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1

Parvo-like virus in the hepatopancreas of freshwater prawns Macrobrachium rosenbergii cultivated in Thailand.  

PubMed

A survey of cultivated giant freshwater prawns Macrobrachium rosenbergii from Thailand revealed the presence of unusual spherical to ovoid inclusions in nuclei of hepatopancreas tubule epithelial cells. These began as small eosinophilic inclusions that became more basophilic as they increased in size. They were present in both R-cells and E-cells but were largest and deeply basophilic only in the E-cells. Confocal laser microscopy revealed that stained nucleic acid fluorescence from the inclusions was lost by treatment with DNase I specific for double- and single-stranded DNA and also lost or reduced by treatment with mungbean nuclease specific for single-stranded nucleic acids. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the inclusions contained tightly packed, unenveloped, viral-like particles of approximately 25 to 30 nm diameter, resembling those produced by shrimp parvoviruses. However, PCR, in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical tests for shrimp parvoviruses previously reported from Thailand were all negative. These results suggested that the inclusions contained a parvo-like virus, not previously reported from M. rosenbergii in Thailand. PMID:19750803

Gangnonngiw, Warachin; Kiatpathomchai, Wansika; Sriurairatana, Siriporn; Laisutisan, Kesinee; Chuchird, Niti; Limsuwan, Chalor; Flegel, Timothy W

2009-07-23

2

Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus infection in M. rosenbergii (de Man) with white tail disease cultured in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

White tail disease (WTD) is a serious problem in Macrobrachium rosenbergii hatcheries and nursery ponds in Asia. The causative agents have been identified as M. rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and its associated extra small virus. This is the first re- port demonstrating MrNV virus in M. rosenbergii displaying WTD signs in Taiwan by reverse tran- scriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Amplified fragments

C S Wang; J S Chang; C M Wen; H H Shih; S N Chen

2008-01-01

3

ASPECTOS SÓCIO-AMBIENTAIS DAS PESCARIAS DE CAMARÕES DULCÍOLAS (Macrobrachium amazonicum HELLER, 1862 E Macrobrachium rosenbergii DE MAN, 1879) (DECAPODA, PALAEMONIDAE) NA REGIÃO BRAGANTINA - PARÁ - BRASIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social-environment aspects of freshwater praws fisheries (Macrobrachium amazonicum Heller, 1862 e Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man, 1879) (Decapoda, Palaemonidae) of Bragantina Region - Pará - Brazil Among abundance of native shrimp species with high fisheries potential and good commercial relationships like Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller, 1862), exotic species like Macrobrachium rosenbergii has been done introduced with aquaculture aims. Study was conducted with

Julliany Lemos Freire

4

Feasibility of Direct Utilization of Selected Geothermal Water for Aquaculture of 'Macrobrachium rosenbergii'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The feasibility was tested of direct utilization of geothermal water for the aquaculture of Malaysian freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). A problem with using geothermal water for aquaculture is the chemical composition of the water with high f...

C. Spinosa

1984-01-01

5

The Effects of Algal Supplements on Static System Culture of 'Macrobrachium rosenbergii' (De Man) Larvae.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The value of algal supplements in rearing Macrobrachium rosenbergii larvae in static water systems was investigated. Larvae were reared in 60 liter fiberglass rounded bottom tanks at concentrations ranging from 50 to 67 larvae/liter. Standard culture meth...

M. B. Maddox J. J. Manzi

1976-01-01

6

Feasibility of direct utilization of selected geothermal water for aquaculture of macrobrachium rosenbergii. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility was tested of direct utilization of geothermal water for the aquaculture of Malaysian freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). A problem with using geothermal water for aquaculture is the chemical composition of the water with high flouride levels being a particular problem. Results show that (1) some geothermal water in Idaho can be used directly for the aquaculture of Macrobrachium rosenbergii, (2) high flouride levels cannot be directly correlated with high mortality rates and (3) low flouride levels do not correlate with high growth rates.

Spinosa, C.

1984-05-01

7

Effects and toxicity of phthalate esters to hemocytes of giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phthalate esters (PAEs) have been considered as environmental pollutants and have been subject to control in the United States of America and Japan. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and toxicity of eight PAEs to hemocytes and the defense functions of giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), including hemocytic adhesion, pseudopodia formation, phenoloxidase (PO) activity, and superoxide

Hung-Hung Sung; Wei-Yi Kao; Yi-Jen Su

2003-01-01

8

Antibiotic resistance in bacteria isolated from hatchery-reared larvae and post-larvae of Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was carried out to determine the bacterial load of larvae and post-larvae of Macrobrachium rosenbergii and their resistance to various antibiotics used commonly in aquaculture. Total aerobic heterotrophic bacteria associated with larvae and post-larvae of M. rosenbergii were determined on nutrient agar and thiosulphate citrate bile salt agar (TCBS), and the results showed that the bacterial numbers differed

A. S Sahul Hameed; K. H Rahaman; A Alagan; K Yoganandhan

2003-01-01

9

Natural aquatic insect carriers of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV).  

PubMed

Five different species of aquatic insects were collected from nursery ponds containing the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii infected with Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV). The insects were screened as potential natural carriers of MrNV and XSV. RT-PCR (reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction) analysis gave positive results for MrNV and XSV in Belostoma sp., Aesohna sp., Cybister sp. and Notonecta sp., and negative results for Nepa sp. An Aedes albopictus mosquito cell line (C6/36) was used for infectivity assays, with viral inoculum prepared from the aquatic insects, since C6/36 cells have recently been shown to be susceptible to infection with MrNV and XSV. The C6/36 cells were harvested 4 d post-challenge for examination by electron microscopy. This revealed aggregation of viral particles throughout the cytoplasm for cells challenged with inocula from all the insect species except Nepa sp. Our results indicate that several aquatic insect species may present a risk for MrNV and XSV transmission to M. rosenbergii. PMID:18500030

Sudhakaran, R; Haribabu, P; Kumar, S Rajesh; Sarathi, M; Ahmed, V P Ishaq; Babu, V Sarath; Venkatesan, C; Hameedl, A S Sahul

2008-04-01

10

Bacterial flora associated with larval rearing of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative and qualitative analyses of bacterial flora associated with larval rearing of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, along with important water quality parameters, were carried out over a larval cycle. Total viable counts (TVC) varied between 1.1±0.6×104 and 9.8±1.5×106 colony forming units (cfu) ml?1 in water, 2.4±0.4×105 and 8.6±1.6×106 cfu g?1 in eggs and 2.5±1.4×104 and 1.6±1.0×108 cfu g?1

P. V. Phatarpekar; V. D. Kenkre; R. A. Sreepada; U. M. Desai; C. T. Achuthankutty

2002-01-01

11

Nitrogenous excretion in Macrobrachium rosenbergii at different pH levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macrobrachium rosenbergii (31.1 ± 1.9 g) were maintained individually in freshwater with pH levels of 4.15, 5.55, 7.10, 8.61 and 10.15 for 7 days, and then nitrogenous excretions from each animal for one day were measured. Ammonia-N excretion (?g g?1 h?1) and total nitrogen excretion (?g g?1 h?1) decreased with increased pH level, whereas urea-N excretion (?g g?1 h?1), nitrite-N

Jiann-Chu Chen; Chu-Tau Kou

1996-01-01

12

Quantitative and Qualitative Bacterial Flora of Giant Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii Cultured in Earthen Ponds in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative and qualitative analyses of bacterial flora associated with the digestive tract of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii cultured in earthen ponds of Saudi Arabia were carried out. Bacterial counts and flora of prawn-culture pond water, sediment, and prawn carapaces, along with important physicochemical parameters, were investigated, and the isolates were identified to the genus or species level. Total

M. Naim Uddin; A. H. Al-Harbi

2005-01-01

13

Effects of complete and supplemental diets and organic pond fertilization on production of Macrobrachium rosenbergii and associated benthic macroinvertebrate populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth and population characteristics of freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, fed either a complete diet, a supplemental diet (with fish meal replaced and vitamin and mineral supplements deleted), or the supplemental diet with an adjunct organic pond fertilization regime were examined. Effects of these treatments on potential forage organisms (benthic macroinvertebrates) were also evaluated. Juvenile prawns averaging 0.46 ± 0.49 g

James H. Tidwell; Carl D. Webster; John D. Sedlacek; Paul A. Weston; Wanda L. Knight; Sankie J. Hill; Louis R. D'Abramo; William H. Daniels; Marty J. Fuller; J. Labrenty Montañez

1995-01-01

14

Monoclonal antibodies against extra small virus show that it co-localizes with Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus.  

PubMed

The capsid protein (CP) gene of extra small virus (XSV) expressed in Escherichia coli as a 42 kDa glutathione S-transferase (GST)-fusion protein (GST-XCP) or a 20 kDa His6-fusion protein (His6-XCP) were purified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), combined, and used to immunize Swiss mice to produce monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Using dot blot, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) methods, 4 MAbs specific to the XSV CP detected XSV in the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii without cross-reaction to host proteins or to proteins of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) or 5 of the most pathogenic viruses of penaeid shrimp. In dot blots, the combined MAbs could detect down to ~10 to 20 fmol µl-1 of purified GST-XCP protein, which was somewhat more sensitive compared to any single MAb. Used in conjunction with an MrNV-specific MAb, white tail disease (WTD) was diagnosed more effectively. However, the sensitivity at which the combined 4 MAbs detected XSV CP was 1000-fold lower than XSV RNA detected by RT-PCR. IHC analysis of M. rosenbergii tissue sections using the MAbs showed XSV infection to co-localize at variable loads with MrNV infection in heart and muscle cells as well as cells of connective tissues in the hepatopancreas. Since XSV histopathology remained prominent in tissues of some prawns in which MAb reactivity for MrNV was low compared to MAb reactivity for XSV, XSV might play some role in WTD severity. PMID:22832718

Longyant, Siwaporn; Senapin, Saengchan; Sanont, Sirijantra; Wangman, Pradit; Chaivisuthangkura, Parin; Rukpratanporn, Sombat; Sithigorngul, Paisarn

2012-07-25

15

Toxicity of phenol on Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) eggs, larvae, and post-larvae  

SciTech Connect

Literature on the toxicities of phenol on aquatic organisms is very limited. USEPA reported that the acute and chronic toxicities of phenol to freshwater aquatic life occur at concentrations as low as 10.2 mg/L and 2.56 mg/L, respectively. While for the saltwater aquatic life the acute toxicity occurs at concentrations as low as 5.8 mg/L. No data are available for the chronic toxicity of phenol to saltwater aquatic life. Sublethal concentrations of phenol have significant effects on the physiological and histological processes of the aquatic organisms: such as gill necrosis; destruction of erythrocyte cells; inhibition of sexual activities; suppression on growth and reduction of resistance to diseases. Macrobrachium rosenbergii(de Man) is the sole freshwater prawn cultured in Malaysia. Occasionally, the hatcheries are unable to produce the post-larvae because of undefined pollutants present in the water supplies. It has been observed that the use of cracked fiberglass tanks for larvae rearing is correlated with high mortality. This high mortality is probably due to the toxicity of the phenolic compounds which are leached out from the fiber glass tank into the water. This study was undertaken to evaluate the toxicity of phenol on eggs, larvae and post-larvae of M. rosenbergii and to set the water quality criteria of phenol for the said species. 16 refs., 3 tabs.

Law, A.T.; Yeo, M.E. [Universiti Kolej Terengganu (UPM), Darul Iman (Malaysia)] [Universiti Kolej Terengganu (UPM), Darul Iman (Malaysia)

1997-03-01

16

Crustin, a WAP domain containing antimicrobial peptide from freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii: immune characterization.  

PubMed

Crustin (MrCrs) was sequenced from a freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The MrCrs protein contains a signal peptide region at N-terminus between 1 and 22 and a long whey acidic protein domain (WAP domain) at C-terminus between 57 and 110 along with a WAP-type 'four-disulfide core' motif. Phylogenetic results show that MrCrs is clustered together with other crustacean crustin groups. MrCrs showed high sequence similarity (77%) with crustin from Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and Japanese spiny lobster Panulirus japonicas. I-TASSER uses the best structure templates to predict the possible structures of MrCrs along with PDB IDs such as 2RELA and 1FLEI. The gene expressions of MrCrs in both healthy M. rosenbergii and those infected with virus including infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila (Gram-negative) and Enterococcus faecium (Gram-positive) were examined using quantitative real time PCR. To understand its biological activity, the recombinant MrCrs gene was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The recombinant MrCrs protein agglutinated with the bacteria considered for analysis at a concentration of 25 ?g/ml, except Lactococcus lactis. The bactericidal results showed that the recombinant MrCrs protein destroyed all the bacteria after incubation, even less than 6 h. These results suggest that MrCrs is a potential antimicrobial peptide, which is involved in the defense system of M. rosenbergii against viral and bacterial infections. PMID:23069787

Arockiaraj, Jesu; Gnanam, Annie J; Muthukrishnan, Dhanaraj; Gudimella, Ranganath; Milton, James; Singh, Arun; Muthupandian, Saravanan; Kasi, Marimuthu; Bhassu, Subha

2013-01-01

17

Effects of an organophosphorus insecticide, trichlorfon, on hematological parameters of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemolymph osmolality, ion concentration, acid–base balance, and immune parameters in Macrobrachium rosenbergii (15–20 g) were measured after 8 days of exposure to 0–0.3 mg l?1 trichlorfon. A significant depression in hemolymph osmolality and Cl?1 contents were observed with exposure to 0.3 mg l?1 trichlorfon. Similarly, hemolymph pH, HCO3?, and TCO2 decreased significantly when prawns were exposed to concentration of greater

Shinn-Pyng Yeh; Tzeng-Gan Sung; Chin-Chyuan Chang; Winton Cheng; Ching-Ming Kuo

2005-01-01

18

Bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls and metals from contaminated sediment by freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii and clams, Corbicula fluminea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freshwater prawns,Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and clams,Corbicula fluminea, were exposed for 48 or 50 days to three concentrations of a river sediment that contained environmental contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and metals. Sediment was obtained twice during 1980 from the same location. Prawns were exposed to the first batch, sediment 5–80, which contained higher concentrations of some metals and PCBs compared

Henry E. Tatem

1986-01-01

19

Prophenoloxidase activating enzyme-III from giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii : characterization, expression and specific enzyme activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prophenoloxidase activating system is an important innate immune response against microbial infections in invertebrates.\\u000a The major enzyme, phenoloxidase, is synthesized as an inactive precursor and its activation to an active enzyme is mediated\\u000a by a cascade of clip domain serine proteinases. In this study, a cDNA encoding a prophenoloxidase activating enzyme-III from\\u000a the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, designated

Jesu Arockiaraj; Sarasvathi Easwvaran; Puganeshwaran Vanaraja; Arun Singh; Rofina Yasmin Othman; Subha Bhassu

20

A cytosolic glutathione s-transferase, GST-theta from freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii: molecular and biochemical properties.  

PubMed

Glutathione S-transferases play an important role in cellular detoxification and may have evolved to protect cells against reactive oxygen metabolites. In this study, we report the molecular characterization of glutathione s-transferase-theta (GST-?) from freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. A full length cDNA of GSTT (1417 base pairs) was isolated and characterized bioinformatically. Exposure to virus (white spot syndrome baculovirus or M. rosenbergii nodovirus), bacteria (Aeromonas hydrophila or Vibrio harveyi) or heavy metals (cadmium or lead) significantly increased the expression of GSTT (P<0.05) in hepatopancreas. Recombinant GST-? with monochlorobimane substrate had an optimum activity at pH7.5 and 35°C. Furthermore recombinant GST-? activity was abolished by the denaturants triton X-100, Gua-HCl, Gua-thiocyanate, SDS and urea in a dose-dependent manner. Overall, the results suggest a potential role for M. rosenbergii GST-? in detoxification and possibly conferring immune protection. PMID:24879918

Arockiaraj, Jesu; Gnanam, Annie J; Palanisamy, Rajesh; Bhatt, Prasanth; Kumaresan, Venkatesh; Chaurasia, Mukesh Kumar; Pasupuleti, Mukesh; Ramaswamy, Harikrishnan; Arasu, Abirami; Sathyamoorthi, Akila

2014-08-10

21

Post-Embryonic Transcriptomes of the Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii: Multigenic Succession through Metamorphosis  

PubMed Central

Like many metazoans, the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii begins its post-embryonic life with a set of morphologically distinct planktonic larval stages, followed by a benthic post-larval stage during which the maturing organism differs from the larvae both ecologically and physiologically. Understanding of the molecular basis underlying morphogenesis in crustaceans is limited to the observation that methyl farnesoate, the non-epoxidated form of the insect juvenile hormone, acts as the active crustacean juvenoid. Molt steroids were also linked to morphogenesis and several other molecular pathways, such as Hedgehog and Wnt, are known to underlie morphogenesis in all metazoans examined and, as such, are thought to do the same in crustaceans. Using next generation sequencing, we deep-sequenced the transcriptomes of several larval and post-larval stages. De novo assembly, followed by bioinformatics analysis, revealed that many novel transcripts are over-expressed in either larvae- or post-larvae-stage prawn, shedding light on the molecular basis underlying M. rosenbergii metamorphosis. Fast larval molting rates and periodic morphological changes were reflected in over-expression of transcripts annotated to the cell cycle, DNA replication and morphogenic pathways (i.e., Hedgehog and Wnt). Further characterization of transcripts assigned to morphogenic pathways by real-time RT-PCR reconfirmed their over-expression in larvae, albeit with a more complex expression pattern when examined in the individual developmental stages. The expression level of an orthologue of cytochrome P450, 15A1, known to epoxidize methyl farnesoate in insects, was increased in the late larval and early post-larval stages, in accordance with the role of methyl farnesoate in crustacean metamorphosis. This study exemplifies the applicability of a high-throughput sequencing approach for studying complex traits, including metamorphosis, providing new insight into this unexplored area of crustacean research.

Ventura, Tomer; Manor, Rivka; Aflalo, Eliahu D.; Chalifa-Caspi, Vered; Weil, Simy; Sharabi, Omri; Sagi, Amir

2013-01-01

22

Transcriptomics of a Giant Freshwater Prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii): De Novo Assembly, Annotation and Marker Discovery  

PubMed Central

Background Giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii or GFP), is the most economically important freshwater crustacean species. However, as little is known about its genome, 454 pyrosequencing of cDNA was undertaken to characterise its transcriptome and identify genes important for growth. Methodology and Principal Findings A collection of 787,731 sequence reads (244.37 Mb) obtained from 454 pyrosequencing analysis of cDNA prepared from muscle, ovary and testis tissues taken from 18 adult prawns was assembled into 123,534 expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Of these, 46% of the 8,411 contigs and 19% of 115,123 singletons possessed high similarity to sequences in the GenBank non-redundant database, with most significant (E value < 1e–5) contig (80%) and singleton (84%) matches occurring with crustacean and insect sequences. KEGG analysis of the contig open reading frames identified putative members of several biological pathways potentially important for growth. The top InterProScan domains detected included RNA recognition motifs, serine/threonine-protein kinase-like domains, actin-like families, and zinc finger domains. Transcripts derived from genes such as actin, myosin heavy and light chain, tropomyosin and troponin with fundamental roles in muscle development and construction were abundant. Amongst the contigs, 834 single nucleotide polymorphisms, 1198 indels and 658 simple sequence repeats motifs were also identified. Conclusions The M. rosenbergii transcriptome data reported here should provide an invaluable resource for improving our understanding of this species' genome structure and biology. The data will also instruct future functional studies to manipulate or select for genes influencing growth that should find practical applications in aquaculture breeding programs.

Jung, Hyungtaek; Lyons, Russell E.; Dinh, Hung; Hurwood, David A.; McWilliam, Sean; Mather, Peter B.

2011-01-01

23

A novel two-step procedure for mass production of all-male populations of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Males of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii grow faster and reach higher weights at harvest than females a fact which makes the culture of all-male populations desirable. All-male populations were produced by mating sex-reversed males, i.e., neofemales, with normal males. Neofemales capable of mating and spawning were produced by removal of the androgenic gland (AG) from immature M. rosenbergii

E. D. Aflalo; T. T. T. Hoang; V. H. Nguyen; Q. Lam; D. M. Nguyen; Q. S. Trinh; S. Raviv; A. Sagi

2006-01-01

24

Identification and characterization of the vitellogenin receptor in Macrobrachium rosenbergii and its expression during vitellogenesis.  

PubMed

In oviparous organisms, oocyte maturation depends on massive production of the egg yolk-precursor protein, vitellogenin (Vg). Vg is taken up by the developing oocytes through receptor-mediated endocytosis (RME), a process essential to successful reproduction. The aims of this study were to identify and characterize the yet-unknown vitellogenin receptor (VgR) from the pleocyamate crustacean Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and to investigate its expression levels during vitellogenesis and its interaction with Vg. The VgR gene was cloned, and its translated protein was specifically located at the oocyte membrane. Moreover, for the first time, a VgR protein was identified and sequenced by mass spectrometry. The putative MrVgR displayed high sequence similarity to VgRs from crustaceans, insects, and vertebrates, and its structure includes typical elements, such as an extracellular, lipoprotein-binding domain (LBD), EGF-like, and O-glycosylation domains, a transmembrane domain, and a short, C-terminal, cytosolic tail. In this article, we identify the first crustacean VgR protein, and present data demonstrating its high affinity for a Vg column followed by elution with suramin and EDTA. Additionally we demonstrate that VgR expression in the oocyte is elevated during vitellogenesis. Our results contribute to the fundamental understanding of oocyte maturation in crustaceans, and particularly elucidate Vg uptake through RME via the VgR. PMID:22674884

Roth, Ziv; Khalaila, Isam

2012-07-01

25

Nutrient Budgets and Effluent Characteristics in Giant Freshwater Prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) Culture Ponds.  

PubMed

It is important to understand nutrient budgets of aquaculture practices for efficiency of input resources and to utilize all output nutrient sources. The aim of the present study was to develop a nutrient budget for giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) culture ponds. The study was conducted in farmer's ponds (0.25-0.5 ha) of Odisha, India, and the results showed that feed accounted 97 % total nitrogen (N), 98.7 % total phosphorus (P) and 90 % total organic carbon (OC), respectively. The harvested prawn accounted for recovery of 37 % N, 10 % P and 15 % OC, respectively. The N, P and OC accumulated in sediment were 52 %, 76 %, and 65 %, respectively. Nutrient loads in the effluents were 2.22 ± 0.66 kg inorganic N, 0.40 ± 0.15 kg P, and 21.01 ± 6.4 kg OC per ton of prawn production. The present study implicated that high nutrient values observed in both water and sediment provide important opportunities for nutrient reuse through pond sediment applications to croplands as an organic manure, as well as pond water irrigation to crops as a "liquid fertilizer". PMID:24522829

Adhikari, Subhendu; Sahu, Bharat Chandra; Mahapatra, Abhijit S; Dey, Lambodar

2014-05-01

26

The history of the introduction of the giant river prawn, Macrobrachium cf. rosenbergii (Decapoda, Palaemonidae), in Brazil: New insights from molecular data  

PubMed Central

The giant river prawn, Macrobrachium cf. rosenbergii, is one of the most cultivated freshwater prawns in the world and has been introduced into more than 40 countries. In some countries, this prawn is considered an invasive species that requires close monitoring. Recent changes in the taxonomy of this species (separation of M. rosenbergii and M. dacqueti) require a re-evaluation of introduced taxa. In this work, molecular analyses were used to determine which of these two species was introduced into Brazil and to establish the geographic origin of the introduced populations that have invaded Amazonian coastal waters. The species introduced into Brazil was M. dacqueti through two introduction events involving prawns originating from Vietnam and either Bangladesh or Thailand. These origins differ from historical reports of the introductions and underline the need to confirm the origin of other exotic populations around the world. The invading populations in Amazonia require monitoring not only because the biodiversity of this region may be affected by the introduction, but also because admixture of different native haplotypes can increase the genetic variability and the likelihood of persistence of the invading species in new habitats.

Iketani, Gabriel; Pimentel, Luciana; Silva-Oliveira, Glaucia; Maciel, Cristiana; Valenti, Wagner; Schneider, Horacio; Sampaio, Iracilda

2011-01-01

27

GIS-based multi-criteria evaluation to land suitability modelling for giant prawn ( Macrobrachium rosenbergii) farming in Companigonj Upazila of Noakhali, Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Site selection is a key factor in any aquaculture operation, affecting both success and sustainability as well as solving conflicts between different activities and making rational use of the land. The study was conducted to identify appropriate site for the farming of giant prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, in Companigonj of Noakhali, Bangladesh using GIS-based multi-criteria evaluation taking 20 base layers of

M. Shahadat Hossain; Nani Gopal Das

2010-01-01

28

Effects of different fertilization and feeding regimes on the production of integrated farming of rice and prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was conducted in rice fi eld plots each of 30 m 2 to determine the appropriate combination of feeding and fertilization regimes for the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man. 1979) cultured along with rice in rice fi elds. There were four treatments: rice culture only with regular fertilization (A, control); rice-prawn integrated culture with regular fertilization

Dao Huy Giap; Yang Yi; Chang Kwei Lin

2005-01-01

29

Impact of TBT on the vitellogenesis and sex hormones in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1879)  

PubMed Central

Background Tributyltin (TBT) is a ubiquitous persistent xenobiotic that can be found in freshwater, estuarine and marine ecosystem. TBT is a strong endocrine disrupting compound (EDC) that can cause toxic threat to aquatic organisms. Imposex, sexual deformities and endocrine dysfunctions are the causes of TBT to most of the aquatic organisms. Effect of TBT on the vitellogenesis and sex hormonal changes in Macrobrachium rosenbergii has never been reported. Hence, the present investigation was undertaken to find out the impact of TBT on histological changes in the different reproductive tissues, sex hormonal alterations and level of biomarkers like vitellogenin and vitellin in M. rosenbergii. Results The present investigation documents the possible impact of tributyltin (TBT) on the vitellogenesis in freshwater female prawn M. rosenbergii. TBT at 10 ng/l, 100 ng/l and 1000 ng/l concentrations were exposed individually to prawns for a period of three months. At higher concentration of 1000 ng/l, the ovarian development was arrested and ovary remained at spent stage. At lower concentration of TBT (10 ng/l), the development proceeded up to early vitellogenic stage. At intermediate concentration of 100 ng/l TBT, the ovary remained at pre vitellogenic stage and thereafter no development was noticed. Histological results indicated the normal ovarian development with vitellogenic oocytes, filled with yolk globules in control prawn. On the other hand, the TBT treated groups showed reduction in yolk globules, fusion of developing oocytes and abundance of immature oocytes. Immunofluorescence staining denoted the remarkable reduction in vitellin content in ovary of TBT treated prawn. Hence, TBT had conspicuously inhibited the vitellogenesis by causing hormonal imbalance in M. rosenbergii. Conclusion TBT had notably inhibited the vitellogenesis due to hormonal imbalance. This endocrine dysfunction ultimately impaired the oogenesis in the freshwater female prawn M. rosenbergii.

2013-01-01

30

Molecular cloning of Clock cDNA from the prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

CLOCK, which belongs to the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)/PER-ARNT-SIM (PAS) superfamily of transcription factors, is one of the most essential proteins involved in circadian systems of animals. Clock genes have been cloned from several species, including mammals, insects, birds, fish, and amphibians. In the present study, we successfully isolated a Clock homolog (termed Mar-Clock) from the giant prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The 2949-bp cDNA contained a 2115 bp open reading frame that encoded a putative CLOCK protein of 704 amino acids (termed Mar-CLOCK) exhibiting high identities with CLOCK homologs in other species (30-35%). This is the first report of a circadian clock gene from crustaceans. Mar-CLOCK possessed an exceptionally long glutamine-rich domain (140 amino acids) in its C-terminus, which usually ranges from 14 to 57 amino acids in other known CLOCKs and is supposed to function in transcriptional activation. Using RT-PCR, we observed that Mar-Clock was expressed in all tested tissues. Semiquantitative RT-PCR was performed to investigate the gene expression profile during the light-dark cycle. The results indicated that the expression of the Mar-Clock gene had no significant rhythmicity in central nervous tissues (thoracic ganglia and eyestalk) or peripheral tissues (gill, ovary, hepatopancreas, and muscle). Furthermore, gene expression tended to increase in the central nervous system (brain, thoracic, and abdominal ganglia) of eyestalk-ablated or constant dark (DD) prawns, and in the eyestalk-ablated gill. No expression change was found under constant light (LL) or in heart and muscle. PMID:16271708

Yang, Jin-Shu; Dai, Zhong-Min; Yang, Fan; Yang, Wei-Jun

2006-01-01

31

Molecular cloning and characterization of a Toll receptor gene from Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

Toll receptors are cell surface molecules acting as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that have been implicated in the signaling pathway of innate immune responses. In this study, the full-length cDNA of a Toll receptor gene of Macrobrachium rosenbergii, designated MrToll, was successfully isolated using designed degenerate primers and the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The MrToll gene sequence contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 2799 nucleotides encoding a protein of 932 amino acid residues. The protein contained distinct structural motifs of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family, including an extracellular domain containing 15 leucine-rich repeats (LRRs), a transmembrane segment of 23 amino acids, and a cytoplasmic Toll/interleukin-1R (TIR) domain of 139 residues. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that MrToll and Toll receptor of Marsupenaeus japonicus (MjToll) evolved closely. However, the MrToll ORF demonstrated only 48-49% identity with shrimp Toll1, suggesting that MrToll isolated from a palaemonid shrimp might belong to a novel class of Toll receptors in shrimp. The transcripts of the MrToll gene were constitutively expressed in various tissues, with high levels in hemocytes, the stomach and muscle. A reverse transcriptase PCR assay demonstrated that the expression patterns of MrToll were distinctly modulated after Aeromonas caviae stimulation, with significant enhancement at 3-12 h post-challenge and a decline to basal levels at 24 h post-challenge. In addition, when MrToll-silenced shrimp were challenged with A. caviae, there was a significant increase in mortality and bacterial CFU counts. These results suggest that MrToll might be involved in host innate defense, especially against the pathogen A. caviae. PMID:24398262

Srisuk, Chutima; Longyant, Siwaporn; Senapin, Saengchan; Sithigorngul, Paisarn; Chaivisuthangkura, Parin

2014-02-01

32

Detection and phylogenetic profiling of nodavirus associated with white tail disease in Malaysian Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man.  

PubMed

White tail disease (WTD) is a serious viral disease in the hatcheries and nursery ponds of Macrobrachium rosenbergii in many parts of the world. A new disease similar to WTD was observed in larvae and post larvae of M. rosenbergii cultured in Malaysia. In the present study, RT-PCR assay was used to detect the causative agents of WTD, M. rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV) using specific primers for MrNV RNA2 and XSV. The results showed the presence of MrNV in the samples with or without signs of WTD. However, XSV was only detected in some of the MrNV-positive samples. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the RNA2 of our Malaysian isolates were significantly different from the other isolates. Histopathological studies revealed myofiber degeneration of the tail muscles and liquefactive myopathy in the infected prawns. This was the first report on the occurrence of MrNV in the Malaysian freshwater prawn. PMID:22223294

Saedi, Tayebeh Azam; Moeini, Hassan; Tan, Wen Siang; Yusoff, Khatijah; Daud, Hassan Mohd; Chu, Kua Beng; Tan, Soon Guan; Bhassu, Subha

2012-05-01

33

Molecular and immunological responses of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, to the organophosphorus insecticide, trichlorfon.  

PubMed

Trichlorfon is an organophosphorus (OP) insecticide that is used as an agriculture pesticide to destroy insects, a human medicine to combat internal parasites, and an ectoparasiticide in the livestock and aquaculture industries, but which has caused aquatic toxicity in the prawn industry. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of trichlorfon on molecular and enzymatic processes of the immunological response of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, at 0, 0.2, and 0.4mgL(-1) with 0, 3, 6, 12, and 24h of exposure. The total hemocyte count (THC), respiratory bursts (RBs), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were examined to evaluate immunological responses and oxidative stress. Results showed that THCs of the prawn exposed to trichlorfon at both concentrations (0.2 and 0.4mgL(-1)) had increased after 12 and 24h; SOD and PO activities had significantly increased at 3h, whereas production of RBs had dramatically increased as oxidative stress at each sampling time after exposure to trichlorfon compared to the control. A potential biomarker of OPs, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) revealed a significant decrease after exposure for 6h, and showed a time-dependent tendency. Immune gene expressions, including prophenoloxidase (proPO), the lipopolysaccharide- and ?-1,3-glucan-binding protein (LGBP), peroxinectin (PE), ?2-macroglubulin (?2M), transglutaminase (TG), and copper, zinc (Cu,Zn)-SOD, of prawns exposed to trichlorfon at 0, 0.2, and 0.4mgL(-1) for 0, 6, and 24h were further evaluated. Expressions of all of the immune genes significantly decreased when prawns were exposed to 0.4mgL(-1) trichlorfon for 24h, and among them, an increase in SOD expression was seen after exposure to 0.4mgL(-1) for 6h. Prawns exposed to trichlorfon within 24h exhibited the decrease of circulating hemocytes, and also the induction of oxidative stress, which caused subsequent damage to DNA formation of immune genes. From these results, we concluded that immunological responses and immune gene expressions of prawn exposed to trichlorfon at 0.4mgL(-1) for 24h were perturbed, thus causing a deficiency in immunity and subsequent increased susceptibility to pathogen infections. PMID:23340335

Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Rahmawaty, Atiek; Chang, Zhong-Wen

2013-04-15

34

Setal morphology of the grooming appendages of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea: Palaemonidae) and review of decapod setal classification.  

PubMed

Setae are vital in grooming activities and aiding in the removal of epibionts and sedimentary fouling from the body surfaces of decapod crustaceans. Thus, the setal structures and their arrangement on the grooming appendages and sensory structures of the commercially important shrimp, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, were examined using scanning electron microscopy. Macrobrachium rosenbergii is extensively grown in aquaculture and exhibits unique male morphological forms, termed morphotypes. The three male morphotypes are termed blue-clawed males, orange-clawed males, and small-clawed or undifferentiated males and all three differ in their dominance, behavior, body morphology, and reproductive success. Seven setal types, two of which have never been described in the literature, are identified on the grooming appendages (third maxillipeds, first, second, and fifth pereopods) and antennae: simple, serrate, serrulate, spiniform, pappose, crinoid, and spinulate. The latter two setae are newly identified. Certain setal types, such as serrate and serrulate setae were located and associated with specific grooming appendages such as the first pereopods. The types of setae on the grooming appendages varied among females and male morphotypes and the novel setal types (crinoid and spinulate) were found only on two of the male morphotypes. A literature review of terminology related to the structure of setae and setal types in decapod crustaceans is offered as the usage of various terms is ambiguous and conflicting in the literature. The intention of this review is to provide future authors with a comprehensive collection of terms and images that can be used to describe various aspects of setal morphology in decapods. PMID:24500885

Wortham, Jennifer L; Vanmaurik, Lauren N; Wayne Price, W

2014-06-01

35

Isolation and characterization of a female-specific DNA marker in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

PubMed Central

In this study, a female-specific DNA marker in the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii was identified through amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). The AFLP-derived sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker was tested in over 200 individuals, giving reproducible sex identification. Further molecular characterization of the sex-marker's genomic region (?3?kb long) revealed the presence of tandem and inverted repeats. The ?3-kb sequence was identified both in male and female prawns, but with subtle differences: a deletion of 3?bp (present in female prawn but absent in male prawn) identified upstream of the SCAR marker sequence and two female-specific single-nucleotide polymorphisms, both indicating that male prawns are homozygous, whereas female prawns are heterozygous in this locus. Fluorescent in situ hybridization showed the ?3-kb sequence to be unique: to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a unique sex-specific sequence observed in situ in crustaceans. The sex-specific marker identified in M. rosenbergii may have considerable applied merit for crustacean culture in that it will enable the determination of genetic sex at early developmental stages when phenotypic differences are not identifiable.

Ventura, T; Aflalo, E D; Weil, S; Kashkush, K; Sagi, A

2011-01-01

36

Dietary Supplementation of Zinc Nanoparticles and Its Influence on Biology, Physiology and Immune Responses of the Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to assess the influence of dietary zinc nanoparticles (size 50 nm) on the growth, biochemical constituents, enzymatic antioxidant levels and the nonspecific immune response of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii post larvae (PL). The concentrations of dietary supplement zinc nanoparticles (ZnNPs) were 0, 10, 20, 40, 60 and 80 mg kg(-1) with the basal diet, and the level of Zn in ZnNP-supplemented diets were 0.71, 10.61, 20.73, 40.73, 60.61 and 80.60 mg kg(-1), respectively. ZnNP-incorporated diets were fed to M. rosenbergii PL (initial body weight, 0.18?±?0.02 g) in a triplicate experimental setup for a period of 90 days. ZnNP supplemented feed fed PL up to 60 mg kg(-1) showed significantly (P?rosenbergii PL. Thus, the study suggests that up to 60 mg ZnNPs kg(-1) can be supplemented for regulating survival, growth and immunity of M. rosenbergii. PMID:24874230

Muralisankar, Thirunavukkarasu; Bhavan, Periyakali Saravana; Radhakrishnan, Subramanian; Seenivasan, Chandirasekar; Manickam, Narasimman; Srinivasan, Veeran

2014-07-01

37

Identification and Characterization of Differentially Expressed Transcripts in the Gills of Freshwater Prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) under Salt Stress  

PubMed Central

The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is an economically important species. It is a euryhaline shrimp, surviving in wide-range salinity conditions. A change in gene expression has been suggested as an important component for stress management. To better understand the osmoregulatory mechanisms mediated by the gill, a subtractive and suppressive hybridization (SSH) tool was used to identify expressed transcripts linked to adaptations in saline water. A total of 117 transcripts represented potentially expressed under salinity conditions. BLAST analysis identified 22% as known genes, 9% as uncharacterized showing homologous to unannotated ESTs, and 69% as unknown sequences. All the identified known genes representing broad spectrum of biological pathways were particularly linked to stress tolerance including salinity tolerance. Expression analysis of 10 known genes and 7 unknown/uncharacterized genes suggested their upregulation in the gills of prawn exposed to saline water as compared to control indicating that these are likely to be associated with salinity acclimation. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) was used for obtaining full-length cDNA of MRSW-40 clone that was highly upregulated during salt exposure. The sequenced ESTs presented here will have potential implications for future understanding about salinity acclimation and/or tolerance of the prawn.

Barman, Hirak Kumar; Patra, Swagat Kumar; Das, Varsha; Mohapatra, Shibani Dutta; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Mohapatra, Chinmayee; Mohanta, Ramya; Panda, Rudra Prasanna; Rath, Surya Narayan

2012-01-01

38

Retardation of post-mortem changes of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) stored in ice by legume seed extracts.  

PubMed

Meat quality of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) treated with soybean and bambara groundnut extracts at different concentrations was monitored during 10 days of iced storage. During storage, the control sample (without treatment) had a higher pH, TCA-soluble peptide content, heat soluble collagen content, proteolytic activities and psychrophilic bacterial count than did samples treated with soybean and bambara groundnut extracts. Conversely, shear force value and likeness scores of the control sample decreased (p<0.05), more likely associated with softening of muscle. The decrease in myosin heavy chain in the control sample was found after 6 days of storage. However, no changes in protein patterns of samples treated with soybean extracts at 2.5 mg/mL were found after 10 days of storage. Therefore, the injections of legume seed extracts, especially soybean extract, at a sufficient concentration, could be a means to retard muscle softening and maintain the qualities of freshwater prawn during iced storage. PMID:22868130

Sriket, Chodsana; Benjakul, Soottawat; Visessanguan, Wonnop; Hara, Kenji; Yoshida, Asami

2012-11-15

39

Effects of Nitrite Exposure on Acid–Base Balance, Respiratory Protein, and Ion Concentrations of Giant Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii at Low pH  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  \\u000a \\u000a Macrobrachium rosenbergii that had been exposed individually for 24 h to 0 (control), 2, 5, 10 mg\\/L nitrite-N (nitrite as nitrogen) at 4.3 and 7.7\\u000a pH levels were examined for hemolymph nitrite-N, oxyhemocyanin, protein, acid–base balance, ion concentrations, and ammonia-N\\u000a (ammonia as nitrogen) excretion. Hemolymph oxyhemocyanin, protein, pH, HCO3\\u000a \\u000a ? , TCO2, osmolality, and ion concentrations were inversely related

J.-C. Chen; Y. Lee

1997-01-01

40

Immune response of four dual-CRD C-type lectins to microbial challenges in giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

C-type lectins (CTLs) are believed to play important roles in the innate immunity of invertebrates and serve as pattern recognition receptors, opsonins, or effector molecules. In this study, the full-lengths cDNA of 4 CTL genes from giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii were cloned and designated as MrLec1, MrLec2, MrLec3, and MrLec4. All of these 4 lectin cDNAs encode proteins with 2 carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs). While MrLec1, MrLec3, and MrLec4 had signal peptides, no signal peptide was detected in MrLec2. Two carbohydrate recognition motifs within two CRDs of each lectin were predicted (QPE, EPG in MrLec1; EPT, EPA in MrLec2; QPT, NPR in MrLec3; KPN, EPD in MrLec4). Phylogenetic analysis showed that MrLec4 belongs to group A whereas MrLec1, MrLec2, and MrLec3 belong to group B. Positive selection in dual-CRD lectins suggested their probable roles in innate immunity, and positively selected induced amino acid diversity of lectins may confer their ability to recognize a broad range of microbes. The qRT-PCR analysis in adult prawns showed that MrLec1 is mainly expressed in the hepatopancreas, gills, and stomach, MrLec2 and MrLec4 are mainly distributed in the hepatopancreas, and MrLec3 is mainly expressed in the hepatopancreas and stomach. Time-course analysis using qRT-PCR showed that MrLec1 to MrLec4 are all upregulated by the Vibrio anguillarum challenge. MrLec1 is upregulated after 2, 12, and 24 h of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenge. The expression of MrLec2 increases after 12 and 24 h of WSSV challenge, and the transcript of MrLec3 and MrLec4 are downregulated after 2 h of WSSV challenge. The results suggest the potential roles of dual-CRD lectins in the innate immunity of M. rosenbergii. PMID:22450241

Ren, Qian; Li, Meng; Du, Jie; Zhang, Chi-Yu; Wang, Wen

2012-08-01

41

Effects of dietary administration of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) extracts on the immune responses and disease resistance of giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

The hot-water extract of Eichhornia crassipes leaves (ECE) was produced and incorporated into the diet of the prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, as an immunostimulant. Survival rates of prawn against Lactococcus garvieae, and its immune parameters including the total haemocyte count (THC), different haemocyte count (DHC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts (RBs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, transglutaminase (TG) activity, haemolymph coagulation time, and phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency against L. garvieae by M. rosenbergii were determined when prawn (23.0 ± 2.8 g) were fed ECE-containing diets at 0, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 g kg(-1). Prawn fed a diet containing ECE at 2.0 and 3.0 g kg(-1) for 12 days showed significantly increased THC, HC, GC, PO activity, RBs, SOD activity, GPx activity, and TG activity, and a significantly decreased coagulation time. The phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency against L. garvieae of prawn fed the ECE-containing diets at 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 g kg(-1) were significantly higher than those of prawn fed the control diet at 3-12 days. Survival rates of M. rosenbergii fed the diet containing ECE at concentrations of 2 and 3 g kg(-1) were significantly higher than those fed the control diet after challenge with L. garvieae for 48-144 h. The relative percentage survival of prawn fed the 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 g kg(-1) ECE-containing diets for 12 days were 17.5%, 39.1%, and 52.2%. It was concluded that the ECE can be used as an immunostimulant for prawn through dietary administration to enhance immune responses and resistance of M. rosenbergii against L. garvieae. PMID:23603238

Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Tan, Hui-Ching; Cheng, Winton

2013-07-01

42

Simultaneous identification and quantification of 4-cumylphenol, 2,4-bis-(dimethylbenzyl)phenol and bisphenol A in prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

Bisphenol A (BPA), 4-cumylphenol (4-CP) and 2,4-bis-(dimethylbenzyl)phenol (2,4-DCP) are all high production volume chemicals and widely used in plastic and other consumer products. During the past two decades, BPA has attracted a great deal of scientific and public attention due to its presence in the environment and estrogenic property. Although 4-CP and 2,4-DCP are much more estrogenic and toxic than BPA, little information is available about their occurrence and fate in the environment. In this study, a rapid, selective, accurate and reliable analytical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 4-CP, 2,4-DCP and BPA in prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The method comprises an ultrasound-accelerated extraction followed by capillary gas chromatographic (GC) separation. The detection limits range from 1.50 to 36.4ngkg(-1) for the three alkylphenols. The calibration curves are linear over the concentration range tested with the coefficients of determination, R(2), greater than 0.994. The developed method was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of 4-CP, 2,4-DCP and BPA in prawn samples. The peak identification was confirmed using GC-MS. Bisphenol A, 2,4-bis-(dimethylbenzyl)phenol and 4-cumylphenol were found in prawn samples in the concentration ranges of 0.67-5.51, 0.36-1.61, and 0.00-1.96ngg(-1) (wet weight), respectively. All relative standard deviations are less than 4.8%. At these environmentally relevant concentration levels, 4-CP, 2,4-DCP and BPA may affect the reproduction and development of aquatic organisms, including negative influence on crustaceans' larval survival, molting, metamorphosis and shell hardening. This is the first study reported on the occurrence of 4-CP, 2,4-DCP and BPA in prawn M. rosenbergii. PMID:24560775

Zuo, Yuegang; Zhu, Zhuo

2014-07-01

43

The toxic effect of phthalate esters on immune responses of giant freshwater prawn ( Macrobrachium rosenbergii) via oral treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A previous in vitro study has indicated that four phthalate esters (PAEs) could damage hemocytes and decreases the cellular immunity of prawns [Sung, H.H., Kao, W.Y., Su, Y.J., 2003. Effects and toxicity of phthalate esters to hemocytes of giant freshwater prawn, Macrobranchium rosenbergii. Aquat. Toxicol. 64, 25–37]. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vivo effect of

Wen-Liang Chen; Hung-Hung Sung

2005-01-01

44

Female-only sex-linked amplified fragment length polymorphism markers support ZW/ZZ sex determination in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

Sex determination mechanisms in many crustacean species are complex and poorly documented. In the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, a ZW/ZZ sex determination system was previously proposed based on sex ratio data obtained by crosses of sex-reversed females (neomales). To provide molecular evidence for the proposed system, novel sex-linked molecular markers were isolated in this species. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) using 64 primer combinations was employed to screen prawn genomes for DNA markers linked with sex loci. Approximately 8400 legible fragments were produced, 13 of which were uniquely identified in female prawns with no indication of corresponding male-specific markers. These AFLP fragments were reamplified, cloned and sequenced, producing two reliable female-specific sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers. Additional individuals from two unrelated geographic populations were used to verify these findings, confirming female-specific amplification of single bands. Detection of internal polymorphic sites was conducted by designing new primer pairs based on these internal fragments. The internal SCAR fragments also displayed specificity in females, indicating high levels of variation between female and male specimens. The distinctive feature of female-linked SCAR markers can be applied for rapid detection of prawn gender. These sex-specific SCAR markers and sex-associated AFLP candidates unique to female specimens support a sex determination system consistent with female heterogamety (ZW) and male homogamety (ZZ). PMID:23763724

Jiang, Xue-Hui; Qiu, Gao-Feng

2013-12-01

45

L-( sup 3 H) glutamate binding to a membrane preparation from the optic lobe of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man  

SciTech Connect

Membrane preparation from the optic lobe of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man, was examined for the presence of specific L-({sup 3}H) glutamate binding. The optic lobes were isolated from live animals. The tissue was homogenized and the membrane fraction isolated by differential centrifugation. The membrane suspension was incubated with 10-1,000 nM of L-({sup 3}H) glutamate at 37{degree}C for 60 min. Nonspecific binding was determined by incubating the mixture with 100 {mu}M L-glutamate. L-({sup 3}H) glutamate specifically bound to the membrane fraction with a dissociation equilibrium constant (Kd) of 205 nM and maximum number of binding sites (Bmax) of 2.04 n mol/mg protein. By using LIGAND computerized program, the saturation isotherm binding pattern indicates a single type of binding. To determine the type of glutamate receptors, competitive inhibition and IC{sub 50} of several glutamate agonists and antagonists were determined. The study reveals a metabotropic type of binding site.

Pratumtan, P.; Govitrapong, P.; Withyachumnarnkul, B.; Poolsanguan, B. (Mahidol Univ., Bangkok (Thailand) Mahidol Univ., Nakorn Pathom (Thailand))

1991-01-01

46

Cloning and immunoreactivity of the 5-HT1Mac and 5-HT2Mac receptors in the central nervous system of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

PubMed Central

Biogenic amines are implicated in several mental disorders, many of which involve social interactions. Simple model systems, such as crustaceans, are often more amenable than vertebrates for studying mechanisms underlying behaviors. Although various cellular responses of biogenic amines have been characterized in crustaceans, the mechanisms linking these molecules to behavior remain largely unknown. Observed effects of serotonin receptor agonists and antagonists in abdomen posture, escape responses, and fighting have led to the suggestion that biogenic amine receptors may play a role in modulating interactive behaviors. As a first step in understanding this potential role of such receptors, we have cloned and fully sequenced two serotonin receptors, 5-HT1Mac and 5-HT2Mac, from the CNS of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and have mapped their CNS immunohistochemical distribution. 5-HT1Mac was found primarily on the membranes of subsets of cells in all CNS ganglia, in fibers that traverse all CNS regions, and in the cytoplasm of a small number of cells in the brain, circum- and subesophageal ganglia (SEG), most of which also appear to contain dopamine. The pattern of 5-HT2Mac immunoreactivity was found to differ significantly, being found mostly in the central neuropil area of all ganglia, in glomeruli of the brain’s olfactory lobes, and in the cytoplasm of a small number of neurons in the SEG, thoracic and some abdominal ganglia. The observed differences in terms of localization, distribution within cells, and intensity of immunoreactive staining throughout the prawn’s CNS suggest that these receptors are likely to play different roles.

Vazquez-Acevedo, Nietzell; Reyes-Colon, Dalynes; Ruiz-Rodriguez, Eduardo A.; Rivera, Nilsa M.; Rosenthal, Joshua; Kohn, Andrea B.; Moroz, Leonid L.; Sosa, Maria A.

2009-01-01

47

Acute toxicity of organochlorine insecticide endosulfan to the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrochium rosenbergii  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Endosulfan, an organochlorine pesticide, is highly toxic and effective at controlling pests in agriculture, horticulture, and public health programs. In this study, static bioassays were used to evaluate the toxicity of endosulfan to freshwater prawns ( Macrobrachium rosenbergii) of various lengths (1.5±0.03, 4±0.08, and 7±0.06 cm). Additionally, the activities of peroxidase (POD), acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and Na+/K+-ATPase were analyzed to reflect the effects of endosulfan exposure. The 96 h LC50 of endosulfan for prawns 1.5, 4, and 7 cm long were 1.86, 4.53, and 6.09 ?g/L, respectively, improved tolerance to endosulfan with growth. The POD activities of test organisms exposed to low concentrations of endosulfan were inhibited, indicating the presence of oxygen damaged tissue. Moreover, a notable decrease in AChE activity was observed due to overstimulation of neurotransmission, which might result in abnormal behavior. The effect caused by endosulfan on phosphatase production in the hepatopancreas of prawns 1.5, 4, and 7 cm long was different because the ability of nonspecific immune regulation increased with growth. The 96 h LC50 values obtained in this study could be used in the formulation of water-quality criteria in China. Moreover, the changes in enzymes activities of M. rosenbergii under stress of endosulfan could be applied in the establishment of early warning indicators for bio-safety.

Dai, Xilin; Xiong, Zhaodi; Xie, Jian; Ding, Fujiang

2014-01-01

48

A Morphological Study of Muscle Proteolysis in the Tails of 'Macrobrachium rosenbergii'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As the cost of harvesting seafood from the oceans increases, alternative means of production, such as aquaculture, are being investigated more intensively. Freshwater shrimp have become popular in the last decade and, of the many species tested, Macrobrac...

B. Rowland G. Finne R. Tillman

1982-01-01

49

Mixed culture of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) in periphyton-based ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the concept of periphyton-based aquaculture has been tested and applied in aquaculture. Positive effects of substrate addition for periphyton development included increasing the food supply and providing shelter for culture animals. The aim of this project was to develop a low-cost culture technology for resource-poor farmers in South-East Asia. The technology is an extension of traditional brush-park

S. Uddin

2007-01-01

50

Molecular cloning and characterization of the lipopolysaccharide and ?-1,3-glucan binding protein from oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense.  

PubMed

The lipopolysaccharide and ?-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP), one of the pattern recognition proteins, plays an important role in the innate immune response of invertebrates. A 1,506 bp full-length cDNA of a LGBP gene was cloned and characterized from the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense (named as MnLGBP). Analysis of the nucleotide sequence revealed that the cDNA clone has an open reading frame of 1,119 bp, encoding a protein of 372 amino acids including a 21-aa signal peptide. The calculated molecular mass of the mature protein (351 aa) was 39.9 kDa with an estimated pI of 4.63. The MnLGBP sequence contains: (1) two putative integrin-binding motifs, (2) a glucanase motif, (3) two putative N-glycosylation sites, (4) one protein kinase C phosphorylation site, and (5) a putative recognition motif for ?-1,3-linkage of polysaccharides. Sequence comparison based on the deduced amino acid sequence of MnLGBP showed varied identity of 89, 76 and 74 % with those of Macrobrachium rosenbergii LGBP, Marsupenaeus japonicus ?-1,3-glucan binding proteins, and Fenneropenaeus chinensis LGBP, respectively. Quantitative RT-PCR results showed that MnLGBP was expressed in nerve, intestine, muscle, gill, heart, haemocytes and at the highest level in hepatopancreas. After challenge with the pathogen, Aeromonas hydrophila and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, the expression of MnLGBP mRNA was significantly upregulated in the hepatopancreas compared to the control group. At the same time, the mRNA level of MnproPO increased dramatically at 48 h after injection of bacteria. These data should be helpful to better understand the function of MnLGBP in the prawn immune system. PMID:24584659

Xiu, Yunji; Wu, Ting; Liu, Peng; Huang, Ying; Ren, Qian; Gu, Wei; Meng, Qingguo; Wang, Wen

2014-06-01

51

Comparing trace metal bioaccumulation characteristics of three freshwater decapods of the genus Macrobrachium.  

PubMed

Potential sources and kinetics of metal bioaccumulation by the three Macrobrachium prawn species M. australiense, M. rosenbergii and M. latidactylus were assessed in laboratory experiments. The prawns were exposed to two scenarios: cadmium in water only; and exposure to metal-rich mine tailings in the same water. The cadmium accumulation from the dissolved exposure during 7 days, followed by depuration in cadmium-free water for 7 days, was compared with predictions from a biokinetic model that had previously been developed for M. australiense. M. australiense and M. latidactylus accumulated significant tissue cadmium during the exposure phase, albeit with different uptake rates. All three species retained >95% of the bioaccumulated cadmium during the depuration phase, indicating very slow efflux rates. Following exposure to tailings, there were significant (p<0.05) differences in tissue arsenic, cadmium, lead and zinc concentrations among species. Cadmium and zinc concentrations were increased relative to controls for all three species but were not different between treatments (direct/indirect contact with tailings), suggesting these metals were primarily accumulated via the dissolved phase. All species bioaccumulated significantly greater arsenic and lead when in direct contact with mine tailings, demonstrating the importance of an ingestion pathway for these metals. Copper was not bioaccumulated above control concentrations for any species. The differences between the metal accumulation of the three prawns indicated that a biokinetic model of cadmium bioaccumulation for M. australiense could potentially be used to describe the metal bioaccumulation of the other two prawn species, albeit with an over-prediction of 3-9 times. Despite these being the same genus of decapod crustacean, the study highlights the issues with using surrogate species, even under controlled laboratory conditions. It is recommended that future studies using surrogate species quantify the metal bioaccumulation characteristics of each species in order to account for any differences between species. PMID:24800868

Cresswell, Tom; Smith, Ross E W; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Simpson, Stuart L

2014-07-01

52

Kinetics of glucose transport by the perfused mid-gut of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenberg ii.  

PubMed Central

1. Mucosal influx of [3H]glucose was examined in the mid-gut of a freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, using an in vitro perfusion technique. 2. [3H]glucose transfer across the apical cell membrane of the epithelium exhibited Michaelis-Menten kinetics (Jmax.in = 0-15 mumole glucose equiv/g. min, Kt = 0-17 mM). Under Na-free conditions, glucose influx was significantly reduced and a linear function of substrate concentration, indicative of either slow cellular diffusion (KD = 7-6 X 10(3) mumole glucose equiv/g. min. mM) or a facilitated process with a low carrier affinity for the sugar. 3. Phlorizin was a potent competitive inhibitor of glucose influx (K1 = 3-6 X10(-3) mM), galactose and 3-O-methylglucose (3-O-MG) were weak inhibitors, and fructose had no evident effect on glucose uptake. Azide, but not iodoacetate (IAA), significantly depressed influx. 4. Absorbed [3H]glucose was rapidly metabolized by the mid-gut. The majority of accumulated activity within the tissue was in the form of phosphorylated compounds and tritiated water (THO), while only 0-3% was recovered as a free-glucose. 5. Preliminary studies examining transmural [3-H]glucose transport, however, demonstrated a significant net mucosal to serosal free-glucose flux across the prawn mid-gut which was Na-dependent and IAA- and phlorizin-sensitive. Two alternative interpretations of the data are advanced as possible mechanisms for transepithelial glucose transport: (1) group translocation, or (2) the operation of an energized, high affinity, baso-lateral sugar transport carrier. Images Plate 1

Ahearn, G A; Maginniss, L A

1977-01-01

53

Effects of hot-water extract of banana (Musa acuminata) fruit's peel on the antibacterial activity, and anti-hypothermal stress, immune responses and disease resistance of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbegii.  

PubMed

The hot-extracts isolated from fruit's peel of banana, Musa acuminata, was evaluated on the antibacterial activity to pathogens from aquatic animals, and immunostimulating potential, disease resistance and anti-hypothermal stress in giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii through injection administration. The banana peel extract (BPE) showed good activity against 1 Gram-positive and 3 Gram-negative pathogens, including Lactococcus garvieae, Photobacteria damsella, Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio parahemolyticus especially in prawn pathogen of L. garvieae strain, which were carried out by a disk diffusion method. Prawn received BPE via injection administration at 1-6 ?g (g prawn)(-1) significantly increased total haemocyte count (THC), hyaline cell (HC), granular cell (GC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity and phagocytic activity against L. garvieae from 3 to 6 days, and significantly increased clearance efficiency against L. garvieae and a significantly decreased coagulation time of prawn from 1 to 6 days. Prawn injected with BPE at 6.0 ?g (g prawn)(-1) for 6 days showed significantly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, but significantly decreased respiratory bursts (RBs) of per haemocyte. Survival rates of M. rosenbergii injected with BPE at concentrations of 1, 3 and 6 ?g (g prawn)(-1) were significantly higher than those injected with saline control after challenge with L. garvieae for 4-6 days, and the respective relative survival percentages of prawn were 28.6%, 38.1%, and 47.8%, respectively at 6 days. The sublethal time of prawns that had received saline and BPE at 1, 3 and 6 ?g (g prawn)(-1) for 6 days and then were transferred from 28 °C to 14 °C were 69.4, 79.8, 83.6, and 90.2 h, respectively. It was concluded that the BPE can be used as the bacteriostat, and immunostimulant and physiological regulator for prawn through injection administration to enhance immunity, physiological responses, and resistance against L. garvieae. PMID:24906123

Rattanavichai, Wutti; Cheng, Winton

2014-08-01

54

Population dynamics of Niger River prawn (Macrobrachium felicinum) in Lower Taylor Creek, Niger Delta, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The population dynamics of Macrobrachium felicinum (Holthuis, 1949) in Lower Taylor Creek, Niger Delta, Nigeria, was analysed using monthly length-frequency data (June 2008 – May 2010). This study was aimed at determining the status of fishery and establishing the levels of exploitation that will give sustainable yields. The FAO-ICLARM stock assessment tool (FISAT II) software was used to estimate population

T onbarapagha Kingdom; Aduabobo Ibitoruh Hart

2012-01-01

55

Genetic variability and phylogenetic aspects in species of the genus Macrobrachium.  

PubMed

The genus Macrobrachium includes prawns, which are widely distributed in lakes, floodplains, and rivers in tropical and subtropical regions of South America. This genus presents nearly 210 known species with great ecological and economic importance. However, few studies are related to the biology of these crustaceans. In this study, we analyzed the genetic variability and phylogenetic relationship between Macrobrachium amazonicum and Macrobrachium jelskii, which are closely related species. Additionally, they are syntopics and their taxonomy poses problems because it is difficult to differentiate between the species. We used the mitochondrial gene sequences COI and 16S rRNA to assess the genetic structure of these species in 3 populations that were collected from Tiete hydrographic basin (São Paulo State, Brazil). The interspecific comparison of samples that were collected at the same and different locations showed a low rate of genetic variability. This similarity was attributed to the recent introduction of these species in the regions that were sampled and the habitat conditions in which they inhabit. In addition, these results may be consistent with the hypothesis that they are a single species, interspecific hybrids, or metapopulation. The dendrogram analyses did not reveal the formation of clusters, confirming the disturbances in the genetic structure of the samples that were analyzed in this study. These data are pioneers to these crustaceans, and they confirm the ecological and evolutionary problems between these Macrobrachium species. PMID:24854444

Guerra, A L; Lima, A V B; Lucato Júnior, R V; Chiachio, M C; Taddei, F G; Castiglioni, L

2014-01-01

56

Biochemical Stress Responses in Tissues of the Prawn Macrobrachium malcolmsonii on Exposure to Endosulfan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to investigate the induction of biochemical stress responses in Macrobrachium malcolmsonii following exposure to endosulfan and to determine the most sensitive parameter of endosulfan-induced stress in this species of prawn. Intermolt juvenile prawns were exposed to three sublethal concentrations of endosulfan (10.6, 16.0, and 32.0 ng\\/L) for a period of 21 days. Samples were taken from

P. Saravana Bhavan; P. Geraldine

2001-01-01

57

Lipid and fatty acid composition and energy partitioning during embryo development in the shrimp Macrobrachium borellii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy partitioning, composition of lipids and fatty acids, and their utilization by embryos were determined in the lecithotrophic\\u000a shrimp Macrobrachium borellii during seven development stages. The biochemical composition at stage I is represented by lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates,\\u000a with 29.3, 28.7, and 0.2% dry weight, respectively. The former two were identified as the major energy-providing components,\\u000a contributing 131 and 60

Horacio Heras; M. R. Gonzalez-Baró; Ricardo J. Pollero

2000-01-01

58

Stable isotope changes in freshwater shrimps ( Exopalaemon modestus and Macrobrachium nipponensis ): trophic pattern implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trophic patterns of omnivorous freshwater shrimps, Exopalaemon modestus and Macrobrachium nipponensis, were investigated in two shallow eutrophic lakes by using stable isotope analysis. ?15N and ?13C of M. nipponensis and E. modestus increased with increasing body weight, which might be attributed to larger individuals ingesting organisms that feed higher\\u000a up the food chain and\\/or increased assimilation of benthic food items

Jun Xu; Min Zhang; Ping Xie

2008-01-01

59

Activation of lipid catabolism by the water-soluble fraction of petroleum in the crustacean Macrobrachium borellii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the effect of the water-soluble fraction of crude oil (WSF) on lipid metabolism in invertebrates. The effect of the WSF on the triacylglycerol (TAG) mobilization, fatty acid activation and degradation was evaluated in the decapod Macrobrachium borellii, exposing adult and eggs at different stages of development for 7 days to a sublethal concentration of WSF. Using

S. Lavarías; R. J. Pollero; H. Heras

2006-01-01

60

Effect of the water-soluble fraction of petroleum on microsomal lipid metabolism of Macrobrachium borellii (Arthropoda: Crustacea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the water-soluble fraction of crude oil (WSF) on lipid metabolism was studied at critical metabolic points, namely fatty acid activation, enzymes of triacylglycerol and phospholipid synthesis, and membrane (lipid packing) properties in the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium borellii. To determine the effect of the contaminant, adults and embryos at different stages of development were exposed to a sublethal

S. Lavarías; F. García; R. J. Pollero; H. Heras

2007-01-01

61

Prey ingestion and live food selectivity of marble goby ( Oxyeleotris marmorata) using rice field prawn ( Macrobrachium lanchesteri) as prey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marble goby (Oxyeleotris marmorata), a carnivorous fish native to freshwater in Asia-Pacific region, is a high-valued species in many Asian countries. The present study consisting of three experiments was conducted to determine the appropriate density, size and ingestion time of marble goby fingerlings on rice field prawn (Macrobrachium lanchesteri) as prey. Results showed that the ingestion rate of marble goby

Nguyen Phu Hoa; Yang Yi

2007-01-01

62

Species composition and gear characteristics of the Macrobrachium fishery of the Cross River Estuary, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cross River Estuary, Nigeria, is an important shrimping area for artisanal fishermen of the coastal communities. The multi-species Macrobrachium fishery is exploited with three main gears, namely beach seine, push net and trap. Studies on species composition of this fishery recorded thirteen shrimp species, one swimming crab ( Callinectes amnicola) and two fish species ( Eleotris sp. and Pellonula leonensis). The shrimp species identified included Macrobrachium macrobrachion (83.39% and 55.69% by number and weight, respectively), M. vollenhovenii (9.66% and 37.18%), M. equidens (3.8% and 2.87%), juveniles-sub-adults of Penaeus notialis (1.11% and 1.3%), M. dux, M. felicinum, Palaemonetes africanus, Palaemon maculatus, Palaemon elegans, Desmocaris sp., Leander sp., Nematopalaemon hastatus and Alpheus pontederiae. While the selectivity index for trap was 0.25, beach seine and push net had a lower index of 0.063. The results present the first comprehensive and representative report for the Estuary shrimp fishery and will assist in the management of the biodiversity of this ecosystem.

Nwosu, Francis M.

2010-03-01

63

Molecular Systematics of the Freshwater Prawn Genus Macrobrachium Bate, 1868 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae) Inferred from mtDNA Sequences, with Emphasis on East Asian Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Min-Yun Liu, Yi-Xiong Cai, and Chyng-Shyan Tzeng (2007)Molecular systematics of the freshwater prawn genus Macrobrachium Bate, 1868 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae) inferred from mtDNA sequences, with emphasis on East Asian species. Zoological Studies46(3): 272-289. Based on the mitochondrial DNA fragment of the large subunit (16S) ribosomal RNA gene, the monophyletic phylogeny of the genus Macrobrachium, including both land-locked and euryhaline species,

Min-Yun Liu; Yi-Xiong Cai; Chyng-Shyan Tzeng

64

Spirulina cultivation in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reviews and discusses the development and many problems of Spirulina cultivation in China, points out the advantages and disadvantages of open photobioreactor system, and predicts that seawater Spirulina cultivation will be a new trend to be strengthened and emphasized due to its special physiological characteristics, easier management, lower fertilizer cost, and higher resistance to contaminants and rare pollution of chemicals.

Bo-Tang, Wu; Wen-Zhou, Xiang; Cheng-Kui, Zeng

1998-03-01

65

Domestic Cannabis Cultivation Assessment, 2007.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Domestic Cannabis Cultivation Assessment 2007 is a national-level strategic assessment of cannabis cultivation and marijuana production in the United States. This assessment addresses major trends in domestic cannabis cultivation, both indoor and outd...

2007-01-01

66

Genetic diversity analysis of oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense, in Yellow River using microsatellite marker.  

PubMed

To assess the genetic status of this species, the genetic diversity of wild Macrobrachium nipponense from seven geographic locations in the Yellow River basin were investigated using 20 polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci. The genetic diversity between populations was indicated by the mean number of alleles per locus and mean observed heterozygosity (H) and the expected H, which was arranged from 2 to 10, from 0.4705 to 0.5731, and from 0.5174 to 0.6146, respectively. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium analysis indicated that a deficiency of heterozygotes existed in all seven populations. Both the F(ST) and AMOVA analyses showed that there is significant difference on population differentiation among populations. The UPGMA clustering tree demonstrated that their close relationship is consistent with their geographic proximity. The data suggest that this Yellow River population has a wide genetic base that is suitable for breeding. PMID:24301938

Qiao, H; Lv, D; Jiang, S F; Sun, S M; Gong, Y S; Xiong, Y W; Jin, S B; Fu, H T

2013-01-01

67

Bioaccumulation and retention kinetics of cadmium in the freshwater decapod Macrobrachium australiense.  

PubMed

The potential sources and mechanisms of cadmium bioaccumulation by the native freshwater decapods Macrobrachium species in the waters of the highly turbid Strickland River in Papua New Guinea were examined using (109)Cd-labelled water and food sources and the Australian species Macrobrachium australiense as a surrogate. Synthetic river water was spiked with environmentally relevant concentrations of cadmium and animals were exposed for 7 days with daily renewal of test solutions. Dietary assimilation of cadmium was assessed through pulse-chase experiments where prawns were fed separately (109)Cd-labelled fine sediment, filamentous algae and carrion (represented by cephalothorax tissue of water-exposed prawns). M. australiense readily accumulated cadmium from the dissolved phase and the uptake rate increased linearly with increasing exposure concentration. A cadmium uptake rate constant of 0.10 ± 0.05 L/g/d was determined in synthetic river water. During depuration following exposure to dissolved cadmium, efflux rates were low (0.9 ± 5%/d) and were not dependent on exposure concentration. Assimilation efficiencies of dietary sources were comparable for sediment and algae (48-51%), but lower for carrion (28 ± 5%) and efflux rates were low (0.2-2.6%/d) demonstrating that cadmium was well retained by M. australiense. A biokinetic model of cadmium accumulation by M. australiense predicted that for exposures to environmentally relevant cadmium concentrations in the Strickland River, uptake from ingestion of fine sediment and carrion would be the predominant sources of cadmium to the organism. The model predicted the total dietary route would represent 70-80% of bioaccumulated cadmium. PMID:24508761

Cresswell, Tom; Simpson, Stuart L; Smith, Ross E W; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Mazumder, Debashish; Twining, John

2014-03-01

68

How to Cultivate Moss  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, to learn about the biological needs of mosses, students will grow and maintain their own moss terrarium. Through daily maintenance and observation, students will identify those factors necessary for the successful cultivation of moss.

69

Mushroom Cultivation in Thailand,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The lucid handbook is designed for volunteers of all backgrounds seeking to understand mushroom culture. Topics include mushroom cultivation in beds, logs, and plastic bags; mushroom spawn propagation; and control of pests. Appendices provide examples of ...

D. A. Pottebaum

1987-01-01

70

A Methodological Investigation of Cultivation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cultivation theory states that television engenders negative emotions in heavy viewers. Noting that cultivation methodology contains an apparent response bias, a study examined relationships between television exposure and positive restatements of cultivation concepts and tested a more instrumental media uses and effects model. Cultivation was…

Rubin, Alan M.; And Others

71

Effect of crude oil petroleum hydrocarbons on protein expression of the prawn Macrobrachium borellii.  

PubMed

Hydrocarbon pollution is a major environmental threat to ecosystems in marine and freshwater environments, but its toxicological effect on aquatic organisms remains little studied. A proteomic approach was used to analyze the effect of a freshwater oil spill on the prawn Macrobrachium borellii. To this aim, proteins were extracted from midgut gland (hepatopancreas) of male and female prawns exposed 7 days to a sublethal concentration (0.6 ppm) of water-soluble fraction of crude oil (WSF). Exposure to WSF induced responses at the protein expression level. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) revealed 10 protein spots that were differentially expressed by WSF exposure. Seven proteins were identified using MS/MS and de novo sequencing. Nm23 oncoprotein, arginine methyltransferase, fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase and glutathione S-transferase were down-regulated, whereas two glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase isoforms and a lipocalin-like crustacyanin (CTC) were up-regulated after WSF exposure. CTC mRNA levels were further analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR showing an increased expression after WSF exposure. The proteins identified are involved in carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, detoxification, transport of hydrophobic molecules and cellular homeostasis among others. These results provide evidence for better understanding the toxic mechanisms of hydrocarbons. Moreover, some of these differentially expressed proteins would be employed as potential novel biomarkers. PMID:23570752

Pasquevich, M Y; Dreon, M S; Gutierrez Rivera, J N; Vázquez Boucard, C; Heras, H

2013-05-01

72

Shrimp Farming in the Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In inquiry-based instruction, discovery and learning belong to the students. In this exploration, jumbo shrimp are the source of inspiration. The magic in this project lies not in successfully culturing these shrimp, known as Macrobrachium rosenbergii

Ruggiero, Lovelle

2000-01-01

73

75 FR 16436 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the farmed and wild-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii),...

2010-04-01

74

75 FR 51756 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Changed...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the farmed and wild-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii),...

2010-08-23

75

76 FR 51940 - Administrative Review of Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the farmed and wild-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, white-leg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii),...

2011-08-19

76

76 FR 64307 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Amended Final Results and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the farmed and wild-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii),...

2011-10-18

77

75 FR 47771 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results and Partial...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the farmed and wild-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii),...

2010-08-09

78

77 FR 40574 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Thailand: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the farmed and wild-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii),...

2012-07-10

79

75 FR 54847 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Thailand: Final Results and Partial Rescission of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the farmed and wild-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii),...

2010-09-09

80

75 FR 13492 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed-Circumstances...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the farmed and wild-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii),...

2010-03-22

81

78 FR 33344 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Preliminary Countervailing Duty Determination  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the farmed and wild-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii),...

2013-06-04

82

77 FR 64953 - Notice of Initiation and Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the farmed and wild-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii),...

2012-10-24

83

78 FR 33347 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Ecuador: Preliminary Negative Countervailing Duty Determination  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the farmed and wild-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii),...

2013-06-04

84

78 FR 50391 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Final Affirmative...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the farmed and wild-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii),...

2013-08-19

85

75 FR 61702 - Notice of Initiation and Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the farmed and wild-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii),...

2010-10-06

86

76 FR 45775 - Fourth New Shipper Review of Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the farmed and wild-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii),...

2011-08-01

87

Marine Fisheries Review, Vol. 48, No. 2, 1986.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lobsters-Identification, World Distribution, and U.S. Trade; A Mechanical device to Sort Market Squid, Loligo opalesceus; Characterization of Proteolytic and Collagenolytic Psychrotrophic Bacteria of Ice-Stored Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

1986-01-01

88

Toxic Effect of Certain Marine Blue-Green Algae to Penaeid Shrimp.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hemocytic enteritis (HE) was found to be a disease of cultured marine penaeid shrimp and of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The principal lesion of HE disease is a necrosis and intense cellular inflammation of the mucosa of those portions...

D. V. Lightner

1982-01-01

89

The Cultivated Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers who follow this monthly schedule for starting and cultivating plants in their classrooms can look forward to blooms and greenery throughout the year. Advice on choosing plants, making cuttings, forcing bulbs, rooting sweet potatoes and pineapples, and holding a Mother's Day plant sale is included. (PP)

Schilder, Rosalind

1983-01-01

90

Cultivating Leaders from Within  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A major problem faced by school districts in the US is the paucity of applicants for the posts of school principals. A solution adopted by The Capistrano Unified School District (CUSD) in Orange County California was the cultivation of good leaders from within the district through the Teaching Assistant Principal (TAP) program.

Burdette, Maggie; Schertzer, Kristen

2005-01-01

91

Domestic Cannabis Cultivation Assessment, 2009.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Domestic cannabis cultivation is occurring at high levels and eradication is increasing across the United States, according to the most recent eradication data. Cannabis cultivation operations currently appear to be most prevalent in western states but ar...

2009-01-01

92

Cultivation of Plasmodium spp.  

PubMed Central

Cultivation of both human and non-human species of Plasmodium spp., the causal agent of malaria, has been a major research success, leading to a greater understanding of the parasite. Efforts at cultivating the organisms in vitro are complicated by the parasites' alternating between a human host and an arthropod vector, each having its own set of physiological, metabolic, and nutritional parameters. Life cycle stages of the four species that infect humans have been established in vitro. Of these four, P. falciparum remains the only species for which all stages have been cultured in vitro; different degrees of success have been achieved with the other human Plasmodium spp. The life cycle includes the exoerythrocytic stage (within liver cells), the erythrocytic stage (within erythrocytes or precursor reticulocytes), and the sporogonic stage (within the vector). Culture media generally consist of a basic tissue culture medium (e.g., minimal essential medium or RPMI 1640) to which serum and erythrocytes are added. Most of the efforts have been directed toward the stage found in the erythrocyte. This stage has been cultivated in petri plates or other growth vessels in a candle jar to generate elevated CO2 levels or in a more controlled CO2 atmosphere. Later developments have employed continuous-flow systems to reduce the labor-intensive nature of medium changing. The exoerythrocytic and sporogonic life cycle stages have also been cultivated in vitro. A number of avian, rodent, and simian malarial parasites have also been established in vitro. Although cultivation is of great help in understanding the biology of Plasmodium, it does not lend itself to use for diagnostic purposes.

Schuster, Frederick L.

2002-01-01

93

Larval biomass and chemical composition at hatching in two geographically isolated clades of the shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum: intra- or interspecific variation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller 1862) has an extremely large geographic range (>4000?km across) in northern and central South America, comprising estuarine and fully limnic inland populations, which are hydrologically isolated from each other. Significant variations in ecology, physiology, reproduction, and larval development suggest an at least incipient allopatric speciation due to limited genetic exchange. In a comparative experimental investigation

Ángel Urzúa; Klaus Anger

2011-01-01

94

Cultivating an entrepreneurial mindset.  

PubMed

Now as never before, familiar challenges require bold, novel approaches. Registered dietitians will benefit by cultivating an entrepreneurial mindset that involves being comfortable with uncertainty, learning to take calculated risks, and daring to just try it. An entrepreneur is someone who takes risks to create something new, usually in business. But the entrepreneurial mindset is available to anyone prepared to rely only on their own abilities for their economic security and expect no opportunity without first creating value for others. PMID:24018008

Matheson, Sandra A

2013-01-01

95

Neolithic cultivated plants from Albania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macroremains of late Neolithic cultivated plants are reported from the archaeological site of Maliq, Korça District, south-eastern Albania. The material comprises einkorn (Triticum monococcum L.), emmer (Triticum dicoccon Schrank), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) and bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia (L.) Willd.). These are the first remains of cultivated plants described from an archaeological site in Albania.

Lufter Xhuveli; Jiirgen Schultze-Motel

1995-01-01

96

Plant growth and cultivation.  

PubMed

There is a variety of methods used for growing plants indoor for laboratory research. In most cases plant research requires germination and growth of plants. Often, people have adapted plant cultivation protocols to the conditions and materials at hand in their own laboratory and growth facilities. Here I will provide a guide for growing some of the most frequently used plant species for research, i.e., Arabidopsis thaliana, barley (Hordeum vulgare) and rice (Oryza sativa). However, the methods presented can be used for other plant species as well, especially if they are related to the above-mentioned species. The presented methods include growing plants in soil, hydroponics, and in vitro on plates. This guide is intended as a starting point for those who are just beginning to work on any of the above-mentioned plant species. Methods presented are to be taken as suggestive and modification can be made according to the conditions existing in the host laboratory. PMID:23073874

Podar, Dorina

2013-01-01

97

Life history traits of the Monsoon River prawn Macrobrachium malcolmsonii (Milne-Edwards, 1844) (Palaemonidae) in the Ganges (Padma) River, northwestern Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Monsoon River prawn, Macrobrachium malcolmsonii (Milne-Edwards, 1844), is one of the dominant benthic species in the Ganges River. Our study describes some biological parameters including sex ratio, length–frequency distributions (LFD), length–weight relationships (LWR), and relative-condition (Kn) factor of M. malcolmsonii in the lower part of the Ganges River, northwestern Bangladesh. A total of 502 specimens of the ranges 3.54–11.76?cm

Jun Ohtomi; Ahmed Jaman; Saleha Jasmine; Robert L. Vadas Jr

2012-01-01

98

Life history traits of the Monsoon River prawn Macrobrachium malcolmsonii (Milne-Edwards, 1844) (Palaemonidae) in the Ganges (Padma) River, northwestern Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Monsoon River prawn, Macrobrachium malcolmsonii (Milne-Edwards, 1844), is one of the dominant benthic species in the Ganges River. Our study describes some biological parameters including sex ratio, length–frequency distributions (LFD), length–weight relationships (LWR), and relative-condition (Kn) factor of M. malcolmsonii in the lower part of the Ganges River, northwestern Bangladesh. A total of 502 specimens of the ranges 3.54–11.76?cm

Jun Ohtomi; Ahmed Jaman; Saleha Jasmine; Robert L. Vadas Jr

2011-01-01

99

Determination of microcystin-LR and its metabolites in snail ( Bellamya aeruginosa), shrimp ( Macrobrachium nipponensis) and silver carp ( Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) from Lake Taihu, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes seasonal changes of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and its glutathione (MC-LR-GSH) and cysteine conjugates (MC-LR-Cys) in three aquatic animals – snail (Bellamya aeruginosa), shrimp (Macrobrachium nipponensis) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) collected from Lake Taihu, China. MC-LR, MC-LR-GSH, and MC-LR-Cys were determined by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrum (LC–ESI-MS). The mean MC-LR concentrations in the hepatopancreas of snail

Dawen Zhang; Ping Xie; Jun Chen; Ming Dai; Tong Qiu; Yaqin Liu; Gaodao Liang

2009-01-01

100

Three Strategies for Elaborating the Cultivation Hypothesis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses three strategies (dividing cultivation into component subprocesses, testing for an intervening variable, and contingent relationships) for elaborating the cultivation hypothesis. Finds evidence that cultivation effects do exist but that dividing the socialization process does not increase the predictive power of the cultivation hypothesis.…

Potter, W. James

1988-01-01

101

[Artificial cultivation modes for Dendrobium officinale].  

PubMed

Since the beginning of the new century, the artificial cultivation of Dendrobium officinale has made a breakthrough progress. This paper systematically expounds key technologies, main features and cautions of the cultivation modes e.g. bionic-facility cultivation, the original ecological cultivation, and potting cultivation for D. officinale, which can provide useful information for the development and improvement of D. officinale industry. PMID:23713268

Si, Jin-Ping; Yu, Qiao-Xian; Song, Xian-Shui; Shao, Wei-Jiang

2013-02-01

102

Antioxidant response and oxidative stress levels in Macrobrachium borellii (Crustacea: Palaemonidae) exposed to the water-soluble fraction of petroleum.  

PubMed

The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of the water soluble fraction of hydrocarbons (WSF) on the antioxidant status of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium borellii. First, seasonal variations were studied in a non-polluted area. Hepatopancreas and gills showed season-related fluctuations in catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities and in lipid peroxidation levels (LPO), but not in superoxide dismutase (SOD). Then, adults were exposed semi-statically to sublethal doses for 7days. CAT, SOD, GST, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities and LPO, reduced glutathione (GSH) and protein oxidation (PO) levels were determined. Exposed individuals showed significant increases in CAT, SOD, and GST activities in hepatopancreas and CAT activity in gills. GPx activity did not vary in either tissues. While LPO levels increased, GSH levels decreased significantly in hepatopancreas of exposed animals, but PO levels showed no variation. Induction of SOD was also assessed by Real-time PCR mRNA expression in hepatopancreas. The non-enzymatic antioxidant activity was also tested; ABTS 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) was higher in hemolymph of treated-prawns compared to controls, but ferric reducing activity of plasma assay (FRAP) values did not change. Taken together, the present results indicated that the antioxidant defenses of M. borellii, mainly in hepatopancreas, were significantly affected by aquatic hydrocarbon contamination, regardless of the season. PMID:21320634

Lavarías, S; Heras, H; Pedrini, N; Tournier, H; Ansaldo, M

2011-05-01

103

Molecular analysis of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium olfersii (Decapoda, Palaemonidae) supports the existence of a single species throughout its distribution.  

PubMed

Macrobrachium olfersii is an amphidromous freshwater prawn, widespread along the eastern coasts of the Americas. This species shows great morphological modifications during ontogenesis, and several studies have verified the existence of a wide intraspecific variation. Because of this condition, the species is often misidentified, and several synonyms have been documented. To elucidate these aspects, individuals of M. olfersii from different populations along its range of distribution were investigated. The taxonomic limit was established, and the degree of genetic variability of this species was described. We extracted DNA from 53 specimens of M. olfersii, M. americanum, M. digueti and M. faustinum, which resulted in 84 new sequences (22 of 16S mtDNA, 45 of Cythocrome Oxidase I (COI) mtDNA, and 17 of Histone (H3) nDNA). Sequences of three genes (single and concatenated) from these species were used in the Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference phylogenetic analyses and COI sequences from M. olfersii were used in population analysis. The genetic variation was evaluated through the alignment of 554 bp from the 16S, 638 bp from the COI, and 338 bp from the H3. The rates of genetic divergence among populations were lower at the intraspecific level. This was confirmed by the haplotype net, which showed a continuous gene flow among populations. Although a wide distribution and high morphological intraspecific variation often suggest the existence of more than one species, genetic similarity of Caribbean and Brazilian populations of M. olfersii supported them as a single species. PMID:23382941

Rossi, Natália; Mantelatto, Fernando Luis

2013-01-01

104

Gene discovery from an ovary cDNA library of oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense by ESTs annotation.  

PubMed

The oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense, is an important crustacean species in aquaculture. However, early gonad maturity is a ubiquitous problem which devalues the product quality. While husbandry and nutritional management have achieved little success in tackling this issue, a molecular approach may discover the genes involved in reproduction and development, which will provide the basic knowledge on reproductive control. In this study, a high-quality cDNA library of prawn was constructed from the ovary tissue. A total of 3294 successful sequencing reactions yielded 3256 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) longer than 100 bp. The cluster and assembly analyses yielded 1514 unique sequences including 414 contigs and 1168 singletons. About 719 (47.49%) unique sequences were identified as orthologs of genes from other organisms. By sequence comparability analysis, 28 important genes including cathepsin B, chromobox protein, Cdc2, cyclin B, DEAD box protein and ADF/cofilin protein were expressed. These genes may be involved in reproductive and developmental functions in prawn. Peritrophin consisting of cortical rods was also found in this species. The identification of these EST sequences in M. nipponense would improve our understanding on the genes that regulate reproduction and development in prawn species. This study also lays the groundwork for development of molecular markers related to ovary development in other prawn species. PMID:20403747

Wu, Ping; Qi, Dan; Chen, Liqiao; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Xiaowei; Qin, Jian Guang; Hu, Songnian

2009-06-01

105

Larval Pseudoproleptus sp. (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae) found in the Amazon river prawn Macrobrachium amazonicum (Decapoda: Palaemonidae) in Brazil.  

PubMed

Previously undescribed infective larvae of the cystidicolid nematode Pseudoproleptus sp. (probably conspecific with the nematode originally described as Heliconema izecksohni Fabio, 1982, a parasite of freshwater fish in Brazil), were found encapsulated in the hemocel of the Amazon river prawn Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller) (Decapoda: Palaemonidae) from the natural canals on the Mexiana Island (Amazon River Delta), Pardá State, Brazil. The prevalence in prawns (body length 48-110 mm) examined in January and March 2008 (n = 44) was 32%, with an intensity of 1-6 (mean 2) larvae per crustacean. The nematode larvae (body length 19.7-25.7 mm), characterized by the cephalic end provided with a helmet-like cuticular structure having a thickened free posterior margin, are described based on light and scanning electron microscopy. Apparently prawns play a role as intermediate hosts for this nematode species. This is the first record of a larval representative of Cystidicolidae in South America and the first record of a species of Pseudoproleptus Khera, 1955, in the Neotropics. Heliconema izecksohni is transferred to Pseudoproleptus as Pseudoproleptus izecksohni (Fabio, 1982) n. comb. PMID:19014207

Moravec, Frantisek; Santos, Cláudia P

2009-06-01

106

Identification of spliced mRNA isoforms of retinoid X receptor (RXR) in the Oriental freshwater prawn Macrobrachium nipponense.  

PubMed

Retinoid X receptors (RXR) are members of the nuclear receptor family that are conserved from invertebrates to vertebrates, and they play an essential role in regulating reproductive maturation, molting, and embryo development. In this study, five RXR isoforms, named RXRL2 (L, long form), RXRL3, RXRS1 (S, short form), RXRS2, and RXRS3, containing six domains from A to F, were cloned from the prawn Macrobrachium nipponense using 5?- and 3?- rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Differences among their structures were observed not only in the D and E domains but also in the A/B domain, which were previously found in insects but not in crustaceans. This is the first report to show that differences occur in the A/B domain of RXR in crustaceans. RXR expressions were also examined in various tissues including the ovary, testis, muscle, hepatopancreas, heart, gill, stomach, intestine, and cuticle. Expression pattern investigations indicated that the five isoforms were differentially expressed. RXRS3 was only detected in the ovary, and the other RXRs were abundant in the ovary and testis. These data suggested that RXR mediates a series of processes related to reproduction. PMID:24938602

Li, Z; Wang, W Q; Zhang, E F; Qiu, G F

2014-01-01

107

Regulation of essential heavy metals (Cu, Cr, and Zn) by the freshwater prawn macrobrachium malcolmsonii (Milne Edwards)  

SciTech Connect

Despite the low concentrations of heavy metals in the surrounding medium, aquatic organisms take them up and accumulate them in their soft tissues to concentrations several fold higher than those of ambient levels. Knowledge of accumulation patterns of a particular trace metal is a prerequisite for understanding the significance of an observed metal concentration in a particular animal, especially from the aspect of biomonitoring. Many marine invertebrates accumulate heavy metals without any regulation and the accumulation necessarily being associated with mechanisms to store the metals in a detoxified form. Two detoxification mechanisms have been described, both of which may occur in one specimen. Heavy metals can either be bound up in insoluble metalliferous {open_quote}granules{close_quote}, or are bound to soluble metal-binding ligands, such as metallothioneins. Some marine decapod crustaceans have an innate ability to regulate the internal concentrations of essential but potentially toxic metals within a constant level, presumably to meet their metabolic demands. However, at present, there is no such information relating to freshwater decapod crustaceans, especially shrimps which occupy a totally different environment. Macrobrachium malcolmsonii, a potential aquaculture species for freshwater is found in abundance in one of the major Indian rivers, the Cauvery. In the present study, an attempt was made to determine whether the freshwater prawn, M. malcolmsonlii, is able to regulate the three essential elements, copper, chromium and zinc, over a wide range of dissolved concentrations. These three metals were chosen because the Cauvery River receives pollutants containing these metals.

Vijayram, K. [Periyar E.V.R. College, Tiruchirappalli (India)] [Periyar E.V.R. College, Tiruchirappalli (India); Geraldine, P. [Bharathidasan Univ., Tiruchirappalli (India)] [Bharathidasan Univ., Tiruchirappalli (India)

1996-02-01

108

Cultivating Spontaneous Self-Discipline.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Draws on contemporary sources to provide strategies for cultivating self-discipline. Advocates self-healing for the adult to be free from destructive attitudes and personal history that can keep adults from being mindful of the child's needs, perspective, and potential. Concludes with ways to facilitate a truly Montessori approach to discipline.…

O'Shaughnessy, Molly

1998-01-01

109

A Methodological Examination of Cultivation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers two issues in cultivation research. Examines relationships between television exposure and positive statements of social perceptions, and tests a model of instrumental media uses and effects. Finds television exposure to be unrelated to social attitudes, while program selectivity is related to all social attitudes except interpersonal…

Rubin, Alan M.; And Others

1988-01-01

110

Origin, dispersal, cultivation and variation of rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are two cultivated and twenty-one wild species of genus Oryza. O. sativa, the Asian cultivated rice is grown all over the world. The African cultivated rice, O. glaberrima is grown on a small scale in West Africa. The genus Oryza probably originated about 130 million years ago in Gondwanaland and different species got distributed into different continents with the

Gurdev S. Khush

1997-01-01

111

Molecular cloning of two tropomyosin family genes and expression analysis during development in oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense.  

PubMed

This paper reports that Slow-tonic S2 tropomyosin (Sst) and Slow tropomyosin isoform (Sti) was highly expressed in androgenic gland transcriptome of Macrobrachium nipponense, which may play crucial roles in sexual differentiation to maleness. In this study, two Sst and Sti gene homologues designated as Mnsst and Mnsti were cloned and characterized from a freshwater prawn M. nipponense. The full-length cDNA of Mnsst and Mnsti consists of 997bp and 1926bp, respectively, with an ORF of 852bp encoding 284 amino acids, and the similarity in ORF reached to 95.82%. The deduced amino acid sequences of Mnsst and Mnsti shared the highest identity with Slow-tonic S2 tropomyosin and Slow tropomyosin isoform of Homarus americanus. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR showed that the Mnsst and Mnsti genes were expressed in different tissues with the highest level of expression in the androgenic gland, implying that these two genes may be related to sex-determination in M. nipponense. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR revealed that in addition, Mnsst and Mnsti were speculated to be related with embryonic organogenesis of M. nipponense, especially for the formation of complete mouthpart and digestive organ and stimulating larval changes of morphology and initiate metamorphosis, the results of present study implied that the two genes may play complex and important roles in sex differentiation of M. nipponense. Thus, we isolated two candidate genes that may advance the studies of sex-determination mechanism in M. nipponense and even the whole crustacean species, as well as promoting the all-male population culture of M. nipponense. PMID:24809964

Jin, Shubo; Jiang, Sufei; Xiong, Yiwei; Qiao, Hui; Sun, Shengming; Zhang, Wenyi; Li, Fajun; Gong, Yongsheng; Fu, Hongtuo

2014-08-10

112

Transcriptome Analysis of the Oriental River Prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense Using 454 Pyrosequencing for Discovery of Genes and Markers  

PubMed Central

Background The oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense, is an economically and nutritionally important species of the Palaemonidae family of decapod crustaceans. To date, the sequencing of its whole genome is unavailable as a non-model organism. Transcriptomic information is also scarce for this species. In this study, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing to produce the first comprehensive expressed sequence tag (EST) dataset for M. nipponense using high-throughput sequencing technologies. Methodology and Principal Findings Total RNA was isolated from eyestalk, gill, heart, ovary, testis, hepatopancreas, muscle, and embryos at the cleavage, gastrula, nauplius and zoea stages. Equal quantities of RNA from each tissue and stage were pooled to construct a cDNA library. Using 454 pyrosequencing technology, we generated a total of 984,204 high quality reads (338.59Mb) with an average length of 344 bp. Clustering and assembly of these reads produced a non-redundant set of 81,411 unique sequences, comprising 42,551 contigs and 38,860 singletons. All of the unique sequences were involved in the molecular function (30,425), cellular component (44,112) and biological process (67,679) categories by GO analysis. Potential genes and their functions were predicted by KEGG pathway mapping and COG analysis. Based on our sequence analysis and published literature, many putative genes involved in sex determination, including DMRT1, FTZ-F1, FOXL2, FEM1 and other potentially important candidate genes, were identified for the first time in this prawn. Furthermore, 6,689 SSRs and 18,107 high-confidence SNPs were identified in this EST dataset. Conclusions The transcriptome provides an invaluable new data for a functional genomics resource and future biological research in M. nipponense. The molecular markers identified in this study will provide a material basis for future genetic linkage and quantitative trait loci analyses, and will be essential for accelerating aquaculture breeding programs with this species.

Ma, Keyi; Qiu, Gaofeng; Feng, Jianbin; Li, Jiale

2012-01-01

113

Process for cultivation of algae  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present invention provides a tissue culture method for cultivation of marine algae, said method comprising the steps of (i) establishing axenic viable algal material by sequential treatment thereof in sterile sea water supplemented with domestic liquid detergent, incubating the treated material, (ii) culturing the axenic explants on agarified medium for induction of callus; (iii) excising and subculturing the calli from the axenic explants on fresh agar plates to obtain differentiated densely pigmented oval or spherical shaped micro-propagules (iv) subculturing the pigmented calli in agarified medium to achieve enhanced somatic embryogenesis and micro-propagule formation in pigmented filamentous callus, (v) transferring the filamentous calli with somatic embryos for morphogenesis and development of young plantlets; and (vi) cultivating algal biomass on a large scale by growing the young plantlets in enclosed perforated polythene bags.

2005-02-22

114

Cultivation of Clinically Significant Hemoflagellates  

PubMed Central

The hemoflagellates, Trypanosoma spp. and Leishmania spp., are causal agents of a number of parasitic diseases having a major impact on humans and domestic animals over vast areas of the globe. Among the diseases are some of the most pernicious and deadly of human afflictions: African sleeping sickness, Chagas' disease, kala-azar, and Oriental sore. The organisms have complex, pleomorphic life cycles typically involving a vertebrate and an invertebrate host, the latter serving as a vector. In the vertebrate host, they are primarily blood and tissue parasites. In their transition from one host to another, the hemoflagellates undergo morphological, physiological, and biochemical changes that facilitate their growth and subsequent transmission. A major goal in the study of the hemoflagellates has been the cultivation in vitro of both vertebrate and invertebrate stages of the organisms. The first types of media used in their cultivation, and still useful for establishment of cultures, were undefined and contained a complex of ingredients. These gave way to semidefined formulations which included tissue culture media as a base and, as a next step, addition of tissue culture cells as a feeder layer to promote parasite growth. More recently developed media are completely defined, having replaced the feeder cells with various supplements. Serum, a sometimes-variable component of the media, can be replaced by various serum substitutes. This review focuses on the hemoflagellates that infect humans, describing stages in the development of media leading to the fully defined formulations that are now available for the cultivation of many of these organisms.

Schuster, Frederick L.; Sullivan, James J.

2002-01-01

115

The invasion of five alien species in the Delta do Parnaíba Environmental Protection Area, Northeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

Marine biological invasions have been regarded as one of the major causes of native biodiversity loss, with shipping and aquaculture being the leading contributors for the introductions of alien species in aquatic ecosystems. In the present study, five aquatic alien species (one mollusk, three crustaceans and one fish species) were detected during dives, shore searches and from the fisheries on the coast of the Delta do Parnaíba Environmental Protection Area, in the States of Piauí and Maranhão, Northeastern Brazil. The species were the bicolor purse-oyster Isognomon bicolor, the whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, the giant river prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, the Indo-Pacific swimming crab Charybdis hellerii and, the muzzled blenny Omobranchus punctatus. Ballast water (I. bicolor, C. hellerii, and O. punctatus) and aquaculture activities (L. vannamei and M. rosenbergii) in adjacent areas are the most likely vectors of introduction. All exotic species found have potential impact risks to the environment because they are able to compete against native species for resources (food and habitat). Isognomon bicolor share the same habitat and food items with the native bivalve species of mussels and barnacles. Litopenaeus vannamei share the same habitat and food items with the native penaeids such as the pinkspot shrimp Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis, the Southern brown shrimp Farfantepenaeus subtilis, and the Southern white shrimp Litopenaeus schmitti, and in the past few years L. vannamei was responsible for a viral epidemics in the cultivation tanks that could be transmitted to native penaeid shrimps. Charybdis hellerii is also able to cause impacts on the local fisheries as the species can decrease the populations of native portunid crabs which are commercialized in the studied region. Macrobrachium rosenbergii may be sharing natural resources with the Amazon River prawn Macrobrachium amazonicum. Omobranchus punctatus shares habit with the native redlip blenny Ophioblennius atlanticus and other fishes, such as the frillfin goby Bathigobius soporator Some immediate remedial measures to prevent further introductions from ballast water and shrimp farm ponds should be: (i) to prevent the release of ballast water by ship/vessels in the region; (ii) to reroute all effluent waters from shrimp rearing facilities through an underground or above-ground dry well; (iii) to install adequate sand and gravel filter which will allow passage of water but not livestock; (iv) outdoor shrimp pounds located on floodable land should be diked, and; (v) to promote environmental awareness of those directly involved with ballast water (crews of ship/vessels) and shrimp farms in the region. PMID:20737846

Loebmann, Daniel; Mai, Ana Cecília G; Lee, James T

2010-09-01

116

Coastal Aquaculture Development in Bangladesh: Unsustainable and Sustainable Experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coastal aquaculture in Bangladesh consists mainly of two shrimp species (Penaeus monodon and Macrobrachium rosenbergii). Currently, there are about 16,237 marine shrimp (P. monodon) farms covering 148,093 ha and 36,109 fresh water shrimp (M. rosenbergii) farms covering 17,638 ha coastal area. More than 0.7 million people are employed in the farmed shrimp sector and in 2005–2006\\u000a the export value of shrimp was 403.5 million

A. Kalam Azad; Kathe R. Jensen; C. Kwei Lin

2009-01-01

117

Mixotrophic cultivation of microalgae for biodiesel production: status and prospects.  

PubMed

Biodiesel from microalgae provides a promising alternative for biofuel production. Microalgae can be produced under three major cultivation modes, namely photoautotrophic cultivation, heterotrophic cultivation, and mixotrophic cultivation. Potentials and practices of biodiesel production from microalgae have been demonstrated mostly focusing on photoautotrophic cultivation; mixotrophic cultivation of microalgae for biodiesel production has rarely been reviewed. This paper summarizes the mechanisms and virtues of mixotrophic microalgae cultivation through comparison with other major cultivation modes. Influencing factors of microalgal biodiesel production under mixotrophic cultivation are presented, development of combining microalgal biodiesel production with wastewater treatment is especially reviewed, and bottlenecks and strategies for future commercial production are also identified. PMID:24532442

Wang, Jinghan; Yang, Haizhen; Wang, Feng

2014-04-01

118

Comparative acute toxicity of gallium(III), antimony(III), indium(III), cadmium(II), and copper(II) on freshwater swamp shrimp (Macrobrachium nipponense)  

PubMed Central

Background Acute toxicity testing were carried out the freshwater swamp shrimp, Macrobrachium nipponense, as the model animal for the semiconductor applied metals (gallium, antimony, indium, cadmium, and copper) to evaluate if the species is an suitable experimental animal of pollution in aquatic ecosystem. Results The static renewal test method of acute lethal concentrations determination was used, and water temperature was maintained at 24.0?±?0.5°C. Data of individual metal obtained from acute toxicity tests were determined using probit analysis method. The median lethal concentration (96-h LC50) of gallium, antimony, indium, cadmium, and copper for M. nipponense were estimated as 2.7742, 1.9626, 6.8938, 0.0539, and 0.0313 mg/L, respectively. Conclusions Comparing the toxicity tolerance of M. nipponense with other species which exposed to these metals, it is obviously that the M. nipponense is more sensitive than that of various other aquatic animals.

2014-01-01

119

Cultivation of mammalian cells in bioreactors  

SciTech Connect

The use of bioreactors for the cultivation of mammalian cells in vitro has the potential for systematic scale up to meet future demand. The complexity of mammalian cells in culture and their characteristics is described here as is a number of cultivation methods including simple suspension, microcarrier, hollow fiber, ceramic matrix and microencapsulation.

Hu, W.S.; Dodge, T.C.

1985-12-01

120

Mammalian cell cultivation in space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Equipment used in space for the cultivation of mammalian cells does not meet the usual standard of earth bound bioreactors. Thus, the development of a space worthy bioreactor is mandatory for two reasons: First, to investigate the effect on single cells of the space environment in general and microgravity conditions in particular, and second, to provide researchers on long term missions and the Space Station with cell material. However, expertise for this venture is not at hand. A small and simple device for animal cell culture experiments aboard Spacelab (Dynamic Cell Culture System; DCCS) was developed. It provides 2 cell culture chambers, one is operated as a batch system, the other one as a perfusion system. The cell chambers have a volume of 200 ?l. Medium exchange is achieved with an automatic osmotic pump. The system is neither mechanically stirred nor equipped with sensors. Oxygen for cell growth is provided by a gas chamber that is adjacent to the cell chambers. The oxygen gradient produced by the growing cells serves to maintain the oxygen influx by diffusion. Hamster kidney cells growing on microcarriers were used to test the biological performance of the DCCS. On ground tests suggest that this system is feasible.

Gmünder, Felix K.; Suter, Robert N.; Kiess, M.; Urfer, R.; Nordau, C.-G.; Cogoli, A.

121

Fermentation Level Cultivation of Bordetella Pertussis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention is related to a method of culturing Bordetella pertussis (B. pertussis) on a large scale. More particularly, the present invention is related to a method of fermentation level cultivation of B. pertussis concurrently producing pertus...

R. D. Sekura

1986-01-01

122

Cultivation of Hepatitis Virus in Tissue Culture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A major step in the cultivation of hepatitis virus and the eventual development of a viral vaccine revolves about the development of appropriate substrates. Hepatitis virus is known to grow rapidly and successfully in liver in vivo. If appropriate tissue ...

G. L. Gitnick

1973-01-01

123

Intracellular pH-based controlled cultivation of yeast cells: 2. Cultivation methodology  

SciTech Connect

Intracellular pH (pH[sub i]) was measured on-line in a bioreactor using a fluorescent pH[sub i] indicator, 9-aminoacridine, and controlled fed-batch cultivations of yeast cells based on pH[sub i] (FB-pH[sub i]) were performed. In FB-pH[sub i] cultivations, automated glucose additions were made to the culture in response to culture pH[sub i]. The average ethanol (anaerobic product) yield was significantly lower [0.12 g g[sup [minus]1] glucose in fed-batch pH[sub i] cultivations with 100 ppm glucose additions (FB-pH[sub i]-100 cultivation) vs. 0.48 g g[sup [minus]1] glucose in batch] and cell yield was higher (0.54 g g[sup [minus]1] glucose in FB-pH[sub 1]-100 cultivation vs. 0.3 g g[sup [minus]1] glucose in batch) compared to batch cultivation. An expression has been derived to calculate changes in pH[sub i] from measured fluorescence values when the cell concentration increases during growth. Cultivations based on pH[sub i], performed with different magnitudes of glucose addition (100, 50, and 10 ppm additions), showed that lower magnitudes of glucose addition resulted in lower ethanol yields while cell yield remained unaffected. The ratio of specific oxygen uptake rate to specific glucose uptake rate (OUR/GUR) increased with decrease in magnitude of glucose additions in FB-pH[sub i] cultivations, suggesting that the culture aerobic state was higher when the magnitude of glucose addition was lower. The average cell productivity in FB-pH[sub i] cultivations was 29% higher than in batch cultivation. Cells were also cultivated at high OUR conditions, and the results are compared with other cultivations.

Sureshkumar, G.K.; Mutharasan, R. (Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States))

1993-07-01

124

Hopped Beer: The Case For Cultivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history of hops, hopped beer, and hop cultivation is unclear and ambiguous. An assessment of the available literature\\u000a reveals many contradictions, especially regarding the first use of hops in beer and the earliest incidence of hop cultivation.\\u000a Historically, hops were used for a variety of purposes; now their primary use is as a preservative and flavoring in beer.\\u000a Hop

D. Y. Delyser; W. J. Kasper

1994-01-01

125

Pensions for 'cultivators of science'.  

PubMed

The occasional (and belated) concern of the British Government with science in the nineteenth century is a matter of potential interest to historians of science, yet many previous studies have tended to range over a variety of different aspects of the question. There have been too many vague allusions to financial support as 'money for science' in general. It is time that particular parts of the problem were unpacked. For example, the award of money (from the 1820s) to pay a few people of independent means for apparatus was quite distinct from the provision (from the 1830s) of an occasional pension. Even then, to speak of 'pensions' uncovers unfortunate ambiguities. For too long science in Britain was regarded as no more than a private hobby for the well-to-do. As late as 1856 an official government statement seemed to make this attitude official. The English attitude to pensions differed remarkably from the French, who established a precedent in the reward of savants, sometimes quoted enviously by British men of science. In 1837 Robert Peel virtually admitted that, in awarding pensions to 'cultivators of science', he was following the French practice. It may also be useful to emphasise the contrast between the English (often led by Cambridge professors) and the Scots, mostly from Edinburgh, mainly represented here by Whewell and Brewster, respectively. Babbage had a different role in this story from that usually told. A large part in supporting men of science of modest means could have been played by the British Association for the Advancement of Science but it consistently refused to do so, although it supported an elite among its own members. PMID:21466131

Crosland, Maurice

2010-10-01

126

THE TRANSITION TO CONTINUOUS RICE CULTIVATION IN KALIMANTAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Population pressure induces Dyaks and Malay subsistence cultivators on the island of Kalimantan (Borneo) in Indonesia to make the transition from shifting to continuous wet cultivation of rice (sawah). The techniques used for continuous cultivation of rice are adapted from those used in wet shifting cultivation.

RONALD E. SEAVOY

1973-01-01

127

A checklist of the cultivated plants of Cuba  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Checklists of cultivated plant species of a geographical area have proven to be a very useful tool for the further exploration and collection in this area and for the compilation of local floras of cultivated plants. They contain valuable information for ethnobotanists, plant breeders as well as for other researchers engaged in cultivated plants. A checklist of the cultivated

Esquivel Miguel; Leonor Castiñeiras; Helmut Knüpffer; Karl Hammer

1989-01-01

128

Effect of Inclusion of Prawn and Mola on Water Quality and Rice Production in Prawn-Fish-Rice Culture System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A long term experiment for a period of sixteen weeks was conducted from August to November, 2005 to observe the effects of inclusion of prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) and mola (Amblypharyngodon mola) on water quality and rice production. To achieve the target, four treatments each with three replications were set in the experiment. In all treatments, prawn was stocked with mola

Rohul Amin; M. Salauddin

2008-01-01

129

THE SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOODS APPROACH TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF FRESHWATER PRAWN MARKETING SYSTEMS IN SOUTHWEST BANGLADESH  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conceptual framework, drawn from an approach to poverty reduction known as the Sustainable Livelihoods Approach (SLA), is applied to understanding the role of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) marketing systems in southwest Bangladesh. Freshwater prawn marketing potentially provides economic returns and social benefits to the rural poor. Although the potential benefits are great, a number of constraints were identified for

Nesar Ahmed; Catherine Lecouffe; Edward H. Allison; James F. Muir

2009-01-01

130

Prawn postlarvae fishing in coastal Bangladesh: Challenges for sustainable livelihoods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fishing for prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) postlarvae is a major contributor to the livelihoods of the coastal poor in Bangladesh, including women. A study of coastal livelihoods along the lower Pasur River in southwest Bangladesh indicates that on average 40% of total annual income comes from postlarvae fishing during the few months involved. However, indiscriminate fishing of wild postlarvae, with high

Nesar Ahmed; Max Troell; Edward H. Allison; James F. Muir

2010-01-01

131

Freshwater prawn farming in Bangladesh: history, present status and future prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the overall agro-based economy in Bangla- desh, freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) farming is currently one of the most important sec- tors of the national economy. During the last two dec- ades, its development has attracted considerable attention for its export potential. Freshwater prawn farming o¡ers diverse livelihood opportunities for a large number of rural poor. Although the prospects for

Nesar Ahmed; Harvey Demaine; James F Muir

2008-01-01

132

FRESHWATER PRAWN FARMING IN GHER SYSTEMS IN SOUTHWEST BANGLADESH  

Microsoft Academic Search

The livelihoods of a large number of farmers are associated with freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) farming in gher (modified rice fields with high, broad peripheral dikes) systems in southwest Bangladesh. Most farmers integrated prawn with fish and rice in their gher and followed extensive methods using low inputs. Although farmers have improved their social and economic conditions through prawn farming,

Nesar Ahmed; Janet H. Brown; James F. Muir

2008-01-01

133

Effects of stocking density, periphyton substrate and supplemental feed on biological processes affecting water quality in earthen tilapia-prawn polyculture ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technical and economic potentials of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.), and giant river prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man), polyculture in periphyton-based systems are under investigation in an extensive research programme. This article is a combined analysis of data from four experiments exploring the effects of periphyton, fish, prawn and feed on water quality. Factor analysis and ancova models applied to

Mohammed Sharif Uddin; A. Milstein; Mohammed Ekram Azim; Mohammed Abdul Wahab; Marc Verdegem; Johan Verreth

2008-01-01

134

A Simple "in Vitro" Culture of Freshwater Prawn Embryos for Laboratory Investigations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Giant freshwater prawn ("Macrobrachium rosenbergii" De Man) embryos can be cultured "in vitro" to hatching in 15% (v/v) artificial seawater (ASW). This technique can be applied as a bioassay for testing toxicity or for the effects of various substances on embryo development and can be used as a simple and low-cost model for studying embryo…

Porntrai, Supaporn; Damrongphol, Praneet

2008-01-01

135

Levels of platinum group metals in selected species (Sarotherodon melanotheron, Chonophorus lateristriga, Macrobrachium vollenhovenii and Crassostrea tulipa) in some estuaries and lagoons along the coast of Ghana.  

PubMed

The use of some biota as bioindicators of heavy metal pollution has been demonstrated as particularly adequate due to their capacity of bioconcentration. This study evaluated the levels of platinum group metals (PGMs) in some selected species along the coastal belt of Ghana, using the neutron activation analysis (NAA) method. The result was processed to evaluate pollution indices in order to map the distribution of the metals in those species in the lagoons and estuaries along the costal belt of Ghana. The analysis showed significant levels of all PGMs in blackchin tilapia (Sarotherodon melanotheron Cichlidae), brown goby (Chonophorus lateristriga Gobiidae), shrimp (Macrobrachium vollenhovenii Palaemonidae), and mangrove oysters (Crassostrea tulipa Ostreidae) in the lagoons and river Pra estuary. However, the oysters showed an elevated mean concentration of 0.13 ?g/g (dry weight) Pd. From the pollution indices, most of the sampling sites registered mean contamination factor (CF) values between 1.20 and 3.00 for Pt, Pd, and Rh. The pollution load index (PLI) conducted also gave an average pollution index between 0.79 and 2.37, indicating progressive contamination levels. The results revealed that anthropogenic sources, industrial and hospital effluent, etc., together with vehicular emissions, could be the contributing factors to the deposition of PGMs along the Ghanaian coast. PMID:20953547

Essumang, D K; Adokoh, C K; Boamponsem, L

2010-01-01

136

A clip-domain serine proteinase homolog (SPH) in oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense provides insights into its role in innate immune response.  

PubMed

In this study, a clip-domain serine proteinase homolog designated as MnSPH was cloned and characterized from a freshwater prawn Macrobrachium nipponense. The full-length cDNA of MnSPH was 1897 bp and contained a 1701 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein of 566 amino acids, a 103 bp 5'-untranslated region, and a 93 bp 3'-untranslated region. Sequence comparison showed that the deduced amino acids of MnSPH shared 30-59% identity with sequences reported in other animals. Tissue distribution analysis indicated that the MnSPH transcripts were present in all detected tissues with highest in the hepatopancreas and ovary. The MnSPH mRNA levels in the developing ovary were stable at the initial three developmental stages, then increased gradually from stage IV (later vitellogenesis), and reached a maximum at stage VI (paracmasis). Furthermore, the expression of MnSPH mRNA in hemocytes was significantly up-regulated at 1.5 h, 6 h, 12 h and 48 h post Aeromonas hydrophila injection. The increased phenoloxidase activity also demonstrated a clear time-dependent pattern after A. hydrophila challenge. These results suggest that MnSPH participates in resisting to pathogenic microorganisms and plays a pivotal role in host defense against microbe invasion in M. nipponense. PMID:24878742

Ding, Zhili; Kong, Youqin; Chen, Liqiao; Qin, Jianguang; Sun, Shengming; Li, Ming; Du, Zhenyu; Ye, Jinyun

2014-08-01

137

Recent advances in cultivated epithelial transplantation.  

PubMed

Currently, cultivated epithelial transplantation usually uses ex vivo-expanded epithelial cells, with or without biological carriers. Our group has carried out approximately 100 such procedures and has conducted research in this area. The results of a retrospective study indicate that cultivated limbal epithelial transplantation with amniotic membrane (AM) and airlifting may be beneficial at avoiding sight-threatening complications in patients with severe chronic cicatricial keratoconjunctivitis. Our experience in cultivated oral mucosal epithelial transplantation indicates that this technique is useful in achieving a stable ocular surface. However, the treatment for severe ocular surface diseases such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome remains unsatisfactory. In addition to using epithelial sheets with AM, we have developed a technique for generating carrier-free sheets using fibrin sealants. These sheets seem to contain more differentiated epithelium than those obtained with AM while retaining similar levels of colony-forming progenitor cells. A clinical trial of this technique is currently underway. We have also generated epithelial sheets using as biological carrier silk fibroin film, which offers a more transparent medium than conventional sheets. In terms of isolation and cultivation of corneal epithelial stem/progenitor cells, we found that single murine limbal cells exhibited clonal growth and generated stratified epithelial sheets. We also reported that hypoxic culture (2%) enhanced proliferation in human limbal epithelial cells while inhibiting differentiation. This technique may help maintain progenitor cells during ex vivo expansion of epithelial cells. Although these advances are expected to improve clinical outcomes in patients with ocular surface disorders, further improvements, such as the development of cultivation methods that do not require 3T3 feeder cells or real-time assessment of cultivated sheets, are required in the near future. PMID:18813074

Higa, Kazunari; Shimazaki, Jun

2008-09-01

138

Cultivation in the Newer Media Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers who study television's cultivation effects believe that heavy television viewing exposes people to consistent messages that lead them to be more fearful and mistrustful of others. The widespread adoption and use of new television technologies, such as cable, VCR, and remote control devices (RCD), however, have the potential to alter…

Perse, Elizabeth M.; And Others

139

Does aposymbiotically cultivated fungus Ramalina produce isolichenan?  

PubMed

The main ?-glucan synthesized by lichens of the genera Ramalina in the symbiotic state is isolichenan. This polysaccharide was not found in the aposymbiotically cultivated symbionts. It is still unknown if this glucan is produced by the mycobiont only in the presence of a photobiont, in a lichen thallus, or if the isolichenan suppression is influenced by the composition of culture medium used in its aposymbiotic cultive. Consequently, the latter hypothesis is tested in this study. Cultures of the mycobiont Ramalina complanata were obtained from germinated ascospores and cultivated on 4% glucose Lilly and Barnett medium. Freeze-dried colonies were defatted and their carbohydrates extracted successively with hot water and aqueous 10% KOH, each at 100 °C. The polysaccharides nigeran, laminaran and galactomannan were liberated, along with a lentinan-type ?-glucan and a heteropolysaccharide (Man : Gal : Glc, 21 : 28 : 51). Nevertheless, the ?-glucan isolichenan was not found in the extracts. It follows that it was probably a symbiotic product, synthesized by the mycobiont only in this particular microenvironment, in the presence of the photobiont in the lichen thallus. A discussion about polysaccharides found in the symbiotic thallus as well as in other aposymbiotic cultivated Ramalina mycobionts is also included. PMID:21585515

Cordeiro, Lucimara M C; Messias, Douglas; Sassaki, Guilherme L; Gorin, Phillip A J; Iacomini, Marcello

2011-08-01

140

Television Exposure Measures and the Cultivation Hypothesis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes study of students in grades 8 through 12 that was conducted to determine the degree to which television messages influence a person's construction of reality (the cultivation hypothesis). Research methodology that tests the effects of television exposure is examined with emphasis on the importance of demographic control variables. (38…

Potter, W. James; Chang, Ik Chin

1990-01-01

141

Perceived Reality and the Cultivation Hypothesis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tested cultivation hypothesis by studying relationships between amount of television viewing by high school students and college students and their estimates of chances of victimization and causes of death. Stepwise multiple regression analyses were performed to determine importance of perceived reality, demographic, and televison viewing measures…

Potter, W. James

1986-01-01

142

Cultivation Theory and Research: A Conceptual Critique.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a critical analysis of how cultivation (long-term formation of perceptions and beliefs about the world as a result of exposure to media) has been conceptualized in theory and research. Analyses the construct of television exposure. Suggests revisions for conceptualizing the existing theory and extending it. (RS)

Potter, W. James

1993-01-01

143

Cultivating Entrepreneurs: A Shift in Corporate Fundraising.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contends that corporate giving is on the downswing, and community colleges must make adjustments. States that entrepreneurs have become venture philanthropists, and are a source community colleges should cultivate. Describes Springfield Technical Community College's (Massachusetts) two-pronged approach in this effort: It created an Enterprise…

Carberry, Gail E.

2002-01-01

144

Reclassification of landrace populations of cultivated potatoes (Solanum sect. Petota)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultivated potatoes have been classified as species under the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN) and as cultivar- groups under the International Code of Nomenclature of Cultivated Plants (ICNCP); both classifications are still widely used. This study examines morphological support for the classification of landrace populations of cultivated potatoes, using representatives of all seven species and most subspecies as outlined

ZOSIMO HUAMAN; DAVID M. SPOONER

2002-01-01

145

Bioremediation of industrial waste through mushroom cultivation.  

PubMed

Handmade paper and cardboard industries are involved in processing of cellulosic and ligno-cellulosic substances for making paper by hand or simple machinery. In the present study solid sludge and effluent of both cardboard and handmade paper industries was collected for developing a mushroom cultivation technique to achieve zero waste discharges. Findings of present research work reveals that when 50% paper industries waste is used by mixing with 50% (w/w) wheat straw, significant increase (96.38%) in biological efficiency over control of wheat straw was observed. Further, cultivated basidiocarps showed normal morphology of stipe and pileus. Cross section of lamellae did not show any abnormality in the attachment of basidiospores, hymenal trama and basidium. No toxicity was found when fruiting bodies were tested chemically. PMID:21186717

Kulshreshtha, Shweta; Mathur, Nupur; Bhatnagar, Pradeep; Jain, B L

2010-07-01

146

Cultivation and Conservation of Guggulu (Commiphora mukul).  

PubMed

Guggulu (Commiphora mukul) is about 2-3.5 mt heighted plant of Burceraceae family. The plant grows wild in the arid, rocky tracts, also in low rainy and hot areas. The part used in medicinal preparation is resin, collected by tapping the barks. Guggulu deserves high values in Ayurvedic medicines. Guggulu is Rasayana, Vatakaphaghna, and used in various diseases. Due to high values and excessive demands, improper methods of collection, uncontrolled forest destruction and poor knowledge of cultivation; number of plants highly decreased. Now it categorized as threatened plant. Hence cultivation and conservation of this plant is necessary. Guggulu can be propagated by seed and vegetative method. Germination through seed is very poor. Vegetative propagation through stem cutting is most common and successful method. Farming care is also necessary f or proper growth. Conservation can be effected by knowledge of collection methods and awareness. PMID:22557340

Thosar, Sheetal L; Yende, Mohan R

2009-07-01

147

Cultivation and Conservation of Guggulu (Commiphora mukul)  

PubMed Central

Guggulu (Commiphora mukul) is about 2-3.5 mt heighted plant of Burceraceae family. The plant grows wild in the arid, rocky tracts, also in low rainy and hot areas. The part used in medicinal preparation is resin, collected by tapping the barks. Guggulu deserves high values in Ayurvedic medicines. Guggulu is Rasayana, Vatakaphaghna, and used in various diseases. Due to high values and excessive demands, improper methods of collection, uncontrolled forest destruction and poor knowledge of cultivation; number of plants highly decreased. Now it categorized as threatened plant. Hence cultivation and conservation of this plant is necessary. Guggulu can be propagated by seed and vegetative method. Germination through seed is very poor. Vegetative propagation through stem cutting is most common and successful method. Farming care is also necessary f or proper growth. Conservation can be effected by knowledge of collection methods and awareness.

Thosar, Sheetal L; Yende, Mohan R

2009-01-01

148

A NEW PATHOGENIC LEPTOSPIRA, NOT READILY CULTIVATED  

PubMed Central

Alexander, Aaron D. (Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, D.C.), Herbert G. Stoenner, Garnett E. Wood, and Robert J. Byrne. A new pathogenic Leptospira, not readily cultivated. J. Bacteriol. 83:754–760. 1962.—A pathogenic Leptospira was isolated from water of the Grand River, (S.D.) that differed significantly from other known leptospirae in that it could not be cultivated in conventional leptospiral media. Growth was promoted in Fletcher's medium modified to contain 20% rabbit serum. The isolate, after several serial passages, was lethal for hamsters. It could not be adapted to grow in the chick embryo. Guinea pigs and calves inoculated with the isolate developed febrile and antibody responses but showed no other overt signs of disease. The strain was identified on the basis of cross-agglutination and agglutinin-adsorption tests as a new subserotype of Leptospira naam and was therefore designated as L. naam, subserotype dakotii.

Alexander, Aaron D.; Stoenner, Herbert G.; Wood, Garnett E.; Byrne, Robert J.

1962-01-01

149

Fed-batch cultivation of Wautersia eutropha.  

PubMed

Batch kinetics of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) synthesis in a bioreactor under controlled conditions of pH and dissolved oxygen gave a biomass of 14 g l(-1) with a PHB concentration of 6.1 g l(-1) in 60 h. The data of the batch kinetics was used to develop a mathematical model, which was then extrapolated to fed-batch by incorporating the dilution due to substrate feeding. Offline computer simulation of the fed-batch model was done to develop the nutrient feeding strategies in the fed-batch cultivation. Fed-batch strategies with constant feeding of only nitrogen and constant feeding of both nitrogen and fructose were tried. Constant feeding strategy for nitrogen and fructose gave a better PHB production rate of 0.56 g h(-1) over the value obtained in batch cultivation (PHB production rate - 0.4 g h(-1)). PMID:17532211

Patwardhan, Pallavi; Srivastava, Ashok K

2008-04-01

150

Human Colon Cancer Cells Cultivated in Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Within five days, bioreactor cultivated human colon cancer cells (shown) grown in Microgravity on the STS-70 mission in 1995, had grown 30 times the volume of the control specimens on Earth. The samples grown in space had a higher level of cellular organization and specialization. Because they more closely resemble tumors found in the body, microgravity grown cell cultures are ideal for research purposes.

1995-01-01

151

Experimental tank cultivation of Porphyra in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outdoor tank cultivation of several Porphyra (nori) species was carried out from late November 2002 through early May 2003 using 40 L (with a surface of 0.25 m2), 600 L (1 m2), and 24,000 L (30 m2) fiberglass or PVC tanks provided with continuous aeration and seawater flow. Sexual and asexual spores produced from cultured conchocelis and frozen thalli in

A. Israel; I. Levy; M. Friedlander

2006-01-01

152

Experimental tank cultivation of Porphyra in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outdoor tank cultivation of several Porphyra (nori) species was carried out from late November 2002 through early May 2003 using 40 L (with a surface of 0.25m2), 600 L (1m2), and 24,000 L (30m2) fiberglass or PVC tanks provided with continuous aeration and seawater flow. Sexual and asexual spores produced from cultured\\u000a conchocelis and frozen thalli in the laboratory, respectively,

A. Israel; I. Levy; M. Friedlander

153

Biodiversity in cultivated Panax notoginseng populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim:Panax notoginseng is a cultivated ginseng species highly valued for its various pharmacological activities mostly associated with triterpenoid saponin glycosides. It would be of great interest to understand biodiversity in this ginseng species after its long history of domestication.Methods:We collected 92 random sampled 3-year-old P notoginseng plants from 4 counties of Wenshan prefecture in Yunnan province, China and documented their

Dong Wang; Deborah Hong; Hwee-ling Koh; Ying-jun Zhang; Chong-ren Yang; Yan Hong

2008-01-01

154

Inhibition of Escherichia coli in cultivated cattle manure.  

PubMed

A common practice on Israeli dairy barns comprises daily cultivation of the manure. Cultivation is a mechanical process used to break up and till the manure bedding and it results in a drier and aerated bedding and cleaner cows, which consequently reduces the incidence of mastitis. Cultivation was associated with a shorter survival of Escherichia coli in cultivated manure as compared with noncultivated manure. The objective of the current study was to elucidate the mechanism responsible for the shorter survival duration of E. coli in the cultivated manure. We hypothesized that microorganisms that are antagonistic to E. coli, developing in the cultivated manure, are responsible for this phenomenon. A cow manure derived E. coli strain expressing the green fluorescence protein and antibiotic resistance markers was used to inoculate cow manure in 1.5-L jars. Manure treatments included cultivated and noncultivated manure. Half the jars of each cultivation treatment were autoclave sterilized at 121°C for 1 h on 3 successive days to eliminate from the manure antagonistic microorganisms. Each cultivation-sterilization treatment was performed in triplicate jars. Following sterilization, E. coli numbers in the cultivated and noncultivated manure were comparable, while in the nonsterilized manure the numbers were lower in the cultivated compared with the noncultivated manure. Several fungi isolated from the cultivated manure samples displayed inhibition effect on the tagged E. coli. Antagonistic fungi were also isolated from large-scale cultivated manure samples collected on several dairy farms in Israel. These findings support the notion that manure cultivation might facilitate the development of microorganisms that are antagonistic to E. coli, thus contributing to the general hygiene of the cattle. Identifying the mechanisms by which the antagonistic fungi affect the survival of E. coli in manure could be exploited for improvement of the animal health and for limiting the transmission of zoonotic pathogens to food and water. PMID:24663194

Weinberg, Z G; Szakacs, G; Chen, Y; Pinto, R; Bernstein, S; Konya, B; Sela Saldinger, S

2014-05-01

155

Water Consumption for Biofuel Feedstock Cultivation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water use may prove to be a central issue in the global and local development of the biofuel industry. While most literature on biofuel water use only considers the biorefinery phase, we studied water consumption for biofuel feedstock cultivation in major feedstock-producing regions of the United States. Using a spatially explicit Penman-Monteith model informed by field-level eddy covariance measurements, distributed climate data, and land use figures, we estimated water consumption and net water use for a number of scenarios of feedstock, location, and refining processes for biofuel development. We find that in California, for example, average water consumption for biofuels from different feedstocks ranges from about 900 to over 1500 gallons per gallon of fuel produced. Cellulosic feedstocks are found to be less water-intensive on average. Furthermore, we find feedstock cultivation to account for more than 99% of the life-cycle embedded water for fuels in California. In some regions and for some feedstock options, a shift to biofuel feedstock cultivation would reduce the strain on water resources, while in others we project it would greatly increase water demand. We are expanding this analysis to better capture both base-line ET from natural systems and ET of some of the less-studied cellulosic feedstocks, as well as to incorporate other regions in the U.S. and internationally. Thus far, we conclude that while water demand for processing is important for plant location and pollution, water consumption for feedstock growth may be (along with land resources) the limiting factor for bioenergy production in many regions.

Fingerman, K. R.; Torn, M. S.

2008-12-01

156

Origin, dispersal, cultivation and variation of rice.  

PubMed

There are two cultivated and twenty-one wild species of genus Oryza. O. sativa, the Asian cultivated rice is grown all over the world. The African cultivated rice, O. glaberrima is grown on a small scale in West Africa. The genus Oryza probably originated about 130 million years ago in Gondwanaland and different species got distributed into different continents with the breakup of Gondwanaland. The cultivated species originated from a common ancestor with AA genome. Perennial and annual ancestors of O. sativa are O. rufipogon and O. nivara and those of O. glaberrima are O. longistaminata, O. breviligulata and O. glaberrima probably domesticated in Niger river delta. Varieties of O. sativa are classified into six groups on the basis of genetic affinity. Widely known indica rices correspond to group I and japonicas to group VI. The so called javanica rices also belong to group VI and are designated as tropical japonicas in contrast to temperate japonicas grown in temperate climate. Indica and japonica rices had a polyphyletic origin. Indicas were probably domesticated in the foothills of Himalayas in Eastern India and japonicas somewhere in South China. The indica rices dispersed throughout the tropics and subtropics from India. The japonica rices moved northward from South China and became the temperate ecotype. They also moved southward to Southeast Asia and from there to West Africa and Brazil and became tropical ecotype. Rice is now grown between 55 degrees N and 36 degrees S latitudes. It is grown under diverse growing conditions such as irrigated, rainfed lowland, rainfed upland and floodprone ecosystems. Human selection and adaptation to diverse environments has resulted in numerous cultivars. It is estimated that about 120,000 varieties of rice exist in the world. After the establishment of International Rice Research Institute in 1960, rice varietal improvement was intensified and high yielding varieties were developed. These varieties are now planted to 70% of world's riceland. Rice production doubled between 1966 and 1990 due to large scale adoption of these improved varieties. Rice production must increase by 60% by 2025 to feed the additional rice consumers. New tools of molecular and cellular biology such as anther culture, molecular marker aided selection and genetic engineering will play increasing role in rice improvement. PMID:9291957

Khush, G S

1997-09-01

157

Low temperature cultivation — A step towards process optimisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adherent recombinant BHK cells were cultivated at temperatures between 30 and 37°C. Batch and repeated-batch-cultivations in a 2-litre bioreactor showed a significant influence on metabolism and cell growth. The low-temperature-cultivations showed a lower growth rate and a lower glucose consumption rate and, therefore, less lactate production. On the other hand, the maximum cell density and productivity seemed not to be

Ralf Weidemann; Andreas Ludwig; Gerlinde Kretzmer

1994-01-01

158

Connectivity of cultivated areas in bocage watersheds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In bocage watersheds, the relationships between runoff producting areas and suspended sediments measurements are generally more difficult to assess than in openfield areas. Land use organisation and connectivity are the major controlling factors because man-made linear structures like hedges, roads or ditches networks strongly impact runoff pathways on slopes. These structures can block runoff or connect areas localized at an important distance to the river. In order to highlight such influence, we study three catchments of same size (fifteen square kilometres) with same lithological characteristics (shist) but with various hedge, road and drainage network densities in Normandy (France). Results underline that the cultivated areas directly connected to the fluvial system are preferentially localized on watersheds of 1st Strahler order classification, but the percentage remains weak at the global scale (less than 5 percent). Therefore, percents of cultivated areas indirectly connected ranged from 6 to 10 percent are more important. Locally, the spatial organisation of roads and ditches aggravate the degree of connectivity. As a consequence, localising areas indirectly connected within the catchments is a fundamental step to better understand slopes contribution to the global sedimentary budget.

Viel, V.; Douvinet, J.; Delahaye, D.; Le Gouee, P.

2009-04-01

159

Progress in cultivation-independent phyllosphere microbiology.  

PubMed

Most microorganisms of the phyllosphere are nonculturable in commonly used media and culture conditions, as are those in other natural environments. This review queries the reasons for their 'noncultivability' and assesses developments in phyllospere microbiology that have been achieved cultivation independently over the last 4 years. Analyses of total microbial communities have revealed a comprehensive microbial diversity. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and metagenomic sequencing were applied to investigate plant species, location and season as variables affecting the composition of these communities. In continuation to culture-based enzymatic and metabolic studies with individual isolates, metaproteogenomic approaches reveal a great potential to study the physiology of microbial communities in situ. Culture-independent microbiological technologies as well advances in plant genetics and biochemistry provide methodological preconditions for exploring the interactions between plants and their microbiome in the phyllosphere. Improving and combining cultivation and culture-independent techniques can contribute to a better understanding of the phyllosphere ecology. This is essential, for example, to avoid human-pathogenic bacteria in plant food. PMID:24003903

Müller, Thomas; Ruppel, Silke

2014-01-01

160

Cultivating Discontinuity: Pentecostal Pedagogies of Yielding and Control  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Exploring missionary study at an Assemblies of God Bible college through ethnography and training manuals demonstrates systematic pedagogies that cultivate sensory capabilities encouraging yielding, opening to rupture, and constraint. Ritual theory and the Anthropology of Christianity shift analytic scales to include "cultivation," a…

Brahinsky, Josh

2013-01-01

161

Genetic variation in cultivated strains of Agaricus blazei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic differences among Agaricus blazei strains were investigated using somatic incompatibility testing, isozyme analysis, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Eight strains, one cultivated strain from Brazil and seven from Japan, were used in this study. Somatic incompatibility interactions were observed between the Brazilian cultivated strain and the Japanese

Masaki Fukuda; Shotaro Ohno; Masako Kato

2003-01-01

162

Method for cultivating algae and a covering material used therefor  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A method for cultivating an alga, which comprises growing the alga in a light field substantially free from light of wavelengths of not more than 340 nm; and a covering material for use in the cultivation of algae, said covering material substantially inhibiting the transmission of light of wavelengths of not more than 340 nm.

1980-11-25

163

Frost sensitivity of hybrids between wild and cultivated carrots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frost could potentially limit the survival ofhybrids between cultivated and wild carrots innatural habitats, and thereby the likelihoodthat (trans)genes spread from the crop to wildplants. To test this, cultivated, wild carrotsand their hybrids were exposed to differentfrost treatments. Hybrids survivedsignificantly less than the wild carrots, butonly slightly better than the cultivars,indicating that frost will indeed limit theirsurvival.

Thure P. Hauser

2002-01-01

164

Domestication of a Mesoamerican cultivated fruit tree, Spondias purpurea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contemporary patterns of genetic variation in crops reflect historical processes associated with domestication, such as the geographic origin(s) of cultivated populations. Although significant progress has been made in identifying several global centers of domestication, few studies have addressed the issue of multiple origins of cultivated plant populations from different geographic regions within a domestication center. This study investigates the domestication

Allison Miller; Barbara Schaal

2005-01-01

165

Adolescents and Ambivalence toward Marriage: A Cultivation Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using cultivation theory, the portrayal of marriage on prime-time television was examined, and the relationship between television viewing and ambivalence about marriage and family was explored for over 3,200 high school seniors. It was evident that television may cultivate important ideas about marriage, interpersonal relationships, and family.…

Signorielli, Nancy

1991-01-01

166

Psychological Processes Underlying Cultivation Effects: Further Tests of Construct Accessibility.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study that tested whether the accessibility of information in memory mediates the cultivation effect (the effect of television viewing on social perceptions), consistent with the availability heuristic. Shows that heavy viewers gave higher frequency estimates (cultivation effect) and responded faster (accessibility effect) than did…

Shrum, L. J.

1996-01-01

167

Examining Cultivation from a Psychological Perspective: Component Subprocesses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attempts to elaborate the cultivation hypothesis by examining some proposed subprocesses, especially learning and construction with first- and second-order measures. Examines the relationship between first- and second-order measures. Argues that cultivation theory needs to be extended. (SR)

Potter, W. James

1991-01-01

168

Becoming Accomplished: Concerted Cultivation among Privately Educated Young Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper takes as its starting point the concept of concerted cultivation as coined by Annette Lareau. It examines whether a focus on concerted cultivation adequately captures the various practices observed in young women's experiences of being privately educated in four schools in one area of England. We suggest that a variety of practices of…

Maxwell, Claire; Aggleton, Peter

2013-01-01

169

Controlled drainage on a cultivated peat soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Controlled drainage can delay the decomposition of organic material in peat soils, as high water table means a thin oxidized layer in the soil surface. Therefore, greenhouse gas emissions, and mineralization of nutrients will be decreased. There will also be less outflow from the field. These mean less nutrient leaching. However, controlled drainage systems may not always manage to keep the water table on the desired level in practical field conditions. In this study, the water tables in two controlled drainage systems were monitored on a cultivated peat soil in southern Finland around a year. Results show how the water table reacts to the changes of the water height in the control wells, and to the surrounding weather conditions. The data collection is still going on.

Myllys, Merja; Regina, Kristiina

2014-05-01

170

Rapid screening and cultivation of oleaginous microorganisms.  

PubMed

Oleaginous microbial strains were cultivated to identify the best oil-producing strain amongst Yarrowia lipolytica (CGMCC 2.1398), Lipomyces starkeyi (CGMCC 2.1608), Rhodosporidium toruloides (CGMCC 2.1389), Mortierella isabellina (CGMCC 3.3410), Cunninghamella blakeleana (CGMCC 3.970), and Mycobacterium QJ311. A method for rapid determination of oil content and fatty acid composition was established to identify the optimum oil-producing strains. This method had a relative standard deviation of 4.09%, an average recovery ratio of 97.09% and a detection limit of 0.1-1.0 g. Mortierella isabellina CGMCC 3.3410 was identified as the best oil-producing strain amongst the six strains tested, with a total biomass of 75 g/10 L and a lipid content of 35%. A rapid screening method of oleaginous microorganisms is discussed for the first time. PMID:22611917

Gao, Xinlei; Liu, Ye; Che, Zhongju; Wu, Li

2012-04-01

171

Cultivating Careers: Professional Development for Campus IT  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cultivating Careers: Professional Development for Campus IT provides an overview of current principles and practices for mentoring and developing IT professionals in higher education. Edited by EDUCAUSE Vice President Cynthia Golden and written by top leaders in the industry who have distinguished themselves and their organizations for sharpening others' skills, institutional savvy, and ability to lead, the book's chapters are organized into two sections: the organizational perspective and the individual perspective. In addition, the online site for the book will have exclusive audio interviews with CIOs and other senior IT leaders in higher education who give advice for future leaders and talk about how they overcame challenges and moved ahead in their own careers.

2010-05-20

172

USDA: Insect Pollination of Cultivated Crop Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is home to an extensive online USDA text authored by S.E. McGregor, titled Insect Pollination Of Cultivated Crop Plants. Although originally written in 1976, the text is continually updated with new content. Chapters are organized by plant type (legumes, tree fruits, nuts, clovers, etc.), and provide a table of contents that allows users to jump directly to sections within each chapter. The introduction contains information on wild bees, pesticides, and other related information. Some of the basic sections include "Flowering and Fruiting of Plants", "Wild Bees and Wild Bee Culture". Additionally, new materials within the book are listed by crop and date of addition. This site contains information on pollination of numerous plants from Avocado to Zigzag Clover and everything in between. It is a great source to consult for amateur and professional gardeners alike.

Mcgregor, S. E.

2008-03-18

173

High-power LEDs for plant cultivation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on high-power solid-state lighting facility for cultivation of greenhouse vegetables and on the results of the study of control of photosynthetic activity and growth morphology of radish and lettuce imposed by variation of the spectral composition of illumination. Experimental lighting modules (useful area of 0.22 m2) were designed based on 4 types of high-power light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with emission peaked in red at the wavelengths of 660 nm and 640 nm (predominantly absorbed by chlorophyll a and b for photosynthesis, respectively), in blue at 455 nm (phototropic function), and in far-red at 735 nm (important for photomorphology). Morphological characteristics, chlorophyll and phytohormone concentrations in radish and lettuce grown in phytotron chambers under lighting with different spectral composition of the LED-based illuminator and under illumination by high pressure sodium lamps with an equivalent photosynthetic photon flux density were compared. A well-balanced solid-state lighting was found to enhance production of green mass and to ensure healthy morphogenesis of plants compared to those grown using conventional lighting. We observed that the plant morphology and concentrations of morphologically active phytohormones is strongly affected by the spectral composition of light in the red region. Commercial application of the LED-based illumination for large-scale plant cultivation is discussed. This technology is favorable from the point of view of energy consumption, controllable growth, and food safety but is hindered by high cost of the LEDs. Large scale manufacturing of high-power red AlInGaP-based LEDs emitting at 650 nm and a further decrease of the photon price for the LEDs emitting in the vicinity of the absorption peak of chlorophylls have to be achieved to promote horticulture applications.

Tamulaitis, Gintautas; Duchovskis, Pavelas; Bliznikas, Zenius; Breive, Kestutis; Ulinskaite, Raimonda; Brazaityte, Ausra; Novickovas, Algirdas; Zukauskas, Arturas; Shur, Michael S.

2004-10-01

174

Heterotrophic cultivation of microalgae for production of biodiesel.  

PubMed

High cell density cultivation of microalgae via heterotrophic growth mechanism could effectively address the issues of low productivity and operational constraints presently affecting the solar driven biodiesel production. This paper reviews the progress made so far in the development of commercial-scale heterotrophic microalgae cultivation processes. The review also discusses on patentable concepts and innovations disclosed in the past four years with regards to new approaches to microalgal cultivation technique, improvisation on the process flow designs to economically produced biodiesel and genetic manipulation to confer desirable traits leading to much valued high lipid-bearing microalgae strains. PMID:21707527

Mohamed, Mohd Shamzi; Wei, Lai Zee; Ariff, Arbakariya B

2011-08-01

175

Microfluidic devices for cell cultivation and proliferation  

PubMed Central

Microfluidic technology provides precise, controlled-environment, cost-effective, compact, integrated, and high-throughput microsystems that are promising substitutes for conventional biological laboratory methods. In recent years, microfluidic cell culture devices have been used for applications such as tissue engineering, diagnostics, drug screening, immunology, cancer studies, stem cell proliferation and differentiation, and neurite guidance. Microfluidic technology allows dynamic cell culture in microperfusion systems to deliver continuous nutrient supplies for long term cell culture. It offers many opportunities to mimic the cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions of tissues by creating gradient concentrations of biochemical signals such as growth factors, chemokines, and hormones. Other applications of cell cultivation in microfluidic systems include high resolution cell patterning on a modified substrate with adhesive patterns and the reconstruction of complicated tissue architectures. In this review, recent advances in microfluidic platforms for cell culturing and proliferation, for both simple monolayer (2D) cell seeding processes and 3D configurations as accurate models of in vivo conditions, are examined.

Tehranirokh, Masoomeh; Kouzani, Abbas Z.; Francis, Paul S.; Kanwar, Jagat R.

2013-01-01

176

Isolation, purification and cultivation of conjunctival melanocytes.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to develop methods for isolation, purification and cultivation of human conjunctival melanocytes. Conjunctiva excised from donor eyes or corneal rims was subjected with various enzyme digestion methods or by the enzyme-microdissection method. Cells were cultured with F12 medium supplemented by fetal bovine serum, basic fibroblast growth factor, isobutylmethylxanthine and cholera toxin. Contaminant cells were eliminated by a selective cytotoxic agent, geneticin. Both trypsin digestion and dispase-microdissection methods provided pure conjunctival melanocyte cultures with high cell yields, good viability and rapid growth rate. Melanocytes isolated with dispase-microdissection method showed better viability and growth capacity. Cells grew well, could be passaged for 5-10 generations and divided 20 times in vitro. They maintained a constant melanin content per cell and produced measurable amounts of melanin in vitro. Melanogenesis correlated with the degree of pigmentation of the eyes (iris color). This method provides a valuable source of large numbers of human conjunctival melanocytes, which can be used to study their biological behavior, to compare with the epidermal and uveal melanocytes; and to compare them to their malignant counterparts in the exploration of the pathogenesis of conjunctival melanoma. PMID:17292887

Hu, Dan-Ning; McCormick, Steven A; Seedor, John A; Ritterband, David C; Shah, Mahendra K

2007-04-01

177

Cultivator for NMR studies of suspended cell cultures.  

PubMed

When nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is employed for physiological experiments with suspended cells, providing for adequate nutrient and oxygen delivery is particularly important, because the inherent insensitivity of NMR requires that concentrated cell suspensions be used. In addition, it is desirable to be able to manipulate the growth rate of cells during a NMR experiment. To address these concerns, a continuous cell cultivator that provides convective oxygen and nutrient transport has been constructed for NMR experiments. The NMR detector coil is located within the cultivator volume. The location is advantageous because the rapid exchange of cells in and out of the coil leads to a small apparent spin lattice relaxation time, thus allowing for rapid pulsing and fast signal averaging. In this article we present the physical principles on which the cultivator's design is based. (31)P spectra showing the response of continuously cultivated Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultures to a phosphate bolus and growth rate shift are then given. PMID:18601092

Meehan, A J; Eskey, C J; Domach, M M; Koretsky, A P

1992-12-20

178

36 CFR 34.7 - Cultivation of controlled substances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 34.7 Section 34.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EL PORTAL ADMINISTRATIVE SITE REGULATIONS § 34.7 Cultivation of controlled substances. In addition to the provisions of §...

2013-07-01

179

The Edibility and Cultivation of the Oyster Mushroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an enjoyable and fascinating experience that involves the cultivation of oyster mushrooms. By allowing students to participate in this process, the students are able to better understand the biology and utility of fungi. (ZWH)

Brenneman, James; Guttman, Mark C.

1994-01-01

180

Flavonoids of Cynara scolymus L. cultivated in Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of the flavonoids of the leaves ofCynara scolymus cultivated in Egypt (Romanian strain) resulted in the isolation and identification of apigenin-7-O-glucoside, luteolin, cynaroside and scolymoside.

F. M. Hammouda; M. M. Seif El-Nasr; A. A. Shahat

1993-01-01

181

Epiphytism and fouling in Gracilaria cultivation: an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epiphytism is a major, world-wide problem in Gracilaria cultivation, severely reducing the productivity and cost efficiency of a diverse range of open-water and on-shore farms;\\u000a the problem is especially acute in tank cultivation systems. The present paper provides an overview of the literature on epiphytism\\u000a and fouling in the Gracilaria mariculture industry. Topics considered include the identity of the main

Robert L. Fletcher

1995-01-01

182

Influence of ecological cultivation on virgin olive oil quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality of oil extracted from ecologically cultivated olives of the Picual variety was compared with oil extracted from\\u000a Picual olives cultivated using conventional methods. Olive trees were grown in a two-section plot. Fruits from each plot were\\u000a harvested at various stages of ripeness, and acidity value, peroxide index, ultraviolet absorption at 232 and 270 nm, stability\\u000a to oxidation, sensory

Francisca Gutiérrez; Teresa Arnaud; Miguel A. Albi

1999-01-01

183

Studies on the in vitro cultivation of Babesia from buffaloes.  

PubMed

This paper summarizes a recent study on the in vitro cultivation of Babesia from buffaloes. Buffalo Babesia parasites were cultured many times by the microaerophilous stationary phase (MASP) method of Levy and Ristic (1980) with some modifications. The culture-derived Babesia organisms were similar to forms seen in the blood of infected buffaloes and the pathogenicity of these organisms was unchanged. Factors influencing the in vitro cultivation are discussed in detail. PMID:9512743

Zhao, J; Liu, Z; Yao, B; Ma, L

1997-11-01

184

Differential adjustment in gill Na+/K+- and V-ATPase activities and transporter mRNA expression during osmoregulatory acclimation in the cinnamon shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum (Decapoda, Palaemonidae).  

PubMed

We evaluate osmotic and chloride (Cl(-)) regulatory capability in the diadromous shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum, and the accompanying alterations in hemolymph osmolality and [Cl(-)], gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity, and expression of gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase ?-subunit and V-ATPase B subunit mRNA during salinity (S) acclimation. We also characterize V-ATPase kinetics and the organization of transport-related membrane systems in the gill epithelium. Macrobrachium amazonicum strongly hyper-regulates hemolymph osmolality and [Cl(-)] in freshwater and in salinities up to 25‰ S. During a 10-day acclimation period to 25‰ S, hemolymph became isosmotic and hypo-chloremic after 5 days, [Cl(-)] alone remaining hyporegulated thereafter. Gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase ?-subunit mRNA expression increased 6.5 times initial values after 1 h, then decreased to 3 to 4 times initial values by 24 h and to 1.5 times initial values after 10 days at 25‰ S. This increased expression was accompanied by a sharp decrease at 5 h then recovery of initial Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity within 24 h, declining again after 5 days, which suggests transient Cl(-) secretion. V-ATPase B-subunit mRNA expression increased 1.5-fold within 1 h, then reduced sharply to 0.3 times initial values by 5 h, and remained unchanged for the remainder of the 10-day period. V-ATPase activity dropped sharply and was negligible after a 10-day acclimation period to 21‰ S, revealing a marked downregulation of ion uptake mechanisms. The gill epithelium consists of thick, apical pillar cell flanges, the perikarya of which are coupled to an intralamellar septum. These two cell types respectively exhibit extensive apical evaginations and deep membrane invaginations, both of which are associated with numerous mitochondria, characterizing an ion transporting epithelium. These changes in Na(+)/K(+)- and V-ATPase activities and in mRNA expression during salinity acclimation appear to underpin ion uptake and Cl(-) secretion by the palaemonid shrimp gill. PMID:21037069

Faleiros, Rogério Oliveira; Goldman, Maria Helena S; Furriel, Rosa P M; McNamara, John Campbell

2010-11-15

185

[Status of termite-mushroom artificial domestication cultivation--a review].  

PubMed

Objective: Two models of domestication and cultivation of termite-mushroom were discussed: the cultivation of termitomyces model, which method of woodrotting fungi cultivation was emphasized and the original ecological model, which multiplication of symbiotic termites was focused. The problems and possible solutions during termite-mushroom cultivation were also discussed. PMID:21141461

Zhang, Yujin; Guo, Huachun; Li, Rongchun

2010-10-01

186

Geothermal aquaculture: a guide to freshwater prawn culture  

SciTech Connect

Biological data of the Malaysian prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, are summarized. A history on its rearing techniques is given, but through the use of geothermal water or industrial warm water effluent, its range can be expanded. The use of wasted geothermal water at the Oregon Institute of Technology for prawn ponds is noted. Pond management and design; the hatchery design and function for larval culture; and geothermal applications (legal aspects and constraints) are discussed. (MCW)

Hayes, A.; Johnson, W.C.

1980-05-01

187

Rice fields to prawn farms: a blue revolution in southwest Bangladesh?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) farming in southwest Bangladesh where a large number of farmers have converted their rice fields to export oriented prawn\\u000a farms, locally known as gher. The gher design potentially provides good opportunities for diversified production of prawn, fish, rice and dike crops, that has brought\\u000a about a ‘blue revolution’. The average annual yield of

Nesar Ahmed; Edward H. Allison; James F. Muir

2010-01-01

188

Direct use of low temperature geothermal water by Aquafarms International, Inc. for freshwater aquaculture (prawns and associated species). An operations and maintenance manual  

SciTech Connect

In connection with an ongoing commercial aquaculture project in the Coachella Valley, California; a twelve month prawn growout demonstration project was conducted. This project began in August, 1979 and involved the use of low temperature (85/sup 0/F) geothermal waters to raise freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (deMan), in earthen ponds. The following publication is an operations and maintenance guide which may by useful for those interested in conducting similar enterprises.

Broughton, R.; Price, M.; Price, V.; Grajcer, D.

1984-04-01

189

A Versatile Medium for Cultivating Methanogenic Archaea  

PubMed Central

Background Methanobrevibacter smithii, Methanobrevibacter oralis, Methanosphaera stadtmanae, Methanomassilicoccus luminyensis and Methanobrevibacter arboriphilicus have been cultured from human digestive microbiota. Each one of these fastidious methanogenic archaea requires a specific medium for its growth, hampering their routine isolation and the culture. Methodology/Principal Findings A new culture medium here referred as SAB medium was optimized and tested to cultivate methanogens associated with human microbiota, as well as two mesophile methanogens Methanobacterium beijingense and Methanosaeta concilii. It was further tested for the isolation of archaea from 20 human stool specimens including 10 specimens testing positive for PCR detection of M. smithii. After inoculating 105 colony-forming-unit archaea/mL or 1 g stool specimen in parallel in SAB medium and reference DSMZ medium in the presence of negative controls, growth of archaea was determined by optical microscopy and the measurement of methane production by gas chromatography. While the negative controls remained sterile, all tested archaea grew significantly more rapidly in SAB medium than in reference medium in 1–3 days (P<0.05, Student test). Among PCR-positive stool specimens, 10/10 grew in the SAB medium, 6/10 in DSMZ 119 medium, 5/10 in DSMZ 322 medium and 3/10 in DSMZ 334 c medium. Four out of ten PCR-negative stool specimens grew after a 3-week incubation in the SAB-medium whereas no growth was detected in any of the reference media. 16S rRNA gene sequencing yielded 99–100% sequence similarity with reference M. smithii except for one specimen that yielded 99–100% sequence similarity with reference Methanobrevibacter millerae. Conclusions/Significance SAB medium allows for the versatile isolation and growth of methanogenic archaea associated with human gut microbiota including the archaea missed by inoculation of reference media. Implementation of the SAB medium in veterinary and medical microbiology laboratories will ease the routine culture-based detection of methanogenic archaea in clinical and environmental specimens.

Khelaifia, Saber; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel

2013-01-01

190

Chemically defined media for cultivation of Naegleria gruberi  

PubMed Central

Cultivation of amebae of the axenic strain of Naegleria gruberi, NEG-M, was achieved in media consisting entirely of chemically defined components. A complete medium that contains 31 components allows growth with yields up to 5 × 106 amebae per ml. A minimal medium gives lower yields but defines 22 components that are essential for continuous cultivation: 11 amino acids, 6 vitamins, hematin, guanosine, D-glucose, Mg2+, and inorganic phosphate. These media allow precise studies of the metabolism and differentiation of this unusual eukaryote.

Fulton, Chandler; Webster, Cecelia; Wu, Jennifer S.

1984-01-01

191

[Controlled cell cultivation. IV. The cultivation of isolated neurons of the mollusc, Limnaea stagnalis, in a flow-diffusion chamber].  

PubMed

A possibility of the long-term cultivation of isolated neurons of adult molluscs Limnaea stagnalis in a flow-diffusion chamber has been shown. The construction of the chamber is described by the authors elsewhere; the diagram of the pefusion apparatus has been presented. In the process of cultivation, the nerve cells undergo morphological differentiation to form neuron nets on the glass that involve both individual neurons and their aggregates of 2 to 5 cells. By days 16-18 of cultivation, most of the neurons join together to form several large aggregates of 10-40 cells, connected to each other by thick nerve fibre bundles. A sharp decrease of survival time and the complete inhibition of morphological differentiation of neurons was observed when the diffusional exchange between the extracelluar space and the flowing nutrient medium was replaced in the chamber by the medium perfusion through the extracellular (=pericellular) space. The cause of this phenomenon is discussed. PMID:7434471

Arkhipov, V V; Lezhnev, E I; Veprintsev, B N

1980-05-01

192

Combined Use of Cultivation-Dependent and Cultivation-Independent Methods Indicates that Members of Most Haloarchaeal Groups in an Australian Crystallizer Pond Are Cultivable  

Microsoft Academic Search

Haloarchaea are the dominant microbial flora in hypersaline waters with near-saturating salt levels. The haloarchaeal diversity of an Australian saltern crystallizer pond was examined by use of a library of PCR- amplified 16S rRNA genes and by cultivation. High viable counts (106 CFU\\/ml) were obtained on solid media. Long incubation times (>8 weeks) appeared to be more important than the

D. G. Burns; H. M. Camakaris; P. H. Janssen; M. L. Dyall-Smith

2004-01-01

193

Enhancement of Enteric Adenovirus Cultivation by Viral Transactivator Proteins?  

PubMed Central

Human enteric adenoviruses (HAdVs; serotypes 40 and 41) are important waterborne and food-borne pathogens. However, HAdVs are fastidious, are difficult to cultivate, and do not produce a clear cytopathic effect during cell culture within a reasonable time. Thus, we examined whether the viral transactivator proteins cytomegalovirus (CMV) IE1 and hepatitis B virus (HBV) X promoted the multiplication of HAdVs. Additionally, we constructed a new 293 cell line expressing CMV IE1 protein for cultivation assays. We analyzed the nucleic acid sequences of the promoter regions of both E1A and hexon genes, which are considered to be the most important regions for HAdV replication. Expression of either HBV X or CMV IE1 protein significantly increased the promoter activities of E1A and hexon genes of HAdVs by as much as 14-fold during cell cultivation. The promotion of HAdV expression was confirmed by increased levels of both adenoviral DNA and mRNA expression. Finally, the newly developed 293 cell line expressing CMV IE1 protein showed an increase in viral DNA ranging from 574% to 619% compared with the conventional 293 cell line. These results suggest that the newly constructed cell line could be useful for efficient cultivation and research of fastidious HAdVs.

Kim, Misoon; Lim, Mi Young; Ko, GwangPyo

2010-01-01

194

Hydrogenosomal activity of Trichomonas vaginalis cultivated under different iron conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate whether iron concentration in TYM medium influence on hydrogenosomal enzyme gene expression and hydrogenosomal membrane potential of Trichomonas vaginalis, trophozoites were cultivated in iron- depleted, normal and iron-supplemented TYM media. The mRNA of hydrogenosomal enzymes, such as pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR), hydrogenase, ferredoxin and malic enzyme, was increased with iron concentra- tions in T. vaginalis culture media, measured

Yong-Seok Kim; Hyun-Ouk Song; Ik-Hwa Choi; Soon-Jung Park; Jae-Sook Ryu

2006-01-01

195

Chromosome banding patterns in cultivated and wild barleys (Hordeum SPP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation of seven species of wild barley and ten different forms of the cultivated species (H. vulgare) has revealed that all the species and cultivars have mostly procentric constitutive heterochromatin. Relatively smaller heterochromatic segments are found in intercalary and distal positions. Larger bands of varying sizes and reacting somewhat differently from the rest of the heterochromatin are generally found

Canio G Vosa

1976-01-01

196

New Strategies for Cultivation and Detection of Previously Uncultured Microbes  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrative approach was used to obtain pure cultures of previously uncultivated members of the divi- sions Acidobacteria and Verrucomicrobia from agricultural soil and from the guts of wood-feeding termites. Some elements of the cultivation procedure included the following: the use of agar media with little or no added nutrients; relatively long periods of incubation (more than 30 days); protection

Bradley S. Stevenson; Stephanie A. Eichorst; John T. Wertz; Thomas M. Schmidt; John A. Breznak

2004-01-01

197

Application of oxygen vectors to Aspergillus terreus cultivation.  

PubMed

Research was undertaken to examine the effects of adding an oxygen carrier (n-dodecane, n-tetradecane, or n-hexadecane) on lovastatin production by Aspergillus terreus in both shaking-flask and 5-l fermentor cultivations. In the shaking-flask cultivation, an addition of 2.5% (w/v) n-dodecane to the medium gave about a 1.4-fold increase (0.51 g/l) in lovastatin production. This improvement was related to morphological changes in the fungal cells, and resulted mainly from the formation of small, uniform, compact pellets of A. terreus. In contrast, in the 5-l fermentor cultivation, the lovastatin production was only one-ninth of that achieved without n-dodecane addition independent of the pellet density. This adverse effect of adding the oxygen carrier to the medium was attributed to an uncontrolled, high dissolved oxygen level (higher than 60%) which resulted in unfavorable morphological changes and the formation of star-like pellets. However, when this dosage of n-dodecane was added 24 h after the start of the 5-l fermentor cultivation, lovastatin production was further enhanced due to its foam suppressing activity in the fungal fermentation. PMID:16233333

Lai, Long-Shan T; Tsai, Tai-Her; Wang, Te Chi

2002-01-01

198

Cultivation of Entomopathogenic Fungi for the Search of Antibacterial Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Entomopathogenic fungi are a rich source of natural bioactive compounds. To establish cultivation conditions which facilitate the production of bioactive compounds and to select good genera among entomopathogenic fungi as the producer, 47 typical entomopathogenic fungi were tested for their ability to produce antibiotic activity. Thirty-eight strains (81%) and 30 strains (64%) of these fungi produced either anti-Bacillus compounds or

Si-Young Lee; Ikuo Nakajima; Fumio Ihara; Hiroshi Kinoshita; Takuya Nihira

2005-01-01

199

Teaching Design of Cultivating Nursing Students' Creative Thinking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chinese nursing education levels have developed fast over the past few years. Many nursing educators are devoted to the research of nursing teaching. How to cultivate nursing students, creative thinking is one of the principle researches and has received increasing attention. In the course of nursing teaching, we renewed the teaching design based…

Xi-wen, Liu; Chun-ping, Ni; Rui, Yang; Xiu-chuan, Li; Cheng, Cheng

2007-01-01

200

Quantitative measurement of direct nitrous oxide emissions from microalgae cultivation.  

PubMed

Although numerous lifecycle assessments (LCA) of microalgae-based biofuels have suggested net reductions of greenhouse gas emissions, limited experimental data exist on direct emissions from microalgae cultivation systems. For example, nitrous oxide (N(2)O) is a potent greenhouse gas that has been detected from microalgae cultivation. However, little quantitative experimental data exist on direct N(2)O emissions from microalgae cultivation, which has inhibited LCA performed to date. In this study, microalgae species Nannochloropsis salina was cultivated with diurnal light-dark cycling using a nitrate nitrogen source. Gaseous N(2)O emissions were quantitatively measured using Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. Under a nitrogen headspace (photobioreactor simulation), the reactors exhibited elevated N(2)O emissions during dark periods, and reduced N(2)O emissions during light periods. Under air headspace conditions (open pond simulation), N(2)O emissions were negligible during both light and dark periods. Results show that N(2)O production was induced by anoxic conditions when nitrate was present, suggesting that N(2)O was produced by denitrifying bacteria within the culture. The presence of denitrifying bacteria was verified through PCR-based detection of norB genes and antibiotic treatments, the latter of which substantially reduced N(2)O emissions. Application of these results to LCA and strategies for growth management to reduce N(2)O emissions are discussed. PMID:21939252

Fagerstone, Kelly D; Quinn, Jason C; Bradley, Thomas H; De Long, Susan K; Marchese, Anthony J

2011-11-01

201

The Opium Poppy (Papaver Somniferum): Cultivation - Chemistry -Utilization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The cultivation of oil-producing plants constitutes a large part of agricultre throughout the world and in central Europe the opium poppy is one of the most important of such plants. Popularly, the opium poppy is referred to simply as poppy. Each year an ...

E. F. Heeger W. Poethke

1964-01-01

202

Engineering considerations for process development in mammalian cell cultivation.  

PubMed

Mammalian cell cultivation plays a great role in producing protein therapeutics in the last decades. Many engineering parameters are considered for optimization during process development in mammalian cell cultivation, only shear and mixing are especially highlighted in this paper. It is believed that shear stress due to agitation has been over-estimated to damage cells, but shear may result in nonlethal physiological responses. There is no cell damage in the regions where bubbles form, break up and coalescence, but shear stress becomes significant in the wake of rising bubbles and causes great damage to cells in bubble burst regions. Mixing is not sufficient to provide homogeneous dissolved oxygen tension, pH, CO2 and nutrients in large-scale bioreactors, which can bring severe problems for cell growth, product formation and process control. Scale-down reactors have been developed to address mixing and shear problems for parallel operations. Engineering characterization in conventional and recently developed scale-down bioreactors has been briefly introduced. Process challenges for cultivation of industrial cell lines in high cell densities as well as cultivation of stem cells and other human cells for regenerative medicine, tissue engineering and gene therapy are prospected. Important techniques, such as micromanipulation and nanomanipulation (optical tweezers) for single cell analysis, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for shear and mixing characterization, and miniaturized bioreactors, are being developed to address those challenges. PMID:19929819

Zhang, Hu; Wang, Weixiang; Quan, Chunshan; Fan, Shengdi

2010-01-01

203

Babesia bovis: Continuous Cultivation in a Microaerophilous Stationary Phase Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protozoan parasite Babesia bovis, a causative agent of bovine babesiosis, has been continuously cultivated in a settled layer of bovine erythrocytes. Lowered oxygen tension within the layer of host erythrocytes results in a darkening of infected cultures and provides a rapid means of evaluating parasite growth. Deprivation of carbon dioxide causes the merozoites to accumulate in the medium rather

Michael G. Levy; Miodrag Ristic

1980-01-01

204

Agroforestry pathways for the intensification of shifting cultivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a system of land use which entails the deliberate association of trees with herbaceous field crops in time, shifting cultivation is one of the most ancient, widespread and, until recently, ecologically stable forms of agroforestry. However, under pressure of population and competing uses for land and labour, traditional swidden systems have been observed historically to undergo more or less

J. B. Raintree; K. Warner

1986-01-01

205

Mapping a Landscape of Leadership: Cultivating Scholarly-Practical Inquiry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cultivating the "professional knowledge landscape" of schools (Clandinin & Connelly, 1995) from the perspective of insiders can enrich the leadership and curriculum fields. Toward this end, the author offers a map for becoming oriented to one teacher group's vision for improving school environments. During the summer of 2001, 33 practicing…

Mullen, Carol A.

2004-01-01

206

Growth and ?-amylase production by Aspergillus oryzae during continuous cultivations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous cultivations of an ?-amylase producing strain of Aspergillus oryzae were carried out using a chemically defined medium with glucose as the growth limiting component. For steady-state cultures the recovery of carbon was about 99%, indicating that all major carbon components i.e. biomass, carbon dioxide and ?-amylase were measured. The rates of sugar consumption, oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production

Morten Carlsen; Jens Nielsen; John Villadsen

1996-01-01

207

ISOLATION AND SERIAL CULTIVATION OF RABBIT SKIN EPITHELIAL CELLS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method to isolate and to serially cultivate rabbit skin epithelial cells from adult trunk skin has been developed. Using a collagen gel as substrate and trypsin and EDTA to dissociate cells, nonproliferative primary cultures of rabbit cells may be converted to proliferative populations, and at least 3 serial passages achieved. In the presence of large concentrations of methotrexate (up

Su-Chin Liu; Marvin Karasek

1978-01-01

208

Piriformospora indica, a Cultivable Plant-Growth-Promoting Root Endophyte  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fungi interact with plants as pathogens or benefactors and may influence yields in agroforestry and floriculture. Knowl- edge concerning plant-growth-promoting cultivable root endo- phytes is low (7), and most studies have been conducted with mycorrhizal fungi. These mutualists improve the growth of crops on poor soils with lower inputs of chemical fertilizers and pesticides (2, 9). Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi,

AJIT VARMA; SAVITA VERMA; NIRMAL SAHAY; BRITTA BUTEHORN; PHILIPP FRANKEN

1999-01-01

209

Cultivation of Vibrio Abortus Agent on Endo Medium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Endo medium with added 10% inactivated serum or defibrinated blood of large cattle or sheep is suitable for cultivation and isolation of pure cultures of the causitive agent of vibrio abortive. Strains of vibrio fetus, isolated from large cattle and sheep...

T. A. Mamedov

1969-01-01

210

Allelopathy as a potential strategy to improve microalgae cultivation  

PubMed Central

One of the main obstacles for continuous productivity in microalgae cultivation is the presence of biological contaminants capable of eliminating large numbers of cells in a matter of days or even hours. However, a number of strategies are being used to combat and prevent contamination in microalgae cultivation. These strategies include the use of extreme conditions in the culture media such as high salinity and high pH to create an unfavorable environment for the competitive organisms or predators of the microalgae. Numerous studies have explored the potential of naturally occurring bioactive secondary metabolites, which are natural products from plants and microorganisms, as a source of such compounds. Some of these compounds are herbicides, and marine and freshwater microalgae are a source of these compounds. Microalgae produce a remarkable diversity of biologically active metabolites. Results based on the allelopathic potential of algae have only been described for laboratory-scale production and not for algae cultivation on a pilot scale. The adoption of allelopathy on microalgal strains is an unexplored field and may be a novel solution to improve algae production. Here we present information showing the diversity of allelochemicals from microalgae and the use of an allelopathic approach to control microalgae cultivation on a pilot scale based on R&D activities being carried out in Brazil for biodiesel production.

2013-01-01

211

Microsatellites as DNA markers in cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)  

PubMed Central

Background Genomic research of cultivated peanut has lagged behind other crop species because of the paucity of polymorphic DNA markers found in this crop. It is necessary to identify additional DNA markers for further genetic research in peanut. Results Microsatellite markers in cultivated peanut were developed using the SSR enrichment procedure. The results showed that the GA/CT repeat was the most frequently dispersed microsatellite in peanut. The primer pairs were designed for fifty-six different microsatellites, 19 of which showed a polymorphism among the genotypes studied. The average number of alleles per locus was 4.25, and up to 14 alleles were found at one locus. This suggests that microsatellite DNA markers produce a higher level of DNA polymorphism than other DNA markers in cultivated peanut. Conclusions It is desirable to isolate and characterize more DNA markers in cultivated peanut for more productive genomic studies, such as genetic mapping, marker-assisted selection, and gene discovery. The development of microsatellite markers holds a promise for such studies.

He, Guohao; Meng, Ronghua; Newman, Melanie; Gao, Guoqing; Pittman, Roy N; Prakash, CS

2003-01-01

212

Patterns of allozyme variation in cultivated and wild Sorghum bicolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patterns of allozyme variation were surveyed in collections of cultivated and wild sorghum from Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. Data for 30 isozyme loci from a total of 2067 plants representing 429 accessions were analyzed. Regional levels of genetic diversity in the cultivars are greater in northern and central Africa compared to southern Africa, the Middle East, or Asia.

P. R. Aldrich; J. Doebley; K. F. Schertz; A. Stec

1992-01-01

213

Reflecting on Cultivating New Voices among Scholars of Color  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A member of the first cohort of Cultivating New Voices among Scholars of Color (CNV) and now its director, the author details the importance of fostering the work of scholars of color. As recognized by CNV, the presence and scholarship of scholars of color are essential, especially in public debates on education, advocacy, and social (in)justice.…

Kinloch, Valerie

2011-01-01

214

The Implications of Survey Method for Measuring Cultivation Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The magnitude of the cultivation effect for perceptual estimates of social reality has been shown to be affected by a number of contextual factors such as source priming and motivation to process information during judgment construction, and these contextual factors have been linked to the use of heuristic processing strategies when constructing…

Shrum, L. J.

2007-01-01

215

SSF Study Using Yeast Cultivated On Salix Hydrolysates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this Master thesis was to cultivate regular yeast on hydrolysates from Salix to make it more resistant to the severe environment in the Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF) of Steam pre-treated Salix. To do this some existing procedures was used and modified. Production of Bioethanol is today a large field of study. The raw material used in

Bahaa Mezher

216

Ocimum sp. (Basil): Botany, Cultivation, Pharmaceutical Properties, and Biotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present review focuses on the various Ocimum species, often referred to as the “king of the herbs.” The botany of more than 50 species of herbs and shrubs belonging to this genus is thoroughly reported, along with traditional uses and cultivation techniques. Since basil is a rich source of natural compounds, details on the several chemical constituents of essential

Olga Makri; Spiridon Kintzios

2008-01-01

217

The current situation of cultivated land and population in China.  

PubMed

China/s current cultivated land supply will be depleted in 200 years if present land use and population pressure continue, according to Professor Liu Xuanhao of the Beijing Agriculture University in 1989. The amount of cultivated land began to decline after 1957 due to national construction projects. By 1985 the decline had reached a net annual average of 15 million mu (1 mu = 16.5% of an acre). Land lost between 1949 and 1986 amounted to a 7 million annual average. During this period, population grew from 540 million in 1949 to 1.14 billion in 1990, which meant 2.8 mu/capita in 1949 vs. 1.5mu/capita in 1990. 5 major points are made. 1) China feeds 22% of the world's population on 7% of world's land. Per capita area of cultivated land is low for China's population size. Land area is 13.3 mu/capita or 25% of US land area. 2) Of the total land area, cultivated land constitutes a small proportion, i.e., 31% is plains and basins while 69% is mountains, plateaus, and hilly areas. 1.4 billion mu is cultivatable land or 10% of the land area. In contrast, 50% of India's territory is cultivatable land. 3) East and south China have the greatest area (90%) of cultivable land. Forest reserves are in the northeast and southwest, and grasslands predominate in the northwest. 4) There is only 500 million mu of arable land. 5) There are insufficient water resources and uneven regional and seasonal distribution. Water resources are 25% of the world average. National Economic development will be impeded by the pressure between limited land resources and population growth which is expected to increase until 2020. Land management since 1986 has come under the Land Administration Law whose guidelines stipulate that land is to be valued, protected, and utilized rationally. Since 1986, there has been nationwide monitoring of land use for nonfarming purposes, which has contributed to less loss of land for cultivation. Evaluation of land resources will now permit plans for appropriate land utilization. Currently the net decrease in cultivated land is 3 million mu/year. Beginning in 1991, June 25 is set aside as Land Day. Last year Vice Premier Tian Jiyun of the State Council urged on Land Day all citizens to protect and to use the land fully. Strengthening land and resource utilization with economic development will insure future viability. PMID:12285198

Long, B

1991-10-01

218

77 FR 20610 - United States Standards for Grades of Cultivated Ginseng  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...United States Standards for Grades of Cultivated Ginseng AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA...United States Standards for Grades of Cultivated Ginseng. AMS received a request from the Ginseng Board of Wisconsin (GBW), to amend the...

2012-04-05

219

Cultivation of Virus of Spring-Summer and Japanese Encephalides on Developing Chicken Embryo.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The possibility of successfully cultivating the virus of spring-summer and Japanese encephalitis in developing chicken embryo was established. The optimal conditions during cultivation of the virus of Japanese encephalitis are: 8-9 day embryos, infected i...

O. G. Andzhaparidze

1968-01-01

220

Kinetic analysis of gill (Na?,K?)-ATPase activity in selected ontogenetic stages of the Amazon River shrimp, Macrobrachium amazonicum (Decapoda, Palaemonidae): interactions at ATP- and cation-binding sites.  

PubMed

We investigated modulation by ATP, Mg²?, Na?, K? and NH?? and inhibition by ouabain of (Na?,K?)-ATPase activity in microsomal homogenates of whole zoeae I and decapodid III (formerly zoea IX) and whole-body and gill homogenates of juvenile and adult Amazon River shrimps, Macrobrachium amazonicum. (Na?,K?)-ATPase-specific activity was increased twofold in decapodid III compared to zoea I, juveniles and adults, suggesting an important role in this ontogenetic stage. The apparent affinity for ATP (K(M) = 0.09 ± 0.01 mmol L?¹) of the decapodid III (Na?,K?)-ATPase, about twofold greater than the other stages, further highlights this relevance. Modulation of (Na?,K?-ATPase activity by K? also revealed a threefold greater affinity for K? (K?.? = 0.91 ± 0.04 mmol L?¹) in decapodid III than in other stages; NH?? had no modulatory effect. The affinity for Na? (K?.? = 13.2 ± 0.6 mmol L?¹) of zoea I (Na?,K?)-ATPase was fourfold less than other stages. Modulation by Na?, Mg²? and NH?? obeyed cooperative kinetics, while K? modulation exhibited Michaelis-Menten behavior. Rates of maximal Mg²? stimulation of ouabain-insensitive ATPase activity differed in each ontogenetic stage, suggesting that Mg²?-stimulated ATPases other than (Na?,K?)-ATPase are present. Ouabain inhibition suggests that, among the various ATPase activities present in the different stages, Na?-ATPase may be involved in the ontogeny of osmoregulation in larval M. amazonicum. The NH??-stimulated, ouabain-insensitive ATPase activity seen in zoea I and decapodid III may reflect a stage-specific means of ammonia excretion since functional gills are absent in the early larval stages. PMID:22544049

Leone, Francisco Assis; Masui, Douglas Chodi; de Souza Bezerra, Thais Milena; Garçon, Daniela Pereira; Valenti, Wagner Cotroni; Augusto, Alessandra Silva; McNamara, John Campbell

2012-04-01

221

Characteristics of humic substances in cultivated and natural forest soils of Sikkim  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humic (HA) and fulvic (FA) acids, extracted from cultivated and natural forest soils at varying altitudes, were characterized for physical, chemical and spectral characteristics. Cultivation decreased C, H contents and C\\/H, C\\/N ratios but increased O content and O\\/H ratio in both HA and FA. Cultivation reduced N content of HA but increased it in FA. Cultivation increased the total

D Martin; P. C Srivastava; D Ghosh; W Zech

1998-01-01

222

An Online Process Model of Second-Order Cultivation Effects: How Television Cultivates Materialism and Its Consequences for Life Satisfaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies investigated the interrelations among television viewing, materialism, and life satisfaction, and their underlying processes. Study 1 tested an online process model for television's cultivation of materialism by manipulating level of materialistic content. Viewing level influenced materialism, but only among participants who reported…

Shrum, L. J.; Lee, Jaehoon; Burroughs, James E.; Rindfleisch, Aric

2011-01-01

223

Soil erosion from shifting cultivation and other smallholder land use in Sarawak, Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sustainability of shifting cultivation systems and their impact on soil quality continues to be debated, and although a growing body of literature shows a limited impact on, e.g. soil carbon stocks, shifting cultivation still has a reputation as detrimental to the environment. We wished to compare soil erosion from three land use types in a shifting cultivation system, namely

Andreas de Neergaard; Jakob Magid; Ole Mertz

2008-01-01

224

Centering Educational Administration: Cultivating Meaning, Community, Responsibility. Topics in Educational Leadership.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book was written out of conviction that educational administrator preparation programs need to become more responsive to changes and challenges in the complex and dynamic social arena of education. In part 1, three main themes are developed--cultivating meaning, cultivating community, and cultivating moral responsibility--which are then…

Starratt, Robert J.

225

Microcolony Cultivation on a Soil Substrate Membrane System Selects for Previously Uncultured Soil Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional microbiological methods of cultivation recover less than 1% of the total bacterial species, and the culturable portion of bacteria is not representative of the total phylogenetic diversity. Classical cultivation strategies are now known to supply excessive nutrients to a system and therefore select for fast-growing bacteria that are capable of colony or biofilm formation. New approaches to the cultivation

Belinda C. Ferrari; Svend J. Binnerup; Michael Gillings

2005-01-01

226

Robust, small-scale cultivation platform for Streptomyces coelicolor  

PubMed Central

Background For fermentation process and strain improvement, where one wants to screen a large number of conditions and strains, robust and scalable high-throughput cultivation systems are crucial. Often, the time lag between bench-scale cultivations to production largely depends on approximate estimation of scalable physiological traits. Microtiter plate (MTP) based screening platforms have lately become an attractive alternative to shake flasks mainly because of the ease of automation. However, there are very few reports on applications for filamentous organisms; as well as efforts towards systematic validation of physiological behavior compared to larger scale are sparse. Moreover, available small-scale screening approaches are typically constrained by evaluating only an end point snapshot of phenotypes. Results To address these issues, we devised a robust, small-scale cultivation platform in the form of MTPs (24-square deepwell) for the filamentous bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor and compared its performance to that of shake flasks and bench-scale reactors. We observed that re-designing of medium and inoculum preparation recipes resulted in improved reproducibility. Process turnaround time was significantly reduced due to the reduction in number of unit operations from inoculum to cultivation. The incorporation of glass beads (ø 3 mm) in MTPs not only improved the process performance in terms of improved oxygen transfer improving secondary metabolite production, but also helped to transform morphology from pellet to disperse, resulting in enhanced reproducibility. Addition of MOPS into the medium resulted in pH maintenance above 6.50, a crucial parameter towards reproducibility. Moreover, the entire trajectory of the process was analyzed for compatibility with bench-scale reactors. The MTP cultivations were found to behave similar to bench-scale in terms of growth rate, productivity and substrate uptake rate and so was the onset of antibiotic synthesis. Shake flask cultivations however, showed discrepancy with respect to morphology and had considerably reduced volumetric production rates of antibiotics. Conclusion We observed good agreement of the physiological data obtained in the developed MTP platform with bench-scale. Hence, the described MTP-based screening platform has a high potential for investigation of secondary metabolite biosynthesis in Streptomycetes and other filamentous bacteria and the use may significantly reduce the workload and costs.

2012-01-01

227

Diversity of cultivable actinobacteria in geographically widespread marine sediments.  

PubMed

Reports describing actinobacteria isolated from marine environments have been dominated by Micromonospora, Rhodococcus and Streptomyces species. Recent culture-independent studies have shown that marine environments contain a high diversity of actinobacterial species that are rarely, if at all, recovered by cultivation-based methods. In this study, it is shown that cultivation-independent methods can be used to guide the application of selective isolation methods. The detection of marine-derived actinobacterial species that have previously only been reported from terrestrial habitats is highlighted. This study provides good evidence that the previously described low diversity of actinobacterial species isolated from marine environments does not reflect an actual low species diversity, and that the use of informed selective isolation procedures can aid in the isolation of members of novel taxa. PMID:15726286

Maldonado, Luis A; Stach, James E M; Pathom-aree, Wasu; Ward, Alan C; Bull, Alan T; Goodfellow, Michael

2005-01-01

228

Online automatic tuning and control for fed-batch cultivation  

PubMed Central

Performance of controllers applied in biotechnological production is often below expectation. Online automatic tuning has the capability to improve control performance by adjusting control parameters. This work presents automatic tuning approaches for model reference specific growth rate control during fed-batch cultivation. The approaches are direct methods that use the error between observed specific growth rate and its set point; systematic perturbations of the cultivation are not necessary. Two automatic tuning methods proved to be efficient, in which the adaptation rate is based on a combination of the error, squared error and integral error. These methods are relatively simple and robust against disturbances, parameter uncertainties, and initialization errors. Application of the specific growth rate controller yields a stable system. The controller and automatic tuning methods are qualified by simulations and laboratory experiments with Bordetella pertussis.

van Straten, Gerrit; van der Pol, Leo A.; van Boxtel, Anton J. B.

2007-01-01

229

Isolation, cultivation, and characterization of adult murine prostate stem cells  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT/SUMMARY The successful isolation and cultivation of prostate stem cells will allow us to study their unique biological properties and their application in therapeutic approaches. Here we provide step-by-step procedures on the basis of previous work in our laboratory for: the harvesting of primary prostate cells from adolescent male mice by a modified enzymatic procedure; the isolation of an enriched population of prostate stem cells through cell sorting; the cultivation of prostate stem cells in vitro; and characterization of these cells and their stem-like activity, including in vivo tubule regeneration. Normally it will take approximately 8 hours to harvest prostate cells, isolate the stem cell enriched population, and set up the in vitro sphere assay. It will take up to 8 weeks to analyze the unique properties of the stem cells, including their regenerative capacity in vivo.

Lukacs, Rita U.; Goldstein, Andrew S.; Lawson, Devon A.; Cheng, Donghui; Witte, Owen N.

2010-01-01

230

Hydrogenosomal activity of Trichomonas vaginalis cultivated under different iron conditions  

PubMed Central

To evaluate whether iron concentration in TYM medium influence on hydrogenosomal enzyme gene expression and hydrogenosomal membrane potential of Trichomonas vaginalis, trophozoites were cultivated in iron-depleted, normal and iron-supplemented TYM media. The mRNA of hydrogenosomal enzymes, such as pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR), hydrogenase, ferredoxin and malic enzyme, was increased with iron concentrations in T. vaginalis culture media, measured by RT-PCR. Hydrogenosomal membrane potentials measured with DiOC6 also showed similar tendency, e.g. T. vaginalis cultivated in iron-depleted and iron-supplemented media for 3 days showed a significantly reduced and enhanced hydrogenosomal membrane potential compared with that of normal TYM media, respectively. Therefore, it is suggested that iron may regulate hydrogenosomal activity through hydrogenosomal enzyme expression and hydrogenosomal membrane potential.

Kim, Yong-Seok; Song, Hyun-Ouk; Choi, Ik-Hwa; Park, Soon-Jung

2006-01-01

231

Cultivation of aerobic granules for polyhydroxybutyrate production from wastewater.  

PubMed

Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB)-rich aerobic granule was cultivated in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) under nitrogen deficient conditions by adapting a two-step strategy. In the first step the PHB-storage ability of activated sludge was enhanced by keeping both oxygen and ammonia at a low level. In the second step granular sludge was cultivated through adjusting sludge settling time. The matured PHB-rich granular sludge with a PHB content of 40 ± 4.6% and a high settling ability was successfully obtained. The analysis on sludge surface properties showed that the surface charge, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) content and the sludge hydrophobicity all increased significantly, while the surface energy of sludge decreased to a relatively steady state accompanied with the growth of granular sludge. This study demonstrates that the metabolism of intracellular storages induced microbial production of EPS, which favored the formation of aerobic granules. PMID:24703182

Wang, Jin; Li, Wen-Wei; Yue, Zheng-Bo; Yu, Han-Qing

2014-05-01

232

Chloroplast DNA Diversity in Populations of Wild and Cultivated Barley  

PubMed Central

Chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) diversity was found within and among populations (245 accessions total) of wild barley, Hordeum vulgare L. ssp. spontaneum Koch from Israel and Iran. Three polymorphic restriction sites (HindIII, EcoRI, BclI) which define three distinct cpDNA lineages were detected. One lineage is common to populations in the Hule Valley and Kinneret of northern Israel, and in Iran. The second lineage is found predominantly in the Lower Jordan Valley and Negev. The distribution of the third lineage is scattered but widespread throughout Israel. Sixty two accessions of cultivated barleys, H. vulgare L., were found, with two exceptions, to belong to just one cpDNA lineage of wild barley, indicating that the cpDNA of cultivated barley is less variable than its wild ancestor. These results demonstrate the need for assessing intraspecific cpDNA variability prior to choosing single accessions for phylogenetic constructions at the species level and higher.

Neale, D. B.; Saghai-Maroof, M. A.; Allard, R. W.; Zhang, Q.; Jorgensen, R. A.

1988-01-01

233

Seasonality Role on the Phenolics from Cultivated Baccharis dracunculifolia  

PubMed Central

Baccharis dracunculifolia is the source of Brazilian green propolis (BGP). Considering the broad spectrum of biological activities attributed to green proplis, B. dracunculifolia has a great potential for the development of new cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. In this work, the cultivation of 10 different populations of native B. dracunculifolia had been undertaken aiming to determine the role of seasonality on its phenolic compounds. For this purpose, fruits of this plant were collected from populations of 10 different regions, and 100 individuals of each population were cultivated in an experimental area of 1800 m2. With respect to cultivation, the yields of dry plant, essential oil and crude extract were measured monthly resulting in mean values of 399 ± 80 g, 0.6 ± 0.1% and 20 ± 4%, respectively. The HPLC analysis allowed detecting seven phenolic compounds: caffeic acid, ferulic acid, aromadendrin-4?-methyl ether (AME), isosakuranetin, artepillin C, baccharin and 2-dimethyl-6-carboxyethenyl-2H-1-benzopyran acid, which were the major ones throughout the 1-year monthly analysis. Caffeic acid was detected in all cultivated populations with mean of 4.0%. AME displayed the wide variation in relation to other compounds showing means values of 0.65 ± 0.13% at last quarter. Isosakuranetin and artepillin C showed increasing concentrations with values between 0% and 1.4% and 0% and 1.09%, respectively. The obtained results allow suggesting that the best time for harvesting this plant, in order to obtain good qualitative and quantitative results for these phenolic compounds, is between December and April.

de Sousa, Joao Paulo B.; Leite, Mateus F.; Jorge, Renata F.; Resende, Dimas O.; da Silva Filho, Ademar A.; Furtado, Niege A. J. C.; Soares, Ademilson E. E.; Spadaro, Augusto C. C.; de Magalhaes, Pedro Melillo; Bastos, Jairo K.

2011-01-01

234

Evidence for cultivation of sesame in the ancient world  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is botanical and textual evidence for sesame cultivation in the ancient Old World. Excavations at the Indus civilization\\u000a site of Harappa have yielded charred sesame from a stratum attributed to 3050–3500 B.C. The Vedic scriptures (ca. 1000B.C.)\\u000a contain frequent references to sesame. The existence and identity ofSesamum indicum as a Mesopotamian oil source have been controversial since 1966 when

Dorothea Bedigian; Jack R. Harlan

1986-01-01

235

Laboratory Cultivation of Widespread and Previously Uncultured Soil Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most soil bacteria belong to family-level phylogenetic groups with few or no known cultivated representa- tives. We cultured a collection of 350 isolates from soil by using simple solid media in petri dishes. These isolates were assigned to 60 family-level groupings in nine bacterial phyla on the basis of a comparative analysis of their 16S rRNA genes. Ninety-three (27%) of

Shayne J. Joseph; Philip Hugenholtz; Parveen Sangwan; Catherine A. Osborne; Peter H. Janssen

2003-01-01

236

[Prevention of soil deterioration during cultivation of medicinal plants].  

PubMed

This paper summarized the aspects of the soil deterioration due to continuous growth of medicinal plants, such as nutrition insufficient, pH variation, harmful salt accumulating, harmful microbe and allelopathic substance increasing, soil physics and chemistry properties variation. And the ways to prevent and rehabilitate the deteriorated soil was indicated, which included anti-adversity species selecting, scientific management such as whorl cropping, nutrient elements supplement, usage of physical methods, nutrient liquid cultivating and VAM inoculating etc. PMID:17048673

Guo, Lan-ping; Huang, Lu-qi; Jiang, You-xu; Lv, Dong-mei

2006-05-01

237

Fed-batch cultivation of Cellulomonas on sugarcane bagasse pith  

SciTech Connect

A high biomass concentration (19.9 g/L) was obtained with the fed-batch cultivation of Cellulomonas on pretreated sugarcane bagasse pith. Similar results in biomass concentration, yield, and substrate consumption were obtained with the discontinuous feed of bagasse as with discontinuous feed supplemented with a partial continuous addition of salts. Two or more growth phases were detected, probably caused by the differential utilization of bagasse components. An acceptably low content of bagasse components remained in the biomass after separation.

Rodriguez, H.; Enriquez, A.

1985-02-01

238

Piriformospora indica , a cultivable root endophyte with multiple biotechnological applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Piriformospora indica is a wide-host root-colonizing endophytic fungus which allows the plants to grow under extreme physical and nutrient stress.\\u000a The fungus can be cultivated on complex and minimal substrates. It belongs to the Sebacinales in Basidiomycota. P. indica has a vast geographical distribution and is reported from Asia, South America and Australia. The fungus is interesting for\\u000a basic research

Ralf Oelmüller; Irena Sherameti; Swati Tripathi; Ajit Varma

2009-01-01

239

Seasonality Role on the Phenolics from Cultivated Baccharis dracunculifolia.  

PubMed

Baccharis dracunculifolia is the source of Brazilian green propolis (BGP). Considering the broad spectrum of biological activities attributed to green proplis, B. dracunculifolia has a great potential for the development of new cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. In this work, the cultivation of 10 different populations of native B. dracunculifolia had been undertaken aiming to determine the role of seasonality on its phenolic compounds. For this purpose, fruits of this plant were collected from populations of 10 different regions, and 100 individuals of each population were cultivated in an experimental area of 1800 m(2). With respect to cultivation, the yields of dry plant, essential oil and crude extract were measured monthly resulting in mean values of 399 ± 80 g, 0.6 ± 0.1% and 20 ± 4%, respectively. The HPLC analysis allowed detecting seven phenolic compounds: caffeic acid, ferulic acid, aromadendrin-4'-methyl ether (AME), isosakuranetin, artepillin C, baccharin and 2-dimethyl-6-carboxyethenyl-2H-1-benzopyran acid, which were the major ones throughout the 1-year monthly analysis. Caffeic acid was detected in all cultivated populations with mean of 4.0%. AME displayed the wide variation in relation to other compounds showing means values of 0.65 ± 0.13% at last quarter. Isosakuranetin and artepillin C showed increasing concentrations with values between 0% and 1.4% and 0% and 1.09%, respectively. The obtained results allow suggesting that the best time for harvesting this plant, in order to obtain good qualitative and quantitative results for these phenolic compounds, is between December and April. PMID:19605554

de Sousa, João Paulo B; Leite, Mateus F; Jorge, Renata F; Resende, Dimas O; da Silva Filho, Ademar A; Furtado, Niege A J C; Soares, Ademilson E E; Spadaro, Augusto C C; de Magalhães, Pedro Melillo; Bastos, Jairo K

2011-01-01

240

Sharing and cultivating tacit knowledge in an online learning environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on knowledge cultivation often focuses on explicit forms of knowledge. However, knowledge can also take a tacit form—a\\u000a form that is often difficult or impossible to tease out, even when it is considered critical in an educational context. A\\u000a review of the literature revealed that few studies have examined tacit knowledge issues in online learning environments. The\\u000a purpose of

Meng Yew Tee; Dennis Karney

2010-01-01

241

Long-term black carbon dynamics in cultivated soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Black carbon (BC) is a quantitatively important C pool in the global C cycle due to its relative recalcitrance compared with\\u000a other C pools. However, mechanisms of BC oxidation and accompanying molecular changes are largely unknown. In this study,\\u000a the long-term dynamics in quality and quantity of BC were investigated in cultivated soil using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy\\u000a (XPS), Fourier-transform infrared

Binh Thanh Nguyen; Johannes C. Lehmann; James Kinyangi; Ron Smernik; Susan J. Riha; Mark H. Engelhard

2008-01-01

242

Cultivating Positive Emotions to Optimize Health and Well-Being  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article develops the hypothesis that intervention strategies that cultivate positive emotions are particularly suited for preventing and treating problems rooted in negative emotions, such as anxiety, depression, aggression, and stress-related health problems. Fredrickson's (1998) broaden-and-build modelof positive emotions provides the foundation for this application. According to this model, the form and function of positive and negative emotions are distinct

Barbara L. Fredrickson

2000-01-01

243

Early Holocene cultivation before domestication in northern Syria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Charred plant remains from the sites of Tell Qaramel, Jerf el Ahmar, Dja’de and Tell ‘Abr situated in northern Syria and dated\\u000a to the tenth and ninth millennia cal b.c. demonstrate that a wide variety of wild pulses, cereals, fruits and nuts was exploited. Five lines of evidence suggest that\\u000a cultivation was practised at three of the sites. (1) Wild

George Willcox; Sandra Fornite; Linda Herveux

2008-01-01

244

The profitability of smallholder rattan cultivation in Southern Borneo, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fieldwork in the village of Dadahup along the Lower Barito basin in Central Kalimantan (Southern Borneo, Indonesia) shows that smallholder rattan cultivation is financially profitable to smallholders and economically profitable to the nation. The financial net present value (NPV) for green and processed canes is Rp 828,000 and Rp 946,000;the economic rate of return is about 22% for both green

Ricardo A. Godoy; Tan Ching Feaw

1989-01-01

245

Cultivating the uncultured: limits, advances and future challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the invention of the Petri dish, there have been continuous efforts to improve efficiency in microbial cultivation.\\u000a These efforts were devoted to the attainment for diverse growth conditions, simulation of in situ conditions and achievement\\u000a of high-throughput rates. As a result, prokaryotes catalysing novel redox reactions as well as representatives of abundant,\\u000a but not-yet cultured taxa, were isolated. Significant

Karine Alain; Joël Querellou

2009-01-01

246

Recycling produced water for algal cultivation for biofuels  

SciTech Connect

Algal growth demands a continuous source of water of appropriate salinity and nutritional content. Fresh water sources are scarce in the deserts of the Southwestern United States, hence, salt water algae species are being investigated as a renewable biofuel source. The use of produced water from oil wells (PW) could offset the demand for fresh water in cultivation. Produced water can contain various concentrations of dissolved solids, metals and organic contaminants and often requires treatment beyond oil/water separation to make it suitable for algae cultivation. The produced water used in this study was taken from an oil well in Jal, New Mexico. An F/2-Si (minus silica) growth media commonly used to cultivate Nannochloropsis salina 1776 (NS 1776) was prepared using the produced water (F/2-Si PW) taking into account the metals and salts already present in the water. NS 1776 was seeded into a bioreactor containing 5L of the (F/2-Si PW) media. After eleven days the optical density at 750 nm (an indicator of algal growth) increased from 0 to 2.52. These results indicate algae are able to grow, though inhibited when compared with non-PW media, in the complex chemical conditions found in produced water. Savings from using nutrients present in the PW, such as P, K, and HCO{sub 3}{sup -}, results in a 44.38% cost savings over fresh water to mix the F/2-Si media.

Neal, Justin N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sullivan, Enid J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dean, Cynthia A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Steichen, Seth A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-09

247

Agricultural intensification and changes in cultivated areas, 1970-2005  

PubMed Central

Does the intensification of agriculture reduce cultivated areas and, in so doing, spare some lands by concentrating production on other lands? Such sparing is important for many reasons, among them the enhanced abilities of released lands to sequester carbon and provide other environmental services. Difficulties measuring the extent of spared land make it impossible to investigate fully the hypothesized causal chain from agricultural intensification to declines in cultivated areas and then to increases in spared land. We analyze the historical circumstances in which rising yields have been accompanied by declines in cultivated areas, thereby leading to land-sparing. We use national-level United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization data on trends in cropland from 1970–2005, with particular emphasis on the 1990–2005 period, for 10 major crop types. Cropland has increased more slowly than population during this period, but paired increases in yields and declines in cropland occurred infrequently, both globally and nationally. Agricultural intensification was not generally accompanied by decline or stasis in cropland area at a national scale during this time period, except in countries with grain imports and conservation set-aside programs. Future projections of cropland abandonment and ensuing environmental services cannot be assumed without explicit policy intervention.

Rudel, Thomas K.; Schneider, Laura; Uriarte, Maria; Turner, B. L.; DeFries, Ruth; Lawrence, Deborah; Geoghegan, Jacqueline; Hecht, Susanna; Ickowitz, Amy; Lambin, Eric F.; Birkenholtz, Trevor; Baptista, Sandra; Grau, Ricardo

2009-01-01

248

SNP Discovery and Linkage Map Construction in Cultivated Tomato  

PubMed Central

Few intraspecific genetic linkage maps have been reported for cultivated tomato, mainly because genetic diversity within Solanum lycopersicum is much less than that between tomato species. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), the most abundant source of genomic variation, are the most promising source of polymorphisms for the construction of linkage maps for closely related intraspecific lines. In this study, we developed SNP markers based on expressed sequence tags for the construction of intraspecific linkage maps in tomato. Out of the 5607 SNP positions detected through in silico analysis, 1536 were selected for high-throughput genotyping of two mapping populations derived from crosses between ‘Micro-Tom’ and either ‘Ailsa Craig’ or ‘M82’. A total of 1137 markers, including 793 out of the 1338 successfully genotyped SNPs, along with 344 simple sequence repeat and intronic polymorphism markers, were mapped onto two linkage maps, which covered 1467.8 and 1422.7 cM, respectively. The SNP markers developed were then screened against cultivated tomato lines in order to estimate the transferability of these SNPs to other breeding materials. The molecular markers and linkage maps represent a milestone in the genomics and genetics, and are the first step toward molecular breeding of cultivated tomato. Information on the DNA markers, linkage maps, and SNP genotypes for these tomato lines is available at http://www.kazusa.or.jp/tomato/.

Shirasawa, Kenta; Isobe, Sachiko; Hirakawa, Hideki; Asamizu, Erika; Fukuoka, Hiroyuki; Just, Daniel; Rothan, Christophe; Sasamoto, Shigemi; Fujishiro, Tsunakazu; Kishida, Yoshie; Kohara, Mitsuyo; Tsuruoka, Hisano; Wada, Tsuyuko; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi

2010-01-01

249

Cultivation of marine microorganisms in single-use systems.  

PubMed

: Marine cultures are an important source of novel substances and enzymes. As efforts to isolate strains from (deep) sea environments increase, the demand for methodology platforms to cultivate these organisms is also rising. Due to the high salt concentration and the shear sensitivity exhibited by some heterotrophic microalgae, single-use systems originally designed for the cultivation of mammalian cell lines can be a valuable alternative. Using the cultivation of the heterotrophic marine microalgae Crypthecodinium cohnii as an example, this chapter makes suggestions for experimental design, for improving process development by integrating parallel experiments, and for scaling-up and scaling-down methodologies. It describes how to identify suitable single-use systems and how to integrate a two-layer system with perfluordecalin to improve the gas transfer in deep-well plates. The process is also scaled up in several single-use systems. We also describe challenges in the process development to achieve sufficient oxygen transfer, monitoring, and control, and we discuss limitations such as corrosion, long-term stability, and leachables in single-use systems. Finally, we demonstrate a method for cheap, fast, and consistent process development for marine microorganisms. PMID:23893044

Hillig, Friederike; Pilarek, Maciej; Junne, Stefan; Neubauer, Peter

2014-01-01

250

Cultivation of entomopathogenic fungi for the search of antibacterial compounds.  

PubMed

Entomopathogenic fungi are a rich source of natural bioactive compounds. To establish cultivation conditions which facilitate the production of bioactive compounds and to select good genera among entomopathogenic fungi as the producer, 47 typical entomopathogenic fungi were tested for their ability to produce antibiotic activity. Thirty-eight strains (81%) and 30 strains (64%) of these fungi produced either anti-Bacillus compounds or anti-Staphylococcus compounds, respectively, indicating that the majority of the entomopathogenic fungi tested possessed the ability to produce antibacterial compounds. Using 9 representative strains (Aschersonia sp. HF724, Beauveria bassiana HF338, Cordyceps ramosopulvinata HF746, Metarhizium anisopliae HF293, Metarhizium flavoviride HF698, Nomuraea rileyi HF588, Paecilomyces fumosoroseus HF254, Paecilomyces tenuipes HF419, and Verticillium lecanii HF238), the cultivation conditions in liquid medium were surveyed with respect to the cultivation procedure and medium composition, particularly in terms of the presence or absence of insect-derived materials. At 26 degrees C, M. anisopliae HF293, N. rileyi HF588, and V. lecanii HF238 strains produced clear antibiotic activity against Bacillus and Saccharomyces, but only in the presence of insect-derived materials, suggesting that the production of antibacterial/antifungal compounds by entomopathogenic fungi is triggered by the presence of insect-derived materials. PMID:16244901

Lee, Si-Young; Nakajima, Ikuo; Ihara, Fumio; Kinoshita, Hiroshi; Nihira, Takuya

2005-11-01

251

Semi-continuous cultivation of Haematococcus pluvialis for commercial production.  

PubMed

The objectives of the present study on the growth of Haematococcus pluvialis were to indicate the effects of a long-term semi-continuous cultivation, sterilization, carbon dioxide, and different culture media by using artesian well water. This investigation was an enterprise in order to commercialize the production economically. When the effect of CO(2) was investigated in basal culture medium, the influence of sterilization was also researched in Rudic's culture medium in vertical panel-type photobioreactors for 31 days of semi-continuous cultivation. The maximum cell concentration of 10.55 x 10(5) cells ml(-1), which corresponds to the growth rate of 0.271 day(-1) with the areal productivity of 3.531 g m(-2) day(-1), was found in non-sterilized RM medium on the 24th day of the third run of semi-continuous cultivation at a renewal rate of 50% in a vertical panel-type photobioreactor. PMID:19387568

Imamoglu, Esra; Dalay, Meltem Conk; Sukan, Fazilet Vardar

2010-03-01

252

Relationships between 137Cs and soil organic carbon (SOC) in cultivated and never-cultivated soils: An Australian example  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between soil redistribution processes (i.e. soil erosion and deposition), using the caesium-137 (137Cs) method, and the movement, storage and loss of soil organic carbon (SOC) are examined for a small catchment in south-eastern Australia. While recent studies have found strong and statistically significant relationships between 137Cs and SOC within heavily cultivated (i.e. highly disturbed) landscapes, there has been

C. Martinez; G. R. Hancock; J. D. Kalma

2010-01-01

253

Biomass recycling from a riboflavin cultivation with B. subtilis: lysis, extract production and testing as substrate in riboflavin cultivation.  

PubMed

Autolysis of riboflavin-producing B. subtilis can be induced by pH, lack of carbon source, and the buffer system. Stress factors like temperature shift or oxygen dearth enhance the autolysis process. After cultivation of a riboflavin-producing strain, the pH of the whole culture broth was adjusted to 6.5-7.5. At a temperature of 40 degrees C, autolysis started after 1 h. Adding a defined amount of commercially available endo- and exo-proteases enhanced both auto- and proteo-lysis. Optimization of endo- and exo-protease concentrations and of the time increased the degree of proteolysis. Additionally, the amount of DNA and Protein trapped in the riboflavin crystals could be significantly reduced by autolysis. After autolysis, the cultivation broth was centrifuged and the supernatant was cross-flow filtrated with a cut off of 10 kDa. Using this autolysate instead of yeast extract as a medium component for riboflavin production with B. subtilis, a riboflavin yield of 77% was obtained in comparison with the standard cultivation on yeast extract. PMID:16732593

Bretz, Karlheinz; Ilijevic, Stefan; Grüneberg, Marlene; Becker, Ulrike; Syldatk, Christoph

2006-12-20

254

QTL clusters reflect character associations in wild and cultivated rice.  

PubMed

The genetic basis of character association related to differentiation found in the primary gene pool of rice was investigated based on the genomic distribution of quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Major evolutionary trends in cultivated rice of Asiatic origin ( Oryza sativa) and its wild progenitor ( O. rufipogon) are: (1) differentiation from wild to domesticated types (domestication), (2) ecotype differentiation between the perennial and annual types in wild races, and (3) the Indica versus Japonica type differentiation in cultivated races. Using 125 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between an Indica cultivar of O. sativa and a strain of O. rufipogon carrying some Japonica-like characteristics, we mapped 147 markers, mostly RFLPs, on 12 chromosomes. Thirty-seven morphological and physiological quantitative traits were evaluated, and QTLs for 24 traits were detected. The mapped loci showed a tendency to form clusters that are composed of QTLs of the domestication-related traits as well as Indica/Japonica diagnostic traits. QTLs for perennial/annual type differences did not cluster. This cluster phenomenon could be considered "multifactorial linkages" followed by natural selection favoring co-adapted traits. Further, it is possible that the clustering phenomenon is partly due to pleiotropy of some unknown key factor(s) controlling various traits through diverse metabolic pathways. Chromosomal regions where QTL clusters were found coincided with the regions harboring genes or gene blocks where the frequency of cultivar-derived alleles in RILs is higher than expected. This distortion may be partly due to unconscious selection favoring cultivated plant type during the establishment of RILs. PMID:12582574

Cai, W.; Morishima, H.

2002-06-01

255

In vitro cultivation of the hymenoptera genetic model, Nasonia.  

PubMed

The wasp genus Nasonia is a genetic model with unique advantages for the study of interspecific differences, including haplodiploidy and interfertile species. However, as a parasitoid, Nasonia is confined within a fly host, thus restricting direct observations and manipulation of development over time. Here, we present the first in vitro cultivation method for this system that decouples Nasonia from its host, allowing continuous observations from embryo to adulthood. Using transwell plates and a simple Nasonia rearing medium, we demonstrate a technique that will significantly expand the utility of the Nasonia model. PMID:23227258

Brucker, Robert M; Bordenstein, Seth R

2012-01-01

256

In Vitro Cultivation of the Hymenoptera Genetic Model, Nasonia  

PubMed Central

The wasp genus Nasonia is a genetic model with unique advantages for the study of interspecific differences, including haplodiploidy and interfertile species. However, as a parasitoid, Nasonia is confined within a fly host, thus restricting direct observations and manipulation of development over time. Here, we present the first in vitro cultivation method for this system that decouples Nasonia from its host, allowing continuous observations from embryo to adulthood. Using transwell plates and a simple Nasonia rearing medium, we demonstrate a technique that will significantly expand the utility of the Nasonia model.

Brucker, Robert M.; Bordenstein, Seth R.

2012-01-01

257

Isolation of Ewingella americana from the cultivated mushroom, Agaricus bisporus.  

PubMed

The isolation of Ewingella americana, an unusual Enterobacteriaceae, is reported here for the first time in a non-animal reservoir. Thirty-five strains of E. americana have been recovered from the cultivated mushroom, Agaricus bisporus. The biochemical characteristics of these strains are consistent with previously published descriptions of this species recovered from clinical specimens and from molluscs. DNA reassociation analysis was used to confirm the identity of mushroom-derived E. americana, and restriction fragment length polymorphism was used to reliably differentiate strains that otherwise demonstrated little phenotypic variation. PMID:8875916

Inglis, P W; Peberdy, J F

1996-11-01

258

Variation of total hyoscine content of cultivated Datura metel Linn.  

PubMed

A titrimetric method is described for rapid assay of hyoscine content of organs of locally cultivated Datura metel Linn. Raw materials required (approximately 1.5 gm) are much less than those required for conventional percolation processes. Using the procedure, the flowers have been shown to be richest in hyoscine, only minimal levels of alkaloids being detected in the fruits. Furthermore, the total alkaloid content of D. metel has been shown to peak in the hot dry season, and at its lowest during the rainy season in Ibadan. PMID:7839880

Abo, K A; Salami, O O; Adelegan, I O

1993-03-01

259

Environmental life cycle assessment of Ethiopian rose cultivation.  

PubMed

A life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted for Ethiopian rose cultivation. The LCA covered the cradle-to-gate production of all inputs to Ethiopian rose cultivation up to, and including transport to the Ethiopian airport. Primary data were collected about materials and resources used as inputs to, and about the product outputs from 21 farms in 4 geographical regions (i.e. Holleta, Sebeta, Debre Ziet, and Ziway). The primary data were imported in, and analyzed with the SimaPro7.3 software. Data for the production of used inputs were taken from the EcoInvent®2.0 database. Emissions from input use on the farms were quantified based on estimates and emission factors from various studies and guidelines. The resulting life cycle inventory (LCI) table was next evaluated with the CML 2 baseline 2000 V2/world, 1990/characterization method to quantify the contribution of the rose cultivation chain to 10 environmental impact categories. The set of collected primary data was comprehensive and of high quality. The data point to an intensive use of fertilizers, pesticides, and greenhouse plastic. Production and use of these inputs also represent the major contributors in all environmental impact categories. The largest contribution comes from the production of the used fertilizers, specifically nitrogen-based fertilizers. The use of calcium nitrate dominates Abiotic Depletion (AD), Global Warming (GW), Human Toxicity (HT) and Marine Aquatic Ecotoxicity (MAET). It also makes a large contribution to Ozone Depletion (OD), Acidification (AD) and Fresh water Aquatic Ecotoxicity (FAET). Acidification (AC) and Eutrophication (EU) are dominated by the emission of fertilizers. The emissions from the use of pesticides, especially insecticides dominate Terrestrial Ecotoxicity (TE) and make a considerable contribution to Freshwater Aquatic Ecotoxicity (FAET) and Photochemical Oxidation (PhO). There is no visible contribution from the use of pesticides to the other toxicity categories. Production and use of greenhouse plastic are another important contributors, and just a bit less than the contribution of calcium nitrate to Abiotic Depletion (AD). The results of this study clearly indicate nutrient management and emissions from pesticide use, especially insecticides, as a focus point for environmental optimization of the rose cultivation sector in Ethiopia. PMID:23183227

Sahle, Abiy; Potting, José

2013-01-15

260

THE ADAPTATION OF UNMODIFIED STRAINS OF YELLOW FEVER VIRUS TO CULTIVATION IN VITRO.  

PubMed

1. In a search for suitable tissues for the cultivation of yellow fever virus in vitro, mouse embryos were inoculated with this virus in utero. A titration for virus content of the various organs of the embryos indicated that the virus was present in the brain in greatest concentration. 2. Unmodified strains of yellow fever virus were readily adapted to cultivation in vitro in a medium consisting of minced mouse embryo brain tissue and Tyrode solution containing 10 per cent normal monkey serum. 3. After a continued cultivation in mouse embryo brain tissue cultures for twenty to twenty-five subcultures, these strains were readily adapted to cultivation in whole mouse embryo tissue medium. 4. There is evidence to indicate that a prolonged cultivation of the virus in mouse embryo brain medium increases its neurotropic properties. 5. Attempts to employ monkey tissues for in vitro cultivation of yellow fever virus gave entirely negative results. PMID:19870635

Smith, H H; Theiler, M

1937-05-31

261

THE ADAPTATION OF UNMODIFIED STRAINS OF YELLOW FEVER VIRUS TO CULTIVATION IN VITRO  

PubMed Central

1. In a search for suitable tissues for the cultivation of yellow fever virus in vitro, mouse embryos were inoculated with this virus in utero. A titration for virus content of the various organs of the embryos indicated that the virus was present in the brain in greatest concentration. 2. Unmodified strains of yellow fever virus were readily adapted to cultivation in vitro in a medium consisting of minced mouse embryo brain tissue and Tyrode solution containing 10 per cent normal monkey serum. 3. After a continued cultivation in mouse embryo brain tissue cultures for twenty to twenty-five subcultures, these strains were readily adapted to cultivation in whole mouse embryo tissue medium. 4. There is evidence to indicate that a prolonged cultivation of the virus in mouse embryo brain medium increases its neurotropic properties. 5. Attempts to employ monkey tissues for in vitro cultivation of yellow fever virus gave entirely negative results.

Smith, Hugh H.; Theiler, Max

1937-01-01

262

Hollow-Fiber Membrane Chamber as a Device for In Situ Environmental Cultivation?  

PubMed Central

A hollow-fiber membrane chamber (HFMC) was developed as an in situ cultivation device for environmental microorganisms. The HFMC system consists of 48 to 96 pieces of porous hollow-fiber membrane connected with injectors. The system allows rapid exchange of chemical compounds, thereby simulating a natural environment. Comparative analysis through the cultivation of three types of environmental samples was performed using this newly designed device and a conventional agar-based petri dish. The results show that the ratios of novel phylotypes in isolates, species-level diversities, and cultivabilities in HFMC-based cultivation are higher than those in an agar-based petri dish for all three samples, suggesting that the new in situ cultivation device is effective for cultivation of various environmental microorganisms.

Aoi, Yoshiteru; Kinoshita, Tomoyuki; Hata, Toru; Ohta, Hiroaki; Obokata, Haruko; Tsuneda, Satoshi

2009-01-01

263

A new strategy for lipid production by mix cultivation of Spirulina platensis and Rhodotorula glutinis.  

PubMed

Mix cultivation of microalgae (Spirulina platensis) and yeast (Rhodotorula glutinis) for lipid production was studied. Mixing cultivation of the two microorganisms significantly increased the accumulation of total biomass and total lipid yield. Dissolved oxygen and medium components in the mixed fermentation medium were analyzed. Mix cultivation in monosodium glutamate wastewater was further studied. Result indicated 1,600 mg/L of biomass was obtained and 73% of COD were removed. PMID:18931954

Xue, Feiyan; Miao, Jinxin; Zhang, Xu; Tan, Tianwei

2010-01-01

264

Processes affecting genetic structure and conservation: a case study of wild and cultivated Brassica rapa  

Microsoft Academic Search

When planning optimal conservation strategies for wild and cultivated types of a plant species, a number of influencing biological\\u000a and environmental factors should be considered from the outset. In the present study Brassica rapa was used to illustrate this: to develop Scandinavian conservation strategies for wild and cultivated B. rapa, DNA-marker analysis was performed on 15 cultivated and 17 wild

Naja Steen Andersen; Gert Poulsen; Bente Anni Andersen; Lars Pødenphant Kiær; Tina D’Hertefeldt; Mike J. Wilkinson; Rikke Bagger Jørgensen

2009-01-01

265

Nitrogen mineralization in native cultivated and abandoned fields in shortgrass steppe  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a set of in situ incubations to evaluate patterns of N availability among dominant land uses in the shortgrass\\u000a steppe region of Colorado, USA, and to assess recovery of soil fertility in abandoned fields. Replicated 30 d incubations\\u000a were performed in 3 sets of native (never cultivated), abandoned (cultivated until 1937), and currently cultivated, fallow\\u000a fields. Net N

Tamiko Ihori; Ingrid C. Burke; Paul B. Hook

1995-01-01

266

[Brief history of recent hemp cultivation in Switzerland and subsequent medico-legal problems resulting from hemp cultivation].  

PubMed

In March 1995, a decision about cultivation of cannabis was issued by the Swiss Federal Offices of Public Health, Police and Agriculture in order to satisfy the growing interest of farmers and other people in hemp farming. It pointed out that 1)... each hemp plant contains THC and must be therefore considered a drug, 2)... no permission is required for those who grow hemp without the intention to produce drugs ... meaning that the choice of the plant variety was not restricted to those which are characterized by a low THC concentration and grown in a few countries belonging to the European Union. Claiming that natural hemp must contain significant amounts of THC and thanks to the Swiss legislation, areas dedicated to hemp cultivation develop considerably. Most hemp plants which are submitted to our laboratories by the police for THC quantification belong to the drug-type. Nowadays, a great deal of goods (food and beverages, cosmetics, drugs) made of hemp are marketed in Switzerland. Strong suspicions exist however that several of these products could be used as a screen for the illegal market of cannabis. For instance, despite financial support from the state, fiber hemp cultivation remains unsuccessful. No advantage with regard to seed productivity, edible seed and essential oils qualities and yields have been found for drug hemp over fiber hemp by agricultural research stations up to now. Several clues about the possible illicit use of hemp goods rich in THC, especially hemp tea made of flower tops and "therapeutic" pillows filled with cannabis exist. Recently, two Federal edits were issued in order to restrict the selling of hemp seedlings and of hemp foods and beverages to those containing only low amounts of THC. However, the marketing of hemp plants used for decorating remains free partly explaining the recent success of these "beautiful" plants. Broadly speaking, the Swiss and European legislations about hemp have approached mutually during the last years. PMID:10067113

Giroud, C; Broillet, A; Augsburger, M; Bernhard, W; Rivier, L; Mangin, P

1999-01-21

267

Significance, progress and prospects for research in simplified cultivation technologies for rice in China  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Simplified cultivation technologies for rice have become increasingly attractive in recent years in China because of their social, economical and environmental benefits. To date, several simplified cultivation technologies, such as conventional tillage and seedling throwing (CTST), conventional tillage and direct seeding (CTDS), no-tillage and seedling throwing (NTST), no-tillage and direct seeding (NTDS) and no-tillage and transplanting (NTTP), have been developed in China. Most studies have shown that rice grown under each of these simplified cultivation technologies can produce a grain yield equal to or higher than traditional cultivation (conventional tillage and transplanting). Studies that have described the influences of agronomic practices on yield formation of rice under simplified cultivation have demonstrated that optimizing agronomy practices would increase the efficiencies of simplified cultivation systems. Further research is needed to optimize the management strategies for CTST, CTDS and NTST rice which have developed quickly in recent years, to strengthen basic research for those simplified cultivation technologies that are rarely used at present (such as NTTP and NTDS), to select and breed cultivars suitable for simplified cultivation and to compare the practicability and effectiveness of different simplified cultivation technologies in different rice production regions.

HUANG, M.; IBRAHIM, MD.; XIA, B.; ZOU, Y.

2011-01-01

268

Effect of cultivation on allelopathic interference success of the weed,Pluchea lanceolata.  

PubMed

Pluchea lanceolata, a perennial noxious weed, is rapidly spreading into cultivated fields in semiarid regions of India. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of cultivation on the interference success ofPluchea lanceolata by comparing chemical characteristics of the weed and its associated topsoil and subsoil in cultivated and uncultivated habitats. Weed plants from both cultivated and uncultivated habitats were analyzed for four biotic characteristics. Leaves were analyzed for nine chemical characteristics. Soils (topsoil and subsoil) were analyzed for 13 chemical characteristics. Nutrient concentrations of the weed and its associated soils, both in cultivated and uncultivated habitats, showed that plant response with reference to nutrient uptake was inversely related to that of soils. Thus, the weed does not create nutrient stress. With cultivation, leaf area and Cu and Na contents increased, while leaf ash, leaf weight, and Mg and Ca decreased. In the topsoil and subsoil, however, concentrations of total carbonates, total phenolics, and Ca increased with cultivation, while organic carbon, phosphate, and K decreased. High phenolic content of the cultivated fields could be explained due to leaching of water-soluble compounds from the plant parts either through natural leaching or through various agricultural practices such as ploughing and irrigation. We concluded that water-soluble phenolics, leached from the weed into the soil, increased with cultivation. PMID:24242313

Inderjit; Dakshini, K M

1994-05-01

269

Cancer risk and residential proximity to cranberry cultivation in Massachusetts.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the relationship between cancer risk and residential proximity to cranberry cultivation. METHODS: A population-based case-control study was conducted. Cases, diagnosed during 1983 through 1986 among residents of the Upper Cape Cod area of Massachusetts, involved incident cancers of the lung (n = 252), breast (n = 265), colon-rectum (n = 326), bladder (n = 63), kidney (n = 35), pancreas (n = 37), and brain (n = 37), along with leukemia (n = 35). Control subjects were randomly selected from among telephone subscribers (n = 184), Medicare beneficiaries (n = 464), and deceased individuals (n = 723). RESULTS: No meaningful increases in risk were seen for any of the cancer sites except for the brain. When latency was considered, subjects who had ever lived within 2600 ft (780 m) of a cranberry bog had a twofold increased risk of brain cancer overall (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.8, 4.9) and a 6.7-fold increased risk of astrocytoma (95% CI = 1.6, 27.8). CONCLUSIONS: Residential proximity to cranberry bog cultivation was not associated with seven of the eight cancers investigated; however, an association was observed with brain cancer, particularly astrocytoma. Larger, more detailed studies are necessary to elucidate this relationship.

Aschengrau, A; Ozonoff, D; Coogan, P; Vezina, R; Heeren, T; Zhang, Y

1996-01-01

270

Allelopathic effects of ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) on cultivated plants.  

PubMed

During the past years ragweed has been coming to the forefront of interest in Hungary and in other European countries as well because its serious health risk. Results of the 5th National Weed Survey has proven that ragweed is the most important weed species on Hungarian field lands, its coverage shows a rising tendency in cereals moreover it not only occurs in cultivated plants. Allelopathic effects of aqueous extracts derived from different parts of ragweed plants (air dried leafy stems, seeds) on the germination and growth of other cultivated plants [maize (Zea mays L.), winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), rye (Secale cereale L.), oat (Avena sativa L.)] were studied. The extracts made for the trials were prepared with distilled water. Petri dishes were used for the germination experiments and distilled water was used as a control treatment. The seven days long experiment was carried out within a Binder-type thermostat under dark conditions. The germination percentage was checked in every two days and the growth of sprouts was evaluated after a week counting the germinated seeds and measuring the length of the radicle and plumule. The measured data were statistically analysed and the effect of extracts on germinating and length of sprouts were assessed. PMID:22696964

Lehoczky, E; Gólya, G; Szabó, R; Szalai, A

2011-01-01

271

Phytochemical Investigation of Vinca minor Cultivated in Iran  

PubMed Central

Lesser Periwinkle (Vinca minor L.), a member of Apocynaceae, is not only an ornamental plant with lilac-blue flowers, but also a medical plant producing an important alkaloid, vincamine, found in the leaves which shows a pronounced cerebrovasodilatory and neuroprotective activity. This plant is native to northern Spain, western France, central and southern Europe, and Caucasus. It has been recently cultivated for pharmaceutical purposes by Zardband Botanical Garden in Iran. Since the quality of herb material and alkaloid concentration is greatly influenced by environmental conditions, in this study, we report the isolation and identification of major alkaloids along with the quantification of vincamine as the pharmacologically most important component. Alkaloids from the aerial parts of V. minor were isolated and purified using different chromatographic methods. The structures of these alkaloids were determined on the basis of their physical and spectroscopic data. The concentration of vincamine was determined by high performance liquid chromatography using Tracer Excel 120 ODS A C18 column. Five indole alkaloids including vincaminorine, vincaminoreine, minovine, minovincine, and vincamine (Figure 1) were isolated from the aerial parts of V. minor. Vincamine was found to be the dominant alkaloid in this plant with the content of 0.057% of the dried plant mass. This plant may be used as a natural source for pharmaceutical purposes in Iran, due to the presence of biologically active alkaloids especially vincamine as the major alkaloid in Lesser Periwinkle cultivated.

Farahanikia, Behnaz; Akbarzadeh, Tahmineh; Jahangirzadeh, Akbar; Yassa, Narguess; Shams Ardekani, Mohammad Reza; Mirnezami, Tahmineh; Hadjiakhoondi, Abbas; Khanavi, Mahnaz

2011-01-01

272

SUBPLASMALEMMAL MICROFILAMENTS AND MICROTUBULES IN RESTING AND PHAGOCYTIZING CULTIVATED MACROPHAGES  

PubMed Central

The subplasmalemmal organization of the free and glass-attached surfaces of resting and phagocytizing cultivated macrophages were examined in an attempt to define specific membrane-associated structures related to phagocytosis. From analysis of serial thin sections of oriented cells it was found that the subplasmalemmal region of the attached cell surface has a complex microfilament and microtubule organization relative to the subplasmalemmal area of the free surface. A filamentous network composed of 40–50-Å microfilaments extended for a depth of 400–600 Å from the attached plasma membrane. Immediately subjacent to the filamentous network was a zone of oriented bundles of 40–50-Å microfilaments and a zone of microtubules. Additional microtubules were found to extend from the plasma membrane to the interior of the cell in close association with electron-dense, channellike structures. In contrast, the free aspect of the cultivated macrophage contained only the subplasmalemmal filamentous network. However, after a phagocytic pulse with polystyrene particles (14 µm diam) microtubules and oriented filaments similar to those found on the attached surface were observed surrounding the ingested particles. The observations reported in this paper provide support for the hypothesis that microfilaments and/or microtubules play a role in the translocation of plasma membrane required for the functionally similar processes of phagocytosis and cell attachment to glass.

Reaven, Eve P.; Axline, Stanton G.

1973-01-01

273

Cultivating healthy places and communities: evidenced-based nature contact recommendations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultivating healthful places is an important public health focus. This paper presents evidence-based recommendations related to nature contact. A multidisciplinary review was conducted in several fields of study and findings were organized into public health recommendations: (1) cultivate grounds for viewing, (2) maintain healing gardens, (3) incorporate wooded parks and green space in communities, (4) advocate for preservation of pristine

Erin Largo-Wight

2011-01-01

274

The denitrification properties of soils under three different shelterbelts and in adjoining cultivated fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The investigations were carried out in Agroecological Landscape Park in Turew (40 km South-West of Poznan). Intensively agricultural is observed in this region. Characteristic features of this landscape are shelterbelts created in the XIX century by general Dezydery Chlapowski. All shelterbelts and adjoining cultivated fields were introduced on Hapludalfs soils. Three shelterbelts and adjoining cultivated fields were selected for this

L. Szajdak; J. Augustin; W. Gaca; T. Meysner; K. Styla

2009-01-01

275

Chemical characterization, antioxidant properties, and volatile constituents of naranjilla (Solanum quitoense Lam.) cultivated in Costa Rica  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY. Naranjilla (Solanum quitoense Lam.) is a native fruit of the Andes, cultivated and consumed mainly in Ecuador, Colombia, and Central America. Because of its pleasant aroma and attractive color, it has high potential as an ingredient of products such as juices, nectars, and jams. The main characteristics of mature naranjilla fruits cultivated in Costa Rica were assessed, including sugar

Óscar Acosta; Ana M. Pérez; Fabrice Vaillant

2009-01-01

276

Using Project-Based Learning and Collaborative Learning in Software Engineering Talent Cultivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Higher education is the most important way to cultivating software engineering talents in China, but there is an education gap between the industry and the universities. The current curriculum in university lacked in transferring the experience and skills to students. In this paper, we present how to use project-based learning and collaborative learning in software engineering talent cultivation. We established

Hongzhi Song; Guodong Si; Lei Yang; Huakun Liang; Lixia Zhang

2011-01-01

277

Discrimination of cultivated silk and wild silk by conventional instrumental analyses.  

PubMed

In Japan, recent trends have seen wild silk preferred over cultivated silk because of its texture. Some cases of fraud have occurred where cultivated silk garments are sold as wild silk. Samples from these cases, morphological observation using light microscope and polarized microscope have been conducted in forensic science laboratories. Sometimes scanning electron microscopy was also carried out. However, the morphology of silk shows quite wide variation, which makes it difficult to discriminate wild and cultivated silks by this method. In this report, silk discrimination was investigated using conventional instrumental analyses commonly available in forensic laboratories, such as Fourier-transfer infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (pyr-GC/MS) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). By FT-IR, cultivated and wild silk gave similar infrared spectra, but wild silk had a characteristic peak at 965 cm(-1) from the deformation vibration of the carbon-carbon double bond of the indole ring. Comparison of the pyrograms of cultivated and wild silk showed that wild silk had large indole and skatole peaks that cultivated silk did not, and these peaks might arise from tryptophan. The results of thermogravimetry/DTA showed that the endothermic peak was about 40 °C higher for wild silk than for cultivated silk. Using a combination of these results, cultivated and wild silk could be discriminated by common forensic instrumental techniques. PMID:23742990

Matsuyama, Yuji; Nagatani, Yoshiaki; Goto, Toshiyuki; Suzuki, Shinichi

2013-09-10

278

Carabid beetles in sustainable agriculture: a review on pest control efficacy, cultivation impacts and enhancement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review article on carabids in sustainable agro-ecosystems of the temperate Northern hemisphere presents a compilation of the available knowledge on the significance of carabids for natural pest control and the effects of cultivation methods (except pesticides) and landscape structural elements.Field carabids are species rich and abundant in arable sites, but are affected by intensive agricultural cultivation. For sampling, fenced

Bernhard Kromp

1999-01-01

279

RECOVERY OF BIOMASS FOLLOWING SHIFTING CULTIVATION IN DRY TROPICAL FORESTS OF THE YUCATAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land-use change in the tropics is creating secondary forest at an unprece- dented rate. In the tropical Americas, mature dry tropical forest is rapidly being converted to secondary forest during the fallow period of shifting cultivation. This study addresses changes in forest biomass during forest recovery following shifting cultivation of maize (corn) in the Southern Yucatan Peninsular Region (SYPR), Mexico.

Larissa Read; Deborah Lawrence

2003-01-01

280

Improvement of medium composition for heterotrophic cultivation of green microalgae, Tetraselmis suecica, using response surface methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimization of medium composition for the improvement of heterotrophic cultivation of green microalgae, Tetraselmis suecica, was performed using response surface methodology (RSM). Heterotrophic cultivation of T. suecica was conducted in total darkness using Walne medium formulated with natural sea water. Initially, the effect of two types of carbon source (glucose and sodium acetate) and various types of nitrogen source (peptone,

Mojtaba Azma; Mohd Shamzi Mohamed; Rosfarizan Mohamad; Raha Abdul Rahim; Arbakariya B. Ariff

2011-01-01

281

Integrated cultivation of the red alga Kappaphycus alvarezii and the pearl oyster Pinctada martensi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of simultaneously cultivating the pearl oyster Pinctada martensi and the red alga Kappaphycus alvarezii on growth rates of both species was investigated in laboratory and field studies conducted from December 1993 to June 1995. The two study sites were in subtidal areas 100 km apart off the east coast of Hainan Island, China. Pearl oysters were cultivated in

Pei-Yuan Qian; C. Y. Wu; Madeline Wu; Y. K. Xie

1996-01-01

282

The origin, evolution, cultivation, dissemination, and diversification of Asian and African rices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Available evidences drawn from biosystematics, evolutionary biology, biogeography, archaeology, history, anthropology, paleo-geology and paleo-meteorology are pooled to reconstruct the series of events that led to the cosmopolitan cultivation of the Asian cultivated rice (O. sativa) and the regionalized planting of the African cultigen (O. glaberrima) in West Africa. The genus Oryza originated in the Gondwanaland continents and, following the fracture

Te-Tzu Chang

1976-01-01

283

Role of mycorrhizal infection in the growth and reproduction of wild vs. cultivated plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested the hypothesis that mycorrhizal infection benefits wild plants to a lesser extent than cultivated plants. This hypothesis stems from two observations: (1) mycorrhizal infection improves plant growth primarily by increasing nutrient uptake, and (2) wild plants often possess special adaptations to soil infertility which are less pronounced in modern cultivated plants. In the first experiment, wild (Avena fatua

Roger Koide; Mingguang Li; James Lewis; Cherie Irby

1988-01-01

284

Estimation of mating system parameters in an evolving gynodioecous population of cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultivated plants have been molded by human-induced selection, including manipulations of the mating system in the twentieth century. How these manipulations have affected realized parameters of the mating system in freely evolving cultivated populations is of interest for optimizing the management of breeding populations, predicting the fate of escaped populations and providing material for experimental evolution studies. To produce modern

M Roumet; M-F Ostrowski; J David; C Tollon; M-H Muller

2012-01-01

285

An Evaluation of Cultivated Corneal Limbal Epithelial Cells, Using Cell-Suspension Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE. A previous report has described an ocular surface reconstruction method involving the use of cultivated corneal epithelium derived from limbal explants. In the current study, a new culture system was developed involving the in vitro propagation on amniotic membrane (AM) of epithelial cells from enzymatically dissociated limbal epithelium. The purpose of this new method is to produce a cultivated

Noriko Koizumi; Leanne J. Cooper; Nigel J. Fullwood; Takahiro Nakamura; Keiko Inoki; Masakatsu Tsuzuki; Shigeru Kinoshita

286

Value and Path for Farmers' Citizenship Cultivation from Agri-ecological Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Severe situation faced by China's agri-ecological security is elaborated. It is believed that cultivation of farmers' citizenship is the key to solving this problem, because it is favorable to consolidating farmers' independent and equal ideas, enhancing farmers' cooperative community idea, cultivating farmers' concept of rule by law, and strengthening farmers' fair and just moral concept. It is expected to make

Ming Chen

2011-01-01

287

Effects of Agricultural Cultivation on Demographics of Southern High Plains Amphibians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthropogenic disturbance of landscapes surrounding wetlands is considered a factor in local and global amphibian declines. Few data exist on the effects of agricultural cultivation of wetland watersheds on amphibians, and results from previous studies are contradictory. Our objective was to test the effects of general anthropogenic land use (cultivation vs. grassland) on the demographics of seven species and three

MATTHEW J. GRAY; LOREN M. SMITH; ROBERTO BRENES

2004-01-01

288

Submerged cultivation of Ganoderma lucidum biomass and immunostimulatory effects of fungal polysaccharides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Original Ganoderma lucidum strain MZKI G97 isolated from Slovenian forests was cultivated in a liquid substrate based on potato dextrose and olive oil. The influences of inoculum and oxygen partial pressure in batch and fed batch cultivation in a 10-l laboratory stirred tank reactor were studied. Fungal biomass was found to be oxygen and shear sensible. Using a 17% (wet

Marin Berovi?; Jožica Habijani?; Irena Zore; Branka Wraber; Damjan Hodžar; Bojana Boh; Franc Pohleven

2003-01-01

289

Chlorophyll production from Spirulina platensis: cultivation with urea addition by fed-batch process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis is an attractive alternative source of the pigment chlorophyll, which is used as a natural color in food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical products. In this work, the influence of the light intensity and urea supplementation as a nitrogen source using fed-batch cultivation for S. platensis growth and chlorophyll content was examined. Cultivations were carried out in 5

Carlota de Oliveira Rangel-Yagui; Eliane Dalva Godoy Danesi; João Carlos Monteiro de Carvalho; Sunao Sato

2004-01-01

290

Biofilm cultivation of the oleaginous microalgae Pseudochlorococcum sp.  

PubMed

The cultivation of microalgae in biofilm has been a potential way to overcome the shortcoming of conventional algal culture modes of open pond and photobioreactors in liquid suspension. However, the growth characteristics and related effect factors of the biofilm are still far from being understood. In this work, oleaginous microalgae species Pseudochlorococcum was cultured in an attached biofilm and influential factors on the growth rate of biofilm were investigated. The results showed that Pseudochlorococcum sp. preferred to accumulate more biomass on hydrophilic substrata than on hydrophobic one. The photon flux density of 100 ?mol m(-2 )s(-1) was its light saturation point. The optimal inoculum density was about 3-5 g m(-2). The appropriate concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus in medium and CO2 in aerated gas were determined as 8.8, 0.22 mmol L(-1) and 1 %, respectively. PMID:24362561

Ji, Bei; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Ningning; Wang, Junfeng; Lutzu, Giovanni Antonio; Liu, Tianzhong

2014-07-01

291

Characterization of Phaseolus vulgaris L. landraces cultivated in central Italy.  

PubMed

Eight Phaseolus vulgaris L. landraces cultivated on farm in marginal areas of Central Italy (Lazio region) were investigated in order to evaluate chemical composition of storage proteins and secondary metabolites fractions. The total protein content showed some differences among landraces; the maximum value was next to 30 g for 100 g of dry weight. The seed storage proteins were screened by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS/PAGE): seven landraces exhibited phaseolin patterns type S, one landrace showed a phaseolin pattern type T. A morphological analysis of cotyledon parenchyma performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed differences in size of starch granules. Moreover the polyphenolic composition was investigated using HPLC-APCI; from the methanol extracts a flavonoid, kaempferol, and a coumarin, 5,7-dimethoxycoumarin, were identified. To our knowledge, this is the first time that 5,7-dimethoxycoumarin has been reported in P. vulgaris seeds. PMID:18958625

Perazzini, Raffaella; Leonardi, Donatella; Ruggeri, Stefania; Alesiani, Daniela; D'Arcangelo, Giuseppe; Canini, Antonella

2008-12-01

292

Insights Gained from P. falciparum Cultivation in Modified Media  

PubMed Central

In vitro cultivation of Plasmodium falciparum, the agent of severe human malaria, has enabled advances in basic research and accelerated the development of new therapies. Since the introduction of in vitro parasite culture nearly 40 years ago, most workers have used a medium consisting of RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with lipids and hypoxanthine. While these standardized conditions yield robust parasite growth and facilitate comparison of results from different studies, they may also lead to implicit assumptions that limit future advances. Here, I review recent studies that used modified culture conditions to challenge these assumptions and explore parasite physiology. The findings are relevant to understanding in vivo parasite phenotypes and the prioritization of antimalarial targets.

Desai, Sanjay A.

2013-01-01

293

Cultivation and breeding of Chinese medicinal plants in Germany.  

PubMed

Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is increasingly used in Germany and Europe. Due to the need for herbal drugs of consistent quality and reliable supply, methods for commercial field cultivation and post-harvest processing under south German conditions have been developed for selected plant species used in CHM since 1999. The project used an interdisciplinary approach covering all aspects from seed sourcing to medicinal application. This paper describes the outcome of the agricultural seed and field experiments, breeding program, botanical and chemical characterization of the experimental material, comparison of experimental and imported herbal material with respect to their pharmaceutical quality, transfer of production methods and plant material to specialized farmers, medicinal application and, finally, information for users along the chain of distribution about the benefits of the locally produced herbal material. PMID:21077027

Heuberger, Heidi; Bauer, Rudolf; Friedl, Fritz; Heubl, Günther; Hummelsberger, Josef; Nögel, Rainer; Seidenberger, Rebecca; Torres-Londoño, Paula

2010-12-01

294

Cultivated limbal stem cell transplantation for ocular surface reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Severe damage to cell repair mechanisms of the limbal region can lead to many disorders such as vascularized conjunctivalization, keratinization, corneal scarring, and corneal opacification, collectively described as limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD). Limbal stem cell deficiency may occur as a result of depletion of stem cells or destruction of their stromal niche. In such cases, apart from conventional corneal transplantation, limbal stem cell transplantation would be needed to restore vision. Limbal stem cells may be replenished by autologous limbal transplants from the healthy fellow eye in unilateral cases, and allografts from living related donors or cadaveric donors in bilateral cases. The induction of iatrogenic LSCD and its sequelae in donor eyes have motivated researchers to cultivate sheets of limbal epithelium ex vivo, from small fragments of donor tissue for the purpose of ocular surface reconstruction.

Burman, Sanghamitra; Sangwan, Virender

2008-01-01

295

Wheat cultivation: Identification and estimation of areas using LANDSAT data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of using automatically processed multispectral data obtained from LANDSAT to identify wheat and estimate the areas planted with this grain was investigated. Three 20 km by 40 km segments in a wheat growing region of Rio Grande do Sul were aerially photographed using type 2443 Aerochrome film. Three maps corresponding to each segment were obtained from the analysis of the photographs which identified wheat, barley, fallow land, prepared soil, forests, and reforested land. Using basic information about the fields and maps made from the photographed areas, an automatic classification of wheat was made using MSS data from two different periods: July to September and July to October 1979. Results show that orbital data is not only useful in characterizing the growth of wheat, but also provides information of the intensity and extent of adverse climate which affects cultivation. The temporal and spatial characteristics of LANDSAR data are also demonstrated.

Dejesusparada, N. (principal investigator); Mendonca, F. J.; Cottrell, D. A.; Tardin, A. T.; Lee, D. C. L.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Moreira, M. A.; Delimaefernandocelsosoaresmaia, A. M.

1981-01-01

296

Cultivating Problem Solving Skills via a New Problem Categorization Scheme  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When one looks at STEM disciplines as a whole, the need for effective problem solving skills is a commonality. However, studies indicate that the bulk of students who graduate from problem-solving intensive programs display little increase in their problem solving abilities. Also, there is little evidence for transfer of general skills from one subject area to another. Furthermore, the types of problems typically encountered in introductory STEM courses do not often cultivate the skills students will need when solving âreal-worldâ problems. Initial efforts to develop and implement an interdisciplinary problem categorization matrix as a tool for instructional design are described. The matrix, which is independent of content, shows promise as a means for promoting useful problem-solving discussion among faculty, designing problem-solving intensive courses, and instructing students in developing real-world problem solving skills.

Harper, Kathleen A.; Freuler, Richard; Demel, John

2007-11-25

297

Cultivation of Lentinus subnudus Berk (Polyporales: Polyporaceae) on woodlogs.  

PubMed

Studies were carried out on the cultivability of Lentinus subnudus on woodlogs of various hardwood trees and the effect of chemical treatments of these woodlogs with citric, tartaric, indole-3-acetic (IAA) and gibberellic (GA3) acids on fruitbody production and yield. Of the four hardwood species of Chlorophora excelsa, Terminalia ivorensis, Terminalia superba and Spondias mombin tried, woodlogs of C. excelsa were the best in supporting L. subnudus fructification, followed by those of S. mombin. On the effect of chemical treatments of C. excelsa and S. mombin woodlogs on L. subnudus' fruitbody production and yield, bed logs treated with 50 ppm indole-3-acetic and gibberellic acids were the best in enhancing fructification and yield with C. excelsa GA3 and IAA treated bed logs consistently producing more fruitbodies and greater yields than S. mombin bed logs given the same treatments. The implication of these findings in relation to results obtained in previous studies are discussed. PMID:15081489

Kadiri, Mukaila; Arzai, Auwalu Halliru

2004-08-01

298

A Tangible Programming Tool for Children to Cultivate Computational Thinking  

PubMed Central

Game and creation are activities which have good potential for computational thinking skills. In this paper we present T-Maze, an economical tangible programming tool for children aged 5–9 to build computer programs in maze games by placing wooden blocks. Through the use of computer vision technology, T-Maze provides a live programming interface with real-time graphical and voice feedback. We conducted a user study with 7 children using T-Maze to play two levels of maze-escape games and create their own mazes. The results show that T-Maze is not only easy to use, but also has the potential to help children cultivate computational thinking like abstraction, problem decomposition, and creativity.

Wang, Danli; Liu, Zhen

2014-01-01

299

Ginsenoside contents in Panax quinquefolium organs from field cultivation.  

PubMed

Quantitative composition of saponins (ginsenosides) in Panax quinquefolium originating from field cultivation in Poland and harvested at the beginning of the growing season, during the blossoming period and at the end of growth was determined. A colourimetric method gave lower values compared to results of HPLC analysis, but the tendency of change in the content of saponins was similar in both instances. Ginsenoside amounts in P. quinquefolium organs changed depending on the specific time during the vegetation season the samples were taken. This study found that the highest content of these metabolites--66 mg/g d. w.-- occurred in the roots of the plant at the time of bloom. Two among the six metabolites examined in our study were dominant independently of the vegetation season. These were Rb1 and Re, with values of 25.4-33.8 mg/g d. w. and 16.4-19.7 mg/g d. w., respectively. PMID:18386495

Kochan, Ewa; Ko?odziej, Barbara; Gadomska, Grazyna; Chmiel, Aleksander

2008-01-01

300

Engineering Design Education for Cultivating Creativity and Its Role  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order for researchers and engineers to deal with complicated problems of tomorrow, both fundamental knowledge of science and technology and professional high abilities of problem-finding and problem-solving are needed. The engineering education at Nagoya University is composed of substantial basic education to provide fundamental knowledge and comprehensive training to make use of wide knowledge. Engineering design education nourishes wide visions and professional abilities. This paper first discusses the role that design subjects play in the curriculums whose emphasis is on natural and engineering sciences. It then presents a typical design subject “Creative Experiments for Comprehensive Engineering” which aims at cultivating the professional ability to creatively find and solve problems. In order for engineering education to meet the needs of the society, the help from industry is of vital importance.

Onogi, Katsuaki; Hayakawa, Yoshikazu; Inoue, Junichiro

301

Predominant cultivable flora isolated from human root surface caries plaque.  

PubMed Central

Plaque samples were obtained from tooth surfaces exhibiting typical lesions of root surface caries and were immediately cultured by a continuous anaerobic procedure. The bacterial composition of root caries flora was determined on individual samples. Representative isolates from each specimen were characterized by morphological and physiological criteria. In addition, fluorescent antibody reagents were used to confirm the identification of Streptococcus mutans and Actinomyces viscosus. The plaque samples could be divided into two groups on the basis of the presence or absence of S. mutans in the plaque. In group I plaques, S. mutans comprised 30 percent of the total cultivable flora. S. sanguis was either not found or was present in very low number. In group II plaques, S. mutans was not detected, and S. sanguis formed 48 percent of the total plaque flora. A. viscosus was the dominant organism in all plaque samples, accounting for 47 percent of the group I isolates and 41 percent of the group II isolates.

Syed, S A; Loesche, W J; Pape, H L; grenier, E

1975-01-01

302

Neural networks and the experience and cultivation of mind.  

PubMed

Hard core neural network research includes development of mathematical models of cognitive prediction and optimization aimed at dual use, both as models of what we see in brain circuits and behavior, and as useful general-purpose engineering technology. The pathway and principles now exist to let us someday replicate learning abilities as elevated as what we see in the brain of the mouse-but how can this help us today in understanding and maximizing the much greater potential of the human mind, as addressed by many schools of thought all over the world for centuries? This paper discusses how we might use what we have learned at a lower level to better illuminate key phenomena in first person and clinical human experience such as Freud's "psychic energy", the role of traumatic experience, the interpretation of dreams, creativity, the cultivation of sanity and sensitivity, and the biological foundations of language. PMID:22386781

Werbos, Paul J

2012-08-01

303

Isolation and Characterization of Membranes from the Cultivated Mushroom 1  

PubMed Central

The membranes of sporophore cap tissue from the cultivated mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing., were isolated using discontinuous sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation of a tissue homogenate. A membrane-rich fraction was concentrated at the 1.16/1.18 g/cc interface and a mitochondria-rich fraction at the 1.18/1.20 g/cc interface. The membrane fraction was judged to be greater than 90% membrane vesicles by electron microscopy. The protein to lipid ratio of the membrane fraction was 1.1; the molar ratio of sterol to phospholipid was 0.77. The specific radioactivity of a Mg-activated ATPase was 2.5 times greater in the membrane fraction than in the homogenate. No 5?-nucleotidase or Na-K-Mg-activated ATPase activity was observed. Images

Holtz, R. Barry; Stewart, Peter S.; Patton, Stuart; Schisler, Lee C.

1972-01-01

304

A SYNTHETIC FOOD MEDIUM FOR THE CULTIVATION OF DROSOPHILA  

PubMed Central

In this paper is described the composition and method of making a standard synthetic medium for the laboratory cultivation of Drosophila melanogaster. It is shown that this medium is greatly superior to the banana medium commonly used for this purpose in respect of both the fertility and the mortality of flies kept on it. The range of superiority in respect of fertility is at different densities of population from about 48 per cent at the lowest, to 98 per cent at the highest densities experimentally reported here. The general experience of the laboratory with this medium, which frees experimental work on Drosophila from the incubus of the highly variable banana, shows it to have other points of superiority besides those discussed here.

Pearl, Raymond

1926-01-01

305

Human energy expenditure in lowland rice cultivation in Malaysia.  

PubMed

A study was undertaken to evaluate the human energy consumption of various field operations involved in lowland rice cultivation in Malaysia. Based on recorded average heart rates, fertilizing was found to be the most strenuous operation, with an average heart rate of 138 beats min(-1). There were no significant differences in the average heart rates of the subjects among the individual tasks within the first plowing, second plowing, and harvesting operations, with the average heart rates for these three tasks being 116, 106, and 106 beats min(-1), respectively. The corresponding energy expenditures were 3.90, 3.43, and 3.35 kcal min(-1). Loading the seed into the blower tank and broadcasting the seed were the most critical tasks for the seed broadcasting operation, with average heart rates of 124 and 136 beats min(-1), respectively. The highest energy expenditure of 418.38 kcal ha(-1) was observed for seed broadcasting, and the lowest energy expenditure of 127.96 kcal ha(-1) was for second plowing. The total seasonal human energy expenditure for rice cultivation was estimated to be 5810.71 kcal ha(-1), 55.7% of which was spent on pesticide spraying. Although the sample size in this study was relatively small, the results indicated that human energy expenditure per unit area (kcal ha(-1)) was positively linked to the average heart rate of the subjects and negatively linked to the field capacity. Thus, mechanization of certain tasks could decrease worker physical effort and fatigue and increase production. PMID:22458015

Nawi, N M; Yahya, A; Chen, G; Bockari-Gevao, S M; Maraseni, T N

2012-01-01

306

Glass bead cultivation of fungi: combining the best of liquid and agar media.  

PubMed

Production of bioactive compounds and enzymes from filamentous fungi is highly dependent on cultivation conditions. Here we present an easy way to cultivate filamentous fungi on glass beads that allow complete control of nutrient supply. Secondary metabolite production in Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium solani cultivated on agar plates, in shaking liquid culture or on glass beads was compared. Agar plate culture and glass bead cultivation yielded comparable results while liquid culture had lower production of secondary metabolites. RNA extraction from glass beads and liquid cultures was easier than from agar plates and the quality was superior. The system allows simple control of nutrient availability throughout fungal cultivation. This combined with the ease of extraction of nucleic acids and metabolites makes the system highly suitable for the study of gene regulation in response to specific nutrient factors. PMID:23871859

Droce, Aida; Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Giese, Henriette; Sondergaard, Teis Esben

2013-09-01

307

Improvement in enzyme productivities from mold cultivations using the liquid-phase oxygen supply strategy.  

PubMed

Cultivations of Aspergillus niger cells in which oxygen was provided through the liquid-phase oxygen supply strategy (which involves the need-based decomposition of H2O2 pulses to yield the necessary oxygen) were studied. Concentrations of H2O2 in the range of 1 to 5 mM were found to be suitable for use in cultivations. The growth rate constant of 0.17 h(-1) obtained in the H2O2-based cultivation, was comparable to that obtained in the cultivation with aeration; however, the maximum cell concentration in the H2O2-based cultivation was 124% of that obtained in cultivation with aeration. Maximum concentrations of catalase, protease and glucose oxidase obtained in the H2O2-based cultivation, were 240%, 172%, and 124% respectively, of those obtained in the cultivation with aeration. Further, the specific enzyme levels (units per gram cell) of catalase and protease obtained in the H2O2-based cultivation were 172% and 156% of those obtained in the cultivation with aeration, whereas, the specific glucose oxidase levels were comparable. In addition, the oxygen profiles inside the pellets ofA. niger during both the modes of oxygen supply were described using mathematical models. Studies to elucidate the mechanism of oxygen availability showed that the decomposition of the H2O2 supplied in the extracellular space occurred intracellularly, as well as extracellularly, to yield oxygen. Also, the proton motive force (PMF) was found to be involved in the process of oxygen availability from H2O2 to A. niger cells. PMID:11587571

Rawool, S B; Sahoo, S; Rao, K K; Sureshkumar, G K

2001-01-01

308

Prospects of the Mass Cultivation of Algae as Bulk Fodder (Perspektyvy Masovoho Vyroshchuvannya Vodorostei Dlya Oderzhannya Kormovoii Masy).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Investigations on the laboratory and industrial cultivation of unicellular algae, Chlorella and Scenedesmus, for the production of bulk fodder have been carried out in the Soviet Union and abroad. Criteria for mass cultivation of algae are: the culture sh...

V. A. Kordyum

1969-01-01

309

Searching for Cognitive Processes in the Cultivation Effect: Adult and Adolescent Samples in the United States and Australia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the cultivation hypothesis by testing two cognitive processes hypothesized to allow viewers to construct television-biased beliefs. Finds the basic cultivation result replicated, but neither process hypothesis was supported. (SR)

Hawkins, Robert P.; And Others

1987-01-01

310

Physiomics Array: A Platform for Genome Research and Cultivation of Difficult-to-Cultivate Microorganisms Final Technical Report  

SciTech Connect

A scalable array technology for parametric control of high-throughput cell cultivations is demonstrated. The technology makes use of commercial printed circuit board (PCB) technology, integrated circuit sensors, and an electrochemical gas generation system. We present results for an array of eight 250 ?l microbioreactors. Each bioreactor contains an independently addressable suite that provides closed-loop temperature control, generates feed gas electrochemically, and continuously monitors optical density. The PCB technology allows for the assembly of additional off-the-shelf components into the microbioreactor array; we demonstrate the use of a commercial ISFET chip to continuously monitor culture pH. The electrochemical dosing system provides a powerful paradigm for reproducible gas delivery to high-density arrays of microreactors. We have scaled the technology to a standard 96-well format and have constructed a system that could be easily assembled.

Jay D. Keasling

2006-07-10

311

The effects of minimal tillage, contour cultivation and in-field vegetative barriers on soil erosion and phosphorus loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

Runoff, sediment, total phosphorus and total dissolved phosphorus losses in overland flow were measured for two years on unbounded plots cropped with wheat and oats.Half of the field was cultivated with minimum tillage (shallow tillage with a tine cultivator) and half was conventionally ploughed. Within each cultivation treatment there were different treatment areas (TAs). In the first year of the

C. J. Stevens; J. N. Quinton; A. P. Bailey; C. Deasy; M. Silgram; D. R. Jackson

2009-01-01

312

Independent domestications of cultivated tree peonies from different wild peony species.  

PubMed

An understanding of plant domestication history provides insights into general mechanisms of plant adaptation and diversification and can guide breeding programmes that aim to improve cultivated species. Cultivated tree peonies (genus Paeonia L.) are among the most popular ornamental plants in the world; yet, the history of their domestication is still unresolved. Here, we explored whether the domestication in China of historically cultivated peonies, that is, the common and flare cultivated tree peonies, was a single event or whether independent domestications occurred. We used 14 nuclear microsatellite markers and a comprehensive set of 553 tree peonies collected across China, including common tree peonies, flare tree peonies and the wild species or subspecies that are potential contributors to the cultivated tree peonies, that is, Paeonia rockii ssp. rockii, P. rockii ssp. atava, P. jishanensis and P. decomposita. Assignment methods, a principal component analysis and approximate Bayesian computations provided clear evidence for independent domestications of these common tree and flare tree peonies from two distinct and allopatric wild species, P. jishanensis and P. rockii ssp. atava, respectively. This study provides the first example of independent domestications of cultivated trees from distinct species and locations. This work also yields crucial insight into the history of domestication of one of the most popular woody ornamental plants. The cultivated peonies represent an interesting case of parallel and convergent evolution. The information obtained in this study will be valuable both for improving current tree peony breeding strategies and for understanding the mechanisms of domestication, diversification and adaptation in plants. PMID:24138195

Yuan, Jun-Hui; Cornille, Amandine; Giraud, Tatiana; Cheng, Fang-Yun; Hu, Yong-Hong

2014-01-01

313

Comparing the hydrology of grassed and cultivated catchments in the semi-arid Canadian prairies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the St Denis National Wildlife Area in the prairie region of southern Saskatchewan, Canada, water levels in wetlands have been monitored since 1968. In 1980 and 1983 a total of about one-third of the 4 km2 area was converted from cultivation to an undisturbed cover of brome grass. A few years after this conversion all the wetlands within the area of grass dried out; they have remained dry since, whereas wetlands in adjacent cultivated lands have held water as before. Field measurements show that introduction of undisturbed grass reduces water input to the wetlands mainly through a combination of efficient snow trapping and enhanced infiltration into frozen soil. In winter, the tall brome grass traps most of the snowfall, whereas in the cultivated fields more wind transport of snow occurs, especially for short stubble and fallow fields. Single-ring infiltration tests were conducted during snowmelt, while the soil was still frozen, and again in summer. The infiltrability of the frozen soil in the grassland is high enough to absorb most or all of the snowmelt, whereas in the cultivated fields the infiltration into the frozen soil is limited and significant runoff occurs. In summer, the infiltrability increases for the cultivated fields, but the grassland retains a much higher infiltrability than the cultivated land. The development of enhanced infiltrability takes several years after the conversion from cultivation to grass, and is likely due to the gradual development of macropores, such as root holes, desiccation cracks, and animal burrows.

van der Kamp, G.; Hayashi, M.; Gallén, D.

2003-02-01

314

Cultivated land information extraction from high-resolution unmanned aerial vehicle imagery data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of precision agriculture demands high accuracy and efficiency of cultivated land information extraction. Simultaneously, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have been increasingly used for natural resource applications in recent years as a result of their greater availability, the miniaturization of sensors, and the ability to deploy UAVs relatively quickly and repeatedly at low altitudes. We examine the potential of utilizing a small UAV for the characterization, assessment, and monitoring of cultivated land. Because most UAV images lack spectral information, we propose a novel cultivated land information extraction method based on a triangulation for cultivated land information extraction (TCLE) method. Thus, the information on more spatial properties of a region is incorporated into the classification process. The TCLE comprises three main steps: image segmentation, triangulation construction, and triangulation clustering using AUTOCLUST. Experiments were conducted on three UAV images in Deyang, China, using TCLE and eCognition for cultivated land information extraction (ECLE). Experimental results show that TCLE, which does not require training samples and has a much higher level of automation, can obtain accuracies equivalent to ECLE. Comparing with ECLE, TCLE also extracts coherent cultivated land with much less noise. As such, cultivated land information extraction based on high-resolution UAV images can be effectively and efficiently conducted using the proposed method.

Ma, Lei; Cheng, Liang; Han, Wenquan; Zhong, Lishan; Li, Manchun

2014-01-01

315

Training programmes can change behaviour and encourage the cultivation of over-harvested plant species.  

PubMed

Cultivation of wild-harvested plant species has been proposed as a way of reducing over-exploitation of wild populations but lack of technical knowledge is thought to be a barrier preventing people from cultivating a new species. Training programmes are therefore used to increase technical knowledge to encourage people to adopt cultivation. We assessed the impact of a training programme aiming to encourage cultivation of xaté (Chamaedorea ernesti-augusti), an over-harvested palm from Central America. Five years after the training programme ended, we surveyed untrained and trained individuals focusing on four potential predictors of behaviour: technical knowledge, attitudes (what individuals think about a behaviour), subjective norms (what individuals perceive others to think of a behaviour) and perceived behavioural control (self assessment of whether individuals can enact the behaviour successfully). Whilst accounting for socioeconomic variables, we investigate the influence of training upon these behavioural predictors and examine the factors that determine whether people adopt cultivation of a novel species. Those who had been trained had higher levels of technical knowledge about xaté cultivation and higher belief in their ability to cultivate it while training was not associated with differences in attitudes or subjective norms. Technical knowledge and perceived behavioural control (along with socio-economic variables such as forest ownership and age) were predictors of whether individuals cultivate xaté. We suggest that training programmes can have a long lasting effect on individuals and can change behaviour. However, in many situations other barriers to cultivation, such as access to seeds or appropriate markets, will need to be addressed. PMID:22431993

Williams, Sophie J; Jones, Julia P G; Clubbe, Colin; Gibbons, James M

2012-01-01

316

[Review on application of plant growth retardants in medicinal plants cultivation].  

PubMed

Plant growth retardants are widely used in cultivation of medicinal plant, but there is still lack of scientific guidance. In order to guide the use of plant growth retardants in medicinal plant cultivation efficiently and reasonably, this paper reviewed the mechanism, function characteristic, plant and soil residue of plant growth retardants, such as chlorocholine chloride, mepiquat chloride, paclobutrazol, unicnazle and succinic acid, and summarized the application of plant growth retardants in medicinal plants cultivation in recent years, with focus on the effect of growth and yield of the officinal organs and secondary metabolites. PMID:24380290

Zhai, Yu-Yao; Guo, Bao-Lin; Cheng, Ming

2013-09-01

317

Treatment of anaerobic digestion effluent of sewage sludge using soilless cultivation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soilless cultivation was carried out using anaerobic digestion effluent of sewage sludge as liquid fertilizer, with a preparation which cultures microorganisms in nutrient solution. As a result, ammonium ions contained in the effluent were nitrified into nitrate ions by the microorganisms. And then, Japanese mustard spinach (Brassica rapa var. perviridis) was cultivated by soilless cultivation system. The plants were grown well using microbial nutrient solution, which similar to the plants using conventional inorganic nutrient solution. In contrast, the plants were grown poorly using the effluent as liquid fertilizer without microorganisms.

Uchimura, Koki; Sago, Yuki; Kamahara, Hirotsugu; Atsuta, Yoichi; Daimon, Hiroyuki

2014-02-01

318

ADAPTATIONS OF ENERGY METABOLISM IN THE CULTIVATED MACROPHAGE  

PubMed Central

Adaptive changes in energy metabolism, as reflected by pyruvate kinase and cytochrome oxidase activities, were examined during in vitro differentiation of the cultivated macrophage. Serum concentrations of tissue culture media, which directly influence endocytic activity, and ambient oxygen tension were both shown to influence pyruvate kinase and cytochrome oxidase activities. Cells maintained in high serum concentrations (30% newborn calf serum [NBCS]) exhibited a 300–400% increase in pyruvate kinase activity and a 40% increase in cytochrome oxidase activity, whereas cells maintained in low serum concentrations (2% NBCS) exhibited a lesser increase (65%) in pyruvate kinase activity and no change in cytochrome oxidase activity. Anaerobiosis resulted in additional alterations in pyruvate kinase and cytochrome oxidase activities. Cells maintained for 48–72 h under anaerobic conditions exhibited a 500–600% increase in pyruvate kinase activity and a 40% decrease in cytochrome oxidase activity. Increased pyruvate kinase activity was dependent on continued protein synthesis. Enzyme increases occurred in anaerobically cultured cells despite an overall reduction in cell protein synthesis. It is suggested that adaptive changes in pyruvate kinase and cytochrome oxidase activity resulting from alterations in either serum concentration or ambient oxygen tension are regulated by two independent mechanisms. One mechanism is aimed at providing energy for endocytic activity and the other in compensating for impaired oxidative metabolism during anaerobiosis.

Simon, Lawrence M.; Axline, Stanton G.; Horn, Barry R.; Robin, Eugene D.

1973-01-01

319

Isolation of cultivable microorganisms from Polish notes and coins.  

PubMed

The potential role of currency in the spread of pathogenic microflora has been evaluated in many countries. In this study Polish paper notes and the coins in general circulation were assayed for the presence of cultivable bacteria and fungi. Bacterial isolates identification was based on cultural and biochemical characters and by comparison of the 16S rRNA gene sequence. Fungal isolates were recognized with biochemical and morphological criteria. Coagulase-negative staphylococci, (43.6% of the total bacterial count) including Staphylococcus saprophyticus, S. epidermidis, and S. hominis, and Enteroccus spp. (30.8% of the total bacterial count), i.e. E.faecalis, E.faecium and E. durans, were the most numerous bacterial contamination. Penicillium spp., and Aspergillus spp. were the most frequently detected moulds whereas Candida spp. was the most frequent yeast isolated from currency. A visible dependence between the banknote denomination, the physical condition of paper currency, and the number of bacteria and fungi was found. The overall count of bacteria isolated from currency was thousand-fold higher than that of fungal isolates. The total amount of bacteria and fungi recovered from the coins was approximately 2.7-fold lower than that isolated from the notes. In summary, the Polish currency notes were found to be contaminated mainly with commensal bacteria and fungi while the opportunistic pathogenic microorganisms Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas stutzeri and C. albicans were detected at a low frequency. PMID:24459833

Kalita, Michal; Palusi?ska-Szysz, Marta; Turska-Szewczuk, Anna; Wdowiak-Wróbel, Sylwia; Urbanik-Sypniewska, Teresa

2013-01-01

320

Air-quality and Climatic Consequences of Bioenergy Crop Cultivation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bioenergy is expected to play an increasingly significant role in the global energy budget. In addition to the use of liquid energy forms such as ethanol and biodiesel, electricity generation using processed energy crops as a partial or full coal alternative is expected to increase, requiring large-scale conversions of land for the cultivation of bioenergy feedstocks such as cane, grasses, or short rotation coppice. With land-use change identified as a major contributor to changes in the emission of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), many of which are known contributors to the pollutants ozone (O 3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5), careful review of crop emission profiles and local atmospheric chemistry will be necessary to mitigate any unintended air-quality consequences. In this work, the atmospheric consequences of bioenergy crop replacement are examined using both the high-resolution regional chemical transport model WRF/Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry) and the global climate model CESM (Community Earth System Model). Regional sensitivities to several representative crop types are analyzed, and the impacts of each crop on air quality and climate are compared. Overall, the high emitting crops (eucalyptus and giant reed) were found to produce climate and human health costs totaling up to 40% of the value of CO 2 emissions prevented, while the related costs of the lowest-emitting crop (switchgrass) were negligible.

Porter, William Christian

321

Continuous cultivation of photosynthetic bacteria for fatty acids production.  

PubMed

In the present work, we introduced a novel approach for microbial fatty acids (FA) production. Photosynthetic bacteria, Rhodobacter sphaeroides KD131, were cultivated in a continuous-flow, stirred-tank reactor (CFSTR) at various substrate (lactate) concentrations. At hydraulic retention time (HRT) 4d, cell concentration continuously increased from 0.97 g dcw/L to 2.05 g dcw/L as lactate concentration increased from 30 mM to 60mM. At 70 mM, however, cell concentration fluctuated with incomplete substrate degradation. By installing a membrane unit to CFSTR, a stable performance was observed under much higher substrate loading (lactate 100mM and HRT 1.5d). A maximum cell concentration of 16.2g dcw/L, cell productivity of 1.9 g dcw/L/d, and FA productivity of 665 mg FA/L/d were attained, and these values were comparable with those achieved using microalgae. The FA content of R. sphaeroides was around 35% of dry cell weight, mainly composed of vaccenic acid (C18:1, omega-7). PMID:24055970

Kim, Dong-Hoon; Lee, Ji-Hye; Hwang, Yuhoon; Kang, Seoktae; Kim, Mi-Sun

2013-11-01

322

A library of Solanum lycopersicoides introgression lines in cultivated tomato.  

PubMed

A set of introgression lines (ILs), containing individual chromosome segments from the wild nightshade Solanum lycopersicoides bred into the genetic background of cultivated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), has been developed. A primary group of 56 lines was selected for maximum representation of the S. lycopersicoides genome (approximately 96% of the total map units), homozygosity, and a minimum number of introgressed segments per line. A secondary set of 34 lines provides increased map resolution in certain regions. Approximately 34% of the lines were sterile in the homozygous condition, but could be maintained by heterozygotes. To facilitate identification of segregating ILs, restriction fragment length polymorphism probes were converted to higher throughput cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence markers, which supplement allozyme and morphological loci. Strong segregation distortion was observed in F2 progeny of heterozygous ILs, with an excess of L. esculentum alleles in most regions. For introgressions on distal chromosome 1L, a preferential transmission of S. lycopersicoides alleles was observed in the male germ line. Homozygous ILs generally yielded less seed from self pollination than corresponding heterozygotes, indicating that sterility effects were recessive. This IL library provides a novel resource for genetic studies of traits found in S. lycopersicoides. PMID:16094436

Canady, Michael A; Meglic, Vladimir; Chetelat, Roger T

2005-08-01

323

Cultivation of aerobic granular sludge for rubber wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

Aerobic granular sludge (AGS) was successfully cultivated at 27±1 °C and pH 7.0±1 during the treatment of rubber wastewater using a sequential batch reactor system mode with complete cycle time of 3 h. Results showed aerobic granular sludge had an excellent settling ability and exhibited exceptional performance in the organics and nutrients removal from rubber wastewater. Regular, dense and fast settling granule (average diameter, 1.5 mm; settling velocity, 33 m h(-1); and sludge volume index, 22.3 mL g(-1)) were developed in a single reactor. In addition, 96.5% COD removal efficiency was observed in the system at the end of the granulation period, while its ammonia and total nitrogen removal efficiencies were up to 94.7% and 89.4%, respectively. The study demonstrated the capabilities of AGS development in a single, high and slender column type-bioreactor for the treatment of rubber wastewater. PMID:23317554

Rosman, Noor Hasyimah; Nor Anuar, Aznah; Othman, Inawati; Harun, Hasnida; Sulong Abdul Razak, Muhammad Zuhdi; Elias, Siti Hanna; Mat Hassan, Mohd Arif Hakimi; Chelliapan, Shreesivadass; Ujang, Zaini

2013-02-01

324

New Strategies for Cultivation and Detection of Previously Uncultured Microbes  

PubMed Central

An integrative approach was used to obtain pure cultures of previously uncultivated members of the divisions Acidobacteria and Verrucomicrobia from agricultural soil and from the guts of wood-feeding termites. Some elements of the cultivation procedure included the following: the use of agar media with little or no added nutrients; relatively long periods of incubation (more than 30 days); protection of cells from exogenous peroxides; and inclusion of humic acids or a humic acid analogue (anthraquinone disulfonate) and quorum-signaling compounds (acyl homoserine lactones) in growth media. The bacteria were incubated in the presence of air and in hypoxic (1 to 2% O2 [vol/vol]) and anoxic atmospheres. Some bacteria were incubated with elevated concentrations of CO2 (5% [vol/vol]). Significantly more Acidobacteria were found on isolation plates that had been incubated with 5% CO2. A simple, high-throughput, PCR-based surveillance method (plate wash PCR) was developed. This method greatly facilitated detection and ultimate isolation of target bacteria from as many as 1,000 colonies of nontarget microbes growing on the same agar plates. Results illustrate the power of integrating culture methods with molecular techniques to isolate bacteria from phylogenetic groups underrepresented in culture.

Stevenson, Bradley S.; Eichorst, Stephanie A.; Wertz, John T.; Schmidt, Thomas M.; Breznak, John A.

2004-01-01

325

[Submerged cultivation and chemical composition of Hericium erinaceus mycelium].  

PubMed

Submerged cultivation of Hericium erinaceus in various media was studied. The yield of the biomass was shown to depend mainly on the carbon source, whereas the content of water soluble polysaccharides depended mainly on the nitrogen source. The optimal medium composition provided the biomass yield of 21-23 g/l in 7 days. The biomass was characterized by the content of total protein, lipids and carbohydrates. In addition, the amino acid composition of the biomass was determined and shown to meet all the requirements of FAO/WHO concerning the amounts of essential amino acids (with exception of tryptophane). Oleinic and linoleic acids were identified as the main components of the fatty acids. Two water soluble polysaccharide fractions differing in solubility in aqueous ethanol were isolated and shown to contain rhamnose, fucose, xylose, glucose and galactose in different proportions. Vitamins B1, B2, B6, PP and E, ergosterol and coenzyme Q were also detected in the biomass of H. erinaceus. PMID:23350189

Avtonomova, A V; Bakanov, A V; Shuktueva, M I; Vinokurov, V A; Popova, O V; Usov, A I; Krasnopol'skaia, L M

2012-01-01

326

Occurrence of Clostridium perfringens from different cultivated soils.  

PubMed

The occurrence of Clostridium perfringens was estimated in 750 samples originated from a variety of soils bearing various bulb crops: Brawnica oderacea (vegetable), Olea europaea, Daucus carota (carote), Solanum tuberosum (potato), Phaseolus vulgaris (green haricot), Beta vulgaris var. rapaceum (beetroot), Cucurbita pepo (squash), Allium cepa (onion), Cucumis sativus (cucumber) and Capsicum annum (pepper). All isolated strains were tested for their antimicrobial activities to amoxicillin, penicillin G, kanamycin, tetracycline, streptomycin, erythromycin, chloramphenicol and metronidazole. When considering the type of the bulb production, it was observed increased number of C. perfringens spore densities in the most undersurface bulb soils. Moreover, C. perfringens spore are likely to occur in particularly large numbers in soil contaminated by fecal matter. Additionally, there is a close relationship between the spore amount and nature of organic content. Presence of C. perfringens was associated with acidic soil. Most of our strains showed resistance to the studied antibiotics applied usually for human and veterinary care. A systematic monitoring of the cultivated soil ecosystems must include bacteriological parameters together with chemical indices of organic pollution in order to obtain information adequate for assessing their overall quality. PMID:21621626

Voidarou, C; Bezirtzoglou, E; Alexopoulos, A; Plessas, S; Stefanis, C; Papadopoulos, I; Vavias, S; Stavropoulou, E; Fotou, K; Tzora, A; Skoufos, I

2011-12-01

327

[Application of biogas fermentation residue in Ziziphus jujuba cultivation].  

PubMed

With field experiment, this paper studied the effects of applying biogas fermentation residue (dregs and slurry) on jujube growth, its fruit quality, and soil fertility. The results showed that biogas fermentation residue could enhance the disease-resistance of jujube plant and its fruit, and improve fruit quality and soil fertility. Compared with applying chemical fertilizers (the control), biogas fermentation residue increased the contents of jujube fruit coarse fiber, vitamin C, amino acids, Fe and P by 27.69%, 24.85%, 19.81%, 10.89% and 5.26%, and of soil organic carbon, total nitrogen and mineral nitrogen by 42.65%, 37.61% and 35.26%, respectively. The soil pH was decreased from 8.75 to 8.21. Biogas fermentation residue could also increase the amount of soil microorganisms. The microbial biomass-C and biomass-N were 59.44% and 56.06% higher than the control, respectively. It was suggested that biogas fermentation residue application could bring better economic and environmental benefits for Z. jujuba cultivation, and also, provide a new approach for no-pollution production of jujube. PMID:16706067

Yu, Fangbo; Guan, Xiaojin; Zhao, Ziru; Zhang, Mingxing; Guo, Peng; Pan, Jijie; Li, Shunpeng

2006-02-01

328

Cultivation of Nannochloropsis gaditana on Mixtures of Nitrogen Sources  

SciTech Connect

To effectively cultivate microalgae it is necessary to understand nutrient requirements to maximize productivity while minimizing cost. One issue associated with large scale systems is optimizing the amount and form of nitrogen; hence the effects of nitrate and urea on microalgae growth, lipid yield, and fatty acids profile for microalgae Nannochloropsis gaditana were investigated. In addition, the effects of high concentrations of urea and nitrate, similar to what may be found in agricultural run-off, were studied. As others have demonstrated, the lipid yield decreases when there is excess nitrate in the medium. Replacing the nitrate with urea has a more significant negative effect on lipid productivity; however, combinations of urea and nitrate are more optimal indicating that agricultural wastewater may be a realistic nitrogen source. The lipid profile is not significantly different if nitrate or urea is the nitrogen source and the major fatty acids are palmitic acid (C16:0) and palmitoleic acid (C16:1), which are readily converted to biodiesel.

Ren, M [University of Arizona; Ogden, K [University of Arizona

2013-01-01

329

Cultivation of pathogenic and opportunistic free-living amebas.  

PubMed

Free-living amebas are widely distributed in soil and water, particularly members of the genera Acanthamoeba and NAEGLERIA: Since the early 1960s, they have been recognized as opportunistic human pathogens, capable of causing infections of the central nervous system (CNS) in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts. Naegleria is the causal agent of a fulminant CNS condition, primary amebic meningoencephalitis; Acanthamoeba is responsible for a more chronic and insidious infection of the CNS termed granulomatous amebic encephalitis, as well as amebic keratitis. Balamuthia sp. has been recognized in the past decade as another ameba implicated in CNS infections. Cultivation of these organisms in vitro provides the basis for a better understanding of the biology of these amebas, as well as an important means of isolating and identifying them from clinical samples. Naegleria and Acanthamoeba can be cultured axenically in cell-free media or on tissue culture cells as feeder layers and in cultures with bacteria as a food source. Balamuthia, which has yet to be isolated from the environment, will not grow on bacteria. Instead, it requires tissue culture cells as feeder layers or an enriched cell-free medium. The recent identification of another ameba, Sappinia diploidea, suggests that other free-living forms may also be involved as causal agents of human infections. PMID:12097243

Schuster, Frederick L

2002-07-01

330

Effect of revulsive cultivation on the yield and quality of newly formed sclerotia in medicinal Wolfiporia cocos.  

PubMed

Wolfiporia cocos is a well-known medicinal mushroom widely used in China, Japan and other Asiatic countries for its various therapeutic effects. 'Revulsive cultivation' is a newly developed method for promoting sclerotia growth in W. cocos field cultivation in China. In this report, we have systematically examined the effects of 'revulsive cultivation' on the yield and quality of newly formed sclerotia. The results showed that the genetic differences between the cultivated strain and the revulsive strain of T1 used in this study did not affect the formation process of new, large sclerotia in which the mycelia of the cultivated strain grew on pine logs directionally assembled on the revulsive strain. Additionally, 'revulsive cultivation', in which the cultivated strain and the revulsive strain used had the same or different genotypes, could remarkably increase the yield, lower the water content, and increase the water-soluble polysaccharide content of the newly formed sclerotia. Moreover, we observed that the changes in the values of the tested economic traits obtained from different genotype combinations through 'revulsive cultivation' were dissimilar. The correlations of these changes with the original sclerotium-forming ability of the cultivated strains and the genetic differences between the cultivated strain and the revulsive strain were not significant. These results will broaden our knowledge regarding the field cultivation of this medical fungus, stimulate new thinking on the study of sclerotium formation in some sclerotium-forming fungi, and promote further studies on the mechanism of sclerotium formation in W. cocos. PMID:24799082

Xu, Zhangyi; Tang, Wenrui; Xiong, Bin; Wang, Keqin; Bian, Yinbing

2014-07-01

331

Enhancing lipid productivity by co-cultivation of Chlorella sp. U4341 and Monoraphidium sp. FXY-10.  

PubMed

To improve lipid productivity, co-cultivation of Chlorella sp. U4341 and Monoraphidium sp. FXY-10 for lipid production was studied. Compared with mono-cultivations, co-cultivation of the two microalgae significantly increased the accumulation of total biomass and total lipid yield, and enhanced the lipid productivity (29.52 mg L(-1) d(-1)). Fatty acid compositions significantly varied in different cultivations. The content of C18 fatty acids in co-cultivation significantly increased, especially for oleic acid (32.45%) and linolenic acid (10.03%) compared with that in mono-cultivation. Moreover, high saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids (55.85%) were obtained in co-cultivation, which suggests their potential as a biodiesel feedstock. PMID:24491914

Zhao, Peng; Yu, Xuya; Li, Junjun; Tang, Xianhua; Huang, Zunxi

2014-07-01

332

Preparation of primary amine-modified gold nanoparticles and their transfection ability into cultivated cells.  

PubMed

Cationic gold nanoparticles, prepared by reducing HAuCl(4) with NaBH(4) in the presence of 2-aminoethanethiol, formed a complex with plasmid DNA, and could be transfected into cultivated cells. PMID:15340630

Niidome, Takuro; Nakashima, Kanako; Takahashi, Hironobu; Niidome, Yasuro

2004-09-01

333

The artificial cultivation of medicinal Caterpillar Fungus, Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Ascomycetes): a review.  

PubMed

Caterpillar fungus, Ophiocordyceps sinensis (syn. Cordyceps sinensis), is highly valued in China as a dietary supplement or tonic food and natural remedy. The combination of the fungus and dead insect has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine for centuries, and evidence shows its efficacy on immunomodulatory potentials. The price of O. sinensis has continued to increase over the last few years due to growing worldwide demand, driving research to determine methods of artificial cultivation to make O. sinensis a more affordable material for commercial trade. This study highlights many aspects of artificial cultivation of O. sinensis, including separation of the anamorph, culture of the mycelium, cultivation of the fruiting bodies, bioecological characteristics of the host insect, and two patterns of artificial cultivation. In addition, this review discusses the current state, limitations, remedies, and future prospects, aiming to draw researchers' attention to the new frontier of research needs in this context. PMID:24266368

Yue, Kai; Ye, Meng; Lin, Xiao; Zhou, Zuji

2013-01-01

334

Scale-up cultivation of Chlorella ellipsoidea from indoor to outdoor in bubble column bioreactors.  

PubMed

The cultivation of Chlorella ellipsoidea in bubble column bioreactors was investigated at different scales under indoor and outdoor conditions. The algal cells were able to quickly adapt to the outdoor conditions and achieved a growth rate of 31.55mg L(-1)day(-1). Due to differences in light and temperature, the outdoor culture produced a higher percentage of unsaturated fatty acids compared to the indoor cultures, while the amino acid composition was unaffected. The overall cost of the biomass produced by the 200L outdoor cultivation (58.70US$/kg-dry weight) was estimated to be more than 7 times lower than that of the 20L indoor cultivation (431.39US$/kg-dry weight). Together these results provide a basis for the cultivation of C. ellipsoidea for the large-scale production of biofuels, high-value nutrients and/or recombinant proteins. PMID:24495537

Wang, Shi-Kai; Hu, Yi-Ru; Wang, Feng; Stiles, Amanda R; Liu, Chun-Zhao

2014-03-01

335

[Effect of cultivation conditions on fatty acid content of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis lipids].  

PubMed

The fatty acid content of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis cellular lipids in different culture conditions was investigated. It was established, that it lies in a narrow range C14-C18 and belongs to isoanteiso type. The species character is constant, independent of temperature, duration of cultivation and medium content dominance of saturated branched-chain fatty acids, among which the anteiso-acids dominate, generally a-C15. A response to the temperature modification of bacteria cultivation, medium and age of culture is expressed by relations between separate fatty acids. Thus the modifications of fatty acid content, connected with age of culture and temperature of cultivation, depend on a strain. The cultivation of bacteria on a rich medium in comparison with poor one enlarges the content of nonbranched-chain and anteiso-acids in lipids. PMID:20695226

Moroz, S M; Hvozdiak, R I; Chernenko, Ie P; Ostapchuk, A M

2010-01-01

336

29 CFR 780.117 - âProduction, cultivation, growing.â  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES...LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture âproduction, Cultivation, Growing...was added to the definition of âagricultureâ in order to take care of a...

2013-07-01

337

Application of Antibiotics in the Cultivation of Dungeness Crab, Cancer Magister.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In static cultivation of Cancer magister zoeae, duration of antibiotic treatment, effectiveness of various antibiotics, and therapeutic pretreatment of the live food were evaluated. Periodic treatment with antibiotics was necessary to maintain high zoeal ...

W. S. Fisher R. T. Nelson

1978-01-01

338

[Mesenchymal stem cells of human endometrium do not undergo spontaneous transformation during long-term cultivation].  

PubMed

Mesenchymal stem cells isolated from human endometrium (eMSC) are perspective source of stem cells for regenerative medicine. Large amount of these cells accumulated by in vitro cultivation is usually required for transplantation into patients. We established several cell eMSC lines and cultivated them during long period of time to examine the possibility of their spontaneous transformation. All cell lines demonstrate limited lifespan, undergo replicative senescence and die. Karyotypic analysis on different passages reveals that most cells display karyotypic stability. Thus, extended in vitro cultivation of eMSCs does not lead to spontaneous transformation that makes therapeutic application of these cells safety for patients. During long-term cultivation eMSCs sustain the expression of surface markers. PMID:23662581

Dominina, A P; Fridliandskaia, I I; Zemel'ko, V I; Pugovkina, N A; Kovaleva, Z V; Zenin, V V; Grinchuk, T M; Nikol'ski?, N N

2013-01-01

339

Rice Cultivation and Methane Emission: Documentation of Distributed Geographic Data Sets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

High-resolution global data bases on the geographic and seasonal distribution of rice cultivation and associated methane emission, compiled by Matthews et al., were archived for public use. In addition to the primary data sets identifying location, season...

E. Matthews J. John I. Fung

1994-01-01

340

Ecological aspects of swidden cultivation among the Andoke and Witoto indians of the Colombian Amazon  

SciTech Connect

The investigation of crop and soil-crop conditions among Andoke and Witoto cultivators in southeast Colombia is used as a basis for assessing Geertz' (1963) model of swidden cultivation. In this respect, the extent to which manioc-dominated swiddens in the study area simulate the structure and composition of the forest climax community is questioned. As Geertz (1963) indicates, and initial nutrient boost for crop cultivation results from the preliminary burning of forest debris, but weed competition, rather than progressive loss of soil fertility, is reported to be the primary cause of abandoning manioc cultivation after 2-3 years. While the Andoke and Witoto crop system remains adaptive at the individual field level, particularly in its constituent species, its fundamental adaptation is considered to be its integration into the broader field and fallow system that juxtaposes crop production with extended periods of forest regeneration.

Eden, M.J.; Andrade, A.

1987-09-01

341

Carrot Cultivation in a Conveyor Using the Aeroponic Method (O Vyrashchivanii Morkovi v Konveleire na Aeroponike).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the study is to describe the aeroponic conveyor method for use in carrot cultivation using artificial light. Three periods of plant growth rates, and changes in composition and biomass are determined.

E. V. Lebedeva L. V. Dimitrieva M. V. Vilyams

1973-01-01

342

Investigation of Promising Algae (Gracilaria Verrucosa (Huds.) Papenf.) for Cultivation in the Far East.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of Gracilaria for the production of agar, Gracilaria found along the far eastern coast of the USSR, the distribution and biology of Gracilaria verrucosa (Huds.) Papenf., and problems involved in the experimental cultivation of Gracilaria verrucosa...

V. F. Makienko

1979-01-01

343

Cultivation Conditions for Phytase Production from Recombinant Escherichia coli DH5?  

PubMed Central

Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the cultivation conditions for the production of phytase by recombinant Escherichia coli DH5?. The optimum predicted cultivation conditions for phytase production were at 3 hours seed age, a 2.5% inoculum level, an L-arabinose concentration of 0.20%, a cell concentration of 0.3 (as measured at 600 nm) and 17 hours post-induction time with a predicted phytase activity of 4194.45 U/mL. The model was validated and the results showed no significant difference between the experimental and the predicted phytase activity (P = 0.305). Under optimum cultivation conditions, the phytase activity of the recombinant E. coli DH5? was 364 times higher compared to the phytase activity of the wild-type producer, Enterobacter sakazakii ASUIA279. Hence, optimization of the cultivation conditions using RSM positively increased phytase production from recombinant E. coli DH5?.

Ariff, Rafidah Mohd; Fitrianto, Anwar; Abd. Manap, Mohd Yazid; Ideris, Aini; Kassim, Azhar; Suhairin, Afinah; Hussin, Anis Shobirin Meor

2013-01-01

344

Fractional and AminoAcid Composition of Wheat Grain Cultivated in Uzbekistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat grain cultivated in Uzbekistan had an increased content of water-soluble proteinaceous and relatively low gliadin and glutelin fractions. The amino-acid content in the studied varieties depended on the amount of protein in the grain.

D. A. Gafurova; P. M. Tursunkhodzhaev; T. D. Kasymova; P. Kh. Yuldashev

2002-01-01

345

Small-scale slow glucose feed cultivation of Pichia pastoris without repression of AOX1 promoter: towards high throughput cultivations.  

PubMed

Recombinant protein synthesis in Pichia pastoris is generally controlled by the strong methanol inducible AOX1 promoter which is repressed by glucose and glycerol. In shake flasks, commonly one or two methanol pulses are added per day for induction. Such pulse feeding procedure leads to carbon starvation phases, which may enhance proteolytic activities and, therefore, cause product losses. Starvation between the methanol pulses could be avoided with a continuous enzymatic feed of glucose from a glucose-based polymer. The amount of glucose was low enough to prevent AOX1 repression by glucose. Energy and carbon were continuously supplied for cell maintenance resulting in significantly increased cell densities and product activities, as shown here at the example of a fungal lipase expressed in P. pastoris. A threefold improvement in measured product activity was obtained by applying enzymatic glucose feed and a further improvement was achieved by applying a defined mixture of ammonium compounds. The strategy described here simplifies the general procedure in shaken cultures by allowing the direct continuation of the cultivation from glucose to the methanol-based production phase without a medium change. It is easily applicable to multiwell plates and thus beneficial for high throughput applications. PMID:24326738

Panula-Perälä, Johanna; Vasala, Antti; Karhunen, Janne; Ojamo, Heikki; Neubauer, Peter; Mursula, Anu

2014-07-01

346

Enhancement of efficiency in the use of light for cultivation of plants in controlled ecological systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problems of plant cultivation with the use of artificial lighting are related to energetics and, initially, to the lack of effective sources for photosynthesis, secondly to the necessity to supply a system with a considerable power in the form of light energy and to remove transformed thermal energy, and finally to economic considerations. These problems are solved by three ways: by the choice of effective radiation sources, design approaches, and technological methods of cultivation. Here we shall consider the first two ways.

Mashinsky, A. L.; Oreshkin, V. I.; Nechitailo, G. S.

1994-01-01

347

Soil bacterial community composition and diversity respond to cultivation in Karst ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil microorganisms play vital roles in recovering and maintaining the health of ecosystems, particularly in fragile Karst\\u000a ecosystems that are easily degraded after cultivation. We investigated the composition and diversity of soil bacterial communities,\\u000a based on RFLP and 16S rDNA sequencing, in a cropland, a naturally revegetated land with former cultivation disturbance and\\u000a a primeval forest in the subtropical Karst

Xiangbi Chen; Yirong Su; Xunyang He; Yawei Wei; Wenxue Wei; Jinshui Wu

348

Effect of Rj Genotype and Cultivation Temperature on the Community Structure of Soybean-Nodulating Bradyrhizobia  

PubMed Central

The nodulation tendency and community structure of indigenous bradyrhizobia on Rj genotype soybean cultivars at cultivation temperatures of 33/28°C, 28/23°C, and 23/18°C for 16/8 h (day/night degrees, hours) were investigated using 780 bradyrhizobial DNA samples from an Andosol with 13 soybean cultivars of four Rj genotypes (non-Rj, Rj2Rj3, Rj4, and Rj2Rj3Rj4). A dendrogram was constructed based on restriction fragment length polymorphism of the PCR products (PCR-RFLP) of the 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer region. Eleven Bradyrhizobium U.S. Department of Agriculture strains were used as a reference. The dendrogram indicated seven clusters based on similarities among the reference strains. The occupancy rate of the Bj123 cluster decreased with increasing cultivation temperature, whereas the occupancy rates of the Bj110 cluster, Be76 cluster, and Be94 cluster increased with increasing cultivation temperature. In particular, the Rj2Rj3Rj4 genotype soybeans were infected with a number of Bj110 clusters, regardless of the increasing cultivation temperature, compared to other Rj genotype soybean cultivars. The ratio of beta diversity to gamma diversity (H??/H??), which represents differences in the bradyrhizobial communities by pairwise comparison among cultivation temperature sets within the same soybean cultivar, indicated that the bradyrhizobial communities tended to be different among cultivation temperatures. Multidimensional scaling analysis indicated that the infection of the Bj110 cluster and the Bj123 cluster by host soybean genotype and the cultivation temperature affected the bradyrhizobial communities. These results suggested that the Rj genotypes and cultivation temperatures affected the nodulation tendency and community structures of soybean-nodulating bradyrhizobia.

Shiro, Sokichi; Yamamoto, Akihiro; Umehara, Yosuke; Hayashi, Masaki; Yoshida, Naoto; Nishiwaki, Aya; Yamakawa, Takeo

2012-01-01

349

Uptake and Assimilation of Nitrate and Iron in Cultivated and Wild Vaccinium Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth of cultivated Vaccinium species on soils with a pH above 6.0 is inhibited and production can be extended to these types of soils only after extensive soil modifications. V. arboreum is a wild species that grows on soils with higher pH values. The aim of the present study was to characterize differences in nitrate and iron assimilation in cultivated

Rebecca L. Darnell; Nicacio Cruz-Huerta

2011-01-01

350

Exploring methanotroph diversity in acidic northern wetlands: Molecular and cultivation-based studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acidic wetlands of the northern hemisphere are an important source of methane, a major greenhouse gas. The taxonomic identity\\u000a of the aerobic methanotrophic bacteria, which colonize these environments and reduce the potential flux of methane to the\\u000a atmosphere, has remained elusive for a long time. Both cultivation-independent molecular approaches and cultivation-based\\u000a studies have been used to identify methanotrophs in this

S. N. Dedysh

2009-01-01

351

Adhesive and growth properties of lectin from the ascidian Didemnum ternatanum on cultivated marine invertebrate cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of N-Acetyl-d-glucosamine-specific lectin (Mr 27 kDa) isolated from the ascidian Didemnum ternatanum on cultivated cells of molluscs and echinoderms were studied. This lectin was found to stimulate the growth or the differentiation of cultivated marine invertebrate cells depending on the stage of embryonic development at which primary cell cultures were obtained. In addition, it has been shown to

N. A. Odintsova; N. I. Belogortseva; A. V. Ermak; V. I. Molchanova; P. A. Luk’yanov

1999-01-01

352

Oman at the cross-roads of inter-regional exchange of cultivated plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past years the Sultanate of Oman which is located at the south-eastern tip of the Arabian peninsula has been studied\\u000a for its cultivated plant genetic resources. Data from this study, that commenced in 2002 and information from the literature\\u000a have been combined to document the millenia-old cultivation history of many agri- and horticultural crop plants in this country

K. Hammer; J. Gebauer; S. Al Khanjari; A. Buerkert

2009-01-01

353

Soil carbon, soil nitrate, and soil emissions of nitrous oxide during cultivation of energy crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon (C) sequestration and soil emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) affect the carbon dioxide (CO2) advantage of energy crops. A long-term study has been performed to evaluate the environmental effects of energy crop cultivation\\u000a on the loamy sand soil of the drier northeast region of Germany. The experimental field, established in 1994, consisted of\\u000a columns (0.25 ha each) cultivated with short

Hans J. Hellebrand; Martin Strähle; Volkhard Scholz; Jürgen Kern

2010-01-01

354

Comparison of soil properties between continuously cultivated and adjacent uncultivated soils in rice-based systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess cultivation-induced changes followed during the Green Revolution on continuous rice–rice and rice–wheat cropping,\\u000a fence-line comparisons between cultivated and adjacent noncultivated soils were made to (a) quantify changes in selected soil\\u000a chemical and biological properties at two moisture conditions, (b) determine the N, P, and K uptake of rice and wheat as affected\\u000a by changes in soil properties, and

Crisanta S. Bueno; J. K. Ladha

2009-01-01

355

Chloroplast-DNA variation in cultivated and wild olive (Olea europaea L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymorphism in the lengths of restriction fragments of the whole cpDNA molecule was studied in cultivated olive and in oleaster\\u000a (wild olive) over the whole Mediterranean Basin. Seventy two olive cultivars, 89 very old trees cultivated locally, and 101\\u000a oleasters were scored for ten endonucleases. Moreover, maternal inheritance of cpDNA in olive was shown by analysing the progeny\\u000a of a

M. Amane; R. Lumaret; V. Hany; N. Ouazzani; C. Debain; G. Vivier; M. F. Deguilloux

1999-01-01

356

Cultivation of GMO in Germany: support of monitoring and coexistence issues by WebGIS technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In Germany, apart from the Amflora potato licensed for cultivation since March 2010, Bt-maize MON810 is the only genetically modified organisms (GMO) licensed for commercial cultivation (about 3,000 ha in 2008). Concerns have been raised about potential adverse environmental impacts of the GMO and about potential implications on the coexistence between conventional and genetically modified production. These issues should

Lukas Kleppin; Gunther Schmidt; Winfried Schröder

2011-01-01

357

Shifting cultivation on the tidal floodplains of Amazônia: impacts on soil nutrient status  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of the impact of traditional agroforestry practices on soil nutrient status in the Amazon Basin have largely been\\u000a limited to upland sites, many of which are oligotrophic. However, rural population density in Amazonia is highest on the floodplains\\u000a of the major rivers and shifting cultivation has been practiced on the floodplains for millennia. We established a slash-and-burn\\u000a cultivation plot

D. J. Zarin; A. L. Duchesne; M. Hiraoka

1998-01-01

358

Genetic Resources (Including Wild and Cultivated Solanum Species) and Progress in their Utilisation in Potato Breeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic resources available for the improvement of the cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum) are reviewed along with progress in their utilisation. The conclusions are as follows. The wild and cultivated species of\\u000a potato have been utilised in potato breeding to good effect, but only a very small sample of the available biodiversity has\\u000a been exploited. New knowledge and technology will

J. E. Bradshaw; G. J. Bryan; G. Ramsay

2006-01-01

359

Effect of Agave tequilana age, cultivation field location and yeast strain on tequila fermentation process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of yeast strain, the agave age and the cultivation field location of agave were evaluated using kinetic parameters\\u000a and volatile compound production in the tequila fermentation process. Fermentations were carried out with Agave juice obtained\\u000a from two cultivation fields (CF1 and CF2), as well as two ages (4 and 8 years) and two Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains (GU3 and

L. Pinal; E. Cornejo; M. Arellano; E. Herrera; L. Nuñez; J. Arrizon; A. Gschaedler

2009-01-01

360

Restriction fragment variation in the nuclear and chloroplast genomes of cultivated and wild Sorghum bicolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty-six accessions of cultivated and wild sorghum were surveyed for genetic diversity using 50 low-copy-number nuclear DNA sequence probes to detect restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs). These probes revealed greater genetic diversity in wild sorghum than in cultivated sorghum, including a larger number of alleles per locus and a greater portion of polymorphic loci in wild sorghum. In comparison to

P. R. Aldrich; J. Doebley

1992-01-01

361

Tank cultivation of Ulva prolifera in deep seawater using a new “germling cluster” method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new “germling cluster” method is proposed for tank cultivation of seaweed in a free-floating form. This method was applied\\u000a to the tank cultivation of Ulva prolifera using deep seawater (DSW) pumped up from over 300 m depth off the cape of Muroto in southwest Japan. Numerous zoids of U. prolifera were induced by cutting thalli into 1–2 mm long pieces. Three

Masanori Hiraoka; Naohiro Oka

2008-01-01

362

Cultivation of microalgae in dairy effluent for oil production and removal of organic pollution load.  

PubMed

Dairy effluent (DE) was evaluated for cultivation of the oleaginous micro alga Chlorococcum sp. RAP13 under mixotrophic and heterotrophic modes. The alga grew better and accumulated more lipids under heterotrophic cultivation. Supplementation of biodiesel industry waste glycerol (BDWG) to DE enhanced the biomass production as well as lipid accumulation. While the biomass yield was 0.8g/L for mixotrophic cultivation, it was 1.48g/L and 1.94g/L respectively when cultivated with 4% or 6% BDWG. The cells accumulated 31% lipid when grown in mixotrophic mode, and heterotrophic cultivation with 4% or 6% BDWG resulted in a lipid accumulation of 39% and 42% respectively. Saturated fatty acids production was elevated in the DE, and the major fatty acid components of the algal oil were palmitic (16:0), oleic (18:1), stearic (18:0), linoleic (18:2) and linolenic (18:3) acids. DE quality improved with reduction in COD and BOD after algal cultivation. PMID:24703181

Ummalyma, Sabeela Beevi; Sukumaran, Rajeev K

2014-08-01

363

Seasonal cultivated and fallow cropland mapping using MODIS-based automated cropland classification algorithm  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Increasing drought occurrences and growing populations demand accurate, routine, and consistent cultivated and fallow cropland products to enable water and food security analysis. The overarching goal of this research was to develop and test automated cropland classification algorithm (ACCA) that provide accurate, consistent, and repeatable information on seasonal cultivated as well as seasonal fallow cropland extents and areas based on the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer remote sensing data. Seasonal ACCA development process involves writing series of iterative decision tree codes to separate cultivated and fallow croplands from noncroplands, aiming to accurately mirror reliable reference data sources. A pixel-by-pixel accuracy assessment when compared with the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) cropland data showed, on average, a producer’s accuracy of 93% and a user’s accuracy of 85% across all months. Further, ACCA-derived cropland maps agreed well with the USDA Farm Service Agency crop acreage-reported data for both cultivated and fallow croplands with R-square values over 0.7 and field surveys with an accuracy of ?95% for cultivated croplands and ?76% for fallow croplands. Our results demonstrated the ability of ACCA to generate cropland products, such as cultivated and fallow cropland extents and areas, accurately, automatically, and repeatedly throughout the growing season.

Wu, Zhuoting; Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Mueller, Rick; Zakzeski, Audra; Melton, Forrest; Johnson, Lee; Rosevelt, Carolyn; Dwyer, John; Jones, Jeanine; Verdin, James P.

2013-01-01

364

Hydroponic cultivation improves the nutritional quality of soybean and its products.  

PubMed

Hydroponic cultivation allows the control of environmental conditions, saves irrigation water, increases productivity, and prevents plant infections. The use of this technique for large commodities such as soybean is not a relevant issue on fertile soils, but hydroponic soybean cultivation could provide proteins and oil in adverse environmental conditions. In this paper, the compositions of four cultivars of soybean seeds and their derivates, soy milk and okara, grown hydroponically were compared to that of the same cultivar obtained from soil cultivation in an open field. Besides proximal composition, the concentrations of phytic acid and isoflavones were monitored in the seeds, soy milk, and okara. Results demonstrated that, independent from the cultivar, hydroponic compared to soil cultivation promoted the accumulation of fats (from 17.37 to 21.94 g/100 g dry matter) and total dietary fiber (from 21.67 to 28.46 g/100 g dry matter) and reduced isoflavones concentration (from 17.04 to 7.66 mg/kg dry matter), whereas protein concentration was unaffected. The differences found in seed composition were confirmed in the respective okara products, but the effect of cultivation system was not significant looking at the soy milk composition. Data showed that hydroponic cultivation improved the nutritional quality of soybean seeds with regard to fats and dietary fiber. They also suggest that specific cultivars should be selected to obtain the desired nutritional features of the soybean raw material depending on its final destination. PMID:22168253

Palermo, Mariantonella; Paradiso, Roberta; De Pascale, Stefania; Fogliano, Vincenzo

2012-01-11

365

POTENTIAL OF GREENHOUSE GASES REDUCTION BY FUEL CROP CULTIVATION UTILIZING SEWAGE SLUDGE IN JAPAN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Potential of greenhouse gases (GHG) reduction was estimated and compared in six scenarios of fuel crop cultivation by utilizing sewage sludge in Japan. Bioethanol from corn and biodiesel fuel from soybean was selected as biofuel produced. When all the sludge discharged from sewage treatment plants in 18 major cities was utilized for soybean cultivation and subsequent biodiesel fuel production, produced biofuel corresponded to 4.0% of GHG emitted from sewage treatment in Japan. On the other hand, cultivation area for fuel crop cultivation was found to be the regulating factor. When fuel crop was cultivated only in abandoned agricultural fields, produced biofuel corresponded to 0.60% and 0.62%, respectively, in the case that corn and soybean was cultivated. Production of biodiesel fuel from soybean was estimated to have more net reduction potential than bioehanol production from corn when sludge production is limited, because required sewage sludge compost was 2.5-times larger in corn although reduction potential per crop area was 2-times larger in bioethanol production from corn.

Honda, Ryo; Fukushi, Kensuke

366

Rice cultivation and methane emission: Documentation of distributed geographic data sets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High-resolution global data bases on the geographic and seasonal distribution of rice cultivation and associated methane emission, compiled by Matthews et al., were archived for public use. In addition to the primary data sets identifying location, seasonality, and methane emission from rice cultivation, a series of supporting data sets is included, allowing users not only to replicate the work of Matthews et al. but to investigate alternative cultivation and emission scenarios. The suite of databases provided, at 1 latitude by 1 longitude resolution for the globe, includes (1) locations of rice cultivation, (2) monthly arrays of actively growing rice areas, (3) countries and political subdivisions, and (4) monthly arrays of methane emission from rice cultivation. Ancillary data include (1) a listing, by country, of harvested rice areas and seasonal distribution of crop cycles and (2) country names and codes. Summary tables of zonal/monthly distributions of actively growing rice areas and of methane emissions are presented. Users should consult original publications for complete discussion of the data bases. This short paper is designed only to document formats of the distributed information and briefly describe the contents of the data sets and their initial application to evaluating the role of rice cultivation in the methane budget.

Matthews, Elaine; John, Jasmin; Fung, Inez

1994-01-01

367

Seasonal cultivated and fallow cropland mapping using MODIS-based automated cropland classification algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing drought occurrences and growing populations demand accurate, routine, and consistent cultivated and fallow cropland products to enable water and food security analysis. The overarching goal of this research was to develop and test automated cropland classification algorithm (ACCA) that provide accurate, consistent, and repeatable information on seasonal cultivated as well as seasonal fallow cropland extents and areas based on the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer remote sensing data. Seasonal ACCA development process involves writing series of iterative decision tree codes to separate cultivated and fallow croplands from noncroplands, aiming to accurately mirror reliable reference data sources. A pixel-by-pixel accuracy assessment when compared with the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) cropland data showed, on average, a producer's accuracy of 93% and a user's accuracy of 85% across all months. Further, ACCA-derived cropland maps agreed well with the USDA Farm Service Agency crop acreage-reported data for both cultivated and fallow croplands with R-square values over 0.7 and field surveys with an accuracy of ?95% for cultivated croplands and ?76% for fallow croplands. Our results demonstrated the ability of ACCA to generate cropland products, such as cultivated and fallow cropland extents and areas, accurately, automatically, and repeatedly throughout the growing season.

Wu, Zhuoting; Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Mueller, Rick; Zakzeski, Audra; Melton, Forrest; Johnson, Lee; Rosevelt, Carolyn; Dwyer, John; Jones, Jeanine; Verdin, James P.

2014-01-01

368

"Cultivating health": therapeutic landscapes and older people in northern England.  

PubMed

While gardening is seen, essentially, as a leisure activity it has also been suggested that the cultivation of a garden plot offers a simple way of harnessing the healing power of nature (The therapeutic garden, Bantam Press, London, 2000). One implication of this is that gardens and gardening activity may offer a key site of comfort and a vital opportunity for an individual's emotional, physical and spiritual renewal. Understanding the extent to which this supposition may be grounded in evidence underpins this paper. In particular, we examine how communal gardening activity on allotments might contribute to the maintenance of health and well being amongst older people. Drawing on recently completed research in northern England, we examine firstly the importance of the wider landscape and the domestic garden in the lives of older people. We then turn our attention to gardening activity on allotments. Based on the findings of our study, we illustrate the sense of achievement, satisfaction and aesthetic pleasure that older people can gain from their gardening activity. However, while older people continue to enjoy the pursuit of gardening, the physical shortcomings attached to the aging process means they may increasingly require support to do so. Communal gardening on allotment sites, we maintain, creates inclusionary spaces in which older people benefit from gardening activity in a mutually supportive environment that combats social isolation and contributes to the development of their social networks. By enhancing the quality of life and emotional well being of older people, we maintain that communal gardening sites offer one practical way in which it may be possible to develop a 'therapeutic landscape'. PMID:14990378

Milligan, Christine; Gatrell, Anthony; Bingley, Amanda

2004-05-01

369

The Community Land Model underestimates land-use CO2 emissions by neglecting soil disturbance from cultivation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Community Land Model (CLM) can simulate planting and harvesting of crops but does not include effects of cultivation on soil carbon decomposition. The biogeochemistry model DayCent does account for cultivation and provides a baseline for evaluating the CLM. With the goal of representing cultivation effects on soil carbon decomposition, we implemented the DayCent cultivation parameterization in the CLM and compared CLM and DayCent simulations at eight Midwestern United States sites with and without the cultivation parameterization. Cultivation decreases soil carbon by about 1350 gC m-2 in the CLM and 1660 gC m-2 in DayCent across the eight sites from the first cultivation (early 1900s) to 2010. CLM crop simulations without cultivation have soil carbon gain, not loss, over this period, in contrast to the expected declining trends in agricultural soil carbon. A global cultivation simulation for 1973-2004 reduces ecosystem carbon by 0.4 Pg yr-1 over temperate corn, soybean, and cereal crop areas, which occupy approximately 1/3 of global crop area. Earth System Models may improve their atmospheric CO2 and soil carbon simulations by accounting for enhanced decomposition from cultivation.

Levis, S.; Hartman, M. D.; Bonan, G. B.

2014-04-01

370

Distribution of Pseudosclerotia of Monilinia vaccinii-corymbosi and Risk of Apothecial Emergence Following Mechanical Cultivation.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Pseudosclerotia (infected, mummified fruit) of Monilinia vacciniicorymbosi overwinter on the orchard floor and germinate to produce apothecia in early spring, providing the only source of primary inoculum for mummy berry disease of blueberry. Three experiments were carried out to develop a model for the relative efficacy of mechanical cultivation in reducing the risk associated with primary inoculum. In the first experiment, apothecial emergence from pseudosclerotia buried 0, 1.5, 3, 6, and 10 cm below the soil surface was monitored to determine the critical depth necessary to inhibit emergence. No apothecia emerged from pseudosclerotia buried at depths of >/=3 cm, and the critical depth of burial was determined at 2.6 cm by regression analysis. In the second experiment, pseudosclerotia or plastic beads (used as surrogates for pseudosclerotia) were placed on the soil surface of experimental plots before cultivation with an in-row rotary cultivator, a disc harrow, or a rotary cultivator with each implement operated in a single pass. Vertical distribution profiles of pseudosclerotia or beads in the topsoil were characterized after excavation with a custom-built sampling device. The proportion of pseudosclerotia placed below the critical depth of 2.6 cm was 20.9, 52.6, and 78.6% for the in-row rotary cultivator, the disc harrow, and the rotary cultivator, respectively. For all three implements, vertical distribution profiles of pseudosclerotia and plastic beads were very similar, allowing the latter to be used in subsequent experiments in commercial fields. In the third experiment, two blueberry plantings were surveyed to determine the horizontal distribution of pseudosclerotia on the orchard floor with distance from the crowns of the plants. The greatest frequency of pseudosclerotia occurred between 30 and 40 cm from the plants. Based on measurements of the distance from plants within which different implements can operate, the proportion of pseudosclerotia accessible by cultivation ranged from 58.7% for the disc harrow to 87.2% for the in-row rotary cultivator. Taken together, results from the three experiments indicated that cultivation with a single implement can reduce risk of apothecial emergence by about 50%. More effective risk reductions may be obtained by combining implements that result in deep burial of pseudosclerotia with those that have access to pseudosclerotia near the plants. This was demonstrated by a commercial cultivation method that utilized three passes of different implements and resulted in extensive reshaping of plant beds, placing 88.2% of beads below the critical depth of 2.6 cm. PMID:18942967

Ngugi, H K; Scherm, H; Nesmith, D S

2002-08-01

371

Potential Air Quality Impacts of Global Bioenergy Crop Cultivation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of bioenergy crops as a replacement for traditional coal-powered electricity generation will require large-scale land-use change, and the resulting changes in emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) may have negative impacts on local to regional air quality. BVOCs contribute to the formation of both ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5), with magnitudes of specific compound emissions governed largely by plant speciation and land coverage. For this reason, large-scale land-use change has the potential to markedly alter regional O3 and PM2.5 levels, especially if there are large differences between the emission profiles of the replacement bioenergy crops (many of which are high BVOC emitters) and the previous crops or land cover. In this work, replacement areas suitable for the cultivation of the bioenergy crops switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and giant reed (Arundo donax) were selected based on existing global inventories of under-utilized cropland and local climatological conditions. These two crops are among the most popular current candidates for bioenergy production, and provide contrasting examples of energy densities and emissions profiles. While giant reed has been selected in an ongoing large-scale coal-to-biocharcoal conversion in the Northwestern United States due to its high crop yields and energy density, it is also among the highest biogenic emitters of isoprene. On the other hand, switchgrass produces less biomass per acre, but also emits essentially no isoprene and low total BVOCs. The effects of large-scale conversion to these crops on O3 and PM2.5 were simulated using version 1.1 of the Community Earth System Model (CESM) coupled with version 2.1 of the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN). By comparing crop replacement scenarios involving A. donax and P. virgatum, the sensitivities of O3 and PM2.5 levels to worldwide increases in bioenergy production were examined, providing an initial assessment of regions in which higher-yield, higher-emitting crops may lead to unacceptable reductions in regional air quality, as well as the potential for mitigation of those unintended consequences with lower-yield, lower-emitting crops.

Porter, W. C.; Rosenstiel, T. N.; Barsanti, K. C.

2012-12-01

372

Growth characteristics of Cannabis sativa L. cultivated in a phytotron and in the field.  

PubMed

Growth characteristics of Cannabis saliva L. are indispensable factors to verify the statements by the criminals of illegal cannabis cultivation. To investigate growth characteristics of C. sativa, two varieties, cannabidiolic acid (CBDA)-rich (CBDA-type) which being cultivated for fiber production and delta9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA)-rich (THCA-type) which is used for drug abuse, were cultivated from seeds under the same growth environment in a phytotron. THCA-type showed high germination rate (100%) whereas only 39% of the CBDA-type seeds germinated 6 days after sowing. Plant height, number of true leaves, number of nodes, number of axillary buds and flowering of these two varieties were periodically observed. THCA-type grew more rapidly (plant height: 125.8 cm for THCA-type, 84.7 cm for CBDA-type, 75 days after cultivation) demonstrating vigorous axillary bud formation and earlier male-flowering (63 days for THCA-type, 106 days for CBDA-type, after sowing). Propagation of THCA-type was tested using the axillary shoot cuttings of female plants either with or without the main stem. All the cuttings with the main stem rooted after 21 days and grew healthily in a phytotron. However, all the newly developed leaves were single instead of palmate. In the field, THCA-type male-flowered after 155 days of cultivation after sowing on March 31. The height of the field-cultivated plants reached 260.9 cm 163 days after sowing. Despite the great differences in final plant heights, the increases of plant height per day during the vegetative growth stage were similar in the field and in the phytotron. Thus estimating the starting time of illegal cannabis cultivation might be possible if the plant is in the vegetative growth stage. PMID:15940897

Yoshimatsu, Kayo; Iida, Osamu; Kitazawa, Takashi; Sekine, Tsutomu; Kojoma, Mareshige; Makino, Yukiko; Kiuchi, Fumiyuki

2004-01-01

373

Definition of Management Zones for Enhancing Cultivated Land Conservation Using Combined Spatial Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The loss of cultivated land has increasingly become an issue of regional and national concern in China. Definition of management zones is an important measure to protect limited cultivated land resource. In this study, combined spatial data were applied to define management zones in Fuyang city, China. The yield of cultivated land was first calculated and evaluated and the spatial distribution pattern mapped; the limiting factors affecting the yield were then explored; and their maps of the spatial variability were presented using geostatistics analysis. Data were jointly analyzed for management zone definition using a combination of principal component analysis with a fuzzy clustering method, two cluster validity functions were used to determine the optimal number of cluster. Finally one-way variance analysis was performed on 3,620 soil sampling points to assess how well the defined management zones reflected the soil properties and productivity level. It was shown that there existed great potential for increasing grain production, and the amount of cultivated land played a key role in maintaining security in grain production. Organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, elevation, thickness of the plow layer, and probability of irrigation guarantee were the main limiting factors affecting the yield. The optimal number of management zones was three, and there existed significantly statistical differences between the crop yield and field parameters in each defined management zone. Management zone I presented the highest potential crop yield, fertility level, and best agricultural production condition, whereas management zone III lowest. The study showed that the procedures used may be effective in automatically defining management zones; by the development of different management zones, different strategies of cultivated land management and practice in each zone could be determined, which is of great importance to enhance cultivated land conservation, stabilize agricultural production, promote sustainable use of cultivated land and guarantee food security.

Li, Yan; Shi, Zhou; Wu, Hao-Xiang; Li, Feng; Li, Hong-Yi

2013-10-01

374

Effect of cultivating conditions on ?-galactosidase production by a novel Aspergillus foetidus ZUG1 strain in solid-state fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work is intended to achieve optimum culture conditions of ?-galactosidase production by a mutant strain Aspergillus foetidus ZU-G1 in solid-state fermentation (SSF). Certain fermentation parameters involving moisture content, incubation temperature,\\u000a cultivation period of seed, inoculum volume, initial pH value, layers of pledget, load size of medium and period of cultivation\\u000a were investigated separately. The optimal cultivating conditions of ?-galactosidase

Cai-qin Liu; Qi-he Chen; Qian-jun Cheng; Jin-ling Wang; Guo-qing He

2007-01-01

375

Comprehensive Study on the Human Driving Forces of Cultivated Land and Construction Land Use Change in Hubei Province, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Change trend of cultivated land in Hubei Province is analyzed. The years 1998-2003 are the reduction period of cultivated land; the years 2004-2007 are the increase period of cultivated land; the years 1988-2002 are the slow growth period of construction land; and the years of 2003 and 2007 are the increase period of construction land. Based on related social economic

Xin-chuang Xu; Dong-lai Cheng; Cheng-wu Liu

2010-01-01

376

Cultivation-Independent Detection of Autotrophic Hydrogen-Oxidizing Bacteria by DNA Stable-Isotope Probing ?  

PubMed Central

Knallgas bacteria are a physiologically defined group that is primarily studied using cultivation-dependent techniques. Given that current cultivation techniques fail to grow most bacteria, cultivation-independent techniques that selectively detect and identify knallgas bacteria will improve our ability to study their diversity and distribution. We used stable-isotope probing (SIP) to identify knallgas bacteria in rhizosphere soil of legumes and in a microbial mat from Obsidian Pool in Yellowstone National Park. When samples were incubated in the dark, incorporation of 13CO2 was H2 dependent. SIP enabled the detection of knallgas bacteria that were not detected by cultivation, and the majority of bacteria identified in the rhizosphere soils were betaproteobacteria predominantly related to genera previously known to oxidize hydrogen. Bacteria in soil grew on hydrogen at concentrations as low as 100 ppm. A hydB homolog encoding a putative high-affinity NiFe hydrogenase was amplified from 13C-labeled DNA from both vetch and clover rhizosphere soil. The results indicate that knallgas bacteria can be detected by SIP and populations that respond to different H2 concentrations can be distinguished. The methods described here should be applicable to a variety of ecosystems and will enable the discovery of additional knallgas bacteria that are resistant to cultivation.

Pumphrey, Graham M.; Ranchou-Peyruse, Anthony; Spain, Jim C.

2011-01-01

377

Microdroplet-Enabled Highly Parallel Co-Cultivation of Microbial Communities  

PubMed Central

Microbial interactions in natural microbiota are, in many cases, crucial for the sustenance of the communities, but the precise nature of these interactions remain largely unknown because of the inherent complexity and difficulties in laboratory cultivation. Conventional pure culture-oriented cultivation does not account for these interactions mediated by small molecules, which severely limits its utility in cultivating and studying “unculturable” microorganisms from synergistic communities. In this study, we developed a simple microfluidic device for highly parallel co-cultivation of symbiotic microbial communities and demonstrated its effectiveness in discovering synergistic interactions among microbes. Using aqueous micro-droplets dispersed in a continuous oil phase, the device could readily encapsulate and co-cultivate subsets of a community. A large number of droplets, up to ?1,400 in a 10 mm×5 mm chamber, were generated with a frequency of 500 droplets/sec. A synthetic model system consisting of cross-feeding E. coli mutants was used to mimic compositions of symbionts and other microbes in natural microbial communities. Our device was able to detect a pair-wise symbiotic relationship when one partner accounted for as low as 1% of the total population or each symbiont was about 3% of the artificial community.

Park, Jihyang; Kerner, Alissa; Burns, Mark A.; Lin, Xiaoxia Nina

2011-01-01

378

Molecular Characterization of Cultivated Bromeliad Accessions with Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) Markers  

PubMed Central

Bromeliads are of great economic importance in flower production; however little information is available with respect to genetic characterization of cultivated bromeliads thus far. In the present study, a selection of cultivated bromeliads was characterized via inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers with an emphasis on genetic diversity and population structure. Twelve ISSR primers produced 342 bands, of which 287 (~84%) were polymorphic, with polymorphic bands per primer ranging from 17 to 34. The Jaccard’s similarity ranged from 0.08 to 0.89 and averaged ~0.30 for the investigated bromeliads. The Bayesian-based approach, together with the un-weighted paired group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA)-based clustering and the principal coordinate analysis (PCoA), distinctly grouped the bromeliads from Neoregelia, Guzmania, and Vriesea into three separately clusters, well corresponding with their botanical classifications; whereas the bromeliads of Aechmea other than the recently selected hybrids were not well assigned to a cluster. Additionally, ISSR marker was proven efficient for the identification of hybrids and bud sports of cultivated bromeliads. The findings achieved herein will further our knowledge about the genetic variability within cultivated bromeliads and therefore facilitate breeding for new varieties of cultivated bromeliads in future as well.

Zhang, Fei; Ge, Yaying; Wang, Weiyong; Yu, Xinying; Shen, Xiaolan; Liu, Jianxin; Liu, Xiaojing; Tian, Danqing; Shen, Fuquan; Yu, Yongming

2012-01-01

379

Cultivation of Anaerobic and Facultatively Anaerobic Bacteria from Spacecraft-Associated Clean Rooms?  

PubMed Central

In the course of this biodiversity study, the cultivable microbial community of European spacecraft-associated clean rooms and the Herschel Space Observatory located therein were analyzed during routine assembly operations. Here, we focused on microorganisms capable of growing without oxygen. Anaerobes play a significant role in planetary protection considerations since extraterrestrial environments like Mars probably do not provide enough oxygen for fully aerobic microbial growth. A broad assortment of anaerobic media was used in our cultivation strategies, which focused on microorganisms with special metabolic skills. The majority of the isolated strains grew on anaerobic, complex, nutrient-rich media. Autotrophic microorganisms or microbes capable of fixing nitrogen were also cultivated. A broad range of facultatively anaerobic bacteria was detected during this study and also, for the first time, some strictly anaerobic bacteria (Clostridium and Propionibacterium) were isolated from spacecraft-associated clean rooms. The multiassay cultivation approach was the basis for the detection of several bacteria that had not been cultivated from these special environments before and also led to the discovery of two novel microbial species of Pseudomonas and Paenibacillus.

Stieglmeier, Michaela; Wirth, Reinhard; Kminek, Gerhard; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

2009-01-01

380

Cultivation of anaerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria from spacecraft-associated clean rooms.  

PubMed

In the course of this biodiversity study, the cultivable microbial community of European spacecraft-associated clean rooms and the Herschel Space Observatory located therein were analyzed during routine assembly operations. Here, we focused on microorganisms capable of growing without oxygen. Anaerobes play a significant role in planetary protection considerations since extraterrestrial environments like Mars probably do not provide enough oxygen for fully aerobic microbial growth. A broad assortment of anaerobic media was used in our cultivation strategies, which focused on microorganisms with special metabolic skills. The majority of the isolated strains grew on anaerobic, complex, nutrient-rich media. Autotrophic microorganisms or microbes capable of fixing nitrogen were also cultivated. A broad range of facultatively anaerobic bacteria was detected during this study and also, for the first time, some strictly anaerobic bacteria (Clostridium and Propionibacterium) were isolated from spacecraft-associated clean rooms. The multiassay cultivation approach was the basis for the detection of several bacteria that had not been cultivated from these special environments before and also led to the discovery of two novel microbial species of Pseudomonas and Paenibacillus. PMID:19363082

Stieglmeier, Michaela; Wirth, Reinhard; Kminek, Gerhard; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

2009-06-01

381

Molecular Characterization of Cultivated Bromeliad Accessions with Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) Markers.  

PubMed

Bromeliads are of great economic importance in flower production; however little information is available with respect to genetic characterization of cultivated bromeliads thus far. In the present study, a selection of cultivated bromeliads was characterized via inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers with an emphasis on genetic diversity and population structure. Twelve ISSR primers produced 342 bands, of which 287 (~84%) were polymorphic, with polymorphic bands per primer ranging from 17 to 34. The Jaccard's similarity ranged from 0.08 to 0.89 and averaged ~0.30 for the investigated bromeliads. The Bayesian-based approach, together with the un-weighted paired group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA)-based clustering and the principal coordinate analysis (PCoA), distinctly grouped the bromeliads from Neoregelia, Guzmania, and Vriesea into three separately clusters, well corresponding with their botanical classifications; whereas the bromeliads of Aechmea other than the recently selected hybrids were not well assigned to a cluster. Additionally, ISSR marker was proven efficient for the identification of hybrids and bud sports of cultivated bromeliads. The findings achieved herein will further our knowledge about the genetic variability within cultivated bromeliads and therefore facilitate breeding for new varieties of cultivated bromeliads in future as well. PMID:22754348

Zhang, Fei; Ge, Yaying; Wang, Weiyong; Yu, Xinying; Shen, Xiaolan; Liu, Jianxin; Liu, Xiaojing; Tian, Danqing; Shen, Fuquan; Yu, Yongming

2012-01-01

382

Prioritizing GM crop monitoring sites in the dynamics of cultivation systems and their environment.  

PubMed

EU legislation stipulates that GM crops have to be monitored for potential adverse environmental effects. Monitoring preferably should take place in the most exposed areas-the cultivated fields and their neighbouring environment. Current monitoring designs do not give detailed consideration to the different exposure intensities in agricultural practice. At the same time, the selection of specific, more exposed sites is difficult considering the dynamic and diversity of crop cultivation and rotation systems and their environments. We developed an approach for prioritising the monitoring of on-farm and neighbouring sites based on differing exposure levels using a minimum dataset of cultivation and land use information. Applying a Bt-maize cultivation scenario to Brandenburg, Germany, where presently no GM crops are cultivated, we systemised and categorised areas with different spatio-temporal exposure intensities including 50 m, 200 m and 1000 m buffers. These categories correspond to different suitabilities to serve as monitoring sites. Sites are prioritised using a sequential scheme. This yields an improved and objective spatial monitoring design providing detailed exposure information. This methodology is flexible and transferable to any agricultural setting, therefore enabling superior statistical comparisons between locations and regions and thus enhancing monitoring data quality. PMID:22495474

Bethwell, Claudia; Müller, Hans-Jürgen; Eulenstein, Frank; Graef, Frieder

2012-05-01

383

Effect of Rice Cultivation Systems on Indigenous Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Community Structure  

PubMed Central

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in an agricultural ecosystem are necessary for proper management of beneficial symbiosis. Here we explored how the patterns of the AMF community in rice roots were affected by rice cultivation systems (the system of rice intensification [SRI] and the conventional rice cultivation system [CS]), and by compost application during growth stages. Rice plants harvested from SRI-managed plots exhibited considerably higher total biomass, root dry weight, and seed fill than those obtained from conventionally managed plots. Our findings revealed that all AMF sequences observed from CS plots belonged (only) to the genus Glomus, colonizing in rice roots grown under this type of cultivation, while rice roots sown in SRI showed sequences belonging to both Glomus and Acaulospora. The AMF community was compared between the different cultivation types (CS and SRI) and compost applications by principle component analysis. In all rice growth stages, AMF assemblages of CS management were not separated from those of SRI management. The distribution of AMF community composition based on T-RFLP data showed that the AMF community structure was different among four cultivation systems, and there was a gradual increase of Shannon-Weaver indices of diversity (H?) of the AMF community under SRI during growth stages. The results of this research indicated that rice grown in SRI-managed plots had more diverse AMF communities than those grown in CS plots.

Watanarojanaporn, Nantida; Boonkerd, Nantakorn; Tittabutr, Panlada; Longtonglang, Aphakorn; Young, J. Peter W.; Teaumroong, Neung

2013-01-01

384

A comparison of bioactive aqueous extracts and polysaccharide fractions from roots of wild and cultivated Cochlospermum tinctorium A. Rich.  

PubMed

In Malian traditional medicine the roots of Cochlospermum tinctorium are used in the treatment of gastric ulcer, but extending harvesting is causing a growing concern of a dramatic reduction in the wild plant population. In the present study cultivation of C. tinctorium is evaluated, and structural components and bioactive properties of crude water extracts and isolated polysaccharide fractions from roots of wild and cultivated C. tinctorium are compared. The crude water extracts were shown to contain starch, pectin- and inulin-type polysaccharides, in addition to phenolic substances and protein, while the isolated acidic polysaccharide fractions contained mainly monosaccharides typical for pectins. The monosaccharide compositions of the polysaccharide fractions from roots of wild versus cultivated plants were comparable, albeit the yields in the cultivated roots were lower. Furthermore, the crude extracts and isolated polysaccharide fractions from wild and cultivated roots exhibited similar complement fixating activities, but were not able to activate macrophages. The crude extracts from cultivated roots were also shown to be moderate radical scavengers. The present study has shown that roots of cultivated C. tinctorium contain the same types of bioactive polysaccharides as the wild roots. However, in order to utilize roots of cultivated C. tinctorium in traditional medicine the cultivation method should be improved. PMID:23582214

Tvete Inngjerdingen, Kari; Ballo, N'golo; Zhang, Bing-Zhao; Malterud, Karl E; Michaelsen, Terje E; Diallo, Drissa; Paulsen, Berit Smestad

2013-09-01

385

Subsurface drip irrigation with micro-encapsulated trifluralin. Trifluralin residues in soils and cultivations.  

PubMed

In full field and greenhouse agriculture, the subsurface water distribution with underground driplines--subsurface drip irrigation--is advantageous to obtain a better production and a simplification of cultivation practices. This technique can have a major applicative interest on condition that the roots' intrusion inside the driplines irrigators is eliminated or reduced. To reach this goal, a study has been made on vegetable greenhouse cultivations, and on subsurface drip irrigation with underground driplines protected against roots' intrusion with a product containing micro-encapsulated polyethylene Trifuralin (trifluralin). Underground pipes with driplines (without trifluralin) have constituted the confrontation thesis. The trifluralin residues have been determined through GC-ECD, according to different cultivation phases for two entire production cycles: with 30% of leaf covering, at the moment of flowering and maturation, during production and at the harvest ending, on soil, leaves and maturation, during the production and, at the harvest ending, on fruits. PMID:17390788

Spera, G; Rosati, S; Rossi, E; Scicchitano, S

2006-01-01

386

Enhancement of ?-Glucan Content in the Cultivation of Cauliflower Mushroom (Sparassis latifolia) by Elicitation.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of three kinds of enzymes (chitinase, ?-glucuronidase, and lysing enzyme complex), employed as elicitors to enhance the ?-glucan content in the sawdust-based cultivation of cauliflower mushroom (Sparassis latifolia), was examined. The elicitors were applied to the cauliflower mushroom after primordium formation, by spraying the enzyme solutions at three different levels on the sawdust-based medium. Mycelial growth was fully accomplished by the treatments, but the metabolic process during the growth of fruiting bodies was affected. The application of a lysing enzyme resulted in an increase in the ?-glucan concentration by up to 31% compared to that of the control. However, the treatment resulted in a decrease in mushroom yield, which necessitated the need to evaluate its economic efficiency. Although we still need to develop a more efficient way for using elicitors to enhance functional metabolites in mushroom cultivation, the results indicate that the elicitation technique can be applied in the cultivation of medicinal/edible mushrooms. PMID:24808733

Park, Hyun; Ka, Kang-Hyeon; Ryu, Sung-Ryul

2014-03-01

387

EFFECT OF RICE CULTIVATION PATTERNS ON MALARIA VECTOR ABUNDANCE IN RICE-GROWING VILLAGES IN MALI  

PubMed Central

Irrigation for rice cultivation increases the production of Anopheles gambiae, the main vector of malaria in Mali. Mosquito abundance is highly variable across villages and seasons. We examined whether rice cultivation patterns mapped using remotely sensed imagery can account for some of this variance. We collected entomologic data and mapped land use around 18 villages in the two cropping seasons during two years. Land use classification accuracy ranged between 70% and 86%. The area of young rice explained 86% of the inter-village variability in An. gambiae abundance in August before the peak in malaria transmission. Estimating rice in a 900-meter buffer area around the villages resulted in the best correlation with mosquito abundance, larger buffer areas were optimum in the October and dry season models. The quantification of the relationship between An. gambiae abundance and rice cultivation could have management applications that merit further study.

DIUK-WASSER, MARIA A.; TOURE, MAHAMOUDOU B.; DOLO, GUIMOGO; BAGAYOKO, MAGARAN; SOGOBA, NAFOMAN; SISSOKO, IBRAHIM; TRAORE, SEKOU F.; TAYLOR, CHARLES E.

2007-01-01

388

Highly volatile constituents of Vetiveria zizanioides roots grown under different cultivation conditions.  

PubMed

Roots of Vetiveria zizanioides Nash (Mae Hae; Thai ecotype) planted in three different cultivation systems (normal soil, normal soil with added microbes and semi- hydroponically) were extracted using a simultaneous steam distillation and solvent extraction (SDE) apparatus. Yields of the essential oils obtained were 0.27, 0.18 and 0.06%, respectively. The separation profiles obtained by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC) and solid phase microextraction (SPME)-GCxGC analyses of the crude essential oils showed a total of 156 and 48 well-resolved components, respectively. The highly volatile fractions isolated from the three essential oils by SPME were subjected to analysis by GC-MS and 42 compounds were identified in total. Volatile component profiles of the oils obtained by normal soil and semi-hydroponic cultivation were similar, whereas a quantitative difference was noted in some major volatiles when the cultivation system containing microbes was utilized. PMID:17971758

Pripdeevech, Patcharee; Wongpornchai, Sugunya; Promsiri, Ampan

2006-01-01

389

Does Manila clam cultivation affect habitats of the engineer species Lanice conchilega (Pallas, 1766)?  

PubMed

The major French site of Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum (Adams and Reeves, 1850) cultivation is located in the Chausey Archipelago where the associated practices are highly mechanized: every steps of production are made with tractor-driven machinery. The Manila clam concessions are concentrated on Lanice conchilega (Pallas, 1766) bioherms, which are known to increase alpha-diversity and to locally modify sediment dynamics. This study focus on the impacts of Manila clam cultivation on (i) the natural populations of L. conchilega and on (ii) the structure of the associated benthic assemblages during the different steps of the farming production cycle. We found that the L. conchilega populations are significantly affected within the concessions where their total abundances drastically decrease, their spatial patterns are modified and the associated benthic assemblages are significantly altered. Our results are discussed in a context of a sustainable management of the Manila clam cultivation in coastal areas. PMID:18561956

Toupoint, Nicolas; Godet, Laurent; Fournier, Jérôme; Retière, Christian; Olivier, Frédéric

2008-08-01

390

Improved herbivore resistance in cultivated tomato with the sesquiterpene biosynthetic pathway from a wild relative  

PubMed Central

Tomato breeding has been tremendously efficient in increasing fruit quality and quantity but did not focus on improving herbivore resistance. The biosynthetic pathway for the production of 7-epizingiberene in a wild tomato was introduced into a cultivated greenhouse variety with the aim to obtain herbivore resistance. 7-Epizingiberene is a specific sesquiterpene with toxic and repellent properties that is produced and stored in glandular trichomes. We identified 7-epizingiberene synthase (ShZIS) that belongs to a new class of sesquiterpene synthases, exclusively using Z-Z-farnesyl-diphosphate (zFPP) in plastids, probably arisen through neo-functionalization of a common ancestor. Expression of the ShZIS and zFPP synthases in the glandular trichomes of cultivated tomato resulted in the production of 7-epizingiberene. These tomatoes gained resistance to several herbivores that are pests of tomato. Hence, introduction of this sesquiterpene biosynthetic pathway into cultivated tomatoes resulted in improved herbivore resistance.

Bleeker, Petra M.; Mirabella, Rossana; Diergaarde, Paul J.; VanDoorn, Arjen; Tissier, Alain; Kant, Merijn R.; Prins, Marcel; de Vos, Martin; Haring, Michel A.; Schuurink, Robert C.

2012-01-01

391

Dynamics of the chemical composition and productivity of composts for the cultivation of Agaricus bisporus strains  

PubMed Central

Two compost formulations based on oat straw (Avena sativa) and brachiaria (Brachiaria sp.) were tested for the cultivation of three Agaricus bisporus strains (ABI-07/06, ABI-05/03, and PB-1). The experimental design was a 2 × 3 factorial scheme (composts × strains) with 6 treatments and 8 repetitions (boxes containing 12 kg of compost). The chemical characterization of the compost (humidity, organic matter, carbon, nitrogen, pH, raw protein, ethereal extract, fibers, ash, cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin) before and after the cultivation of A. bisporus and the production (basidiomata mass, productivity, and biological efficiency) were evaluated. Data were submitted to variance analysis, and averages were compared by means of the Tukey’s test. According to the results obtained, the chemical and production characteristics showed that the best performances for the cultivation of A. bisporus were presented by the compost based on oat and the strain ABI-07/06.

de Andrade, Meire Cristina Nogueira; de Jesus, Joao Paulo Furlan; Vieira, Fabricio Rocha; Viana, Sthefany Rodrigues Fernandes; Spoto, Marta Helena Fillet; de Almeida Minhoni, Marli Teixeira

2013-01-01

392

Occurrence of Internal Stipe Necrosis of Cultivated Mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) Caused by Ewingella americana in Korea  

PubMed Central

The internal stipe necrosis of cultivated mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) is caused by the bacterium Ewingella americana, a species of the Enterobacteriaceae. Recently, Ewingella americana was isolated from cultivated white button mushrooms in Korea evidencing symptoms of internal stipe browning. Its symptoms are visible only at harvest, and appear as a variable browning reaction in the center of the stipes. From these lesions, we isolated one bacterial strain (designated CH4). Inoculation of the bacterial isolate into mushroom sporocarps yielded the characteristic browning symptoms that were distinguishable from those of the bacterial soft rot that is well known to mushroom growers. The results of Gram stain, flagellal staining, and biochemical tests identified these isolates as E. americana. This was verified by pathogenicity, physiological and biochemical characteristics, and the results of an analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences and the fatty acids profile. This is the first report of the isolation of E. americana from cultivated white button mushrooms in Korea.

Jhune, Chang-Sung; Cheong, Jong-Chun; Yun, Hyung-Sik; Cho, Weon-Dae

2009-01-01

393

Effect of soil carbohydrates on nutrient availability in natural forests and cultivated lands in Sri Lanka  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbohydrates supply carbon sources for microbial activities that contribute to mineral nutrient production in soil. Their role on soil nutrient availability has not yet been properly elucidated. This was studied in forests and cultivated lands in Sri Lanka. Soil organic matter (SOM) fractions affecting carbohydrate availability were also determined. Soil litter contributed to sugars of plant origin (SPO) in croplands. The negative relationship found between clay bound organic matter (CBO) and glucose indicates higher SOM fixation in clay that lower its availability in cultivated lands. In forests, negative relationships between litter and sugars of microbial origin (SMO) showed that litter fuelled microbes to produce sugars. Fucose and glucose increased the availability of Cu, Zn and Mn in forests. Xylose increased Ca availability in cultivated lands. Arabinose, the main carbon source of soil respiration reduced the P availability. This study showed soil carbohydrates and their relationships with mineral nutrients could provide vital information on the availability of limiting nutrients in tropical ecosystems.

Ratnayake, R. R.; Seneviratne, G.; Kulasooriya, S. A.

2013-05-01

394

A sensitive monitoring system for mammalian cell cultivation processes: a PAT approach.  

PubMed

Biopharmaceuticals such as antibodies are produced in cultivated mammalian cells, which must be monitored to comply with good manufacturing practice. We, therefore, developed a fully automated system comprising a specific exhaust gas analyzer, inline analytics and a corresponding algorithm to precisely determine the oxygen uptake rate, carbon dioxide evolution rate, carbon dioxide transfer rate, transfer quotient and respiratory quotient without interrupting the ongoing cultivation, in order to assess its reproducibility. The system was verified using chemical simulation experiments and was able to measure the respiratory activity of hybridoma cells and DG44 cells (derived from Chinese hamster ovary cells) with satisfactory results at a minimum viable cell density of ~2.0 × 10(5) cells ml(-1). The system was suitable for both batch and fed-batch cultivations in bubble-aerated and membrane-aerated reactors, with and without the control of pH and dissolved oxygen. PMID:24136042

Winckler, Silvia; Krueger, Rolf; Schnitzler, Thomas; Zang, Werner; Fischer, Rainer; Biselli, Manfred

2014-05-01

395

Improved herbivore resistance in cultivated tomato with the sesquiterpene biosynthetic pathway from a wild relative.  

PubMed

Tomato breeding has been tremendously efficient in increasing fruit quality and quantity but did not focus on improving herbivore resistance. The biosynthetic pathway for the production of 7-epizingiberene in a wild tomato was introduced into a cultivated greenhouse variety with the aim to obtain herbivore resistance. 7-Epizingiberene is a specific sesquiterpene with toxic and repellent properties that is produced and stored in glandular trichomes. We identified 7-epizingiberene synthase (ShZIS) that belongs to a new class of sesquiterpene synthases, exclusively using Z-Z-farnesyl-diphosphate (zFPP) in plastids, probably arisen through neo-functionalization of a common ancestor. Expression of the ShZIS and zFPP synthases in the glandular trichomes of cultivated tomato resulted in the production of 7-epizingiberene. These tomatoes gained resistance to several herbivores that are pests of tomato. Hence, introduction of this sesquiterpene biosynthetic pathway into cultivated tomatoes resulted in improved herbivore resistance. PMID:23169639

Bleeker, Petra M; Mirabella, Rossana; Diergaarde, Paul J; VanDoorn, Arjen; Tissier, Alain; Kant, Merijn R; Prins, Marcel; de Vos, Martin; Haring, Michel A; Schuurink, Robert C

2012-12-01

396

Enhancement of ?-Glucan Content in the Cultivation of Cauliflower Mushroom (Sparassis latifolia) by Elicitation  

PubMed Central

The effectiveness of three kinds of enzymes (chitinase, ?-glucuronidase, and lysing enzyme complex), employed as elicitors to enhance the ?-glucan content in the sawdust-based cultivation of cauliflower mushroom (Sparassis latifolia), was examined. The elicitors were applied to the cauliflower mushroom after primordium formation, by spraying the enzyme solutions at three different levels on the sawdust-based medium. Mycelial growth was fully accomplished by the treatments, but the metabolic process during the growth of fruiting bodies was affected. The application of a lysing enzyme resulted in an increase in the ?-glucan concentration by up to 31% compared to that of the control. However, the treatment resulted in a decrease in mushroom yield, which necessitated the need to evaluate its economic efficiency. Although we still need to develop a more efficient way for using elicitors to enhance functional metabolites in mushroom cultivation, the results indicate that the elicitation technique can be applied in the cultivation of medicinal/edible mushrooms.

Ka, Kang-Hyeon; Ryu, Sung-Ryul

2014-01-01

397

[Research on cultivation for comprehensive humanistic quality of oral medical students, which is oriented by competency].  

PubMed

Medicine has dual features of humanities and natural science. Thus, it is necessary for the development of modern higher education to carry out the humanistic quality education to medical students. It is not only the request of modern medical model and medical development, but also the urgent need of the development of medical and health. Besides, it plays an important part in the cultivation of medical students. In the face of the urgent need of cultivation for comprehensive humanistic quality of oral medical students, West China School of Stomatology, Sichuan University, led in the cultivation method which is oriented by competency, give some suggestions to deal with students' lack of language ability, humanistic concern to patients and aesthetic accomplishment. And it has already achieved a better teaching effect. PMID:23841313

Yu, Haiyang; Chen, Qianming; Ye, Ling; Zhang, Linglin; Zheng, Qiao; Zhou, Xuedong

2013-06-01

398

Coupled cultivation and pre-harvesting of microalgae in a membrane photobioreactor (MPBR).  

PubMed

A new and effective concept is proposed for microalgae cultivation and pre-harvesting using a membrane photobioreactor (MPBR), in which the bioreactor is coupled to membrane filtration by cultivating Chlorella vulgaris. A basic simulation was first performed to understand the behavior of the hybrid system. The effectiveness of the MPBR for cultivation and pre-harvesting was proven. The membrane completely retained the biomass, which then was partly recycled into the bioreactor to maintain a high biomass concentration, thus enhancing flexibility and robustness of the system. The MPBR can operate at both higher dilution and higher growth rates, resulting in a 9× higher biomass productivity. In addition, pre-harvesting can be achieved by applying variable concentration factors in the filtration stage. The membrane permeate was recycled to the reactor as feed medium without affecting the algae growth, which offers a substantial reduction of 77% in the water footprint. PMID:24559585

Bilad, M R; Discart, V; Vandamme, D; Foubert, I; Muylaert, K; Vankelecom, Ivo F J

2014-03-01

399

Diversity of Archaea in hypersaline environments characterized by molecular-phylogenetic and cultivation studies.  

PubMed

The diversity of Archaea from three different hypersaline environments was analyzed and compared by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based molecular phylogenetic techniques and cultivation approaches. The samples originated from a crystallization pond of a solar saltern in Spain (FC); an alkaline lake in Nevada, USA, (EMF); and a small pond from a slag heap of a potassium mine in Germany (DIE). Except for two 16S rDNA sequences that were related to crenarchaeota from soil and did not apparently belong to the indigenous halophilic community, all sequences recovered from environmental DNA or cultivated strains grouped within the Halobacteriaceae. Mostly 16S rDNA sequences related to the genera Halorubrum and Haloarcula were detected in sample FC, and organisms belonging to these genera were also recovered by cultivation. In contrast, sequences related to five different groups of halophilic archaea were amplified from sample DIE (including novel lineages with only uncultivated phylotypes), but the organisms that were cultivated from this sample fell into different groups (i.e., Natronococcus, Halorubrum, or unaffiliated) and did not overlap with those predicted using the culture-independent approach. With respect to the highly alkaline sample, EMF, four groups were predicted from the environmental 16S rDNA sequences, two of which ( Natronomonas and Haloarcula) were also recovered through cultivation together with Natronococcus isolates. In summary, we found that halophilic archaea dominate the archaeal populations in these three hypersaline environments and show that culturability of the organisms predicted by molecular surveys might strongly depend on the habitat chosen. While a number of novel halophilic archaea have been isolated, we have not been able to cultivate representatives of the new lineages that were detected in this and several other environmental studies. PMID:12215811

Ochsenreiter, Torsten; Pfeifer, Felicitas; Schleper, Christa

2002-08-01

400

The Seeding and Cultivation of a Tropical Species of Filamentous Ulva for Algal Biomass Production  

PubMed Central

Filamentous species of Ulva are ideal for cultivation because they are robust with high growth rates and maintained across a broad range of environments. Temperate species of filamentous Ulva are commercially cultivated on nets which can be artificially ‘seeded’ under controlled conditions allowing for a high level of control over seeding density and consequently biomass production. This study quantified for the first time the seeding and culture cycle of a tropical species of filamentous Ulva (Ulva sp. 3) and identified seeding density and nursery period as key factors affecting growth and biomass yield. A seeding density of 621,000 swarmers m-1 rope in combination with a nursery period of five days resulted in the highest growth rate and correspondingly the highest biomass yield. A nursery period of five days was optimal with up to six times the biomass yield compared to ropes under either shorter or longer nursery periods. These combined parameters of seeding density and nursery period resulted in a specific growth rate of more than 65% day?1 between 7 and 10 days of outdoor cultivation post-nursery. This was followed by a decrease in growth through to 25 days. This study also demonstrated that the timing of harvest is critical as the maximum biomass yield of 23.0±8.8 g dry weight m?1 (228.7±115.4 g fresh weight m?1) was achieved after 13 days of outdoor cultivation whereas biomass degraded to 15.5±7.3 g dry weight m?1 (120.2±71.8 g fresh weight m?1) over a longer outdoor cultivation period of 25 days. Artificially seeded ropes of Ulva with high biomass yields over short culture cycles may therefore be an alternative to unattached cultivation in integrated pond-based aquaculture systems.

Carl, Christina; de Nys, Rocky; Paul, Nicholas A.

2014-01-01

401

The seeding and cultivation of a tropical species of filamentous ulva for algal biomass production.  

PubMed

Filamentous species of Ulva are ideal for cultivation because they are robust with high growth rates and maintained across a broad range of environments. Temperate species of filamentous Ulva are commercially cultivated on nets which can be artificially 'seeded' under controlled conditions allowing for a high level of control over seeding density and consequently biomass production. This study quantified for the first time the seeding and culture cycle of a tropical species of filamentous Ulva (Ulva sp. 3) and identified seeding density and nursery period as key factors affecting growth and biomass yield. A seeding density of 621,000 swarmers m-1 rope in combination with a nursery period of five days resulted in the highest growth rate and correspondingly the highest biomass yield. A nursery period of five days was optimal with up to six times the biomass yield compared to ropes under either shorter or longer nursery periods. These combined parameters of seeding density and nursery period resulted in a specific growth rate of more than 65% day-1 between 7 and 10 days of outdoor cultivation post-nursery. This was followed by a decrease in growth through to 25 days. This study also demonstrated that the timing of harvest is critical as the maximum biomass yield of 23.0±8.8 g dry weight m-1 (228.7±115.4 g fresh weight m-1) was achieved after 13 days of outdoor cultivation whereas biomass degraded to 15.5±7.3 g dry weight m-1 (120.2±71.8 g fresh weight m-1) over a longer outdoor cultivation period of 25 days. Artificially seeded ropes of Ulva with high biomass yields over short culture cycles may therefore be an alternative to unattached cultivation in integrated pond-based aquaculture systems. PMID:24897115

Carl, Christina; de Nys, Rocky; Paul, Nicholas A

2014-01-01

402

Negotiating ownership: Understanding the cultivation of student ownership in an urban science video project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intention of this study is to define student ownership in an informal science learning setting in a low performing middle school in New York City, to investigate what characterizes such ownership, and to determine how to cultivate it. In addition, I am interested in investigating the effects of the students' sense of ownership on their sense of self, in relation to the study and the practice of science and the role of race in power in framing the context in which ownership is cultivated. This is a qualitative study; specifically I apply a critical ethnography framework for both data collection an analysis. This study is based in an informal science video project lasting three years in which two groups of sixth and seventh grade students, made three movies about their perceptions of science, who they felt knew science, and how science related to their lives. In chapter IV, I explain that students' expression of ownership is visible via five main themes. (1) Students viewed themselves in relation to science in ways that are positive, empowering, and full of self-awareness. (2) Students actively and purposefully chose to expend their capital. (3) Students expressed pride around the multiple contexts. (4) Students used the video project to effect positive changes in their lives. (5) Students expressed positive and realistic vision for the role that science played in their lives. In chapter V, I explain that student agency and student ownership share a dialectic relationship in which student agency must be valued to cultivate student ownership and the cultivation of student ownership expands student agency. Lastly, in chapter VII, I explore the role race and power play in framing the context in which ownership is cultivated. Specifically, I argue that in order to cultivate ownership in high-poverty urban science learning environments, the teacher in this environment must be critically reflective of her/his practice and pay particular attention to issues of race and power.

O'Neill, Tara Breckenridge

403

Vertical sections of cultivated anchorage-dependent cells for electron microscopy.  

PubMed

A method is described for electron microscopic preparation of cultivated cells for vertical sections using the test chamber system TCSC-1. The cells are cultivated on a special foil. They can be fixed and embedded directly in the chamber. After polymerization of the resin, the foil can be easily taken off and a second resin layer is poured upon the embedded cells. Then distinct cells can be marked under an inverted light microscope. The bilayer of the resin allows optimal conditions for vertical sections of anchorage-dependent cells. PMID:6341599

Pentz, S; Amthor, S; Vergani, G

1983-02-01

404

Cell Cultivation and Sensor-Based Assays for Dynamic Measurements of Cell Vitality  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Cell cultivation\\u000a is a fundamental tool in tissue engineering\\u000a as well as in biomedical research. Choice of cell source and the control of cultivation parameters will determine the biological\\u000a relevance and quality of the results. There are numerous biochemical and cellular assays available to test the vitality\\u000a , i.e. the metabolic\\u000a \\u000a and functional activities\\u000a \\u000a , of cells in culture. Most

Angela M. Otto

405

The ecological cultivation system construction of cucurbits and vegetables in Hainan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application amount of fertilizer and pesticide overall showed rising trends in Hainan. The excessive application of chemical fertilizer and pesticide can cause higher production costs and greater pressure on the ecological environment. The sown area of cucurbits and vegetables showed an increasing trend to a certain extent, safety and pollution-free production of cucurbits and vegetables has become one of the principal contradictions restricting the development of cucurbits and vegetables in Hainan. In this study, the ecological cultivation system of cucurbits and vegetables was constructed combining ecology, ecological economics, and vegetable cultivation principles, which had an important significance for maintaining ecological balance and sustainable development of agriculture.

Liu, Ziji; Yang, Yan

406

Goat serum, a substitute of bovine serum in cultivation of Babesia bovis.  

PubMed

Babesia bovis (a Mexican isolate) was cultivated in MASP culture system using goat serum in various concentrations as substitute of bovine serum. It was observed that 20% goat serum + 20% bovine serum + 60% Parker's medium 199 supported the growth of the parasite, which was maintained in this medium through 8 subcultures. The soluble exoantigen (vaccine) present in the culture supernatant is to be quantified and tested in vitro. Goat serum from slaughterhouses may be utilized for in vitro cultivation of the parasite and, expectedly, production of vaccine. This study may prove to be useful in reducing the cost of vaccine at least in tropical countries. PMID:1750362

Mishra, A K; Clabaugh, G; Kakoma, I; Ristic, M

1991-01-01

407

Cultivation conditions and the diffusion of oxygen into culture media: the rationale for the flask-to-medium ratio in microbiology.  

PubMed

Bacterial cultivation requires consideration of three things: The bacterial strain, cultivation medium, and cultivation conditions. Most microbiologists dutifully report their choice of strains and cultivation media in manuscripts; however, these same microbiologists often overlook reporting cultivation conditions. Without this information, it is difficult to determine if cultures were grown aerobically, microaerobically, or anaerobically. To cultivate bacteria aerobically, it is necessary to understand that oxygen does not readily diffuse into culture media; it needs help to get in. Microbiologists can do this by altering the flask-to-medium ratio, rpm of agitation, and/or the concentration of atmospheric oxygen, or by using baffled flasks. PMID:23324109

Somerville, Greg A; Proctor, Richard A

2013-01-01

408

Effects of municipal solid waste compost application on the microbial biomass of cultivated and non-cultivated soil in a semi-arid zone.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess whether soil microbial biomass could be used as an indicator of environmental changes following the application of organic residue (compost of municipal solid waste and farmyard manure) or mineral fertilizers (N and P) into cultivated or uncultivated loam-clayey soil, for three consecutive years. The carbon and nitrogen of the microbial biomass (B(C) and B(N) were studied using the fumigation-extraction method. For the two cultivated and uncultivated plots, B(N) and B(C) were more important in the superficial profile (0-20 cm) than in the deep one (20-40 cm). In the uncultivated soil, we observed a good linear relation between B(C) and B(N) at the level of upper soil horizon during the wet season with r coefficients of 0.95, 0.71 and 0.80 for the consecutive years 2000, 2001 and 2002, respectively. Microbial biomasses C and N increased during the rainy season and decreased during the dry season. Microbial biomass C and N showed the higher content with compost and farmyard manure at 40 tonnes ha(-1). Moreover, the results showed that at the beginning of the experiment, the microbial biomass was higher in the ploughed wheat-cultivated plot than in the uncultivated one. Microbial biomass C and N in the cultivated plot amended with compost at 40 tonnes ha(-1) were significantly different in comparison with the soil microbial biomass amended with farmyard manure. The combining of chemical fertilizer with the organic fertilizer, such as compost at 40 or 80 tonnes ha(-1) and farmyard manure, increased the microbial biomasses C and N after 1 and 2 years. In the cultivated or uncultivated plots the results revealed that the best application rate of the compost was 40 tonnes ha(-1) and when the compost rate was increased from 40 to 80 tonnes ha(-1) both B(C) and B(N) decreased significantly. PMID:17874660

Bouzaiane, Olfa; Cherif, Hanene; Saidi, Neila; Jedidi, Naceur; Hassen, Abdennaceur

2007-08-01

409

Qualitative land suitability assessment for pyrethrum cultivation in west Kenya based upon computer-captured expert knowledge and GIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selection of the best land for pyrethrum cultivation and determination of the production limiting factors are done through a qualitative process of matching land characteristics with the crop requirements using a model PYCULT built in the Automated Land Evaluation System (ALES). Climatic, soil and landform requirements for pyrethrum cultivation are provided. Climatic and land suitability maps are presented. About 42%

P. Wandahwa; E. van Ranst

1996-01-01

410

High-cell-density fed-batch cultivation of the docosahexaenoic acid producing marine alga Crypthecodinium cohnii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heterotrophic marine alga Crypthecodinium cohnii is known to produce docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a polyunsaturated fatty acid with food and pharmaceutical applications, during batch cultivation on complex media containing sea salt, yeast extract, and glucose. In the present study, fed-batch cultivation was studied as an alternative fermentation strategy for DHA production. Glucose and acetic acid were compared as carbon sources.

Swaaf de M. E; Lolke Sijtsma; Jack T. Pronk

2003-01-01

411

Soil properties following cultivation and non-grazing of a semi-arid sandy grassland in northern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultivation and overgrazing are widely recognized as the primary causes of desertification of sandy grassland in the semi-arid region of northern China. Very little is known about the effect of cultivation and overgrazing on soil physical, chemical and biological properties in this region. The objective of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the magnitude of changes in soil properties due

Yong-Zhong Su; Ha-Lin Zhao; Tong-Hui Zhang; Xue-Yong Zhao

2004-01-01

412

Impacts of simulated shifting cultivation on deforestation and the carbon stocks of the forests of central Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on shifting cultivation in the tropics has focused primarily on the issues of agricultural productivity and soil degradation. Few have attempted to quantify its impact on forest losses and the carbon cycle in the context of the global change debate. A simulation, which incorporated historic and projected rural population growth, was conducted to investigate the impacts of shifting cultivation

Quanfa Zhang; Christopher O. Justice; Paul V. Desanker

2002-01-01

413

Carbon and N mineralization as affected by soil cultivation and crop residue in a calcareous wetland ecosystem in Central Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mineralization of soil organic matter plays a key role in supplying nutrient elements essential to plant growth. Soil cultivation and crop residue affect C mineralization and nutrient availability in wetland ecosystems. This study evaluated the combined impacts of soil cultivation and crop residue on C and N mineralization in a calcareous wetland soil (Luvic Calcisol) in Central Iran. Soil samples

Fayez Raiesi

2006-01-01

414

Good and Evil in Popular Children's Fantasy Fiction: How Archetypes Become Stereotypes That Cultivate the Next Generation of "Sun" Readers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers how the depiction of good and evil as discernibly polarized opposites in the most popular of juvenile fantasy texts cultivates a perception in children that the real world is similarly organized. Proposes that the dichotomized view of good and evil that these texts promote, rather than cultivating a broad educated outlook, prepares…

Robinson, C. Neil

2003-01-01

415

Use of Combusted Natural Gas to Cultivate the Anaerobic Bacterial Flora from the Cecum Contents of Mice  

PubMed Central

The use of combusted natural gas as atmosphere for cultivation of the anaerobic bacterial flora from the cecum of mice is described. The combusted gas (inert gas) continuously flushes a glove box in which it is possible to cultivate a number of strict anaerobes from the cecum of mice. Images

Koopman, J. P.; Van Oeveren, J. P.; Janssen, F. G. J.

1973-01-01

416

Cover crops and cultivation: Impacts on soil N dynamics and microbiological function in a Mediterranean vineyard agroecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impacts of cover crops, tillage and abiotic factors on soil nitrogen (N) dynamics, greenhouse gas emissions, and microbiological functions were investigated in a vineyard in California's Mediterranean climate. Treatments had been established in fall 2001 and were composed of two cover crops [Trios 102 (Triticale×Triosecale), (‘Trios’), Merced Rye (Secale cereale), (‘Rye’)] and cultivation (‘Cultivation’). Soils were sampled every 2–3 weeks

Kerri Steenwerth; K. M. Belina

2008-01-01

417

The forecast of cultivate land quantity based on Grey-Markov model: A case study of Jiangsu province  

Microsoft Academic Search

nand urbanization accelerated, a large number of cultivated land converse into construction land, from rural to urban. Especially in some economically developed areas, cultivated land conversion phenomena are very common, with great pressure for farmland protection. Jiangsu province, has the typical characteristics that people will be less. By the end of 2009, the population density of 753 people 1 km2,

Hong-yan Huan; Qing-mei Tan

2011-01-01

418

Influence of strain and cultivation procedure on the performance of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of steam pretreated spruce  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yeast to be used in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of lignocelluloses materials has to be prepared in a separate cultivation step. The effects of the cultivation procedure on the performance of SSF of steam pretreated softwood were studied in the current work. The yeast used in the SSF was either directly commercially available Baker's yeast (as packaged yeast) or

Malek Alkasrawi; Andreas Rudolf; Gunnar Lidén; Guido Zacchi

2006-01-01

419

Characterization of the thermal-tolerant mutants of Chlorella sp. with high growth rate and application in outdoor photobioreactor cultivation.  

PubMed

In this study, two thermal-tolerant mutants of Chlorella sp. MT-7 and MT-15, were isolated. In indoor cultivation, specific growth rate (micro, d(-1)) of the mutants were 1.4 to 1.8-fold at 25 degrees Celsius and 3.3 to 6.7-fold at 40 degrees Celsius higher than those of wild type. The carbon dioxide fixation rate of both microalgal mutants was also significantly higher than that of wild type. In outdoor closed cultivation, where the temperature of culture broth was 41 + or - 1 degrees Celsius, the micro of mutant strain MT-15 was 0.238 d(-1) during an 8-day cultivation. Whereas, the growth of wild type was inhibited in the outdoor cultivation. Our results show that the isolated microalgal strains are adaptable to be applied in outdoor cultivation in subtropical zones. PMID:19897359

Ong, Seow-Chin; Kao, Chien-Ya; Chiu, Sheng-Yi; Tsai, Ming-Ta; Lin, Chih-Sheng

2010-04-01

420

Modeling microalgae cultivation productivities in different geographic locations - estimation method for idealized photobioreactors.  

PubMed

Microalgae can be used to produce versatile high-value fuels, such as methane, biodiesel, ethanol, or hydrogen gas. One of the most important factors that influence the economics of microalgae cultivation is the primary production of biomass per unit area. This is determined by productivity rates during cultivation, which are influenced by the local climate conditions (solar irradiation, temperature). To compare locations in different climate regions for microalgae cultivation, a mathematical model for an idealized closed photobioreactor was developed. The applied growth kinetics were based on theoretical maximum photon-conversion efficiencies (for the conversion of solar energy to chemical energy in the form of biomass). Known or estimated temperature effects for different algal strains were incorporated. The model was used to calculate hourly average areal productivity rates as well as annual primary production values under local conditions at seven example locations. Here, hourly weather data (solar irradiance and air temperature) were taken into account. According to these model calculations, maximum annual yields were achieved in regions with high irradiation and temperature patterns in or near the optimum range of the specific algal strain (here, desert and equatorial humid climates). The developed model can be used as a tool to assess and compare individual locations for microalgae cultivation. PMID:21751385

Franz, Anette; Lehr, Florian; Posten, Clemens; Schaub, Georg

2012-04-01

421

Effective production of amanitins by two-step cultivation of the basidiomycete, Galerina fasciculata GF060  

Microsoft Academic Search

Practical production of amanitins was attempted by fermentation using a basidiomycete, Galerina fasciculata GF-060. In liquid fermentation, intracellular ?- and ?-amanitins were the main products, while ?- and ?-amanitins accumulated in solid cultured mycelia. The production of amanitins in liquid fermentation was strongly affected by the amount of the remaining carbon sources (particularly glucose and sucrose). In batch cultivation, the

Shinjiro Muraoka; Takao Shinozawa

2000-01-01

422

Cultivating Student Skills in Self-Regulated Learning through Evaluation of Task Complexity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to self-regulate, students need to honestly reflect on their learning and to take appropriate corrective action. A simple procedure to cultivate student skills in self-regulated learning, known as the Task Evaluation and Reflection Instrument for Student Self-Assessment (TERISSA) is discussed in this paper. TERISSA guides students through…

Belski, Regina; Belski, Iouri

2014-01-01

423

"Greenfield Schooling": How Policymakers Can Cultivate a Garden of Educational Innovation. Education Outlook. No. 3  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reform-minded educators often run into obstacles when they try to bring their innovative ideas to schools modeled on twentieth-century factories. The challenge of "greenfield schooling," as I write in my new book, "Education Unbound: The Promise and Practice of Greenfield Schooling," is to cultivate environments that invite entrepreneurial ideas…

Hess, Frederick M.

2010-01-01

424

Denitrification and N2O emission from forested and cultivated alluvial clay soil  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Restored forested wetlands reduce N loads in surface discharge through plant uptake and denitrification. While removal of reactive N reduces impact on receiving waters, it is unclear whether enhanced denitrification also enhances emissions of the greenhouse gas N2O, thus compromising the water-quality benefits of restoration. This study compares denitrification rates and N2O:N2 emission ratios from Sharkey clay soil in a mature bottomland forest to those from an adjacent cultivated site in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley. Potential denitrification of forested soil was 2.4 times of cultivated soil. Using intact soil cores, denitrification rates of forested soil were 5.2, 6.6 and 2.0 times those of cultivated soil at 70, 85 and 100% water-filled pore space (WFPS), respectively. When NO3 was added, N2O emissions from forested soil were 2.2 times those of cultivated soil at 70% WFPS. At 85 and 100% WFPS, N2O emissions were not significantly different despite much greater denitrification rates in the forested soil because N2O:N2 emission ratios declined more rapidly in forested soil as WFPS increased. These findings suggest that restoration of forested wetlands to reduce NO3 in surface discharge will not contribute significantly to the atmospheric burden of N2O. ?? Springer 2005.

Ullah, S.; Breitenbeck, G. A.; Faulkner, S. P.

2005-01-01

425

Identification and analysis of differentially expressed genes in mountain cultivated ginseng and mountain wild ginseng.  

PubMed

Ginseng is one of the most widely used herbal medicines in the world. Wild ginseng is thought to be more effective than cultivated ginseng in chemoprevention; however, little has been reported on the differences between wild and cultivated ginseng. In the present study we used suppressive subtractive hybridization to identify wild ginseng-specific genes. One of the clones isolated in this screen was the NRT2 gene (designated pNRT2), a high-affinity nitrate transporter. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction results showed that pNRT2 expression was significantly upregulated in wild ginseng compared with cultivated ginseng. However, pNRT2 mRNA levels were similar between mountain cultivated ginseng and mountain wild ginseng. Nitrate is an important nitrogen source for plant growth, and its soil levels can vary in wild environments; thus it is conceivable that pNRT2 expression is upregulated in wild ginseng and may be an important marker of wild ginseng. PMID:21704955

Kwon, Ki-Rok; Park, Won-Pil; Kang, Won-Mo; Jeon, Eun-Yi; Jang, Jun-Hyeog

2011-06-01

426

Gene Flow from Cultivated Rice (Oryza sativa) to its Weedy and Wild Relatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

d Background and Aims Transgene escape through gene flow from genetically modified (GM) crops to their wild relative species may potentially cause environmental biosafety problems. The aim of this study was to assess the extent of gene flow between cultivated rice and two of its close relatives under field conditions. d Methods Experiments were conducted at two sites in Korea

J UAN C HEN; D ONG S UN L EE; Z HI P ING; S ONG; H A K S O O SU; B AO-RONG L U

2004-01-01

427

Role of hydrodynamic shear in the cultivation of animal, plant and microbial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid developments in biotechnology have resulted in the identification and use of a large variety of biologically active substances produced from microbial, plant and animal origin. These range from enzymes and antibiotics to highly complex molecules such as immunoglobulins, growth factors and hormones. The advances in bioprocess technology have enabled the cultivation of different micro-organisms, namely bacteria, yeast and

J. B. Joshi; C. B. Elias; M. S. Patole

1996-01-01

428

SPN: A model for the study of soil-plant nitrogen fluxes in silage maize cultivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to adapt the Soil-Plant-Nitrogen (SPN) model to silage maize, as an explorative tool for evaluating the possibility of expanding maize cultivation to regions which historically have been too cold for maize production, and for estimating the effects of management practices as fertiliser and manure application on C and N fluxes. The model was validated

Marina Azzaroli Bleken; Antje Herrmann; Lars Egil Haugen; Friedhelm Taube; Lars Bakken

2009-01-01

429

Heavy Metal Content in Plants from Family Lamiaceae Cultivated in an Industrially Polluted Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.), sage (Salvia officinalis L.), and clary sage (Salvia sclarea L.), cultivated at selected distances from a heavy metal pollution source (the Non-Ferrous Metal Works near Plovdiv, Bulgaria) were examined for heavy metal accumulation. The content of heavy metals in the roots, stems, leaves, and inflorescences, plus the heavy metal concentration in the essential oils obtained

V. Angelova; K. Ivanov; R. Ivanova

2006-01-01

430

Physical and Chemical Properties of Substrates to Cultivate Seedling of Citrus Rootstocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was carried out to assess the physical and chemical evolution of three substrates and their relation to the vegetative development of seedlings of citrus rootstock, cultivated in containers. The experiment was carried out in greenhouse conditions on 27 September 2001 and continued until 120 days after sowing. The experimental design was randomized block in a split?plot scheme. In

Gilmar Schäfer; Paulo Vitor Dutra de Souza; Otto Carlos Koller; Sérgio Francisco Schwarz

2008-01-01

431

Beyond Book Learning: Cultivating the Pedagogy of Experience through Field Trips.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A pedagogy of experience can be cultivated by using a critically responsive approach based on experience, critical thinking, reflection, and action. A service-learning field trip to Cuba illustrates how experiential learning can bring classroom and community together in a way that invites students to engage in meaningful, active forms of learning…

Jakubowski, Lisa Marie

2003-01-01

432

Producing bioethanol from cellulosic hydrolyzate via co-immobilized cultivation strategy.  

PubMed

Lignocellulose was converted into reducing sugars by using saccharification enzymes from cocultivated Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger and reducing sugars as nutrients for Zymomonas mobilis to produce bioethanol in an immobilization system. After 96 h of cultivation, cocultivated T. reesei and A. niger had enzymatical synergistic effects that enabled a reducing sugar production of 1.29 g/L and a cellulose conversion rate of 23.27%. An 18% total inoculum concentration and a 1/1 inoculation ratio of T. reesei to A. niger obtained a reducing sugar production rate and a cellulose conversion rate of 2.57 g/L and 46.27%, respectively. The co-immobilization cultivation results showed that using polyurethane as a carrier optimized total saccharification enzyme activity at an inoculum ratio of 1/1 and a total inoculum concentration of 6.5×10(6)spores/mL. Based on the experimental results, the bioreactor design was further modified to enhance bioethanol production. The three strains (A. niger, T. reesei and Z. mobilis) were cocultivated with a co-immobilization cultivation system. The experimental results showed that, after 24 h cultivation, bioethanol production reached 0.56 g/L, and reducing sugar conversion rate reached 11.2% when using carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) substrates. The experimental results confirmed that the modified bioreactor enhances bioethanol production. However, further experiments are needed to determine how to prevent multi-stage failure of reducing medium volume. PMID:22578592

Liu, Yu-Kuo; Yang, Chih-An; Chen, Wei-Chuan; Wei, Yu-Hong

2012-08-01

433

The Problem-Based Learning Tutorial: Cultivating Higher Order Thinking Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the tutorial process in problem-based learning (PBL) and how it can be used to cultivate higher order thinking skills. Considers the role of the problem, collaboration among peers, the facilitator role, and the importance of student reflection. PBL principles are applied to instruction of gifted students. (DB)

Hmelo, Cindy E.; Ferrari, Michel

1997-01-01

434

In vitro azadirachtin production by hairy root cultivation of Azadirachta indica in nutrient mist bioreactor.  

PubMed

Azadirachtin, a well-known biopesticide is a secondary metabolite conventionally extracted from the seeds of Azadirachta indica. The present study involved in vitro azadirachtin production by developing hairy roots of A. indica via Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation of A. indica explants. Liquid culture of hairy roots was established in shake flask to study the kinetics of growth and azadirachtin production. A biomass production of 13.3 g/L dry weight (specific growth rate of 0.7 day(-1)) was obtained after 25 days of cultivation period with an azadirachtin yield of 3.3 mg/g root biomass. To overcome the mass transfer limitation in conventionally used liquid-phase reactors, batch cultivation of hairy roots was carried out in gas-phase reactors (nutrient spray and nutrient mist bioreactor) to investigate the possible scale-up of A. indica hairy root culture. The nano-size nutrient mist particles generated from the nozzle of the nutrient mist bioreactor could penetrate till the inner core of the inoculated root matrix, facilitating uniform growth during high-density cultivation of hairy roots. A biomass production of 9.8 g/L dry weight with azadirachtin accumulation of 2.8 mg/g biomass (27.4 mg/L) could be achieved in 25 days of batch cultivation period, which was equivalent to a volumetric productivity of 1.09 mg/L per day of azadirachtin. PMID:22083394

Srivastava, Smita; Srivastava, A K

2012-01-01

435

Optimizing food distribution in closed-circuit cultivation of edible sea urchins ( Paracentrotus lividus: Echinoidea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the framework of echinoid cultivation, whose objective is to succeed in continuously producing large amounts of edible sea urchins (Paracentrotus lividus) under controlled conditions (aquaculture), gonadal growth is to be optimized. Among the various parameters influencing the production of roe, the quantity of food distributed was tested for optimization. After a 1-month fast, echinoids were fed artificial food pellets

Christine Spirlet; Philippe Grosjean; Michel Jangoux

1998-01-01

436

Glycoalkaloids as Biomarkers for Recognition of Cultivated, Wild, and Somatic Hybrids of Potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultivated and wild potato species synthesize a wide variety of steroidal glycoalkaloids (GAs). During breeding programs, species genomes are often put together through either sexual or somatic hybridization. Therefore, the determination of the GA composition of hybrids is very important in that it may affect either human consumption, or resistance to pathogen and pests. Here, we report the results of

Salvatore Savarese; Anna Andolfi; Alessio Cimmino; Domenico Carputo; Luigi Frusciante; Antonio Evidente

2009-01-01

437

Tibet is one of the centers of domestication of cultivated barley  

PubMed Central

The Near East Fertile Crescent is well recognized as a primary center of barley origin, diversity, and domestication. A large number of wild barleys have been collected from the Tibetan Plateau, which is characterized by an extreme environment. We used genome-wide diversity array technology markers to analyze the genotypic division between wild barley from the Near East and Tibet. Our results confirmed the existence of Tibetan wild barley and suggested that the split between the wild barleys in the Near East and those in Tibet occurred around 2.76 million years ago (Mya). To test the concept of polyphyletic domestication of barley, we characterized a set of worldwide cultivated barley. Some Chinese hulless and six-rowed barleys showed a close relationship with Tibetan wild barley but showed no common ancestor with other cultivated barley. Our data support the concept of polyphyletic domestication of cultivated barley and indicate that the Tibetan Plateau and its vicinity is one of the centers of domestication of cultivated barley. The current results may be highly significant in exploring the elite germplasm for barley breeding, especially against cold and drought stresses.

Dai, Fei; Nevo, Eviatar; Wu, Dezhi; Comadran, Jordi; Zhou, Meixue; Qiu, Long; Chen, Zhonghua; Beiles, Avigdor; Chen, Guoxiong; Zhang, Guoping

2012-01-01

438

Fucoxanthin and Its Metabolites in Edible Brown Algae Cultivated in Deep Seawater  

PubMed Central

Three metabolites of fucoxanthin were isolated from a brown alga, Scytosiphon lomentaria, and the structure of a new compound was determined by NMR. The content of fucoxanthin, a biologically active carotenoid, in four edible brown algae, cultivated in deep seawater, was studied.

Mori, Kanami; Ooi, Takashi; Hiraoka, Masanori; Oka, Naohiro; Hamada, Hideyuki; Tamura, Mitsumasa; Kusumi, Takenori

2004-01-01

439

Deleterious activity of cultivated grasses (Poaceae) and residues on soilborne fungal, nematode and weed pests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were conducted in laboratory bioreactors and in field plots to test effects of certain cultivated members of the grass family (Poaceae = Gramineae), including wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Yolo), barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. UC337), oats (Avena sativa cv. Montezuma), triticale (X Triticose- cale), and a sorghum-sudangrass hybrid (Sorghum bicolor x S. sudanense = \\

James J. Stapleton; Charles G. Summers; Jeffrey P. Mitchell; Timothy S. Prather

2009-01-01

440

Use of polishing pond effluents to cultivate lettuce (Lactuca sativa) in a hydroponic system.  

PubMed

The sanitary quality and productivity of hydroponic lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) plants cultivated under greenhouse conditions and treated with effluent from anaerobic reactor + polishing pond followed by physical-chemical treatment was evaluated. Two hydroponic cultivations were performed at summer and winter time at Vitoria-ES, Brazil. The treatments for both cultivations were: T1) conventional nutrient solution, T2) effluent from physical-chemical treatment, T3) effluent from polishing pond, and T4) effluent from polishing pond with 50% dilution. The plants were evaluated for microbial contamination, productivity and nutrient content. In all cases, no significant microbial contamination of lettuce was detected and the levels of macronutrients in the shoot system were similar to those in published reports. In the experiments from summer season, the treatments T1 and T2 resulted in higher production than the T3 and T4 treatments. Plants from T3 and T4 had a less developed root system as a result of reduced oxygenation from competition with the higher algae biomass content from the polishing pond effluent. In the winter season, the effect of the algal biomass was pronounced only in the T3 treatment (undiluted effluent from polishing pond). In conclusion, hydroponic cultivation of lettuce with pond effluent is suitable as a complement to water and nutrients for plants. PMID:19039187

Keller, R; Perin, K; Souza, W G; Cruz, L S; Zandonade, E; Cassini, S T A; Goncalves, R F

2008-01-01

441

Effects of cultivation conditions on the production of natamycin with Streptomyces gilvosporeus LK196  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natamycin is a very attractive antifungal agent with wide applications in medical and food industries. In order to improve the productivity of natamycin, the effects of cultivation conditions were investigated with Streptomyces gilvosporeus LK-196 in the shake flasks and 30-L fermentors. The results showed that dissolved oxygen and shear force would affluence the biosynthesis of natamycin significantly. The high concentration

Jingle Liang; Zhinan Xu; Tongfeng Liu; Jianping Lin; Peilin Cen

2008-01-01

442

Simple Colorimetric Method for Detecting Degenerate Strains of the Cultivated Basidiomycete Flammulina velutipes (Enokitake)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objective of this study was to develop a simple method for detecting degenerate Flammulina velutipes (Eno- kitake) cultures. Cultural degeneration of cultivated strains of Enokitake similar to the degeneration observed for Agaricus bisporus (1, 2) has become a serious problem in Japan. Previ- ous efforts to evaluate the fruiting potential of Enokitake have been made using isozyme electrophoresis

Yumi Magae; Kobun Akahane; Kimiyoshi Nakamura; Shigeyuki Tsunoda

2005-01-01

443

Simple colorimetric method for detecting degenerate strains of the cultivated basidiomycete Flammulina velutipes (Enokitake).  

PubMed

Degeneration of cultivated strains of Flammulina velutipes is a serious problem. We developed a simple colorimetric method to detect degenerate strains by using a liquid medium supplemented with bromothymol blue and lactose. The ability of a strain to develop normal mushrooms could be determined by the color of the medium. PMID:16204563

Magae, Yumi; Akahane, Kobun; Nakamura, Kimiyoshi; Tsunoda, Shigeyuki

2005-10-01

444

Chemical and physical properties of rhizosphere and bulk soils of three tea plants cultivated in Ultisols  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to investigate the physical and chemical properties of rhizosphere and bulk soils of three tea plants cultivated at two different elevations for direct comparison each cultivar planted in different soil environments. The three tea plants are Camellia sinensis CV Chin-Shin Dahpan (CSD), Camellia sinensis CV Chin-Shin Oolong (CSO), and Camellia sinensis CV TTES, No. 12 (TTE). The

Yue Ming Chen; Ming Kuang Wang; Shun Yao Zhuang; Po Neng Chiang

2006-01-01

445

Assessment of reclaimed wastewater irrigation impacts on water quality, soil, and rice cultivation in paddy fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research was to monitor and assess the impact of reclaimed wastewater irrigation on water quality, soil, and rice cultivation by comparing the effects of various wastewater treatment levels on the growth and yield of rice. A randomized complete block design was used for the application methods of the wastewater effluents to paddy rice, with five treatments

Moon Seong Kang; Sang Min Kim; Seung Woo Park; Jeong Jae Lee; Kyung H. Yoo

2007-01-01

446

Hillslope Sediment Trapping by Natural or Cultivated Riparian Vegetation in Northern Laos  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years growing human pressure on agricultural land in the north of the Lao PDR has led to accelerated degradation processes along hillslopes, and higher sediment delivery rates to streams. Fur- thermore, high demand from urban centres is attracting farmers to cultivate vegetables in riparian areas. These land-use changes may have negative affects on stream water quality. The aims

O. Vigiak; O. Ribolzi; C. Valentin

447

Nutrition in agricultural development: The case of irrigated rice cultivation in West Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study on the nutritional aspects of agricultural and rural development, examines the case of irrigated rice cultivation in Western Kenya. Large?scale irrigation schemes were established in the region two decades ago; in the past few years, paddy production by independent smallholders has been expanding rapidly. Nutrition surveys were conducted among four groups of farmers differing in degree of participation

Rudo Niemeijer; Marian Geuns; Ted Kliest; Vincent Ogonda; Jan Hoorweg

1988-01-01

448

Cultivating Creativity and Self-Reflective Thinking through Dialogic Teacher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new program of teacher training in a dialogical spirit in order to prepare them towards working in the field of philosophy with children combines cultivating creativity and self-reflective thinking had been operated as a part of cooperation between the academia and the education system in Israel. This article describes the program that is a part…

Kizel, Arie

2012-01-01

449

Fiber yield and quality of fiber nettle ( Urtica dioica L.) cultivated in Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the production potential of fiber nettle crops in Tuscany (Italy), a German clone of fiber nettle was cultivated during 2006–2007.Although a longer experimentation is essential, the two first years of trials showed that the German clone used also seems to give good results in term of growth and fiber yield in an environment like central Italy, with higher

L. Bacci; S. Baronti; S. Predieri; N. di Virgilio

2009-01-01

450

Diversity of Archaea in hypersaline environments characterized by molecular-phylogenetic and cultivation studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diversity of Archaea from three different hypersaline environments was analyzed and compared by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based molecular phylogenetic techniques and cultivation approaches. The samples originated from a crystallization pond of a solar saltern in Spain (FC); an alkaline lake in Nevada, USA, (EMF); and a small pond from a slag heap of a potassium mine in Germany (DIE).

Torsten Ochsenreiter; Felicitas Pfeifer; Christa Schleper

2002-01-01

451

Cultivation and Ecosystem Role of a Marine Roseobacter Clade-Affiliated Cluster Bacterium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isolation and cultivation are a crucial step in elucidating the physiology, biogeochemistry, and ecosystem role of microorganisms. Many abundant marine bacteria, including the widespread Roseobacter clade-affiliated (RCA) cluster group, have not been cultured with traditional methods. Using novel techniques of cocultivation with algal cultures, we have accomplished successful isolation and propagation of a strain of the RCA cluster. Our experiments

Xavier Mayali; Peter J. S. Franks; Farooq Azam

2008-01-01

452

Closed and continuous algae cultivation system for food production and gas exchange in CELSS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In CELSS (Controlled Ecological Life Support System), utilization of photosynthetic algae is an effective means for obtaining food and oxygen at the same time. We have chosen Spirulina, a blue-green alga, and have studied possibilities of algae utilization. We have developed an advanced algae cultivation system, which is able to produce algae continuously in a closed condition. Major features of the new system are as follows. o (1)In order to maintain homogeneous culture conditions, the cultivator was designed so as to cause a swirl on medium circulation. (2)Oxygen gas separation and carbon dioxide supply are conducted by a newly designed membrane module. (3)Algae mass and medium are separated by a specially designed harvester. (4)Cultivation conditions, such as pH, temperature, algae growth rate, light intensity and quanlity of generated oxygen gas are controlled by a computer system and the data are automatically recorded. This equipment is a primary model for ground experiments in order to obtain some design data for space use. A feasibility of algae cultivation in a closed condition is discussed on the basis of data obtained by use of this new system.

Oguchi, Mitsuo; Otsubo, Koji; Nitta, Keiji; Shimada, Atsuhiro; Fujii, Shigeo; Koyano, Takashi; Miki, Keizaburo

453

Asplenium × lucrosum nothosp. nov.: a sterile hybrid widely and erroneously cultivated as “ Asplenium bulbiferum ”  

Microsoft Academic Search

A widely cultivated fern with dimorphic sterile and fertile pinnae, abundant production of vegetative bulbils, and aborted spores is described as Asplenium × lucrosum Perrie et Brownsey nothosp. nov. It has previously been confused with A. bulbiferum, with which it shares the production of bulbils. Evidence from chloroplast DNA sequences and morphology is presented for the origin of A. ×

L. R. Perrie; L. D. Shepherd; P. J. Brownsey

2005-01-01

454

Genetic characterization and phytochemical analysis of wild and cultivated populations of Scutellaria baicalensis.  

PubMed

Scutellaria baicalensis was collected from four wild and four cultivated populations from different locations in China. Forty-two samples were analyzed using random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) techniques for genetic profiling, and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques to determine the flavonoid content. The selected 23 RAPD primers yielded a total of 838 clear and reproducible bands of which 237 were found to be polymorphic. The wild population exhibited higher polymorphism than that of the cultivated population. The dendrogram generated by the UPGMA method via Nei's genetic distance revealed three distinct genotypes from the cultivated populations and several branches from the wild populations. The contents of baicalin and wogonoside in dried roots of the samples ranged from (w/w) 8.63 to 17.84%, and from 1.99 to 4.21%, respectively, whereas their aglycones, baicalein and wogonin, were within the range of only 0.04-0.23%. The total content of the four flavonoids varied from 9.45 to 26.24%. Comparatively, the cultivated populations contained much higher levels of baicalin and total flavonoids than those in the wild populations. The results from genetic characterization and phytochemical analysis demonstrated that the quality variation of this drug was mainly determined by extrinsic environmental or agricultural factors, rather than by genetic differences. Our findings can be used for the commercial production and germplasm management of this medicinal plant. PMID:18651621

Su, Su; He, Chang-Ming; Li, Lin-Chu; Chen, Jia-Kuan; Zhou, Tong-Shui

2008-07-01

455

Independent Origins of Cultivated Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) in the Old World Tropics  

PubMed Central

As a portable source of food, water, fuel, and construction materials, the coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) played a fundamental role in human migrations and the development of civilization across the humid tropics. Here we investigated the coconut's domestication history and its population genetic structure as it relates to human dispersal patterns. A sample of 1,322 coconut accessions, representing the geographical and phenotypic diversity of the species, was examined using ten microsatellite loci. Bayesian analyses reveal two highly genetically differentiated subpopulations that correspond to the Pacific and Indo-Atlantic oceanic basins. This pattern suggests independent origins of coconut cultivation in these two world regions, with persistent population structure on a global scale despite long-term human cultivation and dispersal. Pacific coconuts show additional genetic substructure corresponding to phenotypic and geographical subgroups; moreover, the traits that are most clearly associated with selection under human cultivation (dwarf habit, self-pollination, and “niu vai” fruit morphology) arose only in the Pacific. Coconuts that show evidence of genetic admixture between the Pacific and Indo-Atlantic groups occur primarily in the southwestern Indian Ocean. This pattern is consistent with human introductions of Pacific coconuts along the ancient Austronesian trade route connecting Madagascar to Southeast Asia. Admixture in coastal east Africa may also reflect later historic Arab trading along the Indian Ocean coastline. We propose two geographical origins of coconut cultivation: island Southeast Asia and southern margins of the Indian subcontinent.

Gunn, Bee F.; Baudouin, Luc; Olsen, Kenneth M.

2011-01-01

456

An experimental investigation of the multiphase flows in a photobioreactor for algae cultivation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Algal biomass is a promising feedstock for biofuels production, with photobioreactors being one of the major cultivation systems for algal cells. Light absorption, fluid dynamics, and algal metabolism are three key factors in determining the overall performance of a photobioreactor. The behavior of the multiphase flow (i.e., liquid phase -- water, gas phase -- CO2 and O2, and solid phase -- algal cells) and turbulent mixing inside the reactor are the core connecting the three factors together. One of the major challenges in the optimal design of photobioreactors for algae cultivation is the lack of in-depth understanding of the characteristics of the multiphase flows and turbulent mixing. In this study, we present a comprehensive experimental study to investigate the effects of turbulent mixing in photobioreactors on the performance of a photobioreactor for algae cultivation. A high-resolution particle image velocity (PIV) system is used to achieve time-resolved, in-situ flow field measurements to quantify the turbulent mixing of the multiphase flows inside the bioreactor, while algal cultures are also grown in the same reactor with the same experimental settings. The mixing characteristics of the multiphase flow are correlated with the algal growth performance in the bioreactors to elucidate the underlying physics to explore/optimize design paradigms for the optimization of photobioreactor designs for algae cultivation.

Yang, Zifeng; Hu, Hui; Del Ninno, Matteo; Wen, Zhiyou

2011-11-01

457

A further mission to the Georgian SSR 1984 for collecting indigenous material of cultivated plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In the summer of 1984 a fourth joint mission has been organized for the collection of autochthonous material of cultivated plants which went to Upper Svanetia and Guria (Western Georgia). Altogether 366 accessions could be obtained, more than half of them being grain legumes and approximately 20 % cereals respectively vegetables. Gene-erosion has reached a very critical stage for

Rusudan K. Beridze; Peter Hanelt; Verniko N. Kandelaki; Irina M. Sakvarelidze; Jürgen Schultze-Motel

1985-01-01