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1

Setal Morphology of the Grooming Appendages of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Crustacea: Decapoda  

E-print Network

Setal Morphology of the Grooming Appendages of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Crustacea: Decapoda- nbergii, were examined using scanning electron micros- copy. Macrobrachium rosenbergii is extensively on the grooming appendages and sensory structures of the commercially important shrimp, Macrobrachium rose

Lajeunesse, Marc J.

2

Changes of Myofibrillar Proteins and Texture in Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, During Iced Storage  

E-print Network

Changes of Myofibrillar Proteins and Texture in Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii has been reported to be 3-4 days with devel opment of mushiness proteins and texture offreshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, during 14-day iced storage were studied

3

Hybridization between the freshwater prawns Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man) and M. carcinus (L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of hybrids between Macrobrachium rosenbergii and other Macrobrachium species has great economical importance for aquaculture, but also has serious environmental implications when M. rosenbergii is present as an exotic species. In this study, intra- and interspecific crosses between M. rosenbergii and M. carcinus were carried out through natural mating and artificial insemination. For the natural crosses, a fertile

César Graziani; Carlos Moreno; Elvis Villarroel; Tomás Orta; César Lodeiros; Marcos De Donato

2003-01-01

4

Responses of freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii , to chemical attractants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemoreception in the adults of the freshwater prawnMacrobrachium rosenbergii was investigated under controlled laboratory conditions, using behavioral assays. Tests were carried out on groups, as well as on individuals, all at their intermolt stages of the molt cycle, and prestarved for three to four days. Of 28 different substances tested, the amino acids taurine, glycine, arginine, and betaine, as well

Sheenan Harpaz; David Kahan; Rachel Galun; Itzhak Moore

1987-01-01

5

RNA-binding region of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus capsid protein.  

PubMed

White tail disease (WTD) kills prawn larvae and causes drastic losses to the freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) industry. The main causative agent of WTD is Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV). The N-terminal end of the MrNV capsid protein is very rich in positively charged amino acids and is postulated to interact with RNA molecules. N-terminal and internal deletion mutagenesis revealed that the RNA-binding region is located at positions 20-29, where 80?% of amino acids are positively charged. Substitution of all these positively charged residues with alanine abolished the RNA binding. Mutants without the RNA-binding region still assembled into virus-like particles, suggesting that this region is not a part of the capsid assembly domain. This paper is, to the best of our knowledge, the first to report the specific RNA-binding region of MrNV capsid protein. PMID:24878641

Goh, Zee Hong; Mohd, Nur Azmina Syakirin; Tan, Soon Guan; Bhassu, Subha; Tan, Wen Siang

2014-09-01

6

Tolerance of Macrobrachium rosenbergii to white spot syndrome virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The susceptibility of Macrobrachium idella, M. lamerrae and M. rosenbergii to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was tested by immersion challenge, oral route and intramuscular injection. Their susceptibility to WSSV was compared with that of Penaeus indicus and P. monodon. The WSSV caused 43.3% and 53.3% mortality in M. lamerrae and M. idella, respectively, by immersion method and 53.3% and

A. S Sahul Hameed; M. Xavier Charles; M Anilkumar

2000-01-01

7

Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus disease (white tail disease) in Australia.  

PubMed

The index case of white tail disease (WTD) is presented in adult broodstock prawns Macrobrachium rosenbergii from the Flinders River in western Queensland, Australia, in mid-2007. Histological examination revealed extensive myonecrosis with massive infiltration of myonuclei and some haemocytes. Juveniles from the same broodstock but not from 3 other families displayed white muscle lesions. Low-grade chronic mortalities approaching 100% over 1 yr occurred. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR) were attempted for both M. rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) with 2 sets of primers and for the satellite virus, extrasmall virus (XSV). All 3 PCRs generated amplicons of the expected sizes. Basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) analyses of the 3 consensus sequences identified a 91% match with MrNV viral capsid protein gene, 96% match with MrNV RNA-directed RNA polymerase gene, and a 99% match with M. rosenbergii XSV capsid protein gene. The clinical signs, histopathological lesions and RT-PCR amplicons could be reproduced in M. rosenbergii inoculated with cell-free extracts fulfilling River's postulates. We conclude that this is an endemic strain of MrNV as the sequences are dissimilar to strains of MrNV circulating around Asia and the Americas. This case only poorly meets the Office International des Epizooties (OIE) case definition for WTD due to the age of the prawns involved and the nature of the inclusion bodies. Perhaps the OIE case definition needs broadening. PMID:19750804

Owens, Leigh; La Fauce, Kathy; Juntunen, Karen; Hayakijkosol, Orachun; Zeng, Chaoshu

2009-07-23

8

Nutritional requirements, feed formulation, and feeding practices for intensive culture of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research results concerning nutrition of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and applicability to the production of feed for intensive culture are presented. Future research approaches are recommended and comparisons to the nutrition of penaeid shrimp species are provided.Quantitative requirements of essential amino acids for M. rosenbergii are undefined; however, arginine, methionine, and lysine are suspected as being the first limiting

Louis R. DAbramo

1994-01-01

9

White Tail Disease of Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

Macrobrachium rosenbergii is the most important cultured freshwater prawn in the world and it is now farmed on a large scale in many countries. Generally, freshwater prawn is considered to be tolerant to diseases but a disease of viral origin is responsible for severe mortalities in larval, post-larval and juvenile stages of prawn. This viral infection namely white tail disease (WTD) was reported in the island of Guadeloupe in 1995 and later in Martinique (FrenchWest Indies) in Taiwan, the People's Republic of China, India, Thailand, Australia and Malaysia. Two viruses, Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus-like particle (XSV) have been identified as causative agents of WTD. MrNV is a small icosahedral non-enveloped particle, 26-27 nm in diameter, identified in the cytoplasm of connective cells. XSV is also an icosahedral virus and 15 nm in diameter. Clinical signs observed in the infected animals include lethargy, opaqueness of the abdominal muscle, degeneration of the telson and uropods, and up to 100 % within 4 days. The available diagnostic methods to detect WTD include RT-PCR, dot-blot hybridization, in situ hybridization and ELISA. In experimental infection, these viruses caused 100 % mortality in post-larvae but failed to cause mortality in adult prawns. The reported hosts for these viruses include marine shrimp, Artemia and aquatic insects. Experiments were carried out to determine the possibility of vertical transmission of MrNV and XSV in M. rosenbergii. The results indicate that WTD may be transferred from infected brooders to their offspring during spawning. Replication of MrNV and XSV was investigated in apparently healthy C6/36 Aedes albopictus and SSN-1 cell lines. The results revealed that C6/36 and SSN-1cells were susceptible to these viruses. No work has been carried out on control and prevention of WTD and dsRNA against protein B2 produced RNAi that was able to functionally prevent and reduce mortality in WTD-infected redclaw crayfish. PMID:23997437

Sahul Hameed, A S; Bonami, Jean-Robert

2012-09-01

10

The virulence of Enterococcus to freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and its immune resistance under ammonia stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth of pathogen bacterium, Enterococcus was not affected in tryptic soy broth (TSB) medium containing ammonia-N concentration in the range of 0–5·14mg l?1. Giant freshwater prawnMacrobrachium rosenbergii (8–12g) were challenged with Enterococcus which had been incubated for 24h in TSB medium containing different concentrations of ammonia-N at 0–5·14mg l?1. Cumulative mortality of M. rosenbergii was higher for the bacteria incubated

Winton Cheng; Jiann-Chu Chen

2002-01-01

11

Feasibility of direct utilization of selected geothermal water for aquaculture of macrobrachium rosenbergii. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility was tested of direct utilization of geothermal water for the aquaculture of Malaysian freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). A problem with using geothermal water for aquaculture is the chemical composition of the water with high flouride levels being a particular problem. Results show that (1) some geothermal water in Idaho can be used directly for the aquaculture of Macrobrachium rosenbergii, (2) high flouride levels cannot be directly correlated with high mortality rates and (3) low flouride levels do not correlate with high growth rates.

Spinosa, C.

1984-05-01

12

Antibiotic administration by osmotic infiltration in the freshwater shrimp, Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

E-print Network

ANTIBIOTIC ADMINISTRATION BY OSMOTIC INFILTRATION IN THE FRESHWATER SHRIMP, MACROBRACHIUM POSENBERGII A Thesis by ALCESTIS TRILLO LLOBRERA Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A%M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1980 Major Subject: Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology ANTIBIOTIC ADMINISTRATION BY OSMOTIC INFILTRATION IN THE FRESHWATER SHRIMP, MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERGII A Thesis by ALCESTIS TRILLO LLOBRERA Approved...

Llobrera, Alcestis Trillo

2012-06-07

13

Ingestion rates of Artemia nauplii for different larval stages of Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The functional response between ingestion rate and food concentration was determined for each larval stage of Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Artemia franciscana nauplii were supplied at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 per milliliter. The nauplii were counted by sight using a Pasteur pipette and transferred to Petri dishes containing 40 ml of brackish water (12‰) lying on the top of

H. P. Barros; W. C. Valenti

2003-01-01

14

Bacterial agglutination by the sialic acid specific serum lectin from Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have isolated a serum lectin from the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii that agglutinates Bacillus cereus and Aeromona sp. This lectin also agglutinates other bacteria such as Pasteurella haemolytica biotype A (capsular serotype 12), several serotypes from P. multocida and Staphylococcus aureus and to a lesser extent Escherichia coli and Salmonella arizona.Lectin recognition of well known polysaccharide components seems to

Lorena Vazquez; Laura Jaramillo; Ricardo Lascurain; Edwin L. Cooper; Patricia Rosas; Edgar Zenteno

1996-01-01

15

Effects and toxicity of phthalate esters to hemocytes of giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phthalate esters (PAEs) have been considered as environmental pollutants and have been subject to control in the United States of America and Japan. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and toxicity of eight PAEs to hemocytes and the defense functions of giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), including hemocytic adhesion, pseudopodia formation, phenoloxidase (PO) activity, and superoxide

Hung-Hung Sung; Wei-Yi Kao; Yi-Jen Su

2003-01-01

16

Effects of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on the haemocyte profile of the prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii was investigated for its total haemocyte count (THC) based on season, sex, size and feeding rate. The THC, when the prawns were subjected to injections of foreign materials was also investigated. The prawns displayed the highest and lowest THC in autumn and winter respectively, with no significant difference between male and female, or among

Winton Cheng; Jiann-Chu Chen

2001-01-01

17

Observations on the behavior of the malaysian prawn, macrobrachium rosenbergii (de man), to artificial habitats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six studies examined the spatial and temporal behavior of juvenile Macrobrachium rosenbergii prawns to a variety of habitat configurations and materials. Of the configurations tested, a layered habitat design was preferred. A significant (P < 0.001) preference for edge or perimeter areas of solid layer habitat units was displayed by the prawns. However, modification of the layers to consist of

Theodore I. J. Smith; Paul A. Sandifer

1979-01-01

18

In vitro culture of embryonic cells from the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were carried out to develop cell line cultures from embryonic tissue of Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Good yields of dissociated, uncontaminated, viable cell suspensions were obtained by physical disruption of harvested eggs in the presence of buffered iodophore disinfectant and malachite green. Primary cultures in the form of proliferating foci of cells were readily initiated using a wide range of mammalian

G. N. Frerichs

1996-01-01

19

Detection of white spot baculovirus (WSBV) in giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, using polymerase chain reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

White spot baculovirus (WSBV) is the causative agent of a disease which decimated some cultured penaeid shrimp populations and inflicted severe economic damage in Taiwan. Until very recently, the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii was thought to be unaffected by this virus, but now signs closely resembling white spot syndrome (WSS) have been observed on its exoskeleton. In this paper,

S. E Peng; C. F Lo; C. H Ho; C. F Chang; G. H Kou

1998-01-01

20

Microbiological Quality of Farmed Tropical Freshwater Prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine the microbiological quality of farmed giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) collected from four freshwater farms located in Kerala (India). Microbiological counts on whole, deheaded, and deheaded and deveined prawn as well as on head and intestine were determined. Average counts (log10 cfu g) on whole prawn were 6.9 (total mesophilic counts (TPC)

K. V. Lalitha; P. K. Surendran

2006-01-01

21

Induced thermotolerance and stress resistance in larvae of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man, 1879)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimal conditions for heat shock (HS) were used to demonstrate induced thermotolerance (ITT) in larvae of the prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Larvae from three different broodstock nutritional regimes exhibited comparable degrees of ITT, which remained high for about 4 days. Survival and growth of larvae given the standard HS treatment (37 °C for 30min) were not statistically different from those of

M. M. Rahman; M. Wille; R. O. Cavalli; P. Sorgeloos; J. S. Clegg

2004-01-01

22

ONTOGENY OF SOCIAL STRUTURE AND POPULATION DYNAMICS IN THE GIANT FRESHWATER PRAWN, MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERGII (DE MAN)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social organization apparent in adult populations of giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii was analyzed with respect to: a) the weight distribution of a mature population, b) morphological definition of the three male types, and c) growth and maturation characteristics of males and females, including behavioral observations. The ontogeny of social structure was then followed starting from newly metamorphosed postlarvae up

ZIVA RA' ANAN; DAN COHEN

23

Microbiological changes in farm reared freshwater prawn ( Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man) in ice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microbiological changes in farm reared freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man) during ice storage were studied. A total of 156 bacterial cultures from fresh and ice-stored farmed freshwater prawn were isolated and characterized. Total aerobic, mesophilic and psychrotrophic counts and hydrogen sulphide producing bacterial counts were determined. The total aerobic counts at 20 and 37°C on fresh prawn was

K. V. Lalitha; P. K. Surendran

2006-01-01

24

Chromosome behaviour upon fertilization in eggs of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronological changes of the chromosomes upon feritilization of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man), were followed. Egg chromosomes, within 2 min after spawning, were at the second meiotic metaphase whereas sperm nucleus retained a cupped shape of the base region. The egg chromosomes progressed to the second meiotic anaphase by 10–15 min and completed maturation by 20 min

PRANEET DAMRONGPHOL; NITTAYA EANGCHUAN; BOONSERM POOLSANGUAN

1991-01-01

25

Spermatogenesis and distinctive mature sperm in the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1879)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structures of differentiating male germ cells in the testis of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, were studied by light and electron microscopy. Based on ultrastructural characteristics, the developing male germ cells are classified into 12 stages, including spermatogonia, six phases of primary spermatocytes (leptotene, zygotene, pachytene, diplotene, diakinesis and metaphase), secondary spermatocyte, three stages of spermatids and mature

Jaruwan Poljaroen; Rapeepun Vanichviriyakit; Yotsawan Tinikul; Ittipon Phoungpetchara; Vichai Linthong; Wattana Weerachatyanukul; Prasert Sobhon

2010-01-01

26

CERVUS vs. COLONY for successful parentage and sibship determinations in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assesses the properties of 10 microsatellite loci and two popular computer programs for likelihood-based parentage identification in commercial strains of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. It was our interest to determine the number of markers needed to optimize between genotyping cost and power of the test. Nine loci were informative, with average expected heterozygosity of 0.80 and

Thuchapol Karaket; Supawadee Poompuang

27

??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? Response to within-family selection on growth rate of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selective breeding program to improve growth rate of giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii has been carried out at the National Aquaculture Genetics Research Institute during 1998 to 2000. Within-family selection procedure was applied on growth rate of culture prawns. The experiment consisted of two lines including a high growth selected line and a control line. The selection responses were estimated

Supattra Uraiwan; Surang Sumanojitraporn; Siriporn Jeenmauk

28

Optimisation of reverse transcriptase loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid detection of Macrobrachium rosenbergii noda virus and extra small virus in Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

The standardisation and optimisation of a one step single tube reverse transcriptase loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) procedure is described for rapid diagnosis of white tail disease, a viral disease caused by Macrobrachium rosenbergii noda virus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV), in giant fresh water prawn, M. rosenbergii. Time, temperature and quantity of each reagent were optimised for the detection of the two viruses. This method was more sensitive than the conventional reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for detecting the two viruses. The RT-LAMP reaction is highly suited for disease diagnosis in developing countries. Amplification of DNA can be detected without the use of agarose gel electrophoresis, by the production of a whitish precipitate of magnesium pyrophosphate as a by-product. The cost of RT-LAMP for one reaction is nearly 4 times less than that of RT-PCR. PMID:20307575

Haridas, Divya V; Pillai, Devika; Manojkumar, B; Nair, C Mohanakumaran; Sherief, P M

2010-07-01

29

Effects of temperature on oxygen consumption and nitrogenous excretion of juvenile Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxygen consumption (O2 mg g?1 h?1) and ammonia-N, urea-N, organic-N and total nitrogen excretion (N ?g g?1 h?1) of juvenile Macrobrachium rosenbergii increased directly with temperature in the range of 17–32 °C. No urea-N excretion was found at 17 °C. The proportion of ammonia-N excretion to total nitrogen excreted by prawns was inversely related to temperature, whereas the proportion of

Jiann-Chu Chen; Tsu-Tau Kou

1996-01-01

30

Performance of Macrobrachium rosenbergii broodstock fed diets with different fatty acid composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of linoleic acid (18:2n?6) and n?3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) on the reproductive performance and offspring quality of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii was evaluated in a 180-day trial. Three isonitrogenous and isolipidic diets containing different levels of fatty acids, high 18:2n?6 and n?3 HUFA concentrations, high 18:2n?6 and low n?3 HUFA, and low 18:2n?6 and n?3

Ronaldo O Cavalli; Patrick Lavens; Patrick Sorgeloos

1999-01-01

31

A successful microbound diet for the larval culture of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high moisture (63–71%), semi-purified microbound diet containing alginate was compared to newly hatched live Artemia nauplii as an exclusive diet for the culture of larval freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii from 5th stage (weighted mean) through metamorphosis to postlarva. Two separate trials, representing larvae from different hatches, were conducted. Larvae were stocked at 50\\/l into cone-shaped vessels that contained 2

Ekaterina E Kovalenko; Louis R D'Abramo; Cortney L Ohs; Randal K Buddington

2002-01-01

32

Transcriptomics of a Giant Freshwater Prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii): De Novo Assembly, Annotation and Marker Discovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundGiant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii or GFP), is the most economically important freshwater crustacean species. However, as little is known about its genome, 454 pyrosequencing of cDNA was undertaken to characterise its transcriptome and identify genes important for growth.Methodology and Principal FindingsA collection of 787,731 sequence reads (244.37 Mb) obtained from 454 pyrosequencing analysis of cDNA prepared from muscle, ovary

Hyungtaek Jung; Russell E. Lyons; Hung Dinh; David A. Hurwood; Sean McWilliam; Peter B. Mather

2011-01-01

33

Effect of tributyltin on the early embryonic development in the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organotin compounds particularly tributyltin (TBT) has been used as an antifouling biocides. In the present investigation, effects of TBT on the embryonic development, growth, hatchability and hatching success of eggs exposed to TBT were studied in both control and treated groups of the freshwater prawn (brooder) Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Three concentrations viz. 0.78ppm, 1.56ppm and 3.12ppm were selected for treatment. TBT

Peranandam Revathi; Natesan Munuswamy

2010-01-01

34

Serotonin induces ovarian maturation in giant freshwater prawn broodstock, Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effects of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5HT) on ovarian development in Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man. Adult female prawns at the ovarian stage I (spent) were injected with 5HT at 1, 5, 10, 20 and 50 ?g g?1 body weight (BW) intramuscularly on days 0, 5 and 10, and sacrificed on day 15. The doses as related to the

Prasert Meeratana; Boonsirm Withyachumnarnkul; Praneet Damrongphol; Kanokphan Wongprasert; Anchalee Suseangtham; Prasert Sobhon

2006-01-01

35

Effect of cadmium on the ovarian development in the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this investigation, effect of cadmium chloride (25?g\\/l) on oogenesis of freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii was studied. In vivo experiments were performed with both intact and eyestalk ablated prawns. The intact, cadmium-exposed prawns exhibited decrease in Gonado Somatic Index (GSI) and ovarian development compared to controls. Whereas, ablated treated ovary showed reduction of yolk material and oocyte membrane thickness at

Peranandam Revathi; Lourduraj Arockia Vasanthi; Natesan Munuswamy

2011-01-01

36

Development of cell culture system from the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new cell culture system (MRH) was developed for the first time from 2 months old freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Primary cultures were developed from heart tissues by explant culture technique. Cell outgrowth was obtained from the heart\\u000a explant after 14 days of explant culture. The culture medium used was Leibovitz-15 supplemented with 20% Fetal Bovine Serum\\u000a along with 1% prawn hemolymph

Mukunda Goswami; Wazir S. Lakra; T. Rajaswaminathan; Gourav Rathore

2010-01-01

37

USING DIFFERENT SHELTER AREAS ON NURSING OF GIANT FRESHWATER PRAWN, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man, 1879) POSTLARVA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nursing of giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man, 1879) from the postlarval stage to the size of 2 cm with six different sizes shelters, including 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 m 2 , respectively. The experiment was carried out in 2.5 m diameter cement tank, contained 2.5 m 3 filtered water in 0.5 m water level. The

Supat Sripat; Nipon Chanprathad

38

Effects of dissolved oxygen on hemolymph parameters of freshwater giant prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Profiles of changes in physiological parameters of freshwater giant prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, exposed to various dissolved oxygen (DO) levels of 7.75, 4.75, 2.75, and 1.75 mg l?1 are reported. The parameters involved in osmoregulation and oxygen transport were monitored for a 6-day period. Notable depressions in hemolymph osmolality, Na+, K+, and Cl? contents were observed within 24 h after exposure

Winton Cheng; Chun-Hung Liu; Ching-Ming Kuo

2003-01-01

39

Salinity effects on reproduction of giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the role of salinity in breeding and growth has the potential to enhance production of giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. This study investigated the reproduction of females reared in salinities of 0, 6, 12, and 18 g L?1. Mean weight of females decreased with increased salinity (31.40±1.54, 25.14±1.16, 20.80±0.81, and 16.62±1.04 g at 0, 6, 12, and 18 g L?1, respectively). Larval

Pham Truong Yen; Amrit N. Bart

2008-01-01

40

Effects of nitrite on mortality, ion regulation and acid-base balance of Macrobrachium rosenbergii at different external chloride concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 96 h LC50 of nitrite-N to juvenile Macrobrachium rosenbergii was 8.49, 11.21, and 12.87 mg l?1 at 15, 24 and 34 mg Cl? per liter of water, respectively. M. rosenbergii which had been exposed individually to 0 (control), 2, 5, 10 mg nitrite-N per liter for 24 h at 15, 33, 50 mg Cl? per liter were analyzed for

Jiann-Chu Chen; Yuh Lee

1997-01-01

41

Phenoloxidase Activity of Hemocytes Derived from Penaeus monodonand Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phenoloxidase (PO) activity of hemocyte lysate supernatant (HLS) from both tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) and giant freshwater prawn (Macrobranchium rosenbergii) was examined by treating HLS with various factors, such as an increase in temperatures from 25 to 70°C, one of four elicitors (?-1,3-1,6-glucan, zymosan, heat-killedVibriocells, and lipopolysaccharide), trypsin, one of three protease inhibitors (soybean trypsin inhibitor,p-nitrophenyl-p?-guanidinobenzoate, and benzamidine), and

Hung-Hung Sung; Hung-Jun Chang; Cheng-Hao Her; Jen-Chang Chang; Yen-Ling Song

1998-01-01

42

Physiology of chemoreceptor cells in the legs of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

1. Chemoreceptor cells in the first pereiopods (legs) of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, were investigated using single-unit, extracellular electrophysiological recording techniques on an isolated, perfused leg preparation. 2. The cells were responsive to aqueous extracts of food (shrimp, mullet, trout chow), a salt mixture (artificial sea-water), amino acids (L-arginine HCl, taurine), a quaternary ammonium compound (betaine HCl) and ammonium chloride. 3. The response specificity of individual cells ranged from narrow to broad, but on average was broad, being more similar to chemoreceptor cells of freshwater crayfish than of marine spiny or clawed lobsters. 4. Responses were generally excitatory. However, some responses were inhibitory, the first such demonstration in aquatic crustaceans. 5. These electrophysiological results highly correlate with results of feeding behavioral assays carried out on M. rosenbergii. PMID:2900111

Derby, C D; Harpaz, S

1988-01-01

43

Cloning and expression analysis of an anti-lipopolysaccharide factor from giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

Anti-lipopolysaccharide factors (ALFs) are a group of effector molecules that are classified as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). They are found in limulids and crustaceans and show a broad range of antimicrobial activity. In the current study, an ALF gene from Macrobrachium rosenbergii (MrALF) was identified. Its full length was 690 bp and it encoded a 124 amino acid protein. A signal peptide and a conserved LPS-binding domain with two conserved cysteine residues that comprise a cluster of positive charged residues within a disulfide loop were predicted in MrALF. The M. rosenbergii ALF clusters with the Macrobrachium olfersii ALF and further clusters with most crustacean ALFs, suggesting that they should originate from one common ancestor. Positive selections should have sharpen the evolution of M. rosenbergii and M. olfersii ALF genes. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that MrALF was expressed in all detected tissues. In the epidermis, MrALF was obviously upregulated 24 h after the LPS challenge. In the stomach and gills, MrALF was upregulated upon LPS challenge. The results show that MrALF might have important roles in the immune defense against invading bacteria. The positive selections that occur in the ALFs of crustaceans might have resulted from a Red Queen's race with its pathogens. We found evidence of positive selection acting to drive functional divergence during the evolution crustacean ALF genes, especially in the M. rosenbergii ALF gene. The evolutionary changes might correspond to the challenges induced by pathogens that infect crustaceans. PMID:22350161

Ren, Qian; Du, Zhi-Qiang; Li, Meng; Zhang, Chi-Yu; Chen, Ke-Ping

2012-07-01

44

Thermal tolerance and oxygen consumption of Macrobrachium rosenbergii acclimated to three temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Critical thermal maxima (CTmax), critical thermal minima (CTmin) and oxygen consumption rate of four-month-old adult Macrobrachium rosenbergii (38 ± 3.1g) were measured after acclimating to 3 preset temperatures (25°C, 30°C and 35°C) for 30 days.2.CTmax and CTmin were 40.73±0.16°C, 41.06±0.17°C, 41.96±0.17°C and 14.9±0.13°C, 15.4±0.14°C, 16.98+0.21°C, respectively, and were significantly different (p<0.05).3.Rate of oxygen consumption with increasing acclimation temperatures were 2.11±0.11,

S. M. Manush; A. K. Pal; N. Chatterjee; T. Das; S. C. Mukherjee

2004-01-01

45

[Influence of lecithotrofic feeding on growth and development of larvae of freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium rosenbergii].  

PubMed

In the giant freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man), lecithotrofic feeding was discovered at the zoea I stage, and facultative lecithotrofic feeding was found at the zoea II stage. Cases of the completion of the first two stages without feeding were detected. However, a delay in feeding at the zoea II stage caused the inhibition of the growth and development of larvae. In this connection, we recommend to introduce food to the aquaculture of the giant freshwater shrimp on the end of the first day after hatching, when the first zoea II larvae emerge. PMID:21786650

Borisov, R R; Kriakhova, N V

2011-01-01

46

Effects of complete and supplemental diets and organic pond fertilization on production of Macrobrachium rosenbergii and associated benthic macroinvertebrate populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth and population characteristics of freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, fed either a complete diet, a supplemental diet (with fish meal replaced and vitamin and mineral supplements deleted), or the supplemental diet with an adjunct organic pond fertilization regime were examined. Effects of these treatments on potential forage organisms (benthic macroinvertebrates) were also evaluated. Juvenile prawns averaging 0.46 ± 0.49 g

James H. Tidwell; Carl D. Webster; John D. Sedlacek; Paul A. Weston; Wanda L. Knight; Sankie J. Hill; Louis R. D'Abramo; William H. Daniels; Marty J. Fuller; J. Labrenty Montañez

1995-01-01

47

Bacterial Flora of Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii(de Man), Cultured in Concrete Tanks in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial counts and the aerobic heterotrophic bacterial flora in the digestive tract of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, in Saudi Arabia were investigated, and the isolates were identified to the species level. Physicochemical characteristics, bacterial counts, and bacterial flora of freshwater prawn culture tank water, tank sediment, and freshwater prawn carapace were also investigated. Total viable bacterial counts ranged from

Ahmed H. Al-Harbi

2003-01-01

48

Monoclonal antibodies against extra small virus show that it co-localizes with Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus.  

PubMed

The capsid protein (CP) gene of extra small virus (XSV) expressed in Escherichia coli as a 42 kDa glutathione S-transferase (GST)-fusion protein (GST-XCP) or a 20 kDa His6-fusion protein (His6-XCP) were purified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), combined, and used to immunize Swiss mice to produce monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Using dot blot, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) methods, 4 MAbs specific to the XSV CP detected XSV in the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii without cross-reaction to host proteins or to proteins of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) or 5 of the most pathogenic viruses of penaeid shrimp. In dot blots, the combined MAbs could detect down to ~10 to 20 fmol µl-1 of purified GST-XCP protein, which was somewhat more sensitive compared to any single MAb. Used in conjunction with an MrNV-specific MAb, white tail disease (WTD) was diagnosed more effectively. However, the sensitivity at which the combined 4 MAbs detected XSV CP was 1000-fold lower than XSV RNA detected by RT-PCR. IHC analysis of M. rosenbergii tissue sections using the MAbs showed XSV infection to co-localize at variable loads with MrNV infection in heart and muscle cells as well as cells of connective tissues in the hepatopancreas. Since XSV histopathology remained prominent in tissues of some prawns in which MAb reactivity for MrNV was low compared to MAb reactivity for XSV, XSV might play some role in WTD severity. PMID:22832718

Longyant, Siwaporn; Senapin, Saengchan; Sanont, Sirijantra; Wangman, Pradit; Chaivisuthangkura, Parin; Rukpratanporn, Sombat; Sithigorngul, Paisarn

2012-07-25

49

TBT effects on the development of intersex (ovotestis) in female fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

The impact of tributyltin (TBT) on the female gonad and the endocrine system in Macrobrachium rosenbergii was studied. Prawns were exposed to environmentally realistic concentrations of 10, 100, and 1000?ng/L of TBT for 6 months. Dose dependent effects were noticed in TBT exposed prawns. At 1000?ng/L TBT caused ovotestis formation (formation of male germ cells in ovary). Presence immature oocytes, fusion of developing oocytes, increase in interstitial connective tissues, and its modification into tubular like structure and abundance of spermatogonia in the ovary of TBT treated prawns. The control prawn ovary showed normal architecture of cellular organelles such as mature oocytes with type 2 yolk globules, lipid droplets, normal appearance of yolk envelop, and uniformly arranged microvilli. On the other hand, type 1 yolk globules, reduced size of microvilli, spermatogonial cells in ovary, spermatogonia with centrally located nucleus, and chromatin distribution throughout the nucleoplasm were present in the TBT treated group. Immunofluorescence staining indicated a reduction in vitellin content in ovary of TBT treated prawn. Moreover, TBT had inhibited the vitellogenesis by causing hormonal imbalance in M. rosenbergii. Thus, the present investigation demonstrates that TBT substantially affects sexual differentiation and gonadal development in M. rosenbergii. PMID:25121096

Peranandam, Revathi; Palanisamy, Iyapparaj; Lourdaraj, Arockia Vasanthi; Natesan, Munuswamy; Vimalananthan, Arun Prasanna; Thangaiyan, Suganya; Perumal, Anantharaman; Muthukalingan, Krishnan

2014-01-01

50

Molecular functions of chaperonin gene, containing tailless complex polypeptide 1 from Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

Chaperonin (MrChap) was identified from a constructed transcriptome dataset of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The MrChap peptide contains a long chaperone super family domain between 11 and 525. Three chaperone tailless complex polypeptide (TCP-1) signatures are present in the MrChap peptide sequence at 36-48, 57-73 and 85-93. The gene expressions of MrChap in both healthy M. rosenbergii and those infected with infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) were examined using qRT-PCR. To understand its biological activity, the recombinant MrChap gene was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The results of ATPase assay showed that the recombinant MrChap protein exhibited apparent ATPase activity. Chaperone activity assay showed that the recombinant MrChap protein is an active chaperone. These results suggest that MrChap is potentially involved in the immune responses against viral infection in M. rosenbergii. These findings indicate that the recombinant MrChap protein may be used in immunotherapeutic approaches. PMID:22903032

Arockiaraj, Jesu; Vanaraja, Puganeshwaran; Easwvaran, Sarasvathi; Singh, Arun; Othman, Rofina Yasmin; Bhassu, Subha

2012-10-25

51

Immunological role of thiol-dependent peroxiredoxin gene in Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

In this study, we have reported a full length of peroxiredoxin (designated MrPrdx) gene, identified from the transcriptome of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The complete gene sequence of the MrPrdx is 940 base pairs in length, and encodes 186 amino acids. MrPrdx contains a long thioredoxin domain in the amino acid sequence between 34 and 186. The gene expressions of MrPrdx in healthy and the infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) challenged M. rosenbergii were examined using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. MrPrdx is highly expressed in all the other tissues of M. rosenbergii considered for analysis and the highest in gills. The expression is strongly up-regulated in gills after IHHNV infection. To understand MrPrdx functional properties, the recombinant MrPrdx protein was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and purified. A peroxidise activity assay was conducted using recombinant MrPrdx protein at different concentrations. This peroxidises activity showed that the recombinant MrPrdx is a thiol-dependant protein. Additionally, this result showed that recombinant MrPrdx protein, as a secretory protein can remove H?O? and protect DNA damage. This finding leads a possible way to propose the recombinant MrPrdx protein as an effective medicine for reactive oxygen species (ROS) related diseases. PMID:22565019

Arockiaraj, Jesu; Easwvaran, Sarasvathi; Vanaraja, Puganeshwaran; Singh, Arun; Othman, Rofina Yasmin; Bhassu, Subha

2012-07-01

52

TBT Effects on the Development of Intersex (Ovotestis) in Female Fresh Water Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

PubMed Central

The impact of tributyltin (TBT) on the female gonad and the endocrine system in Macrobrachium rosenbergii was studied. Prawns were exposed to environmentally realistic concentrations of 10, 100, and 1000?ng/L of TBT for 6 months. Dose dependent effects were noticed in TBT exposed prawns. At 1000?ng/L TBT caused ovotestis formation (formation of male germ cells in ovary). Presence immature oocytes, fusion of developing oocytes, increase in interstitial connective tissues, and its modification into tubular like structure and abundance of spermatogonia in the ovary of TBT treated prawns. The control prawn ovary showed normal architecture of cellular organelles such as mature oocytes with type 2 yolk globules, lipid droplets, normal appearance of yolk envelop, and uniformly arranged microvilli. On the other hand, type 1 yolk globules, reduced size of microvilli, spermatogonial cells in ovary, spermatogonia with centrally located nucleus, and chromatin distribution throughout the nucleoplasm were present in the TBT treated group. Immunofluorescence staining indicated a reduction in vitellin content in ovary of TBT treated prawn. Moreover, TBT had inhibited the vitellogenesis by causing hormonal imbalance in M. rosenbergii. Thus, the present investigation demonstrates that TBT substantially affects sexual differentiation and gonadal development in M. rosenbergii. PMID:25121096

Peranandam, Revathi; Palanisamy, Iyapparaj; Lourdaraj, Arockia Vasanthi; Natesan, Munuswamy; Vimalananthan, Arun Prasanna; Thangaiyan, Suganya; Perumal, Anantharaman; Muthukalingan, Krishnan

2014-01-01

53

Effect of Methyl Farnesoate on Late Larval Development and Metamorphosis in the Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Decapoda, Palaemonidae): A Juvenoid-like Effect?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methyl famesoate (MF), the unepoxidated form of insect juvenile hormone III, was detected in larvae of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, which metamorphose to post-larvae following 11 larval stages. The possible role of MF as a morphogen was studied by administering the compound to M. rosenbergii larvae via an Artemia vector. Higher MF levels caused earlier retardation of late larval

URI ABDU; PETER TAKAC; HANS LAUFER; AMIR SAGI

54

The Concentrations of Vitellogenin (Vitellin) and Protein in Hemolymph, Ovary and Hepatopancreas in Different Ovarian Stages of the Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives were to measure the concentrations of vitellogenin (vitellin) and protein in hemolymph, ovary, and hepatopancreas of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, in different stages of ovarian development. The ovarian development of M. rosenbergii was classified into five developmental stages (Stages I–V). Vitellogenin concentrations increased in the hemolymph of prawns in the early stages of ovarian development (Stage I

Fang-Yi Lee; Ching-Fong Chang

1997-01-01

55

Huxley's line demarcates extensive genetic divergence between eastern and western forms of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

Phylogenetic analysis of representatives from 18 wild populations of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, utilising a fragment of the 16S rRNA mitochondrial gene, identified two major reciprocally monophyletic clades either side of a well-known biogeographic barrier, Huxley's line. The level of divergence between the two clades (maximum 6.2%) far exceeds divergence levels within either clade (maximum 0.9%), and does not concord with geographical distance among sites. 'Eastern' and 'western' M. rosenbergii clades have probably been separated since Miocene times. Within-clade diversity appears to have been shaped by dispersal events influenced by eustatic change. PMID:15022775

de Bruyn, Mark; Wilson, John A; Mather, Peter B

2004-01-01

56

First report on interferon related developmental regulator-1 from Macrobrachium rosenbergii: bioinformatic analysis and gene expression.  

PubMed

This study reports the first full length gene of interferon related developmental regulator-1 (designated as MrIRDR-1), identified from the transcriptome of Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The complete gene sequence of the MrIRDR-1 is 2459 base pair long with an open reading frame of 1308 base pairs and encoding a predicted protein of 436 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 48 kDa. The MrIRDR-1 protein contains a long interferon related developmental regulator super family domain between 30 and 330. The mRNA expressions of MrIRDR-1 in healthy and the infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) infected M. rosenbergii were examined using qRT-PCR. The MrIRDR-1 is highly expressed in hepatopancreas along with all other tissues (walking leg, gills, muscle, haemocyte, pleopods, brain, stomach, intestine and eye stalk). After IHHNV infection, the expression is highly upregulated in hepatopancreas. This result indicates an important role of MrIRDR-1 in prawn defense system. PMID:22361112

Arockiaraj, Jesu; Easwvaran, Sarasvathi; Vanaraja, Puganeshwaran; Singh, Arun; Othman, Rofina Yasmin; Bhassu, Subha

2012-05-01

57

Toxicity of phenol on Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) eggs, larvae, and post-larvae  

SciTech Connect

Literature on the toxicities of phenol on aquatic organisms is very limited. USEPA reported that the acute and chronic toxicities of phenol to freshwater aquatic life occur at concentrations as low as 10.2 mg/L and 2.56 mg/L, respectively. While for the saltwater aquatic life the acute toxicity occurs at concentrations as low as 5.8 mg/L. No data are available for the chronic toxicity of phenol to saltwater aquatic life. Sublethal concentrations of phenol have significant effects on the physiological and histological processes of the aquatic organisms: such as gill necrosis; destruction of erythrocyte cells; inhibition of sexual activities; suppression on growth and reduction of resistance to diseases. Macrobrachium rosenbergii(de Man) is the sole freshwater prawn cultured in Malaysia. Occasionally, the hatcheries are unable to produce the post-larvae because of undefined pollutants present in the water supplies. It has been observed that the use of cracked fiberglass tanks for larvae rearing is correlated with high mortality. This high mortality is probably due to the toxicity of the phenolic compounds which are leached out from the fiber glass tank into the water. This study was undertaken to evaluate the toxicity of phenol on eggs, larvae and post-larvae of M. rosenbergii and to set the water quality criteria of phenol for the said species. 16 refs., 3 tabs.

Law, A.T.; Yeo, M.E. [Universiti Kolej Terengganu (UPM), Darul Iman (Malaysia)] [Universiti Kolej Terengganu (UPM), Darul Iman (Malaysia)

1997-03-01

58

Bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls and metals from contaminated sediment by freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii and clams, Corbicula fluminea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freshwater prawns,Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and clams,Corbicula fluminea, were exposed for 48 or 50 days to three concentrations of a river sediment that contained environmental contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and metals. Sediment was obtained twice during 1980 from the same location. Prawns were exposed to the first batch, sediment 5–80, which contained higher concentrations of some metals and PCBs compared

Henry E. Tatem

1986-01-01

59

Performance of Giant Freshwater Prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man) Reared in Earthen Ponds Beneath Plastic Film Shelters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effects of using plastic film shelters on the survival, growth and production cost of giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). Three ponds were covered with plastic shelters, whilst three other were left unsheltered as controls. The surface area of all ponds was 100 square meters (6x16.7),with a water depth of 1.0 meter. Post larvae (0.012 g. mean

Niwooti Whangchai

60

Effects of an organophosphorus insecticide, trichlorfon, on hematological parameters of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemolymph osmolality, ion concentration, acid–base balance, and immune parameters in Macrobrachium rosenbergii (15–20 g) were measured after 8 days of exposure to 0–0.3 mg l?1 trichlorfon. A significant depression in hemolymph osmolality and Cl?1 contents were observed with exposure to 0.3 mg l?1 trichlorfon. Similarly, hemolymph pH, HCO3?, and TCO2 decreased significantly when prawns were exposed to concentration of greater

Shinn-Pyng Yeh; Tzeng-Gan Sung; Chin-Chyuan Chang; Winton Cheng; Ching-Ming Kuo

2005-01-01

61

The distribution of APGWamide and RFamides in the central nervous system and ovary of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immunohistochemistry was used to identify the distribution of both APGWamide-like and RFamide-like peptides in the central\\u000a nervous system (CNS) and ovary of the mature female giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. APGWamide-like immunoreactivity (ALP-ir) was found only within the sinus gland (SG) of the eyestalk, in small- and medium-sized\\u000a neurons of cluster 4, as well as their varicosed axons. RFamide-like immunoreactivity

Ronnarong Palasoon; Sasiporn Panasophonkul; Prapee Sretarugsa; Peter Hanna; Prasert Sobhon; Jittipan Chavadej

2011-01-01

62

Epidermal growth factor receptor in the prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii: function and putative signaling cascade.  

PubMed

Epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs) are highly conserved members of the tyrosine kinase receptor superfamily found in metazoans and plants. In arthropods, EGFRs are vital for the proper development of embryos and of adult limbs, gonads, and eyes as well as affecting body size. In searching for genes involved in the growth and development of our model organism, the decapod crustacean (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), a comprehensive transcript library was established using next-generation sequencing. Using this library, the expression of several genes assigned to the signal transduction pathways mediated by EGFRs was observed, including a transcript encoding M. rosenbergii EGFR (Mr-EGFR), several potential ligands upstream to the receptor, and most of the putative downstream signal transducer genes. The deduced protein encoded by Mr-EGFR, representing the first such receptor reported thus far in crustaceans, shows sequence similarity to other arthropod EGFRs. The M. rosenbergii gene is expressed in most tested tissues. The role of Mr-EGFR was revealed by temporarily silencing the transcript through weekly injections of double-stranded Mr-EGFR RNA. Such treatment resulted in a significant reduction in growth and a delay in the appearance of a male secondary sexual characteristic, namely the appendix masculina. An additional function of Mr-EGFR was revealed with respect to eye development. Although the optic ganglion appeared to have retained its normal morphology, Mr-EGFR-silenced individuals developed abnormal eyes that presented irregular organization of the ommatidia, reflected by unorganized receptor cells occupying large areas of the dioptric portion and by a shortened crystalline tract layer. PMID:23825131

Sharabi, Omri; Ventura, Tomer; Manor, Rivka; Aflalo, Eliahu D; Sagi, Amir

2013-09-01

63

Crustin, a WAP domain containing antimicrobial peptide from freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii: immune characterization.  

PubMed

Crustin (MrCrs) was sequenced from a freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The MrCrs protein contains a signal peptide region at N-terminus between 1 and 22 and a long whey acidic protein domain (WAP domain) at C-terminus between 57 and 110 along with a WAP-type 'four-disulfide core' motif. Phylogenetic results show that MrCrs is clustered together with other crustacean crustin groups. MrCrs showed high sequence similarity (77%) with crustin from Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and Japanese spiny lobster Panulirus japonicas. I-TASSER uses the best structure templates to predict the possible structures of MrCrs along with PDB IDs such as 2RELA and 1FLEI. The gene expressions of MrCrs in both healthy M. rosenbergii and those infected with virus including infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila (Gram-negative) and Enterococcus faecium (Gram-positive) were examined using quantitative real time PCR. To understand its biological activity, the recombinant MrCrs gene was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The recombinant MrCrs protein agglutinated with the bacteria considered for analysis at a concentration of 25 ?g/ml, except Lactococcus lactis. The bactericidal results showed that the recombinant MrCrs protein destroyed all the bacteria after incubation, even less than 6 h. These results suggest that MrCrs is a potential antimicrobial peptide, which is involved in the defense system of M. rosenbergii against viral and bacterial infections. PMID:23069787

Arockiaraj, Jesu; Gnanam, Annie J; Muthukrishnan, Dhanaraj; Gudimella, Ranganath; Milton, James; Singh, Arun; Muthupandian, Saravanan; Kasi, Marimuthu; Bhassu, Subha

2013-01-01

64

Production and Application of Polyclonal Antibodies Against Recombinant Capsid Protein of Extra Small Virus of Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus along with a satellite virus, extra small virus (XSV) causes white tail disease (WTD) in the giant freshwater prawn M. rosenbergii. Infected M. rosenbergii postlarvae were collected from a hatchery in Kakinada, Andhra Pradesh. The gene coding the capsid protein of XSV was cloned in a bacterial expression vector pRSET A and the recombinant protein was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)pLysS cells. The recombinant protein was purified by Nickel affinity chromatography. Polyclonal antibodies were produced in mice against the recombinant protein and the antibodies reacted specifically with the recombinant protein and XSV in WTD-infected tissues. This is the first report of detection of XSV using antibodies against recombinant capsid protein. PMID:24293828

Neethi, V; Sivakumar, N; Kumar, Kundan; Rajendran, K V; Makesh, M

2012-12-01

65

Macrobrachium rosenbergii cathepsin L: molecular characterization and gene expression in response to viral and bacterial infections.  

PubMed

Cathepsin L (MrCathL) was identified from a constructed cDNA library of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. MrCathL full-length cDNA is 1161 base pairs (bp) with an ORF of 1026bp which encodes a polypeptide of 342 amino acid (aa) long. The eukaryotic cysteine proteases, histidine and asparagine active site residues were identified in the aa sequence of MrCathL at 143-154, 286-296 and 304-323, respectively. The pair wise clustalW analysis of MrCathL showed the highest similarity (97%) with the homologous cathepsin L from Macrobrachium nipponense and the lowest similarity (70%) from human. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two distinct clusters of the invertebrates and vertebrates cathepsin L in the phylogenetic tree. MrCathL and cathepsin L from M. nipponense were clustered together, formed a sister group to cathepsin L of Penaeus monodon, and finally clustered to Lepeophtheirus salmonis. High level of (P<0.05) MrCathL gene expression was noticed in haemocyte and lowest in eyestalk. Furthermore, the MrCathL gene expression in M. rosenbergii was up-regulated in haemocyte by virus [M. rosenbergii nodovirus (MrNV) and white spot syndrome baculovirus (WSBV)] and bacteria (Vibrio harveyi and Aeromonas hydrophila). The recombinant MrCathL exhibited a wide range of activity in various pH between 3 and 10 and highest at pH 7.5. Cysteine proteinase (stefin A, stefin B and antipain) showed significant influence (100%) on recombinant MrCathL enzyme activity. The relative activity and residual activity of recombinant MrCathL against various metal ions or salts and detergent tested at different concentrations. These results indicated that the metal ions, salts and detergent had an influence on the proteinase activity of recombinant MrCathL. Conclusively, the results of this study imply that MrCathL has high pH stability and is fascinating object for further research on the function of cathepsin L in prawn innate immune system. PMID:23669240

Arockiaraj, Jesu; Gnanam, Annie J; Muthukrishnan, Dhanaraj; Thirumalai, Muthukumaresan Kuppusamy; Pasupuleti, Mukesh; Milton, James; Kasi, Marimuthu

2013-11-01

66

Susceptibility of juvenile Macrobrachium rosenbergii to different doses of high and low virulence strains of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV).  

PubMed

As some literature on the susceptibility of different life stages of Macrobrachium rosenbergii to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is conflicting, the pathogenesis, infectivity and pathogenicity of 2 WSSV strains (Thai-1 and Viet) were investigated here in juveniles using conditions standardized for Penaeus vannamei. As with P. vannamei, juvenile M. rosenbergii (2 to 5 g) injected with a low dose of WSSV-Thai-1 or a high dose of WSSV-Viet developed comparable clinical pathology and numbers of infected cells within 1 to 2 d post-infection. In contrast, a low dose of WSSV-Viet capable of causing mortality in P. vannamei resulted in no detectable infection in M. rosenbergii. Mean prawn infectious dose 50% endpoints (PID?? ml?¹) determined in M. rosenbergii were in the order of 100-fold higher for WSSV-Thai-1 (105.3 ± 0.4 PID?? ml?¹) than for WSSV-Viet (103.2 ± 0.2 PID?? ml?¹), with each of these being about 20-fold and 400-fold lower, respectively, than found previously in P. vannamei. The median lethal dose (LD?? ml?¹) determined in M. rosenbergii was also far higher (~1000-fold) for WSSV-Thai-1 (105.4 ± 0.4 LD?? ml?¹) than for WSSV-Viet (102.3 ± 0.3 LD?? ml?¹). Based on these data, it is clear that juvenile M. rosenbergii are susceptible to WSSV infection, disease and mortality. In comparison to P. vannamei, however, juvenile M. rosenbergii appear more capable of resisting infection and disease, particularly in the case of a WSSV strain with lower apparent virulence. PMID:22968789

Corteel, Mathias; Dantas-Lima, João J; Tuan, Vo Van; Thuong, Khuong Van; Wille, Mathieu; Alday-Sanz, Victoria; Pensaert, Maurice B; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Nauwynck, Hans J

2012-09-12

67

Three different anti-lipopolysaccharide factors identified from giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

Anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF) is a type of basic protein and an important antimicrobial peptide that can bind and neutralize lipopolysaccharides (LPS). This protein shows a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. In this study, three forms of ALF designated as MrALF5, MrALF6, and MrALF7 were identified from giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. MrALF5, MrALF6, and MrALF7 genes encode 133, 121, and 120 amino acids of the corresponding proteins, respectively. All these ALF proteins contain LPS-binding domain with two conserved cysteine residues. The genomic sequences of MrALF5 and MrALF7 were amplified. The genomic structures of MrALF5 and MrALF7 comprise three exons interrupted by two introns. Phylogenetic analysis showed that MrALF5, MrALF6, and MrALF7 were clustered into clade II. Evolutionary analysis showed that ALF genes from M. rosenbergii may suffer a rapid evolution. MrALF5 was expressed mainly in the hepatopancreas, gills, and heart. MrALF6 was mainly distributed in the intestine and hepatopancreas. The highest expression level of MrALF7 was detected in the hepatopancreas. MrALF6, as well as MrALF7, was downregulated by Escherichia coli challenge, and all three ALF genes were upregulated by Vibrio or white spot syndrome virus challenge. MrALF6 was also upregulated by Staphylococcus aureus challenge. In summary, the three isoforms of ALF genes may participate in the innate immune response against bacteria and virus infecting the giant fresh water prawn. PMID:22800688

Ren, Qian; Zhang, Zhao; Li, Xin-Chang; Jie-Du; Hui, Kai-Min; Zhang, Chi-Yu; Wang, Wen

2012-10-01

68

Ultrastructure of differentiating oocytes and vitellogenesis in the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man).  

PubMed

The ultrastructure of oogenesis in Macrobrachium rosenbergii, with reference to vitellogenesis, has not been reported. We used light and electron microscopy, as well as vitellin (Vn) purification and antibody production, to study the temporal and spatial production of Vn in the ovary by immunofluorescence. Histologically, the ovary is subdivided into cone-shaped ovarian pouches with a central core containing layers of oogonia. These divide to produce oocytes that migrate outwardly and differentiate into mature oocytes. During the course of differentiation, oocytes undergo modifications, including the rearrangement of nuclear chromatin, the accumulation of ribosomes, rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), and lipid, and the formation of secretory and yolk granules, resulting in four stages. Ultrastructurally, early previtellogenic oocytes (Oc(1)) are characterized by the accumulation of new ribosomal aggregates, translocated from the nucleus. Late previtellogenic oocytes (Oc(2)) show nuclear heterochromatin with a "clock face" pattern, the presence of RER, and three types of secretory granules. Follicular cells occupy the intercellular spaces and surround the Oc(2). Early vitellogenic oocytes (Oc(3)) are larger, with nuclei containing predominantly decondensed euchromatin, and cytoplasm with yolk and secretory granules, and few lipid droplets. Late vitellogenic oocytes (Oc(4)) are characterized by completely euchromatic nuclei, an indistinct plasma membrane, yolk platelets and secretory granules, and abundant lipid. Vitellogenin (Vg) in ovaries of M. rosenbergii consist of two main bands at MW 90 and 102 kDa. Our data indicates that Vn is present, and probably synthesized in Oc(3) and Oc(4), but there may be some undetected exogenous Vg production. PMID:22648947

Soonklang, Nantawan; Wanichanon, Chaitip; Stewart, Michael J; Stewart, Praphaporn; Meeratana, Prasert; Hanna, Peter J; Sobhon, Prasert

2012-10-01

69

Post-embryonic transcriptomes of the prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii: multigenic succession through metamorphosis.  

PubMed

Like many metazoans, the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii begins its post-embryonic life with a set of morphologically distinct planktonic larval stages, followed by a benthic post-larval stage during which the maturing organism differs from the larvae both ecologically and physiologically. Understanding of the molecular basis underlying morphogenesis in crustaceans is limited to the observation that methyl farnesoate, the non-epoxidated form of the insect juvenile hormone, acts as the active crustacean juvenoid. Molt steroids were also linked to morphogenesis and several other molecular pathways, such as Hedgehog and Wnt, are known to underlie morphogenesis in all metazoans examined and, as such, are thought to do the same in crustaceans. Using next generation sequencing, we deep-sequenced the transcriptomes of several larval and post-larval stages. De novo assembly, followed by bioinformatics analysis, revealed that many novel transcripts are over-expressed in either larvae- or post-larvae-stage prawn, shedding light on the molecular basis underlying M. rosenbergii metamorphosis. Fast larval molting rates and periodic morphological changes were reflected in over-expression of transcripts annotated to the cell cycle, DNA replication and morphogenic pathways (i.e., Hedgehog and Wnt). Further characterization of transcripts assigned to morphogenic pathways by real-time RT-PCR reconfirmed their over-expression in larvae, albeit with a more complex expression pattern when examined in the individual developmental stages. The expression level of an orthologue of cytochrome P450, 15A1, known to epoxidize methyl farnesoate in insects, was increased in the late larval and early post-larval stages, in accordance with the role of methyl farnesoate in crustacean metamorphosis. This study exemplifies the applicability of a high-throughput sequencing approach for studying complex traits, including metamorphosis, providing new insight into this unexplored area of crustacean research. PMID:23372848

Ventura, Tomer; Manor, Rivka; Aflalo, Eliahu D; Chalifa-Caspi, Vered; Weil, Simy; Sharabi, Omri; Sagi, Amir

2013-01-01

70

Cloning and characterization of two different ficolins from the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

Ficolins, a kind of lectin containing collagen-like and fibrinogen-related domains (FReDs, also known as FBG or FREP), are involved in the first line of host defense against pathogens. In this study, two ficolins, namely, MrFico1 and MrFico2, from the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii were identified. In contrast to other ficolins, these two ficolins have no collagen-like domain, but such ficolins contain a coiled region and a FReD domain. Phylogenetic analysis showed that MrFico1 and MrFico2, together with two ficolin-like proteins from Pacifastacus leniusculus, belonged to one group. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) showed that both MrFico1 and MrFico2 were expressed in hepatopancreas, stomach and intestine, with the highest expression in stomach for MrFico1, compared to the highest expression in hepatopancreas for MrFico2. qRT-PCR analysis also showed that MrFico1 was obviously upregulated upon Vibrio anguillarium challenge, while MrFico2 was upregulated after challenged by V. anguillarium or white spot syndrome virus. Bacterium-binding experiment showed that MrFico1 and MrFico2 could bind to different microbes, and sugar-binding assay revealed that these two ficolins could also bind to lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycan, the glycoconjugates of bacteria surface. Moreover, these two ficolins could agglutinate bacteria in a calcium-dependent manner, and the results of bacteria clearance experiment showed that both ficolins could facilitate the clearance of injected bacteria in the prawn. Our results suggested that MrFico1 and MrFico2 may function as pattern-recognition receptors in the immune system of M. rosenbergii. PMID:24462836

Zhang, Xiao-Wen; Wang, Xian-Wei; Huang, Ying; Hui, Kai-Min; Shi, Yan-Ru; Wang, Wen; Ren, Qian

2014-06-01

71

Post-Embryonic Transcriptomes of the Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii: Multigenic Succession through Metamorphosis  

PubMed Central

Like many metazoans, the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii begins its post-embryonic life with a set of morphologically distinct planktonic larval stages, followed by a benthic post-larval stage during which the maturing organism differs from the larvae both ecologically and physiologically. Understanding of the molecular basis underlying morphogenesis in crustaceans is limited to the observation that methyl farnesoate, the non-epoxidated form of the insect juvenile hormone, acts as the active crustacean juvenoid. Molt steroids were also linked to morphogenesis and several other molecular pathways, such as Hedgehog and Wnt, are known to underlie morphogenesis in all metazoans examined and, as such, are thought to do the same in crustaceans. Using next generation sequencing, we deep-sequenced the transcriptomes of several larval and post-larval stages. De novo assembly, followed by bioinformatics analysis, revealed that many novel transcripts are over-expressed in either larvae- or post-larvae-stage prawn, shedding light on the molecular basis underlying M. rosenbergii metamorphosis. Fast larval molting rates and periodic morphological changes were reflected in over-expression of transcripts annotated to the cell cycle, DNA replication and morphogenic pathways (i.e., Hedgehog and Wnt). Further characterization of transcripts assigned to morphogenic pathways by real-time RT-PCR reconfirmed their over-expression in larvae, albeit with a more complex expression pattern when examined in the individual developmental stages. The expression level of an orthologue of cytochrome P450, 15A1, known to epoxidize methyl farnesoate in insects, was increased in the late larval and early post-larval stages, in accordance with the role of methyl farnesoate in crustacean metamorphosis. This study exemplifies the applicability of a high-throughput sequencing approach for studying complex traits, including metamorphosis, providing new insight into this unexplored area of crustacean research. PMID:23372848

Ventura, Tomer; Manor, Rivka; Aflalo, Eliahu D.; Chalifa-Caspi, Vered; Weil, Simy; Sharabi, Omri; Sagi, Amir

2013-01-01

72

Bioaccumulation of copper in post-larvae and juveniles of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) exposed to sub-lethal levels of copper sulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The culture of giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) is fast expanding in Asia including India. Copper sulfate is extensively used in freshwater prawn culture ponds to control diseases and filamentous algae. In the present investigation, bioaccumulation of copper was studied in post-larvae (10±1 mm; 0.008±0.002 g) and juvenile (58±5 mm; 1.25±0.28 g) M. rosenbergii. The post-larvae and juveniles

Rameswara Reddy; Bindu R. Pillai; Subhendu Adhikari

2006-01-01

73

Dietary administration of bovine lactoferrin influences the immune ability of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) and its resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila infection and nitrite stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Haemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity, agglutinin levels, total protein content, bacterial clearance efficiency, resistance to the pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila and nitrite stress were measured in the giant freshwater intermoult subadult prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (15–20g) which had been fed diets containing bovine lactoferrin (Lf) at 50, 100, 200mg kg?1 feed for 7 or 14days. M. rosenbergii fed a diet containing 100mg Lf

R. K. Chand; P. K. Sahoo; Jaya Kumari; Bindu R. Pillai; B. K. Mishra

2006-01-01

74

The history of the introduction of the giant river prawn, Macrobrachium cf. rosenbergii (Decapoda, Palaemonidae), in Brazil: New insights from molecular data  

PubMed Central

The giant river prawn, Macrobrachium cf. rosenbergii, is one of the most cultivated freshwater prawns in the world and has been introduced into more than 40 countries. In some countries, this prawn is considered an invasive species that requires close monitoring. Recent changes in the taxonomy of this species (separation of M. rosenbergii and M. dacqueti) require a re-evaluation of introduced taxa. In this work, molecular analyses were used to determine which of these two species was introduced into Brazil and to establish the geographic origin of the introduced populations that have invaded Amazonian coastal waters. The species introduced into Brazil was M. dacqueti through two introduction events involving prawns originating from Vietnam and either Bangladesh or Thailand. These origins differ from historical reports of the introductions and underline the need to confirm the origin of other exotic populations around the world. The invading populations in Amazonia require monitoring not only because the biodiversity of this region may be affected by the introduction, but also because admixture of different native haplotypes can increase the genetic variability and the likelihood of persistence of the invading species in new habitats. PMID:21637558

Iketani, Gabriel; Pimentel, Luciana; Silva-Oliveira, Glaucia; Maciel, Cristiana; Valenti, Wagner; Schneider, Horacio; Sampaio, Iracilda

2011-01-01

75

Identification and characterization of the vitellogenin receptor in Macrobrachium rosenbergii and its expression during vitellogenesis.  

PubMed

In oviparous organisms, oocyte maturation depends on massive production of the egg yolk-precursor protein, vitellogenin (Vg). Vg is taken up by the developing oocytes through receptor-mediated endocytosis (RME), a process essential to successful reproduction. The aims of this study were to identify and characterize the yet-unknown vitellogenin receptor (VgR) from the pleocyamate crustacean Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and to investigate its expression levels during vitellogenesis and its interaction with Vg. The VgR gene was cloned, and its translated protein was specifically located at the oocyte membrane. Moreover, for the first time, a VgR protein was identified and sequenced by mass spectrometry. The putative MrVgR displayed high sequence similarity to VgRs from crustaceans, insects, and vertebrates, and its structure includes typical elements, such as an extracellular, lipoprotein-binding domain (LBD), EGF-like, and O-glycosylation domains, a transmembrane domain, and a short, C-terminal, cytosolic tail. In this article, we identify the first crustacean VgR protein, and present data demonstrating its high affinity for a Vg column followed by elution with suramin and EDTA. Additionally we demonstrate that VgR expression in the oocyte is elevated during vitellogenesis. Our results contribute to the fundamental understanding of oocyte maturation in crustaceans, and particularly elucidate Vg uptake through RME via the VgR. PMID:22674884

Roth, Ziv; Khalaila, Isam

2012-07-01

76

Nutrient budgets and effluent characteristics in giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) culture ponds.  

PubMed

It is important to understand nutrient budgets of aquaculture practices for efficiency of input resources and to utilize all output nutrient sources. The aim of the present study was to develop a nutrient budget for giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) culture ponds. The study was conducted in farmer's ponds (0.25-0.5 ha) of Odisha, India, and the results showed that feed accounted 97% total nitrogen (N), 98.7% total phosphorus (P) and 90% total organic carbon (OC), respectively. The harvested prawn accounted for recovery of 37% N, 10% P and 15% OC, respectively. The N, P and OC accumulated in sediment were 52%, 76%, and 65%, respectively. Nutrient loads in the effluents were 2.22 ± 0.66 kg inorganic N, 0.40 ± 0.15 kg P, and 21.01 ± 6.4 kg OC per ton of prawn production. The present study implicated that high nutrient values observed in both water and sediment provide important opportunities for nutrient reuse through pond sediment applications to croplands as an organic manure, as well as pond water irrigation to crops as a "liquid fertilizer". PMID:24522829

Adhikari, Subhendu; Sahu, Bharat Chandra; Mahapatra, Abhijit S; Dey, Lambodar

2014-05-01

77

Encapsulation and delivery of plasmid DNA by virus-like nanoparticles engineered from Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus.  

PubMed

Virus-like particles (VLPs) are potential candidates in developing biological containers for packaging therapeutic or biologically active agents. Here, we expressed Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNv) capsid protein (encoding amino acids M1-N371 with 6 histidine residuals) in an Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). These easily purified capsid protein self-assembled into VLPs, and disassembly/reassembly could be controlled in a calcium-dependent manner. Physically, MrNv VLPs resisted to digestive enzymes, a property that should be advantageous for protection of active compounds against harsh conditions. We also proved that MrNv VLPs were capable of encapsulating plasmid DNA in the range of 0.035-0.042 mol ratio (DNA/protein) or 2-3 plasmids/VLP (assuming that MrNV VLPs is T=1, i made up of 60 capsid monomers). These VLPs interacted with cultured insect cells and delivered loaded plasmid DNA into the cells as shown by green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter. With many advantageous properties including self-encapsulation, MrNv VLPs are good candidates for delivery of therapeutic agents. PMID:24184445

Jariyapong, Pitchanee; Chotwiwatthanakun, Charoonroj; Somrit, Monsicha; Jitrapakdee, Sarawut; Xing, Li; Cheng, Holland R; Weerachatyanukul, Wattana

2014-01-22

78

GYRKPPFNGSIFamide (Gly-SIFamide) Modulates Aggression in the Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

PubMed Central

The freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii is a tropical crustacean with characteristics similar to those of lobsters and crayfish. Adult males develop through three morphological types—small (SC), yellow (YC), and blue claws (BC)—with each representing a level in the dominance hierarchy of a group, BC males being the most dominant. We are interested in understanding the role played by neuropeptides in the mechanisms underlying aggressive behavior and the establishment of dominance hierarchies in this type of prawn. SIFamides are a family of arthropod peptides recently identified in the central nervous system of insects and crustaceans, where it has been linked to olfaction, sexual behavior, and gut endocrine functions. One of the six SIFamide isoforms, GYRKPPFNGSIFamide (Gly-SIFamide), is highly conserved among decapod crustaceans such as crabs and crayfish. We wanted to determine whether Gly-SIFamide plays a role in modulating aggression and dominant behavior in the prawn. To do this, we performed behavioral experiments in which interactions between BC/YC pairs were recorded and quantified before and after injecting Gly-SIFamide directly into the circulating hemolymph of the living animal. Behavioral data showed that aggression among interacting BC/YC prawns was enhanced by injection of Gly-SIFamide, suggesting that this neuropeptide does have a modulatory role for this type of behavior in the prawn. PMID:20040755

Vazquez-Acevedo, Nietzell; Rivera, Nilsa M.; Torres-Gonzalez, Alejandra M.; Rullan-Matheu, Yarely; Ruiz-Rodriguez, Eduardo A.; Sosa, Maria A.

2010-01-01

79

Protection of Macrobrachium rosenbergii against white tail disease by oral administration of bacterial expressed and encapsulated double-stranded RNA.  

PubMed

White tail disease (WTD) of cultured Macrobrachium rosenbergii is caused by M. rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and an extra small virus (XSV), both present together, and the mortality rate can be as high as 100% within 2 or 3 days of infection. Possible protection of M. rosenbergii against WTD by oral administration of bacterial expressed and encapsulated double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) was studied. Juvenile M. rosenbergii were fed with the feed coated with inactivated bacteria encapsulated dsRNA of MrNV and XSV genes individually and in combination for 7 days followed by challenge with WTD causing agents at 24 h and 72 h post-feeding. Test animals fed with a combination of dsRNA of MrNV and XSV capsid genes showed the highest relative percent survival (RPS) when compared to other treatments with RPS of 80% and 75% at 24 and 72 h respectively. One hundred percent mortality was observed in test animals fed with control dsRNA coated feed. Although in the literature, injection is the most common method used to deliver dsRNA, this study shows that oral administration is effective, feasible and economical. PMID:23811407

Naveen Kumar, Singaiah; Karunasagar, Indrani; Karunasagar, Iddya

2013-09-01

80

Effect of hypoxia on the immune response of giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and its susceptibility to pathogen Enterococcus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Giant freshwater prawns Macrobrachium rosenbergii (14–19g) were challenged withEnterococcus (3×105cfu prawn?1) previously incubated in TSB medium for 24h, then placed in water having concentrations of dissolved oxygen (DO) at 7·75, 4·75, 2·75 and 1·75mg l?1. Onset of mortality occurred after 6h exposure to 1·75mg l?1 DO, and after 12h exposure to 2·75mg l?1 DO. Cumulative mortality of prawns at 1·75mg

Winton Cheng; Chun-Hung Liu; Jung-Ping Hsu; Jiann-Chu Chen

2002-01-01

81

White tail disease of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii: separation of the associated virions and characterization of MrNV as a new type of nodavirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

White tail disease of the farmed freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is the cause of mortali- ties in the French West Indies, China and India. Two different sized particles, both developing in the cytoplasm of target cells, are found associated with diseased animals. These two viruses were separated, purified and subsequently characterized. The larger one, called MrNV, is icosahedral in shape

J-R Bonami; Z Shi; D Qian; J Sri Widada

2005-01-01

82

Changes in osmotic and ionic concentrations in the hemolymph of Macrobrachium rosenbergii exposed to varying salinities and correlation to ionic and crystalline composition of the cuticle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osmotic and ionic regulatory ability were examined in the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii in response to varying salinities. In freshwater, and under conditions of low salinity, hemolymph osmolality was maintained around 450 mOsm. Under high salinity, osmolality values increased in a time-wise manner until reaching levels of the surrounding rearing water. Changes in sodium concentration generally paralleled osmotic change,

Marcy N Wilder; Kazumasa Ikuta; Muharijadi Atmomarsono; Tamao Hatta; Kosei Komuro

1998-01-01

83

Extra small virus-like particles (XSV) and nodavirus associated with whitish muscle disease in the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

Microsoft Academic Search

A disease of Macrobrachium rosenbergii, the giant freshwater prawn, farmed in China was recently recorded in Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Shanghai, Guangxi and Guangdong provinces. The clinical sign of the disease, which develops in post-larvae (PL), is a whitish appearance of the muscles, particularly noticeable in the abdomen. Mortalities may reach 100% in some hatcheries. Investigations by trans- mission electron microscopy after

D Qian; Z Shi; S Zhang; Z Cao; W Liu; L Li; Y Xie; I Cambournac; J-R Bonami

2003-01-01

84

Induction of Female Breeding Characteristics by Ovarian Tissue Implants in Androgenic Gland Ablated Male Freshwater Prawns Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) (Decapoda, Palaemonidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Implantation of ovarian tissue into androgenic gland ablated male prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) induced the development of ovigerous and ovipositing setae and brood chambers, suggesting that in females, these secondary sexual characteristics are induced by the ovary. This model system has potential for the study of morphological changes associated with breeding in the Decapoda.

Claude Nagamine; Allen W. Knight

1987-01-01

85

Embryonic development, hatching, mineral consumption, and survival of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) reared in artificial seawater in closed recirculating water system at different levels of salinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experiment aims to study the effect of different levels of salinity (5, 15 and 25 ppt) using artificial sea water on the embryonic development and hatching percentage of the eggs of unripe berried female giant freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) with an average size of 14.3+0.6 cm TL. After incubation through the heart beating stage (grayish black eggs), the brooders

Krasindh Hangsapreurke; Thon Thamrongnawasawat; Sorawit Powtongsook; Prajuab Lumubol

86

An unconventional antimicrobial protein histone from freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii: analysis of immune properties.  

PubMed

In this study, we have reported the first histone characterized at molecular level from freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (MrHis). A full length cDNA of MrHis (751 base pairs) was identified from an established M. rosenbergii cDNA library using GS-FLX technique. It encodes 137 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 15 kDa and an isoelectric point of 10.5. MrHis peptide contains a histone H2A signature between 21 and 27 amino acids. Homologous analysis showed that MrHis had a significant sequence identity (99%) with other known histone H2A groups especially from Penaeus monodon. Phylogenetic analysis of MrHis showed a strong relationship with other amino acid sequences from histone H2A arthropod groups. Further phylogenetic analysis showed that the MrHis belongs to histone H2A superfamily and H2A1A sub-family. Secondary structure of MrHis showed that the protein contains 50.36% ?-helical region and 49.64% coils. The 3D model of MrHis was predicted by I-Tasser program and the model was evaluated for quality analysis including C-score analysis, Ramachandran plot analysis and RMSD analysis. The surface view analysis of MrHis showed the active domain at the N terminal. The antimicrobial property of MrHis protein was confirmed by the helical structure and the total hydrophobic surface along with its net charge. The MFE of the predicted RNA structure of MrHis is -128.62 kcal/mol, shows its mRNA stability. Schiffer-Edmundson helical wheel analysis of the N-terminal of MrHis showed a perfect amphipathic nature of the peptide. Significantly (P < 0.05) highest gene expression was noticed in the hemocyte and is induced with viral (WSBV and MrNV) and bacteria (A eromonas hydrophila and Vibrio harveyi) infections. The coding sequence of recombinant MrHis protein was expressed in a pMAL vector and purified to study the antimicrobial properties. The recombinant product showed antimicrobial activity against both Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria. In this study, the recombinant MrHis protein displayed antimicrobial activity in its entirety. Hence, it is possible to suggest that the activity may be due to the direct defense role of histone or its N-terminal antimicrobial property. However, this remains to be verified by detailed investigations. PMID:23994279

Arockiaraj, Jesu; Gnanam, Annie J; Kumaresan, Venkatesh; Palanisamy, Rajesh; Bhatt, Prasanth; Thirumalai, Muthukumaresan Kuppusamy; Roy, Arpita; Pasupuleti, Mukesh; Kasi, Marimuthu

2013-11-01

87

Diversity of lectins in Macrobrachium rosenbergii and their expression patterns under spiroplasma MR-1008 stimulation.  

PubMed

Lectins play important roles in crustacean innate immunity through recognition of foreign pathogens. In this study, 20 lectins including C-type lectins [dual-carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) type and single-CRD type], L-type lectin, and lectin with low-density lipoprotein class A (LDLa) domain were identified from the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The tissue distribution and expression patterns of these lectins under spiroplasma strain MR-1008 challenge were investigated. Most of the lectins were found to be mainly distributed in the hepatopancreas. Lectin5, Lectin14, Lectin17, and Lectin18 exhibited the highest expression level in the hemocytes, nerve, intestine, and heart, respectively. MrLec1 to MrLec6 (dual-CRD lectins) in the hepatopancreas were up-regulated by spiroplasma challenge. Single-CRD lectins reached the highest level at 72 h after spiroplasma challenge. Lectin9 and Lectin15 both belong to L-type lectins. At post-spiroplasma challenge, Lectin9 expression was up-regulated, whereas Lectin15 expression was down-regulated. Lectin11 with LDLa domain showed the highest level after 12 h Lectin18 and Lectin20, namely, CD209, were also up-regulated by spiroplasma challenge. Lectin14, a C-type lectin, quickly reached the highest level after 2 h Lectin16 showed the highest level after 72 h Lectin5 reached the highest level in cultured hemocytes after 6 h Lectin17 in the intestine and Lectin14 in the nerve were slightly up-regulated after 6 and 2 h, respectively. Our research results indicate that lectins may play important roles in early or late immune responses against spiroplasma challenge. PMID:23664913

Zhu, Huanxi; Du, Jie; Hui, Kai-Min; Liu, Peng; Chen, Jing; Xiu, Yunji; Yao, Wei; Wu, Ting; Meng, Qingguo; Gu, Wei; Ren, Qian; Wang, Wen

2013-08-01

88

Molecular cloning and characterization of a Toll receptor gene from Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

Toll receptors are cell surface molecules acting as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that have been implicated in the signaling pathway of innate immune responses. In this study, the full-length cDNA of a Toll receptor gene of Macrobrachium rosenbergii, designated MrToll, was successfully isolated using designed degenerate primers and the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The MrToll gene sequence contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 2799 nucleotides encoding a protein of 932 amino acid residues. The protein contained distinct structural motifs of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family, including an extracellular domain containing 15 leucine-rich repeats (LRRs), a transmembrane segment of 23 amino acids, and a cytoplasmic Toll/interleukin-1R (TIR) domain of 139 residues. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that MrToll and Toll receptor of Marsupenaeus japonicus (MjToll) evolved closely. However, the MrToll ORF demonstrated only 48-49% identity with shrimp Toll1, suggesting that MrToll isolated from a palaemonid shrimp might belong to a novel class of Toll receptors in shrimp. The transcripts of the MrToll gene were constitutively expressed in various tissues, with high levels in hemocytes, the stomach and muscle. A reverse transcriptase PCR assay demonstrated that the expression patterns of MrToll were distinctly modulated after Aeromonas caviae stimulation, with significant enhancement at 3-12 h post-challenge and a decline to basal levels at 24 h post-challenge. In addition, when MrToll-silenced shrimp were challenged with A. caviae, there was a significant increase in mortality and bacterial CFU counts. These results suggest that MrToll might be involved in host innate defense, especially against the pathogen A. caviae. PMID:24398262

Srisuk, Chutima; Longyant, Siwaporn; Senapin, Saengchan; Sithigorngul, Paisarn; Chaivisuthangkura, Parin

2014-02-01

89

Genetic inheritance of female and male morphotypes in giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

Giant freshwater prawn (GFP) Macrobrachium rosenbergii is unique with males categorized in five different morphotypes (small claw, orange claw, blue claw, old blue claw and no claw males) and females in three reproductive statuses (mature ovary, berried and spawned females). In the present study we examined genetic inheritance of female and male morphotypes, their body weights and genetic associations between morphotypes and body traits. Restricted maximum likelihood fitting a multi-trait animal model was performed on a total of 21,459 body records collected over five generations in a GFP population selected for high growth rate. The estimates of variance components showed that there were substantial differences in additive genetic variance in body weight between male morphotypes. The low and significantly different from one genetic correlations between the expressions of body weight in male morphotypes also suggest that these traits should be treated as genetically different traits in selective breeding programs. By contrast, body weights of female types are essentially the same characters as indicated by the high genetic correlations between homologous trait expressions. In addition to body weight, male morphotypes and female reproductive statuses were treated as traits in themselves and were analysed as binary observations using animal and sire linear mixed models, and logit and probit threshold models. The estimates of heritability back-transformed from the liability scale were in good agreement with those obtained from linear mixed models, ranging from 0.02 to 0.43 for male morphotypes and 0.06 to 0.10 for female types. The genetic correlations among male morphoptypes were generally favourable. Body weight showed negative genetic associations with SM (-0.96), whereas those of body weight with other male morphotypes were positive (0.25 to 0.76). Our results showed that there is existence of heritable (additive genetic) component for male morphotypes, giving prospects for genetic selection to change population structure of GFP. PMID:24587246

Dinh, Hung; Nguyen, Nguyen Hong

2014-01-01

90

Identification of the major allergen of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (giant freshwater prawn)  

PubMed Central

Objective To characterize the major allergens of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (giant freshwater prawn). Methods Raw and cooked extracts of the giant freshwater prawn were prepared. The IgE reactivity pattern was identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting technique with the sera of 20 skin prick test (SPT) positive patients. The major allergen identified was then characterized using the proteomics approach involving a combination of two-dimensional (2-DE) electrophoresis, mass spectrometry and bioinformatics tools. Results SDS-PAGE of the raw extract showed 23 protein bands (15–250 kDa) but those ranging from 40 to 100 kDa were not found in the cooked extract. From immunoblotting experiments, raw and cooked extracts demonstrated 11 and 5 IgE-binding proteins, respectively, with a molecular mass ranging from 15 to 155 kDa. A heat-resistant 36 kDa protein was identified as the major allergen of both extracts. In addition, a 42 kDa heat-sensitive protein was shown to be a major allergen of the raw extract. The 2-DE gel fractionated the prawn proteins to more than 50 different protein spots. Of these, 10 spots showed specific IgE reactivity with patients' sera. Matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) analysis led to identification of 2 important allergens, tropomyosin and arginine kinase. Conclusions It can be concluded that the availability of such allergens would help in component-based diagnosis and therapy of prawn allergies. PMID:23569834

Yadzir, Zailatul Hani Mohamad; Misnan, Rosmilah; Abdullah, Noormalin; Bakhtiar, Faizal; Arip, Masita; Murad, Shahnaz

2012-01-01

91

Molecular cloning and characterisation of cytosolic manganese superoxide dismutase (cytMn-SOD) from the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

A cytosolic manganese superoxide dismutase (cytMn-SOD) cDNA was cloned from the hepatopancreas of giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) by degenerate primers. Both 3'- and 5'-regions were isolated by rapid amplification of cDNA end RACE method. Analysis of nucleotide sequence revealed that the cytMn-SOD cDNA clone consists of 1339 bp with an open reading frame of 858 bp encoding a protein of 286 amino acids. The calculated molecular mass of the mature proteins (286 amino acids) is 31 kDa with an estimated pI of 5.52. Two putative N-glycosylation sites, NXT and NXS were observed in the cytMn-SOD. Four conserved amino acids responsible for binding manganese were observed (H110, H158, D243 and H247). Sequence comparison showed that the cytMn-SOD deduced amino acid sequence of M. rosenbergii has an overall similarity of 77% and 54% to that of blue crab Callinectes sapidus and tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon, respectively. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that cytMn-SOD transcript in hepatopancreas of M. rosenbergii decreased 3h after Lactococcus garvieae injection, but no significant change in cytMn-SOD transcript was observed in the haemocytes 3-24 h after L. garvieae injection. PMID:16154362

Cheng, Winton; Tung, Ying-Hsiu; Liu, Chun-Hung; Chen, Jiann-Chu

2006-04-01

92

Molecular cloning, characterization and gene expression of an antioxidant enzyme catalase (MrCat) from Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

In this study, we reported a full length of catalase gene (designated as MrCat), identified from the transcriptome database of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The complete gene sequence of the MrCat is 2504 base pairs in length, and encodes 516 amino acids. The MrCat protein contains three domains such as catalase 1 (catalase proximal heme-ligand signature) at 350-358, catalase 2 (catalase proximal active site signature) at 60-76 and catalase 3 (catalase family profile) at 20-499. The mRNA expressions of MrCat in healthy and the infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) challenged M. rosenbergii were examined using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The MrCat is highly expressed in digestive tract and all the other tissues (walking leg, gills, muscle, hemocyte, hepatopancreas, pleopods, brain and eye stalk) of M. rosenbergii taken for analysis. The expression is strongly up-regulated in digestive tract after IHHNV challenge. To understand its biological activity, the recombinant MrCat gene was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The recombinant MrCat existed in high thermal stability and broad spectrum of pH, which showed over 95% enzyme activity between pH 5 and 10.5, and was stable from 40 °C to 70 °C, and exhibited 85-100% enzyme activity from 30 °C to 40 °C. PMID:22293093

Arockiaraj, Jesu; Easwvaran, Sarasvathi; Vanaraja, Puganeshwaran; Singh, Arun; Othman, Rofina Yasmin; Bhassu, Subha

2012-05-01

93

Flow cytometry studies on the Macrobrachium rosenbergii hemocytes sub-populations and immune responses to novel pathogen spiroplasma MR-1008.  

PubMed

Flow cytometry provides rapid and reproducible methods for analyzing crustacean cellular immune responses to pathogens. We used this method to investigate the hemocytes sub-populations of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and their immune responses to a novel pathogen spiroplasma MR-1008. M. rosenbergii inoculated with 100 ?l spiroplasma strain MR-1008 in logarithmic phase (10(8) spiroplasmas ml(-1)) were examined for total hemocytes count (THC) and changes in differential involvement of hemocytes sub-populations during 1-28 d after inoculation. The results showed that THC was dramatically lowered 1 d after inoculation, and it obviously increased at the 5 d after inoculation; thereafter, a high level of THC was maintained to 15 d. Three morphologically distinct hemocytes sub-populations including granular cells (GC), semigranular cells (SGC) and hyaline cells (HC) could be identified by flow cytometry, and the proportions of the 3 kinds of cell categories varied obviously during the infection of spiroplasma suggesting differential involvement according to the pathogen. The flow cytometry used in this study confirmed that the semigranular cells were the main hemocytes involved in the cellular defense against spiroplasma in the M. rosenbergii. PMID:22842149

Du, Jie; Zhu, Huanxi; Ren, Qian; Liu, Peng; Chen, Jing; Xiu, Yunji; Yao, Wei; Meng, Qingguo; Gu, Wei; Wang, Wen

2012-10-01

94

Detection and phylogenetic profiling of nodavirus associated with white tail disease in Malaysian Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man.  

PubMed

White tail disease (WTD) is a serious viral disease in the hatcheries and nursery ponds of Macrobrachium rosenbergii in many parts of the world. A new disease similar to WTD was observed in larvae and post larvae of M. rosenbergii cultured in Malaysia. In the present study, RT-PCR assay was used to detect the causative agents of WTD, M. rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV) using specific primers for MrNV RNA2 and XSV. The results showed the presence of MrNV in the samples with or without signs of WTD. However, XSV was only detected in some of the MrNV-positive samples. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the RNA2 of our Malaysian isolates were significantly different from the other isolates. Histopathological studies revealed myofiber degeneration of the tail muscles and liquefactive myopathy in the infected prawns. This was the first report on the occurrence of MrNV in the Malaysian freshwater prawn. PMID:22223294

Saedi, Tayebeh Azam; Moeini, Hassan; Tan, Wen Siang; Yusoff, Khatijah; Daud, Hassan Mohd; Chu, Kua Beng; Tan, Soon Guan; Bhassu, Subha

2012-05-01

95

Identification and cloning of a transglutaminase from giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and its transcription during pathogen infection and moulting.  

PubMed

Complementary (c)DNA encoding transglutaminase (TG) messenger (m)RNA of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, was cloned from haemocytes by a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) using oligonucleotide primers based on the TG sequence of the horseshoe crab, Tachypleus tridentatus; tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon; kuruma shrimp, Marsupenaeus japonicus; and crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus. The 2722-bp cDNA contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 2334 bp, a 72-bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), and a 316-bp 3'-UTR containing a stop codon and a poly A tail. The molecular mass of the deduced amino acid (aa) sequence (778 aa) was 86.67 kDa with an estimated pI of 5.4. The M. rosenbergii TG (abbreviated MrTG, accession no.: JF309296) contains a typical transglutaminase-like homologue, two putative integrin-binding motifs (RGD), ten glycosylation sites, and four calcium-binding sites; a catalytic triad is present as in arthropod TGs. Sequence comparison and a phylogenetic analysis revealed that shrimp TG can be separated into three subgroups, penaeid TG1, freshwater crustacean TG2 and marine crustacean TG2, and MrTG was more closely related to TG2 than to TG1. MrTG mRNA and TG activities were detected in all tested tissues of M. rosenbergii, with MrTG mainly being synthesised by haemocytes. There was a negative correlation between clotting time of haemolymph, and MrTG expression and TG activity of haemocytes in prawn injected with Lactococcus garvieae. The pattern of MrTG mRNA expression and TG activity in haemocytes exhibited a contrary tendency with clotting time of haemolymph during the moult stages. Those results indicate that cloned MrTG is involved in the defence response, and is probably the major functional TG for haemolymph coagulation in M. rosenbergii. PMID:21854853

Liu, Chun-Hung; Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Chiu, Yun-Chih; Cheng, Winton; Yeh, Maw-Sheng

2011-12-01

96

Molecular and immunological responses of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, to the organophosphorus insecticide, trichlorfon.  

PubMed

Trichlorfon is an organophosphorus (OP) insecticide that is used as an agriculture pesticide to destroy insects, a human medicine to combat internal parasites, and an ectoparasiticide in the livestock and aquaculture industries, but which has caused aquatic toxicity in the prawn industry. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of trichlorfon on molecular and enzymatic processes of the immunological response of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, at 0, 0.2, and 0.4mgL(-1) with 0, 3, 6, 12, and 24h of exposure. The total hemocyte count (THC), respiratory bursts (RBs), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were examined to evaluate immunological responses and oxidative stress. Results showed that THCs of the prawn exposed to trichlorfon at both concentrations (0.2 and 0.4mgL(-1)) had increased after 12 and 24h; SOD and PO activities had significantly increased at 3h, whereas production of RBs had dramatically increased as oxidative stress at each sampling time after exposure to trichlorfon compared to the control. A potential biomarker of OPs, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) revealed a significant decrease after exposure for 6h, and showed a time-dependent tendency. Immune gene expressions, including prophenoloxidase (proPO), the lipopolysaccharide- and ?-1,3-glucan-binding protein (LGBP), peroxinectin (PE), ?2-macroglubulin (?2M), transglutaminase (TG), and copper, zinc (Cu,Zn)-SOD, of prawns exposed to trichlorfon at 0, 0.2, and 0.4mgL(-1) for 0, 6, and 24h were further evaluated. Expressions of all of the immune genes significantly decreased when prawns were exposed to 0.4mgL(-1) trichlorfon for 24h, and among them, an increase in SOD expression was seen after exposure to 0.4mgL(-1) for 6h. Prawns exposed to trichlorfon within 24h exhibited the decrease of circulating hemocytes, and also the induction of oxidative stress, which caused subsequent damage to DNA formation of immune genes. From these results, we concluded that immunological responses and immune gene expressions of prawn exposed to trichlorfon at 0.4mgL(-1) for 24h were perturbed, thus causing a deficiency in immunity and subsequent increased susceptibility to pathogen infections. PMID:23340335

Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Rahmawaty, Atiek; Chang, Zhong-Wen

2013-04-15

97

Setal morphology of the grooming appendages of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea: Palaemonidae) and review of decapod setal classification.  

PubMed

Setae are vital in grooming activities and aiding in the removal of epibionts and sedimentary fouling from the body surfaces of decapod crustaceans. Thus, the setal structures and their arrangement on the grooming appendages and sensory structures of the commercially important shrimp, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, were examined using scanning electron microscopy. Macrobrachium rosenbergii is extensively grown in aquaculture and exhibits unique male morphological forms, termed morphotypes. The three male morphotypes are termed blue-clawed males, orange-clawed males, and small-clawed or undifferentiated males and all three differ in their dominance, behavior, body morphology, and reproductive success. Seven setal types, two of which have never been described in the literature, are identified on the grooming appendages (third maxillipeds, first, second, and fifth pereopods) and antennae: simple, serrate, serrulate, spiniform, pappose, crinoid, and spinulate. The latter two setae are newly identified. Certain setal types, such as serrate and serrulate setae were located and associated with specific grooming appendages such as the first pereopods. The types of setae on the grooming appendages varied among females and male morphotypes and the novel setal types (crinoid and spinulate) were found only on two of the male morphotypes. A literature review of terminology related to the structure of setae and setal types in decapod crustaceans is offered as the usage of various terms is ambiguous and conflicting in the literature. The intention of this review is to provide future authors with a comprehensive collection of terms and images that can be used to describe various aspects of setal morphology in decapods. PMID:24500885

Wortham, Jennifer L; Vanmaurik, Lauren N; Wayne Price, W

2014-06-01

98

Genetic analysis of RNA1 and RNA2 of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) isolated from India.  

PubMed

Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) is responsible for the newly emerging catastrophic disease known as white tail disease (WTD) in M. rosenbergii. The complete sequence of RNA2 (1175 bp) and 3126 bp region of RNA1 of an Indian strain of MrNV was generated. Sequence analysis of RNA2 revealed the presence of a single ORF encoding a capsid protein of 371 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass and pI of 41.5 kDa and 8.97 respectively. RNA1 contained two ORFs, one encoding a partial RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of length 1034 amino acids and another a B2-like protein with a length 133 amino acids. A phylogenetic analysis based on the amino acid sequence of the capsid protein, to related nodavirus sequences suggests the establishment of new genotypes within the Nodaviridae family and we suggest the name should be genus Gammanodavirus. A new reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay has been developed and optimized for the detection of shrimp nodavirus with a sensitivity to detect up to 24 copy numbers of plasmid construct. PMID:23318596

NaveenKumar, Singaiah; Shekar, Malathi; Karunasagar, Iddya; Karunasagar, Indrani

2013-05-01

99

Immunomodulatory effect of Withania somnifera supplementation diet in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) against Aeromonas hydrophila.  

PubMed

The effect of Withania somnifera extract supplementation diets on innate immune response in giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) against Aeromonas hydrophila was investigated. The bacterial clearance efficiency significantly increased in prawn fed with 0.1% and 1.0% doses of W. somnifera supplementation diet against pathogen from weeks 1-4 as compared to the control. The innate immune parameters such as, phenoloxidase activity, superoxide anion level, superoxide dismutase activity, nitrate, and nitrite concentrations were significantly enhanced in prawn fed with 0.1% and 1.0% doses of W. somnifera supplementation diet from weeks 1-4 against pathogen. The total hemocyte counts (THC) significantly increased in prawn fed with 0.1% and 1.0% doses diet from weeks 1-4 against pathogen as compared to the control. These results strongly suggested that administration of W. somnifera through supplementation diet positively enhances the innate immune system and enhanced survival rate in M. rosenbergii against A. hydrophila infection. PMID:22118967

Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Balasundaram, Chellam; Jawahar, Sundaram; Heo, Moon-Soo

2012-01-01

100

Isolation and Characterization of the Female-Specific Protein (Vitellogenin) in Mature Female Hemolymph of the Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii:Comparison with Ovarian Vitellin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purification and characterization of the female-specific protein (vitellogenin) from the hemolymph of mature female prawn,Macrobrachium rosenbergii,were the objectives of this study. The comparison of biochemical characteristics between vitellogenin and ovarian vitellin was also conducted. Hemolymph vitellogenin was purified with DEAE, hydroxylapatite, and another DEAE chromatographic column. The specific protein (vitellogenin) was shown in the fractions of chromatographic columns on the

Fang-Yi Lee; Tung-Wei Shih; Ching-Fong Chang

1997-01-01

101

The effects of biogenic amines, gonadotropin-releasing hormones and corazonin on spermatogenesis in sexually mature small giant freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1879)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurotransmitters such as the serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA), as well as the neurohormones gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRHs) and corazonin (Crz), are known to have various effects on decapod crustaceans, including ovarian maturation and spermatogenesis. The effects of these neurotransmitters and neurohormones on spermatogenesis in the small male freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, have not been reported. So, we undertook histological and

Jaruwan Poljaroen; Yotsawan Tinikul; Ittipon Phoungpetchara; Wilairat Kankoun; Saowaros Suwansa-ard; Tanapan Siangcham; Prasert Meeratana; Scott F. Cummins; Prapee Sretarugsa; Peter J. Hanna; Prasert Sobhon

2011-01-01

102

L-( sup 3 H) glutamate binding to a membrane preparation from the optic lobe of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membrane preparation from the optic lobe of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man, was examined for the presence of specific L-(³H) glutamate binding. The optic lobes were isolated from live animals. The tissue was homogenized and the membrane fraction isolated by differential centrifugation. The membrane suspension was incubated with 10-1,000 nM of L-(³H) glutamate at 37°C for 60

P. Pratumtan; P. Govitrapong; B. Withyachumnarnkul; B. Poolsanguan

1991-01-01

103

Preliminary obervations on use of ethanol distiller's by-products for polyculture of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) and golden shiner (Notemigonus crysoleucas)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two major by-products of ethanol distillation, corn distiller's solubles and corn distiller's mash, were evaluated for their potential use as a food source for freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) and golden shiner (Notemigonus crysoleucas) in mid-western United States. Corn distiller's solubles were not found to be highly toxic to aquatic organisms at concentrations ranging up to 10,000 ppM. However, the high

C. C. Kohler; W. M. Lewis; S. P. Krueger

1983-01-01

104

A candidate gene association study for growth performance in an improved giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii ) culture line.  

PubMed

A candidate gene approach using type I single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers can provide an effective method for detecting genes and gene regions that underlie phenotypic variation in adaptively significant traits. In the absence of available genomic data resources, transcriptomes were recently generated in Macrobrachium rosenbergii to identify candidate genes and markers potentially associated with growth. The characterisation of 47 candidate loci by ABI re-sequencing of four cultured and eight wild samples revealed 342 putative SNPs. Among these, 28 SNPs were selected in 23 growth-related candidate genes to genotype in 200 animals selected for improved growth performance in an experimental GFP culture line in Vietnam. The associations between SNP markers and individual growth performance were then examined. For additive and dominant effects, a total of three exonic SNPs in glycogen phosphorylase (additive), heat shock protein 90 (additive and dominant) and peroxidasin (additive), and a total of six intronic SNPs in ankyrin repeats-like protein (additive and dominant), rolling pebbles (dominant), transforming growth factor-? induced precursor (dominant), and UTP-glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase 2 (dominant) genes showed significant associations with the estimated breeding values in the experimental animals (P =0.001-0.031). Individually, they explained 2.6-4.8 % of the genetic variance (R²=0.026-0.048). This is the first large set of SNP markers reported for M. rosenbergii and will be useful for confirmation of associations in other samples or culture lines as well as having applications in marker-assisted selection in future breeding programs. PMID:24122143

Jung, Hyungtaek; Lyons, Russell E; Li, Yutao; Thanh, Nguyen Minh; Dinh, Hung; Hurwood, David A; Salin, Krishna R; Mather, Peter B

2014-04-01

105

Production of recombinant capsid protein of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (r-MCP43) of giant freshwater prawn, M. rosenbergii (de Man) for immunological diagnostic methods.  

PubMed

White tail disease (WTD) caused by Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV) is a serious problem in prawn hatcheries. The gene for capsid protein of MrNV (MCP43) was cloned into pRSET B expression vector. The MCP43 protein was expressed as a protein with a 6-histidine tag in Escherichia coli GJ1158 with NaCl induction. This recombinant protein, which was used to raise the antiserum in rabbits, recognized capsid protein in different WTD-infected post-larvae and adult prawn. Various immunological methods such as Western blot, dot blot and ELISA techniques were employed to detect MrNV in infected samples using the antiserum raised against recombinant MCP43 of MrNV. The dot blot assay using anti-rMCP43 was found to be capable of detecting MrNV in WTD-infected post-larvae as early as at 24 h post-infection. The antiserum raised against r-MCP43 could detect the MrNV in the infected samples at the level of 100 pg of total protein. The capsid protein of MrNV estimated by ELISA using anti-rMCP43 and pure r-MCP43 as a standard was found to increase gradually during the course of infection from 24 h p.i. to moribund stage. The results of immunological diagnostic methods employed in this study were compared with that of RT-PCR to test the efficiency of antiserum raised against r-MCP43 for the detection of MrNV. The Western blot, dot blot and ELISA detected all MrNV-positive coded samples as detected by RT-PCR. PMID:23952017

Farook, M A; Madan, N; Taju, G; Majeed, S Abdul; Nambi, K S N; Raj, N Sundar; Vimal, S; Hameed, A S Sahul

2014-08-01

106

The androgenic gland and monosex culture of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man): a biotechnological perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Males of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosen- bergii (De Man) grow faster and reach a larger size at harvest than females of the species. It is thus obvious that culture of monosex all-male populations would be economically advantageous. Sexual di¡erentia- tion in crustaceans is regulated by the androgenic gland (AG), which plays a pivotal role in the regula- tion of

Amir Sagi; Eliahu D Aflalo

2005-01-01

107

Retardation of post-mortem changes of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) stored in ice by legume seed extracts.  

PubMed

Meat quality of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) treated with soybean and bambara groundnut extracts at different concentrations was monitored during 10 days of iced storage. During storage, the control sample (without treatment) had a higher pH, TCA-soluble peptide content, heat soluble collagen content, proteolytic activities and psychrophilic bacterial count than did samples treated with soybean and bambara groundnut extracts. Conversely, shear force value and likeness scores of the control sample decreased (p<0.05), more likely associated with softening of muscle. The decrease in myosin heavy chain in the control sample was found after 6 days of storage. However, no changes in protein patterns of samples treated with soybean extracts at 2.5 mg/mL were found after 10 days of storage. Therefore, the injections of legume seed extracts, especially soybean extract, at a sufficient concentration, could be a means to retard muscle softening and maintain the qualities of freshwater prawn during iced storage. PMID:22868130

Sriket, Chodsana; Benjakul, Soottawat; Visessanguan, Wonnop; Hara, Kenji; Yoshida, Asami

2012-11-15

108

Immune responses and gene expression in hepatopancreas from Macrobrachium rosenbergii challenged by a novel pathogen spiroplasma MR-1008.  

PubMed

Freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii inoculated with 100 ?l novel pathogen spiroplasma strain MR-1008 in logarithmic phase (10(8) spiroplasmas ml(-1)) were examined for alkaline phosphatase (AKP) activity, acid phosphatase (ACP) activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, catalase (CAT) activity, as well as expressions of 7 immune related genes in hepatopancreas after 1-28 d. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining showed obvious pathological features in hepatopancreas connective and epithelial tissue. Enzyme activity analyze showed that hepatopancreas AKP and ACP activity increased markedly (P < 0.05) when inoculated with spiroplasma MR-1008 after 5 d and 10 d, respectively. SOD enzyme activity changed less obviously and slightly increased at 1 day post-inoculation, but CAT activity decreased significantly after 5 d inoculation. The expression levels of lipopolysaccharide and ?-1,3-glucan-binding protein (LGBP), peroxinectin (PE), ?2-macroglobulin (?2M), AKP, ACP, CAT, and copper/zinc SOD (Cu, Zn-SOD) genes in the hepatopancreas were examined by Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR) and the results demonstrated that these immune related genes were induced by challenge with spiroplasma MR-1008. The results suggested that the prawn immune responses could be activated or inhibited by spiroplasma MR-1008, and that the hepatopancreas also plays key roles in innate immunity for defense against the pathogen. PMID:23178264

Du, Jie; Zhu, Huanxi; Liu, Peng; Chen, Jing; Xiu, Yunji; Yao, Wei; Wu, Ting; Ren, Qian; Meng, Qingguo; Gu, Wei; Wang, Wen

2013-01-01

109

Effects of (60)Co gamma irradiation on behavior and gill histoarchitecture of giant fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (DE MAN).  

PubMed

Present study was designed to observe the effects of (60)Co gamma radiation in behavioral and histological changes in the gills of giant fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The adult prawns were irradiated with four different dose levels (3mGy, 30mGy, 300mGy and 3000mGy) and the control group (without irradiation) was maintained separately. Behavioral changes like hyperactivity, loss of balance, reduced swimming rate, slower rate of food intake and convulsions were observed in higher dose levels of 300mGy and 3000mGy. The histological alterations such as accumulated haemocytes in haemocoelic spaces, abnormal gill tips, lifted lamellar epithelium, swollen and fused lamellae, hyperplasic, necrotic, clavate-globate and complete disorganization of lamellae were observed in (60)Co gamma irradiated prawns. Significantly more considerable histological alterations were observed in the highest dose level of 3000mGy, but no mortality was evidenced. This study serves as biomonitoring tool to assess the radiation pollution in the aquatic environment. PMID:23587558

Stalin, A; Broos, K V; Sadiq Bukhari, A; Syed Mohamed, H E; Singhal, R K; Venu-babu, P

2013-06-01

110

Identification and characterization of differentially expressed transcripts in the gills of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) under salt stress.  

PubMed

The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is an economically important species. It is a euryhaline shrimp, surviving in wide-range salinity conditions. A change in gene expression has been suggested as an important component for stress management. To better understand the osmoregulatory mechanisms mediated by the gill, a subtractive and suppressive hybridization (SSH) tool was used to identify expressed transcripts linked to adaptations in saline water. A total of 117 transcripts represented potentially expressed under salinity conditions. BLAST analysis identified 22% as known genes, 9% as uncharacterized showing homologous to unannotated ESTs, and 69% as unknown sequences. All the identified known genes representing broad spectrum of biological pathways were particularly linked to stress tolerance including salinity tolerance. Expression analysis of 10 known genes and 7 unknown/uncharacterized genes suggested their upregulation in the gills of prawn exposed to saline water as compared to control indicating that these are likely to be associated with salinity acclimation. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) was used for obtaining full-length cDNA of MRSW-40 clone that was highly upregulated during salt exposure. The sequenced ESTs presented here will have potential implications for future understanding about salinity acclimation and/or tolerance of the prawn. PMID:22619594

Barman, Hirak Kumar; Patra, Swagat Kumar; Das, Varsha; Mohapatra, Shibani Dutta; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Mohapatra, Chinmayee; Mohanta, Ramya; Panda, Rudra Prasanna; Rath, Surya Narayan

2012-01-01

111

Gene profiling and characterization of arginine kinase-1 (MrAK-1) from freshwater giant prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii).  

PubMed

Arginine kinase-1 (MrAK-1) was sequenced from the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii using Illumina Solexa Genome Analyzer Technique. MrAK-1 consisted of 1068 bp nucleotide encoded 355 polypeptide with an estimated molecular mass of 40 kDa. MrAK-1 sequence contains a potential ATP:guanido phosphotransferases active domain site. The deduced amino acid sequence of MrAK-1 was compared with other 7 homologous arginine kinase (AK) and showed the highest identity (96%) with AK-1 from cherry shrimp Neocaridina denticulate. The qRT-PCR analysis revealed a broad expression of MrAK-1 with the highest expression in the muscle and the lowest in the eyestalk. The expression of MrAK-1 after challenge with the infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) was tested in muscle. In addition, MrAK-1 was expressed in Escherichia coli by prokaryotic expression plasmid pMAL-c2x. The optimum temperature (30 °C) and pH (8.5) was determined for the enzyme activity assay. MrAK-1 showed significant (P < 0.05) activity towards 10-50 mM ATP concentration. The enzyme activity was inhibited by ?-ketoglutarate, glucose and ATP at the concentration of 10, 50 and 100 mM respectively. Conclusively, the findings of this study indicated that MrAK-1 might play an important role in the coupling of energy production and utilization and the immune response in shrimps. PMID:21549198

Arockiaraj, Jesu; Vanaraja, Puganeshwaran; Easwvaran, Sarasvathi; Singh, Arun; Alinejaid, Tahereh; Othman, Rofina Yasmin; Bhassu, Subha

2011-07-01

112

A sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (S-ELISA) for detection of MrNV in the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man).  

PubMed

A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (S-ELISA) was developed to improve diagnosis of white tail disease of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, caused by the nodavirus, MrNV. Polyclonal antibodies were produced by immunization of Balb/C mice using a purified suspension of the virus and IgG anti-MrNV were purified from ascitic fluid. A sandwich method was successfully developed, coating first with unlabelled antibody and detecting trapped antigens with a second biotinylated antibody. Reaction was demonstrated using an avidin-peroxidase conjugate. Tissue extracts from M. rosenbergii infected with MrNV or purified viral extracts (control) were successfully identified in an individual ELISA, thus confirming the validity of the method. This S-ELISA should be the technique of choice for epidemiological studies of this disease and is a rapid and inexpensive assay with high specificity and sensitivity. PMID:12962215

Romestand, B; Bonami, J R

2003-02-01

113

Effects of Nitrite Exposure on Acid–Base Balance, Respiratory Protein, and Ion Concentrations of Giant Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii at Low pH  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  \\u000a \\u000a Macrobrachium rosenbergii that had been exposed individually for 24 h to 0 (control), 2, 5, 10 mg\\/L nitrite-N (nitrite as nitrogen) at 4.3 and 7.7\\u000a pH levels were examined for hemolymph nitrite-N, oxyhemocyanin, protein, acid–base balance, ion concentrations, and ammonia-N\\u000a (ammonia as nitrogen) excretion. Hemolymph oxyhemocyanin, protein, pH, HCO3\\u000a \\u000a ? , TCO2, osmolality, and ion concentrations were inversely related

J.-C. Chen; Y. Lee

1997-01-01

114

Immune response of four dual-CRD C-type lectins to microbial challenges in giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

C-type lectins (CTLs) are believed to play important roles in the innate immunity of invertebrates and serve as pattern recognition receptors, opsonins, or effector molecules. In this study, the full-lengths cDNA of 4 CTL genes from giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii were cloned and designated as MrLec1, MrLec2, MrLec3, and MrLec4. All of these 4 lectin cDNAs encode proteins with 2 carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs). While MrLec1, MrLec3, and MrLec4 had signal peptides, no signal peptide was detected in MrLec2. Two carbohydrate recognition motifs within two CRDs of each lectin were predicted (QPE, EPG in MrLec1; EPT, EPA in MrLec2; QPT, NPR in MrLec3; KPN, EPD in MrLec4). Phylogenetic analysis showed that MrLec4 belongs to group A whereas MrLec1, MrLec2, and MrLec3 belong to group B. Positive selection in dual-CRD lectins suggested their probable roles in innate immunity, and positively selected induced amino acid diversity of lectins may confer their ability to recognize a broad range of microbes. The qRT-PCR analysis in adult prawns showed that MrLec1 is mainly expressed in the hepatopancreas, gills, and stomach, MrLec2 and MrLec4 are mainly distributed in the hepatopancreas, and MrLec3 is mainly expressed in the hepatopancreas and stomach. Time-course analysis using qRT-PCR showed that MrLec1 to MrLec4 are all upregulated by the Vibrio anguillarum challenge. MrLec1 is upregulated after 2, 12, and 24 h of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenge. The expression of MrLec2 increases after 12 and 24 h of WSSV challenge, and the transcript of MrLec3 and MrLec4 are downregulated after 2 h of WSSV challenge. The results suggest the potential roles of dual-CRD lectins in the innate immunity of M. rosenbergii. PMID:22450241

Ren, Qian; Li, Meng; Du, Jie; Zhang, Chi-Yu; Wang, Wen

2012-08-01

115

Non-permissive C6/36 cell culture for the Australian isolate of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus.  

PubMed

Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) that causes white tail disease (WTD) is an emerging disease that contributes to serious production losses in Macrobrachium hatcheries worldwide. Mosquito cell lines (C6/36) have been reported to support the growth of MrNV and used to observe the cytopathic effects (CPE) in infected cells. This study determined the susceptibility of C6/36 mosquito cells to the Australian isolate of MrNV in order to use fewer animals in further investigations. Different staining methods were used to observe MrNV viral activity in C6/36 cells. Typical cytopathic effects such as vacuolation and viral inclusion bodies were observed in infected C6/36 cells with H&E and Giemsa staining. With acridine orange, it was easier to detect presumptive MrNV messenger ribonucleic acid in the infected cells. Using neutral red staining to measure mitochondrial activity showed light absorption of infected cells maximized at day 4 (O.D. = 0.6) but was significantly lower (chi-square = 41.265, df = 1, P < 0.05) than control groups (O.D. = 2) which maximized at day 12. Using trypan blue staining to count the number of cells with disrupted cell membranes, the maximum number of presumptively dead cells at day 8 (4 × 10(5)  cells) in infected treatments was higher than the control treatment at day 10 (1.8 × 10(5)  cells). However, TaqMan real-time PCR did not confirm the replication of MrNV in the cells over 14 days. The mean viral copies and mean cycle times of positive samples were stable at 2.07 × 10(4) and 24.12, respectively. Limited evidence of viral replication was observed during four serial passages. This study determined the mortality of the C6/36 cell line to the Australian isolate of MrNV but suggests limited patent replication was occurring. Trying different cell lines or adapting the virus to the C6/36 cells may be necessary to successfully replicate Australian MrNV in cell lines. PMID:23134578

Hayakijkosol, O; Owens, L

2013-04-01

116

Subcellular localization and kinetic characterization of a gill (Na+, K+)-ATPase from the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

The stimulation by Mg(2+), Na(+), K(+), NH4 (+), and ATP of (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase activity in a gill microsomal fraction from the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii was examined. Immunofluorescence labeling revealed that the (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase ?-subunit is distributed predominantly within the intralamellar septum, while Western blotting revealed a single ?-subunit isoform of about 108 kDa M r. Under saturating Mg(2+), Na(+), and K(+) concentrations, the enzyme hydrolyzed ATP, obeying cooperative kinetics with V(M) = 115.0 ± 2.3 U mg(-1), K(0.5) = 0.10 ± 0.01 mmol L(-1). Stimulation by Na(+) (V(M) = 110.0 ± 3.3 U mg(-1), K(0.5) = 1.30 ± 0.03 mmol L(-1)), Mg(2+) (V(M) = 115.0 ± 4.6 U mg(-1), K(0.5) = 0.96 ± 0.03 mmol L(-1)), NH4 (+) (V(M) = 141.0 ± 5.6 U mg(-1), K(0.5) = 1.90 ± 0.04 mmol L(-1)), and K(+) (V(M) = 120.0 ± 2.4 U mg(-1), K(M) = 2.74 ± 0.08 mmol L(-1)) followed single saturation curves and, except for K(+), exhibited site-site interaction kinetics. Ouabain inhibited ATPase activity by around 73% with K(I) = 12.4 ± 1.3 mol L(-1). Complementary inhibition studies suggest the presence of F0F1-, Na(+)-, or K(+)-ATPases, but not V(H(+))- or Ca(2+)-ATPases, in the gill microsomal preparation. K(+) and NH4(+) synergistically stimulated enzyme activity (?25%), suggesting that these ions bind to different sites on the molecule. We propose a mechanism for the stimulation by both NH4(+), and K(+) of the gill enzyme. PMID:23784064

França, Juliana L; Pinto, Marcelo R; Lucena, Malson N; Garçon, Daniela P; Valenti, Wagner C; McNamara, John C; Leone, Francisco A

2013-07-01

117

Cloning and identification of four Mu-type glutathione S-transferases from the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are essential components of the cellular detoxification system because of their capability to protect organisms against the toxicity of reactive oxygen species (ROSs). Four different GSTs (MrMuGST1-MrMuGST4) showing similarities with Mu-type GSTs were cloned from the hepatopancreas of Macrobrachium rosenbergii. These four GSTs have 219, 216, 218 and 219 amino acids in length, respectively. MrMuGST1-MrMuGST4 proteins all have a G-site in the N-terminus and an H-site in the C-terminus. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that four Mu-type GSTs are classified into two different clades (MrMuGST2 one clade; MrMuGST1, MrMuGST3 and MrMuGST4 other clades). Nonetheless, no site under positive selection was detected but rapid evolution was found in the few of MuGST genes. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results showed that MrMuGST1 and MrMuGST2 transcripts were expressed in all detected tissues, however, MrMuGST3 and MrMuGST4 were just mainly expressed in hepatopancreas and intestines. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that MrMuGST1 and MrMuGST2 were down-regulated upon Vibrio anguillarum challenge, whereas MrMuGST3 and MrMuGST4 were quickly up-regulated 2 h after the Vibrio challenge. Our results imply that different Mu-type GSTs may respond to Vibrio challenge with different manners. PMID:23727284

Hui, Kai-Min; Hao, Fang-Yuan; Li, Wen; Zhang, Zhao; Zhang, Chi-Yu; Wang, Wen; Ren, Qian

2013-08-01

118

Detection and genetic profiling of infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) infections in wild berried freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii collected for hatchery production.  

PubMed

Infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) has been detected widely in penaeid culture facilities in Asia and the Americas. IHHNV infection on sub-adult and postlarvae of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii which had caused up to 80% mortalities was first reported in Southeast Taiwan in 2006. In Malaysia, although, there has been no report on IHHNV infections in M. rosenbergii, preliminary work suggests that there is an urgent need to setup a screening protocol for IHHNV for both wild and cultured populations. In this study, polymerase chain reaction based screening was carried out on 30 randomly sampled berried wild M. rosenbergii before and after spawning. All samples did not showed any sign of IHHNV infection. However, the results showed that 20% of the samples were IHHNV positive. Sequence analysis of the amplified band using NCBI-BLAST showed that the putative IHHNV sequence had 98% nucleotide sequence (388 bp) identity with the IHHNV isolate AC-05-005 non-structural protein 1 gene and seven other IHHNV strains in the data bank further affirming the suggestion on the presence of IHHNV in wild freshwater prawn populations in Malaysia. PMID:21755294

Hazreen Nita, M K; Kua, B C; Bhassu, S; Othman, R Y

2012-04-01

119

Gene expression and functional studies of small heat shock protein 37 (MrHSP37) from Macrobrachium rosenbergii challenged with infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV).  

PubMed

In this study, we have reported a full length of small heat shock protein 37 (designated MrHSP37) gene, identified from the transcriptome database of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The complete gene sequence of the MrHSP37 is 2,425 base pairs in length, and encodes 338 amino acids. MrHSP37 contains a long heat shock protein family profile in the amino acid sequence between 205 and 288. The mRNA expressions of MrHSP37 in healthy and the infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) challenged M. rosenbergii were examined using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). MrHSP37 is highly expressed in hepatopancreas and all the other tissues (walking leg, gills, muscle, stomach, haemocyte, intestine, pleopods, brain and eye stalk) of M. rosenbergii taken for analysis. The expression is strongly up-regulated after IHHNV challenge. To understand its biological activity, the recombinant MrHSP37 gene was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The results of ATPase assay showed that the recombinant MrHSP37 protein exhibited apparent ATPase activity which increased with the concentration of the protein. And also the purified recombinant MrHSP37 protein was used for thermal aggregation assay (chaperone activity). It showed that the recombinant MrHSP37 protein is an active chaperone in this assay. Taken together, these results suggest that MrHSP37 is potentially involved in the immune responses against IHHNV challenge in M. rosenbergii. PMID:22290288

Arockiaraj, Jesu; Vanaraja, Puganeshwaran; Easwvaran, Sarasvathi; Singh, Arun; Othman, Rofina Yasmin; Bhassu, Subha

2012-06-01

120

Effects of dietary administration of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) extracts on the immune responses and disease resistance of giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

The hot-water extract of Eichhornia crassipes leaves (ECE) was produced and incorporated into the diet of the prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, as an immunostimulant. Survival rates of prawn against Lactococcus garvieae, and its immune parameters including the total haemocyte count (THC), different haemocyte count (DHC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts (RBs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, transglutaminase (TG) activity, haemolymph coagulation time, and phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency against L. garvieae by M. rosenbergii were determined when prawn (23.0 ± 2.8 g) were fed ECE-containing diets at 0, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 g kg(-1). Prawn fed a diet containing ECE at 2.0 and 3.0 g kg(-1) for 12 days showed significantly increased THC, HC, GC, PO activity, RBs, SOD activity, GPx activity, and TG activity, and a significantly decreased coagulation time. The phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency against L. garvieae of prawn fed the ECE-containing diets at 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 g kg(-1) were significantly higher than those of prawn fed the control diet at 3-12 days. Survival rates of M. rosenbergii fed the diet containing ECE at concentrations of 2 and 3 g kg(-1) were significantly higher than those fed the control diet after challenge with L. garvieae for 48-144 h. The relative percentage survival of prawn fed the 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 g kg(-1) ECE-containing diets for 12 days were 17.5%, 39.1%, and 52.2%. It was concluded that the ECE can be used as an immunostimulant for prawn through dietary administration to enhance immune responses and resistance of M. rosenbergii against L. garvieae. PMID:23603238

Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Tan, Hui-Ching; Cheng, Winton

2013-07-01

121

De Novo Transcriptome Sequencing Analysis and Comparison of Differentially Expressed Genes (DEGs) in Macrobrachium rosenbergii in China.  

PubMed

Giant freshwater prawn (GFP; Macrobrachium rosenbergii) is an exotic species that was introduced into China in 1976 and thereafter it became a major species in freshwater aquaculture. However the gene discovery in this species has been limited to small-scale data collection in China. We used the next generation sequencing technology for the experiment; the transcriptome was sequenced of samples of hepatopancreas organ in individuals from 4 GFP groups (A1, A2, B1 and B2). De novo transcriptome sequencing generated 66,953 isogenes. Using BLASTX to search the Non-redundant (NR), Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes (STRING), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome (KEGG) databases; 21,224 unigenes were annotated, 9,552 matched unigenes with the Gene Ontology (GO) classification; 5,782 matched unigenes in 25 categories of Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COG) and 20,859 unigenes were consequently assigned to 312 KEGG pathways. Between the A and B groups 147 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified; between the A1 and A2 groups 6,860 DEGs were identified and between the B1 and B2 groups 5,229 DEGs were identified. After enrichment, the A and B groups identified 38 DEGs, but none of them were significantly enriched. The A1 and A2 groups identified 21,856 DEGs in three main categories based on functional groups: biological process, cellular_component and molecular function and the KEGG pathway defined 2,459 genes had a KEGG Ortholog - ID (KO-ID) and could be categorized into 251 pathways, of those, 9 pathways were significantly enriched. The B1 and B2 groups identified 5,940 DEGs in three main categories based on functional groups: biological process, cellular_component and molecular function, and the KEGG pathway defined 1,543 genes had a KO-ID and could be categorized into 240 pathways, of those, 2 pathways were significantly enriched. We investigated 99 queries (GO) which related to growth of GFP in 4 groups. After enrichment we identified 23 DEGs and 1 KEGG PATHWAY 'ko04711' relation with GFP growth. PMID:25329319

Nguyen Thanh, Hai; Zhao, Liangjie; Liu, Qigen

2014-01-01

122

De Novo Transcriptome Sequencing Analysis and Comparison of Differentially Expressed Genes (DEGs) in Macrobrachium rosenbergii in China  

PubMed Central

Giant freshwater prawn (GFP; Macrobrachium rosenbergii) is an exotic species that was introduced into China in 1976 and thereafter it became a major species in freshwater aquaculture. However the gene discovery in this species has been limited to small-scale data collection in China. We used the next generation sequencing technology for the experiment; the transcriptome was sequenced of samples of hepatopancreas organ in individuals from 4 GFP groups (A1, A2, B1 and B2). De novo transcriptome sequencing generated 66,953 isogenes. Using BLASTX to search the Non-redundant (NR), Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes (STRING), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome (KEGG) databases; 21,224 unigenes were annotated, 9,552 matched unigenes with the Gene Ontology (GO) classification; 5,782 matched unigenes in 25 categories of Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COG) and 20,859 unigenes were consequently assigned to 312 KEGG pathways. Between the A and B groups 147 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified; between the A1 and A2 groups 6,860 DEGs were identified and between the B1 and B2 groups 5,229 DEGs were identified. After enrichment, the A and B groups identified 38 DEGs, but none of them were significantly enriched. The A1 and A2 groups identified 21,856 DEGs in three main categories based on functional groups: biological process, cellular_component and molecular function and the KEGG pathway defined 2,459 genes had a KEGG Ortholog - ID (KO-ID) and could be categorized into 251 pathways, of those, 9 pathways were significantly enriched. The B1 and B2 groups identified 5,940 DEGs in three main categories based on functional groups: biological process, cellular_component and molecular function, and the KEGG pathway defined 1,543 genes had a KO-ID and could be categorized into 240 pathways, of those, 2 pathways were significantly enriched. We investigated 99 queries (GO) which related to growth of GFP in 4 groups. After enrichment we identified 23 DEGs and 1 KEGG PATHWAY ‘ko04711’ relation with GFP growth. PMID:25329319

Liu, Qigen

2014-01-01

123

Determination and kinetics of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin in Tra catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) and giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) using a liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method.  

PubMed

Determination and kinetics of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin in Tra catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) and giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) using a liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method. J. vet. Pharmacol. Therap. 34, 142-152. The fluoroquinolones enrofloxacin (EF) and ciprofloxacin (CF) residues were investigated in the edible tissues of two important Asian aquacultured species such as Tra catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) and giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) using a sensitive liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry method. Fish and prawn were treated with medicated feed with multiple doses of EF, in field conditions. A validation study of the analytical method was realized in terms of linearity, specificity, precision (repeatability and within-laboratory reproducibility), recovery and decision limit (CC?). The time needed before the antibiotic disappears from animal tissues or reach the maximum residue limit (MRL, 100?g/kg) was assessed. The concentration values of EF detected in Tra catfish tissue were between the MRL and 2×MRL concentrations, according to the fish density, 7days following the end of the enrofloxacin treatment (20mg/kg body weight per day, for seven consecutive days). The concentration value of ER in prawn tissue was lower than the MRL and the limit of quantification (LOQ, 14?g/kg) 5 and 7days after the stop of the EF treatment (50mg/kg body weight per day, for five consecutive days), respectively. The mean detected levels of CF was much lower in comparison with that of EF, indicating that only a small part of EF is metabolized into CF (<5%) in both Tra catfish and prawn. PMID:21395605

Danyi, S; Widart, J; Douny, C; Dang, P K; Baiwir, D; Wang, N; Tu, H T; Tung, V T; Phuong, N-T; Kestemont, P; Scippo, M-L

2011-04-01

124

Function of an anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF) isoform isolated from the hemocytes of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii in protecting against bacterial infection.  

PubMed

In this study, a 780-bp full-length cDNA encoding Macrobrachium rosenbergii anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (MrALF) from hemocytes was cloned and identified. The ALF isoform exhibited immune activities, and its concentration in hemolymph was determined. An in vivo expression study showed that the ALF mRNA level of hemocytes could be induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) in an exposure time-dependent manner. Purified recombinant MrALF (rMrALF) expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris SMD1168 eukaryotic protein expression system demonstrated antibacterial activity against the Gram-negative prawn pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)=0.806?M, minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC)=1.606?M) but not the Gram-positive pathogen Lactococcus garvieae exposed to 25.696?M of rALF. However, rMrALF can bind to Gram-negative and -positive bacteria. An in vivo expression study demonstrated that the ALF concentrations in prawn hemocytes and plasma were 0.176?M and 0.168?M, respectively; following LPS treatment for 6h, the corresponding concentrations were 0.133?M in hemocytes and 0.272?M in plasma. Furthermore, the percentage of hemocytes phagocytosing bacteria cells was higher in hemoyctes previously treated with MrALF than those treated with sterile medium. These results suggest that in the innate immune response of M. rosenbergii, the MrALF from hemocytes may play an opsonin during a bacterial invasion. PMID:24333685

Liu, Chia-Chen; Chung, Chien-Pang; Lin, Chang-Yi; Sung, Hung-Hung

2014-02-01

125

?NH H??NG C?A KÍCH C? GI?NG LÊN N?NG SU?T TÔM CÀNG XANH (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) NUÔI TRONG M??NG V??N ? V?NH LONG  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study on farming of giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) in garden ditch was carried in Vinh Long province during the year 2003- 2004. Experiment was conducted with 2 treatments of stocking postlarvae at density of 9 inds.\\/m2 and stocking juvenile at density of 6 inds.\\/m2 . Areas of the experimental ponds varied between 1,000 and 1,500 m2. Prawn was fed

Lý V?n

126

The effects of serotonin, dopamine, gonadotropin-releasing hormones, and corazonin, on the androgenic gland of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

Neurotransmitters and neurohormones are agents that control gonad maturation in decapod crustaceans. Of these, serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) are neurotransmitters with known antagonist roles in female reproduction, whilst gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRHs) and corazonin (Crz) are neurohormones that exercise both positive and negative controls in some invertebrates. However, the effects of these agents on the androgenic gland (AG), which controls testicular maturation and male sex development in decapods, via insulin-like androgenic gland hormone (IAG), are unknown. Therefore, we set out to assay the effects of 5-HT, DA, l-GnRH-III, oct-GnRH and Crz, on the AG of small male Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Mr), using histological studies, a BrdU proliferative cell assay, immunofluorescence of Mr-IAG, and ELISA of Mr-IAG. The results showed stimulatory effects by 5-HT and l-GnRH-III through significant increases in AG size, proliferation of AG cells, and Mr-IAG production (P<0.05). In contrast, DA and Crz caused inhibitory effects on the AG through significant decreases in AG size, proliferation of AG cells, and Mr-IAG production (P<0.05). Moreover, the prawns treated with Crz died before day 16 of the experimental period. We propose that 5-HT and certain GnRHs can be now used to stimulate reproduction in male M. rosenbergii, as they induce increases in AG and testicular size, IAG production, and spermatogenesis. The mechanisms by which these occur are part of our on-going research. PMID:23867230

Siangcham, Tanapan; Tinikul, Yotsawan; Poljaroen, Jaruwan; Sroyraya, Morakot; Changklungmoa, Narin; Phoungpetchara, Ittipon; Kankuan, Wilairat; Sumpownon, Chanudporn; Wanichanon, Chaitip; Hanna, Peter J; Sobhon, Prasert

2013-11-01

127

Simultaneous identification and quantification of 4-cumylphenol, 2,4-bis-(dimethylbenzyl)phenol and bisphenol A in prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

Bisphenol A (BPA), 4-cumylphenol (4-CP) and 2,4-bis-(dimethylbenzyl)phenol (2,4-DCP) are all high production volume chemicals and widely used in plastic and other consumer products. During the past two decades, BPA has attracted a great deal of scientific and public attention due to its presence in the environment and estrogenic property. Although 4-CP and 2,4-DCP are much more estrogenic and toxic than BPA, little information is available about their occurrence and fate in the environment. In this study, a rapid, selective, accurate and reliable analytical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 4-CP, 2,4-DCP and BPA in prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The method comprises an ultrasound-accelerated extraction followed by capillary gas chromatographic (GC) separation. The detection limits range from 1.50 to 36.4 ng kg(-1) for the three alkylphenols. The calibration curves are linear over the concentration range tested with the coefficients of determination, R(2), greater than 0.994. The developed method was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of 4-CP, 2,4-DCP and BPA in prawn samples. The peak identification was confirmed using GC-MS. Bisphenol A, 2,4-bis-(dimethylbenzyl)phenol and 4-cumylphenol were found in prawn samples in the concentration ranges of 0.67-5.51, 0.36-1.61, and 0.00-1.96 ng g(-1) (wet weight), respectively. All relative standard deviations are less than 4.8%. At these environmentally relevant concentration levels, 4-CP, 2,4-DCP and BPA may affect the reproduction and development of aquatic organisms, including negative influence on crustaceans' larval survival, molting, metamorphosis and shell hardening. This is the first study reported on the occurrence of 4-CP, 2,4-DCP and BPA in prawn M. rosenbergii. PMID:24560775

Zuo, Yuegang; Zhu, Zhuo

2014-07-01

128

Phylogeny of Macrobrachium PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS IN SOME  

E-print Network

and one species,Macrobrachium rosenbergii (DeMan) 1scultivated worldwide. The alpha taxonomy of the gePhylogeny of Macrobrachium I 1 PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS IN SOME SPECIES OF THE GENUS MACROBRACHIUM 1 BASED ON NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCES OF THE MITOCHONDRIAL GENE CYTOCHROME OXIDASE I Guido Pereira

Farrell, Brian D.

129

Timing sexual differentiation: full functional sex reversal achieved through silencing of a single insulin-like gene in the prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

In Crustacea, an early evolutionary group (?50?000 species) inhabiting most ecological niches, sex differentiation is regulated by a male-specific androgenic gland (AG). The identification of AG-specific insulin-like factors (IAGs) and genomic sex markers offers an opportunity for a deeper understanding of the sexual differentiation mechanism in crustaceans and other arthropods. Here, we report, to our knowledge, the first full and functional sex reversal of male freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) through the silencing of a single IAG-encoding gene. These "neofemales" produced all-male progeny, as proven by sex-specific genomic markers. This finding offers an insight regarding the biology and evolution of sex differentiation regulation, with a novel perspective for the evolution of insulin-like peptides. Our results demonstrate how temporal intervention with a key regulating gene induces a determinative, extreme phenotypic shift. Our results also carry tremendous ecological and commercial implications. Invasive and pest crustacean species represent genuine concerns worldwide without an apparent solution. Such efforts might, therefore, benefit from sexual manipulations, as has been successfully realized with other arthropods. Commercially, such manipulation would be significant in sexually dimorphic cultured species, allowing the use of nonbreeding, monosex populations while dramatically increasing yield and possibly minimizing the invasion of exotic cultured species into the environment. PMID:22133694

Ventura, Tomer; Manor, Rivka; Aflalo, Eliahu D; Weil, Simy; Rosen, Ohad; Sagi, Amir

2012-03-01

130

The cloning of the cdk2 transcript and the localization of its expression during gametogenesis in the freshwater giant prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

Cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks) are key regulators of the cell cycle. In mammals, cdk2 plays an essential role in the meiosis of spermatocytes and oocytes. To investigate the role of cdk2 kinase during gametogenesis in crustaceans, we cloned a complete cDNA sequence of cdk2 from the freshwater giant prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and examined its localization and expression in the developing gonads. The prawn cdk2 cDNA is 1,745 bp in length and encodes a putative protein of 305 amino acids. The deduced protein contains a conserved cyclin binding motif PSTAIRE and shares high homology with reported cdk2 kinases of other species. RT-PCR analysis showed a wide distribution of the cdk2 mRNA in all tested organs including the testis, ovary, heart, muscles, hepatopancreas and gills, and the highest level of expression in the ovary and testis. Localization by in situ hybridization of cdk2 mRNA in the ovary showed high expression in the ooplasm of previtellogenic and the nuclei of late vitellogenic oocytes. In testicular sections, cdk2 transcript is low in spermatogonia, high in spermatocytes, but reduced in spermatids and sperm. The high expression of the cdk2 transcripts in meiotic spermatocytes and oocytes indicated that the cdk2 gene has the conservative function in the germ cells meiosis during gametogenesis. PMID:23653005

Chen, Jie; Liu, Ping; Li, Zhen; Chen, Ying; Qiu, Gao-Feng

2013-08-01

131

Expression of the male reproduction-related gene (Mar-Mrr) in the spermatic duct of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

Phosphorylated sperm proteins are crucial for sperm maturation and capacitation as a priori to their fertilization with eggs. In the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, a male reproduction-related protein (Mar-Mrr) was known to be expressed only in the spermatic ducts as a protein with putative phosphorylation and may be involved in sperm capacitation in this species. We investigated further the temporal and spatial expression of the Mar-Mrr gene using RT-PCR and in situ hybridization and the characteristics and fate of the protein using immunblotting and immunocytochemistry. The Mar-Mrr gene was first expressed in 4-week-old post larvae and the protein was produced in epithelial cells lining the spermatic ducts, at the highest level in the proximal region and decreased in the middle and distal parts. The native protein had a MW of 17 kDa and a high degree of serine/threonine phosphorylation. It was transferred from the epithelial cells to become a major protein at the anterior region of the sperm. We suggest that it is involved in sperm capacitation and fertilization in this open thelycal species and this is being investigated. PMID:22427066

Phoungpetchara, Ittipon; Tinikul, Yotsawan; Poljaroen, Jaruwan; Changklungmoa, Narin; Siangcham, Tanapan; Sroyraya, Morakot; Chotwiwatthanakun, Charoonroj; Vanichviriyakit, Rapeepun; Hanna, Peter J; Sobhon, Prasert

2012-06-01

132

Structure of the olfactory receptor organs, their GABAergic neural pathways, and modulation of mating behavior, in the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

In the giant male prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, the olfactory system is thought to be the main pathway for modulating sexual behavior through pheromone perception. In this report, we first used gross anatomical, histological, and SEM methods to describe the structures of the olfactory receptors (sensilla setae), their neural pathways, and possible role in modulating mating behavior. On the surfaces of antennule and antenna filaments there are four types of sensory receptors, viz single spike-like setae, single flagellum-like setae, multiple flagella-like setae, and aesthetascs (ASs). The ASs, which had previously been proposed to be odor receptor setae, are found only on the short filament of lateral antennule (slAn). Each AS on the slAn connects with olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), whose axons form an outer central antennule nerve (ocAnNv), which then connects with the olfactory neutrophil (ON) of the brain. Thus, the slAn is the major olfactory organ that conveys sensory inputs from each AS to the ON within the deutocerebrum. GABA immunoreactivity was present in ASs, neurons of ORNs, inner central antennular, lateral tegumentary nerve, ocAnNv and the ON, inferring that GABA is the likely neurotransmitter in modulating olfaction. Disruption of the slAn by ablation or covering with Vaseline, resulted in significant reduction of mating behavior, indicating that this organ is crucial for sex pheromone perception. Identification of the active pheromones and further bioassays are now being performed. PMID:23495186

Kruangkum, Thanapong; Chotwiwatthanakun, Charoonroj; Vanichviriyakit, Rapeepun; Tinikul, Yotsawan; Anuracpreeda, Panat; Wanichanon, Chaitip; Hanna, Peter J; Sobhon, Prasert

2013-06-01

133

Female-only sex-linked amplified fragment length polymorphism markers support ZW/ZZ sex determination in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

Sex determination mechanisms in many crustacean species are complex and poorly documented. In the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, a ZW/ZZ sex determination system was previously proposed based on sex ratio data obtained by crosses of sex-reversed females (neomales). To provide molecular evidence for the proposed system, novel sex-linked molecular markers were isolated in this species. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) using 64 primer combinations was employed to screen prawn genomes for DNA markers linked with sex loci. Approximately 8400 legible fragments were produced, 13 of which were uniquely identified in female prawns with no indication of corresponding male-specific markers. These AFLP fragments were reamplified, cloned and sequenced, producing two reliable female-specific sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers. Additional individuals from two unrelated geographic populations were used to verify these findings, confirming female-specific amplification of single bands. Detection of internal polymorphic sites was conducted by designing new primer pairs based on these internal fragments. The internal SCAR fragments also displayed specificity in females, indicating high levels of variation between female and male specimens. The distinctive feature of female-linked SCAR markers can be applied for rapid detection of prawn gender. These sex-specific SCAR markers and sex-associated AFLP candidates unique to female specimens support a sex determination system consistent with female heterogamety (ZW) and male homogamety (ZZ). PMID:23763724

Jiang, Xue-Hui; Qiu, Gao-Feng

2013-12-01

134

Characterization of a novel nm23 gene and its potential roles in gametogenesis in the prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man, 1879) (Crustacea: Decapoda).  

PubMed

Nm23 is a family of genes encoding the nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase, which functions in a wide variety of biological processes, including growth, development, differentiation and tumor metastasis. In this study, a novel nm23 gene, designated as Mrnm23, was identified from the freshwater giant prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The full-length cDNA was 776bp in length, encoding for a protein of 176 amino acids with one typical NDP kinase domain that harbored all the crucial residues for nucleotide binding and enzymatic activity. Like human novel nm23-H1B, the putative protein contained a unique 21-amino-acid NH2-terminal extension as compared to human nm23 (nm23-H1) homologs. Further, 3 extra amino acid residues prolonged the COOH-terminus. The Mrnm23 was ubiquitously expressed in all tissues examined, including androgenic gland, gill, heart, liver, muscle, ovary, and testis. In situ hybridization to gonad sections indicated that the Mrnm23 mRNA was localized in the cytoplasm of cup-base of differentiating spermatids, in the spike of the umbrella-shaped spermatozoa and in the cytoplasm of the early previtellogenic oocytes, suggesting that the Mrnm23 has potential roles in spermiogenesis and early differentiation of oocyte. PMID:23994193

Song, Ya-Nan; Lu, Cui-Yun; Chen, Jie; Qiu, Gao-Feng

2013-11-15

135

L-( sup 3 H) glutamate binding to a membrane preparation from the optic lobe of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man  

SciTech Connect

Membrane preparation from the optic lobe of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man, was examined for the presence of specific L-({sup 3}H) glutamate binding. The optic lobes were isolated from live animals. The tissue was homogenized and the membrane fraction isolated by differential centrifugation. The membrane suspension was incubated with 10-1,000 nM of L-({sup 3}H) glutamate at 37{degree}C for 60 min. Nonspecific binding was determined by incubating the mixture with 100 {mu}M L-glutamate. L-({sup 3}H) glutamate specifically bound to the membrane fraction with a dissociation equilibrium constant (Kd) of 205 nM and maximum number of binding sites (Bmax) of 2.04 n mol/mg protein. By using LIGAND computerized program, the saturation isotherm binding pattern indicates a single type of binding. To determine the type of glutamate receptors, competitive inhibition and IC{sub 50} of several glutamate agonists and antagonists were determined. The study reveals a metabotropic type of binding site.

Pratumtan, P.; Govitrapong, P.; Withyachumnarnkul, B.; Poolsanguan, B. (Mahidol Univ., Bangkok (Thailand) Mahidol Univ., Nakorn Pathom (Thailand))

1991-01-01

136

Molecular characterization and immunological response analysis of a novel transferrin-like, pacifastin heavy chain protein in giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1879).  

PubMed

The full-length cDNA of the pacifastin heavy chain gene from giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii, Mr-PHC) was cloned and characterized. The full sequence of the Mr-PHC cDNA was 4331 bp and contained a 119-bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), a 3990-bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 1329 amino acid residues and a 222-bp 3' UTR. The Mr-PHC protein predicted by its full ORF, exhibited a unique transferrin-like protein structure containing 4 different lobes that have not been previously identified. Three of the four lobes contained highly conserved of iron/anion binding residues. Expression analyses by conventional RT-PCR demonstrated that Mr-PHC was expressed predominantly during postlarval stage 45 and also in the foregut and gills of the adult prawn. Interestingly, dose response analyses that were quantified using quantitative real-time PCR indicated a significant upregulation of Mr-PHC during postlarval stage 45 in prawn grown at hour 24 after challenging with 10(9) cfu/ml of Aeromonas hydrophila, which is a pathogenic bacterium. Mr-HPC in the adult prawn was significantly upregulated at both hour 12 and day 7 after stimulation with A. hydrophila (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). Additionally, a delayed induction response of the Mr-PHC gene was observed at 14 days when the experimental adult prawns were fed with ?-glucan-supplemented feed. Based on results of this study, the transferrin-like protein encoded by the pacifastin heavy chain gene may exist in all decapod crustaceans. Even though the function as an iron transporter is not proven, immune response studies are clearly indicated that PHC is critically involved in the immune system in these animals. PMID:23198290

Toe, Aung; Areechon, Nontawith; Srisapoome, Prapansak

2012-10-01

137

Preliminary obervations on use of ethanol distiller's by-products for polyculture of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) and golden shiner (Notemigonus crysoleucas)  

SciTech Connect

Two major by-products of ethanol distillation, corn distiller's solubles and corn distiller's mash, were evaluated for their potential use as a food source for freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) and golden shiner (Notemigonus crysoleucas) in mid-western United States. Corn distiller's solubles were not found to be highly toxic to aquatic organisms at concentrations ranging up to 10,000 ppM. However, the high biological oxygen demand of the material requires that single applications not exceed 2000 ppM. Yield trials were conducted over a four month period in five 0.1 ha earthen ponds, located in proximity to an ethanol distillery. Each pond was stocked with 2000 postlarval shrimp (0.02 g mean weight). Three of these ponds were also each stocked with 75 adult golden shiner (27.0 g mean weight). One application of corn distiller's solubles (equivalent to approx. 2000 ppM) and three applications of corn distiller's mash (approx. 5 kg/application) were made over the course of the yield trails (approx. 120 days). No other food or fertilizer was added to the ponds. Survival of shrimp ranged from 34 to 75%. Survival of brood fish exceeded 90%. Mean weight of shrimp at harvest was approximately 12 g, and average production was equivalent to approximately 104 kg ha/sup -1/. Golden shiner reared in the same ponds as shrimp had production rates equivalent to approxmately 130 kg ha/sup -1/. The presence of fish did not appear to impede shrimp production. Although production results of fish and shrimp were encouraging, several factors existed which impeded production; these included: (1) little by-product was applied to ponds because the distillery was undergoing its shakedown period; (2) ponds were new and had minimal natural productivity; (3) grass was not fully established on the watershed and ponds became turbid; and (4) lower than normal temperatures prevailed over much of the growing period. 11 references, 2 figures, 8 tables.

Kohler, C.C.; Lewis, W.M.; Krueger, S.P.

1983-01-01

138

Cloning and immunoreactivity of the 5-HT1Mac and 5-HT2Mac receptors in the central nervous system of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

PubMed Central

Biogenic amines are implicated in several mental disorders, many of which involve social interactions. Simple model systems, such as crustaceans, are often more amenable than vertebrates for studying mechanisms underlying behaviors. Although various cellular responses of biogenic amines have been characterized in crustaceans, the mechanisms linking these molecules to behavior remain largely unknown. Observed effects of serotonin receptor agonists and antagonists in abdomen posture, escape responses, and fighting have led to the suggestion that biogenic amine receptors may play a role in modulating interactive behaviors. As a first step in understanding this potential role of such receptors, we have cloned and fully sequenced two serotonin receptors, 5-HT1Mac and 5-HT2Mac, from the CNS of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and have mapped their CNS immunohistochemical distribution. 5-HT1Mac was found primarily on the membranes of subsets of cells in all CNS ganglia, in fibers that traverse all CNS regions, and in the cytoplasm of a small number of cells in the brain, circum- and subesophageal ganglia (SEG), most of which also appear to contain dopamine. The pattern of 5-HT2Mac immunoreactivity was found to differ significantly, being found mostly in the central neuropil area of all ganglia, in glomeruli of the brain’s olfactory lobes, and in the cytoplasm of a small number of neurons in the SEG, thoracic and some abdominal ganglia. The observed differences in terms of localization, distribution within cells, and intensity of immunoreactive staining throughout the prawn’s CNS suggest that these receptors are likely to play different roles. PMID:19184976

Vazquez-Acevedo, Nietzell; Reyes-Colon, Dalynes; Ruiz-Rodriguez, Eduardo A.; Rivera, Nilsa M.; Rosenthal, Joshua; Kohn, Andrea B.; Moroz, Leonid L.; Sosa, Maria A.

2009-01-01

139

Prostaglandin E 2 in Previtellogeic Ovaries of the Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii: Synthesis and Effect on the Level of cAMP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elcosanoids are thought to play a role in the regulation of invertebrate reproduction, as they do in vertebrate systems. This was investigated using the previtellogenic ovary of the freshwater prawn Macyobrachium rosenbergii as a biological model. Concentrations of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), assessed by means of radioimmunoassay, in the previtellogenic ovary (oocyte diameter 20-40 ?m) were 32.4 ± 14.1 pg\\/mg ovary.

Amir Sagi; Julia Silkovsy; Sigal Fleisher-Berkovich; Abraham Danon; Reuben Chayoth

1995-01-01

140

Overview of recent research and development in temperate culture of the freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii De Man) in the South Central United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research and development e¡orts concerning fresh- water prawn farming have in the past been princi- pally conducted in tropical regions. However, activities in temperate regions also date back several decades. Culture of Macrobrachium in temperate zones o¡ers positive opportunities, despite the inabil- ity to culture year-round. Unique problems imposed by a restricted growing season must be addressed, and opportunities capitalized

James H Tidwell; Louis R D'Abramo; Shawn D Coyle; David Yasharian

2005-01-01

141

Ingestion and absorption of nutrients by the freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosengergii)  

E-print Network

INGESTION AND ABSORPTION OF NUTRIENTS BY THE FRESHWATER PRAWN (MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERGII) A Thesis by SUCHAT TAECHANURUK Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OP SCIENCE May 1982 Major Subject: Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences INGESTION AND ABSORPTION OF NUTRIENTS BY THE FRESHWATER PRAWN (MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERGII) A Thesis by SUCHAT TAECHANURUK Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman...

Taechanuruk, Suchat

2012-06-07

142

Apptication of Biofloc Technology (BFI) in Ihe nunery rearing and farming of giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachillm rosenbergii (de Man).  

E-print Network

??This thesis Entitled Application of Biofloc technology (BFT) In the Nursery Rearing and Farming of Giant Freshwater Prawn,Macrobrachium Rosenbergii(De Man). Aquaculture, rearing plants and animals… (more)

Prajith, K K

2011-01-01

143

Ozone treatment in a closed culture system for Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

E-print Network

; Whltfie1d, 1974; Hampson& 1977). The relative toxicities of unionized and ionized forms of ammonia have been documented for many aquatic animals in freshwater and marine environments; these studies have been reviewed by Bonn snd Chavin (1976). In all... bacteria, fungi snd viruses (Dickerman et al. , 1954; Fetner and Ingols, 1959; Kinman, 1972; Lawrence snd Cappelli, 1977), considerable knowledge and care are required in its application because of its potential toxicity to cultured organisms. Giese snd...

Yamaguchi, Ryoji

2012-06-07

144

Protein metabolism and energetics in the freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

E-print Network

-related (Ikeda, 1974; White, 1975) variations have been documented. Weiser (1972) reported a decrease in 0:N ratios of terrestrial isopods during starvation, lending further support to the belief that nitro- genous substances play an important role in energy... of this index is at best quali- tative. Indeed, several investigators have reported values less than seven which are clearly impossible in light of theoretical considera- tians. Bayne (1976) notes that "careful interpretation of 0:N data is necessary...

Clifford, Henry Charles

2012-06-07

145

Regulation of laboratory populations of snails (Biomphalaria and Bulinus spp.) by river prawns, Macrobrachium spp. (Decapoda, Palaemonidae): implications for control of schistosomiasis.  

PubMed

Human schistosomiasis is a common parasitic disease endemic in many tropical and subtropical countries. One barrier to achieving long-term control of this disease has been re-infection of treated patients when they swim, bathe, or wade in surface fresh water infested with snails that harbor and release larval parasites. Because some snail species are obligate intermediate hosts of schistosome parasites, removing snails may reduce parasitic larvae in the water, reducing re-infection risk. Here, we evaluate the potential for snail control by predatory freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii and M. vollenhovenii, native to Asia and Africa, respectively. Both prawn species are high value, protein-rich human food commodities, suggesting their cultivation may be beneficial in resource-poor settings where few other disease control options exist. In a series of predation trials in laboratory aquaria, we found both species to be voracious predators of schistosome-susceptible snails, hatchlings, and eggs, even in the presence of alternative food, with sustained average consumption rates of 12% of their body weight per day. Prawns showed a weak preference for Bulinus truncatus over Biomphalaria glabrata snails. Consumption rates were highly predictable based on the ratio of prawn: snail body mass, suggesting satiation-limited predation. Even the smallest prawns tested (0.5-2g) caused snail recruitment failure, despite high snail fecundity. With the World Health Organization turning attention toward schistosomiasis elimination, native prawn cultivation may be a viable snail control strategy that offers a win-win for public health and economic development. PMID:24388955

Sokolow, Susanne H; Lafferty, Kevin D; Kuris, Armand M

2014-04-01

146

Immune role of MrNF?BI-?, an I?B family member characterized in prawn M. rosenbergii.  

PubMed

NF kappa B inhibitor alpha (MrNF?BI-?) was sequenced from a freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The MrNF?BI-? protein contains a long ankyrin repeat region circular domain between 193 and 413 along with its 6 repeats (ankyrin repeat 1,2,3,4,5 and 6). An I?B degradation motif and a putative PEST motif is present at 37-64 and 418-471 of the N- and C-terminal regions of MrNF?BI-? respectively. The gene expressions of MrNF?BI-? in healthy and infectious hematopoietic and hypodermal necrosis virus (IHHNV), poly I:C, Aeromonas hydrophila and Enterococcus faecium injected M. rosenbergii were examined using quantitative real time PCR. The MrNF?BI-? is expressed in all the tissues taken for examination and the highest is observed in hemocytes. The MrNF?BI-? gene expression is strongly up-regulated in hemocytes of prawn after IHHNV, poly I:C, A. hydrophila and E. faecium infection. This result indicates an important role of MrNF?BI-? in M. rosenbergii immune system. This, however, remains to be verified by further studies. PMID:22750025

Arockiaraj, Jesu; Avin, Farhat Ahmadi; Vanaraja, Puganeshwaran; Easwvaran, Sarasvathi; Singh, Arun; Othman, Rofina Yasmin; Bhassu, Subha

2012-09-01

147

Cortney L. Ohs, PhD Select Publications Cassiano, E.J., C.L. Ohs, C.R. Weirich, N.E. Breen, and A.L. Rhyne. 2011. Evaluation of larval  

E-print Network

prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii in earthen ponds. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 41: 841 of dietary administration of 17alpha - methyltestosterone to freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii through dietary administration of dopamine hydrochloride. Journal

Hill, Jeffrey E.

148

Antimicrobial activity of chitosan against vibrios from freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii larval rearing systems.  

PubMed

Chitosan is a biocompatible and biodegradable natural polymer with established antimicrobial properties against specific microorganisms. The present study demonstrates its antibacterial activity against 48 isolates of Vibrio species from prawn larval rearing systems. The antibacterial activity had a positive correlation with the concentration of chitosan. This work opens up avenues for using chitosan as a prophylactic biopolymer for protecting prawn larvae from vibriosis. PMID:16385825

Anas, A; Paul, S; Jayaprakash, N S; Philip, R; Bright Singh, I S

2005-11-01

149

Physiological involvement of DA in ovarian development of the freshwater giant prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogenic amines such as dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) are able to affect numerous physiological processes in crustaceans through their actions as neuroregulators. Both DA and serotonin have been shown to be involved in the synthesis and release of neurohormones such as crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH), vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone (VIH), molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH) and those related to pigmentation which in

Y. N. Chen; H. F. Fan; S. L. Hsieh; C. M. Kuo

2003-01-01

150

Effect of dietary cellulose on digestion in the prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of dietary cellulose on digestion and absorption in Macrobrachiumrosenbergii were studied by inclusion of ?-cellulose at the expense of starch into four purified diets. The results showed that increasing ?-cellulose reduced the apparent digestibility of both dry matter and protein, but also showed that cellulose itself is digestible, with an apparent digestibility of 80%. Increasing dietary levels of

M. del C González-Peña; Alex J Anderson; David M Smith; Gloria S Moreira

2002-01-01

151

Toxicity of ammonia to larvae of the freshwater shrimp, Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

E-print Network

V Growth and survival rates of larval M. ~*b ' ' f't* e'ght-d y p* e t 0, 3. 2, and 7. 5 mg/I ammonia-N at pH 8. 03, 28 C, and 12 ppt salinity 29 VI Number and percentage of surviving M. ~nb ' larvae 'n d ffer nt d elop- mental stages observed... strength (e. g. , salinity) of the solution is also known to have a lesser, but significant effect (Stumm and Morgan, 1970; Whitfield, 1974; Emerson et al. , 1975; Hampson, 1976). An increase in pH from 7 to 8 leads to an approximately ten- fold...

Llobrera, Jose Alvarez

2012-06-07

152

Classification of differentiating oocytes during ovarian cycle in the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii de man  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the light microscopic observations of cells' sizes, chromatin patterns, amount of lipid droplets and yolk granules, the female germ cells could be classified into four different phases, which include 1) oogonia (Oog), 2) primary oocytes (pOc), 3) secondary oocytes (sOc), and 4) mature oocyte (mOc). Oog are small oval-shaped cells with irregular-shaped nuclei sizing 4–6 ?m in diameter. They

Prasert Meeratana; Prasert Sobhon

2007-01-01

153

The ecdysteroid titer in the female prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii during the molt cycle  

E-print Network

HPI C resolution of ecdysone and 20-hydroxyecdysone from prawn 823. HPLC resolution of ecdysone and 20-hydroxyecdysone from prawn PZ4. 40 43 44 INTRODUCTION Molting in crustaceans results from tissue response to high circula- ting ti ters of a... the silkworm ~Bomb x mori (Butenandt and Karlson, 1954) and its subsequent structure determination (Huber and Hoppe, 1965), other arthropod ecdysteroids have been isolated and identified: 20-hydroxyecdysone (crustecdysone, ecdysterone, a-ecdysone) (Hampshire...

Newitt, Richard Allen

2012-06-07

154

Nursing of Giant Freshwater Prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) Postlarvae in Ponds with Different Stocking Densities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study on the effects of different stocking densities on growth, survival rate and economic return of prawns from postlarvae to juvenile stage in ponds was conducted in Tam Binh district, Vinh Long province. Experiment was designed with two treatments of 50 and 100 PL\\/m2 and lasted for 45 days. During the experiment, prawns were fed commercial diet of 33 %

Nguyen Thanh Phuong; Ly Van Khanh; Marcy N. Wilder

155

MALCOLM B. HALE and MELVIN E. WATERS Frozen Storage Stability of  

E-print Network

Prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii Introduction The culture of freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is being increas- ingly cultured in tropical regions and has restaurant product, as in Hawaii. Materials and Methods The Macrobrachium prawns used in this study were

156

Molecular cloning and characterization of the lipopolysaccharide and ?-1,3-glucan binding protein from oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense.  

PubMed

The lipopolysaccharide and ?-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP), one of the pattern recognition proteins, plays an important role in the innate immune response of invertebrates. A 1,506 bp full-length cDNA of a LGBP gene was cloned and characterized from the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense (named as MnLGBP). Analysis of the nucleotide sequence revealed that the cDNA clone has an open reading frame of 1,119 bp, encoding a protein of 372 amino acids including a 21-aa signal peptide. The calculated molecular mass of the mature protein (351 aa) was 39.9 kDa with an estimated pI of 4.63. The MnLGBP sequence contains: (1) two putative integrin-binding motifs, (2) a glucanase motif, (3) two putative N-glycosylation sites, (4) one protein kinase C phosphorylation site, and (5) a putative recognition motif for ?-1,3-linkage of polysaccharides. Sequence comparison based on the deduced amino acid sequence of MnLGBP showed varied identity of 89, 76 and 74% with those of Macrobrachium rosenbergii LGBP, Marsupenaeus japonicus ?-1,3-glucan binding proteins, and Fenneropenaeus chinensis LGBP, respectively. Quantitative RT-PCR results showed that MnLGBP was expressed in nerve, intestine, muscle, gill, heart, haemocytes and at the highest level in hepatopancreas. After challenge with the pathogen, Aeromonas hydrophila and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, the expression of MnLGBP mRNA was significantly upregulated in the hepatopancreas compared to the control group. At the same time, the mRNA level of MnproPO increased dramatically at 48 h after injection of bacteria. These data should be helpful to better understand the function of MnLGBP in the prawn immune system. PMID:24584659

Xiu, Yunji; Wu, Ting; Liu, Peng; Huang, Ying; Ren, Qian; Gu, Wei; Meng, Qingguo; Wang, Wen

2014-06-01

157

The microbial flora of pond-reared shrimp (Penaeus stylirostris, P. setiferus, P. vannamei, and Macrobrachium rosenbergii)  

E-print Network

stored on ice for 1V eight days ranged from 5. 1-9. 4 X 10 . The microbial flora 2 of stored shrimp was dominated by coryneform bacteria, Pseudomonas, and Nicrococcus species. The aerobic plate counts of pond waters ranged from 6. 1 X 10 ? 2. 2 X 10.... Coliforms were not present in detectable numbers. In a later report on Gulf Coast shrimp, Campbell and Williams (5) reported that Nicrococcus, Pseudomonas, Flavo- bacterium, and Bacillus were the dominant species. In the past few years, British...

Christopher, Frank Mitchell

2012-06-07

158

Chemical characterization of the lectin from the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man) by MALDI-TOF  

Microsoft Academic Search

The serum of the freshwater prawn contains a sialic acid specific lectin (MrL) that agglutinates erythrocytes from rat and rabbit, as well as some Gram negative and positive bacterial strains. In this work, we performed the chemical characterization of the MrL purified by affinity chromatography on stroma from rat erythrocytes and by ion exchange chromatography. In its active form, MRL

Roberto Zenteno; Lorena Vazquez; Claudia Sierra; Ali Pereyra; Marie Christine Slomianny; Stephane Bouquelet; Edgar Zenteno

2000-01-01

159

DNA microsatellite-based evaluation of early growth performance among strains of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microsatellite DNA markers were used to assess early growth performance among different strains of freshwater prawn under separate and communal rearing conditions. Two-hundred-and-twenty broodstock individuals from three prawn strains were collected and used as baseline populations for assignment tests. The exclusion–simulation approach was performed on different sets of one to seven microsatellite loci to determine the power of the assignment

Thuchapol Karaket; Supawadee Poompuang; Uthairat Na-Nakorn; Wongpathom Kamonrat; Eric M. Hallerman

2011-01-01

160

MACROBRACHIUM VICCONI, NEW SPECIES, A FRESH-WATER SHRIMP FROM A RAIN FOREST IN SOUTHEAST MEXICO, AND COMPARISON WITH CONGENERS (DECAPODA: PALAEMONIDAE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macrobrachium vicconi, new species, from a rain forest of southeastern Mexico is described. It is similar to Macrobrachium quelchi and Macrobrachium atabapense in total length, partially abbrevi- ated larval development, and cornea not reduced. Macrobrachium vicconi differs from those species in the size-ratio of the articles of the legs, the spinous ornamentation, and the length of the second pereiopods. Macrobrachium

Ramiro Román; A. Laura Ortega; Luis M. Mejía

2000-01-01

161

A novel effect of imidazole derivative KK-42 on increasing survival of Aeromonas hydrophila challenged prawn Macrobrachium nipponense.  

PubMed

Imidazole derivative KK-42 is well known as the insect growth regulator. Here we find that KK-42 pretreatment could promote the survival of Macrobrachium nipponense infected with Aeromonas hydrophila, which is considered to be possibly related to the prophenoloxidase (proPO), a conserved copper-containing enzyme that plays an important role in defense against pathogens. In this study, a full-length of proPO gene from M. nipponense haemocytes, designated as MnproPO, was firstly cloned and characterized. The full-length cDNA contained 2428 bp with a 2013 bp open reading frame encoding a putative proPO protein of 671 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 76.5 kDa and pI of 7.31. It was predicted to possess all the expected features of proPO members, including two putative copper-binding sites with six histidine residues and a thiol ester-like motif. Sequence analysis showed that MnproPO exhibited the highest amino acid sequence similarity (93%) to a proPO of Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The gene was expressed highly in haemocytes and weakly in hepatopancreas. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that the MnproPO expression increased significantly at 3, 12 and 24 h after KK-42 treatment, the PO activity also importantly rose from 6 to 48 h in KK-42-treated prawns and reached the maximum at 24 h with a 2.3-fold higher than that in control group. Injection of A. hydrophila could stimulate the MnproPO transcription and PO activity whether or not the prawns were pretreated by KK-42, the mRNA level increased obviously only at 3 h and 6 h after the bacterium injection (challenged control), but increased constantly during the phase of experiment except at 6 h under the condition of KK-42 pretreatment (challenged treatment group). The change trend of PO activity was basically similar to that of MnproPO expression. Our present results demonstrate that the MnproPO expression as well as PO activity may be induced by KK-42, which is likely one of the molecular mechanisms of KK-42 acts for increasing survival of the prawn infected with A. hydrophila. PMID:23123639

Wang, Wen-Feng; Yang, Hong; Liu, Fang; Chen, Xiang-Li; Lv, Yan-Jie; Ning, Qian-Ji

2013-01-01

162

C. Ohs Page 1 Cortney L. Ohs  

E-print Network

Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Masters of Science in Wildlife and Fisheries Ecology / Aquaculture 1995 of a spray-dried artificial diet for larval culture of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), hybrid prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii in earthen ponds. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 41: 841

Watson, Craig A.

163

Characterization of Proteolytic and Collagenolytic Psychrotrophic Bacteria of  

E-print Network

-Stored Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii R. J. PREMARATNE, W. K. NIP, and J. H. MOY Introduction Freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii culture is a relatively new and rapidly expanding industry-storedfreshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, was conducted to enumerate, isolate, identify, and test

164

Grape Cultivation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report of Grape Cultivation concentrates on the climate and soil in which the grape is grown, the different varieties of Grape, propagation, layout, spacing, planting, training, pruning, manuring schedule, irrigation, etc. Measures for weed control, ...

1982-01-01

165

A standardized comparison of semi-intensive pond culture of freshwater prawns Macrobrachium rosenbergii at different latitudes: production increases associated with lower water temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different ambient water temperatures on growth and population structure of freshwater prawns raised under standardized culture conditions. Juvenile prawns averaging 0.26 ± 0.14 g were stocked into seven 0.04 ha ponds at two study sites. Three ponds were located in Kentucky (KSU:latitude 38 °12?) with seasonal water temperatures averaging 24–26 °C.

James H. Tidwell; Louis R. D'Abramo; Carl D. Webster; Shawn D. Coyle; William H. Daniels

1996-01-01

166

Inter and intra-individual variation in resting oxygen consumption in post-larvae of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a study of the factors that influence metabolic rate in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachiumrosenbergii, resting oxygen consumption (ROC) was measured in 90 post-larvae ranging in size from 0.1 to 2.8 g. As in many other animal species, ROC was strongly negatively related to body weight. A stressful event (anaesthesia with or without tagging) caused a sharp increase in

Alan Taylor; Ben Ross; Shona McCauley; Janet H Brown; Felicity Huntingford

2002-01-01

167

Open Journal of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, 2012, 2, 75-86 OJMIP doi:10.4236/ojmip.2012.23011 Published Online August 2012 (http://www.SciRP.org/journal/ojmip/)  

E-print Network

(Macrobrachium rosenbergii) species Yoo Sun Chung, Richard M. Cooper, Justin Graff, Robin L. Cooper* Department. The ability of the cr- ayfish Procambarus clarkii and the prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii to acclimate on heart rate (HR) and neuronal function in crayfish Procam- barus clarkii and prawns Macrobrachium

Cooper, Robin L.

168

The State of Cultivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultivation analysis investigates television's contributions to viewers' conceptions of social reality. Developed by George Gerbner in the 1960s, cultivation research continues to expand in numerous directions, with over 125 new studies published since 2000. This article reviews the history of cultivation theory and takes stock of recent trends in the field. We argue that cultivation has taken on certain paradigmatic

Michael Morgan; James Shanahan

2010-01-01

169

CULTIVATING NETWORKS: IMPLEMENTING SURGICAL  

E-print Network

i CULTIVATING NETWORKS: IMPLEMENTING SURGICAL TELEMEDICINE Margunn Aanestad THE INTERVENTIONAL OF MATHEMATICS AND NATURAL SCIENCES, UNIVERSITY OF OSLO #12;ii CULTIVATING NETWORKS: IMPLEMENTING SURGICAL.2.1 Technology as an actor? 14 3.2.2 Information infrastructures 15 3.2.3 Cultivating, not designing information

Sahay, Sundeep

170

ALTERNATIVE MATING STRATEGIES IN MALE MORPHOTYPES OF THE FRESHWATER PRAWN MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERGH (DE MAN)  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Males in a mature, single-age, pond population of the freshwater prawn Macro brachium rosenbergii,can be divided into three distinct morphological types, repre sentingthreephasesin the maledevelopmentalpathway(Brodyet a!., 1980).Behavioral and physical characteristicsof all three morphotypeswere examined with regardto mating behavior and reproductiveprobabilities. Two alternativemating strategiesare described.The largest,dominant males ac tively courtand protectthe femalespriorto mating.Malesof the intermediatecategory demonstrate,a reduced,rate of reproductive,activities in

Ziva Ra'anan; Amir Sagi

171

Spirulina cultivation in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reviews and discusses the development and many problems of Spirulina cultivation in China, points out the advantages and disadvantages of open photobioreactor system, and predicts that seawater Spirulina cultivation will be a new trend to be strengthened and emphasized due to its special physiological characteristics, easier management, lower fertilizer cost, and higher resistance to contaminants and rare pollution of chemicals.

Bo-Tang, Wu; Wen-Zhou, Xiang; Cheng-Kui, Zeng

1998-03-01

172

Les voyages des plantes cultives  

E-print Network

Original article Cultivation of shiitake mushroom, Lentinula edodes, in several lignocellulosic / shiitake / mushroom cultivation / alternative substrates / Mexico Résumé. La culture du shiitake, Lentinula- room among the species industrially cultivated, with about17 % of total production, and showing

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

173

Les voyages des plantes cultives  

E-print Network

Exciting Course Offerings! Cultivating the Power of Emotional Intelligence, p. 18 NEW! Professional Negativity: Creating Optimism in the Workplace Cultivating the Power of Emotional Intelligence The Downside

Boyer, Edmond

174

Cultivation of parasites  

PubMed Central

Parasite cultivation techniques constitute a substantial segment of present-day study of parasites, especially of protozoa. Success in establishing in vitro and in vivo culture of parasites not only allows their physiology, behavior and metabolism to be studied dynamically, but also allows the nature of the antigenic molecules in the excretory and secretory products to be vigorously pursued and analyzed. The complex life-cycles of various parasites having different stages and host species requirements, particularly in the case of parasitic helminths, often make parasite cultivation an uphill assignment. Culturing of parasites depends on the combined expertise of all types of microbiological cultures. Different parasites require different cultivation conditions such as nutrients, temperature and even incubation conditions. Cultivation is an important method for diagnosis of many clinically important parasites, for example, Entamoeba histolytica, Trichomonas vaginalis, Leishmania spp., Strongyloides stercoralis and free-living amoebae. Many commercial systems like InPouch TV for T. vaginalis, microaerophilous stationary phase culture for Babesia bovis and Harada-Mori culture technique for larval-stage nematodes have been developed for the rapid diagnosis of the parasitic infections. Cultivation also has immense utility in the production of vaccines, testing vaccine efficacy, and antigen - production for obtaining serological reagents, detection of drug-resistance, screening of potential therapeutic agents and conducting epidemiological studies. Though in vitro cultivation techniques are used more often compared with in vivo techniques, the in vivo techniques are sometimes used for diagnosing some parasitic infections such as trypanosomiasis and toxoplasmosis. Parasite cultivation continues to be a challenging diagnostic option. This review provides an overview of intricacies of parasitic culture and update on popular methods used for cultivating parasites. PMID:25250227

Ahmed, Nishat Hussain

2014-01-01

175

A Methodological Investigation of Cultivation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cultivation theory states that television engenders negative emotions in heavy viewers. Noting that cultivation methodology contains an apparent response bias, a study examined relationships between television exposure and positive restatements of cultivation concepts and tested a more instrumental media uses and effects model. Cultivation was…

Rubin, Alan M.; And Others

176

'Source: Holthuis, L. B. FAO Species Catalogue: Shrimps and Prawns of the World. FIRls125 Vol. 1 Foreign Fishery Developments  

E-print Network

Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The Irrawaddy River Delta area, com- prised of swamps, mangroves, and other estuaries, and phytoplankton are cultured to feed the larval shrimp. The PPFC operates a semi-intensive farm for M. rosenbergii- ful grow-out studies on M. rosenbergii were completed in 1979 at the Thaketa Research Station

177

Abbreviated larval development of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium pilimanus (De Man, 1879) (Decapoda, Palaemonidae), reared in the laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The larvae of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium pilimanus (De Man, 1879), were reared in the laboratory. Larval development was highly abbreviated, with two zoeal and one megalopal stages. Newly hatched larvae were benthic, with a tendency to cling on to roughened surfaces. All larval stages subsisted solely on endogenous yolk. Morphological and behavioural differences between the first zoea of this

Samuel S. C. Chong; H. W. Khoo

1987-01-01

178

Effects of eyestalk ablation on growth and food conversion efficiency of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium lanchesteri (de Man)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bilateral eyestalk ablation in the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium lanchesteri results in high mortality, while unilateral eyestalk ablated prawns exhibited a high survival rate. There was marked increase in the growth of bilateral eyestalk-ablated prawns (47.70 mg\\/prawn) as compared to those that were unilaterally ablated (19.19 mg\\/prawn).

R. Ponnuchamy; S. Ravichandra Reddy; Katre Shakuntala

1981-01-01

179

Cultivating the uncultured  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent application of molecular phylogeny to environmental samples has resulted in the discovery of an abundance of unique and previously unrecognized microorganisms. The vast majority of this microbial diversity has proved refractory to cultivation. Here, we describe a universal method that provides access to this immense reservoir of untapped microbial diversity. This technique combines encapsulation of cells in gel

Karsten Zengler; Gerardo Toledo; Michael Rappé; James Elkins; Eric J. Mathur; Jay M. Short; Martin Keller

2002-01-01

180

Cultivating Leaders from Within  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A major problem faced by school districts in the US is the paucity of applicants for the posts of school principals. A solution adopted by The Capistrano Unified School District (CUSD) in Orange County California was the cultivation of good leaders from within the district through the Teaching Assistant Principal (TAP) program.

Burdette, Maggie; Schertzer, Kristen

2005-01-01

181

The Cultivated Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers who follow this monthly schedule for starting and cultivating plants in their classrooms can look forward to blooms and greenery throughout the year. Advice on choosing plants, making cuttings, forcing bulbs, rooting sweet potatoes and pineapples, and holding a Mother's Day plant sale is included. (PP)

Schilder, Rosalind

1983-01-01

182

Autonomous Cultivation Before Domestication  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Early Near Eastern crop cultivation was a trial-and-error process. Some crops continued until full domestication, while others were abandoned and later adopted independently by distant societies.

Ehud Weiss (Bar-Ilan University;); Mordechai E. Kislev (Bar-Ilan University;); Anat Hartmann (Bar-Ilan University;)

2006-06-12

183

Les voyages des plantes cultives  

E-print Network

Original article Effects of soil, climate and cultivation techniques on cotton yield in Central is particularly important in the Thessaly plain where it covers 54% of the total cultivated area. The cotton crop

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

184

Cultivating the uncultured  

PubMed Central

The recent application of molecular phylogeny to environmental samples has resulted in the discovery of an abundance of unique and previously unrecognized microorganisms. The vast majority of this microbial diversity has proved refractory to cultivation. Here, we describe a universal method that provides access to this immense reservoir of untapped microbial diversity. This technique combines encapsulation of cells in gel microdroplets for massively parallel microbial cultivation under low nutrient flux conditions, followed by flow cytometry to detect microdroplets containing microcolonies. The ability to grow and study previously uncultured organisms in pure culture will enhance our understanding of microbial physiology and metabolic adaptation and will provide new sources of microbial metabolites. We show that this technology can be applied to samples from several different environments, including seawater and soil. PMID:12438682

Zengler, Karsten; Toledo, Gerardo; Rappe, Michael; Elkins, James; Mathur, Eric J.; Short, Jay M.; Keller, Martin

2002-01-01

185

Cultivating the uncultured.  

PubMed

The recent application of molecular phylogeny to environmental samples has resulted in the discovery of an abundance of unique and previously unrecognized microorganisms. The vast majority of this microbial diversity has proved refractory to cultivation. Here, we describe a universal method that provides access to this immense reservoir of untapped microbial diversity. This technique combines encapsulation of cells in gel microdroplets for massively parallel microbial cultivation under low nutrient flux conditions, followed by flow cytometry to detect microdroplets containing microcolonies. The ability to grow and study previously uncultured organisms in pure culture will enhance our understanding of microbial physiology and metabolic adaptation and will provide new sources of microbial metabolites. We show that this technology can be applied to samples from several different environments, including seawater and soil. PMID:12438682

Zengler, Karsten; Toledo, Gerardo; Rappe, Michael; Elkins, James; Mathur, Eric J; Short, Jay M; Keller, Martin

2002-11-26

186

Cultivating an entrepreneurial mindset.  

PubMed

Now as never before, familiar challenges require bold, novel approaches. Registered dietitians will benefit by cultivating an entrepreneurial mindset that involves being comfortable with uncertainty, learning to take calculated risks, and daring to just try it. An entrepreneur is someone who takes risks to create something new, usually in business. But the entrepreneurial mindset is available to anyone prepared to rely only on their own abilities for their economic security and expect no opportunity without first creating value for others. PMID:24018008

Matheson, Sandra A

2013-01-01

187

How to cultivate Ectocarpus.  

PubMed

This article describes the standard procedure for growing Ectocarpus in the laboratory. The culture is started with partheno-sporophyte (or sporophyte) filaments because this is the stage that is usually maintained in strain collections. The standard medium is Provasoli-enriched natural seawater (PES), but Ectocarpus can also be grown in artificial seawater, which allows more precise control over the culture conditions. The algae can be cultivated either in plastic Petri dishes or in 10-L bottles with bubbling, if large amounts of biomass are required. Standard growth conditions are 13°C with a 12h/12h d/night cycle and 20 µmol photons m(-2) s(-1) irradiance using daylight-type fluorescent tubes. All manipulations of Ectocarpus cultures should be performed in a clean environment (if possible, under a laminar flow hood). Forceps should be dipped in ethanol and allowed to dry under the hood. PMID:22301662

Coelho, Susana M; Scornet, Delphine; Rousvoal, Sylvie; Peters, Nick T; Dartevelle, Laurence; Peters, Akira F; Cock, J Mark

2012-02-01

188

Starting from grape cultivation.  

PubMed

Rapid population growth can only be stopped by lowering the fertility rate. The UNFPA recommends improving the employment opportunities for women as the single best way of achieving this reduction. An example of this phenomenon is the grape cultivation in the Nordeste (Northeastern) region of Brazil. This area is the poorest part of Brazil and has the highest proportion of indigent people. These people have been deforesting the Amazon in search of a better life. What they have done is sterilize the land and turned a tropical rain forest into a desert. In an effort to reverse this trend, grape cultivation has been introduced in an area called Petrolina. The area is very dry with less than 500 mm of precipitation annually. They do have access to a 5000 square kilometer artificial lake (the largest in the world) and the 3rd largest river in Brazil (the Sao Francisco). In an effort to avoid using agricultural medicines, the vines are fertilized with organic matter created on the farm and little or no pesticides are used since pests do not live in such an arid region. It has taken 20 years of trial and error, but the quality of the grapes is now very high and is competitive on the world market. Because of climate and location, harvesting is done year round which increases the productivity of the land. The farm managers have found that married women make the best workers and have the highest level of productivity. Age at 1st marriage averages 24-25, compared with 15-16 for unemployed women in the same area. The fertility rate averages 50% of that for unemployed women in the same area. Agricultural development offers the best opportunity for the women of developing countries. It can pay a high wage, reduce fertility, and replant desert areas. PMID:12285551

Yoshida, A

1992-06-01

189

Three Strategies for Elaborating the Cultivation Hypothesis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses three strategies (dividing cultivation into component subprocesses, testing for an intervening variable, and contingent relationships) for elaborating the cultivation hypothesis. Finds evidence that cultivation effects do exist but that dividing the socialization process does not increase the predictive power of the cultivation hypothesis.…

Potter, W. James

1988-01-01

190

Structural changes of oviduct of freshwater shrimp, Macrobrachium nipponense (Decapoda, Palaemonidae), during spawning*  

PubMed Central

The structural change of the oviduct of freshwater shrimp (Macrobrachium nipponense) during spawning was examined by electron microscopy. The oviduct wall structural characteristics seem to be influenced significantly by the spawning process. Before the parturition and ovulation, two types of epithelial cells (types I and II) are found in the epithelium. The free surfaces of type I and type II cells have very dense long microvilli. Under the type I and type II cells, are a relatively thick layer of secreting material and a layer of mostly dead cells. After ovulation, two other types of epithelial cells (types III and IV) are found in the oviduct wall epithelium. The free surface of type III cells only has short microvilli scattered on the surface. The thick layer with secreting material and the dead cell layer disappeared at this stage. In some type III cells, the leaking out of cytoplasm from broken cell membrane led to the death of these type III cells. The transformation of all four types of epithelial cells was in the order: IV?I?II?III. PMID:16365928

Lu, Jian-ping; Zhang, Xiao-hui; Yu, Xiao-yun

2006-01-01

191

75 FR 16436 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the farmed and wild-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii),...

2010-04-01

192

75 FR 51756 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Changed...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the farmed and wild-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii),...

2010-08-23

193

78 FR 33344 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Preliminary Countervailing Duty Determination  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the farmed and wild-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii),...

2013-06-04

194

78 FR 33347 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Ecuador: Preliminary Negative Countervailing Duty Determination  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the farmed and wild-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii),...

2013-06-04

195

75 FR 13492 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed-Circumstances...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the farmed and wild-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii),...

2010-03-22

196

Shrimp Farming in the Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In inquiry-based instruction, discovery and learning belong to the students. In this exploration, jumbo shrimp are the source of inspiration. The magic in this project lies not in successfully culturing these shrimp, known as Macrobrachium rosenbergii

Ruggiero, Lovelle

2000-01-01

197

Larval biomass and chemical composition at hatching in two geographically isolated clades of the shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum: intra- or interspecific variation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller 1862) has an extremely large geographic range (>4000?km across) in northern and central South America, comprising estuarine and fully limnic inland populations, which are hydrologically isolated from each other. Significant variations in ecology, physiology, reproduction, and larval development suggest an at least incipient allopatric speciation due to limited genetic exchange. In a comparative experimental investigation

Ángel Urzúa; Klaus Anger

2011-01-01

198

Purification and catalytic properties of glutathione transferase from the hepatopancreas of crayfish macrobrachium vollenhovenii (herklots).  

PubMed

Glutathione transferase from the hepatopancreas of fresh water crayfish Macrobrachium vollenhovenii was purified to apparent homogeneity by ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and by gel filtration on Sephadex G-100. The enzyme appeared to be a homodimer with molecular weight (Mr) of 46.0 +/- 1.4 kDa and a subunit Mr of 24.1 +/- 0.35 kDa. Chromatofocusing of the apparently pure enzyme revealed microheterogeneity and resolved it into two isozymic peaks, which were eluted at pH 8.36 and 8.22 respectively. Inhibition studies showed that the I50 value for cibacron blue, S-hexylglutathione, hematin, and N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) were 0.01 microM, 340 microM, 5 microM and 33 mM respectively. Out of the several substrates tested, only 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and 7-chloro-4-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole could be conjugated with glutathione. Chemical modification studies with DTNB revealed that two sulphydryl groups per dimer were essential to the activity of the enzymes. On the basis of structural and catalytic characteristics, M. vollenhovenii GST seems close, tentatively, to the omega and zeta classes of GST. Initial-velocity studies of the enzyme are consistent with a steady-state random kinetic mechanism. Denaturation and renaturation studies with guanidine HCl (Gdn-HCl) revealed that though low Gdn-HCl concentrations (less than 0.5 M) denatured the enzyme, the enzyme was able to renature completely (100%). At higher concentration of the denaturant (0.5-4 M), refolding studies indicated that complete renaturation was not achieved. The extent of renaturation was however a function of protein concentration. Our results are consistent with a three-state unfolding process. PMID:15674845

Adewale, Isaac Olusanjo; Afolayan, Adeyinka

2004-01-01

199

Cultivating Spontaneous Self-Discipline.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Draws on contemporary sources to provide strategies for cultivating self-discipline. Advocates self-healing for the adult to be free from destructive attitudes and personal history that can keep adults from being mindful of the child's needs, perspective, and potential. Concludes with ways to facilitate a truly Montessori approach to discipline.…

O'Shaughnessy, Molly

1998-01-01

200

A Methodological Examination of Cultivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two issues in clutivation research were considered. First, because cultivation methodology contains an apparent response bias, relationships were examined between television exposure and positive statements of social perceptions: faith in others, life control, interpersonal connection, political efficacy, and safety. Second, an instrumental media uses and effects model was tested. Social perceptions were expected to be linked to viewing selectivity, intention,

ALAN M. RUBIN; ELIZABETH M. PERSE; DONALD S. TAYLOR

1988-01-01

201

A Methodological Examination of Cultivation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers two issues in cultivation research. Examines relationships between television exposure and positive statements of social perceptions, and tests a model of instrumental media uses and effects. Finds television exposure to be unrelated to social attitudes, while program selectivity is related to all social attitudes except interpersonal…

Rubin, Alan M.; And Others

1988-01-01

202

--,--,_._--.-.. _-_._-----~_ ..." ..._'".__.-_._.----~ ------'-." ....--_._----.--_.----________~ .__.__ .._u.__._ . _ ~ ._._. .. , _.. .__._..._._ A METHOD OF CULTIVATING RAINBOW TROUT  

E-print Network

._·_·._· . _ ~ ._._. .. , _.. .__._..._._ A METHOD OF CULTIVATING RAINBOW TROUT AND OTHER SALMONOIDS .;It By Charles L. Paige .;It Paper presented _._------~----_.,,-_. __...--_.._~--_.--. -_.__._~--_._---.~. __._.... _---,--_._--_._-------.,.._--_._.------------- #12;Blank page retained for pagination #12;A METHOD OF CULTIVATING RAINBOW TROUT AND OTHER SALMONOIDS

203

Cultivating Change The Boston College Community Garden  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Variation in fibre properties of cultivated Siberian larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb will be at a harvestable age in the near future, knowledge concerning wood and fibre properties of cultivated larches dimensions in the radial direction may affect the suitability of cultivated fast grown Siberian larch wood

Huang, Jianyu

204

Origin, dispersal, cultivation and variation of rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are two cultivated and twenty-one wild species of genus Oryza. O. sativa, the Asian cultivated rice is grown all over the world. The African cultivated rice, O. glaberrima is grown on a small scale in West Africa. The genus Oryza probably originated about 130 million years ago in Gondwanaland and different species got distributed into different continents with the

Gurdev S. Khush

1997-01-01

205

Cultivating Research in BC 23 February 2011  

E-print Network

Cultivating Research in BC 23 February 2011 Professor Stephen J. Toope President and Vice're celebrating excellence in BC research and innovation today, I want to talk about the business of cultivating declining BC fish populations" #12;Cultivating Research in BC 23 February, 2011 Page 2 of 11 The fertilizer

Pulfrey, David L.

206

Bivalve cultivation: criteria for selecting a site  

E-print Network

Bivalve cultivation: criteria for selecting a site Science Series Technical Report no.136 I. Laing and B.E. Spencer #12;Bivalve cultivation: criteria for selecting a site science series technical report and legal factors 16 Rights of shellfish cultivators in the sea 16 Public rights 16 Sea Fisheries (Shellfish

207

Overview of Protected Cultivation in Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iran is predominantly an agricultural country. Because of diverse climatic conditions open field cultivation for most horticultural products is possible in many provinces and in all seasons. However, in recent years protected cultivation has increased in Iran. Low light intensities in northern Iran are the main limitations to vegetables cultivation in tunnel-houses, especially during autumn and winter. The provinces of

Gh. Peyvast

2008-01-01

208

Television exposure measures and the cultivation hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tests five different operationalizations of television exposure in terms of their relative abilities to predict cultivation among adolescents. The creators of the cultivation hypothesis argue that cultivation is an effect resulting from a person's total exposure to television. In this study, total exposure is compared with four alternative operationalizations of television viewing: exposure to types of programs, program?type

W. James Potter; Ik Chin Chang

1990-01-01

209

Cultivated Areas- Remote Sensing Lesson  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson from iGETT will contribute to remote sensing curriculum. This particular unit uses ENVI software to extract data on cultivated land from Landsat 7 imagery. The materials include a learning unit summary, instructor and student guides, supporting documents and a series of data files. The lesson plan will be helpful for students looking at the issue of heat islands in the remote sensing context. A quick, free registration is required to view or download any of the materials.

2011-09-19

210

Effect of replacement of fish meal by meat and bone meal and poultry by-product meal in diets on the growth and immune response of Macrobrachium nipponense  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential use of poultry by-product meal (PBM) and meat and bone meal (MBM) as alternative dietary protein sources for juvenile Macrobrachium nipponense was studied by a 70-day growth trial. Triplicate groups of M. nipponense (initial body weight: 0.37g) were fed at 20.7–22.4°C on each of the five isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets (protein content about 38%) with different replacement of

Yong Yang; Shouqi Xie; Wu Lei; Xiaoming Zhu; Yunxia Yang

2004-01-01

211

Seaweed cultivation: Traditional way and its reformation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seaweed cultivation or phycoculture has been developed rather fast in recent years. The total production of cultivated seaweed at present is about 6250×103 tons fresh weight. The total cultivation area is estimated as 200×103 hectare. The annual total value of cultivated seaweeds has been estimated to be more than 3 billion US dollars. Phycoculture provides many job opportunities for the coastal region people, has the potential to improve marine environments and thus even induce global change. All traditional cultivation methods and techniques are based on or start from the individual plant or the cultivated seaweed population. Modern biological science and biotechnology achievements have benefited agriculture a lot, but traditional seaweed cultivation has not changed much since its founding. This is because seaweed cultivation has been quite conservative for quite a long period and has accumulated many problems requiring solution. Four main problems might be the most universal ones holding back further development of the industry. New ways of seaweed cultivation must be developed, new techniques must be perfected, and new problems solved. This paper mainly discusses the main problems of traditional seaweed cultivation at present and its possible further development and reformation in the future.

Fei, Xiu-Geng; Bao, Ying; Lu, Shan

1999-09-01

212

Laboratory efforts to cultivate noroviruses.  

PubMed

Noroviruses (NoVs) are a leading cause of gastroenteritis worldwide and are recognized as the foremost cause of foodborne illness. Despite numerous efforts, routine cell cultures have failed to yield replicating NoV. This paper describes methods used to try to grow NoV in vitro in two laboratories. Cells (A549, AGS, Caco-2, CCD-18, CRFK, CR-PEC, Detroit 551, Detroit 562, FRhK-4, HCT-8, HeLa, HEC, HEp-2, Ht-29, HuTu-80, I-407, IEC-6, IEC-18, Kato-3, L20B, MA104, MDBK, MDCK, RD, TMK, Vero and 293) were cultured on solid or permeable surfaces. Differentiation was induced using cell culture supplements such as insulin, DMSO and butyric acid. In some cases, the cells and the NoV-containing stool samples were treated with bioactive digestive additives. Variables evaluated in cultivation experiments included the method of preparation of the virus inoculum, the genotype of the virus, conditions for maintenance of cell monolayers, additives in the maintenance medium and the method of inoculation of the cells. Serial blind passage studies were performed routinely. In addition to evaluation for CPE, evidence of virus replication was sought using immunofluorescent assays to detect newly produced viral capsid antigen and RT-PCR assays to detect the viral genome. Although some infected cultures remained NoV positive by RT-PCR for up to five passages and an occasional cell in a monolayer showed evidence of specific immunofluorescence, no reproducible NoV-induced CPE was observed and all RT-PCR results that were positive initially were negative following continued passaging. Thus, attempts to develop a method for the cultivation of NoV were unsuccessful. PMID:14718622

Duizer, Erwin; Schwab, Kellogg J; Neill, Frederick H; Atmar, Robert L; Koopmans, Marion P G; Estes, Mary K

2004-01-01

213

Cultivation of a thermophilic ammonia oxidizing archaeon synthesizing crenarchaeol  

E-print Network

Cultivation of a thermophilic ammonia oxidizing archaeon synthesizing crenarchaeol Jos� R. de la the cultivation of a thermophilic nitrifier (`Candidatus Nitrosocaldus yel- lowstonii'), an autotrophic

de la Torre, José R.

214

Calcium-calmodulin dependent protein kinase I from Macrobrachium nipponense: cDNA cloning and involvement in molting.  

PubMed

Calcium-calmodulin dependent protein kinase I is a component of a calmodulin-dependent protein kinase cascade and involved in many physiological processes. The full-length cDNA of calcium-calmodulin dependent protein kinase I (MnCaMKI) was cloned from the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium nipponense and its expression pattern during the molt cycle and after eyestalk ablation is described. The full-length cDNA of MnCaMKI is 3,262 bp in length and has an open reading frame (ORF) of 1,038 bp, encoding a 345 amino acid protein. The expression of MnCaMKI in three examined tissues was upregulated in the premolt stage of the molt cycle. Its expression was induced after eyestalk ablation (ESA): the highest expression level was reached 1 day after ESA in hepatopancreas, and 3 days after ESA in muscle. By dsRNA-mediated RNA interference assay, expression of MnCaMKI and ecydone receptor gene (MnEcR) was significantly decreased in prawns treated by injection of dsMnCaMKI, while expression of these two genes was also significantly decreased in prawns treated by injection of dsMnEcR, demonstrating a close correlation between the expression of these two genes. These results suggest that CaMKI in M. nipponense is involved in molting. PMID:24491503

Shen, Huaishun; Hu, Yacheng; Zhang, Yuanqin; Zhou, Xin; Xu, Zenghong

2014-04-01

215

Population structure of Macrobrachium australiense (Decapoda: Palaemonidae) in Western Queensland, Australia: the role of contemporary and historical processes.  

PubMed

Rivers of Western Queensland, Australia, represent a discontinuous and variable aquatic habitat for the freshwater fauna of the region. Rivers periodically fluctuate between being highly fragmented, with numerous disconnected waterholes and ephemeral channels, and being highly connected by a dominant system of anastomosing channels. We used mitochondrial sequences to investigate the genetic structure and inferred patterns of dispersal associated with this flow regime for the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium australiense (Decapoda: Palaemonidae), sampling 28 localities throughout eight catchments. Based on a 505 base pair fragment of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, we identified 98 haplotypes in a sample of 402 individuals. The haplotypes clustered into two main clades corresponding geographically to the major drainages: the Lake Eyre and Murray-Darling basins. Populations of M. australiense inhabiting the two basins appear to have diverged around 800,000 years ago (estimated sequence divergence of 1.6%). Analysis of population differentiation indicated contemporary high levels of genetic subdivision and restricted gene flow among populations within and among catchments. Phylogenetic analysis detected a series of historical range expansions in the region and we suggest that climate fluctuations during the Pleistocene have resulted in extensive floods that have promoted historical movements of aquatic organisms across catchment boundaries. PMID:15329659

Carini, G; Hughes, J M

2004-10-01

216

Regulation of essential heavy metals (Cu, Cr, and Zn) by the freshwater prawn macrobrachium malcolmsonii (Milne Edwards)  

SciTech Connect

Despite the low concentrations of heavy metals in the surrounding medium, aquatic organisms take them up and accumulate them in their soft tissues to concentrations several fold higher than those of ambient levels. Knowledge of accumulation patterns of a particular trace metal is a prerequisite for understanding the significance of an observed metal concentration in a particular animal, especially from the aspect of biomonitoring. Many marine invertebrates accumulate heavy metals without any regulation and the accumulation necessarily being associated with mechanisms to store the metals in a detoxified form. Two detoxification mechanisms have been described, both of which may occur in one specimen. Heavy metals can either be bound up in insoluble metalliferous {open_quote}granules{close_quote}, or are bound to soluble metal-binding ligands, such as metallothioneins. Some marine decapod crustaceans have an innate ability to regulate the internal concentrations of essential but potentially toxic metals within a constant level, presumably to meet their metabolic demands. However, at present, there is no such information relating to freshwater decapod crustaceans, especially shrimps which occupy a totally different environment. Macrobrachium malcolmsonii, a potential aquaculture species for freshwater is found in abundance in one of the major Indian rivers, the Cauvery. In the present study, an attempt was made to determine whether the freshwater prawn, M. malcolmsonlii, is able to regulate the three essential elements, copper, chromium and zinc, over a wide range of dissolved concentrations. These three metals were chosen because the Cauvery River receives pollutants containing these metals.

Vijayram, K. [Periyar E.V.R. College, Tiruchirappalli (India)] [Periyar E.V.R. College, Tiruchirappalli (India); Geraldine, P. [Bharathidasan Univ., Tiruchirappalli (India)] [Bharathidasan Univ., Tiruchirappalli (India)

1996-02-01

217

Mammalian cell cultivation in space.  

PubMed

Equipment used in space for the cultivation of mammalian cells does not meet the usual standard of earth bound bioreactors. Thus, the development of a space worthy bioreactor is mandatory for two reasons: First, to investigate the effect on single cells of the space environment in general and microgravity conditions in particular, and second, to provide researchers on long term missions and the Space Station with cell material. However, expertise for this venture is not at hand. A small and simple device for animal cell culture experiments aboard Spacelab (Dynamic Cell Culture System; DCCS) was developed. It provides 2 cell culture chambers, one is operated as a batch system, the other one as a perfusion system. The cell chambers have a volume of 200 microliters. Medium exchange is achieved with an automatic osmotic pump. The system is neither mechanically stirred nor equipped with sensors. Oxygen for cell growth is provided by a gas chamber that is adjacent to the cell chambers. The oxygen gradient produced by the growing cells serves to maintain the oxygen influx by diffusion. Hamster kidney cells growing on microcarriers were used to test the biological performance of the DCCS. On ground tests suggest that this system is feasible. PMID:11537325

Gmünder, F K; Suter, R N; Kiess, M; Urfer, R; Nordau C-G; Cogoli, A

1989-01-01

218

Changes in soil carbon storage after cultivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously published data from 625 paired soil samples were used to predict carbon in cultivated soil as a function of initial carbon content. A 30-cm sampling depth provided a less variable estimate (r² = 0.9) of changes in carbon than a 15-cm sampling depth (r² = 0.6). Regression analyses of changes in carbon storage in relation to years of cultivation

L. K. MANN

1986-01-01

219

Zizania latifolia Turcz. cultivated in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zizania latifolia, which belongs to the tribe Oryzeae, has been cultivated for more than 2000 years and has historically been used in China\\u000a mainly as an aquatic vegetable. In China, the largest area under cultivation of this plant is located in the regions surrounding\\u000a Tai Lake, in the provinces of Jiangsu and Zhejiang. Two main types of cultivars have been developed,

H. B. Guo; S. M. Li; J. Peng; W. D. Ke

2007-01-01

220

Reclamation of sands by crop cultivation near oases in Turkmenistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sandy areas in proximity of oases and irrigated lands in Turkmenistan present a problem because of aeolian encroachment of sand on cultivated areas. Reclamation of sandy areas have been performed, commonly by a sequential leveling, construction of irrigation systems, preparation of soil for cultivation, and by selection and cultivation of appropriate crops with irrigation. Newly cultivated areas may be irrigated

A. G. Babaev; A. O. Ovezliev

1994-01-01

221

Automated microfluidic compact disc (CD) cultivation system of Caenorhabditis elegans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microfabricated platforms for automated cultivation and behavioral observation of animals would be a valuable tool in physiological and genetic studies. We report an automated microfluidic compact disc (CD) system specialized for cultivating and monitoring Caenorhabditis elegans, proficient in automated feeding, waste removal and live-animal microscopy. The automated CD cultivation platform contains cultivation, nutrient, and waste chamber, channels connecting the chambers,

Nahui Kim; Catherine M. Dempsey; Jim V. Zoval; Ji-Ying Sze; Marc J. Madou

2007-01-01

222

The invasion of five alien species in the Delta do Parnaíba Environmental Protection Area, Northeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

Marine biological invasions have been regarded as one of the major causes of native biodiversity loss, with shipping and aquaculture being the leading contributors for the introductions of alien species in aquatic ecosystems. In the present study, five aquatic alien species (one mollusk, three crustaceans and one fish species) were detected during dives, shore searches and from the fisheries on the coast of the Delta do Parnaíba Environmental Protection Area, in the States of Piauí and Maranhão, Northeastern Brazil. The species were the bicolor purse-oyster Isognomon bicolor, the whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, the giant river prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, the Indo-Pacific swimming crab Charybdis hellerii and, the muzzled blenny Omobranchus punctatus. Ballast water (I. bicolor, C. hellerii, and O. punctatus) and aquaculture activities (L. vannamei and M. rosenbergii) in adjacent areas are the most likely vectors of introduction. All exotic species found have potential impact risks to the environment because they are able to compete against native species for resources (food and habitat). Isognomon bicolor share the same habitat and food items with the native bivalve species of mussels and barnacles. Litopenaeus vannamei share the same habitat and food items with the native penaeids such as the pinkspot shrimp Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis, the Southern brown shrimp Farfantepenaeus subtilis, and the Southern white shrimp Litopenaeus schmitti, and in the past few years L. vannamei was responsible for a viral epidemics in the cultivation tanks that could be transmitted to native penaeid shrimps. Charybdis hellerii is also able to cause impacts on the local fisheries as the species can decrease the populations of native portunid crabs which are commercialized in the studied region. Macrobrachium rosenbergii may be sharing natural resources with the Amazon River prawn Macrobrachium amazonicum. Omobranchus punctatus shares habit with the native redlip blenny Ophioblennius atlanticus and other fishes, such as the frillfin goby Bathigobius soporator Some immediate remedial measures to prevent further introductions from ballast water and shrimp farm ponds should be: (i) to prevent the release of ballast water by ship/vessels in the region; (ii) to reroute all effluent waters from shrimp rearing facilities through an underground or above-ground dry well; (iii) to install adequate sand and gravel filter which will allow passage of water but not livestock; (iv) outdoor shrimp pounds located on floodable land should be diked, and; (v) to promote environmental awareness of those directly involved with ballast water (crews of ship/vessels) and shrimp farms in the region. PMID:20737846

Loebmann, Daniel; Mai, Ana Cecília G; Lee, James T

2010-09-01

223

Cultivating Problem Solving Abilities in Gifted Preschoolers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-year program, “The Enrichment Program for Cultivating Multiple Talents and Problem Solving Abilities for Gifted Preschoolers”, was put into effect at National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, Taiwan. Participants were 61 children ages 4 to 6 who were gifted or gifted with disabilities. In this study, we report the children's changes in problem solving abilities in two different types of

Ching-Chih Kuo; Fang-Liu Su; C. June Maker

2011-01-01

224

Acculturation, Cultivation, and Daytime TV Talk Shows  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored the cultivation phenomenon among international college students in the United States by examining the connection between levels of acculturation, daytime TV talk show viewing, and beliefs about social reality. It was expected that international students who were heavy viewers of daytime TV talk shows and who scored low on a measure of acculturation about the United States

Hyung-Jin Woo; Joseph R. Dominick

2003-01-01

225

INTRODUCTION Ecosystem services and agriculture: Cultivating agricultural  

E-print Network

INTRODUCTION Ecosystem services and agriculture: Cultivating agricultural ecosystems for diverse of Agricultural Economics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1039, United States b Department F O A B S T R A C T Article history: Received 20 September 2007 Accepted 20 September 2007 Available

Lupi, Frank

226

Cultivation Theory and Research: A Conceptual Critique.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a critical analysis of how cultivation (long-term formation of perceptions and beliefs about the world as a result of exposure to media) has been conceptualized in theory and research. Analyses the construct of television exposure. Suggests revisions for conceptualizing the existing theory and extending it. (RS)

Potter, W. James

1993-01-01

227

Perceived Reality and the Cultivation Hypothesis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tested cultivation hypothesis by studying relationships between amount of television viewing by high school students and college students and their estimates of chances of victimization and causes of death. Stepwise multiple regression analyses were performed to determine importance of perceived reality, demographic, and televison viewing measures…

Potter, W. James

1986-01-01

228

Cultivation in the Newer Media Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers who study television's cultivation effects believe that heavy television viewing exposes people to consistent messages that lead them to be more fearful and mistrustful of others. The widespread adoption and use of new television technologies, such as cable, VCR, and remote control devices (RCD), however, have the potential to alter…

Perse, Elizabeth M.; And Others

229

Television Exposure Measures and the Cultivation Hypothesis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes study of students in grades 8 through 12 that was conducted to determine the degree to which television messages influence a person's construction of reality (the cultivation hypothesis). Research methodology that tests the effects of television exposure is examined with emphasis on the importance of demographic control variables. (38…

Potter, W. James; Chang, Ik Chin

1990-01-01

230

INSECT POLLINATION OF CULTIVATED CROP PLANTS  

E-print Network

INSECT POLLINATION OF CULTIVATED CROP PLANTS By S. E. McGREGOR Apiculturist, retired, Agricultural Research Service Western Region, Tucson, Ariz. ECONOMICS OF PLANT POLLINATION Worldwide, more than 3, and coconuts (Thurston 1969).1 The grains are wind-pollinated or self-pollinated, coconuts are partially wind-pollinated

Tennessee, University of

231

Cultivating Entrepreneurs: A Shift in Corporate Fundraising.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contends that corporate giving is on the downswing, and community colleges must make adjustments. States that entrepreneurs have become venture philanthropists, and are a source community colleges should cultivate. Describes Springfield Technical Community College's (Massachusetts) two-pronged approach in this effort: It created an Enterprise…

Carberry, Gail E.

2002-01-01

232

Genetic variation in cultivated Rheum tanguticum populations  

PubMed Central

To examine whether cultivation reduced genetic variation in the important Chinese medicinal plant Rheum tanguticum, the levels and distribution of genetic variation were investigated using ISSR markers. Fifty-eight R. tanguticum individuals from five cultivated populations were studied. Thirteen primers were used and a total of 320 DNA bands were scored. High levels of genetic diversity were detected in cultivated R. tanguticum (PPB = 82.19, H = 0.2498, HB = 0.3231, I = 0.3812) and could be explained by the outcrossing system, as well as long-lived and human-mediated seed exchanges. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that more genetic variation was found within populations (76.1%) than among them (23.9%). This was supported by the coefficient of gene differentiation (Gst = 0.2742) and Bayesian analysis (?B = 0.1963). The Mantel test revealed no significant correlation between genetic and geographic distances among populations (r = 0.1176, p = 0.3686). UPGMA showed that the five cultivated populations were separated into three clusters, which was in good accordance with the results provided by the Bayesian software STRUCTURE (K = 3). A short domestication history and no artificial selection may be an effective way of maintaining and conserving the gene pools of wild R. tanguticum.

Hu, Yanping; Xie, Xiaolong; Wang, Li; Zhang, Huaigang; Yang, Jian; Li, Yi

2014-01-01

233

Comparative acute toxicity of gallium(III), antimony(III), indium(III), cadmium(II), and copper(II) on freshwater swamp shrimp (Macrobrachium nipponense)  

PubMed Central

Background Acute toxicity testing were carried out the freshwater swamp shrimp, Macrobrachium nipponense, as the model animal for the semiconductor applied metals (gallium, antimony, indium, cadmium, and copper) to evaluate if the species is an suitable experimental animal of pollution in aquatic ecosystem. Results The static renewal test method of acute lethal concentrations determination was used, and water temperature was maintained at 24.0?±?0.5°C. Data of individual metal obtained from acute toxicity tests were determined using probit analysis method. The median lethal concentration (96-h LC50) of gallium, antimony, indium, cadmium, and copper for M. nipponense were estimated as 2.7742, 1.9626, 6.8938, 0.0539, and 0.0313 mg/L, respectively. Conclusions Comparing the toxicity tolerance of M. nipponense with other species which exposed to these metals, it is obviously that the M. nipponense is more sensitive than that of various other aquatic animals. PMID:25027256

2014-01-01

234

Toxicity of the organophosphorous insecticide metamidophos (o,s-dimethyl phosphoramidothioate) to larvae of the freshwater prawn and the blue shrimp  

SciTech Connect

The organophosphorous insecticide O,S-dimethyl phosphoramidothioate (Metamidophos, Tamaron, Monitor, Hamidop) is widely used for pest control in tropical crops. If washed down to streams and estuaries its residues could adversely affect populations of commercially important crustaceans, like those of the palaemonid prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and the penaeid shrimp Penaeus stylirostris. This paper presents information on the toxicity of O,S-dimethyl phosphoramidothioate to larvae of M. rosenbergii and P. stylirostris.

Juarez, L.M.; Sanchez, J. (Monterrey Institute of Technology, Sonora (Mexico))

1989-08-01

235

A CULTIVATED AUDIENCE: COMPARABLE CORPORAAND CROSS LANGUAGE COLLOCATION  

E-print Network

Impact of Continuous Axenic Cultivation in Leishmania infantum Virulence Diana Moreira1. , Nuno to successive periods of in vitro cultivation. To evaluate the effect of axenic in vitro culture in parasite, Loureiro I, Tavares J, Silva AM, et al. (2012) Impact of Continuous Axenic Cultivation in Leishmania

Boyer, Edmond

236

Scallop Cultivation in the UK: a guide to site selection  

E-print Network

1 Scallop Cultivation in the UK: a guide to site selection I. Laing CENTRE FOR ENVIRONMENT programme on environmental requirements for successful scallop cultivation. This was undertaken in this leaflet should be addressed to CEFAS #12;3 Contents Introduction to scallop cultivation

237

Wild and Cultivated Potato (Solanum sect. Petota) Escaped and  

E-print Network

Wild and Cultivated Potato (Solanum sect. Petota) Escaped and Persistent Outside of its Natural Dumort; cultivated potato, Solanum tuberosum L. Key words: Invasive species, Maxent, predictive habitat). A wild tuber- bearing relative of cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), Solanum chacoense Bitter

Spooner, David

238

CULTIVATED, DICOTYLEDONOUS TAXA AT THE NC STATE UNIVERSITY HERBARIUM  

E-print Network

CULTIVATED, DICOTYLEDONOUS TAXA AT THE NC STATE UNIVERSITY HERBARIUM ALEXANDER KRINGS Herbarium_Krings@ncsu.edu ABSTRACT A list of cultivated, dicotyledonous taxa held at the North Carolina State Univer- sity Herbarium-seven families, comprising 329 genera and 941 subgeneric taxa (species, varieties, cultivars) of cultivated

Krings, Alexander

239

COMPLETE CULTIVATION BPG NOTE 13 Best Practice Guidance  

E-print Network

COMPLETE CULTIVATION BPG NOTE 13 Best Practice Guidance for Land Regeneration Introduction of windthrow. More information on compaction and the requirement for cultivation can be found in BPG Note 3: Do you need to cultivate before woodland establishment? Current guidelines for tree planting recommend

240

Innovation Quality Cultivation of College Students by Scientific Contest  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a high-tech counter-contest, robot contest touches upon advanced research and technological integration of multiple professional fields and will become an important platform of the innovation quality cultivation for college students. According to real experience, the mechanism and exercise of innovation quality cultivation for college students is analyzed based on the robot contest platform. The fundamental cultivation condition that robot

Yunzhou Zhang; Chengdong Wu; Hao Chu; Zi-xi Jia

2009-01-01

241

Hemp (Cannabis) Cultivation and Use in the Republic of Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the history of hemp (Cannabis) cultivation and traditional use in the Republic of Korea and investigates the cultivation and processing techniques currently being employed to produce hemp ribbon and seed and weave hemp textiles. Recent production levels and market conditions are reviewed. Hemp is cultivated for bast fiber and seed in several of the numerous fertile inland

Robert C. Clarke

2006-01-01

242

The prawn Macrobrachium vollenhovenii in the Senegal River basin: towards sustainable restocking of all-male populations for biological control of schistosomiasis.  

PubMed

Early malacological literature suggests that the outbreak of schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease transmitted by aquatic snails, in the Senegal River basin occurred due to ecological changes resulting from the construction of the Diama dam. The common treatment, the drug praziquantel, does not protect from the high risk of re-infection due to human contact with infested water on a daily basis. The construction of the dam interfered with the life cycle of the prawn Macrobrachium vollenhovenii by blocking its access to breeding grounds in the estuary. These prawns were demonstrated to be potential biological control agents, being effective predators of Schistosoma-susceptible snails. Here, we propose a responsible restocking strategy using all-male prawn populations which could provide sustainable disease control. Male prawns reach a larger size and have a lower tendency to migrate than females. We, therefore, expect that periodic restocking of all-male juveniles will decrease the prevalence of schistosomiasis and increase villagers' welfare. In this interdisciplinary study, we examined current prawn abundance along the river basin, complemented with a retrospective questionnaire completed by local fishermen. We revealed the current absence of prawns upriver and thus demonstrated the need for restocking. Since male prawns are suggested to be preferable for bio-control, we laid the molecular foundation for production of all-male M. vollenhovenii through a complete sequencing of the insulin-like androgenic gland-encoding gene (IAG), which is responsible for sexual differentiation in crustaceans. We also conducted bioinformatics and immunohistochemistry analyses to demonstrate the similarity of this sequence to the IAG of another Macrobrachium species in which neo-females are produced and their progeny are 100% males. At least 100 million people at risk of schistosomiasis are residents of areas that experienced water management manipulations. Our suggested non-breeding sustainable model of control-if proven successful-could prevent re-infections and thus prove useful throughout the world. PMID:25166746

Savaya Alkalay, Amit; Rosen, Ohad; Sokolow, Susanne H; Faye, Yacinthe P W; Faye, Djibril S; Aflalo, Eliahu D; Jouanard, Nicolas; Zilberg, Dina; Huttinger, Elizabeth; Sagi, Amir

2014-08-01

243

The Prawn Macrobrachium vollenhovenii in the Senegal River Basin: Towards Sustainable Restocking of All-Male Populations for Biological Control of Schistosomiasis  

PubMed Central

Early malacological literature suggests that the outbreak of schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease transmitted by aquatic snails, in the Senegal River basin occurred due to ecological changes resulting from the construction of the Diama dam. The common treatment, the drug praziquantel, does not protect from the high risk of re-infection due to human contact with infested water on a daily basis. The construction of the dam interfered with the life cycle of the prawn Macrobrachium vollenhovenii by blocking its access to breeding grounds in the estuary. These prawns were demonstrated to be potential biological control agents, being effective predators of Schistosoma-susceptible snails. Here, we propose a responsible restocking strategy using all-male prawn populations which could provide sustainable disease control. Male prawns reach a larger size and have a lower tendency to migrate than females. We, therefore, expect that periodic restocking of all-male juveniles will decrease the prevalence of schistosomiasis and increase villagers' welfare. In this interdisciplinary study, we examined current prawn abundance along the river basin, complemented with a retrospective questionnaire completed by local fishermen. We revealed the current absence of prawns upriver and thus demonstrated the need for restocking. Since male prawns are suggested to be preferable for bio-control, we laid the molecular foundation for production of all-male M. vollenhovenii through a complete sequencing of the insulin-like androgenic gland-encoding gene (IAG), which is responsible for sexual differentiation in crustaceans. We also conducted bioinformatics and immunohistochemistry analyses to demonstrate the similarity of this sequence to the IAG of another Macrobrachium species in which neo-females are produced and their progeny are 100% males. At least 100 million people at risk of schistosomiasis are residents of areas that experienced water management manipulations. Our suggested non-breeding sustainable model of control—if proven successful—could prevent re-infections and thus prove useful throughout the world. PMID:25166746

Savaya Alkalay, Amit; Rosen, Ohad; Sokolow, Susanne H.; Faye, Yacinthe P. W.; Faye, Djibril S.; Aflalo, Eliahu D.; Jouanard, Nicolas; Zilberg, Dina; Huttinger, Elizabeth; Sagi, Amir

2014-01-01

244

Human Colon Cancer Cells Cultivated in Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Within five days, bioreactor cultivated human colon cancer cells (shown) grown in Microgravity on the STS-70 mission in 1995, had grown 30 times the volume of the control specimens on Earth. The samples grown in space had a higher level of cellular organization and specialization. Because they more closely resemble tumors found in the body, microgravity grown cell cultures are ideal for research purposes.

1995-01-01

245

Cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus on weed plants.  

PubMed

Oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.:Fr.) Kumm. ITCC 3308 (collected from Indian Type Culture Collection, IARI, New Delhi, India, 110012) was grown on dry weed plants, Leonotis sp, Sida acuta, Parthenium argentatum, Ageratum conyzoides, Cassia sophera, Tephrosia purpurea and Lantana camara. Leonotis sp. was the best substrate in fruit body production of P. ostreatus when it was mixed with rice straw (1:1, wet wt/wet wt) for mushroom cultivation. The fruiting time for P. ostreatus was also less on Leonotis sp. than on any other weed substrates tested in the present investigation. T. purpurea was the least suited weed for oyster mushroom cultivation. The main problem of oyster mushroom cultivation on weed substrates was found to be low yield in the second flush that could be overcome by blending weed plants with rice straw. The protein contents of the fruit bodies obtained from Cassia sophera, Parthenium argentatum and Leonotis sp. were not only better than rice straw but also from the rice straw supplemented weeds. PMID:17161599

Das, Nirmalendu; Mukherjee, Mina

2007-10-01

246

Uranium uptake by hydroponically cultivated crop plants.  

PubMed

Hydroponicaly cultivated plants were grown on medium containing uranium. The appropriate concentrations of uranium for the experiments were selected on the basis of a standard ecotoxicity test. The most sensitive plant species was determined to be Lactuca sativa with an EC(50) value about 0.1mM. Cucumis sativa represented the most resistant plant to uranium (EC(50)=0.71 mM). Therefore, we used the uranium in a concentration range from 0.1 to 1mM. Twenty different plant species were tested in hydroponic solution supplemented by 0.1mM or 0.5mM uranium concentration. The uranium accumulation of these plants varied from 0.16 mg/g DW to 0.011 mg/g DW. The highest uranium uptake was determined for Zea mays and the lowest for Arabidopsis thaliana. The amount of accumulated uranium was strongly influenced by uranium concentration in the cultivation medium. Autoradiography showed that uranium is mainly localized in the root system of the plants tested. Additional experiments demonstrated the possibility of influencing the uranium uptake from the cultivation medium by amendments. Tartaric acid was able to increase uranium uptake by Brassica oleracea and Sinapis alba up to 2.8 times or 1.9 times, respectively. Phosphate deficiency increased uranium uptake up to 4.5 times or 3.9 times, respectively, by Brassica oleracea and S. alba. In the case of deficiency of iron or presence of cadmium ions we did not find any increase in uranium accumulation. PMID:21486682

Soudek, Petr; Petrová, Sárka; Benešová, Dagmar; Dvo?áková, Marcela; Van?k, Tomáš

2011-06-01

247

Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science was established in 1876 and remained the only high quality research facility for the basic sciences until the early decades of the twentieth century. Visitors can discover an abundance of information on its research in the fields of Material Science, Solid State Physics, Inorganic Chemistry, Biological Chemistry, Energy Research, and much more. Scientists can find out about upcoming conferences such as the Colloquium for Young Physicists. The web site features a description of the Institute's recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physics, Professor CV Raman.

248

Teacher's Toolkit: A blueprint for cultivating inquiry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Scientific inquiry , a methodology that can trace its roots back to the time and teachings of Socrates, has been an elusive and evolving part of our education lexicon for many years. The Socratic approach to teaching, in its simplest form, can be thought of as instruction that involves the use of open-ended questions and investigative queries of students rather than a teacher-centered, lecture format. For some reason, however, this straightforward idea has been difficult to translate into practice. Therefore, this article provides a blueprint for cultivating inquiry in the science classroom.

Metz, Bill; Gooding, Julia

2008-09-01

249

Seaweed cultivation: A new applied field for biotechnology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seaweeds cultivation has resulted in great achievements, although it has a history of only a few decades. With higher productivity and resulting higher profit, it has become the leading marine exploitation industry with the brightest prospects. The relatively limited species introduced for commercial cultivation showed great biological diversity. Introduction of selected good strains for traditional cultivation and the transformation from cultivation of mixed strains to that of pure cell lines are two certain tendencies in the future. Pure line cultivation of seaweeds in a sort of advanced biotechnology. It provides new opportunities for not only the industry itself, but also the stable market of high quality natural marine products. More work should be done on principles and methods to obtain optimal results from the combination of pure line cultivation techniques with advanced biochemistry. The programmed batch production of fine chemicals such as polysaccharides and proteins will probably become the social demand.

Fei, Xiu-Geng; Lu, Shan; Bao, Ying

1998-03-01

250

Cultivation of Theileria. II. Attempts to cultivate erythrocytic stages of Theileria mutans.  

PubMed

Blood from calves with a parasitaemia of Theileria mutans was cultivated in vitro in various ways. No significant increase in the percentage of infected red cells was observed, but the percentage of dividing forms of the parasite rose sharply during the first two days of incubation. The conditions of the cultures were apparently unsuitable for the invasion of erythrocytes. PMID:6428032

van de Scheur, H C; Jongejan, F; Franssen, F F; Perié, N M; Uilenberg, G

1984-01-01

251

Transcriptome Analysis of Androgenic Gland for Discovery of Novel Genes from the Oriental River Prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense, Using Illumina Hiseq 2000  

PubMed Central

Background The oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense, is an important aquaculture species in China, even in whole of Asia. The androgenic gland produces hormones that play crucial roles in sexual differentiation to maleness. This study is the first de novo M. nipponense transcriptome analysis using cDNA prepared from mRNA isolated from the androgenic gland. Illumina/Solexa was used for sequencing. Methodology and Principal Finding The total volume of RNA sample was more than 5 ug. We generated 70,853,361 high quality reads after eliminating adapter sequences and filtering out low-quality reads. A total of 78,408 isosequences were obtained by clustering and assembly of the clean reads, producing 57,619 non-redundant transcripts with an average length of 1244.19 bp. In total 70,702 isosequences were matched to the Nr database, additional analyses were performed by GO (33,203), KEGG (17,868), and COG analyses (13,817), identifying the potential genes and their functions. A total of 47 sex-determination related gene families were identified from the M. nipponense androgenic gland transcriptome based on the functional annotation of non-redundant transcripts and comparisons with the published literature. Furthermore, a total of 40 candidate novel genes were found, that may contribute to sex-determination based on their extremely high expression levels in the androgenic compared to other sex glands,. Further, 437 SSRs and 65,535 high-confidence SNPs were identified in this EST dataset from which 14 EST-SSR markers have been isolated. Conclusion Our study provides new sequence information for M. nipponense, which will be the basis for further genetic studies on decapods crustaceans. More importantly, this study dramatically improves understanding of sex-determination mechanisms, and advances sex-determination research in all crustacean species. The huge number of potential SSR and SNP markers isolated from the transcriptome may shed the lights on research in many fields, including the evolution and molecular ecology of Macrobrachium species. PMID:24204682

Jin, Shubo; Fu, Hongtuo; Zhou, Qiao; Sun, Shengming; Jiang, Sufei; Xiong, Yiwei; Gong, Yongsheng; Qiao, Hui; Zhang, Wenyi

2013-01-01

252

Connectivity of cultivated areas in bocage watersheds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In bocage watersheds, the relationships between runoff producting areas and suspended sediments measurements are generally more difficult to assess than in openfield areas. Land use organisation and connectivity are the major controlling factors because man-made linear structures like hedges, roads or ditches networks strongly impact runoff pathways on slopes. These structures can block runoff or connect areas localized at an important distance to the river. In order to highlight such influence, we study three catchments of same size (fifteen square kilometres) with same lithological characteristics (shist) but with various hedge, road and drainage network densities in Normandy (France). Results underline that the cultivated areas directly connected to the fluvial system are preferentially localized on watersheds of 1st Strahler order classification, but the percentage remains weak at the global scale (less than 5 percent). Therefore, percents of cultivated areas indirectly connected ranged from 6 to 10 percent are more important. Locally, the spatial organisation of roads and ditches aggravate the degree of connectivity. As a consequence, localising areas indirectly connected within the catchments is a fundamental step to better understand slopes contribution to the global sedimentary budget.

Viel, V.; Douvinet, J.; Delahaye, D.; Le Gouee, P.

2009-04-01

253

Progress in cultivation-independent phyllosphere microbiology  

PubMed Central

Most microorganisms of the phyllosphere are nonculturable in commonly used media and culture conditions, as are those in other natural environments. This review queries the reasons for their ‘noncultivability’ and assesses developments in phyllospere microbiology that have been achieved cultivation independently over the last 4?years. Analyses of total microbial communities have revealed a comprehensive microbial diversity. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and metagenomic sequencing were applied to investigate plant species, location and season as variables affecting the composition of these communities. In continuation to culture-based enzymatic and metabolic studies with individual isolates, metaproteogenomic approaches reveal a great potential to study the physiology of microbial communities in situ. Culture-independent microbiological technologies as well advances in plant genetics and biochemistry provide methodological preconditions for exploring the interactions between plants and their microbiome in the phyllosphere. Improving and combining cultivation and culture-independent techniques can contribute to a better understanding of the phyllosphere ecology. This is essential, for example, to avoid human–pathogenic bacteria in plant food. PMID:24003903

Muller, Thomas; Ruppel, Silke

2014-01-01

254

A clip-domain serine proteinase homolog (SPH) in oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense provides insights into its role in innate immune response.  

PubMed

In this study, a clip-domain serine proteinase homolog designated as MnSPH was cloned and characterized from a freshwater prawn Macrobrachium nipponense. The full-length cDNA of MnSPH was 1897 bp and contained a 1701 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein of 566 amino acids, a 103 bp 5'-untranslated region, and a 93 bp 3'-untranslated region. Sequence comparison showed that the deduced amino acids of MnSPH shared 30-59% identity with sequences reported in other animals. Tissue distribution analysis indicated that the MnSPH transcripts were present in all detected tissues with highest in the hepatopancreas and ovary. The MnSPH mRNA levels in the developing ovary were stable at the initial three developmental stages, then increased gradually from stage IV (later vitellogenesis), and reached a maximum at stage VI (paracmasis). Furthermore, the expression of MnSPH mRNA in hemocytes was significantly up-regulated at 1.5 h, 6 h, 12 h and 48 h post Aeromonas hydrophila injection. The increased phenoloxidase activity also demonstrated a clear time-dependent pattern after A. hydrophila challenge. These results suggest that MnSPH participates in resisting to pathogenic microorganisms and plays a pivotal role in host defense against microbe invasion in M. nipponense. PMID:24878742

Ding, Zhili; Kong, Youqin; Chen, Liqiao; Qin, Jianguang; Sun, Shengming; Li, Ming; Du, Zhenyu; Ye, Jinyun

2014-08-01

255

Use of the Multispecies Freshwater Biomonitor to assess behavioral changes of Poecilia reticulata (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae) and Macrobrachium lanchesteri (Decapoda: Palaemonidae) in response to acid mine drainage: laboratory exposure.  

PubMed

The behavioral responses of guppy Poecilia reticulata (Poeciliidae) and prawn Macrobrachium lanchesteri (Palaemonidae) individuals exposed to acid mine drainage (AMD) were monitored online in the laboratory with a Multispecies Freshwater Biomonitor™ (MFB). These responses were compared to those to reference water acidified to the respective pH values (ACID). Test animals in the juvenile stage were used for both species and were exposed to AMD and ACID for 24 hours. The stress behaviors of both test animals consisted mainly of decreased activity in AMD and increased activity in ACID, indicating that the metals in the AMD played a role as a stress factor in addition to pH. The locomotor activity levels of guppies and prawns for the ACID treatment were higher than the locomotor activity levels for the AMD treatment with increasing pH value. For guppies, significant differences were observed when specimens were exposed to AMD and ACID at pH 5.0 and 6.0; the percentage activities were only 16% and 12%, respectively, for AMD treatment, whereas for ACID treatment, the percentage activities were 35% and 40%, respectively, similar to the value of 36% for the controls. Similar trends were also observed for prawns, for which the percentage activities were only 6% and 4%, respectively, for AMD treatment, whereas for ACID treatment, the percentage activities were 31% and 38%, respectively, compared to 44% in the controls. This study showed that both species are suitable for use as indicators for ecotoxicity testing with the MFB. PMID:22868673

Mohti, Azmah; Shuhaimi-Othman, Mohammad; Gerhardt, Almut

2012-09-01

256

A spring-matrix model for pigment translocation in the red ovarian chromatophores of the freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium olfersi (Crustacea, Decapoda).  

PubMed

A model for intracellular transport of pigment granules in the red ovarian chromatophores of the freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium olfersi is proposed on the basis of shifts in the equilibrium of resting forces acting on an elastic pigment matrix. The model describes a pigment-transport mechanism in which mechanochemical protein motors like kinesin and myosin alternately stretch and compress a structurally unified, elastic pigment matrix. Quantifiable properties of the spring-matrix obey Hooke's Law during the rapid phases of pigment aggregation and dispersion. The spring-like response of the pigment mass is estimated from previous kinetic experiments on pigment translocation induced by red pigment concentrating hormone, or by the calcium ionophore A23187. Both translocation effectors trigger an initial phase of rapid pigment aggregation, and their removal or washout after complete aggregation produces a phase of rapid pigment dispersion, followed by slow pigment translocation. The rapid-phase kinetics of pigment transport are in reasonable agreement with Hooke's Law, suggesting that such phases represent the release of kinetic energy, probably produced by the mechanochemical protein motors and stored in the form of matrix deformation during the slow phases of translocation. This semiquantitative model should aid in analyzing intracellular transport systems that incorporate an elastic component. PMID:18400993

Boyle, Robert Tew; McNamara, John Campbell

2008-04-01

257

Effect of replacement of fish meal by meat and bone meal and poultry by-product meal in diets on the growth and immune response of Macrobrachium nipponense.  

PubMed

The potential use of poultry by-product meal (PBM) and meat and bone meal (MBM) as alternative dietary protein sources for juvenile Macrobrachium nipponense was studied by a 70-day growth trial. Triplicate groups of M. nipponense (initial body weight: 0.37 g) were fed at 20.7-22.4 degrees C on each of the five isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets (protein content about 38%) with different replacement of fish meal by MBM or PBM. The control diet used white fish meal as the sole protein source, the other four diets were prepared with 15% or 50% fish meal protein substituted by either MBM (MBM(15), MBM(50)) or PBM (PBM(15), PBM(50)). The results showed that replacement of fish meal by MBM in diets did not affect growth performance of M. nipponense (P > 0.05), while specific growth rate in PBM(15) was significantly higher than that in other groups (P < 0.05). Survival rates of shrimp fed with MBM(15) diet were significantly higher than that in other groups (P < 0.05). No significant differences in immunological parameters, including total haemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase activity (PO) and respiratory burst (O(2)(-)), were observed between the shrimps that were fed five experimental diets, and all determined immunological parameters in control groups were slightly higher than those in replacement groups. In conclusion, either MBM or PBM investigated could replace up to 50% fish meal protein in diets for M. nipponense. PMID:15212730

Yang, Yong; Xie, Shouqi; Lei, Wu; Zhu, Xiaoming; Yang, Yunxia

2004-08-01

258

Ruining a good story: Cultivation, perceived realism and narrative  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultivation research has been criticized for failing to articulate underlying psychological processes and mechanisms. Research into viewers' percep- tions of content realism has been implicated in the cultivation process, yet we know little about how viewers assess realism, especially while viewing. This article considers the role of perceived realism judgments in the cultiva- tion process from a narrative perspective. It

Rick Busselle; Alina Ryabovolova; Brian Wilson

2004-01-01

259

Cultivation Techniques and Medicinal Properties of Pleurotus spp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The genus Pleurotus (oyster mushroom) comprises some the most popular edible mush- rooms due to their favourable organoleptic and medicinal properties, vigorous growth and undemanding cultivation conditions. It can be cultivated on log and a wide variety of agroforestry (by-)products, weeds and wastes for the production of food, feed, enzymes and medicinal compounds, or for waste degradation and detoxification.

Andrej Gregori; Jure Pohleven

2007-01-01

260

Examining Cultivation from a Psychological Perspective: Component Subprocesses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attempts to elaborate the cultivation hypothesis by examining some proposed subprocesses, especially learning and construction with first- and second-order measures. Examines the relationship between first- and second-order measures. Argues that cultivation theory needs to be extended. (SR)

Potter, W. James

1991-01-01

261

Adolescents and Ambivalence toward Marriage: A Cultivation Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using cultivation theory, the portrayal of marriage on prime-time television was examined, and the relationship between television viewing and ambivalence about marriage and family was explored for over 3,200 high school seniors. It was evident that television may cultivate important ideas about marriage, interpersonal relationships, and family.…

Signorielli, Nancy

1991-01-01

262

Psychological Processes Underlying Cultivation Effects: Further Tests of Construct Accessibility.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study that tested whether the accessibility of information in memory mediates the cultivation effect (the effect of television viewing on social perceptions), consistent with the availability heuristic. Shows that heavy viewers gave higher frequency estimates (cultivation effect) and responded faster (accessibility effect) than did…

Shrum, L. J.

1996-01-01

263

Oysters have been cultivated to improve their growth and flavor  

E-print Network

Oysters have been cultivated to improve their growth and flavor for many centuries. On-bottom, or extensive, oyster culture is the tra- ditional method of farming oys- ters in the United States. With the rights to exclusive use of the water bottom, farmers have been able to cultivate oysters on oyster leases

Florida, University of

264

Becoming Accomplished: Concerted Cultivation among Privately Educated Young Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper takes as its starting point the concept of concerted cultivation as coined by Annette Lareau. It examines whether a focus on concerted cultivation adequately captures the various practices observed in young women's experiences of being privately educated in four schools in one area of England. We suggest that a variety of practices of…

Maxwell, Claire; Aggleton, Peter

2013-01-01

265

[Cultivation of Iris ensata Thunb. callus tissue].  

PubMed

A continuous callus culture was obtained from zygotic embryos of Japanese iris (Iris ensata Thunb.) on the Murashige-Skoog medium supplemented with 2 mg/l alpha-naphthylacetic acid and 0.5 mg/l 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). It was found that a successful callusogenesis required isolated embryos at the wax stage of endosperm development. The optimal combination of phytohormones for the growth of callus tissue was 1 mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 0.5 mg/l BAP. The pigment composition of I. ensata callus tissue was studied. It was demonstrated that subcultivated callus tissue contained red pigments of flavonoid nature. Under stress cultivation conditions, yellow pigments were formed and the content of red pigments increased. PMID:15125204

Boltenkov, E V; Rybin, V G; Zarembo, E V

2004-01-01

266

Controlled drainage on a cultivated peat soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Controlled drainage can delay the decomposition of organic material in peat soils, as high water table means a thin oxidized layer in the soil surface. Therefore, greenhouse gas emissions, and mineralization of nutrients will be decreased. There will also be less outflow from the field. These mean less nutrient leaching. However, controlled drainage systems may not always manage to keep the water table on the desired level in practical field conditions. In this study, the water tables in two controlled drainage systems were monitored on a cultivated peat soil in southern Finland around a year. Results show how the water table reacts to the changes of the water height in the control wells, and to the surrounding weather conditions. The data collection is still going on.

Myllys, Merja; Regina, Kristiina

2014-05-01

267

In Vitro Cultivation of Cryptosporidium Species  

PubMed Central

The in vitro cultivation of protozoan parasites of the genus Cryptosporidium has advanced significantly in recent years. These obligate, intracellular parasites colonize the epithelium of the digestive and respiratory tracts, are often difficult to obtain in significant numbers, produce durable oocysts that defy conventional chemical disinfection methods, and are persistently infectious when stored at refrigerated temperatures (4 to 8°C). While continuous culture and efficient life cycle completion (oocyst production) have not yet been achieved in vitro, routine methods for parasite preparation and cell culture infection and assays for parasite life cycle development have been established. Parasite yields may be limited, but in vitro growth is sufficient to support a variety of research studies, including assessing potential drug therapies, evaluating oocyst disinfection methods, and characterizing life cycle stage development and differentiation. PMID:12097247

Arrowood, Michael J.

2002-01-01

268

Rapid screening and cultivation of oleaginous microorganisms.  

PubMed

Oleaginous microbial strains were cultivated to identify the best oil-producing strain amongst Yarrowia lipolytica (CGMCC 2.1398), Lipomyces starkeyi (CGMCC 2.1608), Rhodosporidium toruloides (CGMCC 2.1389), Mortierella isabellina (CGMCC 3.3410), Cunninghamella blakeleana (CGMCC 3.970), and Mycobacterium QJ311. A method for rapid determination of oil content and fatty acid composition was established to identify the optimum oil-producing strains. This method had a relative standard deviation of 4.09%, an average recovery ratio of 97.09% and a detection limit of 0.1-1.0 g. Mortierella isabellina CGMCC 3.3410 was identified as the best oil-producing strain amongst the six strains tested, with a total biomass of 75 g/10 L and a lipid content of 35%. A rapid screening method of oleaginous microorganisms is discussed for the first time. PMID:22611917

Gao, Xinlei; Liu, Ye; Che, Zhongju; Wu, Li

2012-04-01

269

USDA: Insect Pollination of Cultivated Crop Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is home to an extensive online USDA text authored by S.E. McGregor, titled Insect Pollination Of Cultivated Crop Plants. Although originally written in 1976, the text is continually updated with new content. Chapters are organized by plant type (legumes, tree fruits, nuts, clovers, etc.), and provide a table of contents that allows users to jump directly to sections within each chapter. The introduction contains information on wild bees, pesticides, and other related information. Some of the basic sections include "Flowering and Fruiting of Plants", "Wild Bees and Wild Bee Culture". Additionally, new materials within the book are listed by crop and date of addition. This site contains information on pollination of numerous plants from Avocado to Zigzag Clover and everything in between. It is a great source to consult for amateur and professional gardeners alike.

Mcgregor, S. E.

2008-03-18

270

High-power LEDs for plant cultivation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on high-power solid-state lighting facility for cultivation of greenhouse vegetables and on the results of the study of control of photosynthetic activity and growth morphology of radish and lettuce imposed by variation of the spectral composition of illumination. Experimental lighting modules (useful area of 0.22 m2) were designed based on 4 types of high-power light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with emission peaked in red at the wavelengths of 660 nm and 640 nm (predominantly absorbed by chlorophyll a and b for photosynthesis, respectively), in blue at 455 nm (phototropic function), and in far-red at 735 nm (important for photomorphology). Morphological characteristics, chlorophyll and phytohormone concentrations in radish and lettuce grown in phytotron chambers under lighting with different spectral composition of the LED-based illuminator and under illumination by high pressure sodium lamps with an equivalent photosynthetic photon flux density were compared. A well-balanced solid-state lighting was found to enhance production of green mass and to ensure healthy morphogenesis of plants compared to those grown using conventional lighting. We observed that the plant morphology and concentrations of morphologically active phytohormones is strongly affected by the spectral composition of light in the red region. Commercial application of the LED-based illumination for large-scale plant cultivation is discussed. This technology is favorable from the point of view of energy consumption, controllable growth, and food safety but is hindered by high cost of the LEDs. Large scale manufacturing of high-power red AlInGaP-based LEDs emitting at 650 nm and a further decrease of the photon price for the LEDs emitting in the vicinity of the absorption peak of chlorophylls have to be achieved to promote horticulture applications.

Tamulaitis, Gintautas; Duchovskis, Pavelas; Bliznikas, Zenius; Breive, Kestutis; Ulinskaite, Raimonda; Brazaityte, Ausra; Novickovas, Algirdas; Zukauskas, Arturas; Shur, Michael S.

2004-10-01

271

Cultivated limbal and oral mucosal epithelial transplantation.  

PubMed

Stem cells located at the limbus are the ultimate source for regeneration of the corneal epithelium in normal and traumatized states. When limbal stem cells are dysfunctional or deficient, limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) develops. Its surgical management depends on laterality and severity of corneal-limbal involvement. Conventional methods of stem cell transplantation are conjunctival-limbal autograft (CLAU), conjunctival-limbal allograft (CLAL), and kerato-limbal allograft (KLAL) surgeries. Cultivated limbal epithelial transplantation (CLET) and cultivated oral mucosal epithelial transplantation (COMET) on a carrier such as amniotic membrane are current surgical alternatives. These new surgical procedures are effective in stabilizing the ocular surface. The theoretical advantage of ex-vivo expansions over conventional methods is that only a small limbal or mucosal biopsy is needed, thus minimizing the risk to the donor eye; there is also a lower risk of rejection. They can be used in cases with unilateral or bilateral total stem cell deficiency. In the unilateral cases, the source for CLET is a healthy fellow eye and in bilateral cases the source can be living-related or cadaveric eyes. The oral explants do not have limbal stem cells, but they seem to be a source of limbal stem cell equivalents that are able to generate cornea-like epithelium under the proper culture conditions. The main advantage of COMET is that patients with bilateral LSCD can be treated with grafts derived from their own autologous oral mucosal cells. The long-term outcomes of COMET have to be elucidated. PMID:22784272

Eslani, Medi; Baradaran-Rafii, Alireza; Ahmad, Sajjad

2012-01-01

272

Integration of thermal and food processing residuals into a system for commercial culture of freshwater shrimp. (power plant waste heat utilization in aquaculture). Volume 3. Final report, July 1974October 1976  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principal objective of this project is to develop procedures and methods for the commercial culture of the giant fresh water shrimp, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and the rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri, in the thermal discharge water of the Mercer Power Plant (Trenton, N.J.). The energy source for this power plant is coal. Discharge water from this plant was used in a

Farmanfarmian

1977-01-01

273

A Simple "in Vitro" Culture of Freshwater Prawn Embryos for Laboratory Investigations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Giant freshwater prawn ("Macrobrachium rosenbergii" De Man) embryos can be cultured "in vitro" to hatching in 15% (v/v) artificial seawater (ASW). This technique can be applied as a bioassay for testing toxicity or for the effects of various substances on embryo development and can be used as a simple and low-cost model for studying embryo…

Porntrai, Supaporn; Damrongphol, Praneet

2008-01-01

274

29 CFR 780.110 - Operations included in “cultivation and tillage of the soil.”  

...included in âcultivation and tillage of the soil.â 780.110 Section 780.110 ...Agriculture Cultivation and Tillage of the Soil § 780.110 Operations included in “cultivation and tillage of the soil.” “Cultivation and tillage of...

2014-07-01

275

29 CFR 780.110 - Operations included in “cultivation and tillage of the soil.”  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...included in âcultivation and tillage of the soil.â 780.110 Section 780.110 ...Agriculture Cultivation and Tillage of the Soil § 780.110 Operations included in “cultivation and tillage of the soil.” “Cultivation and tillage of...

2013-07-01

276

29 CFR 780.110 - Operations included in “cultivation and tillage of the soil.”  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...included in âcultivation and tillage of the soil.â 780.110 Section 780.110 ...Agriculture Cultivation and Tillage of the Soil § 780.110 Operations included in “cultivation and tillage of the soil.” “Cultivation and tillage of...

2011-07-01

277

29 CFR 780.110 - Operations included in “cultivation and tillage of the soil.”  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...included in âcultivation and tillage of the soil.â 780.110 Section 780.110 ...Agriculture Cultivation and Tillage of the Soil § 780.110 Operations included in “cultivation and tillage of the soil.” “Cultivation and tillage of...

2012-07-01

278

Nursery cultivation regimes, plant functional attributes, and field performance relationships in the  

E-print Network

Nursery cultivation regimes, plant functional attributes, and field performance relationships mortality and grew significantly less than those cultivated at both a low and a high fertilisation level and physiological characteristics that impair their performance under stressful conditions. Nursery cultivation

Villar-Salvador, Pedro

279

29 CFR 780.110 - Operations included in “cultivation and tillage of the soil.”  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...included in âcultivation and tillage of the soil.â 780.110 Section 780.110 ...Agriculture Cultivation and Tillage of the Soil § 780.110 Operations included in “cultivation and tillage of the soil.” “Cultivation and tillage of...

2010-07-01

280

Cultivation of the Rhabditid Poikilolaimus oxycercus as a Laboratory Nematode for Genetic Analyses  

E-print Network

Cultivation of the Rhabditid Poikilolaimus oxycercus as a Laboratory Nematode for Genetic Analyses. In order to cultivate this gonochoristic nematode into an experimental model with a tractable genetic

Cohen, Randy W.

281

Microfluidic devices for cell cultivation and proliferation  

PubMed Central

Microfluidic technology provides precise, controlled-environment, cost-effective, compact, integrated, and high-throughput microsystems that are promising substitutes for conventional biological laboratory methods. In recent years, microfluidic cell culture devices have been used for applications such as tissue engineering, diagnostics, drug screening, immunology, cancer studies, stem cell proliferation and differentiation, and neurite guidance. Microfluidic technology allows dynamic cell culture in microperfusion systems to deliver continuous nutrient supplies for long term cell culture. It offers many opportunities to mimic the cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions of tissues by creating gradient concentrations of biochemical signals such as growth factors, chemokines, and hormones. Other applications of cell cultivation in microfluidic systems include high resolution cell patterning on a modified substrate with adhesive patterns and the reconstruction of complicated tissue architectures. In this review, recent advances in microfluidic platforms for cell culturing and proliferation, for both simple monolayer (2D) cell seeding processes and 3D configurations as accurate models of in vivo conditions, are examined. PMID:24273628

Tehranirokh, Masoomeh; Kouzani, Abbas Z.; Francis, Paul S.; Kanwar, Jagat R.

2013-01-01

282

Six chitinases from oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense: cDNA characterization, classification and mRNA expression during post-embryonic development and moulting cycle.  

PubMed

Chitinase plays crucial physiological roles in crustaceans, including the digestion of chitin-containing food, moulting and the defense of shrimp against viruses. However, in contrast to insect species, no genome-wide analysis has been carried out in crustacean species and cDNAs encoding chitinase and chitinase-like proteins have been characterized in relatively few species. In this study, we identified six chitinase genes in the oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense, according to the established expressed sequence tag (EST) information using Rapid Amplification of the cDNA Ends (RACE) technique and homology cloning. We assigned these genes to three different chitinase groupings, which were designated MnCht1A, 1B, 3A, 3B, 3C and 4. The domain organization analysis of the six MnCht proteins revealed that only MnCht3C and MnCht4 possessed full structure, while MnCht1A, 1B, 3A and 3B lacked the serine/threonine (S/T)-rich linker and chitin-binding domains (CBDs). Their expression in different tissues and different developmental stages suggested that all of them have a function in the digestion of chitinous foods, modification of gut peritrophic membrane and degradation of the chitin exoskeleton. Analysis of the stage-specific moulting cycle and different temperature stimulation provided further evidence that MnCht1A, 1B and 3B have pivotal roles in the moulting cycle, while MnCht 4 only assists in the moulting process. This study provides important information for further investigations on the functions of chitinase in M. nipponense and other crustaceans. PMID:24096116

Zhang, Shiyong; Jiang, Sufei; Xiong, Yiwei; Fu, Hongtuo; Sun, Shengming; Qiao, Hui; Zhang, Wenyi; Jiang, Fengwei; Jin, Shubo; Gong, Yongsheng

2014-01-01

283

High biofuel production of Botryococcus braunii using optimized cultivation strategies.  

E-print Network

??This thesis describes how using a heterotrophy-recovery-autotrophy route (called the green cycle) for the cultivation of Botryococcus braunii results in high biofuel production. Our experiments… (more)

Yu, Wei

2014-01-01

284

The Edibility and Cultivation of the Oyster Mushroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an enjoyable and fascinating experience that involves the cultivation of oyster mushrooms. By allowing students to participate in this process, the students are able to better understand the biology and utility of fungi. (ZWH)

Brenneman, James; Guttman, Mark C.

1994-01-01

285

Attached cultivation of Haematococcus pluvialis for astaxanthin production.  

PubMed

Haematococcus pluvialis, the best natural source for astaxanthin, was cultivated with an immobilized biofilm method, viz. "attached cultivation", which was high in photosynthetic efficiency. A practical operational protocol for this "attached cultivation" method was investigated by studying the effects of inoculum density, light intensity, nitrogen quantity as well as medium volume on growth and astaxanthin accumulation. Results indicated the optimized inoculum density and light intensity were 10 g m(-2) and 100 ?mol m(-2)s(-1), respectively. The optimized nitrogen supply strategy was circulating ca. 30 L of BG-11 medium with initial sodium nitrate concentration of ca. 1.8mM for 1m(2) of cultivation surface. With this strategy, the maximum astaxanthin productivity reached ca. 160 mg m(-2)d(-1) which is much higher than many other indoor researches. Both of the red and green cells were found in the biofilm with red cells on the top. PMID:24632411

Zhang, Wenduo; Wang, Junfeng; Wang, Jialin; Liu, Tianzhong

2014-04-01

286

“Concerted cultivation” and unequal achievement in elementary school  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used ECLS-K data for White first graders in 1999 to quantitatively test Lareau’s [Lareau, Annette, 2003. Unequal Childhoods: Class, Race, and Family Life. University of California Press, Berkeley] theory of the role played by parental concerted cultivation as a mediator of the positive effect of parental SES on children’s school achievement. We measured concerted cultivation using a scale of

Katerina Bodovski; George Farkas

2008-01-01

287

Mindfulness: A Way of Cultivating Deep Respect for Emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The practice of mindfulness affords individuals a way of cultivating deep respect for, rather than avoiding, emotions. Cultivating\\u000a a deep respect for emotions means appreciating and honoring what is unfolding moment by moment. When one nourishes whatever\\u000a emotion arises, one greets it as an honored guest with an important message to deliver, rather than an enemy to contend with.\\u000a In

Belinda Siew Luan Khong; Luan Khong

2011-01-01

288

Antiquity of the Cultivation and Use of Brinjal in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cultivation and use of brinjal (eggplant\\/aubergine) is of great antiquity. It is from India, as philological studies indicate, that brinjal moved to West Asia and Europe. The early inhibitions to its consumption by certain population groups could be because of the suspicion of the presence of anti-nutritional\\/poisonous substances. One of the unique varieties of brinjal, Mattu gulla, cultivated for

Ramesh V Bhat; S Vasanthi

289

Continuous microalgae cultivation in a photobioreactor.  

PubMed

New biomass sources for alternative fuels has become a subject of increasing importance as the nation strives to resolve the economic and strategic impacts of limited fossil fuel resources on our national security, environment, and global climate. Algae are among the most promising non-food-crop-based biomass feedstocks. However, there are currently no commercially viable microalgae-based production systems for biofuel production that have been developed, as limitations include less-than optimal oil content, growth rates, and cultivation techniques. While batch studies are critical for determining basic growth phases and characteristics of the algal species, steady-state studies are necessary to better understand and measure the specific growth parameters. This study evaluated the effects of dilution rate on microalgal biomass productivity, lipid content, and fatty acid profile under steady-state conditions with continuous illumination and carbon dioxide supplemention for two types of algae. Continuous cultures were conducted for more that 3 months. Our results show that the productivity of Chlorella minutissima varied from 39 to 137 mg/L/day (dry mass) when the dilution rate varied from 0.08 to 0.64 day(-1). The biomass productivity of C. minutissima reached a maximum value (137 mg/L/day) at a dilution rate of 0.33 day(-1), while the productivity of Dunaliella tertiolecta varied from 46 to 91 mg/L/day at a dilution rate of 0.17 to 0.74 day(-1). The biomass productivity of D. tertiolecta reached a maximum value of 91 mg/L/day at a dilution rate of 0.42 day(-1). Moreover, the lipid content had no significant change with various dilution rates. PMID:22488253

Tang, Haiying; Chen, Meng; Ng, K Y Simon; Salley, Steven O

2012-10-01

290

[Nondestructive recognization of mountain cultivated ginseng and garden cultivated ginseng by FTIR microspectroscopy].  

PubMed

Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy technology is the combination of the FTIR spectrometer and the microscope. This technology is of simple preparation of the samples, can be used in micro-area analysis and micro-samples, and reflect the nature of the samples spectra. Panax ginseng include mountain cultivated ginseng (MCG), garden cultivated ginseng (GCG) and mountain wild ginseng (MWG), but the excavation of MWG is prohibited in China. So, only MCG and GCG were collected and recorded in Chinese pharmacopoeia. In this study, we developed a discriminant analysis (DA) method for recognition of MCG and GCG using FTIR microspectroscopy technology. Twenty MCG samples and twenty four GCG samples were obtained, and their spectra of IR microspectroscopy were collected. Then 33 samples were randomly selected into calibration set and the remaining 11 of the samples were selected into validation set. The authors optimized the pretreatment method, the principal components, the modeling region and the scanning parts when developing the models. The optimized model of discriminant analysis was developed using the pretreatment multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) + Savitzky-Golay filter (SG) smoothing, the region 3 932.14-669.18 cm(-1), 4 principal components and the rhizome part. The accuracy of the optimized model got up to 100%. The result demonstrated that infrared microspectroscopy technology combined with DA is of simple operation, rapid, nondestructive and effective, and can be applied to recognize MCG and GCG. PMID:24555374

Bu, Hai-Bo; Wang, Feng; Lin, Hong-Ying; Guo, Zhi-Yong; Yuan, Shao-Xiong; Pan, Li-Li; Xu, Xiao-Jia; Li, Xiang-Ri; Wang, Gang-Li; Lin, Rui-Chao

2013-11-01

291

Cultivating liver cells on printed arrays of hepatocyte growth factor Caroline N. Jones a  

E-print Network

Cultivating liver cells on printed arrays of hepatocyte growth factor Caroline N. Jones a , Nazgul cultivation experiments in order to provide signals for cellular proliferation or differentiation. In contrast compared to cells cultivated on ECM proteins alone. In addition, cultivation of hepatocytes on HGF

Revzin, Alexander

292

Bacterial Community Dynamics in the Marine Sponge Rhopaloeides odorabile Under In Situ and Ex Situ Cultivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultivation of sponges is being explored to supply biomaterial for the pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries. This study\\u000a assesses the impact of various cultivation methods on the microbial community within the sponge Rhopaloeides odorabile during: (1) in situ cultivation under natural environmental conditions, (2) ex situ cultivation in small flow-through aquaria\\u000a and (3) ex situ cultivation in large mesocosm systems. Principal

Nicole S. Webster; Rose E. Cobb; Rochelle Soo; Shelley L. Anthony; Christopher N. Battershill; Steve Whalan; Elizabeth Evans-Illidge

2011-01-01

293

Membrane technology in microalgae cultivation and harvesting: a review.  

PubMed

Membrane processes have long been applied in different stages of microalgae cultivation and processing. These processes include microfiltration, ultrafiltration, dialysis, forward osmosis, membrane contactors and membrane spargers. They are implemented in many combinations, both as a standalone and as a coupled system (in membrane biomass retention photobioreactors (BR-MPBRs) or membrane carbonation photobioreactors (C-MPBRs). To provide sufficient background on these applications, an overview of membrane materials and membrane processes of interest in microalgae cultivation and processing is provided in this work first. Afterwards, discussion about specific aspects of membrane applications in microbial cultivation and harvesting is provided, including membrane fouling. Many of the membrane processes were shown to be promising options in microalgae cultivation. Yet, significant process optimizations are still required when they are applied to enable microalgae biomass bulk production to become competitive as a raw material for biofuel production. Recent developments of the coupled systems (BR-MPBR and C-MPBR) bring significant promises to improve the volumetric productivity of a cultivation system and the efficiency of inorganic carbon capture, respectively. PMID:25109678

Bilad, M R; Arafat, Hassan A; Vankelecom, Ivo F J

2014-11-15

294

Transcriptome profiling reveals mosaic genomic origins of modern cultivated barley.  

PubMed

The domestication of cultivated barley has been used as a model system for studying the origins and early spread of agrarian culture. Our previous results indicated that the Tibetan Plateau and its vicinity is one of the centers of domestication of cultivated barley. Here we reveal multiple origins of domesticated barley using transcriptome profiling of cultivated and wild-barley genotypes. Approximately 48-Gb of clean transcript sequences in 12 Hordeum spontaneum and 9 Hordeum vulgare accessions were generated. We reported 12,530 de novo assembled transcripts in all of the 21 samples. Population structure analysis showed that Tibetan hulless barley (qingke) might have existed in the early stage of domestication. Based on the large number of unique genomic regions showing the similarity between cultivated and wild-barley groups, we propose that the genomic origin of modern cultivated barley is derived from wild-barley genotypes in the Fertile Crescent (mainly in chromosomes 1H, 2H, and 3H) and Tibet (mainly in chromosomes 4H, 5H, 6H, and 7H). This study indicates that the domestication of barley may have occurred over time in geographically distinct regions. PMID:25197090

Dai, Fei; Chen, Zhong-Hua; Wang, Xiaolei; Li, Zefeng; Jin, Gulei; Wu, Dezhi; Cai, Shengguan; Wang, Ning; Wu, Feibo; Nevo, Eviatar; Zhang, Guoping

2014-09-16

295

Transcriptome profiling reveals mosaic genomic origins of modern cultivated barley  

PubMed Central

The domestication of cultivated barley has been used as a model system for studying the origins and early spread of agrarian culture. Our previous results indicated that the Tibetan Plateau and its vicinity is one of the centers of domestication of cultivated barley. Here we reveal multiple origins of domesticated barley using transcriptome profiling of cultivated and wild-barley genotypes. Approximately 48-Gb of clean transcript sequences in 12 Hordeum spontaneum and 9 Hordeum vulgare accessions were generated. We reported 12,530 de novo assembled transcripts in all of the 21 samples. Population structure analysis showed that Tibetan hulless barley (qingke) might have existed in the early stage of domestication. Based on the large number of unique genomic regions showing the similarity between cultivated and wild-barley groups, we propose that the genomic origin of modern cultivated barley is derived from wild-barley genotypes in the Fertile Crescent (mainly in chromosomes 1H, 2H, and 3H) and Tibet (mainly in chromosomes 4H, 5H, 6H, and 7H). This study indicates that the domestication of barley may have occurred over time in geographically distinct regions. PMID:25197090

Dai, Fei; Chen, Zhong-Hua; Wang, Xiaolei; Li, Zefeng; Jin, Gulei; Wu, Dezhi; Cai, Shengguan; Wang, Ning; Wu, Feibo; Nevo, Eviatar; Zhang, Guoping

2014-01-01

296

Investigations of methane emissions from rice cultivation in Indian context.  

PubMed

The increasing demand of the growing population requires enhancement in the production of rice. This has a direct bearing on the global environment since the rice cultivation is one of the major contributors to the methane emissions. As the rice cultivation is intensified with the current practices and technologies, the methane fluxes from paddy fields will substantially rise. Improved high yielding rice varieties together with efficient cultivation techniques will certainly contribute to the curtailment of the methane emission fluxes. In this paper, the system dynamic approach is used for estimating the methane emissions from rice fields in India till the year 2020. Mitigation options studied for curtailing the methane emissions include rice production management, use of low methane emitting varieties of rice, water management and fertilizer amendment. The model is validated quantitatively and sensitivity tests are carried out to examine the robustness of the model. PMID:15788188

Anand, Shalini; Dahiya, R P; Talyan, Vikash; Vrat, Prem

2005-05-01

297

Phytoremediation potential of Solanum nigrum L. under different cultivation protocols.  

PubMed

In this study, Solanum nigrum L. was used as a hyperaccumulator for remediation of cadmium contaminated soil, and 3 different cultivation protocols were investigated. The results showed that a double cropping treatment enhanced the phytoremediation efficiency significantly, since it increased the amount of Cd extracted in one growing season by a factor of 1.62 compared to single cropping. However, the labor cost for double cropping was twice that of single cropping. If the time consumed is considered as a cost of phytoremediation, the double cropping treatment might be considered as an effective and economic cultivation protocol by reducing the overall time required to reach the targeted soil quality. PMID:23778778

Qu, Guangzhou; Tong, Yan'an; Gao, Pengcheng; Zhao, Zuoping; Song, Xueying; Ji, Puhui

2013-09-01

298

Osteoradionecrosis contains a wide variety of cultivable and non-cultivable bacteria  

PubMed Central

Background Direct microscopy, anaerobic culture and DNA–DNA hybridization have previously demonstrated an association between microorganisms and osteoradionecrosis (ORN). The purpose of our study was to use culture independent molecular techniques to detect bacteria in necrotic bone lesions of the mandible after radiation therapy. Design Bacterial DNA was extracted from eight deep medullar specimens from resected mandibles (six cases), including one patient with relapse. 16S rRNA genes were PCR amplified, cloned, transformed into Escherichia coli and sequenced to determine species identity and closest relatives. Results From the analysis of 438 clones, 59 predominant species were detected, 27% of which have not been cultivated. The predominant species detected from radionecrotic mandibles were Campylobacter gracilis, Streptococcus intermedius, Peptostreptococcus sp. oral clone FG014, uncultured bacterium clone RL178, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Prevotella spp. The study demonstrated intersubject variability of the bacteria present in ORN. In contrast to the diverse bacterial profile detected in primary infection, only a few members of the oral indigenous flora were identified from the relapse case. Conclusions Diverse bacterial profiles in specimens of ORN in marrow spaces of the mandible were detected by culture independent molecular techniques. To better understand the pathogenesis and to improve the therapy of the infection, detection of all members of the complex bacterial flora associated with ORN is necessary. PMID:21523230

Aas, J?rn A.; Reime, Lars; Pedersen, Kjetil; Eribe, Emenike R.K.; Abesha-Belay, Emnet; St?re, Geir; Olsen, Ingar

2010-01-01

299

ORIGINAL PAPER Genetic diversity and population structure in cultivated sunflower  

E-print Network

to its wild progenitor, Helianthus annuus L J. R. Mandel · J. M. Dechaine · L. F. Marek · J. M. Burke of the primary gene pool of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) based on a broad sampling of 433 cultivated diversity present within the primary gene pool of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) based on a broad sampling

Burke, John M.

300

Status and Cultivation of Sandalwood in India1  

E-print Network

Status and Cultivation of Sandalwood in India1 Shobha N. Ral2 Abstract: Sandalwood (Santalum album increment of 1 kg per year. The sandalwood resource in India is currently threatened by four factors: fire was intro- duced in India from Timor Island of Indonesia. But sandalwood has such inextricable links

Standiford, Richard B.

301

CRIS: a test cultivation program for sequential VLSI circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses a novel approach to cultivating a test for combinational and sequential VLSI circuits described hierarchically at the transistor, gate, and higher levels. The approach is based on continuous mutation of a given input sequence and on analyzing the mutated vectors for selecting the test set. The approach uses hierarchical simulation technique in the analysis to drastically reduce

Daniel G. Saab; Youssef G. Saab; Jacob A. Abraham

1992-01-01

302

Do Specialized MBA Programs Cultivate Alumni Relationships and Donations?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recent trend among universities shifts from traditional MBA programs to specialized MBA offerings. Specialized programs are believed to cultivate stronger relationships with students, which lead to stronger alumni relationships and increased donations. This research tests this empirically by examining relationship perceptions and donation…

Johnson, Jennifer Wiggins; Thomas, Veronica; Peck, Joann

2010-01-01

303

Production of recombinant protein therapeutics in cultivated mammalian cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultivated mammalian cells have become the dominant system for the production of recombinant proteins for clinical applications because of their capacity for proper protein folding, assembly and post-translational modification. Thus, the quality and efficacy of a protein can be superior when expressed in mammalian cells versus other hosts such as bacteria, plants and yeast. Recently, the productivity of mammalian cells

Florian M Wurm

2004-01-01

304

Babesia bovis: Continuous Cultivation in a Microaerophilous Stationary Phase Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protozoan parasite Babesia bovis, a causative agent of bovine babesiosis, has been continuously cultivated in a settled layer of bovine erythrocytes. Lowered oxygen tension within the layer of host erythrocytes results in a darkening of infected cultures and provides a rapid means of evaluating parasite growth. Deprivation of carbon dioxide causes the merozoites to accumulate in the medium rather

Michael G. Levy; Miodrag Ristic

1980-01-01

305

What's the Next Step: Cultivating Relationships with Native American Peoples  

E-print Network

What's the Next Step: Cultivating Relationships with Native American Peoples Abstract The Native of NAGPRA. A project was devised to bring more interaction between SDAM and Native American peoples. Phase one included a reorganization that better emphasizes the diversity of Native American peoples

Rock, Chris

306

New Strategies for Cultivation and Detection of Previously Uncultured Microbes  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrative approach was used to obtain pure cultures of previously uncultivated members of the divi- sions Acidobacteria and Verrucomicrobia from agricultural soil and from the guts of wood-feeding termites. Some elements of the cultivation procedure included the following: the use of agar media with little or no added nutrients; relatively long periods of incubation (more than 30 days); protection

Bradley S. Stevenson; Stephanie A. Eichorst; John T. Wertz; Thomas M. Schmidt; John A. Breznak

2004-01-01

307

Cultivating Flourishing Lives: A Robust Social Justice Vision of Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented at AERA 2010 as the Social Justice Award Lecture, this article calls attention to the purposes of education in the 21st century and the need for a robust, social justice vision of education. Here, it is argued that education is about the cultivation of a flourishing life and not only the narrow preparation for employment. To realize…

Grant, Carl A.

2012-01-01

308

Television News and the Cultivation of Fear of Crime  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why has the public persisted in believing that violent crime is a widespread na- tional problem in the U.S. despite declining trends in crime and the fact that crime is concentrated in urban locations? Cultivation theory suggests that widespread fear of crime is fueled in part by heavy exposure to violent dramatic programming on prime-time television. Here we explore a

Daniel Romer; Kathleen Hall Jamieson; Sean Aday

2003-01-01

309

Cultivating Critical-Thinking Dispositions throughout the Business Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Critical thinking is an essential component of managerial literacy, yet business school graduates struggle to apply critical-thinking skills at work to the level that employers desire. This article argues for a dispositional approach to teaching critical thinking, rooted in cultivating a critical-thinking culture. We suggest a two-pronged approach…

Bloch, Janel; Spataro, Sandra E.

2014-01-01

310

Teaching Design of Cultivating Nursing Students' Creative Thinking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chinese nursing education levels have developed fast over the past few years. Many nursing educators are devoted to the research of nursing teaching. How to cultivate nursing students, creative thinking is one of the principle researches and has received increasing attention. In the course of nursing teaching, we renewed the teaching design based…

Xi-wen, Liu; Chun-ping, Ni; Rui, Yang; Xiu-chuan, Li; Cheng, Cheng

2007-01-01

311

Kant and Rawls on the Cultivation of Virtue  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In "Two Conceptions of Virtue," Thomas Hill reconstructs the conceptions of virtue, and of proper moral upbringing, found in Kant and Rawls. Here I offer some brief reflections on these conceptions of virtue and its cultivation. I argue that Kant's conception of virtue is grounded in a mistaken conception of desire, and that this…

Brewer, Talbot

2013-01-01

312

Cultivation of Gracilaria in outdoor tanks and ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review deals with the major problems of unattached Gracilaria intensive cultivation in outdoor tanks and ponds. These problems are presented through the main variables affecting the Gracilaria annual yield and the updated solutions evolved. The physical variables include tank and pond structure, seawater characteristics\\u000a such as velocity, agitation practice, exchange rate, and salinity, light characteristics such as quantity and

M. Friedlander; I. Levy

1995-01-01

313

Reflecting on Cultivating New Voices among Scholars of Color  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A member of the first cohort of Cultivating New Voices among Scholars of Color (CNV) and now its director, the author details the importance of fostering the work of scholars of color. As recognized by CNV, the presence and scholarship of scholars of color are essential, especially in public debates on education, advocacy, and social (in)justice.…

Kinloch, Valerie

2011-01-01

314

Agroforestry pathways for the intensification of shifting cultivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a system of land use which entails the deliberate association of trees with herbaceous field crops in time, shifting cultivation is one of the most ancient, widespread and, until recently, ecologically stable forms of agroforestry. However, under pressure of population and competing uses for land and labour, traditional swidden systems have been observed historically to undergo more or less

J. B. Raintree; K. Warner

1986-01-01

315

Cultivating Empathy for the Mentally Ill Using Simulated Auditory Hallucinations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The authors address the issue of cultivating medical students' empathy for the mentally ill by examining medical student empathy pre- and postsimulated auditory hallucination experience. Methods: At the University of Utah, 150 medical students participated in this study during their 6-week psychiatry rotation. The Jefferson Scale of…

Bunn, William; Terpstra, Jan

2009-01-01

316

Cultivating the Possible: A Tribute to Harry Judge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When he arrived in Oxford in the early 1970s, Harry Judge and this author were already good friends. They had spent a lot of time talking about their respective concerns--the author on how "mind" should be conceived, and Judge on how and by whom "mind" should be cultivated in the educational process. The author believed then that schools should…

Bruner, Jerome

2008-01-01

317

THE DISTRIBUTION OF CACAO CULTIVATION IN PRE-COLUMBIAN AMERICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the eve of the Spanish conquest aboriginal cacao cultivation extended from the two coasts of central Mexico to Costa Rica. Although the districts of greatest production were located within the Maya language areas of southern Mexico and Pacific Guatemala-El Salvador, a large and increasing market for cacao lay in the Nahua language areas of highland Mexico. To this area

JOHN F. BERGMANN

1969-01-01

318

The wild genetic resources of cultivated lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven wild Lactuca species: L. serriola L., L. aculeata Boiss. & Ky., L. scarioloides Boiss., L. azerbaijanica Rech., L. georgica Grossh., L. dregeana DC. and L. altaica Fisch. & C.A. Mey., are taxonomically closely related to the cultivated lettuce. Together with L. sativa they form a distinct natural group. Only scanty information is available on genetic affinities among the various

Daniel Zohary

1991-01-01

319

Triple hybridization with cultivated barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A crossing programme for trispecific hybridization including cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) as the third parent was carried out. The primary hybrids comprised 11 interspecific combinations, each of which had either H. jubatum or H. lechleri as one of the parents. The second parent represented species closely or distantly related to H. jubatum and H. lechleri. In trispecific crosses with

R. von Bothmer; L. Claesson; J. Flink; I. Linde-Laursen

1989-01-01

320

Can feral weeds evolve from cultivated radish (Raphanus sativus, Brassicaceae)?  

PubMed

Cultivated plants that cannot survive on their own often have maladaptive domestication traits. Unharvested crop seeds may generate feral populations, at times causing serious weed problems, but little is known about the evolution of ferality. We explored the potential for cultivated radish, Raphanus sativus, to become feral, given that closely related taxa (e.g., R. raphanistrum and crop-wild hybrids) are well-documented weeds. First, we measured the population growth of five experimental, cultivated, self-seeding radish populations in Michigan, USA, for three generations. Three late-flowering populations went extinct, and two others apparently hybridized with local R. raphanistrum. A common garden experiment showed that the two surviving populations had earlier flowering, smaller root diameters, and greater individual fecundity than did nonhybridized populations. We also used artificial selection to measure the evolutionary potential for earlier flowering. After two generations of strong selection, two of three lineages flowered earlier and produced more seeds than control lineages, but insufficient genetic variation prevented dramatic evolution of crop phenotypes. In summary, it seems unlikely that radishes could spontaneously become feral in our study area without gene flow from R. raphanistrum. Applying these approaches to other cultivated species may provide a better understanding of mechanisms promoting the evolution of feral weeds. PMID:21628205

Campbell, Lesley G; Snow, Allison A

2009-02-01

321

European hemp industry: Cultivation, processing and product lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Two fibre plants are under cultivation in the European Union – flax on approximately 125,000 ha and hemp on approximately 15,500 ha in the year 2004. Seeds, hurds and especially fibres of hemp are used for further processing. The most important markets for hemp fibres produced in the EU are pulp and paper and the automotive industry. Just under

Michael Karus; Dominik Vogt

2004-01-01

322

Cultivating Self in the Context of Transformative Professional Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the author combines insights from ethnography and discourse analysis to examine how a model of selfhood was cultivated through the social practices of a transformative professional development program for urban public school leaders. Participants were introduced to the notion of an inner self that is knowing, vulnerable, and…

Jurow, A. Susan

2009-01-01

323

Sharing and Cultivating Tacit Knowledge in an Online Learning Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on knowledge cultivation often focuses on explicit forms of knowledge. However, knowledge can also take a tacit form--a form that is often difficult or impossible to tease out, even when it is considered critical in an educational context. A review of the literature revealed that few studies have examined tacit knowledge issues in online…

Tee, Meng Yew; Karney, Dennis

2010-01-01

324

Allelopathy as a potential strategy to improve microalgae cultivation.  

PubMed

One of the main obstacles for continuous productivity in microalgae cultivation is the presence of biological contaminants capable of eliminating large numbers of cells in a matter of days or even hours. However, a number of strategies are being used to combat and prevent contamination in microalgae cultivation. These strategies include the use of extreme conditions in the culture media such as high salinity and high pH to create an unfavorable environment for the competitive organisms or predators of the microalgae. Numerous studies have explored the potential of naturally occurring bioactive secondary metabolites, which are natural products from plants and microorganisms, as a source of such compounds. Some of these compounds are herbicides, and marine and freshwater microalgae are a source of these compounds. Microalgae produce a remarkable diversity of biologically active metabolites. Results based on the allelopathic potential of algae have only been described for laboratory-scale production and not for algae cultivation on a pilot scale. The adoption of allelopathy on microalgal strains is an unexplored field and may be a novel solution to improve algae production. Here we present information showing the diversity of allelochemicals from microalgae and the use of an allelopathic approach to control microalgae cultivation on a pilot scale based on R&D activities being carried out in Brazil for biodiesel production. PMID:24499580

Bacellar Mendes, Leonardo Brantes; Vermelho, Alane Beatriz

2013-01-01

325

Cultivation of Cannabis sativa L. in northern Morocco  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field studies on cannabis cultivation have provided socio-economic data relating to, inter alia, production, yield and income. But only laboratory analyses of cannabis plants can provide information on their chemical composition and their levels of psychoactive constituents, thus enabling them to be classed as a drug type or a fibre type. The present study, which covers cannabis in its fresh,

H. Stambouli; A. El Bouri; M. A. Bellimam; T. Bouayoun; N. El Karni

326

Transplantable cultivated mucosal epithelial sheet for ocular surface reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ocular surface reconstruction by tissue engineering using somatic stem cells is a second-generation therapeutic modality. In view of future treatment of bilaterally affected, severe ocular surface disorders, two types of transplantable cultivated mucosal epithelial sheets can be used for reconstruction. One is an allogeneic corneal epithelial stem cell sheet, and the other is an autologous oral mucosal epithelial cell sheet.

Shigeru Kinoshita; Noriko Koizumi; Takahiro Nakamura

2004-01-01

327

Patterns of allozyme variation in cultivated and wild Sorghum bicolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patterns of allozyme variation were surveyed in collections of cultivated and wild sorghum from Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. Data for 30 isozyme loci from a total of 2067 plants representing 429 accessions were analyzed. Regional levels of genetic diversity in the cultivars are greater in northern and central Africa compared to southern Africa, the Middle East, or Asia.

P. R. Aldrich; J. Doebley; K. F. Schertz; A. Stec

1992-01-01

328

The Implications of Survey Method for Measuring Cultivation Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The magnitude of the cultivation effect for perceptual estimates of social reality has been shown to be affected by a number of contextual factors such as source priming and motivation to process information during judgment construction, and these contextual factors have been linked to the use of heuristic processing strategies when constructing…

Shrum, L. J.

2007-01-01

329

A simple and inexpensive method of solid-state cultivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A simple and inexpensive procedure is described for the solid-state cultivation of fungi in plastic bags. This procedure, which provides for aeration, humidification and temperature control, may be used for extracellular enzyme production or upgrading of agricultural residues. It should be especially useful where resources are limited.

P. J. Considine; R. J. Buckley; T. O. Griffin; M. G. Tuohy; M. P. Coughlan

1989-01-01

330

Mystic Chords of Memory: Cultivating America's Unique Form of Patriotism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the history of U.S. patriotism, asserting that anchored though it is to a set of ideas, there are unique challenges to educating patriots. Suggests the importance of telling the nation's stories through civics education. Explains that patriotism is cultivated when students learn about democratic values, people and events shaping the…

Berns, Walter

2002-01-01

331

Wanted: Information on the Distribution of Cultivated Plants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lack of documentation makes it very difficult to discover where species of cultivated plants may be found in the United States. Plead for compilation of "campus floras and herbarium collections. Need for a rational locator file of available plant materials. Lists and reviews present sources of information. Bibliography of campus floras. (EB)

Howard, Richard A.

1970-01-01

332

Allelopathy as a potential strategy to improve microalgae cultivation  

PubMed Central

One of the main obstacles for continuous productivity in microalgae cultivation is the presence of biological contaminants capable of eliminating large numbers of cells in a matter of days or even hours. However, a number of strategies are being used to combat and prevent contamination in microalgae cultivation. These strategies include the use of extreme conditions in the culture media such as high salinity and high pH to create an unfavorable environment for the competitive organisms or predators of the microalgae. Numerous studies have explored the potential of naturally occurring bioactive secondary metabolites, which are natural products from plants and microorganisms, as a source of such compounds. Some of these compounds are herbicides, and marine and freshwater microalgae are a source of these compounds. Microalgae produce a remarkable diversity of biologically active metabolites. Results based on the allelopathic potential of algae have only been described for laboratory-scale production and not for algae cultivation on a pilot scale. The adoption of allelopathy on microalgal strains is an unexplored field and may be a novel solution to improve algae production. Here we present information showing the diversity of allelochemicals from microalgae and the use of an allelopathic approach to control microalgae cultivation on a pilot scale based on R&D activities being carried out in Brazil for biodiesel production. PMID:24499580

2013-01-01

333

Computer as Chalk Cultivating and Sustaining Communities of Youth  

E-print Network

Interfaces Amon Millner B.S. Computer Science, University of Southern California, 2001 M.S. Human Computer ______________________________________________________________________ Certified by Mitchel Resnick LEGO Papert Professor of Learning Research Program in Media Arts and Sciences, cultivated future facilitators and supported their successors. Dissertation Supervisor: Mitchel Resnick Title

334

Self-Cultivation: Culturally Sensitive Psychotherapies in Confucian Societies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes self-cultivation practices originating from the cultural traditions of Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism. It delineates the therapeutic implications of the three states of self pursued by these three traditions: namely, the "relational self", the "authentic self", and the "nonself". Several psychotherapy techniques derived…

Hwang, Kwang-Kuo; Chang, Jeffrey

2009-01-01

335

Numerical simulation for electrochemical cultivation of iron oxidizing bacteria.  

PubMed

A numerical simulation model was constructed for electrochemical cultivation of iron oxidizing bacterium, Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, based on Monod's dual limitation equation. In this model, two limiting factors were examined, low supply of Fe(II) ion and dissolved oxygen, from empirical viewpoints. The simulation model was constructed taking into consideration the energy balance based on the amount of the electronic flow from the electrode to bacteria via an iron ion, and then to oxygen. The model consisted of a logarithmic bacterial growth phase during the first three days, followed by a plateau and growth limitation thereafter. The predicted results were in agreement with the actual growth under electrochemical cultivation. It was predicted the growth limiting factor would be changed from insufficient supply of Fe(II) ions to that of oxygen by decreasing the value of oxygen transfer constant K, which correlated with the aeration rate. The optimum aeration rate was determined for the ideal electrochemical cultivation. The algorithm described here can be used in any electrochemical cultivation by modifying the parameters for each system. PMID:11857276

Matsumoto, Norio; Yoshinaga, Hisao; Ohmura, Naoya; Ando, Akikazu; Saiki, Hiroshi

2002-04-01

336

Establishment and Management of the Cultivated Lowbush Blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultivated blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum and V. virgatum) have been propagated and planted successfully throughout the world. The lowbush blueberry (V. angustifolium and V. myrtilloides) have large areas of production in the state of Maine in the United States and in the Atlantic and Quebec Provinces in Canada on managed naturally occurring native stands. Except for some small demonstration plantings in

D. E. Yarborough

2012-01-01

337

Cable and the role of program distribution in media cultivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the 1960s social scientists have demonstrated that exposure to television programming correlates with certain beliefs about the world that differ from statistical measures that define reality. Much of this research on the role of television in socialization, known as media cultivation, was conducted during a time in American history when television programming was dominated by three networks and distributed

Christina Leigh Nelson

2000-01-01

338

Cultivating clean energy in Mali: policy analysis and livelihood impacts of Jatropha curcas  

E-print Network

Cultivating clean energy in Mali: policy analysis and livelihood impacts of Jatropha curcas Nicola;3 Cultivating clean energy in Mali: policy analysis and livelihood impacts of Jatropha curcas © Nicola Favretto

Mound, Jon

339

Cultivation of Cannabis sativa L. in northern Morocco.  

PubMed

Field studies on cannabis cultivation have provided socio-economic data relating to, inter alia, production, yield and income. But only laboratory analyses of cannabis plants can provide information on their chemical composition and their levels of psychoactive constituents, thus enabling them to be classed as a drug type or a fibre type. The present study, which covers cannabis in its fresh, dried and powdered forms, drew on fresh samples, obtained on the day they were harvested or immediately after preparation; that was done in order to prevent any alteration in the A-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) caused by the oxidation that takes place as the product ages. The purpose of this study is to determine the THC level in 245 specimens obtained from 30 cannabis plots in three provinces of northern Morocco: Al Hoceima and Chefchaouen, where cannabis cultivation has a long tradition, and Larache, where cannabis cultivation has started only recently. Qualitative analysis using high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection revealed the presence of both the acid and the decarboxylated form of the main cannabinoids, cannabidiol, THC and cannabinol, and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used for the characterization of minor cannibinoids. Quantitative analysis using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry made it possible to determine the average delta-9-THC content of cannabis in its fresh form (0.5 per cent), its dry form (2.21 per cent) and its powdered form (8.3 per cent). The results show that the traditional areas of cannabis cultivation--Al Hoceima and Chefchaouen--produce cannabis with a higher delta-9-THC content than the Larache region. In addition, the present study establishes that male plants, often considered deficient in delta-9-THC, contain levels of the same order as those recorded for female plants, both in the leaves and in the tops. PMID:21338017

Stambouli, H; El Bouri, A; Bellimam, M A; Bouayoun, T; El Karni, N

2005-01-01

340

Taxonomy of cultivated potatoes (Solanum section Petota: Solanaceae)boj_1107 107..155  

E-print Network

Shifting cultivation in steeply sloped regions: a review of management options and research B.V. 2012 Abstract Shifting cultivation is a common agricul- tural practice that is the basis as to optimize the direction and quality of future science research on shifting cultivation in Mizoram. Our

Spooner, David

341

Shifting cultivation in steeply sloped regions: a review of management options and research priorities for Mizoram  

E-print Network

The Enigma of Solanum maglia in the Origin of the Chilean Cultivated Potato, Solanum tuberosum.spooner@ars.usda.gov The Enigma of Solanum maglia in the Origin of the Chilean Cultivated Potato, Solanum tuberosum Chilotanum cordillera, which is unsuitable for potato cultivation (Spooner et al. 2010), and we can only speculate how

Grogan, Paul

342

Cultiver la curiosit chez les jeunes 3me Rencontre de la Facult des Sciences  

E-print Network

Abstract Cultivated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) encompass a wide range of fruit shape and size · Interaction Introduction Tremendous variation in fruit morphology exists within cultivated tomato, cultivated tomato bears fruits which are much larger and display a variety of shapes: from round to elongated

Halazonetis, Thanos

343

Cultivation of maize landraces by small-scale shade coffee farmers in western El Salvador  

E-print Network

Cultivation of maize landraces by small-scale shade coffee farmers in western El Salvador Meryl through the on-farm cultivation of native land- races. This study empirically examined the factors landraces for milpa plots on more marginal land, and continue to cultivate landraces despite

Vermont, University of

344

Cultivating the Commons An Assessment of the Potential for Urban Agriculture on Oakland's Public Land  

E-print Network

i Cultivating the Commons An Assessment of the Potential for Urban Agriculture on Oakland's Public REVISED EDITION ­ December 2010 ! #12;#12;i Cultivating the Commons An Assessment of the Potential, #4740 Berkeley, CA 94720 Email: mcclintock@berkeley.edu Website: www.urbanfood.org #12;Cultivating

345

Taxonomy of cultivated potatoes (Solanum section Petota: Solanaceae)boj_1107 107..155  

E-print Network

127 American Journal of Botany 93(1): 127­133. 2006. CULTIVATED HELIANTHUS ANNUUS (ASTERACEAE cultivated and wild sunflower (both Helianthus annuus, Asteraceae) is well documented, but the role of seed of wild plants, normal volunteers, and off-type volunteers from Colorado were cultivated in a greenhouse

Spooner, David

346

Cultivation and grazing altered evapotranspiration and dynamics in Inner Mongolia steppes  

E-print Network

Cultivation and grazing altered evapotranspiration and dynamics in Inner Mongolia steppes Haixia of grassland in the semiarid region of southeastern Europe and Asia, crop cultivation and grazing represent. As for the effects of crop cultivation on ET, there have been a very limited number of reports. Burba and Verma (2005

Chen, Jiquan

347

THE CULTIVATION OF MARINE AND FRESH-WATER ANIMALS IN JAPAN.  

E-print Network

THE CULTIVATION OF MARINE AND FRESH-WATER ANIMALS IN JAPAN. By I'C. MITSUI'CURI, Ph. D., Professor. #12;THE CULTIVATION OF MARINE AND FRESH-WATER ANIMALS IN JAPAN.a By K. MITSUKURI, Ph. D.· Professor of 7,ooZO{/!/, Imperial Univer.9ity, Tokyo, Japan. While the pasturage of cattle and the cultivation

348

Cultivating the dry forests of South America: Diversity of land users and imprints on ecosystem functioning  

E-print Network

Cultivating the dry forests of South America: Diversity of land users and imprints on ecosystem May 2014 Available online xxx Keywords: Chiquitania Cultivation Dry Chaco Landscape pattern Rural and Chiquitania, the area under cultivation rose from 10% to 19% over the last 10 years, and little biophysical

Nacional de San Luis, Universidad

349

Controlling Invasive Species in Woodlots It is often difficult for landowners to cultivate  

E-print Network

Stable isotope models to predict geographic origin and cultivation conditions of marijuana Janet M and cultivation environment model predictions were 86% accurate for the blind specimens. We demonstrate here and cultivation practices [12­16]. Here we introduce and test two models to predict geographic region

New Hampshire, University of

350

INITIATION AND EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF FIBER IN WILD AND CULTIVATED COTTON  

E-print Network

INITIATION AND EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF FIBER IN WILD AND CULTIVATED COTTON Kara M. Butterworth,1.S.A. Cultivated cotton fiber has undergone transformation from short, coarse fibers found in progenitor wild in cultivated cotton may have facilitated both yield and uniformity of the crop. However, for the taxa

Wendel, Jonathan F.

351

Microcolony Cultivation on a Soil Substrate Membrane System Selects for Previously Uncultured Soil Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional microbiological methods of cultivation recover less than 1% of the total bacterial species, and the culturable portion of bacteria is not representative of the total phylogenetic diversity. Classical cultivation strategies are now known to supply excessive nutrients to a system and therefore select for fast-growing bacteria that are capable of colony or biofilm formation. New approaches to the cultivation

Belinda C. Ferrari; Svend J. Binnerup; Michael Gillings

2005-01-01

352

Indigenous floating cultivation: a sustainable agricultural practice in the wetlands of Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Floating-bed cultivation has proved a successful means to produce agricultural crops in various wetland areas of the world. In freshwater lakes and wetlands, vegetables, flowers, and seedlings are grown in Bangladesh using this floating cultivation technique, without any additional irrigation or chemical fertiliser. No detailed study of this indigenous cultivation technique has been published to date, although the laboratory method,

Tawhidul Islam; Peter Atkins

2007-01-01

353

A marine bacterium, Micrococcus MCCB 104, antagonistic to vibrios in prawn larval rearing systems.  

PubMed

A marine bacterium, Micrococcus MCCB 104, isolated from hatchery water, demonstrated extracellular antagonistic properties against Vibrio alginolyticus, V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus, V. fluviallis, V. nereis, V. proteolyticus, V. mediterranei, V cholerae and Aeromonas sp., bacteria associated with Macrobrachium rosenbergii larval rearing systems. The isolate inhibited the growth of V. alginolyticus during co-culture. The antagonistic component of the extracellular product was heat-stable and insensitive to proteases, lipase, catalase and alpha-amylase. Micrococcus MCCB 104 was demonstrated to be non-pathogenic to M. rosenbergii larvae. PMID:16465832

Jayaprakash, N S; Pai, S Somnath; Anas, A; Preetha, R; Philip, Rosamma; Singh, I S Bright

2005-12-30

354

Robust, small-scale cultivation platform for Streptomyces coelicolor  

PubMed Central

Background For fermentation process and strain improvement, where one wants to screen a large number of conditions and strains, robust and scalable high-throughput cultivation systems are crucial. Often, the time lag between bench-scale cultivations to production largely depends on approximate estimation of scalable physiological traits. Microtiter plate (MTP) based screening platforms have lately become an attractive alternative to shake flasks mainly because of the ease of automation. However, there are very few reports on applications for filamentous organisms; as well as efforts towards systematic validation of physiological behavior compared to larger scale are sparse. Moreover, available small-scale screening approaches are typically constrained by evaluating only an end point snapshot of phenotypes. Results To address these issues, we devised a robust, small-scale cultivation platform in the form of MTPs (24-square deepwell) for the filamentous bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor and compared its performance to that of shake flasks and bench-scale reactors. We observed that re-designing of medium and inoculum preparation recipes resulted in improved reproducibility. Process turnaround time was significantly reduced due to the reduction in number of unit operations from inoculum to cultivation. The incorporation of glass beads (ø 3 mm) in MTPs not only improved the process performance in terms of improved oxygen transfer improving secondary metabolite production, but also helped to transform morphology from pellet to disperse, resulting in enhanced reproducibility. Addition of MOPS into the medium resulted in pH maintenance above 6.50, a crucial parameter towards reproducibility. Moreover, the entire trajectory of the process was analyzed for compatibility with bench-scale reactors. The MTP cultivations were found to behave similar to bench-scale in terms of growth rate, productivity and substrate uptake rate and so was the onset of antibiotic synthesis. Shake flask cultivations however, showed discrepancy with respect to morphology and had considerably reduced volumetric production rates of antibiotics. Conclusion We observed good agreement of the physiological data obtained in the developed MTP platform with bench-scale. Hence, the described MTP-based screening platform has a high potential for investigation of secondary metabolite biosynthesis in Streptomycetes and other filamentous bacteria and the use may significantly reduce the workload and costs. PMID:22252012

2012-01-01

355

Hypersensitivity pneumonitis among workers cultivating Tricholoma conglobatum (shimeji).  

PubMed

We report five cases of hypersensitivity pneumonitis among workers cultivating Tricholoma conglobatum (shimeji). After having worked for 5 to 20 years, they began to notice symptoms of cough, sputum, and dyspnea. They were diagnosed as having a hypersensitivity pneumonitis based on clinical features, bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial lung biopsy. By the double immunodiffusion test, precipitating lines between shimeji spore antigen and sera were observed in all of the patients. By enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, the antibody activities against shimeji and three species of fungi (Cladosporium sphaerospermum, Penicillium frequentans, and Scopulariopsis species) were significantly higher in the sera of the patients than in those of normal subjects who were cultivating shimeji. Although it is not clear what causes this disease, these findings may be helpful in determining the specific antigen. PMID:10364747

Akizuki, N; Inase, N; Ishiwata, N; Jin, Y; Atarashi, K; Ichioka, M; Yoshizawa, Y; Marumo, F

1999-01-01

356

Cultivation of Chlorella pyrenoidosa in soybean processing wastewater.  

PubMed

Chlorella pyrenoidosa was cultivated in soybean processing wastewater (SPW) in batch and fed-batch cultures without a supply of additional nutrients. The alga was able to remove 77.8 ± 5.7%, 88.8 ± 1.0%, 89.1 ± 0.6% and 70.3 ± 11.4% of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD(Cr)), total nitrogen (TN), NH(4)(+)-N and total phosphate (TP), respectively, after 120 h in fed-batch culture. C. pyrenoidosa attained an average biomass productivity of 0.64 g L(-1)d(-1), an average lipid content of 37.00 ± 9.34%, and a high lipid productivity of 0.40 g L(-1)d(-1). Therefore, cultivation of C. pyrenoidosa in SPW could yield cleaner water and useful biomass. PMID:21911289

Hongyang, Su; Yalei, Zhang; Chunmin, Zhang; Xuefei, Zhou; Jinpeng, Li

2011-11-01

357

Cultivation of aerobic granules for polyhydroxybutyrate production from wastewater.  

PubMed

Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB)-rich aerobic granule was cultivated in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) under nitrogen deficient conditions by adapting a two-step strategy. In the first step the PHB-storage ability of activated sludge was enhanced by keeping both oxygen and ammonia at a low level. In the second step granular sludge was cultivated through adjusting sludge settling time. The matured PHB-rich granular sludge with a PHB content of 40 ± 4.6% and a high settling ability was successfully obtained. The analysis on sludge surface properties showed that the surface charge, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) content and the sludge hydrophobicity all increased significantly, while the surface energy of sludge decreased to a relatively steady state accompanied with the growth of granular sludge. This study demonstrates that the metabolism of intracellular storages induced microbial production of EPS, which favored the formation of aerobic granules. PMID:24703182

Wang, Jin; Li, Wen-Wei; Yue, Zheng-Bo; Yu, Han-Qing

2014-05-01

358

Fed-batch cultivation of Cellulomonas on sugarcane bagasse pith  

SciTech Connect

A high biomass concentration (19.9 g/L) was obtained with the fed-batch cultivation of Cellulomonas on pretreated sugarcane bagasse pith. Similar results in biomass concentration, yield, and substrate consumption were obtained with the discontinuous feed of bagasse as with discontinuous feed supplemented with a partial continuous addition of salts. Two or more growth phases were detected, probably caused by the differential utilization of bagasse components. An acceptably low content of bagasse components remained in the biomass after separation.

Rodriguez, H.; Enriquez, A.

1985-02-01

359

Essential Oil Composition of Agastache foeniculum Cultivated in Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation from the herb of Agastache foeniculum Pursh. cultivated in Iran. The oil content was 1.87% w\\/w based on dry weight. The oil was analyzed by capillary GC and GC\\/MS. Forty-six components were identified. Methyl chavicol constituted 87.5% of the oil. Other major components were limonene (2.4%), 1,8-cineole (2.0%) and globulol (1.4%).

R. Omidbaigi; F. Sefidkon

2003-01-01

360

Semi-continuous Cultivation of Haematococcus pluvialis for Commercial Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of the present study on the growth of Haematococcus pluvialis were to indicate the effects of a long-term semi-continuous cultivation, sterilization, carbon dioxide, and different culture\\u000a media by using artesian well water. This investigation was an enterprise in order to commercialize the production economically.\\u000a When the effect of CO2 was investigated in basal culture medium, the influence of

Esra Imamoglu; Meltem Conk Dalay; Fazilet Vardar Sukan

2010-01-01

361

POTENTIAL FOR GREENHOUSE AEROPONIC CULTIVATION OF MEDICINAL ROOT CROPS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The therapeutic use of medicinal plants such as Echinacea, ginseng and St. John's wort has gained widespread acceptance in North America in the last two decades. Aeroponic cultivation of medicinal plants have shown great potential for producing root yields that are cleaner, more uniform and faster maturing than can be obtained using conventional soil-based methods. Two pilot-scale commercial A-frame aeroponic

Christopher L. Pagliarulo; Anita L. Hayden

362

Escherichia coli growth and plasmid copy numbers in continuous cultivations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary AnEscherichia coli K-12 strain harbouring either the plasmid pBR322, or the recombinant plasmid pKTH1220, a 14 kb derivative of pBR322, or no plasmid was grown in a chemostat. The cultivations were continued for 300–400 bacterial generations.E. coli hosts harbouring pBR322 or no plasmid grew in a similar way, but the growth of the host containing the big recombinant plasmid

P. Reinikainen; I. Virkajärvi

1989-01-01

363

Piriformospora indica , a cultivable root endophyte with multiple biotechnological applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Piriformospora indica is a wide-host root-colonizing endophytic fungus which allows the plants to grow under extreme physical and nutrient stress.\\u000a The fungus can be cultivated on complex and minimal substrates. It belongs to the Sebacinales in Basidiomycota. P. indica has a vast geographical distribution and is reported from Asia, South America and Australia. The fungus is interesting for\\u000a basic research

Ralf Oelmüller; Irena Sherameti; Swati Tripathi; Ajit Varma

2009-01-01

364

Essential Oil Composition of Hypericum perforatum L. from Cultivated Source  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypericum perforatum L. (Hypericaceae) is the most commercially important species within the genus Hypericum. A wild strain was cultivated at Pothiwasa (2200 m), Uttarakhand, India. Aerial parts were collected (the upper two-thirds) during the flowering phenophase and used to extract the essential oil by means of a Clevenger-type apparatus. Forty compounds constituting 91.0% of the total volatile oil were identified

R. S. Chauhan; R. K. Vashistha; M. C. Nautiyal; A. Tava; R. Cecotti

2011-01-01

365

Environmental profile of paddy rice cultivation with different straw management.  

PubMed

Italy is the most important European country in terms of paddy rice production. North Italian districts such as Vercelli, Pavia, Novara, and Milano are known as some of the world's most advanced rice cultivation sites. In 2013 Italian rice cultivation represented about 50% of all European rice production by area, and paddy fields extended for over 216,000 ha. Cultivation of rice involves different agricultural activities which have environmental impacts mainly due to fossil fuels and agrochemical requirements as well as the methane emission associated with the fermentation of organic material in the flooded rice fields. In order to assess the environmental consequences of rice production in the District of Vercelli, the cultivation practices most frequently carried out were inventoried and evaluated. The general approach of this study was not only to gather the inventory data for rice production and quantify their environmental impacts, but also to identify the key environmental factors where special attention must be paid. Life Cycle Assessment methodology was applied in this study from a cradle-to-farm gate perspective. The environmental profile was analyzed in terms of seven different impact categories: climate change, ozone depletion, human toxicity, terrestrial acidification, freshwater eutrophication, marine eutrophication, and fossil depletion. Regarding straw management, two different scenarios (burial into the soil of the straw versus harvesting) were compared. The analysis showed that the environmental impact was mainly due to field emissions, the fuel consumption needed for the mechanization of field operations, and the drying of the paddy rice. The comparison between the two scenarios highlighted that the collection of the straw improves the environmental performance of rice production except that for freshwater eutrophication. To improve the environmental performance of rice production, solutions to save fossil fuel and reduce the emissions from fertilizers (leaching, volatilization) as well as methane emissions should be implemented. PMID:25038430

Fusi, Alessandra; Bacenetti, Jacopo; González-García, Sara; Vercesi, Annamaria; Bocchi, Stefano; Fiala, Marco

2014-10-01

366

Ocular surface reconstruction by cultivated epithelial sheet transplantation.  

PubMed

: Recent advances in ocular surface reconstruction for patients with severe ocular surface diseases have significantly improved the prognosis of patients with vision-impairing corneal abnormalities. The history of cultivated epithelial sheet transplantation is short, and debate on the current approaches for these procedures is continuing. Limbal stem cell transplantation, including conjunctivolimbal autograft and keratolimbal allograft, has brought opportunities for vision improvement. In addition, the use of cultivated limbal epithelial transplantation from both allogeneic and autologous sources has provided further options for immediate postoperative epithelialization of the corneal surface. Finally, cultivated oral mucosal epithelial transplantation, which allows autologous transplantation for patients with bilateral limbal stem cell deficiency, has provided the best overall midterm and long-term results. Its biggest advantages are the absence of rejection reactions and the reduction of postoperative complications associated with steroid therapy. However, a solitary surgical approach is not sufficient for obtaining a good clinical outcome. To maximize the possibility of success using these procedures, it is important to preoperatively enhance aggressive treatment of the ocular surface, especially with factors that facilitate moisture retention. In this review article, we also discuss our clinical experience in relation to these surgical procedures. PMID:25289723

Satake, Yoshiyuki; Yamaguchi, Takefumi; Hirayama, Masatoshi; Higa, Kazunari; Shimazaki-Den, Seika; Dogru, Murat; Kawakita, Tetsuya; Kawashima, Motoko; Shimmura, Shigeto; Tsubota, Kazuo; Shimazaki, Jun

2014-11-01

367

THE DIRECT CULTIVATION OF TREPONEMA PALLIDUM PATHOGENIC FOR THE MONKEY  

PubMed Central

A method for the direct cultivation of Treponema pallidum from human syphilitic lesions, by the employment of a solid medium, has been described. By means of it, three of the four strains worked with were successfully cultivated. The several pure cultures agree in morphological and cultural characters, grow only in the presence of sterile tissue under anaerobic conditions, and do not produce putrefactive odors. The morphology is typical under optimum cultural conditions; it becomes atypical when the conditions are unfavorable. In cultures, Treponema pallidum multiplies by longitudinal division. The process is usually symmetrical but occasionally appears to be asymmetrical. Inoculation of the pure cultures into the skin of two species of lower monkeys was followed by the production of lesions resembling the primary syphilitic lesion occurring in man and those caused in the monkey by inoculation of spirochætæ-containing serum from human sources. During the course of the positive inoculation in the monkey, the blood develops the property of giving a positive Wassermann reaction. Thus the relation of Treponema pallidum to this reaction is supported, and the identity of the cultivated strains with the species found in human syphilitic lesions established. PMID:19867508

Noguchi, Hideyo

1912-01-01

368

Semi-continuous cultivation of Haematococcus pluvialis for commercial production.  

PubMed

The objectives of the present study on the growth of Haematococcus pluvialis were to indicate the effects of a long-term semi-continuous cultivation, sterilization, carbon dioxide, and different culture media by using artesian well water. This investigation was an enterprise in order to commercialize the production economically. When the effect of CO(2) was investigated in basal culture medium, the influence of sterilization was also researched in Rudic's culture medium in vertical panel-type photobioreactors for 31 days of semi-continuous cultivation. The maximum cell concentration of 10.55 x 10(5) cells ml(-1), which corresponds to the growth rate of 0.271 day(-1) with the areal productivity of 3.531 g m(-2) day(-1), was found in non-sterilized RM medium on the 24th day of the third run of semi-continuous cultivation at a renewal rate of 50% in a vertical panel-type photobioreactor. PMID:19387568

Imamoglu, Esra; Dalay, Meltem Conk; Sukan, Fazilet Vardar

2010-03-01

369

Agricultural intensification and changes in cultivated areas, 1970-2005  

PubMed Central

Does the intensification of agriculture reduce cultivated areas and, in so doing, spare some lands by concentrating production on other lands? Such sparing is important for many reasons, among them the enhanced abilities of released lands to sequester carbon and provide other environmental services. Difficulties measuring the extent of spared land make it impossible to investigate fully the hypothesized causal chain from agricultural intensification to declines in cultivated areas and then to increases in spared land. We analyze the historical circumstances in which rising yields have been accompanied by declines in cultivated areas, thereby leading to land-sparing. We use national-level United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization data on trends in cropland from 1970–2005, with particular emphasis on the 1990–2005 period, for 10 major crop types. Cropland has increased more slowly than population during this period, but paired increases in yields and declines in cropland occurred infrequently, both globally and nationally. Agricultural intensification was not generally accompanied by decline or stasis in cropland area at a national scale during this time period, except in countries with grain imports and conservation set-aside programs. Future projections of cropland abandonment and ensuing environmental services cannot be assumed without explicit policy intervention. PMID:19955435

Rudel, Thomas K.; Schneider, Laura; Uriarte, Maria; Turner, B. L.; DeFries, Ruth; Lawrence, Deborah; Geoghegan, Jacqueline; Hecht, Susanna; Ickowitz, Amy; Lambin, Eric F.; Birkenholtz, Trevor; Baptista, Sandra; Grau, Ricardo

2009-01-01

370

SNP deserts of Asian cultivated rice: genomic regions under domestication.  

PubMed

When performing a genome-wide comparison between indica (93-11) and japonica (Nipponbare), we find 8% of the genome, which have an extremely low SNP rate (< 1 SNP/kb). Inside these 'SNP deserts', experimentally confirmed genes show increased K(a)/K(s) that indicate adaptive selection. To further elucidate this connection, we survey the level and pattern of genetic variation in both cultivated and wild rice groups, using 155 noncoding regions located within SNP deserts. The results suggest that cultivated rice has greatly reduced genetic variation within SNP deserts as compared to either the nondesert or corresponding genomic regions in wild rice. Consistent with this reduction in genetic variation, we find a biased distribution of derived allele frequency in the cultivated group, indicative of positive selection. Furthermore, over half of the confirmed, domestication-related genes are found within SNP deserts, also suggesting that SNP deserts are strongly related to domestication, and might be the key sites in the process of domestication. PMID:19243488

Wang, L; Hao, L; Li, X; Hu, S; Ge, S; Yu, J

2009-04-01

371

A trap for in situ cultivation of filamentous actinobacteria  

PubMed Central

The approach of growing microorganisms in situ, or in a simulated natural environment is appealing, and different versions of it have been described by several groups. The major difficulties with these approaches are that they are not selective for actinomycetes – a group of gram-positive bacteria well known as a rich source of antibiotics. In order to efficiently access actinomycetes, a trap for specifically capturing and cultivating these microorganisms in situ has been developed, based on the ability of these bacteria to form hyphae and penetrate solid environments. The trap is formed by two semi-permeable membranes (0.2 – 0.6 ?m pore-size bottom membrane and 0.03 ?m pore-size top membrane) glued to a plastic washer with sterile agar or gellan gum inside. The trap is placed on top of soil, and filamentous microorganisms selectively penetrate into the device and form colonies. Decreasing the size of the pores of the lower membrane to 0.2 ?m restricted penetration of fungi. The trap produced more filamentous actinobacteria, and a higher variety of them, as compared to a conventional Petri dish cultivation from the same soil sample. Importantly, the trap cultivation resulted in the isolation of unusual and rare actinomycetes. PMID:18255181

Gavrish, Ekaterina; Bollmann, Annette; Epstein, Slava; Lewis, Kim

2008-01-01

372

Recycling produced water for algal cultivation for biofuels  

SciTech Connect

Algal growth demands a continuous source of water of appropriate salinity and nutritional content. Fresh water sources are scarce in the deserts of the Southwestern United States, hence, salt water algae species are being investigated as a renewable biofuel source. The use of produced water from oil wells (PW) could offset the demand for fresh water in cultivation. Produced water can contain various concentrations of dissolved solids, metals and organic contaminants and often requires treatment beyond oil/water separation to make it suitable for algae cultivation. The produced water used in this study was taken from an oil well in Jal, New Mexico. An F/2-Si (minus silica) growth media commonly used to cultivate Nannochloropsis salina 1776 (NS 1776) was prepared using the produced water (F/2-Si PW) taking into account the metals and salts already present in the water. NS 1776 was seeded into a bioreactor containing 5L of the (F/2-Si PW) media. After eleven days the optical density at 750 nm (an indicator of algal growth) increased from 0 to 2.52. These results indicate algae are able to grow, though inhibited when compared with non-PW media, in the complex chemical conditions found in produced water. Savings from using nutrients present in the PW, such as P, K, and HCO{sub 3}{sup -}, results in a 44.38% cost savings over fresh water to mix the F/2-Si media.

Neal, Justin N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sullivan, Enid J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dean, Cynthia A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Steichen, Seth A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-09

373

SNP discovery and linkage map construction in cultivated tomato.  

PubMed

Few intraspecific genetic linkage maps have been reported for cultivated tomato, mainly because genetic diversity within Solanum lycopersicum is much less than that between tomato species. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), the most abundant source of genomic variation, are the most promising source of polymorphisms for the construction of linkage maps for closely related intraspecific lines. In this study, we developed SNP markers based on expressed sequence tags for the construction of intraspecific linkage maps in tomato. Out of the 5607 SNP positions detected through in silico analysis, 1536 were selected for high-throughput genotyping of two mapping populations derived from crosses between 'Micro-Tom' and either 'Ailsa Craig' or 'M82'. A total of 1137 markers, including 793 out of the 1338 successfully genotyped SNPs, along with 344 simple sequence repeat and intronic polymorphism markers, were mapped onto two linkage maps, which covered 1467.8 and 1422.7 cM, respectively. The SNP markers developed were then screened against cultivated tomato lines in order to estimate the transferability of these SNPs to other breeding materials. The molecular markers and linkage maps represent a milestone in the genomics and genetics, and are the first step toward molecular breeding of cultivated tomato. Information on the DNA markers, linkage maps, and SNP genotypes for these tomato lines is available at http://www.kazusa.or.jp/tomato/. PMID:21044984

Shirasawa, Kenta; Isobe, Sachiko; Hirakawa, Hideki; Asamizu, Erika; Fukuoka, Hiroyuki; Just, Daniel; Rothan, Christophe; Sasamoto, Shigemi; Fujishiro, Tsunakazu; Kishida, Yoshie; Kohara, Mitsuyo; Tsuruoka, Hisano; Wada, Tsuyuko; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi

2010-12-01

374

Hydroponic cultivation of soybean for Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSSs)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For long time our research group has been involved in experiments aiming to evaluate the possibility to cultivate plants in Space to regenerate resources and produce food. Apart from investigating the response of specific growth processes (at morpho-functional levels) to space factors (namely microgravity and ionising radiation), wide attention has been dedicated to agro-technologies applied to ecologically closed systems. Based on technical and human dietary requirements, soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is studied as one of the candidate species for hydroponic (soilless) cultivation in the research program MELiSSA (Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative) of the European Space Agency (ESA). Soybean seeds show high nutritional value, due to the relevant content of protein, lipids, dietary fiber and biologically active substances such as isoflavones. They can produce fresh sprouts or be transformed in several edible products (soymilk and okara or soy pulp). Soybean is traditionally grown in open field where specific interactions with soil microrganisms occur. Most available information on plant growth, seed productivity and nutrient composition relate to cultivated varieties (cultivars) selected for soil cultivation. However, in a space outpost, plant cultivation would rely on soilless systems. Given that plant growth, seed yield and quality strictly depend on the environmental conditions, to make successful the cultivation of soybean in space, it was necessary to screen all agronomic information according to space constraints. Indeed, selected cultivars have to comply with the space growth environment while providing a suitable nutritional quality to fulfill the astronauts needs. We proposed an objective criterion for the preliminary theoretical selection of the most suitable cultivars for seed production, which were subsequently evaluated in bench tests in hydroponics. Several Space-oriented experiments were carried out in a closed growth chamber to evaluate the adaptation of soybean plants to hydroponics under controlled environment, as well as the plant response to changing cultural parameters, in order to identify the best cultivation protocol for BLSSs. The optimisation of growth conditions in hydroponics has been pursued being aware that environmental factors acting at sub-optimal levels may also increase the sensitivity of plants to space factors. The influence of the following parameters on plant growth and yield was also studied: - the hydroponic system: sole liquid solution (Nutrient Film Technique, NFT) vs solid substrate (rockwool); - the source of nitrogen in the nutrient solution: nitrate fertilizers vs urea; - the root symbiosis with atmospheric nitrogen-fixing bacteria: absence or presence of Bradyrhizobium japonicum; - the influence of microbes in the rhizosphere: inoculation with a mix containing mycorrhizal and trichoderma species, and beneficial bacteria vs a non-inoculated control. All the treatments were evaluated in terms of agronomic traits (e.g. plant size and seed production), physiological traits (gas exchange, nutrient uptake), chemical composition of seeds and their products, and technical parameters such as resource use efficiency and non-edible biomass production (waste).

De Pascale, Stefania; De Micco, Veronica; Aronne, Giovanna; Paradiso, Roberta

375

Cultivable bacteria isolated from apple trees cultivated under different crop systems: Diversity and antagonistic activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the diversity of cultivable plant growth-promoting (PGP) bacteria associated with apple trees cultivated under different crop management systems and their antagonistic ability against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Samples of roots and rhizospheric soil from apple trees cultivated in organic and conventional orchards in southern Brazil were collected, together with soil samples from an area never used for agriculture (native field). Bacteria were identified at the genus level by PCR-RFLP and partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA, and were evaluated for some PGP abilities. The most abundant bacterial genera identified were Enterobacter (27.7%), Pseudomonas (18.7%), Burkholderia (13.7%), and Rahnella (12.3%). Sixty-nine isolates presented some antagonist activity against C. gloeosporioides. In a greenhouse experiment, five days after exposure to C. gloeosporioides, an average of 30% of the leaf area of plants inoculated with isolate 89 (identified as Burkholderia sp.) were infected, whereas 60 to 73% of the leaf area of untreated plants was affected by fungal attack. Our results allowed us to infer how anthropogenic activity is affecting the bacterial communities in soil associated with apple tree crop systems, and to obtain an isolate that was able to delay the emergence of an important disease for this culture. PMID:25249780

Dos Passos, João Frederico M; da Costa, Pedro B; Costa, Murilo D; Zaffari, Gilmar R; Nava, Gilberto; Boneti, José Itamar; de Oliveira, Andréia Mara R; Passaglia, Luciane M P

2014-09-01

376

Application of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) to the Cultivation Line of Mushroom and Other Cultivated Edible Fungi.  

PubMed

The Hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) is a preventive system which seeks to ensure food safety and security. It allows product protection and correction of errors, improves the costs derived from quality defects and reduces the final overcontrol. In this paper, the system is applied to the line of cultivation of mushrooms and other edible cultivated fungi. From all stages of the process, only the reception of covering materials (stage 1) and compost (stage 3), the pre-fruiting and induction (step 6) and the harvest (stage 7) have been considered as critical control point (CCP). The main hazards found were the presence of unauthorized phytosanitary products or above the permitted dose (stages 6 and 7), and the presence of pathogenic bacteria (stages 1 and 3) and/or heavy metals (stage 3). The implementation of this knowledge will allow the self-control of their productions based on the system HACCP to any plant dedicated to mushroom or other edible fungi cultivation. PMID:24426137

Pardo, José E; de Figueirêdo, Vinícius Reis; Alvarez-Ortí, Manuel; Zied, Diego C; Peñaranda, Jesús A; Dias, Eustáquio Souza; Pardo-Giménez, Arturo

2013-09-01

377

Cultivable bacteria isolated from apple trees cultivated under different crop systems: Diversity and antagonistic activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides  

PubMed Central

This study evaluated the diversity of cultivable plant growth-promoting (PGP) bacteria associated with apple trees cultivated under different crop management systems and their antagonistic ability against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Samples of roots and rhizospheric soil from apple trees cultivated in organic and conventional orchards in southern Brazil were collected, together with soil samples from an area never used for agriculture (native field). Bacteria were identified at the genus level by PCR-RFLP and partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA, and were evaluated for some PGP abilities. The most abundant bacterial genera identified were Enterobacter (27.7%), Pseudomonas (18.7%), Burkholderia (13.7%), and Rahnella (12.3%). Sixty-nine isolates presented some antagonist activity against C. gloeosporioides. In a greenhouse experiment, five days after exposure to C. gloeosporioides, an average of 30% of the leaf area of plants inoculated with isolate 89 (identified as Burkholderia sp.) were infected, whereas 60 to 73% of the leaf area of untreated plants was affected by fungal attack. Our results allowed us to infer how anthropogenic activity is affecting the bacterial communities in soil associated with apple tree crop systems, and to obtain an isolate that was able to delay the emergence of an important disease for this culture.

dos Passos, Joao Frederico M.; da Costa, Pedro B.; Costa, Murilo D.; Zaffari, Gilmar R.; Nava, Gilberto; Boneti, Jose Itamar; de Oliveira, Andreia Mara R.; Passaglia, Luciane M.P.

2014-01-01

378

Cultivating Creativity: I Can't Promise You a Rose Garden; and Cultivating Creativity: A Gardener's Guide for the Complete English Teacher.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Creativity, a means of communicating a personal and unique response to life, should be nurtured and cultivated in the classroom. This document discusses the nature of creativity and, using the analogy of a gardener cultivating a garden, outlines nine steps a teacher may take in developing students' creativity--prepare the soil, plant the garden…

Haley, Beverly

379

Environmental life cycle assessment of Ethiopian rose cultivation.  

PubMed

A life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted for Ethiopian rose cultivation. The LCA covered the cradle-to-gate production of all inputs to Ethiopian rose cultivation up to, and including transport to the Ethiopian airport. Primary data were collected about materials and resources used as inputs to, and about the product outputs from 21 farms in 4 geographical regions (i.e. Holleta, Sebeta, Debre Ziet, and Ziway). The primary data were imported in, and analyzed with the SimaPro7.3 software. Data for the production of used inputs were taken from the EcoInvent®2.0 database. Emissions from input use on the farms were quantified based on estimates and emission factors from various studies and guidelines. The resulting life cycle inventory (LCI) table was next evaluated with the CML 2 baseline 2000 V2/world, 1990/characterization method to quantify the contribution of the rose cultivation chain to 10 environmental impact categories. The set of collected primary data was comprehensive and of high quality. The data point to an intensive use of fertilizers, pesticides, and greenhouse plastic. Production and use of these inputs also represent the major contributors in all environmental impact categories. The largest contribution comes from the production of the used fertilizers, specifically nitrogen-based fertilizers. The use of calcium nitrate dominates Abiotic Depletion (AD), Global Warming (GW), Human Toxicity (HT) and Marine Aquatic Ecotoxicity (MAET). It also makes a large contribution to Ozone Depletion (OD), Acidification (AD) and Fresh water Aquatic Ecotoxicity (FAET). Acidification (AC) and Eutrophication (EU) are dominated by the emission of fertilizers. The emissions from the use of pesticides, especially insecticides dominate Terrestrial Ecotoxicity (TE) and make a considerable contribution to Freshwater Aquatic Ecotoxicity (FAET) and Photochemical Oxidation (PhO). There is no visible contribution from the use of pesticides to the other toxicity categories. Production and use of greenhouse plastic are another important contributors, and just a bit less than the contribution of calcium nitrate to Abiotic Depletion (AD). The results of this study clearly indicate nutrient management and emissions from pesticide use, especially insecticides, as a focus point for environmental optimization of the rose cultivation sector in Ethiopia. PMID:23183227

Sahle, Abiy; Potting, José

2013-01-15

380

Development of cultivation technique for pure Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes.  

PubMed

Pure gametocyte culture of Plasmodium falciparum, isolate KT3, from Kanchanaburi Province, Thailand, was successfully established by 5% sorbitol treatment on days 9, 10 and 11 following initiation of culture. Using medium supplemented with 15% human plasma and activated erythrocytes, daily medium change was not required during the cultivation. There was 99% reduction in the numbers of asexual parasites in the culture but the numbers of gametocytes were not affected. Furthermore, the gametocytes could undergo their usual morphological development with retention of function as demonstrated by the appearance of exflagellating microgametocytes, macrogametocytes and of oocyst formation in midgut of infected mosquito. PMID:9139361

Petmitr, P; Pongvilairat, G; Wilairat, P

1995-12-01

381

Cultivating the next generation of tobacco endgame advocates  

PubMed Central

Long-term success for any tobacco endgame is contingent not only on acquiring political will, but also on sustaining it over a long period of time, perhaps even for decades. Future cohorts of public health professionals with knowledge of tobacco issues are therefore needed to carry on with the endgame strategy (should early attempts fail) and to keep tobacco control salient after an endgame strategy has initially been implemented. The endgame itself offers a unique pedagogical opportunity that could revive interest in tobacco control at schools of public health—an important first step in cultivating the future advocacy base for a tobacco endgame. PMID:23591510

Tam, Jamie

2013-01-01

382

THE ADAPTATION OF UNMODIFIED STRAINS OF YELLOW FEVER VIRUS TO CULTIVATION IN VITRO.  

PubMed

1. In a search for suitable tissues for the cultivation of yellow fever virus in vitro, mouse embryos were inoculated with this virus in utero. A titration for virus content of the various organs of the embryos indicated that the virus was present in the brain in greatest concentration. 2. Unmodified strains of yellow fever virus were readily adapted to cultivation in vitro in a medium consisting of minced mouse embryo brain tissue and Tyrode solution containing 10 per cent normal monkey serum. 3. After a continued cultivation in mouse embryo brain tissue cultures for twenty to twenty-five subcultures, these strains were readily adapted to cultivation in whole mouse embryo tissue medium. 4. There is evidence to indicate that a prolonged cultivation of the virus in mouse embryo brain medium increases its neurotropic properties. 5. Attempts to employ monkey tissues for in vitro cultivation of yellow fever virus gave entirely negative results. PMID:19870635

Smith, H H; Theiler, M

1937-05-31

383

THE ADAPTATION OF UNMODIFIED STRAINS OF YELLOW FEVER VIRUS TO CULTIVATION IN VITRO  

PubMed Central

1. In a search for suitable tissues for the cultivation of yellow fever virus in vitro, mouse embryos were inoculated with this virus in utero. A titration for virus content of the various organs of the embryos indicated that the virus was present in the brain in greatest concentration. 2. Unmodified strains of yellow fever virus were readily adapted to cultivation in vitro in a medium consisting of minced mouse embryo brain tissue and Tyrode solution containing 10 per cent normal monkey serum. 3. After a continued cultivation in mouse embryo brain tissue cultures for twenty to twenty-five subcultures, these strains were readily adapted to cultivation in whole mouse embryo tissue medium. 4. There is evidence to indicate that a prolonged cultivation of the virus in mouse embryo brain medium increases its neurotropic properties. 5. Attempts to employ monkey tissues for in vitro cultivation of yellow fever virus gave entirely negative results. PMID:19870635

Smith, Hugh H.; Theiler, Max

1937-01-01

384

Hollow-Fiber Membrane Chamber as a Device for In Situ Environmental Cultivation?  

PubMed Central

A hollow-fiber membrane chamber (HFMC) was developed as an in situ cultivation device for environmental microorganisms. The HFMC system consists of 48 to 96 pieces of porous hollow-fiber membrane connected with injectors. The system allows rapid exchange of chemical compounds, thereby simulating a natural environment. Comparative analysis through the cultivation of three types of environmental samples was performed using this newly designed device and a conventional agar-based petri dish. The results show that the ratios of novel phylotypes in isolates, species-level diversities, and cultivabilities in HFMC-based cultivation are higher than those in an agar-based petri dish for all three samples, suggesting that the new in situ cultivation device is effective for cultivation of various environmental microorganisms. PMID:19329655

Aoi, Yoshiteru; Kinoshita, Tomoyuki; Hata, Toru; Ohta, Hiroaki; Obokata, Haruko; Tsuneda, Satoshi

2009-01-01

385

Climate change and the origin and development of rice cultivation in the Yangtze River basin, China.  

PubMed

The forest hunter-gatherers of the middle Yangtze River basin, who were the first to invent pottery and led a sedentary lifestyle, may have begun to cultivate rice during the Bølling-Allerød interstadial global warming period. The earliest rice cultivation may have dated back to 14,000 calibrated (cal.) years before present (YBP). The global warming at 9000 cal. YBP in the early Holocene brought the development of the rice cultivation to the middle Yangtze River basin. On the other hand, ancient rice-cultivating and piscatorial society met a crisis at 4200-4000 cal. YBP that was characterized by a significant cooling of the climate. This climate deterioration led the northern wheat/barley-cultivating pastoral people to migrate to the south and invade, ultimately bringing about the collapse of the rice-cultivating and piscatorial society in the Yangtze River basin. PMID:19205127

Yasuda, Yoshinori

2008-11-01

386

Effects of temperature and dissolved oxygen content on oxygen consumption rate of Chinese prawn, giant tiger prawn and giant freshwater prawn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temperature and the dissolved oxygen content affect the oxygen consumption of juveniles of Chinese prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant tiger prawn (P. monodon) and giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). There is good correlation between the oxygen consumption rate (V, mg\\/g·h) of the above three prawn species and the water temperature, and dissolved oxygen. In the range of test temperature,V increased with

Xi-Lin Dai; Wei-Ling Zang; Wei-Dong Wang; Yong-Hai Shi; Wen-Cui Liu; Gui-Rong Xu; Shi-Hua Li

1999-01-01

387

Direct use of low temperature geothermal water by Aquafarms International, Inc. for freshwater aquaculture (prawns and associated species). An operations and maintenance manual  

SciTech Connect

In connection with an ongoing commercial aquaculture project in the Coachella Valley, California; a twelve month prawn growout demonstration project was conducted. This project began in August, 1979 and involved the use of low temperature (85/sup 0/F) geothermal waters to raise freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (deMan), in earthen ponds. The following publication is an operations and maintenance guide which may by useful for those interested in conducting similar enterprises.

Broughton, R.; Price, M.; Price, V.; Grajcer, D.

1984-04-01

388

Studies on the ingestion characteristics of giant freshwater prawn, Chinese prawn and giant tiger prawn  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ingestion of giant freshwater prawn, Chinese prawn and giant tiger prawn had continuity and the ingestion high peak occurred at night. Light and temperature had significant effects on the daily ingestion rate (DIR) of giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Red light and blue light favorably induced favorable ingestion. In the adaptive range of temperature, the DIR increased with rising temperature and feeding frequency, but decreased with rising body weight.

Zang, Wei-Ling; Wang, Wei-Dong; Dai, Xi-Lin; Jiang, Min; Zhu, Zheng-Guo; Yang, Ming-Hui; Liu, Xian-Zhong; Xu, Gui-Rong; Ding, Fu-Jiang

2000-12-01

389

Integration of thermal and food processing residuals into a system for commercial culture of freshwater shrimp. (power plant waste heat utilization in aquaculture). Volume II. Final report Jul 74--Oct 76  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been demonstrated that all life-cycle stages of the tropical freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, can be cultured successfully using waste-heat effluents of the Mercer Generating Station, Trenton, N.J. Further, high-density culture of the prawn is possible and practical. Rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) culture has also been successfully demonstrated utilizing the waste-heat discharges of an electric generating station. Efficient systems

Eble

1977-01-01

390

Integration of thermal and food processing residuals into a system for commercial culture of freshwater shrimp (power plant waste heat utilization in aquaculture). Volume I. Final report 1 Jul 74-31 Oct 76  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objective of this study was to establish the bilogical feasibility of rearing the freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium rosenbergii and rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri in the thermal effluents from PSEandG's Mercer Generating Station. A new approach in aquaculture involving semiannual grow-out periods, diseasonal aquaculture was the result of the large seasonal variation in Delaware River temperature (0.2 to 29°C), since

C. R. Guerra; B. L. Godfriaux; A. F. Eble; A. F. Farmanfarmian

1977-01-01

391

Geothermal aquaculture: a guide to freshwater prawn culture  

SciTech Connect

Biological data of the Malaysian prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, are summarized. A history on its rearing techniques is given, but through the use of geothermal water or industrial warm water effluent, its range can be expanded. The use of wasted geothermal water at the Oregon Institute of Technology for prawn ponds is noted. Pond management and design; the hatchery design and function for larval culture; and geothermal applications (legal aspects and constraints) are discussed. (MCW)

Hayes, A.; Johnson, W.C.

1980-05-01

392

Multi-culture solar heated bio-shelter. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A rooftop greenhouse (bio-shelter) that is heated with active and passive solar systems is presented. The intent of the greenhouse is to grow vegetables hydroponically the year-round using a nutrient flow technique; and to growth the giant tropical Malaysian prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii in a recycling raceway water system heated with solar power. The produce grown was continuously monitored and the harvests weighed in order to estimate the year-round production potential of the bio-shelter greenhouse.

Not Available

1985-01-01

393

Rice-Freshwater Prawn Integrated Culture in Tan Phu Thanh Village, Chau Thanh A district, Can Tho Province  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trials of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) farming in rice field and garden ditch is being conducted at JIRCAS project research site, Tan Phu Thanh village, Chau Thanh A, Can Tho province. It includes three rice-prawn farms and one garden ditch prawn farm. Juvenile prawns of 0,045 g\\/prawn in average were stocked at a density of 2 prawn\\/m2 in rice-prawn farms,

Nguyen Thanh Phuong; Vu Nam; Vo Thanh Toan; Tran Thi; Thanh Hien; Pham Minh Duc

394

Nymph and adult biology of Dichelops melacanthus (Dallas) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) feeding on cultivated and non-cultivated host plants.  

PubMed

The biology of the pentatomid Dichelops melacanthus (Dallas) feeding on cultivated and non-cultivated plants was studied in the laboratory. Nymph mortality varied from approximately 60 on corn (seed mature) to 77% on wheat (ear immature); no nymphs survived on seedlings of corn or wheat. Nymph developmental time on soybean, corn or wheat (seed, pod or ear) varied from 25.5 to 32.8 days. Body weight at adult emergence was similar and greater on most foods than on wheat ear. Nymphs fed preferentially on soybean (pod immature). On non-cultivated hosts, nymphs showed high mortality (73%) on crotalaria (pod immature); on tropical spiderwort (stem) all nymphs died. Nymphs took longer time to develop on crotalaria and/or on spiderwort than on soybean. Body weight at adult emergence did not differ on crotalaria or soybean. Survivorship decreased with time on most foods, with approximately 50% of adults alive at day 30. On corn and wheat seedlings approximately 80% of adults were dead on day 20. Adult longevity ranged 31-43 days, except on corn and wheat seedlings < 15 days. Females % ovipositing peaked ( approximately 76%) on soybean (pod or seed immature), and was minimum ( approximately 9%) on wheat ear (immature); no females reproduced on seedlings of corn or wheat. Preoviposition period was shorter ( approximately 12 days) on soybean (immature pod or seed) and longer ( approximately 37 days) on wheat (ear immature). Fecundity was similar and higher on all foods than on wheat (ear immature). Body weigh gain occurred on all foods, but on corn and wheat seedlings. Adults fed preferably on soybean (pod immature and seed mature); wheat (seedling) was the least preferred food. PMID:18813735

Chocorosqui, Viviane R; Panizzi, Antônio R

2008-01-01

395

Why do households cultivate landraces? : Wheat variety selection and in situ conservation in Turkey.  

E-print Network

??Socioeconomic/household characteristics, agroecological heterogeneity, market access, and variety characteristics are used to empirically explain why households continue to cultivate traditional varieties of wheat in Turkey… (more)

Kruzich, Tyler Joseph.

2006-01-01

396

Significance, progress and prospects for research in simplified cultivation technologies for rice in China  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Simplified cultivation technologies for rice have become increasingly attractive in recent years in China because of their social, economical and environmental benefits. To date, several simplified cultivation technologies, such as conventional tillage and seedling throwing (CTST), conventional tillage and direct seeding (CTDS), no-tillage and seedling throwing (NTST), no-tillage and direct seeding (NTDS) and no-tillage and transplanting (NTTP), have been developed in China. Most studies have shown that rice grown under each of these simplified cultivation technologies can produce a grain yield equal to or higher than traditional cultivation (conventional tillage and transplanting). Studies that have described the influences of agronomic practices on yield formation of rice under simplified cultivation have demonstrated that optimizing agronomy practices would increase the efficiencies of simplified cultivation systems. Further research is needed to optimize the management strategies for CTST, CTDS and NTST rice which have developed quickly in recent years, to strengthen basic research for those simplified cultivation technologies that are rarely used at present (such as NTTP and NTDS), to select and breed cultivars suitable for simplified cultivation and to compare the practicability and effectiveness of different simplified cultivation technologies in different rice production regions. PMID:22505773

HUANG, M.; IBRAHIM, MD.; XIA, B.; ZOU, Y.

2011-01-01

397

An Anthropological Perspective on Shifting Cultivation: A case Study of Khoriya Cultivation in the Arun Valley of Eastern Nepal  

E-print Network

' interchangeably. In this article, I intend to review different approaches and perspectives to st~dy the shifting cultivation. Finally, 1 would present some arguments as the major findings of my own field study (Dhakal 1999) in the Arun valley of eastern Nepal... -98 in the Arun Valley of Eastern Nepal (Cf Dhabi 1999). The data were collected in three small settlements of Sherpas. On the basis of empirical evidences, I have tried to understand the shifting cultivatioil practice in a broader socia-cultural context...

Dhakal, Suresh

2000-01-01

398

Impacts of biofuel cultivation on mortality and crop yields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ground-level ozone is a priority air pollutant, causing ~ 22,000 excess deaths per year in Europe, significant reductions in crop yields and loss of biodiversity. It is produced in the troposphere through photochemical reactions involving oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The biosphere is the main source of VOCs, with an estimated 1,150TgCyr-1 (~ 90% of total VOC emissions) released from vegetation globally. Isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene) is the most significant biogenic VOC in terms of mass (around 500TgCyr-1) and chemical reactivity and plays an important role in the mediation of ground-level ozone concentrations. Concerns about climate change and energy security are driving an aggressive expansion of bioenergy crop production and many of these plant species emit more isoprene than the traditional crops they are replacing. Here we quantify the increases in isoprene emission rates caused by cultivation of 72Mha of biofuel crops in Europe. We then estimate the resultant changes in ground-level ozone concentrations and the impacts on human mortality and crop yields that these could cause. Our study highlights the need to consider more than simple carbon budgets when considering the cultivation of biofuel feedstock crops for greenhouse-gas mitigation.

Ashworth, K.; Wild, O.; Hewitt, C. N.

2013-05-01

399

Practical and affordable ways to cultivate leadership in your organization.  

PubMed

Leadership can be cultivated through the intentional actions of managers and others in public health organizations. This article provides a rationale for taking innovative and proactive steps to build leadership, discusses four general strategies for doing so, and presents seven practical, creative, and affordable actions that can have a positive influence on efforts to cultivate leadership qualities in the public health workforce. Each action is illustrated with an actual contemporary example from a local public health agency. The actions include providing formal or informal coaching/mentoring opportunities; assigning staff to lead new projects or collaborations, projects outside their disciplines, projects that cause growth in their information technology capacity, or orphan or struggling projects; facilitating a book club; and institutionalizing reflection. The best way to ensure that effective leadership is available when the organization needs it is to intentionally develop it through an ongoing process. Leadership growth can be supported during the ordinary course of business in a public health organization through thoughtful challenges, sharing ideas and experiences, and especially through the example set by managers and those in positions of authority. PMID:20150799

Gaufin, Joyce R; Kennedy, Kathy I; Struthers, Ellen D

2010-01-01

400

Productivity of wet soils: Biomass of cultivated and natural vegetation  

SciTech Connect

Wet soils, soils which have agronomic limitations because of excess water, comprise 105 million acres of non-federal land in the conterminous United States. Wet soils which support hydrophytic plants are ''wetlands'', and are some of the most productive natural ecosystems in the world. When both above- and belowground productivity are considered, cattail (Typha latifolia) is the most productive temperate wetland species (26.4 Mg/ha/year). Both cattail and reed (Phragmites australis) have aboveground productivities of about 13 Mg/ha/year. Although average aboveground yields of reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea) are lower (9.5 Mg/ha/year), techniques for its establishment and cultivation are well-developed. Other herbaceous wetland species which show promise as biomass crops include sedge (Carex spp.), river bulrush (Scirpus fluviatilis) and prairie cordgrass (Spartina pectinata). About 40% of wet soils in the conterminous US are currently cultivated, and they produce one-quarter of the major US crops. Most of this land is artificially drained for crops such as corn, soybeans, and vegetables. US wetlands are drained for agriculture at the rate of 223,000 ha/yr. Paddies flooded with water are used to grow rice, cranberries, and wild rice. Forage and live sphagnum moss are products of undrained wetlands. A number of federal and state regulations apply to the draining or irrigation of wetlands, but most do not seriously restrict their use for agriculture. 320 refs., 36 tabs.

Johnston, C.A.

1988-12-01

401

Cultivation and quantitative proteomic analyses of acidophilic microbial communities  

SciTech Connect

Acid mine drainage (AMD), an extreme environment characterized by low pH and high metal concentrations, can support dense acidophilic microbial biofilm communities that rely on chemoautotrophic production based on iron oxidation. Field determined production rates indicate that, despite the extreme conditions, these communities are sufficiently well adapted to their habitats to achieve primary production rates comparable to those of microbial communities occurring in some non-extreme environments. To enable laboratory studies of growth, production and ecology of AMD microbial communities, a culturing system was designed to reproduce natural biofilms, including organisms recalcitrant to cultivation. A comprehensive metabolic labeling-based quantitative proteomic analysis was used to verify that natural and laboratory communities were comparable at the functional level. Results confirmed that the composition and core metabolic activities of laboratory-grown communities were similar to a natural community, including the presence of active, low abundance bacteria and archaea that have not yet been isolated. However, laboratory growth rates were slow compared with natural communities, and this correlated with increased abundance of stress response proteins for the dominant bacteria in laboratory communities. Modification of cultivation conditions reduced the abundance of stress response proteins and increased laboratory community growth rates. The research presented here represents the first description of the application of a metabolic labeling-based quantitative proteomic analysis at the community level and resulted in a model microbial community system ideal for testing physiological and ecological hypotheses.

Belnap, Christopher P. [University of California, Berkeley; Pan, Chongle [ORNL; Verberkmoes, Nathan C [ORNL; Power, Mary E. [University of California, Berkeley; Samatova, Nagiza F [ORNL; Carver, Rudolf L. [Iron Mountain Superfund Facility, Redding; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L [ORNL; Banfield, Jillian F. [University of California, Berkeley

2010-01-01

402

Oyster mushroom cultivation with rice and wheat straw.  

PubMed

Cultivation of the oyster mushroom, Pleurotus sajor-caju, on rice and wheat straw without nutrient supplementation was investigated. The effects of straw size reduction method and particle size, spawn inoculation level, and type of substrate (rice straw versus wheat straw) on mushroom yield, biological efficiency, bioconversion efficiency, and substrate degradation were determined. Two size reduction methods, grinding and chopping, were compared. The ground straw yielded higher mushroom growth rate and yield than the chopped straw. The growth cycles of mushrooms with the ground substrate were five days shorter than with the chopped straw for a similar particle size. However, it was found that when the straw was ground into particles that were too small, the mushroom yield decreased. With the three spawn levels tested (12%, 16% and 18%), the 12% level resulted in significantly lower mushroom yield than the other two levels. Comparing rice straw with wheat straw, rice straw yielded about 10% more mushrooms than wheat straw under the same cultivation conditions. The dry matter loss of the substrate after mushroom growth varied from 30.1% to 44.3%. The straw fiber remaining after fungal utilization was not as degradable as the original straw fiber, indicating that the fungal fermentation did not improve the feed value of the straw. PMID:11991077

Zhang, Ruihong; Li, Xiujin; Fadel, J G

2002-05-01

403

Allelopathic effects of ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) on cultivated plants.  

PubMed

During the past years ragweed has been coming to the forefront of interest in Hungary and in other European countries as well because its serious health risk. Results of the 5th National Weed Survey has proven that ragweed is the most important weed species on Hungarian field lands, its coverage shows a rising tendency in cereals moreover it not only occurs in cultivated plants. Allelopathic effects of aqueous extracts derived from different parts of ragweed plants (air dried leafy stems, seeds) on the germination and growth of other cultivated plants [maize (Zea mays L.), winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), rye (Secale cereale L.), oat (Avena sativa L.)] were studied. The extracts made for the trials were prepared with distilled water. Petri dishes were used for the germination experiments and distilled water was used as a control treatment. The seven days long experiment was carried out within a Binder-type thermostat under dark conditions. The germination percentage was checked in every two days and the growth of sprouts was evaluated after a week counting the germinated seeds and measuring the length of the radicle and plumule. The measured data were statistically analysed and the effect of extracts on germinating and length of sprouts were assessed. PMID:22696964

Lehoczky, E; Gólya, G; Szabó, R; Szalai, A

2011-01-01

404

American Journal of Botany 93(1): 127133. 2006. CULTIVATED HELIANTHUS ANNUUS (ASTERACEAE)  

E-print Network

127 American Journal of Botany 93(1): 127­133. 2006. CULTIVATED HELIANTHUS ANNUUS (ASTERACEAE cultivated and wild sunflower (both Helianthus annuus, Asteraceae) is well documented, but the role of seed words: crop­wild gene flow; Helianthus annuus; seed dispersal; volunteers. The development and wide

Snow, Allison A.

405

New terpenoids in cultivated and wild chamomile (in vivo and in vitro)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert is made up by several groups of active substances, among which terpenoids in the inflorescences are of greatest importance. Among cultivated species, the Hungarian BK-2 contains more chamazulene in its essential oil than the German Degumil type, which is mainly cultivated for its (?)-?-bisabolol. Both components have important antiinflammatory activities. Among wild chamomile

Éva Sz?ke; Em?ke Máday; Ern? Tyihák; Inna N Kuzovkina; Éva Lemberkovics

2004-01-01

406

The origin, evolution, cultivation, dissemination, and diversification of Asian and African rices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Available evidences drawn from biosystematics, evolutionary biology, biogeography, archaeology, history, anthropology, paleo-geology and paleo-meteorology are pooled to reconstruct the series of events that led to the cosmopolitan cultivation of the Asian cultivated rice (O. sativa) and the regionalized planting of the African cultigen (O. glaberrima) in West Africa. The genus Oryza originated in the Gondwanaland continents and, following the fracture

Te-Tzu Chang

1976-01-01

407

A Noble Quest: Cultivating Christian Spirituality in Catholic Adolescents and the Usefulness of 12 Pastoral Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The essay considers the process of cultivating Christian spirituality in Catholic adolescents. It will integrate and document official Catholic Church teachings on the subject and also unofficial scholarly reflections. The expose briefly defines adolescent spirituality and situates the process of cultivating adolescent spirituality in Catholic…

Canales, Arthur David

2009-01-01

408

The superiority of organically cultivated vegetables to general ones regarding antimutagenic activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

We found organically cultivated (OC) vegetables, using a water-soluble chitosan as a soil improvement agent and leaf surface spray, had much longer shelf life and better taste than that of generally cultivated (GC) vegetables. The purpose of this study is to determine the relative antimutagenic activity between OC and GC vegetables. Eleven OC vegetables were harvested in March and April

Huifeng Ren; Hideaki Endo; Tetsuhito Hayashi

2001-01-01

409

A perfusion air-lift bioreactor for high density plant cell cultivation and secreted protein production  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new bioreactor design that allows continuous perfusion cultivation of plant cell suspensions is described in this paper. This design incorporates an internal cell settling zone with an external-loop air-lift bioreactor. The settling zone is created by inserting a baffle plate into the upper portion of the downcomer. Using this bioreactor, Anchusa officinalis suspension culture was cultivated to a cell

Wei Wen Su; Bing Jun He; Hua Liang; Sam Sun

1996-01-01

410

Heparin-based hydrogel as a matrix for encapsulation and cultivation of primary hepatocytes  

E-print Network

Heparin-based hydrogel as a matrix for encapsulation and cultivation of primary hepatocytes Mihye Accepted 13 January 2010 Available online 11 February 2010 Keywords: Liver Hepatocyte cultivation Growth factors Hydrogels Heparin a b s t r a c t Primary hepatocytes are commonly used as liver surrogates

Revzin, Alexander

411

Investigation of Flow Characteristics in an Airlift-Driven Raceway Reactor for Algae Cultivation  

E-print Network

Investigation of Flow Characteristics in an Airlift-Driven Raceway Reactor for Algae Cultivation are the most common choice for outdoor algae cultivation due to their low cost relative to enclosed. Algae require adequate mixing in order to maximize exposure to essential nutrients for growth

412

Temperature influences on leaf CO 2exchange, cell viability and cultivation range for Agave tequilana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agave tequilana, a species exhibiting crassulacean acid metabolism, is cultivated in Mexico for its stem and attached leaf bases from which the distilled beverage tequila is obtained. The physiological reasons why its cultivation was mostly restricted to regions in Jalisco with minimum air temperatures in 1996 above ?4°C and maximum temperatures below 36°C was investigated using plants under controlled conditions

Park S. Nobel; Miguel Castañeda; Gretchen North; Eulogio Pimienta-Barrios; Ariel Ruiz

1998-01-01

413

Flame Cultivation as a Complement to Mechanical and Herbicidal Control of Weeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is renewed interest in the practice of flame cultivation as a complement to mechanical cultivation and a partial or total replacement for herbicides in vegetable crops. This interest is fueled by three factors: (1) an increasingly negative public perception of herbicide use in vegetables, (2) a limited selection of herbicides labelled for vegetables, and (3) limited efficacy of some

Richard L. Parish; Wayne C. Porter; Paul R. Vidrine

1997-01-01

414

Submerged cultivation of Ganoderma lucidum biomass and immunostimulatory effects of fungal polysaccharides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Original Ganoderma lucidum strain MZKI G97 isolated from Slovenian forests was cultivated in a liquid substrate based on potato dextrose and olive oil. The influences of inoculum and oxygen partial pressure in batch and fed batch cultivation in a 10-l laboratory stirred tank reactor were studied. Fungal biomass was found to be oxygen and shear sensible. Using a 17% (wet

Marin Berovi?; Jožica Habijani?; Irena Zore; Branka Wraber; Damjan Hodžar; Bojana Boh; Franc Pohleven

2003-01-01

415

Chlorophyll production from Spirulina platensis: cultivation with urea addition by fed-batch process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis is an attractive alternative source of the pigment chlorophyll, which is used as a natural color in food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical products. In this work, the influence of the light intensity and urea supplementation as a nitrogen source using fed-batch cultivation for S. platensis growth and chlorophyll content was examined. Cultivations were carried out in 5

Carlota de Oliveira Rangel-Yagui; Eliane Dalva Godoy Danesi; João Carlos Monteiro de Carvalho; Sunao Sato

2004-01-01

416

A Behavioral Change Perspective of Maroon Soil Fertility Management in Traditional Shifting Cultivation in Suriname.  

PubMed

In Suriname, the Maroons have practiced shifting cultivation for generations, but now the increasing influence of modern society is causing a trend of decreasing fallow periods with potentially adverse effects for the vulnerable tropical soils. Adoption of appropriate soil fertility management (SFM) practices is currently slow. Combining methods from cultural ecology and environmental psychology, this study identifies two groups with divergent behavioral intentions which we term semi-permanent cultivators and shifting cultivators. Semi-permanent cultivators intend to practice more permanent agriculture and experiment individually with plot-level SFM. Shifting cultivators rely on traditional knowledge that is not adequate for their reduced fallow periods, but perceive constraints that prevent them practicing more permanent agriculture. Semi-permanent cultivators act as a strong reference group setting a subjective norm, yet feel no need to exchange knowledge with shifting cultivators who are in danger of feeling marginalized. Drawing on a political ecology perspective, we conclude that cultural ecological knowledge declined due to negative perceptions of external actors setting a strong subjective norm. Semi-permanent cultivators who wish to enter the market economy are most likely to adopt SFM. We conclude that any future SFM intervention must be based on an in-depth understanding of each group's behavior, in order to avoid exacerbating processes of marginalization. PMID:20390029

Fleskens, Luuk; Jorritsma, Fedde

2010-04-01

417

Changes in an Ohio Prairie Soil as the Result of Cultivation 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparison between an undisturbed soil and an adjacent soil which has been under cultivation for 100 to 150 years showed significant differences in chemical, physical, and morphological properties. Additions of fertilizer and agricultural lime to the cultivated site significantly increased the amount of P and Ca in the surface and upper subsurface horizons. Available K increased in only the

SUE ELLEN TOMKO; GEORGE F. HALL

1986-01-01

418

RECOVERY OF BIOMASS FOLLOWING SHIFTING CULTIVATION IN DRY TROPICAL FORESTS OF THE YUCATAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land-use change in the tropics is creating secondary forest at an unprece- dented rate. In the tropical Americas, mature dry tropical forest is rapidly being converted to secondary forest during the fallow period of shifting cultivation. This study addresses changes in forest biomass during forest recovery following shifting cultivation of maize (corn) in the Southern Yucatan Peninsular Region (SYPR), Mexico.

Larissa Read; Deborah Lawrence

2003-01-01

419

Discrimination of cultivated silk and wild silk by conventional instrumental analyses.  

PubMed

In Japan, recent trends have seen wild silk preferred over cultivated silk because of its texture. Some cases of fraud have occurred where cultivated silk garments are sold as wild silk. Samples from these cases, morphological observation using light microscope and polarized microscope have been conducted in forensic science laboratories. Sometimes scanning electron microscopy was also carried out. However, the morphology of silk shows quite wide variation, which makes it difficult to discriminate wild and cultivated silks by this method. In this report, silk discrimination was investigated using conventional instrumental analyses commonly available in forensic laboratories, such as Fourier-transfer infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (pyr-GC/MS) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). By FT-IR, cultivated and wild silk gave similar infrared spectra, but wild silk had a characteristic peak at 965 cm(-1) from the deformation vibration of the carbon-carbon double bond of the indole ring. Comparison of the pyrograms of cultivated and wild silk showed that wild silk had large indole and skatole peaks that cultivated silk did not, and these peaks might arise from tryptophan. The results of thermogravimetry/DTA showed that the endothermic peak was about 40 °C higher for wild silk than for cultivated silk. Using a combination of these results, cultivated and wild silk could be discriminated by common forensic instrumental techniques. PMID:23742990

Matsuyama, Yuji; Nagatani, Yoshiaki; Goto, Toshiyuki; Suzuki, Shinichi

2013-09-10

420

ORIGINAL PAPER Long-term black carbon dynamics in cultivated soil  

E-print Network

. The protection by physical and chemical stabilization was apparently sufficient to not only minimize decomORIGINAL PAPER Long-term black carbon dynamics in cultivated soil Binh Thanh Nguyen Ã? Johannes investigated in cultivated soil using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR

Lehmann, Johannes

421

Vertical thin-layer photoreactor for controlled cultivation of cyanobacteria.  

PubMed

Nostoc sp. was cultivated in an air-lift reactor with continuous recirculation of the head gas phase that aerated and agitated the cyanobacterial suspension at regulated flow rates. The supply of inorganic carbon for growth was coupled with pH control, in the range of 7.7 to 8.1, by intermittent sparging of CO2-head gas mixtures. The formation of irregular bubbles with swirling motion at the photostage of the reactor promoted efficient CO2 transference in dense populations of Nostoc sp. (1.1 g/l) when bubbling at flow rates of 10 l/min. Biomass productivity was almost six-fold higher in the photoreactor (16.4 mg/l.h) than in a conventional system (2.8 mg/l.h). The exponential growth phase of cultures in the photoreactor amounted to 60% of the total growth period. PMID:24420935

Silva, H J; Cortiñas, T I

1994-03-01

422

A tangible programming tool for children to cultivate computational thinking.  

PubMed

Game and creation are activities which have good potential for computational thinking skills. In this paper we present T-Maze, an economical tangible programming tool for children aged 5-9 to build computer programs in maze games by placing wooden blocks. Through the use of computer vision technology, T-Maze provides a live programming interface with real-time graphical and voice feedback. We conducted a user study with 7 children using T-Maze to play two levels of maze-escape games and create their own mazes. The results show that T-Maze is not only easy to use, but also has the potential to help children cultivate computational thinking like abstraction, problem decomposition, and creativity. PMID:24719575

Wang, Danli; Wang, Tingting; Liu, Zhen

2014-01-01

423

Assessment of Reclaimed Municipal Wastewater Application on Rice Cultivation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field research was carried out to assess the effects of the application of reclaimed municipal wastewater on rice cultivation in Thessaloniki, Greece during a 2-year period (1999-2000). Effects on production cost, soil composition, and health risk were examined. A randomized complete block design was used for the paddy field with three treatments and four replicates. The treatments were (1) river irrigation water with N-P fertilization, (2) reclaimed wastewater irrigation with surface N fertilization, and (3) reclaimed wastewater irrigation without fertilization. The results showed that the total production cost decreased 8.8% and 11.9% by applying the second and third treatments, respectively, compared to the first treatment, without significant differences in the agronomic and rice quality traits. Soil composition showed discrepancies between the 2 years and the three treatments, whereas the pathogens of the reclaimed wastewater and rice tissues posed a low human risk when taking the needed precautions.

Papadopoulos, Frantzis; Parissopoulos, George; Papadopoulos, Aristotelis; ?dragas, ?ntonios; Ntanos, Dimitrios; Prochaska, Chara; Metaxa, Irene

2009-01-01

424

A Tangible Programming Tool for Children to Cultivate Computational Thinking  

PubMed Central

Game and creation are activities which have good potential for computational thinking skills. In this paper we present T-Maze, an economical tangible programming tool for children aged 5–9 to build computer programs in maze games by placing wooden blocks. Through the use of computer vision technology, T-Maze provides a live programming interface with real-time graphical and voice feedback. We conducted a user study with 7 children using T-Maze to play two levels of maze-escape games and create their own mazes. The results show that T-Maze is not only easy to use, but also has the potential to help children cultivate computational thinking like abstraction, problem decomposition, and creativity. PMID:24719575

Wang, Danli; Liu, Zhen

2014-01-01

425

Predominant cultivable flora isolated from human root surface caries plaque.  

PubMed Central

Plaque samples were obtained from tooth surfaces exhibiting typical lesions of root surface caries and were immediately cultured by a continuous anaerobic procedure. The bacterial composition of root caries flora was determined on individual samples. Representative isolates from each specimen were characterized by morphological and physiological criteria. In addition, fluorescent antibody reagents were used to confirm the identification of Streptococcus mutans and Actinomyces viscosus. The plaque samples could be divided into two groups on the basis of the presence or absence of S. mutans in the plaque. In group I plaques, S. mutans comprised 30 percent of the total cultivable flora. S. sanguis was either not found or was present in very low number. In group II plaques, S. mutans was not detected, and S. sanguis formed 48 percent of the total plaque flora. A. viscosus was the dominant organism in all plaque samples, accounting for 47 percent of the group I isolates and 41 percent of the group II isolates. PMID:1091550

Syed, S A; Loesche, W J; Pape, H L; grenier, E

1975-01-01

426

Volatile constituents of wild and in vitro cultivated Gloeophyllum odoratum.  

PubMed

The brown-rot fungus Gloeophyllum odoratum was collected from spruce stumps in southern Finland. The volatiles in the fruiting body and fungal cultures grown in malt extract and liquid medium were investigated. Chitin, chitosan and D-(+)-glucosamine at a concentration of 450 mgl-1 medium were used as elicitors. Chitosan completely inhibited growth in the solid medium. The main volatile(s) according to GC and GC-MS analysis were either linalool, citronellol, geraniol and methyl p-methoxyphenylacetate or drimenol depending on the culture type and elicitor. The composition of volatiles in the natural fungus differed slightly from that of the cultivated fungus since the major compound was methyl p-methoxyphenylacetate. The volatile oils were toxic to larvae of the brine shrimp, Artemia salina, indicating that they may possess insecticidal and cytotoxic activity. PMID:7765210

Kahlos, K; Kiviranta, J L; Hiltunen, R V

1994-07-01

427

Microalgal and cyanobacterial cultivation: the supply of nutrients.  

PubMed

Microalgae and cyanobacteria are a promising new source of biomass that may complement agricultural crops to meet the increasing global demand for food, feed, biofuels and chemical production. Microalgae and cyanobacteria cultivation does not interfere directly with food production, but care should be taken to avoid indirect competition for nutrient (fertilizer) supply. Microalgae and cyanobacteria production requires high concentrations of essential nutrients (C,N,P,S,K,Fe, etc.). In the present paper the application of nutrients and their uptake by microalgae and cyanobacteria is reviewed. The main focus is on the three most significant nutrients, i.e. carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus; however other nutrients are also reviewed. Nutrients are generally taken up in the inorganic form, but several organic forms of them are also assimilable. Some nutrients do not display any inhibition effect on microalgal or cyanobacterial growth, while others, such as NO2 or NH3 have detrimental effects when present in high concentrations. Nutrients in the gaseous form, such as CO2 and NO face a major limitation which is related mainly to their mass transfer from the gaseous to the liquid state. Since the cultivation of microalgae and cyanobacteria consumes considerable quantities of nutrients, strategies to improve the nutrient application efficiency are needed. Additionally, a promising strategy to improve microalgal and cyanobacterial production sustainability is the utilization of waste streams by recycling of waste nutrients. However, major constraints of using waste streams are the reduction of the range of the biomass applications due to production of contaminated biomass and the possible low bio-availability of some nutrients. PMID:25113948

Markou, Giorgos; Vandamme, Dries; Muylaert, Koenraad

2014-11-15

428

Physiomics Array: A Platform for Genome Research and Cultivation of Difficult-to-Cultivate Microorganisms Final Technical Report  

SciTech Connect

A scalable array technology for parametric control of high-throughput cell cultivations is demonstrated. The technology makes use of commercial printed circuit board (PCB) technology, integrated circuit sensors, and an electrochemical gas generation system. We present results for an array of eight 250 ?l microbioreactors. Each bioreactor contains an independently addressable suite that provides closed-loop temperature control, generates feed gas electrochemically, and continuously monitors optical density. The PCB technology allows for the assembly of additional off-the-shelf components into the microbioreactor array; we demonstrate the use of a commercial ISFET chip to continuously monitor culture pH. The electrochemical dosing system provides a powerful paradigm for reproducible gas delivery to high-density arrays of microreactors. We have scaled the technology to a standard 96-well format and have constructed a system that could be easily assembled.

Jay D. Keasling

2006-07-10

429

Searching for Cognitive Processes in the Cultivation Effect: Adult and Adolescent Samples in the United States and Australia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the cultivation hypothesis by testing two cognitive processes hypothesized to allow viewers to construct television-biased beliefs. Finds the basic cultivation result replicated, but neither process hypothesis was supported. (SR)

Hawkins, Robert P.; And Others

1987-01-01

430

The practice of jhum cultivation and its relationship to Plasmodium falciparum infection in the Chittagong Hill Districts of Bangladesh.  

PubMed

Malaria is endemic in the Chittagong Hill Districts of southeastern Bangladesh. Previous epidemiological analyses identified the agricultural practice of jhum cultivation as a potential risk factor for malaria infection. We conducted qualitative interviews with jhum cultivators and surveillance workers to describe jhum cultivation and used demographic and malaria surveillance in two study unions from May of 2010 to August of 2012 to better understand the relationship between jhum cultivation and malaria infection. Qualitative interviews revealed that jhum cultivation is conducted on remote, steep hillsides by ethnic tribal groups. Quantitative analyses found that adult jhum cultivators and individuals who live in the same residence had significantly higher incidence rates of symptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infection compared with non-cultivators. These results confirm that jhum cultivation is an independent risk factor for malaria infection and underscore the need for malaria testing and treatment services to reach remote populations in the Chittagong Hill Districts. PMID:24821843

Galagan, Sean R; Prue, Chai Shwai; Khyang, Jacob; Khan, Wasif Ali; Ahmed, Sabeena; Ram, Malathi; Alam, Mohammad Shafiul; Haq, M Zahirul; Akter, Jasmin; Streatfield, Peter Kim; Glass, Gregory; Norris, Douglas E; Nyunt, Myaing Myaing; Shields, Timothy; Sullivan, David J; Sack, David A

2014-08-01

431

Kinetic analysis of gill (Na?,K?)-ATPase activity in selected ontogenetic stages of the Amazon River shrimp, Macrobrachium amazonicum (Decapoda, Palaemonidae): interactions at ATP- and cation-binding sites.  

PubMed

We investigated modulation by ATP, Mg²?, Na?, K? and NH?? and inhibition by ouabain of (Na?,K?)-ATPase activity in microsomal homogenates of whole zoeae I and decapodid III (formerly zoea IX) and whole-body and gill homogenates of juvenile and adult Amazon River shrimps, Macrobrachium amazonicum. (Na?,K?)-ATPase-specific activity was increased twofold in decapodid III compared to zoea I, juveniles and adults, suggesting an important role in this ontogenetic stage. The apparent affinity for ATP (K(M) = 0.09 ± 0.01 mmol L?¹) of the decapodid III (Na?,K?)-ATPase, about twofold greater than the other stages, further highlights this relevance. Modulation of (Na?,K?-ATPase activity by K? also revealed a threefold greater affinity for K? (K?.? = 0.91 ± 0.04 mmol L?¹) in decapodid III than in other stages; NH?? had no modulatory effect. The affinity for Na? (K?.? = 13.2 ± 0.6 mmol L?¹) of zoea I (Na?,K?)-ATPase was fourfold less than other stages. Modulation by Na?, Mg²? and NH?? obeyed cooperative kinetics, while K? modulation exhibited Michaelis-Menten behavior. Rates of maximal Mg²? stimulation of ouabain-insensitive ATPase activity differed in each ontogenetic stage, suggesting that Mg²?-stimulated ATPases other than (Na?,K?)-ATPase are present. Ouabain inhibition suggests that, among the various ATPase activities present in the different stages, Na?-ATPase may be involved in the ontogeny of osmoregulation in larval M. amazonicum. The NH??-stimulated, ouabain-insensitive ATPase activity seen in zoea I and decapodid III may reflect a stage-specific means of ammonia excretion since functional gills are absent in the early larval stages. PMID:22544049

Leone, Francisco Assis; Masui, Douglas Chodi; de Souza Bezerra, Thais Milena; Garçon, Daniela Pereira; Valenti, Wagner Cotroni; Augusto, Alessandra Silva; McNamara, John Campbell

2012-04-01

432

Cultivation of recalcitrant microbes: cells are alive, well and revealing their secrets in the 21st century laboratory  

E-print Network

Chilean Tetraploid Cultivated Potato, Solanum tuberosum, is Distinct from the Andean Populations. tuberosum and subsp. andi- loid cultivated S. stenotomum and the wild S. sparsipi-genum (Juz. & Bukasov), and other cultivated and wild species gested that subsp. andigenum originated from two (22 accessions

Leadbetter, Jared R.

433

Seminal plasma biochemistry and spermatozoa characteristics of Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua L.) of wild and cultivated origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our objectives were to compare spermatozoa activity, morphology, and seminal plasma (SP) biochemistry between wild and cultivated Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Swimming velocities of wild cod spermatozoa were significantly faster than those of cultivated males. Wild males had a significantly larger spermatozoa head area, perimeter, and length, while cultivated males had more circular heads. Total monounsaturated fatty acids and the

Ian Anthony Ernest Butts; Edward Alexander Trippel; Andrzej Ciereszko; Carles Soler; Mariola S?owi?ska; Sayyed Mohammad Hadi Alavi; Matthew Kenneth Litvak; Igor Babiak

2011-01-01

434

Influence of water table level and soil properties on emissions of greenhouse gases from cultivated peat soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lysimeter method using undisturbed soil columns was used to investigate the effect of water table depth and soil properties on soil organic matter decomposition and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from cultivated peat soils. The study was carried out using cultivated organic soils from two locations in Sweden: Örke, a typical cultivated fen peat with low pH and high organic

Ö. Berglund; K. Berglund

2011-01-01

435

Comparing the hydrology of grassed and cultivated catchments in the semi-arid Canadian prairies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the St Denis National Wildlife Area in the prairie region of southern Saskatchewan, Canada, water levels in wetlands have been monitored since 1968. In 1980 and 1983 a total of about one-third of the 4 km2 area was converted from cultivation to an undisturbed cover of brome grass. A few years after this conversion all the wetlands within the area of grass dried out; they have remained dry since, whereas wetlands in adjacent cultivated lands have held water as before. Field measurements show that introduction of undisturbed grass reduces water input to the wetlands mainly through a combination of efficient snow trapping and enhanced infiltration into frozen soil. In winter, the tall brome grass traps most of the snowfall, whereas in the cultivated fields more wind transport of snow occurs, especially for short stubble and fallow fields. Single-ring infiltration tests were conducted during snowmelt, while the soil was still frozen, and again in summer. The infiltrability of the frozen soil in the grassland is high enough to absorb most or all of the snowmelt, whereas in the cultivated fields the infiltration into the frozen soil is limited and significant runoff occurs. In summer, the infiltrability increases for the cultivated fields, but the grassland retains a much higher infiltrability than the cultivated land. The development of enhanced infiltrability takes several years after the conversion from cultivation to grass, and is likely due to the gradual development of macropores, such as root holes, desiccation cracks, and animal burrows.

van der Kamp, G.; Hayashi, M.; Gallén, D.

2003-02-01

436

Training programmes can change behaviour and encourage the cultivation of over-harvested plant species.  

PubMed

Cultivation of wild-harvested plant species has been proposed as a way of reducing over-exploitation of wild populations but lack of technical knowledge is thought to be a barrier preventing people from cultivating a new species. Training programmes are therefore used to increase technical knowledge to encourage people to adopt cultivation. We assessed the impact of a training programme aiming to encourage cultivation of xaté (Chamaedorea ernesti-augusti), an over-harvested palm from Central America. Five years after the training programme ended, we surveyed untrained and trained individuals focusing on four potential predictors of behaviour: technical knowledge, attitudes (what individuals think about a behaviour), subjective norms (what individuals perceive others to think of a behaviour) and perceived behavioural control (self assessment of whether individuals can enact the behaviour successfully). Whilst accounting for socioeconomic variables, we investigate the influence of training upon these behavioural predictors and examine the factors that determine whether people adopt cultivation of a novel species. Those who had been trained had higher levels of technical knowledge about xaté cultivation and higher belief in their ability to cultivate it while training was not associated with differences in attitudes or subjective norms. Technical knowledge and perceived behavioural control (along with socio-economic variables such as forest ownership and age) were predictors of whether individuals cultivate xaté. We suggest that training programmes can have a long lasting effect on individuals and can change behaviour. However, in many situations other barriers to cultivation, such as access to seeds or appropriate markets, will need to be addressed. PMID:22431993

Williams, Sophie J; Jones, Julia P G; Clubbe, Colin; Gibbons, James M

2012-01-01

437

Continuous cultivation approach for fermentative succinic acid production from crude glycerol by Basfia succiniciproducens DD1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A continuous cultivation process for the fermentative production of succinic acid from glycerol with the recently isolated\\u000a bacterium Basfia succiniciproducens DD1 was developed. Crude glycerol (5.1 g l?1) was used as C-source and NH4OH as N-source and pH-control agent. The problem of wall growth was solved by transfers of the cultivation broth into an empty\\u000a identical fermentor. The resulting continuous cultivation process was

Edzard Scholten; Torsten Renz; Jochen Thomas

2009-01-01

438

Micropropagation of commercially cultivated Henna (Lawsonia inermis) using nodal explants.  

PubMed

Lawsonia inermis Linn. (Mehandi) is cultivated as cash crop in India particularly in Sojat area of Pali district, Rajasthan. Present investigation describes an efficient regeneration system for elite genotype of L. inermis using nodal segments. Optimum response in terms of percent cultures responding, days to bud break and average shoot length was observed on MS medium supplemented with 6-benzylaminopurine (BA; 2.0 mg l(-1)). Shoot multiplication was influenced by plant growth regulators, repeated transfer of explants and addition of ammonium sulphate. Maximum shoots were regenerated on MS medium supplemented with BA (0.25 mg l(-1)), kinetin (Kn; 0.25 mg l(-1)), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA; 0.1 mg l(-1)) and ammonium sulphate (150 mg l(-1)). To reduce resources, time and labours costs, we have also attempted ex vitro rooting of shoots. About 95 % shoots were rooted ex vitro on soilrite after treatment with indole-3-butyric acid (IBA; 300 mg l(-1)) and 2-naphthoxy acetic acid (NOA; 100 mg l(-1)) and establishment in soil successfully. PMID:23573020

Ram, Kheta; Shekhawat, N S

2011-07-01

439

The carbon count of 2000 years of rice cultivation.  

PubMed

More than 50% of the world's population feeds on rice. Soils used for rice production are mostly managed under submerged conditions (paddy soils). This management, which favors carbon sequestration, potentially decouples surface from subsurface carbon cycling. The objective of this study was to elucidate the long-term rates of carbon accrual in surface and subsurface soil horizons relative to those of soils under nonpaddy management. We assessed changes in total soil organic as well as of inorganic carbon stocks along a 2000-year chronosequence of soils under paddy and adjacent nonpaddy management in the Yangtze delta, China. The initial organic carbon accumulation phase lasts much longer and is more intensive than previously assumed, e.g., by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Paddy topsoils accumulated 170-178 kg organic carbon ha(-1) a(-1) in the first 300 years; subsoils lost 29-84 kg organic carbon ha(-1) a(-1) during this period of time. Subsoil carbon losses were largest during the first 50 years after land embankment and again large beyond 700 years of cultivation, due to inorganic carbonate weathering and the lack of organic carbon replenishment. Carbon losses in subsoils may therefore offset soil carbon gains or losses in the surface soils. We strongly recommend including subsoils into global carbon accounting schemes, particularly for paddy fields. PMID:23504888

Kalbitz, Karsten; Kaiser, Klaus; Fiedler, Sabine; Kölbl, Angelika; Amelung, Wulf; Bräuer, Tino; Cao, Zhihong; Don, Axel; Grootes, Piet; Jahn, Reinhold; Schwark, Lorenz; Vogelsang, Vanessa; Wissing, Livia; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid

2013-04-01

440

Spaceflight studies of tropisms in the European Modular Cultivation System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phototropism and gravitropism play key roles in the oriented growth of roots in flowering plants. In blue or white light, roots exhibit negative phototropism, but red light induces positive phototropism in Arabidopsis roots. The blue-light response is controlled by the phototropins while the red-light response is mediated by the phytochrome family of photoreceptors. In order to better characterize root phototropism, we plan to perform experiments in microgravity so that this tropism can be more effectively studied without the interactions with the gravity response. Our experiments are to be performed on the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS), which provides an incubator, lighting system, and high resolution video that are on a centrifuge palette. These experiments will be performed at ? g, 1g (control) and fractional g-levels. In order to ensure success of this mission on the International Space Station (ISS), we have been performing ground-based studies on growth, phototropism, and gravitropism in experimental unique equipment (EUE) that was designed for our experiments that will use Arabidopsis seedlings. Currently, the EMCS and our EUE are scheduled for launch on space shuttle mission STS-121. This project should provide insight into how the blue-light and red-light signaling systems interact with each other, and also with the gravisensing system.

Kiss, J. Z.; Correll, M. J.; Edelmann, R. E.

441

Triple hybridization with cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).  

PubMed

A crossing programme for trispecific hybridization including cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) as the third parent was carried out. The primary hybrids comprised 11 interspecific combinations, each of which had either H. jubatum or H. lechleri as one of the parents. The second parent represented species closely or distantly related to H. jubatum and H. lechleri. In trispecific crosses with diploid barley, the seed set was 5.7%. Crosses with tetraploid barley were highly unsuccessful (0.2% seed set). Three lines of diploid barley were used in the crosses, i.e. 'Gull', 'Golden Promise' and 'Vada'. Generally, cv 'Gull' had high crossability in crosses with related species in the primary hybrid. It is suggested that 'Gull' has a genetic factor for crossability not present in cv 'Vada' and cv 'Golden Promise'. One accession of H. brachyantherum used in the primary hybrid had a very high crossability (seed set 54.7%) in combination with cv 'Vada' but no viable offspring was produced. In all, two trispecific hybrids were raised, viz. (H. lechleri x H. brevisubulatum) x 'Gull' (2n=7-30) and (H. jubatum x H. lechleri) x 'Gull' (2n=20-22). The first combination invariably had a full complement of seven barley chromosomes plus an additional chromosome no. 7, but a varying number of chromosomes (19-22) of the wild-species hybrid. The second combination had a full set of barley chromosomes. The meiotic pairing was low in both combinations. PMID:24226012

von Bothmer, R; Claesson, L; Flink, J; Linde-Laursen, I

1989-12-01

442

Cultivation of aerobic granular sludge for rubber wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

Aerobic granular sludge (AGS) was successfully cultivated at 27±1 °C and pH 7.0±1 during the treatment of rubber wastewater using a sequential batch reactor system mode with complete cycle time of 3 h. Results showed aerobic granular sludge had an excellent settling ability and exhibited exceptional performance in the organics and nutrients removal from rubber wastewater. Regular, dense and fast settling granule (average diameter, 1.5 mm; settling velocity, 33 m h(-1); and sludge volume index, 22.3 mL g(-1)) were developed in a single reactor. In addition, 96.5% COD removal efficiency was observed in the system at the end of the granulation period, while its ammonia and total nitrogen removal efficiencies were up to 94.7% and 89.4%, respectively. The study demonstrated the capabilities of AGS development in a single, high and slender column type-bioreactor for the treatment of rubber wastewater. PMID:23317554

Rosman, Noor Hasyimah; Nor Anuar, Aznah; Othman, Inawati; Harun, Hasnida; Sulong Abdul Razak, Muhammad Zuhdi; Elias, Siti Hanna; Mat Hassan, Mohd Arif Hakimi; Chelliapan, Shreesivadass; Ujang, Zaini

2013-02-01

443

Uniparental Mitochondrial Transmission in the Cultivated Button Mushroom, Agaricus bisporus  

PubMed Central

A uniparental mitochondrial (mt) transmission pattern has been previously observed in laboratory matings of the cultivated mushroom Agaricus bisporus on petri dishes. In this study, four sets of specific matings were further examined by taking mycelial plugs from the confluent zone of mated homokaryons and inoculating these plugs into rye grain for laboratory fruiting and for fruiting under industrial conditions. Examination of the mt genotype of each individual fruit body for mt-specific restriction fragment length polymorphisms further confirmed that the mt genome was inherited uniparentally. The vegetative radial growth and the fruiting activity of two pairs of intraspecific heterokaryons, each pair carrying the same combination of nuclear genomes but different mt genotypes, were compared. Our results suggested that the mt genotype did not appreciably affect radial growth or fruiting activity. The failure to recover both heterokaryons, each carrying either parental mt genotype in any given cross, therefore clearly indicated that in matings of A. bisporus, the mt genome from one of the parental homokaryons is either selectively excluded in the newly formed heterokaryon or selectively eliminated in the immediate heterokaryotic mitotic progeny of the newly formed heterokaryon. Images PMID:16349461

Jin, Tianru; Horgen, Paul A.

1994-01-01

444

Air-quality and Climatic Consequences of Bioenergy Crop Cultivation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bioenergy is expected to play an increasingly significant role in the global energy budget. In addition to the use of liquid energy forms such as ethanol and biodiesel, electricity generation using processed energy crops as a partial or full coal alternative is expected to increase, requiring large-scale conversions of land for the cultivation of bioenergy feedstocks such as cane, grasses, or short rotation coppice. With land-use change identified as a major contributor to changes in the emission of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), many of which are known contributors to the pollutants ozone (O 3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5), careful review of crop emission profiles and local atmospheric chemistry will be necessary to mitigate any unintended air-quality consequences. In this work, the atmospheric consequences of bioenergy crop replacement are examined using both the high-resolution regional chemical transport model WRF/Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry) and the global climate model CESM (Community Earth System Model). Regional sensitivities to several representative crop types are analyzed, and the impacts of each crop on air quality and climate are compared. Overall, the high emitting crops (eucalyptus and giant reed) were found to produce climate and human health costs totaling up to 40% of the value of CO 2 emissions prevented, while the related costs of the lowest-emitting crop (switchgrass) were negligible.

Porter, William Christian

445

Cultivating professional responsibility in a dental hygiene curriculum.  

PubMed

To prepare dental hygienists for future roles in the health care system, dental hygiene education must prepare graduates with skills, ethics, and values that align with professional responsibility. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of curricular changes designed to develop professional identity and responsibility over the entire span of the dental hygiene curriculum. Twenty-four dental hygiene students at the University of Minnesota were surveyed about their attitudes toward access to dental care, society's and health professionals' responsibility to care for the underserved, and their personal efficacy to provide care for the underserved. Surveys were conducted at three time points in the curriculum. The Attitudes Toward Health Care instrument adapted by Holtzman for dental use was used to survey the students. The findings indicate that this institution's curricular changes were effective in cultivating professional responsibility among these students. Their attitude scores increased across the six-semester curriculum, and students in their last semester of the program believed that all individuals have a right to dental care and that society has an obligation to provide dental care. These students' sense of obligation to care for the needy became stronger and their perceptions of their own ability to impact the community and act as an agent of change also increased. PMID:23929574

Blue, Christine M

2013-08-01

446

Cassava genome from a wild ancestor to cultivated varieties  

PubMed Central

Cassava is a major tropical food crop in the Euphorbiaceae family that has high carbohydrate production potential and adaptability to diverse environments. Here we present the draft genome sequences of a wild ancestor and a domesticated variety of cassava and comparative analyses with a partial inbred line. We identify 1,584 and 1,678 gene models specific to the wild and domesticated varieties, respectively, and discover high heterozygosity and millions of single-nucleotide variations. Our analyses reveal that genes involved in photosynthesis, starch accumulation and abiotic stresses have been positively selected, whereas those involved in cell wall biosynthesis and secondary metabolism, including cyanogenic glucoside formation, have been negatively selected in the cultivated varieties, reflecting the result of natural selection and domestication. Differences in microRNA genes and retrotransposon regulation could partly explain an increased carbon flux towards starch accumulation and reduced cyanogenic glucoside accumulation in domesticated cassava. These results may contribute to genetic improvement of cassava through better understanding of its biology. PMID:25300236

Wang, Wenquan; Feng, Binxiao; Xiao, Jingfa; Xia, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Xincheng; Li, Pinghua; Zhang, Weixiong; Wang, Ying; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Zhang, Peng; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Xiao, Gong; Liu, Jingxing; Yang, Jun; Chen, Songbi; Rabinowicz, Pablo D.; Chen, Xin; Zhang, Hong-Bin; Ceballos, Henan; Lou, Qunfeng; Zou, Meiling; Carvalho, Luiz J.C.B.; Zeng, Changying; Xia, Jing; Sun, Shixiang; Fu, Yuhua; Wang, Haiyan; Lu, Cheng; Ruan, Mengbin; Zhou, Shuigeng; Wu, Zhicheng; Liu, Hui; Kannangara, Rubini Maya; Jørgensen, Kirsten; Neale, Rebecca Louise; Bonde, Maya; Heinz, Nanna; Zhu, Wenli; Wang, Shujuan; Zhang, Yang; Pan, Kun; Wen, Mingfu; Ma, Ping-An; Li, Zhengxu; Hu, Meizhen; Liao, Wenbin; Hu, Wenbin; Zhang, Shengkui; Pei, Jinli; Guo, Anping; Guo, Jianchun; Zhang, Jiaming; Zhang, Zhengwen; Ye, Jianqiu; Ou, Wenjun; Ma, Yaqin; Liu, Xinyue; Tallon, Luke J.; Galens, Kevin; Ott, Sandra; Huang, Jie; Xue, Jingjing; An, Feifei; Yao, Qingqun; Lu, Xiaojing; Fregene, Martin; López-Lavalle, L. Augusto Becerra; Wu, Jiajie; You, Frank M.; Chen, Meili; Hu, Songnian; Wu, Guojiang; Zhong, Silin; Ling, Peng; Chen, Yeyuan; Wang, Qinghuang; Liu, Guodao; Liu, Bin; Li, Kaimian; Peng, Ming

2014-01-01

447

Continuous cultivation of photosynthetic bacteria for fatty acids production.  

PubMed

In the present work, we introduced a novel approach for microbial fatty acids (FA) production. Photosynthetic bacteria, Rhodobacter sphaeroides KD131, were cultivated in a continuous-flow, stirred-tank reactor (CFSTR) at various substrate (lactate) concentrations. At hydraulic retention time (HRT) 4d, cell concentration continuously increased from 0.97 g dcw/L to 2.05 g dcw/L as lactate concentration increased from 30 mM to 60mM. At 70 mM, however, cell concentration fluctuated with incomplete substrate degradation. By installing a membrane unit to CFSTR, a stable performance was observed under much higher substrate loading (lactate 100mM and HRT 1.5d). A maximum cell concentration of 16.2g dcw/L, cell productivity of 1.9 g dcw/L/d, and FA productivity of 665 mg FA/L/d were attained, and these values were comparable with those achieved using microalgae. The FA content of R. sphaeroides was around 35% of dry cell weight, mainly composed of vaccenic acid (C18:1, omega-7). PMID:24055970

Kim, Dong-Hoon; Lee, Ji-Hye; Hwang, Yuhoon; Kang, Seoktae; Kim, Mi-Sun

2013-11-01

448

Cassava genome from a wild ancestor to cultivated varieties.  

PubMed

Cassava is a major tropical food crop in the Euphorbiaceae family that has high carbohydrate production potential and adaptability to diverse environments. Here we present the draft genome sequences of a wild ancestor and a domesticated variety of cassava and comparative analyses with a partial inbred line. We identify 1,584 and 1,678 gene models specific to the wild and domesticated varieties, respectively, and discover high heterozygosity and millions of single-nucleotide variations. Our analyses reveal that genes involved in photosynthesis, starch accumulation and abiotic stresses have been positively selected, whereas those involved in cell wall biosynthesis and secondary metabolism, including cyanogenic glucoside formation, have been negatively selected in the cultivated varieties, reflecting the result of natural selection and domestication. Differences in microRNA genes and retrotransposon regulation could partly explain an increased carbon flux towards starch accumulation and reduced cyanogenic glucoside accumulation in domesticated cassava. These results may contribute to genetic improvement of cassava through better understanding of its biology. PMID:25300236

Wang, Wenquan; Feng, Binxiao; Xiao, Jingfa; Xia, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Xincheng; Li, Pinghua; Zhang, Weixiong; Wang, Ying; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Zhang, Peng; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Xiao, Gong; Liu, Jingxing; Yang, Jun; Chen, Songbi; Rabinowicz, Pablo D; Chen, Xin; Zhang, Hong-Bin; Ceballos, Henan; Lou, Qunfeng; Zou, Meiling; Carvalho, Luiz J C B; Zeng, Changying; Xia, Jing; Sun, Shixiang; Fu, Yuhua; Wang, Haiyan; Lu, Cheng; Ruan, Mengbin; Zhou, Shuigeng; Wu, Zhicheng; Liu, Hui; Kannangara, Rubini Maya; Jørgensen, Kirsten; Neale, Rebecca Louise; Bonde, Maya; Heinz, Nanna; Zhu, Wenli; Wang, Shujuan; Zhang, Yang; Pan, Kun; Wen, Mingfu; Ma, Ping-An; Li, Zhengxu; Hu, Meizhen; Liao, Wenbin; Hu, Wenbin; Zhang, Shengkui; Pei, Jinli; Guo, Anping; Guo, Jianchun; Zhang, Jiaming; Zhang, Zhengwen; Ye, Jianqiu; Ou, Wenjun; Ma, Yaqin; Liu, Xinyue; Tallon, Luke J; Galens, Kevin; Ott, Sandra; Huang, Jie; Xue, Jingjing; An, Feifei; Yao, Qingqun; Lu, Xiaojing; Fregene, Martin; López-Lavalle, L Augusto Becerra; Wu, Jiajie; You, Frank M; Chen, Meili; Hu, Songnian; Wu, Guojiang; Zhong, Silin; Ling, Peng; Chen, Yeyuan; Wang, Qinghuang; Liu, Guodao; Liu, Bin; Li, Kaimian; Peng, Ming

2014-01-01

449

Effect of revulsive cultivation on the yield and quality of newly formed sclerotia in medicinal Wolfiporia cocos.  

PubMed

Wolfiporia cocos is a well-known medicinal mushroom widely used in China, Japan and other Asiatic countries for its various therapeutic effects. 'Revulsive cultivation' is a newly developed method for promoting sclerotia growth in W. cocos field cultivation in China. In this report, we have systematically examined the effects of 'revulsive cultivation' on the yield and quality of newly formed sclerotia. The results showed that the genetic differences between the cultivated strain and the revulsive strain of T1 used in this study did not affect the formation process of new, large sclerotia in which the mycelia of the cultivated strain grew on pine logs directionally assembled on the revulsive strain. Additionally, 'revulsive cultivation', in which the cultivated strain and the revulsive strain used had the same or different genotypes, could remarkably increase the yield, lower the water content, and increase the water-soluble polysaccharide content of the newly formed sclerotia. Moreover, we observed that the changes in the values of the tested economic traits obtained from different genotype combinations through 'revulsive cultivation' were dissimilar. The correlations of these changes with the original sclerotium-forming ability of the cultivated strains and the genetic differences between the cultivated strain and the revulsive strain were not significant. These results will broaden our knowledge regarding the field cultivation of this medical fungus, stimulate new thinking on the study of sclerotium formation in some sclerotium-forming fungi, and promote further studies on the mechanism of sclerotium formation in W. cocos. PMID:24799082

Xu, Zhangyi; Tang, Wenrui; Xiong, Bin; Wang, Keqin; Bian, Yinbing

2014-07-01

450

Biophysical regulations of carbon fluxes of a steppe and a cultivated cropland in semiarid Inner Mongolia  

E-print Network

Biophysical regulations of carbon fluxes of a steppe and a cultivated cropland in semiarid Inner on the biophysical environ- ments. Filling this knowledge gap based on the biophysical regulations of carbon flux

Chen, Jiquan

451

Attempt to cultivate Rickettsiella phytoseiuli in Dermacentor reticulatus ticks: an electron microscopic study.  

PubMed

Rickettsiella phytoseiuli occurring in Phytoseiulus persimilis mites was cultivated in Dermacentor reticulatus ticks. Rickettsiella multiplied similarly as in mites exerting all six developmental stages: dense, intermediate, bacterial, giant, crystal-forming and small dark particles. PMID:2897779

Sutáková, G; Rehácek, J

1988-01-01

452

Culture cultivating culture: the four products of the meaning-made world.  

PubMed

Culture, in a semiotic cultural psychology, is defined from the viewpoint of cultivation--the meaning making processes that give meaning to the world (Valsiner 2000, 2007a). However, the individual is not simply a process-machine in an empty world--there are both the external outcomes of meaning making (individual and group based) as well as the collective influence on the cultivation process. I argue to examine the cultivation process more completely, one must look at these external influences that catalyze future cultivation processes. By examining the power of the external (environmental Umwelten) and group-internal (myths, morals), a much greater understanding of the behavior of individuals can be accomplished beyond examining the individual's process of meaning making. Further work into examining the objects that affectively activate the individual as well as group action and meaning making is called for and examples of such studies are given. PMID:24132664

Carriere, Kevin R

2014-09-01

453

Michael Fullan's Compelling Vision of Educational Change: Cultivating Meaningful Relationships for All.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Essay review of the third edition (2001) of Michael Fullan's book "The Meaning of Educational Change." Discusses Fullan's educational change issues and concepts such as multiple meanings and consequent complexities and cultivating meaningful relationships. (Contains 28 references.) (PKP)

Baker, Paul J.

2001-01-01

454

Differences in phytase activity and phytic acid content between cultivated and Tibetan annual wild barleys.  

PubMed

The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau in China is considered to be one of the original centers of cultivated barley. At present, little is known about the phytase activity (Phy) or phytic acid content (PA) in grains of Tibetan annual wild barley. Phy and PA were determined in grains of 135 wild and 72 cultivated barleys. Phy ranged from 171.3 to 1299.2 U kg(-1) and from 219.9 to 998.2 U kg(-1) for wild and cultivated barleys, respectively. PA and protein contents were much higher in wild barley than in cultivated barley. Tibetan annual wild barley showed a larger genetic diversity in phytase activity and phytic acid and protein contents and is of value for barley breeding. There is no significant correlation between phytase activity and phytic acid or protein content in barley grains, indicating that endogenous phytase activity had little effect on the accumulation of phytic acid. PMID:21047062

Dai, Fei; Qiu, Long; Xu, Yang; Cai, Shengguan; Qiu, Boyin; Zhang, Guoping

2010-11-24

455

Cultivation Conditions for Phytase Production from Recombinant Escherichia coli DH5?.  

PubMed

Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the cultivation conditions for the production of phytase by recombinant Escherichia coli DH5?. The optimum predicted cultivation conditions for phytase production were at 3 hours seed age, a 2.5% inoculum level, an L-arabinose concentration of 0.20%, a cell concentration of 0.3 (as measured at 600 nm) and 17 hours post-induction time with a predicted phytase activity of 4194.45 U/mL. The model was validated and the results showed no significant difference between the experimental and the predicted phytase activity (P = 0.305). Under optimum cultivation conditions, the phytase activity of the recombinant E. coli DH5? was 364 times higher compared to the phytase activity of the wild-type producer, Enterobacter sakazakii ASUIA279. Hence, optimization of the cultivation conditions using RSM positively increased phytase production from recombinant E. coli DH5?. PMID:24826071

Ariff, Rafidah Mohd; Fitrianto, Anwar; Abd Manap, Mohd Yazid; Ideris, Aini; Kassim, Azhar; Suhairin, Afinah; Hussin, Anis Shobirin Meor

2013-01-01

456

Scale-up cultivation of Chlorella ellipsoidea from indoor to outdoor in bubble column bioreactors.  

PubMed

The cultivation of Chlorella ellipsoidea in bubble column bioreactors was investigated at different scales under indoor and outdoor conditions. The algal cells were able to quickly adapt to the outdoor conditions and achieved a growth rate of 31.55mg L(-1)day(-1). Due to differences in light and temperature, the outdoor culture produced a higher percentage of unsaturated fatty acids compared to the indoor cultures, while the amino acid composition was unaffected. The overall cost of the biomass produced by the 200L outdoor cultivation (58.70US$/kg-dry weight) was estimated to be more than 7 times lower than that of the 20L indoor cultivation (431.39US$/kg-dry weight). Together these results provide a basis for the cultivation of C. ellipsoidea for the large-scale production of biofuels, high-value nutrients and/or recombinant proteins. PMID:24495537

Wang, Shi-Kai; Hu, Yi-Ru; Wang, Feng; Stiles, Amanda R; Liu, Chun-Zhao

2014-03-01

457

Variation in nuclear DNA content in Malus species and cultivated apples  

E-print Network

Variation in nuclear DNA content in Malus species and cultivated apples Tatiana C. Tatum, Svetlana, Malus, ploïdie. [Traduit par la Rédaction] Tatum et al. 930 Introduction Flow cytometry has been used

Korban, Schuyler S.

458

Ecological aspects of swidden cultivation among the Andoke and Witoto indians of the Colombian Amazon  

SciTech Connect

The investigation of crop and soil-crop conditions among Andoke and Witoto cultivators in southeast Colombia is used as a basis for assessing Geertz' (1963) model of swidden cultivation. In this respect, the extent to which manioc-dominated swiddens in the study area simulate the structure and composition of the forest climax community is questioned. As Geertz (1963) indicates, and initial nutrient boost for crop cultivation results from the preliminary burning of forest debris, but weed competition, rather than progressive loss of soil fertility, is reported to be the primary cause of abandoning manioc cultivation after 2-3 years. While the Andoke and Witoto crop system remains adaptive at the individual field level, particularly in its constituent species, its fundamental adaptation is considered to be its integration into the broader field and fallow system that juxtaposes crop production with extended periods of forest regeneration.

Eden, M.J.; Andrade, A.

1987-09-01

459

Detection and cultivation of indigenous microorganisms in Mesozoic claystone core samples from the Opalinus Clay Formation  

E-print Network

Detection and cultivation of indigenous microorganisms in Mesozoic claystone core samples from December 2005 Available online 12 October 2006 Abstract Although microorganisms have been isolated from samples, showing their suitability for microbiological investigations. To determine whether microorganisms

Gilli, Adrian

460

Novel Phaseolin Types in Wild and Cultivated Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, Fabaceae) 1  

E-print Network

; Loveless and Hamrick 1984). Hamrick and Allard (1972) used protein polymorphisms in Avena fatua L. and A allozyme variation among 31 collections of cultivated Lactuca sativa L. and wild Lactuca species to assess

Gepts, Paul