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Sample records for macrobrachium rosenbergii cultivated

  1. Toxicity of rotenone to giant river freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquaculturists have often suffered predation losses in the production of freshwater giant river prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii due to the presence of wild fish species in culture ponds. The piscicide rotenone is widely used to remove undesirable fish species from ponds. Although evidence in the t...

  2. RNA-binding region of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus capsid protein.

    PubMed

    Goh, Zee Hong; Mohd, Nur Azmina Syakirin; Tan, Soon Guan; Bhassu, Subha; Tan, Wen Siang

    2014-09-01

    White tail disease (WTD) kills prawn larvae and causes drastic losses to the freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) industry. The main causative agent of WTD is Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV). The N-terminal end of the MrNV capsid protein is very rich in positively charged amino acids and is postulated to interact with RNA molecules. N-terminal and internal deletion mutagenesis revealed that the RNA-binding region is located at positions 20-29, where 80 % of amino acids are positively charged. Substitution of all these positively charged residues with alanine abolished the RNA binding. Mutants without the RNA-binding region still assembled into virus-like particles, suggesting that this region is not a part of the capsid assembly domain. This paper is, to the best of our knowledge, the first to report the specific RNA-binding region of MrNV capsid protein. PMID:24878641

  3. Feasibility of direct utilization of selected geothermal water for aquaculture of macrobrachium rosenbergii. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Spinosa, C.

    1984-05-01

    The feasibility was tested of direct utilization of geothermal water for the aquaculture of Malaysian freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). A problem with using geothermal water for aquaculture is the chemical composition of the water with high flouride levels being a particular problem. Results show that (1) some geothermal water in Idaho can be used directly for the aquaculture of Macrobrachium rosenbergii, (2) high flouride levels cannot be directly correlated with high mortality rates and (3) low flouride levels do not correlate with high growth rates.

  4. Routine Metabolic Rate and Limiting Oxygen Concentration of Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii Larvae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Malaysian prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, are hatched and raised indoors in small tanks. Prawns may be raised and shipped at high densities which could result in low dissolved oxygen (DO) conditions. Because DO may play an important role in prawn development and survival, we measured routine me...

  5. Host, pathogen and the environment: the case of Macrobrachium rosenbergii, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and magnesium.

    PubMed

    Tiruvayipati, Suma; Bhassu, Subha

    2016-01-01

    Macrobrachium rosenbergii is well-known as the giant freshwater prawn, and is a commercially significant source of seafood. Its production can be affected by various bacterial contaminations. Among which, the genus Vibrio shows a higher prevalence in aquatic organisms, especially M. rosenbergii, causing food-borne illnesses. Vibrio parahaemolyticus, a species of Vibrio is reported as the main causative of the early mortality syndrome. Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection in M. rosenbergii was studied previously in relation to the prawn's differentially expressed immune genes. In the current review, we will discuss the growth conditions for both V. parahaemolyticus and M. rosenbergii and highlight the role of magnesium in common, which need to be fully understood. Till date, there has not been much research on this aspect of magnesium. We postulate a model that screens a magnesium-dependent pathway which probably might take effect in connection with N-acetylglucosamine binding protein and chitin from V. parahaemolyticus and M. rosenbergii, respectively. Further studies on magnesium as an environment for V. parahaemolyticus and M. rosenbergii interaction studies will provide seafood industry with completely new strategies to employ and to avoid seafood related contaminations. PMID:27114742

  6. Grooming as a secondary behavior in the shrimp Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Crustacea, Decapoda, Caridea)

    PubMed Central

    VanMaurik, Lauren N.; Wortham, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is a large shrimp extensively used in aquaculture whose grooming behaviors were analyzed in this study. Macrobrachium rosenbergii exhibits three unique male morphotypes that differ in their behavior, morphology and physiology: small-clawed males (SM), orange-clawed males (OC) and blue-clawed males (BC). The largest and most dominant males, BC males, are predicted to have significantly different grooming behaviors compared to females and the other two male morphotypes. These BC males may be too large and bulky to efficiently groom and may dedicate more time to mating and agonistic interactions than grooming behaviors. Observations were conducted to look at the prevalence of grooming behaviors in the absence and presence of conspecifics and to determine if any differences in grooming behavior exist among the sexes and male morphotypes. Significant differences in the grooming behaviors of all individuals (females and male morphotypes) were found. BC males tended to have the highest grooming time budget (percent of time spent grooming) while SM males had a relatively low grooming time budget. The grooming behaviors of the male morphotypes differed, indicating while these males play distinct, separate roles in the social hierarchy, they also have different grooming priorities. The conditions in which Macrobrachium rosenbergii are cultured may result in increased body fouling, which may vary, depending on the grooming efficiencies and priorities of these male morphotypes. Overall, grooming behaviors were found to be a secondary behavior which only occurred when primary behaviors such as mating, feeding or fighting were not present. PMID:25561831

  7. Genetic diversity of cultured and wild populations of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii based on microsatellite analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii culture in the Western Hemisphere is primarily, if not entirely, based on thirty-six individual prawn introduced to Hawaii from Malaysia in 1965 and 1966. Little information is available regarding the genetic background or current population status of cult...

  8. A transcriptome study on Macrobrachium rosenbergii hepatopancreas experimentally challenged with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV).

    PubMed

    Rao, Rama; Bhassu, Subha; Bing, Robin Zhu Ya; Alinejad, Tahereh; Hassan, Sharifah Syed; Wang, Jun

    2016-05-01

    The world production of shrimp such as the Malaysian giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii is seriously affected by the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). There is an urgent need to understand the host pathogen interaction between M. rosenbergii and WSSV which will be able to provide a solution in controlling the spread of this infectious disease and lastly save the aquaculture industry. Now, using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS), we will be able to capture the response of the M. rosenbergii to the pathogen and have a better understanding of the host defence mechanism. Two cDNA libraries, one of WSSV-challenged M. rosenbergii and a normal control one, were sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 platform. After de novo assembly and clustering of the unigenes from both libraries, 63,584 standard unigenes were generated with a mean size of 698bp and an N50 of 1137bp. We successfully annotated 35.31% of all unigenes by using BLASTX program (E-value <10-5) against NCBI non-redundant (Nr), Swiss-Prot, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome pathway (KEGG) and Orthologous Groups of proteins (COG) databases. Gene Ontology (GO) assessment was conducted using BLAST2GO software. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) by using the FPKM method showed 8443 host genes were significantly up-regulated whereas 5973 genes were significantly down-regulated. The differentially expressed immune related genes were grouped into 15 animal immune functions. The present study showed that WSSV infection has a significant impact on the transcriptome profile of M. rosenbergii's hepatopancreas, and further enhanced the knowledge of this host-virus interaction. Furthermore, the high number of transcripts generated in this study will provide a platform for future genomic research on freshwater prawns. PMID:26880158

  9. TBT Effects on the Development of Intersex (Ovotestis) in Female Fresh Water Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    PubMed Central

    Peranandam, Revathi; Palanisamy, Iyapparaj; Lourdaraj, Arockia Vasanthi; Natesan, Munuswamy; Vimalananthan, Arun Prasanna; Thangaiyan, Suganya; Perumal, Anantharaman; Muthukalingan, Krishnan

    2014-01-01

    The impact of tributyltin (TBT) on the female gonad and the endocrine system in Macrobrachium rosenbergii was studied. Prawns were exposed to environmentally realistic concentrations of 10, 100, and 1000 ng/L of TBT for 6 months. Dose dependent effects were noticed in TBT exposed prawns. At 1000 ng/L TBT caused ovotestis formation (formation of male germ cells in ovary). Presence immature oocytes, fusion of developing oocytes, increase in interstitial connective tissues, and its modification into tubular like structure and abundance of spermatogonia in the ovary of TBT treated prawns. The control prawn ovary showed normal architecture of cellular organelles such as mature oocytes with type 2 yolk globules, lipid droplets, normal appearance of yolk envelop, and uniformly arranged microvilli. On the other hand, type 1 yolk globules, reduced size of microvilli, spermatogonial cells in ovary, spermatogonia with centrally located nucleus, and chromatin distribution throughout the nucleoplasm were present in the TBT treated group. Immunofluorescence staining indicated a reduction in vitellin content in ovary of TBT treated prawn. Moreover, TBT had inhibited the vitellogenesis by causing hormonal imbalance in M. rosenbergii. Thus, the present investigation demonstrates that TBT substantially affects sexual differentiation and gonadal development in M. rosenbergii. PMID:25121096

  10. Steroids and genes related to steroid biosynthesis in the female giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Thongbuakaew, Tipsuda; Siangcham, Tanapan; Suwansa-ard, Saowaros; Elizur, Abigail; Cummins, Scott F; Sobhon, Prasert; Sretarugsa, Prapee

    2016-03-01

    The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is important to many Asian countries due to its high economic value as an aquaculture product. With demand increasing, there is requirement for a better understanding of the biosynthetic components that regulate its growth and reproduction, including steroids, in order to help increase production. Vertebrate-type steroids and their receptors were identified in crustaceans and implicated in reproduction. In this study, we presented the sex steroids estradiol and progesterone by LC-MS/MS in female M. rosenbergii, and reveal steroidogenic-related genes by in silico analysis of de novo assembled transcriptomes. Comparative analysis with other species was performed to confirm their putative role, as well as tissue-specific and quantitative gene expression. We reveal 29 transcripts that encode for steroidogenic-related proteins, including steroidogenic enzymes, a nuclear steroid hormone receptors, and a steroidogenic factor. Moreover, we identified for the first time the presence of steroidogenic factor 1, StAR-related lipid transfer protein, estradiol receptor- and progesterone-like protein in M. rosenbergii. Those targeted for gene expression analysis (3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, estrogen sulfotransferase and progesterone receptor-like) showed widespread expression within many tissues, and at relatively high levels in the central nervous system (CNS) during ovarian maturation. In summary, we provide further evidence for the existence of steroidogenic pathways in crustaceans, which may be useful for advancing prawn aquaculture. PMID:26774430

  11. The effect of copper nanoparticles supplementation on freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii post larvae.

    PubMed

    Muralisankar, Thirunavukkarasu; Saravana Bhavan, Periyakali; Radhakrishnan, Subramanian; Seenivasan, Chandirasekar; Srinivasan, Veeran

    2016-03-01

    The present study was performed to assess the effects of dietary supplementation of copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs) on growth, biochemical constituents, digestive enzyme activities, antioxidant, metabolic enzyme levels, and non specific immune response of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii post larvae (PL). The Cu-NPs (200 nm) were synthesized by facile and environmental friendly hydrothermal method. Cu-NPs were supplemented at 0, 10, 20, 40, 60, and 80 mg kg(-1) with the basal diets. These Cu-NPs supplemented diets were fed to M. rosenbergii PL for 90 days. Results showed significant (P<0.05) improvements were observed in survival, growth, digestive enzyme activities, concentrations of biochemical constituents and total and differential haemocytes count of prawns fed with 20 mg Cu-NPs kg(-1) supplemented feed. Prawns fed with 40-80 mg Cu-NPs kg(-1) supplemented feed showed negative performance. Activity of antioxidants and metabolic enzymes in the muscle and hepatopancreas of prawns showed no significant alterations (P>0.05) prawns fed with up to 20 mg Cu-NPs kg(-1) supplemented feeds. Whereas, prawns fed with 40-80 mg Cu-NPs kg(-1) supplemented feed showed significant (P<0.05) elevations in antioxidant and metabolic enzymes activities. Hence, 40-80 mg Cu-NPs kg(-1) diets may have toxic effect to M. rosenbergii. Hence, present study suggests that 20 mg Cu-NPs kg(-1) can be supplemented for regulating better survival, growth and immune response of M. rosenbergii PL. PMID:26854244

  12. Isolation and Characterization of a Novel Dicistrovirus Associated with Moralities of the Great Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xiaoyi; Cao, Zheng; Yuan, Junfa; Shi, Zhengli; Yuan, Xuemei; Lin, Lingyun; Xu, Yang; Yao, Jiayun; Hao, Guijie; Shen, Jinyu

    2016-01-01

    The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is an economically important crustacean and is farmed in many countries. Since 2009, a larval mortality syndrome of M. rosenbergii has broken out and spread widely in the main breeding area, including Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Guangxi, and Guangdong Provinces in mainland China. A novel virus, named Macrobrachium rosenbergii Taihu virus (MrTV), was isolated from the moribund larvae and was determined to be the causative agent of the M. rosenbergii larval mortality syndrome by experimental infection. Further genomic sequencing suggested that the MrTV genome is monopartite, 10,303 nt in length, and dicistronic with two non-overlapping open reading frames (ORFs) separated by an intergenic region (IGR) and flanked by untranslated regions (UTRs). Phylogenetic analysis using the full-length genomic sequence and the putative amino acid sequences of the capsid protein revealed that MrTV was more closely related to the taura syndrome virus (TSV) than to any other viruses. According to these molecular features, we proposed that MrTV is a new species in the genus Aparavirus, family Dicistroviridae. These results may shed light on controlling larval mortality syndrome in M. rosenbergii. PMID:26848659

  13. Isolation and Characterization of a Novel Dicistrovirus Associated with Moralities of the Great Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiaoyi; Cao, Zheng; Yuan, Junfa; Shi, Zhengli; Yuan, Xuemei; Lin, Lingyun; Xu, Yang; Yao, Jiayun; Hao, Guijie; Shen, Jinyu

    2016-01-01

    The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is an economically important crustacean and is farmed in many countries. Since 2009, a larval mortality syndrome of M. rosenbergii has broken out and spread widely in the main breeding area, including Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Guangxi, and Guangdong Provinces in mainland China. A novel virus, named Macrobrachium rosenbergii Taihu virus (MrTV), was isolated from the moribund larvae and was determined to be the causative agent of the M. rosenbergii larval mortality syndrome by experimental infection. Further genomic sequencing suggested that the MrTV genome is monopartite, 10,303 nt in length, and dicistronic with two non-overlapping open reading frames (ORFs) separated by an intergenic region (IGR) and flanked by untranslated regions (UTRs). Phylogenetic analysis using the full-length genomic sequence and the putative amino acid sequences of the capsid protein revealed that MrTV was more closely related to the taura syndrome virus (TSV) than to any other viruses. According to these molecular features, we proposed that MrTV is a new species in the genus Aparavirus, family Dicistroviridae. These results may shed light on controlling larval mortality syndrome in M. rosenbergii. PMID:26848659

  14. Impact of tributyltin on antioxidant and DNA damage response in spermatozoa of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Rani, K Umaa; Musthafa, M Saiyad; War, Mehrajuddin; Al-Sadoon, Mohammad K; Paray, Bilal Ahmad; Shareef, T H Mohamed Ahadhu; Nawas, P Mohideen Askar

    2015-12-01

    Effects of tributyltin (TBT) on antioxidant [total superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR)] and DNA damage levels in the spermatozoa were studied and reported here for the first time in the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Three groups of (n = 10 in each group) fishes were exposed to three different nominal concentrations of TBT viz., 1, 2, and 4 mg L(-1) along with control group for 90 days. Significant decrease of antioxidant and increased DNA damage levels were seen at higher doses of 2 and 4 mg L(-1). In prawn, the antioxidant level plays a vital role in sperm protection, activation, differential functions related to the physiology, and reproductive behavior. This study serves as a biomonitoring tool to assess the TBT effects on reproductive behavior of aquatic biota. PMID:26296505

  15. Effects of chlordecone on 20-hydroxyecdysone concentration and chitobiase activity in a decapod crustacean, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Lafontaine, Anne; Gismondi, Eric; Boulangé-Lecomte, Céline; Geraudie, Perrine; Dodet, Nathalie; Caupos, Fanny; Lemoine, Soazig; Lagadic, Laurent; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Forget-Leray, Joëlle

    2016-07-01

    Chlordecone (CLD) is an organochlorine insecticide abundant in aquatic environment of the French West Indies. However, few studies have investigated its impact on freshwater invertebrates. Whereas CLD is suspected of inducing endocrine disruption, this work aimed to study the effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of CLD on the 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-HE) hormone concentration and on the chitobiase activity, both having key roles in the molting process of crustaceans. In addition, the bioaccumulation of CLD was measured in the muscle tissue of Macrobrachium rosenbergii to underline potential dose-response relationship. The results have shown that CLD was bioaccumulated in exposed organisms according to a trend to a dose-response relationship. Moreover, it was observed that CLD decreased the 20-HE concentration in exposed prawns when compared to control, whatever the duration of exposure, as well as it inhibited the chitobiase activity after 30days of exposure. The present study indicates that CLD could interfere with molting process of M. rosenbergii by disturbing the 20-HE concentration and the activity of chitobiase, suggesting consequences at the long term on the shrimp development. This study also confirmed that CLD could be an endocrine disruptor in decapod crustaceans, as it was already observed in vertebrates. PMID:27108204

  16. Toxicity of phenol on Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) eggs, larvae, and post-larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Law, A.T.; Yeo, M.E.

    1997-03-01

    Literature on the toxicities of phenol on aquatic organisms is very limited. USEPA reported that the acute and chronic toxicities of phenol to freshwater aquatic life occur at concentrations as low as 10.2 mg/L and 2.56 mg/L, respectively. While for the saltwater aquatic life the acute toxicity occurs at concentrations as low as 5.8 mg/L. No data are available for the chronic toxicity of phenol to saltwater aquatic life. Sublethal concentrations of phenol have significant effects on the physiological and histological processes of the aquatic organisms: such as gill necrosis; destruction of erythrocyte cells; inhibition of sexual activities; suppression on growth and reduction of resistance to diseases. Macrobrachium rosenbergii(de Man) is the sole freshwater prawn cultured in Malaysia. Occasionally, the hatcheries are unable to produce the post-larvae because of undefined pollutants present in the water supplies. It has been observed that the use of cracked fiberglass tanks for larvae rearing is correlated with high mortality. This high mortality is probably due to the toxicity of the phenolic compounds which are leached out from the fiber glass tank into the water. This study was undertaken to evaluate the toxicity of phenol on eggs, larvae and post-larvae of M. rosenbergii and to set the water quality criteria of phenol for the said species. 16 refs., 3 tabs.

  17. Involvement of Relish gene from Macrobrachium rosenbergii in the expression of anti-microbial peptides.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yan-Ru; Jin, Min; Ma, Fu-Tong; Huang, Ying; Huang, Xin; Feng, Jin-Ling; Zhao, Ling-Ling; Chen, Yi-Hong; Ren, Qian

    2015-10-01

    Relish is an NF-kB transcription factor involved in immune-deficiency (IMD) signal pathway. In this study, a Relish gene (MrRelish) was identified from Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The full length of MrRelish comprises 5072 bp, including a 3510 bp open reading frame encoding a 1169 bp amino acid protein. MrRelish contains a Rel homology domain (RHD), a nucleus localization signal, an IκB-like domain (6 ankyrin repeats), and a death domain. Phylogenetic analysis showed that MrRelish and other Relish from crustaceans belong to one group. MrRelish was expressed in all detected tissues, with the highest expression level in hemocytes and intestines. MrRelish was also upregulated in hepatopancreas at 6 h after Vibrio anguillarum challenge. The over-expression of MrRelish could induce the expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), such as Drosophila Metchnikowin (Mtk), Attacin (Atta), Drosomycin (Drs), and Cecropin (CecA) and shrimp Penaeidin (Pen4). The RNAi of MrRelish in gills showed that the expression of crustin (cru) 2, Cru5, Cru8, lysozyme (Lyso) 1, and Lyso2 was inhibited. However, the expression of anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF) 1 and ALF3 did not change when MrRelish was knocked down. These results indicate that MrRelish may play an important role in innate immune defense against V. anguillarum in M. rosenbergii. PMID:26026243

  18. Crustin, a WAP domain containing antimicrobial peptide from freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii: immune characterization.

    PubMed

    Arockiaraj, Jesu; Gnanam, Annie J; Muthukrishnan, Dhanaraj; Gudimella, Ranganath; Milton, James; Singh, Arun; Muthupandian, Saravanan; Kasi, Marimuthu; Bhassu, Subha

    2013-01-01

    Crustin (MrCrs) was sequenced from a freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The MrCrs protein contains a signal peptide region at N-terminus between 1 and 22 and a long whey acidic protein domain (WAP domain) at C-terminus between 57 and 110 along with a WAP-type 'four-disulfide core' motif. Phylogenetic results show that MrCrs is clustered together with other crustacean crustin groups. MrCrs showed high sequence similarity (77%) with crustin from Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and Japanese spiny lobster Panulirus japonicas. I-TASSER uses the best structure templates to predict the possible structures of MrCrs along with PDB IDs such as 2RELA and 1FLEI. The gene expressions of MrCrs in both healthy M. rosenbergii and those infected with virus including infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila (Gram-negative) and Enterococcus faecium (Gram-positive) were examined using quantitative real time PCR. To understand its biological activity, the recombinant MrCrs gene was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The recombinant MrCrs protein agglutinated with the bacteria considered for analysis at a concentration of 25 μg/ml, except Lactococcus lactis. The bactericidal results showed that the recombinant MrCrs protein destroyed all the bacteria after incubation, even less than 6 h. These results suggest that MrCrs is a potential antimicrobial peptide, which is involved in the defense system of M. rosenbergii against viral and bacterial infections. PMID:23069787

  19. Transcriptomics of a Giant Freshwater Prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii): De Novo Assembly, Annotation and Marker Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hyungtaek; Lyons, Russell E.; Dinh, Hung; Hurwood, David A.; McWilliam, Sean; Mather, Peter B.

    2011-01-01

    Background Giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii or GFP), is the most economically important freshwater crustacean species. However, as little is known about its genome, 454 pyrosequencing of cDNA was undertaken to characterise its transcriptome and identify genes important for growth. Methodology and Principal Findings A collection of 787,731 sequence reads (244.37 Mb) obtained from 454 pyrosequencing analysis of cDNA prepared from muscle, ovary and testis tissues taken from 18 adult prawns was assembled into 123,534 expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Of these, 46% of the 8,411 contigs and 19% of 115,123 singletons possessed high similarity to sequences in the GenBank non-redundant database, with most significant (E value < 1e–5) contig (80%) and singleton (84%) matches occurring with crustacean and insect sequences. KEGG analysis of the contig open reading frames identified putative members of several biological pathways potentially important for growth. The top InterProScan domains detected included RNA recognition motifs, serine/threonine-protein kinase-like domains, actin-like families, and zinc finger domains. Transcripts derived from genes such as actin, myosin heavy and light chain, tropomyosin and troponin with fundamental roles in muscle development and construction were abundant. Amongst the contigs, 834 single nucleotide polymorphisms, 1198 indels and 658 simple sequence repeats motifs were also identified. Conclusions The M. rosenbergii transcriptome data reported here should provide an invaluable resource for improving our understanding of this species' genome structure and biology. The data will also instruct future functional studies to manipulate or select for genes influencing growth that should find practical applications in aquaculture breeding programs. PMID:22174756

  20. Quantification of lectin in freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii ) hemolymph by ELISA.

    PubMed

    Agundis, C; Pereyra, A; Zenteno, R; Brassart, C; Sierra, C; Vazquez, L; Zenteno, E

    2000-10-01

    An enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay was developed to quantify the lectin present in the hemolymph of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. This method involves the use of murine monoclonal IgG1 with kappa light chain (designated as 3G1) antibodies raised against the purified lectin, the assay that we developed recognized as little as 30 ng/ml of lectin, and was used to measure the lectin concentration in animals at different maturation stages. The highest concentration of lectin was identified in the hemolymph from post-larval prawns and the lowest in molt stage adult animals. The hemagglutination activity of the lectin was four-fold higher in adult than in juvenile specimens, although in all cases N-acetylated sugar residues, such as N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, and N-acetyl-D-neuraminic acid were inhibitors of the lectin activity, suggesting that lectin plays a role in the transport of N-acetylated sugar in juvenile prawns. Our results indicate that lectin concentration and hemagglutinating activity could be influenced by developmental conditions of the freshwater prawn. PMID:11079370

  1. GYRKPPFNGSIFamide (Gly-SIFamide) Modulates Aggression in the Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez-Acevedo, Nietzell; Rivera, Nilsa M.; Torres-González, Alejandra M.; Rullan-Matheu, Yarely; Ruíz-Rodríguez, Eduardo A.; Sosa, María A.

    2010-01-01

    The freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii is a tropical crustacean with characteristics similar to those of lobsters and crayfish. Adult males develop through three morphological types—small (SC), yellow (YC), and blue claws (BC)—with each representing a level in the dominance hierarchy of a group, BC males being the most dominant. We are interested in understanding the role played by neuropeptides in the mechanisms underlying aggressive behavior and the establishment of dominance hierarchies in this type of prawn. SIFamides are a family of arthropod peptides recently identified in the central nervous system of insects and crustaceans, where it has been linked to olfaction, sexual behavior, and gut endocrine functions. One of the six SIFamide isoforms, GYRKPPFNGSIFamide (Gly-SIFamide), is highly conserved among decapod crustaceans such as crabs and crayfish. We wanted to determine whether Gly-SIFamide plays a role in modulating aggression and dominant behavior in the prawn. To do this, we performed behavioral experiments in which interactions between BC/YC pairs were recorded and quantified before and after injecting Gly-SIFamide directly into the circulating hemolymph of the living animal. Behavioral data showed that aggression among interacting BC/YC prawns was enhanced by injection of Gly-SIFamide, suggesting that this neuropeptide does have a modulatory role for this type of behavior in the prawn. PMID:20040755

  2. Effects of Two Densities of Caged Monosex Nile Tilapia Oreochromis Niloticus on Water Quality, Phytoplankton Populations and Production When Polycultured With Macrobrachium rosenbergii in Temperate Ponds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elevated pH levels from the photosynthetic activity of phytoplankton can be a major problem in semi-intensive freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) production systems. Phytoplanktontiverous fish may be able to graze excess phytoplankton and lower pH. The effect of different densities of cag...

  3. Genetic Inheritance of Female and Male Morphotypes in Giant Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Giant freshwater prawn (GFP) Macrobrachium rosenbergii is unique with males categorized in five different morphotypes (small claw, orange claw, blue claw, old blue claw and no claw males) and females in three reproductive statuses (mature ovary, berried and spawned females). In the present study we examined genetic inheritance of female and male morphotypes, their body weights and genetic associations between morphotypes and body traits. Restricted maximum likelihood fitting a multi-trait animal model was performed on a total of 21,459 body records collected over five generations in a GFP population selected for high growth rate. The estimates of variance components showed that there were substantial differences in additive genetic variance in body weight between male morphotypes. The low and significantly different from one genetic correlations between the expressions of body weight in male morphotypes also suggest that these traits should be treated as genetically different traits in selective breeding programs. By contrast, body weights of female types are essentially the same characters as indicated by the high genetic correlations between homologous trait expressions. In addition to body weight, male morphotypes and female reproductive statuses were treated as traits in themselves and were analysed as binary observations using animal and sire linear mixed models, and logit and probit threshold models. The estimates of heritability back-transformed from the liability scale were in good agreement with those obtained from linear mixed models, ranging from 0.02 to 0.43 for male morphotypes and 0.06 to 0.10 for female types. The genetic correlations among male morphoptypes were generally favourable. Body weight showed negative genetic associations with SM (−0.96), whereas those of body weight with other male morphotypes were positive (0.25 to 0.76). Our results showed that there is existence of heritable (additive genetic) component for male morphotypes, giving

  4. Gene silencing of VP9 gene impairs WSSV infectivity on Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Alenton, Rod Russel R; Kondo, Hidehiro; Hirono, Ikuo; Maningas, Mary Beth B

    2016-03-01

    White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) remains the most widespread and devastating infectious agent that hit the shrimp aquaculture industry worldwide. To date, there are no known effective strategies yet to combat WSSV infection. Hence, functional studies on genes critical for viral infection is essential in elucidating shrimp-virus interaction. Here we report the function of a gene from WSSV coding for a non-structural protein, VP9, utilizing RNA interference. Silencing of VP9 gene also effectively suppressed other gene region in the WSSV genome (wsv168 gene) as early as day 1 post infection (dpi). Three set-ups using Macrobrachium rosenbergii shrimp were prepared for treatment using VP9-dsRNA, GFP-dsRNA, and PBS. Each shrimp was challenge with WSSV, and survival rate was recorded. VP9- and GFP-dsRNA injected shrimps showed a significant survival rate of 80% and 70%, respectively, in contrast to 0% of the PBS injected shrimps at 25dpi. Re-infection of shrimp survivors using a higher viral titer concentration, concurrent with the infection of new shrimp samples for the PBS control group, resulted in a significant 67% survival rate for VP9-dsRNA compared to 0% with that of GFP-dsRNA and PBS group. Challenge test on two more species, Penaeus monodon and Marsupenaeus japonicus, also significantly increased survival after VP9-dsRNA treatment. Our results provided evidence that VP9 gene plays an essential role in WSSV replication and it can be a potent target gene in the development of RNAi therapeutics for shrimps. PMID:26811904

  5. Molecular cloning and characterization of a Toll receptor gene from Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Srisuk, Chutima; Longyant, Siwaporn; Senapin, Saengchan; Sithigorngul, Paisarn; Chaivisuthangkura, Parin

    2014-02-01

    Toll receptors are cell surface molecules acting as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that have been implicated in the signaling pathway of innate immune responses. In this study, the full-length cDNA of a Toll receptor gene of Macrobrachium rosenbergii, designated MrToll, was successfully isolated using designed degenerate primers and the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The MrToll gene sequence contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 2799 nucleotides encoding a protein of 932 amino acid residues. The protein contained distinct structural motifs of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family, including an extracellular domain containing 15 leucine-rich repeats (LRRs), a transmembrane segment of 23 amino acids, and a cytoplasmic Toll/interleukin-1R (TIR) domain of 139 residues. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that MrToll and Toll receptor of Marsupenaeus japonicus (MjToll) evolved closely. However, the MrToll ORF demonstrated only 48-49% identity with shrimp Toll1, suggesting that MrToll isolated from a palaemonid shrimp might belong to a novel class of Toll receptors in shrimp. The transcripts of the MrToll gene were constitutively expressed in various tissues, with high levels in hemocytes, the stomach and muscle. A reverse transcriptase PCR assay demonstrated that the expression patterns of MrToll were distinctly modulated after Aeromonas caviae stimulation, with significant enhancement at 3-12 h post-challenge and a decline to basal levels at 24 h post-challenge. In addition, when MrToll-silenced shrimp were challenged with A. caviae, there was a significant increase in mortality and bacterial CFU counts. These results suggest that MrToll might be involved in host innate defense, especially against the pathogen A. caviae. PMID:24398262

  6. Identification of the major allergen of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (giant freshwater prawn)

    PubMed Central

    Yadzir, Zailatul Hani Mohamad; Misnan, Rosmilah; Abdullah, Noormalin; Bakhtiar, Faizal; Arip, Masita; Murad, Shahnaz

    2012-01-01

    Objective To characterize the major allergens of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (giant freshwater prawn). Methods Raw and cooked extracts of the giant freshwater prawn were prepared. The IgE reactivity pattern was identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting technique with the sera of 20 skin prick test (SPT) positive patients. The major allergen identified was then characterized using the proteomics approach involving a combination of two-dimensional (2-DE) electrophoresis, mass spectrometry and bioinformatics tools. Results SDS-PAGE of the raw extract showed 23 protein bands (15–250 kDa) but those ranging from 40 to 100 kDa were not found in the cooked extract. From immunoblotting experiments, raw and cooked extracts demonstrated 11 and 5 IgE-binding proteins, respectively, with a molecular mass ranging from 15 to 155 kDa. A heat-resistant 36 kDa protein was identified as the major allergen of both extracts. In addition, a 42 kDa heat-sensitive protein was shown to be a major allergen of the raw extract. The 2-DE gel fractionated the prawn proteins to more than 50 different protein spots. Of these, 10 spots showed specific IgE reactivity with patients' sera. Matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) analysis led to identification of 2 important allergens, tropomyosin and arginine kinase. Conclusions It can be concluded that the availability of such allergens would help in component-based diagnosis and therapy of prawn allergies. PMID:23569834

  7. In silico Neuropeptidome of Female Macrobrachium rosenbergii Based on Transcriptome and Peptide Mining of Eyestalk, Central Nervous System and Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tianfang; Zhao, Min; Elizur, Abigail; Sretarugsa, Prapee; Cummins, Scott F.; Sobhon, Prasert

    2015-01-01

    Macrobrachium rosenbergii is the most economically important of the cultured freshwater crustacean species, yet there is currently a deficiency in genomic and transcriptomic information for research requirements. In this study, we present an in silico analysis of neuropeptide genes within the female M. rosenbergii eyestalk, central nervous system, and ovary. We could confidently predict 37 preproneuropeptide transcripts, including those that encode bursicons, crustacean cardioactive peptide, crustacean hyperglycemic hormones, eclosion hormone, pigment-dispersing hormones, diuretic hormones, neuropeptide F, neuroparsins, SIFamide, and sulfakinin. These transcripts are most prominent within the eyestalk and central nervous system. Transcript tissue distribution as determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed the presence of selected neuropeptide genes of interest mainly in the nervous tissues while others were additionally present in the non-nervous tissues. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of eyestalk peptides confirmed the presence of the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone precursor. This data set provides a strong foundation for further studies into the functional roles of neuropeptides in M. rosenbergii, and will be especially helpful for developing methods to improve crustacean aquaculture. PMID:26023789

  8. Identification and cloning of a transglutaminase from giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and its transcription during pathogen infection and moulting.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun-Hung; Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Chiu, Yun-Chih; Cheng, Winton; Yeh, Maw-Sheng

    2011-12-01

    Complementary (c)DNA encoding transglutaminase (TG) messenger (m)RNA of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, was cloned from haemocytes by a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) using oligonucleotide primers based on the TG sequence of the horseshoe crab, Tachypleus tridentatus; tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon; kuruma shrimp, Marsupenaeus japonicus; and crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus. The 2722-bp cDNA contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 2334 bp, a 72-bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), and a 316-bp 3'-UTR containing a stop codon and a poly A tail. The molecular mass of the deduced amino acid (aa) sequence (778 aa) was 86.67 kDa with an estimated pI of 5.4. The M. rosenbergii TG (abbreviated MrTG, accession no.: JF309296) contains a typical transglutaminase-like homologue, two putative integrin-binding motifs (RGD), ten glycosylation sites, and four calcium-binding sites; a catalytic triad is present as in arthropod TGs. Sequence comparison and a phylogenetic analysis revealed that shrimp TG can be separated into three subgroups, penaeid TG1, freshwater crustacean TG2 and marine crustacean TG2, and MrTG was more closely related to TG2 than to TG1. MrTG mRNA and TG activities were detected in all tested tissues of M. rosenbergii, with MrTG mainly being synthesised by haemocytes. There was a negative correlation between clotting time of haemolymph, and MrTG expression and TG activity of haemocytes in prawn injected with Lactococcus garvieae. The pattern of MrTG mRNA expression and TG activity in haemocytes exhibited a contrary tendency with clotting time of haemolymph during the moult stages. Those results indicate that cloned MrTG is involved in the defence response, and is probably the major functional TG for haemolymph coagulation in M. rosenbergii. PMID:21854853

  9. Roles of dopamine receptors in mediating acute modulation of immunological responses in Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Chang, Zhong-Wen; Ke, Zhi-Han; Chang, Chin-Chyuan

    2016-02-01

    Dopamine (DA) was found to influence the immunological responses and resistance to pathogen infection in invertebrates. To clarify the possible modulation of DA through dopamine receptors (DAR) against acute environmental stress, the levels of DA, glucose and lactate in the haemolymph of Macrobrachium rosenbergii under hypo- and hyperthermal stresses were measured. The changes in immune parameters such as total haemocyte count (THC), differential haemocyte count (DHC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts (RBs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities and phagocytic activity (PA) were evaluated in prawns which received DAR antagonists (SCH23390, SCH, D1 antagonist; domperidone, DOM, D2 antagonist; chlorpromazine, CH, D1+2 antagonist) followed by hypo- (15 °C) and hyperthermal (34 °C) stresses. In addition, pharmacological analysis of the effect DA modulation was studied in haemocytes incubated with DA and DAR antagonists. The results revealed a significant increase in haemolymph DA accompanied with upregulated levels of glucose and lactate in prawns exposed to both hypo- and hyperthermal stresses in 2 h. In addition, a significant decrease in RBs per haemocyte was noted in prawns which received DAR antagonists when they exposed to hyperthermal stress for 30 min. In in vitro test, antagonism on RBs, SOD and GPx activity of haemocytes were further evidenced through D1, D1, D1+D2 DARs, respectively, in the meantime, no significant difference in PO activity and PA was observed among the treatment groups. These results suggest that the upregulation of DA, glucose and lactate in haemolymph might be the response to acute thermal stress for the demand of energy, and the DAR occupied by its antagonistic action impart no effect on immunological responses except RBs in vivo even though the modulation mediated through D1 DAR was further evidenced in RBs, SOD and GPx activities in vitro. It is therefore concluded that thermal

  10. Isolation and characterization of a female-specific DNA marker in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    PubMed Central

    Ventura, T; Aflalo, E D; Weil, S; Kashkush, K; Sagi, A

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a female-specific DNA marker in the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii was identified through amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). The AFLP-derived sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker was tested in over 200 individuals, giving reproducible sex identification. Further molecular characterization of the sex-marker's genomic region (∼3 kb long) revealed the presence of tandem and inverted repeats. The ∼3-kb sequence was identified both in male and female prawns, but with subtle differences: a deletion of 3 bp (present in female prawn but absent in male prawn) identified upstream of the SCAR marker sequence and two female-specific single-nucleotide polymorphisms, both indicating that male prawns are homozygous, whereas female prawns are heterozygous in this locus. Fluorescent in situ hybridization showed the ∼3-kb sequence to be unique: to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a unique sex-specific sequence observed in situ in crustaceans. The sex-specific marker identified in M. rosenbergii may have considerable applied merit for crustacean culture in that it will enable the determination of genetic sex at early developmental stages when phenotypic differences are not identifiable. PMID:21522169

  11. Spermatophore affects the egg-spawning and egg-carrying behavior in the female giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Kruangkum, Thanapong; Vanichviriyakit, Rapeepun; Chotwiwatthanakun, Charoonroj; Saetan, Jirawat; Tinikul, Yotsawan; Wanichanon, Chaitip; Cummins, Scott F; Hanna, Peter J; Sobhon, Prasert

    2015-10-01

    In crustaceans, mating occurs during the ecdysis after female molting. During this period, a male transfers its spermatophore into a female which, in some species, stores the spermatophore for a long period prior to spawning and fertilization. However, in some species including the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, the male deposits its spermataphore onto the external surface of the thoracic segment of the female which affects the spawning time and maternal behavior. This study investigated the spawning behavior of the M. rosenbergii females, which was divided into pre-spawning, spawning, and post-spawning phases. It was revealed that mated female prawns with attached spermatophore exhibited an earlier spawning than unmated individuals, leading to assessment of the factors that may elicit this phenomenon. Four groups of female prawns were allocated to groups including mating females with spermatophore still attached, mating females with the spermatophore removed, artificially inseminated females with spermatophores, and an unmated control. There was a significant reduction in the time of egg-spawning in the presence of spermatophores, and the mating activity was also a contributing factor. Furthermore, over 90% of the mated and artificially inseminated females in which spermatophores were deposited carried the eggs in the abdominal brood chamber until completion of embryonic development while others discarded the eggs within 2 days post-spawning. This study implies that the spermatophore may contain ovulation-inducing factors which stimulate an earlier spawning and fostering of brooding behavior. PMID:26388033

  12. Developing immunological methods for detecting Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus and extra small virus using a recombinant protein preparation.

    PubMed

    Wang, C-S; Chang, C-Y; Wen, C-M

    2016-06-01

    Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV) have been identified as the causative agents for white tail disease (WTD) of M. rosenbergii. In this study, the gene sequences encoding MrNV and XSV capsid proteins were separately ligated into the pGEX-4T-3 expression vector and transformed into Escherichia coli. After induction, glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-tagged MrNV and XSV fusion proteins were obtained with molecular masses of 68 and 43 kDa, respectively. Specific polyclonal antibodies for MrNV and XSV against viral recombinant proteins and infected prawn tissues were verified using Western blotting. According to immunodot blot assay results, the detection sensitivities of antibodies were approximately 5 ng μL(-1) for both recombinant proteins GST-MrNV and GST-XSV. In additional, MrNV and XSV were detected at dilution levels of 1:2560 and 1:640 in the infected prawn tissues, respectively. No cross-reactions with white spot syndrome virus or grouper nervous necrosis virus were observed using immunodot blot assays. MrNV and XSV in infected muscle tissues were detected using immunohistochemistry. Although the detection limit of the immunodot blot assay was lower than that of nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, these polyclonal antibodies can be useful for confirming MrNV and XSV infections in field tests. PMID:26263892

  13. A first insight into temperature stress-induced neuroendocrine and immunological changes in giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Jiang, Jia-Rong; Cheng, Winton

    2015-11-01

    Haemolymph norepinephrine (NE); total haemocyte count (THC); respiratory bursts (RBs); superoxide dismutase (SOD), phenoloxidase (PO), and phagocytic activity; and prophenoloxidase (proPO)-system-related genes (lipopolysaccharide- and β-1,3-glucan-binding protein: LGBP, proPO, peroxinectin: PE, and α2-macroglobulin: α2-M) in haemocytes of Macrobrachium rosenbergii were investigated after transferring them from 28 °C to 22 °C, 28 °C, and 34 °C respectively. The results revealed that haemolymph NE, hyaline cells (HCs), and PO activity per granulocyte increased from 30 to 120 min of exposure, and however, RBs and phagocytic activity significantly decreased from 30 to 120 min of exposure as well as granular cells (GCs), semigranular cells (SGCs), and SOD activity decreased from 60 to 120 min of exposure for the prawns subjected to temperature stress. The proPO-system-related gene expression markedly increased with 60-120 min of exposure for the prawns transferred from 28 °C to 22 °C and 34 °C, except α2M at 120 min. These results provide a first insight into the effects of temperature stress on haemolymph NE level and immune functions in prawns and suggest that temperature-stress-induced acute modulation in immunity is associated with the release of haemolymph NE in M. rosenbergii. PMID:26434711

  14. Bioinformatic characterization and gene expression pattern of apoptosis inhibitor from Macrobrachium rosenbergii challenged with infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus.

    PubMed

    Arockiaraj, Jesu; Vanaraja, Puganeshwaran; Easwvaran, Sarasvathi; Singh, Arun; Othman, Rofina Yasmin; Bhassu, Subha

    2011-12-01

    Apoptosis is genetically programmed cellular killing processes that execute unnecessary or infected cells. It plays an important role in embryogenesis, homeostasis, insect metamorphosis and immunity. Apoptosis inhibitor (MrIAP) was sequenced from the freshwater giant prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii using Illumina Solexa Genome Analyzer Technique. MrIAP consisted of 1753 base pair nucleotides encoded 535 polypeptide with an estimated molecular mass of 60 kDa. MrIAP amino acid sequence contains IAP superfamily domain between 5 and 490. The deduced amino acid sequences of the MrIAP were aligned with the other IAP family members. The highest sequence similarity was observed in IAP-5 from ant Camponotus floridanus (67%) followed by IAP from body louse Pediculus humanus corporis (66%) and the lowest (62%) in IAP-5 isoform-5 from common chimpanzee Pan troglodytes and IAP-5 from Aedes aegypti. The IAP phylogenetic tree showed that MrIAP closely related to other arthropod blacklegged tick Ixodes scapularis, formed a sister group with IAP from a hemichordate acorn worm Saccoglossus kowalevskii and finally clustered together with IAPs from fish groups. The quantitative real time PCR analysis revealed that significantly (P < 0.05) highest expression was noticed in hepatopancreas and significantly (P < 0.05) lowest expression in pleopods. Based on the results of gene expression analysis, MrIAP mRNA transcription in M. rosenbergii challenged to infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) was highly induced in hepatopancreas. The collective results of this study indicate that the MrIAP is an essential immune gene and influences the immune response against IHHNV infection in M. rosenbergii. PMID:21945707

  15. Single CRD containing lectin from Macrobrachium rosenbergii (MrLec) participates in innate immunity against pathogen infections.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xin; Li, Wen; Jin, Min; Ma, Fu-Tong; Huang, Ying; Shi, Yan-Ru; Zhao, Ling-Ling; Feng, Jin-Ling; Ren, Qian; Wang, Wen

    2016-04-01

    As a type of pattern-recognition proteins, lectins perform important functions in the innate immunity of crustaceans, including prawns. Although several reports showed that C-type lectin domain family (CLEC) importantly functions in host-pathogen interactions, limited research has focused on CLEC in Macrobrachium rosenbergii. In the present study, a new single CRD containing CLEC (designated as MrLec) was reported in freshwater prawns, M. rosenbergii. The full-length cDNA of MrLec consisted of 1027 bp with an open reading frame of 801 bp, which encoded a peptide of 266 amino acid residues. Genomic sequence for MrLec was also obtained from the M. rosenbergii, which contain 4 exons and 3 introns. MrLec was found to contain a single carbohydrate-recognition domain with an EPN motif. MrLec was ubiquitously distributed in various tissues of a normal prawn, particularly in the hepatopancreas and gills. MrLec expression in the gills was significantly upregulated after a challenge with Vibrio parahaemolyticus and downregulated at 24 h after MrLec RNA interference (MrLec-RNAi). The expression levels of some AMPs, including antilipopolysaccharide factor 1 (Alf1) and lysozyme 2 (Lyso2), also markedly decreased after MrLec-RNAi. Recombinant MrLec can agglutinate (Ca(2+)-dependent) and bind both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Results suggested that MrLec participates in the recognition of invading pathogens and functions in the immune response of prawn against pathogen infections. PMID:26923244

  16. Optimizing Hybrid de Novo Transcriptome Assembly and Extending Genomic Resources for Giant Freshwater Prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii): The Identification of Genes and Markers Associated with Reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hyungtaek; Yoon, Byung-Ha; Kim, Woo-Jin; Kim, Dong-Wook; Hurwood, David A.; Lyons, Russell E.; Salin, Krishna R.; Kim, Heui-Soo; Baek, Ilseon; Chand, Vincent; Mather, Peter B.

    2016-01-01

    The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, a sexually dimorphic decapod crustacean is currently the world’s most economically important cultured freshwater crustacean species. Despite its economic importance, there is currently a lack of genomic resources available for this species, and this has limited exploration of the molecular mechanisms that control the M. rosenbergii sex-differentiation system more widely in freshwater prawns. Here, we present the first hybrid transcriptome from M. rosenbergii applying RNA-Seq technologies directed at identifying genes that have potential functional roles in reproductive-related traits. A total of 13,733,210 combined raw reads (1720 Mbp) were obtained from Ion-Torrent PGM and 454 FLX. Bioinformatic analyses based on three state-of-the-art assemblers, the CLC Genomic Workbench, Trans-ABySS, and Trinity, that use single and multiple k-mer methods respectively, were used to analyse the data. The influence of multiple k-mers on assembly performance was assessed to gain insight into transcriptome assembly from short reads. After optimisation, de novo assembly resulted in 44,407 contigs with a mean length of 437 bp, and the assembled transcripts were further functionally annotated to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms and simple sequence repeat motifs. Gene expression analysis was also used to compare expression patterns from ovary and testis tissue libraries to identify genes with potential roles in reproduction and sex differentiation. The large transcript set assembled here represents the most comprehensive set of transcriptomic resources ever developed for reproduction traits in M. rosenbergii, and the large number of genetic markers predicted should constitute an invaluable resource for future genetic research studies on M. rosenbergii and can be applied more widely on other freshwater prawn species in the genus Macrobrachium. PMID:27164098

  17. Optimizing Hybrid de Novo Transcriptome Assembly and Extending Genomic Resources for Giant Freshwater Prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii): The Identification of Genes and Markers Associated with Reproduction.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyungtaek; Yoon, Byung-Ha; Kim, Woo-Jin; Kim, Dong-Wook; Hurwood, David A; Lyons, Russell E; Salin, Krishna R; Kim, Heui-Soo; Baek, Ilseon; Chand, Vincent; Mather, Peter B

    2016-01-01

    The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, a sexually dimorphic decapod crustacean is currently the world's most economically important cultured freshwater crustacean species. Despite its economic importance, there is currently a lack of genomic resources available for this species, and this has limited exploration of the molecular mechanisms that control the M. rosenbergii sex-differentiation system more widely in freshwater prawns. Here, we present the first hybrid transcriptome from M. rosenbergii applying RNA-Seq technologies directed at identifying genes that have potential functional roles in reproductive-related traits. A total of 13,733,210 combined raw reads (1720 Mbp) were obtained from Ion-Torrent PGM and 454 FLX. Bioinformatic analyses based on three state-of-the-art assemblers, the CLC Genomic Workbench, Trans-ABySS, and Trinity, that use single and multiple k-mer methods respectively, were used to analyse the data. The influence of multiple k-mers on assembly performance was assessed to gain insight into transcriptome assembly from short reads. After optimisation, de novo assembly resulted in 44,407 contigs with a mean length of 437 bp, and the assembled transcripts were further functionally annotated to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms and simple sequence repeat motifs. Gene expression analysis was also used to compare expression patterns from ovary and testis tissue libraries to identify genes with potential roles in reproduction and sex differentiation. The large transcript set assembled here represents the most comprehensive set of transcriptomic resources ever developed for reproduction traits in M. rosenbergii, and the large number of genetic markers predicted should constitute an invaluable resource for future genetic research studies on M. rosenbergii and can be applied more widely on other freshwater prawn species in the genus Macrobrachium. PMID:27164098

  18. Expression of biotransformation and oxidative stress genes in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii exposed to chlordecone.

    PubMed

    Gaume, Béatrice; Dodet, Nathalie; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Lemoine, Soazig

    2015-06-01

    Chlordecone is a persistent organochlorine pesticide widely used between 1972 and 1993 in the French West Indies to control the root borer in banana fields. Chlordecone use resulted in long-term pollution of soils, contamination of waters, of aquatic organisms, and of fields. Chlordecone is known to be neurotoxic, to increase prostate cancer, and to have negative effects on cognitive and motor development during infancy. In Guadeloupe, most of the freshwater species living in contaminated rivers exceed the French legal limit of 20 μg·kg(-1) wet weight. In the present study, we chose a transcriptomic approach to study the cellular effects of chlordecone in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, an important economical species in Guadeloupe. Quantitative PCR revealed an induction of genes involved in defense mechanism against oxidative stress (catalase and selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase) in prawns exposed to low environmental concentrations of chlordecone after 12 and 24 h of exposure. In prawns reared in a contaminated farm, transcription of genes involved in the biotransformation process (cytochrome P450 and glutathione-S-transferase (GST)) were induced after 8 days of exposure. Our results provide information on the mechanims of defense induced by chlordecone in aquatic crustacean species. This gene expression study of selected genes should be further strengthened by proteomic analyses and enzymatic activity assays to confirm the response of these biomarkers of stress in crustaceans and to give new insights into the mechanism of toxicity by chlordecone. PMID:24920261

  19. Assessment of Constructed Wetland in Nutrient Reduction, in the Commercial Scale Experiment Ponds of Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Tariq; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Guosen

    2016-03-01

    A free water surface constructed wetland (CW) was integrated into two commercial ponds of Macrobrachium rosenbergii, to evaluate the role of CW in reducing the excess nutrient concentration and other pollutants produced from the aquaculture waste. Hydraulic residence time was kept constant (24 h). There was a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in total suspended solids (TSS, 73.2 ± 15.4 %) and total nitrogen (TN, 39.6 ± 44.2 %) between wetland inflow and wetland outflow. The performance of the CW was highly impacted by the low concentration of dissolved nutrients at the inflow of CW. Results showed about 43.8 ± 24.6 % NO3 (-), 25.7 ± 23.0 % NH4 (+), 14.3 ± 1.0 % NO2 (-), 28.4 ± 18.8 % DIN and 13.1 ± 10.0 % PO4 (3-) were removed. In agreement with previous published investigations, comparing values of pollutants before and after recirculation, this study concludes that a CW system can provide good water quality and minimize external water input. PMID:26679323

  20. Isolation and characterization of an Enterococcus-like bacterium causing muscle necrosis and mortality in Macrobrachium rosenbergii in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Cheng, W; Chen, J C

    1998-10-01

    A Gram-positive, ovoid, diplococoid bacterium tentatively identified as Enterococcus-like was isolated from diseased Macrobrachium rosenbergii in Taiwanese aquaculture ponds. The diseased prawns displayed poor growth, anorexia, inactivity, opaque and whitish musculature, and mortality. In histological preparations, melanized hemocytic granulomas were seen in the connective tissue around hemal sinuses together with hemocytic aggregation in necrotic musculature. Five isolates of diplococci were collected from diseased prawns at 4 farms and these were evaluated for 93 characteristics including morphology, physiology, biochemistry and sensitivity to antibiotics. The results indicated that the isolates belonged to a single species. They grew in 0.5 to 6.0% NaCl, at 10 to 40 degrees C, at pH 9.6 and on bile esculin medium, gave positive pyrrolidonylarylamidase, arginine dehydrolase and Voges-Proskauer tests, were resistant to bacitracin and SXT, and were CAMP-negative and non-hemolytic on sheep blood agar. These findings indicated an Enterococcus-like bacterium closely related to Enterococcus seriolicida (recently reduced to synonymy with Lactococcus garvieae). Experimental injection of 3 x 10(5) cells of strain KM002 of this Enterococcus-like bacterium into the ventral sinus of the prawn cephalothorax caused 100% mortality in 11 d, and induced muscular necrosis and hepatopancreatitis, gross signs and histopathology similar to those observed in the naturally infected prawns. It was concluded that this Enterococcus-like bacterium was the etiological agent associated with mortality of the farmed, diseased prawns. PMID:9828405

  1. Expression Profile of Antioxidant Enzymes in Hemocytes from Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii Exposed to an Elevated Level of Copper.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hui; Miao, Yu-Tao; Xian, Jian-An; Qian, Kun; Wang, An-Li

    2015-10-01

    This study evaluated the expression level of antioxidant enzymes Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu, Zn-SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in hemocytes of Macrobrachium rosenbergii exposed to copper by real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Results showed that the mRNA expression of Cu, Zn-SOD increased to reach a peak at 6 h, then recovered to its normal level at 48 h. CAT expression level was significantly increased at 12 h and reached a peak at 24 h, but recovered to its normal level later. GPx expression level was significantly increased at 6 h and reached the peak at 12 h. GST expression level was significantly induced from 12 to 24 h and then dropped to its normal level at 48 h. These results indicated that antioxidant enzymes were inducible, possibly for removing excessive reactive oxygen species to protect prawn from oxidative stress. PMID:26215459

  2. Identification and characterization of differentially expressed transcripts in the gills of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Barman, Hirak Kumar; Patra, Swagat Kumar; Das, Varsha; Mohapatra, Shibani Dutta; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Mohapatra, Chinmayee; Mohanta, Ramya; Panda, Rudra Prasanna; Rath, Surya Narayan

    2012-01-01

    The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is an economically important species. It is a euryhaline shrimp, surviving in wide-range salinity conditions. A change in gene expression has been suggested as an important component for stress management. To better understand the osmoregulatory mechanisms mediated by the gill, a subtractive and suppressive hybridization (SSH) tool was used to identify expressed transcripts linked to adaptations in saline water. A total of 117 transcripts represented potentially expressed under salinity conditions. BLAST analysis identified 22% as known genes, 9% as uncharacterized showing homologous to unannotated ESTs, and 69% as unknown sequences. All the identified known genes representing broad spectrum of biological pathways were particularly linked to stress tolerance including salinity tolerance. Expression analysis of 10 known genes and 7 unknown/uncharacterized genes suggested their upregulation in the gills of prawn exposed to saline water as compared to control indicating that these are likely to be associated with salinity acclimation. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) was used for obtaining full-length cDNA of MRSW-40 clone that was highly upregulated during salt exposure. The sequenced ESTs presented here will have potential implications for future understanding about salinity acclimation and/or tolerance of the prawn. PMID:22619594

  3. Toxicity study of the oil dispersant Corexit 9527 on Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) egg hatchability by using a flow-through bioassay technique.

    PubMed

    Law, A T

    1995-01-01

    The effect of the oil-spill dispersant Corexit 9527 on egg-hatching rate of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) was studied by using an innovated flow-through bioassay technique. This bioassay method relies on the fact that M. rosenbergii fertilized eggs when detached from the mother prawn were able to hatch artificially. The flow-through system generated a stable and good water quality environment for hatching the eggs successfully. The Corexit 9527 had a pronounced effect on hatching rate of the M. rosenbergii eggs. In the control, the hatching rate of the eggs was 95.55% +/- 1.74%. However, it was reduced drastically with increasing concentrations of Corexit 9527. A 100% inhibition of egg hatchability was found when the level of Corexit 9527 was higher than 250 mg litre(-1). The EC(50) and the EC(95) values estimated by the probit method were 80.4 +/- 5.5 mg litre(-1) and 193.5 +/- 39.9 mg litre(-1) respectively (P = 0.05). The recommended safety level of Corexit 9527 for M. rosenbergii in Malaysian estuarine waters is below 40 mg litre(-1). PMID:15091547

  4. Non-permissive C6/36 cell culture for the Australian isolate of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus.

    PubMed

    Hayakijkosol, O; Owens, L

    2013-04-01

    Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) that causes white tail disease (WTD) is an emerging disease that contributes to serious production losses in Macrobrachium hatcheries worldwide. Mosquito cell lines (C6/36) have been reported to support the growth of MrNV and used to observe the cytopathic effects (CPE) in infected cells. This study determined the susceptibility of C6/36 mosquito cells to the Australian isolate of MrNV in order to use fewer animals in further investigations. Different staining methods were used to observe MrNV viral activity in C6/36 cells. Typical cytopathic effects such as vacuolation and viral inclusion bodies were observed in infected C6/36 cells with H&E and Giemsa staining. With acridine orange, it was easier to detect presumptive MrNV messenger ribonucleic acid in the infected cells. Using neutral red staining to measure mitochondrial activity showed light absorption of infected cells maximized at day 4 (O.D. = 0.6) but was significantly lower (chi-square = 41.265, df = 1, P < 0.05) than control groups (O.D. = 2) which maximized at day 12. Using trypan blue staining to count the number of cells with disrupted cell membranes, the maximum number of presumptively dead cells at day 8 (4 × 10(5)  cells) in infected treatments was higher than the control treatment at day 10 (1.8 × 10(5)  cells). However, TaqMan real-time PCR did not confirm the replication of MrNV in the cells over 14 days. The mean viral copies and mean cycle times of positive samples were stable at 2.07 × 10(4) and 24.12, respectively. Limited evidence of viral replication was observed during four serial passages. This study determined the mortality of the C6/36 cell line to the Australian isolate of MrNV but suggests limited patent replication was occurring. Trying different cell lines or adapting the virus to the C6/36 cells may be necessary to successfully replicate Australian MrNV in cell lines. PMID:23134578

  5. Effect of cryoprotectants and cooling rates on fertility potential of sperm in the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man).

    PubMed

    Valentina Claudet, P; Narasimman, Selvakumar; Natesan, Munuswamy

    2016-08-01

    This study evaluates freezing protocol with suitable cryoprotectants and their effects on the fertility potential of sperm in the cryopreserved spermatophores of Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Spermatophores, collected using electroejaculation, were suspended in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), propylene glycol (PG), methanol, glycerol and ethylene glycol (EG) at different concentrations (10, 15 & 20% v/v), prepared in sterile-filtered pond water. Based on the cryoprotectant toxicity assay, DMSO and PG were used individually as well as in combination with three freezing protocols (i.e. -1.5, -3 and -5°C/min and to final temperature of -39°C) and plunged into liquid nitrogen at -196°C. After 90 days of storage (-196°C) thawing was done at 35°C in a water bath for 1min. Results showed that fresh and cryopreserved spermatophores held for 90 days registered sperm viability of 91.4±2.9% and 50.4±1.9% respectively. Further, fertility potential of sperm was assessed based on acrosome reactivity using calcium ionophore (A23187). Observations indicated that cryopreserved sperm registered 28.3±2.2% of acrosome reactivity compared to freshly collected spermatophores (85.3±2.5%). Thus, one-step slow cooling rate of -1.5°C/min between 27°C and -39°C stored in liquid nitrogen at -196°C with DMSO (10%)+PG (10%) seems to be amenable for cryopreservation of spermatophores, compared to other cooling rates. PMID:27318716

  6. Characterization of a gC1qR from the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Ye, Ting; Huang, Xin; Wang, Xian-Wei; Shi, Yan-Ru; Hui, Kai-Min; Ren, Qian

    2015-03-01

    gC1qR, as a multicompartmental and a multifunctional protein, plays an important role in innate immunity. In this study, a gC1qR homolog (MrgC1qR) in the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii was identified. MrgC1qR, a 258-amino-acid polypeptide, shares high identities with gC1qR from other species. MrgC1qR gene was expressed in different tissues and was highest expressed in the hepatopancreas. In addition, the MrgC1qR transcript was significantly enhanced after 6 h of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection or post 2 h, 24 h of Vibrio anguillarum challenge compared to appropriate controls. Moreover, recombinant MrgC1qR (rMrgC1qR) had bacterial binding activity, the result also revealed that rMrgC1qR could bind pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) such as LPS or PGN, suggesting that MrgC1qRmight function as a pathogen-recognition receptor (PRR). Furthermore, glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down assays showed that rMrgC1qR with GST-tag could bind to rMrFicolin1 or rMrFicolin2 with His-tag. Altogether, these results may demonstrate a role for MrgC1qR in innate immunity in the giant freshwater prawns. PMID:25555810

  7. Detection and genetic profiling of infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) infections in wild berried freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii collected for hatchery production.

    PubMed

    Hazreen Nita, M K; Kua, B C; Bhassu, S; Othman, R Y

    2012-04-01

    Infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) has been detected widely in penaeid culture facilities in Asia and the Americas. IHHNV infection on sub-adult and postlarvae of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii which had caused up to 80% mortalities was first reported in Southeast Taiwan in 2006. In Malaysia, although, there has been no report on IHHNV infections in M. rosenbergii, preliminary work suggests that there is an urgent need to setup a screening protocol for IHHNV for both wild and cultured populations. In this study, polymerase chain reaction based screening was carried out on 30 randomly sampled berried wild M. rosenbergii before and after spawning. All samples did not showed any sign of IHHNV infection. However, the results showed that 20% of the samples were IHHNV positive. Sequence analysis of the amplified band using NCBI-BLAST showed that the putative IHHNV sequence had 98% nucleotide sequence (388 bp) identity with the IHHNV isolate AC-05-005 non-structural protein 1 gene and seven other IHHNV strains in the data bank further affirming the suggestion on the presence of IHHNV in wild freshwater prawn populations in Malaysia. PMID:21755294

  8. De Novo Transcriptome Sequencing Analysis and Comparison of Differentially Expressed Genes (DEGs) in Macrobrachium rosenbergii in China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qigen

    2014-01-01

    Giant freshwater prawn (GFP; Macrobrachium rosenbergii) is an exotic species that was introduced into China in 1976 and thereafter it became a major species in freshwater aquaculture. However the gene discovery in this species has been limited to small-scale data collection in China. We used the next generation sequencing technology for the experiment; the transcriptome was sequenced of samples of hepatopancreas organ in individuals from 4 GFP groups (A1, A2, B1 and B2). De novo transcriptome sequencing generated 66,953 isogenes. Using BLASTX to search the Non-redundant (NR), Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes (STRING), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome (KEGG) databases; 21,224 unigenes were annotated, 9,552 matched unigenes with the Gene Ontology (GO) classification; 5,782 matched unigenes in 25 categories of Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COG) and 20,859 unigenes were consequently assigned to 312 KEGG pathways. Between the A and B groups 147 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified; between the A1 and A2 groups 6,860 DEGs were identified and between the B1 and B2 groups 5,229 DEGs were identified. After enrichment, the A and B groups identified 38 DEGs, but none of them were significantly enriched. The A1 and A2 groups identified 21,856 DEGs in three main categories based on functional groups: biological process, cellular_component and molecular function and the KEGG pathway defined 2,459 genes had a KEGG Ortholog - ID (KO-ID) and could be categorized into 251 pathways, of those, 9 pathways were significantly enriched. The B1 and B2 groups identified 5,940 DEGs in three main categories based on functional groups: biological process, cellular_component and molecular function, and the KEGG pathway defined 1,543 genes had a KO-ID and could be categorized into 240 pathways, of those, 2 pathways were significantly enriched. We investigated 99 queries (GO) which related to growth of GFP in 4 groups. After enrichment we

  9. The effect of sugars and free amino acids from the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii hemolymph on lectin activity and on oxidative burst.

    PubMed

    Soria, Frida; Sierra, Claudia; Bouquelet, Stephane; Brassart, Colette; Agundis, Concepción; Zenteno, Edgar; Vázquez, Lorena

    2006-01-01

    We determined the effect of low molecular weight components (LMWC) from healthy juvenile and adult Macrobrachium rosenbergii hemolymph on lectin activity and oxidative burst (OB) in hemocytes. In an attempt to identify the LMWC that affect the lectin's hemagglutinating activity or oxidative burst, we determined the hemolymph carbohydrates and free amino acids (FAA) concentration. The LMWC (<2000 Da) were obtained after dialysis of the hemolymph. Our results showed that LMWC from juveniles exerted a greater inhibition on lectin than LMWC from adult hemolymph. Production of superoxide radicals by hemocytes was lower in the presence of juvenile (p<0.05) as compared to adult LMWC. FAA composition of the hemolymph and of LMWC from adults showed higher proportion of alanine (which corresponded to 25% of total FAA) and proline (>20%); whereas, in juveniles, the main FAA identified were glycine (>40%) and alanine (26%). N-Acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) was the main sugar residue in the hemolymph and LMWC from juveniles; its concentration was 2.4 times higher than glucose (Glc), whereas, in adults, Glc was the main free sugar residue. Our results suggest that the proportion of FAA and carbohydrates in the hemolymph of M. rosenbergii seems to be correlated with the maturation process; furthermore, the high proportion of free GlcNAc and glycine regulate, in the juvenile stage, lectin activity and cellular oxidative mechanisms, respectively. PMID:16290085

  10. Variation of prostaglandin E2 concentrations in ovaries and its effects on ovarian maturation and oocyte proliferation in the giant fresh water prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Sumpownon, Chanudporn; Engsusophon, Attakorn; Siangcham, Tanapan; Sugiyama, Eiji; Soonklang, Nantawan; Meeratana, Prasert; Wanichanon, Chaitip; Hanna, Peter J; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Sobhon, Prasert

    2015-11-01

    Prostaglandins (PGs) are important bioactive mediators for many physiological functions. In some decapod crustaceans, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) has been detected in reproductive organs, and may play a role in the control of ovarian maturation. However, in the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, the presences of PGE2 and key enzymes for PGE2 biosynthesis, as well as its effects on ovarian maturation have not yet been investigated. In this study we reported the presence of PGE2, cyclooxygenase1 (COX1) and prostaglandin E synthase (PGES) in the ovarian tissues of M. rosenbergii, using immunohistochemistry. Intense immunoreactivities of PGE2 (PGE2-ir), COX1 (Cox1-ir) and PGES (PGES-ir) were detected in previtellogenic oocytes (Oc1 and Oc2), while the immunoreactivities were absent in the late vitellogenic oocytes (Oc4). This finding supports the hypothesis that the PGE2 biosynthesis occurs in the ovary of this prawn. To ascertain this finding we used LC-MS/MS to quantitate PGE2 concentrations during ovarian developmental cycle. The levels of PGE2 were significantly higher in the early ovarian stages (St I and II) than in the late stages (St III and IV). Moreover, we found that administration of PGE2 stimulated the ovarian maturation in this species by shortening the length of the ovarian cycle, increasing ovarian-somatic index, oocyte proliferation, and vitellogenin (Vg) level in the hemolymph. PMID:25963041

  11. Ultrastructural changes during spermatogenesis, biochemical and hormonal evidences of testicular toxicity caused by TBT in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1879).

    PubMed

    Revathi, Peranandam; Iyapparaj, Palanisamy; Vasanthi, Lourduraj Arockia; Munuswamy, Natesan; Krishnan, Muthukalingan

    2014-10-01

    The present investigation documents the impact of tributyltin (TBT) on the ultrastructural variation of spermatogenesis in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The environmentally realistic concentration of TBT can cause damages to the endocrine and reproductive physiology of crustaceans. In this context, three concentrations viz. 10, 100, and 1000 ng/L were selected and exposed to prawns for 90 days. The TBT exposed prawn exhibited decrease the reproductive activity as evidenced by sperm count and sperm length compared to control. Histopathological results revealed the retarded testicular development, abnormal structure of seminiferous tubule, decrease in the concentration of spermatozoa, diminution of seminiferous tubule membrane, abundance of spermatocytes and vacuolation in testis of treated prawns. Ultrastructural study also confirmed the impairment of spermatogenesis in treated prawns. Furthermore, radioimmunoassay (RIA) clearly documented the reduction of testosterone level in TBT exposed groups. Thus, TBT substantially reduced the level of male sex hormone as well as biochemical constituents which ultimately led to impairment of spermatogenesis in the freshwater male prawn M. rosenbergii. PMID:23362226

  12. Isolated and combined exposure to ammonia and nitrite in giant freshwater pawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii): effects on the oxidative stress, antioxidant enzymatic activities and apoptosis in haemocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yufan; Ye, Chaoxia; Wang, Anli; Zhu, Xuan; Chen, Changhong; Xian, Jianan; Sun, Zhenzhu

    2015-10-01

    The residual contaminators such as ammonia and nitrite are widely considered as relevant sources of aquatic environmental pollutants, posing a great threat to shrimp survival. To study the toxicological effects of ammonia and nitrite exposure on the innate immune response in invertebrates, we investigated the oxidative stress and apoptosis in haemocytes of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) under isolated and combined exposure to ammonia and nitrite in order to provide useful information about adult prawn immune responses. M. rosenbergii (13.44 ± 2.75 g) were exposed to 0, 5, and 25 mg/L total ammonia-N (TAN) and 0, 5, and 20 mg/L nitrite-N for 24 h. All ammonia concentrations were combined with all nitrite concentrations, making a total of nine treatments studied. Following the exposure treatment, antioxidant enzyme activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, nitric oxide (NO) generation, and apoptotic cell ratio of haemocytes were measured using flow cytometry. Results indicated that ROS generation was sensitive to the combined effect of ammonia and nitrite, which subsequently affected the Cu-Zn SOD activity. In addition, CAT showed the highest activity at 5 mg/L TAN while GPx decreased at 5 mg/L TAN and returned towards baseline at 25 mg/L. NO generation synchronized with the apoptotic cell ratio in haemocytes, indicating that NO production was closely associated with programmed cell death. Both NO production and apoptotic ratios significantly decreased following 25 mg/L TAN, which may be due to the antagonistic regulation of NO and GPx. We hypothesized that the toxicological effect of nitrite exhibited less change in physiological changes compared to that of ammonia, because of the high tolerance to nitrite exposure in mature M. rosenbergii and/or the competitive effects of chloride ions. Taken together, these results showed that ammonia and nitrite caused a series of combined oxidative stress and apoptosis in M. rosenbergi, but further

  13. Low pH affects survival, growth, size distribution, and carapace quality of the postlarvae and early juveniles of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Gunzo; Bagarinao, Teodora; Yong, Annita Seok Kian; Chen, Chiau Yu; Noor, Siti Norasidah Mat; Lim, Leong Seng

    2015-06-01

    Acidification of rain water caused by air pollutants is now recognized as a serious threat to aquatic ecosystems. We examined the effects of low pH (control pH 7.5, pH 6, pH 5, pH 4) on the survival, growth, and shell quality of Macrobrachium rosenbergii postlarvae and early juveniles in the laboratory. Hatcheryproduced postlarvae (PL 5) were stocked at 250 PL per aquarium, acclimated over 7 d to experimental pH adjusted with hydrochloric acid, and reared for 30 d. Dead specimens were removed and counted twice a day. After 27 d rearing, all specimens were measured for total length and body weight. Carapace quality was assessed by spectrophotometry. Survival of juveniles was highest at pH 6 (binomial 95% confidence interval 79 - 89%) followed by control pH 7.5 (56 - 68%) and pH 5 (50 - 60%) and was lowest for unmetamorphosed postlarvae and juveniles at pH 4 (43 - 49%). The final median total length and body weight of juveniles were similar at control pH 7.5 (18.2 TL, 50.2 mg BW) and pH 6 (17.7 mm TL, 45.0 mg BW) but significantly less at pH 5 (16.7 mm TL, 38.2 mg BW); at pH 4, the postlarvae did not metamorphose and measured only 9.8 mm TL, 29.3 mg BW. Length frequency distribution showed homogeneous growth at pH 6, positive skew at control pH 7.5 and pH 5, and extreme heterogeneity at pH 4. The carapace showed different transmittance spectra and lower total transmittance (i.e. thicker carapace) in juveniles at pH 7.5, pH 6, and pH 5 than in unmetamorphosed postlarvae and juveniles with thinner carapace at pH 4. Thus, survival, growth, size distribution, and carapace quality of M. rosenbergii postlarvae and early juveniles were negatively affected by pH 5 and especially pH 4. The thinner carapace of the survivors at pH 4 was mostly due to their small size and failure to metamorphose. Natural waters affected by acid rain could decimate M. rosenbergii populations in the wild.

  14. Dietary supplementation of green synthesized manganese-oxide nanoparticles and its effect on growth performance, muscle composition and digestive enzyme activities of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Asaikkutti, Annamalai; Bhavan, Periyakali Saravana; Vimala, Karuppaiya; Karthik, Madhayan; Cheruparambath, Praseeja

    2016-05-01

    The green synthesized Mn3O4 nanoparticles (manganese-oxide nanoparticles) using Ananas comosus (L.) peel extract was characterized by various techniques. HR-SEM photograph showed that manganese-oxide nanoparticles (Mn-oxide NPs) were spherical in shape, with an average size of 40-50 nm. The Zeta potential revealed the surface charge of Mn-oxide NPs to be negative. Further, the Mn-oxide NPs were dietary supplemented for freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The experimental basal diets were supplemented with Mn-oxide NPs at the rates of 0 (control), 3.0, 6.0, 9.0, 12, 15 and 18 mg/kg dry feed weight. The as-supplemented Mn-oxide NPs were fed in M. rosenbergii for a period of 90 days. The experimental study demonstrated that prawns fed with diet supplemented with 3-18 mg Mn-oxide NPs/kg shows enhanced (P<0.05) growth performance, including final weight and weight gain (WG). Significant differences (P<0.05) in feed conversion ratio (FCR) were observed in prawn fed with different diets. Additionally, prawns fed with 3.0-18 mg/kg Mn-oxide NPs supplemented diets achieved significant (P<0.05) improvement in growth performance, digestive enzyme activities and muscle biochemical compositions, while, the prawns fed with 16 mg/kg of Mn-oxide NPs showed enhanced performance. Prawns fed on diet supplemented with 16 mg/kg Mn-oxide NPs showed significantly (P<0.05) higher total protein level. The antioxidants enzymatic activity (SOD and CAT) metabolic enzymes status in muscle and hepatopancreas showed no significant (P>0.05) alterations in prawns fed with 3.0-18 mg/kg of Mn-oxide NPs supplemented diets. Consequently, the present work proposed that 16 mg/kg of Mn-oxide NPs could be supplemented for flexible enhanced survival, growth and production of M. rosenbergii. Therefore, the data of the present study recommend the addition of 16 mg/kg of Mn-oxide NPs diet to developed prawn growth and antioxidant defense system. PMID:27049122

  15. L-( sup 3 H) glutamate binding to a membrane preparation from the optic lobe of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man

    SciTech Connect

    Pratumtan, P.; Govitrapong, P.; Withyachumnarnkul, B.; Poolsanguan, B. Mahidol Univ., Nakorn Pathom )

    1991-01-01

    Membrane preparation from the optic lobe of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man, was examined for the presence of specific L-({sup 3}H) glutamate binding. The optic lobes were isolated from live animals. The tissue was homogenized and the membrane fraction isolated by differential centrifugation. The membrane suspension was incubated with 10-1,000 nM of L-({sup 3}H) glutamate at 37{degree}C for 60 min. Nonspecific binding was determined by incubating the mixture with 100 {mu}M L-glutamate. L-({sup 3}H) glutamate specifically bound to the membrane fraction with a dissociation equilibrium constant (Kd) of 205 nM and maximum number of binding sites (Bmax) of 2.04 n mol/mg protein. By using LIGAND computerized program, the saturation isotherm binding pattern indicates a single type of binding. To determine the type of glutamate receptors, competitive inhibition and IC{sub 50} of several glutamate agonists and antagonists were determined. The study reveals a metabotropic type of binding site.

  16. Cells producing insulin-like androgenic gland hormone of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, proliferate following bilateral eyestalk-ablation.

    PubMed

    Phoungpetchara, Ittipon; Tinikul, Yotsawan; Poljaroen, Jaruwan; Chotwiwatthanakun, Charoonroj; Vanichviriyakit, Rapeepun; Sroyraya, Morakot; Hanna, Peter J; Sobhon, Prasert

    2011-06-01

    We found that the androgenic gland (AG) of Macrobrachium rosenbergii possesses three cell types. Type I cells are small polygonal shaped-cells (13.4 μm in diameter), stain strongly with hematoxylin-eosin (H&E), have abundant multilayered rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER), and nuclei containing mostly heterochromatin. Type II cells are slightly larger (18.6 μm in diameter), stain lightly with H&E, have rER with dilated cisternae, and nuclei containing mostly euchromatin. Type III cells (previously undescribed) are similar in size and shape to type I cells, but the cytoplasm is unstained and they have a high amount of smooth endoplasmic reticulum (sER) and mitochondria with tubular cristae. Bilateral eyestalk-ablation resulted in AG hypertrophy with a proliferation and predominance of type I cells as determined by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) assays. Expression of insulin-like androgenic gland hormone (Mr-IAG), determined by immunohistochemistry, was weak in type I cells, strong in type II cells of both the intact and eyestalk-ablated, and negative in type III cells. It was also detected in spermatogonia, nurse cells, and epithelium lining of the spermatic duct. The function of Mr-IAG in these tissues is yet to be elucidated but the distribution implies a strong role in male reproduction. PMID:21477831

  17. Proteomic analysis of differentially expressed protein in hemocytes of wild giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii infected with infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV)

    PubMed Central

    Alinejad, T.; Bin, Kwong Q.; Vejayan, J.; Othman, R.Y.; Bhassu, S.

    2015-01-01

    Epizootic diseases cause huge mortality and economical loses at post larvae stages in freshwater prawn aquaculture industry. These prawns seem less susceptible to viral diseases except for infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV). During viral infection in prawns, hemocytes are the primary organ that shows immunological response within the early stages of infection. We applied proteomic approaches to understand differential expression of the proteins in hemocytes during the viral disease outbreak. To aid the goal, we collected Macrobrachium rosenbergii broodstocks from the local grow out hatchery which reported the first incidence of IHHNV viral outbreak during larvae stage. Primarily, application of the OIE primer targeting 389 bp fragments of IHHNV virus was used in identification of the infected and non-infected samples of the prawn breeding line. Analysis of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis showed specific down-regulation of Arginine kinase and Sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein and up/down-regulation of Prophenoloxidase1 and hemocyanin isoforms. These proteins were validated using semi quantitative RT-PCR and gene transcripts at mRNA level. These identified proteins can be used as biomarkers, providing a powerful approach to better understanding of the immunity pathway of viral disease with applications in analytic and observational epidemiology diagnosis. Proteomic profiling allows deep insight into the pathogenesis of IHHNV molecular regulation and mechanism of hemocyte in freshwater prawns. PMID:26106581

  18. Changes in the levels, expression, and possible roles of serotonin and dopamine during embryonic development in the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Tinikul, Yotsawan; Poljaroen, Jaruwan; Tinikul, Ruchanok; Sobhon, Prasert

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the changes in the levels of serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA), and their possible roles during embryonic development of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The 5-HT and DA concentrations were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD). The levels of 5-HT and DA gradually increased from early developing embryos to late developing embryos. The 5-HT concentrations gradually increased from the pale yellow egg to orange egg stages, and reaching a maximum at the black egg stage. DA concentrations were much lower in the early embryos than those of 5-HT (P<0.05), and gradually increased to reach the highest level at the black egg stage. Immunohistochemically, 5-HT was firstly detected in the early embryonic stages, whereas DA developed later than 5-HT. Functionally, 5-HT-treated female prawns at doses of 2.5×10(-5), 2.5×10(-6) and 2.5×10(-7)mol/prawn, produced embryos with significantly shortened lengths of early embryonic stages, whereas DA-treated prawns at all three doses, exerted its effects by significantly lengthening the period of mid-embryonic stage onwards. These results suggest significant involvement of 5-HT and DA in embryonic developmental processes of this species. PMID:26393313

  19. Proteomic analysis of differentially expressed protein in hemocytes of wild giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii infected with infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV).

    PubMed

    Alinejad, T; Bin, Kwong Q; Vejayan, J; Othman, R Y; Bhassu, S

    2015-09-01

    Epizootic diseases cause huge mortality and economical loses at post larvae stages in freshwater prawn aquaculture industry. These prawns seem less susceptible to viral diseases except for infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV). During viral infection in prawns, hemocytes are the primary organ that shows immunological response within the early stages of infection. We applied proteomic approaches to understand differential expression of the proteins in hemocytes during the viral disease outbreak. To aid the goal, we collected Macrobrachium rosenbergii broodstocks from the local grow out hatchery which reported the first incidence of IHHNV viral outbreak during larvae stage. Primarily, application of the OIE primer targeting 389 bp fragments of IHHNV virus was used in identification of the infected and non-infected samples of the prawn breeding line. Analysis of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis showed specific down-regulation of Arginine kinase and Sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein and up/down-regulation of Prophenoloxidase1 and hemocyanin isoforms. These proteins were validated using semi quantitative RT-PCR and gene transcripts at mRNA level. These identified proteins can be used as biomarkers, providing a powerful approach to better understanding of the immunity pathway of viral disease with applications in analytic and observational epidemiology diagnosis. Proteomic profiling allows deep insight into the pathogenesis of IHHNV molecular regulation and mechanism of hemocyte in freshwater prawns. PMID:26106581

  20. The acute modulation of norepinephrine on immune responses and genes expressions via adrenergic receptors in the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Tsai, Wan-Lin; Jiang, Jia-Rong; Cheng, Winton

    2015-10-01

    Norepinephrine (NE), immunocompetent parameters (total haemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory burst (RB), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency to Lactococcus garvieae), and prophenoloxidase (proPO) system-related genes (lipopolysaccharide- and β-1,3-glucan-binding protein, LGBP; prophenoloxidase, proPO; peroxinectin, PE; α2-macroglobulin, α2-M) expressions were investigated in Macrobrachium rosenbergii received NE through injection at 50 pmol/prawn after 0, 30, 60, and 120 min. Furthermore, the PO activity, RB, SOD activity, phagocytic activity and proPO system-related genes expressions were determined in haemocytes incubated with cacodylate buffer (CAC), NE, and NE co-treated with various adrenergic receptor (AR) antagonists in vitro. Results showed that NE, THC, granular cells, PO activity, SOD activity, proPO system-related genes expressions, and phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency to L. garvieae increased; PO activity per granulocyte and RB per haemocyte decreased from 30 to 120 min; semigranular cells and RB increased in the initial 30 min, and then decreased at 120 min when the prawns received NE by injection. In vitro studies, all the determined immune parameters and genes expressions were significantly decreased in haemocytes incubated with NE after 30 min. The negative effects of NE were prevented on the PO activity and phagocytic activity by the β-AR antagonist of metoprolol (Met), on the SOD activity by the β-AR antagonist of propranolol (Pro), on the RB by the β-AR antagonist of Met and prazosin (Pra), and on the proPO system-related genes expressions by α-AR antagonist of Pra. These results show that NE modulates prawn haemocytes proPO system-related genes expressions via α1-AR, PO activity and phagocytosis via β1-AR, respiratory burst via α1-and β1-ARs, and SOD activity via β2-AR. It is concluded that NE stimulates the regulation of immunocompetence parameters

  1. Cloning and Distribution of a Putative Octopamine/Tyramine Receptor in the Central Nervous System of the Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Colón, Dalynés; Vázquez-Acevedo, Nietzell; Rivera, Nilsa M.; Jezzini, Sami H.; Rosenthal, Joshua; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Eduardo A.; Baro, Deborah J.; Kohn, Andrea B.; Moroz, Leonid; Sosa, María A.

    2010-01-01

    There is ample evidence linking octopamine (OA) and tyramine (TA) to several neurophysiological functions in arthropods. In our laboratory we use the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii to study the neural basis of aggressive behavior. As a first step towards understanding the possible role of these amines and their receptors in the modulation of interactive behaviors, we have cloned a putative octopamine/tyramine receptor. The predicted sequence of the cloned OA/TAMac receptor consists of 1,579 base pairs (bp), with an open reading frame of 1,350 bp that encodes a 450 amino acid protein. This putative protein displays sequence identities of 70% to an Aedes aegypti mosquito TA receptor, followed by 60% to a Stegomyia aegypti mosquito OA receptor, 59% and 58% to the migratory locust TA-1 and -2 receptors respectively, and 57% with the silkworm OA receptor. We also mapped the OA/TAMac receptor distribution by in-situ hybridization to the receptor’s mRNA, and by immunohistochemistry to its protein. We observed stained cell bodies for the receptor’s mRNA, mainly in the midline region of the thoracic and in the abdominal ganglia, as well as diffuse staining in the brain ganglia. For the receptor’s protein, we observed extensive punctate staining within the neuropil and on the membrane of specific groups of neurons in all ganglia throughout the CNS, including the brain, the midline region and neuropiles of the thoracic ganglia, and ventral part and neuropiles of the abdominal ganglia. The same pattern of stained cells was observed on the thoracic and abdominal ganglia in both in-situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry experiments. Diffuse staining observed with in-situ hybridization also coincides with punctate staining observed in brain, SEG, thoracic, and abdominal ganglia in immunohistochemical preparations. This work provides the first step towards characterizing the neural networks that mediate octopaminergic signaling in prawn. PMID:20558147

  2. Preliminary obervations on use of ethanol distiller's by-products for polyculture of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) and golden shiner (Notemigonus crysoleucas)

    SciTech Connect

    Kohler, C.C.; Lewis, W.M.; Krueger, S.P.

    1983-01-01

    Two major by-products of ethanol distillation, corn distiller's solubles and corn distiller's mash, were evaluated for their potential use as a food source for freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) and golden shiner (Notemigonus crysoleucas) in mid-western United States. Corn distiller's solubles were not found to be highly toxic to aquatic organisms at concentrations ranging up to 10,000 ppM. However, the high biological oxygen demand of the material requires that single applications not exceed 2000 ppM. Yield trials were conducted over a four month period in five 0.1 ha earthen ponds, located in proximity to an ethanol distillery. Each pond was stocked with 2000 postlarval shrimp (0.02 g mean weight). Three of these ponds were also each stocked with 75 adult golden shiner (27.0 g mean weight). One application of corn distiller's solubles (equivalent to approx. 2000 ppM) and three applications of corn distiller's mash (approx. 5 kg/application) were made over the course of the yield trails (approx. 120 days). No other food or fertilizer was added to the ponds. Survival of shrimp ranged from 34 to 75%. Survival of brood fish exceeded 90%. Mean weight of shrimp at harvest was approximately 12 g, and average production was equivalent to approximately 104 kg ha/sup -1/. Golden shiner reared in the same ponds as shrimp had production rates equivalent to approxmately 130 kg ha/sup -1/. The presence of fish did not appear to impede shrimp production. Although production results of fish and shrimp were encouraging, several factors existed which impeded production; these included: (1) little by-product was applied to ponds because the distillery was undergoing its shakedown period; (2) ponds were new and had minimal natural productivity; (3) grass was not fully established on the watershed and ponds became turbid; and (4) lower than normal temperatures prevailed over much of the growing period. 11 references, 2 figures, 8 tables.

  3. Responses of three very large inducible GTPases to bacterial and white spot syndrome virus challenges in the giant fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Jin, Min; Yin, Shaowu; Ding, Zhengfeng; Wang, Wen; Ren, Qian

    2016-04-01

    Interferons (IFNs) are cytokines secreted by cells in response to invasion by pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, or tumor cells. Very large inducible GTPases (VLIG) are the latest IFN-inducible GTPase family to be discovered and are the largest known GTPases of any species. However, VLIG proteins from invertebrates have yet to be characterized. In this study, three forms of VLIGs designated as MrVLIG1, MrVLIG2, and MrVLIG3 were cloned from the giant fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. MrVLIG1 has a 5445 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding an 1814-amino acid protein. The complete nucleotide sequence of MrVLIG2 cDNA is 7055 bp long consisting of a 5757 bp ORF encoding a protein with 1918 amino acids. The full length of the MrVLIG3 gene consists of 5511 bp with a 3909 bp ORF encoding a peptide with 1302 amino acids. BLASTP and phylogenetic tree analyses showed that the three MrVLIGs are clustered into one subgroup and, together with other vertebrate VLIGs, into a branch. Tissue distribution analysis indicated that the mRNAs of the three MrVLIGs were widely expressed in almost all detected tissues, including the hemocytes, heart, hepatopancreas, gills, stomach, and intestine, with the highest expression in the hepatopancreas. They were also detected in the intestine but with relatively low expression levels. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that the mRNA transcripts of the MrVLIGs in the hepatopancreas were significantly expressed at various time points after infection with Vibrio parahaemolyticus and white spot syndrome virus. In summary, the three isoforms of VLIG genes participate in the innate immune response of the shrimps to bacterial and viral infections. PMID:26850335

  4. Changes of Phosphatidylcholine and Fatty Acids in Germ Cells during Testicular Maturation in Three Developmental Male Morphotypes of Macrobrachium rosenbergii Revealed by Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Siangcham, Tanapan; Chansela, Piyachat; Hayasaka, Takahiro; Masaki, Noritaka; Sroyraya, Morakot; Poljaroen, Jaruwan; Suwansa-ard, Saowaros; Engsusophon, Attakorn; Hanna, Peter J.; Sobhon, Prasert; Setou, Mitsutoshi

    2015-01-01

    Testis maturation, germ cell development and function of sperm, are related to lipid composition. Phosphatidylcholines (PCs) play a key role in the structure and function of testes. As well, increases of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA), especially arachidonic acid (ARA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are essential for male fertility. This study is the first report to show the composition and distribution of PCs and total fatty acids (FAs) in three groups of seminiferous tubules (STs) classified by cellular associations [i.e., A (STs with mostly early germ cells), B (STs with mostly spermatids), and C (STs with spermatozoa)], in three morphotypes of Macrobrachium rosenbergii, [i.e., small male (SM), orange claw male (OC), and blue claw male (BC)]. Thin layer chromatography exhibited levels of PCs reaching maxima in STs of group B. Imaging mass spectrometry showed remarkably high signals corresponding to PC (16:0/18:1), PC (18:0/18:2), PC (18:2/20:5), and PC (16:0/22:6) in STs of groups A and B. Moreover, most signals were detected in the early developing cells and the intertubular area, but not at the area containing spermatozoa. Finally, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry indicated that the major FAs present in the testes were composed of 14:0, 16:0, 17:0, 18:0, 16:1, 18:1, 18:2, 20:1, 20:2, 20:4, 20:5, and 22:6. The testes of OC contained the greatest amounts of these FAs while the testes of BC contained the least amounts of these FAs, and there was more EPA (20:5) in the testes of SM and OC than those in the BC. The increasing amounts of FAs in the SM and OC indicate that they are important for spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis. This knowledge will be useful in formulating diets containing PUFA and HUFA for prawn broodstocks in order to improve testis development, and lead to increased male fecundity. PMID:25781176

  5. Macrobrachium rosenbergii mannose binding lectin: synthesis of MrMBL-N20 and MrMBL-C16 peptides and their antimicrobial characterization, bioinformatics and relative gene expression analysis.

    PubMed

    Arockiaraj, Jesu; Chaurasia, Mukesh Kumar; Kumaresan, Venkatesh; Palanisamy, Rajesh; Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Pasupuleti, Mukesh; Kasi, Marimuthu

    2015-04-01

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL), an antimicrobial protein, is an important component of innate immune system which recognizes repetitive sugar groups on the surface of bacteria and viruses leading to activation of the complement system. In this study, we reported a complete molecular characterization of cDNA encoded for MBL from freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Mr). Two short peptides (MrMBL-N20: (20)AWNTYDYMKREHSLVKPYQG(39) and MrMBL-C16: (307)GGLFYVKHKEQQRKRF(322)) were synthesized from the MrMBL polypeptide. The purity of the MrMBL-N20 (89%) and MrMBL-C16 (93%) peptides were confirmed by MS analysis (MALDI-ToF). The purified peptides were used for further antimicrobial characterization including minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay, kinetics of bactericidal efficiency and analysis of hemolytic capacity. The peptides exhibited antimicrobial activity towards all the Gram-negative bacteria taken for analysis, whereas they showed the activity towards only a few selected Gram-positive bacteria. MrMBL-C16 peptides produced the highest inhibition towards both the Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria compared to the MrMBL-N20. Both peptides do not produce any inhibition against Bacillus sps. The kinetics of bactericidal efficiency showed that the peptides drastically reduced the number of surviving bacterial colonies after 24 h incubation. The results of hemolytic activity showed that both peptides produced strong activity at higher concentration. However, MrMBL-C16 peptide produced the highest activity compared to the MrMBL-N20 peptide. Overall, the results indicated that the peptides can be used as bactericidal agents. The MrMBL protein sequence was characterized using various bioinformatics tools including phylogenetic analysis and structure prediction. We also reported the MrMBL gene expression pattern upon viral and bacterial infection in M. rosenbergii gills. It could be concluded that the prawn MBL may be one of the important molecule which

  6. Dietary supplement of banana (Musa acuminata) peels hot-water extract to enhance the growth, anti-hypothermal stress, immunity and disease resistance of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Rattanavichai, Wutti; Cheng, Winton

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, Macrobrachium rosenbergii were fed with diets containing extracts of banana, Musa acuminate, fruit's peel (banana peels extract, BPE) at 0, 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1). The non-specific immune parameters, disease resistance and anti-hypothermal stress were evaluated at 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 days of post feeding. Also, we demonstrated the percent weight gain (PWG), percent length gain (PLG), feeding efficiency (FE), and survival rate of giant freshwater prawn at 30, 60, 90, and 120 days of post feeding. The PWG, PLG, FE and survival rate of prawns fed at 0, 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1) BPE-containing diets after 120 days were 69.5%, 75.4%, 77.8% and 83.3%; 21.8%, 23.6%, 27.8% and 33.9%; 0.60, 0.72, 0.75 and 0.90; and 55.4%, 62.2%, 62.3% and 75.3%, respectively. After 32 days of post feeding, a significant increase in total haemocyte count (THC), different haemocyte count (DHC), respiratory bursts (RBs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, phenoloxidase (PO) activity and transglutaminase (TG) activity, and meanwhile, a decreased haemolymph coagulation time was observed. Furthermore, phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency of prawns against Lactococcus garvieae infection were significantly increased. Prawns challenged with L. garvieae after 32 days of feeding at 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1) had a significantly higher survival rate (33.3%, 40.0% and 56.7%) than those fed with the control diet. Subsequently, hypothermal (14 °C) stress was 43.4%, 50.0% and 50.0%, respectively. Altogether, we therefore recommend the dietary BPE administration at 6.0 g kg(-1) promotes growth, anti-hypothermal stress, and enhance immunity and resistance against L. garvieae in M. rosenbergii. PMID:25634258

  7. The effect of banana (Musa acuminata) peels hot-water extract on the immunity and resistance of giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii via dietary administration for a long term: Activity and gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Rattanavichai, Wutti; Chen, Ying-Nan; Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Cheng, Winton

    2015-10-01

    The non-specific immune parameters, disease resistance and immune genes expressions in Macrobrachium rosenbergii were evaluated at 120 days of post feeding the diets containing the extracts of banana, Musa acuminate, fruit's peel (banana peels extract, BPE) at 0, 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1). Results showed that prawns fed with a diet containing BPE at the level of 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1) for 120 days had a significantly higher survival rate (30.0%, 40.0% and 56.7%, respectively) than those fed with the control diet after challenge with Lactococcus garvieae for 144 h, and the respective relative survival percentages were 22.2%, 33.3%, and 51.9%, respectively. Dietary BPE supplementation at 3.0 and/or 6.0 g kg(-1) for 120 days showed a significant increase total haemocyte count (THC), granular cell (GC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, phenoloxidase (PO) activity, transglutaminase (TG) activity, and phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency to L. garvieae infection, and meanwhile, the significant decrease in haemolymph clotting times and respiratory bursts (RBs) per haemocyte of prawns were revealed. Furthermore, the mRNA expressions of prophenoloxidase (proPO), lipopolysaccharide and β-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP), peroxinectin (PE), transglutaminase (TG), and crustin (CT) were significantly increased. We therefore recommend that BPE can be used as an immunomodulator for prawns through dietary administration at 6.0 g kg(-1) for a long term (over 120 days) to modify immune responses and genes expression following the enhanced resistance against pathogens. PMID:26118934

  8. Identification of novel allergen in edible insect, Gryllus bimaculatus and its cross-reactivity with Macrobrachium spp. allergens.

    PubMed

    Srinroch, Chutima; Srisomsap, Chantragan; Chokchaichamnankit, Daranee; Punyarit, Phaibul; Phiriyangkul, Pharima

    2015-10-01

    Edible insects have recently been promoted as a source of protein and have a high nutrition value. Identification of allergens and cross-reactivity between Macrobrachium spp. and the field cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus) is necessary for food safety control and to assist in the diagnosis and therapy of allergy symptoms. Denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was used to separate proteins. Allergens were determined and identified by IgE-immunoblotting with pooled sera from prawn-allergic patients (n=16) and LC-MS/MS. Arginine kinase (AK) and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) were determined as the important allergens in muscle of Macrobrachium rosenbergii whereas, hemocyanin (HC) was identified as an allergen in Macrobrachium spp. The allergens in Macrobrachium lanchesteri were identified as AK and HC. In addition, hexamerin1B (HEX1B) was identified as a novel and specific allergen in G. bimaculatus. The important allergen in G. bimaculatus and Macrobrachium spp. is AK and was found to cross-react between both species. PMID:25872439

  9. Acute toxicity of organochlorine insecticide endosulfan to the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrochium rosenbergii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Xilin; Xiong, Zhaodi; Xie, Jian; Ding, Fujiang

    2014-01-01

    Endosulfan, an organochlorine pesticide, is highly toxic and effective at controlling pests in agriculture, horticulture, and public health programs. In this study, static bioassays were used to evaluate the toxicity of endosulfan to freshwater prawns ( Macrobrachium rosenbergii) of various lengths (1.5±0.03, 4±0.08, and 7±0.06 cm). Additionally, the activities of peroxidase (POD), acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and Na+/K+-ATPase were analyzed to reflect the effects of endosulfan exposure. The 96 h LC50 of endosulfan for prawns 1.5, 4, and 7 cm long were 1.86, 4.53, and 6.09 μg/L, respectively, improved tolerance to endosulfan with growth. The POD activities of test organisms exposed to low concentrations of endosulfan were inhibited, indicating the presence of oxygen damaged tissue. Moreover, a notable decrease in AChE activity was observed due to overstimulation of neurotransmission, which might result in abnormal behavior. The effect caused by endosulfan on phosphatase production in the hepatopancreas of prawns 1.5, 4, and 7 cm long was different because the ability of nonspecific immune regulation increased with growth. The 96 h LC50 values obtained in this study could be used in the formulation of water-quality criteria in China. Moreover, the changes in enzymes activities of M. rosenbergii under stress of endosulfan could be applied in the establishment of early warning indicators for bio-safety.

  10. Regulation of laboratory populations of snails (Biomphalaria and Bulinus spp.) by river prawns, Macrobrachium spp. (Decapoda, Palaemonidae): implications for control of schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kuris, Armand M.

    2014-01-01

    Human schistosomiasis is a common parasitic disease endemic in many tropical and subtropical countries. One barrier to achieving long-term control of this disease has been re-infection of treated patients when they swim, bathe, or wade in surface fresh water infested with snails that harbor and release larval parasites. Because some snail species are obligate intermediate hosts of schistosome parasites, removing snails may reduce parasitic larvae in the water, reducing re-infection risk. Here, we evaluate the potential for snail control by predatory freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii and M. vollenhovenii, native to Asia and Africa, respectively. Both prawn species are high value, protein-rich human food commodities, suggesting their cultivation may be beneficial in resource-poor settings where few other disease control options exist. In a series of predation trials in laboratory aquaria, we found both species to be voracious predators of schistosome-susceptible snails, hatchlings, and eggs, even in the presence of alternative food, with sustained average consumption rates of 12% of their body weight per day. Prawns showed a weak preference for Bulinus truncatus over Biomphalaria glabrata snails. Consumption rates were highly predictable based on the ratio of prawn: snail body mass, suggesting satiation-limited predation. Even the smallest prawns tested (0.5–2g) caused snail recruitment failure, despite high snail fecundity. With the World Health Organization turning attention toward schistosomiasis elimination, native prawn cultivation may be a viable snail control strategy that offers a win-win for public health and economic development. PMID:24388955

  11. Effect of salt treatments on survival and consumer acceptance of freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Post harvest acclimation of live freshwater prawns to a mixture of water and marine salt increases the consumer acceptability of the finished product. However, the high cost of marine salts prohibits their use in commercial practice. Therefore, the identification of successful, cost effective salt a...

  12. Comparing trace metal bioaccumulation characteristics of three freshwater decapods of the genus Macrobrachium.

    PubMed

    Cresswell, Tom; Smith, Ross E W; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Simpson, Stuart L

    2014-07-01

    Potential sources and kinetics of metal bioaccumulation by the three Macrobrachium prawn species M. australiense, M. rosenbergii and M. latidactylus were assessed in laboratory experiments. The prawns were exposed to two scenarios: cadmium in water only; and exposure to metal-rich mine tailings in the same water. The cadmium accumulation from the dissolved exposure during 7 days, followed by depuration in cadmium-free water for 7 days, was compared with predictions from a biokinetic model that had previously been developed for M. australiense. M. australiense and M. latidactylus accumulated significant tissue cadmium during the exposure phase, albeit with different uptake rates. All three species retained >95% of the bioaccumulated cadmium during the depuration phase, indicating very slow efflux rates. Following exposure to tailings, there were significant (p<0.05) differences in tissue arsenic, cadmium, lead and zinc concentrations among species. Cadmium and zinc concentrations were increased relative to controls for all three species but were not different between treatments (direct/indirect contact with tailings), suggesting these metals were primarily accumulated via the dissolved phase. All species bioaccumulated significantly greater arsenic and lead when in direct contact with mine tailings, demonstrating the importance of an ingestion pathway for these metals. Copper was not bioaccumulated above control concentrations for any species. The differences between the metal accumulation of the three prawns indicated that a biokinetic model of cadmium bioaccumulation for M. australiense could potentially be used to describe the metal bioaccumulation of the other two prawn species, albeit with an over-prediction of 3-9 times. Despite these being the same genus of decapod crustacean, the study highlights the issues with using surrogate species, even under controlled laboratory conditions. It is recommended that future studies using surrogate species quantify the

  13. Identification of five anti-lipopolysaccharide factors in oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yili; Tang, Ting; Gu, Jihai; Li, Xiang; Yang, Xue; Gao, Xiaobin; Liu, Fengsong; Wang, Jianhui

    2015-10-01

    Anti-lipopolysaccharide factors (ALFs) are a group of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities and antiviral activities mainly found in crustaceans and horseshoe crabs. In the present study, we identified 5 ALF expression sequence tags (ESTs) through analysis of the established M. nipponense transcriptome, and cloned their full-length cDNA sequences using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method. The 5 ALFs were designated as MnALF1-5, and all of them showed high similarity with their Macrobrachium rosenbergii homologs in the phylogenetic analyses, especially in LPS binding domains. In healthy adult prawns, we found the highest expression of MnALF2 and MnALF4 in haemocytes, and the highest expression of MnALF4 and MnALF3 in intestine. Some isoforms of MnALF were down-regulated but the majority was up-regulated in different prawn tissues upon Aeromonas hydrophila challenge. To conform the expected antimicrobial activities harbored in MnALFs' LPS binding domains, we used a synthesized peptide cMnALF24 that corresponds to the LPS binding domain of MnALF2 as a representative molecule for the antibacterial activity test, and found that cMnALF24 possessed strong and broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, but no inhibition activity against fungi; Meanwhile, in the hemolytic test, cMnALF24 showed weak hemolysis activities (around 10%) to the rabbit red blood cells at concentrations of 0.67-33.50 μM. This study provides insights into understanding the antibacterial function of ALFs in the innate immunity of freshwater prawn, and reports a peptide that can be a potential drug candidate with good efficacy against bacterial infection and low toxicity to host cells. PMID:26159095

  14. Molecular perspective on the American transisthmian species of Macrobrachium (Caridea, Palaemonidae)

    PubMed Central

    Pileggi, Leonardo G.; Rossi, Natália; Wehrtmann, Ingo S.; Mantelatto, Fernando L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The closure of the Isthmus of Panama (about 3.1 million years ago) separated previously continuous populations and created two groups of extant species, which live now in the Pacific and Atlantic drainage systems. This relatively recent event was a trigger to diversification of various species in the Neotropics, nonetheless there are exemplars that do not show sufficient morphologic variability to separate them by traditional morphological tools. About 60 years ago, some freshwater decapod species with high morphological similarity were separate by previous researchers, based on geographical distribution, in Pacific and Atlantic and considered as “sister species”. However, the complete isolation of these prawns by this geographical barrier is questionable, and it has generated doubts about the status of the following transisthmian pairs of sibling species: Macrobrachium occidentale × Macrobrachium heterochirus, Macrobrachium americanum × Macrobrachium carcinus, Macrobrachium digueti × Macrobrachium olfersii, Macrobrachium hancocki × Macrobrachium crenulatum, Macrobrachium tenellum × Macrobrachium acanthurus and Macrobrachium panamense × Macrobrachium amazonicum. Here we evaluated the relation among these pairs of sibling species in a molecular phylogenetic context. We generated 95 new sequences: 26 sequences of 16S rDNA, 25 of COI mtDNA and 44 of 18S nDNA. In total, 181 sequences were analyzed by maximum likelihood phylogenetic method, including 12 Macrobrachium transisthmian species, as well as seven other American Macrobrachium species, and two other palaemonids. Our analysis corroborated the morphological proximity of the sibling species. Despite the high degree of morphological similarities and considerable genetic diversification encountered among the transisthmian sister species, our data support the conclusion that all species included in sibling groups studied herein are valid taxonomic entities, but not all pairs of siblings form natural

  15. Kinetics of glucose transport by the perfused mid-gut of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenberg ii.

    PubMed Central

    Ahearn, G A; Maginniss, L A

    1977-01-01

    1. Mucosal influx of [3H]glucose was examined in the mid-gut of a freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, using an in vitro perfusion technique. 2. [3H]glucose transfer across the apical cell membrane of the epithelium exhibited Michaelis-Menten kinetics (Jmax.in = 0-15 mumole glucose equiv/g. min, Kt = 0-17 mM). Under Na-free conditions, glucose influx was significantly reduced and a linear function of substrate concentration, indicative of either slow cellular diffusion (KD = 7-6 X 10(3) mumole glucose equiv/g. min. mM) or a facilitated process with a low carrier affinity for the sugar. 3. Phlorizin was a potent competitive inhibitor of glucose influx (K1 = 3-6 X10(-3) mM), galactose and 3-O-methylglucose (3-O-MG) were weak inhibitors, and fructose had no evident effect on glucose uptake. Azide, but not iodoacetate (IAA), significantly depressed influx. 4. Absorbed [3H]glucose was rapidly metabolized by the mid-gut. The majority of accumulated activity within the tissue was in the form of phosphorylated compounds and tritiated water (THO), while only 0-3% was recovered as a free-glucose. 5. Preliminary studies examining transmural [3-H]glucose transport, however, demonstrated a significant net mucosal to serosal free-glucose flux across the prawn mid-gut which was Na-dependent and IAA- and phlorizin-sensitive. Two alternative interpretations of the data are advanced as possible mechanisms for transepithelial glucose transport: (1) group translocation, or (2) the operation of an energized, high affinity, baso-lateral sugar transport carrier. Images Plate 1 PMID:925985

  16. Effects of hot-water extract of banana (Musa acuminata) fruit's peel on the antibacterial activity, and anti-hypothermal stress, immune responses and disease resistance of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbegii.

    PubMed

    Rattanavichai, Wutti; Cheng, Winton

    2014-08-01

    The hot-extracts isolated from fruit's peel of banana, Musa acuminata, was evaluated on the antibacterial activity to pathogens from aquatic animals, and immunostimulating potential, disease resistance and anti-hypothermal stress in giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii through injection administration. The banana peel extract (BPE) showed good activity against 1 Gram-positive and 3 Gram-negative pathogens, including Lactococcus garvieae, Photobacteria damsella, Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio parahemolyticus especially in prawn pathogen of L. garvieae strain, which were carried out by a disk diffusion method. Prawn received BPE via injection administration at 1-6 μg (g prawn)(-1) significantly increased total haemocyte count (THC), hyaline cell (HC), granular cell (GC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity and phagocytic activity against L. garvieae from 3 to 6 days, and significantly increased clearance efficiency against L. garvieae and a significantly decreased coagulation time of prawn from 1 to 6 days. Prawn injected with BPE at 6.0 μg (g prawn)(-1) for 6 days showed significantly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, but significantly decreased respiratory bursts (RBs) of per haemocyte. Survival rates of M. rosenbergii injected with BPE at concentrations of 1, 3 and 6 μg (g prawn)(-1) were significantly higher than those injected with saline control after challenge with L. garvieae for 4-6 days, and the respective relative survival percentages of prawn were 28.6%, 38.1%, and 47.8%, respectively at 6 days. The sublethal time of prawns that had received saline and BPE at 1, 3 and 6 μg (g prawn)(-1) for 6 days and then were transferred from 28 °C to 14 °C were 69.4, 79.8, 83.6, and 90.2 h, respectively. It was concluded that the BPE can be used as the bacteriostat, and immunostimulant and physiological regulator for prawn through injection administration to enhance immunity, physiological responses, and resistance against L. garvieae. PMID

  17. Genetic variability and phylogenetic aspects in species of the genus Macrobrachium.

    PubMed

    Guerra, A L; Lima, A V B; Lucato Júnior, R V; Chiachio, M C; Taddei, F G; Castiglioni, L

    2014-01-01

    The genus Macrobrachium includes prawns, which are widely distributed in lakes, floodplains, and rivers in tropical and subtropical regions of South America. This genus presents nearly 210 known species with great ecological and economic importance. However, few studies are related to the biology of these crustaceans. In this study, we analyzed the genetic variability and phylogenetic relationship between Macrobrachium amazonicum and Macrobrachium jelskii, which are closely related species. Additionally, they are syntopics and their taxonomy poses problems because it is difficult to differentiate between the species. We used the mitochondrial gene sequences COI and 16S rRNA to assess the genetic structure of these species in 3 populations that were collected from Tiete hydrographic basin (São Paulo State, Brazil). The interspecific comparison of samples that were collected at the same and different locations showed a low rate of genetic variability. This similarity was attributed to the recent introduction of these species in the regions that were sampled and the habitat conditions in which they inhabit. In addition, these results may be consistent with the hypothesis that they are a single species, interspecific hybrids, or metapopulation. The dendrogram analyses did not reveal the formation of clusters, confirming the disturbances in the genetic structure of the samples that were analyzed in this study. These data are pioneers to these crustaceans, and they confirm the ecological and evolutionary problems between these Macrobrachium species. PMID:24854444

  18. A new species of Macrobrachium Spence Bate, 1868 (Decapoda, Palaemonidae), M. pantanalense, from the Pantanal, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Antonina; Hayd, Liliam; Anger, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    The neotropical species Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller, 1862) is considered a particularly successful species, showing an extremely wide range of distribution (ca 4.000 km across). Populations assigned to this species live in estuaries along the northern and northeastern coasts of South America as well as in fresh water habitats in the Amazon, Orinoco and Paraná-Paraguay river basins. Following recent comparative studies that showed differential ecological, reproductive, developmental and physiological traits in geographically separated populations from the Amazon delta and the Pantanal region, Brazil, we examined the morphology of adult shrimps from these two regions. Based on significant differences, we conclude that the Pantanal population constitutes a new species, which is described here as Macrobrachium pantanalense. The main differences between M. amazonicum and the new species have been found in the morphology of the second pereiopod, the telson, and in the color patterns of both males and females. A modification on the key of American species of Macrobrachium is provided to accommodate the new species. PMID:26106741

  19. A new microsporidium, Potaspora macrobrachium n.sp. infecting the musculature of pond-reared oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense (Decapoda: Palaemonidae).

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhengfeng; Sun, Mengling; Liu, Hongyan; Zhao, Yanhua; Pan, Jianlin; Xue, Hui

    2016-05-01

    This paper described a novel microsporidian infection in the pond-reared oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense. A conspicuous symptom of the infection was progressive white opacity associated with the musculature. Although neither bacteria nor viruses were detected in routine diagnostic tests, apparently degenerated microsporidian cells or spores were frequently observed in wet smears of the musculature from diseased prawns. Histological observations also revealed characteristics typical of microsporidian infection throughout the host. Transmission electron microscopy revealed multiple life stages of a microsporidian parasite within the cytoplasm of host muscle cells. In addition, partial small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene was obtained by a nested PCR using microsporidian specific primers. A consensus sequence was then deposited in GenBank (accession no. KU307278) and subjected to a general BLASTn search that yielded hits only for microsporidian sequence records. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the isolate was most similar to the fish microsporidian clade containing the genera Kabatana, Microgemma, Potaspora, Spraguea, and Teramicra. The highest sequence identity, 87%, was with Potaspora spp. Based on histological, ultrastructure and molecular phylogenetic data, we erected a new species, Potaspora macrobrachium for the novel microsporidium. The description of microsporidium in this important commercial host was fundamental for future consideration of factors affecting stock health and sustainability. PMID:26925527

  20. Species composition and gear characteristics of the Macrobrachium fishery of the Cross River Estuary, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nwosu, Francis M.

    2010-03-01

    The Cross River Estuary, Nigeria, is an important shrimping area for artisanal fishermen of the coastal communities. The multi-species Macrobrachium fishery is exploited with three main gears, namely beach seine, push net and trap. Studies on species composition of this fishery recorded thirteen shrimp species, one swimming crab ( Callinectes amnicola) and two fish species ( Eleotris sp. and Pellonula leonensis). The shrimp species identified included Macrobrachium macrobrachion (83.39% and 55.69% by number and weight, respectively), M. vollenhovenii (9.66% and 37.18%), M. equidens (3.8% and 2.87%), juveniles-sub-adults of Penaeus notialis (1.11% and 1.3%), M. dux, M. felicinum, Palaemonetes africanus, Palaemon maculatus, Palaemon elegans, Desmocaris sp., Leander sp., Nematopalaemon hastatus and Alpheus pontederiae. While the selectivity index for trap was 0.25, beach seine and push net had a lower index of 0.063. The results present the first comprehensive and representative report for the Estuary shrimp fishery and will assist in the management of the biodiversity of this ecosystem.

  1. Development and functional morphology of the mouthparts and foregut in larvae and post-larvae of Macrobrachium jelskii (Decapoda: Palaemonidae).

    PubMed

    Rocha, Cristina Pantoja; Souza, Adelson Silva de; Maciel, Murilo; Maciel, Cristiana R; Abrunhosa, Fernando Araújo

    2016-05-01

    The morphology of the mouthparts and foregut of the larvae and post-larvae of Macrobrachium jelskii was investigated to determine their functional roles in feeding, in order to understand the larval feeding behaviour and the changes that occur during its development. The mouthparts and foregut of the zoea I and II are morphologically similar, rudimentary and non-functional in feeding. Only in the final larval stage, zoea III, do the external mouthparts and foregut become structurally more complex and thus likely to play a potential role in feeding. Two behavioral trials (point of no return, point of reserve saturation) evaluated the resistance to starvation in zoea I, II, and III. The results indicate that they have sufficient nutritional reserves to permit them to complete metamorphosis without feeding. Overall, our results suggest that the zoea I and II of Macrobrachium jelskii engage in obligate lecithotrophy and zoea III in facultative lecithotrophy. PMID:26899315

  2. A note on the correct spelling of the name of the freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium olfersii (Wiegmann, 1836) (Decapoda, Palaemonidae).

    PubMed

    Rossi, Natália; Grave, Sammy De; Mantelatto, Fernando L

    2016-01-01

    Macrobrachium olfersii (Wiegmann, 1836), popularly known as Pitu, Bristled River Shrimp and Buchura River Prawn, is a freshwater shrimp species widespread along the eastern coasts of the Americas. The species can be found from the southeastern United States, where the prawns were introduced (Holthuis & Provenzano, 1970), southwards to Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil), including numerous records in Mexico, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana and Suriname (Holthuis, 1952; Williams, 1984; Melo, 2003; Valencia & Campos, 2007). PMID:27395150

  3. A molecular approach towards the taxonomy of fresh water prawns Macrobrachium striatum and M. equidens (Decapoda, Palaemonidae) using mitochondrial markers.

    PubMed

    Jose, Deepak; Nidhin, B; Anil Kumar, K P; Pradeep, P J; Harikrishnan, M

    2016-07-01

    Genus Macrobrachium includes freshwater prawns which inhabit most diverse habitats ranging from low saline areas to inland hill streams and impounded water bodies. Being morphologically conserved, this genus has been exposed to severe disputes related to their taxonomy, systematics and phylogeny. Macrobrachium striatum and M. equidens represent two morphologically related congeneric species within this genus. Earlier, M. striatum was considered as a striped form of M. equidens. Though these species are now well-described morphologically and differentiated into two species, no molecular level investigation has been carried out in support of their speciation. We report a study on M. striatum and M. equidens with emphasis to their molecular data through mitochondrial markers (16S ribosomal RNA and cytochrome oxidase subunit I). Results obtained from developed molecular markers of the two species revealed considerable genetic differentiation between them. Phylogram generated using Minimum evolution and Neighbour joining analyses differentiated M. striatum and M. equidens as two independent species. Genetic distance data showed high interspecific divergence (ranging from 3.9% to 17.0% for 16S rRNA sequences and 13.8% to 21.0% for COI sequences) between M. striatum and M. equidens confirming the findings of phylogram. Hence, it could be delineated that M. striatum and M. equidens represent two distinct species within genus Macrobrachium with emphasis to their morphology and genetics. PMID:26119113

  4. Assessment of acute toxicity of carbofuran in Macrobrachium olfersii (Wiegmann, 1836) at different temperature levels.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Edison; Moreira, Priscila; Luchini, Luiz Alberto; Hidalgo, Karla Ruiz; Muñoz, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Carbofuran (2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranyl methylcarbamate; C12H15NO3) is one of the most toxic carbamate pesticides. For acute toxicity of carbofuran, juveniles of Macrobrachium olfersii were exposed to different concentrations of carbofuran using the static renewal method at different temperature levels (15, 20 and 25°C) at pH 7.0. The main purpose of the present study was to detect the acute toxicity of carbofuran to M. olfersii and investigate its effects on oxygen consumption and ammonium excretion; these tests have not been carried out in this species before. First, the acute toxicity - median lethal concentration - of carbofuran to M. olfersii for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h was examined, which resulted in the following values: 1.64, 1.22, 0.86 and 0.42 mg L(-1), respectively. Furthermore, we also found that carbofuran caused an inhibition in oxygen consumption of 60.6, 65.3 and 66.2% with respect to the control. In addition, after separate exposures to carbofuran, elevations in ammonium excretion were more than 500% with respect to the control. PMID:23847016

  5. Characterization of the male-specific lethal 3 gene in the oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y P; Sun, S M; Fu, H T; Ge, X P; Qiao, H; Zhang, W Y; Xiong, Y W; Jiang, S F; Gong, Y S; Jin, S B

    2015-01-01

    In this study, male-specific lethal 3 homolog (Mnmsl3) was cloned and characterized from the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium nipponense (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae) by rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The deduced amino acid sequences of Mnmsl3 showed high-sequence homology to the insect Msl3 and contained a conserved chromatin organization modifier domain and an MORF4-related gene domain. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed that the Mnmsl3 gene was expressed in all the investigated tissues, with the highest level of expression in the testis. The expression level of Mnmsl3 between males and females was different in the gonad (testis or ovary), abdominal ganglion, and heart. The results revealed that the Mnmsl3 gene might play roles in regulating chromatin and in dosage compensation of M. nipponense. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction also revealed that Mnmsl3 mRNA expression was significantly increased in both 5 and 20 days post-larvae after metamorphosis, suggesting that Mnmsl3 plays complex and important roles in the early embryonic development and sex differentiation of M. nipponense. PMID:25966075

  6. A novel C-type lectin is involved in the innate immunity of Macrobrachium nipponense.

    PubMed

    Xiu, Yunji; Wang, Yinghui; Bi, Jingxiu; Liu, Yuhan; Ning, Mingxiao; Liu, Hui; Li, Shuang; Gu, Wei; Wang, Wen; Meng, Qingguo

    2016-03-01

    C-type lectins (CTLs) play important roles in invertebrate innate immunity by recognizing and eliminating pathogens. In the present study, a low-density lipoprotein receptor class A (LDLa) domain-containing CTL was identified from the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense, designated as MnCTLDcp1. The full-length cDNA of MnCTLDcp1 was composed of 1462 bp, with a 999-bp ORF encoding a 332-aa protein. An LDLa and a single C-type lectin-like domain (CTLD) were found. The mRNA transcripts of MnCTLDcp1 was expressed the highest in heart. After the prawns were challenged by Aeromonas hydrophila and Staphylococcus aureus, the expression level of MnCTLDcp1 in heart and hemocytes were all significantly up-regulated. Sugar binding assay revealed that the MnCTLDcp1 could bind to the glycoconjugates of bacteria surface, such as LPS, PGN and they can compete with bacterial as competitors. The recombinant MnCTLDcp1 agglutinates Gram-positive (S. aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and Gram-negative bacteria (A. hydrophila, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) in the presence of calcium and also could bind to these bacteria. These results clearly suggested that MnCTLDcp1 functions as a pattern-recognition receptor involved in the innate immunity of M. nipponense. PMID:26804648

  7. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of Fem1b from oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense.

    PubMed

    Rahman, N M A; Fu, H; Qiao, H; Jin, S; Bai, H; Zhang, W; Jiang, F W; Liang, G; Sun, S; Gong, Y; Jiang, F F; Xiong, Y; Wu, Y

    2016-01-01

    Feminization-1 homolog b (Fem1b) is one of the genes essential for male development and play central roles in sex determination of Caenorhabditis elegans. In this study, we cloned and characterized the full-length Fem1b cDNA from the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium nipponense (MnFem1b) in different tissues and at different developmental stages. Real-time quantitative reverse polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) showed that the MnFem1b gene was expressed in all investigated tissues, with the highest expression level found in the testes. The results revealed that the MnFem1b gene might play roles in aspects of development of the male prawn phenotype. The RT-qPCR also revealed that MnFem1b mRNA expression was significantly increased at 10 days after metamorphosis. The expression levels in all investigated tissues showed a certain degree of sexually dimorphism, the expression levels in males were significantly higher than those in females (P < 0.05). Notably, the highest expression of MnFem1b was found in the testes. The expression of MnFem1b in different tissues indicates that it plays multiple biological functions in M. nipponense. PMID:27323097

  8. Bioaccumulation kinetics and organ distribution of cadmium and zinc in the freshwater decapod crustacean Macrobrachium australiense.

    PubMed

    Cresswell, Tom; Simpson, Stuart L; Mazumder, Debashish; Callaghan, Paul D; Nguyen, An P

    2015-01-20

    This study used the radioisotopes (109)Cd and (65)Zn to explore the uptake, retention and organ distribution of these nonessential and essential metals from solution by the freshwater decapod crustacean Macrobrachium australiense. Three treatments consisting of cadmium alone, zinc alone, and a mixture of cadmium and zinc were used to determine the differences in uptake and efflux rates of each metal individually and in the metal mixture over a three-week period, followed by depuration for 2 weeks in metal-free water using live-animal gamma-spectrometry. Following exposure, prawns were cryosectioned and the spatial distribution of radionuclides visualized using autoradiography. Metal uptake and efflux rates were the same in the individual and mixed-metal exposures, and efflux rates were close to zero. The majority of cadmium uptake was localized within the gills and hepatopancreas, while zinc accumulated in the antennal gland at concentrations orders of magnitude greater than in other organs. This suggested that M. australiense may process zinc much faster than cadmium by internally transporting the accumulated zinc to the antennal gland. The combination of uptake studies and autoradiography greatly increases our understanding of how metal transport kinetics and internal processing may influence the toxicity of essential and nonessential metals in the environment. PMID:25537180

  9. Growth and antioxidant status of oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense fed with diets containing vitamin E

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Weihong; Wang, Zisheng; Yu, Yebing; Qi, Zhitao; Lü, Linlan; Zhang, Yuxia; Lü, Fu

    2015-11-01

    A feeding trial was carried out to investigate the dietary vitamin E requirement of the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense (weight of 0.3-0.4 g) and its effect role on antioxidant activity. Prawns were fed with seven levels of vitamin E (0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg diet) for 60 days. The results show that dietary vitamin E supplementation could significantly increased the prawn weight (P<0.05). The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the hepatopancreas was significantly higher in prawns fed with diets supplemented with ≤75 mg/kg vitamin E than in those fed with diets supplemented with 100-400 mg/kg vitamin E (P<0.05). The activity of catalase (CAT) in the hepatopancreas decreased significantly as dietary vitamin E supplementation increased (P<0.05), and no significant difference was detected in glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity between different dietary groups (P>0.05). The contents of vitamin E in the hepatopancreas and in the muscle increased with increasing dietary vitamin E. There was a linear correlation between the vitamin E level in diet and that in muscle, and between the vitamin E level in diet and that in the hepatopancreas. All the above results indicated that dietary vitamin E can be stored in the hepatopancreas and muscle and lower both the activities of SOD and CAT in the hepatopancreas, suggesting that it is a potential antioxidant in M. nipponense. Broken line analysis conducted on the weight gains of prawns in each diet group showed that the dietary vitamin E requirement for maximum growth is 94.10 mg/kg.

  10. Population Structure and Historical Demography of the Oriental River Prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Po-Cheng; Shih, Chun-Han; Chu, Ta-Jen; Wang, Daryi; Lee, Ying-Chou; Tzeng, Tzong-Der

    2015-01-01

    The oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) is a non-obligatory amphidromous prawn, and it has a wide distribution covering almost the entire Taiwan. Mitochondrial DNA fragment sequences of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and 16S rRNA were combined and used to elucidate the population structure and historical demography of oriental river prawn in Taiwan. A total of 202 individuals from six reservoirs and three estuaries were separately collected. Nucleotide diversity (π) of all populations was 0.01217, with values ranging from 0.00188 (Shihmen Reservoir, SMR, northern Taiwan) to 0.01425 (Mingte Reservoir, MTR, west-central Taiwan). All 76 haplotypes were divided into 2 lineages: lineage A included individuals from all sampling areas except SMR, and lineage B included specimens from all sampling locations except Chengching Lake Reservoir (CLR) and Liyu Lake Reservoir (LLR). All FST values among nine populations were significantly different except the one between Jhonggang River Estuary (JGE, west-central Taiwan) and Kaoping River Estuary (KPE, southern Taiwan). UPGMA tree of nine populations showed two main groups: the first group included the SMR and Tamsui River Estuary (TSE) (both located northern Taiwan), and the second one included the other seven populations (west-central, southern and eastern Taiwan). Demographic analyses implied a population expansion occurred during the recent history of the species. The dispersal route of this species might be from China to west-central and west-southern Taiwan, and then the part individuals belonging to lineage A and B dispersed southerly and northerly, respectively. And then part individuals in west-central Taiwan fell back to and stay at estuaries as the sea level rose about 18,000 years ago. PMID:26716687

  11. Effects of ammonia stress in the Amazon river shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum (Decapoda, Palaemonidae).

    PubMed

    Pinto, Marcelo R; Lucena, Malson N; Faleiros, Rogério Oliveira; Almeida, Eduardo Alves; McNamara, John C; Leone, Francisco A

    2016-01-01

    We evaluate the effects of total ammonia nitrogen-N (TAN) exposure for 72h on (Na(+),K(+))- and V(H(+))-ATPase activities and on their subunit expressions in gills of the diadromous freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum. Specific (Na(+),K(+))- and V(H(+))-ATPase activities increased roughly 1.5- to 2-fold, respectively, after exposure to 2.0mmolL(-1) TAN. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses revealed a 2.5-fold increase in V(H(+))-ATPase B subunit mRNA expression while (Na(+),K(+))-ATPase α-subunit expression was unchanged. Immunohistochemical analyses of the gill lamellae located the (Na(+),K(+))-ATPase throughout the intralamellar septal cells, independently of TAN concentration, while the V(H(+))-ATPase was located in both the apical pillar cell flanges and pillar cell bodies. Systemic stress parameters like total hemocyte count decreased by 30% after exposure to 2.0mmolL(-1) TAN, accompanied by increased activities of the oxidative stress enzymes superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in the gills. The stress responses of M. amazonicum to elevated TAN include increases in gill (Na(+),K(+))- and V(H(+))-ATPase activities that are accompanied by changes in oxidative stress enzyme activities, immune system effects and an increase in gill V(H(+))-ATPase gene expression. These findings likely underpin physiological effects in a crustacean like M. amazonicum that exploits multiple ecosystems during its life cycle, as well as under culture conditions that may significantly impact shrimp production by the aquaculture industry. PMID:26571214

  12. Effects of Host Phylogeny and Habitats on Gut Microbiomes of Oriental River Prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense).

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Tzong-Der; Pao, Yueh-Yang; Chen, Po-Cheng; Weng, Francis Cheng-Hsuan; Jean, Wen Dar; Wang, Daryi

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbial community is one of the richest and most complex ecosystems on earth, and the intestinal microbes play an important role in host development and health. Next generation sequencing approaches, which rapidly produce millions of short reads that enable the investigation on a culture independent basis, are now popular for exploring microbial community. Currently, the gut microbiome in fresh water shrimp is unexplored. To explore gut microbiomes of the oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) and investigate the effects of host genetics and habitats on the microbial composition, 454 pyrosequencing based on the 16S rRNA gene were performed. We collected six groups of samples, including M. nipponense shrimp from two populations, rivers and lakes, and one sister species (M. asperulum) as an out group. We found that Proteobacteria is the major phylum in oriental river prawn, followed by Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. Compositional analysis showed microbial divergence between the two shrimp species is higher than that between the two populations of one shrimp species collected from river and lake. Hierarchical clustering also showed that host genetics had a greater impact on the divergence of gut microbiome than host habitats. This finding was also congruent with the functional prediction from the metagenomic data implying that the two shrimp species still shared the same type of biological functions, reflecting a similar metabolic profile in their gut environments. In conclusion, this study provides the first investigation of the gut microbiome of fresh water shrimp, and supports the hypothesis of host species-specific signatures of bacterial community composition. PMID:26168244

  13. Effects of Host Phylogeny and Habitats on Gut Microbiomes of Oriental River Prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Po-Cheng; Weng, Francis Cheng-Hsuan; Jean, Wen Dar; Wang, Daryi

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbial community is one of the richest and most complex ecosystems on earth, and the intestinal microbes play an important role in host development and health. Next generation sequencing approaches, which rapidly produce millions of short reads that enable the investigation on a culture independent basis, are now popular for exploring microbial community. Currently, the gut microbiome in fresh water shrimp is unexplored. To explore gut microbiomes of the oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) and investigate the effects of host genetics and habitats on the microbial composition, 454 pyrosequencing based on the 16S rRNA gene were performed. We collected six groups of samples, including M. nipponense shrimp from two populations, rivers and lakes, and one sister species (M. asperulum) as an out group. We found that Proteobacteria is the major phylum in oriental river prawn, followed by Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. Compositional analysis showed microbial divergence between the two shrimp species is higher than that between the two populations of one shrimp species collected from river and lake. Hierarchical clustering also showed that host genetics had a greater impact on the divergence of gut microbiome than host habitats. This finding was also congruent with the functional prediction from the metagenomic data implying that the two shrimp species still shared the same type of biological functions, reflecting a similar metabolic profile in their gut environments. In conclusion, this study provides the first investigation of the gut microbiome of fresh water shrimp, and supports the hypothesis of host species-specific signatures of bacterial community composition. PMID:26168244

  14. Toxicity of cryoprotectants agents in freshwater prawn embryos of Macrobrachium amazonicum.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Arthur Vinícius Lourenço; Castro, Elias José Teles; Barbosa, Mariana Silva Alves; de Sousa, Míriam Luzia Nogueira Martins; de Araújo Neto, Manoel Paiva; Filho, Aldeney Andrade Soares; de Souza Sampaio, Celia Maria

    2015-12-01

    The process of cooling and cryopreservation of prawn embryos is a viable alternative for a continuous supply of larvae for freshwater prawn farming ponds. However, studies involving the application of those techniques as well as on toxicity of cryoprotectants in freshwater prawn embryos are scarce. Thus, this study aims to test the toxicity of methylic alcohol (MET), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and ethylene glycol (EG) on Macrobrachium amazonicum embryos. For the present experiment, pools of embryos were taken from 15 M. amazonicum females and were divided into three groups and tested in duplicate at concentrations of 10, 5, 3; 1, 0.5 or 0.1%. Toxicity tests were conducted for 24 h in Falcon® pipes to obtain the lethal concentration for 50% of the larvae (LC50). After the set period for testing, random samples of embryos were removed for morphological analysis under stereoscopic microscopes. Results were analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's test at a 5% significance level and Trimmed Spearman-Karber Analysis to determine LC50-24 h. DMSO toxicity tests revealed that 5% and 10% concentrations showed the highest toxicity and differed from the control (P ≤ 0.05), 24h-LC50 was 437.4 ± 14.4 µL. MET was less toxic among the tested cryoprotectants and concentrations did not allow the determination of its LC50-24h. For tests with EG, concentrations of 3, 5 or 10% solutions resulted in a 100% mortality to tested embryos; EG was the tested cryoprotectant with the highest toxicity, with an LC50-24h average of 81.91 ± 35.3 µl. PMID:25255785

  15. Growth and antioxidant status of oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense fed with diets containing vitamin E

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Weihong; Wang, Zisheng; Yu, Yebing; Qi, Zhitao; Lü, Linlan; Zhang, Yuxia; Lü, Fu

    2016-05-01

    A feeding trial was carried out to investigate the dietary vitamin E requirement of the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense (weight of 0.3-0.4 g) and its effect role on antioxidant activity. Prawns were fed with seven levels of vitamin E (0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg diet) for 60 days. The results show that dietary vitamin E supplementation could significantly increased the prawn weight ( P < 0.05). The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the hepatopancreas was significantly higher in prawns fed with diets supplemented with ≤75 mg/kg vitamin E than in those fed with diets supplemented with 100-400 mg/kg vitamin E ( P < 0.05). The activity of catalase (CAT) in the hepatopancreas decreased significantly as dietary vitamin E supplementation increased ( P < 0.05), and no significant difference was detected in glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity between different dietary groups ( P >0.05). The contents of vitamin E in the hepatopancreas and in the muscle increased with increasing dietary vitamin E. There was a linear correlation between the vitamin E level in diet and that in muscle, and between the vitamin E level in diet and that in the hepatopancreas. All the above results indicated that dietary vitamin E can be stored in the hepatopancreas and muscle and lower both the activities of SOD and CAT in the hepatopancreas, suggesting that it is a potential antioxidant in M. nipponense. Broken line analysis conducted on the weight gains of prawns in each diet group showed that the dietary vitamin E requirement for maximum growth is 94.10 mg/kg.

  16. Population Structure and Historical Demography of the Oriental River Prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Ta-Jen; Wang, Daryi; Lee, Ying-Chou; Tzeng, Tzong-Der

    2015-01-01

    The oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) is a non-obligatory amphidromous prawn, and it has a wide distribution covering almost the entire Taiwan. Mitochondrial DNA fragment sequences of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and 16S rRNA were combined and used to elucidate the population structure and historical demography of oriental river prawn in Taiwan. A total of 202 individuals from six reservoirs and three estuaries were separately collected. Nucleotide diversity (π) of all populations was 0.01217, with values ranging from 0.00188 (Shihmen Reservoir, SMR, northern Taiwan) to 0.01425 (Mingte Reservoir, MTR, west-central Taiwan). All 76 haplotypes were divided into 2 lineages: lineage A included individuals from all sampling areas except SMR, and lineage B included specimens from all sampling locations except Chengching Lake Reservoir (CLR) and Liyu Lake Reservoir (LLR). All FST values among nine populations were significantly different except the one between Jhonggang River Estuary (JGE, west-central Taiwan) and Kaoping River Estuary (KPE, southern Taiwan). UPGMA tree of nine populations showed two main groups: the first group included the SMR and Tamsui River Estuary (TSE) (both located northern Taiwan), and the second one included the other seven populations (west-central, southern and eastern Taiwan). Demographic analyses implied a population expansion occurred during the recent history of the species. The dispersal route of this species might be from China to west-central and west-southern Taiwan, and then the part individuals belonging to lineage A and B dispersed southerly and northerly, respectively. And then part individuals in west-central Taiwan fell back to and stay at estuaries as the sea level rose about 18,000 years ago. PMID:26716687

  17. Molecular and functional characterization of the vitellogenin receptor in oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense.

    PubMed

    Bai, Hongkun; Qiao, Hui; Li, Fajun; Fu, Hongtuo; Jiang, Sufei; Zhang, Wenyi; Yan, Yuedi; Xiong, Yiwei; Sun, Shengming; Jin, Shubo; Gong, Yongsheng; Wu, Yan

    2016-04-01

    A complementary DNA (cDNA) that encodes the vitellogenin receptor (VgR) in the oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense, was cloned using expressed sequence tag analysis and a rapid amplification of cDNA ends approach. The coding region consists of 5920 base pairs (bp) that encode a 1902 amino acid protein, with a predicted molecular mass of 209 kDa. The coding region is flanked by a 45 bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR) and a 166 bp 3'-UTR. The deduced amino acid sequence of the M. nipponense VgR cDNA had typically conserved domains, such as an extracellular, lipoprotein-binding domain, epidermal growth factor-like and O-glycosylation domains, a transmembrane domain and a short C-terminal, cytosolic tail. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) indicated that Mn-VgR is highly expressed in the female ovary. Expression analysis by qPCR demonstrated the larval and ovarian developmental stage-specific expression pattern. As the ovaries developed, the expression level of Mn-VgR gradually increased during the reproductive cycle (stage I), to reach a peak in stage III. Levels then dropped as a new development cycle was entered after reproduction molting. Eyestalk ablation led to a significant increase in the expression of Mn-VgR during the ovarian development stages (P<0.05), when compared with the eyestalk-intact group. The investigation revealed that eyestalk ablation initially affected Mn-VgR expression and then influenced vitellogenesis. In adult females, VgR RNA interference (RNAi) dramatically delayed the maturation of the ovary, in accordance with the gonad somatic index. In addition, Mn-VgR RNAi led to vitellin depletion in the oocytes and the accumulation of vitellin in the hepatopancreas. PMID:26773480

  18. Osmoregulation in larvae and juveniles of two recently separated Macrobrachium species: Expression patterns of ion transporter genes.

    PubMed

    Boudour-Boucheker, Nesrine; Boulo, Viviane; Charmantier-Daures, Mireille; Anger, Klaus; Charmantier, Guy; Lorin-Nebel, Catherine

    2016-05-01

    In this comparative study, osmoregulatory mechanisms were analyzed in two closely related species of palaemonid shrimp from Brazil, Macrobrachium pantanalense and Macrobrachium amazonicum. A previous investigation showed that all postembryonic stages of M. pantanalense from inland waters of the Pantanal are able to hyper-osmoregulate in fresh water, while this species was not able to hypo-osmoregulate at high salinities. In M. amazonicum originating from the Amazon estuary, in contrast, all stages are able to hypo-osmoregulate, but only first-stage larvae, late juveniles and adults are able to hyper-osmoregulate in fresh water. The underlying molecular mechanisms of these physiological differences have not been known. We therefore investigated the expression patterns of three ion transporters (NKA α-subunit, VHA B-subunit and NHE3) following differential salinity acclimation in different ontogenetic stages (stage-V larvae, juveniles) of both species. Larval NKAα expression was at both salinities significantly higher in M. pantanalense than in M. amazonicum, whereas no difference was noted in juveniles. VHA was also more expressed in larvae of M. pantanalense than in those of M. amazonicum. When NHE3 expression is compared between the larvae of the two species, further salinity-related differences were observed, with generally higher expression in the inland species. Overall, a high expression of ion pumps in M. pantanalense suggests an evolutionary key role of these transporters in freshwater invasion. PMID:26872994

  19. Spirulina cultivation in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Bo-Tang; Xiang, Wen-Zhou; Zeng, Cheng-Kui

    1998-03-01

    This paper reviews and discusses the development and many problems of Spirulina cultivation in China, points out the advantages and disadvantages of open photobioreactor system, and predicts that seawater Spirulina cultivation will be a new trend to be strengthened and emphasized due to its special physiological characteristics, easier management, lower fertilizer cost, and higher resistance to contaminants and rare pollution of chemicals.

  20. Insights into Sexual Precocity of Female Oriental River Prawn Macrobrachium nipponense through Transcriptome Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hongxia; Li, Xilian; Sun, Yuhang; Hou, Fujun; Zhang, Yufei; Li, Fei; Gu, Zhimin; Liu, Xiaolin

    2016-01-01

    Background The oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) is the most prevalent aquaculture species in China. The sexual precocity in this species has received considerable attention in recent years because more and more individuals matured at a small size, which devalues the commercial production. In this study, we developed deep-coverage transcriptomic sequencing data for the ovaries of sexually precocious and normal sexually mature M. nipponense using next-generation RNA sequencing technology and attempted to provide the first insight into the molecular regulatory mechanism of sexual precocity in this species. Results A total of 63,336 unigenes were produced from the ovarian cDNA libraries of sexually precocious and normal sexually mature M. nipponense using Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform. Through BLASTX searches against the NR, STRING, Pfam, Swissprot and KEGG databases, 15,134 unigenes were annotated, accounting for 23.89% of the total unigenes. 5,195 and 3,227 matched unigenes were categorized by GO and COG analysis respectively. 15,908 unigenes were consequently mapped into 332 KEGG pathways, and many reproduction-related pathways and genes were identified. Moreover, 26,008 SSRs were identified from 18,133 unigenes. 80,529 and 80,516 SNPs were yielded from ovarian libraries of sexually precocious and normal sexually mature prawn, respectively, and 29,851 potential SNPs between these two groups were also predicted. After comparing the ovarian libraries of sexually precocious and normal sexually mature prawn, 549 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and 9 key DEGs that may be related to sexual precocity of M. nipponense were identified. 20 DEGs were selected for validation by quantitative real-time PCR (QPCR) and 19 DEGs show consistent expression between QPCR and RNAseq-based differential expression analysis datasets. Conclusion This is the first report on the large-scale RNA sequencing of ovaries of sexually precocious and normal sexually mature M

  1. Aspects of larval, post-larval and juvenile ecology of Macrobrachium petersi (Hilgendorf) in the Keiskamma estuary, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, G. H. L.

    1985-10-01

    Although Macrobrachium petersi has nine larval stages, only stage I and a minimal number of stage II M. petersi larvae were caught in the Keiskamma estuary. Stage I larvae undergo a vertical migration at night which is markedly influenced by salinity, especially under stratified conditions. Larvae remain in the water column on the ebb tide, a behavioural pattern which effectively carried them to favourable salinities for growth and development. Stage I larvae show an association with salt front regions. The sudden decline in larval abundance from stage I to stage II downstream from the front suggests a change from a pelagic to an epibenthic existence. Later larval stages failed to appear in the plankton. However, post-larvae were caught in the estuary and a juvenile migration from the estuary to freshwater was monitored.

  2. Factors affecting the distribution and abundance of Macrobrachium petersi (Hilgendorf) in the Keiskamma River and estuary, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, G. H. L.

    1985-09-01

    A dry (1979-1980) and a wet (1980-1981) season had a marked effect on the freshwater inflow into the Keiskamma estuary. Under low inflow conditions, which results in elevated salinities in the upper reaches, an upstream migration of adult Macrobrachium petersi (Hilgendorf) to freshwater takes place. During periods of increased river inflow adult M. petersi move downstream to the more saline reaches of the estuary. These two migratory responses have been interpreted as (a) a breeding migration under high inflow conditions which ensures that larvae are in close proximity to salinities that favour growth and development, and (b) an adult upstream migration back to freshwater to escape elevated estuarine salinities as a result of the low freshwater inflow.

  3. Evolution of life history traits in Asian freshwater prawns of the genus Macrobrachium (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae) based on multilocus molecular phylogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Wowor, Daisy; Muthu, Victor; Meier, Rudolf; Balke, Michael; Cai, Yixiong; Ng, Peter K L

    2009-08-01

    Freshwater prawns of the genus Macrobrachium are free-living decapod crustaceans that are commonly encountered in tropical streams and lakes. We present a molecular phylogenetic analysis of the diverse Southeast and East Asian fauna based on >3 kb sequence data from three nuclear and two mitochondrial markers for almost 50% of the described fauna. We reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships and track the evolution of key life history traits. Our tree suggests that the last common ancestor of the Asian Macrobrachium laid numerous small eggs and had prolonged larval development ("PLD") in saline coastal waters after which the adults matured in freshwater habitats. We also argue for five independent losses of the marine larval phase to yield five clades of species that develop entirely in freshwater and have fewer and larger eggs than the species with PLD. These species have either semi-abbreviated (two origins) with at least one free-swimming stage or abbreviated larval development ("ALD": three origins) which lack free-swimming larvae. A Shimodaira-Hasegawa test rejects all trees that would imply a single loss of the marine larval phase, but alternative and equally parsimonious optimizations exist that imply a smaller number of losses. However, these scenarios would require the re-acquisition of free-swimming larvae. A concentrated-change test supports Pereira and Garcia's [Pereira, G.A., Garcia, J.V., 1995. Larval development of Macrobrachium reyesi Pereira (Decapoda, Palaemonidae), with a discussion on the origin of abbreviated development in palaemonids. J. Crust. Biol. 15, 117-133] hypothesis of a significant correlation between living in freshwater and the origin of semi-abbreviated and abbreviated larval development. Our phylogenetic tree also reveals that Asian Macrobrachium have independently become cavernicolous at least twice, and invaded the highly acidic waters of freshwater and peat swamps two or three times. PMID:19489122

  4. Cultivation of parasites

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Nishat Hussain

    2014-01-01

    Parasite cultivation techniques constitute a substantial segment of present-day study of parasites, especially of protozoa. Success in establishing in vitro and in vivo culture of parasites not only allows their physiology, behavior and metabolism to be studied dynamically, but also allows the nature of the antigenic molecules in the excretory and secretory products to be vigorously pursued and analyzed. The complex life-cycles of various parasites having different stages and host species requirements, particularly in the case of parasitic helminths, often make parasite cultivation an uphill assignment. Culturing of parasites depends on the combined expertise of all types of microbiological cultures. Different parasites require different cultivation conditions such as nutrients, temperature and even incubation conditions. Cultivation is an important method for diagnosis of many clinically important parasites, for example, Entamoeba histolytica, Trichomonas vaginalis, Leishmania spp., Strongyloides stercoralis and free-living amoebae. Many commercial systems like InPouch TV for T. vaginalis, microaerophilous stationary phase culture for Babesia bovis and Harada-Mori culture technique for larval-stage nematodes have been developed for the rapid diagnosis of the parasitic infections. Cultivation also has immense utility in the production of vaccines, testing vaccine efficacy, and antigen - production for obtaining serological reagents, detection of drug-resistance, screening of potential therapeutic agents and conducting epidemiological studies. Though in vitro cultivation techniques are used more often compared with in vivo techniques, the in vivo techniques are sometimes used for diagnosing some parasitic infections such as trypanosomiasis and toxoplasmosis. Parasite cultivation continues to be a challenging diagnostic option. This review provides an overview of intricacies of parasitic culture and update on popular methods used for cultivating parasites. PMID

  5. Reproductive and morphometric traits of Macrobrachium amazonicum (Decapoda: Palaemonidae) from the Pantanal, Brazil, suggests initial speciation.

    PubMed

    Hayd, Liliam; Anger, Klaus

    2013-03-01

    The palaemonid shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum shows an unusually large geographic range (ca. 4000km across) living in coastal, estuarine, and limnic inland habitats of the upper Amazon, Orinoco, and La Plata basins. This raises doubts whether allopatric, ecologically diverse populations belong to the same species. While shrimps from estuarine and Amazonian habitats have been studied in great detail, very little is known about hololimnetic inland populations. In the present study, biological traits related to growth (maximum body size, fresh weight, morphometric relationships) and reproduction (sex ratio; occurrence of male morphotypes; minimum sexable size; minimum size of ovigerous females; fecundity; egg size), were studied in M amazonicum collected from a pond culture and two natural freshwater habitats (Rio Miranda; Lagoa Baiazinha) in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. In total, 2270 shrimps were examined (603 males; 1667 females, 157 of these ovigerous). Sex ratio (males:females) was at all sampling sites strongly female-biased, ranging from 0.2-0.6. Maximum body size was larger in natural habitats compared to the pond culture, suggesting reduced growth or a shorter life span under artificial mass rearing conditions. Maximum fecundity observed in our material was 676 eggs, reached by the largest female (TL=65mm; Lagoa Baiazinha). A significant difference between slope parameters of linear regressions describing fecundity, either in terms of numbers of eggs laid or of larvae released, in relation to female fresh weight, indicates egg losses. This may be due in part to a 2.4-fold increase in egg volume occurring during the course of embryonic development, while the available space under the abdomen remains limited. Size-weight relationships differed significantly between males and females, indicating sexspecific morphometric differences. Males appear to have a more slender body shape than females, reaching thus lower weight at equal TL. When

  6. A Methodological Investigation of Cultivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Alan M.; And Others

    Cultivation theory states that television engenders negative emotions in heavy viewers. Noting that cultivation methodology contains an apparent response bias, a study examined relationships between television exposure and positive restatements of cultivation concepts and tested a more instrumental media uses and effects model. Cultivation was…

  7. Effect of salinity on the metabolism and osmoregulation of selected ontogenetic stages of an Amazon population of Macrobrachium amazonicum shrimp (Decapoda, Palaemonidae).

    PubMed

    Mazzarelli, C C M; Santos, M R; Amorim, R V; Augusto, A

    2015-05-01

    Probably as a function of their wide geographical distribution, the different population of Macrobrachium amazonicum shrimp may present distinct physiological, biochemical, reproductive, behavioral, and ecological patterns. These differences are so accentuated that the existence of allopatric speciation has been suggested, although initial studies indicate that the genetic variability of populations happen at an intraspecific level. Among the biological responses described for M. amazonicum populations, those regarding osmoregulation and metabolism play a key role for being related to the occupation of diverse habitats. To this effect, we investigated osmoregulation through the role of free amino acids in cell volume control and metabolism, through oxygen consumption in larvae (zoeae I, II, V and IX) and/or post-larvae of a M. amazonicum population from Amazon, kept in aquaculture fish hatcheries in the state of São Paulo. The results add information regarding the existence of distinct physiological responses among M. amazonicum populations and suggest that possible adjustments to metabolism and to the use of free amino acids as osmolytes of the regulation of the larvae and post-larvae cell volume depend on the appearance of structures responsible for hemolymph osmoregulation like, for example, the gills. In this respect, we verified that zoeae I do not alter their metabolism due to the exposition to fresh or brackish water, but they reduce intracellular concentration of free amino acids when exposed to fresh water, what may suggest the inexistence or inefficient performance of the structures responsible for volume regulation and hemolymph composition. On the other hand, in zoeae II and V exposed to fresh and brackish water, metabolism alterations were not followed by changes in free amino acids concentration. Thus it is possible, as the structures responsible for osmoregulation and ionic regulation become functional, that the role of free amino acids gets

  8. Cultivating Leaders from Within

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdette, Maggie; Schertzer, Kristen

    2005-01-01

    A major problem faced by school districts in the US is the paucity of applicants for the posts of school principals. A solution adopted by The Capistrano Unified School District (CUSD) in Orange County California was the cultivation of good leaders from within the district through the Teaching Assistant Principal (TAP) program.

  9. The Cultivated Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilder, Rosalind

    1983-01-01

    Teachers who follow this monthly schedule for starting and cultivating plants in their classrooms can look forward to blooms and greenery throughout the year. Advice on choosing plants, making cuttings, forcing bulbs, rooting sweet potatoes and pineapples, and holding a Mother's Day plant sale is included. (PP)

  10. Molecular Analysis of the Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium olfersii (Decapoda, Palaemonidae) Supports the Existence of a Single Species throughout Its Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Natália; Mantelatto, Fernando Luis

    2013-01-01

    Macrobrachium olfersii is an amphidromous freshwater prawn, widespread along the eastern coasts of the Americas. This species shows great morphological modifications during ontogenesis, and several studies have verified the existence of a wide intraspecific variation. Because of this condition, the species is often misidentified, and several synonyms have been documented. To elucidate these aspects, individuals of M. olfersii from different populations along its range of distribution were investigated. The taxonomic limit was established, and the degree of genetic variability of this species was described. We extracted DNA from 53 specimens of M. olfersii, M. americanum, M. digueti and M. faustinum, which resulted in 84 new sequences (22 of 16S mtDNA, 45 of Cythocrome Oxidase I (COI) mtDNA, and 17 of Histone (H3) nDNA). Sequences of three genes (single and concatenated) from these species were used in the Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference phylogenetic analyses and COI sequences from M. olfersii were used in population analysis. The genetic variation was evaluated through the alignment of 554 bp from the 16S, 638 bp from the COI, and 338 bp from the H3. The rates of genetic divergence among populations were lower at the intraspecific level. This was confirmed by the haplotype net, which showed a continuous gene flow among populations. Although a wide distribution and high morphological intraspecific variation often suggest the existence of more than one species, genetic similarity of Caribbean and Brazilian populations of M. olfersii supported them as a single species. PMID:23382941

  11. Ocurrence of male morphotypes of Macrobrachium amazonicum (Caridea, Palaemonidae) in a population with an entirely freshwater life cycle.

    PubMed

    Pantaleão, J A F; Hirose, G L; Costa, R C

    2014-08-01

    This study records, for the first time, the occurrence of all four male morphotypes in a population of Macrobrachium amazonicum from a continental environment, with an entirely freshwater life cycle. The specimens studied came from the Tietê River, state of São Paulo, Brazil, and were collected in a lotic environment downstream from Ibitinga Dam. This population was compared with other continental populations, including a population from the dam itself, collected in a previous study. Four samples of 30 minutes were taken monthly, using a trap, from January to April 2011. Each male specimen was measured with respect to seven body dimensions as follows: carapace length (CL), right cheliped length (RCL), dactyl length (DCL), propodus length (PPL), carpus length (CRL), merus length (ML) and ischium length (IL). The relative growth was analyzed based on the change in growth patterns of certain body parts in relation to the independent variable CL. The four male morphotypes proposed for the species were found using morphological and morphometric analyses. Different biological characteristics were found between the populations studied. The male population of the lake of Ibitinga and from Pantanal presented mean sizes and number of morphotypes lower than the population studied here. These differences seem to be closely related to ecological characteristics of the environments inhabited by these populations. Our results supported the hypothesis that coastal and continental populations of M. amazonicum belong to the same species. PMID:25627389

  12. Molecular characterization of a novel ovary-specific gene fem-1 homolog from the oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ke-Yi; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Lin, Jing-Yun; Li, Jia-Le; Qiu, Gao-Feng

    2016-01-10

    The feminization-1 (fem-1) gene is characterized by one of the most common protein-protein interaction motifs, ankyrin repeat motifs, displays many expression patterns in vertebrates and invertebrates, and plays an essential role in the sex-determination/differentiation pathway in Caenorhabditis elegans. In this study, a fem-1 homolog, designated as Mnfem-1, was first cloned from the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense. The prawn Mnfem-1 gene consists of six exons and five introns. The full-length cDNA (2603bp) of Mnfem-1 contains an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein of 622 amino acids. The Mnfem-1 RNA and protein are exclusively expressed in the ovary in adult prawns as revealed by RT-PCR and immunofluorescence analysis, respectively. In situ hybridization results showed that strong positive signals were concentrated at the edge of the previtellogenic and vitellogenic oocyte. During embryogenesis, Mnfem-1 is highly expressed in both unfertilized eggs and embryos at cleavage stage and thereafter dropped to a low level from blastula to zoea, indicating that the Mnfem-1 in early embryos is maternal. After hatching, the Mnfem-1 expression significantly increased in the larvae at length of 2cm, an important stage of sex differentiation. Yeast two hybridization results showed that the Mnfem-1 protein can be potentially interactive with cathepsin L and proteins containing the domains of insulinase, ankyrin or ubiquitin. Our results suggested that Mnfem-1 could have roles in prawn ovarian development and sex determination/differentiation. PMID:26367327

  13. Regulation of essential heavy metals (Cu, Cr, and Zn) by the freshwater prawn macrobrachium malcolmsonii (Milne Edwards)

    SciTech Connect

    Vijayram, K.; Geraldine, P.

    1996-02-01

    Despite the low concentrations of heavy metals in the surrounding medium, aquatic organisms take them up and accumulate them in their soft tissues to concentrations several fold higher than those of ambient levels. Knowledge of accumulation patterns of a particular trace metal is a prerequisite for understanding the significance of an observed metal concentration in a particular animal, especially from the aspect of biomonitoring. Many marine invertebrates accumulate heavy metals without any regulation and the accumulation necessarily being associated with mechanisms to store the metals in a detoxified form. Two detoxification mechanisms have been described, both of which may occur in one specimen. Heavy metals can either be bound up in insoluble metalliferous {open_quote}granules{close_quote}, or are bound to soluble metal-binding ligands, such as metallothioneins. Some marine decapod crustaceans have an innate ability to regulate the internal concentrations of essential but potentially toxic metals within a constant level, presumably to meet their metabolic demands. However, at present, there is no such information relating to freshwater decapod crustaceans, especially shrimps which occupy a totally different environment. Macrobrachium malcolmsonii, a potential aquaculture species for freshwater is found in abundance in one of the major Indian rivers, the Cauvery. In the present study, an attempt was made to determine whether the freshwater prawn, M. malcolmsonlii, is able to regulate the three essential elements, copper, chromium and zinc, over a wide range of dissolved concentrations. These three metals were chosen because the Cauvery River receives pollutants containing these metals.

  14. [Dendrobium officinale stereoscopic cultivation method].

    PubMed

    Si, Jin-Ping; Dong, Hong-Xiu; Liao, Xin-Yan; Zhu, Yu-Qiu; Li, Hui

    2014-12-01

    The study is aimed to make the most of available space of Dendrobium officinale cultivation facility, reveal the yield and functional components variation of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale, and improve quality, yield and efficiency. The agronomic traits and yield variation of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale were studied by operating field experiment. The content of polysaccharide and extractum were determined by using phenol-sulfuric acid method and 2010 edition of "Chinese Pharmacopoeia" Appendix X A. The results showed that the land utilization of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale increased 2.74 times, the stems, leaves and their total fresh or dry weight in unit area of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale were all heavier than those of the ground cultivated ones. There was no significant difference in polysaccharide content between stereoscopic cultivation and ground cultivation. But the extractum content and total content of polysaccharide and extractum were significantly higher than those of the ground cultivated ones. In additional, the polysaccharide content and total content of polysaccharide and extractum from the top two levels of stereoscopic culture matrix were significantly higher than that of the ones from the other levels and ground cultivation. Steroscopic cultivation can effectively improves the utilization of space and yield, while the total content of polysaccharides and extractum were significantly higher than that of the ground cultivated ones. The significant difference in Dendrobium polysaccharides among the plants from different height of stereo- scopic culture matrix may be associated with light factor. PMID:25911804

  15. Cultivating an entrepreneurial mindset.

    PubMed

    Matheson, Sandra A

    2013-01-01

    Now as never before, familiar challenges require bold, novel approaches. Registered dietitians will benefit by cultivating an entrepreneurial mindset that involves being comfortable with uncertainty, learning to take calculated risks, and daring to just try it. An entrepreneur is someone who takes risks to create something new, usually in business. But the entrepreneurial mindset is available to anyone prepared to rely only on their own abilities for their economic security and expect no opportunity without first creating value for others. PMID:24018008

  16. Constructing and random sequencing analysis of normalized cDNA library of testis tissue from oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense).

    PubMed

    Qiao, Hui; Fu, Hongtuo; Jin, Shubo; Wu, Yan; Jiang, Sufei; Gong, Yongsheng; Xiong, Yiwei

    2012-09-01

    The oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense, is an important aquaculture species in China. Sexual precocity is a serious problem because of genetic retrogression, which has negative effects on product quality and dramatically affects price. Culture of all-male populations of this species would be economically advantageous, as the males grow faster and reach a much larger size than females. Developing such a culture scheme will require discovery of sex- or reproduction-related genes that affect sexual maturity and sex determination. In this study, a high-quality normalized testis cDNA library was constructed to identify novel transcripts. Of the 5280 successful sequencing reaction yields, 5202 expressed tagged sequences (ESTs) with an average length of 954 bp. Ultimately, 3677 unique sequences, including 891 contigs and 2786 singletons, were identified based on cluster and assembly analyses. Sixteen hundred (43.5%) genes were novel based on the NCBI protein database, thus these unidentified genes may improve basic molecular knowledge about M. nipponense. Of the novel unigenes, 34.4% (715/2077) were homologous to insects, such as Tribolium castaneum, Drosophila spp. and Apis mellifera. Fifty-two genes were identified as sex- or reproduction-related based on Gene Ontology classification and sequence comparison with data from other publications. These genes can be classified into groups based on different functions, including 10 sex-determination related genes, 8 male-reproductive genes, 5 cathepsin-related genes, 20 ubiquitin-related genes, 5 ferritin-related genes, and 4 LRR genes. The results of this study provide new sequence information about M. nipponense, which will be the basis for further genetic studies of this species and other decapods crustaceans. PMID:22632994

  17. Transcriptome Analysis of the Oriental River Prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense Using 454 Pyrosequencing for Discovery of Genes and Markers

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Keyi; Qiu, Gaofeng; Feng, Jianbin; Li, Jiale

    2012-01-01

    Background The oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense, is an economically and nutritionally important species of the Palaemonidae family of decapod crustaceans. To date, the sequencing of its whole genome is unavailable as a non-model organism. Transcriptomic information is also scarce for this species. In this study, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing to produce the first comprehensive expressed sequence tag (EST) dataset for M. nipponense using high-throughput sequencing technologies. Methodology and Principal Findings Total RNA was isolated from eyestalk, gill, heart, ovary, testis, hepatopancreas, muscle, and embryos at the cleavage, gastrula, nauplius and zoea stages. Equal quantities of RNA from each tissue and stage were pooled to construct a cDNA library. Using 454 pyrosequencing technology, we generated a total of 984,204 high quality reads (338.59Mb) with an average length of 344 bp. Clustering and assembly of these reads produced a non-redundant set of 81,411 unique sequences, comprising 42,551 contigs and 38,860 singletons. All of the unique sequences were involved in the molecular function (30,425), cellular component (44,112) and biological process (67,679) categories by GO analysis. Potential genes and their functions were predicted by KEGG pathway mapping and COG analysis. Based on our sequence analysis and published literature, many putative genes involved in sex determination, including DMRT1, FTZ-F1, FOXL2, FEM1 and other potentially important candidate genes, were identified for the first time in this prawn. Furthermore, 6,689 SSRs and 18,107 high-confidence SNPs were identified in this EST dataset. Conclusions The transcriptome provides an invaluable new data for a functional genomics resource and future biological research in M. nipponense. The molecular markers identified in this study will provide a material basis for future genetic linkage and quantitative trait loci analyses, and will be essential for accelerating

  18. Molecular cloning, characterization, and expression analysis of p53 from the oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense, in response to hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shengming; Gu, Zhimin; Fu, Hongtuo; Zhu, Jian; Ge, Xianping; Xuan, Fujun

    2016-07-01

    The tumor suppressor gene p53 plays a critical role in safeguarding the integrity of the genome in mammalian cells. It acts as a sequence-specific transcription factor. Once p53 is activated by a variety of cellular stresses, it transactivates downstream target genes and regulates the cell cycle and apoptosis. However, little is known about the functions of the p53 pathway in prawns in response to hypoxia. In this study, the cDNA of p53 from the oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense, (Mnp53) was cloned using a combination of homology cloning and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The full-length cDNA of Mnp53 has 2130 bp, including an open reading frame of 1125 bp that encodes a polypeptide of 374 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 41.9 kDa and a theoretical isoelectric point of 6.9. Quantitative real-time (qRT)-PCR assays revealed that Mnp53 was ubiquitously expressed in all examined tissues, but at high levels in the hepatopancreas. In addition, we studied respiratory bursts and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the hepatopancreas of M. nipponense. Our results suggest that oxidative stress occurred in prawns in response to hypoxia and that apoptosis was associated with an increase in caspase-3 mRNA expression. qRT-PCR and western blot results confirmed that hypoxic stress induced the upregulation of Mnp53 at mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry showed remarkable changes in immunopositive staining after the same hypoxic treatment. These results suggest that hypoxia-induced oxidative stress may cause apoptosis and cooperatively stimulate the expression of Mnp53. PMID:27044329

  19. Comparative transcriptome analysis reveals molecular strategies of oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense in response to acute and chronic nitrite stress.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhixin; Li, Tongyu; Li, Erchao; Chen, Ke; Ding, Zhili; Qin, Jian G; Chen, Liqiao; Ye, Jinyun

    2016-01-01

    Macrobrachium nipponense is an economically and nutritionally important species threatened by ambient superfluous nitrite. De novo RNA-Seq was used to explore the molecular mechanism in M. nipponense exposed to the acute nitrite stress (26.05 mg/L nitrite-N) for 24 h and the chronic nitrite stress (1.38 mg/L nitrite-N) for 28 d A total of 175.13 million reads were obtained and assembled into 58,871 unigenes with an average length of 1028.7 bp and N50 of 1294 bp. Under the acute and chronic nitrite stress trials, 2824 and 2610 unigenes were significantly expressed. In GO analysis and KEGG pathway analysis, 30 pathways were significantly different between the two treatments while four pathways were in common and the markedly altered pathways were divided into four sections as immunity, metabolism, cell and others. The immunity section revealing the different depth of immunity provoked by nitrite stress contained the most pathways including the important pathways as phagosome, folate biosynthesis, glycerolipid metabolism, glycine, serine and threonine metabolism, amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism under the acute nitrite stress, and lysosome, alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism, arginine and proline metabolism under the chronic nitrite stress. This is the first report of responses of M. nipponense under acute and chronic nitrite stress through de novo transcriptome sequencing on the transcriptome level. The results of transcriptome analysis improve our understanding on the underlying molecular mechanisms coping with nitrite stress in crustacean species. PMID:26687531

  20. Isolation and characterization of two novel C-type lectins from the oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense.

    PubMed

    Xiu, Yunji; Hou, Libo; Liu, Xiaoqian; Wang, Yinghui; Gu, Wei; Meng, Qingguo; Wang, Wen

    2015-10-01

    C-type lectins are a family of calcium-dependent carbohydrate-binding proteins which are believed to play important roles in the innate immunity of invertebrates. This study identified two novel C-type lectins, designated as MnCTLDcp2 and MnCTLDcp3, from the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense. The full-length cDNA of MnCTLDcp2 was of 1582 bp with an open reading frame (ORF) of 972 bp encoding a polypeptide of 323 amino acids. The complete nucleotide sequence of MnCTLDcp3 cDNA was 583 bp, containing a 555 bp ORF encoding a putative protein of 184 deduced amino acids. The deduced MnCTLDcp2 and MnCTLDcp3 proteins both contained a single C-type lectin-like domain (CTLD). Besides, MnCTLDcp2 contains a signal peptide and an low-density lipoprotein receptor class A (LDLa) domain. Reverse transcription PCR showed that MnCTLDcp2 was expressed in the heart, gill, nerve hepatopancreas and intestine; MnCTLDcp3 was expressed in the hepatopancreas, heart, nerve, gill and muscle. Their expression in the heart tissue was regulated following challenge with bacteria. The microbial agglutination assay showed that both MnCTLDcp2 and MnCTLDcp3 could agglutinated bacteria in the presence of calcium. All these results suggested that MnCTLDcp2 and MnCTLDcp3 functioned as pattern recognition receptors in the immune system of M. nipponense. PMID:26208755

  1. The Cultivated Mind: From Mental Mediation to Cultivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Josephs, Ingrid E.; Fuhrer, Urs

    1998-01-01

    Examines Simmel's principle of cultivation whereby the cultivated mind is constructed through ongoing transactions of people with their cultural environment, cultural forms currently overlooked. Cultural forms result from externalizations of former person-culture transactions. Argues that development is structured through person-culture…

  2. How to cultivate Ectocarpus.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Susana M; Scornet, Delphine; Rousvoal, Sylvie; Peters, Nick T; Dartevelle, Laurence; Peters, Akira F; Cock, J Mark

    2012-02-01

    This article describes the standard procedure for growing Ectocarpus in the laboratory. The culture is started with partheno-sporophyte (or sporophyte) filaments because this is the stage that is usually maintained in strain collections. The standard medium is Provasoli-enriched natural seawater (PES), but Ectocarpus can also be grown in artificial seawater, which allows more precise control over the culture conditions. The algae can be cultivated either in plastic Petri dishes or in 10-L bottles with bubbling, if large amounts of biomass are required. Standard growth conditions are 13°C with a 12h/12h d/night cycle and 20 µmol photons m(-2) s(-1) irradiance using daylight-type fluorescent tubes. All manipulations of Ectocarpus cultures should be performed in a clean environment (if possible, under a laminar flow hood). Forceps should be dipped in ethanol and allowed to dry under the hood. PMID:22301662

  3. Micrometeorological principles of protected cultivation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protected cultivation is a broad term commonly used among producers of specialty crops. Techniques can range from complex fixed structures to field site selection, to straightforward cultural practices in the field. This introduction to the ASHS workshop "Protected cultivation for fruit crops" consi...

  4. Hybrid origins of cultivated potatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild and cultivated potatoes, Solanum section Petota, is taxonomically difficult, partly because of interspecific hybridization at both the diploid and polyploid levels. The taxonomy of cultivated potatoes is particularly controversial. With DNA sequence data of the GBSSI (waxy) gene we here infer r...

  5. Starting from grape cultivation.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, A

    1992-06-01

    Rapid population growth can only be stopped by lowering the fertility rate. The UNFPA recommends improving the employment opportunities for women as the single best way of achieving this reduction. An example of this phenomenon is the grape cultivation in the Nordeste (Northeastern) region of Brazil. This area is the poorest part of Brazil and has the highest proportion of indigent people. These people have been deforesting the Amazon in search of a better life. What they have done is sterilize the land and turned a tropical rain forest into a desert. In an effort to reverse this trend, grape cultivation has been introduced in an area called Petrolina. The area is very dry with less than 500 mm of precipitation annually. They do have access to a 5000 square kilometer artificial lake (the largest in the world) and the 3rd largest river in Brazil (the Sao Francisco). In an effort to avoid using agricultural medicines, the vines are fertilized with organic matter created on the farm and little or no pesticides are used since pests do not live in such an arid region. It has taken 20 years of trial and error, but the quality of the grapes is now very high and is competitive on the world market. Because of climate and location, harvesting is done year round which increases the productivity of the land. The farm managers have found that married women make the best workers and have the highest level of productivity. Age at 1st marriage averages 24-25, compared with 15-16 for unemployed women in the same area. The fertility rate averages 50% of that for unemployed women in the same area. Agricultural development offers the best opportunity for the women of developing countries. It can pay a high wage, reduce fertility, and replant desert areas. PMID:12285551

  6. The effect of astaxanthin on resistance of juvenile prawns Macrobrachium nipponense (Decapoda: Palaemonidae) to physical and chemical stress.

    PubMed

    Tizkar, Babak; Seidavi, Alireza; Ponce-Palafox, Jesús Trinidad; Pourashoori, Parastoo

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, the use of new scientific techniques has effectively improved aquaculture production processes. Astaxanthin has various properties in aquaculture and its antioxidant benefits have been closely related to stress resistance; besides, it is an essential factor for growth in many crustaceans and fish. The objective of this study was to evaluate the resistance of prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) fed diets containing different amounts of astaxanthin (AX) to the shock and stress of different physicochemical environments. A 70-day trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplementation of a source of astaxanthin (Carophyll Pink, 10% astaxanthin, w/w, Hoffman-La Roche, Switzerland) at various levels in the diet of M. nipponense juveniles. Four dry diets were prepared: AX0 without astaxanthin, AX50 with 50 mg/kg, AX100 with 100 mg/kg, and AX150 with 150 mg/kg astaxanthin. The feeding trial was conducted in a recirculation water system consisting of 12 fiberglass tanks (1000L) used for holding prawns. Three replicate aquaria were initially stocked with 36 org/m2 per tank. During the trial, prawns were maintained on a 12:12-h light:dark photoperiod with an ordinary incandescent lamp, and the water quality parameters were maintained as follows: water temperature, 25-26°C; salinity, 1 g/L; pH, 8.5-8.8; dissolved oxygen, 6.0-6.5 mg/L; and ammonia-nitrogen, 0.05 mg/L. Incorporation of AX, production output, and physiological condition were recorded after 10 weeks of feeding. At the end of the growing period, the prawns were exposed to thermal shock (0°C), ammonia (0.75 mg/L), and reduced oxygen (0.5 mg/L). The time to lethargy and the time to complete death of the prawns were recorded. The results showed that control prawns had the shortest time to lethargy and death compared with prawns subjected to the other treatments. The results of this study have shown that the amount of muscle tissue and gill carotenoids in prawn fed with an AX150 diet showed

  7. Activation of lipid catabolism by the water-soluble fraction of petroleum in the crustacean Macrobrachium borellii.

    PubMed

    Lavarías, S; Pollero, R J; Heras, H

    2006-05-01

    Little is known about the effect of the water-soluble fraction of crude oil (WSF) on lipid metabolism in invertebrates. The effect of the WSF on the triacylglycerol (TAG) mobilization, fatty acid activation and degradation was evaluated in the decapod Macrobrachium borellii, exposing adult and eggs at different stages of development for 7 days to a sublethal concentration of WSF. Using radioactive tracers, mitochondrial palmitoyl-CoA synthetase (ACS), triacylglycerol lipase (TAG-lipase) and fatty acid beta-oxidation system activities were assayed. Before studying the effect of WSF, the kinetic parameters of ACS were determined in purified mitochondria. Its optimal temperature and pH were 32 degrees C and 8.0, respectively, the apparent K(m) 2.48 micromol l(-1), and its V(max) of 1.93 nmol min(-1) mg protein(-1). These kinetic parameters differed significantly from this shrimp's microsomal isoform. After 7 days exposure to a sublethal concentration of WSF (0.6 mg/l), changes were observed in the enzymatic activity of all enzymes or enzymatic system assayed in adult midgut gland as well as in stage 5 eggs, a period of active organogenesis. An increase in the mobilization of energy stores was detected as early as stage 4, where TAG-lipase activity increased by 27% in exposed eggs. The increase was even more marked in exposed eggs at stage 5 where a three-fold rise (154%) was determined. Exposed adult shrimp also showed an augmented lipase activity by 38%. Fatty acid beta-oxidation increased by 51.0 and 35.5% in midgut gland and eggs at stage 5, respectively, but no changes were observed at less-developed stages. Mitochondrial fatty acid activation by ACS also increased in adults and stage 5 eggs by 7.4 and 52.0%, respectively. A similar response of the lipid catabolic pathways to WSF contamination in both adult and eggs, suggests that the exposure to this pollutant causes an increase in the energy needs of this shrimp. When validated by field studies, these catabolic

  8. The Prawn Macrobrachium vollenhovenii in the Senegal River Basin: Towards Sustainable Restocking of All-Male Populations for Biological Control of Schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Savaya Alkalay, Amit; Rosen, Ohad; Sokolow, Susanne H.; Faye, Yacinthe P. W.; Faye, Djibril S.; Aflalo, Eliahu D.; Jouanard, Nicolas; Zilberg, Dina; Huttinger, Elizabeth; Sagi, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Early malacological literature suggests that the outbreak of schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease transmitted by aquatic snails, in the Senegal River basin occurred due to ecological changes resulting from the construction of the Diama dam. The common treatment, the drug praziquantel, does not protect from the high risk of re-infection due to human contact with infested water on a daily basis. The construction of the dam interfered with the life cycle of the prawn Macrobrachium vollenhovenii by blocking its access to breeding grounds in the estuary. These prawns were demonstrated to be potential biological control agents, being effective predators of Schistosoma-susceptible snails. Here, we propose a responsible restocking strategy using all-male prawn populations which could provide sustainable disease control. Male prawns reach a larger size and have a lower tendency to migrate than females. We, therefore, expect that periodic restocking of all-male juveniles will decrease the prevalence of schistosomiasis and increase villagers' welfare. In this interdisciplinary study, we examined current prawn abundance along the river basin, complemented with a retrospective questionnaire completed by local fishermen. We revealed the current absence of prawns upriver and thus demonstrated the need for restocking. Since male prawns are suggested to be preferable for bio-control, we laid the molecular foundation for production of all-male M. vollenhovenii through a complete sequencing of the insulin-like androgenic gland-encoding gene (IAG), which is responsible for sexual differentiation in crustaceans. We also conducted bioinformatics and immunohistochemistry analyses to demonstrate the similarity of this sequence to the IAG of another Macrobrachium species in which neo-females are produced and their progeny are 100% males. At least 100 million people at risk of schistosomiasis are residents of areas that experienced water management manipulations. Our suggested non

  9. Toxicity of the organophosphorous insecticide metamidophos (o,s-dimethyl phosphoramidothioate) to larvae of the freshwater prawn and the blue shrimp

    SciTech Connect

    Juarez, L.M.; Sanchez, J. )

    1989-08-01

    The organophosphorous insecticide O,S-dimethyl phosphoramidothioate (Metamidophos, Tamaron, Monitor, Hamidop) is widely used for pest control in tropical crops. If washed down to streams and estuaries its residues could adversely affect populations of commercially important crustaceans, like those of the palaemonid prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and the penaeid shrimp Penaeus stylirostris. This paper presents information on the toxicity of O,S-dimethyl phosphoramidothioate to larvae of M. rosenbergii and P. stylirostris.

  10. The invasion of five alien species in the Delta do Parnaíba Environmental Protection Area, Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Loebmann, Daniel; Mai, Ana Cecília G; Lee, James T

    2010-09-01

    Marine biological invasions have been regarded as one of the major causes of native biodiversity loss, with shipping and aquaculture being the leading contributors for the introductions of alien species in aquatic ecosystems. In the present study, five aquatic alien species (one mollusk, three crustaceans and one fish species) were detected during dives, shore searches and from the fisheries on the coast of the Delta do Parnaíba Environmental Protection Area, in the States of Piauí and Maranhão, Northeastern Brazil. The species were the bicolor purse-oyster Isognomon bicolor, the whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, the giant river prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, the Indo-Pacific swimming crab Charybdis hellerii and, the muzzled blenny Omobranchus punctatus. Ballast water (I. bicolor, C. hellerii, and O. punctatus) and aquaculture activities (L. vannamei and M. rosenbergii) in adjacent areas are the most likely vectors of introduction. All exotic species found have potential impact risks to the environment because they are able to compete against native species for resources (food and habitat). Isognomon bicolor share the same habitat and food items with the native bivalve species of mussels and barnacles. Litopenaeus vannamei share the same habitat and food items with the native penaeids such as the pinkspot shrimp Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis, the Southern brown shrimp Farfantepenaeus subtilis, and the Southern white shrimp Litopenaeus schmitti, and in the past few years L. vannamei was responsible for a viral epidemics in the cultivation tanks that could be transmitted to native penaeid shrimps. Charybdis hellerii is also able to cause impacts on the local fisheries as the species can decrease the populations of native portunid crabs which are commercialized in the studied region. Macrobrachium rosenbergii may be sharing natural resources with the Amazon River prawn Macrobrachium amazonicum. Omobranchus punctatus shares habit with the native redlip blenny

  11. [Artificial cultivation modes for Dendrobium officinale].

    PubMed

    Si, Jin-Ping; Yu, Qiao-Xian; Song, Xian-Shui; Shao, Wei-Jiang

    2013-02-01

    Since the beginning of the new century, the artificial cultivation of Dendrobium officinale has made a breakthrough progress. This paper systematically expounds key technologies, main features and cautions of the cultivation modes e.g. bionic-facility cultivation, the original ecological cultivation, and potting cultivation for D. officinale, which can provide useful information for the development and improvement of D. officinale industry. PMID:23713268

  12. Transcriptome Analysis of Androgenic Gland for Discovery of Novel Genes from the Oriental River Prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense, Using Illumina Hiseq 2000

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Shubo; Fu, Hongtuo; Zhou, Qiao; Sun, Shengming; Jiang, Sufei; Xiong, Yiwei; Gong, Yongsheng; Qiao, Hui; Zhang, Wenyi

    2013-01-01

    Background The oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense, is an important aquaculture species in China, even in whole of Asia. The androgenic gland produces hormones that play crucial roles in sexual differentiation to maleness. This study is the first de novo M. nipponense transcriptome analysis using cDNA prepared from mRNA isolated from the androgenic gland. Illumina/Solexa was used for sequencing. Methodology and Principal Finding The total volume of RNA sample was more than 5 ug. We generated 70,853,361 high quality reads after eliminating adapter sequences and filtering out low-quality reads. A total of 78,408 isosequences were obtained by clustering and assembly of the clean reads, producing 57,619 non-redundant transcripts with an average length of 1244.19 bp. In total 70,702 isosequences were matched to the Nr database, additional analyses were performed by GO (33,203), KEGG (17,868), and COG analyses (13,817), identifying the potential genes and their functions. A total of 47 sex-determination related gene families were identified from the M. nipponense androgenic gland transcriptome based on the functional annotation of non-redundant transcripts and comparisons with the published literature. Furthermore, a total of 40 candidate novel genes were found, that may contribute to sex-determination based on their extremely high expression levels in the androgenic compared to other sex glands,. Further, 437 SSRs and 65,535 high-confidence SNPs were identified in this EST dataset from which 14 EST-SSR markers have been isolated. Conclusion Our study provides new sequence information for M. nipponense, which will be the basis for further genetic studies on decapods crustaceans. More importantly, this study dramatically improves understanding of sex-determination mechanisms, and advances sex-determination research in all crustacean species. The huge number of potential SSR and SNP markers isolated from the transcriptome may shed the lights on research in many

  13. Integrating cultivation history into EBIPM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ecologically based invasive plant management (EBIPM) is a systematic thinking and planning process to assist with applying the appropriate combination of tools and strategies to addrress the underlying cause of invasion rather than simply controlling invasive annual grass abundance. Cultivation his...

  14. Cultivating Spontaneous Self-Discipline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Shaughnessy, Molly

    1998-01-01

    Draws on contemporary sources to provide strategies for cultivating self-discipline. Advocates self-healing for the adult to be free from destructive attitudes and personal history that can keep adults from being mindful of the child's needs, perspective, and potential. Concludes with ways to facilitate a truly Montessori approach to discipline.…

  15. Cultivating Spiritual Reflectivity in Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Clifford

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the need to address spiritual beliefs in teacher education, arguing that: because spiritual impulses are so primary for many people, they must be addressed in teacher education; educators must recognize and cultivate students' spiritual motivations to teach and foster reflectivity; and student teachers must learn what they can legally…

  16. Levels of platinum group metals in selected species (Sarotherodon melanotheron, Chonophorus lateristriga, Macrobrachium vollenhovenii and Crassostrea tulipa) in some estuaries and lagoons along the coast of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Essumang, D K; Adokoh, C K; Boamponsem, L

    2010-01-01

    The use of some biota as bioindicators of heavy metal pollution has been demonstrated as particularly adequate due to their capacity of bioconcentration. This study evaluated the levels of platinum group metals (PGMs) in some selected species along the coastal belt of Ghana, using the neutron activation analysis (NAA) method. The result was processed to evaluate pollution indices in order to map the distribution of the metals in those species in the lagoons and estuaries along the costal belt of Ghana. The analysis showed significant levels of all PGMs in blackchin tilapia (Sarotherodon melanotheron Cichlidae), brown goby (Chonophorus lateristriga Gobiidae), shrimp (Macrobrachium vollenhovenii Palaemonidae), and mangrove oysters (Crassostrea tulipa Ostreidae) in the lagoons and river Pra estuary. However, the oysters showed an elevated mean concentration of 0.13 μg/g (dry weight) Pd. From the pollution indices, most of the sampling sites registered mean contamination factor (CF) values between 1.20 and 3.00 for Pt, Pd, and Rh. The pollution load index (PLI) conducted also gave an average pollution index between 0.79 and 2.37, indicating progressive contamination levels. The results revealed that anthropogenic sources, industrial and hospital effluent, etc., together with vehicular emissions, could be the contributing factors to the deposition of PGMs along the Ghanaian coast. PMID:20953547

  17. Identification of androgenic gland microRNA and their target genes to discover sex-related microRNA in the oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense.

    PubMed

    Jin, S B; Fu, H T; Jiang, S F; Xiong, Y W; Qiao, H; Zhang, W Y; Gong, Y S; Wu, Y

    2015-01-01

    The oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense, is an important aquaculture species in China. The androgenic gland produces hormones that play crucial roles in the differentiation of crustaceans to the male sex. MicroRNA (miRNA) post-transcriptionally regulates many protein-coding genes, influencing important biological and metabolic processes. However, currently, there is no published data identifying miRNA in M. nipponense. In this study, we identified novel miRNA in the androgenic gland of M. nipponense. Using the high-throughput Illumina Solexa system, 1077 miRNA were identified from small RNA libraries by aligning with the de novo androgenic gland transcriptome of M. nipponense (obtained from RNA-Seq) and the sequences in the miRBase21 database. A total of 8,248, 76,011, and 78,307 target genes were predicted in the EST and SRA sequences provided in the NCBI database, and the androgenic gland transcriptome of M. nipponense, respectively. Some potential sex-related miRNA were identified based on the function of the predicted target genes. The results of our study provide new information regarding the miRNA expression in M. nipponense, which could be the basis for further genetic studies on decapod crustaceans. PMID:26782487

  18. Use of the Multispecies Freshwater Biomonitor to assess behavioral changes of Poecilia reticulata (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae) and Macrobrachium lanchesteri (Decapoda: Palaemonidae) in response to acid mine drainage: laboratory exposure.

    PubMed

    Mohti, Azmah; Shuhaimi-Othman, Mohammad; Gerhardt, Almut

    2012-09-01

    The behavioral responses of guppy Poecilia reticulata (Poeciliidae) and prawn Macrobrachium lanchesteri (Palaemonidae) individuals exposed to acid mine drainage (AMD) were monitored online in the laboratory with a Multispecies Freshwater Biomonitor™ (MFB). These responses were compared to those to reference water acidified to the respective pH values (ACID). Test animals in the juvenile stage were used for both species and were exposed to AMD and ACID for 24 hours. The stress behaviors of both test animals consisted mainly of decreased activity in AMD and increased activity in ACID, indicating that the metals in the AMD played a role as a stress factor in addition to pH. The locomotor activity levels of guppies and prawns for the ACID treatment were higher than the locomotor activity levels for the AMD treatment with increasing pH value. For guppies, significant differences were observed when specimens were exposed to AMD and ACID at pH 5.0 and 6.0; the percentage activities were only 16% and 12%, respectively, for AMD treatment, whereas for ACID treatment, the percentage activities were 35% and 40%, respectively, similar to the value of 36% for the controls. Similar trends were also observed for prawns, for which the percentage activities were only 6% and 4%, respectively, for AMD treatment, whereas for ACID treatment, the percentage activities were 31% and 38%, respectively, compared to 44% in the controls. This study showed that both species are suitable for use as indicators for ecotoxicity testing with the MFB. PMID:22868673

  19. [Impacts of cultivated land conversion on cultivated land productivity in China: prediction and analysis].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qun-ou; Deng, Xiang-zheng; Lin, Ying-zhi; Cui, Yong-wei

    2010-12-01

    This paper simulated the spatial patterns of cultivated land in China under the future scenario by using the Dynamics of Land System (DLS) model, and then estimated the cultivated land productivity at the grid pixel dimensions based on the Estimation System of Land Production (ESLP). In addition, the spatial patterns of cultivated land productivity in each of China agro-ecological zones were analyzed. On this basis, this paper predicted the impacts of cultivated land conversion on the cultivated land production in China in 2000-2020, and identified the major affecting factors on the cultivated land production. The research results indicated that the impact of improving the cultivated land productivity on the cultivated land production would be wunch more remarkable than that from the magnitude of cultivated land conversion in regions where there were high potential to imrprove the cultivated land productivity. However, in the regions with nearly no room to improve the productivity, cultivated land conversion would produce more apparent impacts on the total cultivated land production. In this sense, it was of significance for the national food security in China to adjust the cultivated land conversion to ensure the 0.12 billion hm2 of cultivated land, and to increase investment and improve management level to increase per unit grain yield. PMID:21442997

  20. Seaweed cultivation: Traditional way and its reformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Xiu-Geng; Bao, Ying; Lu, Shan

    1999-09-01

    Seaweed cultivation or phycoculture has been developed rather fast in recent years. The total production of cultivated seaweed at present is about 6250×103 tons fresh weight. The total cultivation area is estimated as 200×103 hectare. The annual total value of cultivated seaweeds has been estimated to be more than 3 billion US dollars. Phycoculture provides many job opportunities for the coastal region people, has the potential to improve marine environments and thus even induce global change. All traditional cultivation methods and techniques are based on or start from the individual plant or the cultivated seaweed population. Modern biological science and biotechnology achievements have benefited agriculture a lot, but traditional seaweed cultivation has not changed much since its founding. This is because seaweed cultivation has been quite conservative for quite a long period and has accumulated many problems requiring solution. Four main problems might be the most universal ones holding back further development of the industry. New ways of seaweed cultivation must be developed, new techniques must be perfected, and new problems solved. This paper mainly discusses the main problems of traditional seaweed cultivation at present and its possible further development and reformation in the future.

  1. A Simple "in Vitro" Culture of Freshwater Prawn Embryos for Laboratory Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porntrai, Supaporn; Damrongphol, Praneet

    2008-01-01

    Giant freshwater prawn ("Macrobrachium rosenbergii" De Man) embryos can be cultured "in vitro" to hatching in 15% (v/v) artificial seawater (ASW). This technique can be applied as a bioassay for testing toxicity or for the effects of various substances on embryo development and can be used as a simple and low-cost model for studying embryo…

  2. Seaweed cultivation for renewable resources

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, K.T.; Benson, P.H.

    1987-01-01

    In the 1970's and 80's, major research and development programs were launched to explore the possibility of using marine biomass as a source of energy. This volume, not only reviews the accomplishments of the aforementioned programs, but also describes how this research relates to seaweed cultivation for other products, such as food, feed, and high value chemicals. Topics covered include the features of marine biomass production, biotechnological manipulations of marine algae, and marine biomass conversion to energy, as well as economics. The chapters synthesize a large number of technical reports, journal articles, symposia and conference proceedings and technology transfer meetings.

  3. An evaluation of replacing fish meal with fermented soybean meal in the diet of Macrobrachium nipponense: Growth, nonspecific immunity, and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhili; Zhang, Yixiang; Ye, Jinyun; Du, Zhenyu; Kong, Youqin

    2015-05-01

    Partial or complete replacement of fish meal (FM) with fermented soybean meal (FSM) was examined in Macrobrachium nipponense over an 8-week growth trial. Growth and immune characteristics were evaluated. Fermented soybean meal replaced 0 (FM, control), 25% (R25), 50% (R50), 75% (R75), or 100% of the FM (R100) in five isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets. Each diet was fed to juvenile prawns (mean weight, 0.103 ± 0.0009 g) twice daily to apparent satiation in five replicates. Weight gain and specific growth rate of M. nipponense were significantly higher in prawns fed the R25 diet than that of prawns fed the FM diet. No significant differences were observed among the other treatments. Total hemocyte count and hemolymph phagocytic activity decreased as the proportion of FSM increased. Total antioxidant activity competence and malondialdehyde level in the hepatopancreas were highest in prawns fed the R100 diet. mRNA levels of the antioxidant genes Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase and catalase, heat shock cognate protein 70, and heat shock protein 90 were significantly differentially regulated in the prawn hepatopancreas. In addition, percent mortality increased after challenge with live Aeromonas hydrophila. Percent mortality of prawns fed the R100 diet was significantly higher than that of prawns fed the FM and R25 diets. These findings demonstrate that (1) M. nipponense growth performance was not affected by including a high proportion of FSM in the diet, and the best growth performance was obtained when 25% of the FM was replaced with FSM; (2) nonspecific immunity was impaired when all of the FM was replaced with FSM. PMID:25707598

  4. Developmental effects of exposure to ultraviolet B radiation on the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium olfersi: Mitochondria as a target of environmental UVB radiation.

    PubMed

    de Quadros, Thaline; Schramm, Heloísa; Zeni, Eliane C; Simioni, Carmen; Allodi, Silvana; Müller, Yara M R; Ammar, Dib; Nazari, Evelise M

    2016-10-01

    In South America, increased UVB radiation has become an important environmental issue that is potentially threatening aquatic ecosystems. Considering that species exhibit different degrees of sensitivity to UVB radiation and that embryos are more sensitive than organisms at later life stages, the aim of this study was to characterize the effects of UVB radiation on subcellular compartments of embryos of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium olfersi. This species lives and reproduces in clear and shallow waters, where UV radiation can fully penetrates. Embryos were irradiated with a UVB 6W lamp for 30min and examined after 1h, 12h, 24h and 48h of exposure. The irradiance of the UVB used simulates the UV radiation that embryos receive in the natural environment. The subcellular compartment most affected by the UVB radiation was the mitochondria, which exhibited a circular shape, a decrease in mitochondrial cristae, rupture of membranes and a morphology compatible with fission. These impairments were observed simultaneously with increased ROS production, just after 1h of UVB exposure. Thus, we investigated proteins related to mitochondrial fission (Drp-1) and fusion (Mfn-1), which are essential to cell maintenance. We found a significant increase in Drp-1 expression at all analyzed time-points and a significant decrease in Mfn-1 expression only after 24h of UVB exposure. Additionally, a decrease in embryonic cell viability was verified via the mitochondrial integrity assay. To conclude, we observed important mitochondrial dysfunctions against the environmental stress caused by UVB radiation. Moreover, the cellular responses found are critical and should not be disregarded, because they impact embryos that can potentially compromise the aquatic ecosystems. PMID:27344016

  5. Immunocytochemical localization of V-H(+) -ATPase, Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase, and carbonic anhydrase in gill lamellae of adult freshwater euryhaline shrimp Macrobrachium acanthurus (Decapoda, Palaemonidae).

    PubMed

    Maraschi, Anieli Cristina; Freire, Carolina Arruda; Prodocimo, Viviane

    2015-08-01

    Physiological (organismal), biochemical, and molecular biological contributions to the knowledge of the osmoregulatory plasticity of palaemonid freshwater shrimps has provided a fairly complete model of transporter localization in their branchial epithelium. Direct immunological demonstration of the main enzymes in the gill epithelia of adult palaemonids is, however, still incipient. The diadromous freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium acanthurus was exposed to increased salinity (25‰ for 24 hr), and its responses at the systemic level were evaluated through the assays of hemolymph osmolality and muscle hydration, and at cellular and subcellular levels through the activity and localization of the V-H(+) -ATPase, the Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase, and the carbonic anhydrase. Results showed an increase in hemolymph osmolality (629 ± 5.3 mOsm/kg H2 O) and a decrease in muscle hydration (73.8 ± 0.5%), comparing values after 24 hr in 25‰ with control shrimps in freshwater (respectively 409.5 ± 15.8 mOsm/kg H2 O and 77.5 ± 0.4%). V-H(+) -ATPase was localized in pillar cells, whereas Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase in the septal cells. The main novelty of this study was that carbonic anhydrase was localized in the whole branchial tissue, in pillar and septal cells. Exposure to high salinity for 24 hr led to no detectable changes in their localization or in vitro activity. Immunolocalization data corroborated the literature and current models of palaemonid gill ion transport. The absence of changes reinforces the need for the constant expression of these enzymes to account for the euryhalinity of these shrimps. PMID:26036663

  6. Activity and Transcriptional Responses of Hepatopancreatic Biotransformation and Antioxidant Enzymes in the Oriental River Prawn Macrobrachium nipponense Exposed to Microcystin-LR.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Julin; Wang, Xueqin; Gu, Zhiming; Zhang, Yingying; Wang, Zaizhao

    2015-10-01

    Microcystins (MCs) are a major group of cyanotoxins with side effects in many organisms; thus, compounds in this group are recognized as potent stressors and health hazards in aquatic ecosystems. In order to assess the toxicity of MCs and detoxification mechanism of freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium nipponense, the full-length cDNAs of the glutathione S-transferase (gst) and catalase (cat) genes were isolated from the hepatopancreas. The transcription level and activity changes in the biotransformation enzyme (glutathione S-transferase (GST)) and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx)) in the hepatopancreas of M. nipponense exposed to MC-LR (0.2, 1, 5, and 25 μg/L) for 12, 24, 72 and 96 h were analyzed. The results showed that the isolated full-length cDNAs of cat and gst genes from M. nipponense displayed a high similarity to other crustaceans, and their mRNAs were mainly expressed in the hepatopancreas. MC-LR caused significant increase of GST activity following 48-96 h (p < 0.05) and an increase in SOD activity especially in 24- and 48-h exposures. CAT activity was activated when exposed to MC-LR in 12-, 24- and 48-h exposures and then it was inhibited at 96-h exposure. There was no significant effect on GPx activity after the 12- and 24-h exposures, whereas it was significantly stimulated after the 72- and 96-h exposures (p < 0.05). The transcription was altered similarly to enzyme activity, but the transcriptional response was generally more immediate and had greater amplitude than enzymatic response, particularly for GST. All of the results suggested that MC-LR can induce antioxidative modulation variations in M. nipponense hepatopancreas in order to eliminate oxidative damage. PMID:26457718

  7. Activity and Transcriptional Responses of Hepatopancreatic Biotransformation and Antioxidant Enzymes in the Oriental River Prawn Macrobrachium nipponense Exposed to Microcystin-LR

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Julin; Wang, Xueqin; Gu, Zhiming; Zhang, Yingying; Wang, Zaizhao

    2015-01-01

    Microcystins (MCs) are a major group of cyanotoxins with side effects in many organisms; thus, compounds in this group are recognized as potent stressors and health hazards in aquatic ecosystems. In order to assess the toxicity of MCs and detoxification mechanism of freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium nipponense, the full-length cDNAs of the glutathione S-transferase (gst) and catalase (cat) genes were isolated from the hepatopancreas. The transcription level and activity changes in the biotransformation enzyme (glutathione S-transferase (GST)) and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx)) in the hepatopancreas of M. nipponense exposed to MC-LR (0.2, 1, 5, and 25 μg/L) for 12, 24, 72 and 96 h were analyzed. The results showed that the isolated full-length cDNAs of cat and gst genes from M. nipponense displayed a high similarity to other crustaceans, and their mRNAs were mainly expressed in the hepatopancreas. MC-LR caused significant increase of GST activity following 48–96 h (p < 0.05) and an increase in SOD activity especially in 24- and 48-h exposures. CAT activity was activated when exposed to MC-LR in 12-, 24- and 48-h exposures and then it was inhibited at 96-h exposure. There was no significant effect on GPx activity after the 12- and 24-h exposures, whereas it was significantly stimulated after the 72- and 96-h exposures (p < 0.05). The transcription was altered similarly to enzyme activity, but the transcriptional response was generally more immediate and had greater amplitude than enzymatic response, particularly for GST. All of the results suggested that MC-LR can induce antioxidative modulation variations in M. nipponense hepatopancreas in order to eliminate oxidative damage. PMID:26457718

  8. Molecular characterization and developmental expression of vitellogenin in the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense and the effects of RNA interference and eyestalk ablation on ovarian maturation.

    PubMed

    Bai, Hongkun; Qiao, Hui; Li, Fajun; Fu, Hongtuo; Sun, Shengming; Zhang, Wenyi; Jin, Shubo; Gong, Yongsheng; Jiang, Sufei; Xiong, Yiwei

    2015-05-10

    Vitellogenin (Vg) is the precursor of yolk protein, which functions as a nutritive resource that is important for embryonic growth and gonad development. In this study, the cDNA encoding the Vg gene from the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense was cloned using expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis and the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) approach. The transcript encoded 2536 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 286.810 kDa. Quantitative real-time PCR indicated high expression of Mn-Vg in the female ovary, hemocytes, and hepatopancreas. As ovaries developed, the expression level of Mn-Vg increased in both the hepatopancreas and ovary. In the hepatopancreas, the expression level rose more slowly at the early stage of vitellogenesis and reached the peak more rapidly compared to the expression pattern in ovary. The observed changes in Mn-Vg expression level at different development stages suggest the role of nutrient source in embryonic and larval development. Eyestalk ablation caused the Mn-Vg expression level to increase significantly compared to eyestalk-intact groups during the ovary development stages. Ablation accelerated ovary maturation by removing hormone inhibition of Mn-Vg in the hepatopancreas and ovary. In adult females, Mn-Vg dsRNA injection resulted in decreased expression of Mn-Vg in both the hepatopancreas and ovary, and two injection treatment dramatically delayed ovary maturation. Vg RNA interference down-regulated the vitellogenin receptor (VgR) expression level in the ovary, which illustrates the close relationship between Vg and VgR in the process of vitellogenesis. PMID:25499697

  9. Molecular characterization and mRNA expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1 and cognate inhibiting factor in Macrobrachium nipponense in response to hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shengming; Xuan, Fujun; Fu, Hongtuo; Ge, Xianping; Zhu, Jian; Qiao, Hui; Jin, Shubo; Zhang, Wenyi

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs) are considered to be the master switches of oxygen-dependent gene expression in mammalian species. Currently, very little is known about the function of this important pathway or the molecular structures of key players in the hypoxia-sensitive Oriental River Prawn Macrobrachium nipponense. In this study, HIFs-1α (HIF-1α), -1β (HIF-1β) and HIF 1-alpha inhibitor (FIH-1) from M. nipponense were cloned. The 4903-bp cDNA of M. nipponense HIF-1α (MnHIF-1α) encodes a protein of 1088 aa, M. nipponense HIF-1β (MnHIF-1β) spans 2042bp encoding 663 aa and the 1163bp M. nipponense FIH-1 (MnFIH-1) specifies a polypeptide of 345 aa. MnHIF-1 and MnFIH-1 homologs exhibit significant sequence similarity and share key functional domains with previously described vertebrate and invertebrate isoforms. Phylogenetic analysis identifies that genetic diversification of HIF-1 and FIH-1 occurred within the invertebrate lineage, indicating functional specialization of the oxygen sensing pathways in this group. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR demonstrated that MnHIF-1 and MnFIH-1 mRNA are expressed in different tissues and exhibit transcriptional responses to severe hypoxia in gill and muscle tissue, consistent with their putative role in oxygen sensing and the adaptive response to hypoxia. The role of HIF-1α in response to hypoxia was further investigated in the gills and muscles of prawns using in situ hybridization. These results suggested that HIF-1α plays an important role in oxygen sensing and homeostasis in M. nipponense. PMID:26883381

  10. Identification and comparative analysis of the oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) microRNA expression profile during hypoxia using a deep sequencing approach.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shengming; Fu, Hongtuo; Ge, Xianping; Zhu, Jian; Gu, Zhimin; Xuan, Fujun

    2016-03-01

    Hypoxia refers to a state of oxygen deficiency, which is observed frequently in aquaculture ponds. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that are important effectors in regulating gene expression through posttranscriptional mechanisms. They are key elements in the response to hypoxia. The oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) is an important commercial aquaculture species, and is sensitive to hypoxia. To date, there are no reports describing M. nipponense miRNAs. In this study, Solexa deep sequencing technology was used for high-throughput analysis of miRNAs in a small RNA library isolated from four M. nipponense tissues (gill, hepatopancreas, muscle and hemocytes). In total, 9,227,356 reads were obtained, 4,293,155 of which were related to 267 unique miRNAs, including 203 conserved and 64 prawn-specific miRNAs. Furthermore, miRNA features including length distribution and end variations were characterized. Annotation of targets revealed a broad range of biological processes and signal transduction pathways regulated by M. nipponense miRNAs. In addition, 880 co-expressed and 39 specific (25 normoxia-specific and 14 hypoxia-specific) miRNAs that may be involved in the response to hypoxia were confirmed using miRNA microarray analysis from the four prawn tissues combined. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis of eight miRNAs in the normoxia and hypoxia groups showed good concordance between the sequencing and qPCR data. This study provides the first large-scale identification and characterization of M. nipponense miRNAs and their potential targets, and represents a foundation for further characterization of their roles in the regulation of the diversity of hypoxia processes. PMID:26829004

  11. Effects of cultivation frequency on sugarcane yields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reducing the number of cultivations during one or more years of a four year crop cycle reduces production expenses and could increase profitability if yields are not adversely affected. This study was initiated to determine the effects of cultivation on yields of sugarcane grown on a clay soil both ...

  12. Effects of cultivation frequency on sugarcane yields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reducing the number of cultivations during one or more years of a four year crop cycle may potentially reduce production expenses for Louisiana sugarcane growers. This study was initiated to determine the effects of cultivation on yields of sugarcane grown on a clay soil both on an annual basis and ...

  13. Geographic information system-based identification of suitable cultivation sites for wood-cultivated ginseng.

    PubMed

    Beon, Mu Sup; Park, Jun Ho; Kang, Hag Mo; Cho, Sung Jong; Kim, Hyun

    2013-10-01

    Wood-cultivated ginseng, including roots in its dried form, is produced in forest land without using artificial facilities such as light barriers. To identify suitable sites for the propagation of wood-cultivated ginseng, factor combination technique (FCT) and linear combination technique (LCT) were used with geographic information system and the results were superimposed onto an actual wood-cultivated ginseng plantation. The LCT more extensively searched for suitable sites of cultivation than that by the FCT; further, the LCT probed wide areas considering the predominance of precipitous mountains in Korea. In addition, the LCT showed the much higher degree of overlap with the actual cultivation sites; therefore, the LCT more comprehensively reflects the cultivator's intention for site selection. On the other hand, the inclusion of additional factors for the selection of suitable cultivation sites and experts' opinions may enhance the effectiveness and accuracy of the LCT for site application. PMID:24235864

  14. An Overview of Talent Cultivation Models in Foreign Vocational Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Youhua

    2010-01-01

    A talent cultivation model refers to a model of the construction and operation of the cultivation process adopted by a school to achieve its cultivation objectives. Four models, with their differences and similarities, are introduced in this paper.

  15. Potential and limitations of Burgundy truffle cultivation.

    PubMed

    Stobbe, Ulrich; Egli, Simon; Tegel, Willy; Peter, Martina; Sproll, Ludger; Büntgen, Ulf

    2013-06-01

    Burgundy truffles (Tuber aestivum syn. Tuber uncinatum) are the highly prized fruit bodies of subterranean fungi always occurring in ectomycorrhizal symbiosis with host plants. Successful cultivation can be achieved through artificial mycorrhization and outplanting of mostly oaks and hazel on suitable terrain. Here, we review ecological requirements, the influence of environmental factors, and the importance of molecular techniques for a successful cultivation of T. aestivum across Europe. The historical background and current knowledge of T. aestivum cultivation are discussed in light of its socioeconomic relevance. PMID:23666478

  16. Mammalian cell cultivation in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gmünder, Felix K.; Suter, Robert N.; Kiess, M.; Urfer, R.; Nordau, C.-G.; Cogoli, A.

    Equipment used in space for the cultivation of mammalian cells does not meet the usual standard of earth bound bioreactors. Thus, the development of a space worthy bioreactor is mandatory for two reasons: First, to investigate the effect on single cells of the space environment in general and microgravity conditions in particular, and second, to provide researchers on long term missions and the Space Station with cell material. However, expertise for this venture is not at hand. A small and simple device for animal cell culture experiments aboard Spacelab (Dynamic Cell Culture System; DCCS) was developed. It provides 2 cell culture chambers, one is operated as a batch system, the other one as a perfusion system. The cell chambers have a volume of 200 μl. Medium exchange is achieved with an automatic osmotic pump. The system is neither mechanically stirred nor equipped with sensors. Oxygen for cell growth is provided by a gas chamber that is adjacent to the cell chambers. The oxygen gradient produced by the growing cells serves to maintain the oxygen influx by diffusion. Hamster kidney cells growing on microcarriers were used to test the biological performance of the DCCS. On ground tests suggest that this system is feasible.

  17. Pensions for 'cultivators of science'.

    PubMed

    Crosland, Maurice

    2010-10-01

    The occasional (and belated) concern of the British Government with science in the nineteenth century is a matter of potential interest to historians of science, yet many previous studies have tended to range over a variety of different aspects of the question. There have been too many vague allusions to financial support as 'money for science' in general. It is time that particular parts of the problem were unpacked. For example, the award of money (from the 1820s) to pay a few people of independent means for apparatus was quite distinct from the provision (from the 1830s) of an occasional pension. Even then, to speak of 'pensions' uncovers unfortunate ambiguities. For too long science in Britain was regarded as no more than a private hobby for the well-to-do. As late as 1856 an official government statement seemed to make this attitude official. The English attitude to pensions differed remarkably from the French, who established a precedent in the reward of savants, sometimes quoted enviously by British men of science. In 1837 Robert Peel virtually admitted that, in awarding pensions to 'cultivators of science', he was following the French practice. It may also be useful to emphasise the contrast between the English (often led by Cambridge professors) and the Scots, mostly from Edinburgh, mainly represented here by Whewell and Brewster, respectively. Babbage had a different role in this story from that usually told. A large part in supporting men of science of modest means could have been played by the British Association for the Advancement of Science but it consistently refused to do so, although it supported an elite among its own members. PMID:21466131

  18. The molecular genetics of cultivated mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Whiteford, J R; Thurston, C F

    2000-01-01

    The types, economic significance and methods of production of the principal cultivated mushrooms are described in outline. These organisms are all less than ideal for conventional genetic analysis and breeding, so molecular methods afford a particular opportunity to advance our understanding of their biology and potentially give the prospect of improvement by gene manipulation. The sequences described are limited to those found in GenBank by August 1999. The gene sequences isolated from the white button mushroom Agaricus bisporus, the shiitake Lentinula edodes, the oyster mushrooms Pleurotus spp., the paddy straw mushroom Volvariella volvacea and the enotake Flammulina velutipes are described. The largest group are genes from A. bisporus, which includes 29 for intracellular proteins and 12 for secreted proteins. In comparison, only a total of 26 sequences can be reported for the other cultivated species. A. bisporus is also the only cultivated species for which molecular karyotyping is already supported by reliable markers for all 13 of its chromosomes. PMID:10907549

  19. Long term cultivation of larger benthic Foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wöger, Julia; Eder, Wolfgang; Kinoshita, Shunichi; Antonino, Briguglio; Carles, Ferrandes-Cañadell; Hohenegger, Johann

    2015-04-01

    Benthic Foraminifera are used in a variety of applications employing numerous different methods, i.e. ecological monitoring, studying the effects of ocean acidification, reconstructing palaeo-bathymetry or investigating palaeo-salinity and palaeo-temperature to name only a few. To refine our understanding of ecological influences on larger benthic foraminiferal biology and to review inferences from field observations, culture experiments have become an indispensable tool. While culture experiments on smaller benthic foraminifera have become increasingly frequent in the past century, reports of the cultivation of symbiont bearing larger Foraminifera are rare. Generally, cultivation experiments can be divided into two groups: Culturing of populations and cultivation of single specimens allowing individual investigation. The latter differ form the former by several restrictions resulting from the need to limit individual motility without abridging microenvironmental conditions in the Foraminiferans artificial habitat, necessary to enable the individual to development as unfettered as possible. In this study we present first experiences and preliminary results of the long-term cultivation of larger benthic Foraminifera conducted at the 'Tropical Biosphere Research Station Sesoko Island, University of the Ryukyus', Japan, trying to reproduce natural conditions as closely as possible. Individuals of three species of larger benthic Foraminifera (Heterostegina depressa, Palaeonummulites venosus and Operculina complanata) have been cultured since April 2014. At the time of the general assembly the cultivation experiments will have been going on for more than one year, with the aim to investigate growth rates, longevities and reproduction strategies for comparison with results statistically inferred from application of the of the 'natural laboratory' method. The most important factor influencing foraminiferal health and development was found to be light intensity and light

  20. Microgravity cultivation of cells and tissues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, L. E.; Pellis, N.; Searby, N.; de Luis, J.; Preda, C.; Bordonaro, J.; Vunjak-Novakovic, G.

    1999-01-01

    In vitro studies of cells and tissues in microgravity, either simulated by cultivation conditions on earth or actual, during spaceflight, are expected to help identify mechanisms underlying gravity sensing and transduction in biological organisms. In this paper, we review rotating bioreactor studies of engineered skeletal and cardiovascular tissues carried out in unit gravity, a four month long cartilage tissue engineering study carried out aboard the Mir Space Station, and the ongoing laboratory development and testing of a system for cell and tissue cultivation aboard the International Space Station.

  1. Cultivation Theory and Research: A Conceptual Critique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, W. James

    1993-01-01

    Presents a critical analysis of how cultivation (long-term formation of perceptions and beliefs about the world as a result of exposure to media) has been conceptualized in theory and research. Analyses the construct of television exposure. Suggests revisions for conceptualizing the existing theory and extending it. (RS)

  2. Cultivation in the Newer Media Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perse, Elizabeth M.; And Others

    Researchers who study television's cultivation effects believe that heavy television viewing exposes people to consistent messages that lead them to be more fearful and mistrustful of others. The widespread adoption and use of new television technologies, such as cable, VCR, and remote control devices (RCD), however, have the potential to alter…

  3. Evolution and classification of the cultivated potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cultivated potato is one of the most important food plants worldwide, yet knowledge of the gene pool structure of the native South American landraces remains largely uninvestigated and has long been controversial. As a result, contrasting taxonomic treatments of the landraces have continued over...

  4. Aggregate stability in soils cultivated with eucalyptus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eucalyptus cultivation has increased in many Brazilian regions. In order to recommend good management practices, it is necessary to understand changes in soil properties where eucalyptus is planted. Aggregate stability analyses have proved to be a useful tool to measure soil effects caused by change...

  5. Cultivating Entrepreneurs: A Shift in Corporate Fundraising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carberry, Gail E.

    2002-01-01

    Contends that corporate giving is on the downswing, and community colleges must make adjustments. States that entrepreneurs have become venture philanthropists, and are a source community colleges should cultivate. Describes Springfield Technical Community College's (Massachusetts) two-pronged approach in this effort: It created an Enterprise…

  6. Asking Questions: Cultivating the Habit of Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deluty, Evelyn Wortsman

    2010-01-01

    Learning how to think critically is a slow, painstaking process but one well worth cultivating. Some students never realize that questioning matters. Their smug mockery of any reflective endeavor threatens their comfort zone and creates an obstacle to thinking critically. They simply devalue it. Questioning is a sure sign that the student is…

  7. Acculturation, Cultivation, and Daytime TV Talk Shows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woo, Hyung-Jin; Dominick, Joseph R.

    2003-01-01

    Explores the cultivation phenomenon among international college students in the United States by examining the connection between levels of acculturation, daytime TV talk show viewing, and beliefs about social reality. Finds that students who scored low on acculturation and watched a great deal of daytime talk shows had a more negative perception…

  8. Deforestation and cultivation mobilize mercury from topsoil.

    PubMed

    Gamby, Rebecca L; Hammerschmidt, Chad R; Costello, David M; Lamborg, Carl H; Runkle, James R

    2015-11-01

    Terrestrial biomass and soils are a primary global reservoir of mercury (Hg) derived from natural and anthropogenic sources; however, relatively little is known about the fate and stability of Hg in the surface soil reservoir and its susceptibility to change as a result of deforestation and cultivation. In southwest Ohio, we measured Hg concentrations in soils of deciduous old- and new-growth forests, as well as fallow grassland and agricultural soils that had once been forested to examine how, over decadal to century time scales, man-made deforestation and cultivation influence Hg mobility from temperate surface soils. Mercury concentrations in surficial soils were significantly greater in the old-growth than new-growth forest, and both forest soils had greater Hg concentrations than cultivated and fallow fields. Differences in Hg:lead ratios between old-growth forest and agricultural topsoils suggest that about half of the Hg lost from deforested and cultivated Ohio soils may have been volatilized and the other half eroded. The estimated mobilization potential of Hg as a result of deforestation was 4.1 mg m(-2), which was proportional to mobilization potentials measured at multiple locations in the Amazon relative to concentrations in forested surface soils. Based on this relationship and an estimate of the global average of Hg concentrations in forested soils, we approximate that about 550 M mol of Hg has been mobilized globally from soil as a result of deforestation during the past two centuries. This estimate is comparable to, if not greater than, the amount of anthropogenic Hg hypothesized by others to have been sequestered by the soil reservoir since Industrialization. Our results suggest that deforestation and soil cultivation are significant anthropogenic processes that exacerbate Hg mobilization from soil and its cycling in the environment. PMID:26100725

  9. Organochlorine Pesticides and Biomarker Responses in Two Fishes Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus (Lacepede, 1803) and an Invertebrate, Macrobrachium vollenhovenii (Herklot, 1857), from the Lake Taabo (Cote d`Ivoire)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roche, Helene; Tidou, Abiba; Persic, Ana

    The concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in muscle samples of two species of fish, tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and the catfish (Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus) and the prawn (Macrobrachium vollenhovenii) found in Lake Taabo (Cote d`Ivoire). Simultaneous measurements of enzymatic biomarkers were made to evaluate the ecotoxicological risk in this hydroelectric reservoir. Lindane and endosulfan were the dominant contaminants, suggesting their current use in neighboring agricultural areas. Other organochlorine (OC) compounds were detected, including some currently banned substances. Ranked in an order of descending concentrations, we found: DDT and its metabolites (17.8-57.2 ng g-1 dry weight), endrin (7.17-25.0 ng g-1 dry weight) and heptachlor (7.36-23.6 ng g-1 dry weight), as well as traces of isomers of chlordane, aldrin and fipronil. The hepatic Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) activity measured in fishes was not correlated with pesticide contamination; whereas the antioxidant biomarkers demonstrated some significant associations, especially hepatic catalase with lindane (R = 0.83) and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) with heptachlor epoxide (R = 0.84) and with pp`DDT (R = 0.81). In the prawns, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity showed significant negative correlations with DDT and its metabolites (R = -0.91). The results of this study emphasize the urgent need for overall environmental risk assessment studies in the region of Taabo and other developing areas.

  10. Identification of putative regulatory region of insulin-like androgenic gland hormone gene (IAG) in the prawn Macrobrachium nipponense and proteins that interact with IAG by using yeast two-hybrid system.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ke-Yi; Li, Jia-Le; Qiu, Gao-Feng

    2016-04-01

    Insulin-like androgenic gland hormone gene (IAG) is a sex regulator specifically expressed in male crustaceans, controlling the male sexual differentiation, spermatogenesis and reproductive strategy. Our previous study reported the cloning and characterization of the prawn Macrobrachium nipponense IAG (MnIAG). In this study, we further identified a 2214-bp MnIAG 5'-flanking region, and analyzed its transcription factor binding sites and transcriptional activity. The results showed that there were two potential promoter core sequences, three TATA boxes and one CAAT box existing in the MnIAG 5'-flanking region as well as many potential transcription factor binding sites, such as SRY, Sox-5, GATA-1, etc. Notably, the transcriptional activity was weak in this region, and a negative regulatory region was found in -604 to -231bp. In addition, we constructed M. nipponense yeast libraries and identified proteins interacting with the MnIAG protein by yeast two hybridization assay. The yeast two-hybrid screening yielded ten positive clones, of which five were annotated by NCBI database, namely heat shock protein 21, NADH dehydrogenase, zinc finger protein, beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase and a hypothetical protein. The identification of MnIAG putative regulatory region and proteins that interact with IAG will facilitate our understanding of the regulatory role of MnIAG and provide a foundation for deep insight into the prawn sex differentiation mechanism and signaling transduction pathways. PMID:26979275

  11. Human Colon Cancer Cells Cultivated in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Within five days, bioreactor cultivated human colon cancer cells (shown) grown in Microgravity on the STS-70 mission in 1995, had grown 30 times the volume of the control specimens on Earth. The samples grown in space had a higher level of cellular organization and specialization. Because they more closely resemble tumors found in the body, microgravity grown cell cultures are ideal for research purposes.

  12. Laboratory Cultivation and Maintenance of Borrelia miyamotoi.

    PubMed

    Stone, Brandee L; Brissette, Catherine A

    2016-01-01

    Borrelia miyamotoi is a relapsing fever tick-borne pathogen found in Ixodes spp. (hard) ticks. In vitro culturing has proven difficult despite initial reports of cultures maintained in Barbour-Stoenner-Kelly-II (BSK-II) medium. The ability to culture in vitro opens many avenues for investigating the genetics and physiology of bacterial species. This unit describes methods for the maintenance and cultivation of B. miyamotoi in liquid medium. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:27517334

  13. Multi-culture solar heated bio-shelter. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    A rooftop greenhouse (bio-shelter) that is heated with active and passive solar systems is presented. The intent of the greenhouse is to grow vegetables hydroponically the year-round using a nutrient flow technique; and to growth the giant tropical Malaysian prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii in a recycling raceway water system heated with solar power. The produce grown was continuously monitored and the harvests weighed in order to estimate the year-round production potential of the bio-shelter greenhouse.

  14. Direct use of low temperature geothermal water by Aquafarms International, Inc. for freshwater aquaculture (prawns and associated species). An operations and maintenance manual

    SciTech Connect

    Broughton, R.; Price, M.; Price, V.; Grajcer, D.

    1984-04-01

    In connection with an ongoing commercial aquaculture project in the Coachella Valley, California; a twelve month prawn growout demonstration project was conducted. This project began in August, 1979 and involved the use of low temperature (85/sup 0/F) geothermal waters to raise freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (deMan), in earthen ponds. The following publication is an operations and maintenance guide which may by useful for those interested in conducting similar enterprises.

  15. Studies on the ingestion characteristics of giant freshwater prawn, Chinese prawn and giant tiger prawn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, Wei-Ling; Wang, Wei-Dong; Dai, Xi-Lin; Jiang, Min; Zhu, Zheng-Guo; Yang, Ming-Hui; Liu, Xian-Zhong; Xu, Gui-Rong; Ding, Fu-Jiang

    2000-12-01

    The ingestion of giant freshwater prawn, Chinese prawn and giant tiger prawn had continuity and the ingestion high peak occurred at night. Light and temperature had significant effects on the daily ingestion rate (DIR) of giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Red light and blue light favorably induced favorable ingestion. In the adaptive range of temperature, the DIR increased with rising temperature and feeding frequency, but decreased with rising body weight.

  16. Geothermal aquaculture: a guide to freshwater prawn culture

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, A.; Johnson, W.C.

    1980-05-01

    Biological data of the Malaysian prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, are summarized. A history on its rearing techniques is given, but through the use of geothermal water or industrial warm water effluent, its range can be expanded. The use of wasted geothermal water at the Oregon Institute of Technology for prawn ponds is noted. Pond management and design; the hatchery design and function for larval culture; and geothermal applications (legal aspects and constraints) are discussed. (MCW)

  17. Water Consumption for Biofuel Feedstock Cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fingerman, K. R.; Torn, M. S.

    2008-12-01

    Water use may prove to be a central issue in the global and local development of the biofuel industry. While most literature on biofuel water use only considers the biorefinery phase, we studied water consumption for biofuel feedstock cultivation in major feedstock-producing regions of the United States. Using a spatially explicit Penman-Monteith model informed by field-level eddy covariance measurements, distributed climate data, and land use figures, we estimated water consumption and net water use for a number of scenarios of feedstock, location, and refining processes for biofuel development. We find that in California, for example, average water consumption for biofuels from different feedstocks ranges from about 900 to over 1500 gallons per gallon of fuel produced. Cellulosic feedstocks are found to be less water-intensive on average. Furthermore, we find feedstock cultivation to account for more than 99% of the life-cycle embedded water for fuels in California. In some regions and for some feedstock options, a shift to biofuel feedstock cultivation would reduce the strain on water resources, while in others we project it would greatly increase water demand. We are expanding this analysis to better capture both base-line ET from natural systems and ET of some of the less-studied cellulosic feedstocks, as well as to incorporate other regions in the U.S. and internationally. Thus far, we conclude that while water demand for processing is important for plant location and pollution, water consumption for feedstock growth may be (along with land resources) the limiting factor for bioenergy production in many regions.

  18. [Investigation of Soviet microcarriers for cell cultivation].

    PubMed

    Zhesterev, V I; Sergeev, V A; Khizhinskaia, V P; Grudina, N V; Makarova, S B

    1986-04-01

    Home made and foreign preparations (6 patterns in each) were tested as microcarriers for cultivation of anchorage-dependent cells in the medium supplemented with 0.25% enzymatic hydrolysate of muscles and 10-20% animal serum. The best results were obtained with microcarriers DEAE-2.5, Cytodex-1, and DEAE-cellulose. Using home microcarriers DEAE-2.5, continuous swine embryo kidney cells and primary chick embryo cells yielded, respectively, 9-11 and 3-4 times increase. PMID:3521014

  19. Comparison between cultivated and total bacterial communities associated with Cucurbita pepo using cultivation-dependent techniques and 454 pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Eevers, N; Beckers, B; Op de Beeck, M; White, J C; Vangronsveld, J; Weyens, N

    2016-02-01

    Endophytic bacteria often have beneficial effects on their host plants that can be exploited for bioremediation applications but, according to the literature, only 0.001-1% of all endophytic microbes should be cultivable. This study compared the cultivated endophytic communities of the roots and shoots of Cucurbita pepo with the total endophytic communities as determined by cultivation-dependent techniques and 454 pyrosequencing. The ten most abundant taxa of the total communities aligned well with the cultivated taxa; however, the abundance of these taxa in the two communities differed greatly. Enterobacter showed very low presence in the total communities, whereas they were dominantly present in the cultivated communities. Although Rhizobium dominated in total root and shoot communities, it was poorly cultivable and even then only in growth media containing plant extract. Since endophytes likely contribute to plant-growth promotion, cultivated bacterial strains were tested for their plant-growth promoting capabilities, and the results were correlated with their abundance in the total community. Bacillus and Pseudomonas showed promising results when considering cultivability, abundance in the total community and plant-growth promoting capability. This study demonstrated that, although a limited number of bacterial genera were cultivable, current cultivation-dependent techniques may be sufficient for further isolation and inoculation experiments that aim to improve phytoremediation efficiency. PMID:26656884

  20. Functional state modelling approach validation for yeast and bacteria cultivations

    PubMed Central

    Roeva, Olympia; Pencheva, Tania

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the functional state modelling approach is validated for modelling of the cultivation of two different microorganisms: yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and bacteria (Escherichia coli). Based on the available experimental data for these fed-batch cultivation processes, three different functional states are distinguished, namely primary product synthesis state, mixed oxidative state and secondary product synthesis state. Parameter identification procedures for different local models are performed using genetic algorithms. The simulation results show high degree of adequacy of the models describing these functional states for both S. cerevisiae and E. coli cultivations. Thus, the local models are validated for the cultivation of both microorganisms. This fact is a strong structure model verification of the functional state modelling theory not only for a set of yeast cultivations, but also for bacteria cultivation. As such, the obtained results demonstrate the efficiency and efficacy of the functional state modelling approach. PMID:26740778

  1. Progress in cultivation-independent phyllosphere microbiology.

    PubMed

    Müller, Thomas; Ruppel, Silke

    2014-01-01

    Most microorganisms of the phyllosphere are nonculturable in commonly used media and culture conditions, as are those in other natural environments. This review queries the reasons for their 'noncultivability' and assesses developments in phyllospere microbiology that have been achieved cultivation independently over the last 4 years. Analyses of total microbial communities have revealed a comprehensive microbial diversity. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and metagenomic sequencing were applied to investigate plant species, location and season as variables affecting the composition of these communities. In continuation to culture-based enzymatic and metabolic studies with individual isolates, metaproteogenomic approaches reveal a great potential to study the physiology of microbial communities in situ. Culture-independent microbiological technologies as well advances in plant genetics and biochemistry provide methodological preconditions for exploring the interactions between plants and their microbiome in the phyllosphere. Improving and combining cultivation and culture-independent techniques can contribute to a better understanding of the phyllosphere ecology. This is essential, for example, to avoid human-pathogenic bacteria in plant food. PMID:24003903

  2. [Bordetella pertussis agglutinogens in cultivation dynamics].

    PubMed

    Basnak'ian, I A; Aleksakhina, N N; Shelemekh, O V; Miriasova, L V; Siundiukova, R A

    2007-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis growth phases during homogenous batch dynamic cultivation in the liquid medium as well as during the static cultivation on the solid medium were established. The maximal activity of agglutination reaction with antisera to B. pertussis agglutinogens 1, 2, and 3 was detected in bacterial culture at the end of exponential phase of growth. The activity of agglutination reaction decreased when cultures in stationary and death phases were used. During transition from exponential to death phase level of antibodies to agglutinogen 2 decreased by4 - 32 times. 2 - 4-fold decrease of antibodies level was observed when antiserum to agglutinogen 3 was used. Activity of agglutination reaction with antiserum to agglutinogen 1 was high and did not depend from phase of growth. When polyvalent antiserum to B. pertussis was used 4-fold decrease of antibody titers was observed in parallel with change of growth phases. Sera from rabbits immunized with B. pertussis cultures from the middle of exponential growth phase, the end of this phase, and begin of the death phase had high (maximal) level of agglutinating antibodies (6400), which was detected on 101 day after immunization with the former culture and on 31 day after immunization with either of the two latter cultures. To the end of experiment (292 day) titers decreased to 800, 3200, and 1600 respectively. These findings confirm an advisability of use of exponential growth culture for immunization of rabbits in order to obtain highly active diagnostic antisera to B. pertussis. PMID:17672129

  3. Statistical genetics in traditionally cultivated crops.

    PubMed

    Artoisenet, Pierre; Minsart, Laure-Anne

    2014-11-01

    Traditional farming systems have attracted a lot of attention over the past decades as they have been recognized to supply an important component in the maintenance of the genetic diversity worldwide. A broad spectrum of traditionally managed crops has been studied to investigate how reproductive properties in combination with husbandry characteristics shape the genetic structure of the crops over time. However, traditional farms typically involve populations of small size whose genetic evolution is overwhelmed with statistic fluctuations inherent to the stochastic nature of the crossings. Hence there is generally no one-to-one mapping between crop properties and measured genotype data, and claims regarding crop properties on the basis of the observed genetic structure must be stated within a confidence level to be estimated by means of a dedicated statistical analysis. In this paper, we propose a comprehensive framework to carry out such statistical analyses. We illustrate the capabilities of our approach by applying it to crops of C. lanatus var. lanatus oleaginous type cultivated in Côte d׳Ivoire. While some properties such as the effective field size considerably evade the constraints from experimental data, others such as the mating system turn out to be characterized with a higher statistical significance. We discuss the importance of our approach for studies on traditionally cultivated crops in general. PMID:24992232

  4. Production of deuterated switchgrass by hydroponic cultivation

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Barbara R.; Bali, Garima; Foston, Marcus B.; Ragauskas, Arthur J.; O'Neill, Hugh Michael; Shah, Riddhi S.; McGaughey, Joseph; Reeves, David T.; Rempe, Caroline S.; Davison, Brian H.

    2015-04-21

    Deuterium enrichment of biological materials can potential enable expanded experimental use of small angle neutron scattering (SANS) to investigate molecular structural transitions of complex systems such as plant cell walls. Two key advances have been made that facilitate cultivation of switchgrass, an important forage and biofuel crop, for controlled isotopic enrichment: (1) perfusion system with individual chambers and (2) hydroponic growth from tiller cuttings. Plants were grown and maintained for several months with periodic harvest. Photosynthetic activity was monitored by measurement of CO2 in outflow from the growth chambers. Plant morphology and composition appeared normal compared to matched controls grown with H2O. Using this improved method, gram quantities of switchgrass leaves and stems were produced by continuous hydroponic cultivation using growth medium consisting of basal mineral salts in 50% D2O. Deuterium incorporation was confirmed by detection of the O-D and C-D stretching peaks with FTIR and quantified by 1H- and 2H-NMR. Lastly, this capability to produce deuterated lignocellulosic biomass under controlled conditions will enhance investigation of cell wall structure and its deconstruction by neutron scattering and NMR techniques.

  5. Production of deuterated switchgrass by hydroponic cultivation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Evans, Barbara R.; Bali, Garima; Foston, Marcus B.; Ragauskas, Arthur J.; O'Neill, Hugh Michael; Shah, Riddhi S.; McGaughey, Joseph; Reeves, David T.; Rempe, Caroline S.; Davison, Brian H.

    2015-04-21

    Deuterium enrichment of biological materials can potential enable expanded experimental use of small angle neutron scattering (SANS) to investigate molecular structural transitions of complex systems such as plant cell walls. Two key advances have been made that facilitate cultivation of switchgrass, an important forage and biofuel crop, for controlled isotopic enrichment: (1) perfusion system with individual chambers and (2) hydroponic growth from tiller cuttings. Plants were grown and maintained for several months with periodic harvest. Photosynthetic activity was monitored by measurement of CO2 in outflow from the growth chambers. Plant morphology and composition appeared normal compared to matched controls grownmore » with H2O. Using this improved method, gram quantities of switchgrass leaves and stems were produced by continuous hydroponic cultivation using growth medium consisting of basal mineral salts in 50% D2O. Deuterium incorporation was confirmed by detection of the O-D and C-D stretching peaks with FTIR and quantified by 1H- and 2H-NMR. Lastly, this capability to produce deuterated lignocellulosic biomass under controlled conditions will enhance investigation of cell wall structure and its deconstruction by neutron scattering and NMR techniques.« less

  6. Progress in cultivation-independent phyllosphere microbiology

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Thomas; Ruppel, Silke

    2014-01-01

    Most microorganisms of the phyllosphere are nonculturable in commonly used media and culture conditions, as are those in other natural environments. This review queries the reasons for their ‘noncultivability’ and assesses developments in phyllospere microbiology that have been achieved cultivation independently over the last 4 years. Analyses of total microbial communities have revealed a comprehensive microbial diversity. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and metagenomic sequencing were applied to investigate plant species, location and season as variables affecting the composition of these communities. In continuation to culture-based enzymatic and metabolic studies with individual isolates, metaproteogenomic approaches reveal a great potential to study the physiology of microbial communities in situ. Culture-independent microbiological technologies as well advances in plant genetics and biochemistry provide methodological preconditions for exploring the interactions between plants and their microbiome in the phyllosphere. Improving and combining cultivation and culture-independent techniques can contribute to a better understanding of the phyllosphere ecology. This is essential, for example, to avoid human–pathogenic bacteria in plant food. PMID:24003903

  7. A Space Flight Cultivation Protocol for Arabidopsis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, H. G.

    2008-06-01

    A tube-based method is presented for the cultivation and manipulation of Arabidopsis thaliana during space flight experimentation. Seeds were germinated on rock-wool plugs and subsequently transferred into modified polypropylene conical tubes (cut to 5 cm lengths) at 7 days after planting. Each tube contained four side-situated slits through which capillary mat strips were woven. An additional capillary mat wick extended from below the tube up through the bottom to the mid-interior portion. The incorporation of Fibrous Ion Exchange Resin Substrate provided nutrients. The tubes were transferred to plant compartments containing a horticulture foam matrix that received water inputs. Vigorous seedling development through to seed production was achieved. Dispersed seeds frequently germinated on top of the foam substrate, yielding a 2nd generation of seedlings. The methods used herein could be applied to other plant species to be flown in space.

  8. Microalgae: cultivation techniques and wastewater phycoremediation.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Marcondes M; Hoeltz, Michele; Moraes, Maria S A; Schneider, Rosana C S

    2015-01-01

    Generation of liquid and gaseous effluents is associated with almost all anthropogenic activities. The discharge of these effluents into the environment without treatment has reduced the availability and quality of natural resources, representing a serious threat to the balance of different ecosystems and human health. Universal access to water and global warming are topics of intense concern and are listed as priorities in the vast majority of global scientific, social and political guidelines. Conventional techniques to treat liquid and gaseous effluents pose economic and/or environmental limitations that prevent their use in certain applications. The technique of phycoremediation, which uses microalgae, macroalgae, and cyanobacteria for the removal or biotransformation of pollutants, is an emerging technology that has been highlighted due to its economic viability and environmental sustainability. This literature review discusses different techniques of microalgae cultivation and their use in the phycoremediation of contaminants in wastewater. PMID:25837561

  9. In Vitro Cultivation of Cryptosporidium Species

    PubMed Central

    Arrowood, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    The in vitro cultivation of protozoan parasites of the genus Cryptosporidium has advanced significantly in recent years. These obligate, intracellular parasites colonize the epithelium of the digestive and respiratory tracts, are often difficult to obtain in significant numbers, produce durable oocysts that defy conventional chemical disinfection methods, and are persistently infectious when stored at refrigerated temperatures (4 to 8°C). While continuous culture and efficient life cycle completion (oocyst production) have not yet been achieved in vitro, routine methods for parasite preparation and cell culture infection and assays for parasite life cycle development have been established. Parasite yields may be limited, but in vitro growth is sufficient to support a variety of research studies, including assessing potential drug therapies, evaluating oocyst disinfection methods, and characterizing life cycle stage development and differentiation. PMID:12097247

  10. Micrometeorological principles of protected cultivation for fruit crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protected cultivation is a broad term commonly used among producers of specialty crops. Techniques can range from complex fixed structures to field site selection, to straightforward cultural practices in the field. This introduction to the ASHS workshop "Protected cultivation for fruit crops" consi...

  11. Examining Cultivation from a Psychological Perspective: Component Subprocesses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, W. James

    1991-01-01

    Attempts to elaborate the cultivation hypothesis by examining some proposed subprocesses, especially learning and construction with first- and second-order measures. Examines the relationship between first- and second-order measures. Argues that cultivation theory needs to be extended. (SR)

  12. Systematics, diversity, genetics, and evolution of wild and cultivated potatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivated potato, Solanum tuberosum L., is the third most important food crop and is grown and consumed worldwide. Indigenous primitive cultivated (landrace) potatoes, and wild potatoes, all classified as Solanum section Petota, are widely used for potato improvement. Members of section Petota are ...

  13. Cultivating Discontinuity: Pentecostal Pedagogies of Yielding and Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brahinsky, Josh

    2013-01-01

    Exploring missionary study at an Assemblies of God Bible college through ethnography and training manuals demonstrates systematic pedagogies that cultivate sensory capabilities encouraging yielding, opening to rupture, and constraint. Ritual theory and the Anthropology of Christianity shift analytic scales to include "cultivation," a…

  14. On the Cultivation of Innovative Talents in Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Changli; Jia, Hongchun

    2009-01-01

    It is the sure pursuit for the Colleges and Universities to cultivate the innovative talents for the society. The cultivation of innovative talents in Colleges and Universities plays a crucial role not only in economic and social development, but also in schools' and personal development. The internal quality of innovative talents includes the…

  15. Ecogeography of ploidy variation in cultivated potato (Solanum sect. Petota)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The taxonomy of cultivated potatoes has been highly controversial, with estimates of species numbers ranging from 3 to 17. Ploidy level has been one of the most important taxonomic characters to recognize cultivated potato species, containing diploid (2 n = 2 x = 24), triploid (2 n = 3 x = 36), tetr...

  16. Moral Self-Cultivation East and West: A Critique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slote, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Moral Self-Cultivation plays an important, even a central role, in the Confucian philosophical tradition, but philosophers in the West, most notably Aristotle and Kant, also hold that moral self-cultivation or self-shaping is possible and morally imperative. This paper argues that these traditions are psychologically unrealistic in what they say…

  17. Ecogeography of Ploidy Variation in Cultivated Potato (Solanum Sect. Petota)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The taxonomy of cultivated potatoes has been highly controversial, with estimates of species numbers ranging from 3-18. Ploidy level has been one of the most important taxonomic characters to recognize cultivated potato species, with diploid (2n = 2x = 24), triploid (2n = 3x = 36), tetraploid (2n = ...

  18. Agronomic performance of five banana cultivars under protected cultivation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Banana has been grown both in open-field and protected cultivation in Turkey. So far protected cultivation is very popular due to the high yield and quality. The objective of the study was to evaluate agronomic performance of five new banana cultivars under plastic greenhouse. ‘MA 13’, ‘Williams’, ‘...

  19. 36 CFR 34.7 - Cultivation of controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cultivation of controlled substances. 34.7 Section 34.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EL PORTAL ADMINISTRATIVE SITE REGULATIONS § 34.7 Cultivation of controlled substances. In...

  20. 36 CFR 34.7 - Cultivation of controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cultivation of controlled substances. 34.7 Section 34.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EL PORTAL ADMINISTRATIVE SITE REGULATIONS § 34.7 Cultivation of controlled substances. In...

  1. 36 CFR 34.7 - Cultivation of controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cultivation of controlled substances. 34.7 Section 34.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EL PORTAL ADMINISTRATIVE SITE REGULATIONS § 34.7 Cultivation of controlled substances. In...

  2. 36 CFR 34.7 - Cultivation of controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cultivation of controlled substances. 34.7 Section 34.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EL PORTAL ADMINISTRATIVE SITE REGULATIONS § 34.7 Cultivation of controlled substances. In...

  3. 36 CFR 34.7 - Cultivation of controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cultivation of controlled substances. 34.7 Section 34.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EL PORTAL ADMINISTRATIVE SITE REGULATIONS § 34.7 Cultivation of controlled substances. In...

  4. Perpendicular cultivation for improved weed control in organic peanut production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intensive cultivation in organic peanut is partially effective, but in-row weed control remains problematic. In an attempt to improve in-row weed control, trials were conducted to determine the feasibility of early-season cultivation perpendicular to row direction using a tine weeder when integrate...

  5. Transferring Sclerotinia Resistance Genes from Wild Helianthus into Cultivated Sunflower

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To enhance resistance to Sclerotinia head and stalk rot in cultivated sunflower, mining and introgression of Sclerotinia resistance genes from diverse wild Helianthus accessions into cultivated sunflower has been conducted using backcrossing method since 2004. During the last four years, numerous in...

  6. Taxonomy of cultivated potatoes (solanum section petota: solanaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum tuberosum, the cultivated potato of world commerce, is a primary food crop worldwide. Wild and cultivated potatoes form the germplasm base for international breeding efforts to improve potato in the face of variety of disease, environmental, and agronomic constraints. A series of national an...

  7. Taxonomy of Cultivated Potatoes (Solanum section Petota: Solanaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum tuberosum, the cultivated potato of world commerce, is a primary food crop worldwide. Wild and cultivated potatoes form the germplasm base for international breeding efforts to improve potato in the face of variety of disease, environmental, and agronomic constraints. A series of national an...

  8. Becoming Accomplished: Concerted Cultivation among Privately Educated Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Claire; Aggleton, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This paper takes as its starting point the concept of concerted cultivation as coined by Annette Lareau. It examines whether a focus on concerted cultivation adequately captures the various practices observed in young women's experiences of being privately educated in four schools in one area of England. We suggest that a variety of practices of…

  9. High-power LEDs for plant cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamulaitis, Gintautas; Duchovskis, Pavelas; Bliznikas, Zenius; Breive, Kestutis; Ulinskaite, Raimonda; Brazaityte, Ausra; Novickovas, Algirdas; Zukauskas, Arturas; Shur, Michael S.

    2004-10-01

    We report on high-power solid-state lighting facility for cultivation of greenhouse vegetables and on the results of the study of control of photosynthetic activity and growth morphology of radish and lettuce imposed by variation of the spectral composition of illumination. Experimental lighting modules (useful area of 0.22 m2) were designed based on 4 types of high-power light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with emission peaked in red at the wavelengths of 660 nm and 640 nm (predominantly absorbed by chlorophyll a and b for photosynthesis, respectively), in blue at 455 nm (phototropic function), and in far-red at 735 nm (important for photomorphology). Morphological characteristics, chlorophyll and phytohormone concentrations in radish and lettuce grown in phytotron chambers under lighting with different spectral composition of the LED-based illuminator and under illumination by high pressure sodium lamps with an equivalent photosynthetic photon flux density were compared. A well-balanced solid-state lighting was found to enhance production of green mass and to ensure healthy morphogenesis of plants compared to those grown using conventional lighting. We observed that the plant morphology and concentrations of morphologically active phytohormones is strongly affected by the spectral composition of light in the red region. Commercial application of the LED-based illumination for large-scale plant cultivation is discussed. This technology is favorable from the point of view of energy consumption, controllable growth, and food safety but is hindered by high cost of the LEDs. Large scale manufacturing of high-power red AlInGaP-based LEDs emitting at 650 nm and a further decrease of the photon price for the LEDs emitting in the vicinity of the absorption peak of chlorophylls have to be achieved to promote horticulture applications.

  10. Words as cultivators of others minds

    PubMed Central

    Schilhab, Theresa S. S.

    2015-01-01

    The embodied–grounded view of cognition and language holds that sensorimotor experiences in the form of ‘re-enactments’ or ‘simulations’ are significant to the individual’s development of concepts and competent language use. However, a typical objection to the explanatory force of this view is that, in everyday life, we engage in linguistic exchanges about much more than might be directly accessible to our senses. For instance, when knowledge-sharing occurs as part of deep conversations between a teacher and student, language is the salient tool by which to obtain understanding, through the unfolding of explanations. Here, the acquisition of knowledge is realized through language, and the constitution of knowledge seems entirely linguistic. In this paper, based on a review of selected studies within contemporary embodied cognitive science, I propose that such linguistic exchanges, though occurring independently of direct experience, are in fact disguised forms of embodied cognition, leading to the reconciliation of the opposing views. I suggest that, in conversation, interlocutors use Words as Cultivators (WAC) of other minds as a direct result of their embodied–grounded origin, rendering WAC a radical interpretation of the Words as social Tools (WAT) proposal. The WAC hypothesis endorses the view of language as dynamic, continuously integrating with, and negotiating, cognitive processes in the individual. One such dynamic feature results from the ‘linguification process’, a term by which I refer to the socially produced mapping of a word to its referent which, mediated by the interlocutor, turns words into cultivators of others minds. In support of the linguification process hypothesis and WAC, I review relevant embodied–grounded research, and selected studies of instructed fear conditioning and guided imagery. PMID:26594187

  11. Cultivating the cortex in German neuroanatomy.

    PubMed

    Hagner, M

    2001-12-01

    The cerebral localization of mental functions is one of the centerpieces of modern brain research. Though the localization paradigm in its cultural and social interwovenness has been characterized as successful in the last third of the nineteenth century by a variety of historians of the neurosciences, there is also general agreement that localization came under threat around 1900. Besides the so-called holistic protest against the localization of mental functions, the neuroanatomical approach itself was challenged by experimental psychology, psychiatric nosology, and psychoanalysis. This story underestimates the fact that anatomically-based localization remained powerful in response to these multiple challenges. This meant a neuroanatomical revision of tools, concepts, and practices. But this meant also a shift in the cultivation of the cortex from a more philosophical agenda to rather concrete political claims. More specifically, the idea of the cortext as the noblest part of man was supplemented by suggestions concerning its "Höherzüchtung." I will analyze this re-orientation and radicalization in two steps. First, I briefly discuss the anatomical and philosophical account of Theodor Meynert and then turn to Paul Flechsig who in the late nineteenth century inscribed the ability to create culture and civilization into the cortext. Second, I focus on the neuroanatomists Oskar and Cécile Vogt, who began their careers around 1900 and expanded the cultivation of the cortext. Even before World War I, they proclaimed a "cerebral hygiene." Consequently, the Vogts linked their innovative neuroanatomical researches with the rising field of genetics, racial hygiene, and eugenics. In the early Weimar Republic, the Vogts openly supported socialist ideas and were engaged in establishing an Institute for Brain Research in Soviet Moscow, where Lenin's brain was analyzed. By the end of the Weimar Republic, the rhetoric of the Vogts was bluntly authoritarian. Based on a few

  12. On the transplantation and cultivation of Kappaphycus alvarezii in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chaoyuan; Li, Jiajun; Xia, Enzhan; Peng, Zhuosheng; Tan, Shuzhi; Li, Jun; Wen, Zongcun; Huang, Xiaohang; Cai, Zulin; Chen, Guojun

    1989-12-01

    A 2-year study on Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty introduced to Hainan Island from the Philippines in 1985 showed promising results. The average daily growth in weight reached 10% at a favourable temperature of about 26°C. Experimental results showed that timely cutting of the plant was an effective way to obtain new cuttings for cultivation and accelerate growth. New cuttings 0.05 kg in weight are suggested to be used as “seeds” and the old plant should be harvested. At present, artificial cultivation with a type of underwater raft applicable in places where there is strong wind will expand cultivation to more regions in Hainan Province.

  13. In Vitro Cultivation of Microsporidia of Clinical Importance

    PubMed Central

    Visvesvara, Govinda S.

    2002-01-01

    Although attempts to develop methods for the in vitro cultivation of microsporidia began as early as 1937, the interest in the culture of these organisms was confined mostly to microsporidia that infect insects. The successful cultivation in 1969 of Encephalitozoon cuniculi, a microsporidium of mammalian origin, and the subsequent identification of these organisms as agents of human disease heightened interest in the cultivation of microsporidia. I describe the methodology as well as the cell lines, the culture media, and culture conditions used in the in vitro culture of microsporidia such as Brachiola (Nosema) algerae, Encephalitozoon cuniculi, E. hellem, E. intestinalis, Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Trachipleistophora hominis, and Vittaforma corneae that cause human disease. PMID:12097248

  14. Advanced continuous cultivation methods for systems microbiology.

    PubMed

    Adamberg, Kaarel; Valgepea, Kaspar; Vilu, Raivo

    2015-09-01

    Increasing the throughput of systems biology-based experimental characterization of in silico-designed strains has great potential for accelerating the development of cell factories. For this, analysis of metabolism in the steady state is essential as only this enables the unequivocal definition of the physiological state of cells, which is needed for the complete description and in silico reconstruction of their phenotypes. In this review, we show that for a systems microbiology approach, high-resolution characterization of metabolism in the steady state--growth space analysis (GSA)--can be achieved by using advanced continuous cultivation methods termed changestats. In changestats, an environmental parameter is continuously changed at a constant rate within one experiment whilst maintaining cells in the physiological steady state similar to chemostats. This increases the resolution and throughput of GSA compared with chemostats, and, moreover, enables following of the dynamics of metabolism and detection of metabolic switch-points and optimal growth conditions. We also describe the concept, challenge and necessary criteria of the systematic analysis of steady-state metabolism. Finally, we propose that such systematic characterization of the steady-state growth space of cells using changestats has value not only for fundamental studies of metabolism, but also for systems biology-based metabolic engineering of cell factories. PMID:26220303

  15. Cultivable Oral Microbiota of Domestic Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, David R.; Wilson, Michael; Buckley, Catherine M. F.; Spratt, David A.

    2005-01-01

    Bacteria were isolated from the dental plaques of nine dogs and a sample of pooled saliva from five other dogs and were then identified by comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Among 339 isolates, 84 different phylotypes belonging to 37 genera were identified. Approximately half of the phylotypes were identified to the species level, and 28% of these were considered members of the indigenous oral microbiota of humans. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of the remaining 44 phylotypes were not represented in GenBank, and most of these phylotypes were tentatively identified as candidate new species. The genera most frequently isolated from saliva were Actinomyces (26%), Streptococcus (18%), and Granulicatella (17%). The genera most frequently isolated from plaque were Porphyromonas (20%), Actinomyces (12%), and Neisseria (10%). A comparison of the DNA sequences from this study with sequences of the human microbiota available in GenBank showed that, on average, canine and human microbiotas differed by almost 7% in the 16S rRNA gene. In conclusion, this study has shown that the cultivable oral microbiotas of dogs and humans show significant differences. PMID:16272472

  16. Microfluidic devices for cell cultivation and proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Tehranirokh, Masoomeh; Kouzani, Abbas Z.; Francis, Paul S.; Kanwar, Jagat R.

    2013-01-01

    Microfluidic technology provides precise, controlled-environment, cost-effective, compact, integrated, and high-throughput microsystems that are promising substitutes for conventional biological laboratory methods. In recent years, microfluidic cell culture devices have been used for applications such as tissue engineering, diagnostics, drug screening, immunology, cancer studies, stem cell proliferation and differentiation, and neurite guidance. Microfluidic technology allows dynamic cell culture in microperfusion systems to deliver continuous nutrient supplies for long term cell culture. It offers many opportunities to mimic the cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions of tissues by creating gradient concentrations of biochemical signals such as growth factors, chemokines, and hormones. Other applications of cell cultivation in microfluidic systems include high resolution cell patterning on a modified substrate with adhesive patterns and the reconstruction of complicated tissue architectures. In this review, recent advances in microfluidic platforms for cell culturing and proliferation, for both simple monolayer (2D) cell seeding processes and 3D configurations as accurate models of in vivo conditions, are examined. PMID:24273628

  17. The Edibility and Cultivation of the Oyster Mushroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenneman, James; Guttman, Mark C.

    1994-01-01

    Describes an enjoyable and fascinating experience that involves the cultivation of oyster mushrooms. By allowing students to participate in this process, the students are able to better understand the biology and utility of fungi. (ZWH)

  18. Cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus and other edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Carmen

    2010-02-01

    Pleurotus ostreatus is the second most cultivated edible mushroom worldwide after Agaricus bisporus. It has economic and ecological values and medicinal properties. Mushroom culture has moved toward diversification with the production of other mushrooms. Edible mushrooms are able to colonize and degrade a large variety of lignocellulosic substrates and other wastes which are produced primarily through the activities of the agricultural, forest, and food-processing industries. Particularly, P. ostreatus requires a shorter growth time in comparison to other edible mushrooms. The substrate used for their cultivation does not require sterilization, only pasteurization, which is less expensive. Growing oyster mushrooms convert a high percentage of the substrate to fruiting bodies, increasing profitability. P. ostreatus demands few environmental controls, and their fruiting bodies are not often attacked by diseases and pests, and they can be cultivated in a simple and cheap way. All this makes P. ostreatus cultivation an excellent alternative for production of mushrooms when compared to other mushrooms. PMID:19956947

  19. Strawberry Genomics: Botanical History, Cultivation, Traditional Breeding, and New Technologies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter presents an introduction to strawberry (Fragaria L) genomics. Botanical history, nomenclature, cultivation, traditional and mutational breeding, and new technologies are discussed. The taxonomic classification of the broad range of polyploidy species of Fragaria is given and their orig...

  20. Nitrous oxide emissions from rapeseed cultivation in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuß, Roland; Andres, Monique; Hegewald, Hannes; Kesenheimer, Katharina; Koebke, Sarah; Räbiger, Thomas; Suárez Quiñones, Teresa; Walter, Katja; Stichnothe, Heinz; Flessa, Heinz

    2016-04-01

    About 12 % of Germany's agricultural area is used for rapeseed cultivation and two third of the harvest is converted to biodiesel. Due to requirements of the EU Renewables Directive the greenhouse gas (GHG) balance of rapeseed cultivation must be reported and sustainability criteria and GHG savings compared to fossil fuel must be achieved and certified. Current certified methodology estimates N2O field emissions from rapeseed cultivation using the IPCC Tier 1 approach based on a global emission factor (N2O emission per unit nitrogen fertilizer input) of 1 %, which is not specific for the crop. We present results from three years of measurements (2013 - 2015) on five field trials in Germany, which combined with data from a meta-analysis suggest that GHG emission factors of German rapeseed cultivation are lower than thought previously. Furthermore, results suggest that substitution of mineral fertilizers with organic fertilizers is a valid mitigation option since it avoids GHG emissions during production of mineral fertilizers.

  1. Attached cultivation of Haematococcus pluvialis for astaxanthin production.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenduo; Wang, Junfeng; Wang, Jialin; Liu, Tianzhong

    2014-04-01

    Haematococcus pluvialis, the best natural source for astaxanthin, was cultivated with an immobilized biofilm method, viz. "attached cultivation", which was high in photosynthetic efficiency. A practical operational protocol for this "attached cultivation" method was investigated by studying the effects of inoculum density, light intensity, nitrogen quantity as well as medium volume on growth and astaxanthin accumulation. Results indicated the optimized inoculum density and light intensity were 10 g m(-2) and 100 μmol m(-2)s(-1), respectively. The optimized nitrogen supply strategy was circulating ca. 30 L of BG-11 medium with initial sodium nitrate concentration of ca. 1.8mM for 1m(2) of cultivation surface. With this strategy, the maximum astaxanthin productivity reached ca. 160 mg m(-2)d(-1) which is much higher than many other indoor researches. Both of the red and green cells were found in the biofilm with red cells on the top. PMID:24632411

  2. SPECIES CONCEPTS AND RELATIONSHIPS IN WILD AND CULTIVATED POTATOES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild and cultivated potatoes (Solanum section Petota) present challenges to taxonomists arising from lack of clearly defined morphological character differences among many species, phenotypic plasticity, a range of ploidy levels from diploid to hexaploid, and hybrid speciation and introgression. Tax...

  3. Relapsing Fever Spirochetes Retain Infectivity After Prolonged in vitro Cultivation

    PubMed Central

    Schrumpf, Merry E.; Raffel, Sandra J.; Policastro, Paul F.; Porcella, Stephen F.; Schwan, Tom G.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Borrelia hermsii and Borrelia burgdorferi, two closely related spirochetes, are the etiological agents of tick-borne relapsing fever and Lyme disease, respectively. Previous studies have shown the loss of infectivity of B. burgdorferi is associated with in vitro cultivation. This diminished infectivity of B. burgdorferi has occurred as early as three in vitro passages, and the loss of plasmids have been observed with these less virulent to noninfective cultures. The effects of long-term in vitro cultivation on B. hermsii have not been investigated. However, understanding the degree of genomic degradation during in vitro cultivation is important for investigating pathogenic mechanisms of spirochetes. In this study, we analyzed the effects of continuous in vitro cultivation on the genomic composition and infectivity of B. hermsii and B. turicatae. We report that all seven isolates of B. hermsii and the one isolate of B. turicatae examined retained infectivity in mice after 1 year of continuous in vitro cultivation. Furthermore, there were few apparent differences in the plasmid profiles after long-term cultivation. Two isolates of B. hermsii remained infective after high passage despite losing a portion of the 200-kb linear plasmid containing the fhbA gene encoding the factor H binding protein. Also, sequence analysis of multiple B. hermsii isolates demonstrated two types of fhbA with complete congruence with the two genomic groups of B. hermsii spirochetes. Therefore, these results suggest that relapsing fever spirochetes are genetically stable during in vitro cultivation, and the fhbA-containing segment of DNA that is lost during cultivation is not required for infection. PMID:18637723

  4. Methods for Cultivation of Luminal Parasitic Protists of Clinical Importance

    PubMed Central

    Clark, C. Graham; Diamond, Louis S.

    2002-01-01

    Cultivation of luminal protistan parasites has a long history. In this review we discuss the methods and media that are most widely used for the establishment and maintenance of the following organisms in culture: Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia intestinalis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Dientamoeba fragilis, Blastocystis hominis, and Balantidium coli. While cultivation is of limited importance in the diagnostic laboratory, it is essential to most research laboratories, and it is toward the latter that this review is primarily aimed. PMID:12097242

  5. In vitro cultivation of Treponema pallidum: a review

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, Thomas

    1981-01-01

    In vitro cultivation of Treponema pallidum would facilitate many different aspects of syphilis research. This review summarizes developments in this field that have been published since 1975. Findings are discussed in terms of treponemes and the oxygen question, treponemal metabolism involving proteins, nucleic acids, and fatty acids, and treponemal interaction with tissue culture cells. Suggested future approaches and potential problem areas pertinent to successful cultivation are discussed. PMID:6172213

  6. An alternative method for cultivation of Lawsonia intracellularis.

    PubMed

    Vannucci, Fabio A; Wattanaphansak, Suphot; Gebhart, Connie J

    2012-03-01

    An alternative method for the cultivation of Lawsonia intracellularis, an obligate intracellular bacterium and the causative agent of proliferative enteropathy, was developed using an Original Space Bag inflated with a mixture of gas containing 10% hydrogen, 10% carbon dioxide, and 80% nitrogen. The flexibility of this protocol allows the testing of various environmental conditions for static cultivation of this bacterium and the development of diagnostic techniques. PMID:22219308

  7. Withanolides from leaves of cultivated Acnistus arborescens.

    PubMed

    Batista, Pedro Henrique J; de Lima, Karísia Sousa B; Pinto, Francisco das Chagas L; Tavares, Juliane L; de A Uchoa, Daniel E; Costa-Lotufo, Letícia V; Rocha, Danilo D; Silveira, Edilberto R; Bezerra, Antonio Marcos E; Canuto, Kirley M; Pessoa, Otília Deusdenia L

    2016-10-01

    Seven withanolides, including four previously unknown, were isolated from the acetone and ethanol extracts of cultivated specimens of Acnistus arborescens. These four compounds were identified as rel-(18R,22R)-5β,6β:18β,20-diepoxy-3β,18α-dimethoxy-4β-hydroxy-1-oxowith-24-enolide, rel-(20R,22R)-5β,6β-epoxy-4β,16α,20-trihydroxy-1-oxowitha-2,24dienolide, rel-(20R,22R)-16α-acetoxy-6α-chloro-4β,5β,20-trihydroxy-1-oxowitha-2,24-dienolide and rel-(20R,22R)-16α-acetoxy-20-hydroxy-1-oxowitha-2,5,24-trienolide. Their structures were elucidated by interpretation of spectroscopic data (1D and 2D NMR), HRESIMS experiments and comparison with published data for similar compounds. Cytotoxicity of the isolated compounds was evaluated against a panel of four tumor cell lines (HL-60, HCT-116, SF-268 and PANC-1). Withanolide D was the most active, with an IC50 value in the range of 0.3-1.7 μM, rel-(18R,22R)-5β,6β:18β,20-diepoxy-3β,18α-dimethoxy-4β-hydroxy-1-oxowith-24-enolide and rel-(20R,22R)-5β,6β-epoxy-4β,16α,20-trihydroxy-1-oxowitha-2,24dienolide were moderately active, while all the others were non-cytotoxic. PMID:27498045

  8. Dictyostelium Cultivation, Transfection, Microscopy and Fractionation

    PubMed Central

    Hirst, Jennifer; Kay, Robert R; Traynor, David

    2015-01-01

    The real time visualisation of fluorescently tagged proteins in live cells using ever more sophisticated microscopes has greatly increased our understanding of the dynamics of key proteins during fundamental physiological processes such as cell locomotion, chemotaxis, cell division and membrane trafficking. In addition the fractionation of cells and isolation of organelles or known compartments can often verify any subcellular localisation and the use of tagged proteins as bait for the immunoprecipitation of material from cell fractions can identify specific binding partners and multiprotein complexes thereby helping assign a function to the tagged protein. We have successfully applied these techniques to the Dictyostelium discoideum protein TSPOON that is part of an ancient heterohexamer membrane trafficking complex (Hirst et al., 2013). TSPOON is the product of the tstD gene in Dictyostelium and is not required for growth or the developmental cycle in this organism. Dictyostelium amoebae will exist in a vegetative phase where growth is sustained by the phagocytosis of bacteria. When this food source is spent they enter a developmental phase where the amoebae aggregate, via chemotaxis to extracellular waves of cAMP, into multicellular structures that subsequently form a fruiting body containing viable spores (Muller-Taubenberger et al., 2013). In the laboratory this cycle takes less than 24 h to complete and as a further aid to manipulation the requirement for a bacterial food source has been circumvented by the derivatisation of the wild type and isolation of axenic strains that can also grow in a nutrient rich broth. Axenic strains like Ax2 are the mainstay of laboratory research using Dictyostelium (Muller-Taubenberger et al., 2013). A description of Dictyostelium cell cultivation, the generation of cell lines that overexpress TSPOON-GFP and TSPOON null cells, and subsequent analysis (Muller-Taubenberger and Ishikawa-Ankerhold, 2013) is detailed below. PMID

  9. Nutrient Recovery of Starch Processing Waste to Cordyceps militaris: Solid State Cultivation and Submerged Liquid Cultivation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joonyeob; Cho, Kyungjin; Shin, Seung Gu; Bae, Hyokwan; Koo, Taewoan; Han, Gyuseong; Hwang, Seokhwan

    2016-09-01

    This study demonstrated the potential for managing starch processing waste (SPW) by bioconversion to Cordyceps militaris mycelia using solid state cultivation (SSC) and submerged liquid cultivation (SLC). The growth characteristics of C. militaris mycelium were accessed and compared for SSC and SLC systems on SPW under various conditions of initial SPW concentration, pH, and operating temperature. To quantify the mycelial biomass in SLC, original primer sets targeting the 18S rRNA gene of C. militaris were developed. In SSC, a maximum mycelial growth rate (543.1 mm(2)/day) was predicted to occur at 25.6 g SPW/L, pH 5.5, and 23.8 °C. In SLC, a maximum mycelial growth rate (1918.6 mg/L/day) was predicted to occur at 35.5 g SPW/L, pH 5.5, and 22.0 °C. Temperature was suggested as the most significant factor in both systems. The higher optimum substrate concentration observed for SLC than for SSC was likely due to difference in mycelial morphology and mixing effect. PMID:27130684

  10. Attached cultivation for improving the biomass productivity of Spirulina platensis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lanlan; Chen, Lin; Wang, Junfeng; Chen, Yu; Gao, Xin; Zhang, Zhaohui; Liu, Tianzhong

    2015-04-01

    To improve cultivation efficiency for microalgae Spirulina platensis is related to increase its potential use as food source and as an effective alternative for CO2 fixation. The present work attempted to establish a technique, namely attached cultivation, for S. platensis. Laboratory experiments were made firstly to investigate optimal conditions on attached cultivation. The optimal conditions were found: 25 g m(-2) for initial inoculum density using electrostatic flocking cloth as substrata, light intensity lower than 200 μmol m(-2) s(-1), CO2 enriched air flow (0.5%) at a superficial aeration rate of 0.0056 m s(-1) in a NaHCO3-free Zarrouk medium. An outdoor attached cultivation bench-scale bioreactor was built and a 10d culture of S. platensis was carried out with daily harvesting. A high footprint areal biomass productivity of 60 g m(-2) d(-1) was obtained. The nutrition of S. platensis with attached cultivation is identical to that with conventional liquid cultivation. PMID:25647023

  11. Continuous cultivation of photosynthetic microorganisms: Approaches, applications and future trends.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Bruno D; Mota, Andre; Teixeira, Jose A; Vicente, Antonio A

    2015-11-01

    The possibility of using photosynthetic microorganisms, such as cyanobacteria and microalgae, for converting light and carbon dioxide into valuable biochemical products has raised the need for new cost-efficient processes ensuring a constant product quality. Food, feed, biofuels, cosmetics and pharmaceutics are among the sectors that can profit from the application of photosynthetic microorganisms. Biomass growth in a photobioreactor is a complex process influenced by multiple parameters, such as photosynthetic light capture and attenuation, nutrient uptake, photobioreactor hydrodynamics and gas-liquid mass transfer. In order to optimize productivity while keeping a standard product quality, a permanent control of the main cultivation parameters is necessary, where the continuous cultivation has shown to be the best option. However it is of utmost importance to recognize the singularity of continuous cultivation of cyanobacteria and microalgae due to their dependence on light availability and intensity. In this sense, this review provides comprehensive information on recent breakthroughs and possible future trends regarding technological and process improvements in continuous cultivation systems of microalgae and cyanobacteria, that will directly affect cost-effectiveness and product quality standardization. An overview of the various applications, techniques and equipment (with special emphasis on photobioreactors) in continuous cultivation of microalgae and cyanobacteria are presented. Additionally, mathematical modeling, feasibility, economics as well as the applicability of continuous cultivation into large-scale operation, are discussed. PMID:25777495

  12. Genotypic diversity among rhizospheric bacteria of three legumes assessed by cultivation-dependent and cultivation-independent techniques.

    PubMed

    Pongsilp, Neelawan; Nimnoi, Pongrawee; Lumyong, Saisamorn

    2012-02-01

    The genotypic diversity of rhizospheric bacteria of 3 legumes including Vigna radiata, Arachis hypogaea and Acacia mangium was compared by using cultivation-dependent and cultivation-independent methods. For cultivation-dependent method, Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiles revealed that the bacterial genetic diversity of V. radiata and A. mangium rhizospheres was higher than that of A. hypogaea rhizosphere. For cultivation-independent method, Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes revealed the difference in bacterial community and diversity of rhizospheres collected from 3 legumes. The ribotype richness which indicates species diversity, was highest in V. radiata rhizosphere, followed by A. hypogaea and A. mangium rhizospheres, respectively. Three kinds of media were used to cultivate different target groups of bacteria. The result indicates that the communities of cultivable bacteria in 3 rhizospheres recovered from nutrient agar (NA) medium were mostly different from each other, while Bradyrhizobium selective medium (BJSM) and nitrogen-free medium shaped the communities of cultivable bacteria. Nine isolates grown on BJSM were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. These isolates were very closely related (with 96% to 99% identities) to either one of the three groups including Cupriavidus-Ralstonia group, Bacillus group and Bradyrhizobium-Bosea-Afipia group. The rhizospheres were also examined for their enzymatic patterns. Of 19 enzymes tested, 3 rhizospheres were distinguishable by the presence or the absence of leucine acrylamidase and acid phosphatase. The selected cultivable bacteria recovered from NA varied in their abilities to produce indole-acetic acid and ammnonia. The resistance to 10 antibiotics was indistinguishable among bacteria isolated from different rhizospheres. PMID:22806857

  13. Transcriptome profiling reveals mosaic genomic origins of modern cultivated barley

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Fei; Chen, Zhong-Hua; Wang, Xiaolei; Li, Zefeng; Jin, Gulei; Wu, Dezhi; Cai, Shengguan; Wang, Ning; Wu, Feibo; Nevo, Eviatar; Zhang, Guoping

    2014-01-01

    The domestication of cultivated barley has been used as a model system for studying the origins and early spread of agrarian culture. Our previous results indicated that the Tibetan Plateau and its vicinity is one of the centers of domestication of cultivated barley. Here we reveal multiple origins of domesticated barley using transcriptome profiling of cultivated and wild-barley genotypes. Approximately 48-Gb of clean transcript sequences in 12 Hordeum spontaneum and 9 Hordeum vulgare accessions were generated. We reported 12,530 de novo assembled transcripts in all of the 21 samples. Population structure analysis showed that Tibetan hulless barley (qingke) might have existed in the early stage of domestication. Based on the large number of unique genomic regions showing the similarity between cultivated and wild-barley groups, we propose that the genomic origin of modern cultivated barley is derived from wild-barley genotypes in the Fertile Crescent (mainly in chromosomes 1H, 2H, and 3H) and Tibet (mainly in chromosomes 4H, 5H, 6H, and 7H). This study indicates that the domestication of barley may have occurred over time in geographically distinct regions. PMID:25197090

  14. Development and optimization of biofilm based algal cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Martin Anthony

    This dissertation describes research done on biofilm based algal cultivation systems. The system that was developed in this work is the revolving algal biofilm cultivation system (RAB). A raceway-retrofit, and a trough-based pilot-scale RAB system were developed and investigated. Each of the systems significantly outperformed a control raceway pond in side-by-side tests. Furthermore the RAB system was found to require significantly less water than the raceway pond based cultivation system. Lastly a TEA/LCA analysis was conducted to evaluate the economic and life cycle of the RAB cultivation system in comparison to raceway pond. It was found that the RAB system was able to grow algae at a lower cost and was shown to be profitable at a smaller scale than the raceway pond style of algal cultivation. Additionally the RAB system was projected to have lower GHG emissions, and better energy and water use efficiencies in comparison to a raceway pond system. Furthermore, fundamental research was conducted to identify the optimal material for algae to attach on. A total of 28 materials with a smooth surface were tested for initial cell colonization and it was found that the tetradecane contact angle of the materials had a good correlation with cell attachment. The effects of surface texture were evaluated using mesh materials (nylon, polypropylene, high density polyethylene, polyester, aluminum, and stainless steel) with openings ranging from 0.05--6.40 mm. It was found that both surface texture and material composition influence algal attachment.

  15. Biomek Cell Workstation: A Variable System for Automated Cell Cultivation.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, R; Severitt, J C; Roddelkopf, T; Junginger, S; Thurow, K

    2016-06-01

    Automated cell cultivation is an important tool for simplifying routine laboratory work. Automated methods are independent of skill levels and daily constitution of laboratory staff in combination with a constant quality and performance of the methods. The Biomek Cell Workstation was configured as a flexible and compatible system. The modified Biomek Cell Workstation enables the cultivation of adherent and suspension cells. Until now, no commercially available systems enabled the automated handling of both types of cells in one system. In particular, the automated cultivation of suspension cells in this form has not been published. The cell counts and viabilities were nonsignificantly decreased for cells cultivated in AutoFlasks in automated handling. The proliferation of manual and automated bioscreening by the WST-1 assay showed a nonsignificant lower proliferation of automatically disseminated cells associated with a mostly lower standard error. The disseminated suspension cell lines showed different pronounced proliferations in descending order, starting with Jurkat cells followed by SEM, Molt4, and RS4 cells having the lowest proliferation. In this respect, we successfully disseminated and screened suspension cells in an automated way. The automated cultivation and dissemination of a variety of suspension cells can replace the manual method. PMID:26259574

  16. [Construction effect of fertile cultivated layer in black soil].

    PubMed

    Han, Xiao-zeng; Zou, Wen-xiu; Wang, Feng-xian; Wang, Feng-ju

    2009-12-01

    The clayey farmland soil in black soil region of Northeast China, due to the existence of thicker plough pan created by unreasonable tillage, is a main limiting factor for local agricultural production. In this paper, a field experiment was conducted to study the construction effect of fertile cultivated layer on crop yield, soil physical properties, soil moisture content, and soil microbial number. After the construction of fertile cultivated layer, the soil had a thicker cultivated layer, and the crop yield was increased. Comparing with traditional tillage, applying straw and organic manure into 20-35 cm soil layer decreased soil bulk density by 9.88% and 6.20%, increased soil porosity by 9.58% and 6.02%, and enhanced soil saturated hydraulic conductivity by 167.99 and 73.78%, respectively, indicating that the construction of fertile cultivated layer could improve soil aeration and water permeability, and enhance the infiltration of rainfall. The soil moisture content and water use efficiency under the application of straw and organic manure into plough pan were higher than those under traditional tillage, and a positive correlation was observed between the moisture content in 0-35 cm soil layer and the emergence of maize seedlings. Due to the increased organic carbon source and aeration in the constructed fertile cultivated layer, soil microbial number was also increased. PMID:20353068

  17. PHYSIOLOGICAL STRAIN AMONG WOMEN POTATO CULTIVATORS IN WEST BENGAL, INDIA.

    PubMed

    Pal, Amitava; De, Sujaya; Sengupta, Piyali; Maity, Payel; Mahata, Hiranmoy; Shaikh, Saijuddin; Dhara, Prakash C

    2015-12-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate physiological strain among women cultivators engaged in potato cultivation. The cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 150 women participants in different districts of West Bengal State, India. The physiological strain was evaluated by working heart rate, blood lactate and oxygen consumption. The average working heart rate was 109.97 ± 9.94 beats/min when all tasks were considered together. According to the working heart rate, oxygen consumption and energy cost, the potato cultivation job was categorized as a moderate work category. Whereas, according to cardiovascular stress index (CSI), all tasks of potato cultivation were categorized into a stressful category. The more experienced workers were more productive than their less experienced counterparts, and this increased productivity appeared to be a combination of greater efficiency and greater physical exertion. Stepwise multiple linear regression analyses revealed that work pace and work experience had significant association with all the indices of physiological strain. Work pace had strongest significant impact on these indices even after controlling the effect of age, work experience and efficiency. It was concluded that during performing potato cultivation tasks the workers had a great extent of physiological strain. PMID:27501538

  18. Transcriptome profiling reveals mosaic genomic origins of modern cultivated barley.

    PubMed

    Dai, Fei; Chen, Zhong-Hua; Wang, Xiaolei; Li, Zefeng; Jin, Gulei; Wu, Dezhi; Cai, Shengguan; Wang, Ning; Wu, Feibo; Nevo, Eviatar; Zhang, Guoping

    2014-09-16

    The domestication of cultivated barley has been used as a model system for studying the origins and early spread of agrarian culture. Our previous results indicated that the Tibetan Plateau and its vicinity is one of the centers of domestication of cultivated barley. Here we reveal multiple origins of domesticated barley using transcriptome profiling of cultivated and wild-barley genotypes. Approximately 48-Gb of clean transcript sequences in 12 Hordeum spontaneum and 9 Hordeum vulgare accessions were generated. We reported 12,530 de novo assembled transcripts in all of the 21 samples. Population structure analysis showed that Tibetan hulless barley (qingke) might have existed in the early stage of domestication. Based on the large number of unique genomic regions showing the similarity between cultivated and wild-barley groups, we propose that the genomic origin of modern cultivated barley is derived from wild-barley genotypes in the Fertile Crescent (mainly in chromosomes 1H, 2H, and 3H) and Tibet (mainly in chromosomes 4H, 5H, 6H, and 7H). This study indicates that the domestication of barley may have occurred over time in geographically distinct regions. PMID:25197090

  19. America's red gold: multiple lineages of cultivated cochineal in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Campana, Michael G; Robles García, Nelly M; Tuross, Noreen

    2015-01-01

    Cultivated cochineal (Dactylopius coccus) produces carminic acid, a valuable red dye used to color textiles, cosmetics, and food. Extant native D. coccus is largely restricted to two populations in the Mexican and the Andean highlands, although the insect's ultimate center of domestication remains unclear. Moreover, due to Mexican D. coccus cultivation's near demise during the 19th century, the genetic diversity of current cochineal stock is unknown. Through genomic sequencing, we identified two divergent D. coccus populations in highland Mexico: one unique to Mexico and another that was more closely related to extant Andean cochineal. Relic diversity is preserved in the crops of small-scale Mexican cochineal farmers. Conversely, larger-scale commercial producers are cultivating the Andean-like cochineal, which may reflect clandestine 20th century importation. PMID:25691985

  20. Mapping cultivable land from satellite imagery with clustering algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arango, R. B.; Campos, A. M.; Combarro, E. F.; Canas, E. R.; Díaz, I.

    2016-07-01

    Open data satellite imagery provides valuable data for the planning and decision-making processes related with environmental domains. Specifically, agriculture uses remote sensing in a wide range of services, ranging from monitoring the health of the crops to forecasting the spread of crop diseases. In particular, this paper focuses on a methodology for the automatic delimitation of cultivable land by means of machine learning algorithms and satellite data. The method uses a partition clustering algorithm called Partitioning Around Medoids and considers the quality of the clusters obtained for each satellite band in order to evaluate which one better identifies cultivable land. The proposed method was tested with vineyards using as input the spectral and thermal bands of the Landsat 8 satellite. The experimental results show the great potential of this method for cultivable land monitoring from remote-sensed multispectral imagery.

  1. Investigations of methane emissions from rice cultivation in Indian context.

    PubMed

    Anand, Shalini; Dahiya, R P; Talyan, Vikash; Vrat, Prem

    2005-05-01

    The increasing demand of the growing population requires enhancement in the production of rice. This has a direct bearing on the global environment since the rice cultivation is one of the major contributors to the methane emissions. As the rice cultivation is intensified with the current practices and technologies, the methane fluxes from paddy fields will substantially rise. Improved high yielding rice varieties together with efficient cultivation techniques will certainly contribute to the curtailment of the methane emission fluxes. In this paper, the system dynamic approach is used for estimating the methane emissions from rice fields in India till the year 2020. Mitigation options studied for curtailing the methane emissions include rice production management, use of low methane emitting varieties of rice, water management and fertilizer amendment. The model is validated quantitatively and sensitivity tests are carried out to examine the robustness of the model. PMID:15788188

  2. America's red gold: multiple lineages of cultivated cochineal in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Campana, Michael G; Robles García, Nelly M; Tuross, Noreen

    2015-02-01

    Cultivated cochineal (Dactylopius coccus) produces carminic acid, a valuable red dye used to color textiles, cosmetics, and food. Extant native D. coccus is largely restricted to two populations in the Mexican and the Andean highlands, although the insect's ultimate center of domestication remains unclear. Moreover, due to Mexican D. coccus cultivation's near demise during the 19th century, the genetic diversity of current cochineal stock is unknown. Through genomic sequencing, we identified two divergent D. coccus populations in highland Mexico: one unique to Mexico and another that was more closely related to extant Andean cochineal. Relic diversity is preserved in the crops of small-scale Mexican cochineal farmers. Conversely, larger-scale commercial producers are cultivating the Andean-like cochineal, which may reflect clandestine 20th century importation. PMID:25691985

  3. A mini review: photobioreactors for large scale algal cultivation.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Prabuddha L; Lee, Seung-Mok; Choi, Hee-Jeong

    2015-09-01

    Microalgae cultivation has gained much interest in terms of the production of foods, biofuels, and bioactive compounds and offers a great potential option for cleaning the environment through CO2 sequestration and wastewater treatment. Although open pond cultivation is most affordable option, there tends to be insufficient control on growth conditions and the risk of contamination. In contrast, while providing minimal risk of contamination, closed photobioreactors offer better control on culture conditions, such as: CO2 supply, water supply, optimal temperatures, efficient exposure to light, culture density, pH levels, and mixing rates. For a large scale production of biomass, efficient photobioreactors are required. This review paper describes general design considerations pertaining to photobioreactor systems, in order to cultivate microalgae for biomass production. It also discusses the current challenges in designing of photobioreactors for the production of low-cost biomass. PMID:26085485

  4. Allergenic Potential of Tomatoes Cultivated in Organic and Conventional Systems.

    PubMed

    Słowianek, Marta; Skorupa, Marta; Hallmann, Ewelina; Rembiałkowska, Ewa; Leszczyńska, Joanna

    2016-03-01

    Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) are a widely consumed vegetables and contain many health beneficial micronutrients. Unfortunately, they may also cause adverse allergic reactions in sensitized people. Many studies, conducted in recent years, indicate that organically produced vegetables have higher nutritional value, improved sensory quality and contain more health-enhancing bioactive compounds than vegetables grown under the conventional system. However, the relation between organic methods of cultivation and allergenic potential of tomatoes has received little scientific attention. This study analyzed samples of five tomato cultivars taken from organic and conventional systems over three consecutive years. The content of profilin, Bet v 1 and lipid transfer protein (LTP) analogues in tomato samples was determined using an indirect ELISA assay. Substantial quantities of these proteins were found in certain cultivars across all three years of cultivation. On the basis of these findings, organically grown tomatoes appear to offer little advantage over conventionally cultivated plants in terms of reduced allergenic potential. PMID:26590604

  5. The President's Role in Cultivating Positive Town-Gown Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weill, Lawrence V.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the benefits and challenges a college president faces when attempting to cultivate relationships with the community in which the college resides. Throughout history, the relationships between institutions of higher education and the communities that house them have often been turbulent, but much good can be realized when true…

  6. Lessons from the Field: Cultivating Nurturing Environments in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Caroline S.

    2015-01-01

    This article explores how a scholarly learning journey, as a student and faculty member, brings one back to an understanding of the value of knowledge gained in one's home community, and provides insight on how to foster settings for others to cultivate knowledge.

  7. Parenting Priorities and Pressures: Furthering Understanding of "Concerted Cultivation"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Carol; Maxwell, Claire

    2016-01-01

    This paper re-examines the purposes of a planned and intentional parenting style--"concerted cultivation"--for different middle-class groups, highlighting that social class fraction, ethnicity, and also individual family disposition, guides understandings of the purposes of enrolling children in particular enrichment activities. We…

  8. The Elaboration of Cultivating Learners' English Communicative Competence in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yuxiang; Wang, Jiling

    2012-01-01

    The communicative competence is the ultimate goal of the Communicative Language Teaching (CLT), which is thought to be the eclectic approach in the place of other approaches and methods and which begins to gain momentum in the recent years. Hence, the comprehensive understanding of the communicative competence is prerequisite to the cultivation of…

  9. Allelopathy as a potential strategy to improve microalgae cultivation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    One of the main obstacles for continuous productivity in microalgae cultivation is the presence of biological contaminants capable of eliminating large numbers of cells in a matter of days or even hours. However, a number of strategies are being used to combat and prevent contamination in microalgae cultivation. These strategies include the use of extreme conditions in the culture media such as high salinity and high pH to create an unfavorable environment for the competitive organisms or predators of the microalgae. Numerous studies have explored the potential of naturally occurring bioactive secondary metabolites, which are natural products from plants and microorganisms, as a source of such compounds. Some of these compounds are herbicides, and marine and freshwater microalgae are a source of these compounds. Microalgae produce a remarkable diversity of biologically active metabolites. Results based on the allelopathic potential of algae have only been described for laboratory-scale production and not for algae cultivation on a pilot scale. The adoption of allelopathy on microalgal strains is an unexplored field and may be a novel solution to improve algae production. Here we present information showing the diversity of allelochemicals from microalgae and the use of an allelopathic approach to control microalgae cultivation on a pilot scale based on R&D activities being carried out in Brazil for biodiesel production. PMID:24499580

  10. The Implications of Survey Method for Measuring Cultivation Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shrum, L. J.

    2007-01-01

    The magnitude of the cultivation effect for perceptual estimates of social reality has been shown to be affected by a number of contextual factors such as source priming and motivation to process information during judgment construction, and these contextual factors have been linked to the use of heuristic processing strategies when constructing…