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1

Monodon baculovirus (MBV) infects the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii cultivated in Thailand.  

PubMed

Field specimens of post-larvae of the giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) from Thailand showed hepatopancreatic tubule epithelial cells that contained central, eosinophilic inclusions within enlarged nuclei and marginated chromatin. These inclusions resembled those produced by some baculoviruses prior to formation of occlusion bodies that enclose virions in a polyhedrin protein matrix. By electron microscopy, the intranuclear inclusions contained bacilliform, enveloped virions (approximately 327+/-29nmx87+/-12nm) with evenly dense, linear nucleocapsids surrounded by trilaminar envelopes with lateral pockets containing nucleoproteinic filaments. In some cases, these were accompanied by moderately electron dense, spherical particles of approximately 20nm diameter resembling polyhedrin subunits of occlusion bodies (OB) of a bacilliform virus of the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon, previously reported from Thailand and called monodon baculovirus (MBV). It is currently listed by the International Committee on Taxonomy of viruses as Penaeus monodon nucleopolyhedrovirus (PemoNPV). Two polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for MBV gave positive results with DNA extracts prepared from M. rosenbergii samples using the hot phenol technique. One of these assays targeted the polyhedrin gene of MBV to which the resulting amplicon showed 100% sequence identity. Presence of the Penaeus monodon virus polyhedrin gene was confirmed by in situ hybridization assays and by positive immunohistochemical reactions in one sample batch. The data revealed that MBV can be found but may rarely produce polyhedrin occlusion bodies in M. rosenbergii. PMID:19963025

Gangnonngiw, Warachin; Laisutisan, Kesinee; Sriurairatana, Siriporn; Senapin, Saengchan; Chuchird, Niti; Limsuwan, Chalor; Chaivisuthangkura, Parin; Flegel, Timothy W

2010-03-01

2

RNA-binding region of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus capsid protein.  

PubMed

White tail disease (WTD) kills prawn larvae and causes drastic losses to the freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) industry. The main causative agent of WTD is Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV). The N-terminal end of the MrNV capsid protein is very rich in positively charged amino acids and is postulated to interact with RNA molecules. N-terminal and internal deletion mutagenesis revealed that the RNA-binding region is located at positions 20-29, where 80?% of amino acids are positively charged. Substitution of all these positively charged residues with alanine abolished the RNA binding. Mutants without the RNA-binding region still assembled into virus-like particles, suggesting that this region is not a part of the capsid assembly domain. This paper is, to the best of our knowledge, the first to report the specific RNA-binding region of MrNV capsid protein. PMID:24878641

Goh, Zee Hong; Mohd, Nur Azmina Syakirin; Tan, Soon Guan; Bhassu, Subha; Tan, Wen Siang

2014-09-01

3

White Tail Disease of Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

Macrobrachium rosenbergii is the most important cultured freshwater prawn in the world and it is now farmed on a large scale in many countries. Generally, freshwater prawn is considered to be tolerant to diseases but a disease of viral origin is responsible for severe mortalities in larval, post-larval and juvenile stages of prawn. This viral infection namely white tail disease (WTD) was reported in the island of Guadeloupe in 1995 and later in Martinique (FrenchWest Indies) in Taiwan, the People's Republic of China, India, Thailand, Australia and Malaysia. Two viruses, Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus-like particle (XSV) have been identified as causative agents of WTD. MrNV is a small icosahedral non-enveloped particle, 26-27 nm in diameter, identified in the cytoplasm of connective cells. XSV is also an icosahedral virus and 15 nm in diameter. Clinical signs observed in the infected animals include lethargy, opaqueness of the abdominal muscle, degeneration of the telson and uropods, and up to 100 % within 4 days. The available diagnostic methods to detect WTD include RT-PCR, dot-blot hybridization, in situ hybridization and ELISA. In experimental infection, these viruses caused 100 % mortality in post-larvae but failed to cause mortality in adult prawns. The reported hosts for these viruses include marine shrimp, Artemia and aquatic insects. Experiments were carried out to determine the possibility of vertical transmission of MrNV and XSV in M. rosenbergii. The results indicate that WTD may be transferred from infected brooders to their offspring during spawning. Replication of MrNV and XSV was investigated in apparently healthy C6/36 Aedes albopictus and SSN-1 cell lines. The results revealed that C6/36 and SSN-1cells were susceptible to these viruses. No work has been carried out on control and prevention of WTD and dsRNA against protein B2 produced RNAi that was able to functionally prevent and reduce mortality in WTD-infected redclaw crayfish. PMID:23997437

Sahul Hameed, A S; Bonami, Jean-Robert

2012-09-01

4

Feasibility of direct utilization of selected geothermal water for aquaculture of macrobrachium rosenbergii. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility was tested of direct utilization of geothermal water for the aquaculture of Malaysian freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). A problem with using geothermal water for aquaculture is the chemical composition of the water with high flouride levels being a particular problem. Results show that (1) some geothermal water in Idaho can be used directly for the aquaculture of Macrobrachium rosenbergii, (2) high flouride levels cannot be directly correlated with high mortality rates and (3) low flouride levels do not correlate with high growth rates.

Spinosa, C.

1984-05-01

5

Routine Metabolic Rate and Limiting Oxygen Concentration of Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii Larvae  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Malaysian prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, are hatched and raised indoors in small tanks. Prawns may be raised and shipped at high densities which could result in low dissolved oxygen (DO) conditions. Because DO may play an important role in prawn development and survival, we measured routine me...

6

Changes of Myofibrillar Proteins and Texture in Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, During Iced Storage  

E-print Network

of mushiness has been demon strated (Nip and Moy, 1988). Proteolysis of muscle proteins by proteolytic and/shrimp protein compo nents have been very limited. Wong (1982) studied the microstructural changes in musclesChanges of Myofibrillar Proteins and Texture in Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii

7

Experimental vertical transmission of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV) from brooders to progeny in Macrobrachium rosenbergii and Artemia.  

PubMed

White tail disease (WTD) is a serious problem in hatcheries and nursery ponds of Macrobrachium rosenbergii in India. Experiments were carried out to determine the possibility of vertical transmission of M. rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV) in M. rosenbergii and Artemia. Prawn broodstock inoculated with MrNV and XSV by oral or immersion challenge survived without any clinical signs of WTD. The brooders spawned 5-7 days after inoculation and the eggs hatched. The survival rate of larvae gradually decreased, and 100% mortality was observed at the post-larvae (PL) stage. Whitish muscle, the typical sign of WTD, was seen in advanced larval developmental stages. The ovarian tissue and fertilized eggs were found to be positive for MrNV/XSV by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) whereas the larval stages showed positive by RT nested PCR (nRT-PCR). In Artemia, reproductive cysts and nauplii derived from challenged brooders were normal and survival rates were within the expected range for normal rearing conditions. The reproductive cysts were found to be positive for MrNV/XSV by RT-PCR whereas the nauplii showed MrNV/XSV-positive by nRT-PCR. The PL of M. rosenbergii fed nauplii derived from challenged Artemia brooders died at 9 days post-inoculum with clinical signs of WTD. PMID:17241402

Sudhakaran, R; Ishaq Ahmed, V P; Haribabu, P; Mukherjee, S C; Sri Widada, J; Bonami, J R; Sahul Hameed, A S

2007-01-01

8

Artemia as a possible vector for Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus transmission (XSV) to Macrobrachium rosenbergii post-larvae.  

PubMed

Five developmental stages of Artemia were exposed to Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV) by immersion and oral routes in order to investigate the possibility of Artemia acting as a reservoir or carrier of these viruses. The second objective was to determine if virus-exposed Artemia were capable of transmitting the disease to post-larvae (PL) of M. rosenbergii. There was no significant difference in percent mortality between Artemia control groups and groups challenged with these viruses. On the other hand, all the developmental stages of Artemia were positive for both viruses by nested RT-PCR, regardless of the challenge route. In horizontal transmission experiments, 100% mortality was observed in M. rosenbergii PL fed with Artemia nauplii exposed to MrNV and XSV by either challenge route. However, no mortality was observed in PL fed with virus-free Artemia. RT-PCR analysis of the M. rosenbergii PL confirmed the presence of MrNV and XSV in the challenge group and absence in the control group. PMID:16875403

Sudhakaran, R; Yoganandhan, K; Ahmed, V P Ishaq; Hameed, A S Sahul

2006-06-12

9

In situ hybridization and RT-PCR detection of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus in giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man), in Taiwan.  

PubMed

Between January and March 2006, suspected outbreaks of white tail disease were observed in post-larvae and juveniles of Macrobrachium rosenbergii in hatcheries and nursery ponds at Kaohsiung and Pingtung Counties in southern Taiwan. Pathognomonic lesions showed the presence of large oval and/or irregular basophilic, cytoplasmic inclusion bodies in the infected muscles and hepatopancreas. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay and in situ hybridization (ISH) revealed evidence of M. rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) infection but did not detect extra small virus. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that there were very high identities between nucleotide sequences among six strains obtained in this study (99.5-100%), moderate identities with Caribbean and Indian strains (98.2-98.6%), but slightly lower identity with a Chinese strain (95.2%). This is the first confirmation of MrNV in giant freshwater prawns, using an RT-PCR and ISH, in Taiwan. PMID:17169113

Hsieh, C-Y; Wu, Z-B; Tung, M-C; Tu, C; Lo, S-P; Chang, T-C; Chang, C-D; Chen, S-C; Hsieh, Y-C; Tsai, S-S

2006-11-01

10

Clearance of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV) and immunological changes in experimentally injected Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

Macrobrachium rosenbergii was experimentally challenged with Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV) to study the clearance of these viruses and consequent changes in various immunological parameters. The healthy animals were injected MrNV and XSV intramuscularly and various organ samples such as gill tissue, head soft tissue, pleopods and intestine were collected at different time intervals of 3, 5, 10, 15, 25, 50, 75 and 100d post-infection (p.i.) to study the viral clearance. Tissue tropism and clearing of MrNV and XSV were confirmed by RT-PCR, nested RT-PCR and bioassay. These 2 viruses failed to cause mortality or clinical signs of disease in injected adult prawns during the experimental period of 100 days. The result of RT-PCR analysis revealed that all the organs showed positive for both viruses by single step RT-PCR on 3, 5 and 10 d p.i., positive by nested RT-PCR on 15 and 20 d p.i. and all the organs became negative at 25 d p.i. onwards. The viral inoculum prepared from the tissue of MrNV and XSV-injected M. rosenbergii at 3, 5, 10, 15 and 20 d p.i. caused 100% mortality in post-larvae of M. rosenbergii at 9, 8, 7, 10 and 10 d p.i., respectively whereas the inoculum prepared at 25, 50 and 100 d p.i. failed to cause significant mortality in post-larvae of prawn. Immunological parameters such as proPO, superoxide anion, SOD, THC, clotting time and oxyhemocyanin were determined in MrNV and XSV-injected prawns and significant differences in some of the immunological parameters were found in the early days p.i. and became insignificant in the later days p.i. PMID:19963067

Ravi, M; Nazeer Basha, A; Taju, G; Ram Kumar, R; Sahul Hameed, A S

2010-03-01

11

Grooming as a secondary behavior in the shrimp Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Crustacea, Decapoda, Caridea)  

PubMed Central

Abstract The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is a large shrimp extensively used in aquaculture whose grooming behaviors were analyzed in this study. Macrobrachium rosenbergii exhibits three unique male morphotypes that differ in their behavior, morphology and physiology: small-clawed males (SM), orange-clawed males (OC) and blue-clawed males (BC). The largest and most dominant males, BC males, are predicted to have significantly different grooming behaviors compared to females and the other two male morphotypes. These BC males may be too large and bulky to efficiently groom and may dedicate more time to mating and agonistic interactions than grooming behaviors. Observations were conducted to look at the prevalence of grooming behaviors in the absence and presence of conspecifics and to determine if any differences in grooming behavior exist among the sexes and male morphotypes. Significant differences in the grooming behaviors of all individuals (females and male morphotypes) were found. BC males tended to have the highest grooming time budget (percent of time spent grooming) while SM males had a relatively low grooming time budget. The grooming behaviors of the male morphotypes differed, indicating while these males play distinct, separate roles in the social hierarchy, they also have different grooming priorities. The conditions in which Macrobrachium rosenbergii are cultured may result in increased body fouling, which may vary, depending on the grooming efficiencies and priorities of these male morphotypes. Overall, grooming behaviors were found to be a secondary behavior which only occurred when primary behaviors such as mating, feeding or fighting were not present. PMID:25561831

VanMaurik, Lauren N.; Wortham, Jennifer L.

2014-01-01

12

[Influence of lecithotrofic feeding on growth and development of larvae of freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium rosenbergii].  

PubMed

In the giant freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man), lecithotrofic feeding was discovered at the zoea I stage, and facultative lecithotrofic feeding was found at the zoea II stage. Cases of the completion of the first two stages without feeding were detected. However, a delay in feeding at the zoea II stage caused the inhibition of the growth and development of larvae. In this connection, we recommend to introduce food to the aquaculture of the giant freshwater shrimp on the end of the first day after hatching, when the first zoea II larvae emerge. PMID:21786650

Borisov, R R; Kriakhova, N V

2011-01-01

13

Serological characterization of humoral lectins from the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

We have detected and partially characterized multiple lectins present in the serum of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Since agglutination of erythrocytes (RBC) is not abolished by treatment with Vibrio cholerae neuraminidase (VCN), Macrobrachium shows an agglutination pattern different from that of other sialic acid-specific lectins such as Limulus polyphemus lectin. However, after absorption with primate and bird VCN-treated RBC, Macrobrachium serum exhibits high titers with untreated and pronase-treated RBC and no agglutination of VCN-treated RBC, suggesting a typical sialic acid specific lectin agglutination profile. Hemagglutination-inhibition tests indicate that sialic acid containing compounds are the best inhibitors for Macrobrachium lectins. Subterminal sugars and type of linkage are probably important for the lectin binding since bovine submaxillary mucin (containing mainly terminal NANA-alpha-2 6-GalNAc-) is a better inhibitor than fetuin (containing mainly terminal NANA-alpha-2 leads to 3-Gal-) and colominic acid (-NANA-alpha-2 leads to 8-NANA-) is a weak inhibitor. PMID:6840378

Vasta, G R; Warr, G W; Marchalonis, J J

1983-01-01

14

Potential use of the Macrobrachium rosenbergii lectin for diagnosis of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.  

PubMed

T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia is the most common form of cancer in children. Lectins are proteins or glycoproteins from plants or animals that recognize oligossacharides on the cell surface and have been used to characterize the structural changes of oligosaccharides in leukemias. In this study, we used the lectin from the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium (M. rosenbergii), specific for acetyl groups in sialylated glycans, because increased sialylation of glycoproteins and glycolipids has been identified in lymphoblastic leukemias. We compared the specificity of the M. rosenbergii lectin for lymphoblastic leukemias with the specificities of the lectins from Triticum vulgaris, Solanum tuberosum, Arachis hipogaea, and Phytolacca americana. By morphologic and phenotype characterization with a panel of monoclonal antibodies, we identified four types of leukemias from 106 leukemia patients: 11 cases of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 61 cases of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 24 cases of acute myeloblastic leukemia, and 10 cases of acute biphenotypic leukemia. As determined by cytofluorometric assays, nine of the eleven cases with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (8 +/- 3 years old) were specifically identified with the lectin from M. rosenbergii. In contrast, only six cases of B-cell leukemia, one case of myeloblastic leukemia, and 2 cases of biphenotypic leukemia were identified with this M. rosenbergii lectin. The other lectins tested showed no capacity to differentiate, in a significant manner, any of the four types of leukemias tested. Thus, the lectin from M. rosenbergii could be considered a useful tool for the diagnosis and study of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. PMID:18212483

Pérez-Campos-Mayoral, Laura; Ruiz-Argüelles, Alejandro; Pérez-Romano, Beatriz; Zenteno, Edgar; Hernández-Cruz, Pedro; Martínez-Cruz, Ruth; Martínez-Cruz, Margarito; Pina-Canseco, Socorro; Pérez-Campos, Eduardo

2008-01-01

15

TBT Effects on the Development of Intersex (Ovotestis) in Female Fresh Water Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

PubMed Central

The impact of tributyltin (TBT) on the female gonad and the endocrine system in Macrobrachium rosenbergii was studied. Prawns were exposed to environmentally realistic concentrations of 10, 100, and 1000?ng/L of TBT for 6 months. Dose dependent effects were noticed in TBT exposed prawns. At 1000?ng/L TBT caused ovotestis formation (formation of male germ cells in ovary). Presence immature oocytes, fusion of developing oocytes, increase in interstitial connective tissues, and its modification into tubular like structure and abundance of spermatogonia in the ovary of TBT treated prawns. The control prawn ovary showed normal architecture of cellular organelles such as mature oocytes with type 2 yolk globules, lipid droplets, normal appearance of yolk envelop, and uniformly arranged microvilli. On the other hand, type 1 yolk globules, reduced size of microvilli, spermatogonial cells in ovary, spermatogonia with centrally located nucleus, and chromatin distribution throughout the nucleoplasm were present in the TBT treated group. Immunofluorescence staining indicated a reduction in vitellin content in ovary of TBT treated prawn. Moreover, TBT had inhibited the vitellogenesis by causing hormonal imbalance in M. rosenbergii. Thus, the present investigation demonstrates that TBT substantially affects sexual differentiation and gonadal development in M. rosenbergii. PMID:25121096

Peranandam, Revathi; Palanisamy, Iyapparaj; Lourdaraj, Arockia Vasanthi; Natesan, Munuswamy; Vimalananthan, Arun Prasanna; Thangaiyan, Suganya; Perumal, Anantharaman; Muthukalingan, Krishnan

2014-01-01

16

Laboratory toxicity test and post-exposure feeding inhibition using the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

A bioassay was developed using post-larvae of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (length 9-10 mm) in order to determine the toxicity of profenofos, dimethoate, chlorpyrifos, carbendazim and zinc. This was the first study in the tropics with M. rosenbergii, particularly at the post-larvae stage (9-10 mm) on lethal (LC(50)) and sublethal (EC(50)) effects of toxic substances using post-exposure feeding rate as end point. Median lethal concentrations (LC(50) at 24 and 48 h) were respectively estimated as 11.6 and 9.8 microg L(-1) for profenofos, 142.1 and 102.7 microg L(-1) for dimethoate, 0.7 and 0.3 microg L(-1) for chlorpyrifos, and 439.7 and 329 microg L(-1) for zinc. Effects of carbendazim could not be estimated because carbendazim exposure needs more than 24h exposure period to produce observable effects at the concentrations used. The EC(50) using post-exposure feeding rates determined for profenofos, dimethoate, chlorpyrifos and zinc were 6.023, 269.3, 0.293 and 109.01 microg L(-1), respectively, at 24 h of exposure. Only chlorpyrifos and zinc had LC(50) concentrations greater than the post-exposure feeding EC(50) concentrations. This study demonstrated that the M. rosenbergii could also be used as a test animal to detect the effects of different chemical contaminants in aquatic environments. PMID:19103457

Satapornvanit, Kriengkrai; Baird, D J; Little, D C

2009-03-01

17

Identification and function of 11 Rab GTPases in giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

Rab GTPases, members of the Ras-like GTPase superfamily, are central elements in endocytic membrane trafficking. However, little is known of the Rab genes in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. In this study, 11 Rab genes were identified from M. rosenbergii. All MrRabs have a RAB domain. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these 11 MrRabs were divided into different groups. The MrRab genes were ubiquitously expressed in heart, hemocytes, hepatopancreas, gills, stomach, and intestines. Real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed that the MrRab genes were significantly upregulated by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in the prawns, indicating that MrRabs might play an important role in innate immune response against WSSV. Moreover, after challenge with Vibrio parahaemolyticus, the expression levels of all MrRabs in the hepatopancreas were also upregulated, which might indicated the involvement of MrRabs in prawns antibacterial immunity. In all, these preliminary results showed that MrRabs were involved in innate immunity of M. rosenbergii. PMID:25542378

Huang, Ying; Ren, Qian

2015-03-01

18

Investigation into the possible natural occurence of semicarbazide in Macrobrachium rosenbergii prawns.  

PubMed

In the past year there has been an increased incidence in Belgium of cases of positive semicarbazide (SEM) tests in imported freshwater Macrobrachium rosenbergii prawns, seemingly indicating the possible abuse of nitrofurazone, a banned antimicrobial agent. This was in contrast to all other European countries where no significant increase in SEM-positive samples was detected. A possible explanation for this discrepancy between Belgium and the other European Union member states could be the fact that only in Belgium were whole prawns (meat + shell) analyzed for the presence of tissue-bound metabolites of nitrofurans, whereas in the other countries only the edible part (meat) of these prawns was analyzed. To investigate the possible natural occurrence of SEM in freshwater prawns, an animal trial was set up. In this experiment two groups of 10 juvenile M. rosenbergii, previously raised under standardized laboratory conditions, were stocked into two separate aquaria, a control group under reference conditions (no addition of nitrofurazone) and a group exposed to a daily dose of 50 mg of nitrofurazone L(-1) of culture water. Results of this animal trial proved that SEM naturally occurs in M. rosenbergii prawns but that at the current minimum required performance limit (MRPL) no tissue-bound SEM can be found in the meat of nontreated animals. In addition to this animal trial, commercial samples of other crustacean species, the shell and meat of which were analyzed separately, were also analyzed for the presence of SEM. PMID:21299238

Van Poucke, Christof; Detavernier, Christ'l; Wille, Mathieu; Kwakman, Jan; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Van Peteghem, Carlos

2011-03-01

19

First report on vertical transmission of a plasmid DNA in freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

Outbreak of WSSV disease is one of the major stumbling blocks in shrimp aquaculture. DNA vaccines have shown potential for mass scale vaccination owing to their stability, cost effectiveness and easy maintenance. Development of economically feasible delivery strategies remains to be a major challenge. This study demonstrates vertical transmission of a plasmid DNA in a decapod Macrobrachium rosenbergii for the first time. Females at three different maturation stages (immature, matured and berried) and mature males were injected with a plasmid DNA and allowed to spawn with untreated counterparts. Using specific primers the plasmid DNA could be amplified from the offspring of all groups except that of berried females. For this confirmation genomic DNA was isolated from 3 pools of 10 post larvae in each group. This presents an ideal strategy to protect young ones at zero stress. PMID:24933022

Chowdhury, Labrechai Mog; Gireesh-Babu, P; Pavan-Kumar, A; Suresh Babu, P P; Chaudhari, Aparna

2014-09-01

20

Prophenoloxidase activating enzyme-III from giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii : characterization, expression and specific enzyme activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prophenoloxidase activating system is an important innate immune response against microbial infections in invertebrates.\\u000a The major enzyme, phenoloxidase, is synthesized as an inactive precursor and its activation to an active enzyme is mediated\\u000a by a cascade of clip domain serine proteinases. In this study, a cDNA encoding a prophenoloxidase activating enzyme-III from\\u000a the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, designated

Jesu Arockiaraj; Sarasvathi Easwvaran; Puganeshwaran Vanaraja; Arun Singh; Rofina Yasmin Othman; Subha Bhassu

21

Toxicity of phenol on Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) eggs, larvae, and post-larvae  

SciTech Connect

Literature on the toxicities of phenol on aquatic organisms is very limited. USEPA reported that the acute and chronic toxicities of phenol to freshwater aquatic life occur at concentrations as low as 10.2 mg/L and 2.56 mg/L, respectively. While for the saltwater aquatic life the acute toxicity occurs at concentrations as low as 5.8 mg/L. No data are available for the chronic toxicity of phenol to saltwater aquatic life. Sublethal concentrations of phenol have significant effects on the physiological and histological processes of the aquatic organisms: such as gill necrosis; destruction of erythrocyte cells; inhibition of sexual activities; suppression on growth and reduction of resistance to diseases. Macrobrachium rosenbergii(de Man) is the sole freshwater prawn cultured in Malaysia. Occasionally, the hatcheries are unable to produce the post-larvae because of undefined pollutants present in the water supplies. It has been observed that the use of cracked fiberglass tanks for larvae rearing is correlated with high mortality. This high mortality is probably due to the toxicity of the phenolic compounds which are leached out from the fiber glass tank into the water. This study was undertaken to evaluate the toxicity of phenol on eggs, larvae and post-larvae of M. rosenbergii and to set the water quality criteria of phenol for the said species. 16 refs., 3 tabs.

Law, A.T.; Yeo, M.E. [Universiti Kolej Terengganu (UPM), Darul Iman (Malaysia)] [Universiti Kolej Terengganu (UPM), Darul Iman (Malaysia)

1997-03-01

22

White tail disease of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii in Thailand.  

PubMed

White tail disease (WTD) of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii has recently been the cause of high mortalities in Thai prawn farms. The causative agents of this disease in other countries are M. rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV), which are usually detected using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) protocols. Using RT-PCR, most Thai post-larvae (PL) samples showing gross signs of WTD tested positive for MrNV but only a few were positive for XSV. In contrast, all tested brooder samples were positive for both MrNV and XSV. The possibility that brooders infected with MrNV and XSV could transmit the viruses to larvae and PL should be examined. Cloning, sequencing and comparison of deduced amino acid sequences of RT-PCR amplicons of WTD samples from Thailand with those of MrNV and XSV previously reported from the French West Indies and China revealed that the MrNV were closely related but not identical while those from XSV were identical. This is the first report of MrNV and XSV from Thailand. PMID:16724570

Yoganandhan, Kalidoss; Leartvibhas, Manee; Sriwongpuk, Supamas; Limsuwan, Chalor

2006-04-01

23

A cytosolic glutathione s-transferase, GST-theta from freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii: molecular and biochemical properties.  

PubMed

Glutathione S-transferases play an important role in cellular detoxification and may have evolved to protect cells against reactive oxygen metabolites. In this study, we report the molecular characterization of glutathione s-transferase-theta (GST-?) from freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. A full length cDNA of GSTT (1417 base pairs) was isolated and characterized bioinformatically. Exposure to virus (white spot syndrome baculovirus or M. rosenbergii nodovirus), bacteria (Aeromonas hydrophila or Vibrio harveyi) or heavy metals (cadmium or lead) significantly increased the expression of GSTT (P<0.05) in hepatopancreas. Recombinant GST-? with monochlorobimane substrate had an optimum activity at pH7.5 and 35 °C. Furthermore recombinant GST-? activity was abolished by the denaturants triton X-100, Gua-HCl, Gua-thiocyanate, SDS and urea in a dose-dependent manner. Overall, the results suggest a potential role for M. rosenbergii GST-? in detoxification and possibly conferring immune protection. PMID:24879918

Arockiaraj, Jesu; Gnanam, Annie J; Palanisamy, Rajesh; Bhatt, Prasanth; Kumaresan, Venkatesh; Chaurasia, Mukesh Kumar; Pasupuleti, Mukesh; Ramaswamy, Harikrishnan; Arasu, Abirami; Sathyamoorthi, Akila

2014-08-10

24

Production and Application of Polyclonal Antibodies Against Recombinant Capsid Protein of Extra Small Virus of Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus along with a satellite virus, extra small virus (XSV) causes white tail disease (WTD) in the giant freshwater prawn M. rosenbergii. Infected M. rosenbergii postlarvae were collected from a hatchery in Kakinada, Andhra Pradesh. The gene coding the capsid protein of XSV was cloned in a bacterial expression vector pRSET A and the recombinant protein was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)pLysS cells. The recombinant protein was purified by Nickel affinity chromatography. Polyclonal antibodies were produced in mice against the recombinant protein and the antibodies reacted specifically with the recombinant protein and XSV in WTD-infected tissues. This is the first report of detection of XSV using antibodies against recombinant capsid protein. PMID:24293828

Neethi, V; Sivakumar, N; Kumar, Kundan; Rajendran, K V; Makesh, M

2012-12-01

25

Susceptibility of juvenile Macrobrachium rosenbergii to different doses of high and low virulence strains of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV).  

PubMed

As some literature on the susceptibility of different life stages of Macrobrachium rosenbergii to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is conflicting, the pathogenesis, infectivity and pathogenicity of 2 WSSV strains (Thai-1 and Viet) were investigated here in juveniles using conditions standardized for Penaeus vannamei. As with P. vannamei, juvenile M. rosenbergii (2 to 5 g) injected with a low dose of WSSV-Thai-1 or a high dose of WSSV-Viet developed comparable clinical pathology and numbers of infected cells within 1 to 2 d post-infection. In contrast, a low dose of WSSV-Viet capable of causing mortality in P. vannamei resulted in no detectable infection in M. rosenbergii. Mean prawn infectious dose 50% endpoints (PID?? ml?¹) determined in M. rosenbergii were in the order of 100-fold higher for WSSV-Thai-1 (105.3 ± 0.4 PID?? ml?¹) than for WSSV-Viet (103.2 ± 0.2 PID?? ml?¹), with each of these being about 20-fold and 400-fold lower, respectively, than found previously in P. vannamei. The median lethal dose (LD?? ml?¹) determined in M. rosenbergii was also far higher (~1000-fold) for WSSV-Thai-1 (105.4 ± 0.4 LD?? ml?¹) than for WSSV-Viet (102.3 ± 0.3 LD?? ml?¹). Based on these data, it is clear that juvenile M. rosenbergii are susceptible to WSSV infection, disease and mortality. In comparison to P. vannamei, however, juvenile M. rosenbergii appear more capable of resisting infection and disease, particularly in the case of a WSSV strain with lower apparent virulence. PMID:22968789

Corteel, Mathias; Dantas-Lima, João J; Tuan, Vo Van; Thuong, Khuong Van; Wille, Mathieu; Alday-Sanz, Victoria; Pensaert, Maurice B; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Nauwynck, Hans J

2012-09-12

26

Transcriptomics of a Giant Freshwater Prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii): De Novo Assembly, Annotation and Marker Discovery  

PubMed Central

Background Giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii or GFP), is the most economically important freshwater crustacean species. However, as little is known about its genome, 454 pyrosequencing of cDNA was undertaken to characterise its transcriptome and identify genes important for growth. Methodology and Principal Findings A collection of 787,731 sequence reads (244.37 Mb) obtained from 454 pyrosequencing analysis of cDNA prepared from muscle, ovary and testis tissues taken from 18 adult prawns was assembled into 123,534 expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Of these, 46% of the 8,411 contigs and 19% of 115,123 singletons possessed high similarity to sequences in the GenBank non-redundant database, with most significant (E value < 1e–5) contig (80%) and singleton (84%) matches occurring with crustacean and insect sequences. KEGG analysis of the contig open reading frames identified putative members of several biological pathways potentially important for growth. The top InterProScan domains detected included RNA recognition motifs, serine/threonine-protein kinase-like domains, actin-like families, and zinc finger domains. Transcripts derived from genes such as actin, myosin heavy and light chain, tropomyosin and troponin with fundamental roles in muscle development and construction were abundant. Amongst the contigs, 834 single nucleotide polymorphisms, 1198 indels and 658 simple sequence repeats motifs were also identified. Conclusions The M. rosenbergii transcriptome data reported here should provide an invaluable resource for improving our understanding of this species' genome structure and biology. The data will also instruct future functional studies to manipulate or select for genes influencing growth that should find practical applications in aquaculture breeding programs. PMID:22174756

Jung, Hyungtaek; Lyons, Russell E.; Dinh, Hung; Hurwood, David A.; McWilliam, Sean; Mather, Peter B.

2011-01-01

27

Post-Embryonic Transcriptomes of the Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii: Multigenic Succession through Metamorphosis  

PubMed Central

Like many metazoans, the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii begins its post-embryonic life with a set of morphologically distinct planktonic larval stages, followed by a benthic post-larval stage during which the maturing organism differs from the larvae both ecologically and physiologically. Understanding of the molecular basis underlying morphogenesis in crustaceans is limited to the observation that methyl farnesoate, the non-epoxidated form of the insect juvenile hormone, acts as the active crustacean juvenoid. Molt steroids were also linked to morphogenesis and several other molecular pathways, such as Hedgehog and Wnt, are known to underlie morphogenesis in all metazoans examined and, as such, are thought to do the same in crustaceans. Using next generation sequencing, we deep-sequenced the transcriptomes of several larval and post-larval stages. De novo assembly, followed by bioinformatics analysis, revealed that many novel transcripts are over-expressed in either larvae- or post-larvae-stage prawn, shedding light on the molecular basis underlying M. rosenbergii metamorphosis. Fast larval molting rates and periodic morphological changes were reflected in over-expression of transcripts annotated to the cell cycle, DNA replication and morphogenic pathways (i.e., Hedgehog and Wnt). Further characterization of transcripts assigned to morphogenic pathways by real-time RT-PCR reconfirmed their over-expression in larvae, albeit with a more complex expression pattern when examined in the individual developmental stages. The expression level of an orthologue of cytochrome P450, 15A1, known to epoxidize methyl farnesoate in insects, was increased in the late larval and early post-larval stages, in accordance with the role of methyl farnesoate in crustacean metamorphosis. This study exemplifies the applicability of a high-throughput sequencing approach for studying complex traits, including metamorphosis, providing new insight into this unexplored area of crustacean research. PMID:23372848

Ventura, Tomer; Manor, Rivka; Aflalo, Eliahu D.; Chalifa-Caspi, Vered; Weil, Simy; Sharabi, Omri; Sagi, Amir

2013-01-01

28

Post-embryonic transcriptomes of the prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii: multigenic succession through metamorphosis.  

PubMed

Like many metazoans, the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii begins its post-embryonic life with a set of morphologically distinct planktonic larval stages, followed by a benthic post-larval stage during which the maturing organism differs from the larvae both ecologically and physiologically. Understanding of the molecular basis underlying morphogenesis in crustaceans is limited to the observation that methyl farnesoate, the non-epoxidated form of the insect juvenile hormone, acts as the active crustacean juvenoid. Molt steroids were also linked to morphogenesis and several other molecular pathways, such as Hedgehog and Wnt, are known to underlie morphogenesis in all metazoans examined and, as such, are thought to do the same in crustaceans. Using next generation sequencing, we deep-sequenced the transcriptomes of several larval and post-larval stages. De novo assembly, followed by bioinformatics analysis, revealed that many novel transcripts are over-expressed in either larvae- or post-larvae-stage prawn, shedding light on the molecular basis underlying M. rosenbergii metamorphosis. Fast larval molting rates and periodic morphological changes were reflected in over-expression of transcripts annotated to the cell cycle, DNA replication and morphogenic pathways (i.e., Hedgehog and Wnt). Further characterization of transcripts assigned to morphogenic pathways by real-time RT-PCR reconfirmed their over-expression in larvae, albeit with a more complex expression pattern when examined in the individual developmental stages. The expression level of an orthologue of cytochrome P450, 15A1, known to epoxidize methyl farnesoate in insects, was increased in the late larval and early post-larval stages, in accordance with the role of methyl farnesoate in crustacean metamorphosis. This study exemplifies the applicability of a high-throughput sequencing approach for studying complex traits, including metamorphosis, providing new insight into this unexplored area of crustacean research. PMID:23372848

Ventura, Tomer; Manor, Rivka; Aflalo, Eliahu D; Chalifa-Caspi, Vered; Weil, Simy; Sharabi, Omri; Sagi, Amir

2013-01-01

29

Peroxinectin gene transcription of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii under intrinsic, immunostimulant, and chemotherapeutant influences.  

PubMed

Peroxinectin (PE) gene expressions were determined using real-time PCR in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii based on moulting; prawns were fed diets containing different concentrations of sodium alginate, and were exposed to different concentrations of copper sulphate, benzalkonium chloride (BKC), and trichlorfon. Results showed that PE mRNA expression of prawns was the highest in stage A, significantly decreased in stage B, and reached the lowest level in stages D0/D1. The PE transcript was significantly higher in prawns fed the 1.0 gkg(-1) sodium alginate-containing diet than those fed the 2.0 gkg(-1) sodium alginate-containing diet and those fed the control diet. PE transcripts significantly decreased in prawns exposed to 0.1-0.4 mgL(-1) copper sulphate after 96 h, 0.3-1.0 mgL(-1) BKC after 96 h, and 0.2-0.4 mgL(-1) trichlorfon after 48 h. It was concluded that the status of PE gene expression was seriously affected by the moult cycle, immunostimulant, and chemotherapeutants. PMID:17056274

Liu, Chun-Hung; Yeh, Shinn-Pyng; Hsu, Pei-Yi; Cheng, Winton

2007-04-01

30

GYRKPPFNGSIFamide (Gly-SIFamide) Modulates Aggression in the Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

PubMed Central

The freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii is a tropical crustacean with characteristics similar to those of lobsters and crayfish. Adult males develop through three morphological types—small (SC), yellow (YC), and blue claws (BC)—with each representing a level in the dominance hierarchy of a group, BC males being the most dominant. We are interested in understanding the role played by neuropeptides in the mechanisms underlying aggressive behavior and the establishment of dominance hierarchies in this type of prawn. SIFamides are a family of arthropod peptides recently identified in the central nervous system of insects and crustaceans, where it has been linked to olfaction, sexual behavior, and gut endocrine functions. One of the six SIFamide isoforms, GYRKPPFNGSIFamide (Gly-SIFamide), is highly conserved among decapod crustaceans such as crabs and crayfish. We wanted to determine whether Gly-SIFamide plays a role in modulating aggression and dominant behavior in the prawn. To do this, we performed behavioral experiments in which interactions between BC/YC pairs were recorded and quantified before and after injecting Gly-SIFamide directly into the circulating hemolymph of the living animal. Behavioral data showed that aggression among interacting BC/YC prawns was enhanced by injection of Gly-SIFamide, suggesting that this neuropeptide does have a modulatory role for this type of behavior in the prawn. PMID:20040755

Vázquez-Acevedo, Nietzell; Rivera, Nilsa M.; Torres-González, Alejandra M.; Rullan-Matheu, Yarely; Ruíz-Rodríguez, Eduardo A.; Sosa, María A.

2010-01-01

31

Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defence status during larval development and metamorphosis of giant prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

In the present communication we studied the involvement of reactive oxygen species and alteration in antioxidant defence status during larval development and metamorphosis of giant prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Overall results indicate that there was a decline in endogenous lipid peroxidation level during larval development. Activity of superoxide dismutase was the lowest in early larval stages (Zoea-I and II) and thereafter increased in V and VI stages, followed by a decrease in the subsequent larval stages. Catalase and glutathione peroxidase did not exhibit specific pattern of changes during development. Reduced glutathione content exhibited an incremental increase during larval progression until metamorphosis. Ascorbic acid content of the larval tissue remained unaltered during development but a sharp fall was marked in its content in the post-larvae. Hence it is concluded that early larvae face high oxidative stress as evident from the high content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. This may be due to direct exposure of larvae to ambient oxygen of the water as well as their low antioxidant potential. However, during development with the augmentation in antioxidant reserve of the larval tissues a diminution in the oxidative stress was recorded. Thus it is presumed that antioxidant defences play an important role in providing protection to the developing larvae from oxidative assault during larval progression and metamorphosis. PMID:12927897

Dandapat, Jagneshwar; Chainy, Gagan B N; Rao, K Janardhana

2003-07-01

32

Ammonia toxicity as a criterion for the evaluation of larval quality in the prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

The feasibility of a short-term ammonia toxicity test as an evaluation criterion for larval quality was assessed in three trials. In each one, Macrobrachium rosenbergii larvae originating from the same spawn were nutritionally differentiated in two groups by feeding them either a nutrient-rich (Artemia nauplii enriched for 24 h with n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) and ascorbic acid (AA)) or a nutrient-poor diet (Artemia nauplii starved for 24 h). Throughout their development, larvae from both treatments were exposed during 24 h to six concentrations of total ammonia (NH(4)(+)+NH(3)) and a control (no ammonia added). Based on mortality rates, the median lethal concentration for 50% of the population (LC(50)) was estimated. As expected from earlier work, larvae fed the optimal diet presented higher n-3 HUFA and AA contents as well as higher growth and metamorphosis rates. From the moment the effect of diet quality was analytically detectable in the tissues of the larvae, the ammonia test was able to distinguish both groups of larvae. Differences in ammonia tolerance were observed as early as larval stage 4 and remained evident throughout larval development. The short-term ammonia toxicity test proved to be a valuable, sensitive and reproducible criterion for the establishment of larval quality. PMID:11790354

Cavalli, R O; Berghe, E V; Lavens, P; Nguyen, T T; Wille, M; Sorgeloos, P

2000-03-01

33

Transfer of foreign gene to giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) by spermatophore-microinjection.  

PubMed

We developed a spermatophore-microinjection (SMI) technique that allows exogenous DNA fragments to be transferred easily into the giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), an important aquacultural shellfish and aquatic invertebrate model. From 28 to 1, 000 ng of the circular plasmid pGL, in a total volume of 1 microl, were directly microinjected into spermatophores. Fertilization and hatching of prawns created with SMI were completed in vivo. Fertilization and hatching rates in the SMI treatments did not differ from those of the untreated control group. The genomes of free swimming, SMI-created larvae (21 days after fertilization) were analyzed using PCR and Southern blot analyses. A product with a molecular mass of 680 bp was amplified. It corresponded to amplifications of pGL, and Southern blot analysis revealed that the amplified band was positive. The gene transfer rate was primarily dependent on the concentration of DNA during SMI. The higher the concentration of pGL, the higher the rate of gene transfer. PCR and Southern blot analyses detected the existence of foreign DNA in 16 of 23 samples (70%) of genomic DNA isolated from hatched larvae in the 750 ng pGL SMI treatment. SMI, described here for the first time, is the simplest and most efficient method for mass producing transgenic giant freshwater prawns. PMID:10813846

Li, S S; Tsai, H J

2000-06-01

34

Experimental transmission and tissue tropism of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and its associated extra small virus (XSV).  

PubMed

White tail disease (WTD) was found to be a serious problem in hatcheries and nursery ponds of Macrobrachium rosenbergii in India. The causative organisms have been identified as M. rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and its associated extra small virus (XSV). Experimentally transmitted to healthy animals, they caused 100% mortality in post-larvae but failed to cause mortality in adult prawns. The RT-PCR assay revealed the presence of both viruses in moribund post-larvae and in gill tissue, head muscle, stomach, intestine, heart, hemolymph, pleopods, ovaries and tail muscle, but not in eyestalks or the hepatopancreas of experimentally infected adult prawns. The presence of these viruses in ovarian tissue indicates the possibility of vertical transmission. Pleopods have been found to be a suitable organ for detecting these viruses in brooders using the RT-PCR technique. PMID:15672874

Sahul Hameed, A S; Yoganandhan, K; Sri Widada, J; Bonami, J R

2004-12-13

35

Impact of TBT on the vitellogenesis and sex hormones in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1879)  

PubMed Central

Background Tributyltin (TBT) is a ubiquitous persistent xenobiotic that can be found in freshwater, estuarine and marine ecosystem. TBT is a strong endocrine disrupting compound (EDC) that can cause toxic threat to aquatic organisms. Imposex, sexual deformities and endocrine dysfunctions are the causes of TBT to most of the aquatic organisms. Effect of TBT on the vitellogenesis and sex hormonal changes in Macrobrachium rosenbergii has never been reported. Hence, the present investigation was undertaken to find out the impact of TBT on histological changes in the different reproductive tissues, sex hormonal alterations and level of biomarkers like vitellogenin and vitellin in M. rosenbergii. Results The present investigation documents the possible impact of tributyltin (TBT) on the vitellogenesis in freshwater female prawn M. rosenbergii. TBT at 10 ng/l, 100 ng/l and 1000 ng/l concentrations were exposed individually to prawns for a period of three months. At higher concentration of 1000 ng/l, the ovarian development was arrested and ovary remained at spent stage. At lower concentration of TBT (10 ng/l), the development proceeded up to early vitellogenic stage. At intermediate concentration of 100 ng/l TBT, the ovary remained at pre vitellogenic stage and thereafter no development was noticed. Histological results indicated the normal ovarian development with vitellogenic oocytes, filled with yolk globules in control prawn. On the other hand, the TBT treated groups showed reduction in yolk globules, fusion of developing oocytes and abundance of immature oocytes. Immunofluorescence staining denoted the remarkable reduction in vitellin content in ovary of TBT treated prawn. Hence, TBT had conspicuously inhibited the vitellogenesis by causing hormonal imbalance in M. rosenbergii. Conclusion TBT had notably inhibited the vitellogenesis due to hormonal imbalance. This endocrine dysfunction ultimately impaired the oogenesis in the freshwater female prawn M. rosenbergii. PMID:23634699

2013-01-01

36

Genetic Inheritance of Female and Male Morphotypes in Giant Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

PubMed Central

Giant freshwater prawn (GFP) Macrobrachium rosenbergii is unique with males categorized in five different morphotypes (small claw, orange claw, blue claw, old blue claw and no claw males) and females in three reproductive statuses (mature ovary, berried and spawned females). In the present study we examined genetic inheritance of female and male morphotypes, their body weights and genetic associations between morphotypes and body traits. Restricted maximum likelihood fitting a multi-trait animal model was performed on a total of 21,459 body records collected over five generations in a GFP population selected for high growth rate. The estimates of variance components showed that there were substantial differences in additive genetic variance in body weight between male morphotypes. The low and significantly different from one genetic correlations between the expressions of body weight in male morphotypes also suggest that these traits should be treated as genetically different traits in selective breeding programs. By contrast, body weights of female types are essentially the same characters as indicated by the high genetic correlations between homologous trait expressions. In addition to body weight, male morphotypes and female reproductive statuses were treated as traits in themselves and were analysed as binary observations using animal and sire linear mixed models, and logit and probit threshold models. The estimates of heritability back-transformed from the liability scale were in good agreement with those obtained from linear mixed models, ranging from 0.02 to 0.43 for male morphotypes and 0.06 to 0.10 for female types. The genetic correlations among male morphoptypes were generally favourable. Body weight showed negative genetic associations with SM (?0.96), whereas those of body weight with other male morphotypes were positive (0.25 to 0.76). Our results showed that there is existence of heritable (additive genetic) component for male morphotypes, giving prospects for genetic selection to change population structure of GFP. PMID:24587246

2014-01-01

37

Quantitative relationship of two viruses (MrNV and XSV) in white-tail disease of Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV) were purified from diseased freshwater prawns M. rosenbergii and used to infect healthy post-larvae (PL) by an immersion method. Three groups of prawns were challenged with various combined doses of MrNV and XSV. Signs of white-tail disease (WTD) were observed in Groups 1 and 2, which had been challenged with combinations containing relatively high proportions of MrNV and low proportions of XSV. By contrast there was little sign of WTD in Group 3, which had been challenged with a higher proportion of XSV than MrNV. A 2-step Taqman real-time RT-PCR was developed and applied to quantify viral copy numbers in each challenged PL. Results showed that genomic copies of both viruses were much higher in Groups 1 and 2 than they were in Group 3, indicating that MrNV plays a key role in WTD of M. rosenbergii. The linear correlation between MrNV and XSV genome copies in infected prawns demonstrated that XSV is a satellite virus, dependent on MrNV, but its role in pathogenicity of WTD remains unclear. PMID:16921996

Zhang, Huajun; Wang, Jianmin; Yuan, Junfa; Li, Lijuan; Zhang, Jianhong; Bonami, Jean-Robert; Shi, Zhengli

2006-07-11

38

Detection and phylogenetic profiling of nodavirus associated with white tail disease in Malaysian Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man.  

PubMed

White tail disease (WTD) is a serious viral disease in the hatcheries and nursery ponds of Macrobrachium rosenbergii in many parts of the world. A new disease similar to WTD was observed in larvae and post larvae of M. rosenbergii cultured in Malaysia. In the present study, RT-PCR assay was used to detect the causative agents of WTD, M. rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV) using specific primers for MrNV RNA2 and XSV. The results showed the presence of MrNV in the samples with or without signs of WTD. However, XSV was only detected in some of the MrNV-positive samples. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the RNA2 of our Malaysian isolates were significantly different from the other isolates. Histopathological studies revealed myofiber degeneration of the tail muscles and liquefactive myopathy in the infected prawns. This was the first report on the occurrence of MrNV in the Malaysian freshwater prawn. PMID:22223294

Saedi, Tayebeh Azam; Moeini, Hassan; Tan, Wen Siang; Yusoff, Khatijah; Daud, Hassan Mohd; Chu, Kua Beng; Tan, Soon Guan; Bhassu, Subha

2012-05-01

39

Lactococcus lactis subspecies lactis also causes white muscle disease in farmed giant freshwater prawns Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

From May to August 2001 in Taiwan, 27 farms for the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii experienced white tail disease outbreaks in animals approximately 3 to 5 mo old, with total lengths from 6 to 8 cm. Examination of the infected prawns revealed not only previously reported Lactococcus garvieae (16 farms) but also the novel L. lactis subsp. lactis (10 farms). One farm had shrimp infected with both bacteria. In the farms with L. lactis infections, the cumulative mortality was approximately 25 to 60%. Gross signs of disease were opaque and whitish muscles, while histopathology included marked edema and necrotic lesions, with inflammation in the muscles and hepatopancreas. Bacteria isolated using brain/heart infusion medium or tryptic soy agar were Gram-positive and ovoid. Eleven isolates from different farms were identified as L. lactis subsp. lactis using API 20 Strep and Rapid ID32 Strep tests and using PCR assays specific for the L. lactis subsp. lactis 16S rDNA gene (650 bp amplicon) and for the 16S to 23S rDNA interspacer region (380 bp amplicon). In addition, sequencing of the full 16S rDNA genes of 2 of the isolates (MR17 and MR26; GenBank Accession Numbers AF493058 and AF493057, respectively) revealed 99.9% identity between the isolates and 98.7% identity to several complete 16S rRNA sequences of L. lactis subsp. lactis at GenBank. Experimental infections with our isolates gave gross signs and histopathological changes similar to those seen in naturally infected prawns. The mean lethal dose of 4 isolates and the reference strain L. lactis subsp. lactis BCRC 10791 ranged from 4.2 x 10(6) to 2.5 x 10(7) colony-forming units prawn(-1), indicating virulence similar to that previously reported for L. garvieae. This is the first report confirming L. lactis subsp. lactis as a pathogen in juvenile and adult prawns from aquaculture. PMID:18429437

Wang, Pei-Chi; Lin, Yu-De; Liaw, Li-Ling; Chern, Red-Shiung; Chen, Shih-Chu

2008-03-01

40

Isolation and characterization of a female-specific DNA marker in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

PubMed Central

In this study, a female-specific DNA marker in the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii was identified through amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). The AFLP-derived sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker was tested in over 200 individuals, giving reproducible sex identification. Further molecular characterization of the sex-marker's genomic region (?3?kb long) revealed the presence of tandem and inverted repeats. The ?3-kb sequence was identified both in male and female prawns, but with subtle differences: a deletion of 3?bp (present in female prawn but absent in male prawn) identified upstream of the SCAR marker sequence and two female-specific single-nucleotide polymorphisms, both indicating that male prawns are homozygous, whereas female prawns are heterozygous in this locus. Fluorescent in situ hybridization showed the ?3-kb sequence to be unique: to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a unique sex-specific sequence observed in situ in crustaceans. The sex-specific marker identified in M. rosenbergii may have considerable applied merit for crustacean culture in that it will enable the determination of genetic sex at early developmental stages when phenotypic differences are not identifiable. PMID:21522169

Ventura, T; Aflalo, E D; Weil, S; Kashkush, K; Sagi, A

2011-01-01

41

In vitro replication of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus and extra small virus in C6/36 mosquito cell line.  

PubMed

White tail disease (WTD) is a serious problem in hatcheries and nursery ponds of Macrobrachium rosenbergii in India and many parts of the world. The pathogenic agents have been identified as M. rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) associated with extra small virus (XSV), which is 27nm and 15nm in diameter, respectively. Replication of MrNV and XSV was investigated in apparently healthy C6/36 subclone of Aedes albopictus cell line. The results revealed that C6/36 cells were susceptible to these viruses. The replication of these viruses in C6/36 cells was confirmed by RT-PCR, acridine orange staining, infectivity study and electron microscopy. Cytoplasmic ribonucleic acid (RNA) stained by acridine orange increased by 48h, and by 72h larger proportion of cells which indicated alterations in quantity and localization of RNA in the infected cells. Post-larvae, challenged by immersion method using inoculum prepared from infected cells, exhibited lethargy, anorexia and opaqueness of abdominal muscle and 100% mortality was observed at 6 days post-infection. Experimentally infected C6/36 cells and post-larvae showed positive by RT-PCR, whereas control cells and healthy post-larvae showed negative. This is the first study to report the multiplication of MrNV and XSV in C6/36 cell line. PMID:17651820

Sudhakaran, R; Parameswaran, V; Sahul Hameed, A S

2007-12-01

42

[Rapid detection of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus isolated in China by a reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay combined with a lateral flow dipstick method].  

PubMed

White coloration of the muscle of the giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) is a serious problem in China. The Macrobrachium rosenbergii Nodavirus (MrNV) has been confirmed to be the pathogen that causes this disorder. To develop a rapid, sensitive and specific technology for the detection of Macrobrachium rosenbergii Nodavirus isolated from China (MrNV-China), a reverse-transcription loop- mediated isothermal amplification assay combined with a lateral flow dipstick (RT-LAMP-LFD) assay method is described. A set of four primers and a labeled probe were designed specifically to recognize six distinct regions of the MrNV RNA2 gene. Results showed the sensitivity of the RT-LAMP-LFD assay was ten-times higher than the reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay (RT-LAMP) with agarose gel electrophoresis. The assay was conducted with one-step amplification at 61°C in a single tube within 45 min. No product was generated from shrimps infected with other viruses, including DNA viruses (infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV); white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)) and RNA viruses (Taura syndrome virus (TSV); infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV); yellow head virus (YHV)). Results were visualized by the LFD method. Therefore, the described rapid and sensitive assay is potentially useful for MrNV detection. PMID:25562958

Lin, Feng; Liu, Li; Hao, Gui-Jie; Cao, Zheng; Sheng, Peng-Cheng; Wu, Ying-Lei; Shen, Jin-Yu

2014-09-01

43

Effect of benzalkonium chloride stress on immune resistance and susceptibility to Lactococcus garvieae in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

Addition of benzalkonium chloride (BKC) at 0, 0.3, 0.6 and 1.0 mg l(-1) to tryptic soy broth (TSB) had no effect on growth of Lactococcus garvieae, a bacterial pathogen of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. However, injection of the cultured cells into prawns at a dose of 4 x 10(6) colony-forming units (cfu) prawn(-1) resulted in significantly higher mortality at 120 h (p < 0.05) in prawns injected with cells grown in the absence of BKC than in prawns injected with cells grown in the presence of BKC. In other experiments, prawns were injected with TSB-grown L. garvieae (4 x 10(6) and 3 x 10(5) cfu prawn(-1)) and then held in water containing BKC at 0, 0.3, 0.6 and 1.0 mg l(-1). After 120 h, mortality was significantly higher in all the BKC treatments than in the control without BKC. Prawns showed no significant differences in total hemocyte count (THC) or differential hemocyte count (DHC) amongst treatment and control groups. However, 96 h exposure to 0.3 mg l(-1) BKC or more resulted in a decrease in phenoloxidase activity and an increase in respiratory burst to levels considered to be cytoxic. In summary, exposure of L. garvieae to BKC at 0.3 mg l(-1) or more decreased its virulence to M. rosenbergii, while exposure of M. rosenbergii to BKC at 0.3 mg l(-1) or more increased its susceptibility to L. garvieae infection. PMID:12691193

Cheng, Winton; Wang, Ching-Hsien; Chen, Jiann-Chu

2003-02-27

44

Morphological and histological studies on freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de man) irradiated with (60)Co gamma radiation.  

PubMed

This study was framed to investigate the (60)Co gamma radiation induced morphological and histological variations in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The LD50 value of (60)Co gamma irradiated M. rosenbergii observed (by probit analysis) at 30 Gy. Prawns were irradiated to four different dose levels (3 mGy, 30 mGy, 300 mGy and 3,000 mGy) using Theratron Phoenix TeleCobalt Unit [P-33] and one control group (without irradiation) maintained separately. Irradiated groups exhibited several morphological variations such as discoloration; damaged rostrum; opaque coloration in cephalothorax; black bands and dot formation in abdomen; deformed uropods and telson in tail regions when compared with control group. The Hepato Somatic Index reflected the severity of radiation on hepatopancreas. Histological variations in gills, hepatopancreas and muscles of irradiated groups were observed. In gills, structural changes such as swollen and fused lamellae, abnormal gill tips, hyperplasic, necrotic and clavate-globate lamellae were observed in gamma irradiated prawns. Accumulation of hemocytes in hemocoelic space, interstitial sinuses filled with abnormal infiltrated hemocytes, the tubular epithelium with ruptured basal laminae, abnormal and coagulated lumen, necrotic tubules, thickened basal laminae, tissue debris, necrotic hepatocytes were observed in irradiated prawn hepatopancreas. In muscle, shrinkage of muscular fiber and necrotic musculature were observed in irradiated prawns. These structural alterations of the organs it is felt could affect the vital physiological functions such as respiration, osmotic and ionic regulation in gills and muscles; absorption, storage and secretion of the hepatopancreas which in turn could adversely affect the growth and survival of freshwater prawn M. rosenbergii. PMID:24140570

Stalin, A; Broos, K V; Sadiq Bukhari, A; Syed Mohamed, H E; Singhal, R K; Venu-Babu, P

2013-11-15

45

Dietary supplementation of zinc nanoparticles and its influence on biology, physiology and immune responses of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to assess the influence of dietary zinc nanoparticles (size 50 nm) on the growth, biochemical constituents, enzymatic antioxidant levels and the nonspecific immune response of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii post larvae (PL). The concentrations of dietary supplement zinc nanoparticles (ZnNPs) were 0, 10, 20, 40, 60 and 80 mg kg(-1) with the basal diet, and the level of Zn in ZnNP-supplemented diets were 0.71, 10.61, 20.73, 40.73, 60.61 and 80.60 mg kg(-1), respectively. ZnNP-incorporated diets were fed to M. rosenbergii PL (initial body weight, 0.18 ± 0.02 g) in a triplicate experimental setup for a period of 90 days. ZnNP supplemented feed fed PL up to 60 mg kg(-1) showed significantly (P < 0.05) improved performance in survival, growth and activities of digestive enzymes (protease, amylase and lipase). The concentrations of biochemical constituents (total protein, total amino acid, total carbohydrate and total lipid), total haemocyte count and differential haemocyte count were elevated in 10-60 mg kg(-1) ZnNP supplemented feed fed PL. However, the PL fed with 80 mg ZnNPs kg(-1) showed negative results. Activities of enzymatic antioxidants [superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT)], metabolic enzymes [glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (GPT)] and the process of lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the hepatopancreas and muscle showed no significant alterations in 10-60 mg kg(-1) ZnNP supplemented feed fed PL. Whereas, 80 mg ZnNPs kg(-1) supplemented feed fed PL showed significant elevations in SOD, CAT, LPO, GOT and GPT. Therefore, 80 mg ZnNPs kg(-1) was found to be toxic to M. rosenbergii PL. Thus, the study suggests that up to 60 mg ZnNPs kg(-1) can be supplemented for regulating survival, growth and immunity of M. rosenbergii. PMID:24874230

Muralisankar, Thirunavukkarasu; Bhavan, Periyakali Saravana; Radhakrishnan, Subramanian; Seenivasan, Chandirasekar; Manickam, Narasimman; Srinivasan, Veeran

2014-07-01

46

Characterization of two novel ADP ribosylation factors from giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and their responses to WSSV challenge.  

PubMed

ADP-ribosylation factors (Arfs) are small GTP-binding proteins that have an essential function in intracellular trafficking and organelle structure. To date, little information is available on the Arfs in the economically important giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and their relationship to viral infection. Here we identified two Arf genes from M.?rosenbergii (MrArf1 and MrArf2) for the first time. Phylogenetic analysis showed that MrArf1, together with MjArf1 from shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus belonged to Class I Arfs. By contrast, MrArf2 didn't not match any of the Arfs classes of I/II/III, although it could be clustered with an Arf protein from M.?japonicas called MjArfn, which may represent an analog of the Arf. MrArf1 was ubiquitously expressed in all the examined tissues, with the highest transcription level in the hepatopancreas, whereas MrArf2 was only highly expressed in the hepatopancreas and exhibited very low levels in the heart, stomach, gills and intestine. The expression level of MrArf1 in the gills was down-regulated post 24?h WSSV challenge, and reached the maximal level at 48?h. MrArf1 in the hepatopancreas went up from 24 to 48?h WSSV challenge. MrArf2 transcript in the gill also went down at 24?h and then was upregulated at 48?h WSSV challenge. MrArf2 increased significantly in the hepatopancreas 24?h after infection and then went down at 48?h WSSV challenge. RNAi results showed that knockdown of MrArf1 or MrArf2 could inhibit the expression of the envelope protein gene vp28 of the WSSV. So, it could be speculated that MrArf1 and MrArf2 might play important roles in the innate immune system against WSSV infection. PMID:25451300

Ding, Zheng-Feng; Ren, Jie; Tan, Jing-Min; Wang, Zheng; Yin, Shao-Wu; Huang, Ying; Huang, Xin; Wang, Wen; Lan, Jiang-Feng; Ren, Qian

2015-01-01

47

Production of recombinant capsid protein of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (r-MCP43) of giant freshwater prawn, M. rosenbergii (de Man) for immunological diagnostic methods.  

PubMed

White tail disease (WTD) caused by Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV) is a serious problem in prawn hatcheries. The gene for capsid protein of MrNV (MCP43) was cloned into pRSET B expression vector. The MCP43 protein was expressed as a protein with a 6-histidine tag in Escherichia coli GJ1158 with NaCl induction. This recombinant protein, which was used to raise the antiserum in rabbits, recognized capsid protein in different WTD-infected post-larvae and adult prawn. Various immunological methods such as Western blot, dot blot and ELISA techniques were employed to detect MrNV in infected samples using the antiserum raised against recombinant MCP43 of MrNV. The dot blot assay using anti-rMCP43 was found to be capable of detecting MrNV in WTD-infected post-larvae as early as at 24 h post-infection. The antiserum raised against r-MCP43 could detect the MrNV in the infected samples at the level of 100 pg of total protein. The capsid protein of MrNV estimated by ELISA using anti-rMCP43 and pure r-MCP43 as a standard was found to increase gradually during the course of infection from 24 h p.i. to moribund stage. The results of immunological diagnostic methods employed in this study were compared with that of RT-PCR to test the efficiency of antiserum raised against r-MCP43 for the detection of MrNV. The Western blot, dot blot and ELISA detected all MrNV-positive coded samples as detected by RT-PCR. PMID:23952017

Farook, M A; Madan, N; Taju, G; Majeed, S Abdul; Nambi, K S N; Raj, N Sundar; Vimal, S; Hameed, A S Sahul

2014-08-01

48

Function of a novel C-type lectin with two CRD domains from Macrobrachium rosenbergii in innate immunity.  

PubMed

C-type lectins play crucial roles in innate immunity. In the present study, a novel C-type lectin gene, designated as MrCTL, was identified from Macrobrachium rosenbergii. MrCTL contains 2 carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs), namely MrCRD1 and MrCRD2. The MrCRD1 contains a QEP motif and MrCRD2 contains a motif of EPD. MrCTL was mainly expressed in the hepatopancreas. The expression level of MrCTL in hepatopancreas was significantly upregulated after a challenge with Vibrio parahaemolyticus or White spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The recombinant MrCTL, MrCRD1 and MrCRD2 have an ability to agglutinate both Gram-negative (V. parahaemolyticus) and Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus) in a calcium dependent manner. The recombinant MrCTL, MrCRD1 and MrCRD2 bind directly to all tested microorganisms. All these results suggested that MrCTL may have important roles in immune defense against invading pathogens in prawns. PMID:25475962

Huang, Xin; Huang, Ying; Shi, Yan-Ru; Ren, Qian; Wang, Wen

2015-03-01

49

Identification and Characterization of Differentially Expressed Transcripts in the Gills of Freshwater Prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) under Salt Stress  

PubMed Central

The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is an economically important species. It is a euryhaline shrimp, surviving in wide-range salinity conditions. A change in gene expression has been suggested as an important component for stress management. To better understand the osmoregulatory mechanisms mediated by the gill, a subtractive and suppressive hybridization (SSH) tool was used to identify expressed transcripts linked to adaptations in saline water. A total of 117 transcripts represented potentially expressed under salinity conditions. BLAST analysis identified 22% as known genes, 9% as uncharacterized showing homologous to unannotated ESTs, and 69% as unknown sequences. All the identified known genes representing broad spectrum of biological pathways were particularly linked to stress tolerance including salinity tolerance. Expression analysis of 10 known genes and 7 unknown/uncharacterized genes suggested their upregulation in the gills of prawn exposed to saline water as compared to control indicating that these are likely to be associated with salinity acclimation. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) was used for obtaining full-length cDNA of MRSW-40 clone that was highly upregulated during salt exposure. The sequenced ESTs presented here will have potential implications for future understanding about salinity acclimation and/or tolerance of the prawn. PMID:22619594

Barman, Hirak Kumar; Patra, Swagat Kumar; Das, Varsha; Mohapatra, Shibani Dutta; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Mohapatra, Chinmayee; Mohanta, Ramya; Panda, Rudra Prasanna; Rath, Surya Narayan

2012-01-01

50

Effects of (60)Co gamma irradiation on behavior and gill histoarchitecture of giant fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (DE MAN).  

PubMed

Present study was designed to observe the effects of (60)Co gamma radiation in behavioral and histological changes in the gills of giant fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The adult prawns were irradiated with four different dose levels (3mGy, 30mGy, 300mGy and 3000mGy) and the control group (without irradiation) was maintained separately. Behavioral changes like hyperactivity, loss of balance, reduced swimming rate, slower rate of food intake and convulsions were observed in higher dose levels of 300mGy and 3000mGy. The histological alterations such as accumulated haemocytes in haemocoelic spaces, abnormal gill tips, lifted lamellar epithelium, swollen and fused lamellae, hyperplasic, necrotic, clavate-globate and complete disorganization of lamellae were observed in (60)Co gamma irradiated prawns. Significantly more considerable histological alterations were observed in the highest dose level of 3000mGy, but no mortality was evidenced. This study serves as biomonitoring tool to assess the radiation pollution in the aquatic environment. PMID:23587558

Stalin, A; Broos, K V; Sadiq Bukhari, A; Syed Mohamed, H E; Singhal, R K; Venu-babu, P

2013-06-01

51

RT-PCR amplification and sequence analysis of extra small virus associated with white tail disease of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) cultured in Taiwan.  

PubMed

Post-larvae of Macrobrachium rosenbergii infected with white tail disease (WTD) have been reported in Taiwan. The causative agents have been identified as M. rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) associated with extra small virus (XSV). The present study is the first report confirming the presence of XSV virus in M. rosenbergii displaying WTD symptoms in Taiwan by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A 772 bp amplified product was obtained by RT-PCR, cloned and sequenced. The nucleotide sequence analysis of the 772 bp DNA fragment revealed 98% and 97% identity with XSV isolated from China and India, respectively. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences of the XSV partial genome showed strong homology (99% and 97%) with isolates from China and India. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the XSV-Taiwan isolate was more closely related to the Chinese rather than the Indian isolates. The results demonstrated the presence of XSV virus co-infection in M. rosenbergii cultured in Taiwan suffering from WTD. PMID:17352787

Wang, C S; Chang, J S; Shih, H H; Chen, S N

2007-03-01

52

Effects of Nitrite Exposure on Acid–Base Balance, Respiratory Protein, and Ion Concentrations of Giant Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii at Low pH  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  \\u000a \\u000a Macrobrachium rosenbergii that had been exposed individually for 24 h to 0 (control), 2, 5, 10 mg\\/L nitrite-N (nitrite as nitrogen) at 4.3 and 7.7\\u000a pH levels were examined for hemolymph nitrite-N, oxyhemocyanin, protein, acid–base balance, ion concentrations, and ammonia-N\\u000a (ammonia as nitrogen) excretion. Hemolymph oxyhemocyanin, protein, pH, HCO3\\u000a \\u000a ? , TCO2, osmolality, and ion concentrations were inversely related

J.-C. Chen; Y. Lee

1997-01-01

53

Simultaneous detection of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus and extra small virus by a single tube, one-step multiplex RT-PCR assay.  

PubMed

Post-larvae of Macrobrachium rosenbergii infected with white tail disease were collected from hatcheries and nursery ponds in India. The causative organisms have been identified as Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV). A one-step multiplex reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) has been developed to detect these viruses simultaneously in naturally and experimentally infected prawns. Several parameters were assayed in order to optimize the protocol for simultaneous detection. Naturally and experimentally infected prawns showed two prominent bands of 681 and 500 bp for MrNV and XSV, respectively, as in separate RT-PCR assays. Experimentally infected adult prawns showed two bands for these two viruses in all the organs, except hepatopancreas and eyestalk, as seen in normal RT-PCR. The sensitivity test carried out on the primer sets of MrNV and XSV revealed that these primers could simultaneously detect the two viruses at a level of 25 fg of total RNA prepared from infected samples using this multiplex RT-PCR protocol. PMID:15705151

Yoganandhan, K; Sri Widada, J; Bonami, J R; Sahul Hameed, A S

2005-02-01

54

Characterization of a gC1qR from the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

gC1qR, as a multicompartmental and a multifunctional protein, plays an important role in innate immunity. In this study, a gC1qR homolog (MrgC1qR) in the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii was identified. MrgC1qR, a 258-amino-acid polypeptide, shares high identities with gC1qR from other species. MrgC1qR gene was expressed in different tissues and was highest expressed in the hepatopancreas. In addition, the MrgC1qR transcript was significantly enhanced after 6 h of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection or post 2 h, 24 h of Vibrio anguillarum challenge compared to appropriate controls. Moreover, recombinant MrgC1qR (rMrgC1qR) had bacterial binding activity, the result also revealed that rMrgC1qR could bind pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) such as LPS or PGN, suggesting that MrgC1qRmight function as a pathogen-recognition receptor (PRR). Furthermore, glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down assays showed that rMrgC1qR with GST-tag could bind to rMrFicolin1 or rMrFicolin2 with His-tag. Altogether, these results may demonstrate a role for MrgC1qR in innate immunity in the giant freshwater prawns. PMID:25555810

Ye, Ting; Huang, Xin; Wang, Xian-Wei; Shi, Yan-Ru; Hui, Kai-Min; Ren, Qian

2015-03-01

55

Detection and genetic profiling of infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) infections in wild berried freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii collected for hatchery production.  

PubMed

Infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) has been detected widely in penaeid culture facilities in Asia and the Americas. IHHNV infection on sub-adult and postlarvae of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii which had caused up to 80% mortalities was first reported in Southeast Taiwan in 2006. In Malaysia, although, there has been no report on IHHNV infections in M. rosenbergii, preliminary work suggests that there is an urgent need to setup a screening protocol for IHHNV for both wild and cultured populations. In this study, polymerase chain reaction based screening was carried out on 30 randomly sampled berried wild M. rosenbergii before and after spawning. All samples did not showed any sign of IHHNV infection. However, the results showed that 20% of the samples were IHHNV positive. Sequence analysis of the amplified band using NCBI-BLAST showed that the putative IHHNV sequence had 98% nucleotide sequence (388 bp) identity with the IHHNV isolate AC-05-005 non-structural protein 1 gene and seven other IHHNV strains in the data bank further affirming the suggestion on the presence of IHHNV in wild freshwater prawn populations in Malaysia. PMID:21755294

Hazreen Nita, M K; Kua, B C; Bhassu, S; Othman, R Y

2012-04-01

56

Identification of lectin isoforms in juvenile freshwater prawns Macrobrachium rosenbergii (DeMan, 1879).  

PubMed

From the serum of juvenile freshwater prawns, we isolated by affinity chromatography on glutaraldehyde-fixed rat erythrocytes stroma, immobilized in Sephadex G-25, a sialic acid specific lectin of 9.6 kDa per subunit. Comparative analysis against adult organisms purified lectin, by chromatofocusing, showed that the lectin from juvenile specimens is composed by four main isoforms with a pI of 4.2, 4.6, 5.1, and 5.6, whereas the lectin from adults is eluted at pH 4.2. The amino acid composition of the lectin obtained from adult and juvenile stages suggest identity, but the compositions are not identical since a higher content of carbohydrates was found in the lectin from younger organisms. The freshwater prawn lectin showed specificity toward N-acetylated amino sugar residues such as GlcNAc, GalNAc, Neu5Ac and Neu5,9Ac; but in juvenile organisms the lectin showed three times less hemagglutinating activity than the lectin from adults. Both lectins agglutinated rat, rabbit and chicken erythrocytes, indicating that Neu5,9Ac in specific O-glycosydically linked glycans seems to be relevant for the interaction of M. rosenbergii lectins with their specific cellular receptor. Our results suggest that the physicochemical characteristics of the lectin from the freshwater prawn are regulated through maturation. PMID:11261843

Zenteno, R; Vázquez, L; Martínez-Cairo, S; Bouquelet, S; Agundis, C; Zenteno, E

2000-05-01

57

De Novo Transcriptome Sequencing Analysis and Comparison of Differentially Expressed Genes (DEGs) in Macrobrachium rosenbergii in China  

PubMed Central

Giant freshwater prawn (GFP; Macrobrachium rosenbergii) is an exotic species that was introduced into China in 1976 and thereafter it became a major species in freshwater aquaculture. However the gene discovery in this species has been limited to small-scale data collection in China. We used the next generation sequencing technology for the experiment; the transcriptome was sequenced of samples of hepatopancreas organ in individuals from 4 GFP groups (A1, A2, B1 and B2). De novo transcriptome sequencing generated 66,953 isogenes. Using BLASTX to search the Non-redundant (NR), Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes (STRING), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome (KEGG) databases; 21,224 unigenes were annotated, 9,552 matched unigenes with the Gene Ontology (GO) classification; 5,782 matched unigenes in 25 categories of Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COG) and 20,859 unigenes were consequently assigned to 312 KEGG pathways. Between the A and B groups 147 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified; between the A1 and A2 groups 6,860 DEGs were identified and between the B1 and B2 groups 5,229 DEGs were identified. After enrichment, the A and B groups identified 38 DEGs, but none of them were significantly enriched. The A1 and A2 groups identified 21,856 DEGs in three main categories based on functional groups: biological process, cellular_component and molecular function and the KEGG pathway defined 2,459 genes had a KEGG Ortholog - ID (KO-ID) and could be categorized into 251 pathways, of those, 9 pathways were significantly enriched. The B1 and B2 groups identified 5,940 DEGs in three main categories based on functional groups: biological process, cellular_component and molecular function, and the KEGG pathway defined 1,543 genes had a KO-ID and could be categorized into 240 pathways, of those, 2 pathways were significantly enriched. We investigated 99 queries (GO) which related to growth of GFP in 4 groups. After enrichment we identified 23 DEGs and 1 KEGG PATHWAY ‘ko04711’ relation with GFP growth. PMID:25329319

Liu, Qigen

2014-01-01

58

Function of an anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF) isoform isolated from the hemocytes of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii in protecting against bacterial infection.  

PubMed

In this study, a 780-bp full-length cDNA encoding Macrobrachium rosenbergii anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (MrALF) from hemocytes was cloned and identified. The ALF isoform exhibited immune activities, and its concentration in hemolymph was determined. An in vivo expression study showed that the ALF mRNA level of hemocytes could be induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) in an exposure time-dependent manner. Purified recombinant MrALF (rMrALF) expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris SMD1168 eukaryotic protein expression system demonstrated antibacterial activity against the Gram-negative prawn pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)=0.806?M, minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC)=1.606?M) but not the Gram-positive pathogen Lactococcus garvieae exposed to 25.696?M of rALF. However, rMrALF can bind to Gram-negative and -positive bacteria. An in vivo expression study demonstrated that the ALF concentrations in prawn hemocytes and plasma were 0.176?M and 0.168?M, respectively; following LPS treatment for 6h, the corresponding concentrations were 0.133?M in hemocytes and 0.272?M in plasma. Furthermore, the percentage of hemocytes phagocytosing bacteria cells was higher in hemoyctes previously treated with MrALF than those treated with sterile medium. These results suggest that in the innate immune response of M. rosenbergii, the MrALF from hemocytes may play an opsonin during a bacterial invasion. PMID:24333685

Liu, Chia-Chen; Chung, Chien-Pang; Lin, Chang-Yi; Sung, Hung-Hung

2014-02-01

59

Extra small virus-like particles (XSV) and nodavirus associated with whitish muscle disease in the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

A disease of Macrobrachium rosenbergii, the giant freshwater prawn, farmed in China was recently recorded in Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Shanghai, Guangxi and Guangdong provinces. The clinical sign of the disease, which develops in post-larvae (PL), is a whitish appearance of the muscles, particularly noticeable in the abdomen. Mortalities may reach 100% in some hatcheries. Investigations by transmission electron microscopy after negative staining of diseased PL homogenates showed the presence of two types of viral particles: one, unenveloped, icosahedral in shape, 26-27 nm in diameter, the second, much smaller, about 14-16 nm in diameter, designated extra small virus particle (XSV). The large virus has a genome with two pieces of ssRNA (RNA-1 and RNA-2), of 3 and 1.2 kb, respectively. Hybridization tests confirmed that this large virus is closely related to M. rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) which was isolated from diseased prawns in a hatchery in the French West Indies. Its very small size and hypothesized biochemical and biological characteristics suggest XSV is a new type of crustacean virus. As XSV has always been found associated with the larger virus (nodavirus) and is located in muscle and connective cells of diseased animals, it could be an autonomous virus, a helper-type virus or a satellite-like virus. PMID:14575370

Qian, D; Shi, Z; Zhang, S; Cao, Z; Liu, W; Li, L; Xie, Y; Cambournac, I; Bonami, J-R

2003-09-01

60

Effects of salinity on rates of protein synthesis and oxygen uptake in the post-larvae and juveniles of the tropical prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man).  

PubMed

Protein synthesis is a major determinant of growth and yet little is known about the environmental factors that influence protein synthesis rates in farmed freshwater prawns. To this end, post-larvae and juveniles of Macrobrachium rosenbergii were exposed to various salinities (0, 14, 30 per thousand) to determine whole-animal rates of fractional protein synthesis (k(s)) and oxygen uptake. In the post-larvae that migrate upstream from brackish to freshwater areas, whole-animal k(s) was unaffected by salinity, but rates of oxygen uptake were significantly lower at 14 per thousand. In the freshwater juveniles, a different response was observed, as mean k(s) was significantly higher at 14 per thousand compared with 0 per thousand, but rates of oxygen uptake remained unchanged. Such differences are thought to be related to the energetic costs of osmoregulation and to the ability to maintain osmotic gradients in freshwater. In an additional experiment, acclimation temperature (20, 26, 30 degrees C) had a direct effect on k(s) in juveniles held at 0 per thousand. In all cases, changes in k(s) resulted from alterations in RNA activity at constant RNA capacity. In juveniles at least, whole-animal rates of protein synthesis were highest at 14 per thousand and 30 degrees C which corresponds to the optimal salinity and temperature recommended for the growth and culture of M. rosenbergii. PMID:19049893

Intanai, I; Taylor, E W; Whiteley, N M

2009-03-01

61

Simultaneous identification and quantification of 4-cumylphenol, 2,4-bis-(dimethylbenzyl)phenol and bisphenol A in prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

Bisphenol A (BPA), 4-cumylphenol (4-CP) and 2,4-bis-(dimethylbenzyl)phenol (2,4-DCP) are all high production volume chemicals and widely used in plastic and other consumer products. During the past two decades, BPA has attracted a great deal of scientific and public attention due to its presence in the environment and estrogenic property. Although 4-CP and 2,4-DCP are much more estrogenic and toxic than BPA, little information is available about their occurrence and fate in the environment. In this study, a rapid, selective, accurate and reliable analytical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 4-CP, 2,4-DCP and BPA in prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The method comprises an ultrasound-accelerated extraction followed by capillary gas chromatographic (GC) separation. The detection limits range from 1.50 to 36.4 ng kg(-1) for the three alkylphenols. The calibration curves are linear over the concentration range tested with the coefficients of determination, R(2), greater than 0.994. The developed method was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of 4-CP, 2,4-DCP and BPA in prawn samples. The peak identification was confirmed using GC-MS. Bisphenol A, 2,4-bis-(dimethylbenzyl)phenol and 4-cumylphenol were found in prawn samples in the concentration ranges of 0.67-5.51, 0.36-1.61, and 0.00-1.96 ng g(-1) (wet weight), respectively. All relative standard deviations are less than 4.8%. At these environmentally relevant concentration levels, 4-CP, 2,4-DCP and BPA may affect the reproduction and development of aquatic organisms, including negative influence on crustaceans' larval survival, molting, metamorphosis and shell hardening. This is the first study reported on the occurrence of 4-CP, 2,4-DCP and BPA in prawn M. rosenbergii. PMID:24560775

Zuo, Yuegang; Zhu, Zhuo

2014-07-01

62

L-( sup 3 H) glutamate binding to a membrane preparation from the optic lobe of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man  

SciTech Connect

Membrane preparation from the optic lobe of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man, was examined for the presence of specific L-({sup 3}H) glutamate binding. The optic lobes were isolated from live animals. The tissue was homogenized and the membrane fraction isolated by differential centrifugation. The membrane suspension was incubated with 10-1,000 nM of L-({sup 3}H) glutamate at 37{degree}C for 60 min. Nonspecific binding was determined by incubating the mixture with 100 {mu}M L-glutamate. L-({sup 3}H) glutamate specifically bound to the membrane fraction with a dissociation equilibrium constant (Kd) of 205 nM and maximum number of binding sites (Bmax) of 2.04 n mol/mg protein. By using LIGAND computerized program, the saturation isotherm binding pattern indicates a single type of binding. To determine the type of glutamate receptors, competitive inhibition and IC{sub 50} of several glutamate agonists and antagonists were determined. The study reveals a metabotropic type of binding site.

Pratumtan, P.; Govitrapong, P.; Withyachumnarnkul, B.; Poolsanguan, B. (Mahidol Univ., Bangkok (Thailand) Mahidol Univ., Nakorn Pathom (Thailand))

1991-01-01

63

Structure of the olfactory receptor organs, their GABAergic neural pathways, and modulation of mating behavior, in the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

In the giant male prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, the olfactory system is thought to be the main pathway for modulating sexual behavior through pheromone perception. In this report, we first used gross anatomical, histological, and SEM methods to describe the structures of the olfactory receptors (sensilla setae), their neural pathways, and possible role in modulating mating behavior. On the surfaces of antennule and antenna filaments there are four types of sensory receptors, viz single spike-like setae, single flagellum-like setae, multiple flagella-like setae, and aesthetascs (ASs). The ASs, which had previously been proposed to be odor receptor setae, are found only on the short filament of lateral antennule (slAn). Each AS on the slAn connects with olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), whose axons form an outer central antennule nerve (ocAnNv), which then connects with the olfactory neutrophil (ON) of the brain. Thus, the slAn is the major olfactory organ that conveys sensory inputs from each AS to the ON within the deutocerebrum. GABA immunoreactivity was present in ASs, neurons of ORNs, inner central antennular, lateral tegumentary nerve, ocAnNv and the ON, inferring that GABA is the likely neurotransmitter in modulating olfaction. Disruption of the slAn by ablation or covering with Vaseline, resulted in significant reduction of mating behavior, indicating that this organ is crucial for sex pheromone perception. Identification of the active pheromones and further bioassays are now being performed. PMID:23495186

Kruangkum, Thanapong; Chotwiwatthanakun, Charoonroj; Vanichviriyakit, Rapeepun; Tinikul, Yotsawan; Anuracpreeda, Panat; Wanichanon, Chaitip; Hanna, Peter J; Sobhon, Prasert

2013-06-01

64

Expression of the male reproduction-related gene (Mar-Mrr) in the spermatic duct of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

Phosphorylated sperm proteins are crucial for sperm maturation and capacitation as a priori to their fertilization with eggs. In the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, a male reproduction-related protein (Mar-Mrr) was known to be expressed only in the spermatic ducts as a protein with putative phosphorylation and may be involved in sperm capacitation in this species. We investigated further the temporal and spatial expression of the Mar-Mrr gene using RT-PCR and in situ hybridization and the characteristics and fate of the protein using immunblotting and immunocytochemistry. The Mar-Mrr gene was first expressed in 4-week-old post larvae and the protein was produced in epithelial cells lining the spermatic ducts, at the highest level in the proximal region and decreased in the middle and distal parts. The native protein had a MW of 17 kDa and a high degree of serine/threonine phosphorylation. It was transferred from the epithelial cells to become a major protein at the anterior region of the sperm. We suggest that it is involved in sperm capacitation and fertilization in this open thelycal species and this is being investigated. PMID:22427066

Phoungpetchara, Ittipon; Tinikul, Yotsawan; Poljaroen, Jaruwan; Changklungmoa, Narin; Siangcham, Tanapan; Sroyraya, Morakot; Chotwiwatthanakun, Charoonroj; Vanichviriyakit, Rapeepun; Hanna, Peter J; Sobhon, Prasert

2012-06-01

65

Inter- and intra-individual variation in resting oxygen consumption in post-larvae of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man).  

PubMed

In a study of the factors that influence metabolic rate in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, resting oxygen consumption (ROC) was measured in 90 post-larvae ranging in size from 0.1 to 2.8 g. As in many other animal species, ROC was strongly negatively related to body weight. A stressful event (anaesthesia with or without tagging) caused a sharp increase in the ROC that disappeared over a time scale of hours. As has been demonstrated for other species of crustaceans, ROC was highest in prawns in the pre-moult stage. Individual differences in ROC among prawns handled in the same way and in the same moult stage persisted over a period of hours, but not over days. It remains unclear, therefore, whether early differences in resting metabolic rate can explain the conspicuous differences in growth rate that are found in this species during the first few weeks of life and that profoundly influence subsequent life history events. PMID:12020662

Taylor, Alan; Ross, Ben; McCauley, Shona; Brown, Janet H; Huntingford, Felicity

2002-06-01

66

Evaluation of paraprobiotic applicability of Lactobacillus plantarum in improving the immune response and disease protection in giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man, 1879).  

PubMed

Paraprobiotics, also known as ghost probiotics, are non-viable microbial cells which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a benefit on the host. However, the advantage of non-viable microbes over their viable counterparts is a much debated topic in aquaculture. Therefore, the present study was conducted to evaluate paraprobiotic effect of heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum on giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. A 90-day feeding trial was conducted by feeding prawn juveniles (mean weight ± SE: 0.54 ± 0.03 g) with three experimental diets prepared by supplementing basal diet (Crude protein: 38%; Gross energy: 387 kcal 100 g(-1)) with different concentrations of heat-killed probiotics bacteria viz. HKPB1 (10(7) cfu g(-1) diet), HKPB2 (10(8) cfu g(-1) diet), HKPB3 (10(9) cfu g(-1) diet) and control diet (unsupplemented diet). In the present study, growth parameters viz. WG % and SGR and feed utilization parameters viz. FCE, FCR and PER, though improved marginally in all experimental groups, were found to be insignificant (P > 0.05) compared to the control. The immune parameters viz. total hemocyte count (THC), phenol oxidase (PO) activity, respiratory burst (RB) activity and clearance efficiency were significantly improved (P < 0.05) with concurrent decrease (P < 0.05) in cumulative mortality against Aeromonas hydrophila challenge in all the experimental groups except for HKPB1, where PO and RB activity did not improve significantly (P > 0.05) compared to the control. Among the experimental groups, though the improvement in immune parameters was higher (P < 0.05) in HKPB2 and HKPB3 compared to HKPB1 and the control, no significant difference (P > 0.05) was observed between HKPB2 and HKPB3. The results obtained from the present study indicate that the application of heat-killed L. plantarum at a concentration of 10(8) cfu g(-1) diet, though not effective in augmenting the growth and feed utilization parameters, can significantly improve immune parameters and disease resistance of M. rosenbergii in the laboratory condition. PMID:25542379

Dash, Gyanaranjan; Raman, Ram Prakash; Pani Prasad, K; Makesh, M; Pradeep, M A; Sen, Swatipriyanka

2015-03-01

67

Cloning and immunoreactivity of the 5-HT1Mac and 5-HT2Mac receptors in the central nervous system of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

PubMed Central

Biogenic amines are implicated in several mental disorders, many of which involve social interactions. Simple model systems, such as crustaceans, are often more amenable than vertebrates for studying mechanisms underlying behaviors. Although various cellular responses of biogenic amines have been characterized in crustaceans, the mechanisms linking these molecules to behavior remain largely unknown. Observed effects of serotonin receptor agonists and antagonists in abdomen posture, escape responses, and fighting have led to the suggestion that biogenic amine receptors may play a role in modulating interactive behaviors. As a first step in understanding this potential role of such receptors, we have cloned and fully sequenced two serotonin receptors, 5-HT1Mac and 5-HT2Mac, from the CNS of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and have mapped their CNS immunohistochemical distribution. 5-HT1Mac was found primarily on the membranes of subsets of cells in all CNS ganglia, in fibers that traverse all CNS regions, and in the cytoplasm of a small number of cells in the brain, circum- and subesophageal ganglia (SEG), most of which also appear to contain dopamine. The pattern of 5-HT2Mac immunoreactivity was found to differ significantly, being found mostly in the central neuropil area of all ganglia, in glomeruli of the brain’s olfactory lobes, and in the cytoplasm of a small number of neurons in the SEG, thoracic and some abdominal ganglia. The observed differences in terms of localization, distribution within cells, and intensity of immunoreactive staining throughout the prawn’s CNS suggest that these receptors are likely to play different roles. PMID:19184976

Vázquez-Acevedo, Nietzell; Reyes-Colón, Dalynés; Ruíz-Rodríguez, Eduardo A.; Rivera, Nilsa M.; Rosenthal, Joshua; Kohn, Andrea B.; Moroz, Leonid L.; Sosa, María A.

2009-01-01

68

Preliminary obervations on use of ethanol distiller's by-products for polyculture of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) and golden shiner (Notemigonus crysoleucas)  

SciTech Connect

Two major by-products of ethanol distillation, corn distiller's solubles and corn distiller's mash, were evaluated for their potential use as a food source for freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) and golden shiner (Notemigonus crysoleucas) in mid-western United States. Corn distiller's solubles were not found to be highly toxic to aquatic organisms at concentrations ranging up to 10,000 ppM. However, the high biological oxygen demand of the material requires that single applications not exceed 2000 ppM. Yield trials were conducted over a four month period in five 0.1 ha earthen ponds, located in proximity to an ethanol distillery. Each pond was stocked with 2000 postlarval shrimp (0.02 g mean weight). Three of these ponds were also each stocked with 75 adult golden shiner (27.0 g mean weight). One application of corn distiller's solubles (equivalent to approx. 2000 ppM) and three applications of corn distiller's mash (approx. 5 kg/application) were made over the course of the yield trails (approx. 120 days). No other food or fertilizer was added to the ponds. Survival of shrimp ranged from 34 to 75%. Survival of brood fish exceeded 90%. Mean weight of shrimp at harvest was approximately 12 g, and average production was equivalent to approximately 104 kg ha/sup -1/. Golden shiner reared in the same ponds as shrimp had production rates equivalent to approxmately 130 kg ha/sup -1/. The presence of fish did not appear to impede shrimp production. Although production results of fish and shrimp were encouraging, several factors existed which impeded production; these included: (1) little by-product was applied to ponds because the distillery was undergoing its shakedown period; (2) ponds were new and had minimal natural productivity; (3) grass was not fully established on the watershed and ponds became turbid; and (4) lower than normal temperatures prevailed over much of the growing period. 11 references, 2 figures, 8 tables.

Kohler, C.C.; Lewis, W.M.; Krueger, S.P.

1983-01-01

69

Ozone treatment in a closed culture system for Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

E-print Network

, taste and turbidity are affected by oxidation of organic snd inorganic impurities. Such properties of ozone suggested its application in the maintenance of acceptable quality in the recirculated water of closed culture systems. The use of ozone in a... changes during ozonation, such a test was run in this study using culture media prepared from deionized water and from dechlorinated tap water. The dechlorinated tap water was prepared with addition of thiosulfate and aeration. The salinity of both...

Yamaguchi, Ryoji

2012-06-07

70

Structural characterization of the lipovitellin from the shrimp Macrobrachium borellii.  

PubMed

In oviparous species, proteins and lipids are found in the vitellus forming lipoproteins called lipovitellins. They are an important energy source for embryos development and larvae growth and survival. We have previously isolated and partially characterized the sole egg cytosolic lipovitellin from the freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium borellii. It is a native protein of 440 kDa, composed of two subunits of 94 and 112 kDa. In the present work we studied size, shape and structure of M. borellii lipovitellin using electron microscopy, crosslinking reagents, MALDI-TOF, circular dichroism, fluorescence and partial proteolysis. The results showed that lipovitellin has a quasi spherical morphology with an estimated diameter of 18.5+/-3.5 nm. It appears to be composed of two subunits of 94 kDa, and one of 112 kDa. The larger subunit is more susceptible to trypsinolysis, indicating that it is less compactly folded and/or more exposed to the aqueous medium than the 94 kDa subunits. The hetero-trimer is held together by non-covalent interactions. Peptide mass fingerprinting by MALDI-TOF, produced 42 polypeptides matching to a vitellogenin of a related species (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). Circular dichroism indicated that this protein contains 35.7% alpha-helix, 16.6% beta-sheet and 20% turns. Tryptophan fluorescence emission, at a maximum of 334 nm, indicated that the environment polarity of these aromatic residues is similar to that of other crustacean lipoproteins. PMID:17030141

Garcia, C F; Cunningham, M; Soulages, J L; Garda, H A; Pollero, R

2006-01-01

71

Regulation of laboratory populations of snails (Biomphalaria and Bulinus spp.) by river prawns, Macrobrachium spp. (Decapoda, Palaemonidae): implications for control of schistosomiasis.  

PubMed

Human schistosomiasis is a common parasitic disease endemic in many tropical and subtropical countries. One barrier to achieving long-term control of this disease has been re-infection of treated patients when they swim, bathe, or wade in surface fresh water infested with snails that harbor and release larval parasites. Because some snail species are obligate intermediate hosts of schistosome parasites, removing snails may reduce parasitic larvae in the water, reducing re-infection risk. Here, we evaluate the potential for snail control by predatory freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii and M. vollenhovenii, native to Asia and Africa, respectively. Both prawn species are high value, protein-rich human food commodities, suggesting their cultivation may be beneficial in resource-poor settings where few other disease control options exist. In a series of predation trials in laboratory aquaria, we found both species to be voracious predators of schistosome-susceptible snails, hatchlings, and eggs, even in the presence of alternative food, with sustained average consumption rates of 12% of their body weight per day. Prawns showed a weak preference for Bulinus truncatus over Biomphalaria glabrata snails. Consumption rates were highly predictable based on the ratio of prawn: snail body mass, suggesting satiation-limited predation. Even the smallest prawns tested (0.5-2g) caused snail recruitment failure, despite high snail fecundity. With the World Health Organization turning attention toward schistosomiasis elimination, native prawn cultivation may be a viable snail control strategy that offers a win-win for public health and economic development. PMID:24388955

Sokolow, Susanne H; Lafferty, Kevin D; Kuris, Armand M

2014-04-01

72

Toxicity of ammonia to larvae of the freshwater shrimp, Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

E-print Network

population even after a pro- longed period of exposure) reported for fish range from 0. 25-0. 41 mg/I NH -N (Lloyd, 1961) Ball, 1967; Lloyd and Orr, 1969; Burkhalter and Kaya, 1977). Rice and Stokes (1975) found. that rain'bow trout eggs and alevins were... highly tolerant of ammonia but at the end of egg yolk absorption, rainbow trout fry increased in susceptibility dramatically. Redner (1978) obtained a 48- h 1050 of 2. 373 mgl'3 IIN3-N fo ~rfla 'a a ea; aft 35-day exposure to ammonia levels which...

Llobrera, Jose Alvarez

1979-01-01

73

Abundance and diversity of zooplankton in semi intensive prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) farm.  

PubMed

The present study was carried out on the seasonal abundance and diversity of zooplankton in a semi- intensive prawn farm of Bagerhat district from July to December, 2008. Plankton samples were collected by conical shaped monofilament nylon net (Plankton net) and Lugol's solution was used for preservation. The zooplankton abundance was influenced by physico-chemical factors. During the study period 11 genera of zooplankton under 5 orders were recorded from the study ponds namely Copepoda, Rotifera, Cladocera, Ostracoda and Crustacean Larvae. Among all groups copepod was the dominant order. The percentages of Copepoda, Rotifera, Cladocera, Ostracoda and Crustacean Larvae in semi-intensive culture system were 54%, 28%, 12%, 4% and 2% respectively. But the genera Brachionus under the order of Rotifer was dominant among all other genera. Cyclops and Helidiaptomus under the order of Copepod were the 2nd dominant genera. Numbers of zooplankton species were recorded to be the highest in summer season and minimum at early winter season. Highest number of zooplankton found at the month of October. Total zooplankton shows significant positive relationship with water temperature ((r?=?+0.384), Dissolve Oxygen(r?=?+0.113), pH(r?=?+0.320), Free CO2 (r?=?+0.319), Alkalinity(r?=?+0.269), Hardness (r?=?+0.402) and negative relationship with Salinity(r?=?-0.486), Transparency(r?=?-0.693). The findings of the present study will help to improve the management strategies of shrimp culture system. PMID:23667823

Shil, Jadobendro; Ghosh, Alokesh Kumar; Rahaman, S M Bazlur

2013-12-01

74

Antimicrobial activity of chitosan against vibrios from freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii larval rearing systems.  

PubMed

Chitosan is a biocompatible and biodegradable natural polymer with established antimicrobial properties against specific microorganisms. The present study demonstrates its antibacterial activity against 48 isolates of Vibrio species from prawn larval rearing systems. The antibacterial activity had a positive correlation with the concentration of chitosan. This work opens up avenues for using chitosan as a prophylactic biopolymer for protecting prawn larvae from vibriosis. PMID:16385825

Anas, A; Paul, S; Jayaprakash, N S; Philip, R; Bright Singh, I S

2005-11-01

75

Fecundity and fertility of Macrobrachium amazonicum (Crustacea, Palaemonidae).  

PubMed

In Brazil, studies with native freshwater prawn species were discontinued due to great importance of Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Therefore, it is necessary to continue investigations about our species, in order to develop technology adequate to our reality and in a future allow prawn farmers to culture other species. The aim of this study was to determine the fecundity and fertility of Macrobrachium amazonicum captured monthly from June 1999 to June 2001 from Jaguaribe River, Itaiçaba, Ceará, Brazil. Prawns were collected using fishing net and transferred at Biological Science Laboratory, Ceara State University (Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil). Among the ovigerous M. amazonicum females, 60 were randomly selected to determine fecundity. The eggs adhered to the pleopods were taken out and they were then placed in a Gilson solution, and then stored in alcohol 70%. Individual fecundity was determined from the total egg counting, using a stereoscopic microscope. To determine fertility, ovigerous M. amazonicum females were stored in individual 10 L-glass tanks maintained under strong aeration. After the hatching, the larvae were siphoned and counted. The data referring to total length and weight of all the females, storage date, coloration and number of eggs, weight and coloration of gonad and number of hatched larvae were noted. With respect to average fecundity (F) by length classes, the lowest and highest number of eggs observed was 696 and 1,554, respectively. As for fecundity by weight classes, the lowest number of eggs observed was 760 and the highest, 1,690. The highest number of eggs observed individually per hatching was 2,193. Average fecundity/total length (L) and average fecundity/total weight (W) may be expressed by a linear relationship. The adjusted equations are: F = -411.6 + 203.1 L (p < 0.0001) and F = 566.4 + 157.3 W (p < 0.0001), respectively. In the analysis of average fertility (N) per length classes, the lowest and highest number of larvae observed was 374 and 1,301, respectively. With respect to fertility per weight classes, the lowest number of larvae was 581 and the highest, 1,391. In this work, the maximum number of larvae observed per hatching for females kept in laboratory was 2,594. Average fertility/total length and average fertility/total weight may be expressed by a linear relationship. The adjusted equations are: N = -1042.7 + 264.9 L (p < 0.0002); N = 384.1 + 160.3 W (p < 0.003). From these results we can deduced that fecundity and fertility of M. amazonicum are lower than ones commercial species, never-the-less it can be captured during all year long. The number of captured prawns was large in the months whose level of water was low; the inverse was observed in the months that the river was with a high volume of water. PMID:15622846

Da Silva, R R; Sampaio, C M S; Santos, J A

2004-08-01

76

Screening of parasitic and IHHNV infections in wild giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii from Rejang River at Kuching, Sarawak.  

PubMed

A preliminary survey of parasitic and infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) infections in giant freshwater prawn from the Damak Sea of Rejang River, Kuching, Sarawak was conducted. Symptoms of black spots/patches on the rostrum, carapace, pleopods or telson were observed in most of the 107 samples collected. Parasitic examination revealed sessiline peritrichs such as (Zoothamnium sp.), nematode larvae, gregarine stage and cocoon of leech with prevalences of 1.2%, 1.2%, 5% and 17% respectively. Under histopathological examination, changes like accumulation of hemocytes around hepatopancreatic tubules due to vibriosis, basophilic intranuclear inclusions in the epithelium and E-cell of hepatopancreatic tubules as a result of HPV were seen through the section. No positive infection of IHHNV was detected in 78 samples. As such, the wild giant freshwater prawns in Damak Sea of Rejang River in Kuching are IHHNV-free though infections of parvo-like virus and bacteria were seen in histopathology. PMID:21602773

Kua, Beng Chu; Choong, F C; Hazreen Nita, M K; Muhd Faizul H, A H; Bhassu, S; Imelda, R R; Mohammed, M

2011-04-01

77

The microbial flora of pond-reared shrimp (Penaeus stylirostris, P. setiferus, P. vannamei, and Macrobrachium rosenbergii)  

E-print Network

) in the pond waters. Samples of P. setiferus and Macr btachdcm ~reenb 11 mere obtained f o pr feet lo- cations on the Pecos and. Rio Grande Rivers. Aerobic plate counts of fresh shrimp ranged from 1. 5 X 10 ? 2. 9 X 10 per gram. Coryneform bacteria... stored on ice for 1V eight days ranged from 5. 1-9. 4 X 10 . The microbial flora 2 of stored shrimp was dominated by coryneform bacteria, Pseudomonas, and Nicrococcus species. The aerobic plate counts of pond waters ranged from 6. 1 X 10 ? 2. 2 X 10...

Christopher, Frank Mitchell

1976-01-01

78

Molecular perspective on the American transisthmian species of Macrobrachium (Caridea, Palaemonidae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract The closure of the Isthmus of Panama (about 3.1 million years ago) separated previously continuous populations and created two groups of extant species, which live now in the Pacific and Atlantic drainage systems. This relatively recent event was a trigger to diversification of various species in the Neotropics, nonetheless there are exemplars that do not show sufficient morphologic variability to separate them by traditional morphological tools. About 60 years ago, some freshwater decapod species with high morphological similarity were separate by previous researchers, based on geographical distribution, in Pacific and Atlantic and considered as “sister species”. However, the complete isolation of these prawns by this geographical barrier is questionable, and it has generated doubts about the status of the following transisthmian pairs of sibling species: Macrobrachium occidentale × Macrobrachium heterochirus, Macrobrachium americanum × Macrobrachium carcinus, Macrobrachium digueti × Macrobrachium olfersii, Macrobrachium hancocki × Macrobrachium crenulatum, Macrobrachium tenellum × Macrobrachium acanthurus and Macrobrachium panamense × Macrobrachium amazonicum. Here we evaluated the relation among these pairs of sibling species in a molecular phylogenetic context. We generated 95 new sequences: 26 sequences of 16S rDNA, 25 of COI mtDNA and 44 of 18S nDNA. In total, 181 sequences were analyzed by maximum likelihood phylogenetic method, including 12 Macrobrachium transisthmian species, as well as seven other American Macrobrachium species, and two other palaemonids. Our analysis corroborated the morphological proximity of the sibling species. Despite the high degree of morphological similarities and considerable genetic diversification encountered among the transisthmian sister species, our data support the conclusion that all species included in sibling groups studied herein are valid taxonomic entities, but not all pairs of siblings form natural groups. PMID:25561833

Pileggi, Leonardo G.; Rossi, Natália; Wehrtmann, Ingo S.; Mantelatto, Fernando L.

2014-01-01

79

Feeding habit of the Amazon river prawn Macrobrachium amazonicum larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the feeding habit of Macrobrachium amazonicum, three experiments were carried out assessing the stage at which larvae start exogenous feeding, the acceptance of inert food by different larval stages and the ratio between live and inert diet ingested by larvae at each larval stage. In the first experiment, newly hatched larvae were kept in 500-mL beakers and fed

Mariana Cutolo de Araujo; Wagner Cotroni Valenti

2007-01-01

80

Effects of hot-water extract of banana (Musa acuminata) fruit's peel on the antibacterial activity, and anti-hypothermal stress, immune responses and disease resistance of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbegii.  

PubMed

The hot-extracts isolated from fruit's peel of banana, Musa acuminata, was evaluated on the antibacterial activity to pathogens from aquatic animals, and immunostimulating potential, disease resistance and anti-hypothermal stress in giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii through injection administration. The banana peel extract (BPE) showed good activity against 1 Gram-positive and 3 Gram-negative pathogens, including Lactococcus garvieae, Photobacteria damsella, Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio parahemolyticus especially in prawn pathogen of L. garvieae strain, which were carried out by a disk diffusion method. Prawn received BPE via injection administration at 1-6 ?g (g prawn)(-1) significantly increased total haemocyte count (THC), hyaline cell (HC), granular cell (GC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity and phagocytic activity against L. garvieae from 3 to 6 days, and significantly increased clearance efficiency against L. garvieae and a significantly decreased coagulation time of prawn from 1 to 6 days. Prawn injected with BPE at 6.0 ?g (g prawn)(-1) for 6 days showed significantly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, but significantly decreased respiratory bursts (RBs) of per haemocyte. Survival rates of M. rosenbergii injected with BPE at concentrations of 1, 3 and 6 ?g (g prawn)(-1) were significantly higher than those injected with saline control after challenge with L. garvieae for 4-6 days, and the respective relative survival percentages of prawn were 28.6%, 38.1%, and 47.8%, respectively at 6 days. The sublethal time of prawns that had received saline and BPE at 1, 3 and 6 ?g (g prawn)(-1) for 6 days and then were transferred from 28 °C to 14 °C were 69.4, 79.8, 83.6, and 90.2 h, respectively. It was concluded that the BPE can be used as the bacteriostat, and immunostimulant and physiological regulator for prawn through injection administration to enhance immunity, physiological responses, and resistance against L. garvieae. PMID:24906123

Rattanavichai, Wutti; Cheng, Winton

2014-08-01

81

Genetic variability and phylogenetic aspects in species of the genus Macrobrachium.  

PubMed

The genus Macrobrachium includes prawns, which are widely distributed in lakes, floodplains, and rivers in tropical and subtropical regions of South America. This genus presents nearly 210 known species with great ecological and economic importance. However, few studies are related to the biology of these crustaceans. In this study, we analyzed the genetic variability and phylogenetic relationship between Macrobrachium amazonicum and Macrobrachium jelskii, which are closely related species. Additionally, they are syntopics and their taxonomy poses problems because it is difficult to differentiate between the species. We used the mitochondrial gene sequences COI and 16S rRNA to assess the genetic structure of these species in 3 populations that were collected from Tiete hydrographic basin (São Paulo State, Brazil). The interspecific comparison of samples that were collected at the same and different locations showed a low rate of genetic variability. This similarity was attributed to the recent introduction of these species in the regions that were sampled and the habitat conditions in which they inhabit. In addition, these results may be consistent with the hypothesis that they are a single species, interspecific hybrids, or metapopulation. The dendrogram analyses did not reveal the formation of clusters, confirming the disturbances in the genetic structure of the samples that were analyzed in this study. These data are pioneers to these crustaceans, and they confirm the ecological and evolutionary problems between these Macrobrachium species. PMID:24854444

Guerra, A L; Lima, A V B; Lucato Júnior, R V; Chiachio, M C; Taddei, F G; Castiglioni, L

2014-01-01

82

Population dynamics of Niger River prawn (Macrobrachium felicinum) in Lower Taylor Creek, Niger Delta, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The population dynamics of Macrobrachium felicinum (Holthuis, 1949) in Lower Taylor Creek, Niger Delta, Nigeria, was analysed using monthly length-frequency data (June 2008 – May 2010). This study was aimed at determining the status of fishery and establishing the levels of exploitation that will give sustainable yields. The FAO-ICLARM stock assessment tool (FISAT II) software was used to estimate population

T onbarapagha Kingdom; Aduabobo Ibitoruh Hart

2012-01-01

83

The State of Cultivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultivation analysis investigates television's contributions to viewers' conceptions of social reality. Developed by George Gerbner in the 1960s, cultivation research continues to expand in numerous directions, with over 125 new studies published since 2000. This article reviews the history of cultivation theory and takes stock of recent trends in the field. We argue that cultivation has taken on certain paradigmatic

Michael Morgan; James Shanahan

2010-01-01

84

Cortney L. Ohs, PhD Select Publications Cassiano, E.J., C.L. Ohs, C.R. Weirich, N.E. Breen, and A.L. Rhyne. 2011. Evaluation of larval  

E-print Network

.L. Ohs, and B.D. Petty. 2010. Evaluation of a point-of-care blood analyzer for use in determination of dietary administration of 17alpha - methyltestosterone to freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii through dietary administration of dopamine hydrochloride. Journal

Hill, Jeffrey E.

85

CULTIVATING NETWORKS: IMPLEMENTING SURGICAL  

E-print Network

i CULTIVATING NETWORKS: IMPLEMENTING SURGICAL TELEMEDICINE Margunn Aanestad THE INTERVENTIONAL OF MATHEMATICS AND NATURAL SCIENCES, UNIVERSITY OF OSLO #12;ii CULTIVATING NETWORKS: IMPLEMENTING SURGICAL single site use: the challenges of growing networks 38 6.2.2 Micro- and macro-level design in use 39 6

Sahay, Sundeep

86

Spirulina cultivation in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reviews and discusses the development and many problems of Spirulina cultivation in China, points out the advantages and disadvantages of open photobioreactor system, and predicts that seawater Spirulina cultivation will be a new trend to be strengthened and emphasized due to its special physiological characteristics, easier management, lower fertilizer cost, and higher resistance to contaminants and rare pollution of chemicals.

Bo-Tang, Wu; Wen-Zhou, Xiang; Cheng-Kui, Zeng

1998-03-01

87

Research on finfish cultivation  

E-print Network

, D. Verner-Jeffreys and B.R. Howell #12;#12;Research on finfish cultivation A synopsis of research Series Technical Report no.132 S.M. Baynes, D. Verner-Jeffreys and B.R. Howell Defra contract: FC0932 #12;This report should be cited as: Baynes, S.M., Verner-Jeffreys, D. and Howell, B.R., 2006. Research

88

Cultivating the Grapevine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although administrators may view grapevines as threats to established leadership, informal communication is necessary to keep an organization functioning smoothly. No one can completely control the grapevine or its accuracy, but astute administrators can learn to cultivate and use informal communication systems wisely. (MLH)

Rauschenberg, Gretchen

1988-01-01

89

Cultivation of Vibrio foetus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio foetus is non-pathogenic for small laboratory animals. As it can cause abortion in sheep and cattle, and is then found in the embryo, cultivation in incubated chicken eggs was attempted. The organism grows easily in the allantoic fluid of seven-to-nine-day eggs. Three days after inoculation, there is a rich growth of Vibrio foetus in the allantoic fluid. The organism

Jac. Jansen; H. Kunst

1951-01-01

90

Sub-lethal impact of carbaryl on food utilization in the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium malcolmsonii.  

PubMed

This study determines the toxic effect of carbaryl (Sevin50% W.P) on the food utilization parameters in intermoult juveniles of the prawn, Macrobrachium malcolmsonii. The prawns (4.5-5.0 cm in length and 1.0-1.25 g wet wt.) were exposed to three sub-lethal concentrations of carbaryl (5.15, 7.73 and 15.47 microgl-1) for duration of 40 days. The toxic medium was renewed daily. The prawns were fed ad libitum with known energy quantity of boiled goat liver on daily basis. The overall wet weight gain was calculated. The energy lost through unconsumed food (15-60%), faeces (15-109%), ammonia excretion (9-27%) and moults (13-26%) of the prawns were calculated. The feeding rate, the rate and efficiency of absorption, the metabolic and food conversion rates and the gross and net food conversions efficiencies were found to be significantly declined (p<0.05) in test prawns when compared to that of the control. The energy lost through faeces, ammonia excretion and exuvia was found to be significantly elevated (p<0.05) in test prawns than that of the control. The effectof carbaryl on the bioenergetics parameters was severe in the highest sub-lethal concentration, less in the intermediate concentration and least in the lowest sub-lethal concentration. The results indicated that decrease in feeding, absorption, metabolism and food conversion are interdependent and toxicity of carbaryl diverting energy from production to maintenance pathways, which ultimately resulting in declined growth of M. malcolmsonii. PMID:22167951

Bhavan, P Saravana; Geraldine, P; Sowdeswari, R

2011-05-01

91

Toxicity of cryoprotectants agents in freshwater prawn embryos of Macrobrachium amazonicum.  

PubMed

Summary The process of cooling and cryopreservation of prawn embryos is a viable alternative for a continuous supply of larvae for freshwater prawn farming ponds. However, studies involving the application of those techniques as well as on toxicity of cryoprotectants in freshwater prawn embryos are scarce. Thus, this study aims to test the toxicity of methylic alcohol (MET), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and ethylene glycol (EG) on Macrobrachium amazonicum embryos. For the present experiment, pools of embryos were taken from 15 M. amazonicum females and were divided into three groups and tested in duplicate at concentrations of 10, 5, 3; 1, 0.5 or 0.1%. Toxicity tests were conducted for 24 h in Falcon® pipes to obtain the lethal concentration for 50% of the larvae (LC50). After the set period for testing, random samples of embryos were removed for morphological analysis under stereoscopic microscopes. Results were analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's test at a 5% significance level and Trimmed Spearman-Karber Analysis to determine LC50-24 h. DMSO toxicity tests revealed that 5% and 10% concentrations showed the highest toxicity and differed from the control (P ? 0.05), 24h-LC50 was 437.4 ± 14.4 µL. MET was less toxic among the tested cryoprotectants and concentrations did not allow the determination of its LC50-24h. For tests with EG, concentrations of 3, 5 or 10% solutions resulted in a 100% mortality to tested embryos; EG was the tested cryoprotectant with the highest toxicity, with an LC50-24h average of 81.91 ± 35.3 µl. PMID:25255785

Ferreira, Arthur Vinícius Lourenço; Castro, Elias José Teles; Barbosa, Mariana Silva Alves; de Sousa, Míriam Luzia Nogueira Martins; de Araújo Neto, Manoel Paiva; Filho, Aldeney Andrade Soares; de Souza Sampaio, Celia Maria

2014-09-26

92

Hybrid origins of cultivated potatoes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wild and cultivated potatoes, Solanum section Petota, is taxonomically difficult, partly because of interspecific hybridization at both the diploid and polyploid levels. The taxonomy of cultivated potatoes is particularly controversial. With DNA sequence data of the GBSSI (waxy) gene we here infer r...

93

Starting from grape cultivation.  

PubMed

Rapid population growth can only be stopped by lowering the fertility rate. The UNFPA recommends improving the employment opportunities for women as the single best way of achieving this reduction. An example of this phenomenon is the grape cultivation in the Nordeste (Northeastern) region of Brazil. This area is the poorest part of Brazil and has the highest proportion of indigent people. These people have been deforesting the Amazon in search of a better life. What they have done is sterilize the land and turned a tropical rain forest into a desert. In an effort to reverse this trend, grape cultivation has been introduced in an area called Petrolina. The area is very dry with less than 500 mm of precipitation annually. They do have access to a 5000 square kilometer artificial lake (the largest in the world) and the 3rd largest river in Brazil (the Sao Francisco). In an effort to avoid using agricultural medicines, the vines are fertilized with organic matter created on the farm and little or no pesticides are used since pests do not live in such an arid region. It has taken 20 years of trial and error, but the quality of the grapes is now very high and is competitive on the world market. Because of climate and location, harvesting is done year round which increases the productivity of the land. The farm managers have found that married women make the best workers and have the highest level of productivity. Age at 1st marriage averages 24-25, compared with 15-16 for unemployed women in the same area. The fertility rate averages 50% of that for unemployed women in the same area. Agricultural development offers the best opportunity for the women of developing countries. It can pay a high wage, reduce fertility, and replant desert areas. PMID:12285551

Yoshida, A

1992-06-01

94

CULTIVATION OF LEPTOSPIRAE I.  

PubMed Central

Stalheim, O. H. V. (University of Wisconsin, Madison), and J. B. Wilson. Cultivation of leptospirae. I. Nutrition of Leptospira canicola. J. Bacteriol. 88:48–54. 1964.—The nutrition of Leptospira canicola was investigated by use of synthetic media of suitable ionic strength. At an incubation temperature of 30 C, the minimal components were calcium, iron, magnesium, and ammonium ions, thiamine, and a fatty acid source; barium and strontium replaced calcium. Aspartic acid, glutamic acid, or methionine stimulated the rate and amount of growth; the best growth occurred in medium containing additional amino acids. Additions of cyanocobalamin or biotin permitted growth at 37 C. The stimulatory effects of added cyanocobalamin, biotin, pyridoxine, pantothenate, lipoic acid, or nicotinic acid were additive at 37 C, but not at 30 C. Fatty acids containing 14, 16, 17, or 18 carbon atoms supported growth; linoleic and linolenic acids were toxic. Glyceryl monooleate or trioleate, or Tween 40, 60, or 80 supported moderate to good growth; a mixture of monoolein and Tween 60, or Tweens 60 and 80 supported the best growth. Ten strains of L. canicola cultivated in a synthetic medium containing Tweens 60 and 80 attained cellular densities per ml of 107 to 4.0 × 107 organisms. L. canicola cells, resuspended in medium containing oleic-1-C14 acid, incorporated label primarily into cellular lipids; a lesser amount was located in the protein fraction, and only trace amounts were found in the nucleic acid fraction. The rate of incorporation was not affected by added sodium acetate. L. canicola was found to have fatty acid decarboxylase activity. PMID:14197904

Stalheim, O. H. V.; Wilson, J. B.

1964-01-01

95

Temporal trends of organochlorine pesticides in prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) from Lake Kasumigaura, Japan, during 1978-2000.  

PubMed

Temporal trends of organochlorine pesticides such as beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene (p,p'-DDE), were determined in freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) collected from Lake Kasumigaura in 1978 to 2000. The organochlorine pesticides elucidated a 72.4% decrease in beta-HCH, from 42 (1978) to 11.6 ng/g fat (2000); an 89.6% decrease in HCB, from 1.64 (1978) to 0.17 ng/g fat (2000); and an 87.3% decrease in p,p'-DDE, from 97.5 (1978) to 12.4 ng/g fat (1992). After organochlorine pesticide prohibition in 1971, the declining trend of beta-HCH, HCB, and p,p'-DDE concentrations persisting in the prawns could be approximated by exponential equations. PMID:15346782

Sunardi; Kumar, K Senthil; Masunaga, S; Iseki, N; Kasuga, S; Nakanishi, J

2004-07-01

96

Growth and mortality, recruitment and yield of the fresh-water shrimp, Macrobrachium völlenhovenii, Herklots 1851 (Crustacea, Palaemonidae) in the Fahe reservoir, Côte d'Ivoire, West Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the growth, mortality rates and recruitment pattern of an exploited fresh-water shrimp (Macrobrachium völlenhovenii) population in the Fahe reservoir of the San-Pedro River, Côte d'Ivoire using 12 consecutive months (January to December 1995) length–frequency samples and FISAT software (which incorporates both the ELEFAN and LSFA programs). A fit of the seasonalized von Bertalanffy growth equation to the length–frequency

Lawrence Etim; Yacouba Sankare

1998-01-01

97

Logistic analysis of algae cultivation.  

PubMed

Energy requirements for resource transport of algae cultivation are unknown. This work describes the quantitative analysis of energy requirements for water and CO2 transport. Algae cultivation models were combined with the quantitative logistic decision model 'BeWhere' for the regions Benelux (Northwest Europe), southern France and Sahara. For photobioreactors, the energy consumed for transport of water and CO2 turns out to be a small percentage of the energy contained in the algae biomass (0.1-3.6%). For raceway ponds the share for transport is higher (0.7-38.5%). The energy consumption for transport is the lowest in the Benelux due to good availability of both water and CO2. Analysing transport logistics is still important, despite the low energy consumption for transport. The results demonstrate that resource requirements, resource distribution and availability and transport networks have a profound effect on the location choices for algae cultivation. PMID:25549905

Slegers, P M; Leduc, S; Wijffels, R H; van Straten, G; van Boxtel, A J B

2015-03-01

98

Seaweed cultivation: Traditional way and its reformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seaweed cultivation or phycoculture has been developed rather fast in recent years. The total production of cultivated seaweed\\u000a at present is about 6250×103 tons fresh weight. The total cultivation area is estimated as 200×103 hectare. The annual total value of cultivated seaweeds has been estimated to be more than 3 billion US dollars. Phycoculture\\u000a provides many job opportunities for the

Xiu-Geng Fei; Ying Bao; Shan Lu

1999-01-01

99

Origin, dispersal, cultivation and variation of rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are two cultivated and twenty-one wild species of genus Oryza. O. sativa, the Asian cultivated rice is grown all over the world. The African cultivated rice, O. glaberrima is grown on a small scale in West Africa. The genus Oryza probably originated about 130 million years ago in Gondwanaland and different species got distributed into different continents with the

Gurdev S. Khush

1997-01-01

100

Molecular Analysis of the Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium olfersii (Decapoda, Palaemonidae) Supports the Existence of a Single Species throughout Its Distribution  

PubMed Central

Macrobrachium olfersii is an amphidromous freshwater prawn, widespread along the eastern coasts of the Americas. This species shows great morphological modifications during ontogenesis, and several studies have verified the existence of a wide intraspecific variation. Because of this condition, the species is often misidentified, and several synonyms have been documented. To elucidate these aspects, individuals of M. olfersii from different populations along its range of distribution were investigated. The taxonomic limit was established, and the degree of genetic variability of this species was described. We extracted DNA from 53 specimens of M. olfersii, M. americanum, M. digueti and M. faustinum, which resulted in 84 new sequences (22 of 16S mtDNA, 45 of Cythocrome Oxidase I (COI) mtDNA, and 17 of Histone (H3) nDNA). Sequences of three genes (single and concatenated) from these species were used in the Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference phylogenetic analyses and COI sequences from M. olfersii were used in population analysis. The genetic variation was evaluated through the alignment of 554 bp from the 16S, 638 bp from the COI, and 338 bp from the H3. The rates of genetic divergence among populations were lower at the intraspecific level. This was confirmed by the haplotype net, which showed a continuous gene flow among populations. Although a wide distribution and high morphological intraspecific variation often suggest the existence of more than one species, genetic similarity of Caribbean and Brazilian populations of M. olfersii supported them as a single species. PMID:23382941

Rossi, Natália; Mantelatto, Fernando Luis

2013-01-01

101

Molecular analysis of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium olfersii (Decapoda, Palaemonidae) supports the existence of a single species throughout its distribution.  

PubMed

Macrobrachium olfersii is an amphidromous freshwater prawn, widespread along the eastern coasts of the Americas. This species shows great morphological modifications during ontogenesis, and several studies have verified the existence of a wide intraspecific variation. Because of this condition, the species is often misidentified, and several synonyms have been documented. To elucidate these aspects, individuals of M. olfersii from different populations along its range of distribution were investigated. The taxonomic limit was established, and the degree of genetic variability of this species was described. We extracted DNA from 53 specimens of M. olfersii, M. americanum, M. digueti and M. faustinum, which resulted in 84 new sequences (22 of 16S mtDNA, 45 of Cythocrome Oxidase I (COI) mtDNA, and 17 of Histone (H3) nDNA). Sequences of three genes (single and concatenated) from these species were used in the Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference phylogenetic analyses and COI sequences from M. olfersii were used in population analysis. The genetic variation was evaluated through the alignment of 554 bp from the 16S, 638 bp from the COI, and 338 bp from the H3. The rates of genetic divergence among populations were lower at the intraspecific level. This was confirmed by the haplotype net, which showed a continuous gene flow among populations. Although a wide distribution and high morphological intraspecific variation often suggest the existence of more than one species, genetic similarity of Caribbean and Brazilian populations of M. olfersii supported them as a single species. PMID:23382941

Rossi, Natália; Mantelatto, Fernando Luis

2013-01-01

102

Cultivated Areas- Remote Sensing Lesson  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson from iGETT will contribute to remote sensing curriculum. This particular unit uses ENVI software to extract data on cultivated land from Landsat 7 imagery. The materials include a learning unit summary, instructor and student guides, supporting documents and a series of data files. The lesson plan will be helpful for students looking at the issue of heat islands in the remote sensing context. A quick, free registration is required to view or download any of the materials.

103

Geographic information system-based identification of suitable cultivation sites for wood-cultivated ginseng  

PubMed Central

Wood-cultivated ginseng, including roots in its dried form, is produced in forest land without using artificial facilities such as light barriers. To identify suitable sites for the propagation of wood-cultivated ginseng, factor combination technique (FCT) and linear combination technique (LCT) were used with geographic information system and the results were superimposed onto an actual wood-cultivated ginseng plantation. The LCT more extensively searched for suitable sites of cultivation than that by the FCT; further, the LCT probed wide areas considering the predominance of precipitous mountains in Korea. In addition, the LCT showed the much higher degree of overlap with the actual cultivation sites; therefore, the LCT more comprehensively reflects the cultivator’s intention for site selection. On the other hand, the inclusion of additional factors for the selection of suitable cultivation sites and experts’ opinions may enhance the effectiveness and accuracy of the LCT for site application. PMID:24235864

Beon, Mu Sup; Park, Jun Ho; Kang, Hag Mo; Cho, Sung Jong; Kim, Hyun

2013-01-01

104

Transcriptome Analysis of the Oriental River Prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense Using 454 Pyrosequencing for Discovery of Genes and Markers  

PubMed Central

Background The oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense, is an economically and nutritionally important species of the Palaemonidae family of decapod crustaceans. To date, the sequencing of its whole genome is unavailable as a non-model organism. Transcriptomic information is also scarce for this species. In this study, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing to produce the first comprehensive expressed sequence tag (EST) dataset for M. nipponense using high-throughput sequencing technologies. Methodology and Principal Findings Total RNA was isolated from eyestalk, gill, heart, ovary, testis, hepatopancreas, muscle, and embryos at the cleavage, gastrula, nauplius and zoea stages. Equal quantities of RNA from each tissue and stage were pooled to construct a cDNA library. Using 454 pyrosequencing technology, we generated a total of 984,204 high quality reads (338.59Mb) with an average length of 344 bp. Clustering and assembly of these reads produced a non-redundant set of 81,411 unique sequences, comprising 42,551 contigs and 38,860 singletons. All of the unique sequences were involved in the molecular function (30,425), cellular component (44,112) and biological process (67,679) categories by GO analysis. Potential genes and their functions were predicted by KEGG pathway mapping and COG analysis. Based on our sequence analysis and published literature, many putative genes involved in sex determination, including DMRT1, FTZ-F1, FOXL2, FEM1 and other potentially important candidate genes, were identified for the first time in this prawn. Furthermore, 6,689 SSRs and 18,107 high-confidence SNPs were identified in this EST dataset. Conclusions The transcriptome provides an invaluable new data for a functional genomics resource and future biological research in M. nipponense. The molecular markers identified in this study will provide a material basis for future genetic linkage and quantitative trait loci analyses, and will be essential for accelerating aquaculture breeding programs with this species. PMID:22745820

Ma, Keyi; Qiu, Gaofeng; Feng, Jianbin; Li, Jiale

2012-01-01

105

Molecular cloning of two tropomyosin family genes and expression analysis during development in oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense.  

PubMed

This paper reports that Slow-tonic S2 tropomyosin (Sst) and Slow tropomyosin isoform (Sti) was highly expressed in androgenic gland transcriptome of Macrobrachium nipponense, which may play crucial roles in sexual differentiation to maleness. In this study, two Sst and Sti gene homologues designated as Mnsst and Mnsti were cloned and characterized from a freshwater prawn M. nipponense. The full-length cDNA of Mnsst and Mnsti consists of 997 bp and 1926 bp, respectively, with an ORF of 852 bp encoding 284 amino acids, and the similarity in ORF reached to 95.82%. The deduced amino acid sequences of Mnsst and Mnsti shared the highest identity with Slow-tonic S2 tropomyosin and Slow tropomyosin isoform of Homarus americanus. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR showed that the Mnsst and Mnsti genes were expressed in different tissues with the highest level of expression in the androgenic gland, implying that these two genes may be related to sex-determination in M. nipponense. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR revealed that in addition, Mnsst and Mnsti were speculated to be related with embryonic organogenesis of M. nipponense, especially for the formation of complete mouthpart and digestive organ and stimulating larval changes of morphology and initiate metamorphosis, the results of present study implied that the two genes may play complex and important roles in sex differentiation of M. nipponense. Thus, we isolated two candidate genes that may advance the studies of sex-determination mechanism in M. nipponense and even the whole crustacean species, as well as promoting the all-male population culture of M. nipponense. PMID:24809964

Jin, Shubo; Jiang, Sufei; Xiong, Yiwei; Qiao, Hui; Sun, Shengming; Zhang, Wenyi; Li, Fajun; Gong, Yongsheng; Fu, Hongtuo

2014-08-10

106

A kinetic characterization of the gill V(H(+))-ATPase in juvenile and adult Macrobrachium amazonicum, a diadromous palaemonid shrimp.  

PubMed

Novel kinetic properties of a microsomal gill V(H(+))-ATPase from juvenile and adult Amazon River shrimp, Macrobrachium amazonicum, are described. While protein expression patterns are markedly different, Western blot analysis reveals a sole immunoreactive band, suggesting a single V(H(+))-ATPase subunit isoform, distributed in membrane fractions of similar density in both ontogenetic stages. Immunofluorescence labeling locates the V(H(+))-ATPase in the apical regions of the lamellar pillar cells in both stages in which mRNA expression of the V(H(+))-ATPase B-subunit is identical. Juvenile (36.6±3.3nmolPimin(-)(1) mg(-)(1)) and adult (41.6±1.3nmolPi min(-)(1) mg(-)(1)) V(H(+))-ATPase activities are similar, the apparent affinity for ATP of the adult enzyme (K0.5=0.21±0.02mmolL(-)(1)) being 3-fold greater than for juveniles (K0.5=0.61±0.01mmolL(-)(1)). The K0.5 for Mg(2+) interaction with the juvenile V(H(+))-ATPase (1.40 ± 0.07 mmol L(-)(1)) is ?6-fold greater than for adults (0.26±0.02mmolL(-)(1)) while the bafilomycin A1 inhibition constant (KI) is 45.0±2.3nmolL(-)(1) and 24.2±1.2nmolL(-)(1), for juveniles and adults, respectively. Both stages exhibited residual bafilomycin-insensitive ATPase activity of ?25 nmol Pi min(-)(1) mg(-)(1), suggesting the presence of ATPases other than the V(H(+))-ATPase. These differences may reflect a long-term regulatory mechanism of V(H(+))-ATPase activity, and suggest stage-specific enzyme modulation. This is the first kinetic analysis of V(H(+))-ATPase activity in different ontogenetic stages of a freshwater shrimp and allows better comprehension of the biochemical adaptations underpinning the establishment of palaemonid shrimps in fresh water. PMID:25461614

Lucena, Malson N; Pinto, Marcelo R; Garçon, Daniela P; McNamara, John C; Leone, Francisco A

2014-11-15

107

The invasion of five alien species in the Delta do Parnaíba Environmental Protection Area, Northeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

Marine biological invasions have been regarded as one of the major causes of native biodiversity loss, with shipping and aquaculture being the leading contributors for the introductions of alien species in aquatic ecosystems. In the present study, five aquatic alien species (one mollusk, three crustaceans and one fish species) were detected during dives, shore searches and from the fisheries on the coast of the Delta do Parnaíba Environmental Protection Area, in the States of Piauí and Maranhão, Northeastern Brazil. The species were the bicolor purse-oyster Isognomon bicolor, the whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, the giant river prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, the Indo-Pacific swimming crab Charybdis hellerii and, the muzzled blenny Omobranchus punctatus. Ballast water (I. bicolor, C. hellerii, and O. punctatus) and aquaculture activities (L. vannamei and M. rosenbergii) in adjacent areas are the most likely vectors of introduction. All exotic species found have potential impact risks to the environment because they are able to compete against native species for resources (food and habitat). Isognomon bicolor share the same habitat and food items with the native bivalve species of mussels and barnacles. Litopenaeus vannamei share the same habitat and food items with the native penaeids such as the pinkspot shrimp Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis, the Southern brown shrimp Farfantepenaeus subtilis, and the Southern white shrimp Litopenaeus schmitti, and in the past few years L. vannamei was responsible for a viral epidemics in the cultivation tanks that could be transmitted to native penaeid shrimps. Charybdis hellerii is also able to cause impacts on the local fisheries as the species can decrease the populations of native portunid crabs which are commercialized in the studied region. Macrobrachium rosenbergii may be sharing natural resources with the Amazon River prawn Macrobrachium amazonicum. Omobranchus punctatus shares habit with the native redlip blenny Ophioblennius atlanticus and other fishes, such as the frillfin goby Bathigobius soporator Some immediate remedial measures to prevent further introductions from ballast water and shrimp farm ponds should be: (i) to prevent the release of ballast water by ship/vessels in the region; (ii) to reroute all effluent waters from shrimp rearing facilities through an underground or above-ground dry well; (iii) to install adequate sand and gravel filter which will allow passage of water but not livestock; (iv) outdoor shrimp pounds located on floodable land should be diked, and; (v) to promote environmental awareness of those directly involved with ballast water (crews of ship/vessels) and shrimp farms in the region. PMID:20737846

Loebmann, Daniel; Mai, Ana Cecília G; Lee, James T

2010-09-01

108

--,--,_._--.-.. _-_._-----~_ ..." ..._'".__.-_._.----~ ------'-." ....--_._----.--_.----________~ .__.__ .._u.__._ . _ ~ ._._. .. , _.. .__._..._._ A METHOD OF CULTIVATING RAINBOW TROUT  

E-print Network

._·_·._· . _ ~ ._._. .. , _.. .__._..._._ A METHOD OF CULTIVATING RAINBOW TROUT AND OTHER SALMONOIDS .;It By Charles L. Paige .;It Paper presented _._------~----_.,,-_. __...--_.._~--_.--. -_.__._~--_._---.~. __._.... _---,--_._--_._-------.,.._--_._.------------- #12;Blank page retained for pagination #12;A METHOD OF CULTIVATING RAINBOW TROUT AND OTHER SALMONOIDS Creek, in the Shasta Mountains, in Shasta County, Ca1., in water to which the rainbow trout is native

109

Lawn Clippings for Cultivation of Oyster Mushroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus var. sajor caju (Fr.) Singer, can be cultivated on a wide variety of substrates containing lignin and cellulose. Oyster mushroom cultivation can play an important role in managing organic waste. Oyster mushroom was grown on five substrates: sedge (Carex remota L.), lawn clippings (mix of Bermuda grass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.], ryegrass [Lolium persicum L.], meadow

J. A. Olfati; Gh. Peyvast

2008-01-01

110

Potential and limitations of Burgundy truffle cultivation.  

PubMed

Burgundy truffles (Tuber aestivum syn. Tuber uncinatum) are the highly prized fruit bodies of subterranean fungi always occurring in ectomycorrhizal symbiosis with host plants. Successful cultivation can be achieved through artificial mycorrhization and outplanting of mostly oaks and hazel on suitable terrain. Here, we review ecological requirements, the influence of environmental factors, and the importance of molecular techniques for a successful cultivation of T. aestivum across Europe. The historical background and current knowledge of T. aestivum cultivation are discussed in light of its socioeconomic relevance. PMID:23666478

Stobbe, Ulrich; Egli, Simon; Tegel, Willy; Peter, Martina; Sproll, Ludger; Büntgen, Ulf

2013-06-01

111

Comparative acute toxicity of gallium(III), antimony(III), indium(III), cadmium(II), and copper(II) on freshwater swamp shrimp (Macrobrachium nipponense)  

PubMed Central

Background Acute toxicity testing were carried out the freshwater swamp shrimp, Macrobrachium nipponense, as the model animal for the semiconductor applied metals (gallium, antimony, indium, cadmium, and copper) to evaluate if the species is an suitable experimental animal of pollution in aquatic ecosystem. Results The static renewal test method of acute lethal concentrations determination was used, and water temperature was maintained at 24.0?±?0.5°C. Data of individual metal obtained from acute toxicity tests were determined using probit analysis method. The median lethal concentration (96-h LC50) of gallium, antimony, indium, cadmium, and copper for M. nipponense were estimated as 2.7742, 1.9626, 6.8938, 0.0539, and 0.0313 mg/L, respectively. Conclusions Comparing the toxicity tolerance of M. nipponense with other species which exposed to these metals, it is obviously that the M. nipponense is more sensitive than that of various other aquatic animals. PMID:25027256

2014-01-01

112

The Prawn Macrobrachium vollenhovenii in the Senegal River Basin: Towards Sustainable Restocking of All-Male Populations for Biological Control of Schistosomiasis  

PubMed Central

Early malacological literature suggests that the outbreak of schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease transmitted by aquatic snails, in the Senegal River basin occurred due to ecological changes resulting from the construction of the Diama dam. The common treatment, the drug praziquantel, does not protect from the high risk of re-infection due to human contact with infested water on a daily basis. The construction of the dam interfered with the life cycle of the prawn Macrobrachium vollenhovenii by blocking its access to breeding grounds in the estuary. These prawns were demonstrated to be potential biological control agents, being effective predators of Schistosoma-susceptible snails. Here, we propose a responsible restocking strategy using all-male prawn populations which could provide sustainable disease control. Male prawns reach a larger size and have a lower tendency to migrate than females. We, therefore, expect that periodic restocking of all-male juveniles will decrease the prevalence of schistosomiasis and increase villagers' welfare. In this interdisciplinary study, we examined current prawn abundance along the river basin, complemented with a retrospective questionnaire completed by local fishermen. We revealed the current absence of prawns upriver and thus demonstrated the need for restocking. Since male prawns are suggested to be preferable for bio-control, we laid the molecular foundation for production of all-male M. vollenhovenii through a complete sequencing of the insulin-like androgenic gland-encoding gene (IAG), which is responsible for sexual differentiation in crustaceans. We also conducted bioinformatics and immunohistochemistry analyses to demonstrate the similarity of this sequence to the IAG of another Macrobrachium species in which neo-females are produced and their progeny are 100% males. At least 100 million people at risk of schistosomiasis are residents of areas that experienced water management manipulations. Our suggested non-breeding sustainable model of control—if proven successful—could prevent re-infections and thus prove useful throughout the world. PMID:25166746

Savaya Alkalay, Amit; Rosen, Ohad; Sokolow, Susanne H.; Faye, Yacinthe P. W.; Faye, Djibril S.; Aflalo, Eliahu D.; Jouanard, Nicolas; Zilberg, Dina; Huttinger, Elizabeth; Sagi, Amir

2014-01-01

113

Some aspects of hybridoma cell cultivation.  

PubMed

Two hybridoma cell lines were cultivated in an indirectly aerated 10-1 reactor in batch, fed-batch and continuous (perfusion) operations and in spinner flasks. The medium in the reactor was sampled either by an aseptic cross-flow filtration module integrated into a loop or by an in-situ tubular filter. The glucose concentration was monitored by an on-line flow injection analyser and the ammonia concentration by an ion-selective electrode. Since the membrane transmission of the high-molecular components decreased during cultivation, the product, a monoclonal antibody, was enriched in the reactor. During cultivation, the concentrations of cells, viable cells, glucose, lactase, acetate, citrate, ammonia, urea, amino acids, proteins, and monoclonal antibodies were determined off-line. The specific growth rate, specific production, and consumption rates of the medium components were influenced considerably by the medium composition, especially by the type and amount of serum used. PMID:1367367

Graf, H; Schügerl, K

1991-05-01

114

Microgravity cultivation of cells and tissues  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In vitro studies of cells and tissues in microgravity, either simulated by cultivation conditions on earth or actual, during spaceflight, are expected to help identify mechanisms underlying gravity sensing and transduction in biological organisms. In this paper, we review rotating bioreactor studies of engineered skeletal and cardiovascular tissues carried out in unit gravity, a four month long cartilage tissue engineering study carried out aboard the Mir Space Station, and the ongoing laboratory development and testing of a system for cell and tissue cultivation aboard the International Space Station.

Freed, L. E.; Pellis, N.; Searby, N.; de Luis, J.; Preda, C.; Bordonaro, J.; Vunjak-Novakovic, G.

1999-01-01

115

Transcriptome Analysis of Androgenic Gland for Discovery of Novel Genes from the Oriental River Prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense, Using Illumina Hiseq 2000  

PubMed Central

Background The oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense, is an important aquaculture species in China, even in whole of Asia. The androgenic gland produces hormones that play crucial roles in sexual differentiation to maleness. This study is the first de novo M. nipponense transcriptome analysis using cDNA prepared from mRNA isolated from the androgenic gland. Illumina/Solexa was used for sequencing. Methodology and Principal Finding The total volume of RNA sample was more than 5 ug. We generated 70,853,361 high quality reads after eliminating adapter sequences and filtering out low-quality reads. A total of 78,408 isosequences were obtained by clustering and assembly of the clean reads, producing 57,619 non-redundant transcripts with an average length of 1244.19 bp. In total 70,702 isosequences were matched to the Nr database, additional analyses were performed by GO (33,203), KEGG (17,868), and COG analyses (13,817), identifying the potential genes and their functions. A total of 47 sex-determination related gene families were identified from the M. nipponense androgenic gland transcriptome based on the functional annotation of non-redundant transcripts and comparisons with the published literature. Furthermore, a total of 40 candidate novel genes were found, that may contribute to sex-determination based on their extremely high expression levels in the androgenic compared to other sex glands,. Further, 437 SSRs and 65,535 high-confidence SNPs were identified in this EST dataset from which 14 EST-SSR markers have been isolated. Conclusion Our study provides new sequence information for M. nipponense, which will be the basis for further genetic studies on decapods crustaceans. More importantly, this study dramatically improves understanding of sex-determination mechanisms, and advances sex-determination research in all crustacean species. The huge number of potential SSR and SNP markers isolated from the transcriptome may shed the lights on research in many fields, including the evolution and molecular ecology of Macrobrachium species. PMID:24204682

Jin, Shubo; Fu, Hongtuo; Zhou, Qiao; Sun, Shengming; Jiang, Sufei; Xiong, Yiwei; Gong, Yongsheng; Qiao, Hui; Zhang, Wenyi

2013-01-01

116

Marine Fisheries On the cover  

E-print Network

Marine Fisheries ~~WD~~ On the cover: A spring chinook gillnetter on the Columbia River at Astoria, Macrobrachium rosenbergii Departments NOAA/NMFS Developments Foreign Fishery Developments Index Papers in Marine For Fisheries National Marine Fisheries Service Editor: W. Hobart Marine Fisheries Review (USPS 090-080) is pub

117

A Simple "in Vitro" Culture of Freshwater Prawn Embryos for Laboratory Investigations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Giant freshwater prawn ("Macrobrachium rosenbergii" De Man) embryos can be cultured "in vitro" to hatching in 15% (v/v) artificial seawater (ASW). This technique can be applied as a bioassay for testing toxicity or for the effects of various substances on embryo development and can be used as a simple and low-cost model for studying embryo…

Porntrai, Supaporn; Damrongphol, Praneet

2008-01-01

118

Cytogenetic studies of cultivated Crocus sativus ( Iridaceae )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meiosis and mitosis are described in cultivatedCrocus sativus of Iran. This indicates that this species is an autotriploid and sterile. Karyotype analysis, rare inversions, laggard chromosomes and distribution of chromosomes in the first anaphase are described, and the reasons for its sterility are given.

S. M. Ghaffari

1986-01-01

119

Levels of platinum group metals in selected species (Sarotherodon melanotheron, Chonophorus lateristriga, Macrobrachium vollenhovenii and Crassostrea tulipa) in some estuaries and lagoons along the coast of Ghana.  

PubMed

The use of some biota as bioindicators of heavy metal pollution has been demonstrated as particularly adequate due to their capacity of bioconcentration. This study evaluated the levels of platinum group metals (PGMs) in some selected species along the coastal belt of Ghana, using the neutron activation analysis (NAA) method. The result was processed to evaluate pollution indices in order to map the distribution of the metals in those species in the lagoons and estuaries along the costal belt of Ghana. The analysis showed significant levels of all PGMs in blackchin tilapia (Sarotherodon melanotheron Cichlidae), brown goby (Chonophorus lateristriga Gobiidae), shrimp (Macrobrachium vollenhovenii Palaemonidae), and mangrove oysters (Crassostrea tulipa Ostreidae) in the lagoons and river Pra estuary. However, the oysters showed an elevated mean concentration of 0.13 ?g/g (dry weight) Pd. From the pollution indices, most of the sampling sites registered mean contamination factor (CF) values between 1.20 and 3.00 for Pt, Pd, and Rh. The pollution load index (PLI) conducted also gave an average pollution index between 0.79 and 2.37, indicating progressive contamination levels. The results revealed that anthropogenic sources, industrial and hospital effluent, etc., together with vehicular emissions, could be the contributing factors to the deposition of PGMs along the Ghanaian coast. PMID:20953547

Essumang, D K; Adokoh, C K; Boamponsem, L

2010-01-01

120

Human Colon Cancer Cells Cultivated in Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Within five days, bioreactor cultivated human colon cancer cells (shown) grown in Microgravity on the STS-70 mission in 1995, had grown 30 times the volume of the control specimens on Earth. The samples grown in space had a higher level of cellular organization and specialization. Because they more closely resemble tumors found in the body, microgravity grown cell cultures are ideal for research purposes.

1995-01-01

121

Parathyroid allotransplantation in rabbits without cultivation  

PubMed Central

Permanent hypoparathyroidism is a serious clinical situation. Allotransplantation of the parathyroid cells is relatively new approach to treatment. Non-cultivated allotransplantation in rabbits is not tried before. In this research parathyroidectomy was performed in six female New Zealand white rabbits. After division of surgically removed tissues into two, cryopreservation after cell isolation was done. Non-cultivated cross allotransplantation was performed under immunosuppression. Serum calcium and phosphorus levels were observed 15 days and histopathological analyses of the transplanted parathyroid tissues were studied. Significant changes in serum calcium and phosphorus levels during the experiment were observed (p=0.001 for both). Calcium levels which were significantly dropped to 6.66±0.7 mg/dL after parathyroidectomy and progressively increased up to 15.98±1.25 mg/dL at the end of the experiment (p=0.004). Phosphorus levels which were increased to 9.38±0.63 mg/dL after parathyroidectomy and stabilized to 4.46±1.06 mg/dL at the end of the experiment (p=0.007). All allotransplanted parathyroid tissues showed normal tissue architecture without evidence of cellular rejection. In conclusion allotransplantation of the parathyroid tissues without cultivation may be considered as an alternative and safe approach for the treatment of permanent hypoparathyroidism. PMID:24482717

Can, Ismail; Aysan, Erhan; Yucesan, Emrah; Sayitoglu, Muge; Ozbek, Ugur; Ercivan, Merve; Atasoy, Hakan; Buyukpinarbasili, Nur; Muslumanoglu, Mahmut

2014-01-01

122

Soil properties of cultivation sites for mountain-cultivated ginseng at local level  

PubMed Central

Background Identifying suitable site for growing mountain-cultivated ginseng is a concern for ginseng producers. This study was conducted to evaluate the soil properties of cultivation sites for mountain-cultivated ginseng in Hamyang-gun, which is one of the most well-known areas for mountain-cultivated ginseng in Korea. Methods The sampling plots from 30 sites were randomly selected on or near the center of the ginseng growing sites in July and August 2009. Soil samples for the soil properties analysis were collected from the top 20 cm at five randomly selected points. Results Mountain-cultivated ginseng was grown in soils that varied greatly in soil properties on coniferous, mixed, and deciduous broad-leaved stand sites of elevations between > 200 m and < 1,000 m. The soil bulk density was higher in Pinus densiflora than in Larix leptolepis stand sites and higher in the < 700-m sites than in > 700-m sites. Soil pH was unaffected by the type of stand sites (pH 4.35–4.55), whereas the high-elevation sites of > 700 m were strongly acidified, with pH 4.19. The organic carbon and total nitrogen content were lower in the P. densiflora stand sites than in the deciduous broad-leaved stand sites. Available phosphorus was low in all of the stand sites. The exchangeable cation was generally higher in the mixed and low-elevation sites than in the P. densiflora and high-elevation sites, respectively. Conclusion These results indicate that mountain-cultivated ginseng in Korea is able to grow in very acidic, nutrient-depleted forest soils. PMID:25535480

Kim, Choonsig; Choo, Gap Chul; Cho, Hyun Seo; Lim, Jong Teak

2014-01-01

123

Determination of microcystin-LR and its metabolites in snail (Bellamya aeruginosa), shrimp (Macrobrachium nipponensis) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) from Lake Taihu, China.  

PubMed

This paper describes seasonal changes of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and its glutathione (MC-LR-GSH) and cysteine conjugates (MC-LR-Cys) in three aquatic animals--snail (Bellamya aeruginosa), shrimp (Macrobrachium nipponensis) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) collected from Lake Taihu, China. MC-LR, MC-LR-GSH, and MC-LR-Cys were determined by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrum (LC-ESI-MS). The mean MC-LR concentrations in the hepatopancreas of snail and shrimp and liver of silver carp were 6.61, 0.24, and 0.027 microg g(-1) dry weight (DW), respectively; while the average MC-LR-Cys concentrations were 0.50, 0.97, and 5.72 microg g(-1) DW, respectively. MC-LR-GSH was usually not detectable in these samples. The above results suggest that: (1) in aquatic animals, especially fish, the main excretion form of MC-LR could be MC-LR-Cys, but not MC-LR-GSH, whereas MC-LR-Cys might play an important role in detoxication of MC-LR and (2) that efficiency of MC-LR-Cys formation differs among species. The main detoxication pathway of MC-LR in aquatic animals is suggested as follows: when MC-LR enters into liver/hepatopancreas, it firstly conjugates with polypeptide or protein (including GSH, PP-1 and 2A) containing Cys residues, perhaps also some free cysteine; subsequently, MC-LR-Cys is degraded from these polypeptide or protein; and finally is excreted from animals by the compound of MC-LR-Cys. PMID:19473685

Zhang, Dawen; Xie, Ping; Chen, Jun; Dai, Ming; Qiu, Tong; Liu, Yaqin; Liang, Gaodao

2009-08-01

124

Origin, dispersal, cultivation and variation of rice.  

PubMed

There are two cultivated and twenty-one wild species of genus Oryza. O. sativa, the Asian cultivated rice is grown all over the world. The African cultivated rice, O. glaberrima is grown on a small scale in West Africa. The genus Oryza probably originated about 130 million years ago in Gondwanaland and different species got distributed into different continents with the breakup of Gondwanaland. The cultivated species originated from a common ancestor with AA genome. Perennial and annual ancestors of O. sativa are O. rufipogon and O. nivara and those of O. glaberrima are O. longistaminata, O. breviligulata and O. glaberrima probably domesticated in Niger river delta. Varieties of O. sativa are classified into six groups on the basis of genetic affinity. Widely known indica rices correspond to group I and japonicas to group VI. The so called javanica rices also belong to group VI and are designated as tropical japonicas in contrast to temperate japonicas grown in temperate climate. Indica and japonica rices had a polyphyletic origin. Indicas were probably domesticated in the foothills of Himalayas in Eastern India and japonicas somewhere in South China. The indica rices dispersed throughout the tropics and subtropics from India. The japonica rices moved northward from South China and became the temperate ecotype. They also moved southward to Southeast Asia and from there to West Africa and Brazil and became tropical ecotype. Rice is now grown between 55 degrees N and 36 degrees S latitudes. It is grown under diverse growing conditions such as irrigated, rainfed lowland, rainfed upland and floodprone ecosystems. Human selection and adaptation to diverse environments has resulted in numerous cultivars. It is estimated that about 120,000 varieties of rice exist in the world. After the establishment of International Rice Research Institute in 1960, rice varietal improvement was intensified and high yielding varieties were developed. These varieties are now planted to 70% of world's riceland. Rice production doubled between 1966 and 1990 due to large scale adoption of these improved varieties. Rice production must increase by 60% by 2025 to feed the additional rice consumers. New tools of molecular and cellular biology such as anther culture, molecular marker aided selection and genetic engineering will play increasing role in rice improvement. PMID:9291957

Khush, G S

1997-09-01

125

Cultivation and utilization of Undaria pinnatifida (wakame) as food  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief review is presented concerning wakame, Undaria pinnatifida, one of the most popular seaweeds used for food in Japan. Although it has been cultivated since about 1940, full-scale cultivation\\u000a occurred after 1955. As methods for providing ‘seed stock’ and of processing the harvested sporophytes progressed, the yield\\u000a increased rapidly. The main areas of cultivation are in Japan (e.g. Sanriku,

Ryoichi Yamanaka; Kazuo Akiyama

1993-01-01

126

ECOFRIENDLY MANAGEMENT OF BELL PEPPER DISEASES UNDER PROTECTED CULTIVATION;.  

E-print Network

??newline ABSTRACT newlinePresent investigations on diseases of bell pepper under protected cultivation were undertaken to study the progress of diseases, environmental factors affecting diseases, evaluation… (more)

Ashlesha

2008-01-01

127

Hydrolase production by Aspergillus niger in solid-state cultivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A production of macerating enzymes which liquefy and hydrolyze the mandarin orange peel was studied in a solid state cultivation of Aspergillus niger on wheat bran substrate. Solid state cultivation in a 2 l drum fermenter capable of interchangeable operation under dynamic or static conditions were carried out maintaining the moisture content of the substrate at 32, 39, 46, 56,

Naomichi Nishio; Kiyoshi Tai; Shiro Nagai

1979-01-01

128

Research on the cultivation of teachers' information ethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultivating the teacher's information ethics has double meanings, concerning teacher's own information literacy, will influence the instruction activity and students' information ethics too, it is the important component of teacher's information literacy. But teacher's information ethics education is often ignored. How to know and how to cultivate the teacher's information ethics correctly is an important and thorny problem. This article

Guo Caihong

2010-01-01

129

Ecogeography of ploidy variation in cultivated potato (Solanum sect. Petota)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The taxonomy of cultivated potatoes has been highly controversial, with estimates of species numbers ranging from 3 to 17. Ploidy level has been one of the most important taxonomic characters to recognize cultivated potato species, containing diploid (2 n = 2 x = 24), triploid (2 n = 3 x = 36), tetr...

130

Ecogeography of Ploidy Variation in Cultivated Potato (Solanum Sect. Petota)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The taxonomy of cultivated potatoes has been highly controversial, with estimates of species numbers ranging from 3-18. Ploidy level has been one of the most important taxonomic characters to recognize cultivated potato species, with diploid (2n = 2x = 24), triploid (2n = 3x = 36), tetraploid (2n = ...

131

Taxonomy of cultivated potatoes (solanum section petota: solanaceae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Solanum tuberosum, the cultivated potato of world commerce, is a primary food crop worldwide. Wild and cultivated potatoes form the germplasm base for international breeding efforts to improve potato in the face of variety of disease, environmental, and agronomic constraints. A series of national an...

132

The cultivation remains beneath the North Mains, Strathallan barrow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultivation ridges found beneath a barrow of the early second millennium be are described. When the massive burial mound at North Mains, Strathallan, Perthshire was excavated (Barclay 1983) clear traces of cultivation ridges were found beneath it. They were described in the North Mains report (ibid, 191): The ridges were a maximum of 0-15 m high and measured 1-8 to

Gordon J Barclay

133

USDA: Insect Pollination of Cultivated Crop Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is home to an extensive online USDA text authored by S.E. McGregor, titled Insect Pollination Of Cultivated Crop Plants. Although originally written in 1976, the text is continually updated with new content. Chapters are organized by plant type (legumes, tree fruits, nuts, clovers, etc.), and provide a table of contents that allows users to jump directly to sections within each chapter. The introduction contains information on wild bees, pesticides, and other related information. Some of the basic sections include "Flowering and Fruiting of Plants", "Wild Bees and Wild Bee Culture". Additionally, new materials within the book are listed by crop and date of addition. This site contains information on pollination of numerous plants from Avocado to Zigzag Clover and everything in between. It is a great source to consult for amateur and professional gardeners alike.

McGregor, S.E.

134

In Vitro Cultivation of Cryptosporidium Species  

PubMed Central

The in vitro cultivation of protozoan parasites of the genus Cryptosporidium has advanced significantly in recent years. These obligate, intracellular parasites colonize the epithelium of the digestive and respiratory tracts, are often difficult to obtain in significant numbers, produce durable oocysts that defy conventional chemical disinfection methods, and are persistently infectious when stored at refrigerated temperatures (4 to 8°C). While continuous culture and efficient life cycle completion (oocyst production) have not yet been achieved in vitro, routine methods for parasite preparation and cell culture infection and assays for parasite life cycle development have been established. Parasite yields may be limited, but in vitro growth is sufficient to support a variety of research studies, including assessing potential drug therapies, evaluating oocyst disinfection methods, and characterizing life cycle stage development and differentiation. PMID:12097247

Arrowood, Michael J.

2002-01-01

135

[Cultivation of Iris ensata Thunb. callus tissue].  

PubMed

A continuous callus culture was obtained from zygotic embryos of Japanese iris (Iris ensata Thunb.) on the Murashige-Skoog medium supplemented with 2 mg/l alpha-naphthylacetic acid and 0.5 mg/l 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). It was found that a successful callusogenesis required isolated embryos at the wax stage of endosperm development. The optimal combination of phytohormones for the growth of callus tissue was 1 mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 0.5 mg/l BAP. The pigment composition of I. ensata callus tissue was studied. It was demonstrated that subcultivated callus tissue contained red pigments of flavonoid nature. Under stress cultivation conditions, yellow pigments were formed and the content of red pigments increased. PMID:15125204

Boltenkov, E V; Rybin, V G; Zarembo, E V

2004-01-01

136

Isolation, cultivation and transfection of human keratinocytes.  

PubMed

Human keratinocytes could be used in the repair of damaged skin, in tissue engineering applications, gene therapy and recently, the generation of iPS cells. We isolated human keratinocytes from foreskin and subsequently cultured them on fibronectin, collagen type I, gelatin and laminin-coated dishes that contained three different types of serum-free medium (epilife, KSM or CnT). We developed improved conditions for efficient transfection of these human keratinocytes by testing three common transfection methods and a GFP plasmid vector. The isolated cells showed typical keratinocyte morphology and expressed the epithelial cell specific antigen, cytokeratin 14. Collagen type 1, epilife medium and lipofectamin 2000 gave the best results for isolation and transfection of human keratinocytes. Our protocol can be used as a reproducible, simple and efficient method for isolation, cultivation and genetic manipulation of human keratinocytes, which may be useful in cell and gene therapy applications. PMID:24323435

Zare, Sona; Zarei, Mohammad Ali; Ghadimi, Tayyeb; Fathi, Fardin; Jalili, Ali; Hakhamaneshi, Mohammad Saeed

2014-04-01

137

Land-use legacies of cultivation in sagebrush ecosystems affect soil nutrients and plant growth nearly a century after cultivation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The native vegetation in formerly cultivated areas of the Great Basin, USA remains altered nearly a century after fields were abandoned. We hypothesized that the legacy of cultivation affects plant-soil relationships through altered soil fertility. To test this hypothesis, we compared soil fertili...

138

In Vitro Cultivation of Microsporidia of Clinical Importance  

PubMed Central

Although attempts to develop methods for the in vitro cultivation of microsporidia began as early as 1937, the interest in the culture of these organisms was confined mostly to microsporidia that infect insects. The successful cultivation in 1969 of Encephalitozoon cuniculi, a microsporidium of mammalian origin, and the subsequent identification of these organisms as agents of human disease heightened interest in the cultivation of microsporidia. I describe the methodology as well as the cell lines, the culture media, and culture conditions used in the in vitro culture of microsporidia such as Brachiola (Nosema) algerae, Encephalitozoon cuniculi, E. hellem, E. intestinalis, Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Trachipleistophora hominis, and Vittaforma corneae that cause human disease. PMID:12097248

Visvesvara, Govinda S.

2002-01-01

139

A marine bacterium, Micrococcus MCCB 104, antagonistic to vibrios in prawn larval rearing systems.  

PubMed

A marine bacterium, Micrococcus MCCB 104, isolated from hatchery water, demonstrated extracellular antagonistic properties against Vibrio alginolyticus, V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus, V. fluviallis, V. nereis, V. proteolyticus, V. mediterranei, V cholerae and Aeromonas sp., bacteria associated with Macrobrachium rosenbergii larval rearing systems. The isolate inhibited the growth of V. alginolyticus during co-culture. The antagonistic component of the extracellular product was heat-stable and insensitive to proteases, lipase, catalase and alpha-amylase. Micrococcus MCCB 104 was demonstrated to be non-pathogenic to M. rosenbergii larvae. PMID:16465832

Jayaprakash, N S; Pai, S Somnath; Anas, A; Preetha, R; Philip, Rosamma; Singh, I S Bright

2005-12-30

140

Cultivable Oral Microbiota of Domestic Dogs  

PubMed Central

Bacteria were isolated from the dental plaques of nine dogs and a sample of pooled saliva from five other dogs and were then identified by comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Among 339 isolates, 84 different phylotypes belonging to 37 genera were identified. Approximately half of the phylotypes were identified to the species level, and 28% of these were considered members of the indigenous oral microbiota of humans. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of the remaining 44 phylotypes were not represented in GenBank, and most of these phylotypes were tentatively identified as candidate new species. The genera most frequently isolated from saliva were Actinomyces (26%), Streptococcus (18%), and Granulicatella (17%). The genera most frequently isolated from plaque were Porphyromonas (20%), Actinomyces (12%), and Neisseria (10%). A comparison of the DNA sequences from this study with sequences of the human microbiota available in GenBank showed that, on average, canine and human microbiotas differed by almost 7% in the 16S rRNA gene. In conclusion, this study has shown that the cultivable oral microbiotas of dogs and humans show significant differences. PMID:16272472

Elliott, David R.; Wilson, Michael; Buckley, Catherine M. F.; Spratt, David A.

2005-01-01

141

Microfluidic devices for cell cultivation and proliferation  

PubMed Central

Microfluidic technology provides precise, controlled-environment, cost-effective, compact, integrated, and high-throughput microsystems that are promising substitutes for conventional biological laboratory methods. In recent years, microfluidic cell culture devices have been used for applications such as tissue engineering, diagnostics, drug screening, immunology, cancer studies, stem cell proliferation and differentiation, and neurite guidance. Microfluidic technology allows dynamic cell culture in microperfusion systems to deliver continuous nutrient supplies for long term cell culture. It offers many opportunities to mimic the cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions of tissues by creating gradient concentrations of biochemical signals such as growth factors, chemokines, and hormones. Other applications of cell cultivation in microfluidic systems include high resolution cell patterning on a modified substrate with adhesive patterns and the reconstruction of complicated tissue architectures. In this review, recent advances in microfluidic platforms for cell culturing and proliferation, for both simple monolayer (2D) cell seeding processes and 3D configurations as accurate models of in vivo conditions, are examined. PMID:24273628

Tehranirokh, Masoomeh; Kouzani, Abbas Z.; Francis, Paul S.; Kanwar, Jagat R.

2013-01-01

142

36 CFR 34.7 - Cultivation of controlled substances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 34.7 Section 34.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EL PORTAL ADMINISTRATIVE SITE REGULATIONS § 34.7 Cultivation of controlled substances. In addition to the provisions of §...

2011-07-01

143

Cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus and other edible mushrooms.  

PubMed

Pleurotus ostreatus is the second most cultivated edible mushroom worldwide after Agaricus bisporus. It has economic and ecological values and medicinal properties. Mushroom culture has moved toward diversification with the production of other mushrooms. Edible mushrooms are able to colonize and degrade a large variety of lignocellulosic substrates and other wastes which are produced primarily through the activities of the agricultural, forest, and food-processing industries. Particularly, P. ostreatus requires a shorter growth time in comparison to other edible mushrooms. The substrate used for their cultivation does not require sterilization, only pasteurization, which is less expensive. Growing oyster mushrooms convert a high percentage of the substrate to fruiting bodies, increasing profitability. P. ostreatus demands few environmental controls, and their fruiting bodies are not often attacked by diseases and pests, and they can be cultivated in a simple and cheap way. All this makes P. ostreatus cultivation an excellent alternative for production of mushrooms when compared to other mushrooms. PMID:19956947

Sánchez, Carmen

2010-02-01

144

Attached cultivation of Haematococcus pluvialis for astaxanthin production.  

PubMed

Haematococcus pluvialis, the best natural source for astaxanthin, was cultivated with an immobilized biofilm method, viz. "attached cultivation", which was high in photosynthetic efficiency. A practical operational protocol for this "attached cultivation" method was investigated by studying the effects of inoculum density, light intensity, nitrogen quantity as well as medium volume on growth and astaxanthin accumulation. Results indicated the optimized inoculum density and light intensity were 10 g m(-2) and 100 ?mol m(-2)s(-1), respectively. The optimized nitrogen supply strategy was circulating ca. 30 L of BG-11 medium with initial sodium nitrate concentration of ca. 1.8mM for 1m(2) of cultivation surface. With this strategy, the maximum astaxanthin productivity reached ca. 160 mg m(-2)d(-1) which is much higher than many other indoor researches. Both of the red and green cells were found in the biofilm with red cells on the top. PMID:24632411

Zhang, Wenduo; Wang, Junfeng; Wang, Jialin; Liu, Tianzhong

2014-04-01

145

Iridal glycosides from Iris spuria (Zeal), cultivated in Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several iridal and isoiridal glycosides (e.g. 6a) were isolated from Iris spuria (Zeal), cultivated in Egypt. The structures of the compounds were elcucidated by NMR and mass spectroscopy, sugar analysis and ozonolysis.

Franz-Josef Marner; Abdel Nasser Badawi Singab; Mohamed Mohamed Al-Azizi; Nasr Ahmed El-Emary; Mathias Schäfer

2002-01-01

146

The Edibility and Cultivation of the Oyster Mushroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an enjoyable and fascinating experience that involves the cultivation of oyster mushrooms. By allowing students to participate in this process, the students are able to better understand the biology and utility of fungi. (ZWH)

Brenneman, James; Guttman, Mark C.

1994-01-01

147

New strategy for the cultivation of microalgae using microencapsulation.  

PubMed

The four species of microalgae (Dunaliella bardawil, Chlorella minutissima, Pavlova lutheri and Haematococcus pluvialis) were immobilized in Ca-alginate capsules as a basic study for the development of the economic cultivation process. Under the batch culture of aerobic conditions, the thickness of the capsule membrane and CO2 supply did not affect the growth of the immobilized microalgae, Dunaliella bardawil. Cell concentration of immobilized microalgae in the capsule was higher than those of immobilized microalgae in beads and free cells. The cell concentrations of microencapsulated Dunaliella bardawil and Haematococcus pluvialis were five times greater than that of free cells. Based on these results, microencapsulation for the culture of microalgae was an effective method for the high-density cultivation. In comparison to the immobilized cultivation on the bioreactor type, it was more effective for the cultivation in the bubble column bioreactor than that in the stirrer tank bioreactor. PMID:11508762

Joo, D S; Cho, M G; Lee, J S; Park, J H; Kwak, J K; Han, Y H; Bucholz, R

2001-01-01

148

Personality Traits, Television Viewing, and the Cultivation Effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research investigates the impact of 3 personality traits—trait anxiety, sensation seeking, and psychoticism—on cultivation effects regarding perceptions of violence. A survey measuring violence prevalence estimates, personality traits, television consumption, and genre preferences was completed by 427 undergraduates. Results indicate that low trait–anxious individuals, and to a lesser extent high sensation seekers, are more susceptible to cultivation regarding personal vulnerability

Robin L. Nabi; Karyn Riddle

2008-01-01

149

Total-Factor Cultivated Land Efficiency in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper utilizes data envelopment analysis (DEA) and a newly proposed total-factor cultivated land efficiency (TFCLE) index to analyze cultivated land use efficiencies of 31 cantons in China from 1999 through 2008. The results indicate that the national TFCLE is 0.649, which shows 35.1 percent of improvement. In terms of geographical distribution, the uppermost category including Beijing, Hainan, Xinjiang, and

Leah Wu; Wen Xiu Zhang

2010-01-01

150

Cultivation-dependent plasticity of melanoma phenotype.  

PubMed

Malignant melanoma is a highly aggressive tumor with increasing incidence and high mortality. The importance of immunohistochemistry in diagnosis of the primary tumor and in early identification of metastases in lymphatic nodes is enormous; however melanoma phenotype is frequently variable and thus several markers must be employed simultaneously. The purposes of this study are to describe changes of phenotype of malignant melanoma in vitro and in vivo and to investigate whether changes of environmental factors mimicking natural conditions affect the phenotype of melanoma cells and can revert the typical in vitro loss of diagnostic markers. The influence of microenvironment was studied by means of immunocytochemistry on co-cultures of melanoma cells with melanoma-associated fibroblast and/or in conditioned media. The markers typical for melanoma (HMB45, Melan-A, Tyrosinase) were lost in malignant cells isolated from malignant effusion; however, tumor metastases shared identical phenotype with primary tumor (all markers positive). The melanoma cell lines also exerted reduced phenotype in vitro. The only constantly present diagnostic marker observed in our experiment was S100 protein and, in lesser extent, also Nestin. The phenotype loss was reverted under the influence of melanoma-associated fibroblast and/or both types of conditioned media. Loss of some markers of melanoma cell phenotype is not only of diagnostic significance, but it can presumably also contribute to biological behavior of melanoma. The presented study shows how the conditions of cultivation of melanoma cells can influence their phenotype. This observation can have some impact on considerations about the role of microenvironment in tumor biology. PMID:23757003

Kodet, Ond?ej; Dvo?ánková, Barbora; Krej?í, Eliška; Szabo, Pavol; Dvo?ák, Petr; Štork, Ji?í; Krajsová, Ivana; Dundr, Pavel; Smetana, Karel; Lacina, Lukáš

2013-12-01

151

Continuous microalgae cultivation in a photobioreactor.  

PubMed

New biomass sources for alternative fuels has become a subject of increasing importance as the nation strives to resolve the economic and strategic impacts of limited fossil fuel resources on our national security, environment, and global climate. Algae are among the most promising non-food-crop-based biomass feedstocks. However, there are currently no commercially viable microalgae-based production systems for biofuel production that have been developed, as limitations include less-than optimal oil content, growth rates, and cultivation techniques. While batch studies are critical for determining basic growth phases and characteristics of the algal species, steady-state studies are necessary to better understand and measure the specific growth parameters. This study evaluated the effects of dilution rate on microalgal biomass productivity, lipid content, and fatty acid profile under steady-state conditions with continuous illumination and carbon dioxide supplemention for two types of algae. Continuous cultures were conducted for more that 3 months. Our results show that the productivity of Chlorella minutissima varied from 39 to 137 mg/L/day (dry mass) when the dilution rate varied from 0.08 to 0.64 day(-1). The biomass productivity of C. minutissima reached a maximum value (137 mg/L/day) at a dilution rate of 0.33 day(-1), while the productivity of Dunaliella tertiolecta varied from 46 to 91 mg/L/day at a dilution rate of 0.17 to 0.74 day(-1). The biomass productivity of D. tertiolecta reached a maximum value of 91 mg/L/day at a dilution rate of 0.42 day(-1). Moreover, the lipid content had no significant change with various dilution rates. PMID:22488253

Tang, Haiying; Chen, Meng; Ng, K Y Simon; Salley, Steven O

2012-10-01

152

Genotypic diversity among rhizospheric bacteria of three legumes assessed by cultivation-dependent and cultivation-independent techniques.  

PubMed

The genotypic diversity of rhizospheric bacteria of 3 legumes including Vigna radiata, Arachis hypogaea and Acacia mangium was compared by using cultivation-dependent and cultivation-independent methods. For cultivation-dependent method, Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiles revealed that the bacterial genetic diversity of V. radiata and A. mangium rhizospheres was higher than that of A. hypogaea rhizosphere. For cultivation-independent method, Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes revealed the difference in bacterial community and diversity of rhizospheres collected from 3 legumes. The ribotype richness which indicates species diversity, was highest in V. radiata rhizosphere, followed by A. hypogaea and A. mangium rhizospheres, respectively. Three kinds of media were used to cultivate different target groups of bacteria. The result indicates that the communities of cultivable bacteria in 3 rhizospheres recovered from nutrient agar (NA) medium were mostly different from each other, while Bradyrhizobium selective medium (BJSM) and nitrogen-free medium shaped the communities of cultivable bacteria. Nine isolates grown on BJSM were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. These isolates were very closely related (with 96% to 99% identities) to either one of the three groups including Cupriavidus-Ralstonia group, Bacillus group and Bradyrhizobium-Bosea-Afipia group. The rhizospheres were also examined for their enzymatic patterns. Of 19 enzymes tested, 3 rhizospheres were distinguishable by the presence or the absence of leucine acrylamidase and acid phosphatase. The selected cultivable bacteria recovered from NA varied in their abilities to produce indole-acetic acid and ammnonia. The resistance to 10 antibiotics was indistinguishable among bacteria isolated from different rhizospheres. PMID:22806857

Pongsilp, Neelawan; Nimnoi, Pongrawee; Lumyong, Saisamorn

2012-02-01

153

Transcriptome profiling reveals mosaic genomic origins of modern cultivated barley  

PubMed Central

The domestication of cultivated barley has been used as a model system for studying the origins and early spread of agrarian culture. Our previous results indicated that the Tibetan Plateau and its vicinity is one of the centers of domestication of cultivated barley. Here we reveal multiple origins of domesticated barley using transcriptome profiling of cultivated and wild-barley genotypes. Approximately 48-Gb of clean transcript sequences in 12 Hordeum spontaneum and 9 Hordeum vulgare accessions were generated. We reported 12,530 de novo assembled transcripts in all of the 21 samples. Population structure analysis showed that Tibetan hulless barley (qingke) might have existed in the early stage of domestication. Based on the large number of unique genomic regions showing the similarity between cultivated and wild-barley groups, we propose that the genomic origin of modern cultivated barley is derived from wild-barley genotypes in the Fertile Crescent (mainly in chromosomes 1H, 2H, and 3H) and Tibet (mainly in chromosomes 4H, 5H, 6H, and 7H). This study indicates that the domestication of barley may have occurred over time in geographically distinct regions. PMID:25197090

Dai, Fei; Chen, Zhong-Hua; Wang, Xiaolei; Li, Zefeng; Jin, Gulei; Wu, Dezhi; Cai, Shengguan; Wang, Ning; Wu, Feibo; Nevo, Eviatar; Zhang, Guoping

2014-01-01

154

Growth and anaerobic digestion characteristics of microalgae cultivated using various types of sewage.  

PubMed

Microalgal cultivation combined with anaerobic digestion at wastewater treatment plants is promising to recover energy. This study investigated the growth and anaerobic digestion characteristics of microalgae cultivated using nutrients in sewage. Microalgae were cultivated using primary effluent, secondary effluent, and dewatering filtrate. Microscopic observation indicated that Chlorella was cultivated using dewatering filtrate of anaerobic digestion without controlling the type of species. Batch anaerobic digestion experiments with digested sludge showed that the methane conversion ratio of the cultivated mixture was approximately 40-65%. Different cultivation time did not affect the microalgal contents. Methane recovery mass was 0.13NL-methane/L-cultivation liquor. The C/N ratio of the cultivated mixture was approximately 3-5, but the apparent ammonia release ratio was smaller than that of sewage sludge during digestion. These results proved the applicability of methane recovery from microalgae cultivated using nutrients included in anaerobically digested sludge. PMID:25127007

Hidaka, Taira; Inoue, Kenichiro; Suzuki, Yutaka; Tsumori, Jun

2014-10-01

155

America's red gold: multiple lineages of cultivated cochineal in Mexico.  

PubMed

Cultivated cochineal (Dactylopius coccus) produces carminic acid, a valuable red dye used to color textiles, cosmetics, and food. Extant native D. coccus is largely restricted to two populations in the Mexican and the Andean highlands, although the insect's ultimate center of domestication remains unclear. Moreover, due to Mexican D. coccus cultivation's near demise during the 19th century, the genetic diversity of current cochineal stock is unknown. Through genomic sequencing, we identified two divergent D. coccus populations in highland Mexico: one unique to Mexico and another that was more closely related to extant Andean cochineal. Relic diversity is preserved in the crops of small-scale Mexican cochineal farmers. Conversely, larger-scale commercial producers are cultivating the Andean-like cochineal, which may reflect clandestine 20th century importation. PMID:25691985

Campana, Michael G; Robles García, Nelly M; Tuross, Noreen

2015-02-01

156

Studies on the cultivation of influenza virus in vitro.  

PubMed

Studies have been carried out since 1959 at the Coonoor Influenza Centre to devise a method of cultivating influenza virus in vitro which would be suitable for large-scale virus production. The authors report the successful cultivation of the virus in tissue cultures of chorioallantoic membrane on glass wool. The method described may be used equally satisfactorily for culture in volumes ranging from 1.0 ml to 350 ml, and is as sensitive as cultivation in eggs for the titration of different strains of influenza virus and their neutralizing antibodies. Relatively pure virus for vaccine production and complement-fixing antigen for diagnostic purposes can be produced in large volumes with ease and economy. PMID:13780568

VEERARAGHAVAN, N; KIRTIKAR, M W; SREEVALSAN, T

1961-01-01

157

America's red gold: multiple lineages of cultivated cochineal in Mexico  

PubMed Central

Cultivated cochineal (Dactylopius coccus) produces carminic acid, a valuable red dye used to color textiles, cosmetics, and food. Extant native D. coccus is largely restricted to two populations in the Mexican and the Andean highlands, although the insect's ultimate center of domestication remains unclear. Moreover, due to Mexican D. coccus cultivation's near demise during the 19th century, the genetic diversity of current cochineal stock is unknown. Through genomic sequencing, we identified two divergent D. coccus populations in highland Mexico: one unique to Mexico and another that was more closely related to extant Andean cochineal. Relic diversity is preserved in the crops of small-scale Mexican cochineal farmers. Conversely, larger-scale commercial producers are cultivating the Andean-like cochineal, which may reflect clandestine 20th century importation.

Campana, Michael G; Robles García, Nelly M; Tuross, Noreen

2015-01-01

158

Multi-culture solar heated bio-shelter. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A rooftop greenhouse (bio-shelter) that is heated with active and passive solar systems is presented. The intent of the greenhouse is to grow vegetables hydroponically the year-round using a nutrient flow technique; and to growth the giant tropical Malaysian prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii in a recycling raceway water system heated with solar power. The produce grown was continuously monitored and the harvests weighed in order to estimate the year-round production potential of the bio-shelter greenhouse.

Not Available

1985-01-01

159

Direct use of low temperature geothermal water by Aquafarms International, Inc. for freshwater aquaculture (prawns and associated species). An operations and maintenance manual  

SciTech Connect

In connection with an ongoing commercial aquaculture project in the Coachella Valley, California; a twelve month prawn growout demonstration project was conducted. This project began in August, 1979 and involved the use of low temperature (85/sup 0/F) geothermal waters to raise freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (deMan), in earthen ponds. The following publication is an operations and maintenance guide which may by useful for those interested in conducting similar enterprises.

Broughton, R.; Price, M.; Price, V.; Grajcer, D.

1984-04-01

160

Organochlorine Pesticides and Biomarker Responses in Two Fishes Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus (Lacepede, 1803) and an Invertebrate, Macrobrachium vollenhovenii (Herklot, 1857), from the Lake Taabo (Cote d`Ivoire)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in muscle samples of two species of fish, tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and the catfish (Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus) and the prawn (Macrobrachium vollenhovenii) found in Lake Taabo (Cote d`Ivoire). Simultaneous measurements of enzymatic biomarkers were made to evaluate the ecotoxicological risk in this hydroelectric reservoir. Lindane and endosulfan were the dominant contaminants, suggesting their current use in neighboring agricultural areas. Other organochlorine (OC) compounds were detected, including some currently banned substances. Ranked in an order of descending concentrations, we found: DDT and its metabolites (17.8-57.2 ng g-1 dry weight), endrin (7.17-25.0 ng g-1 dry weight) and heptachlor (7.36-23.6 ng g-1 dry weight), as well as traces of isomers of chlordane, aldrin and fipronil. The hepatic Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) activity measured in fishes was not correlated with pesticide contamination; whereas the antioxidant biomarkers demonstrated some significant associations, especially hepatic catalase with lindane (R = 0.83) and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) with heptachlor epoxide (R = 0.84) and with pp`DDT (R = 0.81). In the prawns, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity showed significant negative correlations with DDT and its metabolites (R = -0.91). The results of this study emphasize the urgent need for overall environmental risk assessment studies in the region of Taabo and other developing areas.

Roche, Helene; Tidou, Abiba; Persic, Ana

161

Osteoradionecrosis contains a wide variety of cultivable and non-cultivable bacteria  

PubMed Central

Background Direct microscopy, anaerobic culture and DNA–DNA hybridization have previously demonstrated an association between microorganisms and osteoradionecrosis (ORN). The purpose of our study was to use culture independent molecular techniques to detect bacteria in necrotic bone lesions of the mandible after radiation therapy. Design Bacterial DNA was extracted from eight deep medullar specimens from resected mandibles (six cases), including one patient with relapse. 16S rRNA genes were PCR amplified, cloned, transformed into Escherichia coli and sequenced to determine species identity and closest relatives. Results From the analysis of 438 clones, 59 predominant species were detected, 27% of which have not been cultivated. The predominant species detected from radionecrotic mandibles were Campylobacter gracilis, Streptococcus intermedius, Peptostreptococcus sp. oral clone FG014, uncultured bacterium clone RL178, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Prevotella spp. The study demonstrated intersubject variability of the bacteria present in ORN. In contrast to the diverse bacterial profile detected in primary infection, only a few members of the oral indigenous flora were identified from the relapse case. Conclusions Diverse bacterial profiles in specimens of ORN in marrow spaces of the mandible were detected by culture independent molecular techniques. To better understand the pathogenesis and to improve the therapy of the infection, detection of all members of the complex bacterial flora associated with ORN is necessary. PMID:21523230

Aas, Jørn A.; Reime, Lars; Pedersen, Kjetil; Eribe, Emenike R.K.; Abesha-Belay, Emnet; Støre, Geir; Olsen, Ingar

2010-01-01

162

Anthocyanin glycosides of the fruits of the cultivated bog bilberry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In connection with the fall in the commercial stocks of the fruit of the wild bog bilberry Vaccinium uliginosum L. In the European part of the USSR, work on the plantation cultivation of high-quality characterized by a considerable productivity, a stable yield, and large size of the fruit rich in biologically active compounds is acquiring enormous importance [i]. An improved

V. V. Vereskovskii; D. K. Shapiro

1985-01-01

163

DETECTION OF ILLEGAL CANNABIS CULTIVATION USING REMOTE SENSING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Detection of illegal Cannabis cultivation by law enforcement agencies currently relies on low flying aircraft manned by trained aerial spotters. This is physically tiring for the aircrew, inefficient for large or complex landscapes, and is often foiled by camouflaged grow sites. A solution for det...

164

Autonomous benthic algal cultivator under feedback control of ecosystem metabolism  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An autonomous and internally-controlled techno-ecological hybrid was developed that controls primary production of algae in a laboratory-scale cultivator. The technoecosystem is based on an algal turf scrubber (ATS) system that combines engineered feedback control programming with internal feedback...

165

New Strategies for Cultivation and Detection of Previously Uncultured Microbes  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrative approach was used to obtain pure cultures of previously uncultivated members of the divi- sions Acidobacteria and Verrucomicrobia from agricultural soil and from the guts of wood-feeding termites. Some elements of the cultivation procedure included the following: the use of agar media with little or no added nutrients; relatively long periods of incubation (more than 30 days); protection

Bradley S. Stevenson; Stephanie A. Eichorst; John T. Wertz; Thomas M. Schmidt; John A. Breznak

2004-01-01

166

Cultivating Critical-Thinking Dispositions throughout the Business Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Critical thinking is an essential component of managerial literacy, yet business school graduates struggle to apply critical-thinking skills at work to the level that employers desire. This article argues for a dispositional approach to teaching critical thinking, rooted in cultivating a critical-thinking culture. We suggest a two-pronged approach…

Bloch, Janel; Spataro, Sandra E.

2014-01-01

167

What's the Next Step: Cultivating Relationships with Native American Peoples  

E-print Network

What's the Next Step: Cultivating Relationships with Native American Peoples Abstract The Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA) passed with the intent of addressing long of NAGPRA. A project was devised to bring more interaction between SDAM and Native American peoples. Phase

Rock, Chris

168

An extreme cytoplasmic bottleneck in the modern European cultivated potato  

E-print Network

and nuclear diversity in the gene pool of the European cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum of introductions (Simmonds 1979; Glendinning 1983), resulting in a low level of genetic diversity compared in the European culti- vated gene pool. Subsequent studies on chloroplast diversity using cpRFLPs (Waugh et al

Provan, Jim

169

Teaching Design of Cultivating Nursing Students' Creative Thinking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chinese nursing education levels have developed fast over the past few years. Many nursing educators are devoted to the research of nursing teaching. How to cultivate nursing students, creative thinking is one of the principle researches and has received increasing attention. In the course of nursing teaching, we renewed the teaching design based…

Xi-wen, Liu; Chun-ping, Ni; Rui, Yang; Xiu-chuan, Li; Cheng, Cheng

2007-01-01

170

FAIRY RING DISEASE INCREASES HOST GENETIC DIVERSITY IN CULTIVATED CRANBERRY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fairy ring is a common disease affecting cultivated cranberries in New Jersey and Massachusetts. The disease can cause significant vine dieback and yield loss. Fungicide control is not very effective and the causal agent is unknown. Affected areas spread over the bogs for years as an advancing -ring...

171

On cultivating college English teachers' information literacy in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

To improve the national information literacy and cultivating information-based talents is a fundamental of constructing information society. And the education in teachers' information technology is a powerful strength in promoting the construction of information society. College English teachers' information literacy is of particular significance in promoting current national college English reform and the nationwide educational reform. This article focuses on

Zhao Kun; Cai Longquan

2010-01-01

172

Use of whey permeate for cultivating Ganoderma lucidum mycelia.  

PubMed

A novel approach to utilizing whey permeate, the cultivation of mycelia of the edible mushroom Ganoderma lucidum, is introduced. The major objective of this research was to use whey permeate as an alternative growth medium for the cultivation of mycelia of edible mushroom G. lucidum and to find an optimum condition for solid-state cultivation. Response surface analysis was applied to determine the combination of substrate concentration (25 to 45 g of lactose/L), pH (3.5 to 5.5), and temperature (25 to 35 degrees C) resulting in a maximal mycelial growth. The radial extension rates, estimated by measuring the diameters of growing colonies on the Petri dishes, were used as the growth of the mycelia at different conditions. In the model, pH and temperature significantly affected mycelial growth, but lactose concentration did not. The condition predicted to maximize the radial extension rate of 17.6 +/- 0.4 mm/d was determined to be pH 4.4 and temperature 29.4 degrees C. Therefore, the results suggest that whey permeate could be utilized as a growth substrate for the cultivation of mycelia from the edible mushroom G. lucidum, enhancing the use of this by-product by the cheese manufacturing industry. PMID:17430911

Song, M; Kim, N; Lee, S; Hwang, S

2007-05-01

173

Shifting cultivation and “deforestation”: A study from Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

About half of tropical deforestation is commonly explained by the expansion of traditional agriculture (shifting cultivation). This article first questions the share of responsibility assigned to traditional agriculture — it may well be overestimated because of unclear definitions, uncertain estimates, and potential political biases. Second, a simple framework based on a theory of land rent capture is developed to explain

Arild Angelsen

1995-01-01

174

ORIGINAL PAPER Genetic diversity and population structure in cultivated sunflower  

E-print Network

to its wild progenitor, Helianthus annuus L J. R. Mandel · J. M. Dechaine · L. F. Marek · J. M. Burke of the primary gene pool of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) based on a broad sampling of 433 cultivated diversity present within the primary gene pool of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) based on a broad sampling

Burke, John M.

175

Sequencing of the cultivated tetraploid cotton genome - Gossypium hirsutum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton is an important cash crop in the world and it plays an irreplaceable role in China’s national economy. Cultivated upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) represents 95% of world cotton production but it has a complex allotetraploid genome that contains at least 30,000 genes in 2,500 Mb DNA. S...

176

Establishment and Management of the Cultivated Lowbush Blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultivated blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum and V. virgatum) have been propagated and planted successfully throughout the world. The lowbush blueberry (V. angustifolium and V. myrtilloides) have large areas of production in the state of Maine in the United States and in the Atlantic and Quebec Provinces in Canada on managed naturally occurring native stands. Except for some small demonstration plantings in

D. E. Yarborough

2012-01-01

177

SNP Validation and Genetic Diversity in Cultivated Tomatoes and Grapes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cultivated grapes and tomatoes have very different reproductive systems. While grapes are often outcrossed and grafted, tomatoes are generally selfed and propogated by seed. Large-scale public EST datasets were used in both crops to predict SNPs and PCR primers flanking these SNPs. Genomic DNA was a...

178

Cultivating Empathy for the Mentally Ill Using Simulated Auditory Hallucinations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The authors address the issue of cultivating medical students' empathy for the mentally ill by examining medical student empathy pre- and postsimulated auditory hallucination experience. Methods: At the University of Utah, 150 medical students participated in this study during their 6-week psychiatry rotation. The Jefferson Scale of…

Bunn, William; Terpstra, Jan

2009-01-01

179

Computer as Chalk Cultivating and Sustaining Communities of Youth  

E-print Network

1 Computer as Chalk Cultivating and Sustaining Communities of Youth as Designers of Tangible User by Pattie Maes Associate Academic Head Program in Media Arts and Sciences #12;2 #12;3 Computer as Chalk that the ways in which people use chalk (e.g., drawing hopscotch grids) can serve as an inspiration

180

Self-Cultivation: Culturally Sensitive Psychotherapies in Confucian Societies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes self-cultivation practices originating from the cultural traditions of Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism. It delineates the therapeutic implications of the three states of self pursued by these three traditions: namely, the "relational self", the "authentic self", and the "nonself". Several psychotherapy techniques derived…

Hwang, Kwang-Kuo; Chang, Jeffrey

2009-01-01

181

Yield of illicit indoor cannabis cultivation in the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

To obtain a reliable estimation on the yield of illicit indoor cannabis cultivation in The Netherlands, cannabis plants confiscated by the police were used to determine the yield of dried female flower buds. The developmental stage of flower buds of the seized plants was described on a scale from 1 to 10 where the value of 10 indicates a fully

Marcel Toonen; Simon Ribot; J. T. N. M. Thissen

2006-01-01

182

Cultivating undergraduates' English autonomous learning ability in multimedia network environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The integration of modern educational technology and English teaching became a necessity because of the rapid development of multimedia and network technology, the widening scale of undergraduate training, as well as cultivating innovative talents demands in the 21st century. Now teachers gradually concern about how to increase students' autonomous learning ability in the multimedia network environment.

Zheng Hui; Yang Dongling; Yang Yali; Li Jiaxin

2010-01-01

183

Web-based cultivation of undergraduates' autonomous English learning capability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The integration of modern educational technology and English teaching became a necessity because of the rapid development of multimedia and network technology, the widening scale of undergraduate training, as well as cultivating innovative talents demands in the 21st century. Therefore, in the web-based environment, how to develop students' autonomous learning ability under the guidance of constructivism theory is becoming the

Zheng Hui; Yang Yali; Mi Sha; Yang Dongling

2010-01-01

184

Saffron (Crocus Sativus Linn.) — Cultivation, processing, chemistry and standardization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saffron is an interesting minor spice with a colorful history. In this review article, the following aspects of saffron have been covered: cultivation, producing countries and world trade, uses, harvesting, processing and yields, chemistry of the constituents including pigments and volatiles, range of variation of the chemical constituents, saffron adulterants and methods for their detection, and official standards and purity

S. R. Sampathu; S. Shivashankar; Y. S. Lewis; A. B. Wood

1984-01-01

185

Patterns of allozyme variation in cultivated and wild Sorghum bicolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patterns of allozyme variation were surveyed in collections of cultivated and wild sorghum from Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. Data for 30 isozyme loci from a total of 2067 plants representing 429 accessions were analyzed. Regional levels of genetic diversity in the cultivars are greater in northern and central Africa compared to southern Africa, the Middle East, or Asia.

P. R. Aldrich; J. Doebley; K. F. Schertz; A. Stec

1992-01-01

186

Cultivation of Cannabis sativa L. in northern Morocco  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field studies on cannabis cultivation have provided socio-economic data relating to, inter alia, production, yield and income. But only laboratory analyses of cannabis plants can provide information on their chemical composition and their levels of psychoactive constituents, thus enabling them to be classed as a drug type or a fibre type. The present study, which covers cannabis in its fresh,

H. Stambouli; A. El Bouri; M. A. Bellimam; T. Bouayoun; N. El Karni

187

The wild genetic resources of cultivated lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven wild Lactuca species: L. serriola L., L. aculeata Boiss. & Ky., L. scarioloides Boiss., L. azerbaijanica Rech., L. georgica Grossh., L. dregeana DC. and L. altaica Fisch. & C.A. Mey., are taxonomically closely related to the cultivated lettuce. Together with L. sativa they form a distinct natural group. Only scanty information is available on genetic affinities among the various

Daniel Zohary

1991-01-01

188

Reflecting on Cultivating New Voices among Scholars of Color  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A member of the first cohort of Cultivating New Voices among Scholars of Color (CNV) and now its director, the author details the importance of fostering the work of scholars of color. As recognized by CNV, the presence and scholarship of scholars of color are essential, especially in public debates on education, advocacy, and social (in)justice.…

Kinloch, Valerie

2011-01-01

189

[The mechanized cultivation technique of Glycyrrhiza uralensis at Hexi area].  

PubMed

The cultivation of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch have been operated with mechanization at Hexi area of Gansu. The whole process of land preparation, sowing, fertilization, irrgation, intertillagement and weeding, extermination of disease and pest, cutting stems and leaves, digging were summary in this paper. PMID:17634028

An, Wen-zhi; Zhu, Ling-min; Li, Fa-jiang; Xie, Jian-jun; Zhan, Fa-yuan; Liu, Yong-gang

2007-03-01

190

Rhizobium , Bradyrhizobium and Agrobacterium strains isolated from cultivated legumes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was conducted to isolate and characterize rhizobial strains from root nodules of cultivated legumes, i.e. chickpea, mungbean, pea and siratro. Preliminary characterization of these isolates was done on the basis of plant infectivity test, acetylene reduction assay, C-source utilization, phosphate solubilization, phytohormones and polysaccharide production. The plant infectivity test and acetylene reduction assay showed effective root nodule

Sohail Hameed; Sumera Yasmin; Kauser A. Malik; Yusuf Zafar; Fauzia Y. Hafeez

2004-01-01

191

Meditative Dialogue: Cultivating Sacred Space in Psychotherapy – An Intersubjective Fourth?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meditative dialogue offers a simple way to cultivate sacred space in psychotherapy and in one's life. Through mindfulness and meditation practices, client and therapist together develop the capacity to enliven their embodied experience of living truths and to deeply invite life into their lives. This article offers a review of theoretical and conceptual literature on spirituality, intersubjectivity, relational practice, and

Susan A. Lord

2010-01-01

192

Mapping a Landscape of Leadership: Cultivating Scholarly-Practical Inquiry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cultivating the "professional knowledge landscape" of schools (Clandinin & Connelly, 1995) from the perspective of insiders can enrich the leadership and curriculum fields. Toward this end, the author offers a map for becoming oriented to one teacher group's vision for improving school environments. During the summer of 2001, 33 practicing…

Mullen, Carol A.

2004-01-01

193

Allelopathy as a potential strategy to improve microalgae cultivation.  

PubMed

One of the main obstacles for continuous productivity in microalgae cultivation is the presence of biological contaminants capable of eliminating large numbers of cells in a matter of days or even hours. However, a number of strategies are being used to combat and prevent contamination in microalgae cultivation. These strategies include the use of extreme conditions in the culture media such as high salinity and high pH to create an unfavorable environment for the competitive organisms or predators of the microalgae. Numerous studies have explored the potential of naturally occurring bioactive secondary metabolites, which are natural products from plants and microorganisms, as a source of such compounds. Some of these compounds are herbicides, and marine and freshwater microalgae are a source of these compounds. Microalgae produce a remarkable diversity of biologically active metabolites. Results based on the allelopathic potential of algae have only been described for laboratory-scale production and not for algae cultivation on a pilot scale. The adoption of allelopathy on microalgal strains is an unexplored field and may be a novel solution to improve algae production. Here we present information showing the diversity of allelochemicals from microalgae and the use of an allelopathic approach to control microalgae cultivation on a pilot scale based on R&D activities being carried out in Brazil for biodiesel production. PMID:24499580

Bacellar Mendes, Leonardo Brantes; Vermelho, Alane Beatriz

2013-01-01

194

Submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms: bioprocesses and products (review).  

PubMed

Medicinal mushrooms belonging to higher Basidiomycetes are an immensely rich yet largely untapped resource of useful, easily accessible, natural compounds with various biological activities that may promote human well-being. The medicinal properties are found in various cellular components and secondary metabolites (polysaccharides, proteins and their complexes, phenolic compounds, polyketides, triterpenoids, steroids, alkaloids, nucleotides, etc.), which have been isolated and identified from the fruiting bodies, culture mycelium, and culture broth of mushrooms. Some of these compounds have cholesterol-lowering, anti-diabetic, antioxidant, antitumor, immunomodulating, antimicrobial, and antiviral activities ready for industrial trials and further commercialization, while others are in various stages of development. Recently, the submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms has received a great deal of attention as a promising and reproducible alternative for the efficient production of mushroom mycelium and metabolites. Submerged cultivation of mushrooms has significant industrial potential, but its success on a commercial scale depends on increasing product yields and development of novel production systems that address the problems associated with this technique of mushroom cultivation. In spite of many researchers' efforts for the production of bioactive metabolites by mushrooms, the physiological and engineering aspects of submerged cultures are still far from being thoroughly studied. The vast majority of studies have focused on polysaccharide and ganoderic acid production in submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms, and very little has been written so far on the antioxidant and hemagglutinating activity of submerged mushroom cultures. The purpose of this review is to provide an update of the present state of the art and future prospects of submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms to produce mycelium and bioactive metabolites, and to make a contribution for the research and development of new pharmaceutical products from mushrooms. A brief overview of the metabolic diversity and bioactive compounds of mushrooms produced by submerged cultures is also given. PMID:22577974

Elisashvili, Vladimir

2012-01-01

195

Development of cultivation strategies for friulimicin production in Actinoplanes friuliensis.  

PubMed

Actinoplanes friuliensis is a rare actinomycete which produces the highly potent lipopeptide antibiotic friulimicin. This lipopeptide antibiotic is active against a broad range of multi-resistant gram-positive bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Enterococcus sp. and Staphylococcus aureus (MRE, MRSA) strains. Antibiotic biosynthesis and regulation in actinomycetes is very complex. In order to study the biosynthesis of these species and to develop efficient production processes, standardized cultivation conditions are a prerequisite. For this reason a chemically defined production medium for A. friuliensis was developed. With this chemically defined medium it was possible to analyze the influence of medium components on growth and antibiotic biosynthesis. These findings were used to develop process strategies for friulimicin production. The focus of the project presented here was to develop cultivation strategies which included fed-batch and continuous cultivation processes. In fed-batch processes, volumetric productivities for friulimicin of 1-2mg/lh were achieved. In a perfusion process, a very simple cell retention system, which works via sedimentation of the mycelial cell pellets, was used. With this system, stable continuous cultivations with cell retention were dependent on the dilution rate. With a dilution rate of 0.05h(-1), cell retention worked well and volumetric productivity of friulimicin was enhanced to 3-5mg/lh. With a higher dilution rate of 0.1h(-1), friulimicin production ceased because cell retention was not possible any longer with this simple cell retention system. In order to support process development, cultivation data were used to characterize metabolic fluxes in the developed friulimicin production processes. PMID:25541462

Steinkämper, Anne; Schmid, Joachim; Schwartz, Dirk; Biener, Richard

2015-02-10

196

Parasitism of Lepidopterous Stem Borers in Cultivated and Natural Habitats  

PubMed Central

Plant infestation, stem borer density, parasitism, and parasitoid abundance were assessed during two years in two host plants, Zea mays (L.) (Cyperales: Poaceae) and Sorghum bicolor (L.) (Cyperales: Poaceae), in cultivated habitats. The four major host plants (Cyperus spp., Panicum spp., Pennisetum spp., and Sorghum spp.) found in natural habitats were also assessed, and both the cultivated and natural habitat species occurred in four agroecological zones in Kenya. Across habitats, plant infestation (23.2%), stem borer density (2.2 per plant), and larval parasitism (15.0%) were highest in maize in cultivated habitats. Pupal parasitism was not higher than 4.7% in both habitats, and did not vary with locality during each season or with host plant between each season. Cotesia sesamiae (Cameron) and C. flavipes Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) were the key parasitoids in cultivated habitats (both species accounted for 76.4% of parasitized stem borers in cereal crops), but not in natural habitats (the two Cotesia species accounted for 14.5% of parasitized stem borers in wild host plants). No single parasitoid species exerted high parasitism rates on stem borer populations in wild host plants. Low stem borer densities across seasons in natural habitats indicate that cereal stem borer pests do not necessarily survive the non-cropping season feeding actively in wild host plants. Although natural habitats provided refuges for some parasitoid species, stem borer parasitism was generally low in wild host plants. Overall, because parasitoids contribute little in reducing cereal stem borer pest populations in cultivated habitats, there is need to further enhance their effectiveness in the field to regulate these pests. PMID:21526933

Mailafiya, Duna Madu; Le Ru, Bruno Pierre; Kairu, Eunice Waitherero; Dupas, Stéphane; Calatayud, Paul-André

2011-01-01

197

Agrobotanical Features and Oil Content of Wild and Cultivated Forms of Caraway (Carum carvi L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-four wild and 19 cultivated caraway (Carum carvi L.) populations\\/cultivars were cultivated at Mikkeli, Finland (61°44'N, 27°18'E) during 1990-1991. Twenty-eight of the populations studied were of Northern European origin and 15 were of Central European origin. Clear agrobotanical differences were observed between the wild and cultivated populations. The cultivated populations were characterized by a 10-14 days longer growing period, differences

Bertalan Galambosi; Pekka Peura

1996-01-01

198

Size-class and returns to cultivation in India: A Cold case reopened  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the relationship between returns to cultivation per hectare and size-class of land cultivated in India, using unit level data from the 59th round National Sample Survey, 2003. The analysis is done separately for `kharif' and `rabi' - for total value of cultivation from all crops at the all India level. The empirical evidence rejects the null hypothesis

Sarthak Gaurav; Srijit Mishra

2011-01-01

199

RANGE-WIDE USE OF CULTIVATED FIELDS BY MOUNTAIN PLOVERS DURING THE BREEDING SEASON  

Microsoft Academic Search

During six summers from 1986 through 1995, we searched cultivated fields in Montana, Wyoming, Nebraska, Colorado, Kansas, Oklahoma, New Mexico, and Texas for Mountain Plovers (Charadrius montanus) during the breeding and premigratory seasons. We observed 2208 Mountain Plovers on 416 cultivated fields, 96.9% of which were observed in seven counties in four states. We located 52 nests on cultivated fields:

JOHN S. SI-IACKFORD; DAVID M. LESLIE; WARREN D. HARDEN

200

A decision support tool for modifications in crop cultivation method based on life cycle assessment: a case study on greenhouse gas emission reduction in Taiwanese sugarcane cultivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim, and scope  Nowadays, various crops are cultivated to supply emerging needs in sustainable fuels and materials. In addition to the development\\u000a of crop processing technologies, cultivation processes in a cropping system could be modified to meet the emerging needs,\\u000a along with the conventional needs in food supply. This study provides a decision tool for modifications in cultivation of\\u000a crops

Yasuhiro Fukushima; Shih-Ping Chen

2009-01-01

201

Robust, small-scale cultivation platform for Streptomyces coelicolor  

PubMed Central

Background For fermentation process and strain improvement, where one wants to screen a large number of conditions and strains, robust and scalable high-throughput cultivation systems are crucial. Often, the time lag between bench-scale cultivations to production largely depends on approximate estimation of scalable physiological traits. Microtiter plate (MTP) based screening platforms have lately become an attractive alternative to shake flasks mainly because of the ease of automation. However, there are very few reports on applications for filamentous organisms; as well as efforts towards systematic validation of physiological behavior compared to larger scale are sparse. Moreover, available small-scale screening approaches are typically constrained by evaluating only an end point snapshot of phenotypes. Results To address these issues, we devised a robust, small-scale cultivation platform in the form of MTPs (24-square deepwell) for the filamentous bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor and compared its performance to that of shake flasks and bench-scale reactors. We observed that re-designing of medium and inoculum preparation recipes resulted in improved reproducibility. Process turnaround time was significantly reduced due to the reduction in number of unit operations from inoculum to cultivation. The incorporation of glass beads (ø 3 mm) in MTPs not only improved the process performance in terms of improved oxygen transfer improving secondary metabolite production, but also helped to transform morphology from pellet to disperse, resulting in enhanced reproducibility. Addition of MOPS into the medium resulted in pH maintenance above 6.50, a crucial parameter towards reproducibility. Moreover, the entire trajectory of the process was analyzed for compatibility with bench-scale reactors. The MTP cultivations were found to behave similar to bench-scale in terms of growth rate, productivity and substrate uptake rate and so was the onset of antibiotic synthesis. Shake flask cultivations however, showed discrepancy with respect to morphology and had considerably reduced volumetric production rates of antibiotics. Conclusion We observed good agreement of the physiological data obtained in the developed MTP platform with bench-scale. Hence, the described MTP-based screening platform has a high potential for investigation of secondary metabolite biosynthesis in Streptomycetes and other filamentous bacteria and the use may significantly reduce the workload and costs. PMID:22252012

2012-01-01

202

Combined Use of Cultivation-Dependent and Cultivation-Independent Methods Indicates that Members of Most Haloarchaeal Groups in an Australian Crystallizer Pond Are Cultivable  

PubMed Central

Haloarchaea are the dominant microbial flora in hypersaline waters with near-saturating salt levels. The haloarchaeal diversity of an Australian saltern crystallizer pond was examined by use of a library of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes and by cultivation. High viable counts (106 CFU/ml) were obtained on solid media. Long incubation times (?8 weeks) appeared to be more important than the medium composition for maximizing viable counts and diversity. Of 66 isolates examined, all belonged to the family Halobacteriaceae, including members related to species of the genera Haloferax, Halorubrum, and Natronomonas. In addition, isolates belonging to a novel group (the ADL group), previously detected only as 16S rRNA genes in an Antarctic hypersaline lake (Deep Lake), were cultivated for the first time. The 16S rRNA gene library identified the following five main groups: Halorubrum groups 1 and 2 (49%), the SHOW (square haloarchaea of Walsby) group (33%), the ADL group (16%), and the Natronomonas group (2%). There were two significant differences between the organisms detected in cultivation and 16S rRNA sequence results. Firstly, Haloferax spp. were frequently isolated on plates (15% of all isolates) but were not detected in the 16S rRNA sequences. Control experiments indicated that a bias against Haloferax sequences in the generation of the 16S rRNA gene library was unlikely, suggesting that Haloferax spp. readily form colonies, even though they were not a dominant group. Secondly, while the 16S rRNA gene library identified the SHOW group as a major component of the microbial community, no isolates of this group were obtained. This inability to culture members of the SHOW group remains an outstanding problem in studying the ecology of hypersaline environments. PMID:15345408

Burns, D. G.; Camakaris, H. M.; Janssen, P. H.; Dyall-Smith, M. L.

2004-01-01

203

Combined use of cultivation-dependent and cultivation-independent methods indicates that members of most haloarchaeal groups in an Australian crystallizer pond are cultivable.  

PubMed

Haloarchaea are the dominant microbial flora in hypersaline waters with near-saturating salt levels. The haloarchaeal diversity of an Australian saltern crystallizer pond was examined by use of a library of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes and by cultivation. High viable counts (10(6) CFU/ml) were obtained on solid media. Long incubation times (> or =8 weeks) appeared to be more important than the medium composition for maximizing viable counts and diversity. Of 66 isolates examined, all belonged to the family Halobacteriaceae, including members related to species of the genera Haloferax, Halorubrum, and Natronomonas. In addition, isolates belonging to a novel group (the ADL group), previously detected only as 16S rRNA genes in an Antarctic hypersaline lake (Deep Lake), were cultivated for the first time. The 16S rRNA gene library identified the following five main groups: Halorubrum groups 1 and 2 (49%), the SHOW (square haloarchaea of Walsby) group (33%), the ADL group (16%), and the Natronomonas group (2%). There were two significant differences between the organisms detected in cultivation and 16S rRNA sequence results. Firstly, Haloferax spp. were frequently isolated on plates (15% of all isolates) but were not detected in the 16S rRNA sequences. Control experiments indicated that a bias against Haloferax sequences in the generation of the 16S rRNA gene library was unlikely, suggesting that Haloferax spp. readily form colonies, even though they were not a dominant group. Secondly, while the 16S rRNA gene library identified the SHOW group as a major component of the microbial community, no isolates of this group were obtained. This inability to culture members of the SHOW group remains an outstanding problem in studying the ecology of hypersaline environments. PMID:15345408

Burns, D G; Camakaris, H M; Janssen, P H; Dyall-Smith, M L

2004-09-01

204

Impacts of recent cultivation on genetic diversity pattern of a medicinal plant, Scutellaria baicalensis (Lamiaceae)  

PubMed Central

Background Cultivation of medicinal plants is not only a means for meeting current and future demands for large volume production of plant-based drug and herbal remedies, but also a means of relieving harvest pressure on wild populations. Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (Huang-qin or Chinese skullcap) is a very important medicinal plant in China. Over the past several decades, wild resource of this species has suffered rapid declines and large-scale cultivation was initiated to meet the increasing demand for its root. However, the genetic impacts of recent cultivation on S. baicalensis have never been evaluated. In this study, the genetic diversity and genetic structure of 28 wild and 22 cultivated populations were estimated using three polymorphic chloroplast fragments. The objectives of this study are to provide baseline data for preserving genetic resource of S. baicalensis and to evaluate the genetic impacts of recent cultivation on medicinal plants, which may be instructive to future cultivation projects of traditional Chinese medicinal plants. Results Thirty-two haplotypes of S. baicalensis (HapA-Y and Hap1-7) were identified when three chloroplast spacers were combined. These haplotypes constituted a shallow gene tree without obvious clusters for cultivated populations, suggesting multiple origins of cultivated S. baicalensis. Cultivated populations (hT = 0.832) maintained comparable genetic variation with wild populations (hT = 0.888), indicating a slight genetic bottleneck due to multiple origins of cultivation. However, a substantial amount of rare alleles (10 out of 25 haplotypes within wild populations) lost during the course of S. baicalensis cultivation. The genetic differentiation for cultivated group (GST = 0.220) was significantly lower than that of wild group (GST = 0.701). Isolation by distance analysis showed that the effect of geographical isolation on genetic structure was significant in wild populations (r = 0.4346, P < 0.0010), but not in cultivated populations (r = 0.0599, P = 0.2710). These genetic distribution patterns suggest that a transient cultivation history and the extensive seed change among different geographical areas during the course of S. baicalensis cultivation. Conclusions Although cultivated S. baicalensis maintains comparable genetic diversity relative to wild populations, recent cultivation has still imposed profound impacts on genetic diversity patterns of the cultivated S. baicalensis populations, i.e., the loss of rare alleles and homogenization of cultivated populations. This study suggests that conservation-by-cultivation is an effective means for protecting genetic resources of S. baicalensis, however, the wild resources still need to be protected in situ and the evolutionary consequences of extensive seed exchange mediated by human being should be monitored carefully. PMID:20429879

2010-01-01

205

Landscape cultivation alters ?(30)Si signature in terrestrial ecosystems.  

PubMed

Despite increasing recognition of the relevance of biological cycling for Si cycling in ecosystems and for Si export from soils to fluvial systems, effects of human cultivation on the Si cycle are still relatively understudied. Here we examined stable Si isotope (?(30)Si) signatures in soil water samples across a temperate land use gradient. We show that - independent of geological and climatological variation - there is a depletion in light isotopes in soil water of intensive croplands and managed grasslands relative to native forests. Furthermore, our data suggest a divergence in ?(30)Si signatures along the land use change gradient, highlighting the imprint of vegetation cover, human cultivation and intensity of disturbance on ?(30)Si patterns, on top of more conventionally acknowledged drivers (i.e. mineralogy and climate). PMID:25583031

Vandevenne, Floor I; Delvaux, Claire; Hughes, Harold J; André, Luc; Ronchi, Benedicta; Clymans, Wim; Barão, Lúcia; Govers, Gerard; Meire, Patrick; Struyf, Eric

2015-01-01

206

Isolation, cultivation, and characterization of adult murine prostate stem cells  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT/SUMMARY The successful isolation and cultivation of prostate stem cells will allow us to study their unique biological properties and their application in therapeutic approaches. Here we provide step-by-step procedures on the basis of previous work in our laboratory for: the harvesting of primary prostate cells from adolescent male mice by a modified enzymatic procedure; the isolation of an enriched population of prostate stem cells through cell sorting; the cultivation of prostate stem cells in vitro; and characterization of these cells and their stem-like activity, including in vivo tubule regeneration. Normally it will take approximately 8 hours to harvest prostate cells, isolate the stem cell enriched population, and set up the in vitro sphere assay. It will take up to 8 weeks to analyze the unique properties of the stem cells, including their regenerative capacity in vivo. PMID:20360765

Lukacs, Rita U.; Goldstein, Andrew S.; Lawson, Devon A.; Cheng, Donghui; Witte, Owen N.

2010-01-01

207

Landscape cultivation alters ?30Si signature in terrestrial ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite increasing recognition of the relevance of biological cycling for Si cycling in ecosystems and for Si export from soils to fluvial systems, effects of human cultivation on the Si cycle are still relatively understudied. Here we examined stable Si isotope (?30Si) signatures in soil water samples across a temperate land use gradient. We show that - independent of geological and climatological variation - there is a depletion in light isotopes in soil water of intensive croplands and managed grasslands relative to native forests. Furthermore, our data suggest a divergence in ?30Si signatures along the land use change gradient, highlighting the imprint of vegetation cover, human cultivation and intensity of disturbance on ?30Si patterns, on top of more conventionally acknowledged drivers (i.e. mineralogy and climate).

Vandevenne, Floor I.; Delvaux, Claire; Hughes, Harold J.; André, Luc; Ronchi, Benedicta; Clymans, Wim; Barão, Lúcia; Govers, Gerard; Meire, Patrick; Struyf, Eric

2015-01-01

208

Application of oxygen vectors to Claviceps purpurea cultivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of a two-phase fermentation system for the production of ergot peptide alkaloids by Claviceps purpurea is described. Perfluorocarbons (PFC) are used as oxygen vectors in Claviceps fermentation for the first time. In shake-flask cultivations, the inclusion of PFC in the medium brings about a five-fold increase in the total alkaloid production and a six-fold increase in the pharmaceutically

M Menge; J Mukherjee; T Scheper

2001-01-01

209

Cultivating Positive Emotions to Optimize Health and Well-Being  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article develops the hypothesis that intervention strategies that cultivate positive emotions are particularly suited for preventing and treating problems rooted in negative emotions, such as anxiety, depression, aggression, and stress-related health problems. Fredrickson's (1998) broaden-and-build modelof positive emotions provides the foundation for this application. According to this model, the form and function of positive and negative emotions are distinct

Barbara L. Fredrickson

2000-01-01

210

New vineyard cultivation practices create patchy ground vegetation, favouring Woodlarks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intensive agriculture, in which detrimental farming practices lessen food abundance and\\/or reduce food accessibility for many\\u000a animal species, has led to a widespread collapse of farmland biodiversity. Vineyards in central and southern Europe are intensively\\u000a cultivated; though they may still harbour several rare plant and animal species, they remain little studied. Over the past\\u000a decades, there has been a considerable

Raphaël Arlettaz; Melanie Linda Maurer; Paul Mosimann-Kampe; Sébastien Nusslé; Fitsum Abadi; Veronika Braunisch; Michael Schaub

211

Maintenance, cultivation, and excystation of echinostomes: 2000-2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This review covers the salient studies on maintenance, cultivation, and excystation of echinostomes from 2000 to 2007. Some\\u000a significant studies on these topics prior to 2000 are also included in the review. Ways to obtain echinostome material from\\u000a the wild are discussed. The names of scientists and their laboratories where known species of echinostome life cycles are\\u000a maintained are given.

Bernard Fried; Robert C. Peoples

212

Environmental profile of paddy rice cultivation with different straw management.  

PubMed

Italy is the most important European country in terms of paddy rice production. North Italian districts such as Vercelli, Pavia, Novara, and Milano are known as some of the world's most advanced rice cultivation sites. In 2013 Italian rice cultivation represented about 50% of all European rice production by area, and paddy fields extended for over 216,000 ha. Cultivation of rice involves different agricultural activities which have environmental impacts mainly due to fossil fuels and agrochemical requirements as well as the methane emission associated with the fermentation of organic material in the flooded rice fields. In order to assess the environmental consequences of rice production in the District of Vercelli, the cultivation practices most frequently carried out were inventoried and evaluated. The general approach of this study was not only to gather the inventory data for rice production and quantify their environmental impacts, but also to identify the key environmental factors where special attention must be paid. Life Cycle Assessment methodology was applied in this study from a cradle-to-farm gate perspective. The environmental profile was analyzed in terms of seven different impact categories: climate change, ozone depletion, human toxicity, terrestrial acidification, freshwater eutrophication, marine eutrophication, and fossil depletion. Regarding straw management, two different scenarios (burial into the soil of the straw versus harvesting) were compared. The analysis showed that the environmental impact was mainly due to field emissions, the fuel consumption needed for the mechanization of field operations, and the drying of the paddy rice. The comparison between the two scenarios highlighted that the collection of the straw improves the environmental performance of rice production except that for freshwater eutrophication. To improve the environmental performance of rice production, solutions to save fossil fuel and reduce the emissions from fertilizers (leaching, volatilization) as well as methane emissions should be implemented. PMID:25038430

Fusi, Alessandra; Bacenetti, Jacopo; González-García, Sara; Vercesi, Annamaria; Bocchi, Stefano; Fiala, Marco

2014-10-01

213

Nootropic Activity of Extracts from Wild and Cultivated Alfredia Cernua  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antihypoxic and nootropic activities of extracts from aerial parts of wild and cultivated Alfredia cernua (L.) Cass. were studied on the models of pressure chamber hypoxia, open field test, and passive avoidance conditioning. The extracts\\u000a of Alfredia cernua promoted retention of the orientation reflex and passive avoidance conditioned response and normalized orientation and exploratory\\u000a activities disordered as a result of

R. N. Mustafin; I. V. Shilova; N. I. Suslov; N. V. Kuvacheva; V. P. Amelchenko

2011-01-01

214

Carbon Dioxide Fixation by Algal Cultivation Using Wastewater Nutrients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlorella vulgaris was cultivated in wastewater discharged from a steel- making plant with the aim of developing an economically feasible system to remove ammonia from wastewater and from Ñue gas simultaneously. Since CO 2 no phosphorus compounds existed in wastewater, external phosphate (15É3È 46É 0gm ~3) was added to the wastewater. After adaptation to 5% (v\\/v) the CO 2 ,

Sun Bok Lee; Jong Moon Park

1997-01-01

215

A trap for in situ cultivation of filamentous actinobacteria  

PubMed Central

The approach of growing microorganisms in situ, or in a simulated natural environment is appealing, and different versions of it have been described by several groups. The major difficulties with these approaches are that they are not selective for actinomycetes – a group of gram-positive bacteria well known as a rich source of antibiotics. In order to efficiently access actinomycetes, a trap for specifically capturing and cultivating these microorganisms in situ has been developed, based on the ability of these bacteria to form hyphae and penetrate solid environments. The trap is formed by two semi-permeable membranes (0.2 – 0.6 ?m pore-size bottom membrane and 0.03 ?m pore-size top membrane) glued to a plastic washer with sterile agar or gellan gum inside. The trap is placed on top of soil, and filamentous microorganisms selectively penetrate into the device and form colonies. Decreasing the size of the pores of the lower membrane to 0.2 ?m restricted penetration of fungi. The trap produced more filamentous actinobacteria, and a higher variety of them, as compared to a conventional Petri dish cultivation from the same soil sample. Importantly, the trap cultivation resulted in the isolation of unusual and rare actinomycetes. PMID:18255181

Gavrish, Ekaterina; Bollmann, Annette; Epstein, Slava; Lewis, Kim

2008-01-01

216

[Biotechnological cultivation of edible macrofungi: an alternative for obtaining nutraceutics].  

PubMed

Macromycetes have been part of the human culture for thousand years, and have been reported as food in the most important civilizations in history. Many nutraceutical properties of macromycetes have been described, such as anti-cancer, anti-tumour, cholesterol lowering, antiviral, antibacterial, or immunomodulatory, among others. Given that production of mushrooms by traditional cultivation and extraction of bioactive metabolites is very difficult in some cases, biotechnology is essential for the development of profitable and productive techniques for obtaining these metabolites. It is the development of this technology, and the ease in which it enables the use of its variables that has allowed mycelium to be cultivated in liquid medium of macrofungi, with a significant reduction in time and an increased production of metabolites. This increased production has led to the study of compounds that have medicinal, nutriceutical and quasi-farmaceutical potential, in the exhausted media and the mycelium. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the use of liquid-state fermentation as a technological tool for obtaining edible fungi, and the study of these and their metabolites, by describing the different cultivation conditions used in recent years, as well as the results obtained. The relevance of Agaricus, Flammulina, Grifola, Pleurotus and Lentinula genera, will also be discussed, with emphasis on the last one, since Shiitake has been always considered as the ultimate medicinal mushroom. PMID:22449697

Suárez Arango, Carolina; Nieto, Ivonne Jeannette

2013-01-01

217

SNP deserts of Asian cultivated rice: genomic regions under domestication.  

PubMed

When performing a genome-wide comparison between indica (93-11) and japonica (Nipponbare), we find 8% of the genome, which have an extremely low SNP rate (< 1 SNP/kb). Inside these 'SNP deserts', experimentally confirmed genes show increased K(a)/K(s) that indicate adaptive selection. To further elucidate this connection, we survey the level and pattern of genetic variation in both cultivated and wild rice groups, using 155 noncoding regions located within SNP deserts. The results suggest that cultivated rice has greatly reduced genetic variation within SNP deserts as compared to either the nondesert or corresponding genomic regions in wild rice. Consistent with this reduction in genetic variation, we find a biased distribution of derived allele frequency in the cultivated group, indicative of positive selection. Furthermore, over half of the confirmed, domestication-related genes are found within SNP deserts, also suggesting that SNP deserts are strongly related to domestication, and might be the key sites in the process of domestication. PMID:19243488

Wang, L; Hao, L; Li, X; Hu, S; Ge, S; Yu, J

2009-04-01

218

Kinetic analysis of gill (Na?,K?)-ATPase activity in selected ontogenetic stages of the Amazon River shrimp, Macrobrachium amazonicum (Decapoda, Palaemonidae): interactions at ATP- and cation-binding sites.  

PubMed

We investigated modulation by ATP, Mg²?, Na?, K? and NH?? and inhibition by ouabain of (Na?,K?)-ATPase activity in microsomal homogenates of whole zoeae I and decapodid III (formerly zoea IX) and whole-body and gill homogenates of juvenile and adult Amazon River shrimps, Macrobrachium amazonicum. (Na?,K?)-ATPase-specific activity was increased twofold in decapodid III compared to zoea I, juveniles and adults, suggesting an important role in this ontogenetic stage. The apparent affinity for ATP (K(M) = 0.09 ± 0.01 mmol L?¹) of the decapodid III (Na?,K?)-ATPase, about twofold greater than the other stages, further highlights this relevance. Modulation of (Na?,K?-ATPase activity by K? also revealed a threefold greater affinity for K? (K?.? = 0.91 ± 0.04 mmol L?¹) in decapodid III than in other stages; NH?? had no modulatory effect. The affinity for Na? (K?.? = 13.2 ± 0.6 mmol L?¹) of zoea I (Na?,K?)-ATPase was fourfold less than other stages. Modulation by Na?, Mg²? and NH?? obeyed cooperative kinetics, while K? modulation exhibited Michaelis-Menten behavior. Rates of maximal Mg²? stimulation of ouabain-insensitive ATPase activity differed in each ontogenetic stage, suggesting that Mg²?-stimulated ATPases other than (Na?,K?)-ATPase are present. Ouabain inhibition suggests that, among the various ATPase activities present in the different stages, Na?-ATPase may be involved in the ontogeny of osmoregulation in larval M. amazonicum. The NH??-stimulated, ouabain-insensitive ATPase activity seen in zoea I and decapodid III may reflect a stage-specific means of ammonia excretion since functional gills are absent in the early larval stages. PMID:22544049

Leone, Francisco Assis; Masui, Douglas Chodi; de Souza Bezerra, Thais Milena; Garçon, Daniela Pereira; Valenti, Wagner Cotroni; Augusto, Alessandra Silva; McNamara, John Campbell

2012-04-01

219

Application of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) to the Cultivation Line of Mushroom and Other Cultivated Edible Fungi.  

PubMed

The Hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) is a preventive system which seeks to ensure food safety and security. It allows product protection and correction of errors, improves the costs derived from quality defects and reduces the final overcontrol. In this paper, the system is applied to the line of cultivation of mushrooms and other edible cultivated fungi. From all stages of the process, only the reception of covering materials (stage 1) and compost (stage 3), the pre-fruiting and induction (step 6) and the harvest (stage 7) have been considered as critical control point (CCP). The main hazards found were the presence of unauthorized phytosanitary products or above the permitted dose (stages 6 and 7), and the presence of pathogenic bacteria (stages 1 and 3) and/or heavy metals (stage 3). The implementation of this knowledge will allow the self-control of their productions based on the system HACCP to any plant dedicated to mushroom or other edible fungi cultivation. PMID:24426137

Pardo, José E; de Figueirêdo, Vinícius Reis; Alvarez-Ortí, Manuel; Zied, Diego C; Peñaranda, Jesús A; Dias, Eustáquio Souza; Pardo-Giménez, Arturo

2013-09-01

220

Cultivable bacteria isolated from apple trees cultivated under different crop systems: Diversity and antagonistic activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the diversity of cultivable plant growth-promoting (PGP) bacteria associated with apple trees cultivated under different crop management systems and their antagonistic ability against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Samples of roots and rhizospheric soil from apple trees cultivated in organic and conventional orchards in southern Brazil were collected, together with soil samples from an area never used for agriculture (native field). Bacteria were identified at the genus level by PCR-RFLP and partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA, and were evaluated for some PGP abilities. The most abundant bacterial genera identified were Enterobacter (27.7%), Pseudomonas (18.7%), Burkholderia (13.7%), and Rahnella (12.3%). Sixty-nine isolates presented some antagonist activity against C. gloeosporioides. In a greenhouse experiment, five days after exposure to C. gloeosporioides, an average of 30% of the leaf area of plants inoculated with isolate 89 (identified as Burkholderia sp.) were infected, whereas 60 to 73% of the leaf area of untreated plants was affected by fungal attack. Our results allowed us to infer how anthropogenic activity is affecting the bacterial communities in soil associated with apple tree crop systems, and to obtain an isolate that was able to delay the emergence of an important disease for this culture. PMID:25249780

Dos Passos, João Frederico M; da Costa, Pedro B; Costa, Murilo D; Zaffari, Gilmar R; Nava, Gilberto; Boneti, José Itamar; de Oliveira, Andréia Mara R; Passaglia, Luciane M P

2014-09-01

221

Cultivation of shear stress sensitive microorganisms in disposable bag reactor systems.  

PubMed

Technical scale (?5l) cultivations of shear stress sensitive microorganisms are often difficult to perform, as common bioreactors are usually designed to maximize the oxygen input into the culture medium. This is achieved by mechanical stirrers, causing high shear stress. Examples for shear stress sensitive microorganisms, for which no specific cultivation systems exist, are many anaerobic bacteria and fungi, such as basidiomycetes. In this work a disposable bag bioreactor developed for cultivation of mammalian cells was investigated to evaluate its potential to cultivate shear stress sensitive anaerobic Eubacterium ramulus and shear stress sensitive basidiomycetes Flammulina velutipes and Pleurotus sapidus. All cultivations were compared with conventional stainless steel stirred tank reactors (STR) cultivations. Good growth of all investigated microorganisms cultivated in the bag reactor was found. E. ramulus showed growth rates of ?=0.56 h?¹ (bag) and ?=0.53 h?¹ (STR). Differences concerning morphology, enzymatic activities and growth in fungal cultivations were observed. In the bag reactor growth in form of small, independent pellets was observed while STR cultivations showed intense aggregation. F. velutipes reached higher biomass concentrations (21.2 g l?¹ DCW vs. 16.8 g l?¹ DCW) and up to 2-fold higher peptidolytic activities in comparison to cell cultivation in stirred tank reactors. PMID:23892193

Jonczyk, Patrick; Takenberg, Meike; Hartwig, Steffen; Beutel, Sascha; Berger, Ralf G; Scheper, Thomas

2013-09-20

222

Surface modification of closed plastic bags for adherent cell cultivation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In modern medicine human mesenchymal stem cells are becoming increasingly important. However, a successful cultivation of this type of cells is only possible under very specific conditions. Of great importance, for instance, are the absence of contaminants such as foreign microbiological organisms, i.e., sterility, and the chemical functionalization of the ground on which the cells are grown. As cultivation of these cells makes high demands, a new procedure for cell cultivation has been developed in which closed plastic bags are used. For adherent cell growth chemical functional groups have to be introduced on the inner surface of the plastic bag. This can be achieved by a new, atmospheric-pressure plasma-based method presented in this paper. The method which was developed jointly by the Fraunhofer IST and the Helmholtz HZI can be implemented in automated equipment as is also shown in this contribution. Plasma process gases used include helium or helium-based gas mixtures (He + N2 + H2) and vapors of suitable film-forming agents or precursors such as APTMS, DACH, and TMOS in helium. The effect of plasma treatment is investigated by FTIR-ATR spectroscopy as well as surface tension determination based on contact angle measurements and XPS. Plasma treatment in nominally pure helium increases the surface tension of the polymer foil due to the presence of oxygen traces in the gas and oxygen diffusing through the gas-permeable foil, respectively, reacting with surface radical centers formed during contact with the discharge. Primary amino groups are obtained on the inner surface by treatment in mixtures with nitrogen and hydrogen albeit their amount is comparably small due to diffusion of oxygen through the gas-permeable bag, interfering with the plasma-amination process. Surface modifications introducing amino groups on the inner surface turned out to be most efficient in the promotion of cell growth.

Lachmann, K.; Dohse, A.; Thomas, M.; Pohl, S.; Meyring, W.; Dittmar, K. E. J.; Lindenmeier, W.; Klages, C.-P.

2011-07-01

223

Hollow-Fiber Membrane Chamber as a Device for In Situ Environmental Cultivation?  

PubMed Central

A hollow-fiber membrane chamber (HFMC) was developed as an in situ cultivation device for environmental microorganisms. The HFMC system consists of 48 to 96 pieces of porous hollow-fiber membrane connected with injectors. The system allows rapid exchange of chemical compounds, thereby simulating a natural environment. Comparative analysis through the cultivation of three types of environmental samples was performed using this newly designed device and a conventional agar-based petri dish. The results show that the ratios of novel phylotypes in isolates, species-level diversities, and cultivabilities in HFMC-based cultivation are higher than those in an agar-based petri dish for all three samples, suggesting that the new in situ cultivation device is effective for cultivation of various environmental microorganisms. PMID:19329655

Aoi, Yoshiteru; Kinoshita, Tomoyuki; Hata, Toru; Ohta, Hiroaki; Obokata, Haruko; Tsuneda, Satoshi

2009-01-01

224

Candidate OP Phyla: Importance, Ecology and Cultivation Prospects.  

PubMed

OP phyla were created in the domain bacteria, based on the group of 16S rRNA gene sequences recovered from the Obsidian Pool. However, due to the lack of cultured representative it is referred to as candidate phyla. Wider ecological occurrence was predicted for the OP phyla, especially OP3, OP10 and OP11. Recently, members of phylum OP5 and OP10 were cultured, providing clues to their cultivation prospects. At last the bioprospecting potentials of the OP members are discussed herein. PMID:22282618

Rohini Kumar, M; Saravanan, V S

2010-10-01

225

Cultivating the next generation of tobacco endgame advocates  

PubMed Central

Long-term success for any tobacco endgame is contingent not only on acquiring political will, but also on sustaining it over a long period of time, perhaps even for decades. Future cohorts of public health professionals with knowledge of tobacco issues are therefore needed to carry on with the endgame strategy (should early attempts fail) and to keep tobacco control salient after an endgame strategy has initially been implemented. The endgame itself offers a unique pedagogical opportunity that could revive interest in tobacco control at schools of public health—an important first step in cultivating the future advocacy base for a tobacco endgame. PMID:23591510

Tam, Jamie

2013-01-01

226

Significance, progress and prospects for research in simplified cultivation technologies for rice in China  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Simplified cultivation technologies for rice have become increasingly attractive in recent years in China because of their social, economical and environmental benefits. To date, several simplified cultivation technologies, such as conventional tillage and seedling throwing (CTST), conventional tillage and direct seeding (CTDS), no-tillage and seedling throwing (NTST), no-tillage and direct seeding (NTDS) and no-tillage and transplanting (NTTP), have been developed in China. Most studies have shown that rice grown under each of these simplified cultivation technologies can produce a grain yield equal to or higher than traditional cultivation (conventional tillage and transplanting). Studies that have described the influences of agronomic practices on yield formation of rice under simplified cultivation have demonstrated that optimizing agronomy practices would increase the efficiencies of simplified cultivation systems. Further research is needed to optimize the management strategies for CTST, CTDS and NTST rice which have developed quickly in recent years, to strengthen basic research for those simplified cultivation technologies that are rarely used at present (such as NTTP and NTDS), to select and breed cultivars suitable for simplified cultivation and to compare the practicability and effectiveness of different simplified cultivation technologies in different rice production regions. PMID:22505773

HUANG, M.; IBRAHIM, MD.; XIA, B.; ZOU, Y.

2011-01-01

227

Multilayered heparin hydrogel microwells for cultivation of primary hepatocytes.  

PubMed

The biomaterial scaffolds for regenerative medicine need to be rationally designed to achieve the desired cell fate and function. This paper describes the development of hydrogel microstructures for cultivation of primary hepatocytes. Four different micropatterned surfaces are tested: 1) poly(ethyelene glycol) (PEG) microwells patterned on glass, 2) heparin hydrogel microwells patterned on glass, 3) PEG microwells patterned on heparin hydrogel-coated substrates, and 4) heparin hydrogel microwells patterned on heparin hydrogel-coated substrates. The latter surfaces are constructed by a combination of micromolding and microcontact printing techniques to create microwells with both walls and floor composed of heparin hydrogel. Individual microwell dimensions are 200 ?m diameter and 20 ?m in height. In all cases, the floor of the microwells is modified with collagen I to promote cell adhesion. Cultivation of hepatocytes followed by analysis of hepatic markers (urea production, albumin synthesis, and E-cadherin expression) reveals that the all-heparin gel microwells are most conducive to hepatic phenotype maintenance. For example, ELISA analysis shows 2.3 to 13.1 times higher levels of albumin production in all-heparin gel wells compared with other micropatterned surfaces. Importantly, hepatic phenotype expression can be further enhanced by culturing fibroblasts on the heparin gel walls of the microwells. In the future, multicomponent all-heparin gel microstructures may be employed in designing hepatic niche for liver-specific differentiation of stem cells. PMID:23828859

You, Jungmok; Shin, Dong-Sik; Patel, Dipali; Gao, Yandong; Revzin, Alexander

2014-01-01

228

Allelopathic effects of ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) on cultivated plants.  

PubMed

During the past years ragweed has been coming to the forefront of interest in Hungary and in other European countries as well because its serious health risk. Results of the 5th National Weed Survey has proven that ragweed is the most important weed species on Hungarian field lands, its coverage shows a rising tendency in cereals moreover it not only occurs in cultivated plants. Allelopathic effects of aqueous extracts derived from different parts of ragweed plants (air dried leafy stems, seeds) on the germination and growth of other cultivated plants [maize (Zea mays L.), winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), rye (Secale cereale L.), oat (Avena sativa L.)] were studied. The extracts made for the trials were prepared with distilled water. Petri dishes were used for the germination experiments and distilled water was used as a control treatment. The seven days long experiment was carried out within a Binder-type thermostat under dark conditions. The germination percentage was checked in every two days and the growth of sprouts was evaluated after a week counting the germinated seeds and measuring the length of the radicle and plumule. The measured data were statistically analysed and the effect of extracts on germinating and length of sprouts were assessed. PMID:22696964

Lehoczky, E; Gólya, G; Szabó, R; Szalai, A

2011-01-01

229

SUBPLASMALEMMAL MICROFILAMENTS AND MICROTUBULES IN RESTING AND PHAGOCYTIZING CULTIVATED MACROPHAGES  

PubMed Central

The subplasmalemmal organization of the free and glass-attached surfaces of resting and phagocytizing cultivated macrophages were examined in an attempt to define specific membrane-associated structures related to phagocytosis. From analysis of serial thin sections of oriented cells it was found that the subplasmalemmal region of the attached cell surface has a complex microfilament and microtubule organization relative to the subplasmalemmal area of the free surface. A filamentous network composed of 40–50-Å microfilaments extended for a depth of 400–600 Å from the attached plasma membrane. Immediately subjacent to the filamentous network was a zone of oriented bundles of 40–50-Å microfilaments and a zone of microtubules. Additional microtubules were found to extend from the plasma membrane to the interior of the cell in close association with electron-dense, channellike structures. In contrast, the free aspect of the cultivated macrophage contained only the subplasmalemmal filamentous network. However, after a phagocytic pulse with polystyrene particles (14 µm diam) microtubules and oriented filaments similar to those found on the attached surface were observed surrounding the ingested particles. The observations reported in this paper provide support for the hypothesis that microfilaments and/or microtubules play a role in the translocation of plasma membrane required for the functionally similar processes of phagocytosis and cell attachment to glass. PMID:4356569

Reaven, Eve P.; Axline, Stanton G.

1973-01-01

230

Cultivation of microalgae in dairy farm wastewater without sterilization.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the feasibility of cultivating microalgae in dairy farm wastewater. The growth of microalgae and the removal rate of the nutrient from the wastewater were examined. The wastewater was diluted 20, 10 and 5 times before applied to cultivate microalgae. A 5 dilution yielded 0.86 g/L dry weight in 6 days with a relative growth rate of 0.28 d(-1), the 10× dilution gave 0.74 g/L and a relative growth rate of 0.26 d(-1) while the 20× dilution 0.59 g/L and a relative growth rate 0.23 d(-1). The nutrients in the wastewater could be removed effectively in different diluted dairy wastewater. The greatest dilution (20×) showed the removal rates: ammonia, 99.26%; P, 89.92%; COD, 84.18%. A 10× dilution removal% was: ammonia 93; P 91 and COD 88. The 5× dilution removal% was: ammonia 83; P 92; COD 90. PMID:25397979

Ding, Jinfeng; Zhao, Fengmin; Cao, Youfu; Xing, Li; Liu, Wei; Mei, Shuai; Li, Shujun

2015-01-01

231

Practical and affordable ways to cultivate leadership in your organization.  

PubMed

Leadership can be cultivated through the intentional actions of managers and others in public health organizations. This article provides a rationale for taking innovative and proactive steps to build leadership, discusses four general strategies for doing so, and presents seven practical, creative, and affordable actions that can have a positive influence on efforts to cultivate leadership qualities in the public health workforce. Each action is illustrated with an actual contemporary example from a local public health agency. The actions include providing formal or informal coaching/mentoring opportunities; assigning staff to lead new projects or collaborations, projects outside their disciplines, projects that cause growth in their information technology capacity, or orphan or struggling projects; facilitating a book club; and institutionalizing reflection. The best way to ensure that effective leadership is available when the organization needs it is to intentionally develop it through an ongoing process. Leadership growth can be supported during the ordinary course of business in a public health organization through thoughtful challenges, sharing ideas and experiences, and especially through the example set by managers and those in positions of authority. PMID:20150799

Gaufin, Joyce R; Kennedy, Kathy I; Struthers, Ellen D

2010-01-01

232

Oyster mushroom cultivation with rice and wheat straw.  

PubMed

Cultivation of the oyster mushroom, Pleurotus sajor-caju, on rice and wheat straw without nutrient supplementation was investigated. The effects of straw size reduction method and particle size, spawn inoculation level, and type of substrate (rice straw versus wheat straw) on mushroom yield, biological efficiency, bioconversion efficiency, and substrate degradation were determined. Two size reduction methods, grinding and chopping, were compared. The ground straw yielded higher mushroom growth rate and yield than the chopped straw. The growth cycles of mushrooms with the ground substrate were five days shorter than with the chopped straw for a similar particle size. However, it was found that when the straw was ground into particles that were too small, the mushroom yield decreased. With the three spawn levels tested (12%, 16% and 18%), the 12% level resulted in significantly lower mushroom yield than the other two levels. Comparing rice straw with wheat straw, rice straw yielded about 10% more mushrooms than wheat straw under the same cultivation conditions. The dry matter loss of the substrate after mushroom growth varied from 30.1% to 44.3%. The straw fiber remaining after fungal utilization was not as degradable as the original straw fiber, indicating that the fungal fermentation did not improve the feed value of the straw. PMID:11991077

Zhang, Ruihong; Li, Xiujin; Fadel, J G

2002-05-01

233

Cultivation and quantitative proteomic analyses of acidophilic microbial communities  

SciTech Connect

Acid mine drainage (AMD), an extreme environment characterized by low pH and high metal concentrations, can support dense acidophilic microbial biofilm communities that rely on chemoautotrophic production based on iron oxidation. Field determined production rates indicate that, despite the extreme conditions, these communities are sufficiently well adapted to their habitats to achieve primary production rates comparable to those of microbial communities occurring in some non-extreme environments. To enable laboratory studies of growth, production and ecology of AMD microbial communities, a culturing system was designed to reproduce natural biofilms, including organisms recalcitrant to cultivation. A comprehensive metabolic labeling-based quantitative proteomic analysis was used to verify that natural and laboratory communities were comparable at the functional level. Results confirmed that the composition and core metabolic activities of laboratory-grown communities were similar to a natural community, including the presence of active, low abundance bacteria and archaea that have not yet been isolated. However, laboratory growth rates were slow compared with natural communities, and this correlated with increased abundance of stress response proteins for the dominant bacteria in laboratory communities. Modification of cultivation conditions reduced the abundance of stress response proteins and increased laboratory community growth rates. The research presented here represents the first description of the application of a metabolic labeling-based quantitative proteomic analysis at the community level and resulted in a model microbial community system ideal for testing physiological and ecological hypotheses.

Belnap, Christopher P. [University of California, Berkeley; Pan, Chongle [ORNL; Verberkmoes, Nathan C [ORNL; Power, Mary E. [University of California, Berkeley; Samatova, Nagiza F [ORNL; Carver, Rudolf L. [Iron Mountain Superfund Facility, Redding; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L [ORNL; Banfield, Jillian F. [University of California, Berkeley

2010-01-01

234

Cancer risk and residential proximity to cranberry cultivation in Massachusetts.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the relationship between cancer risk and residential proximity to cranberry cultivation. METHODS: A population-based case-control study was conducted. Cases, diagnosed during 1983 through 1986 among residents of the Upper Cape Cod area of Massachusetts, involved incident cancers of the lung (n = 252), breast (n = 265), colon-rectum (n = 326), bladder (n = 63), kidney (n = 35), pancreas (n = 37), and brain (n = 37), along with leukemia (n = 35). Control subjects were randomly selected from among telephone subscribers (n = 184), Medicare beneficiaries (n = 464), and deceased individuals (n = 723). RESULTS: No meaningful increases in risk were seen for any of the cancer sites except for the brain. When latency was considered, subjects who had ever lived within 2600 ft (780 m) of a cranberry bog had a twofold increased risk of brain cancer overall (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.8, 4.9) and a 6.7-fold increased risk of astrocytoma (95% CI = 1.6, 27.8). CONCLUSIONS: Residential proximity to cranberry bog cultivation was not associated with seven of the eight cancers investigated; however, an association was observed with brain cancer, particularly astrocytoma. Larger, more detailed studies are necessary to elucidate this relationship. PMID:8806382

Aschengrau, A; Ozonoff, D; Coogan, P; Vezina, R; Heeren, T; Zhang, Y

1996-01-01

235

Investigation of Flow Characteristics in an Airlift-Driven Raceway Reactor for Algae Cultivation  

E-print Network

Investigation of Flow Characteristics in an Airlift-Driven Raceway Reactor for Algae Cultivation are the most common choice for outdoor algae cultivation due to their low cost relative to enclosed. Algae require adequate mixing in order to maximize exposure to essential nutrients for growth

236

The Cultivation of Social Perceptions of Latinos: A Mental Models Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This survey investigates the relationship between exposure to television portrayals of Latinos and real world perceptions of Latinos in the U.S. To aid in this assessment, contributions from the research on mental models were incorporated into a cultivation framework. From this mental models-based cultivation perspective, it was expected that amount of television exposure and existing cognitions regarding representations of Latinos

Dana Mastro; Elizabeth Behm-Morawitz; Michelle Ortiz

2007-01-01

237

Cultivating Demand for the Arts: Arts Learning, Arts Engagement, and State Arts Policy. Summary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The findings summarized in this report are intended to shed light on what it means to cultivate demand for the arts, why it is necessary and important to cultivate this demand, and what state arts agencies (SAAs) and other arts and education policymakers can do to help. The research considered only the benchmark arts central to public policy:…

Zakaras, Laura; Lowell, Julia F.

2008-01-01

238

The denitrification properties of soils under three different shelterbelts and in adjoining cultivated fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The investigations were carried out in Agroecological Landscape Park in Turew (40 km South-West of Poznan). Intensively agricultural is observed in this region. Characteristic features of this landscape are shelterbelts created in the XIX century by general Dezydery Chlapowski. All shelterbelts and adjoining cultivated fields were introduced on Hapludalfs soils. Three shelterbelts and adjoining cultivated fields were selected for this

L. Szajdak; J. Augustin; W. Gaca; T. Meysner; K. Styla

2009-01-01

239

DNA polymorphisms in commercial and wild strains of the cultivated mushroom, Agaricus bisporus  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA from the cultivated mushroom, Agaricus bisporus, was cloned into the bacteriophage lambda vector EMBL3 creating a partial genomic library. Ten random clones from the library were used to probe for restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs). Six of the ten probes detected polymorphisms and were used to demonstrate variation in wild and cultivated strains of the mushroom. These results suggest

M. G. Loftus; D. Moore; T. J. Elliott

1988-01-01

240

American Journal of Botany 93(1): 127133. 2006. CULTIVATED HELIANTHUS ANNUUS (ASTERACEAE)  

E-print Network

127 American Journal of Botany 93(1): 127­133. 2006. CULTIVATED HELIANTHUS ANNUUS (ASTERACEAE cultivated and wild sunflower (both Helianthus annuus, Asteraceae) is well documented, but the role of seed words: crop­wild gene flow; Helianthus annuus; seed dispersal; volunteers. The development and wide

Snow, Allison A.

241

Submerged cultivation of Ganoderma lucidum biomass and immunostimulatory effects of fungal polysaccharides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Original Ganoderma lucidum strain MZKI G97 isolated from Slovenian forests was cultivated in a liquid substrate based on potato dextrose and olive oil. The influences of inoculum and oxygen partial pressure in batch and fed batch cultivation in a 10-l laboratory stirred tank reactor were studied. Fungal biomass was found to be oxygen and shear sensible. Using a 17% (wet

Marin Berovi?; Jožica Habijani?; Irena Zore; Branka Wraber; Damjan Hodžar; Bojana Boh; Franc Pohleven

2003-01-01

242

Temperature influences on leaf CO 2exchange, cell viability and cultivation range for Agave tequilana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agave tequilana, a species exhibiting crassulacean acid metabolism, is cultivated in Mexico for its stem and attached leaf bases from which the distilled beverage tequila is obtained. The physiological reasons why its cultivation was mostly restricted to regions in Jalisco with minimum air temperatures in 1996 above ?4°C and maximum temperatures below 36°C was investigated using plants under controlled conditions

Park S. Nobel; Miguel Castañeda; Gretchen North; Eulogio Pimienta-Barrios; Ariel Ruiz

1998-01-01

243

"CULTIVATION OF ENDOSYMBIONT BACTERIA IN A BEMISIA TABACI B BIOTYPE CELL LINE".  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A complement of eubacterial endosymbionts were cultivated in a whitefly cell line. Endosymbiont identification was verified using diagnostic PCR, DNA sequencing, Western Blot analysis and real time RT-PCR. This is the first report of in-vitro cultivation of at least two of these arthropod endosymb...

244

Discrimination of cultivated silk and wild silk by conventional instrumental analyses.  

PubMed

In Japan, recent trends have seen wild silk preferred over cultivated silk because of its texture. Some cases of fraud have occurred where cultivated silk garments are sold as wild silk. Samples from these cases, morphological observation using light microscope and polarized microscope have been conducted in forensic science laboratories. Sometimes scanning electron microscopy was also carried out. However, the morphology of silk shows quite wide variation, which makes it difficult to discriminate wild and cultivated silks by this method. In this report, silk discrimination was investigated using conventional instrumental analyses commonly available in forensic laboratories, such as Fourier-transfer infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (pyr-GC/MS) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). By FT-IR, cultivated and wild silk gave similar infrared spectra, but wild silk had a characteristic peak at 965 cm(-1) from the deformation vibration of the carbon-carbon double bond of the indole ring. Comparison of the pyrograms of cultivated and wild silk showed that wild silk had large indole and skatole peaks that cultivated silk did not, and these peaks might arise from tryptophan. The results of thermogravimetry/DTA showed that the endothermic peak was about 40 °C higher for wild silk than for cultivated silk. Using a combination of these results, cultivated and wild silk could be discriminated by common forensic instrumental techniques. PMID:23742990

Matsuyama, Yuji; Nagatani, Yoshiaki; Goto, Toshiyuki; Suzuki, Shinichi

2013-09-10

245

Carabid beetles in sustainable agriculture: a review on pest control efficacy, cultivation impacts and enhancement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review article on carabids in sustainable agro-ecosystems of the temperate Northern hemisphere presents a compilation of the available knowledge on the significance of carabids for natural pest control and the effects of cultivation methods (except pesticides) and landscape structural elements.Field carabids are species rich and abundant in arable sites, but are affected by intensive agricultural cultivation. For sampling, fenced

Bernhard Kromp

1999-01-01

246

Simulating the hydrologic response of a semiarid watershed to switchgrass cultivation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The conversion of land for biofuel cultivation is expected to increase given concerns about the sustainability of current fossil-fuel supplies. Nonetheless, research into the environmental impacts of biofuel crops, primarily the hydrological impacts of their cultivation, is in its infancy. To inve...

247

The possible role of weed races in the evolution of cultivated plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of our cultivated plants have companion weed races. This phenomenon is so common that it must have some biological significance. In some cases the weeds are the progenitors of the crops, but in many cases we must look for something that could give rise to both the weed forms and the cultivated form together.

Jack R. Harlan

1965-01-01

248

Market potential and research in cultivation of some endangered medicinal plants Literature survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the uncontrolled exploitation of wild plants several medicinal plant species are endangered in some countries in Europe and efforts have been made to encourage their cultivation (Lange 1998). Some of these medicinal plants originate from the cooler parts of Europe and they seem to be climati- cally suitable for cultivation in the southern part of Finland. This review

Bertalan Galambosi; Kirsi Jokela

2002-01-01

249

Cultivating Problem Solving Skills via a New Problem Categorization Scheme  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When one looks at STEM disciplines as a whole, the need for effective problem solving skills is a commonality. However, studies indicate that the bulk of students who graduate from problem-solving intensive programs display little increase in their problem solving abilities. Also, there is little evidence for transfer of general skills from one subject area to another. Furthermore, the types of problems typically encountered in introductory STEM courses do not often cultivate the skills students will need when solving âreal-worldâ problems. Initial efforts to develop and implement an interdisciplinary problem categorization matrix as a tool for instructional design are described. The matrix, which is independent of content, shows promise as a means for promoting useful problem-solving discussion among faculty, designing problem-solving intensive courses, and instructing students in developing real-world problem solving skills.

Harper, Kathleen A.; Freuler, Richard; Demel, John

2007-11-25

250

Recycling of food waste as nutrients in Chlorella vulgaris cultivation.  

PubMed

Heterotrophic cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris was investigated in food waste hydrolysate. The highest exponential growth rate in terms of biomass of 0.8day(-1) was obtained in a hydrolysate consisting of 17.9gL(-1) glucose, 0.1gL(-1) free amino nitrogen, 0.3gL(-1) phosphate and 4.8mgL(-1) nitrate, while the growth rate was reduced in higher concentrated hydrolysates. C. vulgaris utilized the nutrients recovered from food waste for the formation of biomass and 0.9g biomass was produced per gram glucose consumed. The microalgal biomass produced in nutrient sufficient batch cultures consisted of around 400mgg(-1) carbohydrates, 200mgg(-1) proteins and 200mgg(-1) lipids. The conversion of nutrients derived from food waste and the balanced biomass composition make C. vulgaris a promising strain for the recycling of food waste in food, feed and fuel productions. PMID:25128844

Lau, Kin Yan; Pleissner, Daniel; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

2014-10-01

251

Improving the growth of Rubrivivax gelatinosus cultivated in sewage environment.  

PubMed

Rubrivivax gelatinosus cultivated in wastewater environment can combine the biomass resource recycling for generating chemicals with sewage purification. However, low biomass accumulation restricts the exertion of this advantage. Thus, this paper investigated Fe(3+) advancement for biomass production in starch wastewater under light-anaerobic condition. Results showed that addition of Fe(3+) was successful in enhancing biomass production, which certainly improved the feasibility of biomass recycling in R. gelatinosus starch wastewater treatment. With optimal Fe(3+) dosage (20 mg/L), biomass production reached 4,060 mg/L, which was 1.63 times that of control group. Amylase activity was improved by 48 %. Both COD removal and starch removal reached 90 %. Hydraulic retention time was shortened by 25 %. Proper Fe(3+) dosage enhanced biomass production, but excess Fe(3+) was harmful for biomass accumulation. PMID:25060412

Wu, Pan; Li, Jian-Zheng; Wang, Yan-Ling; Tong, Qing-Yue; Liu, Xian-Shu; Du, Cong; Li, Ning

2015-01-01

252

Cultivated limbal stem cell transplantation for ocular surface reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Severe damage to cell repair mechanisms of the limbal region can lead to many disorders such as vascularized conjunctivalization, keratinization, corneal scarring, and corneal opacification, collectively described as limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD). Limbal stem cell deficiency may occur as a result of depletion of stem cells or destruction of their stromal niche. In such cases, apart from conventional corneal transplantation, limbal stem cell transplantation would be needed to restore vision. Limbal stem cells may be replenished by autologous limbal transplants from the healthy fellow eye in unilateral cases, and allografts from living related donors or cadaveric donors in bilateral cases. The induction of iatrogenic LSCD and its sequelae in donor eyes have motivated researchers to cultivate sheets of limbal epithelium ex vivo, from small fragments of donor tissue for the purpose of ocular surface reconstruction. PMID:19668747

Burman, Sanghamitra; Sangwan, Virender

2008-01-01

253

Cultivation of animal cells in a reticulated vitreous carbon foam.  

PubMed

A reticulated vitreous carbon foam (RVCF) was used as a surface to cultivate a model anchorage-dependent animal cell line, 3T6 (mouse embryo fibroblast). This fixed-surface bioreactor provided a low-shear, chemically-inert, and reusable environment for cell growth. An external medium recirculation loop allowed aeration, nutrient monitoring, and medium replacement without disturbing the cells. Optimal flow rates for the attachment and growth phases were determined. Growth rates comparable to static (T-flask and petri dish) cultures and agitated microcarrier cultures were achieved with appropriately high medium recirculation rates. Metabolic parameters were shown to be useful indicators of cell mass, although specific glucose consumption rates were considerably higher for cultures in the RVCF reactor. Oxygen supply was shown to be the most likely limiting factor for scaleup. PMID:1367987

Kent, B L; Mutharasan, R

1992-02-01

254

Simulation of penicillin production in fed-batch cultivations using a morphologically structured model.  

PubMed

A mathematical model is formulated to describe trends in biomass and penicillin formation as well as substrate consumption for fed-batch cultivations. The biomass is structured into three morphological compartments, and glucose and corn steep liquor are considered as substrates for growth. Penicillin formation is assumed to take place in the subapical compartment and in the growing region of the hyphal compartment. Furthermore, it is inhibited by glucose. Model parameters are estimated using an evolutionary algorithm and fitting the model to a standard fed-batch cultivation. The model is validated on experimental data from three different fed-batch cultivations, including two repeated fed-batch cultivations. The model predictions show good agreement with the measurements of biomass and pencillin concentrations for all fed-batch cultivations. (c) 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 56: 593-604, 1997. PMID:18642330

Zangirolami, T C; Johansen, C L; Nielsen, J; Jørgensen, S B

1997-12-20

255

Karyological features of wild and cultivated forms of myrtle (Myrtus communis, Myrtaceae).  

PubMed

Myrtle is an evergreen shrub or small tree widespread throughout the Mediterranean region. In Turkey, both cultivated and wild forms, differing in plant and fruit size and fruit composition, can be found. These differences may have resulted from the domestication of the cultivated form over a long period of time. We investigated whether wild and cultivated forms of myrtle differ in karyological features (i.e., number of somatic chromosomes and relative genome size). We sampled two wild forms and six cultivated types of myrtle. All the samples had the same chromosome number (2n = 2x = 22). The results were confirmed by 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) flow cytometry. Only negligible variation (approximately 3%) in relative fluorescence intensity was observed among the different myrtle accessions, with wild genotypes having the smallest values. We concluded that despite considerable morphological differentiation, cultivated and wild myrtle genotypes in Turkey have similar karyological features. PMID:20309828

Serçe, S; Ekbiç, E; Suda, J; Gündüz, K; Kiyga, Y

2010-01-01

256

Anthocyanin profile of Korean cultivated kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).  

PubMed

This investigation was conducted to determine the structures and amounts of anthocyanins obtained from seed coats of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivated in Korea. Anthocyanins in the seed coat of kidney bean were extracted with 1% HCl/20% CH(3)OH, and the crude anthocyanin extracts were purified by semipreparative HPLC. Five major anthocyanins were isolated, and their chemical structures were identified by spectroscopic methods (UV-vis, LC/ES-MS, and 1H and 13C NMR). The structures of these five anthocyanins were elucidated as cyanidin 3,5-diglucoside, delphinidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3-glucoside, petunidin 3-glucoside, and pelargonidin 3-glucoside. Using RP-HPLC with photodiode array detection, each of the five anthocyanins was separated within 12 min by using a gradient elution. It was proved that the application of RP-HPLC could be an excellent method for determining the composition and contents of anthocyanins in kidney bean. The preponderance of pelargonidin 3-glucoside and delphinidin 3-glucoside are observed in red and black kidney beans, respectively. However, in this study, it is reported for the first time that the contents and composition of anthocyanins in speckled seed depend on the classes of speckle color. The contents of cyanidin 3,5-diglucoside, delphinidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3-glucoside, petunidin 3-glucoside, pelargonidin 3-glucoside, and total anthocyanins in seed coats of 16 kidney beans cultivated in Korea were in the ranges of 0-0.04, 0-2.61, 0-0.12, 0-0.17, 0-0.59 and 0-2.78 mg/g of dried seed coats, respectively. PMID:14611168

Choung, Myoung-Gun; Choi, Byoung-Rourl; An, Young-Nam; Chu, Yong-Ha; Cho, Young-Son

2003-11-19

257

Microalgal and cyanobacterial cultivation: the supply of nutrients.  

PubMed

Microalgae and cyanobacteria are a promising new source of biomass that may complement agricultural crops to meet the increasing global demand for food, feed, biofuels and chemical production. Microalgae and cyanobacteria cultivation does not interfere directly with food production, but care should be taken to avoid indirect competition for nutrient (fertilizer) supply. Microalgae and cyanobacteria production requires high concentrations of essential nutrients (C,N,P,S,K,Fe, etc.). In the present paper the application of nutrients and their uptake by microalgae and cyanobacteria is reviewed. The main focus is on the three most significant nutrients, i.e. carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus; however other nutrients are also reviewed. Nutrients are generally taken up in the inorganic form, but several organic forms of them are also assimilable. Some nutrients do not display any inhibition effect on microalgal or cyanobacterial growth, while others, such as NO2 or NH3 have detrimental effects when present in high concentrations. Nutrients in the gaseous form, such as CO2 and NO face a major limitation which is related mainly to their mass transfer from the gaseous to the liquid state. Since the cultivation of microalgae and cyanobacteria consumes considerable quantities of nutrients, strategies to improve the nutrient application efficiency are needed. Additionally, a promising strategy to improve microalgal and cyanobacterial production sustainability is the utilization of waste streams by recycling of waste nutrients. However, major constraints of using waste streams are the reduction of the range of the biomass applications due to production of contaminated biomass and the possible low bio-availability of some nutrients. PMID:25113948

Markou, Giorgos; Vandamme, Dries; Muylaert, Koenraad

2014-11-15

258

CULTIVATION OF LEPTOSPIRAE. I. NUTRITION OF LEPTOSPIRA CANICOLA.  

PubMed

Stalheim, O. H. V. (University of Wisconsin, Madison), and J. B. Wilson. Cultivation of leptospirae. I. Nutrition of Leptospira canicola. J. Bacteriol. 88:48-54. 1964.-The nutrition of Leptospira canicola was investigated by use of synthetic media of suitable ionic strength. At an incubation temperature of 30 C, the minimal components were calcium, iron, magnesium, and ammonium ions, thiamine, and a fatty acid source; barium and strontium replaced calcium. Aspartic acid, glutamic acid, or methionine stimulated the rate and amount of growth; the best growth occurred in medium containing additional amino acids. Additions of cyanocobalamin or biotin permitted growth at 37 C. The stimulatory effects of added cyanocobalamin, biotin, pyridoxine, pantothenate, lipoic acid, or nicotinic acid were additive at 37 C, but not at 30 C. Fatty acids containing 14, 16, 17, or 18 carbon atoms supported growth; linoleic and linolenic acids were toxic. Glyceryl monooleate or trioleate, or Tween 40, 60, or 80 supported moderate to good growth; a mixture of monoolein and Tween 60, or Tweens 60 and 80 supported the best growth. Ten strains of L. canicola cultivated in a synthetic medium containing Tweens 60 and 80 attained cellular densities per ml of 10(7) to 4.0 x 10(7) organisms. L. canicola cells, resuspended in medium containing oleic-1-C(14) acid, incorporated label primarily into cellular lipids; a lesser amount was located in the protein fraction, and only trace amounts were found in the nucleic acid fraction. The rate of incorporation was not affected by added sodium acetate. L. canicola was found to have fatty acid decarboxylase activity. PMID:14197904

STALHEIM, O H; WILSON, J B

1964-07-01

259

Impacts of rodenticide and insecticide toxicants from marijuana cultivation sites on fisher survival rates in the Sierra National  

E-print Network

LETTER Impacts of rodenticide and insecticide toxicants from marijuana cultivation sites on fisher rodenticide; fisher; marijuana; Pekania pennanti; pesticide; survival. Correspondence Craig Thompson, USDA. Further investigation indicated that the most likely source was the numerous illegal marijuana cultivation

Fried, Jeremy S.

260

Cultivated land information extraction from high-resolution unmanned aerial vehicle imagery data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of precision agriculture demands high accuracy and efficiency of cultivated land information extraction. Simultaneously, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have been increasingly used for natural resource applications in recent years as a result of their greater availability, the miniaturization of sensors, and the ability to deploy UAVs relatively quickly and repeatedly at low altitudes. We examine the potential of utilizing a small UAV for the characterization, assessment, and monitoring of cultivated land. Because most UAV images lack spectral information, we propose a novel cultivated land information extraction method based on a triangulation for cultivated land information extraction (TCLE) method. Thus, the information on more spatial properties of a region is incorporated into the classification process. The TCLE comprises three main steps: image segmentation, triangulation construction, and triangulation clustering using AUTOCLUST. Experiments were conducted on three UAV images in Deyang, China, using TCLE and eCognition for cultivated land information extraction (ECLE). Experimental results show that TCLE, which does not require training samples and has a much higher level of automation, can obtain accuracies equivalent to ECLE. Comparing with ECLE, TCLE also extracts coherent cultivated land with much less noise. As such, cultivated land information extraction based on high-resolution UAV images can be effectively and efficiently conducted using the proposed method.

Ma, Lei; Cheng, Liang; Han, Wenquan; Zhong, Lishan; Li, Manchun

2014-01-01

261

Controlled pilot development unit-scale fed-batch cultivation of yeast on spruce hydrolysates.  

PubMed

Yeast production on hydrolysate is a likely process solution in large-scale ethanol production from lignocellulose. The hydrolysate will be available on site, and the yeast has furthermore been shown to acquire an increased inhibitor tolerance when cultivated on hydrolysate. However, due to over-flow metabolism and inhibition, efficient yeast production on hydrolysate can only be achieved by well-controlled substrate addition. In the present work, a method was developed for controlled addition of hydrolysate to PDU (process development unit)-scale aerobic fed-batch cultivations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae TMB 3000. A feed rate control strategy, which maintains the ethanol concentration at a low constant level, was adapted to process-like conditions. The ethanol concentration was obtained from on-line measurements of the ethanol mole fraction in the exhaust gas. A computer model of the system was developed to optimize control performance. Productivities, biomass yields, and byproduct formation were evaluated. The feed rate control worked satisfactorily and maintained the ethanol concentration close to the setpoint during the cultivations. Biomass yields of 0.45 g/g were obtained on added hexoses during cultivation on hydrolysate and of 0.49 g/g during cultivation on a synthetic medium with glucose as the carbon source. Exponential growth was achieved with a specific growth rate of 0.18 h-1 during cultivation on hydrolysate and 0.22 h-1 during cultivation on glucose. PMID:17330957

Rudolf, Andreas; Lequeux, Gaspard; Lidén, Gunnar

2007-01-01

262

Aerobic granules cultivated and operated in continuous-flow bioreactor under particle-size selective pressure.  

PubMed

A novel method based on the selective pressure of particle size (particle-size cultivation method, PSCM) was developed for the cultivation and operation of aerobic granular sludge in a continuous-flow reactor, and compared with the conventional method based on the selective pressure of settling velocity (settling-velocity cultivation method, SVCM). Results indicated that aerobic granules could be cultivated in continuous operation mode by this developed method within 14days. Although in the granulation process, under particle-size selective pressure, mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) in the reactor fluctuated greatly and filamentous bacteria dominated the sludge system during the initial operation days, no obvious difference in profile was found between the aerobic granules cultivated by PSCM and SVCM. Moreover, aerobic granules cultivated by PSCM presented larger diameter, lower water content and higher specific rates of nitrification, denitrification and phosphorus removal, but lower settling velocity. Under long term operation of more than 30days, aerobic granules in the continuous-flow reactor could remain stable and obtain good chemical oxygen demand (COD), NH4(+)-N, total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) removal. The results indicate that PSCM was dependent on the cultivation and maintenance of the stability of aerobic granules in continuous-flow bioreactors. PMID:25458675

Liu, Hongbo; Xiao, Hang; Huang, Shuai; Ma, Huijun; Liu, He

2014-11-01

263

Training Programmes Can Change Behaviour and Encourage the Cultivation of Over-Harvested Plant Species  

PubMed Central

Cultivation of wild-harvested plant species has been proposed as a way of reducing over-exploitation of wild populations but lack of technical knowledge is thought to be a barrier preventing people from cultivating a new species. Training programmes are therefore used to increase technical knowledge to encourage people to adopt cultivation. We assessed the impact of a training programme aiming to encourage cultivation of xaté (Chamaedorea ernesti-augusti), an over-harvested palm from Central America. Five years after the training programme ended, we surveyed untrained and trained individuals focusing on four potential predictors of behaviour: technical knowledge, attitudes (what individuals think about a behaviour), subjective norms (what individuals perceive others to think of a behaviour) and perceived behavioural control (self assessment of whether individuals can enact the behaviour successfully). Whilst accounting for socioeconomic variables, we investigate the influence of training upon these behavioural predictors and examine the factors that determine whether people adopt cultivation of a novel species. Those who had been trained had higher levels of technical knowledge about xaté cultivation and higher belief in their ability to cultivate it while training was not associated with differences in attitudes or subjective norms. Technical knowledge and perceived behavioural control (along with socio-economic variables such as forest ownership and age) were predictors of whether individuals cultivate xaté. We suggest that training programmes can have a long lasting effect on individuals and can change behaviour. However, in many situations other barriers to cultivation, such as access to seeds or appropriate markets, will need to be addressed. PMID:22431993

Williams, Sophie J.; Jones, Julia P. G.; Clubbe, Colin; Gibbons, James M.

2012-01-01

264

Training programmes can change behaviour and encourage the cultivation of over-harvested plant species.  

PubMed

Cultivation of wild-harvested plant species has been proposed as a way of reducing over-exploitation of wild populations but lack of technical knowledge is thought to be a barrier preventing people from cultivating a new species. Training programmes are therefore used to increase technical knowledge to encourage people to adopt cultivation. We assessed the impact of a training programme aiming to encourage cultivation of xaté (Chamaedorea ernesti-augusti), an over-harvested palm from Central America. Five years after the training programme ended, we surveyed untrained and trained individuals focusing on four potential predictors of behaviour: technical knowledge, attitudes (what individuals think about a behaviour), subjective norms (what individuals perceive others to think of a behaviour) and perceived behavioural control (self assessment of whether individuals can enact the behaviour successfully). Whilst accounting for socioeconomic variables, we investigate the influence of training upon these behavioural predictors and examine the factors that determine whether people adopt cultivation of a novel species. Those who had been trained had higher levels of technical knowledge about xaté cultivation and higher belief in their ability to cultivate it while training was not associated with differences in attitudes or subjective norms. Technical knowledge and perceived behavioural control (along with socio-economic variables such as forest ownership and age) were predictors of whether individuals cultivate xaté. We suggest that training programmes can have a long lasting effect on individuals and can change behaviour. However, in many situations other barriers to cultivation, such as access to seeds or appropriate markets, will need to be addressed. PMID:22431993

Williams, Sophie J; Jones, Julia P G; Clubbe, Colin; Gibbons, James M

2012-01-01

265

[Review on application of plant growth retardants in medicinal plants cultivation].  

PubMed

Plant growth retardants are widely used in cultivation of medicinal plant, but there is still lack of scientific guidance. In order to guide the use of plant growth retardants in medicinal plant cultivation efficiently and reasonably, this paper reviewed the mechanism, function characteristic, plant and soil residue of plant growth retardants, such as chlorocholine chloride, mepiquat chloride, paclobutrazol, unicnazle and succinic acid, and summarized the application of plant growth retardants in medicinal plants cultivation in recent years, with focus on the effect of growth and yield of the officinal organs and secondary metabolites. PMID:24380290

Zhai, Yu-Yao; Guo, Bao-Lin; Cheng, Ming

2013-09-01

266

Treatment of anaerobic digestion effluent of sewage sludge using soilless cultivation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soilless cultivation was carried out using anaerobic digestion effluent of sewage sludge as liquid fertilizer, with a preparation which cultures microorganisms in nutrient solution. As a result, ammonium ions contained in the effluent were nitrified into nitrate ions by the microorganisms. And then, Japanese mustard spinach (Brassica rapa var. perviridis) was cultivated by soilless cultivation system. The plants were grown well using microbial nutrient solution, which similar to the plants using conventional inorganic nutrient solution. In contrast, the plants were grown poorly using the effluent as liquid fertilizer without microorganisms.

Uchimura, Koki; Sago, Yuki; Kamahara, Hirotsugu; Atsuta, Yoichi; Daimon, Hiroyuki

2014-02-01

267

Cassava genome from a wild ancestor to cultivated varieties.  

PubMed

Cassava is a major tropical food crop in the Euphorbiaceae family that has high carbohydrate production potential and adaptability to diverse environments. Here we present the draft genome sequences of a wild ancestor and a domesticated variety of cassava and comparative analyses with a partial inbred line. We identify 1,584 and 1,678 gene models specific to the wild and domesticated varieties, respectively, and discover high heterozygosity and millions of single-nucleotide variations. Our analyses reveal that genes involved in photosynthesis, starch accumulation and abiotic stresses have been positively selected, whereas those involved in cell wall biosynthesis and secondary metabolism, including cyanogenic glucoside formation, have been negatively selected in the cultivated varieties, reflecting the result of natural selection and domestication. Differences in microRNA genes and retrotransposon regulation could partly explain an increased carbon flux towards starch accumulation and reduced cyanogenic glucoside accumulation in domesticated cassava. These results may contribute to genetic improvement of cassava through better understanding of its biology. PMID:25300236

Wang, Wenquan; Feng, Binxiao; Xiao, Jingfa; Xia, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Xincheng; Li, Pinghua; Zhang, Weixiong; Wang, Ying; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Zhang, Peng; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Xiao, Gong; Liu, Jingxing; Yang, Jun; Chen, Songbi; Rabinowicz, Pablo D; Chen, Xin; Zhang, Hong-Bin; Ceballos, Henan; Lou, Qunfeng; Zou, Meiling; Carvalho, Luiz J C B; Zeng, Changying; Xia, Jing; Sun, Shixiang; Fu, Yuhua; Wang, Haiyan; Lu, Cheng; Ruan, Mengbin; Zhou, Shuigeng; Wu, Zhicheng; Liu, Hui; Kannangara, Rubini Maya; Jørgensen, Kirsten; Neale, Rebecca Louise; Bonde, Maya; Heinz, Nanna; Zhu, Wenli; Wang, Shujuan; Zhang, Yang; Pan, Kun; Wen, Mingfu; Ma, Ping-An; Li, Zhengxu; Hu, Meizhen; Liao, Wenbin; Hu, Wenbin; Zhang, Shengkui; Pei, Jinli; Guo, Anping; Guo, Jianchun; Zhang, Jiaming; Zhang, Zhengwen; Ye, Jianqiu; Ou, Wenjun; Ma, Yaqin; Liu, Xinyue; Tallon, Luke J; Galens, Kevin; Ott, Sandra; Huang, Jie; Xue, Jingjing; An, Feifei; Yao, Qingqun; Lu, Xiaojing; Fregene, Martin; López-Lavalle, L Augusto Becerra; Wu, Jiajie; You, Frank M; Chen, Meili; Hu, Songnian; Wu, Guojiang; Zhong, Silin; Ling, Peng; Chen, Yeyuan; Wang, Qinghuang; Liu, Guodao; Liu, Bin; Li, Kaimian; Peng, Ming

2014-01-01

268

The carbon count of 2000 years of rice cultivation.  

PubMed

More than 50% of the world's population feeds on rice. Soils used for rice production are mostly managed under submerged conditions (paddy soils). This management, which favors carbon sequestration, potentially decouples surface from subsurface carbon cycling. The objective of this study was to elucidate the long-term rates of carbon accrual in surface and subsurface soil horizons relative to those of soils under nonpaddy management. We assessed changes in total soil organic as well as of inorganic carbon stocks along a 2000-year chronosequence of soils under paddy and adjacent nonpaddy management in the Yangtze delta, China. The initial organic carbon accumulation phase lasts much longer and is more intensive than previously assumed, e.g., by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Paddy topsoils accumulated 170-178 kg organic carbon ha(-1) a(-1) in the first 300 years; subsoils lost 29-84 kg organic carbon ha(-1) a(-1) during this period of time. Subsoil carbon losses were largest during the first 50 years after land embankment and again large beyond 700 years of cultivation, due to inorganic carbonate weathering and the lack of organic carbon replenishment. Carbon losses in subsoils may therefore offset soil carbon gains or losses in the surface soils. We strongly recommend including subsoils into global carbon accounting schemes, particularly for paddy fields. PMID:23504888

Kalbitz, Karsten; Kaiser, Klaus; Fiedler, Sabine; Kölbl, Angelika; Amelung, Wulf; Bräuer, Tino; Cao, Zhihong; Don, Axel; Grootes, Piet; Jahn, Reinhold; Schwark, Lorenz; Vogelsang, Vanessa; Wissing, Livia; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid

2013-04-01

269

Cultivation of aerobic granular sludge for rubber wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

Aerobic granular sludge (AGS) was successfully cultivated at 27±1 °C and pH 7.0±1 during the treatment of rubber wastewater using a sequential batch reactor system mode with complete cycle time of 3 h. Results showed aerobic granular sludge had an excellent settling ability and exhibited exceptional performance in the organics and nutrients removal from rubber wastewater. Regular, dense and fast settling granule (average diameter, 1.5 mm; settling velocity, 33 m h(-1); and sludge volume index, 22.3 mL g(-1)) were developed in a single reactor. In addition, 96.5% COD removal efficiency was observed in the system at the end of the granulation period, while its ammonia and total nitrogen removal efficiencies were up to 94.7% and 89.4%, respectively. The study demonstrated the capabilities of AGS development in a single, high and slender column type-bioreactor for the treatment of rubber wastewater. PMID:23317554

Rosman, Noor Hasyimah; Nor Anuar, Aznah; Othman, Inawati; Harun, Hasnida; Sulong Abdul Razak, Muhammad Zuhdi; Elias, Siti Hanna; Mat Hassan, Mohd Arif Hakimi; Chelliapan, Shreesivadass; Ujang, Zaini

2013-02-01

270

[Submerged cultivation and chemical composition of Hericium erinaceus mycelium].  

PubMed

Submerged cultivation of Hericium erinaceus in various media was studied. The yield of the biomass was shown to depend mainly on the carbon source, whereas the content of water soluble polysaccharides depended mainly on the nitrogen source. The optimal medium composition provided the biomass yield of 21-23 g/l in 7 days. The biomass was characterized by the content of total protein, lipids and carbohydrates. In addition, the amino acid composition of the biomass was determined and shown to meet all the requirements of FAO/WHO concerning the amounts of essential amino acids (with exception of tryptophane). Oleinic and linoleic acids were identified as the main components of the fatty acids. Two water soluble polysaccharide fractions differing in solubility in aqueous ethanol were isolated and shown to contain rhamnose, fucose, xylose, glucose and galactose in different proportions. Vitamins B1, B2, B6, PP and E, ergosterol and coenzyme Q were also detected in the biomass of H. erinaceus. PMID:23350189

Avtonomova, A V; Bakanov, A V; Shuktueva, M I; Vinokurov, V A; Popova, O V; Usov, A I; Krasnopol'skaia, L M

2012-01-01

271

Cassava genome from a wild ancestor to cultivated varieties  

PubMed Central

Cassava is a major tropical food crop in the Euphorbiaceae family that has high carbohydrate production potential and adaptability to diverse environments. Here we present the draft genome sequences of a wild ancestor and a domesticated variety of cassava and comparative analyses with a partial inbred line. We identify 1,584 and 1,678 gene models specific to the wild and domesticated varieties, respectively, and discover high heterozygosity and millions of single-nucleotide variations. Our analyses reveal that genes involved in photosynthesis, starch accumulation and abiotic stresses have been positively selected, whereas those involved in cell wall biosynthesis and secondary metabolism, including cyanogenic glucoside formation, have been negatively selected in the cultivated varieties, reflecting the result of natural selection and domestication. Differences in microRNA genes and retrotransposon regulation could partly explain an increased carbon flux towards starch accumulation and reduced cyanogenic glucoside accumulation in domesticated cassava. These results may contribute to genetic improvement of cassava through better understanding of its biology. PMID:25300236

Wang, Wenquan; Feng, Binxiao; Xiao, Jingfa; Xia, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Xincheng; Li, Pinghua; Zhang, Weixiong; Wang, Ying; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Zhang, Peng; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Xiao, Gong; Liu, Jingxing; Yang, Jun; Chen, Songbi; Rabinowicz, Pablo D.; Chen, Xin; Zhang, Hong-Bin; Ceballos, Henan; Lou, Qunfeng; Zou, Meiling; Carvalho, Luiz J.C.B.; Zeng, Changying; Xia, Jing; Sun, Shixiang; Fu, Yuhua; Wang, Haiyan; Lu, Cheng; Ruan, Mengbin; Zhou, Shuigeng; Wu, Zhicheng; Liu, Hui; Kannangara, Rubini Maya; Jørgensen, Kirsten; Neale, Rebecca Louise; Bonde, Maya; Heinz, Nanna; Zhu, Wenli; Wang, Shujuan; Zhang, Yang; Pan, Kun; Wen, Mingfu; Ma, Ping-An; Li, Zhengxu; Hu, Meizhen; Liao, Wenbin; Hu, Wenbin; Zhang, Shengkui; Pei, Jinli; Guo, Anping; Guo, Jianchun; Zhang, Jiaming; Zhang, Zhengwen; Ye, Jianqiu; Ou, Wenjun; Ma, Yaqin; Liu, Xinyue; Tallon, Luke J.; Galens, Kevin; Ott, Sandra; Huang, Jie; Xue, Jingjing; An, Feifei; Yao, Qingqun; Lu, Xiaojing; Fregene, Martin; López-Lavalle, L. Augusto Becerra; Wu, Jiajie; You, Frank M.; Chen, Meili; Hu, Songnian; Wu, Guojiang; Zhong, Silin; Ling, Peng; Chen, Yeyuan; Wang, Qinghuang; Liu, Guodao; Liu, Bin; Li, Kaimian; Peng, Ming

2014-01-01

272

AGROTECHNIQUES FOR THE CULTIVATION OF CURCUMA ZEDOARIA (BERG.) ROSC  

PubMed Central

Curcumazedoaria (Berg) Rose. (wild turmeric or kastoorimanjal of commerce rhizome is used as appetizer, tonic, blood purifier and cosmetic. It is useful in flatulence and dyspepsia and also for worms and skin diseases a study on the agrotechniques for its cultivation at the aromatic and Medicinal plants Research Station, Odakkali during 1996-1999 revealed that it is highly adaptable to a wide range of spacings, producing similar yields by adjusting the number of plants/hill. It produces maximum yield of rhizome (34t/ha), essential oil (0.33%) and oleoresin (5.%%) when 1.5 t/ha of seed rhizomes are planted at 60 ×40 cm spacing with the receipt of premonsoon showers in May and harvested in January. Application of 20/ha of FYM, 100:50:50 kg N:P:K/ha. Biofertilisers, green manuring and mulching maximize the yields. Combination and interaction effects of the various manorial treatments are to be studied further in detail. The nutrient removal by the crop for the production of rhizomes was115.96:9. 46:111.23 kg NPK/ha. PMID:22557065

Joy, P.P.; Thomas, J.; Mathew, Samuvel; Skaria, Baby P.

2002-01-01

273

Agrotechniques for the cultivation of curcuma zedoaria (berg.) rosc.  

PubMed

Curcumazedoaria (Berg) Rose. (wild turmeric or kastoorimanjal of commerce rhizome is used as appetizer, tonic, blood purifier and cosmetic. It is useful in flatulence and dyspepsia and also for worms and skin diseases a study on the agrotechniques for its cultivation at the aromatic and Medicinal plants Research Station, Odakkali during 1996-1999 revealed that it is highly adaptable to a wide range of spacings, producing similar yields by adjusting the number of plants/hill. It produces maximum yield of rhizome (34t/ha), essential oil (0.33%) and oleoresin (5.%%) when 1.5 t/ha of seed rhizomes are planted at 60 ×40 cm spacing with the receipt of premonsoon showers in May and harvested in January. Application of 20/ha of FYM, 100:50:50 kg N:P:K/ha. Biofertilisers, green manuring and mulching maximize the yields. Combination and interaction effects of the various manorial treatments are to be studied further in detail. The nutrient removal by the crop for the production of rhizomes was115.96:9. 46:111.23 kg NPK/ha. PMID:22557065

Joy, P P; Thomas, J; Mathew, Samuvel; Skaria, Baby P

2002-04-01

274

Continuous cultivation of photosynthetic bacteria for fatty acids production.  

PubMed

In the present work, we introduced a novel approach for microbial fatty acids (FA) production. Photosynthetic bacteria, Rhodobacter sphaeroides KD131, were cultivated in a continuous-flow, stirred-tank reactor (CFSTR) at various substrate (lactate) concentrations. At hydraulic retention time (HRT) 4d, cell concentration continuously increased from 0.97 g dcw/L to 2.05 g dcw/L as lactate concentration increased from 30 mM to 60mM. At 70 mM, however, cell concentration fluctuated with incomplete substrate degradation. By installing a membrane unit to CFSTR, a stable performance was observed under much higher substrate loading (lactate 100mM and HRT 1.5d). A maximum cell concentration of 16.2g dcw/L, cell productivity of 1.9 g dcw/L/d, and FA productivity of 665 mg FA/L/d were attained, and these values were comparable with those achieved using microalgae. The FA content of R. sphaeroides was around 35% of dry cell weight, mainly composed of vaccenic acid (C18:1, omega-7). PMID:24055970

Kim, Dong-Hoon; Lee, Ji-Hye; Hwang, Yuhoon; Kang, Seoktae; Kim, Mi-Sun

2013-11-01

275

Spaceflight studies of tropisms in the European Modular Cultivation System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phototropism and gravitropism play key roles in the oriented growth of roots in flowering plants. In blue or white light, roots exhibit negative phototropism, but red light induces positive phototropism in Arabidopsis roots. The blue-light response is controlled by the phototropins while the red-light response is mediated by the phytochrome family of photoreceptors. In order to better characterize root phototropism, we plan to perform experiments in microgravity so that this tropism can be more effectively studied without the interactions with the gravity response. Our experiments are to be performed on the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS), which provides an incubator, lighting system, and high resolution video that are on a centrifuge palette. These experiments will be performed at ? g, 1g (control) and fractional g-levels. In order to ensure success of this mission on the International Space Station (ISS), we have been performing ground-based studies on growth, phototropism, and gravitropism in experimental unique equipment (EUE) that was designed for our experiments that will use Arabidopsis seedlings. Currently, the EMCS and our EUE are scheduled for launch on space shuttle mission STS-121. This project should provide insight into how the blue-light and red-light signaling systems interact with each other, and also with the gravisensing system.

Kiss, J. Z.; Correll, M. J.; Edelmann, R. E.

276

Recovery of proteins and microorganisms from cultivation media by foam flotation.  

PubMed

Foaming is often present in aerated bioreactors. It is undesired, because it removes the cells and the cultivation medium from the reactor and blocks the sterile filter. However, it can be used for the recovery of proteins and microorganisms from the cultivation medium. The present review deals with the characterization of model protein foams and foams of various cultivation media. The suppression of foaming by antifoam agents and their effect on the oxygen transfer rate, microbial cell growth and product formation are discussed. The influence of process variables on the recovery of proteins by flotation without and with surfactants and mathematical models for protein flotation are presented. The effect of cultivation conditions, flotation equipment and operational parameters on foam flotation of microorganisms is reviewed. Floatable and non-floatable microorganisms are characterized by their surface envelope properties. A mathematical model for cell recovery by flotation is presented. Possible application areas of cell recovery by flotation are discussed. PMID:11036688

Schügerl, K

2000-01-01

277

Novel Phaseolin Types in Wild and Cultivated Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, Fabaceae) 1  

E-print Network

; Loveless and Hamrick 1984). Hamrick and Allard (1972) used protein polymorphisms in Avena fatua L. and A allozyme variation among 31 collections of cultivated Lactuca sativa L. and wild Lactuca species to assess

Gepts, Paul

278

UPTAKE AND PHYTOTRANSFORMATION OF ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES BY AXENICALLY CULTIVATED AQUATIC PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The uptake and phytotransformation of organophosphorus (OP) pesticides (malathion, demeton-S-methyl, and crufomate) was investigated in vitro using the axenically aquatic cultivated plants parrot feather (Myriophyllum aquaticum), duckweed (Spirodela oligorrhiza L.), and elodea (E...

279

Submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms for production of valuable bioactive metabolites.  

PubMed

Mushrooms are abundant sources of a wide range of useful natural products. Nowadays, commercial mushroom products are from mushrooms collected from field cultivation, which is a time-consuming and labor-intensive process. Submerged cultivation of mushrooms has significant industrial potential, but its success on a commercial scale depends on cost compared with existing technology. Increasing product yields and development of novel production systems that address the problems associated with this new technology will certainly facilitate expansion. This article outlines the major valuable metabolites produced by mushroom cultivation and advances in submerged culture of mushrooms, taking Ganoderma lucidum, a popular folk and an oriental medicine used to treat many diseases, as a typical example. Our latest data on mushroom cultivation for efficient production of bioactive ganoderic acids and Ganoderma polysaccharides in bioreactors are presented. PMID:15217103

Zhong, Jian-Jiang; Tang, Ya-Jie

2004-01-01

280

77 FR 20610 - United States Standards for Grades of Cultivated Ginseng  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...SUMMARY: The Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS), of the Department of Agriculture (USDA...Standards for Grades of Cultivated Ginseng. AMS received a request from the Ginseng Board...Products Division Web site at http://www.ams.usda.gov/freshinspection....

2012-04-05

281

Online monitoring of microcarrier based fibroblast cultivations with in situ microscopy.  

PubMed

Animal cell culture is widely used in biotechnology for the production of many biological products. In situ microscopes acquire images directly from cell suspensions and analyze the images in matters of cell concentration, cell size distribution and cell morphology. Their applicability was already proven for yeast and suspended mammalian cell cultivations. In this work the in situ microscope was utilized to measure the level of colonization of fibroblasts on microcarrier surfaces during cultivation. For this study the murine cell line NIH-3T3 was used in combination with Cytodex 1 microcarriers. Cultivations were carried out in a 5 L stirred tank bioreactor equipped with the in situ microscope. Images were obtained sequentially with the in situ microscope over the whole cultivation time (900 images per sequence, 7.5 h per sequence on average). For the microcarrier analysis an image analysis algorithm based on a neural network was developed and implemented in the microscope analysis software. PMID:17546690

Rudolph, Guido; Lindner, Patrick; Gierse, Alexander; Bluma, Arne; Martinez, Geovanni; Hitzmann, Bernd; Scheper, Thomas

2008-01-01

282

Ecological aspects of swidden cultivation among the Andoke and Witoto indians of the Colombian Amazon  

SciTech Connect

The investigation of crop and soil-crop conditions among Andoke and Witoto cultivators in southeast Colombia is used as a basis for assessing Geertz' (1963) model of swidden cultivation. In this respect, the extent to which manioc-dominated swiddens in the study area simulate the structure and composition of the forest climax community is questioned. As Geertz (1963) indicates, and initial nutrient boost for crop cultivation results from the preliminary burning of forest debris, but weed competition, rather than progressive loss of soil fertility, is reported to be the primary cause of abandoning manioc cultivation after 2-3 years. While the Andoke and Witoto crop system remains adaptive at the individual field level, particularly in its constituent species, its fundamental adaptation is considered to be its integration into the broader field and fallow system that juxtaposes crop production with extended periods of forest regeneration.

Eden, M.J.; Andrade, A.

1987-09-01

283

29 CFR 780.110 - Operations included in “cultivation and tillage of the soil.”  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... “Cultivation and tillage of the soil” includes all the operations necessary...improve the physical condition of the soil. Thus, grading or leveling land...building terraces on farmland to check soil erosion are included. The application...

2014-07-01

284

29 CFR 780.110 - Operations included in “cultivation and tillage of the soil.”  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... “Cultivation and tillage of the soil” includes all the operations necessary...improve the physical condition of the soil. Thus, grading or leveling land...building terraces on farmland to check soil erosion are included. The application...

2011-07-01

285

29 CFR 780.110 - Operations included in “cultivation and tillage of the soil.”  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... “Cultivation and tillage of the soil” includes all the operations necessary...improve the physical condition of the soil. Thus, grading or leveling land...building terraces on farmland to check soil erosion are included. The application...

2012-07-01

286

29 CFR 780.110 - Operations included in “cultivation and tillage of the soil.”  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... “Cultivation and tillage of the soil” includes all the operations necessary...improve the physical condition of the soil. Thus, grading or leveling land...building terraces on farmland to check soil erosion are included. The application...

2013-07-01

287

Fertilization of Epichloe typhina in cultivated Dactylis glomerata by factors besides Botanophila flies  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Epichloë typhina, an endophytic fungus native to Europe, requires spermatia transfer between opposite mating types for fertilization. In wild grasses, Botanophila flies are recognized as vectors for spermatial transfer. However, in cultivated seed production fields of Dactylis glomerata (orchardgras...

288

Whole-Genome Shotgun Sequence of Arthrospira platensis Strain Paraca, a Cultivated and Edible Cyanobacterium  

PubMed Central

Here we report the whole-genome shotgun sequence of a Peruvian strain of Arthrospira platensis (Paraca), a cultivated and edible haloalkaliphilic cyanobacterium of great scientific, technical, and economic potential. PMID:25103760

Calmin, Gautier; Crovadore, Julien; Falquet, Jacques; Hurni, Jean-Pierre; Osteras, Magne; Haldemann, Francois; Farinelli, Laurent

2014-01-01

289

Water use and its recycling in microalgae cultivation for biofuel application.  

PubMed

Microalgal biofuels are not yet economically viable due to high material and energy costs associated with production process. Microalgae cultivation is a water-intensive process compared to other downstream processes for biodiesel production. Various studies found that the production of 1L of microalgal biodiesel requires approximately 3000L of water. Water recycling in microalgae cultivation is desirable not only to reduce the water demand, but it also improves the economic feasibility of algal biofuels as due to nutrients and energy savings. This review highlights recently published studies on microalgae water demand and water recycling in microalgae cultivation. Strategies to reduce water footprint for microalgal cultivation, advantages and disadvantages of water recycling, and approaches to mitigate the negative effects of water reuse within the context of water and energy saving are also discussed. PMID:25465788

Farooq, Wasif; Suh, William I; Park, Min S; Yang, Ji-Won

2014-11-01

290

Biophysical regulations of carbon fluxes of a steppe and a cultivated cropland in semiarid Inner Mongolia  

E-print Network

Biophysical regulations of carbon fluxes of a steppe and a cultivated cropland in semiarid Inner on the biophysical environ- ments. Filling this knowledge gap based on the biophysical regulations of carbon flux

Chen, Jiquan

291

Biology of Parasitoids (Hymenoptera) Attacking Dasineura oxycoccana and Prodiplosis vaccinii (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in Cultivated Blueberries  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The cranberry tipworm, Dasineura oxycoccana (Johnson), and the blueberry tipworm, Prodiplosis vaccinii (Felt) are recurring cecidomyiid pests of cultivated blueberries in the Southern United States and Mediterranean Europe. Insecticides can give short-term tipworm control, but overlap in parasitoid ...

292

Effect of Rj genotype and cultivation temperature on the community structure of soybean-nodulating bradyrhizobia.  

PubMed

The nodulation tendency and community structure of indigenous bradyrhizobia on Rj genotype soybean cultivars at cultivation temperatures of 33/28°C, 28/23°C, and 23/18°C for 16/8 h (day/night degrees, hours) were investigated using 780 bradyrhizobial DNA samples from an Andosol with 13 soybean cultivars of four Rj genotypes (non-Rj, Rj(2)Rj(3), Rj(4), and Rj(2)Rj(3)Rj(4)). A dendrogram was constructed based on restriction fragment length polymorphism of the PCR products (PCR-RFLP) of the 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer region. Eleven Bradyrhizobium U.S. Department of Agriculture strains were used as a reference. The dendrogram indicated seven clusters based on similarities among the reference strains. The occupancy rate of the Bj123 cluster decreased with increasing cultivation temperature, whereas the occupancy rates of the Bj110 cluster, Be76 cluster, and Be94 cluster increased with increasing cultivation temperature. In particular, the Rj(2)Rj(3)Rj(4) genotype soybeans were infected with a number of Bj110 clusters, regardless of the increasing cultivation temperature, compared to other Rj genotype soybean cultivars. The ratio of beta diversity to gamma diversity (H'(?)/H'(?)), which represents differences in the bradyrhizobial communities by pairwise comparison among cultivation temperature sets within the same soybean cultivar, indicated that the bradyrhizobial communities tended to be different among cultivation temperatures. Multidimensional scaling analysis indicated that the infection of the Bj110 cluster and the Bj123 cluster by host soybean genotype and the cultivation temperature affected the bradyrhizobial communities. These results suggested that the Rj genotypes and cultivation temperatures affected the nodulation tendency and community structures of soybean-nodulating bradyrhizobia. PMID:22156423

Shiro, Sokichi; Yamamoto, Akihiro; Umehara, Yosuke; Hayashi, Masaki; Yoshida, Naoto; Nishiwaki, Aya; Yamakawa, Takeo; Saeki, Yuichi

2012-02-01

293

Influence of Algal Community Structure on Denitrification Rates in Periphyton Cultivated on Artificial Substrata  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a field survey of periphyton cultivated on benthic mesh installations in freshwater aquatic systems, including\\u000a two constructed wetlands and a pond, and also studied periphyton grown on a benthic mesh in laboratory mesocosms. The objectives\\u000a of this study were to (1) determine if periphyton cultivated on benthic mesh denitrifies at higher rates than the underlying\\u000a sediments and (2)

Cari K. Ishida; Shai Arnon; Christopher G. Peterson; John J. Kelly; Kimberly A. Gray

2008-01-01

294

Cultivation of GMO in Germany: support of monitoring and coexistence issues by WebGIS technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In Germany, apart from the Amflora potato licensed for cultivation since March 2010, Bt-maize MON810 is the only genetically modified organisms (GMO) licensed for commercial cultivation (about 3,000 ha in 2008). Concerns have been raised about potential adverse environmental impacts of the GMO and about potential implications on the coexistence between conventional and genetically modified production. These issues should

Lukas Kleppin; Gunther Schmidt; Winfried Schröder

2011-01-01

295

Infraspecific variation and systematics of cultivated Setaria italica , foxtail millet (Poaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foxtail millet (Setaria italica,) is grown as a cereal in southern Europe and in temperate, subtropical, and tropical Asia. Its closest wild relative isS. italica ssp.viridis (green foxtail). Green foxtail is native to temperate Eurasia, but was introduced and became widely established as a weed\\u000a in temperate and warmer parts of the Americas. Spontaneous and cultivatedS. italica cross to produce

K. E. Prasada Rao; J. M. J. de Wet; D. E. Brink; M. H. Mengesha

1987-01-01

296

Too Much of a Good Thing? Gender, ‘Concerted Cultivation’ and Unequal Achievement in Primary Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well established that cultural and economic resources imparted to children vary significantly by social class. Literature\\u000a on concerted cultivation has highlighted the way out-of-school activities can reproduce social inequalities in the classroom.\\u000a Within this literature however, little attention has been given to the role of gender in concerted cultivation. In this paper,\\u000a we use data from the first

Selina McCoy; Delma Byrne; Joanne Banks

2010-01-01

297

Some characteristics of nitrogen-fixing bacteria isolated from cultivated and uncultivated sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen-fixing bacteria grown in semisolid malate agar were isolated from the soils and various plant roots of cultivated and noncultivated sites in and near Tokyo University Forest in Aichi, and characteristics of the isolates were compared.Nitrogen-fixing bacteria were present in all of the root and soil samples from the cultivated site, and most of them were Azospirillum brasilense-like. All of

Ichio Nioh

1983-01-01

298

Changes in soil carbon inventories following cultivation of previously untilled soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultivation of previously untilled soils usually results in release of carbon from the soil to the atmosphere, which can affect\\u000a both soil fertility locally and the atmospheric burden of CO2 globally. Generalizations about the magnitude of this flux have been hampered by a lack of good quality comparative data\\u000a on soil carbon stocks of cultivated and uncultivated soils. Using data

Eric A. Davidson; Ilse L. Ackerman

1993-01-01

299

Effect of Agave tequilana age, cultivation field location and yeast strain on tequila fermentation process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of yeast strain, the agave age and the cultivation field location of agave were evaluated using kinetic parameters\\u000a and volatile compound production in the tequila fermentation process. Fermentations were carried out with Agave juice obtained\\u000a from two cultivation fields (CF1 and CF2), as well as two ages (4 and 8 years) and two Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains (GU3 and

L. Pinal; E. Cornejo; M. Arellano; E. Herrera; L. Nuñez; J. Arrizon; A. Gschaedler

2009-01-01

300

Effect of 3D Cultivation Conditions on the Differentiation of Endodermal Cells  

PubMed Central

Cellular therapy of endodermal organs is one of the most important issues in modern cellular biology and biotechnology. One of the most promising directions in this field is the study of the transdifferentiation abilities of cells within the same germ layer. A method for anin vitroinvestigation of the cell differentiation potential (the cell culture in a three-dimensional matrix) is described in this article. Cell cultures of postnatal salivary gland cells and postnatal liver progenitor cells were obtained; their comparative analysis under 2D and 3D cultivation conditions was carried out. Both cell types have high proliferative abilities and can be cultivated for more than 20 passages. Under 2D cultivation conditions, the cells remain in an undifferentiated state. Under 3D conditions, they undergo differentiation, which was confirmed by a lower cell proliferation and by an increase in the differentiation marker expression. Salivary gland cells can undergo hepatic and pancreatic differentiation under 3D cultivation conditions. Liver progenitor cells also acquire a pancreatic differentiation capability under conditions of 3D cultivation. Thus, postnatal salivary gland cells exhibit a considerable differentiation potential within the endodermal germ layer and can be used as a promising source of endodermal cells for the cellular therapy of liver pathologies. Cultivation of cells under 3D conditions is a useful model for thein vitroanalysis of the cell differentiation potential. PMID:23346379

Petrakova, O. S.; Ashapkin, V. V.; Voroteliak, E. A.; Bragin, E. Y.; Shtratnikova, V. Y.; Chernioglo, E. S.; Sukhanov, Y. V.; Terskikh, V. V.; Vasiliev, A. V.

2012-01-01

301

Seasonal cultivated and fallow cropland mapping using MODIS-based automated cropland classification algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing drought occurrences and growing populations demand accurate, routine, and consistent cultivated and fallow cropland products to enable water and food security analysis. The overarching goal of this research was to develop and test automated cropland classification algorithm (ACCA) that provide accurate, consistent, and repeatable information on seasonal cultivated as well as seasonal fallow cropland extents and areas based on the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer remote sensing data. Seasonal ACCA development process involves writing series of iterative decision tree codes to separate cultivated and fallow croplands from noncroplands, aiming to accurately mirror reliable reference data sources. A pixel-by-pixel accuracy assessment when compared with the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) cropland data showed, on average, a producer's accuracy of 93% and a user's accuracy of 85% across all months. Further, ACCA-derived cropland maps agreed well with the USDA Farm Service Agency crop acreage-reported data for both cultivated and fallow croplands with R-square values over 0.7 and field surveys with an accuracy of ?95% for cultivated croplands and ?76% for fallow croplands. Our results demonstrated the ability of ACCA to generate cropland products, such as cultivated and fallow cropland extents and areas, accurately, automatically, and repeatedly throughout the growing season.

Wu, Zhuoting; Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Mueller, Rick; Zakzeski, Audra; Melton, Forrest; Johnson, Lee; Rosevelt, Carolyn; Dwyer, John; Jones, Jeanine; Verdin, James P.

2014-01-01

302

POTENTIAL OF GREENHOUSE GASES REDUCTION BY FUEL CROP CULTIVATION UTILIZING SEWAGE SLUDGE IN JAPAN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Potential of greenhouse gases (GHG) reduction was estimated and compared in six scenarios of fuel crop cultivation by utilizing sewage sludge in Japan. Bioethanol from corn and biodiesel fuel from soybean was selected as biofuel produced. When all the sludge discharged from sewage treatment plants in 18 major cities was utilized for soybean cultivation and subsequent biodiesel fuel production, produced biofuel corresponded to 4.0% of GHG emitted from sewage treatment in Japan. On the other hand, cultivation area for fuel crop cultivation was found to be the regulating factor. When fuel crop was cultivated only in abandoned agricultural fields, produced biofuel corresponded to 0.60% and 0.62%, respectively, in the case that corn and soybean was cultivated. Production of biodiesel fuel from soybean was estimated to have more net reduction potential than bioehanol production from corn when sludge production is limited, because required sewage sludge compost was 2.5-times larger in corn although reduction potential per crop area was 2-times larger in bioethanol production from corn.

Honda, Ryo; Fukushi, Kensuke

303

Rice cultivation and methane emission: Documentation of distributed geographic data sets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High-resolution global data bases on the geographic and seasonal distribution of rice cultivation and associated methane emission, compiled by Matthews et al., were archived for public use. In addition to the primary data sets identifying location, seasonality, and methane emission from rice cultivation, a series of supporting data sets is included, allowing users not only to replicate the work of Matthews et al. but to investigate alternative cultivation and emission scenarios. The suite of databases provided, at 1 latitude by 1 longitude resolution for the globe, includes (1) locations of rice cultivation, (2) monthly arrays of actively growing rice areas, (3) countries and political subdivisions, and (4) monthly arrays of methane emission from rice cultivation. Ancillary data include (1) a listing, by country, of harvested rice areas and seasonal distribution of crop cycles and (2) country names and codes. Summary tables of zonal/monthly distributions of actively growing rice areas and of methane emissions are presented. Users should consult original publications for complete discussion of the data bases. This short paper is designed only to document formats of the distributed information and briefly describe the contents of the data sets and their initial application to evaluating the role of rice cultivation in the methane budget.

Matthews, Elaine; John, Jasmin; Fung, Inez

1994-01-01

304

Scale-up potential of cultivating Chlorella zofingiensis in piggery wastewater for biodiesel production.  

PubMed

Scale-up potential of cultivating Chlorella zofingiensis in piggery wastewater for simultaneous wastewater treatment and biodiesel production was tested. The cultivation of C. zofingiensis with autoclaved wastewater and NaClO-pretreated wastewater, cultivation of algae indoors and outdoors, and stability of semi-continuous feeding operation were examined. The results showed that C. zofingiensis cultivated in piggery wastewater pretreated by autoclaving and NaClO had no evident difference in the performance of nutrient removal, algal growth and biodiesel production. The outdoor cultivation experiments indicated that C. zofingiensis was able to adapt and grow well outdoors. The semi-continuous feeding operation by replacing 50% of algae culture with fresh wastewater every 1.5 days could provide a stable net biomass productivity of 1.314 g L(-1) day(-1). These findings in this study can prove that it is greatly possible to amplify the cultivation of C. zofingiensis in piggery wastewater for nutrient removal and biodiesel production. PMID:23591119

Yuan, Zhenhong; Wang, Zhongming; Takala, Josu; Hiltunen, Erkki; Qin, Lei; Xu, Zhongbin; Qin, Xiaoxi; Zhu, Liandong

2013-06-01

305

Evaluating lek occupancy of greater sage-grouse in relation to landscape cultivation in the Dakotas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) have been declining in many states and provinces of North America, and North and South Dakota hold no exception to these declines. We studied effects of cultivated land on Greater Sage-Grouse lek abandonment in North and South Dakota. Landscape-level data were assessed using satellite imagery within a geographic information system. Comparisons were made of 1972-1976 and 1999-2000 percent cultivated and noncultivated land. These comparisons were made between land uses surrounding active leks versus inactive leks, active leks versus random locations, and abandoned regions versus active regions. The 1999-2000 imagery illustrated that percent cultivated land was greater near abandoned leks (4-km buffers) than near active leks in North Dakota or random sites, but this did not hold true in South Dakota. Comparison of an extensive region of abandoned leks with a region of active leks in North Dakota illustrated a similar increase as well as dispersion of cultivation within the abandoned region. However, 1972-1976 imagery revealed that this relationship between percentage of cultivated land and lek activity in North Dakota has been static over the last 30 years. Thus, if the decline of Greater Sage-Grouse is the result of cultivated land infringements, it occurred prior to 1972 in North Dakota.

Smith, J.T.; Flake, L.D.; Higgins, K.F.; Kobriger, G.D.; Homer, C.G.

2005-01-01

306

Cultivation of microalgae in dairy effluent for oil production and removal of organic pollution load.  

PubMed

Dairy effluent (DE) was evaluated for cultivation of the oleaginous micro alga Chlorococcum sp. RAP13 under mixotrophic and heterotrophic modes. The alga grew better and accumulated more lipids under heterotrophic cultivation. Supplementation of biodiesel industry waste glycerol (BDWG) to DE enhanced the biomass production as well as lipid accumulation. While the biomass yield was 0.8g/L for mixotrophic cultivation, it was 1.48g/L and 1.94g/L respectively when cultivated with 4% or 6% BDWG. The cells accumulated 31% lipid when grown in mixotrophic mode, and heterotrophic cultivation with 4% or 6% BDWG resulted in a lipid accumulation of 39% and 42% respectively. Saturated fatty acids production was elevated in the DE, and the major fatty acid components of the algal oil were palmitic (16:0), oleic (18:1), stearic (18:0), linoleic (18:2) and linolenic (18:3) acids. DE quality improved with reduction in COD and BOD after algal cultivation. PMID:24703181

Ummalyma, Sabeela Beevi; Sukumaran, Rajeev K

2014-08-01

307

Ex situ cultivation affects genetic structure and diversity in arable plants.  

PubMed

Worldwide, botanical gardens cultivate around 80,000 taxa, corresponding to approximately one-quarter of all vascular plants. Most cultivated taxa are, however, held in a small number of collections, and mostly only in small populations. Lack of genetic exchange and stochastic processes in small populations make them susceptible to detrimental genetic effects, which should be most severe in annual species, as sowing cycles are often short. In order to assess whether ex situ cultivation affects genetic diversity of annuals, five annual arable species with similar breeding systems were assessed with 42 in situ populations being compared to 20 ex situ populations using a random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis approach. Population sizes tended to be lower under ex situ cultivation and levels of genetic diversity also tended to be lower in four of the five species, with differences being significant in only two. Ex situ populations showed incomplete representation of alleles found in the wild. The duration of cultivation did not indicate any effect on genetic diversity. This implies that cultivation strategies resulted in different genetic structures in the garden populations. Although not unequivocally pronounced, differences nonetheless imply that conservation strategies in the involved gardens may need improvement. One option is cold storage of seeds, a practice that is not currently followed in the studied ex situ collections. This may reflect that the respective gardens focus on displaying living plant populations. PMID:22882447

Brütting, C; Hensen, I; Wesche, K

2013-05-01

308

GIS-based quality analysis on the cultivated land resources in poor areas of China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cultivated land resource is a key factor that affects the development standard of a region. By analysis of land use and land cover data in 2000, together with national geographical data, soil fertility comprehensive quality assessment data (1980), a GIS-based research is carried out on the quality analysis of cultivated land resources in poor areas. Firstly, data mining methods are used to gather the inter-relationships between the poor areas' cultivated land resources and its geographical background factors. Secondly, comparative analysis between the poor areas and non-poor areas is conducted to reveal the difference. Results show that the big difference exists in the basic natural features of the cultivated land resources between poor and non-poor areas. Although the quantity of cultivated land resource in those poor areas is not less than that of non-poor areas, the quality is lowly evaluated because of its high elevation, steep slope and earth surface roughness. Finally, after overlay analysis, the natural quality of cultivated land resources in poor areas is assessed according to their topographical and soil fertility features.

Liu, Ling; Wang, Ying Jie; Han, Jia Fu

2009-07-01

309

Hydroponic cultivation improves the nutritional quality of soybean and its products.  

PubMed

Hydroponic cultivation allows the control of environmental conditions, saves irrigation water, increases productivity, and prevents plant infections. The use of this technique for large commodities such as soybean is not a relevant issue on fertile soils, but hydroponic soybean cultivation could provide proteins and oil in adverse environmental conditions. In this paper, the compositions of four cultivars of soybean seeds and their derivates, soy milk and okara, grown hydroponically were compared to that of the same cultivar obtained from soil cultivation in an open field. Besides proximal composition, the concentrations of phytic acid and isoflavones were monitored in the seeds, soy milk, and okara. Results demonstrated that, independent from the cultivar, hydroponic compared to soil cultivation promoted the accumulation of fats (from 17.37 to 21.94 g/100 g dry matter) and total dietary fiber (from 21.67 to 28.46 g/100 g dry matter) and reduced isoflavones concentration (from 17.04 to 7.66 mg/kg dry matter), whereas protein concentration was unaffected. The differences found in seed composition were confirmed in the respective okara products, but the effect of cultivation system was not significant looking at the soy milk composition. Data showed that hydroponic cultivation improved the nutritional quality of soybean seeds with regard to fats and dietary fiber. They also suggest that specific cultivars should be selected to obtain the desired nutritional features of the soybean raw material depending on its final destination. PMID:22168253

Palermo, Mariantonella; Paradiso, Roberta; De Pascale, Stefania; Fogliano, Vincenzo

2012-01-11

310

Cultivable Anaerobic Microbiota of Severe Early Childhood Caries?¶  

PubMed Central

Severe early childhood caries (ECC), while strongly associated with Streptococcus mutans using selective detection (culture, PCR), has also been associated with a widely diverse microbiota using molecular cloning approaches. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiota of severe ECC using anaerobic culture. The microbial composition of dental plaque from 42 severe ECC children was compared with that of 40 caries-free children. Bacterial samples were cultured anaerobically on blood and acid (pH 5) agars. Isolates were purified, and partial sequences for the 16S rRNA gene were obtained from 5,608 isolates. Sequence-based analysis of the 16S rRNA isolate libraries from blood and acid agars of severe ECC and caries-free children had >90% population coverage, with greater diversity occurring in the blood isolate library. Isolate sequences were compared with taxon sequences in the Human Oral Microbiome Database (HOMD), and 198 HOMD taxa were identified, including 45 previously uncultivated taxa, 29 extended HOMD taxa, and 45 potential novel groups. The major species associated with severe ECC included Streptococcus mutans, Scardovia wiggsiae, Veillonella parvula, Streptococcus cristatus, and Actinomyces gerensceriae. S. wiggsiae was significantly associated with severe ECC children in the presence and absence of S. mutans detection. We conclude that anaerobic culture detected as wide a diversity of species in ECC as that observed using cloning approaches. Culture coupled with 16S rRNA identification identified over 74 isolates for human oral taxa without previously cultivated representatives. The major caries-associated species were S. mutans and S. wiggsiae, the latter of which is a candidate as a newly recognized caries pathogen. PMID:21289150

Tanner, A. C. R.; Mathney, J. M. J.; Kent, R. L.; Chalmers, N. I.; Hughes, C. V.; Loo, C. Y.; Pradhan, N.; Kanasi, E.; Hwang, J.; Dahlan, M. A.; Papadopolou, E.; Dewhirst, F. E.

2011-01-01

311

[Effects of substrate-aeration cultivation pattern on tomato growth].  

PubMed

Aeroponics can increase the fruit yield of tomato plant, but its cost is very high. In this paper, tomato seedlings were planted with three cultures, i. e., whole perlite culture (CK), perlite-aeration culture (T1), and aeroponics (T2), and a comparative study was made on the seedlings growth. Compared with CK, T1 improved the gas environment in root zone significantly, with the CO2 and O2 concentrations in root zone being 0.2 and 1.17 times higher, and increased the plant height and stem diameter after 60 days of transplanting by 5.1% and 8.4%, respectively. The plant net photosynthetic rate of T1 was significantly higher than that of CK, with the maximum value after transplanting 45 days increased by 13%. T1 also increased the root activity and ion absorbing ability significantly, with the root activity after transplanting 45 days being 1.23 times of CK, and the root K, Ca, and Mg contents after transplanting 60 days increased by 31%, 37%, and 27%, respectively. The fruit yield of T1 was 1.16 times of CK. No significant differences in these indices were observed between T1 and T2, and less difference in the fruit soluble sugar and organic acid contents as well as the sugar-acid ratio was found among CK, T1, and T2. It was suggested that perlite-aeration cultivation pattern was an easy and feasible way to markedly improve the fruit yield of tomato plant. PMID:20387426

Zhao, Xu; Li, Tian-Lai; Sun, Zhou-Ping

2010-01-01

312

The Community Land Model underestimates land-use CO2 emissions by neglecting soil disturbance from cultivation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Community Land Model (CLM) can simulate planting and harvesting of crops but does not include effects of cultivation on soil carbon decomposition. The biogeochemistry model DayCent does account for cultivation and provides a baseline for evaluating the CLM. With the goal of representing cultivation effects on soil carbon decomposition, we implemented the DayCent cultivation parameterization in the CLM and compared CLM and DayCent simulations at eight Midwestern United States sites with and without the cultivation parameterization. Cultivation decreases soil carbon by about 1350 gC m-2 in the CLM and 1660 gC m-2 in DayCent across the eight sites from the first cultivation (early 1900s) to 2010. CLM crop simulations without cultivation have soil carbon gain, not loss, over this period, in contrast to the expected declining trends in agricultural soil carbon. A global cultivation simulation for 1973-2004 reduces ecosystem carbon by 0.4 Pg yr-1 over temperate corn, soybean, and cereal crop areas, which occupy approximately 1/3 of global crop area. Earth System Models may improve their atmospheric CO2 and soil carbon simulations by accounting for enhanced decomposition from cultivation.

Levis, S.; Hartman, M. D.; Bonan, G. B.

2014-04-01

313

Determination of Mineral Components in the Cultivation Substrates of Edible Mushrooms and Their Uptake into Fruiting Bodies  

PubMed Central

The mineral contents of the cultivation substrates, fruiting bodies of the mushrooms, and the postharvest cultivation substrates were determined in cultivated edible mushrooms Pleurotus eryngii, Flammulina velutipes, and Hypsizigus marmoreus. The major mineral elements both in the cultivation substrates and in the fruiting bodies were K, Mg, Ca, and Na. Potassium was particularly abundant ranging 10~13 g/kg in the cultivation substrates and 26~30 g/kg in the fruiting bodies. On the contrary, the calcium content in the fruiting bodies was very low despite high concentrations in the cultivation substrates, indicating Ca in the cultivation substrates is in a less bio-available form or the mushrooms do not have efficient Ca uptake channels. Among the minor mineral elements determined in this experiment, Cu, Zn, and Ni showed high percentage of transfer from the cultivation substrates to the fruiting bodies. It is noteworthy that the mineral contents in the postharvest cultivation substrates were not changed significantly which implies that the spent cultivation substrates are nutritionally intact in terms of mineral contents and thus can be recycled as mineral sources and animal feeds. PMID:23983518

Lee, Chang-Yun; Park, Jeong-Eun; Kim, Bo-Bae; Kim, Sun-Mi

2009-01-01

314

Fed-batch cultivation of Desmodesmus sp. in anaerobic digestion wastewater for improved nutrient removal and biodiesel production.  

PubMed

Desmodesmus sp. was used in anaerobically digested wastewater (ADW) for nutrients removal and the biodiesel production was measured and compared using fed-batch cultivation was investigated and compared with batch cultivation. The Desmodesmus sp. was able to remove 236.143, 268.238 and 6.427mg/L of TN, NH4-N and PO4-P respectively after 40d of fed-batch cultivation, while in batch cultivation the quantities of TN, NH4-N and PO4-P removed were 33.331, 37.227 and 1.323mg/L. Biomass production of Desmodesmus sp. was also enhanced in fed-batch cultivation, when ADW loading was carried out every 2days; the biomass concentration peaked at 1.039g/L, which was three times higher than that obtained in batch cultivation (0.385g/L). The highest lipid production (261.8mg/L) was also recorded in fed-batch cultivation as compared to batch cultivation (83.3mg/L). Fed-batch cultivation of Desmodesmus sp. could provide effective control of nutrients limitation and/or ammonia inhibition on microalgae cultivation. PMID:25451775

Ji, Fang; Zhou, Yuguang; Pang, Aiping; Ning, Li; Rodgers, Kibet; Liu, Ying; Dong, Renjie

2014-10-13

315

Origins and Domestication of Cultivated Banana Inferred from Chloroplast and Nuclear Genes  

PubMed Central

Background Cultivated bananas are large, vegetatively-propagated members of the genus Musa. More than 1,000 cultivars are grown worldwide and they are major economic and food resources in numerous developing countries. It has been suggested that cultivated bananas originated from the islands of Southeast Asia (ISEA) and have been developed through complex geodomestication pathways. However, the maternal and parental donors of most cultivars are unknown, and the pattern of nucleotide diversity in domesticated banana has not been fully resolved. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied the genetics of 16 cultivated and 18 wild Musa accessions using two single-copy nuclear (granule-bound starch synthase I, GBSS I, also known as Waxy, and alcohol dehydrogenase 1, Adh1) and two chloroplast (maturase K, matK, and the trnL-F gene cluster) genes. The results of phylogenetic analyses showed that all A-genome haplotypes of cultivated bananas were grouped together with those of ISEA subspecies of M. acuminata (A-genome). Similarly, the B- and S-genome haplotypes of cultivated bananas clustered with the wild species M. balbisiana (B-genome) and M. schizocarpa (S-genome), respectively. Notably, it has been shown that distinct haplotypes of each cultivar (A-genome group) were nested together to different ISEA subspecies M. acuminata. Analyses of nucleotide polymorphism in the Waxy and Adh1 genes revealed that, in comparison to the wild relatives, cultivated banana exhibited slightly lower nucleotide diversity both across all sites and specifically at silent sites. However, dramatically reduced nucleotide diversity was found at nonsynonymous sites for cultivated bananas. Conclusions/Significance Our study not only confirmed the origin of cultivated banana as arising from multiple intra- and inter-specific hybridization events, but also showed that cultivated banana may have not suffered a severe genetic bottleneck during the domestication process. Importantly, our findings suggested that multiple maternal origins and a reduction in nucleotide diversity at nonsynonymous sites are general attributes of cultivated bananas. PMID:24260405

Zhang, Cui; Wang, Xin-Feng; Shi, Feng-Xue; Chen, Wen-Na; Ge, Xue-Jun

2013-01-01

316

Groundwater level deterioration issues and suggested solution for the water curtain cultivation area in South Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Protected water curtain cultivation system is an energy saving technique for winter season by splashing groundwater on the inner roof of the green house. But the issue is that the method results in groundwater level deterioration because it disposes the used groundwater to nearby stream. Reuse of the groundwater for water curtain cultivation is important Groundwater level, steam level, and groundwater usage rate are investigated at the five green house concentrated areas such as Cheongwon, Namyangju, Choongju, Namwon, Jinju. Groundwater usage rate is estimated using a ultrasonic flowmeter for a specific well and using the combination of pressure sensor and propeller type velocity counting equipment at a water disposal channel from November to April which is water curtain cultivating season. Groundwater usage rate ranges from 46.9m3/d to 108.0m3/d for a 10a greenhouse. Groundwater level change is strongly influenced by seasonal variation of rainfall and concentrated pumping activities in winter but the level is lower than stream level all year long resulting in all year around losing stream at Cheongwon, Namyangju, Jinju. At Nanwon, the stream is converted from losing one in winter to gaining one in summer. Groundwater level deterioration at concentrated water curtain cultivation area is found to be severe for some area where circulating water curtain cultivation system is need to be applied for groundwater restoration and sustainable cultivation in winter. Circulating water curtain cultivation system can restore the groundwater level by recharging the used groundwater through injection well and then pumping out from pumping well.

Kim, Yongcheol; Lee, Bongju; Ha, Kucheol; Yoon, Yunyeol; Moon, Sangho; Cho, Suyoung; Kim, Seongyun

2013-04-01

317

Potential Air Quality Impacts of Global Bioenergy Crop Cultivation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of bioenergy crops as a replacement for traditional coal-powered electricity generation will require large-scale land-use change, and the resulting changes in emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) may have negative impacts on local to regional air quality. BVOCs contribute to the formation of both ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5), with magnitudes of specific compound emissions governed largely by plant speciation and land coverage. For this reason, large-scale land-use change has the potential to markedly alter regional O3 and PM2.5 levels, especially if there are large differences between the emission profiles of the replacement bioenergy crops (many of which are high BVOC emitters) and the previous crops or land cover. In this work, replacement areas suitable for the cultivation of the bioenergy crops switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and giant reed (Arundo donax) were selected based on existing global inventories of under-utilized cropland and local climatological conditions. These two crops are among the most popular current candidates for bioenergy production, and provide contrasting examples of energy densities and emissions profiles. While giant reed has been selected in an ongoing large-scale coal-to-biocharcoal conversion in the Northwestern United States due to its high crop yields and energy density, it is also among the highest biogenic emitters of isoprene. On the other hand, switchgrass produces less biomass per acre, but also emits essentially no isoprene and low total BVOCs. The effects of large-scale conversion to these crops on O3 and PM2.5 were simulated using version 1.1 of the Community Earth System Model (CESM) coupled with version 2.1 of the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN). By comparing crop replacement scenarios involving A. donax and P. virgatum, the sensitivities of O3 and PM2.5 levels to worldwide increases in bioenergy production were examined, providing an initial assessment of regions in which higher-yield, higher-emitting crops may lead to unacceptable reductions in regional air quality, as well as the potential for mitigation of those unintended consequences with lower-yield, lower-emitting crops.

Porter, W. C.; Rosenstiel, T. N.; Barsanti, K. C.

2012-12-01

318

Cultivating Citizen Scientists in the Undergraduate Science Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several studies indicate a strong correlation between the number of college science courses and science literacy. It is not surprising, then, that the majority of participants in citizen science projects are college graduates who enrolled in at least two science courses. If one goal of citizen science projects is to increase civic science literacy, research suggests that most are preaching to the choir. Attracting a wider audience to citizen science is, therefore, a key challenge. One way to address this challenge is to attract students to enroll and succeed in science courses in college, even if they do not pursue a major in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines. In fact, only 20% of students receive a degree in STEM, yet virtually all undergraduates are required to take at least one science course. Introductory science courses are therefore critical to cultivating citizen scientists, as they include a large proportion of non- STEM majors. Indeed, a major thrust of recent undergraduate STEM educational reform has been the promotion of 'science for all'. The science for all concept goes beyond recruiting students into the STEM disciplines to promoting a level of scientific literacy necessary to make informed decisions. A clear implication of this inclusive attitude is the need to redesign introductory science courses to make them accessible and explicitly related to scientific literacy. This does not mean dumbing down courses; on the contrary, it means engaging students in real scientific investigations and incorporating explicit teaching about the process of science, thus fostering a lifelong appreciation for (and, hopefully, participation in) science. Unfortunately, many students enter college with minimal understanding of the process of science. And when they arrive in their introductory classes, science is presented to them as a system of facts to be memorized - comparable to memorizing a poem in a foreign language without understanding the vocabulary. New resources available through the Visionlearning project (http://www.visionlearning.com) provide the means to incorporate teaching about the process of science into disciplinary content, thus facilitating the reform the way that undergraduate students are taught science at the introductory level. This kind of educational reform may be a long-term approach to developing citizen scientists, but research from several different disciplines and perspectives suggests it is a critical step in building scientific literacy and lifelong participation in science.

Egger, A. E.

2007-12-01

319

Long-term Black Carbon Dynamics in Cultivated Soil  

SciTech Connect

Black carbon (BC) is a quantitatively important C pool in the global carbon cycle due to its relative recalcitrance against decay compared with other C pools. However, how rapidly BC is oxidized and in what way the molecular structure changes during decomposition over decadal time scales, is largely unknown. In the present study, the long-term dynamics in quality and quantity of BC were investigated in cultivated soil using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) techniques. BC particles, obtained from soil samples at 8 conversion ages stretching over 100 years and from a forest soil sample from Kenya, were manually picked under a light microscope for characterization and quantification. BC contents rapidly decreased from 12.7 to 3.8 mg C g?¹ soil during the first 30 years since conversion, after which they slowly decreased to a steady state at 3.51 mg C g ?¹soil. BC-derived C losses over 100 years were estimated at 6000 kg C ha?¹ to a depth of 0.1 m. The initial rapid changes in BC stocks resulted in a mean residence time of only around 8.3 years, which was likely a function of both decomposition as well as transport processes. The molecular properties of BC changed more rapidly on surfaces than in the interior of BC particles and more rapidly during the first 30 years than during the following 70 years. The Oc/C ratios (Oc is O bound to C) and carbonyl groups (C=O) increased over time by 133 and 192 %, respectively, indicating oxidation was an important degradation process controlling BC quality. Al, Si, polysaccharides, and to a lesser extent Fe were rapidly adsorbed on BC particle surfaces within the first few years after BC deposition to soil. The protection by physical and chemical stabilization was apparently sufficient to not only minimize decomposition below detection between 30 and 100 years after deposition, but also physical export by erosion and vertical transport below 0.1 m.

Nguyen, Binh T.; Lehmann, Johannes C.; Kinyangi, James; Smernik, Ron; Riha, Susan J.; Engelhard, Mark H.

2008-07-01

320

The relationship between lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase production capacities and cultivation periods of mushrooms.  

PubMed

Mushrooms are able to secrete lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP), and able to use the cellulose as sources of carbon. This article focuses on the relation between peroxidase-secreting capacity and cultivation period of mushrooms with non-laccase activity. Methylene blue and methyl catechol qualitative assay and spectrophotometry quantitative assay show LiP secreting unvaryingly accompanies the MnP secreting in mushroom strains. The growth rates of hyphae are detected by detecting the dry hyphal mass. We link the peroxidase activities to growth rate of mushrooms and then probe into the relationship between them. The results show that there are close relationships between LiP- and/or MnP-secretory capacities and the cultivation periods of mushrooms. The strains with high LiP and MnP activities have short cultivation periods. However, those strains have long cultivation periods because of the low levels of secreted LiP and/or MnP, even no detectable LiP and/or MnP activity. This study provides the first evidence on the imitate relation between the level of secreted LiP and MnP activities and cultivation periods of mushrooms with non-laccase activity. Our study has significantly increased the understanding of the role of LiP and MnP in the growth and development of mushrooms with non-laccase activity. PMID:22966760

Xu, Jian Z; Zhang, Jun L; Hu, Kai H; Zhang, Wei G

2013-05-01

321

Cultivation-independent detection of autotrophic hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria by DNA stable-isotope probing.  

PubMed

Knallgas bacteria are a physiologically defined group that is primarily studied using cultivation-dependent techniques. Given that current cultivation techniques fail to grow most bacteria, cultivation-independent techniques that selectively detect and identify knallgas bacteria will improve our ability to study their diversity and distribution. We used stable-isotope probing (SIP) to identify knallgas bacteria in rhizosphere soil of legumes and in a microbial mat from Obsidian Pool in Yellowstone National Park. When samples were incubated in the dark, incorporation of (13)CO(2) was H(2) dependent. SIP enabled the detection of knallgas bacteria that were not detected by cultivation, and the majority of bacteria identified in the rhizosphere soils were betaproteobacteria predominantly related to genera previously known to oxidize hydrogen. Bacteria in soil grew on hydrogen at concentrations as low as 100 ppm. A hydB homolog encoding a putative high-affinity NiFe hydrogenase was amplified from (13)C-labeled DNA from both vetch and clover rhizosphere soil. The results indicate that knallgas bacteria can be detected by SIP and populations that respond to different H(2) concentrations can be distinguished. The methods described here should be applicable to a variety of ecosystems and will enable the discovery of additional knallgas bacteria that are resistant to cultivation. PMID:21622787

Pumphrey, Graham M; Ranchou-Peyruse, Anthony; Spain, Jim C

2011-07-01

322

The relationship between lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase production capacities and cultivation periods of mushrooms  

PubMed Central

Mushrooms are able to secrete lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP), and able to use the cellulose as sources of carbon. This article focuses on the relation between peroxidase-secreting capacity and cultivation period of mushrooms with non-laccase activity. Methylene blue and methyl catechol qualitative assay and spectrophotometry quantitative assay show LiP secreting unvaryingly accompanies the MnP secreting in mushroom strains. The growth rates of hyphae are detected by detecting the dry hyphal mass. We link the peroxidase activities to growth rate of mushrooms and then probe into the relationship between them. The results show that there are close relationships between LiP- and/or MnP-secretory capacities and the cultivation periods of mushrooms. The strains with high LiP and MnP activities have short cultivation periods. However, those strains have long cultivation periods because of the low levels of secreted LiP and/or MnP, even no detectable LiP and/or MnP activity. This study provides the first evidence on the imitate relation between the level of secreted LiP and MnP activities and cultivation periods of mushrooms with non-laccase activity. Our study has significantly increased the understanding of the role of LiP and MnP in the growth and development of mushrooms with non-laccase activity. PMID:22966760

Xu, Jian Z; Zhang, Jun L; Hu, Kai H; Zhang, Wei G

2013-01-01

323

Integration of microalgae cultivation with industrial waste remediation for biofuel and bioenergy production: opportunities and limitations.  

PubMed

There is currently a renewed interest in developing microalgae as a source of renewable energy and fuel. Microalgae hold great potential as a source of biomass for the production of energy and fungible liquid transportation fuels. However, the technologies required for large-scale cultivation, processing, and conversion of microalgal biomass to energy products are underdeveloped. Microalgae offer several advantages over traditional 'first-generation' biofuels crops like corn: these include superior biomass productivity, the ability to grow on poor-quality land unsuitable for agriculture, and the potential for sustainable growth by extracting macro- and micronutrients from wastewater and industrial flue-stack emissions. Integrating microalgal cultivation with municipal wastewater treatment and industrial CO(2) emissions from coal-fired power plants is a potential strategy to produce large quantities of biomass, and represents an opportunity to develop, test, and optimize the necessary technologies to make microalgal biofuels more cost-effective and efficient. However, many constraints on the eventual deployment of this technology must be taken into consideration and mitigating strategies developed before large scale microalgal cultivation can become a reality. As a strategy for CO(2) biomitigation from industrial point source emitters, microalgal cultivation can be limited by the availability of land, light, and other nutrients like N and P. Effective removal of N and P from municipal wastewater is limited by the processing capacity of available microalgal cultivation systems. Strategies to mitigate against the constraints are discussed. PMID:21461850

McGinn, Patrick J; Dickinson, Kathryn E; Bhatti, Shabana; Frigon, Jean-Claude; Guiot, Serge R; O'Leary, Stephen J B

2011-09-01

324

Modeling cultivation impacts on soil organic carbon under different management practices with the Community Land Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of cultivation on the terrestrial carbon cycle is an important factor for evaluating the environmental and economic impacts of increased biofuel use. The Community Land Model version 3.5, was updated to include representation of managed croplands growing maize, soybean, and spring wheat. In this study, the new CLM crop model (CLM-Crop) is used to estimate the impacts of cultivation on soil organic carbon storage for various management practices including fertilizer use and residue (leaves and stems) returned to litter pools. Simulations indicate that under current management practices, U.S. soils have already lost over 8 Pg (10%) of soil organic carbon. After long periods of cultivation, individual plots of maize and soybean have lost up to 65% of the soil carbon. These results indicate that disturbance through cultivation will always result in a loss of soil carbon and management practices will have a large influence on the magnitude of loss. The model derived impacts of cultivation and management practices will be presented with comparisons to baseline soil organic carbon data collected from the continental U.S. croplands. We will also include results from the CLM4.5 crop model, which contains a new belowground biogeochemistry scheme. Changes to soil organic carbon will be evaluated for both the standard version of the model, without a full harvest, and a modified version, that includes a realistic harvest and incorporates alternate residue management practices.

Drewniak, B. A.; Mishra, U.

2013-12-01

325

Cultivation-Independent Detection of Autotrophic Hydrogen-Oxidizing Bacteria by DNA Stable-Isotope Probing ?  

PubMed Central

Knallgas bacteria are a physiologically defined group that is primarily studied using cultivation-dependent techniques. Given that current cultivation techniques fail to grow most bacteria, cultivation-independent techniques that selectively detect and identify knallgas bacteria will improve our ability to study their diversity and distribution. We used stable-isotope probing (SIP) to identify knallgas bacteria in rhizosphere soil of legumes and in a microbial mat from Obsidian Pool in Yellowstone National Park. When samples were incubated in the dark, incorporation of 13CO2 was H2 dependent. SIP enabled the detection of knallgas bacteria that were not detected by cultivation, and the majority of bacteria identified in the rhizosphere soils were betaproteobacteria predominantly related to genera previously known to oxidize hydrogen. Bacteria in soil grew on hydrogen at concentrations as low as 100 ppm. A hydB homolog encoding a putative high-affinity NiFe hydrogenase was amplified from 13C-labeled DNA from both vetch and clover rhizosphere soil. The results indicate that knallgas bacteria can be detected by SIP and populations that respond to different H2 concentrations can be distinguished. The methods described here should be applicable to a variety of ecosystems and will enable the discovery of additional knallgas bacteria that are resistant to cultivation. PMID:21622787

Pumphrey, Graham M.; Ranchou-Peyruse, Anthony; Spain, Jim C.

2011-01-01

326

Changes of cellular superficial configuration of symbiotic algae during cultivation from two anemones found in the South China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Symbiotic algae from two anemones, Radianthus macrodactylus and Stichodactyla mertensii, found in the South China Sea, were cultivated in ASP-8A medium in this study. Changes of superficial configuration of symbiotic algae during the cultivation were studied by means of a microscope and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). A number of small cavities appeared on the surfaces of symbiotic algae after they were cultivated for 10 h. The cavities enlarged and the cell contents were lost with extended cultivation. Our data suggested that the presence of cavities on symbiotic algae surfaces may be one of the main reasons for failure to culture symbiotic algae in an artificial medium.

Zhu, Baohua; Pan, Kehou; Wang, Guangce

2008-02-01

327

Comparative seed ecophysiology of wild and cultivated Carica papaya trees from a tropical rain forest region in Mexico.  

PubMed

To ascertain the effects of centuries of cultivation practices on seed behavior and dormancy mechanisms, we compared seed size and germination characteristics of wild and cultivated (domesticated) populations of Carica papaya L. Germination experiments were carried out under various conditions of temperature, light, seed soaking and gibberellic acid treatments. Wild papaya seeds showed responses to treatment that are characteristic of seeds of many rain forest pioneer trees. Seeds were small and light sensitive, whereas cultivated papaya seeds were 33% larger and their light responses as well as other physiological traits indicated that cultivation had resulted in a lessening in the importance of specific environmental conditions for dormancy breaking and germination. PMID:12651383

Paz, Leoncio; Vázquez-Yanes, Carlos

1998-04-01

328

The investigation of sloping cultivated land on the Loess Plateau with 3S technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hill and ravine area on the Loess Plateau is the typical region of serious soil erosion, excess reclamation, and deteriorated eco-environment in middle reaches of Yellow River. The main project of eco-environment construction is that recover vegetation, and quit high sloping cultivated land to forest or meadow. The local government in the concerned region poses that sloping cultivated land higher than 15 degree should quit. How many are there qualified and how about their distribution? These are the basis problems of the execution of the eco-environment construction project. In this paper, using TM image and digital relief map, the interpretation of land use classification and the calculation of slope are made for Baota , Yan"an, with the software of ARC/INFO and ERDAS IMAGINE. And also the sloping cultivated land is mapped, basing on the composite analysis of land use map and slope map.

Li, Dengke; Liu, Anlin; Deng, Fengdong; Zhang, Jinghong; Zhuo, Jing

2003-07-01

329

Cultivation of Acetobacter xylinum for bacterial cellulose production in a modified airlift reactor.  

PubMed

Acetobacter xylinum for bacterial cellulose production was cultivated in a modified airlift reactor. Better results were obtained from the modified reactor than from a conventional bubble column. After 72 h of cultivation, the final concentration of bacterial cellulose was 7.72 g/l and the productivity was 0.107 g/l per h in the modified airlift reactor. The concentration of bacterial cellulose was about three times higher than that produced in the conventional bubble column. Moreover, the bacterial cellulose produced using the modified reactor formed a unique elliptical pellet (the average diameter was 10 mm), which is different from the fibrous form produced using the stirred-tank reactor. The modified airlift reactor with the suspended bacterial cellulose in pellet form had a higher volumetric oxygen-transfer coefficient and mixing capability than that with bacterial cellulose in fibrous form. The dissolved oxygen in the modified airlift reactor could be maintained above 35% throughout the cultivation. PMID:11916454

Cheng, Hai-Peng; Wang, Pei-Ming; Chen, Jech-Wei; Wu, Wen-Teng

2002-04-01

330

Dynamics of the chemical composition and productivity of composts for the cultivation of Agaricus bisporus strains.  

PubMed

Two compost formulations based on oat straw (Avena sativa) and brachiaria (Brachiaria sp.) were tested for the cultivation of three Agaricus bisporus strains (ABI-07/06, ABI-05/03, and PB-1). The experimental design was a 2 × 3 factorial scheme (composts × strains) with 6 treatments and 8 repetitions (boxes containing 12 kg of compost). The chemical characterization of the compost (humidity, organic matter, carbon, nitrogen, pH, raw protein, ethereal extract, fibers, ash, cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin) before and after the cultivation of A. bisporus and the production (basidiomata mass, productivity, and biological efficiency) were evaluated. Data were submitted to variance analysis, and averages were compared by means of the Tukey's test. According to the results obtained, the chemical and production characteristics showed that the best performances for the cultivation of A. bisporus were presented by the compost based on oat and the strain ABI-07/06. PMID:24688503

de Andrade, Meire Cristina Nogueira; de Jesus, João Paulo Furlan; Vieira, Fabrício Rocha; Viana, Sthefany Rodrigues Fernandes; Spoto, Marta Helena Fillet; de Almeida Minhoni, Marli Teixeira

2013-12-01

331

Application of ozonated piggery wastewater for cultivation of oil-rich Chlorella pyrenoidosa.  

PubMed

Ozonated and autoclaved piggery wastewaters were compared for cultivation of oil-rich Chlorella pyrenoidosa by measuring nutrient removal from the medium and growth rate and lipid production of the microalgae. The removal rates of chemical oxygen demand, NH4(+)-N, total nitrogen and total phosphorus by C. pyrenoidosa were not influenced by both sterilisation methods. The specific growth rate and biomass of C. pyrenoidosa were determined by analysing the chlorophyll concentration for eliminating the disturbance of bacteria growth in culture system. Bacteria raised from the residue in the ozonated medium achieved 30% of the total microorganisms at the end of cultivation. They reduced the growth of C. pyrenoidosa by 10.4%, but contributed to a faster decline of the nutrient content on the first day. Lipid production and fatty acid profile did not change markedly in both sterilisation methods. The results suggest that ozonation is acceptable for piggery wastewater treatment for C. pyrenoidosa cultivation. PMID:25212822

Gan, Ke; Mou, Xiaoqing; Xu, Yan; Wang, Haiying

2014-11-01

332

Dynamics of the chemical composition and productivity of composts for the cultivation of Agaricus bisporus strains  

PubMed Central

Two compost formulations based on oat straw (Avena sativa) and brachiaria (Brachiaria sp.) were tested for the cultivation of three Agaricus bisporus strains (ABI-07/06, ABI-05/03, and PB-1). The experimental design was a 2 × 3 factorial scheme (composts × strains) with 6 treatments and 8 repetitions (boxes containing 12 kg of compost). The chemical characterization of the compost (humidity, organic matter, carbon, nitrogen, pH, raw protein, ethereal extract, fibers, ash, cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin) before and after the cultivation of A. bisporus and the production (basidiomata mass, productivity, and biological efficiency) were evaluated. Data were submitted to variance analysis, and averages were compared by means of the Tukey’s test. According to the results obtained, the chemical and production characteristics showed that the best performances for the cultivation of A. bisporus were presented by the compost based on oat and the strain ABI-07/06. PMID:24688503

de Andrade, Meire Cristina Nogueira; de Jesus, João Paulo Furlan; Vieira, Fabrício Rocha; Viana, Sthefany Rodrigues Fernandes; Spoto, Marta Helena Fillet; de Almeida Minhoni, Marli Teixeira

2013-01-01

333

Effect of soil carbohydrates on nutrient availability in natural forests and cultivated lands in Sri Lanka  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbohydrates supply carbon sources for microbial activities that contribute to mineral nutrient production in soil. Their role on soil nutrient availability has not yet been properly elucidated. This was studied in forests and cultivated lands in Sri Lanka. Soil organic matter (SOM) fractions affecting carbohydrate availability were also determined. Soil litter contributed to sugars of plant origin (SPO) in croplands. The negative relationship found between clay bound organic matter (CBO) and glucose indicates higher SOM fixation in clay that lower its availability in cultivated lands. In forests, negative relationships between litter and sugars of microbial origin (SMO) showed that litter fuelled microbes to produce sugars. Fucose and glucose increased the availability of Cu, Zn and Mn in forests. Xylose increased Ca availability in cultivated lands. Arabinose, the main carbon source of soil respiration reduced the P availability. This study showed soil carbohydrates and their relationships with mineral nutrients could provide vital information on the availability of limiting nutrients in tropical ecosystems.

Ratnayake, R. R.; Seneviratne, G.; Kulasooriya, S. A.

2013-05-01

334

Mixotrophic growth and biochemical analysis of Chlorella vulgaris cultivated with diluted monosodium glutamate wastewater.  

PubMed

Monosodium glutamate wastewater (MSGW) is a potential medium for microbial cultivation because of containing abundant organic nutrient. This paper seeks to evaluate the feasibility of growing Chlorella vulgaris with MSGW and assess the influence of MSGW concentration on the biomass productivity and biochemical compositions. The MSGW diluted in different concentrations was prepared for microalga cultivation. C. vulgaris growth was greatly promoted with MSGW compared with the inorganic BG11 medium. C. vulgaris obtained the maximum biomass concentration (1.02 g/L) and biomass productivity (61.47 mg/Ld) with 100-time diluted MSGW. The harvested biomass was rich in protein (36.01-50.64%) and low in lipid (13.47-25.4%) and carbohydrate (8.94-20.1%). The protein nutritional quality and unsaturated fatty acids content of algal increased significantly with diluted MSGW. These results indicated that the MSGW is a feasible alternative for mass cultivation of C. vulgaris. PMID:24333623

Ji, Yan; Hu, Wenrong; Li, Xiuqing; Ma, Guixia; Song, Mingming; Pei, Haiyan

2014-01-01

335

Coupled cultivation and pre-harvesting of microalgae in a membrane photobioreactor (MPBR).  

PubMed

A new and effective concept is proposed for microalgae cultivation and pre-harvesting using a membrane photobioreactor (MPBR), in which the bioreactor is coupled to membrane filtration by cultivating Chlorella vulgaris. A basic simulation was first performed to understand the behavior of the hybrid system. The effectiveness of the MPBR for cultivation and pre-harvesting was proven. The membrane completely retained the biomass, which then was partly recycled into the bioreactor to maintain a high biomass concentration, thus enhancing flexibility and robustness of the system. The MPBR can operate at both higher dilution and higher growth rates, resulting in a 9× higher biomass productivity. In addition, pre-harvesting can be achieved by applying variable concentration factors in the filtration stage. The membrane permeate was recycled to the reactor as feed medium without affecting the algae growth, which offers a substantial reduction of 77% in the water footprint. PMID:24559585

Bilad, M R; Discart, V; Vandamme, D; Foubert, I; Muylaert, K; Vankelecom, Ivo F J

2014-03-01

336

Process optimization for enhanced production of diphtheria toxin by submerged cultivation.  

PubMed

When stationary culture was replaced by submerged cultivation in a fermentor, a significant increase in the yield of diphtheria toxin in a short cultivation time (less than 48 h as against 7-8 d) was noted. It was found that under optimal conditions of temperature, vortex mixing and surface aeration, an alkaline pH favoured toxin release. Furthermore, to enhance the production volume, two-and three-step semicontinuous batch cultivations were carried out. The toxin produced was of good titre with an adequate antigenic purity. Under optimal conditions, the variation in the Limes of flocculation (Lf titre) was likely due to the quality of the production medium, which in turn depended on the quality of the raw materials used. The process was also optimized in a pilot-scale fermentor. PMID:16232962

Sundaran, B; Rao, Y U; Boopathy, R

2001-01-01

337

Nutrient removal and biodiesel production by integration of freshwater algae cultivation with piggery wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

An integrated approach, which combined freshwater microalgae Chlorella zofingiensis cultivation with piggery wastewater treatment, was investigated in the present study. The characteristics of algal growth, lipid and biodiesel production, and nutrient removal were examined by using tubular bubble column photobioreactors to cultivate C. zofingiensis in piggery wastewater with six different concentrations. Pollutants in piggery wastewater were efficiently removed among all the treatments. The specific growth rate and biomass productivity were different among all the cultures. As the initial nutrient concentration increased, the lipid content of C. zofingiensis decreased. The differences in lipid and biodiesel productivity of C. zofingiensis among all the treatments mainly resulted from the differences in biomass productivity. It is worthy of note that the diluted piggery wastewater with 1900 mg L(-1) COD provided an optimal nutrient concentration for C. zofingiensis cultivation, where the advantageous nutrient removal and the highest productivities of biomass, lipid and biodiesel were presented. PMID:23764580

Zhu, Liandong; Wang, Zhongming; Shu, Qing; Takala, Josu; Hiltunen, Erkki; Feng, Pingzhong; Yuan, Zhenhong

2013-09-01

338

Use of extracts from oyster shell and soil for cultivation of Spirulina maxima.  

PubMed

Calcium ion and trace metals play important roles in various metabolisms of photosynthetic organisms. In this study, simple methods were developed to extract calcium ion and micronutrients from oyster shell and common soil, and the prepared extracts were tested as a replacement of the corresponding chemicals that are essential for growth of microalgae. The oyster shell and soil were treated with 0.1 M sodium hydroxide or with 10 % hydrogen peroxide, respectively. The potential application of these natural sources to cultivation was investigated with Spirulina maxima. When compared to standard Zarrouk medium, the Spirulina maxima cultivated in a modified Zarrouk media with elements from oyster shell and soil extract exhibited increases in biomass, chlorophyll, and phycocyanin by 17, 16, and 64 %, respectively. These results indicate that the extracts of oyster shell and soil provide sufficient amounts of calcium and trace metals for successful cultivation of Spirulina maxima. PMID:24871274

Jung, Joo-Young; Kim, Sunmin; Lee, Hansol; Kim, Kyochan; Kim, Woong; Park, Min S; Kwon, Jong-Hee; Yang, Ji-Won

2014-12-01

339

Comparison of viable cell concentration estimation methods for a mammalian cell cultivation process  

PubMed Central

Various mechanistic and black-box models were applied for on-line estimations of viable cell concentrations in fed-batch cultivation processes for CHO cells. Data from six fed-batch cultivation experiments were used to identify the underlying models and further six independent data sets were used to determine the performance of the estimators. The performances were quantified by means of the root mean square error (RMSE) between the estimates and the corresponding off-line measured validation data sets. It is shown that even simple techniques based on empirical and linear model approaches provide a fairly good on-line estimation performance. Best results with respect to the validation data sets were obtained with hybrid models, multivariate linear regression technique and support vector regression. Hybrid models provide additional important information about the specific cellular growth rates during the cultivation. PMID:20809261

Aehle, M.; Simutis, R.

2010-01-01

340

Comparative assessment of sugar and malic acid composition in cultivated and wild apples.  

PubMed

Soluble sugar and malic acid contents in mature fruits of 364 apple accessions were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Fructose and sucrose represented the major components of soluble sugars in cultivated fruits, whilst fructose and glucose were the major items of sugars in wild fruits. Wild fruits were significantly more acidic than cultivated fruits, whilst the average concentration of total sugars and sweetness index were quite similar between cultivated and wild fruits. Thus, our study suggests that fruit acidity rather than sweetness is likely to have undergone selection during apple domestication. Additionally, malic acid content was positively correlated with glucose content and negatively correlated with sucrose content. This suggests that selection of fruit acidity must have an effect on the proportion of sugar components in apple fruits. Our study provides information that could be helpful for future apple breeding. PMID:25442527

Ma, Baiquan; Chen, Jie; Zheng, Hongyu; Fang, Ting; Ogutu, Collins; Li, Shaohua; Han, Yuepeng; Wu, Benhong

2015-04-01

341

Defining and explaining tropical deforestation: shifting cultivation and population growth in colonial Madagascar (1896-1940).  

PubMed

The case study of deforestation in Madagascar demonstrated how deforestation is a complex phenomenon that reflects interconnections between land-based resources, human groups, and global political economy; specifically, there is a link between changing land use practices affecting shifting cultivation and tropical deforestation. The general development model of exponential population growth and shifting cultivation causing deforestation and environmental degradation is too simplified, places undue blame on the victims, and isolates shifting cultivation practices from the reality of land use patterns in specific places at specific times. Problematic also is the way definition, delimitation, and discussion of environmental problems shapes possible solutions. This analysis suggests a theoretical view that links reconstructed regional geography with political ecology. The assertion is that deforestation is historically based on multiple social processes within Madagascar. Land use practices and resource access decisions during the colonial period affected land management and degradation. The colonial state policy played a role in the destruction of tropical flora by fire, shifting cultivation, and grazing, and the responses of Europeans and Malagasys. Context and multiplicity of motivations and practices were key. A review was presented of reconstructed regional geography and political ecology and global tropical deforestation. The description of the political economy of deforestation during colonial times focused on the movement of population into the forests after 1896 and French annexation. Famine resulted. Shifting cultivation laws were passed between 1881 and 1913, due to the desire for rational forest resource management. Ecologically and socially these rules were difficult to enforce; there were resistance due to the threat of the elimination of subsistence living for wage work. Destructive logging practices and forest product extraction after 1921 are described. During 1900-1941, population was below or at replacement level, but the government still blamed Malagasys. Shifting cultivation meant different things to the subsistence farmers, the state, and international agencies. Denial of context promotes an ideology of repression, fuels fear and prejudice, and promotes the wrong solutions. PMID:12318844

Jarosz, L

1993-10-01

342

[The kinetic characteristics of mycelium growth of medicinal mushroom Ganoderma sinense in liquid-submerged cultivation].  

PubMed

The study was carried out to investigate the kinetic characteristics of Ganoderma sinense mycelium growth in liquid-submerged cultivation, using a air-lift bioreactor ALR/ff specially designed for the cultivation of mushrooms' suspending mycelia cultures. Mycelia of G. sinense grew in the range of 25 degrees C-35 degrees C, and at the different temperature in which the specific growth rate showed by the mycelia much differed. The specific growth rates with the maximum of 0.0444(h-1) at 1.64 vvm of aeration in the cultivation were more than at 0.93 vvm, also more than at 2.50 vvm. In comparison with the less glucose concentration, the culture of 2.80 g glucose/100 mL in the medium had a shorter lag-period, and the more concentration of glucose favoured mycelia growth in the latter cultivation course with the denser pellets of mycelia. Then the culture of the less concentration of glucose in the medium had the higher conversion-rates of glucose to G. sinense biomass all along the cultivation course, than of the more concentration of glucose. Futhermore, in the continuous cultivations with growth-limiting substrate of carbon source the mycelia displaying different growing activities, demonstrated the varied forms of mycelium-gathering. In that cases the relationships among mycelia biomass, growth-limiting substrate and productivity of mycelium biomass obviously differed from the ones in the case of bacteria. Also in the range of dilution rates 0.010-0.220 (h-1) the growing of G. sinense mycelia followed the function of Contois equation. PMID:12557355

Gong, Jianhua; Wang, Yijun

2002-02-01

343

The Seeding and Cultivation of a Tropical Species of Filamentous Ulva for Algal Biomass Production  

PubMed Central

Filamentous species of Ulva are ideal for cultivation because they are robust with high growth rates and maintained across a broad range of environments. Temperate species of filamentous Ulva are commercially cultivated on nets which can be artificially ‘seeded’ under controlled conditions allowing for a high level of control over seeding density and consequently biomass production. This study quantified for the first time the seeding and culture cycle of a tropical species of filamentous Ulva (Ulva sp. 3) and identified seeding density and nursery period as key factors affecting growth and biomass yield. A seeding density of 621,000 swarmers m-1 rope in combination with a nursery period of five days resulted in the highest growth rate and correspondingly the highest biomass yield. A nursery period of five days was optimal with up to six times the biomass yield compared to ropes under either shorter or longer nursery periods. These combined parameters of seeding density and nursery period resulted in a specific growth rate of more than 65% day?1 between 7 and 10 days of outdoor cultivation post-nursery. This was followed by a decrease in growth through to 25 days. This study also demonstrated that the timing of harvest is critical as the maximum biomass yield of 23.0±8.8 g dry weight m?1 (228.7±115.4 g fresh weight m?1) was achieved after 13 days of outdoor cultivation whereas biomass degraded to 15.5±7.3 g dry weight m?1 (120.2±71.8 g fresh weight m?1) over a longer outdoor cultivation period of 25 days. Artificially seeded ropes of Ulva with high biomass yields over short culture cycles may therefore be an alternative to unattached cultivation in integrated pond-based aquaculture systems. PMID:24897115

Carl, Christina; de Nys, Rocky; Paul, Nicholas A.

2014-01-01

344

Negotiating ownership: Understanding the cultivation of student ownership in an urban science video project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intention of this study is to define student ownership in an informal science learning setting in a low performing middle school in New York City, to investigate what characterizes such ownership, and to determine how to cultivate it. In addition, I am interested in investigating the effects of the students' sense of ownership on their sense of self, in relation to the study and the practice of science and the role of race in power in framing the context in which ownership is cultivated. This is a qualitative study; specifically I apply a critical ethnography framework for both data collection an analysis. This study is based in an informal science video project lasting three years in which two groups of sixth and seventh grade students, made three movies about their perceptions of science, who they felt knew science, and how science related to their lives. In chapter IV, I explain that students' expression of ownership is visible via five main themes. (1) Students viewed themselves in relation to science in ways that are positive, empowering, and full of self-awareness. (2) Students actively and purposefully chose to expend their capital. (3) Students expressed pride around the multiple contexts. (4) Students used the video project to effect positive changes in their lives. (5) Students expressed positive and realistic vision for the role that science played in their lives. In chapter V, I explain that student agency and student ownership share a dialectic relationship in which student agency must be valued to cultivate student ownership and the cultivation of student ownership expands student agency. Lastly, in chapter VII, I explore the role race and power play in framing the context in which ownership is cultivated. Specifically, I argue that in order to cultivate ownership in high-poverty urban science learning environments, the teacher in this environment must be critically reflective of her/his practice and pay particular attention to issues of race and power.

O'Neill, Tara Breckenridge

345

Outdoor pond cultivation of the subtropical marine red alga Gracilaria tenuistipitata in brackish water in Sweden. Growth, nutrient uptake, co-cultivation with rainbow trout and epiphyte control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pond cultivation of the subtropical, euryhaline macroscopic red algaGracilaria tenuisipitata var.liui Zhanget Xia was carried out in brackish seawater (6–7‰) in the Gryt archipelago on the east coast of Sweden, using four outdoor tanks of 30–40 m3. Growth rate and nutrient uptake in batch culture were measured with the aim of estimating the water purification capacity ofG. tenuisipitata in outdoor

Kurt Haglund; Marianne Pedersén

1993-01-01

346

Education for Cultivating Future Factory Managers by Industry-College Cooperation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2007, Kanazawa Technical College was designated by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology as an institute on a Project to the Cultivation of Practical Engineers by Cooperative Education and is to complete the project. Our project aims at accomplishing “Education Program Development and Practice for Cultivating Future Factory Managers Beginning at Age 16” , with the object of the cooperative project by local businesses, Ishikawa Prefecture and Kanazawa Institute of Technology. This paper reports as follows. (1) Outline of this project (2) Results from the project we have tackled. (3) Safety education in order to begin mechanical hands-on training at the first grade.

Tennichi, Michio; Yamada, Hirofumi; Matsui, Hiroshi; Furuya, Shigehiko; Ito, Kouhei

347

Applied modern biotechnology for cultivation of Ganoderma and development of their products.  

PubMed

A white-rot basidiomycete Ganoderma spp. has long been used as a medicinal mushroom in Asia, and it has an array of pharmacological properties for immunomodulatory activity. There have been many reports about the bioactive components and their pharmacological properties. In order to analyze the current status of Ganoderma products, the detailed process of cultivation of Ganoderma spp. and development of their products are restated in this review article. These include the breeding, cultivating, extracting bioactive component, and processing Ganoderma products, etc. This article will expand people's common knowledge on Ganoderma, and provide a beneficial reference for research and industrial production. PMID:22170106

Zhou, Xuan-Wei; Su, Kai-Qi; Zhang, Yong-Ming

2012-02-01

348

The ecological cultivation system construction of cucurbits and vegetables in Hainan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application amount of fertilizer and pesticide overall showed rising trends in Hainan. The excessive application of chemical fertilizer and pesticide can cause higher production costs and greater pressure on the ecological environment. The sown area of cucurbits and vegetables showed an increasing trend to a certain extent, safety and pollution-free production of cucurbits and vegetables has become one of the principal contradictions restricting the development of cucurbits and vegetables in Hainan. In this study, the ecological cultivation system of cucurbits and vegetables was constructed combining ecology, ecological economics, and vegetable cultivation principles, which had an important significance for maintaining ecological balance and sustainable development of agriculture.

Liu, Ziji; Yang, Yan

349

Production of fungal chitosan in liquid cultivation using apple pomace as substrate  

PubMed Central

In this work, we propose the reuse of apple pomace as a substrate for fungal chitosan production by liquid cultivation of Gongronella butleri CCT4274. Different concentrations of reducing sugars and sodium nitrate were added to the aqueous extract of apple pomace and the best result was obtained with 40 g/L of reducing sugars and 2.5 g/L of sodium nitrate. The results indicate the possibility of producing 1.19 g/L of chitosan per liter of culture medium after 72.5 hours of cultivation, representing around 21% of the biomass content. PMID:24031312

Streit, Fernanda; Koch, Fernanda; Laranjeira, Mauro C.M.; Ninow, Jorge L.

2009-01-01

350

Differentiation of the root of Cultivated Ginseng, Mountain Cultivated Ginseng and Mountain Wild Ginseng using FT-IR and two-dimensional correlation IR spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ginseng is one of the most widely used herbal medicines. Based on the grown environments and the cultivate method, three kinds of ginseng, Cultivated Ginseng (CG), Mountain Cultivated Ginseng (MCG) and Mountain Wild Ginseng (MWG) are classified. A novel and scientific-oriented method was developed and established to discriminate and identify three kinds of ginseng using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), secondary derivative IR spectra and two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy (2D-IR). The findings indicated that the relative contents of starch in the CG were more than that in MCG and MWG, while the relative contents of calcium oxalate and lipids in MWG were more than that in CG and MCG, and the relative contents of fatty acid in MCG were more than that in CG and MWG. The hierarchical cluster analysis was applied to data analysis of MWG, CG and MWG, which could be classified successfully. The results demonstrated the macroscopic IR fingerprint method, including FT-IR, secondary derivative IR and 2D-IR, can be applied to discriminate different ginsengs rapidly, effectively and non-destructively.

Liu, Dan; Li, Yong-Guo; Xu, Hong; Sun, Su-Qin; Wang, Zheng-Tao

2008-07-01

351

Plant community succession in a coastal wetland after abandonment of cultivation: the example of the Rhone delta  

Microsoft Academic Search

A synchronous study was carried out of plant succession in land abandoned after cultivation in the Camargue (southern France) in relation to the main biotic and abiotic environmental factors. Correlations between environmental factors and species abundance were established using Canonical correspondence analysis. The most strongly correlated variables were those of the water regime. Abandonment of cultivation does not always imply

F. Mesléard; P. Grillas; J. Lepart

1991-01-01

352

Sugar profiles of the pods of cultivated and wild types of carob bean ( Ceratonia siliqua L.) in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to determine the main sugar profiles of the pods, without the seeds, of cultivated and wild types of the carob bean grown in the Mediterranean and Aegean basin of Turkey. The most abundant sugar in the pods was sucrose with smaller amounts of glucose and fructose. The pods of cultivated varieties had a higher

B. Biner; H. Gubbuk; M. Karhan; M. Aksu; M. Pekmezci

2007-01-01

353

Benchmarking the cultivation approach to video game effects: a comparison of the correlates of TV viewing and game play  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study found significant relationships between first- and second-order cultivation measures and TV viewing, but found a relationship with video game play for only two variables in a sample of 322 Flemish 3rd and 6th year secondary school children. This suggests that the absence of a relationship with video game play is not the result of the absence of cultivation

Jan Van Mierlo; Jan Van den Bulck

2004-01-01

354

Differential response of cultivated and weedy (red) rice to recent and projected increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a principle resource for plant growth; as such, the ongoing increase in its concentration may differentially affect the growth of cultivated and wild types of the same species. Red rice in the U.S. is a weedy relative of cultivated rice that represents a major production con...

355

Advancement of pyramiding new Sclerotinia stem rot resistant genes from H. californicus and H. schweinitzii into cultivated sunflower  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sclerotinia is a major disease in cultivated sunflower across the world and the present-day sunflower hybrids are considered lacking high resistance to Sclerotinia. In general, wild Helianthus species are known to possess a much wider genetic variability than that of the cultivated sunflower for Scl...

356

Good and Evil in Popular Children's Fantasy Fiction: How Archetypes Become Stereotypes That Cultivate the Next Generation of "Sun" Readers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers how the depiction of good and evil as discernibly polarized opposites in the most popular of juvenile fantasy texts cultivates a perception in children that the real world is similarly organized. Proposes that the dichotomized view of good and evil that these texts promote, rather than cultivating a broad educated outlook, prepares…

Robinson, C. Neil

2003-01-01

357

Plant cultivation and forest clearance by prehistoric North Americans: pollen evidence from Fort Ancient, Ohio, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Archaeological records show that, as early as 2000–1500 bc, Native Americans in the eastern USA domesticated a group of native plant species with starchy or oily seeds that helped support extensive Woodland societies. Previously, the location and extent of cultivation of these ancient crop plants has been unknown, but was hypothesized to be small clearances on river floodplains. Here, pollen

Kendra McLauchlan

2003-01-01

358

New Sources of Sclerotinia Stalk Rot in Cultivated USDA Sunflower Plant Introductions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In a two-year study, 250 cultivated sunflower genotypes from the USDA sunflower collection (maintained and distributed by the North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station, Ames, Iowa) were evaluated in multiple field trials for their reaction to stalk rot incited by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Th...

359

Brand Fundamentals Before you cultivate your brand, you need to be able  

E-print Network

Brand it Brand Fundamentals Before you cultivate your brand, you need to be able to identify it. Answering the following three questions will help get you started with your personal brand. What do you negatively impact your personal brand Establish professional social media accounts: e-mail Linked

Rohs, Remo

360

Turbulence and nutrient interactions that control benthic algal production in an engineered cultivation raceway  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Flow turbulence can be a controlling factor to the growth of benthic algae, but few studies have quantified this relationship in engineered cultivation systems. Experiments were performed to understand the limiting role of turbulence to algal productivity in an algal turf scrubber for benthic algal...

361

Chufa ( cyperus esculentus , cyperaceae): A weedy cultivar or a cultivated weed?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyperus esculentus(Cyperaceae) is a very variable species. From a large group of wild, mainly weedy plants, a cultivated group often named chufa,\\u000a can be segregated by tuber color, reluctance to flower, and short rhizomes. Cultivar status within Cyperus esculentus is proposed\\u000a for this useful plant.

Femke T. de Vries

1991-01-01

362

Acculturation of Asian Indian Sojourners in America: Application of the Cultivation Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the influence of watching American television on the acculturation levels of Asian Indian sojourners utilizing tenets of cultivation theory. Consumption of Indian print media and Indian movies most strongly and inversely predicted acculturation levels, but American media including television did not predict acculturation. The study also examined theoretically important moderators of media's acculturation effects such as perceived

Priya Raman; Jake Harwood

2008-01-01

363

In vitro comparison of six different matrix systems for the cultivation of human chondrocytes.  

PubMed

In recent years, a great variety of different matrix systems for the cultivation of chondrocytes have been developed. Although some of these scaffolds show promising experimental results in vitro, the potential clinical value remains unclear. In this comparative study, we propagated human articular chondrocytes precultivated in monolayer culture on six different scaffolds (collagen gels, membranes and sponges) under standardized in vitro conditions. Mechanical properties of the matrix systems were not improved significantly by cultivation of human chondrocytes under the given in vitro conditions. The gel systems (CaReS, Ars Artho, Germany and Atelocollagen, Koken, Japan) showed a homogeneous cell distribution; chondrocytes propagated on Chondro-Gide (Geistlich Biomaterials, Switzerland) and Integra membranes (Integra, USA) were building multilayers. Only few cells penetrated the two Atelocollagen honeycomb sponges (Koken, Japan). During cultivation, chondrocytes propagated on all systems showed a partial morphological redifferentiation, which was best with regard to the gel systems. In general, only small amounts of collagen type-II protein could be detected in the pericellular region and chondrocytes failed to build a territorial matrix. During the first two weeks of cultivation, the two gel systems showed a significantly higher collagen type-II gene expression and a lower collagen type-I gene expression than the other investigated matrix systems. Although collagen gels seem to be superior when dealing with deep cartilage defects, membrane systems might rather be useful in improving conventional autologous chondrocyte transplantation or in combination with gel systems. PMID:16848636

Gavénis, Karsten; Schmidt-Rohlfing, Bernhard; Mueller-Rath, Ralf; Andereya, Stefan; Schneider, Ulrich

2006-01-01

364

Growth, nitrogen fixation and relative efficiency of nitrogenase in Alnus incana grown in different cultivation systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three cultivation systems were compared. In one system the alders were grown hydroponically. In the two other systems the alders were planted in gravel and either given water and nutrients at intervals or the nutrient solution was continuously supplied. Alders continuously supplied with nutrients and water showed a significantly more rapid growth, higher biomass production and higher nitrogen content than

Anita Sellstedt; Kerstin Huss-Danell

1984-01-01

365

Independent Origins of Cultivated Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) in the Old World Tropics  

PubMed Central

As a portable source of food, water, fuel, and construction materials, the coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) played a fundamental role in human migrations and the development of civilization across the humid tropics. Here we investigated the coconut's domestication history and its population genetic structure as it relates to human dispersal patterns. A sample of 1,322 coconut accessions, representing the geographical and phenotypic diversity of the species, was examined using ten microsatellite loci. Bayesian analyses reveal two highly genetically differentiated subpopulations that correspond to the Pacific and Indo-Atlantic oceanic basins. This pattern suggests independent origins of coconut cultivation in these two world regions, with persistent population structure on a global scale despite long-term human cultivation and dispersal. Pacific coconuts show additional genetic substructure corresponding to phenotypic and geographical subgroups; moreover, the traits that are most clearly associated with selection under human cultivation (dwarf habit, self-pollination, and “niu vai” fruit morphology) arose only in the Pacific. Coconuts that show evidence of genetic admixture between the Pacific and Indo-Atlantic groups occur primarily in the southwestern Indian Ocean. This pattern is consistent with human introductions of Pacific coconuts along the ancient Austronesian trade route connecting Madagascar to Southeast Asia. Admixture in coastal east Africa may also reflect later historic Arab trading along the Indian Ocean coastline. We propose two geographical origins of coconut cultivation: island Southeast Asia and southern margins of the Indian subcontinent. PMID:21731660

Gunn, Bee F.; Baudouin, Luc; Olsen, Kenneth M.

2011-01-01

366

Cultivating Critical, Sociopolitical Awareness in Urban Secondary Schools: Tensions and Possibilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on three secondary education teachers who earned licensure through a graduate-level urban teacher preparation program and then accepted positions at diverse, urban schools in the western U.S. The primary research question asks: "How do three urban secondary teachers implement the pedagogical tool of expressing and cultivating

Dorman, Elizabeth Hope

2012-01-01

367

Preliminary evaluation of annually cultivated forage legumes for organic farming in Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Finland, the most common legume in organic farming is Trifolium pratense, which cultivation needs to be broken regularly to maintain high productivity. Use of annuals also decreases peaks of field work and increases open field area for manure. In 1998-2001, 19 forage legume species (Lupinus albus, Lupinus angustifolius, Lupinus luteus, Medicago littoralis, Medicago scutellata, Melilotus albus, Melilotus officinalis, Pisum

P. Nykänen-Kurki; P. Leinonen; A. Nykänen

368

INTROGRESSION OF OAT CROWN RUST RESISTANCE FROM DIPLOID AND TETRAPLOID AVENA SPECIES INTO CULTIVATED OAT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Accessions of a diploid oat (2n = 2x = 14) Avena strigosa L. (CI 6954SP) and a tetraploid oat (2n = 4x = 28) A. murphyi Ladiz. (P12) were identified as possible new sources of resistance to oat crown rust (Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae) for introgression into cultivated hexaploid (2n = 6x = 42) oa...

369

Differential proteomic analysis highlights metabolic strategies associated with balhimycin production in Amycolatopsis balhimycina chemostat cultivations  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Proteomics was recently used to reveal enzymes whose expression is associated with the production of the glycopeptide antibiotic balhimycin in Amycolatopsis balhimycina batch cultivations. Combining chemostat fermentation technology, where cells proliferate with constant parameters in a highly reproducible steady-state, and differential proteomics, the relationships between physiological status and metabolic pathways during antibiotic producing and non-producing conditions could be highlighted.

Giuseppe Gallo; Rosa Alduina; Giovanni Renzone; Jette Thykaer; Linda Bianco; Anna Eliasson-Lantz; Andrea Scaloni; Anna Maria Puglia

2010-01-01

370

Physiological determinants of growth rate in response to phosphorus supply in wild and cultivated Hordeum species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under favorable nutrition, accessions of the weedy barleygrass (Hordeum leporinum and H. glaucum) had a higher relative growth rate (RGR) than did accessions of cultivated barley (H. vulgare) or its wild progenitor (H. spontaneum). RGR was not positively correlated with the presumed level of soil fertility at the collection site of an accession either within or among species. RGR was

F. S. Chapin; R. H. Groves; L. T. Evans

1989-01-01

371

Methane and nitrous oxide fluxes in native, fertilized and cultivated grasslands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements of CH4 uptake and N2O emissions in native, nitrogen-fertilized, and wheat-growing prairie soils from spring to late autumn, 1990 are reported. It is found that nitrogen fertilization and cultivation can both decrease CH4 uptake and increase N2O production, thereby contributing to the increasing atmospheric concentrations of these gases.

Mosier, A.; Bronson, K.; Schimel, D.; Valentine, D.; Parton, W.

1991-01-01

372

Do Talk Shows Cultivate Adolescents' Views of the World? A Prolonged-Exposure Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates effects of German daily talk shows (dealing with lesbian or gay male relationships, transsexuality, and body adornment) on adolescents. Shows that cultivation effects occurred at both first- and second-order level, but were restricted to the issues; and no transfer effects pertaining to a general change of attitudes. Concludes…

Rossler, Patrick; Brosius, Hans-Bernd

2001-01-01

373

Characterisation of the microbial population at different stages of Kefir production and Kefir grain mass cultivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kefir is a fermented milk that is produced by adding Kefir grains, consisting of bacteria and yeasts, to milk. The aim of this study was to determine the microbial population at different stages of traditional Kefir production and Kefir grain mass cultivation. Seven different selective growth media, morphological and biochemical characteristics were used for the isolation and identification of the

R. C. Witthuhn; T. Schoeman; T. J. Britz

2005-01-01

374

Producing bioethanol from cellulosic hydrolyzate via co-immobilized cultivation strategy.  

PubMed

Lignocellulose was converted into reducing sugars by using saccharification enzymes from cocultivated Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger and reducing sugars as nutrients for Zymomonas mobilis to produce bioethanol in an immobilization system. After 96 h of cultivation, cocultivated T. reesei and A. niger had enzymatical synergistic effects that enabled a reducing sugar production of 1.29 g/L and a cellulose conversion rate of 23.27%. An 18% total inoculum concentration and a 1/1 inoculation ratio of T. reesei to A. niger obtained a reducing sugar production rate and a cellulose conversion rate of 2.57 g/L and 46.27%, respectively. The co-immobilization cultivation results showed that using polyurethane as a carrier optimized total saccharification enzyme activity at an inoculum ratio of 1/1 and a total inoculum concentration of 6.5×10(6)spores/mL. Based on the experimental results, the bioreactor design was further modified to enhance bioethanol production. The three strains (A. niger, T. reesei and Z. mobilis) were cocultivated with a co-immobilization cultivation system. The experimental results showed that, after 24 h cultivation, bioethanol production reached 0.56 g/L, and reducing sugar conversion rate reached 11.2% when using carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) substrates. The experimental results confirmed that the modified bioreactor enhances bioethanol production. However, further experiments are needed to determine how to prevent multi-stage failure of reducing medium volume. PMID:22578592

Liu, Yu-Kuo; Yang, Chih-An; Chen, Wei-Chuan; Wei, Yu-Hong

2012-08-01

375

Comparative study of amylolytic enzymes production by Aspergillus niger in liquid and solid-state cultivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Amylolytic enzymes produced by a strain ofAspergillus niger cultivated on cassava starch in liquid or solid culture were found to be mainly glucoamylases. For the same initial amount of substrate, the glucoamylase activity increased even after 60 h of culture on solid medium whereas it decreased in liquid culture. Some characteristics of the amylases produced in both culture conditions

Didier Alazard; Maurice Raimbault

1981-01-01

376

[Bromatological characteristics of pecan nuts (Carya illinoensis Koch) cultivated in Brazil].  

PubMed

The A. studied pecan nuts cultivated in Brazil: two samples represented North American varieties and three others Brazilian hybrids. The comparison between physical classification and chemical composition, specially amino acid contents pointed to non significant differences, all beeing useful for commercial purposes. The A. stresses the importance of the culture of pecan nuts in Brazil. PMID:1233594

de Carvalho, V D

1975-01-01

377

Dissolved organic carbon, total carbon and nitrogen in pomegranate cultivation under drip irrigation systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the past six years, pomegranate (POM) cultivation has become a popular commercial crop in San Joaquin Valley, California. The rising demand for this permanent crop is primarily due to POM juice high nutritional and antioxidants properties. In addition, it has been found POM trees are drought tole...

378

PROTEOMIC AND GENOMIC CHARACTERIZATION OF KUNITZ TRYPSIN INHIBITORS IN WILD AND CULTIVATED SOYBEAN GENOTYPES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In this study, we investigated protein and genetic profiles of Kunitz trypsin inhibitors (KTIs) in seeds of sixteen different soybean genotypes that included four groups consisting of wild soybean (Glycine soja), the cultivated soybean (G. max) ancestors of modern N. American soybean cultivars, mode...

379

Denitrification and N2O emission from forested and cultivated alluvial clay soil  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Restored forested wetlands reduce N loads in surface discharge through plant uptake and denitrification. While removal of reactive N reduces impact on receiving waters, it is unclear whether enhanced denitrification also enhances emissions of the greenhouse gas N2O, thus compromising the water-quality benefits of restoration. This study compares denitrification rates and N2O:N2 emission ratios from Sharkey clay soil in a mature bottomland forest to those from an adjacent cultivated site in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley. Potential denitrification of forested soil was 2.4 times of cultivated soil. Using intact soil cores, denitrification rates of forested soil were 5.2, 6.6 and 2.0 times those of cultivated soil at 70, 85 and 100% water-filled pore space (WFPS), respectively. When NO3 was added, N2O emissions from forested soil were 2.2 times those of cultivated soil at 70% WFPS. At 85 and 100% WFPS, N2O emissions were not significantly different despite much greater denitrification rates in the forested soil because N2O:N2 emission ratios declined more rapidly in forested soil as WFPS increased. These findings suggest that restoration of forested wetlands to reduce NO3 in surface discharge will not contribute significantly to the atmospheric burden of N2O. ?? Springer 2005.

Ullah, S.; Breitenbeck, G.A.; Faulkner, S.P.

2005-01-01

380

Enhancing dry-grind corn ethanol production with fungal cultivation and ozonation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public opinion of the U.S. fuel ethanol industry has suffered in recent years despite record ethanol production. Debates sparked over the environmental impacts of corn ethanol and competition with food and feed. The industry continues to actively address the concerns and to seek innovations that will enhance process efficiency, sustainability, and feed coproducts. Our research on fungal cultivation of thin

Mary Rasmussen

2009-01-01

381

Cultivating Global Science IN OUR RAPIDLY EXPANDING GLOBAL SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH ENTERPRISE, GOOD SCIENCE ANYWHERE  

E-print Network

Cultivating Global Science IN OUR RAPIDLY EXPANDING GLOBAL SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH ENTERPRISE, GOOD with transparent processes to promote rigorous peer review and scientific integrity. Last year on this page, I and accelerates the pace of scientific discoveries to address the many grand chal- lenges facing humanity

Suresh, Subra

382

Redistribution of crop residues during row cultivation creates a biologically enhanced environment for soil microorganisms  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Formation of ridges during row cultivation creates microsites that could enhance spatial heterogeneity of soil properties, such as organic C, and thereby influence soil microbial communities. A study was conducted during 2003 near Shelton, NE, on a corn (Zea mays L.) field mapped using apparent elec...

383

Cultivation of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus and Ca. L. americanus associated with Huanglongbing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A new medium designated Liber A has been designed and used to successfully cultivate all three Candidatus Liberibacter species, the suspect causative agents of Huanglongbing (HLB) in citrus. The medium containing citrus vein extract and a growth factor sustained growth of Ca. Liberibacter species fo...

384

Bioconversion of starch processing waste to Phellinus linteus mycelium in solid-state cultivation.  

PubMed

The objective of the experiment was to use starch processing waste as an alternative growth medium for cultivation of mycelia of the mushroom Phellinus linteus and to find an optimum condition under solid-state cultivation. Response surface analysis along with a central composite design was successfully applied to approximate the simultaneous effects of the substrate concentration (16-36 g l(-1)), pH (4.5-6.5), and temperature (25-35 degrees C) on the mycelial growth rate. In the model, pH and temperature significantly affected the mycelial growth but substrate concentration did not. The optimal substrate concentration, pH, and temperature for maximizing growth rate of P. linteus mycelia were found to be 16.5 g l(-1), pH 6.0, and 29.7 degrees C, respectively. Subsequent verification of these levels agreed with model predictions and the maximum mycelial growth rate at these conditions was 6.1 +/- 0.8 mm day(-1). Therefore, the results of the experiments suggest that starch processing waste could be utilized as a growth substrate for the cultivation of the mushroom mycelia of P. linteus, enhancing the usefulness of this byproduct of the starch manufacturing industry. This approach is likely to be useful for establishing similar parameters for the cultivation of other fungi. PMID:18427847

Lee, Seungyong; Bae, Hyokwan; Song, Minkyung; Hwang, Seokhwan

2008-08-01

385

[Modification of mitochondria in cultivated hepatocytes as a function of the protein content of the medium].  

PubMed

Embryonic liver cells of chicken have been cultivated in medium more or less supplemented with serum. With a rich medium mitochondria become larger and often ramify. Their fundamental structure remains normal. It is only a hypertrophic condition correlated to an increase of mitochondrial material synthesis, limited to liver mitochondria. PMID:150910

Wyllie, L; Marchi, N; Verne, J

1978-01-01

386

Incorporating Sclerotinia stalk rot resistance from diverse perennial wild Helianthus species into cultivated sunflower  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluation of the wild sunflower germplasms indicated that most perennial wild species, including diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid, possess high level of resistance to Sclerotinia stalk rot. Selected resistant wild species were crossed with cultivated sunflower to transfer Sclerotinia resistance genes, though the frequency of successful crosses was relatively low. Hexaploid H. californicus was crossed with HA 410, a moderately stalk

J. Feng; G. J. Seiler; T. J. Gulya; X. Cai; C. C. Jan

387

The Earthworm Inoculation Unit technique: An integrated system for cultivation and soil-inoculation of earthworms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of earthworms into degraded or newly restored land is known to promote soil improvement. Obtaining the most appropriate species in the large numbers required can be costly and time consuming using traditional techniques. Research and development of a novel approach, the Earthworm Inoculation Unit (EIU) technique, may help to overcome this. This technique combines cultivation of selected earthworms

Kevin R. Butt; James Frederickson; Richard M. Morris

1997-01-01

388

Cultivating a Teacher Community of Practice for Sustainable Professional Development: Beyond Planned Efforts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This ethnographic study-cum-action research documents the cultivation of a community of practice for sustainable professional development among a group of 18 teachers of English as second language in Hong Kong through a series of planned efforts over 10?months. By juxtaposing the theory-driven planned efforts and the spontaneous actions and…

Mak, Barley; Pun, Shuk-Han

2015-01-01

389

Tine cultivation effects on weed control, productivity, and economics of peanut under organic management  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Identifying effective weed control regimes for organic peanut has become paramount for improving the feasibility of organic production. Tine cultivation is a proven effective method at reducing in-row weed populations in several crops. Field trials were therefore conducted in 2008 and 2009 to asse...

390

Photosynthesis and growth rates of Laurencia brongniartii J. Agardh (Rhodophyta, Ceramiales) in preparation for cultivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laurencia brongniartii is usually found at depths below 4 m, but can be found in shallow subtidal areas in crevices and on the walls of a coral reef in Amami Oshima Island, Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan, where irradiances were significantly lower than those at similar depths in open water. In preparation for the possible cultivation of this species for its antibiotic

Gregory N. Nishihara; Ryuta Terada; Tadahide Noro

2004-01-01

391

Effect of GxE interaction on oil content and fatty acid composition of cultivated peanuts  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Twenty-nine entries of varieties and advanced breeding lines were grown in two locations in three years with three replications to estimate the effects of G x E interaction on oil content and fatty acid composition of cultivated peanuts. Oil content and fatty acid composition were quantified by NMR ...

392

Cultivation of maize landraces by small-scale shade coffee farmers in western El Salvador  

E-print Network

Cultivation of maize landraces by small-scale shade coffee farmers in western El Salvador Meryl 2011 Received in revised form 23 April 2012 Accepted 17 May 2012 Keywords: Coffee Maize Central America of research on other productive areas man- aged by small-scale coffee farmers such as subsistence maize

Vermont, University of

393

Effect of Agave tequilana age, cultivation field location and yeast strain on tequila fermentation process.  

PubMed

The effect of yeast strain, the agave age and the cultivation field location of agave were evaluated using kinetic parameters and volatile compound production in the tequila fermentation process. Fermentations were carried out with Agave juice obtained from two cultivation fields (CF1 and CF2), as well as two ages (4 and 8 years) and two Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains (GU3 and AR5) isolated from tequila fermentation must. Sugar consumption and ethanol production varied as a function of cultivation field and agave age. The production of ethyl acetate, 1-propanol, isobutanol and amyl alcohols were influenced in varying degrees by yeast strain, agave age and cultivation field. Methanol production was only affected by the agave age and 2-phenylethanol was influenced only by yeast strain. This work showed that the use of younger Agave tequilana for tequila fermentation resulted in differences in sugar consumption, ethanol and volatile compounds production at the end of fermentation, which could affect the sensory quality of the final product. PMID:19238469

Pinal, L; Cornejo, E; Arellano, M; Herrera, E; Nuñez, L; Arrizon, J; Gschaedler, A

2009-05-01

394

Cultivating Teachers' Beliefs, Knowledge and Skills for Leading Change in Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Australian policy initiatives and state curriculum reform efforts affirm a commitment to address student disengagement through the development of inclusive school environments, curriculum, and pedagogy. This paper, drawing on critical social theory, describes three Australian projects that support the cultivation of teachers' beliefs, knowledge…

Carrington, Suzanne; Deppeler, Joanne; Moss, Julianne

2010-01-01

395

Dynamics of Rubus ulmifolius Schott var. anoplothyrsus Sudre and other cultivated blackberries in Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Italy, the following important blackberries are cultivated: Rubus ulmifolius, R. armeniacus and R. laciniatus. Italy is proposed as a possible place of origin of R. ulmifolius and its spineless race var. anoplothyrsus. The other two species are introduced. All of them show a characteristic differentiation and migration.

K. Hammer; S. Cifarelli; P. Perrino; G. Laghetti

2004-01-01

396

Independent origins of cultivated coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) in the old world tropics.  

PubMed

As a portable source of food, water, fuel, and construction materials, the coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) played a fundamental role in human migrations and the development of civilization across the humid tropics. Here we investigated the coconut's domestication history and its population genetic structure as it relates to human dispersal patterns. A sample of 1,322 coconut accessions, representing the geographical and phenotypic diversity of the species, was examined using ten microsatellite loci. Bayesian analyses reveal two highly genetically differentiated subpopulations that correspond to the Pacific and Indo-Atlantic oceanic basins. This pattern suggests independent origins of coconut cultivation in these two world regions, with persistent population structure on a global scale despite long-term human cultivation and dispersal. Pacific coconuts show additional genetic substructure corresponding to phenotypic and geographical subgroups; moreover, the traits that are most clearly associated with selection under human cultivation (dwarf habit, self-pollination, and "niu vai" fruit morphology) arose only in the Pacific. Coconuts that show evidence of genetic admixture between the Pacific and Indo-Atlantic groups occur primarily in the southwestern Indian Ocean. This pattern is consistent with human introductions of Pacific coconuts along the ancient Austronesian trade route connecting Madagascar to Southeast Asia. Admixture in coastal east Africa may also reflect later historic Arab trading along the Indian Ocean coastline. We propose two geographical origins of coconut cultivation: island Southeast Asia and southern margins of the Indian subcontinent. PMID:21731660

Gunn, Bee F; Baudouin, Luc; Olsen, Kenneth M

2011-01-01

397

Heparin-based hydrogel as a matrix for encapsulation and cultivation of primary hepatocytes  

E-print Network

Heparin-based hydrogel as a matrix for encapsulation and cultivation of primary hepatocytes Mihye factors Hydrogels Heparin a b s t r a c t Primary hepatocytes are commonly used as liver surrogates is an important topic of investigation. This paper sought to characterize heparin-based hydrogel as a three

Revzin, Alexander

398

Variability of soil properties in a tropical Alfisol used for shifting cultivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many lands in the tropics are abandoned after few seasons of shifting cultivation due to loss of soil fertility. There is a great need for characterizing these soils for reforestation or revegetation using conservation farming systems. This study investigate the variability of soil pH, electrical conductivity (EC), clay content, organic C and available P in a tropical Alfisol and its

Ranjith B. Mapa; D. Kumaragamage

1996-01-01

399

Ribosomal DNA polymorphisms and the Oriental-Occidental genetic differentiation in cultivated barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 289 accessions of cultivated barley were assayed for ribosomal DNA (rDNA) polymorphisms. These accessions comprised four independent samples: (1) 79 entries from China, (2) 59 accessions from Ethiopia, (3) 59 entries from Tibet and (4) 92 entries representing 36 barley growing countries of the world (referred to as “world sample”). In all, 17 rDNA phenotypes (genotypes) were

Qifa Zhang; M. A. Saghai Maroof; P. G. Yang

1992-01-01

400

An Integrated Linkage Map for Cultivated Peanut Derived from Two RILs Populations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A comparable integrated map for cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) was constructed from the integration of two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations in which two runner type cultivars, one Spanish type cultivar and one breeding line derived from a cross of Virginia type and hirsuta type wer...

401

Long-term in vitro cultivation of Echinococcus multilocularis metacestodes under axenic conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report here on the development of an in vitro system for the long-term cultivation of Echinococcus multilocularis larvae under axenic conditions. In the absence of feeder cells from the host, long-term survival of the parasite depended strictly on low oxygen conditions and the presence of reducing agents in the medium. Host serum supported survival of the parasite but the

Markus Spiliotis; Dennis Tappe; Lukas Sesterhenn; Klaus Brehm

2004-01-01

402

Seed protein electrophoresis of some cultivated and wild species of Chenopodium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed protein profiles of 40 cultivated and wild taxa of Chenopodium have been compared by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The relative similarity between various taxa, estimated by Jaccard’s similarity index and clustered in UPGMA dendrogram, is generally in accordance with taxonomic position, crossability relationships and other biochemical characters. Eight accessions of C. quinoa studied are clustered together and

A. Bhargava; T. S. Rana; S. Shukla; D. Ohri

2005-01-01

403

Karyotypic Studies on Some Cultivated and Wild Species of Chenopodium (Chenopodiaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detailed karyotypic studies have been done in 20 wild and cultivated taxa of Chenopodium, which belong to three ploidy levels 2x, 4x and 6x. C. quinoa (4x) shows minor but consistent differences in the arm ratio of various chromosomes within the complements of different accessions. The chromosomes can be arranged in 18 pairs that suggest allotetraploid nature. The karyotype of

A. Bhargava; S. Shukla; D. Ohri

2006-01-01

404

Antioxidative properties and flavonoid composition of Chenopodium quinoa seeds cultivated in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the nutritional advantages of quinoa seeds (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) cultivated in Japan, antioxidative properties and flavonoid composition were determined and compared to corresponding data for conventionally-used cereals and pseudo-cereals, including quinoa seeds from South America. The antioxidant activities of these grains against DPPH radicals were strongly associated with the total phenolic content of the tested samples. The crude

Yuko Hirose; Tomoyuki Fujita; Toshiyuki Ishii; Naoya Ueno

2010-01-01

405

Manufacturing Vaccines: An Illustration of Using PAT Tools for Controlling the Cultivation of Bordetella pertussis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An illustration of the operational consistency of the upstream part of a biopharmaceutical process is given. For this purpose four batch cultivations of Bordetella pertussis have been executed under identical conditions. The batches have been monitored by means of two fundamentally different process sensors. First, common single channel measurements such as temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), and flow rates are

Eric N. M. van Sprang; Mathieu Streefland; Henk-Jan Ramaker; Leo A. van der Pol; E. Coen Beuvery; Age. K. Smilde

2007-01-01

406

Comparison of ectomycorrhizal communities in natural and cultivated Tuber melanosporum truffle grounds.  

PubMed

Truffles are hypogeous ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi belonging to the genus Tuber. Although outplanting of truffle-inoculated host plants has enabled the realization of productive orchards, truffle cultivation is not yet standardized. Therefore, monitoring the distribution of fungal species in different truffle fields may help us to elucidate the factors that shape microbial communities and influence the propagation and fruiting of Tuber spp. In this study, we compared the fungal biodiversity in cultivated and natural Tuber melanosporum truffle fields located in Central Italy. To this end, ectomycorrhizas (ECM) and soil samples were molecularly analyzed, and an inventory of the fungi associated with Quercus pubescens plants colonized by T. melanosporum, Tuber aestivum or Tuber brumale was compiled. T. melanosporum and T. aestivum were dominant on the cultivated plants, and the number of EM species was markedly lower in the cultivated sites than in the natural sites. However, in the same site, EM biodiversity was higher in T. brumale-colonized plants than in T. melanosporum-colonized plants. These results suggest that different Tuber spp. may have different competitive effects on the other mycobionts. Additionally, in keeping with our previous findings, we found that the number of T. melanosporum genotypes recovered from the soil samples was higher than that of the underlying ECM. PMID:22469019

Belfiori, Beatrice; Riccioni, Claudia; Tempesta, Sabrina; Pasqualetti, Marcella; Paolocci, Francesco; Rubini, Andrea

2012-09-01

407

Cultivation of Desmodesmus subspicatus in a tubular photobioreactor for bioremediation and microalgae oil production.  

PubMed

The microalgae Desmodesmus subspicatus (Chlorophyta) was cultivated in a tubular photobioreactor using effluent from the wastewater treatment plant of the University of Santa Cruz do Sul, Brazil to demonstrate the reactor's operation. The algae's ability to remove nutrients from wastewater and the oleaginous potential of the algae's biomass were also evaluated. Total phosphorus and ammonia nitrogen were measured. The photobioreactor consisted of a system of three acrylic tubes, a reservoir, connections and a CO2 supply. The gas supply was semicontinuous with CO2 added from a cylinder. The culture's growth was estimated from cell numbers counted on a daily basis. Lipid content in the biomass was analysed using gas chromatography. A maximum cell density of 9.11 x 10(6) cellsmL-1 and a dry weight of 234.00 mg L-1 were obtained during cultivation without CO2, and these values rose to 42.48 x 10(6) cells mL-1 and 1277.44 mg L-1, respectively, when CO2 was added to the cultivation. Differences in the quality of the effluent and the presence of CO2 did not result in different lipid profiles. The presence ofpalmitic acid and oleic acid was notable. The average extracted oil content was 18% and 12% for cultivation with and without the input of CO2, respectively. PMID:24600859

Gressler, Pablo Diego; Bjerk, Thiago Rodrigues; Schneider, Rosana de Cassia Souza; Souza, Maiara Priscilla; Lobo, Eduardo Alcayaga; Zappe, Ana Letícia; Corbellini, Valeriano Antônio; Moraes, Maria Silvana Aranda

2014-01-01

408

Characteristics of menthol mint Mentha arvensis cultivated on industrial scale in the Indo-Gangetic plains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mentha arvensis L. (menthol mint) oil is the source of commercial natural menthol. This industrial crop is now cultivated in about 0.145 million ha in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh (UP) and several other states encompassing Indo-Gangetic plains. Considerable variation has been reported in the yield and quality of oil obtained from the crops of menthol mint varieties Himalaya

R. K. Srivastava; A. K. Singh; A. Kalra; V. K. S. Tomar; R. P. Bansal; D. D. Patra; S. Chand; A. A. Naqvi; S. Sharma; Sushil Kumar

2002-01-01

409

Cultivating the Commons An Assessment of the Potential for Urban Agriculture on Oakland's Public Land  

E-print Network

i Cultivating the Commons An Assessment of the Potential for Urban Agriculture on Oakland's Public for Urban Agriculture on Oakland's Public Land Nathan McClintock & Jenny Cooper Department of Geography the Commons: An Assessment of the Potential for Urban Agriculture on Oakland's Public Land ! ii

410

Genetic diversity of wild and cultivated grapevine accessions from southeast Turkey.  

PubMed

Wild grapevine genetic diversity in southeast Turkey has not been documented to date. In the present work, in order to clarify the relationships between wild and cultivated grape accessions from southeastern Turkey, 22 nuclear and three chloroplast microsatellite loci were used on 21 wild grapevine Vitis vinifera L. ssp. sylvestris (Gmelin) and 13 cultivated grapevine Vitis vinifera ssp. sativa accessions. The number of alleles per SSR locus ranged from 4 (VVIn16) to 20 (VVIv67) and the mean allele number per locus was 10.09. Expected locus heterozygosity ranged from 0.586 (locus VVIb01) to 0.898 (locus (VVIv67)). The three cpSSR molecular markers presented variation in size both in cultivars and in wild Turkish accessions. Two size variants were detected for cpSSR3 (106 and 107 bp) for cpSSR5 (104 and 105 bp), and for cpSSR10 (115 and 116 bp). The six alleles in wild grapevines fell into three haplotypes B, C and D. A genetic structure according to accessions taxonomic status (wild or cultivated) was revealed by UPGMA analysis. This highlighted a clear separation between domesticated and wild accessions in Turkish germplasm. The results pointed out the need to further collect and characterize this wild and cultivated grapevine germplasm. PMID:25363274

Karata?, Dilek De?irmenci; Karata?, Hüseyin; Laucou, Valérie; Sarikami?, Gölge; Riahi, Leila; Bacilieri, Roberto; This, Patrice

2014-10-01

411

Linking Research, Extension and Farmers: The Case of Mangrove Swamp Rice Cultivation in Sierra Leone.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviews with 124 rice farmers in Sierra Leone revealed that farmers and extension staff have minimal participation and input in testing of new cultivation technologies. The top-down research approach has limited contact among researchers, extension staff, and farmers and affected the utility and application of research. (SK)

Zinnah, Moses Moroe

1994-01-01

412

Genetic comparison of wild and cultivated European populations of the gilthead sea bream ( Sparus aurata)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study represents the first large-scale population genetic analysis of the marine fish gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), one of the most significant species in the South European aquaculture. Six wild and five cultivated sample sets covering the South Atlantic and Mediterranean European area have been screened for allozyme, microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation. Microsatellites showed higher levels of

J. A. Alarcón; A. Magoulas; T. Georgakopoulos; E. Zouros; M. C. Alvarez

2004-01-01

413

Application of dielectric spectroscopy for monitoring high cell density in monoclonal antibody producing CHO cell cultivations.  

PubMed

The application of dielectric spectroscopy was frequently investigated as an on-line cell culture monitoring tool; however, it still requires supportive data and experience in order to become a robust technique. In this study, dielectric spectroscopy was used to predict viable cell density (VCD) at industrially relevant high levels in concentrated fed-batch culture of Chinese hamster ovary cells producing a monoclonal antibody for pharmaceutical purposes. For on-line dielectric spectroscopy measurements, capacitance was scanned within a wide range of frequency values (100-19,490 kHz) in six parallel cell cultivation batches. Prior to detailed mathematical analysis of the collected data, principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to compare dielectric behavior of the cultivations. PCA analysis resulted in detecting measurement disturbances. By using the measured spectroscopic data, partial least squares regression (PLS), Cole-Cole, and linear modeling were applied and compared in order to predict VCD. The Cole-Cole and the PLS model provided reliable prediction over the entire cultivation including both the early and decline phases of cell growth, while the linear model failed to estimate VCD in the later, declining cultivation phase. In regards to the measurement error sensitivity, remarkable differences were shown among PLS, Cole-Cole, and linear modeling. VCD prediction accuracy could be improved in the runs with measurement disturbances by first derivative pre-treatment in PLS and by parameter optimization of the Cole-Cole modeling. PMID:23801499

Párta, László; Zalai, Dénes; Borbély, Sándor; Putics, Akos

2014-02-01

414

THE DETERMINATION OF PHENOLICS COMPOUNDS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF MINTS AND BALMS CULTIVATED IN SLOVAKIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the content of the main polyphenolic constituens of different mints and balms cultivated in the conditions of South-West Slovakia were examined and compared. All plants were harvested in two harvest times. Free radical scavenging activity of 50 %-hydroalcoholic extracts of leaves of three Mentha L. species (M. × piperita L., M. spicata L., M. longifolia (L.) Huds.

Tomus LV

415

Abstract Cultivated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) encompass a wide range of fruit shape and size variants.  

E-print Network

Abstract Cultivated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) encompass a wide range of fruit shape and size variants. This variation can be used to genetically dissect the mo- lecular basis of ovary and fruit morphology. The cultivar Long John displays an extremely elongated fruit pheno- type, while the wild relative

van der Knaap, Esther

416

Abstract Cultivated tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculen-tum) encompass a wide range of fruit size and shape  

E-print Network

Abstract Cultivated tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculen- tum) encompass a wide range of fruit size of ovary and fruit development. One fruit shape variant is displayed by the cultivar Sun 1642 (TA491). TA491 has an elongated fruit phenotype, while the wild relative L. pimpinellifolium LA1589 produces

van der Knaap, Esther

417

Alkon--Cultivating food Justice From Industrial Garden to Food Desert  

E-print Network

J Alkon--Cultivating food Justice 5 From Industrial Garden to Food Desert: Demarcated Devaluation as the sole food retailer in areas that planners and food justice activists have come to call "food deserts."1 A recent report to Congress by the USDA Economic Research Service defines food desert as an area "with

418

Measuring and optimising umckalin concentration in wild-harvested and cultivated Pelargonium sidoides (Geraniaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pelargonium sidoides DC. (Geraniaceae) root extracts are used locally and globally as herbal medicines. Subsequently, high levels of wild root harvest in the years preceding this study, to supply international demand for raw materials, prompted this investigation of the prospects for sustainable root harvest through wild collection and greenhouse cultivation. A novel method was developed for the purification of umckalin,

A. G. White; M. T. Davies-Coleman; B. S. Ripley

2008-01-01

419

Cultivation of Scenedesmus dimorphus with domestic secondary effluent and energy evaluation for biodiesel production.  

PubMed

Microalgae cultivation in wastewater has gained significant attention as a cost-saving means for algae-based biofuel production. To evaluate the performance of Scenedesmus dimorphus cultivated in a 100-L continuously operated photobioreactor using domestic secondary effluent (DSE), algal growth, nutrients removal and energy evaluation were conducted in four scenarios. Prior to the application of continuous cultivation, S. dimorphus was grown in a batch operated 1.5-L bubble column photobioreactor to test the growth feasibility and lipids accumulation of S. dimorphus in DSE. The highest biomass achieved in DSE was 244?mg L(-1)with lipid content at 26.06%. Simultaneously, 98.72% of total phosphorus (TP) and 98.04% of total nitrogen (TN) in DSE were removed. Then, S. dimorphus were inoculated in the 100-L continuously operated photobioreactor using BG11, unsterilized DSE, N, P-added DSE and UV-sterilized DSE as the medium, respectively. Results showed that the highest biomass gained were 567, 174, 276 and 198?mg L(-1), respectively. TP removal rates in four scenarios were all above 90%. With adjustment to DSE, the overall TN removal rates increased up to 80%. Finally, energy evaluation demonstrated that although the case of BG11 as the medium provided the most energy production, the case using DSE with N and P supplementation was of the highest net energy rate, suggesting that microalgae cultivation for biodiesel production by DSE is of obvious potential and advantage over the synthesis medium like BG11. PMID:25253291

Zhang, S S; Liu, H; Fan, J F; Yu, H

2015-04-01

420

Cultivating a Spirit for Justice and Peace: Teaching through Oral History  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The thesis of this article is that teaching through oral history cultivates a spirit for justice and peace, as well as knowledge and skills that contribute to that spirit. The authors examine periodical literature focused on justice and peace education and analyze a course taught through oral history. Both the literature and case study yield…

Bischoff, Claire; Moore, Mary Elizabeth Mullino

2007-01-01

421

Phylogenetic relationships among cultivated Allium species from restriction enzyme analysis of the chloroplast genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genus Allium contains many economically important species, including the bulb onion, chive, garlic, Japanese bunching onion, and leek. Phylogenetic relationships among the cultivated alliums are not well understood, and taxonomic classifications are based on relatively few morphological characters. Chloroplast DNA is highly conserved and useful in determining phylogenetic relationships. The size of the chloroplast genome of Allium cepa was

M. J. Havey

1991-01-01

422

Impacts of recent cultivation on genetic diversity pattern of a medicinal plant, Scutellaria baicalensis (Lamiaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cultivation of medicinal plants is not only a means for meeting current and future demands for large volume production of plant-based drug and herbal remedies, but also a means of relieving harvest pressure on wild populations. Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (Huang-qin or Chinese skullcap) is a very important medicinal plant in China. Over the past several decades, wild resource of

Qing-Jun Yuan; Zhi-Yong Zhang; Juan Hu; Lan-Ping Guo; Ai-Juan Shao; Lu-Qi Huang

2010-01-01

423

A SSR-based genetic linkage map of cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to construct a molecular linkage map of cultivated tetraploid peanut using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers derived primarily from peanut genomic sequences, expressed sequence tags (ESTs), and by "data mining" sequences released in GenBank. Three recombinant inbre...

424

THE EFFECT OF 6BENZYLADENINE ON Astilbe ? arendsii ARENDS 'AMETHYST' FLOWERING CULTIVATED FOR CUT FLOWERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of benzyladenine on Astilbe ? arendsii Arends flowering was deter- mined. The cultivation of Astilbe ? arendsii in an unheated plastic tunnel reduces the in- florescence yield in the first and second year of flowering as compared to the field, but in- creases the fresh weight and lenght of inflorescence stems.

Elbieta Pogroszewska; Patrycja Sadkowska

425

Surface changes in type II pneumocytes isolated from rats during the cultivation.  

PubMed

Type II cells isolated from the rat lung were maintained in culture for 8 days. The activity of alkaline phosphatase and lectin binding properties were studied. The alkaline phosphatase activity and the number of lamellar bodies were continually decreasing during the studied time period. The profile of lectin binding (Maclura pomifera and Ricinus communis) did not change during the cultivation. PMID:10638683

Kováciková, Z; Tátrai, E; Adamis, Z

1999-01-01

426

Genetic diversity, structure and differentiation in cultivated walnut (juglans regia l.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An analysis of genetic structure and differentiation in cultivated walnut (Juglans regia) using 15 microsatellite loci revealed a considerable amount of genetic variation with a mild genetic structure indicating five genetic groups corresponding to the centers of diversity within the home range of w...

427

Closed and continuous algae cultivation system for food production and gas exchange in CELSS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In CELSS (Controlled Ecological Life Support System), utilization of photosynthetic algae is an effective means for obtaining food and oxygen at the same time. We have chosen Spirulina, a blue-green alga, and have studied possibilities of algae utilization. We have developed an advanced algae cultivation system, which is able to produce algae continuously in a closed condition. Major features of the new system are as follows. o (1)In order to maintain homogeneous culture conditions, the cultivator was designed so as to cause a swirl on medium circulation. (2)Oxygen gas separation and carbon dioxide supply are conducted by a newly designed membrane module. (3)Algae mass and medium are separated by a specially designed harvester. (4)Cultivation conditions, such as pH, temperature, algae growth rate, light intensity and quanlity of generated oxygen gas are controlled by a computer system and the data are automatically recorded. This equipment is a primary model for ground experiments in order to obtain some design data for space use. A feasibility of algae cultivation in a closed condition is discussed on the basis of data obtained by use of this new system.

Oguchi, Mitsuo; Otsubo, Koji; Nitta, Keiji; Shimada, Atsuhiro; Fujii, Shigeo; Koyano, Takashi; Miki, Keizaburo

428

Biodiversity and distribution of endophytic fungi associated with Panax quinquefolium L. cultivated in a forest reserve  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endophytic fungi residing in Panax quinquefo- lium (American ginseng) have not been well characterized. We collected American ginseng of one-, two-, three- and four-year-old plants cultivated in a forest reserve and identified the endophytic fungal isolates using traditional methods. The colonization frequency and the dominant endophytic fungal species were investigated. Endophytic fungal diversity indices and similarity coefficient were also assessed

Xiaoke Xing; Shunxing Guo; Jianguo Fu

2010-01-01

429

Simple colorimetric method for detecting degenerate strains of the cultivated basidiomycete Flammulina velutipes (Enokitake).  

PubMed

Degeneration of cultivated strains of Flammulina velutipes is a serious problem. We developed a simple colorimetric method to detect degenerate strains by using a liquid medium supplemented with bromothymol blue and lactose. The ability of a strain to develop normal mushrooms could be determined by the color of the medium. PMID:16204563

Magae, Yumi; Akahane, Kobun; Nakamura, Kimiyoshi; Tsunoda, Shigeyuki

2005-10-01

430

Simple Colorimetric Method for Detecting Degenerate Strains of the Cultivated Basidiomycete Flammulina velutipes (Enokitake)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objective of this study was to develop a simple method for detecting degenerate Flammulina velutipes (Eno- kitake) cultures. Cultural degeneration of cultivated strains of Enokitake similar to the degeneration observed for Agaricus bisporus (1, 2) has become a serious problem in Japan. Previ- ous efforts to evaluate the fruiting potential of Enokitake have been made using isozyme electrophoresis

Yumi Magae; Kobun Akahane; Kimiyoshi Nakamura; Shigeyuki Tsunoda

2005-01-01

431

Title: Crop genetic diversity benefits farmland biodiversity in cultivated fields1 Carole Chateila, b  

E-print Network

to biodiversity loss in agroecosystems17 18 Key words19 Carabids; crop management practices; farmland biodiversity genetic diversity benefits farmland biodiversity in cultivated fields1 2 Authors3 Carole Chateila, b whether increasing crop genetic diversity benefited farmland biodiversity in5 bread wheat (Triticum

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

432

Growth and reproductive patterns of Undaria pinnatifida sporophytes in a cultivation farm in Busan, Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monthly growth and reproduction of Undaria pinnatifida sporophytes were examined over a period of 5 months in a cultivation farm in Korea. A total of 11 characters of Undaria were measured to determine a reliable morphological character representing its growth and reproduction. Plant weight of Undaria sporophytes increased steadily over the experimental period, but it increased in four different ways. Undaria

Han Gil Choi; Young Sik Kim; Soon Jeong Lee; Ki Wan Nam

2007-01-01

433

A Possible Industrial Solution to Ferment Lignocellulosic Hydrolyzate to Ethanol: Continuous Cultivation with Flocculating Yeast  

PubMed Central

The cultivation of toxic lignocellulosic hydrolyzates has become a challenging research topic in recent decades. Although several cultivation methods have been proposed, numerous questions have arisen regarding their industrial applications. The current work deals with a solution to this problem which has a good potential application on an industrial scale. A toxic dilute-acid hydrolyzate was continuously cultivated using a high-cell-density flocculating yeast in a single and serial bioreactor which was equipped with a settler to recycle the cells back to the bioreactors. No prior detoxification was necessary to cultivate the hydrolyzates, as the flocks were able to detoxify it in situ. The experiments were successfully carried out at dilution rates up to 0.52 h?1. The cell concentration inside the bioreactors was between 23 and 35 g-DW/L, while the concentration in the effluent of the settlers was 0.32 ± 0.05 g-DW/L. An ethanol yield of 0.42–0.46 g/g-consumed sugar was achieved, and the residual sugar concentration was less than 6% of the initial fermentable sugar (glucose, galactose and mannose) of 35.2 g/L.

Purwadi, Ronny; Brandberg, Tomas; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.

2007-01-01

434

The communities of endophytic diazotrophic bacteria in cultivated rice ( Oryza sativa L .)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even though attempts have been made to use endophytic diazotrophic bacteria as biofertilizers for rice cultivation, their community structure and complexity in rice tissues is not well understood. In this study, the diversity and the community structure of endophytic diazotrophs as well as the nifH gene expression within each plant part and growth stage of rice under different soil conditions

Janpen Prakamhang; Kiwamu Minamisawa; Kamonluck Teamtaisong; Nantakorn Boonkerd; Neung Teaumroong

2009-01-01

435

Significant effect of NH 4 + on cordycepin production by submerged cultivation of medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of nitrogen sources on cell growth and cordycepin production by submerged cultivation of Cordyceps militaris, a traditional Chinese medicinal mushroom, were investigated. In complex medium, peptone was identified as the best nitrogen source for cordycepin biosynthesis. A study using chemically defined medium indicated that NH4+ played an important role in cordycepin biosynthesis. To enhance cordycepin production, fed-batch culture with

Xian-Bing Mao; Jian-Jiang Zhong

2006-01-01

436

PROTEOMIC ANALYSIS OF ALLERGEN AND ANTINUTRITIONAL PROTEINS IN WILD AND CULTIVATED SOYBEAN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In this study, profiles of allergen and antinutritional proteins both in wild (Glycine soja) and cultivated (Glycine max) soybean seeds were compared. We used two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) for the separation of proteins at two different pH ranges and applied a combine...

437

Growth and fitness components of wild X cultivated Sorghum bicolor (Poaceae) hybrids in Nebraska  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Gene flow between cultivated sorghum [Sorghum bicolor subsp. bicolor (L.) Moench] and its wild relative, shattercane [S. bicolor subsp. drummondii (Nees ex Steud) de Wet & Harlan], may contribute to changes in fitness and the potential invasiveness of shattercane. In order to assess the initial pote...

438

Cultivating a Spirit for Justice and Peace: Teaching Through Oral History  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thesis of this article is that teaching through oral history cultivates a spirit for justice and peace, as well as knowledge and skills that contribute to that spirit. The authors examine periodical literature focused on justice and peace education and analyze a course taught through oral history. Both the literature and case study yield thematic insights. The dialogue between

Claire Bischoff; Mary Elizabeth Mullino Moore

2007-01-01

439

Cultivating Student Skills in Self-Regulated Learning through Evaluation of Task Complexity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to self-regulate, students need to honestly reflect on their learning and to take appropriate corrective action. A simple procedure to cultivate student skills in self-regulated learning, known as the Task Evaluation and Reflection Instrument for Student Self-Assessment (TERISSA) is discussed in this paper. TERISSA guides students through…

Belski, Regina; Belski, Iouri

2014-01-01

440

Post-cultivation Secondary Succession in a Venezuelan Lower Montane Rain Forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since tropical rain forests are widely threatened by conversion to agriculture, even within protected areas, an understanding of recovery processes is important for restoration of forest ecosystems and thus conservation of their biodiversity. Secondary succession following land clearance and crop cultivation was studied in a lower montane rain forest in a protected area of the Venezuelan Cordillera de la Costa

Richard T. Howorth; Colin A. Pendry

2006-01-01

441

Variation in ?-amylase activity and thermostability in Tibetan annual wild and cultivated barley genotypes*  

PubMed Central

?-Amylase activity (BAA) and thermostability (BAT) are important traits for malt quality. In this study, 138 Tibetan annual wild barley accessions and 20 cultivated genotypes differing in BAA were planted and analyzed in 2009 and 2012. Significant differences were detected among genotypes in BAA and BAT. The cultivated genotypes had a mean BAA of 1137.6 U/g and a range of from 602.1 to 1407.5 U/g, while the wild accessions had a mean of 1517.9 U/g and a range of from 829.7 to 2310.0 U/g. The cultivated genotypes had a mean relative residual ?-amylase activity (RRBAA) of 61.6% and a range of from 22.2% to 82.3%, while the wild barleys had a mean of 57.8% and a range of from 21.9% to 96.1%. Moreover, there was a significant difference among genotypes in the response of RRBAA to the temperature and duration of heat treatment. The wild barleys had wider variation in BAA and BAT than cultivated genotypes. PMID:25183034

Zhang, Hai-tao; Chen, Tian-long; Zhang, Bing-lin; Wu, De-zhi; Huang, Ye-chang; Wu, Fei-bo; Zhang, Guo-ping

2014-01-01

442

Microbiota of radish plants, cultivated in closed and open ecological systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is common knowledge that microorganisms respond to environmental changes faster than other representatives of the living world. The major aim of this work was to examine and analyze the characteristics of the microbiota of radish culture, cultivated in the closed ecological system of human life-support Bios-3 and in an open system in different experiments. Microbial community of near-root, root zone and phyllosphere of radish were studied at the phases of seedlings, root formation, technical ripeness—by washing-off method—like microbiota of the substrate (expanded clay aggregate) and of the seeds of radish culture. Inoculation on appropriate media was made to count total quantity of anaerobic and aerobic bacteria, bacteria of coliform group, spore-forming, Proteus group, fluorescent, phytopathogenic bacteria, growing on Fermi medium, yeasts, microscopic fungi, Actinomyces. It was revealed that formation of the microbiota of radish plants depends on the age, plant cultivation technology and the specific conditions of the closed system. Composition of microbial conveyor-cultivated in phytotrons varied in quality and in quantity with plant growth phases—in the same manner as cultivation of even-aged soil and hydroponics monocultures which was determined by different qualitative and quantitative composition of root emissions in the course of plant vegetation. The higher plant component formed its own microbial complex different from that formed prior to closure. The microbial complex of vegetable polyculture is more diverse and stable than the monoculture of radish. We registered the changes in the species composition and microorganism quantity during plant cultivation in the closed system on a long-used solution. It was demonstrated that during the short-term (7 days) use of the nutrient solution in the experiments without system closing, the species composition of the microbiota of radish plants was more diverse in a multiple-aged vegetable polyculture (61 species of bacteria), than in an even-aged monoculture (32 species). Long-term use (120 days) of the solution for cultivation of multiple-aged vegetable polyculture from different radish parts in the experiment without system closing revealed 50 species, while in the experiment with the closed ecosystem only 39 species of bacteria were detected. It was found out that plant cultivation in a polyculture consisting of nine vegetable cultures is more preferable than in a monoculture, because the microbial complex is more stable, the functioning of elements is more accurate and the crop is higher.

Tirranen, L. S.

443

Effects of organic and conventional cultivation methods on composition of eggplant fruits.  

PubMed

Organic food is associated by the general public with improved nutritional properties, and this has led to increasing demand for organic vegetables. The effects of organic and conventional cultivation methods on dry matter, protein, minerals, and total phenolic content has been studied for two successive years in two landraces and one commercial hybrid of eggplant. In the first year, organically produced eggplants had higher mean contents (expressed on a fresh weight basis) of K (196 vs 171 mg 100 g(-1)), Ca (11.1 vs 8.7 mg 100 g(-1)), Mg (6.0 vs 4.6 mg 100 g(-1)), and total phenolics (49.8 vs 38.2 mg 100 g(-1)) than conventionally grown eggplants. In the second year, in which matched plots having a history of organic management were cultivated following organic or conventional fertilization practices, organically produced eggplants still had higher contents of K (272 vs 249 mg 100 g(-1)) and Mg (8.8 vs 7.6), as well as of Cu (0.079 vs 0.065 mg 100 g(-1)), than conventionally fertilized eggplants. Conventionally cultivated eggplants had a higher polyphenol oxidase activity than organically cultivated ones (3.19 vs 2.17 enzyme activity units), although no differences in browning were observed. Important differences in mineral concentrations between years were detected, which resulted in many correlations among mineral contents being significant. The first component of the principal component analysis separates the eggplants according to year, whereas the second component separates them according to the cultivation method (organic or conventional). Overall, the results show that organic management and fertilization have a positive effect on the accumulation of certain beneficial minerals and phenolic compounds in eggplant and that organically and conventionally produced eggplants might be distinguished according to their composition profiles. PMID:20443597

Raigón, María D; Rodríguez-Burruezo, Adrián; Prohens, Jaime

2010-06-01

444

Multiple approaches to enhance the cultivability of bacteria associated with the marine sponge Haliclona (gellius) sp.  

PubMed

Three methods were examined to cultivate bacteria associated with the marine sponge Haliclona (gellius) sp.: agar plate cultures, liquid cultures, and floating filter cultures. A variety of oligotrophic media were employed, including media with aqueous and organic sponge extracts, bacterial signal molecules, and siderophores. More than 3,900 isolates were analyzed, and 205 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified. Media containing low concentrations of mucin or a mixture of peptone and starch were most successful for the isolation of diversity, while the commonly used marine broth did not result in a high diversity among isolates. The addition of antibiotics generally led to a reduced diversity on plates but yielded different bacteria than other media. In addition, diversity patterns of isolates from agar plates, liquid cultures, and floating filters were significantly different. Almost 89% of all isolates were Alphaproteobacteria; however, members of phyla that are less commonly encountered in cultivation studies, such as Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia, and Deltaproteobacteria, were isolated as well. The sponge-associated bacteria were categorized into three different groups. The first group represented OTUs that were also obtained in a clone library from previously analyzed sponge tissue (group 1). Furthermore, we distinguished OTUs that were obtained from sponge tissue (in a previous study) but not from sponge isolates (group 2), and there were also OTUs that were not obtained from sponge tissue but were obtained from sponge isolates (group 3). The 17 OTUs categorized into group 1 represented 10 to 14% of all bacterial OTUs that were present in a large clone library previously generated from Haliclona (gellius) sp. sponge tissue, which is higher than previously reported cultivability scores for sponge-associated bacteria. Six of these 17 OTUs were not obtained from agar plates, which underlines that the use of multiple cultivation methods is worthwhile to increase the diversity of the cultivable microorganisms from sponges. PMID:21296954

Sipkema, Detmer; Schippers, Klaske; Maalcke, Wouter J; Yang, Yu; Salim, Sina; Blanch, Harvey W

2011-03-01

445

Soybean cultivar selection for Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSSs) - Hydroponic cultivation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four soybean cultivars ('Atlantic', 'Cresir', 'Pr91m10' and 'Regir'), selected through a theoretical procedure as suitable for cultivation in BLSS, were evaluated in terms of growth and production. Germination percentage and Mean Germination Time (MGT) were measured. Plants were cultivated in a growth chamber equipped with a recirculating hydroponic system (Nutrient Film Technique). Cultivation was performed under controlled environmental conditions (12 h photoperiod, light intensity 350 ?mol m-2 s-1, temperature regime 26/20 °C light/dark, relative humidity 65-75%). Fertigation was performed with a standard Hoagland solution, modified for soybean specific requirements, and EC and pH were kept at 2.0 dS m-1 and 5.5 respectively. The percentage of germination was high (from 86.9% in 'Cresir' to 96.8% in 'Regir')and the MGT was similar for all the cultivars (4.3 days). The growing cycle lasted from 114 in 'Cresir' to 133 days on average in the other cultivars. Differences in plant size were recorded, with 'Pr91m10' plants being the shortest (58 vs 106 cm). Cultivars did not differ significantly in seed yield (12 g plant-1) and in non edible biomass (waste), water consumption and biomass conversion efficiency (water, radiation and acid use indexes). 'Pr91m10' showed the highest protein content in the seeds (35.6% vs 33.3% on average in the other cultivars). Results from the cultivation experiment showed good performances of the four cultivars in hydroponics. The overall analysis suggests that 'Pr91m10' could be the best candidate for the cultivation in a BLSS, coupling the small plant size and the good yield with high resource use efficiency and good seed quality.

Paradiso, R.; Buonomo, R.; De Micco, V.; Aronne, G.; Palermo, M.; Barbieri, G.; De Pascale, S.

2012-12-01

446

Evaluation of positive interaction for cell growth between Bifidobacterium adolescentis and Propionibacterium freudenreichii using a co-cultivation system with two microfiltration modules.  

PubMed

Using a co-cultivation system developed previously, positive interaction for cell growth between Bifidobacterium adolescentis and Propionibacterium freudenreichii was evaluated. The total dry cell weight (DCW) of these two strains obtained in the co-cultivation system was 1.5-1.7-fold of the sum of the DCWs obtained in two single cultivations of each bacterium. PMID:23040994

Kouya, Tomoaki; Ishiyama, Yohei; Tanaka, Takaaki; Taniguchi, Masayuki

2013-02-01

447

Soil air carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide concentrations in profiles under tallgrass prairie and cultivation  

SciTech Connect

Assessing the dynamics of gaseous production in soils is of interest because they are important sources and sinks of greenhouse gases. Changes in soil air carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) concentrations were studied in a Reading silt loam under prairie and cultivation. Concentrations were measured in situ over a 17-mo period to a depth of 3 m. Multilevel samples permitted collection of gases with subsequent measurement by gas chromatography in the laboratory. Soil air N{sub 2}O concentrations were near atmospheric levels for a majority of the study period in the prairie site but were significantly higher in the cultivated site. Annual mean N{sub 2}O concentrations were 0.403 and 1.09 {micro}L L{sup {minus}1} in the prairie and cultivated sites, respectively. Soil air CO{sub 2} annual mean concentrations were 1.56 {times} 10{sup 4} and 1.10 {times} 10{sup 4} {micro}L L{sup {minus}1} and ranged from 0.096 {times} 10{sup 4} to 6.45 {times} 10{sup 4} {micro}L L{sup {minus}1} and 0.087 {times} 10{sup 4} to 3.59 {times} 10{sup 4} {micro}L L{sup {minus}1} in the prairie and cultivated sites, respectively. Concentrations generally increased with depth, with maximum soil air N{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} concentrations at 1.0 m in the prairie site and 0.5 m in the cultivated site. Nitrous oxide in the cultivated site and CO{sub 2} at both sites did not change markedly over winter months, but CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O concentrations reached maximums during the summer months and decreased as the year progressed. Although soil air concentrations peaked and decreased faster at shallower depths, deeper depths exhibited relative maximum concentrations for longer time periods.

Sotomayor, D. [Univ. of Puerto Rico, Mayagueez (Puerto Rico). Agronomy and Soils Dept.; Rice, C.W. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States). Dept. of Agronomy

1999-05-01

448

The environmental origins of shifting cultivation: climate, soils, and disease in the nineteenth-century US South.  

PubMed

Farmers and planters in the antebellum South held large tracts of unimproved land because they practiced shifting cultivation. Southern cultivators burned tracts of forest growth to quickly release nutrients into the soil. After five or six years, when the soil had been depleted, the old field was abandoned for as long as twenty years. Environmental factors such as poor soils, rugged topography, and livestock diseases accounted for the persistence of this practice, more so than slavery or the availability of western lands. Shifting cultivation slowly declined in the postbellum era, but southern farmers continued to improve a far smaller percentage of their land well into the twentieth century. PMID:18543453

Majewski, John; Tchakerian, Viken

2007-01-01

449

Tibet as a Potential Domestication Center of Cultivated Barley of China  

PubMed Central

The importance of wild barley from Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in the origin and domestication of cultivated barley has long been underestimated. Population-based phylogenetic analyses were performed to study the origin and genetic diversity of Chinese domesticated barley, and address the possibility that the Tibetan region in China was an independent center of barley domestication. Wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum) populations from Southwest Asia, Central Asia, and Tibet along with domesticated barley from China were analyzed using two nuclear genes. Our results showed that Tibetan wild barley distinctly diverged from Southwest Asian (Near East) wild barley, that Central Asian wild barley is related to Southwest Asian wild barley, and that Chinese domesticated barley shares the same haplotypes with Tibetan wild barley. Phylogenetic analysis showed a close relationship between Chinese domesticated barley and the Tibetan wild barley, suggesting that Tibetan wild barley was the ancestor of Chinese domesticated barley. Our results favor the polyphyletic origin for cultivated barley. PMID:23658764

Ren, Xifeng; Nevo, Eviatar; Sun, Dongfa; Sun, Genlou

2013-01-01

450

Phytochemical evaluation of the wild and cultivated varieties of Eranda Mula (Roots of Ricinus communis Linn.)  

PubMed Central

In Ayurveda, the roots of Eranda (Ricinus communis Linn.) are used in the treatment Amavata (rheumatism), Sotha (inflammation), Katisula (backache), Udararoga (disease of abdomen), Jwara (fever), etc, Due to high demand, root of the cultivated variety is mainly used in place of wild. But, a comparative phytochemical profile of both varieties is not available till date. Considering this, a preliminary study has been done to ensure basic phytochemical profile of both the varieties. Preliminary physicochemical parameters, phytochemical screening, quantitative estimation of alkaloid, high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), and heavy metal analysis were carried-out in the study. Analysis of physicochemical data reveals no significant difference in between both varieties of roots, while alkaloid was found to be more in cultivated variety (0.34%) than wild one (0.15%). Though, the analytical profiles are almost identical, except the quantity of alkaloid; inferences should be made through well designed pharmacological and clinical studies. PMID:24250131

Doshi, Krunal A.; Acharya, Rabinarayan; Shukla, V. J.; Kalyani, Renuka; Khanpara, Komal

2013-01-01

451

Characterization of biosurfactant-producing strains of fluorescent pseudomonads in a soilless cultivation system.  

PubMed

The use of biosurfactants is a promising alternative in biological control of zoospore-producing plant pathogens. In the present study, biosurfactant production by the indigenous population of fluorescent pseudomonads in a soilless plant cultivation system was studied during the growing season. A total of 600 strains was screened and of these 18.5% were observed to produce biosurfactants. Production of both antibiotics and biosurfactant was uncommon among the isolated strains. A selective effect of the cultivation system filter was observed on the biosurfactant-producing strains and these strains were only occasionally observed after the filter, despite having a significantly higher motility than the nonbiosurfactant-producing strains. The majority of biosurfactant-producing strains were isolated from the filter skin, which suggests that this is a suitable surface for inoculation with biocontrol strains. PMID:18478353

Hultberg, Malin; Bergstrand, Karl-Johan; Khalil, Sammar; Alsanius, Beatrix

2008-08-01

452

Cultivation and bioactivity assessment of Grifola frondosa fruiting bodies on olive oil press cakes substrates.  

PubMed

Grifola frondosa, a medicinal and edible mushroom, was cultivated on substrates composed of olive oil press cakes with different supplements. Crude extracts were prepared from mature fruiting bodies and tested for their capacity to stimulate splenocyte proliferation. Two wild-growing fruiting bodies were extracted for comparison. Olive oil press cakes reduced the mushroom yield, and the best biological efficiency was obtained on substrates supplemented with wheat bran and without olive oil press cakes. All extracts were capable of inducing splenocyte proliferation and were half as effective as the positive control (6.0 microg/mL phytohaemagglutinin). No correlation between substrate composition and bioactivity could be established. Extracts from wild-growing G. frondosa were superior to cultivated ones in respect to biological activity. PMID:19666149

Gregori, Andrej; Svagelj, Mirjan; Berovic, Marin; Liu, Yanfang; Zhang, Jingsong; Pohleven, Franc; Klinar, Dusan

2009-11-30

453

Chemical and ultrastructural studies of lignocellulose biodegradation during Agaricus bisporus cultivation.  

PubMed

During Agaricus bisporus cultivation, lignocellulose degradation is the result of the activity of both the mushroom and microbial communities developed during the composting. To investigate the lignocellulose degradation in detail from the beginning to the end of the process, the functional groups of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin have been studied with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and the morphological changes of lignocelluloses were elucidated with scanning electron microscopy. The aperture of lignin and cellulose increased to enable the mycelia of A. bisporus to penetrate into the medium and to degrade lignocelluloses in a more direct way. The chemical structure changes implied a preferential use of lignin that could make for better use of cellulose to boost growth of A. bisporus. Changes in chemical structure together with ultrastructural changes induced by the microbial flora during cultivation substrate production by the composting substrate are important in promoting the utilization of lignocelluloses by A. bisporus. PMID:24033911

Zhang, Rui; Wang, Hexiang; Liu, Qinghong; Ng, TziBun

2014-01-01