopatric, ecologically diverse populations belong to the same species. While shrimps from estuarine and Amazonian habitats have been studied in great detail, very little is known about hololimnetic inland populations. In the present study, biological traits related to growth (maximum body size, fresh weight, morphometric relationships) and reproduction (sex ratio; occurrence of male morphotypes; minimum sexable size; minimum size of ovigerous females; fecundity; egg size), were studied in M amazonicum collected from a pond culture and two natural freshwater habitats (Rio Miranda; Lagoa Baiazinha) in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. In total, 2270 shrimps were examined (603 males; 1667 females, 157 of these ovigerous). Sex ratio (males:females) was at all sampling sites strongly female-biased, ranging from 0.2-0.6. Maximum body size was larger in natural habitats compared to the pond culture, suggesting reduced growth or a shorter life span under artificial mass rearing conditions. Maximum fecundity observed in our material was 676 eggs, reached by the largest female (TL=65mm; Lagoa Baiazinha). A significant difference between slope parameters of linear regressions describing fecundity, either in terms of numbers of eggs laid or of larvae released, in relation to female fresh weight, indicates egg losses. This may be due in part to a 2.4-fold increase in egg volume occurring during the course of embryonic development, while the available space under the abdomen remains limited. Size-weight relationships differed significantly between males and females, indicating sexspecific morphometric differences. Males appear to have a more slender body shape than females, reaching thus lower weight at equal TL. When reproductive and morphometric traits are compared with literature data from estuarine and inland populations living in the Amazon and Orinoco plains, shrimps from the Pantanal show conspicuous peculiarities differing from other populations: (1) maximum body size is far smaller, suggesting shorter longevity; (2) females are consistently larger than males; (3) different male morphotypes are absent; (4) minimum sexable size and (5) minimum size of ovigerous females are smaller. These traits suggest a heterochronic shift (predisplacement) of sexual maturation and r-selection. In summary, our data show biologically relevant differences in life-history traits of shrimps from the Pantanal compared to M. amazonicum populations in other regions. All these differences persist also in long-term cultures maintained under constant conditions. Altogether, our data support the hypothesis that M amazonicum in the Paraná-Paraguay drainage basin has phylogenetically diverged from allopatric populations that are hydrologically separated by continental watersheds, implying an at least incipient vicariant speciation. PMID:23894962
The booklet deals with the indoor cultivation of the mushroom, Agaricus bisporus, which can be grown best under temperature conditions. It is concerned mainly with the requirements of small to medium sized mushroom houses built on cottage scale. All aspec...
Since the beginning of the new century, the artificial cultivation of Dendrobium officinale has made a breakthrough progress. This paper systematically expounds key technologies, main features and cautions of the cultivation modes e.g. bionic-facility cultivation, the original ecological cultivation, and potting cultivation for D. officinale, which can provide useful information for the development and improvement of D. officinale industry. PMID:23713268
The oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) is an important freshwater prawn species in China. We collected 236 oriental river prawns from four wild stocks from Qiandao Lake, Zhejiang, China, and used nine polymorphic microsatellite markers to investigate their genetic diversity and structure, to facilitate the development of a selective breeding program. We found 185 alleles at nine loci in this sample. The observed heterozygosity (H(O)) and expected heterozygosity (H(E)) ranged from 0.43 to 0.89 and 0.56 to 0.95, respectively. The four stocks of M. nipponense displayed high genetic diversity (14.33-15.89 alleles/locus, H(O) = 0.66-0.77 and H(E) = 0.78-0.88). Genetic diversity of the stock from Weiping town was lower than the stocks from the other locations. Mutation-drift equilibrium analysis showed no significant bottleneck effect. F-statistics among stocks ranged from 0.03 to 0.07, indicating a moderate level of differentiation. Based on genetic structure analysis, the 236 individuals from the four wild stocks could be divided into two potential populations. Overall, the 09CA, 09AY and 09JJ wild stocks had higher allelic and genetic diversity than the upstream 09WP stock. These three wild stocks could be used as founders for selective breeding. PMID:23079984
The gustavus gene is required for localizing pole plasm and specifying germ cells. Research on gustavus gene expression will advance our understanding of the biological function of gustavus in animals. A cDNA encoding gustavus protein was identified and termed MnGus in the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense. Bioinformatic analyses showed that this gene encoded a protein of 262 amino acids and the protein belongs to the Spsb1 family. Real-time quantitative PCR analyses revealed that the expression level of MnGus in prawn embryos was slightly higher at the cleavage stage than at the blastula stage, and reached the maximum level during the zoea stage of embryos. The minimum level of MnGus expression occurred during the perinucleolus stage in the ovary, while the maximum was at the oil globule stage, and then the level of MnGus expression gradually decreased with the advancement of ovarian development. The expression level of MnGus in muscle was much higher than that in other tissues in mature prawn. The gustavus cDNA sequence was firstly cloned from the oriental river prawn and the pattern of gene expression was described during oocyte maturation, embryonic development, and in other tissues. The differential expression patterns of MnGus in the embryo, ovary and other somatic tissues suggest that the gustavus gene performs multiple physiological functions in the oriental river prawn.
Previously undescribed infective larvae of the cystidicolid nematode Pseudoproleptus sp. (probably conspecific with the nematode originally described as Heliconema izecksohni Fabio, 1982, a parasite of freshwater fish in Brazil), were found encapsulated in the hemocel of the Amazon river prawn Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller) (Decapoda: Palaemonidae) from the natural canals on the Mexiana Island (Amazon River Delta), Pardá State, Brazil. The prevalence in prawns (body length 48-110 mm) examined in January and March 2008 (n = 44) was 32%, with an intensity of 1-6 (mean 2) larvae per crustacean. The nematode larvae (body length 19.7-25.7 mm), characterized by the cephalic end provided with a helmet-like cuticular structure having a thickened free posterior margin, are described based on light and scanning electron microscopy. Apparently prawns play a role as intermediate hosts for this nematode species. This is the first record of a larval representative of Cystidicolidae in South America and the first record of a species of Pseudoproleptus Khera, 1955, in the Neotropics. Heliconema izecksohni is transferred to Pseudoproleptus as Pseudoproleptus izecksohni (Fabio, 1982) n. comb. PMID:19014207
Rivers of Western Queensland, Australia, represent a discontinuous and variable aquatic habitat for the freshwater fauna of the region. Rivers periodically fluctuate between being highly fragmented, with numerous disconnected waterholes and ephemeral channels, and being highly connected by a dominant system of anastomosing channels. We used mitochondrial sequences to investigate the genetic structure and inferred patterns of dispersal associated with this flow regime for the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium australiense (Decapoda: Palaemonidae), sampling 28 localities throughout eight catchments. Based on a 505 base pair fragment of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, we identified 98 haplotypes in a sample of 402 individuals. The haplotypes clustered into two main clades corresponding geographically to the major drainages: the Lake Eyre and Murray-Darling basins. Populations of M. australiense inhabiting the two basins appear to have diverged around 800,000 years ago (estimated sequence divergence of 1.6%). Analysis of population differentiation indicated contemporary high levels of genetic subdivision and restricted gene flow among populations within and among catchments. Phylogenetic analysis detected a series of historical range expansions in the region and we suggest that climate fluctuations during the Pleistocene have resulted in extensive floods that have promoted historical movements of aquatic organisms across catchment boundaries. PMID:15329659
Diadromous freshwater shrimps are exposed to brackish water both as an obligatory part of their larval life cycle and during adult reproductive migration; their well-developed osmoregulatory ability is crucial to survival in such habitats. This study examines gill microsomal Na,K-ATPase (K-phosphatase activity) kinetics and protein profiles in the freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum when in fresh water and after 10-days of acclimation to brackish water (21 per thousand salinity), as well as potential routes of Na+ uptake across the gill epithelium in fresh water. On acclimation, K-phosphatase activity decreases 2.5-fold, Na,K-ATPase alpha-subunit expression declines, total protein expression pattern is markedly altered, and enzyme activity becomes redistributed into different density membrane fractions, possibly reflecting altered vesicle trafficking between the plasma membrane and intracellular compartments. Ultrastructural analysis reveals an intimately coupled pillar cell-septal cell architecture and shows that the cell membrane interfaces between the external medium and the hemolymph are greatly augmented by apical pillar cell evaginations and septal cell invaginations, respectively. These findings are discussed regarding the putative movement of Na+ across the pillar cell interfaces and into the hemolymph via the septal cells, powered by the Na,K-ATPase located in their invaginations. PMID:19100333
Belli, N M; Faleiros, R O; Firmino, K C S; Masui, D C; Leone, F A; McNamara, J C; Furriel, R P M
Ecologically based invasive plant management (EBIPM) is a systematic thinking and planning process to assist with applying the appropriate combination of tools and strategies to addrress the underlying cause of invasion rather than simply controlling invasive annual grass abundance. Cultivation his...
|Draws on contemporary sources to provide strategies for cultivating self-discipline. Advocates self-healing for the adult to be free from destructive attitudes and personal history that can keep adults from being mindful of the child's needs, perspective, and potential. Concludes with ways to facilitate a truly Montessori approach to discipline.…
The patent application relates to the cultivation of hair follicles, and more particularly to a process for cultivating functionally intact hair follicles. One of the major challenges of cell biology is the elucidation of factors which regulate cellular d...
Seaweed cultivation or phycoculture has been developed rather fast in recent years. The total production of cultivated seaweed\\u000a at present is about 6250×103 tons fresh weight. The total cultivation area is estimated as 200×103 hectare. The annual total value of cultivated seaweeds has been estimated to be more than 3 billion US dollars. Phycoculture\\u000a provides many job opportunities for the
Tests the hypothesis that processing strategy moderates the effect of television viewing on social perceptions of undergraduate students (cultivation effect). Examines views on prevalence of crime, occupations, affluence, and marital discord. Indicates that processing strategy moderated the cultivation effect such that cultivation effects were…
|Tests the hypothesis that processing strategy moderates the effect of television viewing on social perceptions of undergraduate students (cultivation effect). Examines views on prevalence of crime, occupations, affluence, and marital discord. Indicates that processing strategy moderated the cultivation effect such that cultivation effects were…
There are two cultivated and twenty-one wild species of genus Oryza. O. sativa, the Asian cultivated rice is grown all over the world. The African cultivated rice, O. glaberrima is grown on a small scale in West Africa. The genus Oryza probably originated about 130 million years ago in Gondwanaland and different species got distributed into different continents with the
This lesson from iGETT will contribute to remote sensing curriculum. This particular unit uses ENVI software to extract data on cultivated land from Landsat 7 imagery. The materials include a learning unit summary, instructor and student guides, supporting documents and a series of data files. The lesson plan will be helpful for students looking at the issue of heat islands in the remote sensing context. A quick, free registration is required to view or download any of the materials.
The hemoflagellates, Trypanosoma spp. and Leishmania spp., are causal agents of a number of parasitic diseases having a major impact on humans and domestic animals over vast areas of the globe. Among the diseases are some of the most pernicious and deadly of human afflictions: African sleeping sickness, Chagas' disease, kala-azar, and Oriental sore. The organisms have complex, pleomorphic life cycles typically involving a vertebrate and an invertebrate host, the latter serving as a vector. In the vertebrate host, they are primarily blood and tissue parasites. In their transition from one host to another, the hemoflagellates undergo morphological, physiological, and biochemical changes that facilitate their growth and subsequent transmission. A major goal in the study of the hemoflagellates has been the cultivation in vitro of both vertebrate and invertebrate stages of the organisms. The first types of media used in their cultivation, and still useful for establishment of cultures, were undefined and contained a complex of ingredients. These gave way to semidefined formulations which included tissue culture media as a base and, as a next step, addition of tissue culture cells as a feeder layer to promote parasite growth. More recently developed media are completely defined, having replaced the feeder cells with various supplements. Serum, a sometimes-variable component of the media, can be replaced by various serum substitutes. This review focuses on the hemoflagellates that infect humans, describing stages in the development of media leading to the fully defined formulations that are now available for the cultivation of many of these organisms.
Marine biological invasions have been regarded as one of the major causes of native biodiversity loss, with shipping and aquaculture being the leading contributors for the introductions of alien species in aquatic ecosystems. In the present study, five aquatic alien species (one mollusk, three crustaceans and one fish species) were detected during dives, shore searches and from the fisheries on the coast of the Delta do Parnaíba Environmental Protection Area, in the States of Piauí and Maranhão, Northeastern Brazil. The species were the bicolor purse-oyster Isognomon bicolor, the whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, the giant river prawn Macrobrachiumrosenbergii, the Indo-Pacific swimming crab Charybdis hellerii and, the muzzled blenny Omobranchus punctatus. Ballast water (I. bicolor, C. hellerii, and O. punctatus) and aquaculture activities (L. vannamei and M. rosenbergii) in adjacent areas are the most likely vectors of introduction. All exotic species found have potential impact risks to the environment because they are able to compete against native species for resources (food and habitat). Isognomon bicolor share the same habitat and food items with the native bivalve species of mussels and barnacles. Litopenaeus vannamei share the same habitat and food items with the native penaeids such as the pinkspot shrimp Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis, the Southern brown shrimp Farfantepenaeus subtilis, and the Southern white shrimp Litopenaeus schmitti, and in the past few years L. vannamei was responsible for a viral epidemics in the cultivation tanks that could be transmitted to native penaeid shrimps. Charybdis hellerii is also able to cause impacts on the local fisheries as the species can decrease the populations of native portunid crabs which are commercialized in the studied region. Macrobrachiumrosenbergii may be sharing natural resources with the Amazon River prawn Macrobrachium amazonicum. Omobranchus punctatus shares habit with the native redlip blenny Ophioblennius atlanticus and other fishes, such as the frillfin goby Bathigobius soporator Some immediate remedial measures to prevent further introductions from ballast water and shrimp farm ponds should be: (i) to prevent the release of ballast water by ship/vessels in the region; (ii) to reroute all effluent waters from shrimp rearing facilities through an underground or above-ground dry well; (iii) to install adequate sand and gravel filter which will allow passage of water but not livestock; (iv) outdoor shrimp pounds located on floodable land should be diked, and; (v) to promote environmental awareness of those directly involved with ballast water (crews of ship/vessels) and shrimp farms in the region. PMID:20737846
Loebmann, Daniel; Mai, Ana Cecília G; Lee, James T
This paper simulated the spatial patterns of cultivated land in China under the future scenario by using the Dynamics of Land System (DLS) model, and then estimated the cultivated land productivity at the grid pixel dimensions based on the Estimation System of Land Production (ESLP). In addition, the spatial patterns of cultivated land productivity in each of China agro-ecological zones were analyzed. On this basis, this paper predicted the impacts of cultivated land conversion on the cultivated land production in China in 2000-2020, and identified the major affecting factors on the cultivated land production. The research results indicated that the impact of improving the cultivated land productivity on the cultivated land production would be wunch more remarkable than that from the magnitude of cultivated land conversion in regions where there were high potential to imrprove the cultivated land productivity. However, in the regions with nearly no room to improve the productivity, cultivated land conversion would produce more apparent impacts on the total cultivated land production. In this sense, it was of significance for the national food security in China to adjust the cultivated land conversion to ensure the 0.12 billion hm2 of cultivated land, and to increase investment and improve management level to increase per unit grain yield. PMID:21442997
In the 1970's and 80's, major research and development programs were launched to explore the possibility of using marine biomass as a source of energy. This volume, not only reviews the accomplishments of the aforementioned programs, but also describes how this research relates to seaweed cultivation for other products, such as food, feed, and high value chemicals. Topics covered include the features of marine biomass production, biotechnological manipulations of marine algae, and marine biomass conversion to energy, as well as economics. The chapters synthesize a large number of technical reports, journal articles, symposia and conference proceedings and technology transfer meetings.
The current study examines the patterns of youth participation in cannabis cultivation by developing a typology among a sample of young offenders (n=175) in a rural region of Quebec, Canada known for its extensive outdoor cultivation industry. A hierarchical cluster analysis approach is used to group participants on various dimensions: motivation, substance use, delinquency and type of participation in cannabis
Noroviruses (NoVs) are a leading cause of gastroenteritis worldwide and are recognized as the foremost cause of foodborne illness. Despite numerous efforts, routine cell cultures have failed to yield replicating NoV. This paper describes methods used to try to grow NoV in vitro in two laboratories. Cells (A549, AGS, Caco-2, CCD-18, CRFK, CR-PEC, Detroit 551, Detroit 562, FRhK-4, HCT-8, HeLa, HEC, HEp-2, Ht-29, HuTu-80, I-407, IEC-6, IEC-18, Kato-3, L20B, MA104, MDBK, MDCK, RD, TMK, Vero and 293) were cultured on solid or permeable surfaces. Differentiation was induced using cell culture supplements such as insulin, DMSO and butyric acid. In some cases, the cells and the NoV-containing stool samples were treated with bioactive digestive additives. Variables evaluated in cultivation experiments included the method of preparation of the virus inoculum, the genotype of the virus, conditions for maintenance of cell monolayers, additives in the maintenance medium and the method of inoculation of the cells. Serial blind passage studies were performed routinely. In addition to evaluation for CPE, evidence of virus replication was sought using immunofluorescent assays to detect newly produced viral capsid antigen and RT-PCR assays to detect the viral genome. Although some infected cultures remained NoV positive by RT-PCR for up to five passages and an occasional cell in a monolayer showed evidence of specific immunofluorescence, no reproducible NoV-induced CPE was observed and all RT-PCR results that were positive initially were negative following continued passaging. Thus, attempts to develop a method for the cultivation of NoV were unsuccessful. PMID:14718622
Duizer, Erwin; Schwab, Kellogg J; Neill, Frederick H; Atmar, Robert L; Koopmans, Marion P G; Estes, Mary K
Burgundy truffles (Tuber aestivum syn. Tuber uncinatum) are the highly prized fruit bodies of subterranean fungi always occurring in ectomycorrhizal symbiosis with host plants. Successful cultivation can be achieved through artificial mycorrhization and outplanting of mostly oaks and hazel on suitable terrain. Here, we review ecological requirements, the influence of environmental factors, and the importance of molecular techniques for a successful cultivation of T. aestivum across Europe. The historical background and current knowledge of T. aestivum cultivation are discussed in light of its socioeconomic relevance. PMID:23666478
Great care is needed to cultivate kawariharatake (Agaricus blazei Murill) because it is not native to Japan but to Brazil. Temperature, humidity, and mushroom beds must be controlled in the culture of this mushroom in order to obtain good results.
Intracellular pH (pH[sub i]) was measured on-line in a bioreactor using a fluorescent pH[sub i] indicator, 9-aminoacridine, and controlled fed-batch cultivations of yeast cells based on pH[sub i] (FB-pH[sub i]) were performed. In FB-pH[sub i] cultivations, automated glucose additions were made to the culture in response to culture pH[sub i]. The average ethanol (anaerobic product) yield was significantly lower [0.12 g g[sup [minus]1] glucose in fed-batch pH[sub i] cultivations with 100 ppm glucose additions (FB-pH[sub i]-100 cultivation) vs. 0.48 g g[sup [minus]1] glucose in batch] and cell yield was higher (0.54 g g[sup [minus]1] glucose in FB-pH[sub 1]-100 cultivation vs. 0.3 g g[sup [minus]1] glucose in batch) compared to batch cultivation. An expression has been derived to calculate changes in pH[sub i] from measured fluorescence values when the cell concentration increases during growth. Cultivations based on pH[sub i], performed with different magnitudes of glucose addition (100, 50, and 10 ppm additions), showed that lower magnitudes of glucose addition resulted in lower ethanol yields while cell yield remained unaffected. The ratio of specific oxygen uptake rate to specific glucose uptake rate (OUR/GUR) increased with decrease in magnitude of glucose additions in FB-pH[sub i] cultivations, suggesting that the culture aerobic state was higher when the magnitude of glucose addition was lower. The average cell productivity in FB-pH[sub i] cultivations was 29% higher than in batch cultivation. Cells were also cultivated at high OUR conditions, and the results are compared with other cultivations.
Sureshkumar, G.K.; Mutharasan, R. (Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States))
Zizania latifolia, which belongs to the tribe Oryzeae, has been cultivated for more than 2000 years and has historically been used in China\\u000a mainly as an aquatic vegetable. In China, the largest area under cultivation of this plant is located in the regions surrounding\\u000a Tai Lake, in the provinces of Jiangsu and Zhejiang. Two main types of cultivars have been developed,
High-cell-density cultivation (HCDC) is required to improve microbial biomass and product formation substantially. An overview\\u000a of HCDC is given for microorganisms including bacteria, archae and eukarya (yeasts). Problems encountered by HCDC and their\\u000a possible solutions are discussed. Improvements of strains, different types of bioreactors and cultivation strategies for successful\\u000a HCDC are described. Stirred-tank reactors with and without cell retention, a
This study replicated and extended previous research that investigated the contribution of soap opera viewing motives to cultivation. A survey method was employed to measure soap opera viewing motives, attitudes, behaviors, and cultivation perceptions of 313 college student soap opera viewers. Contrary to the assumptions of the cultivation hypothesis, the limited cultivation effect observed was related to more instrumental soap
Sandy areas in proximity of oases and irrigated lands in Turkmenistan present a problem because of aeolian encroachment of sand on cultivated areas. Reclamation of sandy areas have been performed, commonly by a sequential leveling, construction of irrigation systems, preparation of soil for cultivation, and by selection and cultivation of appropriate crops with irrigation. Newly cultivated areas may be irrigated
Population pressure induces Dyaks and Malay subsistence cultivators on the island of Kalimantan (Borneo) in Indonesia to make the transition from shifting to continuous wet cultivation of rice (sawah). The techniques used for continuous cultivation of rice are adapted from those used in wet shifting cultivation.
Summary The apical membrane of the intestinal epithelium of the freshwater prawn,Macrobrachiumrosenbergii, has been found to possess an apparently unique allosteric carrier mechanism for the simultaneous cotransport of sodium, chloride, and calcium from mucosal solution to cytosol. Influxes of the two monovalent ions individually were sigmoidal functions of their respective luminal concentrations, and their kinetics followed the Hill equation
|Giant freshwater prawn ("Macrobrachiumrosenbergii" De Man) embryos can be cultured "in vitro" to hatching in 15% (v/v) artificial seawater (ASW). This technique can be applied as a bioassay for testing toxicity or for the effects of various substances on embryo development and can be used as a simple and low-cost model for studying embryo…
We surveyed protozoan and metazoan parasites as well as white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and infectious hypodermal hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) in white shrimp Litopenaeus setiferus and the palaemonid prawn Macrobrachium acanthurus native to the lower Jamapa River region of Veracruz, Mexico. The presence of parasites and the infection parameters were evaluated in 113 palaemonid prawns collected during the northwind (n = 45), rainy (n = 38) and dry seasons (n = 30) between October 2007 and July 2008, and in 91 shrimp collected in the rainy season between May and June 2008. In L. setiferus, ciliates of the subclass Apostomatia (Ascophrys sp.) were evident in gills, and third-stage larvae of the nematode Physocephalus sexalatus were evident in the stomach. Cestodes of the genus Prochristianella were evident in the hepatopancreas, while some gregarines of the genus Nematopsis, as well as unidentified larval cestodes, were observed in the intestine. Histology identified Ascophrys sp. in association with gill necrosis and tissue melanization. Slight inflammation was observed in intestinal epithelium near cestode larvae. In M. acanthurus, epibionts of the protozoans Epistylis sp., Acineta sp. and Lagenophrys sp. were observed under uropods, periopods and pleopods. An unidentified ciliate of the Apostomatia was also found in the gills, and Nematopsis was identified in the intestine. No histopathology was observed in association with these parasites. Moreover, neither WSSV nor IHHNV were detected by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in any of the L. setiferus or M. acanthurus analysed. PMID:22013749
Whole effluent toxicity was assessed for the fish Oryzias latipes and the prawn Macrobrachium nipponense for 18 h in a dilution series (0-66%) of the inflow and effluent of a municipal waste water treatment plant as well as waste water from a teramycin producing pharmaceutical industry, before, during and after a pilot laboratory purification process. The waste waters caused acute toxicity as measured by inhibition of light emission in the luminiscent bacterium Vibrio qingaiensis sp. nov. (Q67). EROD and aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity in in vitro carp liver-cells showed a dose-dependent toxic response to the municipal waste water. Behavioural responses and time-to-death of fish and prawn, recorded online with the "Multispecies Freshwater Biomonitor" proved to be concentration- and time-dependent sensitive toxicity indicators in both types of waste water. Behaviour changed stepwise from normal activity to (increased or decreased) activity to more time spent on ventilation and finally to increased morbidity at higher concentration and time of exposure. The municipal waste water treatment plant managed to reduce toxicity to bacteria (Q67), prawn and fish. The pharmaceutical waste water treatment process still has to be improved, in order to reduce toxicity for fish and prawn. PMID:11996134
Gerhardt, A; de Bisthoven, L Janssens; Mo, Z; Wang, C; Yang, M; Wang, Z
The androgenic gland (AG), a male-specific endocrine organ in crustacean, is responsible for the maintenance of male characteristics and gender differentiation. In this study, an AG-specific gene, the Macrobrachium nipponesne insulin-like androgenic gland factor (MnIAG) was isolated from a transcriptome library of M. nipponesne and its full-length cDNA sequences were obtained by RACE method. The cDNA was 1,547 bp in length and encoded a precursor protein of 175 amino acids. The deduced precursor protein consisted of a signal peptide, B chain, C peptide and an A chain, which exhibited the same structural organization as that of previously identified insulin-like androgenic gland in crustacean. The mature peptide of the MnIAG owned two additional conserved cysteine residues, which were also found in the Palaemonidae species reported. Results of the tissue distribution and in situ hybridization showed the MnIAG expressed exclusively in androgenic gland. The quantitative RT-PCR results demonstrated that the MnIAG transcript was present at blastula stage and later developmental stages with low levels, which suggested that the primordial cells of the AG might form at these stages. PMID:23416103
The use of some biota as bioindicators of heavy metal pollution has been demonstrated as particularly adequate due to their capacity of bioconcentration. This study evaluated the levels of platinum group metals (PGMs) in some selected species along the coastal belt of Ghana, using the neutron activation analysis (NAA) method. The result was processed to evaluate pollution indices in order to map the distribution of the metals in those species in the lagoons and estuaries along the costal belt of Ghana. The analysis showed significant levels of all PGMs in blackchin tilapia (Sarotherodon melanotheron Cichlidae), brown goby (Chonophorus lateristriga Gobiidae), shrimp (Macrobrachium vollenhovenii Palaemonidae), and mangrove oysters (Crassostrea tulipa Ostreidae) in the lagoons and river Pra estuary. However, the oysters showed an elevated mean concentration of 0.13 ?g/g (dry weight) Pd. From the pollution indices, most of the sampling sites registered mean contamination factor (CF) values between 1.20 and 3.00 for Pt, Pd, and Rh. The pollution load index (PLI) conducted also gave an average pollution index between 0.79 and 2.37, indicating progressive contamination levels. The results revealed that anthropogenic sources, industrial and hospital effluent, etc., together with vehicular emissions, could be the contributing factors to the deposition of PGMs along the Ghanaian coast. PMID:20953547
A model for intracellular transport of pigment granules in the red ovarian chromatophores of the freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium olfersi is proposed on the basis of shifts in the equilibrium of resting forces acting on an elastic pigment matrix. The model describes a pigment-transport mechanism in which mechanochemical protein motors like kinesin and myosin alternately stretch and compress a structurally unified, elastic pigment matrix. Quantifiable properties of the spring-matrix obey Hooke's Law during the rapid phases of pigment aggregation and dispersion. The spring-like response of the pigment mass is estimated from previous kinetic experiments on pigment translocation induced by red pigment concentrating hormone, or by the calcium ionophore A23187. Both translocation effectors trigger an initial phase of rapid pigment aggregation, and their removal or washout after complete aggregation produces a phase of rapid pigment dispersion, followed by slow pigment translocation. The rapid-phase kinetics of pigment transport are in reasonable agreement with Hooke's Law, suggesting that such phases represent the release of kinetic energy, probably produced by the mechanochemical protein motors and stored in the form of matrix deformation during the slow phases of translocation. This semiquantitative model should aid in analyzing intracellular transport systems that incorporate an elastic component. PMID:18400993
The types, economic significance and methods of production of the principal cultivated mushrooms are described in outline. These organisms are all less than ideal for conventional genetic analysis and breeding, so molecular methods afford a particular opportunity to advance our understanding of their biology and potentially give the prospect of improvement by gene manipulation. The sequences described are limited to those found in GenBank by August 1999. The gene sequences isolated from the white button mushroom Agaricus bisporus, the shiitake Lentinula edodes, the oyster mushrooms Pleurotus spp., the paddy straw mushroom Volvariella volvacea and the enotake Flammulina velutipes are described. The largest group are genes from A. bisporus, which includes 29 for intracellular proteins and 12 for secreted proteins. In comparison, only a total of 26 sequences can be reported for the other cultivated species. A. bisporus is also the only cultivated species for which molecular karyotyping is already supported by reliable markers for all 13 of its chromosomes. PMID:10907549
Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is the microbial oxidation of ammonium with nitrite to dinitrogen gas under strict anoxic conditions mediated by planctomycete?like bacteria. Anammox is not only important in the oceanic nitrogen cycle, but can also contribute substantially to nitrogen removal in municipal and industrial wastewater treatment. This chapter addresses the enrichment and cultivation of anammox bacteria in a sequencing
Mike Jetten; Markus Schmid; Jaap Sinninghe Damsté; Marc Strous
Due to excessive extraction of medicinal plant species in high altitude areas, Uttarakhand has seen a serious depletion of its biological resources. The state government has introduced policies to promote the conservation of these species and encourage farmers to cultivate them and supplement their incomes. This paper examines the impact of the Uttarakhand government’s promotional policies and also looks at
The types, economic significance and methods of production of the principal cultivated mushrooms are described in outline. These organisms are all less than ideal for conventional genetic analysis and breeding, so molecular methods afford a particular opportunity to advance our understanding of their biology and potentially give the prospect of improvement by gene manipulation. The sequences described are limited to
Recently, Iribarren et al. (in press) reported the results of a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for mussel cultivation in rafts in the northwest coast of Spain. A Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) and its corresponding Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) were carried out from the definition of a representative mussel culture vessel and an average raft. Since data were available on
Sebastián Lozano; Diego Iribarren; María Teresa Moreira; Gumersindo Feijoo
In the highlands of Bhutan shifting cultivation remains an important land use practice, covering an area of approximately 200,000 ha. Two systems, bush fallow and grass fallow, are described and discussed. The traditional methods used in the two systems are well adapted to available resources. The systems differ in fallow vegetation, altitude range, major crops, fallow period, farming tools, clearing
|Explores the cultivation phenomenon among international college students in the United States by examining the connection between levels of acculturation, daytime TV talk show viewing, and beliefs about social reality. Finds that students who scored low on acculturation and watched a great deal of daytime talk shows had a more negative perception…
|Tested cultivation hypothesis by studying relationships between amount of television viewing by high school students and college students and their estimates of chances of victimization and causes of death. Stepwise multiple regression analyses were performed to determine importance of perceived reality, demographic, and televison viewing…
... false Cultivation of controlled substances. 34.7 Section 34...34.7 Cultivation of controlled substances. In addition to the...drying or processing of a controlled substance, or any part thereof,...
This paper describes seasonal changes of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and its glutathione (MC-LR-GSH) and cysteine conjugates (MC-LR-Cys) in three aquatic animals--snail (Bellamya aeruginosa), shrimp (Macrobrachium nipponensis) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) collected from Lake Taihu, China. MC-LR, MC-LR-GSH, and MC-LR-Cys were determined by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrum (LC-ESI-MS). The mean MC-LR concentrations in the hepatopancreas of snail and shrimp and liver of silver carp were 6.61, 0.24, and 0.027 microg g(-1) dry weight (DW), respectively; while the average MC-LR-Cys concentrations were 0.50, 0.97, and 5.72 microg g(-1) DW, respectively. MC-LR-GSH was usually not detectable in these samples. The above results suggest that: (1) in aquatic animals, especially fish, the main excretion form of MC-LR could be MC-LR-Cys, but not MC-LR-GSH, whereas MC-LR-Cys might play an important role in detoxication of MC-LR and (2) that efficiency of MC-LR-Cys formation differs among species. The main detoxication pathway of MC-LR in aquatic animals is suggested as follows: when MC-LR enters into liver/hepatopancreas, it firstly conjugates with polypeptide or protein (including GSH, PP-1 and 2A) containing Cys residues, perhaps also some free cysteine; subsequently, MC-LR-Cys is degraded from these polypeptide or protein; and finally is excreted from animals by the compound of MC-LR-Cys. PMID:19473685
The objective was to characterize vitellogenin expression in the ovary and hepatopancreas, and to describe the morphometry and ultrastructure of oocytes, in the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium amazonicum at various stages of ovarian development. Five ovarian stages were defined: (I) immature, (II) maturing, (III) mature, (IV) spawned, and (V) reorganized. Ovaries and hepatopancreas were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for vitellogenin expression. Vitellogenin expression in both ovary and hepatopancreas was predominantly widespread, beginning at Stage I, peaking at Stage III, and decreasing in Stages IV and V. Characterization of the ovary included measurement of the following germ cell types: oogonia (OG), and previtellogenic (PV), early vitellogenesis (EV), advanced vitellogenesis (AV), and mature (M) oocytes. Mean ± SD diameter of OG and EV oocytes in Stages I (14.2 ± 5.5 and 119.8 ± 15.7 ?m) and II (17.9 ± 4.8 and 114.3 ± 34.6 ?m), respectively, were significantly different from that in Stages IV (16.6 ± 4.7 and 107.0 ± 24.6 ?m) and V (14.4 ± 4.1 and 101.0 ± 25.2 ?m). Both scanning and transmission electron microscopy enabled identification of EV, AV and M oocytes based on the presence of a nucleus, and the organization and distribution of yolk in the cytoplasm. In summary, vitellogenesis occurred both in the hepatopancreas and ovary, with the ovary expressing vitellogenin starting as early as Stage I. This process promoted accumulation of yolk and growth of oocytes, thus favoring sexual maturation of females. This knowledge may be applied to improve production of farmed M. amazonicum. PMID:22920594
Ferreira, M A P; Resende, B M; Lima, M Y S; Santos, S S D; Rocha, R M
Based on the introduction of the general situation of research region, pressure index model of cultivated land is adopted according to the data of population, cultivated land area, crop sowing area, grain sowing area, and unit grain yield in the Statistical Yearbook of Fengxian County. The change of relevant factors of cultivated land pressure index over time is analyzed, as
Xiao Huang; Zhong-Yi Ding; Yu-Qiong Tao; Hui-Min Lian
This paper summarizes the history of hemp (Cannabis) cultivation and traditional use in the Republic of Korea and investigates the cultivation and processing techniques currently being employed to produce hemp ribbon and seed and weave hemp textiles. Recent production levels and market conditions are reviewed. Hemp is cultivated for bast fiber and seed in several of the numerous fertile inland
A novel approach to utilizing whey permeate, the cultivation of mycelia of the edible mushroom Gano- derma lucidum, is introduced. The major objective of this research was to use whey permeate as an alterna- tive growth medium for the cultivation of mycelia of edible mushroom G. lucidum and to find an optimum condition for solid-state cultivation. Response surface analysis was
Cultivated potatoes have been classified as species under the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN) and as cultivar- groups under the International Code of Nomenclature of Cultivated Plants (ICNCP); both classifications are still widely used. This study examines morphological support for the classification of landrace populations of cultivated potatoes, using representatives of all seven species and most subspecies as outlined
Infection with Vibrio cholerae is a significant problem in many developing countries. Cultivation of V. cholerae is used in production of cholera toxin B subunit, which is a component in a cholera vaccine. Fed-batch cultivations with V. cholerae in defined media have been conducted and reproducible results were obtained. A probing feeding strategy developed by Åkesson for Escherichia coli cultivations
As a high-tech counter-contest, robot contest touches upon advanced research and technological integration of multiple professional fields and will become an important platform of the innovation quality cultivation for college students. According to real experience, the mechanism and exercise of innovation quality cultivation for college students is analyzed based on the robot contest platform. The fundamental cultivation condition that robot
Handmade paper and cardboard industries are involved in processing of cellulosic and ligno-cellulosic substances for making paper by hand or simple machinery. In the present study solid sludge and effluent of both cardboard and handmade paper industries was collected for developing a mushroom cultivation technique to achieve zero waste discharges. Findings of present research work reveals that when 50% paper industries waste is used by mixing with 50% (w/w) wheat straw, significant increase (96.38%) in biological efficiency over control of wheat straw was observed. Further, cultivated basidiocarps showed normal morphology of stipe and pileus. Cross section of lamellae did not show any abnormality in the attachment of basidiospores, hymenal trama and basidium. No toxicity was found when fruiting bodies were tested chemically. PMID:21186717
Kulshreshtha, Shweta; Mathur, Nupur; Bhatnagar, Pradeep; Jain, B L
Oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.:Fr.) Kumm. ITCC 3308 (collected from Indian Type Culture Collection, IARI, New Delhi, India, 110012) was grown on dry weed plants, Leonotis sp, Sida acuta, Parthenium argentatum, Ageratum conyzoides, Cassia sophera, Tephrosia purpurea and Lantana camara. Leonotis sp. was the best substrate in fruit body production of P. ostreatus when it was mixed with rice straw (1:1, wet wt/wet wt) for mushroom cultivation. The fruiting time for P. ostreatus was also less on Leonotis sp. than on any other weed substrates tested in the present investigation. T. purpurea was the least suited weed for oyster mushroom cultivation. The main problem of oyster mushroom cultivation on weed substrates was found to be low yield in the second flush that could be overcome by blending weed plants with rice straw. The protein contents of the fruit bodies obtained from Cassia sophera, Parthenium argentatum and Leonotis sp. were not only better than rice straw but also from the rice straw supplemented weeds. PMID:17161599
Hydroponicaly cultivated plants were grown on medium containing uranium. The appropriate concentrations of uranium for the experiments were selected on the basis of a standard ecotoxicity test. The most sensitive plant species was determined to be Lactuca sativa with an EC(50) value about 0.1mM. Cucumis sativa represented the most resistant plant to uranium (EC(50)=0.71 mM). Therefore, we used the uranium in a concentration range from 0.1 to 1mM. Twenty different plant species were tested in hydroponic solution supplemented by 0.1mM or 0.5mM uranium concentration. The uranium accumulation of these plants varied from 0.16 mg/g DW to 0.011 mg/g DW. The highest uranium uptake was determined for Zea mays and the lowest for Arabidopsis thaliana. The amount of accumulated uranium was strongly influenced by uranium concentration in the cultivation medium. Autoradiography showed that uranium is mainly localized in the root system of the plants tested. Additional experiments demonstrated the possibility of influencing the uranium uptake from the cultivation medium by amendments. Tartaric acid was able to increase uranium uptake by Brassica oleracea and Sinapis alba up to 2.8 times or 1.9 times, respectively. Phosphate deficiency increased uranium uptake up to 4.5 times or 3.9 times, respectively, by Brassica oleracea and S. alba. In the case of deficiency of iron or presence of cadmium ions we did not find any increase in uranium accumulation. PMID:21486682
Soudek, Petr; Petrová, Sárka; Benešová, Dagmar; Dvo?áková, Marcela; Van?k, Tomáš
Nurses have been called upon to lead and partner in the transformation of health care. Leadership is a component of the scope of nursing practice; however, the optimal approach to development of leadership competency has not been established. A metasynthesis of qualitative studies on leadership development was conducted to enhance an understanding of conditions that nurses reported to support or hinder their development as leaders. Noblit and Hare's approach was used for the metasynthesis process. Three overarching themes emerged. Opportunity structure, the relationship factor, and organizational culture are essential factors contributing to the successful cultivation of leadership competencies in nurses. PMID:23107990
There are two cultivated and twenty-one wild species of genus Oryza. O. sativa, the Asian cultivated rice is grown all over the world. The African cultivated rice, O. glaberrima is grown on a small scale in West Africa. The genus Oryza probably originated about 130 million years ago in Gondwanaland and different species got distributed into different continents with the breakup of Gondwanaland. The cultivated species originated from a common ancestor with AA genome. Perennial and annual ancestors of O. sativa are O. rufipogon and O. nivara and those of O. glaberrima are O. longistaminata, O. breviligulata and O. glaberrima probably domesticated in Niger river delta. Varieties of O. sativa are classified into six groups on the basis of genetic affinity. Widely known indica rices correspond to group I and japonicas to group VI. The so called javanica rices also belong to group VI and are designated as tropical japonicas in contrast to temperate japonicas grown in temperate climate. Indica and japonica rices had a polyphyletic origin. Indicas were probably domesticated in the foothills of Himalayas in Eastern India and japonicas somewhere in South China. The indica rices dispersed throughout the tropics and subtropics from India. The japonica rices moved northward from South China and became the temperate ecotype. They also moved southward to Southeast Asia and from there to West Africa and Brazil and became tropical ecotype. Rice is now grown between 55 degrees N and 36 degrees S latitudes. It is grown under diverse growing conditions such as irrigated, rainfed lowland, rainfed upland and floodprone ecosystems. Human selection and adaptation to diverse environments has resulted in numerous cultivars. It is estimated that about 120,000 varieties of rice exist in the world. After the establishment of International Rice Research Institute in 1960, rice varietal improvement was intensified and high yielding varieties were developed. These varieties are now planted to 70% of world's riceland. Rice production doubled between 1966 and 1990 due to large scale adoption of these improved varieties. Rice production must increase by 60% by 2025 to feed the additional rice consumers. New tools of molecular and cellular biology such as anther culture, molecular marker aided selection and genetic engineering will play increasing role in rice improvement. PMID:9291957
Seaweeds cultivation has resulted in great achievements, although it has a history of only a few decades. With higher productivity and resulting higher profit, it has become the leading marine exploitation industry with the brightest prospects. The relatively limited species introduced for commercial cultivation showed great biological diversity. Introduction of selected good strains for traditional cultivation and the transformation from cultivation of mixed strains to that of pure cell lines are two certain tendencies in the future. Pure line cultivation of seaweeds in a sort of advanced biotechnology. It provides new opportunities for not only the industry itself, but also the stable market of high quality natural marine products. More work should be done on principles and methods to obtain optimal results from the combination of pure line cultivation techniques with advanced biochemistry. The programmed batch production of fine chemicals such as polysaccharides and proteins will probably become the social demand.
In bocage watersheds, the relationships between runoff producting areas and suspended sediments measurements are generally more difficult to assess than in openfield areas. Land use organisation and connectivity are the major controlling factors because man-made linear structures like hedges, roads or ditches networks strongly impact runoff pathways on slopes. These structures can block runoff or connect areas localized at an important distance to the river. In order to highlight such influence, we study three catchments of same size (fifteen square kilometres) with same lithological characteristics (shist) but with various hedge, road and drainage network densities in Normandy (France). Results underline that the cultivated areas directly connected to the fluvial system are preferentially localized on watersheds of 1st Strahler order classification, but the percentage remains weak at the global scale (less than 5 percent). Therefore, percents of cultivated areas indirectly connected ranged from 6 to 10 percent are more important. Locally, the spatial organisation of roads and ditches aggravate the degree of connectivity. As a consequence, localising areas indirectly connected within the catchments is a fundamental step to better understand slopes contribution to the global sedimentary budget.
Viel, V.; Douvinet, J.; Delahaye, D.; Le Gouee, P.
A marine bacterium, Micrococcus MCCB 104, isolated from hatchery water, demonstrated extracellular antagonistic properties against Vibrio alginolyticus, V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus, V. fluviallis, V. nereis, V. proteolyticus, V. mediterranei, V cholerae and Aeromonas sp., bacteria associated with Macrobrachiumrosenbergii larval rearing systems. The isolate inhibited the growth of V. alginolyticus during co-culture. The antagonistic component of the extracellular product was heat-stable and insensitive to proteases, lipase, catalase and alpha-amylase. Micrococcus MCCB 104 was demonstrated to be non-pathogenic to M. rosenbergii larvae. PMID:16465832
Jayaprakash, N S; Pai, S Somnath; Anas, A; Preetha, R; Philip, Rosamma; Singh, I S Bright
It is a complex and systematic project to design cultivating scheme. The cultivating quality talent is much affected by rationality of the cultivating scheme. By analyzing the thought of how BP neural network works, a new model for planning cultivating scheme based on multi-feedback is presented. By this model multiple feedback information should be considered while planning cultivating scheme. Experiments
This site is home to an extensive online USDA text authored by S.E. McGregor, titled Insect Pollination Of Cultivated Crop Plants. Although originally written in 1976, the text is continually updated with new content. Chapters are organized by plant type (legumes, tree fruits, nuts, clovers, etc.), and provide a table of contents that allows users to jump directly to sections within each chapter. The introduction contains information on wild bees, pesticides, and other related information. Some of the basic sections include "Flowering and Fruiting of Plants", "Wild Bees and Wild Bee Culture". Additionally, new materials within the book are listed by crop and date of addition. This site contains information on pollination of numerous plants from Avocado to Zigzag Clover and everything in between. It is a great source to consult for amateur and professional gardeners alike.
Oleaginous microbial strains were cultivated to identify the best oil-producing strain amongst Yarrowia lipolytica (CGMCC 2.1398), Lipomyces starkeyi (CGMCC 2.1608), Rhodosporidium toruloides (CGMCC 2.1389), Mortierella isabellina (CGMCC 3.3410), Cunninghamella blakeleana (CGMCC 3.970), and Mycobacterium QJ311. A method for rapid determination of oil content and fatty acid composition was established to identify the optimum oil-producing strains. This method had a relative standard deviation of 4.09%, an average recovery ratio of 97.09% and a detection limit of 0.1-1.0 g. Mortierella isabellina CGMCC 3.3410 was identified as the best oil-producing strain amongst the six strains tested, with a total biomass of 75 g/10 L and a lipid content of 35%. A rapid screening method of oleaginous microorganisms is discussed for the first time. PMID:22611917
Cultivating Careers: Professional Development for Campus IT provides an overview of current principles and practices for mentoring and developing IT professionals in higher education. Edited by EDUCAUSE Vice President Cynthia Golden and written by top leaders in the industry who have distinguished themselves and their organizations for sharpening others' skills, institutional savvy, and ability to lead, the book's chapters are organized into two sections: the organizational perspective and the individual perspective. In addition, the online site for the book will have exclusive audio interviews with CIOs and other senior IT leaders in higher education who give advice for future leaders and talk about how they overcame challenges and moved ahead in their own careers.
The in vitro cultivation of protozoan parasites of the genus Cryptosporidium has advanced significantly in recent years. These obligate, intracellular parasites colonize the epithelium of the digestive and respiratory tracts, are often difficult to obtain in significant numbers, produce durable oocysts that defy conventional chemical disinfection methods, and are persistently infectious when stored at refrigerated temperatures (4 to 8°C). While continuous culture and efficient life cycle completion (oocyst production) have not yet been achieved in vitro, routine methods for parasite preparation and cell culture infection and assays for parasite life cycle development have been established. Parasite yields may be limited, but in vitro growth is sufficient to support a variety of research studies, including assessing potential drug therapies, evaluating oocyst disinfection methods, and characterizing life cycle stage development and differentiation.
Relationship cultivation has been identified as a critical component of fundraising success. Cultivation strategies derived from interpersonal communication theory were identified and evaluated by the donors and fundraising team members from three nonprofit hospitals. Using co?orientation methodology, statistical analysis reveals that donors and fundraisers agree that the six strategies are beneficial. However, their perceptions that they hold similar views as
Ergosterol is generally assumed to be one of the best indicators of fungal biomass and soil quality. The present case studies describe variations in ergosterol content in soil, sampled at three Danish farms. One is organically cultivated according to the biodynamical principles (ORG). The other two are conventionally cultivated, one with animal husbandry (CONV-H) and one with plant production (CONV-P).
Many studies have shown that heavy TV viewers make social reality judgments more in line with televised reality. Shrum's (2001) heuristic model of cultivation effects predicted and found that biases in first-order cultivation judgments resemble heuristic processing. Systematic processing eliminated the effect. This study presents a series of computational simulations to examine whether a simple feed-forward neural network model exhibits
There is an unresolved controversy about the classification of cultivated potato as Linnean 'species' as treated under the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN) or as 'cultivar groups' treated under the International Code of Nomenclature of Cultivated Plants (ICNCP). Cultivar-groups ar...
Describes a study that tested whether the accessibility of information in memory mediates the cultivation effect (the effect of television viewing on social perceptions), consistent with the availability heuristic. Shows that heavy viewers gave higher frequency estimates (cultivation effect) and responded faster (accessibility effect) than did…
Agaricus blazei Murrill is actually one of the most promising mushrooms species. An adaptation from the traditional biphasic compost fermentation method for Agaricus bisporus cultivation has been used for its cultivation. To make mushroom production profitable, the selection of compost materials from each region is essential. Sunflower seed hulls are an abundant lignocellulosic waste from the edible oil industry. It
A method for cultivating an alga, which comprises growing the alga in a light field substantially free from light of wavelengths of not more than 340 nm; and a covering material for use in the cultivation of algae, said covering material substantially inhibiting the transmission of light of wavelengths of not more than 340 nm.
Banana has been grown both in open-field and protected cultivation in Turkey. So far protected cultivation is very popular due to the high yield and quality. The objective of the study was to evaluate agronomic performance of five new banana cultivars under plastic greenhouse. ‘MA 13’, ‘Williams’, ‘...
In a two year research project a representative spectrum of blue potato varieties were cultivated and tested in detail regarding disease infestation, yield potential and the influence of production systems (organic). Cultivation recommendations for blue potatoes could be deduced from this. Furthermore the varying anthocyanin content as well as the antioxidant capacity of the varieties used was analysed. Varieties with
A 2-year study on Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty introduced to Hainan Island from the Philippines in 1985 showed promising results. The average daily growth in weight reached 10% at a favourable temperature of about 26°C. Experimental results showed that timely cutting of the plant was an effective way to obtain new cuttings for cultivation and accelerate growth. New cuttings 0.05 kg in weight are suggested to be used as “seeds” and the old plant should be harvested. At present, artificial cultivation with a type of underwater raft applicable in places where there is strong wind will expand cultivation to more regions in Hainan Province.
Phlebiopsis gigantea fungus used in biological control of root rot is currently cultivated commercially in disposable, sterilizable plastic bags. A novel packed bed bioreactor was designed for cultivating P. gigantea and compared to the plastic bag method and to a tray bioreactor. The spore viability of 5.4 x 10(6) c.f.u./g obtained with the packed bed bioreactor was of the same order of magnitude as the viabilities obtained with the other cultivation methods. Furthermore, the packed bed bioreactor was less time and space consuming and easier to operate than the tray bioreactor. PMID:17891458
Virtanen, Veera; Nyyssölä, Antti; Vuolanto, Antti; Leisola, Matti; Seiskari, Pekka
Bacteria were isolated from the dental plaques of nine dogs and a sample of pooled saliva from five other dogs and were then identified by comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Among 339 isolates, 84 different phylotypes belonging to 37 genera were identified. Approximately half of the phylotypes were identified to the species level, and 28% of these were considered members of the indigenous oral microbiota of humans. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of the remaining 44 phylotypes were not represented in GenBank, and most of these phylotypes were tentatively identified as candidate new species. The genera most frequently isolated from saliva were Actinomyces (26%), Streptococcus (18%), and Granulicatella (17%). The genera most frequently isolated from plaque were Porphyromonas (20%), Actinomyces (12%), and Neisseria (10%). A comparison of the DNA sequences from this study with sequences of the human microbiota available in GenBank showed that, on average, canine and human microbiotas differed by almost 7% in the 16S rRNA gene. In conclusion, this study has shown that the cultivable oral microbiotas of dogs and humans show significant differences.
Elliott, David R.; Wilson, Michael; Buckley, Catherine M. F.; Spratt, David A.
We evaluate osmotic and chloride (Cl(-)) regulatory capability in the diadromous shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum, and the accompanying alterations in hemolymph osmolality and [Cl(-)], gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity, and expression of gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase ?-subunit and V-ATPase B subunit mRNA during salinity (S) acclimation. We also characterize V-ATPase kinetics and the organization of transport-related membrane systems in the gill epithelium. Macrobrachium amazonicum strongly hyper-regulates hemolymph osmolality and [Cl(-)] in freshwater and in salinities up to 25‰ S. During a 10-day acclimation period to 25‰ S, hemolymph became isosmotic and hypo-chloremic after 5 days, [Cl(-)] alone remaining hyporegulated thereafter. Gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase ?-subunit mRNA expression increased 6.5 times initial values after 1 h, then decreased to 3 to 4 times initial values by 24 h and to 1.5 times initial values after 10 days at 25‰ S. This increased expression was accompanied by a sharp decrease at 5 h then recovery of initial Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity within 24 h, declining again after 5 days, which suggests transient Cl(-) secretion. V-ATPase B-subunit mRNA expression increased 1.5-fold within 1 h, then reduced sharply to 0.3 times initial values by 5 h, and remained unchanged for the remainder of the 10-day period. V-ATPase activity dropped sharply and was negligible after a 10-day acclimation period to 21‰ S, revealing a marked downregulation of ion uptake mechanisms. The gill epithelium consists of thick, apical pillar cell flanges, the perikarya of which are coupled to an intralamellar septum. These two cell types respectively exhibit extensive apical evaginations and deep membrane invaginations, both of which are associated with numerous mitochondria, characterizing an ion transporting epithelium. These changes in Na(+)/K(+)- and V-ATPase activities and in mRNA expression during salinity acclimation appear to underpin ion uptake and Cl(-) secretion by the palaemonid shrimp gill. PMID:21037069
Faleiros, Rogério Oliveira; Goldman, Maria Helena S; Furriel, Rosa P M; McNamara, John Campbell
|Describes an enjoyable and fascinating experience that involves the cultivation of oyster mushrooms. By allowing students to participate in this process, the students are able to better understand the biology and utility of fungi. (ZWH)|
The study of the flavonoids of the leaves ofCynara scolymus cultivated in Egypt (Romanian strain) resulted in the isolation and identification of apigenin-7-O-glucoside, luteolin, cynaroside and scolymoside.
The composition of an improved medium for the cultivation of the Eaton Agent is described; growth obtained on this medium permits serum inhibition tests. Sera from patients with primary atypical pneumonia caused visible growth inhibition.
Describes an enjoyable and fascinating experience that involves the cultivation of oyster mushrooms. By allowing students to participate in this process, the students are able to better understand the biology and utility of fungi. (ZWH)
The primary objective of this study was to establish the bilogical feasibility of rearing the freshwater shrimp Macrobrachiumrosenbergii and rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri in the thermal effluents from PSEandG's Mercer Generating Station. A new approach in aquaculture involving semiannual grow-out periods, diseasonal aquaculture was the result of the large seasonal variation in Delaware River temperature (0.2 to 29Â°C), since
C. R. Guerra; B. L. Godfriaux; A. F. Eble; A. F. Farmanfarmian
Vitellogenin (Vg) is the precursor of the egg yolk glycoprotein of crustaceans. In the prawn Macrobrachiumrosenbergii, Vg is synthesized in the hepatopancreas, secreted to the hemolymph, and taken up by means of receptor-mediated endocytosis\\u000a into the oocytes. The importance of glycosylation of Vg lies in its putative role in the folding, processing and transport\\u000a of this protein to the
Ziv Roth; Shmuel Parnes; Simy Wiel; Amir Sagi; Nili Zmora; J. Sook Chung; Isam Khalaila
A rooftop greenhouse (bio-shelter) that is heated with active and passive solar systems is presented. The intent of the greenhouse is to grow vegetables hydroponically the year-round using a nutrient flow technique; and to growth the giant tropical Malaysian prawn Macrobrachiumrosenbergii in a recycling raceway water system heated with solar power. The produce grown was continuously monitored and the harvests weighed in order to estimate the year-round production potential of the bio-shelter greenhouse.
Temperature and the dissolved oxygen content affect the oxygen consumption of juveniles of Chinese prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant tiger prawn (P. monodon) and giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachiumrosenbergii). There is good correlation between the oxygen consumption rate (V, mg\\/g·h) of the above three prawn species and the water temperature, and dissolved oxygen. In the range of test temperature,V increased with
Biological data of the Malaysian prawn, Macrobrachiumrosenbergii, are summarized. A history on its rearing techniques is given, but through the use of geothermal water or industrial warm water effluent, its range can be expanded. The use of wasted geothermal water at the Oregon Institute of Technology for prawn ponds is noted. Pond management and design; the hatchery design and function for larval culture; and geothermal applications (legal aspects and constraints) are discussed. (MCW)
An alternative method for the cultivation of Lawsonia intracellularis, an obligate intracellular bacterium and the causative agent of proliferative enteropathy, was developed using an Original Space Bag inflated with a mixture of gas containing 10% hydrogen, 10% carbon dioxide, and 80% nitrogen. The flexibility of this protocol allows the testing of various environmental conditions for static cultivation of this bacterium and the development of diagnostic techniques.
An alternative method for the cultivation of Lawsonia intracellularis, an obligate intracellular bacterium and the causative agent of proliferative enteropathy, was developed using an Original Space Bag inflated with a mixture of gas containing 10% hydrogen, 10% carbon dioxide, and 80% nitrogen. The flexibility of this protocol allows the testing of various environmental conditions for static cultivation of this bacterium and the development of diagnostic techniques. PMID:22219308
In this study we analyzed the numbers and types of cultivable tylosin-resistant bacteria from six agricultural soils that differed with respect to their association with subtherapeutic antibiotic use. The proportion of tylosin-resistant bacteria to the total number of bacteria cultivated was significantly higher (7.2–16.5%) at three sites affected by subtherapeutic antibiotic use compared to three sites unaffected by subtherapeutic antibiotic
This research investigates the impact of 3 personality traits—trait anxiety, sensation seeking, and psychoticism—on cultivation effects regarding perceptions of violence. A survey measuring violence prevalence estimates, personality traits, television consumption, and genre preferences was completed by 427 undergraduates. Results indicate that low trait–anxious individuals, and to a lesser extent high sensation seekers, are more susceptible to cultivation regarding personal vulnerability
Primula veris, a well-known pharmaceutical plant, is a long-lived perennial protected by law in Poland, so its rhizomes and roots can be collected as pharmaceutical stock only from cultivation. Genetic variation of three natural P. veris populations numbering 500-1200 individuals and of three cultivated populations derived from seeds collected from natural sites was investigated in respect of two enzyme systems:
Abstract Borrelia hermsii and Borrelia burgdorferi, two closely related spirochetes, are the etiological agents of tick-borne relapsing fever and Lyme disease, respectively. Previous studies have shown the loss of infectivity of B. burgdorferi is associated with in vitro cultivation. This diminished infectivity of B. burgdorferi has occurred as early as three in vitro passages, and the loss of plasmids have been observed with these less virulent to noninfective cultures. The effects of long-term in vitro cultivation on B. hermsii have not been investigated. However, understanding the degree of genomic degradation during in vitro cultivation is important for investigating pathogenic mechanisms of spirochetes. In this study, we analyzed the effects of continuous in vitro cultivation on the genomic composition and infectivity of B. hermsii and B. turicatae. We report that all seven isolates of B. hermsii and the one isolate of B. turicatae examined retained infectivity in mice after 1 year of continuous in vitro cultivation. Furthermore, there were few apparent differences in the plasmid profiles after long-term cultivation. Two isolates of B. hermsii remained infective after high passage despite losing a portion of the 200-kb linear plasmid containing the fhbA gene encoding the factor H binding protein. Also, sequence analysis of multiple B. hermsii isolates demonstrated two types of fhbA with complete congruence with the two genomic groups of B. hermsii spirochetes. Therefore, these results suggest that relapsing fever spirochetes are genetically stable during in vitro cultivation, and the fhbA-containing segment of DNA that is lost during cultivation is not required for infection.
Schrumpf, Merry E.; Raffel, Sandra J.; Policastro, Paul F.; Porcella, Stephen F.; Schwan, Tom G.
Cultivation of luminal protistan parasites has a long history. In this review we discuss the methods and media that are most widely used for the establishment and maintenance of the following organisms in culture: Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia intestinalis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Dientamoeba fragilis, Blastocystis hominis, and Balantidium coli. While cultivation is of limited importance in the diagnostic laboratory, it is essential to most research laboratories, and it is toward the latter that this review is primarily aimed.
New biomass sources for alternative fuels has become a subject of increasing importance as the nation strives to resolve the economic and strategic impacts of limited fossil fuel resources on our national security, environment, and global climate. Algae are among the most promising non-food-crop-based biomass feedstocks. However, there are currently no commercially viable microalgae-based production systems for biofuel production that have been developed, as limitations include less-than optimal oil content, growth rates, and cultivation techniques. While batch studies are critical for determining basic growth phases and characteristics of the algal species, steady-state studies are necessary to better understand and measure the specific growth parameters. This study evaluated the effects of dilution rate on microalgal biomass productivity, lipid content, and fatty acid profile under steady-state conditions with continuous illumination and carbon dioxide supplemention for two types of algae. Continuous cultures were conducted for more that 3 months. Our results show that the productivity of Chlorella minutissima varied from 39 to 137 mg/L/day (dry mass) when the dilution rate varied from 0.08 to 0.64 day(-1). The biomass productivity of C. minutissima reached a maximum value (137 mg/L/day) at a dilution rate of 0.33 day(-1), while the productivity of Dunaliella tertiolecta varied from 46 to 91 mg/L/day at a dilution rate of 0.17 to 0.74 day(-1). The biomass productivity of D. tertiolecta reached a maximum value of 91 mg/L/day at a dilution rate of 0.42 day(-1). Moreover, the lipid content had no significant change with various dilution rates. PMID:22488253
Tang, Haiying; Chen, Meng; Ng, K Y Simon; Salley, Steven O
Infiltrating TWW induces pond soil surface water repellency and reduced infiltration. The accumulation of organic matter on the soil surface layer induces water repellency. Soil cultivation at the ponds reduced organic matter content at the soil profile. Soil cultivation at the ponds drastically reduced soil water repellency. Soil cultivation increased TWW infiltration into the soil in comparison to no cultivation.
The genotypic diversity of rhizospheric bacteria of 3 legumes including Vigna radiata, Arachis hypogaea and Acacia mangium was compared by using cultivation-dependent and cultivation-independent methods. For cultivation-dependent method, Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiles revealed that the bacterial genetic diversity of V. radiata and A. mangium rhizospheres was higher than that of A. hypogaea rhizosphere. For cultivation-independent method, Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes revealed the difference in bacterial community and diversity of rhizospheres collected from 3 legumes. The ribotype richness which indicates species diversity, was highest in V. radiata rhizosphere, followed by A. hypogaea and A. mangium rhizospheres, respectively. Three kinds of media were used to cultivate different target groups of bacteria. The result indicates that the communities of cultivable bacteria in 3 rhizospheres recovered from nutrient agar (NA) medium were mostly different from each other, while Bradyrhizobium selective medium (BJSM) and nitrogen-free medium shaped the communities of cultivable bacteria. Nine isolates grown on BJSM were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. These isolates were very closely related (with 96% to 99% identities) to either one of the three groups including Cupriavidus-Ralstonia group, Bacillus group and Bradyrhizobium-Bosea-Afipia group. The rhizospheres were also examined for their enzymatic patterns. Of 19 enzymes tested, 3 rhizospheres were distinguishable by the presence or the absence of leucine acrylamidase and acid phosphatase. The selected cultivable bacteria recovered from NA varied in their abilities to produce indole-acetic acid and ammnonia. The resistance to 10 antibiotics was indistinguishable among bacteria isolated from different rhizospheres. PMID:22806857
Background Methanobrevibacter smithii, Methanobrevibacter oralis, Methanosphaera stadtmanae, Methanomassilicoccus luminyensis and Methanobrevibacter arboriphilicus have been cultured from human digestive microbiota. Each one of these fastidious methanogenic archaea requires a specific medium for its growth, hampering their routine isolation and the culture. Methodology/Principal Findings A new culture medium here referred as SAB medium was optimized and tested to cultivate methanogens associated with human microbiota, as well as two mesophile methanogens Methanobacterium beijingense and Methanosaeta concilii. It was further tested for the isolation of archaea from 20 human stool specimens including 10 specimens testing positive for PCR detection of M. smithii. After inoculating 105 colony-forming-unit archaea/mL or 1 g stool specimen in parallel in SAB medium and reference DSMZ medium in the presence of negative controls, growth of archaea was determined by optical microscopy and the measurement of methane production by gas chromatography. While the negative controls remained sterile, all tested archaea grew significantly more rapidly in SAB medium than in reference medium in 1–3 days (P<0.05, Student test). Among PCR-positive stool specimens, 10/10 grew in the SAB medium, 6/10 in DSMZ 119 medium, 5/10 in DSMZ 322 medium and 3/10 in DSMZ 334 c medium. Four out of ten PCR-negative stool specimens grew after a 3-week incubation in the SAB-medium whereas no growth was detected in any of the reference media. 16S rRNA gene sequencing yielded 99–100% sequence similarity with reference M. smithii except for one specimen that yielded 99–100% sequence similarity with reference Methanobrevibacter millerae. Conclusions/Significance SAB medium allows for the versatile isolation and growth of methanogenic archaea associated with human gut microbiota including the archaea missed by inoculation of reference media. Implementation of the SAB medium in veterinary and medical microbiology laboratories will ease the routine culture-based detection of methanogenic archaea in clinical and environmental specimens.
Khelaifia, Saber; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel
The kinetic properties of a microsomal gill (Na+,K+)-ATPase from the freshwater shrimp, Macrobrachium olfersii, acclimated to 21 per thousand salinity for 10 days were investigated using the substrate p-nitrophenylphosphate. The enzyme hydrolyzed this substrate obeying cooperative kinetics at a rate of 123.6+/-4.9 U mg-1 and K0.5=1.31+/-0.05 mmol L-1. Stimulation of K+-phosphatase activity by magnesium (Vmax=125.3+/-7.5 U mg-1; K0.5=2.09+/-0.06 mmol L-1), potassium (Vmax=134.2+/-6.7 U mg-1; K0.5=1.33+/-0.06 mmol L-1) and ammonium ions (Vmax=130.1+/-5.9 U mg-1; K0.5=11.4+/-0.5 mmol L-1) was also cooperative. While orthovanadate abolished p-nitrophenylphosphatase activity, ouabain inhibition reached 80% (KI=304.9+/-18.3 micromol L-1). The kinetic parameters estimated differ significantly from those for freshwater-acclimated shrimps, suggesting expression of different isoenzymes during salinity adaptation. Despite the approximately 2-fold reduction in K+-phosphatase specific activity, Western blotting analysis revealed similar alpha-subunit expression in gill tissue from shrimps acclimated to 21 per thousand salinity or fresh water, although expression of phosphate-hydrolyzing enzymes other than (Na+,K+)-ATPase was stimulated by high salinity acclimation. PMID:16529963
Mendonça, N N; Masui, D C; McNamara, J C; Leone, F A; Furriel, R P M
The concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in muscle samples of two species of fish, tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and the catfish (Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus) and the prawn (Macrobrachium vollenhovenii) found in Lake Taabo (Cote d`Ivoire). Simultaneous measurements of enzymatic biomarkers were made to evaluate the ecotoxicological risk in this hydroelectric reservoir. Lindane and endosulfan were the dominant contaminants, suggesting their current use in neighboring agricultural areas. Other organochlorine (OC) compounds were detected, including some currently banned substances. Ranked in an order of descending concentrations, we found: DDT and its metabolites (17.8-57.2 ng g-1 dry weight), endrin (7.17-25.0 ng g-1 dry weight) and heptachlor (7.36-23.6 ng g-1 dry weight), as well as traces of isomers of chlordane, aldrin and fipronil. The hepatic Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) activity measured in fishes was not correlated with pesticide contamination; whereas the antioxidant biomarkers demonstrated some significant associations, especially hepatic catalase with lindane (R = 0.83) and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) with heptachlor epoxide (R = 0.84) and with pp`DDT (R = 0.81). In the prawns, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity showed significant negative correlations with DDT and its metabolites (R = -0.91). The results of this study emphasize the urgent need for overall environmental risk assessment studies in the region of Taabo and other developing areas.
The full-length cDNA of an ecdysone receptor gene (MnEcR) from Macrobrachium nipponense was cloned and the expression of the gene was investigated. MnEcR maintained a relatively low expression level in the early stages of embryos, but from nauplius stage, a steady increase in MnEcR expression was detected, it had the highest expression level in zoea stage. MnEcR was highly expressed in the hepatopancreas and gills among ten different tissues examined. MnEcR was rapidly upregulated in the premolt stage and rapidly downregulated in the postmolt stage. The expression of MnEcR was remarkably downregulated after eyestalk ablation in M. nipponense. An 18-amino-acid insertion/deletion and a 49-amino-acid substitution were found in the coding region of MnEcR, resulting in four splice variants: MnEcR-L1, -L2, -S1 and-S2. The expression of four splice variants of MnEcR in gonads was investigated using RT-PCR. Interestingly, the expression patterns of these splice variants differed between males and females. The dominant splice variants in testis were MnEcR-S1 and -S2, while in ovary they were MnEcR-L1 and -S2, indicating specific roles for these splice variants in male and female individuals. PMID:23899714
Effect of land use change from paddy rice cultivation to upland crop cultivation on soil carbon budget (SCB) was studied by comparing three types of cropping system (single cropping of paddy rice (PR), single cropping of upland rice (UR) and double cropping of soybean and wheat (SW)) in an experimental field having the same history as consecutively cultivated paddy rice
In cultivation mutualisms, farming animals prepare fields for cultivars, enhance their growth and harvest them. For example, in terrestrial ecosystems, plant-herbivore cultivation mutualisms arose between humans and their crops only relatively recently. We discovered an obligate cultivation mutualism between a damselfish and an alga in a coral reef ecosystem. The damselfish, Stegastes nigricans, manages algal farms through territorial defence against the invading grazers and through weeding of unpalatable algae. As a result, the algal farms of S. nigricans are dominated by one species, Polysiphonia sp. We performed an exhaustive survey of algal assemblages inside and outside the territories of five damselfish species around the Ryukyu Islands, Japan, using molecular and morphological characteristics. Polysiphonia sp. 1 grew exclusively inside the farms of S. nigricans, and never elsewhere. Since only Polysiphonia sp. 1 is harvested and consumed by the damselfish as a staple food, this interdependent relationship is an obligate cultivation mutualism. This is the first record of an obligate plant-herbivore cultivation mutualism in a marine ecosystem. Our data also suggest that three other Polysiphonia species are facultatively mutual with, commensal with, or parasitic on other damselfish species. PMID:17148297
In cultivation mutualisms, farming animals prepare fields for cultivars, enhance their growth and harvest them. For example, in terrestrial ecosystems, plant–herbivore cultivation mutualisms arose between humans and their crops only relatively recently. We discovered an obligate cultivation mutualism between a damselfish and an alga in a coral reef ecosystem. The damselfish, Stegastes nigricans, manages algal farms through territorial defence against the invading grazers and through weeding of unpalatable algae. As a result, the algal farms of S. nigricans are dominated by one species, Polysiphonia sp. We performed an exhaustive survey of algal assemblages inside and outside the territories of five damselfish species around the Ryukyu Islands, Japan, using molecular and morphological characteristics. Polysiphonia sp. 1 grew exclusively inside the farms of S. nigricans, and never elsewhere. Since only Polysiphonia sp. 1 is harvested and consumed by the damselfish as a staple food, this interdependent relationship is an obligate cultivation mutualism. This is the first record of an obligate plant–herbivore cultivation mutualism in a marine ecosystem. Our data also suggest that three other Polysiphonia species are facultatively mutual with, commensal with, or parasitic on other damselfish species.
The potential of microalgae biofuel has not been realized because of low productivity and high costs associated with the current cultivation systems. In this paper, an attached cultivation method was introduced, in which microalgae cells grew on the surface of vertical artificial supporting material to form algal film. Multiple of the algal films were assembled in an array fashion to dilute solar irradiation to facilitate high photosynthetic efficiency. Results showed that a broad range of microalgae species can grow with this attached method. A biomass productivity of 50-80 g m(-2) d(-1) was obtained outdoors for Scenedesmus obliquus, corresponding to the photosynthetic efficiency of 5.2-8.3% (total solar radiation). This attached method also offers lots of possible advantages over traditional open ponds, such as on water saving, harvesting, contamination controlling and scale-up. The attached cultivation represents a promising technology for economically viable production of microalgae biofuels. PMID:23131644
To obtain a reliable estimation on the yield of illicit indoor cannabis cultivation in The Netherlands, cannabis plants confiscated by the police were used to determine the yield of dried female flower buds. The developmental stage of flower buds of the seized plants was described on a scale from 1 to 10 where the value of 10 indicates a fully developed flower bud ready for harvesting. Using eight additional characteristics describing the grow room and cultivation parameters, regression analysis with subset selection was carried out to develop two models for the yield of indoor cannabis cultivation. The median Dutch illicit grow room consists of 259 cannabis plants, has a plant density of 15 plants/m(2), and 510 W of growth lamps per m(2). For the median Dutch grow room, the predicted yield of female flower buds at the harvestable developmental stage (stage 10) was 33.7 g/plant or 505 g/m(2). PMID:17018080
Antihypoxic and nootropic activities of extracts from aerial parts of wild and cultivated Alfredia cernua (L.) Cass. were studied on the models of pressure chamber hypoxia, open field test, and passive avoidance conditioning. The extracts of Alfredia cernua promoted retention of the orientation reflex and passive avoidance conditioned response and normalized orientation and exploratory activities disordered as a result of hypoxic injury. The efficiency of the extracts was superior to that of piracetam by the effect on retention of passive avoidance response throughout the greater part of the experiment. Nootropic activity of cultivated Alfredia cernua was not inferior to that of the wild plant. PMID:21240347
Mustafin, R N; Shilova, I V; Suslov, N I; Kuvacheva, N V; Amelchenko, V P
In order to control the material circulation in the Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF), it is necessary to clarify material flow in the Closed Plant Experiment Facility (CPEF) of CEEF. We tried to grow rice plants and measure the nitrogen contents in rice plant and nutrient solution in plant cultivation bed to trace the material balance in CPEF. The measurements were carried out under the condition of 750 ppm (v/v) CO2 at (26)/(19)°C in the plant cultivation room. The measurements showed the absorbed nitrogen amount in plant was less than the outflow nitrogen amount from nutrient solution. This difference between absorbed and outflow quantity reached to 17%.
|Describes the history of U.S. patriotism, asserting that anchored though it is to a set of ideas, there are unique challenges to educating patriots. Suggests the importance of telling the nation's stories through civics education. Explains that patriotism is cultivated when students learn about democratic values, people and events shaping the…
Monitoring of bacterial cell numbers is of great importance not only in microbiological industry but also for control of liquids contamination in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Here we describe a novel low-cost and highly efficient technology for bacterial cell monitoring during cultivation process. The technology incorporates previously developed monitoring device and algorithm of its action. The devise analyses light
Igor Ya. Kotsyumbas; Igor M. Kushnir; Rostyslav O. Bilyy; Ivanna H. Yarynovska; Vasyl'B. Getman; Alexander I. Bilyi
Piriformospora indica (Hymenomycetes, Basidiomycota) is a newly described cultivable endophyte that colonizes roots. Inoculation with the fungus and application of fungal culture filtrate promotes plant growth and biomass production. Due to its ease of culture, this fungus provides a model organism for the study of beneficial plant-microbe interactions and a new tool for improving plant production systems.
The present review focuses on the various Ocimum species, often referred to as the “king of the herbs.” The botany of more than 50 species of herbs and shrubs belonging to this genus is thoroughly reported, along with traditional uses and cultivation techniques. Since basil is a rich source of natural compounds, details on the several chemical constituents of essential
Cultivation conditions affecting feather degradation by Bacillus sp. FK 46 were investigated. The results showed that feather was almost completely degraded under the following conditions: 1% whole chicken feather as a substrate at the initial medium pH of 9 with 5% bacterial inoculum, at a temperature of 37 °C and a shaking speed of 250 rev\\/min. Glucose, methanol, Tween 80
|Objective: The authors address the issue of cultivating medical students' empathy for the mentally ill by examining medical student empathy pre- and postsimulated auditory hallucination experience. Methods: At the University of Utah, 150 medical students participated in this study during their 6-week psychiatry rotation. The Jefferson Scale of…
|This study examined programs that were designed to cultivate creativity in adults, and drew from those programs a group of generalities that can be used to: assess other programs, devise new programs, and establish teaching strategies that will stimulate creativity. Relevant research, proposals, and programs which existed between 1890 and 1950…
|Research on knowledge cultivation often focuses on explicit forms of knowledge. However, knowledge can also take a tacit form--a form that is often difficult or impossible to tease out, even when it is considered critical in an educational context. A review of the literature revealed that few studies have examined tacit knowledge issues in online…
Cultivated plants that cannot survive on their own often have maladaptive domestication traits. Unharvested crop seeds may generate feral populations, at times causing serious weed problems, but little is known about the evolution of ferality. We explored the potential for cultivated radish, Raphanus sativus, to become feral, given that closely related taxa (e.g., R. raphanistrum and crop-wild hybrids) are well-documented weeds. First, we measured the population growth of five experimental, cultivated, self-seeding radish populations in Michigan, USA, for three generations. Three late-flowering populations went extinct, and two others apparently hybridized with local R. raphanistrum. A common garden experiment showed that the two surviving populations had earlier flowering, smaller root diameters, and greater individual fecundity than did nonhybridized populations. We also used artificial selection to measure the evolutionary potential for earlier flowering. After two generations of strong selection, two of three lineages flowered earlier and produced more seeds than control lineages, but insufficient genetic variation prevented dramatic evolution of crop phenotypes. In summary, it seems unlikely that radishes could spontaneously become feral in our study area without gene flow from R. raphanistrum. Applying these approaches to other cultivated species may provide a better understanding of mechanisms promoting the evolution of feral weeds. PMID:21628205
For the cultivation of avian reoviruses a comparison was made of cell cultures of chick embryo fibroblasts, lungs, liver, kidney and chicken kidney and fertile eggs inoculated via the yolk sac, chorioallantoic membrane or allantoic cavity. Chick embryo liver was found to be the most sensitive cell culture method and the yolk sac the best inoculation route for eggs. Chicken
IT is well known that cultivation of bone marrow by traditional in vitro methods does not sustain normal morphogenesis for prolonged periods of time1-4, and although synthesis of DNA and haem and some erythropoietic activity have been demonstrated in vitro5-9, these processes are maintained only for extremely short periods.
Summary Two fibre plants are under cultivation in the European Union – flax on approximately 125,000 ha and hemp on approximately 15,500 ha in the year 2004. Seeds, hurds and especially fibres of hemp are used for further processing. The most important markets for hemp fibres produced in the EU are pulp and paper and the automotive industry. Just under
Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important source crop for edible oil and protein. It is important to identify the genetic diversity of peanut genetic resources for cultivar development and evaluation of peanut accessions. Thirty-four SSR markers were used to assess the genetic variation of four sets of twenty-four accessions each from the four botanical varieties of the cultivated peanut.
Entomopathogenic fungi are a rich source of natural bioactive compounds. To establish cultivation conditions which facilitate the production of bioactive compounds and to select good genera among entomopathogenic fungi as the producer, 47 typical entomopathogenic fungi were tested for their ability to produce antibiotic activity. Thirty-eight strains (81%) and 30 strains (64%) of these fungi produced either anti-Bacillus compounds or
The pollen flow pattern of a cultivated rice variety, Minghui-63, was studied at horizontal and vertical levels under experimental conditions. Data obtained from pollen traps for six designed populations (as pollen sources) at different intervals showed that the dispersal of rice pollen decreased with the increase of distance from pollen sources and that the rice pollen flow was significantly influenced
Mushrooms have long been treated as a delicacy. Nowadays however, many researchers consider them to be nutraceutical foods, which has stimulated new and existing Brazilian producers to search for more productive techniques and to introduce other species. The objective of this study was to determine the vitamin B1 and B2 contents in mushrooms. The main species of mushroom cultivated in
|This article describes self-cultivation practices originating from the cultural traditions of Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism. It delineates the therapeutic implications of the three states of self pursued by these three traditions: namely, the "relational self", the "authentic self", and the "nonself". Several psychotherapy techniques derived…
Summary A device is described for cultivation of suspension cultures of plant and animal cells in plastic bags placed on carrier plates in a thermostat box. Pendular motion of these plates ensures mixing of the fluid and aids in transfer of oxygen pumped above the fluid surface.
A numerical simulation model was constructed for electrochemical cultivation of iron oxidizing bacterium, Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, based on Monod's dual limitation equation. In this model, two limiting factors were examined, low supply of Fe(II) ion and dissolved oxygen, from empirical viewpoints. The simulation model was constructed taking into consideration the energy balance based on the amount of the electronic flow from the electrode to bacteria via an iron ion, and then to oxygen. The model consisted of a logarithmic bacterial growth phase during the first three days, followed by a plateau and growth limitation thereafter. The predicted results were in agreement with the actual growth under electrochemical cultivation. It was predicted the growth limiting factor would be changed from insufficient supply of Fe(II) ions to that of oxygen by decreasing the value of oxygen transfer constant K, which correlated with the aeration rate. The optimum aeration rate was determined for the ideal electrochemical cultivation. The algorithm described here can be used in any electrochemical cultivation by modifying the parameters for each system. PMID:11857276
The magnitude of the cultivation effect for perceptual estimates of social reality has been shown to be affected by a number of contextual factors such as source priming and motivation to process information during judgment construction, and these contextual factors have been linked to the use of heuristic processing strategies when constructing…
Acacia saligna is a species complex that has become invasive in a number of countries worldwide where it has caused substantial environmental and economic impacts. Understanding genetic and other factors contributing to its success may allow managers to limit future invasions of closely related species. We used three molecular markers to compare the introduced range (South Africa) to the native range (Western Australia). Nuclear markers showed that invasive populations are divergent from native populations and most closely related to a cultivated population in Western Australia. We also found incongruence between nuclear and chloroplast data that, together with the long history of cultivation of the species, suggest that introgressive hybridization (coupled with chloroplast capture) may have occurred within A. saligna. While we could not definitively prove introgression, the genetic distance between cultivated and native A. saligna populations was comparable to known interspecific divergences among other Acacia species. Therefore, cultivation, multiple large-scale introductions and possibly introgressive hybridization have rapidly given rise to the divergent genetic entity present in South Africa. This may explain the known global variation in invasiveness and inaccuracy of native bioclimatic models in predicting potential distributions. PMID:22582829
Thompson, Genevieve D; Bellstedt, Dirk U; Byrne, Margaret; Millar, Melissa A; Richardson, David M; Wilson, John R U; Le Roux, Johannes J
|The magnitude of the cultivation effect for perceptual estimates of social reality has been shown to be affected by a number of contextual factors such as source priming and motivation to process information during judgment construction, and these contextual factors have been linked to the use of heuristic processing strategies when constructing…
This paper presents a new concept for the restoration of an agricultural landscape. The combination of water purification and peatland restoration was tested in a degraded fen area in southern Germany. For this purpose, Typha angustifolia L. and T. latifolia L. were cultivated in constructed wetlands. The wetlands were provided with drainage water from an agricultural watershed. The system presented
Ulrich Wild; Thomas Kamp; Anton Lenz; Sabine Heinz; Jörg Pfadenhauer
Although numerous lifecycle assessments (LCA) of microalgae-based biofuels have suggested net reductions of greenhouse gas emissions, limited experimental data exist on direct emissions from microalgae cultivation systems. For example, nitrous oxide (N(2)O) is a potent greenhouse gas that has been detected from microalgae cultivation. However, little quantitative experimental data exist on direct N(2)O emissions from microalgae cultivation, which has inhibited LCA performed to date. In this study, microalgae species Nannochloropsis salina was cultivated with diurnal light-dark cycling using a nitrate nitrogen source. Gaseous N(2)O emissions were quantitatively measured using Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. Under a nitrogen headspace (photobioreactor simulation), the reactors exhibited elevated N(2)O emissions during dark periods, and reduced N(2)O emissions during light periods. Under air headspace conditions (open pond simulation), N(2)O emissions were negligible during both light and dark periods. Results show that N(2)O production was induced by anoxic conditions when nitrate was present, suggesting that N(2)O was produced by denitrifying bacteria within the culture. The presence of denitrifying bacteria was verified through PCR-based detection of norB genes and antibiotic treatments, the latter of which substantially reduced N(2)O emissions. Application of these results to LCA and strategies for growth management to reduce N(2)O emissions are discussed. PMID:21939252
Fagerstone, Kelly D; Quinn, Jason C; Bradley, Thomas H; De Long, Susan K; Marchese, Anthony J
The shift to (inter)regional production, trade and domestic cultivation has become an irreversible international trend. Until now, the focus of most empirical work has been on large-scale, commercially oriented and professionally organized segments of the cannabis industry, often based on police data and on the perspective of law enforcement agencies. This paper offers a review of recent Dutch-language research that focuses on cannabis cultivation. Empirical studies were identified through literature searches using relevant search terms and Web of Science, Elin, Social Science Research Network and Elsevier ScienceDirect. The paper presents the main findings of Dutch and Belgian empirical work on the factors that stimulated the import substitution process on the cannabis market, aspects related to quality and potency issues, typologies of cannabis growers, and (unintended) effects of pursued policies. In the light of this (selective) review the author offers some commentary and analysis concerning the claims made by different stakeholders, and concludes with some reflections on future research and on policy implications. The author outlines the importance of small-scale, independent or ideologically oriented cannabis cultivation as an under-researched market segment. The author also makes a case for greater toleration of small-scale cannabis cultivation, to secure the least worst of cannabis markets. PMID:20176465
Summary 222 cultivated (Vitis vinifera) and 22 wild (V. vinifera ssp. sylvestris) grape accessions were analysed for genetic diversity and differentiation at eight microsatellite loci. A total of 94 alleles were detected, with extensive polymorphism among the accessions. Multivariate relationships among accessions revealed 16 genetic groups structured into three clusters, supporting the classical eco-geographic grouping of grape cultivars : occidentalis,
MALLIKARJUNA K. ARADHYA; GERALD S. DANGL; BERNARD H. PRINS; JEAN-MICHEL BOURSIQUOT; M. ANDREW WALKER; CAROLE P. MEREDITH; CHARLES J. SIMON
|In this study, the author combines insights from ethnography and discourse analysis to examine how a model of selfhood was cultivated through the social practices of a transformative professional development program for urban public school leaders. Participants were introduced to the notion of an inner self that is knowing, vulnerable, and…
The integration of modern educational technology and English teaching became a necessity because of the rapid development of multimedia and network technology, the widening scale of undergraduate training, as well as cultivating innovative talents demands in the 21st century. Therefore, in the web-based environment, how to develop students' autonomous learning ability under the guidance of constructivism theory is becoming the
Since the 1960s social scientists have demonstrated that exposure to television programming correlates with certain beliefs about the world that differ from statistical measures that define reality. Much of this research on the role of television in socialization, known as media cultivation, was conducted during a time in American history when television programming was dominated by three networks and distributed
Fungi interact with plants as pathogens or benefactors and may influence yields in agroforestry and floriculture. Knowl- edge concerning plant-growth-promoting cultivable root endo- phytes is low (7), and most studies have been conducted with mycorrhizal fungi. These mutualists improve the growth of crops on poor soils with lower inputs of chemical fertilizers and pesticides (2, 9). Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi,
AJIT VARMA; SAVITA VERMA; NIRMAL SAHAY; BRITTA BUTEHORN; PHILIPP FRANKEN
Piriformospora indica (Hymenomycetes, Basidiomycota) is a newly described cultivable endophyte that colonizes roots. Inoculation with the fungus and application of fungal culture filtrate promotes plant growth and biomass production. Due to its ease of culture, this fungus provides a model organism for the study of beneficial plant-microbe interactions and a new tool for improving plant production systems. PMID:10347070
Plant phenotype stability during ex vitro growth, one of the main requirements of plant micropropagation, was tested on tobacco. Plants cultivated in vitro in the presence of 3 % sucrose under photon flux density (PFD) of 200 µmol m-2 s-1 (3 % HL plants) showed the best growth and photosynthetic parameters in the course of 7-day acclimation. However, significant change
D. Haisel; P. Hofman; M. Vágner; H. Lipavská; I. Tichá; C. Schäfer; V. ?apková
About half of tropical deforestation is commonly explained by the expansion of traditional agriculture (shifting cultivation). This article first questions the share of responsibility assigned to traditional agriculture — it may well be overestimated because of unclear definitions, uncertain estimates, and potential political biases. Second, a simple framework based on a theory of land rent capture is developed to explain
This review deals with the major problems of unattached Gracilaria intensive cultivation in outdoor tanks and ponds. These problems are presented through the main variables affecting the Gracilaria annual yield and the updated solutions evolved. The physical variables include tank and pond structure, seawater characteristics\\u000a such as velocity, agitation practice, exchange rate, and salinity, light characteristics such as quantity and
Two different automated immunoanalysis systems are presented. Both are based on the principles of flow-injection analysis and were developed to provide reliable, rapid monitoring of relevant proteins in animal cell cultivation processes. One system uses a turbidimetric analysis, and the other employs a heterogeneous chemistry with immobilized immunocomponents. For both systems, the analysis time is in the range of a
Birgitt Schulze; Cornelia Middendorf; Martin Reinecke; Thomas Scheper; Wolfgang Noé; Michael Howaldt
Typical soils in Greece are neutral or alkaline and frequently are lime-rich, conditions that favour the accumulation of trace elements. The traditional use of metal-based fungicides in orchards and vineyards may have led to the accumulation of trace metals. Concentrations of Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn (aqua regia digestion) and some other soil parameters were measured in organically and conventionally cultivated
E. Vavoulidou; E. J. Avramides; P. Papadopoulos; A. Dimirkou
Mushrooms are currently examined for their potential as functional foods. At the same time, novel types of mushroom intoxications, such as rhabdomyolysis after prolonged consumption, have been described in edible species. The aim of the present study was to perform an acute toxicity test to establish if the most commonly cultivated species would have myo- or hepatotoxic effects. Mice (n=6\\/group)
Physiological studies of Trichodesmium species have been hindered by difficulties in maintaining actively growing, nitrogen-fixing cultures. Previous cultivation successes have not been widely duplicated. We present here a simple modified seawater medium and handling techniques which have been used to maintain actively growing Trichodesmium thiebautii in laboratory culture for over 1 year. The cultured population, isolated from coastal Atlantic waters, has a growth rate of 0.23 division day-1 and exhibits light-dependent nitrogen fixation during exponential growth. Various morphologies, including solitary trichomes, and aggregates (spherical puffs and fusiform tufts) are present during growth. Spectral and scalar irradiance were measured within naturally occurring (coastal Atlantic) aggregates with small (diameter, 50 to 70 ?m) spherical fiber-optic sensors. In contrast to naturally occurring puffs, cultivated Trichodesmium aggregates exhibited spectral properties consistent with low-light adaptation. Cultivated puff-type aggregates were also examined by using oxygen microelectrodes. The simple medium and approach used for cultivation should be easily reproducible and amenable to further manipulations and modifications useful for physiological studies of Trichodesmium spp. in culture. Images
Prufert-Bebout, Lee; Paerl, Hans W.; Lassen, Carsten
|Presented at AERA 2010 as the Social Justice Award Lecture, this article calls attention to the purposes of education in the 21st century and the need for a robust, social justice vision of education. Here, it is argued that education is about the cultivation of a flourishing life and not only the narrow preparation for employment. To realize…
|This qualitative study examines how authority was negotiated in an undergraduate teacher education course. As the teacher of the course, I involved students in on-going processes of collaborative dialogue and deliberation about issues of importance to those involved through cultivating a classroom community of inquiry. The findings suggest that…
The protozoan parasite Babesia bovis, a causative agent of bovine babesiosis, has been continuously cultivated in a settled layer of bovine erythrocytes. Lowered oxygen tension within the layer of host erythrocytes results in a darkening of infected cultures and provides a rapid means of evaluating parasite growth. Deprivation of carbon dioxide causes the merozoites to accumulate in the medium rather
The development of biomass production technology for planktonic microalgae was studied. Two methods of algal species control are presented in detail--the theory of size selective biomass recycle and the selection and cultivation of nitrogen-fixing blue-gr...
J. R. Benemann B. L. Koopman J. C. Weissman D. M. Eisenberg W. J. Oswald
This study tests the idea that TV genres (crime drama, reality cop shows, news) and channels (TV and newspapers) vary in their potential to cultivate perceptions, fears, and behavior related to exposure and attention to crime content. Randomly selected adults (505) over the age of 18 in Indiana were interviewed. Regression analyses indicate significant variance across media genres and channels
Morphogenetic potential of root, leaf, node and internode expiants of 3 cultivated Piper species was investigated to develop a reliable plant regeneration protocol. P. longum (pipli) was the most responsive followed by P. betle (betel vine) and P. nigrum (black pepper). In P. longum the highest number of shoot buds was produced on root expiants followed by node, internode and
A method to isolate and to serially cultivate rabbit skin epithelial cells from adult trunk skin has been developed. Using a collagen gel as substrate and trypsin and EDTA to dissociate cells, nonproliferative primary cultures of rabbit cells may be converted to proliferative populations, and at least 3 serial passages achieved. In the presence of large concentrations of methotrexate (up
We have used nuclear and chloroplast molecular markers to genotype cultivated and wild accessions of Vitis vinifera L. from Tunisia and assess their genetic relationships. Fifty-five distinct genotypes were identified among 80 cultivated accessions, including 18 genotypic groups containing between 2 and 5 accessions per group. They could represent a total of 60 distinct cultivars owing to berry colour variation found within identical genotype groups. Most of the 55 genotypes represent unique table grape genotypes except for one of them that was found identical to the genotype of table grape cultivar Rosseti. Hybridization among cultivars as well as self pollinations seems to have played an important role in their origin since several groups of closely related cultivars were observed. Furthermore, a parentage analysis showed a high probability for a parent hybrid relationship within two groups of three cultivars. No strong genetic similarities were found between cultivated and wild samples indicating that the cultivated accessions do not derive from local Vitis vinifera L. populations but could have been introduced from other regions in historic times. PMID:15644980
Snoussi, H; Slimane, M Harbi Ben; Ruiz-García, L; Martínez-Zapater, J M; Arroyo-García, R
Patterns of allozyme variation were surveyed in collections of cultivated and wild sorghum from Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. Data for 30 isozyme loci from a total of 2067 plants representing 429 accessions were analyzed. Regional levels of genetic diversity in the cultivars are greater in northern and central Africa compared to southern Africa, the Middle East, or Asia.
A recent trend among universities shifts from traditional MBA programs to specialized MBA offerings. Specialized programs are believed to cultivate stronger relationships with students, which lead to stronger alumni relationships and increased donations. This research tests this empirically by examining relationship perceptions and donation behavior among alumni of both traditional and specialized MBA programs from a university. The findings suggest
Jennifer Wiggins Johnson; Veronica Thomas; Joann Peck
Media prepared from fish hydrolysates may be used for the cultivation of mother cultures of rodent typhoid bacteria with a content of 90-120 mg % amino nitrogen and 0.4-0.5% sodium chloride in the medium. Upon addition of sodium and potassium salts of pho...
This article describes self-cultivation practices originating from the cultural traditions of Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism. It delineates the therapeutic implications of the three states of self pursued by these three traditions: namely, the "relational self", the "authentic self", and the "nonself". Several psychotherapy techniques derived…
Background Genomic research of cultivated peanut has lagged behind other crop species because of the paucity of polymorphic DNA markers found in this crop. It is necessary to identify additional DNA markers for further genetic research in peanut. Results Microsatellite markers in cultivated peanut were developed using the SSR enrichment procedure. The results showed that the GA/CT repeat was the most frequently dispersed microsatellite in peanut. The primer pairs were designed for fifty-six different microsatellites, 19 of which showed a polymorphism among the genotypes studied. The average number of alleles per locus was 4.25, and up to 14 alleles were found at one locus. This suggests that microsatellite DNA markers produce a higher level of DNA polymorphism than other DNA markers in cultivated peanut. Conclusions It is desirable to isolate and characterize more DNA markers in cultivated peanut for more productive genomic studies, such as genetic mapping, marker-assisted selection, and gene discovery. The development of microsatellite markers holds a promise for such studies.
The magnitude of the cultivation effect for perceptual estimates of social reality has been shown to be affected by a number of contextual factors such as source priming and motivation to process information during judgment construction, and these con- textual factors have been linked to the use of heuristic processing strategies when constructing judgments of frequency and probability (L. J.
Organizations are seeking ways to become more innovative as a response to increased global competitiveness. While innovation is clearly important, many strategies have been attempted with this goal but no clear method has proved successful. This study shows that firms who are considered to have innovation as one of their core competencies utilize mentoring to facilitate and cultivate innovation. Utilizing
Objective: The authors address the issue of cultivating medical students' empathy for the mentally ill by examining medical student empathy pre- and postsimulated auditory hallucination experience. Methods: At the University of Utah, 150 medical students participated in this study during their 6-week psychiatry rotation. The Jefferson Scale of…
We investigated modulation by ATP, Mg²?, Na?, K? and NH?? and inhibition by ouabain of (Na?,K?)-ATPase activity in microsomal homogenates of whole zoeae I and decapodid III (formerly zoea IX) and whole-body and gill homogenates of juvenile and adult Amazon River shrimps, Macrobrachium amazonicum. (Na?,K?)-ATPase-specific activity was increased twofold in decapodid III compared to zoea I, juveniles and adults, suggesting an important role in this ontogenetic stage. The apparent affinity for ATP (K(M) = 0.09 ± 0.01 mmol L?¹) of the decapodid III (Na?,K?)-ATPase, about twofold greater than the other stages, further highlights this relevance. Modulation of (Na?,K?-ATPase activity by K? also revealed a threefold greater affinity for K? (K?.? = 0.91 ± 0.04 mmol L?¹) in decapodid III than in other stages; NH?? had no modulatory effect. The affinity for Na? (K?.? = 13.2 ± 0.6 mmol L?¹) of zoea I (Na?,K?)-ATPase was fourfold less than other stages. Modulation by Na?, Mg²? and NH?? obeyed cooperative kinetics, while K? modulation exhibited Michaelis-Menten behavior. Rates of maximal Mg²? stimulation of ouabain-insensitive ATPase activity differed in each ontogenetic stage, suggesting that Mg²?-stimulated ATPases other than (Na?,K?)-ATPase are present. Ouabain inhibition suggests that, among the various ATPase activities present in the different stages, Na?-ATPase may be involved in the ontogeny of osmoregulation in larval M. amazonicum. The NH??-stimulated, ouabain-insensitive ATPase activity seen in zoea I and decapodid III may reflect a stage-specific means of ammonia excretion since functional gills are absent in the early larval stages. PMID:22544049
Leone, Francisco Assis; Masui, Douglas Chodi; de Souza Bezerra, Thais Milena; Garçon, Daniela Pereira; Valenti, Wagner Cotroni; Augusto, Alessandra Silva; McNamara, John Campbell
China/s current cultivated land supply will be depleted in 200 years if present land use and population pressure continue, according to Professor Liu Xuanhao of the Beijing Agriculture University in 1989. The amount of cultivated land began to decline after 1957 due to national construction projects. By 1985 the decline had reached a net annual average of 15 million mu (1 mu = 16.5% of an acre). Land lost between 1949 and 1986 amounted to a 7 million annual average. During this period, population grew from 540 million in 1949 to 1.14 billion in 1990, which meant 2.8 mu/capita in 1949 vs. 1.5mu/capita in 1990. 5 major points are made. 1) China feeds 22% of the world's population on 7% of world's land. Per capita area of cultivated land is low for China's population size. Land area is 13.3 mu/capita or 25% of US land area. 2) Of the total land area, cultivated land constitutes a small proportion, i.e., 31% is plains and basins while 69% is mountains, plateaus, and hilly areas. 1.4 billion mu is cultivatable land or 10% of the land area. In contrast, 50% of India's territory is cultivatable land. 3) East and south China have the greatest area (90%) of cultivable land. Forest reserves are in the northeast and southwest, and grasslands predominate in the northwest. 4) There is only 500 million mu of arable land. 5) There are insufficient water resources and uneven regional and seasonal distribution. Water resources are 25% of the world average. National Economic development will be impeded by the pressure between limited land resources and population growth which is expected to increase until 2020. Land management since 1986 has come under the Land Administration Law whose guidelines stipulate that land is to be valued, protected, and utilized rationally. Since 1986, there has been nationwide monitoring of land use for nonfarming purposes, which has contributed to less loss of land for cultivation. Evaluation of land resources will now permit plans for appropriate land utilization. Currently the net decrease in cultivated land is 3 million mu/year. Beginning in 1991, June 25 is set aside as Land Day. Last year Vice Premier Tian Jiyun of the State Council urged on Land Day all citizens to protect and to use the land fully. Strengthening land and resource utilization with economic development will insure future viability. PMID:12285198
Medicinal mushrooms belonging to higher Basidiomycetes are an immensely rich yet largely untapped resource of useful, easily accessible, natural compounds with various biological activities that may promote human well-being. The medicinal properties are found in various cellular components and secondary metabolites (polysaccharides, proteins and their complexes, phenolic compounds, polyketides, triterpenoids, steroids, alkaloids, nucleotides, etc.), which have been isolated and identified from the fruiting bodies, culture mycelium, and culture broth of mushrooms. Some of these compounds have cholesterol-lowering, anti-diabetic, antioxidant, antitumor, immunomodulating, antimicrobial, and antiviral activities ready for industrial trials and further commercialization, while others are in various stages of development. Recently, the submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms has received a great deal of attention as a promising and reproducible alternative for the efficient production of mushroom mycelium and metabolites. Submerged cultivation of mushrooms has significant industrial potential, but its success on a commercial scale depends on increasing product yields and development of novel production systems that address the problems associated with this technique of mushroom cultivation. In spite of many researchers' efforts for the production of bioactive metabolites by mushrooms, the physiological and engineering aspects of submerged cultures are still far from being thoroughly studied. The vast majority of studies have focused on polysaccharide and ganoderic acid production in submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms, and very little has been written so far on the antioxidant and hemagglutinating activity of submerged mushroom cultures. The purpose of this review is to provide an update of the present state of the art and future prospects of submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms to produce mycelium and bioactive metabolites, and to make a contribution for the research and development of new pharmaceutical products from mushrooms. A brief overview of the metabolic diversity and bioactive compounds of mushrooms produced by submerged cultures is also given. PMID:22577974
Field studies on cannabis cultivation have provided socio-economic data relating to, inter alia, production, yield and income. But only laboratory analyses of cannabis plants can provide information on their chemical composition and their levels of psychoactive constituents, thus enabling them to be classed as a drug type or a fibre type. The present study, which covers cannabis in its fresh, dried and powdered forms, drew on fresh samples, obtained on the day they were harvested or immediately after preparation; that was done in order to prevent any alteration in the A-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) caused by the oxidation that takes place as the product ages. The purpose of this study is to determine the THC level in 245 specimens obtained from 30 cannabis plots in three provinces of northern Morocco: Al Hoceima and Chefchaouen, where cannabis cultivation has a long tradition, and Larache, where cannabis cultivation has started only recently. Qualitative analysis using high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection revealed the presence of both the acid and the decarboxylated form of the main cannabinoids, cannabidiol, THC and cannabinol, and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used for the characterization of minor cannibinoids. Quantitative analysis using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry made it possible to determine the average delta-9-THC content of cannabis in its fresh form (0.5 per cent), its dry form (2.21 per cent) and its powdered form (8.3 per cent). The results show that the traditional areas of cannabis cultivation--Al Hoceima and Chefchaouen--produce cannabis with a higher delta-9-THC content than the Larache region. In addition, the present study establishes that male plants, often considered deficient in delta-9-THC, contain levels of the same order as those recorded for female plants, both in the leaves and in the tops. PMID:21338017
Stambouli, H; El Bouri, A; Bellimam, M A; Bouayoun, T; El Karni, N
The possibility of successfully cultivating the virus of spring-summer and Japanese encephalitis in developing chicken embryo was established. The optimal conditions during cultivation of the virus of Japanese encephalitis are: 8-9 day embryos, infected i...
...determine the recovery percentage from samples of cultivated wild rice. Cultivated Wild Rice. A member of the grass family Zizania Palustris L., adapted for growing in man-made flood irrigated fields known as paddies. Finished weight. (a)...
...determine the recovery percentage from samples of cultivated wild rice. Cultivated Wild Rice. A member of the grass family Zizania Palustris L., adapted for growing in man-made flood irrigated fields known as paddies. Finished weight. (a)...
|Two studies investigated the interrelations among television viewing, materialism, and life satisfaction, and their underlying processes. Study 1 tested an online process model for television's cultivation of materialism by manipulating level of materialistic content. Viewing level influenced materialism, but only among participants who reported…
Shrum, L. J.; Lee, Jaehoon; Burroughs, James E.; Rindfleisch, Aric
Long-term cultivation impacts soil properties. During the early 1920s a study comparing non-cultivated and cultivated soils was done in eastern SD (Beadle, McCook, Minnehaha, and Union Counties), USA. The objectives of the current study were to: (1) determine the long-term (>80 years) impact of cultivation on selected soil properties; and (2) establish baseline soil data that can be used for
Protected cultivations are expanding all over the world, particularly in otherwise marginal agricultural land. However, protected cultivation involves the intensive use of resources such as soil, water, fertilizers, pesticides and energy. As a consequence, such intensive production systems are perceived by many as artificial and highly pollutant processes. Protected cultivation, and more particularly green-house production, has to be – and
We investigated the long-term effects of shifting cultivation on soil phos- phorus pools to understand the effects of repeated intense disturbance on nutrient cycling in rain forests and to assess the sustainability of a widespread tropical agricultural system. We studied 24 sites that formed a gradient of cultivation history near a village in West Kalimantan, Indonesia, where long-fallow shifting cultivation
Numerous species of seaweed have been successfully cultivated in the sea for commercial purposes. Although considerable experimental work has been done on on-shore cultivation systems, none of these has yet proved to be economically viable on a sustained basis; nevertheless, such cultivation systems offer the potential for productivities greater than can be achieved in other systems. In on-shore systems, factors
About 25% of Laos' four million people practise shifting cultivation (mainly of rice) on a third of the country's cropped area. Official policy is to eliminate shifting cultivation by the year 2000. Diagnostic surveys of shifting cultivation were conducted in Luang Prabang and Oudomsay Provinces in northern Laos to understand the practice from a farmer's perspective, to observe fields, and
The education and cultivation on innovation ability of engineering university students is a very important issue that should be focused by educators of the 21st century. This article makes systemic and concise statement about the education and cultivation on innovation ability of engineering university students in three aspects. They are goal and request, current problems, cultivation ways and methods.
Since the purpose of this paper is to record the cultivation of amoebae upon autolyzed tissue without bacterial association, the morphological characteristics, life cycle, means of differentiating species, and pathogenicity of the protozoa have been omitted. These subjects will be considered in later publications. The result of this study proves that some species of amoebae from liver abscesses and the human intestine can be cultivated upon various autolyzed tissues of man and some of the lower animals without a symbiotic microorganism. Their cultivation from liver abscesses upon such bacteria-free autolyzed tissue indicates that their multiplication in these lesions depends upon some product or products in the process of dissociation of the liver cells. That such a process exists in amoebic liver abscesses cannot be questioned when histological and biochemical studies are made of such lesions, and this explains not only why the multiplication of the parasites in the organ occurs, but suggests the probable origin of the lesion. It has long been known that tissue kept for several days in a perfectly aseptic condition and at body heat, or preferably at slightly higher temperature undergoes softening and final disintegration of its cells. Wells and others who have made a thorough study of this phenomenon find that different enzymic actions take place in this process: thus in the liver they find that soluble nitrogen compounds are greatly increased, the nucleoproteids are altered by nuclease, the purin bases are freed and in their turn acted upon by the guanase and adenase, the fats are split and fatty acids set free, the glycogen gives rise to glucose and undergoes further splitting. lecithin is cleaved, and allied bodies appear, and there is a marked appearance of cholin and cholesterin. Similar changes varying only in degree occur in the process of autolysis of other tissues. Furthermore, Duval in his experiments upon the cultivation of Bacillus leprae found that the initial multiplication was accomplished when the specific organism was in symbiosis with an associated bacterium capable of hydrolyzing the leprous tissue. In later experiments he noted that the products of split proteins supply what is actually required for the growth of this particular obligate cell parasite, and that while this end is reached with bacteria through their proteolytic action equally good results can be obtained with tissue free from contaminating microörganisms provided that it is allowed to autolyze. The separation of amoebae cultivated from the human intestine from their bacterial symbiont, and their development upon various autolyzed tissues indicate that it is not the bacterium that is essential for the life of these protozoa, but the action of the living bacteria upon the protein contained in the media. This would explain the failure of many investigators to cultivate amoebae with dead bacteria or bacterial filtrates. Mention has been made that the autolyzed tissue used in the cultivation experiments gave a distinct acid reaction. The multiplication of amoebae upon a medium with such a reaction appears contradictory to the findings of Musgrave and Clegg, Walker, and others, who have emphasized the necessity of an alkaline medium for the successful cultivation of amoebae with a bacterial symbiont, though in accord with what is known to be the reaction of the contents from amoebic liver abscesses and of the bloody stools in intestinal amoebiosis. The fact should not be lost sight of that, in the cultivation of amoebae, these authors lay stress upon the selectiveness of amoebae for a special microörganism. A comparison of their work with our own results indicates that bacteria known to possess strong hydrolyzing properties, e. g., Vibrio cholerae, Bacillus coli, Bacillus subtilis, Vibrio proteus (Finkler-Prior), etc., furnish the best symbionts to the amoebae. It is well known that these bacteria growing upon gelatin or blood serum liquify the medium and alter its reaction to a marked degree of acidity. This acidity, for the most part, re
Since the purpose of this paper is to record the cultivation of amœbæ upon autolyzed tissue without bacterial association, the morphological characteristics, life cycle, means of differentiating species, and pathogenicity of the protozoa have been omitted. These subjects will be considered in later publications. The result of this study proves that some species of amœbæ from liver abscesses and the human intestine can be cultivated upon various autolyzed tissues of man and some of the lower animals without a symbiotic microorganism. Their cultivation from liver abscesses upon such bacteria-free autolyzed tissue indicates that their multiplication in these lesions depends upon some product or products in the process of dissociation of the liver cells. That such a process exists in amœbic liver abscesses cannot be questioned when histological and biochemical studies are made of such lesions, and this explains not only why the multiplication of the parasites in the organ occurs, but suggests the probable origin of the lesion. It has long been known that tissue kept for several days in a perfectly aseptic condition and at body heat, or preferably at slightly higher temperature undergoes softening and final disintegration of its cells. Wells and others who have made a thorough study of this phenomenon find that different enzymic actions take place in this process: thus in the liver they find that soluble nitrogen compounds are greatly increased, the nucleoproteids are altered by nuclease, the purin bases are freed and in their turn acted upon by the guanase and adenase, the fats are split and fatty acids set free, the glycogen gives rise to glucose and undergoes further splitting. lecithin is cleaved, and allied bodies appear, and there is a marked appearance of cholin and cholesterin. Similar changes varying only in degree occur in the process of autolysis of other tissues. Furthermore, Duval in his experiments upon the cultivation of Bacillus lepræ found that the initial multiplication was accomplished when the specific organism was in symbiosis with an associated bacterium capable of hydrolyzing the leprous tissue. In later experiments he noted that the products of split proteins supply what is actually required for the growth of this particular obligate cell parasite, and that while this end is reached with bacteria through their proteolytic action equally good results can be obtained with tissue free from contaminating microörganisms provided that it is allowed to autolyze. The separation of amœbæ cultivated from the human intestine from their bacterial symbiont, and their development upon various autolyzed tissues indicate that it is not the bacterium that is essential for the life of these protozoa, but the action of the living bacteria upon the protein contained in the media. This would explain the failure of many investigators to cultivate amœbæ with dead bacteria or bacterial filtrates. Mention has been made that the autolyzed tissue used in the cultivation experiments gave a distinct acid reaction. The multiplication of amœbæ upon a medium with such a reaction appears contradictory to the findings of Musgrave and Clegg, Walker, and others, who have emphasized the necessity of an alkaline medium for the successful cultivation of amœbæ with a bacterial symbiont, though in accord with what is known to be the reaction of the contents from amœbic liver abscesses and of the bloody stools in intestinal amœbiosis. The fact should not be lost sight of that, in the cultivation of amœbæ, these authors lay stress upon the selectiveness of amœbæ for a special microörganism. A comparison of their work with our own results indicates that bacteria known to possess strong hydrolyzing properties, e. g., Vibrio choleræ, Bacillus coli, Bacillus subtilis, Vibrio proteus (Finkler-Prior), etc., furnish the best symbionts to the amœbæ. It is well known that these bacteria growing upon gelatin or blood se
Background For fermentation process and strain improvement, where one wants to screen a large number of conditions and strains, robust and scalable high-throughput cultivation systems are crucial. Often, the time lag between bench-scale cultivations to production largely depends on approximate estimation of scalable physiological traits. Microtiter plate (MTP) based screening platforms have lately become an attractive alternative to shake flasks mainly because of the ease of automation. However, there are very few reports on applications for filamentous organisms; as well as efforts towards systematic validation of physiological behavior compared to larger scale are sparse. Moreover, available small-scale screening approaches are typically constrained by evaluating only an end point snapshot of phenotypes. Results To address these issues, we devised a robust, small-scale cultivation platform in the form of MTPs (24-square deepwell) for the filamentous bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor and compared its performance to that of shake flasks and bench-scale reactors. We observed that re-designing of medium and inoculum preparation recipes resulted in improved reproducibility. Process turnaround time was significantly reduced due to the reduction in number of unit operations from inoculum to cultivation. The incorporation of glass beads (ø 3 mm) in MTPs not only improved the process performance in terms of improved oxygen transfer improving secondary metabolite production, but also helped to transform morphology from pellet to disperse, resulting in enhanced reproducibility. Addition of MOPS into the medium resulted in pH maintenance above 6.50, a crucial parameter towards reproducibility. Moreover, the entire trajectory of the process was analyzed for compatibility with bench-scale reactors. The MTP cultivations were found to behave similar to bench-scale in terms of growth rate, productivity and substrate uptake rate and so was the onset of antibiotic synthesis. Shake flask cultivations however, showed discrepancy with respect to morphology and had considerably reduced volumetric production rates of antibiotics. Conclusion We observed good agreement of the physiological data obtained in the developed MTP platform with bench-scale. Hence, the described MTP-based screening platform has a high potential for investigation of secondary metabolite biosynthesis in Streptomycetes and other filamentous bacteria and the use may significantly reduce the workload and costs.
Background, aim, and scope Nowadays, various crops are cultivated to supply emerging needs in sustainable fuels and materials. In addition to the development\\u000a of crop processing technologies, cultivation processes in a cropping system could be modified to meet the emerging needs,\\u000a along with the conventional needs in food supply. This study provides a decision tool for modifications in cultivation of\\u000a crops
Haloarchaea are the dominant microbial flora in hypersaline waters with near-saturating salt levels. The haloarchaeal diversity of an Australian saltern crystallizer pond was examined by use of a library of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes and by cultivation. High viable counts (10(6) CFU/ml) were obtained on solid media. Long incubation times (> or =8 weeks) appeared to be more important than the medium composition for maximizing viable counts and diversity. Of 66 isolates examined, all belonged to the family Halobacteriaceae, including members related to species of the genera Haloferax, Halorubrum, and Natronomonas. In addition, isolates belonging to a novel group (the ADL group), previously detected only as 16S rRNA genes in an Antarctic hypersaline lake (Deep Lake), were cultivated for the first time. The 16S rRNA gene library identified the following five main groups: Halorubrum groups 1 and 2 (49%), the SHOW (square haloarchaea of Walsby) group (33%), the ADL group (16%), and the Natronomonas group (2%). There were two significant differences between the organisms detected in cultivation and 16S rRNA sequence results. Firstly, Haloferax spp. were frequently isolated on plates (15% of all isolates) but were not detected in the 16S rRNA sequences. Control experiments indicated that a bias against Haloferax sequences in the generation of the 16S rRNA gene library was unlikely, suggesting that Haloferax spp. readily form colonies, even though they were not a dominant group. Secondly, while the 16S rRNA gene library identified the SHOW group as a major component of the microbial community, no isolates of this group were obtained. This inability to culture members of the SHOW group remains an outstanding problem in studying the ecology of hypersaline environments. PMID:15345408
Burns, D G; Camakaris, H M; Janssen, P H; Dyall-Smith, M L
Background Cultivation of medicinal plants is not only a means for meeting current and future demands for large volume production of plant-based drug and herbal remedies, but also a means of relieving harvest pressure on wild populations. Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (Huang-qin or Chinese skullcap) is a very important medicinal plant in China. Over the past several decades, wild resource of this species has suffered rapid declines and large-scale cultivation was initiated to meet the increasing demand for its root. However, the genetic impacts of recent cultivation on S. baicalensis have never been evaluated. In this study, the genetic diversity and genetic structure of 28 wild and 22 cultivated populations were estimated using three polymorphic chloroplast fragments. The objectives of this study are to provide baseline data for preserving genetic resource of S. baicalensis and to evaluate the genetic impacts of recent cultivation on medicinal plants, which may be instructive to future cultivation projects of traditional Chinese medicinal plants. Results Thirty-two haplotypes of S. baicalensis (HapA-Y and Hap1-7) were identified when three chloroplast spacers were combined. These haplotypes constituted a shallow gene tree without obvious clusters for cultivated populations, suggesting multiple origins of cultivated S. baicalensis. Cultivated populations (hT = 0.832) maintained comparable genetic variation with wild populations (hT = 0.888), indicating a slight genetic bottleneck due to multiple origins of cultivation. However, a substantial amount of rare alleles (10 out of 25 haplotypes within wild populations) lost during the course of S. baicalensis cultivation. The genetic differentiation for cultivated group (GST = 0.220) was significantly lower than that of wild group (GST = 0.701). Isolation by distance analysis showed that the effect of geographical isolation on genetic structure was significant in wild populations (r = 0.4346, P < 0.0010), but not in cultivated populations (r = 0.0599, P = 0.2710). These genetic distribution patterns suggest that a transient cultivation history and the extensive seed change among different geographical areas during the course of S. baicalensis cultivation. Conclusions Although cultivated S. baicalensis maintains comparable genetic diversity relative to wild populations, recent cultivation has still imposed profound impacts on genetic diversity patterns of the cultivated S. baicalensis populations, i.e., the loss of rare alleles and homogenization of cultivated populations. This study suggests that conservation-by-cultivation is an effective means for protecting genetic resources of S. baicalensis, however, the wild resources still need to be protected in situ and the evolutionary consequences of extensive seed exchange mediated by human being should be monitored carefully.
Dried synthetic nutrient medium for the cultivation of meningococci and the accumulation of their biomass has been developed. The kinetics of the culture growth, changes in pH and in the content of dissolved oxygen in the medium during prolonged controlled processes of the cultivation of meningococci in a bioreactor with the use of this medium have been studied. The stable physico-chemical properties and composition of the polysaccharide-protein complex isolated from the biomass of meningococci grown in the above-mentioned medium have made it possible to use it for the preparation of the samples of group B meningococcal vaccine. In addition, dried semi-synthetic nutrient medium for the accumulation of pneumococci without the necessity of introducing blood or serum into the medium has been developed. As regards its biological properties, this newly developed medium make it not inferior to meat media, containing blood or serum, and ensures good yield of biomass. PMID:10876845
In order to control the material circulation in the Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF), it is necessary to clarify material flow in the Closed Plant Experiment Facility (CPEF) of CEEF. We tried to grow rice plants and measure the nitrogen contents in rice plant and nutrient solution in plant cultivation bed to trace the material balance in CPEF. The measurements were carried out under the condition of 750 ppm (v/v) CO2 at 26/19 degrees C in the plant cultivation room. The measurements showed the absorbed nitrogen amount in plant was less than the outflow nitrogen amount from nutrient solution. This difference between absorbed and outflow quantity reached to 17%. PMID:14503524
ABSTRACT/SUMMARY The successful isolation and cultivation of prostate stem cells will allow us to study their unique biological properties and their application in therapeutic approaches. Here we provide step-by-step procedures on the basis of previous work in our laboratory for: the harvesting of primary prostate cells from adolescent male mice by a modified enzymatic procedure; the isolation of an enriched population of prostate stem cells through cell sorting; the cultivation of prostate stem cells in vitro; and characterization of these cells and their stem-like activity, including in vivo tubule regeneration. Normally it will take approximately 8 hours to harvest prostate cells, isolate the stem cell enriched population, and set up the in vitro sphere assay. It will take up to 8 weeks to analyze the unique properties of the stem cells, including their regenerative capacity in vivo.
Lukacs, Rita U.; Goldstein, Andrew S.; Lawson, Devon A.; Cheng, Donghui; Witte, Owen N.
Lawsonia inermis Linn. (Mehandi) is cultivated as cash crop in India particularly in Sojat area of Pali district, Rajasthan. Present investigation\\u000a describes an efficient regeneration system for elite genotype of L. inermis using nodal segments. Optimum response in terms of percent cultures responding, days to bud break and average shoot length\\u000a was observed on MS medium supplemented with 6-benzylaminopurine (BA;
Eight Phaseolus vulgaris L. landraces cultivated on farm in marginal areas of Central Italy (Lazio region) were investigated in order to evaluate\\u000a chemical composition of storage proteins and secondary metabolites fractions. The total protein content showed some differences\\u000a among landraces; the maximum value was next to 30 g for 100 g of dry weight. The seed storage proteins were screened by polyacrylamide
A major concern related to the adoption of genetically modified (GM) crops in agricultural systems is the possibility of unwanted\\u000a GM inputs into non-GM crop production systems. Given the increasing commercial cultivation of GM crops in the European Union\\u000a (EU), there is an urgent need to define measures to prevent mixing of GM with non-GM products during crop production. Cross-fertilization
Olivier Sanvido; Franco Widmer; Michael Winzeler; Bernhard Streit; Erich Szerencsits; Franz Bigler
Cistanche deserticola Ma (Orobanchaceae) is known in Chinese as Rou cong rong, considered as an endangered wild species and adapted to arid or\\u000a semi-arid areas. This species is traditionally used in China and Japan as a tonic. It has been found as a new cultivated plant\\u000a in several plantations in northwestern China over the past decade. The objective of this
Rong Xu; Jun Chen; Shi-Lin Chen; Tong-Ning Liu; Wei-Cheng Zhu; Jiang Xu
The structural properties of two neighbouring soils from the NW of Spain were evaluated in order to elucidate the effect of management on the soil structural quality and soil organic carbon turnover. The two soils were developed on granite under a warm and humid climate, but differed in land use (pasture and cultivation). The pasture soil had more favourable structural properties than the cultivated soil, showing lower bulk density, higher porosity and water retention. Also, the pasture soil showed a higher mean aggregate diameter and aggregate stability against mechanical agitation in water, as well as lower soil loss under simulated rainfall. This increased structural stability of the pasture soil could be attributed to its higher soil organic matter (SOM) content. The effect of soil use and aggregate size on SOM mineralization was also investigated. Laboratory incubation experiments were conducted with 1-5 mm aggregates and disaggregated <1 mm soil. More C-CO(2) was released by SOM mineralization in the pasture soil than in the cultivated soil, thus indicating a higher microbial activity in the pasture soil. The respiratory quotient (C-CO(2)/Corg) was also higher in the pasture soil, which means that SOM in this soil is more accessible to microbial decomposition. Nevertheless no significant differences were observed between organic C mineralization in the disaggregated <1 mm soil and the undisturbed 5-1 mm aggregates. The overall results demonstrate the need to maintain adequate levels of OM by adding organic amendments or adopting lower impact cultivation practices such as reduced tillage. PMID:17289122
Barral, María Teresa; Buján, Eva; Devesa, Rosa; Iglesias, María Luz; Velasco-Molina, Marta
The application of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy for characterization of yeasts is growing rapidly. Since it is known that the phenotypic expression of yeast cells depends sensitively on the nutrients that are available in the growth medium, one standardized growth medium is usually used for identification and characterization purposes in order to obtain reproducible FTIR signals. Since our recently developed high-throughput micro-cultivation protocol has the capacity to use more than one standardized growth medium, we wanted to investigate if the parallel use of multiple growth media can improve identification results. For this purpose, five different cultivation media (YP, YPD, YMB, SAB and SD) were used. In total 91 food spoilage yeast strains of 12 different genera were cultivated in different cultivation media and subsequently characterized by FTIR spectroscopy. For spectral identifications, Radial Basis Function-Partial Least Squares (RBF-PLS) was used in combination with cross-model validation where an inner cross-validation loop was used to optimize the model, while in an outer loop an independent test set was kept aside to test the optimized model. Sensitivity and specificity were evaluated for each studied genus class. The results show that the YMB selective medium gave the best discrimination results for 9 of the 12 genera with sensitivity above 90%. Only three genera showed better identification results on other media (Clavispora and Metschnikowia on medium SD, Debaryomyces on medium YPD). We therefore suggest to use the media SD, YPD in combination with the YMB medium for the identification of food spoilage yeasts. PMID:23741734
Shapaval, V; Walczak, B; Gognies, S; Møretrø, T; Suso, H P; Wold Åsli, A; Belarbi, A; Kohler, A
Piriformospora indica is a wide-host root-colonizing endophytic fungus which allows the plants to grow under extreme physical and nutrient stress.\\u000a The fungus can be cultivated on complex and minimal substrates. It belongs to the Sebacinales in Basidiomycota. P. indica has a vast geographical distribution and is reported from Asia, South America and Australia. The fungus is interesting for\\u000a basic research
Ralf Oelmüller; Irena Sherameti; Swati Tripathi; Ajit Varma
Islam M. Z., Rahman M. H. and Hafiz F. 2009. Cultivation of Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus flabellatus) on Different Substrates. Int. J. Sustain. Crop Prod. 4(1):45-48 The study was conducted at the laboratory of Food Microbiology, Institute of Food Science and Technology, BCSIR, Dhanmondi, Dhaka-1205 during July 2000 to May 2001 to find suitable sawdust as substrate for growing Mushroom. Seven
A high biomass concentration (19.9 g/L) was obtained with the fed-batch cultivation of Cellulomonas on pretreated sugarcane bagasse pith. Similar results in biomass concentration, yield, and substrate consumption were obtained with the discontinuous feed of bagasse as with discontinuous feed supplemented with a partial continuous addition of salts. Two or more growth phases were detected, probably caused by the differential utilization of bagasse components. An acceptably low content of bagasse components remained in the biomass after separation.
Chlorella vulgaris was cultivated in wastewater discharged from a steel- making plant with the aim of developing an economically feasible system to remove ammonia from wastewater and from Ñue gas simultaneously. Since CO 2 no phosphorus compounds existed in wastewater, external phosphate (15É3È 46É 0gm ~3) was added to the wastewater. After adaptation to 5% (v\\/v) the CO 2 ,
The therapeutic use of medicinal plants such as Echinacea, ginseng and St. John's wort has gained widespread acceptance in North America in the last two decades. Aeroponic cultivation of medicinal plants have shown great potential for producing root yields that are cleaner, more uniform and faster maturing than can be obtained using conventional soil-based methods. Two pilot-scale commercial A-frame aeroponic
Entomopathogenic fungi are a rich source of natural bioactive compounds. To establish cultivation conditions which facilitate the production of bioactive compounds and to select good genera among entomopathogenic fungi as the producer, 47 typical entomopathogenic fungi were tested for their ability to produce antibiotic activity. Thirty-eight strains (81%) and 30 strains (64%) of these fungi produced either anti-Bacillus compounds or anti-Staphylococcus compounds, respectively, indicating that the majority of the entomopathogenic fungi tested possessed the ability to produce antibacterial compounds. Using 9 representative strains (Aschersonia sp. HF724, Beauveria bassiana HF338, Cordyceps ramosopulvinata HF746, Metarhizium anisopliae HF293, Metarhizium flavoviride HF698, Nomuraea rileyi HF588, Paecilomyces fumosoroseus HF254, Paecilomyces tenuipes HF419, and Verticillium lecanii HF238), the cultivation conditions in liquid medium were surveyed with respect to the cultivation procedure and medium composition, particularly in terms of the presence or absence of insect-derived materials. At 26 degrees C, M. anisopliae HF293, N. rileyi HF588, and V. lecanii HF238 strains produced clear antibiotic activity against Bacillus and Saccharomyces, but only in the presence of insect-derived materials, suggesting that the production of antibacterial/antifungal compounds by entomopathogenic fungi is triggered by the presence of insect-derived materials. PMID:16244901
Macromycetes have been part of the human culture for thousand years, and have been reported as food in the most important civilizations in history. Many nutraceutical properties of macromycetes have been described, such as anti-cancer, anti-tumour, cholesterol lowering, antiviral, antibacterial, or immunomodulatory, among others. Given that production of mushrooms by traditional cultivation and extraction of bioactive metabolites is very difficult in some cases, biotechnology is essential for the development of profitable and productive techniques for obtaining these metabolites. It is the development of this technology, and the ease in which it enables the use of its variables that has allowed mycelium to be cultivated in liquid medium of macrofungi, with a significant reduction in time and an increased production of metabolites. This increased production has led to the study of compounds that have medicinal, nutriceutical and quasi-farmaceutical potential, in the exhausted media and the mycelium. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the use of liquid-state fermentation as a technological tool for obtaining edible fungi, and the study of these and their metabolites, by describing the different cultivation conditions used in recent years, as well as the results obtained. The relevance of Agaricus, Flammulina, Grifola, Pleurotus and Lentinula genera, will also be discussed, with emphasis on the last one, since Shiitake has been always considered as the ultimate medicinal mushroom. PMID:22449697
The approach of growing microorganisms in situ, or in a simulated natural environment is appealing, and different versions of it have been described by several groups. The major difficulties with these approaches are that they are not selective for actinomycetes – a group of gram-positive bacteria well known as a rich source of antibiotics. In order to efficiently access actinomycetes, a trap for specifically capturing and cultivating these microorganisms in situ has been developed, based on the ability of these bacteria to form hyphae and penetrate solid environments. The trap is formed by two semi-permeable membranes (0.2 – 0.6 ?m pore-size bottom membrane and 0.03 ?m pore-size top membrane) glued to a plastic washer with sterile agar or gellan gum inside. The trap is placed on top of soil, and filamentous microorganisms selectively penetrate into the device and form colonies. Decreasing the size of the pores of the lower membrane to 0.2 ?m restricted penetration of fungi. The trap produced more filamentous actinobacteria, and a higher variety of them, as compared to a conventional Petri dish cultivation from the same soil sample. Importantly, the trap cultivation resulted in the isolation of unusual and rare actinomycetes.
Gavrish, Ekaterina; Bollmann, Annette; Epstein, Slava; Lewis, Kim
To compare the stem niche in different culture conditions of limbal epithelial cells, the suspended human limbal epithelial cells (HLECs) were seeded on the 3T3-pretreated plates and the other suspended cells were plated on amniotic membranes (AMs) which were either cryo-preserved or freeze-dried. All were cultured for 10 to 12 days. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for ATP-binding casette, subfamily G, member 2 (ABCG2), p63, cytokeratin 12, and connexin 43 were performed in cultivated HLECs and their expression levels were compared. The mRNA expression of all markers examined showed no statistically significant differences between the cells on cryo-preserved and on freeze-dried AM. The expression of p63 and cytokeratin 12 in cultivated cells on AMs were significantly lower than those in 3T3-cocultured cells on RT-PCR and immunofluorescent staining. Cultivated HLECs on AMs showed reduced proliferation and differentiation while maintaining stem-property regardless of the preservative method of AM.
Kim, Mee Kum; Lee, Jae Lim; Oh, Joo Youn; Shin, Mi Sun; Shin, Kyeong Seon; Lee, Jin Hak; Park, Ki Sook; Son, Young Sook
Monitoring of bacterial cell numbers is of great importance not only in microbiological industry but also for control of liquids contamination in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Here we describe a novel low-cost and highly efficient technology for bacterial cell monitoring during cultivation process. The technology incorporates previously developed monitoring device and algorithm of its action. The devise analyses light scattered by suspended bacterial cells. Current stage utilizes monochromatic coherent light and detects amplitudes and durations of scattered light impulses, it does not require any labeling of bacterial cell. The system is calibrated using highly purificated bacteria-free water as standard. Liquid medial are diluted and analyzed by the proposed technology to determine presence of bacteria. Detection is done for a range of particle size from 0.1 to 10 ?m, and thus particles size distribution is determined. We analyzed a set of different bacterial suspensions and also their changes in quantity and size distribution during cultivation. Based on the obtained results we conclude that proposed technology can be very effective for bacteria monitoring during cultivation process, providing benefits of low simplicity and low cost of analysis with simultaneous high detection precision.
Kotsyumbas, Igor Ya.; Kushnir, Igor M.; Bilyy, Rostyslav O.; Yarynovska, Ivanna H.; Getman, Vasyl'B.; Bilyi, Alexander I.
A method for the direct cultivation of Treponema pallidum from human syphilitic lesions, by the employment of a solid medium, has been described. By means of it, three of the four strains worked with were successfully cultivated. The several pure cultures agree in morphological and cultural characters, grow only in the presence of sterile tissue under anaerobic conditions, and do not produce putrefactive odors. The morphology is typical under optimum cultural conditions; it becomes atypical when the conditions are unfavorable. In cultures, Treponema pallidum multiplies by longitudinal division. The process is usually symmetrical but occasionally appears to be asymmetrical. Inoculation of the pure cultures into the skin of two species of lower monkeys was followed by the production of lesions resembling the primary syphilitic lesion occurring in man and those caused in the monkey by inoculation of spirochætæ-containing serum from human sources. During the course of the positive inoculation in the monkey, the blood develops the property of giving a positive Wassermann reaction. Thus the relation of Treponema pallidum to this reaction is supported, and the identity of the cultivated strains with the species found in human syphilitic lesions established.
The results of this study indicate that an increase in CO(2) percentage to 30% can enhance Scenedesmus sp. growth in autotrophic cultivation to a maximum of 0.85 g/l as compared with 0.6 g/l obtained in the batch with air (after 6 days of cultivation). However, while the CO(2) was higher than 30%, it showed a negative impact on cell growth. A mixotrophic cultivation with 3 g/l of glycerol can achieve 0.38 g l(-1) day(-1) of the maximum biomass productivity compared with that of 0.21 g l(-1) day(-1) in autotrophic cultivation. Nevertheless, the lutein content of the mixotrophic cultivation was 0.08-0.1% lower than 0.2-0.25% obtained in autotrophic cultivation, which led to a lower lutein productivity of 0.36 mg l(-1) day(-1) in the mixotrophic batch compared with 0.44 mg l(-1) day(-1) obtained in the autotrophic batch. The limitation of cell growth in the mixotrophic cultivation would be the contributing factor regarding the lower lutein productivity. The mixotrophic cultivation of repeated batch to remove potential inhibitive metabolic products from glycerol catabolism does not show an obvious improvement on biomass. Conclusively, mixotrophic cultivation achieves higher biomass productivity with lower lutein content than that of autotrophic cultivation, which leads to lower lutein productivity. Therefore, the autotrophic cultivation is preferred in the lutein production. PMID:21132398
The volatile compounds of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer analyzed to interpret whether cultivation methods affect volatile compounds. The volatile compounds in Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer cultured with 3 different cultivation methods such as good agricultural practice, organic cultivation method, and general cultivation method were isolated by solid-phase microextraction fiber (polydimethylsiloxane 65 ?m) and identified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Then, the scattering patterns of volatile compounds compared by principal component analysis. As the results, the 14 volatile compounds were identified from 30 ginseng samples and consisted mainly of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The differences among the different cultivation methods of the samples were obvious from the PC1 and PC2 scatter point plot. As the conclusion, the cultivation methods can affect to produce the volatile component of ginseng root. The organic and good agriculture practice cultivation can increase the ginseng characteristic volatile compounds. PMID:22694737
Lee, Ka-Soon; Kim, Gwan-Hou; Kim, Hyun-Ho; Chang, Yeong-Il; Lee, Gyu-Hee
Spermiogenesis is a developmental process undergoing continuous differentiation to drive a diploid spermatogonium towards a haploid sperm cell. This striking transformation from spermatogonium to spermatozoa is made possible by the stage-specific adaption of cytoskeleton and associated molecular motor proteins. KIFC1 is a C-terminal kinesin motor found to boast essential roles in acrosome biogenesis and nuclear reshaping during spermiogenesis in rat. To explore its functions during the same process in Macrobrachium nipponense, we have cloned and sequenced the cDNA of a mammalian KIFC1 homologue (termed mn-KIFC1) from the total RNA of the testis. The 2,296 bp mn-KIFC1 cDNA contained a 87 bp 5' untranslated region, a 211 bp 3' untranslated region and a 1,998 bp open reading frame. Protein alignment demonstrated that mn-KIFC1 had 37.7, 58.7, 38.4, 37.2, 38.9 and 37.8% identity with its homologues in Salmo salar, Eriocheir sinensis, Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Danio rerio and Xenopus laevis respectively. The phylogenetic tree revealed that mn-KIFC1 is most related to E. Sinensis KIFC1 among the examined species. Tissue expression analysis showed the presence of mn-KIFC1 in the testis, hepatopancreas, gill, muscle and heart. In situ hybridization showed that the mn-KIFC1 mRNA was localized at the periphery of the nuclear membrane and in the proacrosomal vesicle in early and middle spermatids. In late spermatids and spermatozoa, mn-KIFC1 was expressed in the acrosome and in the spike. In situ hybridization also indicated that KIFC1 works together with lamellar complex (LCx) and acroframosome (AFS) to drive acrosome formation and cellular transformation. LCx and AFS have both been previously proved to have essential roles during spermiogenesis in M. nipponense. In conclusion, the expression of mn-kifc1 at specific stages of spermiogenesis suggests a role in cellular transformations in M. nipponense. PMID:22327780
Technical scale (?5l) cultivations of shear stress sensitive microorganisms are often difficult to perform, as common bioreactors are usually designed to maximize the oxygen input into the culture medium. This is achieved by mechanical stirrers, causing high shear stress. Examples for shear stress sensitive microorganisms, for which no specific cultivation systems exist, are many anaerobic bacteria and fungi, such as basidiomycetes. In this work a disposable bag bioreactor developed for cultivation of mammalian cells was investigated to evaluate its potential to cultivate shear stress sensitive anaerobic Eubacterium ramulus and shear stress sensitive basidiomycetes Flammulina velutipes and Pleurotus sapidus. All cultivations were compared with conventional stainless steel stirred tank reactors (STR) cultivations. Good growth of all investigated microorganisms cultivated in the bag reactor was found. E. ramulus showed growth rates of ?=0.56h(-1) (bag) and ?=0.53h(-1) (STR). Differences concerning morphology, enzymatic activities and growth in fungal cultivations were observed. In the bag reactor growth in form of small, independent pellets was observed while STR cultivations showed intense aggregation. F. velutipes reached higher biomass concentrations (21.2gl(-1) DCW vs. 16.8gl(-1) DCW) and up to 2-fold higher peptidolytic activities in comparison to cell cultivation in stirred tank reactors. PMID:23892193
A major concern related to the adoption of genetically modified (GM) crops in agricultural systems is the possibility of unwanted GM inputs into non-GM crop production systems. Given the increasing commercial cultivation of GM crops in the European Union (EU), there is an urgent need to define measures to prevent mixing of GM with non-GM products during crop production. Cross-fertilization is one of the various mechanisms that could lead to GM-inputs into non-GM crop systems. Isolation distances between GM and non-GM fields are widely accepted to be an effective measure to reduce these inputs. However, the question of adequate isolation distances between GM and non-GM maize is still subject of controversy both amongst scientists and regulators. As several European countries have proposed largely differing isolation distances for maize ranging from 25 to 800 m, there is a need for scientific criteria when using cross-fertilization data of maize to define isolation distances between GM and non-GM maize. We have reviewed existing cross-fertilization studies in maize, established relevant criteria for the evaluation of these studies and applied these criteria to define science-based isolation distances. To keep GM-inputs in the final product well below the 0.9% threshold defined by the EU, isolation distances of 20 m for silage and 50 m for grain maize, respectively, are proposed. An evaluation using statistical data on maize acreage and an aerial photographs assessment of a typical agricultural landscape by means of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) showed that spatial resources would allow applying the defined isolation distances for the cultivation of GM maize in the majority of the cases under actual Swiss agricultural conditions. The here developed approach, using defined criteria to consider the agricultural context of maize cultivation, may be of assistance for the analysis of cross-fertilization data in other countries. PMID:17562214
Long-term success for any tobacco endgame is contingent not only on acquiring political will, but also on sustaining it over a long period of time, perhaps even for decades. Future cohorts of public health professionals with knowledge of tobacco issues are therefore needed to carry on with the endgame strategy (should early attempts fail) and to keep tobacco control salient after an endgame strategy has initially been implemented. The endgame itself offers a unique pedagogical opportunity that could revive interest in tobacco control at schools of public health--an important first step in cultivating the future advocacy base for a tobacco endgame. PMID:23591510
The microbial population in the air of mushroom cultivation facility was studied to understand the population structure and size depending on the cultivation methods and regions. The air contents of ten farmers' oyster mushroom cultivation facilities in Kyunggi province were sampled. The results indicated that there was no difference in population size depending on the regions of mushroom cultivation. In addition, the population size of bacteria in the growth room was bigger than that of the cooling room and outside of the mushroom house, but the fungal population was similar in size between cultivation stages. With regard to population structure, Pseudomonas and Penicillium species were most frequently isolated from the air of oyster mushroom cultivation facility. PMID:23274995
Chun, Se Chul; Ahn, Yu Na; Khan, Sajid Mohamad; Chung, Il Min; Won, Hyang Yoen; Jhune, Chang Sung; Park, Yool Jin
Rethinking the relationship between length of fallow and crop yields inshifting cultivation?The theory that a correlation\\u000a between shortened fallow periods and yielddecline in shifting cultivation exists is questioned in this paper. Thisrelationship\\u000a has been taken for granted, and because it shows that shiftingcultivation will break down under pressure, it has partly been\\u000a responsible fornegative government views on shifting cultivation. Yield
Origins and Dispersal of Cultivated Vanilla (Vanilla planifolia\\u000a Jacks. [Orchidaceae]). Vanilla is a clonally propagated crop originating from Mesoamerica. Information regarding the circumstances under which\\u000a vanilla cultivation began is incomplete. Presumably, the Totonac people of Papantla (north-central Veracruz, Mexico) were\\u000a the earliest to cultivate vanilla; however, the oldest reports of vanilla use relate to the pre-Columbian Maya of southeastern\\u000a Mexico\\/Central
When planning optimal conservation strategies for wild and cultivated types of a plant species, a number of influencing biological\\u000a and environmental factors should be considered from the outset. In the present study Brassica rapa was used to illustrate this: to develop Scandinavian conservation strategies for wild and cultivated B. rapa, DNA-marker analysis was performed on 15 cultivated and 17 wild
Naja Steen Andersen; Gert Poulsen; Bente Anni Andersen; Lars Pødenphant Kiær; Tina D’Hertefeldt; Mike J. Wilkinson; Rikke Bagger Jørgensen
There has being a change in cotton cultivative practice in the northwestern China, i.e., from the traditional cultivation (TF) of no mulching with flood-irrigation to the modern cultivation (PM) of plastic film mulching with drip-irrigation. Little is known how this change affects soil carbon dynamics. This paper presents a field study that includes comparisons of soil organic carbon (SOC), soil
Mix cultivation of microalgae (Spirulina platensis) and yeast (Rhodotorula glutinis) for lipid production was studied. Mixing cultivation of the two microorganisms significantly increased the accumulation of total biomass and total lipid yield. Dissolved oxygen and medium components in the mixed fermentation medium were analyzed. Mix cultivation in monosodium glutamate wastewater was further studied. Result indicated 1,600 mg/L of biomass was obtained and 73% of COD were removed. PMID:18931954
Unlike filamentous fungi and bacteria, very little is known about cultivable yeasts associated with marine sponges, especially those from Antarctic seas. During an expedition to King George Island, in the Antarctica, samples of 11 marine sponges were collected by scuba-diving. From these sponges, 20 psychrotolerant yeast isolates were obtained. Phylogenetic analyses of D1/D2 and ITS rRNA gene sequences revealed that the marine ascomycetous yeast Metschnikowia australis is the predominant organism associated with these invertebrates. Other species found belonged to the Basidiomycota phylum: Cystofilobasidium infirmominiatum, Rhodotorula pinicola, Leucosporidiella creatinivora and a new yeast from the Leucosporidiella genus. None of these yeasts have been previously associated with marine sponges. A screening to estimate the ability of these yeasts as producers of extracellular enzymatic activities at several pH and temperature conditions was performed. Several yeast isolates demonstrated amylolytic, proteolytic, lipolytic or cellulolytic activity, but none of them showed xylanolytic activity under the conditions assayed. To our knowledge, this work is the first description of cultivable yeasts associated with marine sponges from the Antarctic sea. PMID:22927015
Ground-level ozone is a priority air pollutant, causing ~ 22,000 excess deaths per year in Europe, significant reductions in crop yields and loss of biodiversity. It is produced in the troposphere through photochemical reactions involving oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The biosphere is the main source of VOCs, with an estimated 1,150TgCyr-1 (~ 90% of total VOC emissions) released from vegetation globally. Isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene) is the most significant biogenic VOC in terms of mass (around 500TgCyr-1) and chemical reactivity and plays an important role in the mediation of ground-level ozone concentrations. Concerns about climate change and energy security are driving an aggressive expansion of bioenergy crop production and many of these plant species emit more isoprene than the traditional crops they are replacing. Here we quantify the increases in isoprene emission rates caused by cultivation of 72Mha of biofuel crops in Europe. We then estimate the resultant changes in ground-level ozone concentrations and the impacts on human mortality and crop yields that these could cause. Our study highlights the need to consider more than simple carbon budgets when considering the cultivation of biofuel feedstock crops for greenhouse-gas mitigation.
Most soil bacteria belong to family-level phylogenetic groups with few or no known cultivated representatives. We cultured a collection of 350 isolates from soil by using simple solid media in petri dishes. These isolates were assigned to 60 family-level groupings in nine bacterial phyla on the basis of a comparative analysis of their 16S rRNA genes. Ninety-three (27%) of the isolates belonged to 20 as-yet-unnamed family-level groupings, many from poorly studied bacterial classes and phyla. They included members of subdivisions 1, 2, 3, and 4 of the phylum Acidobacteria, subdivision 3 of the phylum Verrucomicrobia, subdivision 1 of the phylum Gemmatimonadetes, and subclasses Acidimicrobidae and Rubrobacteridae of the phylum Actinobacteria. In addition, members of 10 new family-level groupings of subclass Actinobacteridae of the phylum Actinobacteria and classes Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria of the phylum Proteobacteria were obtained. The high degree of phylogenetic novelty and the number of isolates affiliated with so-called unculturable groups show that simple cultivation methods can still be developed further to obtain laboratory cultures of many phylogenetically novel soil bacteria.
Joseph, Shayne J.; Hugenholtz, Philip; Sangwan, Parveen; Osborne, Catherine A.; Janssen, Peter H.
Microbial lipids are potential alternative feedstock for biofuel and oleochemical industries. The oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides AS 2.1389 is an excellent lipid producer. To attain parameters for the understanding of the lipid production process, we performed continuous cultivation experiments under either carbon or nitrogen limitation. The maintenance coefficient and maximum cell mass yield for this yeast were determined as 5.7mg glucose/g cell/h and 0.42g cell/g glucose, respectively, under carbon limitation. Under nitrogen limitation, the highest lipid yield of 0.19g/g was observed at the dilution rate of 0.02h(-1) while the highest specific lipid formation rate of 0.058g/g cell/h at the dilution rate of 0.08h(-1). A kinetic model of lipid formation under steady state conditions was developed, parameters estimated, and optimal continuous cultivation conditions forecasted. These data should be very helpful to develop and design more efficient bioprocesses for microbial lipid production. PMID:23965273
Wet soils, soils which have agronomic limitations because of excess water, comprise 105 million acres of non-federal land in the conterminous United States. Wet soils which support hydrophytic plants are ''wetlands'', and are some of the most productive natural ecosystems in the world. When both above- and belowground productivity are considered, cattail (Typha latifolia) is the most productive temperate wetland species (26.4 Mg/ha/year). Both cattail and reed (Phragmites australis) have aboveground productivities of about 13 Mg/ha/year. Although average aboveground yields of reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea) are lower (9.5 Mg/ha/year), techniques for its establishment and cultivation are well-developed. Other herbaceous wetland species which show promise as biomass crops include sedge (Carex spp.), river bulrush (Scirpus fluviatilis) and prairie cordgrass (Spartina pectinata). About 40% of wet soils in the conterminous US are currently cultivated, and they produce one-quarter of the major US crops. Most of this land is artificially drained for crops such as corn, soybeans, and vegetables. US wetlands are drained for agriculture at the rate of 223,000 ha/yr. Paddies flooded with water are used to grow rice, cranberries, and wild rice. Forage and live sphagnum moss are products of undrained wetlands. A number of federal and state regulations apply to the draining or irrigation of wetlands, but most do not seriously restrict their use for agriculture. 320 refs., 36 tabs.
OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the relationship between cancer risk and residential proximity to cranberry cultivation. METHODS: A population-based case-control study was conducted. Cases, diagnosed during 1983 through 1986 among residents of the Upper Cape Cod area of Massachusetts, involved incident cancers of the lung (n = 252), breast (n = 265), colon-rectum (n = 326), bladder (n = 63), kidney (n = 35), pancreas (n = 37), and brain (n = 37), along with leukemia (n = 35). Control subjects were randomly selected from among telephone subscribers (n = 184), Medicare beneficiaries (n = 464), and deceased individuals (n = 723). RESULTS: No meaningful increases in risk were seen for any of the cancer sites except for the brain. When latency was considered, subjects who had ever lived within 2600 ft (780 m) of a cranberry bog had a twofold increased risk of brain cancer overall (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.8, 4.9) and a 6.7-fold increased risk of astrocytoma (95% CI = 1.6, 27.8). CONCLUSIONS: Residential proximity to cranberry bog cultivation was not associated with seven of the eight cancers investigated; however, an association was observed with brain cancer, particularly astrocytoma. Larger, more detailed studies are necessary to elucidate this relationship.
In order to obtain basic data for construction of a plant cultivation system incorporating a mushroom cultivation subsystem in the CELSS, plant growth and atmospheric CO2 balance in the system were investigated. The plant growth was promoted by a high level of CO2 which resulted from the respiration of the mushroom mycelium in the system. The atmospheric CO2 concentration inside the system changed significantly due to the slight change in the net photosynthetic rate of plants and/or the respiration rate of the mushroom when the plant cultivation system combined directly with the mushroom cultivation subsystem.
Using morphological descriptors and starch gel electrophoresis, 393 west African cultivated yam accessions (D. cayenensis-rotundata complex), and representatives of twenty varietal groups previously described, were studied.
This study proposes a two-stage cultivation process with an autotrophic growth followed by a mixotrophic process. The results indicated that a two-stage cultivation process using a daily dose of 3 g/L of glucose could achieve 7.4 g/L of biomass, which was about a 64 % increase over simple autotrophic cultivation. In the second stage of mixotrophic cultivation, glucose was regarded as a better carbon source for cell growth, than was glycerol. Linoleic acid (C18:2) would be the primary component in the two-stage cultivation as in the autotrophic cultivation. Even carbon source was provided in the second stage of mixotrophic cultivation; lower light intensity limited the mixotrophic growth, which indicated that photosynthesis still plays an important role in the second stage of mixotrophical cultivation. The final biomass was higher after this two-stage cultivation process, which made it suitable for application in the production scale-up of algal biomass. PMID:23411876
Ten cultivation areas (8 windward, 2 leeward) were selected for a kalo water-use study, primarily on the basis of the diversity of environmental and agricultural conditions under which wetland kalo is grown and landowner permission and availability. Flow and water-temperature data were collected at the lo`i complex level and at the individual lo`i level. To ensure that flow and temperature data collected at different lo`i reflect similar irrigation conditions (continuous flooding of the mature crop), only lo`i with crops near the harvesting stage were selected for water-temperature data collection. The water need for kalo cultivation varies depending on the crop stage. In this study, data were collected during the dry season (June-October), when water requirements for cooling kalo approach upper limits. Flow measurements generally were made during the warmest part of the day, and temperature measurements were made every 15 minutes at each site for about a two-month period. Flow and temperature data were collected from kalo cultivation areas on four islands - Kaua`i, O`ahu, Maui, and Hawai`i. The average inflow value for the 19 lo`i complexes measured in this study is 260,000 gallons per acre per day, and the median inflow value is 150,000 gallons per acre per day. The average inflow value for the 17 windward sites is 270,000 gallons per acre per day, and the median inflow value is 150,000 gallons per acre per day. The average inflow value for the two leeward sites is 150,000 gallons per acre per day. The average inflow value measured for six individual lo`i is 350,000 gallons per acre per day, and the median inflow value is 270,000 gallons per acre per day. The average inflow value for the five windward lo`i is 370,000 gallons per acre per day, and the median inflow value is 320,000 gallons per acre per day. The inflow value for the one leeward lo`i is 210,000 gallons per acre per day. These inflow values are consistent with previously reported values for inflow and are significantly higher than values generally estimated for water consumption during kalo cultivation. These measurements of inflow are important for future considerations of water-use requirements for successful kalo cultivation. Of the 17 lo`i complexes where water inflow temperature was measured, only 3 had inflow temperatures that rose above 27 ?C, the threshold temperature above which wetland kalo is more susceptible to fungi and associated rotting diseases. The coldest mean inflow temperature was 20.0 ?C and the warmest inflow temperature was 24.9 ?C. All 15 of the sites where outflow temperatures were measured had some temperatures greater than 27 ?C. Outflow temperatures exceeded 27 ?C between 2.5 percent and about 40 percent of the time. Mean outflow temperatures ranged from 23.0 ?C to 26.7 ?C.
Gingerich, Stephen B.; Yeung, Chiu W.; Ibarra, Tracy-Joy N.; Engott, John A.
Cross-sectional entomological surveys were carried out during the 2006 dry and rainy seasons in Lagdo, Cameroon to measure the impact of rice cultivation on malaria transmission and to monitor vector susceptibility to insecticides. Adult anopheline mosquitoes were captured on human volunteers and by pyrethrum spray collections. A total of 4740 mosquitoes was collected during the study. Anopheles arabiensis was the major species and the main malaria vector in all study sites, followed by A. funestus. Malaria transmission was high in the non-irrigated zone of Mayo Mbocki, whereas in the irrigated area of Gounougou it was below detection level during the dry season and high during the rainy season. Insecticide susceptibility tests performed on A. gambiae s.l. populations detected resistance to lambdacyhalothrin and to a lower extent to deltamethrin. All survivors were A. arabiensis. None of the surviving mosquitoes carried the kdr mutation, suggesting an alternative resistance mechanism. PMID:18295810
Severe damage to cell repair mechanisms of the limbal region can lead to many disorders such as vascularized conjunctivalization, keratinization, corneal scarring, and corneal opacification, collectively described as limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD). Limbal stem cell deficiency may occur as a result of depletion of stem cells or destruction of their stromal niche. In such cases, apart from conventional corneal transplantation, limbal stem cell transplantation would be needed to restore vision. Limbal stem cells may be replenished by autologous limbal transplants from the healthy fellow eye in unilateral cases, and allografts from living related donors or cadaveric donors in bilateral cases. The induction of iatrogenic LSCD and its sequelae in donor eyes have motivated researchers to cultivate sheets of limbal epithelium ex vivo, from small fragments of donor tissue for the purpose of ocular surface reconstruction.
N. F. Díaz, and R. Neira. Biotechnology applied to aquaculture. I. Classic biotechnologies applied to the reproduction of cultivated species. Beginning with a differentiation of what is considered classical biotechnologies, we review in this paper their application to the reproduction of cultivated species. Reproductive maturity control, fertility control, genetic sex control, and progenies sex ratio, are areas where the application
Traditional cultivation of Coptis chinensis was carried out under shield by disafforestation, which has been used for over 300 years and lead to the severe destruction of natural environment. Several ecological modes for cultivation of Coptis chinensis have been developed, which increase the yields of Coptis chinensis, protect the resources of forest, and obtain economic and ecologic benefit. PMID:15663214
Original Ganoderma lucidum strain MZKI G97 isolated from Slovenian forests was cultivated in a liquid substrate based on potato dextrose and olive oil. The influences of inoculum and oxygen partial pressure in batch and fed batch cultivation in a 10-l laboratory stirred tank reactor were studied. Fungal biomass was found to be oxygen and shear sensible. Using a 17% (wet
Marin Berovi?; Jožica Habijani?; Irena Zore; Branka Wraber; Damjan Hodžar; Bojana Boh; Franc Pohleven
Outcrossing rates within the wild green foxtail, Setaria viridis, and the cultivated foxtail millet, S. italica, are very low. However, spontaneous interspecific hybridizations in the experimental garden occurred in both directions at rates ranging from 0.002% to 0.6% according to plant density and distance between parents. Offtypes found in farmers' fields where foxtail millet is cultivated were shown to have
I. Till-Bottraud; X. Reboud; P. Brabant; M. Lefranc; B. Rherissi; F. Vedel; H. Darmency
We previously reported the isolation of novel methanogens by using a new cultivation method, referred to as the coculture method. Here, we extended our coculture method to various anaerobic environmental samples. As a result, we successfully cultivated some uncharacterized methanogens in coculture enrichments and eventually isolated a new methanogen, within the order Methanomicrobiales.
We previously reported the isolation of novel methanogens by using a new cultivation method, referred to as the coculture method. Here, we extended our coculture method to various anaerobic environmental samples. As a result, we successfully cultivated some uncharacterized methanogens in coculture enrichments and eventually isolated a new methanogen, within the order Methanomicrobiales. PMID:19465530
Annual emissions of CO2, CH4, CO, N2O, and NOx from biomass burning in shifting cultivation systems in tropical Asia, Africa, and America were estimated at national and continental levels as the product of area burned, aboveground biomass, combustion completeness, and emission factor. The total area of shifting cultivation in each country was derived from the Global Land Cover 2000 map,
J. M. N. Silva; J. M. B. Carreiras; I. Rosa; J. M. C. Pereira
Genetic engineering is placed in the context of a history of transformations of the relations between 'cultivated nature' and 'naturally occurring nature'. It is argued that genetic modification is a bio-socio-economic process, producing new diversity within cultivated nature. Viewing bio- science and technology as 'socially embedded', it argues that different trajectories of their development have both the much trumpeted negative
Along the slopes of the Ailao Mountains in Yunnan Province, Southwest China, ethnic groups such as the Hani and Yi have developed an impressive landscape of terraced paddy fi elds over the past several hundred years. Their intensive terraced rice cultivation stands in striking contrast to shifting cultivation, the predominant mode of agriculture in tropical mountain areas. This study aims
In Japan, recent trends have seen wild silk preferred over cultivated silk because of its texture. Some cases of fraud have occurred where cultivated silk garments are sold as wild silk. Samples from these cases, morphological observation using light microscope and polarized microscope have been conducted in forensic science laboratories. Sometimes scanning electron microscopy was also carried out. However, the morphology of silk shows quite wide variation, which makes it difficult to discriminate wild and cultivated silks by this method. In this report, silk discrimination was investigated using conventional instrumental analyses commonly available in forensic laboratories, such as Fourier-transfer infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (pyr-GC/MS) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). By FT-IR, cultivated and wild silk gave similar infrared spectra, but wild silk had a characteristic peak at 965 cm(-1) from the deformation vibration of the carbon-carbon double bond of the indole ring. Comparison of the pyrograms of cultivated and wild silk showed that wild silk had large indole and skatole peaks that cultivated silk did not, and these peaks might arise from tryptophan. The results of thermogravimetry/DTA showed that the endothermic peak was about 40 °C higher for wild silk than for cultivated silk. Using a combination of these results, cultivated and wild silk could be discriminated by common forensic instrumental techniques. PMID:23742990
Biological characteristics of isolated strains of listeria cultivating on growth media developed for accumulation and isolation of these microorganisms. Stability of main cultural-morphologic characteristics, pathogenic enzyme synthesis, profile of plasmid DNA and specific bacteriophage lysing of listeria during their cultivation on novel media was shown. PMID:17672141
An electric water heater was modified for large-scale cultivation of aerobic acidophilic hyperthermophiles to enable recovery of secreted proteins. Critical changes included thermostat replacement, redesign of the temperature control circuit, and removal of the cathodic anticorrosion system. These alterations provided accurate temperature and pH control. The bioreactor was used to cultivate selected strains of the archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus and other
Penny Worthington; Paul Blum; Francisco Perez-Pomares; Tom Elthon
Agave tequilana, a species exhibiting crassulacean acid metabolism, is cultivated in Mexico for its stem and attached leaf bases from which the distilled beverage tequila is obtained. The physiological reasons why its cultivation was mostly restricted to regions in Jalisco with minimum air temperatures in 1996 above ?4°C and maximum temperatures below 36°C was investigated using plants under controlled conditions
Park S. Nobel; Miguel Castañeda; Gretchen North; Eulogio Pimienta-Barrios; Ariel Ruiz
Highly reproducible production values of the aminocoumarin antibiotic novobiocin were achieved by cultivation of a heterologous Streptomyces producer strain in commercially available square deepwell plates consisting of 24 wells of 3 ml culture volume each. Between parallel cultivation batches in the deepwell plates, novobiocin accumulation showed standard deviations of 4–9%, compared to 39% in baffled Erlenmeyer flasks. Mycelia used as inoculum
Stefanie Siebenberg; Prashant M. Bapat; Anna Eliasson Lantz; Bertolt Gust; Lutz Heide
The traditional teaching in the computer teaching generally emphasizes the theory, while paying little attention on the cultivation of students' ability to solve practical problems. Consequently, to cultivate students' practical ability in computer teaching is an urgent problem. Case teaching is kind of heuristic teaching method, which focuses on the development of the students' practical ability. On the basis of
The objective of this work was to evaluate the growth and production of lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.), cultivated under irrigation depths and planting densities, in Sapé, PB, Brazil, from September 2004 to February 2005. The variety used was Boca-de-moça, cultivated regularly in the Paraiba State. The treatments were formed by combination of four irrigation depths and two planting densities,
Luiz José Vieira de Melo; Pedro Dantas Fernandes; Hans Haj; Miguel Barreiro Neto
A complement of eubacterial endosymbionts were cultivated in a whitefly cell line. Endosymbiont identification was verified using diagnostic PCR, DNA sequencing, Western Blot analysis and real time RT-PCR. This is the first report of in-vitro cultivation of at least two of these arthropod endosymb...
The effect of Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert is made up by several groups of active substances, among which terpenoids in the inflorescences are of greatest importance. Among cultivated species, the Hungarian BK-2 contains more chamazulene in its essential oil than the German Degumil type, which is mainly cultivated for its (?)-?-bisabolol. Both components have important antiinflammatory activities. Among wild chamomile
Cultivation practices permitting earlier sowing of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) in Greece are required to maximize yields and facilitate harvesting. An experiment was conducted for 2 years in Central Greece to evaluate two alternative systems. The experiment was carried out in a Vertic Cambisol and a Typic Regosol field. Cultivation practices tested were: (1) conventional tillage (CT) and sowing in
Theodoros D. Stathakos; Theofanis A. Gemtos; Constantinos A. Tsatsarelis; Stella Galanopoulou
In recent years, plastic film mulched cultivation has been widely used in China as a strategy to reduce irrigation water consumption and increase water use efficiency (WUE). Experiments were conducted to study nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) accumulation and utilization in flooded rice comparing plastic film mulched (PFM) and conventionally flooded cultivation (CFC) in two successive years. In
Pemberton, R.W. A Tropical Garden Flora, Plants Cultivated in the Hawaiian Islands and Other Tropical Areas. Economic Botany This is an invited book review of an important new reference book on plants cultivated in the tropical and subtropical areas of the world. This is the long awaited update of ...
The cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis is an attractive alternative source of the pigment chlorophyll, which is used as a natural color in food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical products. In this work, the influence of the light intensity and urea supplementation as a nitrogen source using fed-batch cultivation for S. platensis growth and chlorophyll content was examined. Cultivations were carried out in 5
Carlota de Oliveira Rangel-Yagui; Eliane Dalva Godoy Danesi; João Carlos Monteiro de Carvalho; Sunao Sato
To shed light on the decline in demand for the nonprofit arts, the authors describe what it means to cultivate demand for the arts, examine how well U.S. institutions are serving this function, and discuss whether it is in the public interest to make such cultivation a higher priority than it has been in the past. The authors propose that a strong…
Cultivation of black truffle, Tuber melanosporum Vitt., has become an important agricultural alternative in rural Mediterranean regions due to its success in relatively harsh conditions, its high market value and diminishing production in natural areas. In addition, truffle cultivation requires relatively low agricultural inputs, promotes reforestation and economic restoration of rural lands and land-use stability. However, there remain major issues
High cell density cultivation of Escherichia coli on a glycerol-based mineral medium was studied. The cultivation was done in a dialysis reactor composed of two chambers. The inner chamber is formed and separated from an outer chamber by a membrane. Fresh medium was continuously exchanged with medium in the outer chamber so that both glycerol and other components of the
H. Märkl; C. Zenneck; A. Ch. Dubach; James C. Ogbonna
In order to achieve maximum productivity of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli high cell density cultivation (HCDC) strategies have been the subject of many studies. The aim of this work was the application of calorimetric methods to HCDC. The specific growth rate of a recombinant E. coli strain producing green fluorescent protein (GFP) was controlled during fed-batch cultivations by estimating
Richard Biener; Anne Steinkämper; Johannes Hofmann
SUMMARY. Naranjilla (Solanum quitoense Lam.) is a native fruit of the Andes, cultivated and consumed mainly in Ecuador, Colombia, and Central America. Because of its pleasant aroma and attractive color, it has high potential as an ingredient of products such as juices, nectars, and jams. The main characteristics of mature naranjilla fruits cultivated in Costa Rica were assessed, including sugar
Adult rat and newt retinas were studied during long organotypic 3D cultivation. A high proliferation level was discovered in the region of growth by applying DNA synthesis markers and in vitro mitosis registration in newt retina. Aggregates were formed in the retina spheroid cavity because dedifferentiated cells migrated into this region. Small cell populations in nuclear layers also had dividing and migration capacity. Rosette formation has been shown in newt retina. It is a characteristic of fetal retinal development under pathological conditions. The antiG FAP antibody dye demonstrated an increase in the parent M@uller cell population and generation of a small cell pool with short GFAP-extensions de novo. Recoverin expression studies detected its translocation from photoreceptor extensions to the cell bodies. Moreover, protein was presented in some cells inside the spheroid. It has been shown for the first time that cell proliferation occurred in the developing adult rat retinal spheroid in vitro; BrdU-positive cells and multiple mitoses were revealed in this zone. However, the source of proliferation was not in the peripheral retina, and stable macrophages and glial cells located among neurons of the inner nuclear layer had the ability to divide. The antiGFAP antibody showed an increase in GFAP fibers in the rat retina as well as in the newt retina. Recoverin translocated into photoreceptor perikaryons and the outer plexiform layer in cultivated rat retina. Interestingly, some cells with probably de novo expression of recoverin were discovered in rat and newt retinas. PMID:20799639
Novikova, Iu P; Ale?nikova, K S; Krasnov, M S; Poplinskaia, V A; Grigorian, E N
One hundred ninety-four germplasm accessions of fig representing the four fig types, Common, Smyrna, San Pedro, and Caprifig were analyzed for genetic diversity, structure, and differentiation using genetic polymorphism at 15 microsatellite loci. The collection showed considerable polymorphism with observed number of alleles per locus ranging from four for five different loci, MFC4, LMFC14, LMFC22, LMFC31 and LMFC35 to nine for LMFC30 with an average of 4.9 alleles per locus. Seven of the 15 loci included in the genetic structure analyses exhibited significant deviation from panmixia, of which two showed excess and five showed deficiency of heterozygote. The cluster analysis (CA) revealed ten groups with 32 instances of synonymy among cultivars and groups differed significantly for frequency and composition of alleles for different loci. The principal components analysis (PCA) confirmed the results of CA with some groups more differentiated than the others. Further, the model based Bayesian approach clustering suggested a subtle population structure with mixed ancestry for most figs. The gene diversity analysis indicated that much of the total variation is found within groups (HG/HT = 0.853; 85.3%) and the among groups within total component (GGT = 0.147) accounted for the remaining 14.7%, of which ~64% accounted for among groups within clusters (GGC = 0.094) and ~36% among clusters (GCT = 0.053). The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed approximately similar results with nearly 87% of variation within groups and ~10% among groups within clusters, and ~3% among clusters. Overall, the gene pool of cultivated fig analyzed possesses substantial genetic polymorphism but exhibits narrow differentiation. It is evident that fig accessions from Turkmenistan are somewhat genetically different from the rest of the Mediterranean and the Caucasus figs. The long history of domestication and cultivation with widespread dispersal of cultivars with many synonyms has resulted in a great deal of confusion in the identification and classification of cultivars in fig.
As part of a comprehensive study on tropical land use change and its effect on atmospheric trace gas fluxes, we report the CO fluxes recorded at a natural grassland site and the changes produced when this ecosystem was managed or cultivated. The field site is located in the central part of the savannah climatic region of Venezuela. Fluxes were measured in the dark using the enclosed chamber technique. CO was analyzed with a reduction-gas detector in combination with a molecular sieve 5A columm for CO separation. At all sites, CO fluxes exhibited a strong diurnal variation, with net emission during daytime and consumption or no fluxes during nightime. In unplowed soils no differences were observed between dry and rainy season. A large disparity was observed between unplowed and plowed grassland soils. Plowed soil shows a much smaller emission during daytime and a larger consumption at night. The 24-hour integrated fluxes indicate that the nonperturbed grassland switches from being a net source of CO (3.4×1010 molecules cm-2 s-1) to being a net sink (-1.6×1010 molecules cm-2s-1) after plowing. It is likely that burial of surface litter reduces the production of CO in the top soil and that the diffusion of CO to deeper layers (where CO is consumed by microbiological processes) is promoted in decompacted soils. As the rainy season progressed the plowed soil gradually compacted and CO fluxes changed back, and after 3 months the fluxes from plowed soils and the original unplowed soils were equal. Even though the various cultivated fields (corn, sorghum, and pasture) received differing inorganic fertilization treatments, no significant difference in the CO fluxes resulted. Measurements during the dry season suggest that "degrading dry (dead) vegetation" produces CO under dark conditions.
Sanhueza, Eugenio; Donoso, Loreto; Scharffe, Dieter; Crutzen, Paul J.
The paper describes a procedure for continuous cultivation of luminescent bacteria Photobacterium phosphoreum according to which the nutrient flow is controlled with respect to the luminescence intensity. The biomass yield of this cultivation procedure at the given luminescence intensity 6.1 X 10(12) quantum X ml-1 s-1 is over three times higher than that obtained in periodic cultivation, with the specific cell luminescence being identical in both cases. The cultivation process is unstable at the luminescence intensity 4.1 X 10(12) quantum X ml-1 s-1 and the glycerol content in the nutrient medium over 6 g/l. Practical applications of the above procedure for the cultivation of luminescent bacteria are discussed. PMID:6353408
To understand the potential of using swine lagoon wastewater to cultivate Botryococcus braunii for biofuel production, growth characteristics of B. braunii 765 cultivated in aerated swine lagoon wastewater (ASLW) without sterilization and pH adjustment were investigated. The results showed that the alga strain could maintain competitive advantage over the 26-day cultivation. The highest dry biomass of alga grown in ASLW was 0.94 mg L(-1) at day 24, which was 1.73 times that grown in BG11 medium, an artificial medium normally used for B. braunii cultivation. And the algal hydrocarbon content was 23.8%, being more than twice that in BG11 medium. Additionally, after the 26-day cultivation, about 40.8% of TN and 93.3% of TP in ASLW were removed, indicating also good environmental benefits of algal bioremediation. PMID:23660382
Investigations on the laboratory and industrial cultivation of unicellular algae, Chlorella and Scenedesmus, for the production of bulk fodder have been carried out in the Soviet Union and abroad. Criteria for mass cultivation of algae are: the culture sh...
Upland blueberry (Vaccinium ashei Read.) requires acidic and organic matter rich soils for its cultivation. Recently, the raised bed cultivation system has widely been used for blueberry cultivation, but it has a potential to cause nitrogen (N) losses via leaching and nitrous oxide (N2O) emission especially with high rate of N application. We investigated the effects of organic amendments on
Imre Vano; Miwa Matsushima; Changyuan Tang; Kazuyuki Inubushi
A lysimeter method using undisturbed soil columns was used to investigate the effect of water table depth and soil properties on soil organic matter decomposition and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from cultivated peat soils. The study was carried out using cultivated organic soils from two locations in Sweden: Örke, a typical cultivated fen peat with low pH and high organic
One hundred ninety-four germplasm accessions of fig representing the four fig types, Common, Smyrna, San Pedro, and Caprifig were analyzed for genetic diversity, structure, and differentiation using genetic polymorphism at 15 microsatellite loci. The collection showed considerable polymorphism with observed number of alleles per locus ranging from four for five different loci, MFC4, LMFC14, LMFC22, LMFC31 and LMFC35 to nine for LMFC30 with an average of 4.9 alleles per locus. Seven of the 15 loci included in the genetic structure analyses exhibited significant deviation from panmixia, of which two showed excess and five showed deficiency of heterozygote. The cluster analysis (CA) revealed ten groups with 32 instances of synonymy among cultivars and groups differed significantly for frequency and composition of alleles for different loci. The principal components analysis (PCA) confirmed the results of CA with some groups more differentiated than the others. Further, the model based Bayesian approach clustering suggested a subtle population structure with mixed ancestry for most figs. The gene diversity analysis indicated that much of the total variation is found within groups (H (G) /H (T) = 0.853; 85.3%) and the among groups within total component (G (GT) = 0.147) accounted for the remaining 14.7%, of which approximately 64% accounted for among groups within clusters (G (GC) = 0.094) and approximately 36% among clusters (G (CT) = 0.053). The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed approximately similar results with nearly 87% of variation within groups and approximately 10% among groups within clusters, and approximately 3% among clusters. Overall, the gene pool of cultivated fig analyzed possesses substantial genetic polymorphism but exhibits narrow differentiation. It is evident that fig accessions from Turkmenistan are somewhat genetically different from the rest of the Mediterranean and the Caucasus figs. The long history of domestication and cultivation with widespread dispersal of cultivars with many synonyms has resulted in a great deal of confusion in the identification and classification of cultivars in fig. PMID:20217187
Aradhya, Mallikarjuna K; Stover, Ed; Velasco, Dianne; Koehmstedt, Anne
Attempts to develop techniques for the continuous in vitro cultivation of the malaria parasite have not yet proved successful. It has not been possible to obtain the complete sporogonic development of the parasite in vitro although some progress was made with Plasmodium relictum and P. berghei. Exoerythrocytic stages of P. gallinaceum have been successfully cultivated in vitro in tissue explants and those of P. fallax have been grown in turkey primary embryo tissue cells. With the recent development of mammalian liver cell lines, prospects for the in vitro cultivation of exoerythrocytic stages of mammalian plasmodia are greatly improved. While it is still not possible to cultivate erythrocytic stages of plasmodia serially in vitro some species have been successfully grown through one asexual cycle. This progress has led to a number of applications of parasite cultivation to chemotherapeutic studies, to the testing of new antimalarial drugs, and especially to the testing of the susceptibility of P. falciparum to chloroquine. Cultivation technique is greatly improved by an appropriate choice of culture media. The addition of fresh red cells to the subculture system permits relatively high rates of invasion and multiplication of the parasite to be obtained. As well as its application in the screening and evaluation of antimalarial compounds, the in vitro cultivation technique is also very suitable for studying the entry mechanism of the parasite into red blood cells.
Response of water quality to agricultural cultivation was investigated for the Liangwanghe River catchment of Fuxianhu Lake region in Yunnan Province of China. Two typical tillage lands-the rice-wheat rotation (R-W) and the tobacco-pea (T-P) rotation were selected and monitored. Groundwater quality and water quality of Liangwanghe River were monitored simultaneously, as well as the farmland cultivation situation at that time. It was found that cultivation activities, such as transplanting, base fertilizer applying, top dressing, draining would cause apparent elevation of concentrations of TP, PO4(3-)-P, TN, NO3(-)-N and NH4(+)-N of groundwater in a short time period. Nutrients adsorption by crops during different bearing periods has an obvious relationship to the change of contents of TP, PO4(3-)-P, TN, NO3(-)-N, and NH4(+)-N in groundwater in a long time scale. When the crops are in a peak demand for nutrients, contents of nutrients in groundwater were found to reduce obviously, and contents of nutrients may rise for other crop conditions. Contents of TP and PO4(3-)-P of Liangwanghe River for full cultivation periods were found to be 5.8% and 21.7% lower than those for partial cultivation periods, while contents of TN, NH4(+)-N and NO3(-)-N for full cultivation periods were found to be 11.5%, 242.6% and 9.55% higher than those for partial cultivation periods. PMID:18268995
Pesticides associated with the turfgrass industry have been detected in storm runoff and surface waters of urban watersheds, invoking concern of their potential environmental effects and a desire to reduce their transport to nontarget locations. Quantities of chlorpyrifos, dicamba, dimethylamine salt of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), flutolanil, and mecoprop-p (MCPP) transported in runoff from bentgrass (Agrostis palustris) fairway turf managed with solid tine (ST) or hollow tine (HT) core cultivation were compared to determine which cultivation practice is more efficient at mitigating environmental risk. Plots receiving HT core cultivation showed a 10 and 55% reduction in runoff volume and a 15 to 57% reduction in pesticide transport with runoff at 63 d and 2 d following core cultivation. Estimated environmental concentrations of the pesticides in a surface water receiving runoff from turf managed with ST core cultivation exceeded the median lethal concentration (LC50) or median effective concentration (EC50) of nine aquatic organisms evaluated. Replacing ST core cultivation with HT core cultivation reduced surface water concentrations of the pesticides to levels below the LC50 and EC50 for most these aquatic organisms, lessening risk associated with pesticides in runoff from the fairway turf. Results of the present research provide quantitative information that will allow for informed decisions on cultural practices that can maximize pesticide retention at the site of application, improving pest control in turf while minimizing environmental contamination and adverse effects associated with the off-site transport of pesticides. PMID:20821563
Rice, Pamela J; Horgan, Brian P; Rittenhouse, Jennifer L
Cultivation of wild-harvested plant species has been proposed as a way of reducing over-exploitation of wild populations but lack of technical knowledge is thought to be a barrier preventing people from cultivating a new species. Training programmes are therefore used to increase technical knowledge to encourage people to adopt cultivation. We assessed the impact of a training programme aiming to encourage cultivation of xaté (Chamaedorea ernesti-augusti), an over-harvested palm from Central America. Five years after the training programme ended, we surveyed untrained and trained individuals focusing on four potential predictors of behaviour: technical knowledge, attitudes (what individuals think about a behaviour), subjective norms (what individuals perceive others to think of a behaviour) and perceived behavioural control (self assessment of whether individuals can enact the behaviour successfully). Whilst accounting for socioeconomic variables, we investigate the influence of training upon these behavioural predictors and examine the factors that determine whether people adopt cultivation of a novel species. Those who had been trained had higher levels of technical knowledge about xaté cultivation and higher belief in their ability to cultivate it while training was not associated with differences in attitudes or subjective norms. Technical knowledge and perceived behavioural control (along with socio-economic variables such as forest ownership and age) were predictors of whether individuals cultivate xaté. We suggest that training programmes can have a long lasting effect on individuals and can change behaviour. However, in many situations other barriers to cultivation, such as access to seeds or appropriate markets, will need to be addressed. PMID:22431993
Williams, Sophie J; Jones, Julia P G; Clubbe, Colin; Gibbons, James M
The cultivation of the mushroom Agaricus bisporus, also known as button mushroom, requires the use of substrates for its cultivation, such as chicken and/or horse manure and the application of manufacturing steps, such as storage and composting that produce odours. The odours may cause disturbance to people living near the plant and may be a problem for workers. This article examines some measures that can be taken to reduce the odorous emissions during the production of Agaricus bisporus. The possibility of recovery of some organic matter left from the cultivation is examined. Finally, some occupational hazards for workers are highlighted. PMID:23064140
Zicari, Giuseppe; Rivetti, Daniela; Soardo, Vincenzo; Cerrato, Elena
Ecological cultivation capsules (ECC), that is a materially sealed microcosm. composed of primary producers, consumers and bacteria as a decomposer were developed in order to cultivate bacteria without any artificial operation for long duration more than 10 years in space. It is planned to be left on the space station to study the process that bacteria in MIR space station had acquired their resistance to cosmic ray radiation as well as ultra-violet light. As contrasted with the space experiment, bacteria are cultivating in the ECC on the ground to trace the changes of bacteria under the simulated radiation dose in Earth orbit. PMID:11541876
Defined cultivation media for yeast growth which contained 278.8 mM of glucose and 0.1 mM of chromium(III) added as K2Cr(SO4)2 · 12 H2O was used in batch and combined batch\\/fed-batch cultivation mode. In fed batch cultivation mode the rate of substrate addition remained constant during growth of yeast and corresponded to a growth rate of 0.25 hу. In both cases
Lawsonia inermis Linn. (Mehandi) is cultivated as cash crop in India particularly in Sojat area of Pali district, Rajasthan. Present investigation describes an efficient regeneration system for elite genotype of L. inermis using nodal segments. Optimum response in terms of percent cultures responding, days to bud break and average shoot length was observed on MS medium supplemented with 6-benzylaminopurine (BA; 2.0 mg l(-1)). Shoot multiplication was influenced by plant growth regulators, repeated transfer of explants and addition of ammonium sulphate. Maximum shoots were regenerated on MS medium supplemented with BA (0.25 mg l(-1)), kinetin (Kn; 0.25 mg l(-1)), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA; 0.1 mg l(-1)) and ammonium sulphate (150 mg l(-1)). To reduce resources, time and labours costs, we have also attempted ex vitro rooting of shoots. About 95 % shoots were rooted ex vitro on soilrite after treatment with indole-3-butyric acid (IBA; 300 mg l(-1)) and 2-naphthoxy acetic acid (NOA; 100 mg l(-1)) and establishment in soil successfully. PMID:23573020
Phototropism and gravitropism play key roles in the oriented growth of roots in flowering plants. In blue or white light, roots exhibit negative phototropism, but red light induces positive phototropism in Arabidopsis roots. The blue-light response is controlled by the phototropins while the red-light response is mediated by the phytochrome family of photoreceptors. In order to better characterize root phototropism, we plan to perform experiments in microgravity so that this tropism can be more effectively studied without the interactions with the gravity response. Our experiments are to be performed on the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS), which provides an incubator, lighting system, and high resolution video that are on a centrifuge palette. These experiments will be performed at ? g, 1g (control) and fractional g-levels. In order to ensure success of this mission on the International Space Station (ISS), we have been performing ground-based studies on growth, phototropism, and gravitropism in experimental unique equipment (EUE) that was designed for our experiments that will use Arabidopsis seedlings. Currently, the EMCS and our EUE are scheduled for launch on space shuttle mission STS-121. This project should provide insight into how the blue-light and red-light signaling systems interact with each other, and also with the gravisensing system.
A library of “introgression lines” containing Solanum lycopersicoides chromosome segments in the genetic background of cultivated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) was used to study factors affecting homeologous recombination. Recombination rates were estimated in progeny of 43 heterozygous introgressions and whole-chromosome substitution lines, together representing 11 of the 12 tomato chromosomes. Recombination within homeologous segments was reduced to as little as 0–10% of expected frequencies. Relative recombination rates were positively correlated with the length of introgressed segments on the tomato map. The highest recombination (up to 40–50% of normal) was observed in long introgressions or substitution lines. Double-introgression lines containing two homeologous segments on opposite chromosome arms were synthesized to increase their combined length. Recombination was higher in the double than in the single segment lines, despite a preference for crossovers in the region of homology between segments. A greater increase in homeologous recombination was obtained by crossing the S. lycopersicoides introgression lines to L. pennellii—a phylogenetically intermediate species—or to L. esculentum lines containing single L. pennellii segments on the same chromosome. Recombination rates were highest in regions of overlap between S. lycopersicoides and L. pennellii segments. The potential application of these results to breeding with introgression lines is discussed.
Canady, Michael A.; Ji, Yuanfu; Chetelat, Roger T.
The occurrence of Clostridium perfringens was estimated in 750 samples originated from a variety of soils bearing various bulb crops: Brawnica oderacea (vegetable), Olea europaea, Daucus carota (carote), Solanum tuberosum (potato), Phaseolus vulgaris (green haricot), Beta vulgaris var. rapaceum (beetroot), Cucurbita pepo (squash), Allium cepa (onion), Cucumis sativus (cucumber) and Capsicum annum (pepper). All isolated strains were tested for their antimicrobial activities to amoxicillin, penicillin G, kanamycin, tetracycline, streptomycin, erythromycin, chloramphenicol and metronidazole. When considering the type of the bulb production, it was observed increased number of C. perfringens spore densities in the most undersurface bulb soils. Moreover, C. perfringens spore are likely to occur in particularly large numbers in soil contaminated by fecal matter. Additionally, there is a close relationship between the spore amount and nature of organic content. Presence of C. perfringens was associated with acidic soil. Most of our strains showed resistance to the studied antibiotics applied usually for human and veterinary care. A systematic monitoring of the cultivated soil ecosystems must include bacteriological parameters together with chemical indices of organic pollution in order to obtain information adequate for assessing their overall quality. PMID:21621626
In the present work, we introduced a novel approach for microbial fatty acids (FA) production. Photosynthetic bacteria, Rhodobacter sphaeroides KD131, were cultivated in a continuous-flow, stirred-tank reactor (CFSTR) at various substrate (lactate) concentrations. At hydraulic retention time (HRT) 4d, cell concentration continuously increased from 0.97g dcw/L to 2.05g dcw/L as lactate concentration increased from 30mM to 60mM. At 70mM, however, cell concentration fluctuated with incomplete substrate degradation. By installing a membrane unit to CFSTR, a stable performance was observed under much higher substrate loading (lactate 100mM and HRT 1.5d). A maximum cell concentration of 16.2g dcw/L, cell productivity of 1.9g dcw/L/d, and FA productivity of 665mg FA/L/d were attained, and these values were comparable with those achieved using microalgae. The FA content of R. sphaeroides was around 35% of dry cell weight, mainly composed of vaccenic acid (C18:1, omega-7). PMID:24055970
Kim, Dong-Hoon; Lee, Ji-Hye; Hwang, Yuhoon; Kang, Seoktae; Kim, Mi-Sun
Aerobic granular sludge (AGS) was successfully cultivated at 27±1 °C and pH 7.0±1 during the treatment of rubber wastewater using a sequential batch reactor system mode with complete cycle time of 3 h. Results showed aerobic granular sludge had an excellent settling ability and exhibited exceptional performance in the organics and nutrients removal from rubber wastewater. Regular, dense and fast settling granule (average diameter, 1.5 mm; settling velocity, 33 m h(-1); and sludge volume index, 22.3 mL g(-1)) were developed in a single reactor. In addition, 96.5% COD removal efficiency was observed in the system at the end of the granulation period, while its ammonia and total nitrogen removal efficiencies were up to 94.7% and 89.4%, respectively. The study demonstrated the capabilities of AGS development in a single, high and slender column type-bioreactor for the treatment of rubber wastewater. PMID:23317554
Rosman, Noor Hasyimah; Nor Anuar, Aznah; Othman, Inawati; Harun, Hasnida; Sulong Abdul Razak, Muhammad Zuhdi; Elias, Siti Hanna; Mat Hassan, Mohd Arif Hakimi; Chelliapan, Shreesivadass; Ujang, Zaini
Curcumazedoaria (Berg) Rose. (wild turmeric or kastoorimanjal of commerce rhizome is used as appetizer, tonic, blood purifier and cosmetic. It is useful in flatulence and dyspepsia and also for worms and skin diseases a study on the agrotechniques for its cultivation at the aromatic and Medicinal plants Research Station, Odakkali during 1996-1999 revealed that it is highly adaptable to a wide range of spacings, producing similar yields by adjusting the number of plants/hill. It produces maximum yield of rhizome (34t/ha), essential oil (0.33%) and oleoresin (5.%%) when 1.5 t/ha of seed rhizomes are planted at 60 ×40 cm spacing with the receipt of premonsoon showers in May and harvested in January. Application of 20/ha of FYM, 100:50:50 kg N:P:K/ha. Biofertilisers, green manuring and mulching maximize the yields. Combination and interaction effects of the various manorial treatments are to be studied further in detail. The nutrient removal by the crop for the production of rhizomes was115.96:9. 46:111.23 kg NPK/ha. PMID:22557065
Joy, P P; Thomas, J; Mathew, Samuvel; Skaria, Baby P
Curcumazedoaria (Berg) Rose. (wild turmeric or kastoorimanjal of commerce rhizome is used as appetizer, tonic, blood purifier and cosmetic. It is useful in flatulence and dyspepsia and also for worms and skin diseases a study on the agrotechniques for its cultivation at the aromatic and Medicinal plants Research Station, Odakkali during 1996-1999 revealed that it is highly adaptable to a wide range of spacings, producing similar yields by adjusting the number of plants/hill. It produces maximum yield of rhizome (34t/ha), essential oil (0.33%) and oleoresin (5.%%) when 1.5 t/ha of seed rhizomes are planted at 60 ×40 cm spacing with the receipt of premonsoon showers in May and harvested in January. Application of 20/ha of FYM, 100:50:50 kg N:P:K/ha. Biofertilisers, green manuring and mulching maximize the yields. Combination and interaction effects of the various manorial treatments are to be studied further in detail. The nutrient removal by the crop for the production of rhizomes was115.96:9. 46:111.23 kg NPK/ha.
Joy, P.P.; Thomas, J.; Mathew, Samuvel; Skaria, Baby P.
We carried out a genome-wide analysis of polymorphism (4,596 SNP loci across 190 elite cultivated accessions) chosen to represent the available genetic variation in current elite North West European and North American barley germplasm. Population sub-structure, patterns of diversity and linkage disequilibrium varied considerably across the seven barley chromosomes. Gene-rich and rarely recombining haplotype blocks that may represent up to 60% of the physical length of barley chromosomes extended across the ‘genetic centromeres’. By positioning 2,132 bi-parentally mapped SNP markers with minimum allele frequencies higher than 0.10 by association mapping, 87.3% were located to within 5 cM of their original genetic map position. We show that at this current marker density genetically diverse populations of relatively small size are sufficient to fine map simple traits, providing they are not strongly stratified within the sample, fall outside the genetic centromeres and population sub-structure is effectively controlled in the analysis. Our results have important implications for association mapping, positional cloning, physical mapping and practical plant breeding in barley and other major world cereals including wheat and rye that exhibit comparable genome and genetic features. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00122-010-1466-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
The oleaginous microalga Chlorella sp. LAM-H screened from freshwater was proven to be a prospective feedstock for oil production according to its fatty acid composition. In order to enhance lipid production, response surface methodology (RSM) was used with central composite design (CCD) to optimize the heterotrophic cultivation of microalgae. The experiment results showed that a satisfactory second-order polynomial regression equation was achieved with a high coefficient of determination (R(2)=0.9911) in analysis of variance. The effects of individual factors and their interactions on lipid productivity were successfully revealed. The greatest lipid productivity reached 247.16 mg l(-1) d(-1) under the optimal conditions of glucose concentration 26.2 g l(-1), sodium nitrate concentration 2.06 g l(-1) and temperature 28.18 °C. Moreover, validation tests were performed and the results were very close to the predicted values. It was demonstrated that the obtained model was effective for predicting lipid productivity of the isolated microalga. PMID:22705529
Vanilla is a tropical orchid belonging to the family Orchidaceae and it is mainly used in food, perfumery, and pharmaceutical preparations. The quality of the bean depends on the volatile constituent's, viz., the vanillin content, the species of the vine used, and the processing conditions adopted. Hence, proper pollination during flowering and curing by exercising utmost care are the important aspects of vanilla cultivation. There are different methods of curing, and each one is unique and named after the places of its origin like Mexican process and Bourbon process. Recently, Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore has developed know-how of improved curing process, where the green vanilla beans are cured immediately after harvest and this process takes only 32 days, which otherwise requires minimum of 150-180 days as reported in traditional curing methods. Vanillin is the most essential component of the 200 and odd such compounds present in vanilla beans. Vanillin as such has not shown any antioxidant properties, it is along with other compounds has got nutraceutical properties and therefore its wide usage. The medicinal future of vanilla may definitely lie in further research on basic science and clinical studies on the constituents and their mechanism of action. PMID:24090143
New approaches to the in vitro cultivation of coccidian parasites are described here, specifically for avian coccidia of the genus Eimeria. Firstly, an improved method of purifying the infectious stage of these parasites, known as sporozoites, over a DEAE-52 cellulose anion exchange column to eliminate toxic debris generated during excystation is described. The cultured cells used to support the intracellular development of these parasites, Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney Cells (MDBK), were cloned and it was demonstrated that some clones were more susceptible than others to infection with sporozoites. The use of sub-lethal doses of gamma radiation to pre-treat host cell monolayers prior to infecting has been found to prevent host cell overgrowth and subsequent peeling of the monolayers while not interfering with parasite development. Utilizing in vitro culture techniques developed here in conjunction with radiolabeling studies, an assay has been development using the parasite-specific incorporation of /sup 3/H-uracil to assess the intracellular development of E. tenella and E. acervulina in vitro. As shown by both scintillation counts and autoradiography, /sup 3/H-uracil was incorporated specifically into the intracellular parasites from the onset of infection and continued throughout the development of the first generation schizonts. Based on these findings, a semi-automated microscale incorporation assay was developed to determine parasite viability. The assay system is used in this study to investigate the effects of known anticoccidials, sporozoite antiserum, and varying the composition of the cell culture medium on parasite development.
Mushrooms are currently examined for their potential as functional foods. At the same time, novel types of mushroom intoxications, such as rhabdomyolysis after prolonged consumption, have been described in edible species. The aim of the present study was to perform an acute toxicity test to establish if the most commonly cultivated species would have myo- or hepatotoxic effects. Mice (n=6/group) were exposed to 3, 6 or 9 g Agaricus bisporus, Lentinus edodes or Pleurotus ostreatus kg body mass(-1) d(-1) for 5 d with 6 controls. Food and water intakes, plasma clinical chemistry and liver and muscle histology were evaluated. While A. bisporus caused significantly increased plasma bilirubin concentrations, L. edodes elicited also increased plasma creatine kinase activities at 9 g kg(-1) d(-1). P. ostreatus decreased dramatically the food intake but increased the water intake and caused significantly increased plasma alanine aminotransferase activities at 9 g kg(-1) d(-1). While there were no pathological findings in the histological samples, it seems that the doses and time periods required for the potential benefits of mushroom consumption to appear are similar to those causing undesirable effects. This should be taken into consideration if mushrooms are to be used as functional foods. PMID:18976689
Cholesterol and albumin are limiting factors in the growth of Mycoplasma species. These nutrients are usually supplied in the culture medium by the addition of serum. The growth of M. pneumoniae in a serum-free medium containing an ethanolic cholesterol suspension and albumin was about one-half the level attained in serum-containing medium. M. gallisepticum and M. fermentans were not cultivable in the cholesterol suspension medium even after supplements were included. In another culture medium containing phosphatidylcholine-cholesterol liposomes and albumin as serum replacements, the growth of M. pneumoniae was approximately equal to that in serum-containing medium, and the growth of M. gallisepticum and M. fermentans was significantly greater than that in medium containing serum. M. fermentans produced even higher yields in liposome medium supplemented with arginine. These fermenting mycoplasmas readily adapted to the liposome medium and by the fifth or sixth serial passage produced thick confluent growth on the lower surface of culture bottles. To obtain maximum growth, we serially transferred the mycoplasmas at least 10 times in serum-free medium before quantitations of growth were made. This is the first report of a serum-free mycoplasma medium of high growth-promoting ability.
Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is a micro-aerobic bacterium able to fix atmospheric nitrogen in endophytic mode. A proteomic approach was used to analyze proteins differentially expressed in the presence and absence of sugarcane plantlets. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) showed 42 spots with altered levels of expression. Analysis of these spots by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight in tandem (MALDI-TOF-TOF) identified 38 proteins. Differentially expressed proteins were associated with carbohydrate and energy metabolism, folding, sorting and degradation processes, and transcription and translation. Among proteins expressed in co-cultivated bacteria, four belong to membrane systems; others, like a transcription elongation factor (GreA), a 60 kDa chaperonin (GroEL), and an outer membrane lipoprotein (Omp16) have also been described in other plant-bacteria associations, indicating a common protein expression pattern as a result of symbiosis. A high protein content of 60kDa chaperonin isoforms was detected as non-differentially expressed proteins of the bacteria proteome. These results allow the assessment of the physiological significance of specific proteins to G. diazotrophicus metabolism and to the pathways involved in bacteria-host endophytic interaction. PMID:20026003
dos Santos, Marise Fonseca; Muniz de Pádua, Vânia Lúcia; de Matos Nogueira, Eduardo; Hemerly, Adriana Silva; Domont, Gilberto Barbosa
The experiments are carried out in a rainy season in 2008 to compare the differences of crop water productivity by three rice cultivation methods, which are rainfed upland, rainfed lowland and irrigated rice. Three study sites, Ashaiman, Nyankpala and Kpong are selected from three different agricultural climate zones in Ghana. The following findings are obtained from the experiments. 1) The water productivity of rice was shown as 0.02-0.40kg/m3 in rainfed upland, 0.28-0.53 kg/m3 in rainfed lowland and 0.24-0.66 kg/m3 in irrigated rice. There was a significant difference on water productivity due to differences of rainfall in upland rice. On the other hand water productivity of rainfed lowland indicated that it does not compare favorably even irrigated rice. 2) Although water productivity was higher with increasing water input, it has shown the peak in 650mm of water input and it tended to be lower with increasing of water input in this experiment.
An integrative approach was used to obtain pure cultures of previously uncultivated members of the divisions Acidobacteria and Verrucomicrobia from agricultural soil and from the guts of wood-feeding termites. Some elements of the cultivation procedure included the following: the use of agar media with little or no added nutrients; relatively long periods of incubation (more than 30 days); protection of cells from exogenous peroxides; and inclusion of humic acids or a humic acid analogue (anthraquinone disulfonate) and quorum-signaling compounds (acyl homoserine lactones) in growth media. The bacteria were incubated in the presence of air and in hypoxic (1 to 2% O2 [vol/vol]) and anoxic atmospheres. Some bacteria were incubated with elevated concentrations of CO2 (5% [vol/vol]). Significantly more Acidobacteria were found on isolation plates that had been incubated with 5% CO2. A simple, high-throughput, PCR-based surveillance method (plate wash PCR) was developed. This method greatly facilitated detection and ultimate isolation of target bacteria from as many as 1,000 colonies of nontarget microbes growing on the same agar plates. Results illustrate the power of integrating culture methods with molecular techniques to isolate bacteria from phylogenetic groups underrepresented in culture.
Stevenson, Bradley S.; Eichorst, Stephanie A.; Wertz, John T.; Schmidt, Thomas M.; Breznak, John A.
A total of 70 male potato cultivators were selected randomly from the villages of West Bengal, India, to evaluate musculoskeletal disorder (MSD), thermal stress, and physiological stress and were compared with 70 controls from the urban sector of West Bengal. Modified Nordic questionnaire studies and a posture analysis were performed in for the male potato cultivators by the Rapid Entire Body Assessment method. Most of the participants suffered discomfort at different parts of the body, especially in the lower back, knee, ankle, and feet regions. Potato cultivators suffered maximum discomfort during spading, planting seeds, weeding, picking crops, and sprinkling water. Therefore, it can be concluded that prolonged work activity, high repetitiveness, and remaining constantly in an awkward posture for a prolonged period of time may lead to MSDs. This study also revealed that a significant physiological load is exerted on the potato cultivators, as shown by increased heart rates. PMID:22247108
The investigation of crop and soil-crop conditions among Andoke and Witoto cultivators in southeast Colombia is used as a basis for assessing Geertz' (1963) model of swidden cultivation. In this respect, the extent to which manioc-dominated swiddens in the study area simulate the structure and composition of the forest climax community is questioned. As Geertz (1963) indicates, and initial nutrient boost for crop cultivation results from the preliminary burning of forest debris, but weed competition, rather than progressive loss of soil fertility, is reported to be the primary cause of abandoning manioc cultivation after 2-3 years. While the Andoke and Witoto crop system remains adaptive at the individual field level, particularly in its constituent species, its fundamental adaptation is considered to be its integration into the broader field and fallow system that juxtaposes crop production with extended periods of forest regeneration.
In a 1982 report, GAO discussed marijuana cultivation and other illegal and unauthorized activities on federal lands. At the request of the Chairman, House Subcommittee on Public Lands and National Parks, GAO updated its previous work. GAO found that mari...
The purpose of the study is to describe the aeroponic conveyor method for use in carrot cultivation using artificial light. Three periods of plant growth rates, and changes in composition and biomass are determined.
The market survey covers the fertilizing, cultivating, and planting equipment market in Ecuador. The analysis contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Ecuadorian consumers to U.S. products; the c...
The fatty acid content of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis cellular lipids in different culture conditions was investigated. It was established, that it lies in a narrow range C14-C18 and belongs to isoanteiso type. The species character is constant, independent of temperature, duration of cultivation and medium content dominance of saturated branched-chain fatty acids, among which the anteiso-acids dominate, generally a-C15. A response to the temperature modification of bacteria cultivation, medium and age of culture is expressed by relations between separate fatty acids. Thus the modifications of fatty acid content, connected with age of culture and temperature of cultivation, depend on a strain. The cultivation of bacteria on a rich medium in comparison with poor one enlarges the content of nonbranched-chain and anteiso-acids in lipids. PMID:20695226
Moroz, S M; Hvozdiak, R I; Chernenko, Ie P; Ostapchuk, A M
A two phase sampling method and the optimal sampling segment dimensions are developed for the estimation of the sugar cane cultivated area. This technique employs visual interpretations of LANDSAT images and panchromatic aerial photographs considered as t...
C. A. Cappelletti F. J. Mendonca D. C. L. Lee Y. E. Shimabukuro
The present study reviews the options of cultivating the green alga, Chlorella emersonii, under photoautotrophic conditions with flue gas derived from a cement plant. It was conducted in the Lafarge Perlmooser\\u000a plant in Retznei, Austria, where stone coal and various surrogate fuels such as used tyres, plastics and meat-and-bone meal\\u000a are incinerated for heating limestone. During 30 days of cultivation, flue
Clemens G. Borkenstein; Josef Knoblechner; Heike Frühwirth; Michael Schagerl
The genetic resources available for the improvement of the cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum) are reviewed along with progress in their utilisation. The conclusions are as follows. The wild and cultivated species of\\u000a potato have been utilised in potato breeding to good effect, but only a very small sample of the available biodiversity has\\u000a been exploited. New knowledge and technology will
In this study, the effect of conservation tillage on soil organic matter (SOM) in paddy rice cultivation after 10 yr was investigated. Four treatments, disk till-fallow (DTF), disk till-wheat (DTW), conservation till-fallow (CTF) and conservation till-wheat (CTW) were used. The results indicated that the combinative application of no-tillage, ridge culture and wheat cultivation was a sound conservation practice in paddy
This report describes the effects of direct sowing cultivation on the rhizosphere of lowland rice compared with tbose of transplanting cultivation.Paddy soils in pots (planted or non-planted) were kept under upland conditions for 20, 40 or 60 days and then turned to submerged conditions to obtain different degrees of reduction.Soil Eh, Fe, sugar content and microorganisms in the rhizosphere soil
The cultivation and utilization of two Perilla crops were surveyed in Asia. Perilla frutescens var. frutescens is essentially\\u000a an oil crop and is now widely cultivated in China and Korea. Its seeds are also used as a flavor for traditional foods in\\u000a Japan, Korea, China and Nepal. In Korea, leaves of var. frutescens are used as a fresh vegetable and
Integrating conservation goals with the sustainable use of tropical rain forests has received much attention in recent decades.\\u000a Amomum villosum, a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, has been cultivated in the understory of seasonal rain forest for 40 years in Xishuangbanna,\\u000a Southwest China. Cultivated area has reached 58.11 km2 much of which is distributed within nature reserves. This practice has caused controversy on
This study addresses whether or not crop cultivation by Borana herders in southern Ethiopia is motivated by poverty since\\u000a 80% of the households belong to poor wealth classes (i.e., poor, very poor and destitute). Yet our findings showed little\\u000a evidence that Borana communities have become self-sufficient in grain production. Compared to wealthy households, poor households\\u000a generally cultivated the least land
Molecular markers and genetic linkage maps are pre-requisites for molecular breeding in any crop species. In case of peanut\\u000a or groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.), an amphidiploid (4X) species, not a single genetic map is, however, available based on a mapping population derived\\u000a from cultivated genotypes. In order to develop a genetic linkage map for tetraploid cultivated groundnut, a total of
R. K. Varshney; D. J. Bertioli; M. C. Moretzsohn; V. Vadez; L. Krishnamurthy; R. Aruna; S. N. Nigam; B. J. Moss; K. Seetha; K. Ravi; G. He; S. J. Knapp; D. A. Hoisington
Aims: This study aimed to search for novel quorum sensing (QS) inhibitors from mushroom and to analyze their inhibitory activity, with a view to their possible use in controlling detrimental infections. Methods: The bioactive metabolites produced by mushroom cultivation were tested for their abilities to inhibit QS-regulated behavior. All mushroom strains were cultivated in potato-dextrose medium by large-scale submerged fermentation.
Hu Zhu; Shou-xian Wang; Shuai-shuai Zhang; Chun-xu Cao
The worldwide commercial cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops has raised concerns about\\u000a potential adverse effects on the environment resulting from the use of these crops. Consequently, the risks\\u000a of GM crops for the environment, and especially for biodiversity, have been extensively assessed before\\u000a and during their commercial cultivation. Substantial scientific data on the environmental effects of the\\u000a currently commercialized
The continued cultivation of Lupinus pilosus L. as an endemic coffee substitute in the mountain village of Altrei, South Tyrol, located in the Val di Fiemme\\/Fleimstal\\u000a valley ca. 24 km south of Bolzano\\/Bozen, since the middle of the nineteenth century is demonstrable. Former reports of cultivation\\u000a of Lupinus cosentinii Guss. and L. varius auct., non L. for this purpose in Tyrol
Objective:This study was carried out to obtain data about the sugar-, acid- and phenol content of apple cultivars from organic and integrated fruit cultivation, with reference to their role in human health and especially for diet recommendations.Setting:Styria (Austria) and Slovenia.Interventions:HPLC, Spectral Photometry, organoleptic and olfactory tests.Results:The total sugar content of most cultivars from integrated cultivation ranged between 115 and 160
K Hecke; K Herbinger; R Veberi?; M Trobec; H Toplak; F Štampar; H Keppel; D Grill
Cultivation of previously untilled soils usually results in release of carbon from the soil to the atmosphere, which can affect\\u000a both soil fertility locally and the atmospheric burden of CO2 globally. Generalizations about the magnitude of this flux have been hampered by a lack of good quality comparative data\\u000a on soil carbon stocks of cultivated and uncultivated soils. Using data
During the past years the Sultanate of Oman which is located at the south-eastern tip of the Arabian peninsula has been studied\\u000a for its cultivated plant genetic resources. Data from this study, that commenced in 2002 and information from the literature\\u000a have been combined to document the millenia-old cultivation history of many agri- and horticultural crop plants in this country
K. Hammer; J. Gebauer; S. Al Khanjari; A. Buerkert
The nodulation tendency and community structure of indigenous bradyrhizobia on Rj genotype soybean cultivars at cultivation temperatures of 33/28°C, 28/23°C, and 23/18°C for 16/8 h (day/night degrees, hours) were investigated using 780 bradyrhizobial DNA samples from an Andosol with 13 soybean cultivars of four Rj genotypes (non-Rj, Rj2Rj3, Rj4, and Rj2Rj3Rj4). A dendrogram was constructed based on restriction fragment length polymorphism of the PCR products (PCR-RFLP) of the 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer region. Eleven Bradyrhizobium U.S. Department of Agriculture strains were used as a reference. The dendrogram indicated seven clusters based on similarities among the reference strains. The occupancy rate of the Bj123 cluster decreased with increasing cultivation temperature, whereas the occupancy rates of the Bj110 cluster, Be76 cluster, and Be94 cluster increased with increasing cultivation temperature. In particular, the Rj2Rj3Rj4 genotype soybeans were infected with a number of Bj110 clusters, regardless of the increasing cultivation temperature, compared to other Rj genotype soybean cultivars. The ratio of beta diversity to gamma diversity (H??/H??), which represents differences in the bradyrhizobial communities by pairwise comparison among cultivation temperature sets within the same soybean cultivar, indicated that the bradyrhizobial communities tended to be different among cultivation temperatures. Multidimensional scaling analysis indicated that the infection of the Bj110 cluster and the Bj123 cluster by host soybean genotype and the cultivation temperature affected the bradyrhizobial communities. These results suggested that the Rj genotypes and cultivation temperatures affected the nodulation tendency and community structures of soybean-nodulating bradyrhizobia.
Shifting cultivation around the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve of Mexico, part of the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor, appears\\u000a to be intensifying temporally through reductions in crop–fallow cycles, with potential impacts on species diversity in the\\u000a regenerating forest patches surrounding the reserve. This paper documents the temporal intensity of shifting maize cultivation\\u000a in the region and links it to the species diversity found
Field experimentation is required to assess the effects of environmental stochasticity on small immigrant plant populations—a\\u000a widely understood but largely unexplored aspect of predicting any species’ likelihood of naturalization and potential invasion.\\u000a Cultivation can mitigate this stochasticity, although the outcome for a population under cultivation nevertheless varies enormously\\u000a from extinction to persistence. Using factorial experiments, we investigated the effects of
Acid-base titrations were conducted on pure strain laboratory cultures of the Gram-negative, facultatively aerobic bacterium Shewanella putrefaciens, cultivated under a range of conditions. Bacteria used in acid-base titrations were cultivated for periods of 24 to 100 h (exponential growth phase to late stationary phase), in varying media compositions (rich to minimal), and under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. In addition, two
Twenty one year data (1963-1983) of 25 states\\/UTs of India on area under rice cultivation and annual parasite incidence was analysed using correlation and regression analysis to evaluate the relationship of irrigated area under rice cultivation and the statewise annual parasite incidence of malaria. In 23 states either the correlation is negative or non-significant whereas in Punjab and Nagaland significant
Summary. Vole feeding amongst herbal willows that have a high concentration of salicylates in their bark and leaves, and may therefore\\u000a be cultivated for use as raw material for herbal medicine was tested in the field and in laboratory conditions. Eight clones\\u000a of dark-leaved willow (Salix myrsinifolia Salisb.) were cultivated for two years with six different methods combining three fertilisation levels
Susanne Heiska; Olli-Pekka Tikkanen; Matti Rousi; Riitta Julkunen-Tiitto
The effect of yeast strain, the agave age and the cultivation field location of agave were evaluated using kinetic parameters\\u000a and volatile compound production in the tequila fermentation process. Fermentations were carried out with Agave juice obtained\\u000a from two cultivation fields (CF1 and CF2), as well as two ages (4 and 8 years) and two Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains (GU3 and
L. Pinal; E. Cornejo; M. Arellano; E. Herrera; L. Nuñez; J. Arrizon; A. Gschaedler
A synthetic medium, TK-25, for high cell density cultivation (HCDC) of Escherichia coli K-12 was modified to support HCDC of strain JM109. By optimizing the culture conditions, the cell concentration of 65g\\/l in 14h was obtained in the optimized medium, namely TK-10, with glucose-fed batch cultivation. When these conditions were further applied for HCDC of E. coli JM109 harboring pUC-based
Severe early childhood caries (ECC), while strongly associated with Streptococcus mutans using selective detection (culture, PCR), has also been associated with a widely diverse microbiota using molecular cloning approaches. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiota of severe ECC using anaerobic culture. The microbial composition of dental plaque from 42 severe ECC children was compared with that of 40 caries-free children. Bacterial samples were cultured anaerobically on blood and acid (pH 5) agars. Isolates were purified, and partial sequences for the 16S rRNA gene were obtained from 5,608 isolates. Sequence-based analysis of the 16S rRNA isolate libraries from blood and acid agars of severe ECC and caries-free children had >90% population coverage, with greater diversity occurring in the blood isolate library. Isolate sequences were compared with taxon sequences in the Human Oral Microbiome Database (HOMD), and 198 HOMD taxa were identified, including 45 previously uncultivated taxa, 29 extended HOMD taxa, and 45 potential novel groups. The major species associated with severe ECC included Streptococcus mutans, Scardovia wiggsiae, Veillonella parvula, Streptococcus cristatus, and Actinomyces gerensceriae. S. wiggsiae was significantly associated with severe ECC children in the presence and absence of S. mutans detection. We conclude that anaerobic culture detected as wide a diversity of species in ECC as that observed using cloning approaches. Culture coupled with 16S rRNA identification identified over 74 isolates for human oral taxa without previously cultivated representatives. The major caries-associated species were S. mutans and S. wiggsiae, the latter of which is a candidate as a newly recognized caries pathogen.
Tanner, A. C. R.; Mathney, J. M. J.; Kent, R. L.; Chalmers, N. I.; Hughes, C. V.; Loo, C. Y.; Pradhan, N.; Kanasi, E.; Hwang, J.; Dahlan, M. A.; Papadopolou, E.; Dewhirst, F. E.
Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) originates from the Andes and evolved short-day-dependent tuber formation as a vegetative propagation strategy. Here we describe the identification of a central regulator underlying a major-effect quantitative trait locus for plant maturity and initiation of tuber development. We show that this gene belongs to the family of DOF (DNA-binding with one finger) transcription factors and regulates tuberization and plant life cycle length, by acting as a mediator between the circadian clock and the StSP6A mobile tuberization signal. We also show that natural allelic variants evade post-translational light regulation, allowing cultivation outside the geographical centre of origin of potato. Potato is a member of the Solanaceae family and is one of the world's most important food crops. This annual plant originates from the Andean regions of South America. Potato develops tubers from underground stems called stolons. Its equatorial origin makes potato essentially short-day dependent for tuberization and potato will not make tubers in the long-day conditions of spring and summer in the northern latitudes. When introduced in temperate zones, wild material will form tubers in the course of the autumnal shortening of day-length. Thus, one of the first selected traits in potato leading to a European potato type is likely to have been long-day acclimation for tuberization. Potato breeders can exploit the naturally occurring variation in tuberization onset and life cycle length, allowing varietal breeding for different latitudes, harvest times and markets. PMID:23467094
Kloosterman, Bjorn; Abelenda, José A; Gomez, María del Mar Carretero; Oortwijn, Marian; de Boer, Jan M; Kowitwanich, Krissana; Horvath, Beatrix M; van Eck, Herman J; Smaczniak, Cezary; Prat, Salomé; Visser, Richard G F; Bachem, Christian W B
Lithoautotrophic nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) are known as fastidious microorganisms, which are hard to maintain and not many groups are trained to keep them in culture. They convert nitrite stoichiometrically to nitrate and growth is slow due to the poor energy balance. NOB are comprised of five genera, which are scattered among the phylogenetic tree. Because NOB proliferate in a broad range of environmental conditions (terrestrial, marine, acidic) and have diverse lifestyles (lithoautotrophic, mixotrophic, and heterotrophic), variation in media composition is necessary to match their individual growth requirements in the laboratory. From Nitrobacter and Nitrococcus relatively high cell amounts can be achieved by consumption of high nitrite concentrations, whereas accumulation of cells belonging to Nitrospira, Nitrospina, or the new candidate genus Nitrotoga needs prolonged feeding procedures. Isolation is possible for planktonic cells by dilution series or plating techniques, but gets complicated for strains with a tendency to develop microcolonies like Nitrospira. Physiological experiments including determination of the temperature or pH-optimum can be conducted with active laboratory cultures of NOB, but the attainment of reference values like cell protein content or cell numbers might be hard to realize due to the formation of flocs and the low cell density. Monitoring of laboratory enrichments is necessary especially if several species or genera coexist within the same culture and due to population shifts over time. Chemotaxonomy is a valuable method to identify and quantify NOB in biofilms and pure cultures alike, since fatty acid profiles reflect their phylogenetic heterogeneity. This chapter focusses on methods to enrich, isolate, and characterize NOB by various cultivation-based techniques. PMID:21185433
Black root rot (BRR), incited by the soilborne pathogen Thielaviopsis basicola has the potential to cause significant economic loss in cotton (Gossypium spp.) production. Cultivated tetraploids of cotton (G. hirsutum and G. barbadense) are susceptible although resistant types have been identified in a possible tetraploid progenitor, G. herbaceum. Genetic mapping was used to detect the chromosomal locations of quantitative trait loci (QTL) that confer resistance to the BRR pathogen. A population of F(2) individuals (G. herbaceum x G. arboreum) and F(2:3) progeny families were examined. Phenotypic variation between resistant and susceptible reactions could be explained partly by three QTL. The BRR5.1, BRR9.1, and BRR13.1 QTL each explained 19.1, 10.3 and 8.5% of the total phenotypic variation, respectively. The combination of all three in a single genetic model explained 32.7% of the phenotypic variation. Comparative analysis was conducted on significant QTL regions to deduce the cotton-Arabidopsis synteny relationship and examine the correspondence between BRR QTL and Arabidopsis pathogen defense genes. Totally 20 Arabidopsis synteny segments corresponded within one of three BRR QTL regions. Each synteny segment contains many potential Arabidopsis candidate genes. A total of 624 Arabidopsis genes, including 22 pathogen defense and 36 stress response genes, could be placed within the syntenic regions corresponding to the BRR QTL. Fine mapping is needed to delineate each underlying BRR R-gene and possible Arabidopsis orthologs. Research and breeding activities to examine each QTL and underlying genes in Upland cotton (G. hirsutum) are ongoing. PMID:18754098
Niu, Chen; Lister, Harriet E; Nguyen, Bay; Wheeler, Terry A; Wright, Robert J
Aeroponics can increase the fruit yield of tomato plant, but its cost is very high. In this paper, tomato seedlings were planted with three cultures, i. e., whole perlite culture (CK), perlite-aeration culture (T1), and aeroponics (T2), and a comparative study was made on the seedlings growth. Compared with CK, T1 improved the gas environment in root zone significantly, with the CO2 and O2 concentrations in root zone being 0.2 and 1.17 times higher, and increased the plant height and stem diameter after 60 days of transplanting by 5.1% and 8.4%, respectively. The plant net photosynthetic rate of T1 was significantly higher than that of CK, with the maximum value after transplanting 45 days increased by 13%. T1 also increased the root activity and ion absorbing ability significantly, with the root activity after transplanting 45 days being 1.23 times of CK, and the root K, Ca, and Mg contents after transplanting 60 days increased by 31%, 37%, and 27%, respectively. The fruit yield of T1 was 1.16 times of CK. No significant differences in these indices were observed between T1 and T2, and less difference in the fruit soluble sugar and organic acid contents as well as the sugar-acid ratio was found among CK, T1, and T2. It was suggested that perlite-aeration cultivation pattern was an easy and feasible way to markedly improve the fruit yield of tomato plant. PMID:20387426
Worldwide, botanical gardens cultivate around 80,000 taxa, corresponding to approximately one-quarter of all vascular plants. Most cultivated taxa are, however, held in a small number of collections, and mostly only in small populations. Lack of genetic exchange and stochastic processes in small populations make them susceptible to detrimental genetic effects, which should be most severe in annual species, as sowing cycles are often short. In order to assess whether ex situ cultivation affects genetic diversity of annuals, five annual arable species with similar breeding systems were assessed with 42 in situ populations being compared to 20 ex situ populations using a random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis approach. Population sizes tended to be lower under ex situ cultivation and levels of genetic diversity also tended to be lower in four of the five species, with differences being significant in only two. Ex situ populations showed incomplete representation of alleles found in the wild. The duration of cultivation did not indicate any effect on genetic diversity. This implies that cultivation strategies resulted in different genetic structures in the garden populations. Although not unequivocally pronounced, differences nonetheless imply that conservation strategies in the involved gardens may need improvement. One option is cold storage of seeds, a practice that is not currently followed in the studied ex situ collections. This may reflect that the respective gardens focus on displaying living plant populations. PMID:22882447
Lipid analysis was performed for three particle size fractions (i.e., sand-, silt- and clay-sized) isolated from a sandy spodosol of the Cestas cultivation sequence (Landes de Gascogne, France). The forest was cleared 22 years ago and since then it has been continuously used for maize cropping. Lipid identification was carried out before and after saponification of lipid extracts. Numerous compound
K. Quénéa; C. Largeau; S. Derenne; R. Spaccini; G. Bardoux; A. Mariotti
The mineral contents of the cultivation substrates, fruiting bodies of the mushrooms, and the postharvest cultivation substrates were determined in cultivated edible mushrooms Pleurotus eryngii, Flammulina velutipes, and Hypsizigus marmoreus. The major mineral elements both in the cultivation substrates and in the fruiting bodies were K, Mg, Ca, and Na. Potassium was particularly abundant ranging 10~13 g/kg in the cultivation substrates and 26~30 g/kg in the fruiting bodies. On the contrary, the calcium content in the fruiting bodies was very low despite high concentrations in the cultivation substrates, indicating Ca in the cultivation substrates is in a less bio-available form or the mushrooms do not have efficient Ca uptake channels. Among the minor mineral elements determined in this experiment, Cu, Zn, and Ni showed high percentage of transfer from the cultivation substrates to the fruiting bodies. It is noteworthy that the mineral contents in the postharvest cultivation substrates were not changed significantly which implies that the spent cultivation substrates are nutritionally intact in terms of mineral contents and thus can be recycled as mineral sources and animal feeds.
Lee, Chang-Yun; Park, Jeong-Eun; Kim, Bo-Bae; Kim, Sun-Mi
Black carbon (BC) is a quantitatively important C pool in the global carbon cycle due to its relative recalcitrance against decay compared with other C pools. However, how rapidly BC is oxidized and in what way the molecular structure changes during decomposition over decadal time scales, is largely unknown. In the present study, the long-term dynamics in quality and quantity of BC were investigated in cultivated soil using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) techniques. BC particles, obtained from soil samples at 8 conversion ages stretching over 100 years and from a forest soil sample from Kenya, were manually picked under a light microscope for characterization and quantification. BC contents rapidly decreased from 12.7 to 3.8 mg C g?¹ soil during the first 30 years since conversion, after which they slowly decreased to a steady state at 3.51 mg C g ?¹soil. BC-derived C losses over 100 years were estimated at 6000 kg C ha?¹ to a depth of 0.1 m. The initial rapid changes in BC stocks resulted in a mean residence time of only around 8.3 years, which was likely a function of both decomposition as well as transport processes. The molecular properties of BC changed more rapidly on surfaces than in the interior of BC particles and more rapidly during the first 30 years than during the following 70 years. The Oc/C ratios (Oc is O bound to C) and carbonyl groups (C=O) increased over time by 133 and 192 %, respectively, indicating oxidation was an important degradation process controlling BC quality. Al, Si, polysaccharides, and to a lesser extent Fe were rapidly adsorbed on BC particle surfaces within the first few years after BC deposition to soil. The protection by physical and chemical stabilization was apparently sufficient to not only minimize decomposition below detection between 30 and 100 years after deposition, but also physical export by erosion and vertical transport below 0.1 m.
Nguyen, Binh T.; Lehmann, Johannes C.; Kinyangi, James; Smernik, Ron; Riha, Susan J.; Engelhard, Mark H.
To examine if the cultivation process has reduced the genetic variation of modern cultivars of the traditional Chinese medicinal plant, Coptis chinensis, the levels and distribution of genetic variation was investigated using ISSR markers. A total of 214 C. chinensis individuals from seven wild and three cultivated populations were included in the study. Seven ISSR primers were used and a total of 91 DNA fragments were scored. The levels of genetic diversity in cultivated populations were similar as those in wild populations (mean PPL = 65.2% versus PPL = 52.4%, mean H = 0.159 versus H = 0.153 and mean I = 0.255 versus I = 0.237), suggesting that cultivation did not seriously influence genetic variation of present-day cultivated populations. Neighbour-joining cluster analysis showed that wild populations and cultivated populations were not separated into two groups. The coefficient of genetic differentiation between a cultivar and its wild progenitor was 0.066 (G(st)), which was in good accordance with the result by amova analysis (10.9% of total genetic variation resided on the two groups), indicating that cultivated populations were not genetically differentiated from wild progenitors. For the seven wild populations, a significant genetic differentiation among populations was found using amova analysis (45.9% of total genetic variation resided among populations). A number of causes, including genetic drift and inbreeding in the small and isolated wild populations, the relative limited gene flow between wild populations (N(m) = 0.590), and high gene flow between cultivars and their wild progenitors (N(m) = 7.116), might have led to the observed genetic profiles of C. chinensis. PMID:18557908
Growth characteristics of Cannabis saliva L. are indispensable factors to verify the statements by the criminals of illegal cannabis cultivation. To investigate growth characteristics of C. sativa, two varieties, cannabidiolic acid (CBDA)-rich (CBDA-type) which being cultivated for fiber production and delta9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA)-rich (THCA-type) which is used for drug abuse, were cultivated from seeds under the same growth environment in a phytotron. THCA-type showed high germination rate (100%) whereas only 39% of the CBDA-type seeds germinated 6 days after sowing. Plant height, number of true leaves, number of nodes, number of axillary buds and flowering of these two varieties were periodically observed. THCA-type grew more rapidly (plant height: 125.8 cm for THCA-type, 84.7 cm for CBDA-type, 75 days after cultivation) demonstrating vigorous axillary bud formation and earlier male-flowering (63 days for THCA-type, 106 days for CBDA-type, after sowing). Propagation of THCA-type was tested using the axillary shoot cuttings of female plants either with or without the main stem. All the cuttings with the main stem rooted after 21 days and grew healthily in a phytotron. However, all the newly developed leaves were single instead of palmate. In the field, THCA-type male-flowered after 155 days of cultivation after sowing on March 31. The height of the field-cultivated plants reached 260.9 cm 163 days after sowing. Despite the great differences in final plant heights, the increases of plant height per day during the vegetative growth stage were similar in the field and in the phytotron. Thus estimating the starting time of illegal cannabis cultivation might be possible if the plant is in the vegetative growth stage. PMID:15940897
Although the importance of animal cell culture for the industrial (large scale) production of pharmaceutical products is continuously increasing, the sensibility of the cells towards their cultivation environment is still a challenging issue. In comparison to microbial cultures, cell cultures which are not protected by a cell wall are much more sensitive to shear stress and foam formation. Reactor design as well as the selection of 'robust' cell lines is particularly important for these circumstances. Nevertheless, even 'sensitive' cell lines are selected for certain pharmaceutical processes due to various reasons. These sensitive cell lines have even higher requirements regarding their cultivation environment. Important characteristics for the corresponding reactor design are a high (volumetric) gas mass transfer coefficient, low volumetric power input, low shear stress, low susceptibility to bio-fouling, the ability to cultivate sticky cells and sufficient mixing properties. Membrane aeration has been a long-known possibility to meet some of these requirements, but has not often been applied in recent years. The reasons lie mainly in low gas mass transfer rates, a limited installable volume-specific membrane surface area, restrictions in scalability and problems with membrane fouling. The dynamic membrane aeration bioreactor aeration is a simple concept for bubble-free oxygen supply of such sensitive cultures. It overcomes limitations and draw-backs of previous systems. Consisting of an oscillating, centrally arranged rotor (stirrer) that is wrapped with silicone membrane tubing, it enables doubling the gas mass transfer at the same shear stress in the investigated cultivation scales of 12, 20, 100, and 200 L. Continuous cultivation at these scales allows the same product output as fed-batch cultivation does at tremendously larger reactor volumes. Apart from introducing this novel technology, the presentation comprises selected cultivation results obtained for blood coagulation factor VIII in continuous mode and a therapeutic monoclonal antibody in fed-batch mode in comparison to reference trials. PMID:19319654
The loss of cultivated land has increasingly become an issue of regional and national concern in China. Definition of management zones is an important measure to protect limited cultivated land resource. In this study, combined spatial data were applied to define management zones in Fuyang city, China. The yield of cultivated land was first calculated and evaluated and the spatial distribution pattern mapped; the limiting factors affecting the yield were then explored; and their maps of the spatial variability were presented using geostatistics analysis. Data were jointly analyzed for management zone definition using a combination of principal component analysis with a fuzzy clustering method, two cluster validity functions were used to determine the optimal number of cluster. Finally one-way variance analysis was performed on 3,620 soil sampling points to assess how well the defined management zones reflected the soil properties and productivity level. It was shown that there existed great potential for increasing grain production, and the amount of cultivated land played a key role in maintaining security in grain production. Organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, elevation, thickness of the plow layer, and probability of irrigation guarantee were the main limiting factors affecting the yield. The optimal number of management zones was three, and there existed significantly statistical differences between the crop yield and field parameters in each defined management zone. Management zone I presented the highest potential crop yield, fertility level, and best agricultural production condition, whereas management zone III lowest. The study showed that the procedures used may be effective in automatically defining management zones; by the development of different management zones, different strategies of cultivated land management and practice in each zone could be determined, which is of great importance to enhance cultivated land conservation, stabilize agricultural production, promote sustainable use of cultivated land and guarantee food security. PMID:23921549
The loss of cultivated land has increasingly become an issue of regional and national concern in China. Definition of management zones is an important measure to protect limited cultivated land resource. In this study, combined spatial data were applied to define management zones in Fuyang city, China. The yield of cultivated land was first calculated and evaluated and the spatial distribution pattern mapped; the limiting factors affecting the yield were then explored; and their maps of the spatial variability were presented using geostatistics analysis. Data were jointly analyzed for management zone definition using a combination of principal component analysis with a fuzzy clustering method, two cluster validity functions were used to determine the optimal number of cluster. Finally one-way variance analysis was performed on 3,620 soil sampling points to assess how well the defined management zones reflected the soil properties and productivity level. It was shown that there existed great potential for increasing grain production, and the amount of cultivated land played a key role in maintaining security in grain production. Organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, elevation, thickness of the plow layer, and probability of irrigation guarantee were the main limiting factors affecting the yield. The optimal number of management zones was three, and there existed significantly statistical differences between the crop yield and field parameters in each defined management zone. Management zone I presented the highest potential crop yield, fertility level, and best agricultural production condition, whereas management zone III lowest. The study showed that the procedures used may be effective in automatically defining management zones; by the development of different management zones, different strategies of cultivated land management and practice in each zone could be determined, which is of great importance to enhance cultivated land conservation, stabilize agricultural production, promote sustainable use of cultivated land and guarantee food security.
Sugarcane borers frequently inhabit wild and semi-cultivated grasses growing in the proximity of cane fields. In India, in\\u000a view of the year-round cultivation of sugarcane, wild grasses are not necessary for the perpetuation of borer species, but\\u000a observations indicate that certain borer species migrate from wild or other cultivated grasses to cane, thereby increasing\\u000a levels of infestation in cane during
Nitrate reductase (NR), glutamine synthetase (GS), and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) levels are differently influenced by\\u000a cultivation temperature, NR level being influenced most and GDH level least. The differences caused by cultivation temperature\\u000a are more pronounced in roots cultivated without sucrose in which a slower decrease in NR and GS levels and a lower increase\\u000a in GDH level occur at 14
The hard clam (meretrix lusoria) cultivated industry has been developed vigorously for recent years in Taiwan, and seawater quality determines the cultivated environment. The pH concentration variation affects survival rate of meretrix lusoria immediately. In order to monitor seawater quality, solid-state sensing electrode of ruthenium-doped titanium dioxide (TiO2:Ru) is developed to measure hydrogen ion concentration in different cultivated solutions. Because
Different systems of large-scale cultivation of multiple adventitious roots of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer were compared to cultivation in Erlenmeyer flasks. Adventitious roots were isolated from plantlets regenerated from somatic embryos and cultivated separately in liquid media. Multiplication of adventitious roots was performed in liquid Schenk and Hildebrandt (1972) medium containing 3% sucrose, and 24.6 µmol indole-3-butyric acid. The
In 2002, 2003 and 2004, field trials were carried out in Slovenia in the form of random blocks with five replications. Three potato cultivators\\/ridgers were used on medium textured soil. The aim was to establish which potato cultivator\\/ridger was the most suitable for inter-row space cultivation, ridge shaping and achievement of the highest possible potato yield, work-rate and productivity. A
Mushrooms are able to secrete lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP), and able to use the cellulose as sources of carbon. This article focuses on the relation between peroxidase-secreting capacity and cultivation period of mushrooms with non-laccase activity. Methylene blue and methyl catechol qualitative assay and spectrophotometry quantitative assay show LiP secreting unvaryingly accompanies the MnP secreting in mushroom strains. The growth rates of hyphae are detected by detecting the dry hyphal mass. We link the peroxidase activities to growth rate of mushrooms and then probe into the relationship between them. The results show that there are close relationships between LiP- and/or MnP-secretory capacities and the cultivation periods of mushrooms. The strains with high LiP and MnP activities have short cultivation periods. However, those strains have long cultivation periods because of the low levels of secreted LiP and/or MnP, even no detectable LiP and/or MnP activity. This study provides the first evidence on the imitate relation between the level of secreted LiP and MnP activities and cultivation periods of mushrooms with non-laccase activity. Our study has significantly increased the understanding of the role of LiP and MnP in the growth and development of mushrooms with non-laccase activity. PMID:22966760
High cell-density cultivations are the preferred system for biomolecules production by Escherichia coli. It has been previously demonstrated that a strain of E. coli with a modified substrate transport system is able to attain high cell densities in batch mode, due to the very low overflow metabolism displayed. The use of elevated amounts of glucose from the beginning of the cultivation, eliminates the existence of substrate gradients due to deficient mixing at large-scale. However, the large amounts of oxygen demanded resulted in microaerobic conditions after some hours of cultivation, even at small-scale. In this work, the effect of expressing the Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (VHb) in the engineered strain during batch cultures using high-glucose concentrations was tested. Together, the expression of VHb and the modified substrate transport system resulted in a 33% increase of biomass production compared to the parental strain (W3110) lacking the VHb in batch cultivations using 25 g/L of glucose. When 50 g/L of glucose were used, expression of VHb in the modified strain led to 11% higher biomass production compared to W3110. The VHb also increased the growth rates of the strains by about 30% in the aerobic phase and more than 200% in the microaerobic phase of batch cultivation. PMID:21744499
Pablos, Tania E; Mora, Eugenio Meza; Le Borgne, Sylvie; Ramírez, Octavio T; Gosset, Guillermo; Lara, Alvaro R
Microbial interactions in natural microbiota are, in many cases, crucial for the sustenance of the communities, but the precise nature of these interactions remain largely unknown because of the inherent complexity and difficulties in laboratory cultivation. Conventional pure culture-oriented cultivation does not account for these interactions mediated by small molecules, which severely limits its utility in cultivating and studying "unculturable" microorganisms from synergistic communities. In this study, we developed a simple microfluidic device for highly parallel co-cultivation of symbiotic microbial communities and demonstrated its effectiveness in discovering synergistic interactions among microbes. Using aqueous micro-droplets dispersed in a continuous oil phase, the device could readily encapsulate and co-cultivate subsets of a community. A large number of droplets, up to ?1,400 in a 10 mm × 5 mm chamber, were generated with a frequency of 500 droplets/sec. A synthetic model system consisting of cross-feeding E. coli mutants was used to mimic compositions of symbionts and other microbes in natural microbial communities. Our device was able to detect a pair-wise symbiotic relationship when one partner accounted for as low as 1% of the total population or each symbiont was about 3% of the artificial community. PMID:21364881
Park, Jihyang; Kerner, Alissa; Burns, Mark A; Lin, Xiaoxia Nina
Annual emissions of CO2, CH4, CO, N2O, and NOx from biomass burning in shifting cultivation systems in tropical Asia, Africa, and America were estimated at national and continental levels as the product of area burned, aboveground biomass, combustion completeness, and emission factor. The total area of shifting cultivation in each country was derived from the Global Land Cover 2000 map, while the area cleared and burned annually was obtained by multiplying the total area by the rotation cycle of shifting cultivation, calculated using cropping and fallow lengths reported in the literature. Aboveground biomass accumulation was estimated as a function of the duration and mean temperature of the growing season, soil texture type, and length of the fallow period. The uncertainty associated with each model variable was estimated, and an uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of greenhouse gas estimates was performed with Monte Carlo and variance decomposition techniques. Our results reveal large uncertainty in emission estimates for all five gases. In the case of CO2, mean (standard deviation) emissions from shifting cultivation in Asia, Africa, and America were estimated at 241 (132), 205 (139), and 295 (197) Tg yr-1, respectively. Combustion completeness and emission factors were the model inputs that contributed the most to the uncertainty of estimates. Our mean estimates are lower than the literature values for atmospheric emission from biomass burning in shifting cultivation systems. Only mean values could be compared since other studies do not provide any measure of uncertainty.
Silva, J. M. N.; Carreiras, J. M. B.; Rosa, I.; Pereira, J. M. C.
To clarify the feasibility of medicinal use of the cultivated Glycyrrhiza resources, the equivalency between the G. uralensis roots cultivated in eastern Nei-Meng-Gu of China and medicinal licorice (Glycyrrhizae Radix, Gancao in Chinese and Kanzo in Japanese) was examined. The HPLC fingerprint including glycyrrhizin (GL) of the cultivated roots was similar to that of medicinal Gancao, but different from that of non-medicinal Xinjiang-Gancao (Shinkyo Kanzo in Japanese). Similarity between the cultivated roots and two medicinal Gancao was confirmed quantitatively by hierarchical cluster analysis on the basis of HPLC-7-peak-area data. Moreover, the 4-year-old adventitious roots conformed to the five standards described in the Japanese Pharmacopoeia XIV (JP XIV). The 4-year-old adventitious roots had similar pharmaceutical properties to those of medicinal Dongbei-Gancao (Tohoku Kanzo in Japanese) as determined by examining IgE-mediated triphasic skin reaction in mice and pharmacokinetic profile of glycyrrhetic acid, an anti-allergic metabolite of GL. The present pharmaceutical study suggests that the 4-year-old adventitious roots of G. uralensis cultivated in eastern Nei-Meng-Gu of China are comparable to medicinal Gancao conforming to the JP XIV, and may be a potential medicinal source to compensate for the insufficiency of wild Glycyrrhiza plants caused by collection restriction in China. PMID:12913266
EU legislation stipulates that GM crops have to be monitored for potential adverse environmental effects. Monitoring preferably should take place in the most exposed areas-the cultivated fields and their neighbouring environment. Current monitoring designs do not give detailed consideration to the different exposure intensities in agricultural practice. At the same time, the selection of specific, more exposed sites is difficult considering the dynamic and diversity of crop cultivation and rotation systems and their environments. We developed an approach for prioritising the monitoring of on-farm and neighbouring sites based on differing exposure levels using a minimum dataset of cultivation and land use information. Applying a Bt-maize cultivation scenario to Brandenburg, Germany, where presently no GM crops are cultivated, we systemised and categorised areas with different spatio-temporal exposure intensities including 50 m, 200 m and 1000 m buffers. These categories correspond to different suitabilities to serve as monitoring sites. Sites are prioritised using a sequential scheme. This yields an improved and objective spatial monitoring design providing detailed exposure information. This methodology is flexible and transferable to any agricultural setting, therefore enabling superior statistical comparisons between locations and regions and thus enhancing monitoring data quality. PMID:22495474
Bromeliads are of great economic importance in flower production; however little information is available with respect to genetic characterization of cultivated bromeliads thus far. In the present study, a selection of cultivated bromeliads was characterized via inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers with an emphasis on genetic diversity and population structure. Twelve ISSR primers produced 342 bands, of which 287 (~84%) were polymorphic, with polymorphic bands per primer ranging from 17 to 34. The Jaccard's similarity ranged from 0.08 to 0.89 and averaged ~0.30 for the investigated bromeliads. The Bayesian-based approach, together with the un-weighted paired group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA)-based clustering and the principal coordinate analysis (PCoA), distinctly grouped the bromeliads from Neoregelia, Guzmania, and Vriesea into three separately clusters, well corresponding with their botanical classifications; whereas the bromeliads of Aechmea other than the recently selected hybrids were not well assigned to a cluster. Additionally, ISSR marker was proven efficient for the identification of hybrids and bud sports of cultivated bromeliads. The findings achieved herein will further our knowledge about the genetic variability within cultivated bromeliads and therefore facilitate breeding for new varieties of cultivated bromeliads in future as well. PMID:22754348
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in an agricultural ecosystem are necessary for proper management of beneficial symbiosis. Here we explored how the patterns of the AMF community in rice roots were affected by rice cultivation systems (the system of rice intensification [SRI] and the conventional rice cultivation system [CS]), and by compost application during growth stages. Rice plants harvested from SRI-managed plots exhibited considerably higher total biomass, root dry weight, and seed fill than those obtained from conventionally managed plots. Our findings revealed that all AMF sequences observed from CS plots belonged (only) to the genus Glomus, colonizing in rice roots grown under this type of cultivation, while rice roots sown in SRI showed sequences belonging to both Glomus and Acaulospora. The AMF community was compared between the different cultivation types (CS and SRI) and compost applications by principle component analysis. In all rice growth stages, AMF assemblages of CS management were not separated from those of SRI management. The distribution of AMF community composition based on T-RFLP data showed that the AMF community structure was different among four cultivation systems, and there was a gradual increase of Shannon-Weaver indices of diversity (H') of the AMF communi