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1

Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus infection in M. rosenbergii (de Man) with white tail disease cultured in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

White tail disease (WTD) is a serious problem in Macrobrachium rosenbergii hatcheries and nursery ponds in Asia. The causative agents have been identified as M. rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and its associated extra small virus. This is the first re- port demonstrating MrNV virus in M. rosenbergii displaying WTD signs in Taiwan by reverse tran- scriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Amplified fragments

C S Wang; J S Chang; C M Wen; H H Shih; S N Chen

2008-01-01

2

Natural aquatic insect carriers of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV).  

PubMed

Five different species of aquatic insects were collected from nursery ponds containing the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii infected with Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV). The insects were screened as potential natural carriers of MrNV and XSV. RT-PCR (reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction) analysis gave positive results for MrNV and XSV in Belostoma sp., Aesohna sp., Cybister sp. and Notonecta sp., and negative results for Nepa sp. An Aedes albopictus mosquito cell line (C6/36) was used for infectivity assays, with viral inoculum prepared from the aquatic insects, since C6/36 cells have recently been shown to be susceptible to infection with MrNV and XSV. The C6/36 cells were harvested 4 d post-challenge for examination by electron microscopy. This revealed aggregation of viral particles throughout the cytoplasm for cells challenged with inocula from all the insect species except Nepa sp. Our results indicate that several aquatic insect species may present a risk for MrNV and XSV transmission to M. rosenbergii. PMID:18500030

Sudhakaran, R; Haribabu, P; Kumar, S Rajesh; Sarathi, M; Ahmed, V P Ishaq; Babu, V Sarath; Venkatesan, C; Hameedl, A S Sahul

2008-04-01

3

Monoclonal antibodies against extra small virus show that it co-localizes with Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus.  

PubMed

The capsid protein (CP) gene of extra small virus (XSV) expressed in Escherichia coli as a 42 kDa glutathione S-transferase (GST)-fusion protein (GST-XCP) or a 20 kDa His6-fusion protein (His6-XCP) were purified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), combined, and used to immunize Swiss mice to produce monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Using dot blot, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) methods, 4 MAbs specific to the XSV CP detected XSV in the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii without cross-reaction to host proteins or to proteins of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) or 5 of the most pathogenic viruses of penaeid shrimp. In dot blots, the combined MAbs could detect down to ~10 to 20 fmol µl-1 of purified GST-XCP protein, which was somewhat more sensitive compared to any single MAb. Used in conjunction with an MrNV-specific MAb, white tail disease (WTD) was diagnosed more effectively. However, the sensitivity at which the combined 4 MAbs detected XSV CP was 1000-fold lower than XSV RNA detected by RT-PCR. IHC analysis of M. rosenbergii tissue sections using the MAbs showed XSV infection to co-localize at variable loads with MrNV infection in heart and muscle cells as well as cells of connective tissues in the hepatopancreas. Since XSV histopathology remained prominent in tissues of some prawns in which MAb reactivity for MrNV was low compared to MAb reactivity for XSV, XSV might play some role in WTD severity. PMID:22832718

Longyant, Siwaporn; Senapin, Saengchan; Sanont, Sirijantra; Wangman, Pradit; Chaivisuthangkura, Parin; Rukpratanporn, Sombat; Sithigorngul, Paisarn

2012-07-25

4

Detection and phylogenetic profiling of nodavirus associated with white tail disease in Malaysian Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man.  

PubMed

White tail disease (WTD) is a serious viral disease in the hatcheries and nursery ponds of Macrobrachium rosenbergii in many parts of the world. A new disease similar to WTD was observed in larvae and post larvae of M. rosenbergii cultured in Malaysia. In the present study, RT-PCR assay was used to detect the causative agents of WTD, M. rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV) using specific primers for MrNV RNA2 and XSV. The results showed the presence of MrNV in the samples with or without signs of WTD. However, XSV was only detected in some of the MrNV-positive samples. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the RNA2 of our Malaysian isolates were significantly different from the other isolates. Histopathological studies revealed myofiber degeneration of the tail muscles and liquefactive myopathy in the infected prawns. This was the first report on the occurrence of MrNV in the Malaysian freshwater prawn. PMID:22223294

Saedi, Tayebeh Azam; Moeini, Hassan; Tan, Wen Siang; Yusoff, Khatijah; Daud, Hassan Mohd; Chu, Kua Beng; Tan, Soon Guan; Bhassu, Subha

2012-05-01

5

ASPECTOS SÓCIO-AMBIENTAIS DAS PESCARIAS DE CAMARÕES DULCÍOLAS (Macrobrachium amazonicum HELLER, 1862 E Macrobrachium rosenbergii DE MAN, 1879) (DECAPODA, PALAEMONIDAE) NA REGIÃO BRAGANTINA - PARÁ - BRASIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social-environment aspects of freshwater praws fisheries (Macrobrachium amazonicum Heller, 1862 e Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man, 1879) (Decapoda, Palaemonidae) of Bragantina Region - Pará - Brazil Among abundance of native shrimp species with high fisheries potential and good commercial relationships like Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller, 1862), exotic species like Macrobrachium rosenbergii has been done introduced with aquaculture aims. Study was conducted with

Julliany Lemos Freire

6

Feasibility of Direct Utilization of Selected Geothermal Water for Aquaculture of 'Macrobrachium rosenbergii'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The feasibility was tested of direct utilization of geothermal water for the aquaculture of Malaysian freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). A problem with using geothermal water for aquaculture is the chemical composition of the water with high f...

C. Spinosa

1984-01-01

7

The Effects of Algal Supplements on Static System Culture of 'Macrobrachium rosenbergii' (De Man) Larvae.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The value of algal supplements in rearing Macrobrachium rosenbergii larvae in static water systems was investigated. Larvae were reared in 60 liter fiberglass rounded bottom tanks at concentrations ranging from 50 to 67 larvae/liter. Standard culture meth...

M. B. Maddox J. J. Manzi

1976-01-01

8

Feasibility of direct utilization of selected geothermal water for aquaculture of macrobrachium rosenbergii. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility was tested of direct utilization of geothermal water for the aquaculture of Malaysian freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). A problem with using geothermal water for aquaculture is the chemical composition of the water with high flouride levels being a particular problem. Results show that (1) some geothermal water in Idaho can be used directly for the aquaculture of Macrobrachium rosenbergii, (2) high flouride levels cannot be directly correlated with high mortality rates and (3) low flouride levels do not correlate with high growth rates.

Spinosa, C.

1984-05-01

9

Effects and toxicity of phthalate esters to hemocytes of giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phthalate esters (PAEs) have been considered as environmental pollutants and have been subject to control in the United States of America and Japan. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and toxicity of eight PAEs to hemocytes and the defense functions of giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), including hemocytic adhesion, pseudopodia formation, phenoloxidase (PO) activity, and superoxide

Hung-Hung Sung; Wei-Yi Kao; Yi-Jen Su

2003-01-01

10

Antibiotic resistance in bacteria isolated from hatchery-reared larvae and post-larvae of Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was carried out to determine the bacterial load of larvae and post-larvae of Macrobrachium rosenbergii and their resistance to various antibiotics used commonly in aquaculture. Total aerobic heterotrophic bacteria associated with larvae and post-larvae of M. rosenbergii were determined on nutrient agar and thiosulphate citrate bile salt agar (TCBS), and the results showed that the bacterial numbers differed

A. S Sahul Hameed; K. H Rahaman; A Alagan; K Yoganandhan

2003-01-01

11

Bacterial flora associated with larval rearing of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative and qualitative analyses of bacterial flora associated with larval rearing of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, along with important water quality parameters, were carried out over a larval cycle. Total viable counts (TVC) varied between 1.1±0.6×104 and 9.8±1.5×106 colony forming units (cfu) ml?1 in water, 2.4±0.4×105 and 8.6±1.6×106 cfu g?1 in eggs and 2.5±1.4×104 and 1.6±1.0×108 cfu g?1

P. V. Phatarpekar; V. D. Kenkre; R. A. Sreepada; U. M. Desai; C. T. Achuthankutty

2002-01-01

12

Nitrogenous excretion in Macrobrachium rosenbergii at different pH levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macrobrachium rosenbergii (31.1 ± 1.9 g) were maintained individually in freshwater with pH levels of 4.15, 5.55, 7.10, 8.61 and 10.15 for 7 days, and then nitrogenous excretions from each animal for one day were measured. Ammonia-N excretion (?g g?1 h?1) and total nitrogen excretion (?g g?1 h?1) decreased with increased pH level, whereas urea-N excretion (?g g?1 h?1), nitrite-N

Jiann-Chu Chen; Chu-Tau Kou

1996-01-01

13

Quantitative and Qualitative Bacterial Flora of Giant Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii Cultured in Earthen Ponds in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative and qualitative analyses of bacterial flora associated with the digestive tract of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii cultured in earthen ponds of Saudi Arabia were carried out. Bacterial counts and flora of prawn-culture pond water, sediment, and prawn carapaces, along with important physicochemical parameters, were investigated, and the isolates were identified to the genus or species level. Total

M. Naim Uddin; A. H. Al-Harbi

2005-01-01

14

Effects of complete and supplemental diets and organic pond fertilization on production of Macrobrachium rosenbergii and associated benthic macroinvertebrate populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth and population characteristics of freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, fed either a complete diet, a supplemental diet (with fish meal replaced and vitamin and mineral supplements deleted), or the supplemental diet with an adjunct organic pond fertilization regime were examined. Effects of these treatments on potential forage organisms (benthic macroinvertebrates) were also evaluated. Juvenile prawns averaging 0.46 ± 0.49 g

James H. Tidwell; Carl D. Webster; John D. Sedlacek; Paul A. Weston; Wanda L. Knight; Sankie J. Hill; Louis R. D'Abramo; William H. Daniels; Marty J. Fuller; J. Labrenty Montañez

1995-01-01

15

Parvo-like virus in the hepatopancreas of freshwater prawns Macrobrachium rosenbergii cultivated in Thailand.  

PubMed

A survey of cultivated giant freshwater prawns Macrobrachium rosenbergii from Thailand revealed the presence of unusual spherical to ovoid inclusions in nuclei of hepatopancreas tubule epithelial cells. These began as small eosinophilic inclusions that became more basophilic as they increased in size. They were present in both R-cells and E-cells but were largest and deeply basophilic only in the E-cells. Confocal laser microscopy revealed that stained nucleic acid fluorescence from the inclusions was lost by treatment with DNase I specific for double- and single-stranded DNA and also lost or reduced by treatment with mungbean nuclease specific for single-stranded nucleic acids. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the inclusions contained tightly packed, unenveloped, viral-like particles of approximately 25 to 30 nm diameter, resembling those produced by shrimp parvoviruses. However, PCR, in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical tests for shrimp parvoviruses previously reported from Thailand were all negative. These results suggested that the inclusions contained a parvo-like virus, not previously reported from M. rosenbergii in Thailand. PMID:19750803

Gangnonngiw, Warachin; Kiatpathomchai, Wansika; Sriurairatana, Siriporn; Laisutisan, Kesinee; Chuchird, Niti; Limsuwan, Chalor; Flegel, Timothy W

2009-07-23

16

Toxicity of phenol on Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) eggs, larvae, and post-larvae  

SciTech Connect

Literature on the toxicities of phenol on aquatic organisms is very limited. USEPA reported that the acute and chronic toxicities of phenol to freshwater aquatic life occur at concentrations as low as 10.2 mg/L and 2.56 mg/L, respectively. While for the saltwater aquatic life the acute toxicity occurs at concentrations as low as 5.8 mg/L. No data are available for the chronic toxicity of phenol to saltwater aquatic life. Sublethal concentrations of phenol have significant effects on the physiological and histological processes of the aquatic organisms: such as gill necrosis; destruction of erythrocyte cells; inhibition of sexual activities; suppression on growth and reduction of resistance to diseases. Macrobrachium rosenbergii(de Man) is the sole freshwater prawn cultured in Malaysia. Occasionally, the hatcheries are unable to produce the post-larvae because of undefined pollutants present in the water supplies. It has been observed that the use of cracked fiberglass tanks for larvae rearing is correlated with high mortality. This high mortality is probably due to the toxicity of the phenolic compounds which are leached out from the fiber glass tank into the water. This study was undertaken to evaluate the toxicity of phenol on eggs, larvae and post-larvae of M. rosenbergii and to set the water quality criteria of phenol for the said species. 16 refs., 3 tabs.

Law, A.T.; Yeo, M.E. [Universiti Kolej Terengganu (UPM), Darul Iman (Malaysia)] [Universiti Kolej Terengganu (UPM), Darul Iman (Malaysia)

1997-03-01

17

Crustin, a WAP domain containing antimicrobial peptide from freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii: immune characterization.  

PubMed

Crustin (MrCrs) was sequenced from a freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The MrCrs protein contains a signal peptide region at N-terminus between 1 and 22 and a long whey acidic protein domain (WAP domain) at C-terminus between 57 and 110 along with a WAP-type 'four-disulfide core' motif. Phylogenetic results show that MrCrs is clustered together with other crustacean crustin groups. MrCrs showed high sequence similarity (77%) with crustin from Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and Japanese spiny lobster Panulirus japonicas. I-TASSER uses the best structure templates to predict the possible structures of MrCrs along with PDB IDs such as 2RELA and 1FLEI. The gene expressions of MrCrs in both healthy M. rosenbergii and those infected with virus including infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila (Gram-negative) and Enterococcus faecium (Gram-positive) were examined using quantitative real time PCR. To understand its biological activity, the recombinant MrCrs gene was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The recombinant MrCrs protein agglutinated with the bacteria considered for analysis at a concentration of 25 ?g/ml, except Lactococcus lactis. The bactericidal results showed that the recombinant MrCrs protein destroyed all the bacteria after incubation, even less than 6 h. These results suggest that MrCrs is a potential antimicrobial peptide, which is involved in the defense system of M. rosenbergii against viral and bacterial infections. PMID:23069787

Arockiaraj, Jesu; Gnanam, Annie J; Muthukrishnan, Dhanaraj; Gudimella, Ranganath; Milton, James; Singh, Arun; Muthupandian, Saravanan; Kasi, Marimuthu; Bhassu, Subha

2013-01-01

18

Effects of an organophosphorus insecticide, trichlorfon, on hematological parameters of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemolymph osmolality, ion concentration, acid–base balance, and immune parameters in Macrobrachium rosenbergii (15–20 g) were measured after 8 days of exposure to 0–0.3 mg l?1 trichlorfon. A significant depression in hemolymph osmolality and Cl?1 contents were observed with exposure to 0.3 mg l?1 trichlorfon. Similarly, hemolymph pH, HCO3?, and TCO2 decreased significantly when prawns were exposed to concentration of greater

Shinn-Pyng Yeh; Tzeng-Gan Sung; Chin-Chyuan Chang; Winton Cheng; Ching-Ming Kuo

2005-01-01

19

Bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls and metals from contaminated sediment by freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii and clams, Corbicula fluminea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freshwater prawns,Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and clams,Corbicula fluminea, were exposed for 48 or 50 days to three concentrations of a river sediment that contained environmental contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and metals. Sediment was obtained twice during 1980 from the same location. Prawns were exposed to the first batch, sediment 5–80, which contained higher concentrations of some metals and PCBs compared

Henry E. Tatem

1986-01-01

20

Prophenoloxidase activating enzyme-III from giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii : characterization, expression and specific enzyme activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prophenoloxidase activating system is an important innate immune response against microbial infections in invertebrates.\\u000a The major enzyme, phenoloxidase, is synthesized as an inactive precursor and its activation to an active enzyme is mediated\\u000a by a cascade of clip domain serine proteinases. In this study, a cDNA encoding a prophenoloxidase activating enzyme-III from\\u000a the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, designated

Jesu Arockiaraj; Sarasvathi Easwvaran; Puganeshwaran Vanaraja; Arun Singh; Rofina Yasmin Othman; Subha Bhassu

21

A cytosolic glutathione s-transferase, GST-theta from freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii: molecular and biochemical properties.  

PubMed

Glutathione S-transferases play an important role in cellular detoxification and may have evolved to protect cells against reactive oxygen metabolites. In this study, we report the molecular characterization of glutathione s-transferase-theta (GST-?) from freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. A full length cDNA of GSTT (1417 base pairs) was isolated and characterized bioinformatically. Exposure to virus (white spot syndrome baculovirus or M. rosenbergii nodovirus), bacteria (Aeromonas hydrophila or Vibrio harveyi) or heavy metals (cadmium or lead) significantly increased the expression of GSTT (P<0.05) in hepatopancreas. Recombinant GST-? with monochlorobimane substrate had an optimum activity at pH7.5 and 35°C. Furthermore recombinant GST-? activity was abolished by the denaturants triton X-100, Gua-HCl, Gua-thiocyanate, SDS and urea in a dose-dependent manner. Overall, the results suggest a potential role for M. rosenbergii GST-? in detoxification and possibly conferring immune protection. PMID:24879918

Arockiaraj, Jesu; Gnanam, Annie J; Palanisamy, Rajesh; Bhatt, Prasanth; Kumaresan, Venkatesh; Chaurasia, Mukesh Kumar; Pasupuleti, Mukesh; Ramaswamy, Harikrishnan; Arasu, Abirami; Sathyamoorthi, Akila

2014-08-10

22

Post-Embryonic Transcriptomes of the Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii: Multigenic Succession through Metamorphosis  

PubMed Central

Like many metazoans, the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii begins its post-embryonic life with a set of morphologically distinct planktonic larval stages, followed by a benthic post-larval stage during which the maturing organism differs from the larvae both ecologically and physiologically. Understanding of the molecular basis underlying morphogenesis in crustaceans is limited to the observation that methyl farnesoate, the non-epoxidated form of the insect juvenile hormone, acts as the active crustacean juvenoid. Molt steroids were also linked to morphogenesis and several other molecular pathways, such as Hedgehog and Wnt, are known to underlie morphogenesis in all metazoans examined and, as such, are thought to do the same in crustaceans. Using next generation sequencing, we deep-sequenced the transcriptomes of several larval and post-larval stages. De novo assembly, followed by bioinformatics analysis, revealed that many novel transcripts are over-expressed in either larvae- or post-larvae-stage prawn, shedding light on the molecular basis underlying M. rosenbergii metamorphosis. Fast larval molting rates and periodic morphological changes were reflected in over-expression of transcripts annotated to the cell cycle, DNA replication and morphogenic pathways (i.e., Hedgehog and Wnt). Further characterization of transcripts assigned to morphogenic pathways by real-time RT-PCR reconfirmed their over-expression in larvae, albeit with a more complex expression pattern when examined in the individual developmental stages. The expression level of an orthologue of cytochrome P450, 15A1, known to epoxidize methyl farnesoate in insects, was increased in the late larval and early post-larval stages, in accordance with the role of methyl farnesoate in crustacean metamorphosis. This study exemplifies the applicability of a high-throughput sequencing approach for studying complex traits, including metamorphosis, providing new insight into this unexplored area of crustacean research.

Ventura, Tomer; Manor, Rivka; Aflalo, Eliahu D.; Chalifa-Caspi, Vered; Weil, Simy; Sharabi, Omri; Sagi, Amir

2013-01-01

23

Transcriptomics of a Giant Freshwater Prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii): De Novo Assembly, Annotation and Marker Discovery  

PubMed Central

Background Giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii or GFP), is the most economically important freshwater crustacean species. However, as little is known about its genome, 454 pyrosequencing of cDNA was undertaken to characterise its transcriptome and identify genes important for growth. Methodology and Principal Findings A collection of 787,731 sequence reads (244.37 Mb) obtained from 454 pyrosequencing analysis of cDNA prepared from muscle, ovary and testis tissues taken from 18 adult prawns was assembled into 123,534 expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Of these, 46% of the 8,411 contigs and 19% of 115,123 singletons possessed high similarity to sequences in the GenBank non-redundant database, with most significant (E value < 1e–5) contig (80%) and singleton (84%) matches occurring with crustacean and insect sequences. KEGG analysis of the contig open reading frames identified putative members of several biological pathways potentially important for growth. The top InterProScan domains detected included RNA recognition motifs, serine/threonine-protein kinase-like domains, actin-like families, and zinc finger domains. Transcripts derived from genes such as actin, myosin heavy and light chain, tropomyosin and troponin with fundamental roles in muscle development and construction were abundant. Amongst the contigs, 834 single nucleotide polymorphisms, 1198 indels and 658 simple sequence repeats motifs were also identified. Conclusions The M. rosenbergii transcriptome data reported here should provide an invaluable resource for improving our understanding of this species' genome structure and biology. The data will also instruct future functional studies to manipulate or select for genes influencing growth that should find practical applications in aquaculture breeding programs.

Jung, Hyungtaek; Lyons, Russell E.; Dinh, Hung; Hurwood, David A.; McWilliam, Sean; Mather, Peter B.

2011-01-01

24

A novel two-step procedure for mass production of all-male populations of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Males of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii grow faster and reach higher weights at harvest than females a fact which makes the culture of all-male populations desirable. All-male populations were produced by mating sex-reversed males, i.e., neofemales, with normal males. Neofemales capable of mating and spawning were produced by removal of the androgenic gland (AG) from immature M. rosenbergii

E. D. Aflalo; T. T. T. Hoang; V. H. Nguyen; Q. Lam; D. M. Nguyen; Q. S. Trinh; S. Raviv; A. Sagi

2006-01-01

25

Identification and characterization of the vitellogenin receptor in Macrobrachium rosenbergii and its expression during vitellogenesis.  

PubMed

In oviparous organisms, oocyte maturation depends on massive production of the egg yolk-precursor protein, vitellogenin (Vg). Vg is taken up by the developing oocytes through receptor-mediated endocytosis (RME), a process essential to successful reproduction. The aims of this study were to identify and characterize the yet-unknown vitellogenin receptor (VgR) from the pleocyamate crustacean Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and to investigate its expression levels during vitellogenesis and its interaction with Vg. The VgR gene was cloned, and its translated protein was specifically located at the oocyte membrane. Moreover, for the first time, a VgR protein was identified and sequenced by mass spectrometry. The putative MrVgR displayed high sequence similarity to VgRs from crustaceans, insects, and vertebrates, and its structure includes typical elements, such as an extracellular, lipoprotein-binding domain (LBD), EGF-like, and O-glycosylation domains, a transmembrane domain, and a short, C-terminal, cytosolic tail. In this article, we identify the first crustacean VgR protein, and present data demonstrating its high affinity for a Vg column followed by elution with suramin and EDTA. Additionally we demonstrate that VgR expression in the oocyte is elevated during vitellogenesis. Our results contribute to the fundamental understanding of oocyte maturation in crustaceans, and particularly elucidate Vg uptake through RME via the VgR. PMID:22674884

Roth, Ziv; Khalaila, Isam

2012-07-01

26

Nutrient Budgets and Effluent Characteristics in Giant Freshwater Prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) Culture Ponds.  

PubMed

It is important to understand nutrient budgets of aquaculture practices for efficiency of input resources and to utilize all output nutrient sources. The aim of the present study was to develop a nutrient budget for giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) culture ponds. The study was conducted in farmer's ponds (0.25-0.5 ha) of Odisha, India, and the results showed that feed accounted 97 % total nitrogen (N), 98.7 % total phosphorus (P) and 90 % total organic carbon (OC), respectively. The harvested prawn accounted for recovery of 37 % N, 10 % P and 15 % OC, respectively. The N, P and OC accumulated in sediment were 52 %, 76 %, and 65 %, respectively. Nutrient loads in the effluents were 2.22 ± 0.66 kg inorganic N, 0.40 ± 0.15 kg P, and 21.01 ± 6.4 kg OC per ton of prawn production. The present study implicated that high nutrient values observed in both water and sediment provide important opportunities for nutrient reuse through pond sediment applications to croplands as an organic manure, as well as pond water irrigation to crops as a "liquid fertilizer". PMID:24522829

Adhikari, Subhendu; Sahu, Bharat Chandra; Mahapatra, Abhijit S; Dey, Lambodar

2014-05-01

27

GIS-based multi-criteria evaluation to land suitability modelling for giant prawn ( Macrobrachium rosenbergii) farming in Companigonj Upazila of Noakhali, Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Site selection is a key factor in any aquaculture operation, affecting both success and sustainability as well as solving conflicts between different activities and making rational use of the land. The study was conducted to identify appropriate site for the farming of giant prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, in Companigonj of Noakhali, Bangladesh using GIS-based multi-criteria evaluation taking 20 base layers of

M. Shahadat Hossain; Nani Gopal Das

2010-01-01

28

Effects of different fertilization and feeding regimes on the production of integrated farming of rice and prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was conducted in rice fi eld plots each of 30 m 2 to determine the appropriate combination of feeding and fertilization regimes for the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man. 1979) cultured along with rice in rice fi elds. There were four treatments: rice culture only with regular fertilization (A, control); rice-prawn integrated culture with regular fertilization

Dao Huy Giap; Yang Yi; Chang Kwei Lin

2005-01-01

29

Impact of TBT on the vitellogenesis and sex hormones in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1879)  

PubMed Central

Background Tributyltin (TBT) is a ubiquitous persistent xenobiotic that can be found in freshwater, estuarine and marine ecosystem. TBT is a strong endocrine disrupting compound (EDC) that can cause toxic threat to aquatic organisms. Imposex, sexual deformities and endocrine dysfunctions are the causes of TBT to most of the aquatic organisms. Effect of TBT on the vitellogenesis and sex hormonal changes in Macrobrachium rosenbergii has never been reported. Hence, the present investigation was undertaken to find out the impact of TBT on histological changes in the different reproductive tissues, sex hormonal alterations and level of biomarkers like vitellogenin and vitellin in M. rosenbergii. Results The present investigation documents the possible impact of tributyltin (TBT) on the vitellogenesis in freshwater female prawn M. rosenbergii. TBT at 10 ng/l, 100 ng/l and 1000 ng/l concentrations were exposed individually to prawns for a period of three months. At higher concentration of 1000 ng/l, the ovarian development was arrested and ovary remained at spent stage. At lower concentration of TBT (10 ng/l), the development proceeded up to early vitellogenic stage. At intermediate concentration of 100 ng/l TBT, the ovary remained at pre vitellogenic stage and thereafter no development was noticed. Histological results indicated the normal ovarian development with vitellogenic oocytes, filled with yolk globules in control prawn. On the other hand, the TBT treated groups showed reduction in yolk globules, fusion of developing oocytes and abundance of immature oocytes. Immunofluorescence staining denoted the remarkable reduction in vitellin content in ovary of TBT treated prawn. Hence, TBT had conspicuously inhibited the vitellogenesis by causing hormonal imbalance in M. rosenbergii. Conclusion TBT had notably inhibited the vitellogenesis due to hormonal imbalance. This endocrine dysfunction ultimately impaired the oogenesis in the freshwater female prawn M. rosenbergii.

2013-01-01

30

Molecular cloning of Clock cDNA from the prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

CLOCK, which belongs to the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)/PER-ARNT-SIM (PAS) superfamily of transcription factors, is one of the most essential proteins involved in circadian systems of animals. Clock genes have been cloned from several species, including mammals, insects, birds, fish, and amphibians. In the present study, we successfully isolated a Clock homolog (termed Mar-Clock) from the giant prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The 2949-bp cDNA contained a 2115 bp open reading frame that encoded a putative CLOCK protein of 704 amino acids (termed Mar-CLOCK) exhibiting high identities with CLOCK homologs in other species (30-35%). This is the first report of a circadian clock gene from crustaceans. Mar-CLOCK possessed an exceptionally long glutamine-rich domain (140 amino acids) in its C-terminus, which usually ranges from 14 to 57 amino acids in other known CLOCKs and is supposed to function in transcriptional activation. Using RT-PCR, we observed that Mar-Clock was expressed in all tested tissues. Semiquantitative RT-PCR was performed to investigate the gene expression profile during the light-dark cycle. The results indicated that the expression of the Mar-Clock gene had no significant rhythmicity in central nervous tissues (thoracic ganglia and eyestalk) or peripheral tissues (gill, ovary, hepatopancreas, and muscle). Furthermore, gene expression tended to increase in the central nervous system (brain, thoracic, and abdominal ganglia) of eyestalk-ablated or constant dark (DD) prawns, and in the eyestalk-ablated gill. No expression change was found under constant light (LL) or in heart and muscle. PMID:16271708

Yang, Jin-Shu; Dai, Zhong-Min; Yang, Fan; Yang, Wei-Jun

2006-01-01

31

Molecular cloning and characterization of a Toll receptor gene from Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

Toll receptors are cell surface molecules acting as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that have been implicated in the signaling pathway of innate immune responses. In this study, the full-length cDNA of a Toll receptor gene of Macrobrachium rosenbergii, designated MrToll, was successfully isolated using designed degenerate primers and the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The MrToll gene sequence contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 2799 nucleotides encoding a protein of 932 amino acid residues. The protein contained distinct structural motifs of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family, including an extracellular domain containing 15 leucine-rich repeats (LRRs), a transmembrane segment of 23 amino acids, and a cytoplasmic Toll/interleukin-1R (TIR) domain of 139 residues. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that MrToll and Toll receptor of Marsupenaeus japonicus (MjToll) evolved closely. However, the MrToll ORF demonstrated only 48-49% identity with shrimp Toll1, suggesting that MrToll isolated from a palaemonid shrimp might belong to a novel class of Toll receptors in shrimp. The transcripts of the MrToll gene were constitutively expressed in various tissues, with high levels in hemocytes, the stomach and muscle. A reverse transcriptase PCR assay demonstrated that the expression patterns of MrToll were distinctly modulated after Aeromonas caviae stimulation, with significant enhancement at 3-12 h post-challenge and a decline to basal levels at 24 h post-challenge. In addition, when MrToll-silenced shrimp were challenged with A. caviae, there was a significant increase in mortality and bacterial CFU counts. These results suggest that MrToll might be involved in host innate defense, especially against the pathogen A. caviae. PMID:24398262

Srisuk, Chutima; Longyant, Siwaporn; Senapin, Saengchan; Sithigorngul, Paisarn; Chaivisuthangkura, Parin

2014-02-01

32

Molecular and immunological responses of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, to the organophosphorus insecticide, trichlorfon.  

PubMed

Trichlorfon is an organophosphorus (OP) insecticide that is used as an agriculture pesticide to destroy insects, a human medicine to combat internal parasites, and an ectoparasiticide in the livestock and aquaculture industries, but which has caused aquatic toxicity in the prawn industry. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of trichlorfon on molecular and enzymatic processes of the immunological response of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, at 0, 0.2, and 0.4mgL(-1) with 0, 3, 6, 12, and 24h of exposure. The total hemocyte count (THC), respiratory bursts (RBs), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were examined to evaluate immunological responses and oxidative stress. Results showed that THCs of the prawn exposed to trichlorfon at both concentrations (0.2 and 0.4mgL(-1)) had increased after 12 and 24h; SOD and PO activities had significantly increased at 3h, whereas production of RBs had dramatically increased as oxidative stress at each sampling time after exposure to trichlorfon compared to the control. A potential biomarker of OPs, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) revealed a significant decrease after exposure for 6h, and showed a time-dependent tendency. Immune gene expressions, including prophenoloxidase (proPO), the lipopolysaccharide- and ?-1,3-glucan-binding protein (LGBP), peroxinectin (PE), ?2-macroglubulin (?2M), transglutaminase (TG), and copper, zinc (Cu,Zn)-SOD, of prawns exposed to trichlorfon at 0, 0.2, and 0.4mgL(-1) for 0, 6, and 24h were further evaluated. Expressions of all of the immune genes significantly decreased when prawns were exposed to 0.4mgL(-1) trichlorfon for 24h, and among them, an increase in SOD expression was seen after exposure to 0.4mgL(-1) for 6h. Prawns exposed to trichlorfon within 24h exhibited the decrease of circulating hemocytes, and also the induction of oxidative stress, which caused subsequent damage to DNA formation of immune genes. From these results, we concluded that immunological responses and immune gene expressions of prawn exposed to trichlorfon at 0.4mgL(-1) for 24h were perturbed, thus causing a deficiency in immunity and subsequent increased susceptibility to pathogen infections. PMID:23340335

Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Rahmawaty, Atiek; Chang, Zhong-Wen

2013-04-15

33

Setal morphology of the grooming appendages of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea: Palaemonidae) and review of decapod setal classification.  

PubMed

Setae are vital in grooming activities and aiding in the removal of epibionts and sedimentary fouling from the body surfaces of decapod crustaceans. Thus, the setal structures and their arrangement on the grooming appendages and sensory structures of the commercially important shrimp, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, were examined using scanning electron microscopy. Macrobrachium rosenbergii is extensively grown in aquaculture and exhibits unique male morphological forms, termed morphotypes. The three male morphotypes are termed blue-clawed males, orange-clawed males, and small-clawed or undifferentiated males and all three differ in their dominance, behavior, body morphology, and reproductive success. Seven setal types, two of which have never been described in the literature, are identified on the grooming appendages (third maxillipeds, first, second, and fifth pereopods) and antennae: simple, serrate, serrulate, spiniform, pappose, crinoid, and spinulate. The latter two setae are newly identified. Certain setal types, such as serrate and serrulate setae were located and associated with specific grooming appendages such as the first pereopods. The types of setae on the grooming appendages varied among females and male morphotypes and the novel setal types (crinoid and spinulate) were found only on two of the male morphotypes. A literature review of terminology related to the structure of setae and setal types in decapod crustaceans is offered as the usage of various terms is ambiguous and conflicting in the literature. The intention of this review is to provide future authors with a comprehensive collection of terms and images that can be used to describe various aspects of setal morphology in decapods. PMID:24500885

Wortham, Jennifer L; Vanmaurik, Lauren N; Wayne Price, W

2014-06-01

34

Isolation and characterization of a female-specific DNA marker in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

PubMed Central

In this study, a female-specific DNA marker in the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii was identified through amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). The AFLP-derived sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker was tested in over 200 individuals, giving reproducible sex identification. Further molecular characterization of the sex-marker's genomic region (?3?kb long) revealed the presence of tandem and inverted repeats. The ?3-kb sequence was identified both in male and female prawns, but with subtle differences: a deletion of 3?bp (present in female prawn but absent in male prawn) identified upstream of the SCAR marker sequence and two female-specific single-nucleotide polymorphisms, both indicating that male prawns are homozygous, whereas female prawns are heterozygous in this locus. Fluorescent in situ hybridization showed the ?3-kb sequence to be unique: to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a unique sex-specific sequence observed in situ in crustaceans. The sex-specific marker identified in M. rosenbergii may have considerable applied merit for crustacean culture in that it will enable the determination of genetic sex at early developmental stages when phenotypic differences are not identifiable.

Ventura, T; Aflalo, E D; Weil, S; Kashkush, K; Sagi, A

2011-01-01

35

Dietary Supplementation of Zinc Nanoparticles and Its Influence on Biology, Physiology and Immune Responses of the Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to assess the influence of dietary zinc nanoparticles (size 50 nm) on the growth, biochemical constituents, enzymatic antioxidant levels and the nonspecific immune response of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii post larvae (PL). The concentrations of dietary supplement zinc nanoparticles (ZnNPs) were 0, 10, 20, 40, 60 and 80 mg kg(-1) with the basal diet, and the level of Zn in ZnNP-supplemented diets were 0.71, 10.61, 20.73, 40.73, 60.61 and 80.60 mg kg(-1), respectively. ZnNP-incorporated diets were fed to M. rosenbergii PL (initial body weight, 0.18?±?0.02 g) in a triplicate experimental setup for a period of 90 days. ZnNP supplemented feed fed PL up to 60 mg kg(-1) showed significantly (P?rosenbergii PL. Thus, the study suggests that up to 60 mg ZnNPs kg(-1) can be supplemented for regulating survival, growth and immunity of M. rosenbergii. PMID:24874230

Muralisankar, Thirunavukkarasu; Bhavan, Periyakali Saravana; Radhakrishnan, Subramanian; Seenivasan, Chandirasekar; Manickam, Narasimman; Srinivasan, Veeran

2014-07-01

36

Identification and Characterization of Differentially Expressed Transcripts in the Gills of Freshwater Prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) under Salt Stress  

PubMed Central

The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is an economically important species. It is a euryhaline shrimp, surviving in wide-range salinity conditions. A change in gene expression has been suggested as an important component for stress management. To better understand the osmoregulatory mechanisms mediated by the gill, a subtractive and suppressive hybridization (SSH) tool was used to identify expressed transcripts linked to adaptations in saline water. A total of 117 transcripts represented potentially expressed under salinity conditions. BLAST analysis identified 22% as known genes, 9% as uncharacterized showing homologous to unannotated ESTs, and 69% as unknown sequences. All the identified known genes representing broad spectrum of biological pathways were particularly linked to stress tolerance including salinity tolerance. Expression analysis of 10 known genes and 7 unknown/uncharacterized genes suggested their upregulation in the gills of prawn exposed to saline water as compared to control indicating that these are likely to be associated with salinity acclimation. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) was used for obtaining full-length cDNA of MRSW-40 clone that was highly upregulated during salt exposure. The sequenced ESTs presented here will have potential implications for future understanding about salinity acclimation and/or tolerance of the prawn.

Barman, Hirak Kumar; Patra, Swagat Kumar; Das, Varsha; Mohapatra, Shibani Dutta; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Mohapatra, Chinmayee; Mohanta, Ramya; Panda, Rudra Prasanna; Rath, Surya Narayan

2012-01-01

37

Retardation of post-mortem changes of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) stored in ice by legume seed extracts.  

PubMed

Meat quality of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) treated with soybean and bambara groundnut extracts at different concentrations was monitored during 10 days of iced storage. During storage, the control sample (without treatment) had a higher pH, TCA-soluble peptide content, heat soluble collagen content, proteolytic activities and psychrophilic bacterial count than did samples treated with soybean and bambara groundnut extracts. Conversely, shear force value and likeness scores of the control sample decreased (p<0.05), more likely associated with softening of muscle. The decrease in myosin heavy chain in the control sample was found after 6 days of storage. However, no changes in protein patterns of samples treated with soybean extracts at 2.5 mg/mL were found after 10 days of storage. Therefore, the injections of legume seed extracts, especially soybean extract, at a sufficient concentration, could be a means to retard muscle softening and maintain the qualities of freshwater prawn during iced storage. PMID:22868130

Sriket, Chodsana; Benjakul, Soottawat; Visessanguan, Wonnop; Hara, Kenji; Yoshida, Asami

2012-11-15

38

Effects of Nitrite Exposure on Acid–Base Balance, Respiratory Protein, and Ion Concentrations of Giant Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii at Low pH  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  \\u000a \\u000a Macrobrachium rosenbergii that had been exposed individually for 24 h to 0 (control), 2, 5, 10 mg\\/L nitrite-N (nitrite as nitrogen) at 4.3 and 7.7\\u000a pH levels were examined for hemolymph nitrite-N, oxyhemocyanin, protein, acid–base balance, ion concentrations, and ammonia-N\\u000a (ammonia as nitrogen) excretion. Hemolymph oxyhemocyanin, protein, pH, HCO3\\u000a \\u000a ? , TCO2, osmolality, and ion concentrations were inversely related

J.-C. Chen; Y. Lee

1997-01-01

39

Immune response of four dual-CRD C-type lectins to microbial challenges in giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

C-type lectins (CTLs) are believed to play important roles in the innate immunity of invertebrates and serve as pattern recognition receptors, opsonins, or effector molecules. In this study, the full-lengths cDNA of 4 CTL genes from giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii were cloned and designated as MrLec1, MrLec2, MrLec3, and MrLec4. All of these 4 lectin cDNAs encode proteins with 2 carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs). While MrLec1, MrLec3, and MrLec4 had signal peptides, no signal peptide was detected in MrLec2. Two carbohydrate recognition motifs within two CRDs of each lectin were predicted (QPE, EPG in MrLec1; EPT, EPA in MrLec2; QPT, NPR in MrLec3; KPN, EPD in MrLec4). Phylogenetic analysis showed that MrLec4 belongs to group A whereas MrLec1, MrLec2, and MrLec3 belong to group B. Positive selection in dual-CRD lectins suggested their probable roles in innate immunity, and positively selected induced amino acid diversity of lectins may confer their ability to recognize a broad range of microbes. The qRT-PCR analysis in adult prawns showed that MrLec1 is mainly expressed in the hepatopancreas, gills, and stomach, MrLec2 and MrLec4 are mainly distributed in the hepatopancreas, and MrLec3 is mainly expressed in the hepatopancreas and stomach. Time-course analysis using qRT-PCR showed that MrLec1 to MrLec4 are all upregulated by the Vibrio anguillarum challenge. MrLec1 is upregulated after 2, 12, and 24 h of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenge. The expression of MrLec2 increases after 12 and 24 h of WSSV challenge, and the transcript of MrLec3 and MrLec4 are downregulated after 2 h of WSSV challenge. The results suggest the potential roles of dual-CRD lectins in the innate immunity of M. rosenbergii. PMID:22450241

Ren, Qian; Li, Meng; Du, Jie; Zhang, Chi-Yu; Wang, Wen

2012-08-01

40

Effects of dietary administration of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) extracts on the immune responses and disease resistance of giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

The hot-water extract of Eichhornia crassipes leaves (ECE) was produced and incorporated into the diet of the prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, as an immunostimulant. Survival rates of prawn against Lactococcus garvieae, and its immune parameters including the total haemocyte count (THC), different haemocyte count (DHC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts (RBs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, transglutaminase (TG) activity, haemolymph coagulation time, and phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency against L. garvieae by M. rosenbergii were determined when prawn (23.0 ± 2.8 g) were fed ECE-containing diets at 0, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 g kg(-1). Prawn fed a diet containing ECE at 2.0 and 3.0 g kg(-1) for 12 days showed significantly increased THC, HC, GC, PO activity, RBs, SOD activity, GPx activity, and TG activity, and a significantly decreased coagulation time. The phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency against L. garvieae of prawn fed the ECE-containing diets at 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 g kg(-1) were significantly higher than those of prawn fed the control diet at 3-12 days. Survival rates of M. rosenbergii fed the diet containing ECE at concentrations of 2 and 3 g kg(-1) were significantly higher than those fed the control diet after challenge with L. garvieae for 48-144 h. The relative percentage survival of prawn fed the 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 g kg(-1) ECE-containing diets for 12 days were 17.5%, 39.1%, and 52.2%. It was concluded that the ECE can be used as an immunostimulant for prawn through dietary administration to enhance immune responses and resistance of M. rosenbergii against L. garvieae. PMID:23603238

Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Tan, Hui-Ching; Cheng, Winton

2013-07-01

41

The history of the introduction of the giant river prawn, Macrobrachium cf. rosenbergii (Decapoda, Palaemonidae), in Brazil: New insights from molecular data  

PubMed Central

The giant river prawn, Macrobrachium cf. rosenbergii, is one of the most cultivated freshwater prawns in the world and has been introduced into more than 40 countries. In some countries, this prawn is considered an invasive species that requires close monitoring. Recent changes in the taxonomy of this species (separation of M. rosenbergii and M. dacqueti) require a re-evaluation of introduced taxa. In this work, molecular analyses were used to determine which of these two species was introduced into Brazil and to establish the geographic origin of the introduced populations that have invaded Amazonian coastal waters. The species introduced into Brazil was M. dacqueti through two introduction events involving prawns originating from Vietnam and either Bangladesh or Thailand. These origins differ from historical reports of the introductions and underline the need to confirm the origin of other exotic populations around the world. The invading populations in Amazonia require monitoring not only because the biodiversity of this region may be affected by the introduction, but also because admixture of different native haplotypes can increase the genetic variability and the likelihood of persistence of the invading species in new habitats.

Iketani, Gabriel; Pimentel, Luciana; Silva-Oliveira, Glaucia; Maciel, Cristiana; Valenti, Wagner; Schneider, Horacio; Sampaio, Iracilda

2011-01-01

42

Simultaneous identification and quantification of 4-cumylphenol, 2,4-bis-(dimethylbenzyl)phenol and bisphenol A in prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

Bisphenol A (BPA), 4-cumylphenol (4-CP) and 2,4-bis-(dimethylbenzyl)phenol (2,4-DCP) are all high production volume chemicals and widely used in plastic and other consumer products. During the past two decades, BPA has attracted a great deal of scientific and public attention due to its presence in the environment and estrogenic property. Although 4-CP and 2,4-DCP are much more estrogenic and toxic than BPA, little information is available about their occurrence and fate in the environment. In this study, a rapid, selective, accurate and reliable analytical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 4-CP, 2,4-DCP and BPA in prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The method comprises an ultrasound-accelerated extraction followed by capillary gas chromatographic (GC) separation. The detection limits range from 1.50 to 36.4ngkg(-1) for the three alkylphenols. The calibration curves are linear over the concentration range tested with the coefficients of determination, R(2), greater than 0.994. The developed method was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of 4-CP, 2,4-DCP and BPA in prawn samples. The peak identification was confirmed using GC-MS. Bisphenol A, 2,4-bis-(dimethylbenzyl)phenol and 4-cumylphenol were found in prawn samples in the concentration ranges of 0.67-5.51, 0.36-1.61, and 0.00-1.96ngg(-1) (wet weight), respectively. All relative standard deviations are less than 4.8%. At these environmentally relevant concentration levels, 4-CP, 2,4-DCP and BPA may affect the reproduction and development of aquatic organisms, including negative influence on crustaceans' larval survival, molting, metamorphosis and shell hardening. This is the first study reported on the occurrence of 4-CP, 2,4-DCP and BPA in prawn M. rosenbergii. PMID:24560775

Zuo, Yuegang; Zhu, Zhuo

2014-07-01

43

The toxic effect of phthalate esters on immune responses of giant freshwater prawn ( Macrobrachium rosenbergii) via oral treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A previous in vitro study has indicated that four phthalate esters (PAEs) could damage hemocytes and decreases the cellular immunity of prawns [Sung, H.H., Kao, W.Y., Su, Y.J., 2003. Effects and toxicity of phthalate esters to hemocytes of giant freshwater prawn, Macrobranchium rosenbergii. Aquat. Toxicol. 64, 25–37]. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vivo effect of

Wen-Liang Chen; Hung-Hung Sung

2005-01-01

44

Female-only sex-linked amplified fragment length polymorphism markers support ZW/ZZ sex determination in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

Sex determination mechanisms in many crustacean species are complex and poorly documented. In the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, a ZW/ZZ sex determination system was previously proposed based on sex ratio data obtained by crosses of sex-reversed females (neomales). To provide molecular evidence for the proposed system, novel sex-linked molecular markers were isolated in this species. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) using 64 primer combinations was employed to screen prawn genomes for DNA markers linked with sex loci. Approximately 8400 legible fragments were produced, 13 of which were uniquely identified in female prawns with no indication of corresponding male-specific markers. These AFLP fragments were reamplified, cloned and sequenced, producing two reliable female-specific sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers. Additional individuals from two unrelated geographic populations were used to verify these findings, confirming female-specific amplification of single bands. Detection of internal polymorphic sites was conducted by designing new primer pairs based on these internal fragments. The internal SCAR fragments also displayed specificity in females, indicating high levels of variation between female and male specimens. The distinctive feature of female-linked SCAR markers can be applied for rapid detection of prawn gender. These sex-specific SCAR markers and sex-associated AFLP candidates unique to female specimens support a sex determination system consistent with female heterogamety (ZW) and male homogamety (ZZ). PMID:23763724

Jiang, Xue-Hui; Qiu, Gao-Feng

2013-12-01

45

L-( sup 3 H) glutamate binding to a membrane preparation from the optic lobe of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man  

SciTech Connect

Membrane preparation from the optic lobe of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man, was examined for the presence of specific L-({sup 3}H) glutamate binding. The optic lobes were isolated from live animals. The tissue was homogenized and the membrane fraction isolated by differential centrifugation. The membrane suspension was incubated with 10-1,000 nM of L-({sup 3}H) glutamate at 37{degree}C for 60 min. Nonspecific binding was determined by incubating the mixture with 100 {mu}M L-glutamate. L-({sup 3}H) glutamate specifically bound to the membrane fraction with a dissociation equilibrium constant (Kd) of 205 nM and maximum number of binding sites (Bmax) of 2.04 n mol/mg protein. By using LIGAND computerized program, the saturation isotherm binding pattern indicates a single type of binding. To determine the type of glutamate receptors, competitive inhibition and IC{sub 50} of several glutamate agonists and antagonists were determined. The study reveals a metabotropic type of binding site.

Pratumtan, P.; Govitrapong, P.; Withyachumnarnkul, B.; Poolsanguan, B. (Mahidol Univ., Bangkok (Thailand) Mahidol Univ., Nakorn Pathom (Thailand))

1991-01-01

46

Cloning and immunoreactivity of the 5-HT1Mac and 5-HT2Mac receptors in the central nervous system of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

PubMed Central

Biogenic amines are implicated in several mental disorders, many of which involve social interactions. Simple model systems, such as crustaceans, are often more amenable than vertebrates for studying mechanisms underlying behaviors. Although various cellular responses of biogenic amines have been characterized in crustaceans, the mechanisms linking these molecules to behavior remain largely unknown. Observed effects of serotonin receptor agonists and antagonists in abdomen posture, escape responses, and fighting have led to the suggestion that biogenic amine receptors may play a role in modulating interactive behaviors. As a first step in understanding this potential role of such receptors, we have cloned and fully sequenced two serotonin receptors, 5-HT1Mac and 5-HT2Mac, from the CNS of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and have mapped their CNS immunohistochemical distribution. 5-HT1Mac was found primarily on the membranes of subsets of cells in all CNS ganglia, in fibers that traverse all CNS regions, and in the cytoplasm of a small number of cells in the brain, circum- and subesophageal ganglia (SEG), most of which also appear to contain dopamine. The pattern of 5-HT2Mac immunoreactivity was found to differ significantly, being found mostly in the central neuropil area of all ganglia, in glomeruli of the brain’s olfactory lobes, and in the cytoplasm of a small number of neurons in the SEG, thoracic and some abdominal ganglia. The observed differences in terms of localization, distribution within cells, and intensity of immunoreactive staining throughout the prawn’s CNS suggest that these receptors are likely to play different roles.

Vazquez-Acevedo, Nietzell; Reyes-Colon, Dalynes; Ruiz-Rodriguez, Eduardo A.; Rivera, Nilsa M.; Rosenthal, Joshua; Kohn, Andrea B.; Moroz, Leonid L.; Sosa, Maria A.

2009-01-01

47

Acute toxicity of organochlorine insecticide endosulfan to the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrochium rosenbergii  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Endosulfan, an organochlorine pesticide, is highly toxic and effective at controlling pests in agriculture, horticulture, and public health programs. In this study, static bioassays were used to evaluate the toxicity of endosulfan to freshwater prawns ( Macrobrachium rosenbergii) of various lengths (1.5±0.03, 4±0.08, and 7±0.06 cm). Additionally, the activities of peroxidase (POD), acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and Na+/K+-ATPase were analyzed to reflect the effects of endosulfan exposure. The 96 h LC50 of endosulfan for prawns 1.5, 4, and 7 cm long were 1.86, 4.53, and 6.09 ?g/L, respectively, improved tolerance to endosulfan with growth. The POD activities of test organisms exposed to low concentrations of endosulfan were inhibited, indicating the presence of oxygen damaged tissue. Moreover, a notable decrease in AChE activity was observed due to overstimulation of neurotransmission, which might result in abnormal behavior. The effect caused by endosulfan on phosphatase production in the hepatopancreas of prawns 1.5, 4, and 7 cm long was different because the ability of nonspecific immune regulation increased with growth. The 96 h LC50 values obtained in this study could be used in the formulation of water-quality criteria in China. Moreover, the changes in enzymes activities of M. rosenbergii under stress of endosulfan could be applied in the establishment of early warning indicators for bio-safety.

Dai, Xilin; Xiong, Zhaodi; Xie, Jian; Ding, Fujiang

2014-01-01

48

Antimicrobial peptides (AMP) with antiviral activity against fish nodavirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nervous necrosis virus (NNV) is classified as betanodavirus of Nodaviridae, and has caused mass mortality of numerous marine fish species at larval stage. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) play an important role of innate immunity either against bacterial pathogens or viruses. Up to date, little is known if any AMP could effectively inhibit fish nodaviruses and its mechanism. In this study, the antiviral

Ta-Jui Chia; Yu-Chi Wu; Jyh-Yih Chen; Shau-Chi Chi

2010-01-01

49

Comparison of the coat protein genes of five fish nodaviruses, the causative agents of viral nervous necrosis in marine fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Striped jack nervous necrosis virus (SJNNV), a nodavirus, is the causative agent of viral nervous necrosis (VNN) in larval striped jack fish. In the present study, the SJNNV coat protein gene was sequenced and compared with that of four known insect nodaviruses and with four other fish nodaviruses causing VNN. The SJNNV coat protein gene was 1410 bases in length

Toyohiko Nishizawa; Koh-ichiro Mori; Makoto Furuhashi; Toshihiro Nakai; Iwao Furusawa; Kiyokuni Muroga

1995-01-01

50

Nodaviruses as pathogens in larval and juvenile marine finfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nodaviruses have emerged as major pathogens of a wide range of larval and juvenile marine finfish in aquaculture worldwide. The causative agents are non-enveloped, icosahedral, RNA viruses with diameters in the range of 25–34nm. They display considerable serological and molecular homology, although the present evidence suggests that there is more than one agent causing disease in a range of species.

B. L. Munday; T. Nakai

1997-01-01

51

The efficacy of ozonated seawater for surface disinfection of haddock ( Melanogrammus aeglefinus) eggs against piscine nodavirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Piscine nodavirus, also known as viral nervous necrosis (VNN), is a lethal, vertically transmitted virus that causes severe mortality in fish. It affects primarily marine species, including cultured haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus). Ozone has been used successfully to disinfect Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) eggs against nodavirus. Fertilized eggs from different species of fish can tolerate varying levels of dissolved ozone, so

Kevin A. H. Buchan; Debbie J. Martin-Robichaud; Tillmann J. Benfey; Anne-Margaret MacKinnon; Linda Boston

2006-01-01

52

Phylogenetic and antigenic characterization of new fish nodavirus isolates from Europe and Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nodaviruses are widespread causative agents of viral nervous necrosis in fish. Based on the coat protein sequence, fish nodaviruses are categorized into four different genotypes. In this study, we present data on the phylogenetic and antigenic characterization of 12 new isolates, eight European and four of Asian origin, from farmed and wild species of fish. Phylogenetic analysis based on the

George P. Skliris; John V. Krondiris; Diamantis C. Sideris; Andrew P. Shinn; William G. Starkey; Randolph H. Richards

2001-01-01

53

Virus-Like Particles of a Fish Nodavirus Display a Capsid Subunit Domain Organization Different from That of Insect Nodaviruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure of recombinant virus-like particles of malabaricus grouper nervous necrosis virus (MGNNV), a fish nodavirus isolated from the grouper Epinephelus malabaricus, was determined by electron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM) and three-dimensional reconstruction at 23-Å resolution. The cryoEM structure, sequence compar- ison, and protein fold recognition analysis indicate that the coat protein of MGNNV has two domains resembling those of tomato bushy

Liang Tang; Chan-Shing Lin; Neel K. Krishna; Mark Yeager; Anette Schneemann; John E. Johnson

2002-01-01

54

A Morphological Study of Muscle Proteolysis in the Tails of 'Macrobrachium rosenbergii'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As the cost of harvesting seafood from the oceans increases, alternative means of production, such as aquaculture, are being investigated more intensively. Freshwater shrimp have become popular in the last decade and, of the many species tested, Macrobrac...

B. Rowland G. Finne R. Tillman

1982-01-01

55

Mixed culture of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) in periphyton-based ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the concept of periphyton-based aquaculture has been tested and applied in aquaculture. Positive effects of substrate addition for periphyton development included increasing the food supply and providing shelter for culture animals. The aim of this project was to develop a low-cost culture technology for resource-poor farmers in South-East Asia. The technology is an extension of traditional brush-park

S. Uddin

2007-01-01

56

An Automated Microfluidic Chip System for Detection of Piscine Nodavirus and Characterization of Its Potential Carrier in Grouper Farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groupers of the Epinephelus spp. are an important aquaculture species of high economic value in the Asia Pacific region. They are susceptible to piscine nodavirus infection, which results in viral nervous necrosis disease. In this study, a rapid and sensitive automated microfluidic chip system was implemented for the detection of piscine nodavirus; this technology has the advantage of requiring small

Hsiao-Che Kuo; Ting-Yu Wang; Hao-Hsuan Hsu; Szu-Hsien Lee; Young-Mao Chen; Tieh-Jung Tsai; Ming-Chang Ou; Hsiao-Tung Ku; Gwo-Bin Lee; Tzong-Yueh Chen

2012-01-01

57

Assessment of the susceptibility of the brine shrimp Artemia salina and rotifer Brachionus plicatilis to experimental nodavirus infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultures of Artemia salina nauplii and the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis were experimentally infected with Greek and Japanese nodaviruses isolates, in order to investigate the possibility of the invertebrates acting as a reservoir and source of nodavirus infection. Virological examination of extracts obtained showed well-developed cytopathic effects (CPE) for 1, 4 and 24 h post-initial exposure to virus but the infectivity

George P Skliris; Randolph H Richards

1998-01-01

58

Internal Initiation Is Responsible for Synthesis of Wuhan Nodavirus Subgenomic RNA?  

PubMed Central

Nodaviruses are small nonenveloped spherical viruses with a bipartite genome of RNAs. In nodaviruses, subgenomic RNA3 (sgRNA3) plays a critical role in viral replication and survival, as it coordinates the replication of two viral genomic RNAs (RNA1 and RNA2) and encodes protein B2, which is a potent RNA-silencing inhibitor. Despite its importance, the molecular mechanism of nodaviral sgRNA3 synthesis is still poorly understood. Here, we propose that sgRNA3 of Wuhan nodavirus (WhNV) is internally initiated from a promoter on the negative template of genomic RNA1. Serial deletion and mutation analyses further revealed that the core promoter of WhNV sgRNA3 is between nucleotide positions ?22 and +6 of its transcription start site. Besides, a stem-loop structure of WhNV sgRNA3 was computationally predicted upstream of sgRNA3's transcription start site. Both the secondary structure and the primary sequence were determined to be required for promoter activity. Furthermore, our results show that the synthesis of WhNV sgRNA3 is counterregulated by the replication of WhNV genomic RNA2, which encodes a viral capsid precursor protein. And this sgRNA3 synthesis is also able to trans-activate the replication of RNA2. Altogether, findings in this study indicate that there is a newly discovered internal initiation model for the synthesis of nodaviral sgRNA.

Qiu, Yang; Cai, Dawei; Qi, Nan; Wang, Zhaowei; Zhou, Xi; Zhang, Jiamin; Hu, Yuanyang

2011-01-01

59

Molecular cloning and characterization of the lipopolysaccharide and ?-1,3-glucan binding protein from oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense.  

PubMed

The lipopolysaccharide and ?-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP), one of the pattern recognition proteins, plays an important role in the innate immune response of invertebrates. A 1,506 bp full-length cDNA of a LGBP gene was cloned and characterized from the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense (named as MnLGBP). Analysis of the nucleotide sequence revealed that the cDNA clone has an open reading frame of 1,119 bp, encoding a protein of 372 amino acids including a 21-aa signal peptide. The calculated molecular mass of the mature protein (351 aa) was 39.9 kDa with an estimated pI of 4.63. The MnLGBP sequence contains: (1) two putative integrin-binding motifs, (2) a glucanase motif, (3) two putative N-glycosylation sites, (4) one protein kinase C phosphorylation site, and (5) a putative recognition motif for ?-1,3-linkage of polysaccharides. Sequence comparison based on the deduced amino acid sequence of MnLGBP showed varied identity of 89, 76 and 74 % with those of Macrobrachium rosenbergii LGBP, Marsupenaeus japonicus ?-1,3-glucan binding proteins, and Fenneropenaeus chinensis LGBP, respectively. Quantitative RT-PCR results showed that MnLGBP was expressed in nerve, intestine, muscle, gill, heart, haemocytes and at the highest level in hepatopancreas. After challenge with the pathogen, Aeromonas hydrophila and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, the expression of MnLGBP mRNA was significantly upregulated in the hepatopancreas compared to the control group. At the same time, the mRNA level of MnproPO increased dramatically at 48 h after injection of bacteria. These data should be helpful to better understand the function of MnLGBP in the prawn immune system. PMID:24584659

Xiu, Yunji; Wu, Ting; Liu, Peng; Huang, Ying; Ren, Qian; Gu, Wei; Meng, Qingguo; Wang, Wen

2014-06-01

60

Comparing trace metal bioaccumulation characteristics of three freshwater decapods of the genus Macrobrachium.  

PubMed

Potential sources and kinetics of metal bioaccumulation by the three Macrobrachium prawn species M. australiense, M. rosenbergii and M. latidactylus were assessed in laboratory experiments. The prawns were exposed to two scenarios: cadmium in water only; and exposure to metal-rich mine tailings in the same water. The cadmium accumulation from the dissolved exposure during 7 days, followed by depuration in cadmium-free water for 7 days, was compared with predictions from a biokinetic model that had previously been developed for M. australiense. M. australiense and M. latidactylus accumulated significant tissue cadmium during the exposure phase, albeit with different uptake rates. All three species retained >95% of the bioaccumulated cadmium during the depuration phase, indicating very slow efflux rates. Following exposure to tailings, there were significant (p<0.05) differences in tissue arsenic, cadmium, lead and zinc concentrations among species. Cadmium and zinc concentrations were increased relative to controls for all three species but were not different between treatments (direct/indirect contact with tailings), suggesting these metals were primarily accumulated via the dissolved phase. All species bioaccumulated significantly greater arsenic and lead when in direct contact with mine tailings, demonstrating the importance of an ingestion pathway for these metals. Copper was not bioaccumulated above control concentrations for any species. The differences between the metal accumulation of the three prawns indicated that a biokinetic model of cadmium bioaccumulation for M. australiense could potentially be used to describe the metal bioaccumulation of the other two prawn species, albeit with an over-prediction of 3-9 times. Despite these being the same genus of decapod crustacean, the study highlights the issues with using surrogate species, even under controlled laboratory conditions. It is recommended that future studies using surrogate species quantify the metal bioaccumulation characteristics of each species in order to account for any differences between species. PMID:24800868

Cresswell, Tom; Smith, Ross E W; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Simpson, Stuart L

2014-07-01

61

Nodavirus increases the expression of Mx and inflammatory cytokines in fish brain.  

PubMed

Nodavirus has become a serious pathogen for a wide range of cultured marine fish species. In the present work, the expression of genes related to immune and inflammatory responses of sea bream (Sparus aurata L.), considered as non susceptible species, was studied both in vitro and in vivo. No replication of the virus was observed in head kidney macrophages and blood leukocytes. Moreover, the enhancement of expression of several immune genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), interleukin-1-beta (IL-1beta), interferon-induced Mx protein) was not detected in both head kidney macrophages and blood leucocytes in response to an in vitro infection with nodavirus. However, in vivo, nodavirus was detected 1 day post-infection (p.i.) by a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in blood, liver, head kidney and brain of experimentally infected sea bream, while its presence clearly decreased in blood after 3 days p.i. Also, a transitory increment of the expression of TNFalpha and IL-1beta was detected in the brain of intramuscular (i.m.) infected sea bream 3 days p.i. In head kidney, the over expression of TNFalpha was only observed 1 day p.i. The expression of Mx, an interferon induced gene, was increased in brain and head kidney of infected sea bream, reaching values of 1300-fold compared to controls in brain three days post-infection. For comparative purposes, we analyzed the expression of the same genes on a susceptible species, such as sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and, although the same pattern of expression was observed both in brain and kidney, the magnitude was different mainly in the case of brain, the key organ of the infection, where higher expression of TNFalpha and lower expression of Mx compared with control was observed. PMID:17543386

Poisa-Beiro, L; Dios, S; Montes, A; Aranguren, R; Figueras, A; Novoa, B

2008-01-01

62

Immunological responses of turbot (Psetta maxima) to nodavirus infection or polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid (pIC) stimulation, using expressed sequence tags (ESTs) analysis and cDNA microarrays.  

PubMed

To investigate the immunological responses of turbot to nodavirus infection or pIC stimulation, we constructed cDNA libraries from liver, kidney and gill tissues of nodavirus-infected fish and examined the differential gene expression within turbot kidney in response to nodavirus infection or pIC stimulation using a turbot cDNA microarray. Turbot were experimentally infected with nodavirus and samples of each tissue were collected at selected time points post-infection. Using equal amount of total RNA at each sampling time, we made three tissue-specific cDNA libraries. After sequencing 3230 clones we obtained 3173 (98.2%) high quality sequences from our liver, kidney and gill libraries. Of these 2568 (80.9%) were identified as known genes and 605 (19.1%) as unknown genes. A total of 768 unique genes were identified. The two largest groups resulting from the classification of ESTs according to function were the cell/organism defense genes (71 uni-genes) and apoptosis-related process (23 uni-genes). Using these clones, a 1920 element cDNA microarray was constructed and used to investigate the differential gene expression within turbot in response to experimental nodavirus infection or pIC stimulation. Kidney tissue was collected at selected times post-infection (HPI) or stimulation (HPS), and total RNA was isolated for microarray analysis. Of the 1920 genes studied on the microarray, we identified a total of 121 differentially expressed genes in the kidney: 94 genes from nodavirus-infected animals and 79 genes from those stimulated with pIC. Within the nodavirus-infected fish we observed the highest number of differentially expressed genes at 24 HPI. Our results indicate that certain genes in turbot have important roles in immune responses to nodavirus infection and dsRNA stimulation. PMID:19038557

Park, Kyoung C; Osborne, Jane A; Montes, Ariana; Dios, Sonia; Nerland, Audun H; Novoa, Beatriz; Figueras, Antonio; Brown, Laura L; Johnson, Stewart C

2009-01-01

63

Nodavirus associated with pathological changes in adult spotted coralgroupers (Plectropomus maculatus) in Thailand with viral nervous necrosis.  

PubMed

The present study characterized viral nervous necrosis in sea cage-reared adult spotted coralgroupers (Plectropomus maculatus). Histopathological study showed extensive vacuolation and neuronal necrosis of the olfactory bulb and the optic lobe of the forebrain and the inner and outer nuclear layer of retina. Mild necrosis was observed in the spinal cord. Homogeneous intranuclear inclusion bodies were noted in the hyperplastic and hypertrophic glandular epithelial cells of the swim bladder suggesting viral etiology. Etiological diagnosis of VNN was confirmed by RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. The immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization gave strongly positive staining in the same area of the infected cells of the brain, spinal cord and retina correlating with histopathological changes. No positive reaction was detectable in the affected gas glandular epithelium and other organs, confirming the consistent neurotropism of this nodavirus. Nodavirus was mainly detected in the olfactory bulb of the brain. The result suggests nasal transmission was the major route of infection. PMID:19232654

Nopadon, Pirarat; Aranya, Ponpornpisit; Tipaporn, Traithong; Toshihiro, Nakai; Takayuki, Katagiri; Masashi, Maita; Makoto, Endo

2009-08-01

64

Kinetics of glucose transport by the perfused mid-gut of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenberg ii.  

PubMed Central

1. Mucosal influx of [3H]glucose was examined in the mid-gut of a freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, using an in vitro perfusion technique. 2. [3H]glucose transfer across the apical cell membrane of the epithelium exhibited Michaelis-Menten kinetics (Jmax.in = 0-15 mumole glucose equiv/g. min, Kt = 0-17 mM). Under Na-free conditions, glucose influx was significantly reduced and a linear function of substrate concentration, indicative of either slow cellular diffusion (KD = 7-6 X 10(3) mumole glucose equiv/g. min. mM) or a facilitated process with a low carrier affinity for the sugar. 3. Phlorizin was a potent competitive inhibitor of glucose influx (K1 = 3-6 X10(-3) mM), galactose and 3-O-methylglucose (3-O-MG) were weak inhibitors, and fructose had no evident effect on glucose uptake. Azide, but not iodoacetate (IAA), significantly depressed influx. 4. Absorbed [3H]glucose was rapidly metabolized by the mid-gut. The majority of accumulated activity within the tissue was in the form of phosphorylated compounds and tritiated water (THO), while only 0-3% was recovered as a free-glucose. 5. Preliminary studies examining transmural [3-H]glucose transport, however, demonstrated a significant net mucosal to serosal free-glucose flux across the prawn mid-gut which was Na-dependent and IAA- and phlorizin-sensitive. Two alternative interpretations of the data are advanced as possible mechanisms for transepithelial glucose transport: (1) group translocation, or (2) the operation of an energized, high affinity, baso-lateral sugar transport carrier. Images Plate 1

Ahearn, G A; Maginniss, L A

1977-01-01

65

Atlantic halibut experimentally infected with nodavirus shows increased levels of T-cell marker and IFN? transcripts.  

PubMed

The transcript levels of viral RNAs, selected T-cell marker and cytokine genes, toll like receptor (TLR) 7, and two interferon stimulated genes (ISG) were analysed in sexually immature adult Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.) experimentally infected with nodavirus. The expression of the T-cell markers, TLR7 and the cytokine genes was further explored in in vitro stimulated anterior kidney leucocytes (AK leucocytes) isolated from the experiment fish and from additional untreated non-injected fish. The levels of viral RNA1 and RNA2 were increasing in brain and eye at around 4 and 8weeks post injection (wpi), respectively, and still increasing at the end of the experiment, especially in eye. Immuno-positive cells and signs of vacuolisation in both brain and eye were seen at 14wpi. Increased transcript levels of TCR?, CD4-2, CD4, CD8?, and Lck in brain and eye of the experimentally infected halibut suggested an involvement of halibut T-cells in the immune response against nodavirus. Interestingly, a similar expression pattern of TCR?, CD4 and Lck was seen in both brain and eye. However, compared to brain that showed elevated transcript levels of TCR?, CD4 and Lck mainly at 10 and 14wpi, the increase appeared earlier between 3 and 4wpi in the eye. Yet, an increase in the transcript level of IFN? was seen at 10 and 14wpi in both organs. Moreover, elevated levels of TLR7, IL-1?, IL-6, ISG15 and Mx were detected in vivo. The in vitro experiments, stimulating AK leucocytes with ConA-PMA, imiquimod or nodavirus, further supported an involvement of IL-6 and IFN? in the immune response against nodavirus and the involvement of CD8?(+) cells. Results from the present study thus indicate an importance of T-cells, IFN? and the analysed ISGs in the immune response against nodavirus in Atlantic halibut, and would be of great help in future vaccination trials giving the possibility to monitor the immune response rather than mortality during post-vaccination challenge experiments. PMID:22020051

Overgård, Aina-Cathrine; Nerland, Audun Helge; Fiksdal, Ingrid Uglenes; Patel, Sonal

2012-05-01

66

Genome-Wide Analysis of Host Factors in Nodavirus RNA Replication  

PubMed Central

Flock House virus (FHV), the best studied of the animal nodaviruses, has been used as a model for positive-strand RNA virus research. As one approach to identify host genes that affect FHV RNA replication, we performed a genome-wide analysis using a yeast single gene deletion library and a modified, reporter gene-expressing FHV derivative. A total of 4,491 yeast deletion mutants were tested for their ability to support FHV replication. Candidates for host genes modulating FHV replication were selected based on the initial genome-wide reporter gene assay and validated in repeated Northern blot assays for their ability to support wild type FHV RNA1 replication. Overall, 65 deletion strains were confirmed to show significant changes in the replication of both FHV genomic RNA1 and sub-genomic RNA3 with a false discovery rate of 5%. Among them, eight genes support FHV replication, since their deletion significantly reduced viral RNA accumulation, while 57 genes limit FHV replication, since their deletion increased FHV RNA accumulation. Of the gene products implicated in affecting FHV replication, three are localized to mitochondria, where FHV RNA replication occurs, 16 normally reside in the nucleus and may have indirect roles in FHV replication, and the remaining 46 are in the cytoplasm, with functions enriched in translation, RNA processing and trafficking.

Hao, Linhui; Lindenbach, Brett; Wang, Xiaofeng; Dye, Billy; Kushner, David; He, Qiuling; Newton, Michael; Ahlquist, Paul

2014-01-01

67

Effects of hot-water extract of banana (Musa acuminata) fruit's peel on the antibacterial activity, and anti-hypothermal stress, immune responses and disease resistance of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbegii.  

PubMed

The hot-extracts isolated from fruit's peel of banana, Musa acuminata, was evaluated on the antibacterial activity to pathogens from aquatic animals, and immunostimulating potential, disease resistance and anti-hypothermal stress in giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii through injection administration. The banana peel extract (BPE) showed good activity against 1 Gram-positive and 3 Gram-negative pathogens, including Lactococcus garvieae, Photobacteria damsella, Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio parahemolyticus especially in prawn pathogen of L. garvieae strain, which were carried out by a disk diffusion method. Prawn received BPE via injection administration at 1-6 ?g (g prawn)(-1) significantly increased total haemocyte count (THC), hyaline cell (HC), granular cell (GC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity and phagocytic activity against L. garvieae from 3 to 6 days, and significantly increased clearance efficiency against L. garvieae and a significantly decreased coagulation time of prawn from 1 to 6 days. Prawn injected with BPE at 6.0 ?g (g prawn)(-1) for 6 days showed significantly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, but significantly decreased respiratory bursts (RBs) of per haemocyte. Survival rates of M. rosenbergii injected with BPE at concentrations of 1, 3 and 6 ?g (g prawn)(-1) were significantly higher than those injected with saline control after challenge with L. garvieae for 4-6 days, and the respective relative survival percentages of prawn were 28.6%, 38.1%, and 47.8%, respectively at 6 days. The sublethal time of prawns that had received saline and BPE at 1, 3 and 6 ?g (g prawn)(-1) for 6 days and then were transferred from 28 °C to 14 °C were 69.4, 79.8, 83.6, and 90.2 h, respectively. It was concluded that the BPE can be used as the bacteriostat, and immunostimulant and physiological regulator for prawn through injection administration to enhance immunity, physiological responses, and resistance against L. garvieae. PMID:24906123

Rattanavichai, Wutti; Cheng, Winton

2014-08-01

68

Functional analysis of an orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) interferon gene and characterisation of its expression in response to nodavirus infection.  

PubMed

We cloned and sequenced 2C I-IFN, a two-cysteine containing type I interferon (I-IFN) gene, in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). The cDNA has 769 base pairs, the protein has 172 amino acids, and the predicted signal peptide has 18 amino acids with two cysteines. This gene is similar to I-FNs from sea bass and other teleosts. 2C I-IFN has 5 exons and 4 introns, also similar to other teleost I-IFNs. Immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis indicated that expression is predominantly membrane-localized in healthy grouper, but has a zonal distribution in nodavirus-infected grouper. Grouper infected with nodavirus had elevated levels of 2C I-IFN at 72h and Mx at days 6-7. Recombinant 2C I-IFN activated grouper Mx, leading to upregulated antiviral activity. The grouper Mx promoter was highly induced after treatment with recombinant 2C I-IFN. The present results suggest that expression of grouper 2C I-IFN may participate in the immunologic barrier function against nodavirus. PMID:24731841

Chen, Young-Mao; Kuo, Cham-En; Chen, Guan-Ru; Kao, Yu-Ting; Zou, Jun; Secombes, Chris J; Chen, Tzong-Yueh

2014-10-01

69

Population dynamics of Niger River prawn (Macrobrachium felicinum) in Lower Taylor Creek, Niger Delta, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The population dynamics of Macrobrachium felicinum (Holthuis, 1949) in Lower Taylor Creek, Niger Delta, Nigeria, was analysed using monthly length-frequency data (June 2008 – May 2010). This study was aimed at determining the status of fishery and establishing the levels of exploitation that will give sustainable yields. The FAO-ICLARM stock assessment tool (FISAT II) software was used to estimate population

T onbarapagha Kingdom; Aduabobo Ibitoruh Hart

2012-01-01

70

Genetic variability and phylogenetic aspects in species of the genus Macrobrachium.  

PubMed

The genus Macrobrachium includes prawns, which are widely distributed in lakes, floodplains, and rivers in tropical and subtropical regions of South America. This genus presents nearly 210 known species with great ecological and economic importance. However, few studies are related to the biology of these crustaceans. In this study, we analyzed the genetic variability and phylogenetic relationship between Macrobrachium amazonicum and Macrobrachium jelskii, which are closely related species. Additionally, they are syntopics and their taxonomy poses problems because it is difficult to differentiate between the species. We used the mitochondrial gene sequences COI and 16S rRNA to assess the genetic structure of these species in 3 populations that were collected from Tiete hydrographic basin (São Paulo State, Brazil). The interspecific comparison of samples that were collected at the same and different locations showed a low rate of genetic variability. This similarity was attributed to the recent introduction of these species in the regions that were sampled and the habitat conditions in which they inhabit. In addition, these results may be consistent with the hypothesis that they are a single species, interspecific hybrids, or metapopulation. The dendrogram analyses did not reveal the formation of clusters, confirming the disturbances in the genetic structure of the samples that were analyzed in this study. These data are pioneers to these crustaceans, and they confirm the ecological and evolutionary problems between these Macrobrachium species. PMID:24854444

Guerra, A L; Lima, A V B; Lucato Júnior, R V; Chiachio, M C; Taddei, F G; Castiglioni, L

2014-01-01

71

RNA Binding by a Novel Helical Fold of B2 Protein from Wuhan Nodavirus Mediates the Suppression of RNA Interference and Promotes B2 Dimerization ?  

PubMed Central

Wuhan nodavirus (WhNV) is a newly identified member of the Nodaviridae family with a bipartite genome of positive-sense RNAs. A nonstructural protein encoded by subgenomic RNA3 of nodaviruses, B2, serves as a potent RNA silencing suppressor (RSS) by sequestering RNA duplexes. We have previously demonstrated that WhNV B2 blocks RNA silencing in cultured Drosophila cells. However, the molecular mechanism by which WhNV B2 functions remains unknown. Here, we successfully established an RNA silencing system in cells derived from Pieris rapae, a natural host of WhNV, by introducing into these cells double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-expressing plasmids or chemically synthesized small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Using this system, we revealed that the WhNV B2 protein inhibited Dicer-mediated dsRNA cleavage and the incorporation of siRNA into the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) by sequestering dsRNA and siRNA. Based on the modeled B2 3-dimensional structure, serial single alanine replacement mutations and N-terminal deletion analyses showed that the RNA-binding domain of B2 is formed by its helices ?2 and ?3, while helix ?1 mediates B2 dimerization. Furthermore, positive feedback between RNA binding and B2 dimerization was uncovered by gel shift assay and far-Western blotting, revealing that B2 dimerization is required for its binding to RNA, whereas RNA binding to B2 in turn promotes its dimerization. All together, our findings uncovered a novel RNA-binding mode of WhNV B2 and provided evidence that the promotion effect of RNA binding on dimerization exists in a viral RSS protein.

Qi, Nan; Cai, Dawei; Qiu, Yang; Xie, Jiazheng; Wang, Zhaowei; Si, Jie; Zhang, Jiamin; Zhou, Xi; Hu, Yuanyang

2011-01-01

72

Biochemical Stress Responses in Tissues of the Prawn Macrobrachium malcolmsonii on Exposure to Endosulfan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to investigate the induction of biochemical stress responses in Macrobrachium malcolmsonii following exposure to endosulfan and to determine the most sensitive parameter of endosulfan-induced stress in this species of prawn. Intermolt juvenile prawns were exposed to three sublethal concentrations of endosulfan (10.6, 16.0, and 32.0 ng\\/L) for a period of 21 days. Samples were taken from

P. Saravana Bhavan; P. Geraldine

2001-01-01

73

Lipid and fatty acid composition and energy partitioning during embryo development in the shrimp Macrobrachium borellii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy partitioning, composition of lipids and fatty acids, and their utilization by embryos were determined in the lecithotrophic\\u000a shrimp Macrobrachium borellii during seven development stages. The biochemical composition at stage I is represented by lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates,\\u000a with 29.3, 28.7, and 0.2% dry weight, respectively. The former two were identified as the major energy-providing components,\\u000a contributing 131 and 60

Horacio Heras; M. R. Gonzalez-Baró; Ricardo J. Pollero

2000-01-01

74

Stable isotope changes in freshwater shrimps ( Exopalaemon modestus and Macrobrachium nipponensis ): trophic pattern implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trophic patterns of omnivorous freshwater shrimps, Exopalaemon modestus and Macrobrachium nipponensis, were investigated in two shallow eutrophic lakes by using stable isotope analysis. ?15N and ?13C of M. nipponensis and E. modestus increased with increasing body weight, which might be attributed to larger individuals ingesting organisms that feed higher\\u000a up the food chain and\\/or increased assimilation of benthic food items

Jun Xu; Min Zhang; Ping Xie

2008-01-01

75

Activation of lipid catabolism by the water-soluble fraction of petroleum in the crustacean Macrobrachium borellii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the effect of the water-soluble fraction of crude oil (WSF) on lipid metabolism in invertebrates. The effect of the WSF on the triacylglycerol (TAG) mobilization, fatty acid activation and degradation was evaluated in the decapod Macrobrachium borellii, exposing adult and eggs at different stages of development for 7 days to a sublethal concentration of WSF. Using

S. Lavarías; R. J. Pollero; H. Heras

2006-01-01

76

Effect of the water-soluble fraction of petroleum on microsomal lipid metabolism of Macrobrachium borellii (Arthropoda: Crustacea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the water-soluble fraction of crude oil (WSF) on lipid metabolism was studied at critical metabolic points, namely fatty acid activation, enzymes of triacylglycerol and phospholipid synthesis, and membrane (lipid packing) properties in the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium borellii. To determine the effect of the contaminant, adults and embryos at different stages of development were exposed to a sublethal

S. Lavarías; F. García; R. J. Pollero; H. Heras

2007-01-01

77

Prey ingestion and live food selectivity of marble goby ( Oxyeleotris marmorata) using rice field prawn ( Macrobrachium lanchesteri) as prey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marble goby (Oxyeleotris marmorata), a carnivorous fish native to freshwater in Asia-Pacific region, is a high-valued species in many Asian countries. The present study consisting of three experiments was conducted to determine the appropriate density, size and ingestion time of marble goby fingerlings on rice field prawn (Macrobrachium lanchesteri) as prey. Results showed that the ingestion rate of marble goby

Nguyen Phu Hoa; Yang Yi

2007-01-01

78

Species composition and gear characteristics of the Macrobrachium fishery of the Cross River Estuary, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cross River Estuary, Nigeria, is an important shrimping area for artisanal fishermen of the coastal communities. The multi-species Macrobrachium fishery is exploited with three main gears, namely beach seine, push net and trap. Studies on species composition of this fishery recorded thirteen shrimp species, one swimming crab ( Callinectes amnicola) and two fish species ( Eleotris sp. and Pellonula leonensis). The shrimp species identified included Macrobrachium macrobrachion (83.39% and 55.69% by number and weight, respectively), M. vollenhovenii (9.66% and 37.18%), M. equidens (3.8% and 2.87%), juveniles-sub-adults of Penaeus notialis (1.11% and 1.3%), M. dux, M. felicinum, Palaemonetes africanus, Palaemon maculatus, Palaemon elegans, Desmocaris sp., Leander sp., Nematopalaemon hastatus and Alpheus pontederiae. While the selectivity index for trap was 0.25, beach seine and push net had a lower index of 0.063. The results present the first comprehensive and representative report for the Estuary shrimp fishery and will assist in the management of the biodiversity of this ecosystem.

Nwosu, Francis M.

2010-03-01

79

Molecular Systematics of the Freshwater Prawn Genus Macrobrachium Bate, 1868 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae) Inferred from mtDNA Sequences, with Emphasis on East Asian Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Min-Yun Liu, Yi-Xiong Cai, and Chyng-Shyan Tzeng (2007)Molecular systematics of the freshwater prawn genus Macrobrachium Bate, 1868 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae) inferred from mtDNA sequences, with emphasis on East Asian species. Zoological Studies46(3): 272-289. Based on the mitochondrial DNA fragment of the large subunit (16S) ribosomal RNA gene, the monophyletic phylogeny of the genus Macrobrachium, including both land-locked and euryhaline species,

Min-Yun Liu; Yi-Xiong Cai; Chyng-Shyan Tzeng

80

Nodavirus infection induces a great innate cell-mediated cytotoxic activity in resistant, gilthead seabream, and susceptible, European sea bass, teleost fish.  

PubMed

Viral nervous necrosis (VNN) virus produces great mortalities in fish having susceptible and reservoir species between the most important marine aquaculture species. Cell-mediated cytotoxicity (CMC) is considered, towards the interferon (IFN), the most important mechanism of the immune response to fight against viral infections but it has been very scarcely evaluated. We aimed to evaluate the effects of VNNV infection in the reservoir gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) and susceptible European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Firstly, after experimental infection we found mortalities in the sea bass (55%) but no in the seabream. Moreover, VNN virus replicates in the brain of both species as it was reflected by the high up-regulation of the Mx gene expression. Interestingly, the head-kidney leucocyte cell-mediated cytotoxic activity was significantly increased in both species reaching highest activity at 7 days: 3.65- and 2.7-fold increase in seabream and sea bass, respectively. This is supported by the significant up-regulation of the non-specific cytotoxic cell receptor (NCCRP-1) in the two fish species. By contrast, phagocytosis was unaffected in both species. The respiratory burst was increased in seabream 7 days post-infection whilst in sea bass this activity was significantly decreased at days 7 and 15. Our results demonstrate the significance of the CMC activity in both gilthead seabream and European sea bass against nodavirus infections but further studies are still needed to understand the role of cytotoxic cells in the antiviral immune response and the mechanisms involved in either reservoir or susceptible fish species. PMID:22981914

Chaves-Pozo, Elena; Guardiola, Francisco A; Meseguer, José; Esteban, María A; Cuesta, Alberto

2012-11-01

81

Genetic diversity analysis of oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense, in Yellow River using microsatellite marker.  

PubMed

To assess the genetic status of this species, the genetic diversity of wild Macrobrachium nipponense from seven geographic locations in the Yellow River basin were investigated using 20 polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci. The genetic diversity between populations was indicated by the mean number of alleles per locus and mean observed heterozygosity (H) and the expected H, which was arranged from 2 to 10, from 0.4705 to 0.5731, and from 0.5174 to 0.6146, respectively. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium analysis indicated that a deficiency of heterozygotes existed in all seven populations. Both the F(ST) and AMOVA analyses showed that there is significant difference on population differentiation among populations. The UPGMA clustering tree demonstrated that their close relationship is consistent with their geographic proximity. The data suggest that this Yellow River population has a wide genetic base that is suitable for breeding. PMID:24301938

Qiao, H; Lv, D; Jiang, S F; Sun, S M; Gong, Y S; Xiong, Y W; Jin, S B; Fu, H T

2013-01-01

82

Bioaccumulation and retention kinetics of cadmium in the freshwater decapod Macrobrachium australiense.  

PubMed

The potential sources and mechanisms of cadmium bioaccumulation by the native freshwater decapods Macrobrachium species in the waters of the highly turbid Strickland River in Papua New Guinea were examined using (109)Cd-labelled water and food sources and the Australian species Macrobrachium australiense as a surrogate. Synthetic river water was spiked with environmentally relevant concentrations of cadmium and animals were exposed for 7 days with daily renewal of test solutions. Dietary assimilation of cadmium was assessed through pulse-chase experiments where prawns were fed separately (109)Cd-labelled fine sediment, filamentous algae and carrion (represented by cephalothorax tissue of water-exposed prawns). M. australiense readily accumulated cadmium from the dissolved phase and the uptake rate increased linearly with increasing exposure concentration. A cadmium uptake rate constant of 0.10 ± 0.05 L/g/d was determined in synthetic river water. During depuration following exposure to dissolved cadmium, efflux rates were low (0.9 ± 5%/d) and were not dependent on exposure concentration. Assimilation efficiencies of dietary sources were comparable for sediment and algae (48-51%), but lower for carrion (28 ± 5%) and efflux rates were low (0.2-2.6%/d) demonstrating that cadmium was well retained by M. australiense. A biokinetic model of cadmium accumulation by M. australiense predicted that for exposures to environmentally relevant cadmium concentrations in the Strickland River, uptake from ingestion of fine sediment and carrion would be the predominant sources of cadmium to the organism. The model predicted the total dietary route would represent 70-80% of bioaccumulated cadmium. PMID:24508761

Cresswell, Tom; Simpson, Stuart L; Smith, Ross E W; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Mazumder, Debashish; Twining, John

2014-03-01

83

Effect of crude oil petroleum hydrocarbons on protein expression of the prawn Macrobrachium borellii.  

PubMed

Hydrocarbon pollution is a major environmental threat to ecosystems in marine and freshwater environments, but its toxicological effect on aquatic organisms remains little studied. A proteomic approach was used to analyze the effect of a freshwater oil spill on the prawn Macrobrachium borellii. To this aim, proteins were extracted from midgut gland (hepatopancreas) of male and female prawns exposed 7 days to a sublethal concentration (0.6 ppm) of water-soluble fraction of crude oil (WSF). Exposure to WSF induced responses at the protein expression level. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) revealed 10 protein spots that were differentially expressed by WSF exposure. Seven proteins were identified using MS/MS and de novo sequencing. Nm23 oncoprotein, arginine methyltransferase, fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase and glutathione S-transferase were down-regulated, whereas two glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase isoforms and a lipocalin-like crustacyanin (CTC) were up-regulated after WSF exposure. CTC mRNA levels were further analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR showing an increased expression after WSF exposure. The proteins identified are involved in carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, detoxification, transport of hydrophobic molecules and cellular homeostasis among others. These results provide evidence for better understanding the toxic mechanisms of hydrocarbons. Moreover, some of these differentially expressed proteins would be employed as potential novel biomarkers. PMID:23570752

Pasquevich, M Y; Dreon, M S; Gutierrez Rivera, J N; Vázquez Boucard, C; Heras, H

2013-05-01

84

Shrimp Farming in the Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In inquiry-based instruction, discovery and learning belong to the students. In this exploration, jumbo shrimp are the source of inspiration. The magic in this project lies not in successfully culturing these shrimp, known as Macrobrachium rosenbergii

Ruggiero, Lovelle

2000-01-01

85

75 FR 16436 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the farmed and wild-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii),...

2010-04-01

86

75 FR 51756 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Changed...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the farmed and wild-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii),...

2010-08-23

87

76 FR 51940 - Administrative Review of Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the farmed and wild-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, white-leg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii),...

2011-08-19

88

76 FR 64307 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Amended Final Results and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the farmed and wild-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii),...

2011-10-18

89

75 FR 47771 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results and Partial...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the farmed and wild-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii),...

2010-08-09

90

77 FR 40574 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Thailand: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the farmed and wild-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii),...

2012-07-10

91

75 FR 54847 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Thailand: Final Results and Partial Rescission of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the farmed and wild-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii),...

2010-09-09

92

75 FR 13492 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed-Circumstances...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the farmed and wild-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii),...

2010-03-22

93

78 FR 33344 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Preliminary Countervailing Duty Determination  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the farmed and wild-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii),...

2013-06-04

94

77 FR 64953 - Notice of Initiation and Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the farmed and wild-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii),...

2012-10-24

95

78 FR 33347 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Ecuador: Preliminary Negative Countervailing Duty Determination  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the farmed and wild-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii),...

2013-06-04

96

78 FR 50391 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Final Affirmative...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the farmed and wild-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii),...

2013-08-19

97

75 FR 61702 - Notice of Initiation and Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the farmed and wild-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii),...

2010-10-06

98

76 FR 45775 - Fourth New Shipper Review of Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the farmed and wild-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii),...

2011-08-01

99

Marine Fisheries Review, Vol. 48, No. 2, 1986.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lobsters-Identification, World Distribution, and U.S. Trade; A Mechanical device to Sort Market Squid, Loligo opalesceus; Characterization of Proteolytic and Collagenolytic Psychrotrophic Bacteria of Ice-Stored Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

1986-01-01

100

Toxic Effect of Certain Marine Blue-Green Algae to Penaeid Shrimp.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hemocytic enteritis (HE) was found to be a disease of cultured marine penaeid shrimp and of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The principal lesion of HE disease is a necrosis and intense cellular inflammation of the mucosa of those portions...

D. V. Lightner

1982-01-01

101

Larval biomass and chemical composition at hatching in two geographically isolated clades of the shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum: intra- or interspecific variation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller 1862) has an extremely large geographic range (>4000?km across) in northern and central South America, comprising estuarine and fully limnic inland populations, which are hydrologically isolated from each other. Significant variations in ecology, physiology, reproduction, and larval development suggest an at least incipient allopatric speciation due to limited genetic exchange. In a comparative experimental investigation

Ángel Urzúa; Klaus Anger

2011-01-01

102

Immunological-based assays for specific detection of shrimp viruses  

PubMed Central

Among shrimp viral pathogens, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and yellow head virus (YHV) are the most lethal agents, causing serious problems for both the whiteleg shrimp, Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei, and the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus (Penaeus) monodon. Another important virus that infects P. vannamei is infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV), which induces the white discoloration of affected muscle. In the cases of taura syndrome virus and Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV; formerly known as infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus), their impacts were greatly diminished after the introduction of tolerant stocks of P. vannamei. Less important viruses are Penaeus monodon densovirus (PmDNV; formerly called hepatopancreatic parvovirus), and Penaeus monodon nucleopolyhedrovirus (PemoNPV; previously called monodon baculovirus). For freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus and extra small virus are considered important viral pathogens. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific to the shrimp viruses described above have been generated and used as an alternative tool in various immunoassays such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, dot blotting, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Some of these MAbs were further developed into immunochromatographic strip tests for the detection of WSSV, YHV, IMNV and PemoNPV and into a dual strip test for the simultaneous detection of WSSV/YHV. The strip test has the advantages of speed, as the result can be obtained within 15 min, and simplicity, as laboratory equipment and specialized skills are not required. Therefore, strip tests can be used by shrimp farmers for the pond-side monitoring of viral infection.

Chaivisuthangkura, Parin; Longyant, Siwaporn; Sithigorngul, Paisarn

2014-01-01

103

Life history traits of the Monsoon River prawn Macrobrachium malcolmsonii (Milne-Edwards, 1844) (Palaemonidae) in the Ganges (Padma) River, northwestern Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Monsoon River prawn, Macrobrachium malcolmsonii (Milne-Edwards, 1844), is one of the dominant benthic species in the Ganges River. Our study describes some biological parameters including sex ratio, length–frequency distributions (LFD), length–weight relationships (LWR), and relative-condition (Kn) factor of M. malcolmsonii in the lower part of the Ganges River, northwestern Bangladesh. A total of 502 specimens of the ranges 3.54–11.76?cm

Jun Ohtomi; Ahmed Jaman; Saleha Jasmine; Robert L. Vadas Jr

2012-01-01

104

Life history traits of the Monsoon River prawn Macrobrachium malcolmsonii (Milne-Edwards, 1844) (Palaemonidae) in the Ganges (Padma) River, northwestern Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Monsoon River prawn, Macrobrachium malcolmsonii (Milne-Edwards, 1844), is one of the dominant benthic species in the Ganges River. Our study describes some biological parameters including sex ratio, length–frequency distributions (LFD), length–weight relationships (LWR), and relative-condition (Kn) factor of M. malcolmsonii in the lower part of the Ganges River, northwestern Bangladesh. A total of 502 specimens of the ranges 3.54–11.76?cm

Jun Ohtomi; Ahmed Jaman; Saleha Jasmine; Robert L. Vadas Jr

2011-01-01

105

Determination of microcystin-LR and its metabolites in snail ( Bellamya aeruginosa), shrimp ( Macrobrachium nipponensis) and silver carp ( Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) from Lake Taihu, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes seasonal changes of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and its glutathione (MC-LR-GSH) and cysteine conjugates (MC-LR-Cys) in three aquatic animals – snail (Bellamya aeruginosa), shrimp (Macrobrachium nipponensis) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) collected from Lake Taihu, China. MC-LR, MC-LR-GSH, and MC-LR-Cys were determined by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrum (LC–ESI-MS). The mean MC-LR concentrations in the hepatopancreas of snail

Dawen Zhang; Ping Xie; Jun Chen; Ming Dai; Tong Qiu; Yaqin Liu; Gaodao Liang

2009-01-01

106

Antioxidant response and oxidative stress levels in Macrobrachium borellii (Crustacea: Palaemonidae) exposed to the water-soluble fraction of petroleum.  

PubMed

The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of the water soluble fraction of hydrocarbons (WSF) on the antioxidant status of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium borellii. First, seasonal variations were studied in a non-polluted area. Hepatopancreas and gills showed season-related fluctuations in catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities and in lipid peroxidation levels (LPO), but not in superoxide dismutase (SOD). Then, adults were exposed semi-statically to sublethal doses for 7days. CAT, SOD, GST, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities and LPO, reduced glutathione (GSH) and protein oxidation (PO) levels were determined. Exposed individuals showed significant increases in CAT, SOD, and GST activities in hepatopancreas and CAT activity in gills. GPx activity did not vary in either tissues. While LPO levels increased, GSH levels decreased significantly in hepatopancreas of exposed animals, but PO levels showed no variation. Induction of SOD was also assessed by Real-time PCR mRNA expression in hepatopancreas. The non-enzymatic antioxidant activity was also tested; ABTS 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) was higher in hemolymph of treated-prawns compared to controls, but ferric reducing activity of plasma assay (FRAP) values did not change. Taken together, the present results indicated that the antioxidant defenses of M. borellii, mainly in hepatopancreas, were significantly affected by aquatic hydrocarbon contamination, regardless of the season. PMID:21320634

Lavarías, S; Heras, H; Pedrini, N; Tournier, H; Ansaldo, M

2011-05-01

107

Molecular analysis of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium olfersii (Decapoda, Palaemonidae) supports the existence of a single species throughout its distribution.  

PubMed

Macrobrachium olfersii is an amphidromous freshwater prawn, widespread along the eastern coasts of the Americas. This species shows great morphological modifications during ontogenesis, and several studies have verified the existence of a wide intraspecific variation. Because of this condition, the species is often misidentified, and several synonyms have been documented. To elucidate these aspects, individuals of M. olfersii from different populations along its range of distribution were investigated. The taxonomic limit was established, and the degree of genetic variability of this species was described. We extracted DNA from 53 specimens of M. olfersii, M. americanum, M. digueti and M. faustinum, which resulted in 84 new sequences (22 of 16S mtDNA, 45 of Cythocrome Oxidase I (COI) mtDNA, and 17 of Histone (H3) nDNA). Sequences of three genes (single and concatenated) from these species were used in the Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference phylogenetic analyses and COI sequences from M. olfersii were used in population analysis. The genetic variation was evaluated through the alignment of 554 bp from the 16S, 638 bp from the COI, and 338 bp from the H3. The rates of genetic divergence among populations were lower at the intraspecific level. This was confirmed by the haplotype net, which showed a continuous gene flow among populations. Although a wide distribution and high morphological intraspecific variation often suggest the existence of more than one species, genetic similarity of Caribbean and Brazilian populations of M. olfersii supported them as a single species. PMID:23382941

Rossi, Natália; Mantelatto, Fernando Luis

2013-01-01

108

Gene discovery from an ovary cDNA library of oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense by ESTs annotation.  

PubMed

The oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense, is an important crustacean species in aquaculture. However, early gonad maturity is a ubiquitous problem which devalues the product quality. While husbandry and nutritional management have achieved little success in tackling this issue, a molecular approach may discover the genes involved in reproduction and development, which will provide the basic knowledge on reproductive control. In this study, a high-quality cDNA library of prawn was constructed from the ovary tissue. A total of 3294 successful sequencing reactions yielded 3256 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) longer than 100 bp. The cluster and assembly analyses yielded 1514 unique sequences including 414 contigs and 1168 singletons. About 719 (47.49%) unique sequences were identified as orthologs of genes from other organisms. By sequence comparability analysis, 28 important genes including cathepsin B, chromobox protein, Cdc2, cyclin B, DEAD box protein and ADF/cofilin protein were expressed. These genes may be involved in reproductive and developmental functions in prawn. Peritrophin consisting of cortical rods was also found in this species. The identification of these EST sequences in M. nipponense would improve our understanding on the genes that regulate reproduction and development in prawn species. This study also lays the groundwork for development of molecular markers related to ovary development in other prawn species. PMID:20403747

Wu, Ping; Qi, Dan; Chen, Liqiao; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Xiaowei; Qin, Jian Guang; Hu, Songnian

2009-06-01

109

Larval Pseudoproleptus sp. (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae) found in the Amazon river prawn Macrobrachium amazonicum (Decapoda: Palaemonidae) in Brazil.  

PubMed

Previously undescribed infective larvae of the cystidicolid nematode Pseudoproleptus sp. (probably conspecific with the nematode originally described as Heliconema izecksohni Fabio, 1982, a parasite of freshwater fish in Brazil), were found encapsulated in the hemocel of the Amazon river prawn Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller) (Decapoda: Palaemonidae) from the natural canals on the Mexiana Island (Amazon River Delta), Pardá State, Brazil. The prevalence in prawns (body length 48-110 mm) examined in January and March 2008 (n = 44) was 32%, with an intensity of 1-6 (mean 2) larvae per crustacean. The nematode larvae (body length 19.7-25.7 mm), characterized by the cephalic end provided with a helmet-like cuticular structure having a thickened free posterior margin, are described based on light and scanning electron microscopy. Apparently prawns play a role as intermediate hosts for this nematode species. This is the first record of a larval representative of Cystidicolidae in South America and the first record of a species of Pseudoproleptus Khera, 1955, in the Neotropics. Heliconema izecksohni is transferred to Pseudoproleptus as Pseudoproleptus izecksohni (Fabio, 1982) n. comb. PMID:19014207

Moravec, Frantisek; Santos, Cláudia P

2009-06-01

110

Identification of spliced mRNA isoforms of retinoid X receptor (RXR) in the Oriental freshwater prawn Macrobrachium nipponense.  

PubMed

Retinoid X receptors (RXR) are members of the nuclear receptor family that are conserved from invertebrates to vertebrates, and they play an essential role in regulating reproductive maturation, molting, and embryo development. In this study, five RXR isoforms, named RXRL2 (L, long form), RXRL3, RXRS1 (S, short form), RXRS2, and RXRS3, containing six domains from A to F, were cloned from the prawn Macrobrachium nipponense using 5?- and 3?- rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Differences among their structures were observed not only in the D and E domains but also in the A/B domain, which were previously found in insects but not in crustaceans. This is the first report to show that differences occur in the A/B domain of RXR in crustaceans. RXR expressions were also examined in various tissues including the ovary, testis, muscle, hepatopancreas, heart, gill, stomach, intestine, and cuticle. Expression pattern investigations indicated that the five isoforms were differentially expressed. RXRS3 was only detected in the ovary, and the other RXRs were abundant in the ovary and testis. These data suggested that RXR mediates a series of processes related to reproduction. PMID:24938602

Li, Z; Wang, W Q; Zhang, E F; Qiu, G F

2014-01-01

111

Regulation of essential heavy metals (Cu, Cr, and Zn) by the freshwater prawn macrobrachium malcolmsonii (Milne Edwards)  

SciTech Connect

Despite the low concentrations of heavy metals in the surrounding medium, aquatic organisms take them up and accumulate them in their soft tissues to concentrations several fold higher than those of ambient levels. Knowledge of accumulation patterns of a particular trace metal is a prerequisite for understanding the significance of an observed metal concentration in a particular animal, especially from the aspect of biomonitoring. Many marine invertebrates accumulate heavy metals without any regulation and the accumulation necessarily being associated with mechanisms to store the metals in a detoxified form. Two detoxification mechanisms have been described, both of which may occur in one specimen. Heavy metals can either be bound up in insoluble metalliferous {open_quote}granules{close_quote}, or are bound to soluble metal-binding ligands, such as metallothioneins. Some marine decapod crustaceans have an innate ability to regulate the internal concentrations of essential but potentially toxic metals within a constant level, presumably to meet their metabolic demands. However, at present, there is no such information relating to freshwater decapod crustaceans, especially shrimps which occupy a totally different environment. Macrobrachium malcolmsonii, a potential aquaculture species for freshwater is found in abundance in one of the major Indian rivers, the Cauvery. In the present study, an attempt was made to determine whether the freshwater prawn, M. malcolmsonlii, is able to regulate the three essential elements, copper, chromium and zinc, over a wide range of dissolved concentrations. These three metals were chosen because the Cauvery River receives pollutants containing these metals.

Vijayram, K. [Periyar E.V.R. College, Tiruchirappalli (India)] [Periyar E.V.R. College, Tiruchirappalli (India); Geraldine, P. [Bharathidasan Univ., Tiruchirappalli (India)] [Bharathidasan Univ., Tiruchirappalli (India)

1996-02-01

112

Molecular cloning of two tropomyosin family genes and expression analysis during development in oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense.  

PubMed

This paper reports that Slow-tonic S2 tropomyosin (Sst) and Slow tropomyosin isoform (Sti) was highly expressed in androgenic gland transcriptome of Macrobrachium nipponense, which may play crucial roles in sexual differentiation to maleness. In this study, two Sst and Sti gene homologues designated as Mnsst and Mnsti were cloned and characterized from a freshwater prawn M. nipponense. The full-length cDNA of Mnsst and Mnsti consists of 997bp and 1926bp, respectively, with an ORF of 852bp encoding 284 amino acids, and the similarity in ORF reached to 95.82%. The deduced amino acid sequences of Mnsst and Mnsti shared the highest identity with Slow-tonic S2 tropomyosin and Slow tropomyosin isoform of Homarus americanus. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR showed that the Mnsst and Mnsti genes were expressed in different tissues with the highest level of expression in the androgenic gland, implying that these two genes may be related to sex-determination in M. nipponense. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR revealed that in addition, Mnsst and Mnsti were speculated to be related with embryonic organogenesis of M. nipponense, especially for the formation of complete mouthpart and digestive organ and stimulating larval changes of morphology and initiate metamorphosis, the results of present study implied that the two genes may play complex and important roles in sex differentiation of M. nipponense. Thus, we isolated two candidate genes that may advance the studies of sex-determination mechanism in M. nipponense and even the whole crustacean species, as well as promoting the all-male population culture of M. nipponense. PMID:24809964

Jin, Shubo; Jiang, Sufei; Xiong, Yiwei; Qiao, Hui; Sun, Shengming; Zhang, Wenyi; Li, Fajun; Gong, Yongsheng; Fu, Hongtuo

2014-08-10

113

Transcriptome Analysis of the Oriental River Prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense Using 454 Pyrosequencing for Discovery of Genes and Markers  

PubMed Central

Background The oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense, is an economically and nutritionally important species of the Palaemonidae family of decapod crustaceans. To date, the sequencing of its whole genome is unavailable as a non-model organism. Transcriptomic information is also scarce for this species. In this study, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing to produce the first comprehensive expressed sequence tag (EST) dataset for M. nipponense using high-throughput sequencing technologies. Methodology and Principal Findings Total RNA was isolated from eyestalk, gill, heart, ovary, testis, hepatopancreas, muscle, and embryos at the cleavage, gastrula, nauplius and zoea stages. Equal quantities of RNA from each tissue and stage were pooled to construct a cDNA library. Using 454 pyrosequencing technology, we generated a total of 984,204 high quality reads (338.59Mb) with an average length of 344 bp. Clustering and assembly of these reads produced a non-redundant set of 81,411 unique sequences, comprising 42,551 contigs and 38,860 singletons. All of the unique sequences were involved in the molecular function (30,425), cellular component (44,112) and biological process (67,679) categories by GO analysis. Potential genes and their functions were predicted by KEGG pathway mapping and COG analysis. Based on our sequence analysis and published literature, many putative genes involved in sex determination, including DMRT1, FTZ-F1, FOXL2, FEM1 and other potentially important candidate genes, were identified for the first time in this prawn. Furthermore, 6,689 SSRs and 18,107 high-confidence SNPs were identified in this EST dataset. Conclusions The transcriptome provides an invaluable new data for a functional genomics resource and future biological research in M. nipponense. The molecular markers identified in this study will provide a material basis for future genetic linkage and quantitative trait loci analyses, and will be essential for accelerating aquaculture breeding programs with this species.

Ma, Keyi; Qiu, Gaofeng; Feng, Jianbin; Li, Jiale

2012-01-01

114

Coastal Aquaculture Development in Bangladesh: Unsustainable and Sustainable Experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coastal aquaculture in Bangladesh consists mainly of two shrimp species (Penaeus monodon and Macrobrachium rosenbergii). Currently, there are about 16,237 marine shrimp (P. monodon) farms covering 148,093 ha and 36,109 fresh water shrimp (M. rosenbergii) farms covering 17,638 ha coastal area. More than 0.7 million people are employed in the farmed shrimp sector and in 2005–2006\\u000a the export value of shrimp was 403.5 million

A. Kalam Azad; Kathe R. Jensen; C. Kwei Lin

2009-01-01

115

Comparative acute toxicity of gallium(III), antimony(III), indium(III), cadmium(II), and copper(II) on freshwater swamp shrimp (Macrobrachium nipponense)  

PubMed Central

Background Acute toxicity testing were carried out the freshwater swamp shrimp, Macrobrachium nipponense, as the model animal for the semiconductor applied metals (gallium, antimony, indium, cadmium, and copper) to evaluate if the species is an suitable experimental animal of pollution in aquatic ecosystem. Results The static renewal test method of acute lethal concentrations determination was used, and water temperature was maintained at 24.0?±?0.5°C. Data of individual metal obtained from acute toxicity tests were determined using probit analysis method. The median lethal concentration (96-h LC50) of gallium, antimony, indium, cadmium, and copper for M. nipponense were estimated as 2.7742, 1.9626, 6.8938, 0.0539, and 0.0313 mg/L, respectively. Conclusions Comparing the toxicity tolerance of M. nipponense with other species which exposed to these metals, it is obviously that the M. nipponense is more sensitive than that of various other aquatic animals.

2014-01-01

116

Effect of Inclusion of Prawn and Mola on Water Quality and Rice Production in Prawn-Fish-Rice Culture System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A long term experiment for a period of sixteen weeks was conducted from August to November, 2005 to observe the effects of inclusion of prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) and mola (Amblypharyngodon mola) on water quality and rice production. To achieve the target, four treatments each with three replications were set in the experiment. In all treatments, prawn was stocked with mola

Rohul Amin; M. Salauddin

2008-01-01

117

THE SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOODS APPROACH TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF FRESHWATER PRAWN MARKETING SYSTEMS IN SOUTHWEST BANGLADESH  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conceptual framework, drawn from an approach to poverty reduction known as the Sustainable Livelihoods Approach (SLA), is applied to understanding the role of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) marketing systems in southwest Bangladesh. Freshwater prawn marketing potentially provides economic returns and social benefits to the rural poor. Although the potential benefits are great, a number of constraints were identified for

Nesar Ahmed; Catherine Lecouffe; Edward H. Allison; James F. Muir

2009-01-01

118

Prawn postlarvae fishing in coastal Bangladesh: Challenges for sustainable livelihoods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fishing for prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) postlarvae is a major contributor to the livelihoods of the coastal poor in Bangladesh, including women. A study of coastal livelihoods along the lower Pasur River in southwest Bangladesh indicates that on average 40% of total annual income comes from postlarvae fishing during the few months involved. However, indiscriminate fishing of wild postlarvae, with high

Nesar Ahmed; Max Troell; Edward H. Allison; James F. Muir

2010-01-01

119

Freshwater prawn farming in Bangladesh: history, present status and future prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the overall agro-based economy in Bangla- desh, freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) farming is currently one of the most important sec- tors of the national economy. During the last two dec- ades, its development has attracted considerable attention for its export potential. Freshwater prawn farming o¡ers diverse livelihood opportunities for a large number of rural poor. Although the prospects for

Nesar Ahmed; Harvey Demaine; James F Muir

2008-01-01

120

FRESHWATER PRAWN FARMING IN GHER SYSTEMS IN SOUTHWEST BANGLADESH  

Microsoft Academic Search

The livelihoods of a large number of farmers are associated with freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) farming in gher (modified rice fields with high, broad peripheral dikes) systems in southwest Bangladesh. Most farmers integrated prawn with fish and rice in their gher and followed extensive methods using low inputs. Although farmers have improved their social and economic conditions through prawn farming,

Nesar Ahmed; Janet H. Brown; James F. Muir

2008-01-01

121

Effects of stocking density, periphyton substrate and supplemental feed on biological processes affecting water quality in earthen tilapia-prawn polyculture ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technical and economic potentials of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.), and giant river prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man), polyculture in periphyton-based systems are under investigation in an extensive research programme. This article is a combined analysis of data from four experiments exploring the effects of periphyton, fish, prawn and feed on water quality. Factor analysis and ancova models applied to

Mohammed Sharif Uddin; A. Milstein; Mohammed Ekram Azim; Mohammed Abdul Wahab; Marc Verdegem; Johan Verreth

2008-01-01

122

A Simple "in Vitro" Culture of Freshwater Prawn Embryos for Laboratory Investigations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Giant freshwater prawn ("Macrobrachium rosenbergii" De Man) embryos can be cultured "in vitro" to hatching in 15% (v/v) artificial seawater (ASW). This technique can be applied as a bioassay for testing toxicity or for the effects of various substances on embryo development and can be used as a simple and low-cost model for studying embryo…

Porntrai, Supaporn; Damrongphol, Praneet

2008-01-01

123

Levels of platinum group metals in selected species (Sarotherodon melanotheron, Chonophorus lateristriga, Macrobrachium vollenhovenii and Crassostrea tulipa) in some estuaries and lagoons along the coast of Ghana.  

PubMed

The use of some biota as bioindicators of heavy metal pollution has been demonstrated as particularly adequate due to their capacity of bioconcentration. This study evaluated the levels of platinum group metals (PGMs) in some selected species along the coastal belt of Ghana, using the neutron activation analysis (NAA) method. The result was processed to evaluate pollution indices in order to map the distribution of the metals in those species in the lagoons and estuaries along the costal belt of Ghana. The analysis showed significant levels of all PGMs in blackchin tilapia (Sarotherodon melanotheron Cichlidae), brown goby (Chonophorus lateristriga Gobiidae), shrimp (Macrobrachium vollenhovenii Palaemonidae), and mangrove oysters (Crassostrea tulipa Ostreidae) in the lagoons and river Pra estuary. However, the oysters showed an elevated mean concentration of 0.13 ?g/g (dry weight) Pd. From the pollution indices, most of the sampling sites registered mean contamination factor (CF) values between 1.20 and 3.00 for Pt, Pd, and Rh. The pollution load index (PLI) conducted also gave an average pollution index between 0.79 and 2.37, indicating progressive contamination levels. The results revealed that anthropogenic sources, industrial and hospital effluent, etc., together with vehicular emissions, could be the contributing factors to the deposition of PGMs along the Ghanaian coast. PMID:20953547

Essumang, D K; Adokoh, C K; Boamponsem, L

2010-01-01

124

A clip-domain serine proteinase homolog (SPH) in oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense provides insights into its role in innate immune response.  

PubMed

In this study, a clip-domain serine proteinase homolog designated as MnSPH was cloned and characterized from a freshwater prawn Macrobrachium nipponense. The full-length cDNA of MnSPH was 1897 bp and contained a 1701 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein of 566 amino acids, a 103 bp 5'-untranslated region, and a 93 bp 3'-untranslated region. Sequence comparison showed that the deduced amino acids of MnSPH shared 30-59% identity with sequences reported in other animals. Tissue distribution analysis indicated that the MnSPH transcripts were present in all detected tissues with highest in the hepatopancreas and ovary. The MnSPH mRNA levels in the developing ovary were stable at the initial three developmental stages, then increased gradually from stage IV (later vitellogenesis), and reached a maximum at stage VI (paracmasis). Furthermore, the expression of MnSPH mRNA in hemocytes was significantly up-regulated at 1.5 h, 6 h, 12 h and 48 h post Aeromonas hydrophila injection. The increased phenoloxidase activity also demonstrated a clear time-dependent pattern after A. hydrophila challenge. These results suggest that MnSPH participates in resisting to pathogenic microorganisms and plays a pivotal role in host defense against microbe invasion in M. nipponense. PMID:24878742

Ding, Zhili; Kong, Youqin; Chen, Liqiao; Qin, Jianguang; Sun, Shengming; Li, Ming; Du, Zhenyu; Ye, Jinyun

2014-08-01

125

Differential adjustment in gill Na+/K+- and V-ATPase activities and transporter mRNA expression during osmoregulatory acclimation in the cinnamon shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum (Decapoda, Palaemonidae).  

PubMed

We evaluate osmotic and chloride (Cl(-)) regulatory capability in the diadromous shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum, and the accompanying alterations in hemolymph osmolality and [Cl(-)], gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity, and expression of gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase ?-subunit and V-ATPase B subunit mRNA during salinity (S) acclimation. We also characterize V-ATPase kinetics and the organization of transport-related membrane systems in the gill epithelium. Macrobrachium amazonicum strongly hyper-regulates hemolymph osmolality and [Cl(-)] in freshwater and in salinities up to 25‰ S. During a 10-day acclimation period to 25‰ S, hemolymph became isosmotic and hypo-chloremic after 5 days, [Cl(-)] alone remaining hyporegulated thereafter. Gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase ?-subunit mRNA expression increased 6.5 times initial values after 1 h, then decreased to 3 to 4 times initial values by 24 h and to 1.5 times initial values after 10 days at 25‰ S. This increased expression was accompanied by a sharp decrease at 5 h then recovery of initial Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity within 24 h, declining again after 5 days, which suggests transient Cl(-) secretion. V-ATPase B-subunit mRNA expression increased 1.5-fold within 1 h, then reduced sharply to 0.3 times initial values by 5 h, and remained unchanged for the remainder of the 10-day period. V-ATPase activity dropped sharply and was negligible after a 10-day acclimation period to 21‰ S, revealing a marked downregulation of ion uptake mechanisms. The gill epithelium consists of thick, apical pillar cell flanges, the perikarya of which are coupled to an intralamellar septum. These two cell types respectively exhibit extensive apical evaginations and deep membrane invaginations, both of which are associated with numerous mitochondria, characterizing an ion transporting epithelium. These changes in Na(+)/K(+)- and V-ATPase activities and in mRNA expression during salinity acclimation appear to underpin ion uptake and Cl(-) secretion by the palaemonid shrimp gill. PMID:21037069

Faleiros, Rogério Oliveira; Goldman, Maria Helena S; Furriel, Rosa P M; McNamara, John Campbell

2010-11-15

126

Geothermal aquaculture: a guide to freshwater prawn culture  

SciTech Connect

Biological data of the Malaysian prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, are summarized. A history on its rearing techniques is given, but through the use of geothermal water or industrial warm water effluent, its range can be expanded. The use of wasted geothermal water at the Oregon Institute of Technology for prawn ponds is noted. Pond management and design; the hatchery design and function for larval culture; and geothermal applications (legal aspects and constraints) are discussed. (MCW)

Hayes, A.; Johnson, W.C.

1980-05-01

127

Rice fields to prawn farms: a blue revolution in southwest Bangladesh?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) farming in southwest Bangladesh where a large number of farmers have converted their rice fields to export oriented prawn\\u000a farms, locally known as gher. The gher design potentially provides good opportunities for diversified production of prawn, fish, rice and dike crops, that has brought\\u000a about a ‘blue revolution’. The average annual yield of

Nesar Ahmed; Edward H. Allison; James F. Muir

2010-01-01

128

Direct use of low temperature geothermal water by Aquafarms International, Inc. for freshwater aquaculture (prawns and associated species). An operations and maintenance manual  

SciTech Connect

In connection with an ongoing commercial aquaculture project in the Coachella Valley, California; a twelve month prawn growout demonstration project was conducted. This project began in August, 1979 and involved the use of low temperature (85/sup 0/F) geothermal waters to raise freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (deMan), in earthen ponds. The following publication is an operations and maintenance guide which may by useful for those interested in conducting similar enterprises.

Broughton, R.; Price, M.; Price, V.; Grajcer, D.

1984-04-01

129

Kinetic analysis of gill (Na?,K?)-ATPase activity in selected ontogenetic stages of the Amazon River shrimp, Macrobrachium amazonicum (Decapoda, Palaemonidae): interactions at ATP- and cation-binding sites.  

PubMed

We investigated modulation by ATP, Mg²?, Na?, K? and NH?? and inhibition by ouabain of (Na?,K?)-ATPase activity in microsomal homogenates of whole zoeae I and decapodid III (formerly zoea IX) and whole-body and gill homogenates of juvenile and adult Amazon River shrimps, Macrobrachium amazonicum. (Na?,K?)-ATPase-specific activity was increased twofold in decapodid III compared to zoea I, juveniles and adults, suggesting an important role in this ontogenetic stage. The apparent affinity for ATP (K(M) = 0.09 ± 0.01 mmol L?¹) of the decapodid III (Na?,K?)-ATPase, about twofold greater than the other stages, further highlights this relevance. Modulation of (Na?,K?-ATPase activity by K? also revealed a threefold greater affinity for K? (K?.? = 0.91 ± 0.04 mmol L?¹) in decapodid III than in other stages; NH?? had no modulatory effect. The affinity for Na? (K?.? = 13.2 ± 0.6 mmol L?¹) of zoea I (Na?,K?)-ATPase was fourfold less than other stages. Modulation by Na?, Mg²? and NH?? obeyed cooperative kinetics, while K? modulation exhibited Michaelis-Menten behavior. Rates of maximal Mg²? stimulation of ouabain-insensitive ATPase activity differed in each ontogenetic stage, suggesting that Mg²?-stimulated ATPases other than (Na?,K?)-ATPase are present. Ouabain inhibition suggests that, among the various ATPase activities present in the different stages, Na?-ATPase may be involved in the ontogeny of osmoregulation in larval M. amazonicum. The NH??-stimulated, ouabain-insensitive ATPase activity seen in zoea I and decapodid III may reflect a stage-specific means of ammonia excretion since functional gills are absent in the early larval stages. PMID:22544049

Leone, Francisco Assis; Masui, Douglas Chodi; de Souza Bezerra, Thais Milena; Garçon, Daniela Pereira; Valenti, Wagner Cotroni; Augusto, Alessandra Silva; McNamara, John Campbell

2012-04-01

130

Monoclonal antibody based immunodot for specific detection of proteins of the shrimp Penaeus species.  

PubMed

Frozen shrimp continued to be the single largest item of export from India in terms of value accounting for about 44% of the total marine export earnings. Headless, peeled frozen shrimp is a common and dominant item in the market and there is need for differentiating peeled Penaeus sp from Metapenaeus, Parapenopsis and Macrobrachium sp as consumer preference and price vary. Furthermore, there is need to find out original species used in value addition of shrimp products. Hence, it is essential for development of simple and consumer friendly technique for the identification of shrimp and their products in the market. Two monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) C-15 (IgG3) and C-52 (IgG2a) reacting with 65 and 47 kD proteins of Penaeus monodon respectively in the Western blot were selected. In epitope analysis by immunodot, the two MAbs reacted and recognized specific proteins of P. monodon, Fenneropenaeus indicus and Littopenaeus vannamei and not that of Metapenaeus, Parapenopsis, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, crabs and fishes. The immunodot required 120 min for completion. The sensitivity of the immunodot to detect proteins of P. monodon was 0.225 mg with MAb C-15 and 0.028 mg with MAb C-52. The MAb based immunodot developed, could be used for identifying and differentiating meat of P. monodon, F. indicus, and L. vannamei from that of Metapenaeus, Parapenopsis, M. rosenbergii, crabs and fishes. PMID:24803705

Abhiman, P B; Shankar, K M; Patil, Rajreddy; Suresh Babu, P P; Sahoo, A K; Shamasundar, B A

2014-05-01

131

A fish nodavirus associated with mass mortality in hatchery-reared Asian Sea bass, Lates calcarifer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virus responsible for viral nervous necrosis (VNN) was isolated from infected Asian sea bass (Lates calcarifer) larvae during the massive outbreak in sea bass hatcheries located in Chennai and Nagapattinam of Tamilnadu, India. The infected larvae showed anorexia, pale-grey pigmentation of body, loss of equilibrium and corkscrew-like or whirling swimming behavior before to death. The causative organism was isolated using

V. Parameswaran; S. Rajesh Kumar; V. P. Ishaq Ahmed; A. S. Sahul Hameed

2008-01-01

132

Cellular expression of a functional nodavirus RNA replicon from vaccinia virus vectors.  

PubMed Central

RNA replication provides a powerful means for the amplification of RNA, but to date it has been found to occur naturally only among RNA viruses. In an attempt to harness this process for the amplification of heterologous mRNAs, both an RNA replicase and its corresponding RNA templates have been expressed in functional form, using vaccinia virus-bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase vectors. Plasmids were constructed which contained in 5'-to-3' order (i) a bacteriophage T7 promoter; (ii) a full-length cDNA encoding either the RNA replicase (RNA 1) or the coat protein (RNA 2) of flock house virus (FHV), (iii) a cDNA sequence that encoded the self-cleaving ribozyme of satellite tobacco ringspot virus, and (iv) a T7 transcriptional terminator. Both in vitro and in vivo, circular plasmids of this structure were transcribed by T7 RNA polymerase to produce RNAs with sizes that closely resembled those of the two authentic FHV genomic RNAs, RNA 1 and RNA 2. In baby hamster kidney cells that expressed authentic FHV RNA replicase, the RNA 2 (coat protein) transcripts were accurately replicated. Moreover, the RNA 1 (replicase) transcripts directed the synthesis of an enzyme that could replicate not only authentic virion-derived FHV RNA but also the plasmid-derived transcripts themselves. Under the latter conditions, replicative amplification of the RNA transcripts ensued and resulted in a high rate of synthesis of the encoded proteins. This successful expression from a DNA vector of the complex biological process of RNA replication will greatly facilitate studies of its mechanism and is a major step towards the goal of harnessing RNA replication for mRNA amplification. Images

Ball, L A

1992-01-01

133

The invasion of five alien species in the Delta do Parnaíba Environmental Protection Area, Northeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

Marine biological invasions have been regarded as one of the major causes of native biodiversity loss, with shipping and aquaculture being the leading contributors for the introductions of alien species in aquatic ecosystems. In the present study, five aquatic alien species (one mollusk, three crustaceans and one fish species) were detected during dives, shore searches and from the fisheries on the coast of the Delta do Parnaíba Environmental Protection Area, in the States of Piauí and Maranhão, Northeastern Brazil. The species were the bicolor purse-oyster Isognomon bicolor, the whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, the giant river prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, the Indo-Pacific swimming crab Charybdis hellerii and, the muzzled blenny Omobranchus punctatus. Ballast water (I. bicolor, C. hellerii, and O. punctatus) and aquaculture activities (L. vannamei and M. rosenbergii) in adjacent areas are the most likely vectors of introduction. All exotic species found have potential impact risks to the environment because they are able to compete against native species for resources (food and habitat). Isognomon bicolor share the same habitat and food items with the native bivalve species of mussels and barnacles. Litopenaeus vannamei share the same habitat and food items with the native penaeids such as the pinkspot shrimp Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis, the Southern brown shrimp Farfantepenaeus subtilis, and the Southern white shrimp Litopenaeus schmitti, and in the past few years L. vannamei was responsible for a viral epidemics in the cultivation tanks that could be transmitted to native penaeid shrimps. Charybdis hellerii is also able to cause impacts on the local fisheries as the species can decrease the populations of native portunid crabs which are commercialized in the studied region. Macrobrachium rosenbergii may be sharing natural resources with the Amazon River prawn Macrobrachium amazonicum. Omobranchus punctatus shares habit with the native redlip blenny Ophioblennius atlanticus and other fishes, such as the frillfin goby Bathigobius soporator Some immediate remedial measures to prevent further introductions from ballast water and shrimp farm ponds should be: (i) to prevent the release of ballast water by ship/vessels in the region; (ii) to reroute all effluent waters from shrimp rearing facilities through an underground or above-ground dry well; (iii) to install adequate sand and gravel filter which will allow passage of water but not livestock; (iv) outdoor shrimp pounds located on floodable land should be diked, and; (v) to promote environmental awareness of those directly involved with ballast water (crews of ship/vessels) and shrimp farms in the region. PMID:20737846

Loebmann, Daniel; Mai, Ana Cecília G; Lee, James T

2010-09-01

134

Permanent genetic resources added to molecular ecology resources database 1 December 2012-31 January 2013.  

PubMed

This article documents the addition of 268 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Alburnoides bipunctatus, Chamaerops humilis, Chlidonias hybrida, Cyperus papyrus, Fusarium graminearum, Loxigilla barbadensis, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, Odontesthes bonariensis, Pelteobagrus vachelli, Posidonia oceanica, Potamotrygon motoro, Rhamdia quelen, Sarotherodon melanotheron heudelotii, Sibiraea angustata, Takifugu rubripes, Tarentola mauritanica, Trimmatostroma sp. and Wallago attu. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Alburnoides fasciatus, Alburnoides kubanicus, Alburnoides maculatus, Alburnoides ohridanus, Alburnoides prespensis, Alburnoides rossicus, Alburnoides strymonicus, Alburnoides thessalicus, Alburnoides tzanevi, Carassius carassius, Fusarium asiaticum, Leucaspius delineatus, Loxigilla noctis dominica, Pelecus cultratus, Phoenix canariensis, Potamotrygon falkneri, Trachycarpus fortune and Vimba vimba. PMID:23521844

Arranz, Silvia E; Avarre, Jean-Christophe; Balasundaram, Chellam; Bouza, Carmen; Calcaterra, Nora B; Cezilly, Frank; Chen, Shi-long; Cipriani, Guido; Cruz, V P; D'Esposito, D; Daniel, Carla; Dejean, Alain; Dharaneedharan, Subramanian; Díaz, Juan; Du, Man; Durand, Jean-Dominique; Dziadek, Jaros?aw; Foresti, F; Peng-cheng, Fu; Gao, Qing-bo; García, Graciela; Gauffre-Autelin, Pauline; Giovino, Antonio; Goswami, Mukunda; Guarino, Carmine; Guerra-Varela, Jorge; Gutiérrez, Verónica; Harris, D J; Heo, Moon-Soo; Khan, Gulzar; Kim, Mija; Lakra, Wazir S; Lauth, Jérémie; Leclercq, Pierre; Lee, Jeonghwa; Lee, Seung-Ho; Lee, Soohyung; Lee, Theresa; Li, Yin-hu; Liu, Hongbo; Liu, Shufang; Malé, Pierre-Jean G; Mandhan, Rishi Pal; Martinez, Paulino; Mayer, Veronika E; Mendel, Jan; Mendes, N J; Mendonça, F F; Minias, Alina; Minias, Piotr; Oh, Kyeong-Suk; Oliveira, C; Orivel, Jérôme; Orsini, L; Pardo, Belén G; Perera, A; Procaccini, G; Rato, C; Ríos, Néstor; Scibetta, Silvia; Sharma, Bhagwati S; Sierens, Tim; Singh, Akhilesh; Terer, Taita; Triest, Ludwig; Urbánková, So?a; Vera, Manuel; Villanova, Gabriela V; Voglmayr, Hermann; Vysko?ilová, Martina; Wang, Hongying; Wang, Jiu-li; Wattier, Rémi A; Xing, Rui; Yadav, Kamalendra; Yin, Guibo; Yuan, Yanjiao; Yun, Jong-Chul; Zhang, Fa-qi; Zhang, Jing-hua; Zhuang, Zhimeng

2013-05-01

135

Total and inorganic arsenic in freshwater fish and prawn in Thailand.  

PubMed

Total and inorganic arsenic levels were determined in 120 samples of eight freshwater animal species collected from five distribution centers in the central region of Thailand between January and March 2011. Eight species with the highest annual catch, consisting of seven fish species and one prawn species, were analyzed. Concentrations of inorganic arsenic (on a wet weight basis) ranged from 0.010 ?g/g in giant prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) to 0.230 ?g/g in striped snakehead (Channa striata). Climbing perch (Anabas testudineus) exhibited the highest mean concentrations of total arsenic (0.459 ± 0.137 ?g/g), inorganic arsenic (0.121 ± 0.044 ?g/g), and percentage of inorganic arsenic (26.2%). Inorganic arsenic levels found in freshwater animals in this study were much lower than the Thai regulatory standard of 2 ?g/g. PMID:23043844

Saipan, Piyawat; Ruangwises, Suthep; Tengjaroenkul, Bundit; Ruangwises, Nongluck

2012-10-01

136

The apparent quorum-sensing inhibitory activity of pyrogallol is a side effect of peroxide production.  

PubMed

There currently is more and more interest in the use of natural products, such as tea polyphenols, as therapeutic agents. The polyphenol compound pyrogallol has been reported before to inhibit quorum-sensing-regulated bioluminescence in Vibrio harveyi. Here, we report that the addition of 10 mg · liter(-1) pyrogallol protects both brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) and giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) larvae from pathogenic Vibrio harveyi, whereas the compound showed relatively low toxicity (therapeutic index of 10). We further demonstrate that the apparent quorum-sensing-disrupting activity is a side effect of the peroxide-producing activity of this compound rather than true quorum-sensing inhibition. Our results emphasize that verification of minor toxic effects by using sensitive methods and the use of appropriate controls are essential when characterizing compounds as being able to disrupt quorum sensing. PMID:23545532

Defoirdt, Tom; Pande, Gde Sasmita Julyantoro; Baruah, Kartik; Bossier, Peter

2013-06-01

137

The Vibrio campbellii quorum sensing signals have a different impact on virulence of the bacterium towards different crustacean hosts.  

PubMed

Pathogenic bacteria communicate with small signal molecules in a process called quorum sensing, and they often use different signal molecules to regulate virulence gene expression. Vibrio campbellii, one of the major pathogens of aquatic organisms, regulates virulence gene expression by a three channel quorum sensing system. Here we show that although they use a common signal transduction cascade, the signal molecules have a different impact on the virulence of the bacterium towards different hosts, i.e. the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana and the commercially important giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. These results suggest that the use of multiple types of signal molecules to regulate virulence gene expression is one of the features that allow bacteria to infect different hosts. Our findings emphasize that it is highly important to study the efficacy of quorum sensing inhibitors as novel biocontrol agents under conditions that are as close as possible to the clinical situation. PMID:24055027

Pande, Gde Sasmita Julyantoro; Natrah, Fatin Mohd Ikhsan; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Bossier, Peter; Defoirdt, Tom

2013-12-27

138

Deep parallel sequencing reveals conserved and novel miRNAs in gill and hepatopancreas of giant freshwater prawn.  

PubMed

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are ~20-22 nucleotides, non protein-coding RNA regulatory genes that post-transcriptionally regulate many protein-coding genes, influencing critical biological and metabolic processes. While the number of known microRNA is increasing, there is currently no published data for miRNA from giant freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (M. rosenbergii), a commercially cultured and economically important food species. In this study, we identified novel miRNAs in the gill and hepatopancreas of M. rosenbergii. Through a deep parallel sequencing analysis and an in silico data analysis approach, 327 miRNA families were identified from small RNA libraries with reference to both the de novo transcriptome of M. rosenbergii obtained from RNA-Seq and to miRBase (Release 18.0, November 2012). Based on the identified mature miRNA and recovered precursor sequences that form appropriate hairpin structures, three conserved miRNA (miR125, miR750, miR993) and 27 novel miRNA candidates encoding messenger-like non-coding RNA were identified. miR-125, miR-750, G-m0002/H-m0009, G-m0005, G-m0008/H-m0016, G-m0011/H-m0027 and G-m0015 were selected for experimental validation with stem-loop quantitative RT-PCR and were found to be coherent with the expression profile of deep sequencing data as evaluated with Pearson's correlation coefficient (r = 0.835178 for miRNA in gill, r = 0.724131 for miRNA in hepatopancreas). Using a combinatorial approach of pathway enrichment analysis and inverse expression relationship of miRNA and mRNA, four co-expressed novel miRNA candidates (G-m0005, G-m0008/H-m0016, G-m0011/H-m0027, and G-m0015) were found to be associated with energy metabolism. In addition, the expression of the three novel miRNA candidates (G-m0005, G-m0008/H-m0016, and G-m0011/H-m0027) were also found to be significantly reduced at 9 and 24 h post infection in M. rosenbergii challenged with infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus, suggesting a functional role of these miRNAs in crustacean immune defense. PMID:23816854

Tan, Tian Tian; Chen, Maoshan; Harikrishna, Jennifer Ann; Khairuddin, Norliana; Mohd Shamsudin, Maizatul Izzah; Zhang, Guojie; Bhassu, Subha

2013-10-01

139

Identification and Characterization of a Piscine Neuropathy and Nodavirus from Juvenile Atlantic Cod from the Atlantic Coast of North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1999, disease outbreaks in juvenile Atlantic cod Gadus morhua that showed the classic signs of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER) were reported in Nova Scotia. Brain and retinal tissues from moribund cod showed diffuse degenerative vacuolative encephalopathy and degenerative histiocytic retinitis. The affected brain and retinal tissues were observed to be positive for nodaviral antigens by means of immunohistochemical

Stewart C. Johnson; Sandra A. Sperker; Cindy T. Leggiadro; David B. Groman; Steve G. Griffiths; Rachael J. Ritchie; Marcia D. Cook; Roland R. Cusack

2002-01-01

140

Nodavirus associated with pathological changes in adult spotted coralgroupers ( Plectropomus maculatus) in Thailand with viral nervous necrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study characterized viral nervous necrosis in sea cage-reared adult spotted coralgroupers (Plectropomus maculatus). Histopathological study showed extensive vacuolation and neuronal necrosis of the olfactory bulb and the optic lobe of the forebrain and the inner and outer nuclear layer of retina. Mild necrosis was observed in the spinal cord. Homogeneous intranuclear inclusion bodies were noted in the hyperplastic

Pirarat Nopadon; Ponpornpisit Aranya; Traithong Tipaporn; Nakai Toshihiro; Katagiri Takayuki; Maita Masashi; Endo Makoto

2009-01-01

141

In-Depth Tanscriptomic Analysis on Giant Freshwater Prawns  

PubMed Central

Gene discovery in the Malaysian giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) has been limited to small scale data collection, despite great interest in various research fields related to the commercial significance of this species. Next generation sequencing technologies that have been developed recently and enabled whole transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq), have allowed generation of large scale functional genomics data sets in a shorter time than was previously possible. Using this technology, transcriptome sequencing of three tissue types: hepatopancreas, gill and muscle, has been undertaken to generate functional genomics data for M. rosenbergii at a massive scale. De novo assembly of 75-bp paired end Ilumina reads has generated 102,230 unigenes. Sequence homology search and in silico prediction have identified known and novel protein coding candidate genes (?24%), non-coding RNA, and repetitive elements in the transcriptome. Potential markers consisting of simple sequence repeats associated with known protein coding genes have been successfully identified. Using KEGG pathway enrichment, differentially expressed genes in different tissues were systematically represented. The functions of gill and hepatopancreas in the context of neuroactive regulation, metabolism, reproduction, environmental stress and disease responses are described and support relevant experimental studies conducted previously in M. rosenbergii and other crustaceans. This large scale gene discovery represents the most extensive transcriptome data for freshwater prawn. Comparison with model organisms has paved the path to address the possible conserved biological entities shared between vertebrates and crustaceans. The functional genomics resources generated from this study provide the basis for constructing hypotheses for future molecular research in the freshwater shrimp.

Mohd-Shamsudin, Maizatul Izzah; Kang, Yi; Lili, Zhao; Tan, Tian Tian; Kwong, Qi Bin; Liu, Hang; Zhang, Guojie; Othman, Rofina Yasmin; Bhassu, Subha

2013-01-01

142

Mapping a neutralizing epitope on the coat protein of striped jack nervous necrosis virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Striped jack nervous necrosis virus (SJNNV), a fish nodavirus, is the causative agent of viral nervous necrosis in marine fishes. The fish nodaviruses are divided into four different genotypes based on the nucleotide sequence of the coat protein gene. In the present study, partial coat protein genes of fish nodaviruses were expressed. This allowed the sero- logical relationship among the

Toyohiko Nishizawa; Ryoko Takano; Kiyokuni Muroga

1999-01-01

143

Utilization of warm well water, eastern Washington state  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Utilizing the warm well water for a geothermal greenhouse heating system is highly economically feasible. This is based on using the 88 F water from Anderson Well No. 1 to heat greenhouses totaling approximately 10.6 acres. The additional investment of $640,000 above the cost for a conventional electric boiler system shows a rate of return of 48.3% on a 20 year life cycle analysis. The simple payback is 3 years. The 88 F well water is not warm enough for prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) aquaculture, since water flow requirements are excessive to maintain the desired 80 F pond temperature. However, the water is warm enough to maintain a 60 F pond temperature for trout farming. Trout farming using the 88 F well water directly is probably not economically feasible due to high electrical pumping cost (34,626 per year) for the seven 1/2 acre ponds that could be heated. Trout farming using the 75 F effluent water from the 10.6 acre greenhouse to heat four 1/2 acre ponds may be economically feasible since the water booster pumping cost is low ($1189 per year).

1982-03-01

144

The peroxinectin of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is synthesised in the semi-granular and granular cells, and its transcription is up-regulated with Vibrio alginolyticus infection.  

PubMed

Peroxinectin mRNA expression in the different types of haemocytes of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei was studied by in situ hybridisation using digoxigenin-UTP-labelled riboprobes and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Granular cells (GC) and a mixture of semi-granular cells (SGC) and hyaline cells (HC) were separated by 70% Percoll gradient centrifugation. Peroxinectin was synthesised in both GC and the mixture of SGC-HC. An in situ hybridisation assay indicated that peroxinectin mRNA expression occurred in GC and SGC, but not in HC. Peroxinectin transcript up-regulated significantly, whereas haemocyte count decreased significantly at 6, 12 and 24 h post Vibrio alginolyticus-injection with slower restoration as compared to that of saline-injected shrimp. The RT-PCR assay indicated that peroxinectin exists extensively in several species of decapod crustaceans including L. vannamei, freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, common caridina Caridina pseudodenticulata, stone crab Thalamita crenata and mud crab Scylla serrata suggesting that this protein plays an important role in defence against pathogens. PMID:15683919

Liu, Chun-Hung; Cheng, Winton; Chen, Jiann-Chu

2005-05-01

145

Evaluation of trace metal content by ICP-MS using closed vessel microwave digestion in fresh water fish.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to investigate trace metal levels of different varieties of fresh water fish using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrophotometer after microwave digestion (MD-ICPMS). Fish samples were collected from the outlets of twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad. The trace metal content in different varieties of analyzed fish were ranged from 0.24 to 1.68?mg/kg for Chromium in Cyprinus carpio and Masto symbollon, 0.20 to 7.52?mg/kg for Manganese in Labeo rohita and Masto symbollon, 0.006 to 0.07?mg/kg for Cobalt in Rastrelliger kanagurta and Pampus argenteus, 0.31 to 2.24?mg/kg for Copper in Labeo rohita and Penaeus monodon, 3.25 to 14.56?mg/kg for Zinc in Cyprinus carpio and Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and 0.01 to 2.05?mg/kg for Selenium in Rastrelliger kanagurta and Pampus argenteus, respectively. Proximate composition data for the different fishes were also tabulated. Since the available data for different trace elements for fish is scanty, here an effort is made to present a precise data for the same as estimated on ICP-MS. Results were in accordance with recommended daily intake allowance by WHO/FAO. PMID:24744789

Jarapala, Sreenivasa Rao; Kandlakunta, Bhaskarachary; Thingnganing, Longvah

2014-01-01

146

Evaluation of Trace Metal Content by ICP-MS Using Closed Vessel Microwave Digestion in Fresh Water Fish  

PubMed Central

The objective of the present study was to investigate trace metal levels of different varieties of fresh water fish using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrophotometer after microwave digestion (MD-ICPMS). Fish samples were collected from the outlets of twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad. The trace metal content in different varieties of analyzed fish were ranged from 0.24 to 1.68?mg/kg for Chromium in Cyprinus carpio and Masto symbollon, 0.20 to 7.52?mg/kg for Manganese in Labeo rohita and Masto symbollon, 0.006 to 0.07?mg/kg for Cobalt in Rastrelliger kanagurta and Pampus argenteus, 0.31 to 2.24?mg/kg for Copper in Labeo rohita and Penaeus monodon, 3.25 to 14.56?mg/kg for Zinc in Cyprinus carpio and Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and 0.01 to 2.05?mg/kg for Selenium in Rastrelliger kanagurta and Pampus argenteus, respectively. Proximate composition data for the different fishes were also tabulated. Since the available data for different trace elements for fish is scanty, here an effort is made to present a precise data for the same as estimated on ICP-MS. Results were in accordance with recommended daily intake allowance by WHO/FAO.

Jarapala, Sreenivasa Rao; Kandlakunta, Bhaskarachary; Thingnganing, Longvah

2014-01-01

147

Fishing for prawn larvae in Bangladesh: an important coastal livelihood causing negative effects on the environment.  

PubMed

Freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) farming in Bangladesh has, to a large extent, been dependent on the supply of wild larvae. Although there are 81 freshwater prawn hatcheries in the country, a lack of technical knowledge, inadequate skilled manpower, and an insufficient supply of wild broods have limited hatchery production. Many thousands of coastal poor people, including women, are engaged in fishing for wild prawn larvae along the coastline during a few months each year. On average, 40% of the total yearly income for these people comes from prawn larvae fishing activity. However, indiscriminate fishing of wild larvae, with high levels of bycatch of juvenile fish and crustaceans, may impact negatively on production and biodiversity in coastal ecosystems. This concern has provoked the imposition of restrictions on larvae collection. The ban has, however, not been firmly enforced because of the limited availability of hatchery-raised larvae, the lack of an alternative livelihood for people involved in larvae fishing, and weak enforcement power. This article discusses the environmental and social consequences of prawn larvae fishing and concludes that, by increasing awareness among fry fishers, improving fishing techniques (reducing bycatch mortality), and improving the survival of fry in the market chain, a temporal ban may be a prudent measure when considering the potential negative impacts of bycatch. However, it also suggests that more research is needed to find out about the impact of larvae fishing on nontarget organisms and on the populations of targeted species. PMID:20496649

Ahmed, Nesar; Troell, Max

2010-02-01

148

Immunolocalisation of nervous necrosis virus indicates vertical transmission in hatchery produced Asian sea bass ( Lates calcarifer Bloch)—A case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A probable vertical mode of piscine nodavirus transmission is reported in the present investigation based on a case of nodavirus associated larval mortalities in hatchery produced Asian sea bass. Polyclonal rabbit anti-SJNNV antibodies (SGWak97) detected the viral antigens in the tissue sections from the eggs and the larvae at different time intervals from ?1 to 42 days post hatch (dph).

I. S. Azad; K. P. Jithendran; M. S. Shekhar; A. R. Thirunavukkarasu; L. D de la Pena

2006-01-01

149

Changes in phosphatidylcholine molecular species in the shrimp Macrobrachium borellii in response to a water-soluble fraction of petroleum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the water-soluble fraction (WSF) of crude oil on lipid contents, lipid classes, FA, and PC molecular species\\u000a was studied in high-phospholipid (hepatopancreas) and low-phospholipid (egg) tissues of a freshwater crustacean. After a 21-d\\u000a exposure to a sublethal concentration of WSF, a significant decrease in shrimp total lipids was observed, although no alterations\\u000a could be detected in the

Sabrina Lavarías; Marcos S. Dreon; Ricardo J. Pollero; Horacio Heras

2005-01-01

150

Molecular cloning and functional analysis of an orange-spotted grouper ( Epinephelus coioides) secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) and characterization of its expression response to nodavirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mammalian secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) is the primary regulator of cell shape and cell adhesion to fibronectin. We, for the first time, report the complete sequencing of SPARC cDNA from orange-spotted grouper. Despite the difference in the lengths of the SPARC transcripts, all of the SPARC molecules encoded a signal peptide, follistain-like copper binding sequence (KGHK)

Young-Mao Chen; Cham-En Kuo; Yi-Ling Huang; Pei-Shiuan Shie; Jhong-Jian Liao; Yuan-Chih Yang; Tzong-Yueh Chen

2011-01-01

151

Poly-ß-hydroxybutyrate content and dose of the bacterial carrier for Artemia enrichment determine the performance of giant freshwater prawn larvae.  

PubMed

The beneficial effects of poly-?-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) for aquaculture animals have been shown in several studies. The strategy of applying PHB contained in a bacterial carrier has, however, hardly been considered. The effect of administering PHB-accumulated Alcaligenes eutrophus H16 containing 10 or 80 % PHB on dry weight, named A10 and A80, respectively, through the live feed Artemia was investigated on the culture performance of larvae of the giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). Feeding larvae with Artemia nauplii enriched in a medium containing 100 and 1,000 mg L(-1) A80 significantly increased the survival with about 15 % and the development of the larvae with a larval stage index of about 1 as compared to feeding non-enriched Artemia. The survival of the larvae also significantly increased with about 35 % in case of a challenge with Vibrio harveyi. The efficiency of these treatments was equal to a control treatment of Artemia enriched in an 800 mg L(-1) PHB powder suspension, while Artemia enriched in 10 mg L(-1) A80, 100 mg L(-1) A10, and 1,000 mg L(-1) A10 did not bring similar effects. From our results, it can be concluded that PHB supplemented in a bacterial carrier (i.e., amorphous PHB) can increase the larviculture efficiency of giant freshwater prawn similar to supplementation of PHB in powdered form (i.e., crystalline PHB). When the level of PHB in the bacterial carrier is high, similar beneficial effects can be achieved as crystalline PHB, but at a lower live food enrichment concentration expressed on PHB basis. PMID:24615382

Thai, Truong Quoc; Wille, Mathieu; Garcia-Gonzalez, Linsey; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Bossier, Peter; De Schryver, Peter

2014-06-01

152

FishMicrosat: a microsatellite database of commercially important fishes and shellfishes of the Indian subcontinent  

PubMed Central

Background Microsatellite DNA is one of many powerful genetic markers used for the construction of genetic linkage maps and the study of population genetics. The biological databases in public domain hold vast numbers of microsatellite sequences for many organisms including fishes. The microsatellite data available in these data sources were extracted and managed into a database that facilitates sequences analysis and browsing relevant information. The system also helps to design primer sequences for flanking regions of repeat loci for PCR identification of polymorphism within populations. Description FishMicrosat is a database of microsatellite sequences of fishes and shellfishes that includes important aquaculture species such as Lates calcarifer, Ctenopharyngodon idella, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Penaeus monodon, Labeo rohita, Oreochromis niloticus, Fenneropenaeus indicus and Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The database contains 4398 microsatellite sequences of 41 species belonging to 15 families from the Indian subcontinent. GenBank of NCBI was used as a prime data source for developing the database. The database presents information about simple and compound microsatellites, their clusters and locus orientation within sequences. The database has been integrated with different tools in a web interface such as primer designing, locus finding, mapping repeats, detecting similarities among sequences across species, and searching using motifs and keywords. In addition, the database has the ability to browse information on the top 10 families and the top 10 species, through record overview. Conclusions FishMicrosat database is a useful resource for fish and shellfish microsatellite analyses and locus identification across species, which has important applications in population genetics, evolutionary studies and genetic relatedness among species. The database can be expanded further to include the microsatellite data of fishes and shellfishes from other regions and available information on genome sequencing project of species of aquaculture importance.

2013-01-01

153

cDNA cloning, characterization and expression analysis of peroxiredoxin 5 gene in the ridgetail white prawn Exopalaemon carinicauda.  

PubMed

Peroxiredoxin is a superfamily of antioxidative proteins that play important roles in protecting organisms against the toxicity of reactive oxygen species. In this study, a full-length of peroxiredoxin 5 (designated EcPrx5) cDNA was cloned from the ridgetail white prawn Exopalaemon carinicauda by using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) approaches. The full-length cDNA of the EcPrx5 was of 827 bp, containing a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 14 bp, a 3' UTR of 228 bp with a poly (A) tail, and an open reading frame of 585 bp encoding a polypeptide of 194 amino acids with the predicted molecular weight of 20.83 kDa and estimated isoelectric point of 7.62. BLAST analysis revealed that amino acids of EcPrx5 shared 89, 68, 66, 65, 53 and 51 % identity with that of Macrobrachium rosenbergii, Megachile rotundata, Harpegnathos saltator, Acromyrmex echinatior, Danio rerio, and Homo sapiens counterparts, respectively. The conserved Prx domain and the signature of peroxiredoxin catalytic center identified in EcPrx5 suggested that EcPrx5 belonged to the atypical 2-Cys Prx subgroup. Real time quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated that EcPrx5 could be detected in all the tested tissues with highest expression level in hepatopancreas. As time progressed, the expression level of EcPrx5 both in hemocytes and hepatopancreas increased in the first 6 h after Vibrio anguillarum and white spot syndrome virus challenge, and showed different expression profiles. The results indicated that EcPrx5 involved in immune response against bacterial and viral infection in E. carinicauda. PMID:24141991

Duan, Yafei; Liu, Ping; Li, Jitao; Li, Jian; Gao, Baoquan; Chen, Ping

2013-12-01

154

A mixed infection in sevenband grouper Epinephelus septemfasciatus affected with viral nervous necrosis (VNN)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viral nervous necrosis (VNN) of groupers by fish nodavirus is one of the most serious diseases in aquaculture around the world. In the present study, we introduced a mixed infection of fish nodavirus with another filterable pathogen(s) in VNN-affected sevenband grouper of Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan. In challenge tests with the brain-homogenate of VNN-affected grouper, relative percent survival (RPS) of fish

Yuki Kokawa; Ikuo Takami; Toyohiko Nishizawa; Mamoru Yoshimizu

2008-01-01

155

Development and quality evaluation of low-cost, high-protein weaning food types : Prowena and Propalm from soybean (Glycine max), groundnut (Arachis hypogea) and crayfish (Macrobrachium spp)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The objective of this study is to develop two nutrient-dense and acceptable weaning foods – Prowena and Propalm – using high-protein food ingredients: crayfish (Macrobachium spp), soybeans (Glycine max) and groundnut (Arachis hypogea) to enrich the sole starch based weaning food locally known as “ogi”. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The weaning food mixture was formulated by mixing yellow maize ogi

Olusola Omueti; Olayinka Jaiyeola; Bolanle Otegbayo; Kayode Ajomale; Olukayode Afolabi

2009-01-01

156

Differential distribution of V-type H(+)-ATPase and Na (+)/K (+)-ATPase in the branchial chamber of the palaemonid shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum.  

PubMed

V-H(+)-ATPase and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase were localized in the gills and branchiostegites of M. amazonicum and the effects of salinity on the branchial chamber ultrastructure and on the localization of transporters were investigated. Gills present septal and pillar cells. In freshwater (FW), the apical surface of pillar cells is amplified by extensive evaginations associated with mitochondria. V-H(+)-ATPase immunofluorescence was localized in the membranes of the apical evaginations and in clustered subapical areas of pillar cells, suggesting labeling of intracellular vesicle membranes. Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase labeling was restricted to the septal cells. No difference in immunostaining was recorded for both proteins according to salinity (FW vs. 25 PSU). In the branchiostegite, both V-H(+)-ATPase and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase immunofluorescence were localized in the same cells of the internal epithelium. Immunogold revealed that V-H(+)-ATPase was localized in apical evaginations and in electron-dense areas throughout the inner epithelium, while Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase occurred densely along the basal infoldings of the cytoplasmic membrane. Our results suggest that morphologically different cell types within the gill lamellae may also be functionally specialized. We propose that, in FW, pillar cells expressing V-H(+)-ATPase absorb ions (Cl(-), Na(+)) that are transported either directly to the hemolymph space or through a junctional complex to the septal cells, which may be responsible for active Na(+) delivery to the hemolymph through Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. This suggests a functional link between septal and pillar cells in osmoregulation. When shrimps are transferred to FW, gill and branchiostegite epithelia undergo ultrastructural changes, most probably resulting from their involvement in osmoregulatory processes. PMID:24805036

Boudour-Boucheker, Nesrine; Boulo, Viviane; Charmantier-Daures, Mireille; Grousset, Evelyse; Anger, Klaus; Charmantier, Guy; Lorin-Nebel, Catherine

2014-07-01

157

Latent Infection of a New Alphanodavirus in an Insect Cell Line?  

PubMed Central

Insect BTI-TN-5B1-4 (Tn5) cells have been used extensively with recombinant baculoviruses to express foreign genes. When a recombinant baculovirus containing the hepatitis E virus capsid protein gene was used to infect Tn5 cells, unknown virus particles in addition to the anticipated hepatitis E virus-like particles were produced in the infected cells. The unknown virus particles were 35 nm in diameter and contained RNA that was highly homologous to full-length RNA1 (3,107 bp) and RNA2 (1,383 bp) genomic RNAs of flock house virus. Surprisingly, both RNAs seen in these induced nodavirus particles could be amplified from commercially available Tn5 cells without infection with or induction by a baculovirus. The nucleotide sequences from the purified nodavirus particles and the normal Tn5 cells were identical, demonstrating that the Tn5 cells themselves were latently infected with a nodavirus. However, the generation of nodavirus particles was significantly stimulated by infection with recombinant baculoviruses. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that this new nodavirus belongs to the genus Alphanodavirus in the family Nodaviridae.

Li, Tian-Cheng; Scotti, Paul D.; Miyamura, Tatsuo; Takeda, Naokazu

2007-01-01

158

Orsay virus utilizes ribosomal frameshifting to express a novel protein that is incorporated into virions?  

PubMed Central

Orsay virus is the first identified virus that is capable of naturally infecting Caenorhabditis elegans. Although it is most closely related to nodaviruses, Orsay virus differs from nodaviruses in its genome organization. In particular, the Orsay virus RNA2 segment encodes a putative novel protein of unknown function, termed delta, which is absent from all known nodaviruses. Here we present evidence that Orsay virus utilizes a ribosomal frameshifting strategy to express a novel fusion protein from the viral capsid (alpha) and delta ORFs. Moreover, the fusion protein was detected in purified virus fractions, demonstrating that it is most likely incorporated into Orsay virions. Furthermore, N-terminal sequencing of both the fusion protein and the capsid protein demonstrated that these proteins must be translated from a non-canonical initiation site. While the function of the alpha–delta fusion remains cryptic, these studies provide novel insights into the fundamental properties of this new clade of viruses.

Jiang, Hongbing; Franz, Carl J.; Wu, Guang; Renshaw, Hilary; Zhao, Guoyan; Firth, Andrew E.; Wang, David

2014-01-01

159

FRESH-WATER SHRIMPS (CRUSTACEA, DECAPODA, NATANTIA) OF THE ORINOCO BASIN AND THE VENEZUELAN GUAYANA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shrimps of the families Sergestidae and Palaemonidae collected in the Orinoco basin, the upper Cuyuni River, and the upper and lower Rio Negro, are dealt with in this paper. New records and comments are given for Acetes paraguayensis, Macrobrachium amazonicum, M. brasiliense, M. jelskii, M. nattered, M. surinamicum, and Palaemonetes carteri. Two new palaemonids are described: Macrobrachium cortezi, a form

Gilberto Rodriguez

1982-01-01

160

Heritability of resistance to viral nervous necrosis in Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua L .)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nodavirus are the causative agents of viral nervous necrosis (VNN), and has been shown to cause mortality in numerous fish species worldwide, among them is the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.). In this study, heritability of VNN resistance in Atlantic cod was estimated through challenge testing of 50 large full sib families (?94 fish per family) comprising two genetically distinct

Jørgen Ødegård; Ann-Inger Sommer; Anne Kettunen Præbel

2010-01-01

161

SPECIES INTERACTIONS BETWEEN ESTUARINE DETRITIVORES: INHIBITION OR FACILITATION?  

EPA Science Inventory

Native Hawaiian estuarine detritivores; the prawn Macrobrachium grandimanus, and the neritid gastropod Neritina vespertina, were maintained in flow-through microcosms with conditioned leaves from two riparian tree species, Hau (Hibiscus tiliaceus) and guava (Psidium guajava). Th...

162

Genetic analysis and pathogenicity of betanodavirus isolated from wild redspotted grouper Epinephelus akaara with clinical signs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diseased wild redspotted grouper Epinephelus akaara were collected from Seto Inland Sea, Ehime Prefecture, in August 2002. Fish showed erratic swimming behavior and inflation\\u000a of the swim bladder. The fish brains were positive for nodavirus in both RT-PCR and nested PCR. The sequence of the nested\\u000a PCR product (177 nt) was closely related to that of a known betanodavirus, redspotted grouper

Dennis K. Gomez; Satoru Matsuoka; Koh-ichiro Mori; Yasushi Okinaka; Se Chang Park; Toshihiro Nakai

2009-01-01

163

Genetic Analysis of Betanodaviruses in Subclinically Infected Aquarium Fish and Invertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Betanodaviruses causing viral nervous necrosis (VNN) have been detected and isolated from several species of cultured marine\\u000a fish worldwide. In Korea, VNN was identified in several species of cultured marine fish. This study presents data on the amplified\\u000a nested PCR product (420 bp) of 11 nodavirus strains from different species of apparently healthy aquarium fish and invertebrates\\u000a collected in one private

Dennis K. Gomez; Gun Wook Baeck; Ji Hyung Kim; Casiano H. Choresca Jr; Se Chang Park

2008-01-01

164

RGNNV induces mitochondria-mediated cell death via newly synthesized protein dependent pathway in fish cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The RNA nervous necrosis virus induces necrotic cell death in fish; however, the molecular mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that beta-nodavirus-induced mitochondria-mediated dependent cell death is through newly synthesized protein dependent pathway in replication cycle. We determined that newly synthesized protein dependent pathway is required for red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV)-induced cell death. UV irradiation of

Horng-Cherng Wu; Jen-Leih Wu; Heuy-Ling Chu; Yu-Chin Su; Jiann-Ruey Hong

2010-01-01

165

Characterization and Construction of Functional cDNA Clones of Pariacoto Virus, the First Alphanodavirus Isolated outside Australasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pariacoto virus (PaV) was recently isolated in Peru from the Southern armyworm (Spodoptera eridania). PaV particles are isometric, nonenveloped, and about 30 nm in diameter. The virus has a bipartite RNA genome and a single major capsid protein with a molecular mass of 39.0 kDa, features that support its classification as a Nodavirus. As such, PaV is the first Alphanodavirus

KARYN N. JOHNSON; JEAN-LOUIS ZEDDAM; L. ANDREW BALL

2000-01-01

166

Genetic characterization of betanodavirus isolates from Asian seabass Lates calcarifer (Bloch) in India.  

PubMed

Betanodavirus has been detected in Asian seabass in India. Molecular characterization of the isolates on the basis of the full-length viral RNA2 sequence was performed. Subsequent phylogenetic analysis with sequences from members of the four species in the genus Betanodavirus revealed that the present isolates are closely related to members of the species Redspotted grouper nervous necrosis virus. The analysis also revealed that the RNA2 sequence was not responsible for acute symptoms in seabass. This is the first attempt to characterize Indian isolates of fish nodaviruses, and the result will be useful for devising specific control and health-management strategies for this virus. PMID:23224758

Binesh, C P; Jithendran, K P

2013-07-01

167

Nonhomologous RNA recombination during negative-strand synthesis of flock house virus RNA.  

PubMed Central

During sequential replicative passages of viral RNA from the nodavirus flock house virus, spontaneous deletion of RNA sequences occurred frequently. Families of deleted RNA molecules were derived from both segments of the bipartite viral genome and found to contain single, double, or triple deletions. These deletions were attributed to template switching by the flock house virus RNA replicase, resulting in recombination between distant sequences and excision of the intervening nucleotides. From sequence analysis of the recombination junctions, we concluded that the process of template switching was influenced by both the primary sequence and the secondary structure of the RNA and that it occurred predominantly during synthesis of RNA negative strands.

Li, Y; Ball, L A

1993-01-01

168

ALTERNATIVAS PARA EL APROVECHAMIENTO DE LOS CRUSTÁCEOS DECÁPODOS DEL ESTERO EL VERDE CAMACHO, SINALOA, MÉXICO Alternatives for the use of decapod crustaceans in Estero El Verde Camacho, Sinaloa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decapod crustacean community in Estero El Verde, Camacho, Sinaloa included 31 species, 17 genera and 12 families. The genus Uca (Ocypodidae) was the most common. The swimming crabs Callinectes arcuatus and C. toxotes and the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, L. stylirostris and Farfantepenaeus californiensis were particularly notable among the commercial species. Macrobrachium tenellum and Gecarcinus planatus might represent alternatives for

JF Arzola-González; LM Flores-Campaña

169

Monoculture of Fresh Water Shrimps (Macrobranchium Species)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sole reliance on wild catches of shrimps to meet the increasing demand globally can cause over fishing and destruction of shrimp fishery, pronounced by catch problem and habitat destruction. Freshwater shrimps of the genus Macrobrachium is found in West African waters and is widely distributed in Nigerian waters. These shrimps are more manageable than their marine relative where coastland

S. O. Ayoola

170

Optimisation of Lime-Soda process parameters for reduction of hardness in aqua-hatchery practices using Taguchi methods.  

PubMed

This paper presents the optimisation of Lime-Soda process parameters for the reduction of hardness in aqua-hatchery practices in the context of M. rosenbergii. The fresh water in the development of fisheries needs to be of suitable quality. Lack of desirable quality in available fresh water is generally the confronting restraint. On the Indian subcontinent, groundwater is the only source of raw water, having varying degree of hardness and thus is unsuitable for the fresh water prawn hatchery practices (M. rosenbergii). In order to make use of hard water in the context of aqua-hatchery, Lime-Soda process has been recommended. The efficacy of the various process parameters like lime, soda ash and detention time, on the reduction of hardness needs to be examined. This paper proposes to determine the parameter settings for the CIFE well water, which is pretty hard by using Taguchi experimental design method. Orthogonal Arrays of Taguchi, Signal-to-Noise Ratio, the analysis of variance (ANOVA) have been applied to determine their dosage and analysed for their effect on hardness reduction. The tests carried out with optimal levels of Lime-Soda process parameters confirmed the efficacy of the Taguchi optimisation method. Emphasis has been placed on optimisation of chemical doses required to reduce the total hardness using Taguchi method and ANOVA, to suit the available raw water quality for aqua-hatchery practices, especially for fresh water prawn M. rosenbergii. PMID:24749379

Yavalkar, S P; Bhole, A G; Babu, P V Vijay; Prakash, Chandra

2012-04-01

171

Regulation of natural killer enhancing factor (NKEF) genes in teleost fish, gilthead seabream and European sea bass.  

PubMed

Peroxiredoxins (Prx) are a family of antioxidant proteins also involved in inflammation and innate immunity. Prx1 and Prx2 are also known as natural killer enhancing factor (NKEF)-A and NKEF-B, respectively, by their ability to prime the mammalian NK-cells activity. In teleost fish, NKEF genes have been isolated but their regulation has been scarcely evaluated. We have identified orthologues of the NKEF-A and NKEF-B genes in the teleost European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) which showed constitutive expression and wide distribution in their tissues. In vitro, the gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) and sea bass NKEFs were slightly up-regulated in head-kidney leucocytes after stimulation with unmethylated CpG oligodeoxynucleotides, poly I:C or pathogenic bacteria. In vivo, seabream and sea bass infection with nodavirus up-regulated the expression of NKEF genes in the brain (target tissue for nodavirus) and head-kidney at different infection times. Although further studies are necessary to ascertain their role as antioxidant proteins and in the immune response in teleost fish, our results suggest a primary role of seabream and sea bass NKEFs in the innate immune response against bacterial and viral agents. PMID:23511025

Esteban, María A; Chaves-Pozo, Elena; Arizcun, Marta; Meseguer, José; Cuesta, Alberto

2013-10-01

172

Intra- and extracellular osmotic regulation in the hololimnetic Caridea and Anomura: a phylogenetic perspective on the conquest of fresh water by the decapod Crustacea  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate extra- and intracellular osmoregulatory capability in two species of hololimnetic Caridea and Anomura: Macrobrachium brasiliense, a palaemonid shrimp, and Aegla franca, an aeglid anomuran, both restricted to continental waters. We also appraise the sharing of physiological characteristics\\u000a by the hololimnetic Decapoda, and their origins and role in the conquest of fresh water. Both species survive salinity exposure\\u000a well.

Samuel Coelho de Faria; Alessandra Silva Augusto; John Campbell McNamara

2011-01-01

173

Crude oil plus dispersant: always a boon or bane?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxicities of a Nigerian brand of crude oil (Forcados Light), a newly approved dispersant for use in Nigerian ecosystems (Biosolve), and their mixtures, based on ratios 9:1, 6:1 and 4:1 (v\\/v), were evaluated against the juvenile stage of prawn, Macrobrachium vollenhovenii, in laboratory bioassays. On the basis of the derived toxicity indices, crude oil with 96-h LC50 value of

Adebayo Akeem Otitoloju

2005-01-01

174

Complete sequence of a viral nervous necrosis virus (NNV) isolated from red-spotted grouper (Epinephelus akaara) in China.  

PubMed

A nodavirus isolated from red-spotted grouper (Epinephelus akaara) larvae in China has been subjected to genome analysis. The full-length genome sequences of RNA1 and RNA2 were determined, and the 5'-non-coding region (NCR) and 3'NCR sequences were determined by 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and 3'RACE. RNA1 is 3,103 nt in length and contains a 982-amino-acid open reading frame (ORF) encoding protein A with a calculated molecular mass of 110.74 kDa. RNA2 is 1,433 nt long and contains a 338-amino-acid major ORF encoding coat protein with a calculated molecular mass of 37.059 kDa. Multiple alignment and phylogenetic analysis clearly supported including this virus in the species Redspotted grouper nervous necrosis virus, genus Betanodavirus, family Nodaviridae. PMID:22270757

Liu, Hong; Teng, Yong; Zheng, Xiaocong; Wu, Yurong; Xie, Xiayang; He, Junqiang; Ye, Yiyou; Wu, Zhixin

2012-04-01

175

Muscle water control in crustaceans and fishes as a function of habitat, osmoregulatory capacity, and degree of euryhalinity.  

PubMed

This study aimed at detecting possible patterns in the relationship between Anisosmotic Extracellular Regulation (AER) and Isosmotic Intracellular Regulation (IIR) in crustaceans and teleost fish from different habitats and evolutionary histories in fresh water (FW), thus different osmoregulatory capabilities, and degrees of euryhalinity. Crustaceans used were the hololimnetic FW Aegla schmitti, and Macrobrachium potiuna, the diadromous FW Macrobrachium acanthurus, the estuarine Palaemon pandaliformis and the marine Hepatus pudibundus; fishes used were the FW Corydoras ehrhardti, Mimagoniates microlepis, and Geophagus brasiliensis, and the marine-estuarine Diapterus auratus. The capacity for IIR was assessed in vitro following wet weight changes of isolated muscle slices incubated in anisosmotic saline (~50% change). M. potiuna was the crustacean with the highest capacity for IIR; the euryhaline perciforms G. brasiliensis and D. auratus displayed total capacity for IIR. It is proposed that a high capacity for IIR is required for invading a new habitat, but that it is later lost after a long time of evolution in a stable habitat, such as in the FW anomuran crab A. schmitti, and the Ostariophysian fishes C. ehrhardti and M. microlepis. More recent FW invaders such as the palaemonid shrimps (M. potiuna and M. acanthurus) and the cichlid G. brasiliensis are euryhaline and still display a high capacity for IIR. PMID:18325804

Freire, Carolina A; Amado, Enelise M; Souza, Luciana R; Veiga, Marcos P T; Vitule, Jean R S; Souza, Marta M; Prodocimo, Viviane

2008-04-01

176

Photobacterium atrarenae sp. nov. a novel bacterium isolated from sea sand.  

PubMed

The gram-reaction-negative, motile, facultatively anaerobic, catalase-positive, oxidase-positive bacterial strain M3-4(T) was isolated from black sea sand and subjected to a taxonomic study. Cells of strain M3-4(T) have monotrichous flagella, grow optimally at 37°C and at pH 7-8 in the presence of 1-4% (w/v) NaCl and hydrolyze casein, starch and L: -tyrosine. According to phylogenetic analyses using 16S rRNA gene sequences, strain M3-4(T) belongs to the genus Photobacterium and is most closely related to Photobacterium rosenbergii LMG 22223(T) (97.4%) and P. gaetbulicola KCTC 22804(T) (96.6%). The DNA-DNA relatedness value between M3-4(T) and P. rosenbergii LMG 22223(T) was 21.5%. The DNA G+C mol% of strain M3-4(T) was 53.6. The major cellular fatty acid of strain M3-4(T) was a summed feature 3 consisting of C(16:1) ?7c and/or iso-C(15:0) 2-OH (35.0%), followed by C(16:0) (25.4%) and C(18:1)?7c (16.8%). These data suggest that strain M3-4(T) represents a novel species in genus Photobacterium, for which the name P. atrarenae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is M3-4(T) (= KCTC 23265(T) = NCAIM B 02414(T)). PMID:21861148

Kim, Byung-Chun; Poo, Haryoung; Kim, Mi Na; Lee, Kang Hyun; Lee, Jongtae; Rhee, Moon-Soo; Shin, Kee-Sun

2011-11-01

177

Identification of immune related genes in Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.) following in vivo antigenic and in vitro mitogenic stimulation.  

PubMed

To identify and characterize genes and proteins of the Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) immune system, six cDNA libraries were constructed from liver, kidney, spleen, peripheral blood, and thymus. Halibut were injected with nodavirus, infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), or vibriosis vaccine and tissue samples were collected at various time points. Leukocytes from peripheral blood and spleen from stimulated and mock-injected fish were isolated and further in vitro activated with the mitogens, concanavalin A (Con A) and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) to facilitate activation and proliferation. A total of 5117 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were identified and assembled into 781 contigs and 2796 singletons. Amongst these ESTs, 147 different putative immune related genes were identified. Several genes involved in innate and adaptive immune responses such as complement proteins, immunoglobulins, cell surface receptors, and cytokines and chemokines were identified. Of the immune related genes identified in this study, 44% had no match against any of the publicly available sequence data for halibut and thus can be considered as novel identification in halibut species. The approach of combining in vivo antigenic with in vitro mitogen stimulation, in addition to preparation of cDNA libraries from thymus enabled identification of many of the interesting genes including those involved in T-cell receptor complex. PMID:19751833

Patel, Sonal; Malde, Ketil; Lanzén, Anders; Olsen, Rolf Hetlelid; Nerland, Audun Helge

2009-12-01

178

First report of viral nervous necrosis-induced mass mortality in hatchery-reared larvae of clownfish, Amphiprion sebae Bleeker.  

PubMed

Frequent mortality was observed in the larval rearing facility of marine clownfish, Amphiprion sebae Bleeker. Mortality resulted in 80% loss of larval stock. Moribund larvae showed clinical signs typical of viral nervous necrosis, such as uncoordinated, corkscrew-like swimming behaviour, hypersensitivity to stimuli, darkening of body and assembly into large groups, similar to bunches of grapes. The aetiology of the disease was confirmed by gross observation of clinical signs, histopathology and molecular diagnosis. Histological studies revealed severe vacuolation in the brain and in the bipolar and ganglion layers of the eye. Molecular diagnosis by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) specific to piscine nodavirus yielded a positive result. The partial nucleotide sequences of the PCR-amplified fragment were 97-98% similar to other betanodavirus isolates reported globally and more closely aligned with red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV). This is the first report of susceptibility of clownfish, A. sebae, to betanodavirus and the presence of the RGNNV in India. PMID:24117972

Binesh, C P; Renuka, K; Malaichami, N; Greeshma, C

2013-12-01

179

Differential expression profiling of orange-spotted grouper larvae, Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton), that survived a betanodavirus outbreak.  

PubMed

Nervous necrosis virus (NNV), a piscine nodavirus, has caused serious viral nervous necrosis and viral encephalopathy and retinopathy in hatchery-reared larvae and juveniles of a wide range of marine teleost species worldwide in the last two decades. Although the mortality of NNV-infected larvae is nearly 100%, there are still some larvae that survive this catastrophe. To comprehensively understand the variations of these survivors at the molecular level, we collected orange-spotted grouper larvae that survived an NNV outbreak in an indoor hatchery in southern Taiwan to study differential gene expression. Healthy larvae with high, medium and low levels of detected NNV were compared with morbid larvae using a 9600-clone-containing grouper larva cDNA microarray, and differential gene expression was further confirmed by a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Significant variation exists in healthy larvae. The following genes were upregulated: adenylate kinase 1-2, myosin binding protein H-like, myosin light chain 2, myosin light chain 3, tropomyosin, fast/white muscle troponin T embryonic isoform, and parvalbumin 1 and 2 genes. The following genes were downregulated: apolipoprotein A-I, trypsinogen, pyruvate kinase and astacin-like metalloprotease. Moreover, immunoglobulin M heavy chain gene transcription was significantly higher in healthy larvae that had high virus levels, indicating that humoral immunity might protect organisms from viral infection. These results suggest that some non-immune-related genes may have played important roles in survival during the larval metamorphosis stage, after betanodavirus infection. PMID:22324345

Wu, M-S; Chen, C-W; Lin, C-H; Tzeng, C-S; Chang, C-Y

2012-03-01

180

Changes in complement responses in Gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) and European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) under crowding stress, plus viral and bacterial challenges.  

PubMed

Gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) and European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) were subjected to either experimental infection with Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida or Nodavirus after a period of 2 weeks of crowding in which fish were subjected to a 5-fold increase in density (10-50 kg/m(3)). Samples were obtained before the crowding period (0 h or control) and at 24h and 72 h after crowding from both groups of infected fish. The Complement haemolytic activity and the expression of the C3 gene were evaluated in blood and liver samples respectively. The bacteriolytic and lysozyme activities were also assessed. The results showed that Complement haemolytic activity was reduced at 72 h with both bacteria and virus in high density Gilthead seabream, and a similar increase was observed at low density. Bacteriolytic activity under both bacterial and viral challenges for both species was increased at 24h, under low density. At high density, the bacterial challenge did not induce significant changes. C3 mRNA abundance was substantially increased after pathogen treatments in low density groups at 24h but no significant changes were detected at high densities. These results support the idea of the suppressor effect of stressors on the immune system since a reduction of Complement activity under virus and high density, or lack of response in C3 expression under high density were observed. PMID:20951810

Mauri, I; Romero, A; Acerete, L; Mackenzie, S; Roher, N; Callol, A; Cano, I; Alvarez, M C; Tort, L

2011-01-01

181

Cloning and analysis of expression of a gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) Mx cDNA.  

PubMed

In the current work, we have cloned and sequenced the full cDNA for a Mx protein in the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) by RACE PCR. The Mx cDNA of 2182 bp contained an open reading frame of 1857 bp that codes for a protein of 618 aa. Within the coding sequence, characteristic features of Mx proteins were found, such as a tripartite guanosine-5'-triphosphate (GTP)-binding motif (GXXXSGKS/T, DXXG and T/NKXD), the signature of the dynamin family, LPRG(S/K)GIVTR, and a sequence that codes for a leucine zipper at the C-terminal region of the protein. An RT-PCR was optimised to estimate the level of expression of Mx protein in sea bream. Through this method we determined that Mx is constitutively expressed in head kidney, liver, spleen, heart, gills, muscle and brain of healthy sea bream. Intramuscular challenge of sea bream with polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (Poly I:C) up-regulated Mx expression in liver, head kidney, spleen and muscle. Constitutive expression was also found in isolated head kidney macrophages and blood leukocytes. This expression was significantly up-regulated by addition of Poly I:C. Mx was not constitutively expressed in the sea bream established cell line, SAF-1, but Poly I:C and nodavirus were also capable of inducing Mx expression in this cell line. PMID:14675830

Tafalla, C; Aranguren, R; Secombes, C J; Figueras, A; Novoa, B

2004-01-01

182

Morphological Changes in the T=3 Capsid of Flock House Virus during Cell Entry†  

PubMed Central

We report the identification and characterization of a viral intermediate formed during infection of Drosophila cells with the nodavirus Flock House virus (FHV). We observed that even at a very low multiplicity of infection, only 70% of the input virus stayed attached to or entered the cells, while the remaining 30% of the virus eluted from cells after initial binding. The eluted FHV particles did not rebind to Drosophila cells and, thus, could no longer initiate infection by the receptor-mediated entry pathway. FHV virus-like particles with the same capsid composition as native FHV but containing cellular RNA also exhibited formation of eluted particles when incubated with the cells. A maturation cleavage-defective mutant of FHV, however, did not. Compared to naïve FHV particles, i.e., particles that had never been incubated with cells, eluted particles showed an acid-sensitive phenotype and morphological alterations. Furthermore, eluted particles had lost a fraction of the internally located capsid protein gamma. Based on these results, we hypothesize that FHV eluted particles represent an infection intermediate analogous to eluted particles observed for members of the family Picornaviridae.

Walukiewicz, Hanna E.; Johnson, John E.; Schneemann, Anette

2006-01-01

183

Environmental factors influencing adult sex ratio in Poecilia reticulata: laboratory experiments.  

PubMed

The potential causes of adult sex ratio variation in guppies Poecilia reticulata were tested in laboratory experiments that evaluated the mortality rates of male and female P. reticulata exposed to potential predators (Hart's rivulus Rivulus hartii and freshwater prawns Macrobrachium crenulatum) and to different resource levels. Poecilia reticulata mortality increased in the presence of R. hartii and M. crenulatum, and low resource levels had an effect on mortality only in the presence of M. crenulatum. Rivulus hartii preyed more often on male than on female P. reticulata, and this sex-biased predation was not simply the result of males being smaller than females. In contrast, no sex-biased mortality was attributable to M. crenulatum or low resource levels. PMID:21967582

McKellar, A E; Hendry, A P

2011-10-01

184

Decapod crustaceans in fresh waters of southeastern Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

A total of 117 species of freshwater decapod crustaceans are known from Brazil. Knowledge regarding the fauna of Decapoda from inland waters in the state of Bahia, northeast Brazil, is incipient. In spite of its wide territory and rich hydrographic net, only 13 species of limnetic decapods have been reported from that state. The objective of this contribution was to survey decapod crustaceans of some hydrographic basins in southeastern Bahia. The material described herein was obtained in samplings conducted between 1997 and 2005. Voucher specimens were deposited in the carcinological collections of the Museu de Zoologia, Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilhéus, Brazil, and Departamento de Oceanografia, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil. A total of 13 species was collected. The carideans were represented by the atyids Atya scabra (Leach, 1815) and Potimirim potimirim (Müller, 1881) and the palaemonids Macrobrachium acanthurus (Wiegmann, 1836), M. amazonicum (Heller, 1862), M. carcinus (Linnaeus, 1758), M. heterochirus (Wiegmann, 1836), M. jelskii (Miers, 1877), M. olfersi (Wiegmann, 1836), and Palaemon (Palaemon) pandaliformis (Stimpson, 1871). The brachyurans were represented by the portunids Callinectes bocourti A. Milne-Edwards, 1879 and C. sapidus Rathbun, 1895, the trichodactylid Trichodactylus fluviatilis Latreille, 1828 and the panopeid Panopeus rugosus A. Milne-Edwards, 1881. Macrobrachium heterochirus represents a new record from Bahia, and M. amazonicum is reported for the first time in southeast Bahia. The occurrence of two extreme different forms of T. fluviatilis was observed. Form A is characterized by the frontal margin of carapace bordered by conspicuous granules, the anterolateral margin provided with developed teeth plus granules, and the posterolateral margin provided with granulation similar to that found on the front. In form B the frontal margin is smooth or has an inconspicuous granulation; the anterolateral margin is usually provided with 1-3 notches, and teeth (1-2), if present, are small; and the posterolateral margin is smooth or slightly granulated. PMID:19419041

de Almeida, Alexandre Oliveira; Coelho, Petrônio Alves; Luz, Joaldo Rocha; dos Santos, José Tiago Almeida; Ferraz, Neyva Ribeiro

2008-09-01

185

Profiling of infection specific mRNA transcripts of the European seabass Dicentrarchus labrax  

PubMed Central

Background The European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax), one of the most extensively cultured species in European aquaculture productions, is, along with the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), a prospective model species for the Perciformes which includes several other commercially important species. Massive mortalities may be caused by bacterial or viral infections in intensive aquaculture production. Revealing transcripts involved in immune response and studying their relative expression enhances the understanding of the immune response mechanism and consequently also the creation of vaccines. The analysis of expressed sequence tags (EST) is an efficient and easy approach for gene discovery, comparative genomics and for examining gene expression in specific tissues in a qualitative and quantitative way. Results Here we describe the construction, analysis and comparison of a total of ten cDNA libraries, six from different tissues infected with V. anguillarum (liver, spleen, head kidney, gill, peritoneal exudates and intestine) and four cDNA libraries from different tissues infected with Nodavirus (liver, spleen, head kidney and brain). In total 9605 sequences representing 3075 (32%) unique sequences (set of sequences obtained after clustering) were obtained and analysed. Among the sequences several immune-related proteins were identified for the first time in the order of Perciformes as well as in Teleostei. Conclusion The present study provides new information to the Gene Index of seabass. It gives a unigene set that will make a significant contribution to functional genomic studies and to studies of differential gene expression in relation to the immune system. In addition some of the potentially interesting genes identified by in silico analysis and confirmed by real-time PCR are putative biomarkers for bacterial and viral infections in fish.

Sarropoulou, Elena; Sepulcre, Pilar; Poisa-Beiro, Laura; Mulero, Victoriano; Meseguer, Jose; Figueras, Antonio; Novoa, Beatriz; Terzoglou, Vasso; Reinhardt, Richard; Magoulas, Antonios; Kotoulas, Georgios

2009-01-01

186

Molecular cloning, expression and functional analysis of ISG15 in orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides.  

PubMed

Interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) is an ubiquitin homolog that is significantly induced by type I interferons or viral infections. Groupers, Epinephelus spp. being maricultured in China and Southeast Asian countries, always suffer from virus infection, including iridovirus and nodavirus. To date, the roles of grouper genes, especially interferon related genes in virus infection remained largely unknown. Here, the ISG15 homolog (EcISG15) was cloned from grouper Epinephelus coioides and its immune response to Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) and grouper nervous necrosis virus (GNNV) was investigated. The full-length EcISG15 cDNA was composed of 948 bp and encoded a polypeptide of 155 amino acids with 37-68% identity with the known ISG15 homologs from other fish species. Amino acid alignment analysis indicated that EcISG15 contained two ubiquitin-like (UBL) domains and an Ub-conjugation domain (LRGG). Expressional analysis showed that EcISG15 was dramatically induced by GNNV infection, poly I:C or poly dA-dT treatment, but no obvious changes were observed during SGIV infection. Immunofluorescence assay showed that EcISG15 localized mainly in the cytoplasm of grouper cells in response to poly I:C stimulation or GNNV infection, but not in mock or SGIV infected cells. Western blot analysis indicated that the ISGylation was absent in SGIV-infected cells, but significantly enhanced in GNNV-infected or poly I:C transfected cells, suggesting that EcISG15 might play different roles in SGIV and GNNV infection. Furthermore, overexpression of EcISG15 in vitro inhibited the transcription of GNNV genes significantly. Taken together, the results indicated that fish ISG15 might exert important roles against RNA virus infection. PMID:23403156

Huang, Xiaohong; Huang, Youhua; Cai, Jia; Wei, Shina; Ouyang, Zhengliang; Qin, Qiwei

2013-05-01

187

Betanodavirus of marine and freshwater fish: distribution, genomic organization, diagnosis and control measures.  

PubMed

The family Nodaviridae include the genera Alphanodavirus and the Betanodavirus which are non-enveloped, single stranded RNA viruses. Alphanodavirus include the insect viruses while betanodavirus include species that are responsible for causing disease outbreaks in hatchery-reared larvae and juveniles of a wide variety of marine and freshwater fish throughout the world and has impacted fish culture over the last decade. According to International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, the genus Betanodavirus comprises four recognized species viz barfin flounder nervous necrosis virus, red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV), striped jack nervous necrosis virus and tiger puffer nervous necrosis virus with the RGNNV being the most common. The viruses are distributed worldwide having been recorded in Southeast Asia, Mediterranean countries, United Kingdom, North America and Australia. The disease has been reported by different names such as viral nervous necrosis, fish encephalitis, viral encephalopathy and retinopathy by various investigators. The virus is composed of two segments designated RNA1 and RNA2 and sometimes possesses an additional segment designated RNA3. However, genome arrangement of the virus can vary from strain to strain. The virus is diagnosed by microscopy and other rapid and sensitive molecular methods as well as immunological assays. Several cell lines have been developed for the virus propagation and study of infection mechanism. Control of nodavirus infection is a serious issue in aquaculture industry since it is responsible for huge economic losses. In combination with other management practices, vaccination of fish would be a useful strategy to control the disease. PMID:23997435

Shetty, Mahesh; Maiti, Biswajit; Shivakumar Santhosh, Kogaluru; Venugopal, Moleyur Nagarajappa; Karunasagar, Indrani

2012-09-01

188

Identification of Novel Positive-Strand RNA Viruses by Metagenomic Analysis of Archaea-Dominated Yellowstone Hot Springs  

PubMed Central

There are no known RNA viruses that infect Archaea. Filling this gap in our knowledge of viruses will enhance our understanding of the relationships between RNA viruses from the three domains of cellular life and, in particular, could shed light on the origin of the enormous diversity of RNA viruses infecting eukaryotes. We describe here the identification of novel RNA viral genome segments from high-temperature acidic hot springs in Yellowstone National Park in the United States. These hot springs harbor low-complexity cellular communities dominated by several species of hyperthermophilic Archaea. A viral metagenomics approach was taken to assemble segments of these RNA virus genomes from viral populations isolated directly from hot spring samples. Analysis of these RNA metagenomes demonstrated unique gene content that is not generally related to known RNA viruses of Bacteria and Eukarya. However, genes for RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), a hallmark of positive-strand RNA viruses, were identified in two contigs. One of these contigs is approximately 5,600 nucleotides in length and encodes a polyprotein that also contains a region homologous to the capsid protein of nodaviruses, tetraviruses, and birnaviruses. Phylogenetic analyses of the RdRps encoded in these contigs indicate that the putative archaeal viruses form a unique group that is distinct from the RdRps of RNA viruses of Eukarya and Bacteria. Collectively, our findings suggest the existence of novel positive-strand RNA viruses that probably replicate in hyperthermophilic archaeal hosts and are highly divergent from RNA viruses that infect eukaryotes and even more distant from known bacterial RNA viruses. These positive-strand RNA viruses might be direct ancestors of RNA viruses of eukaryotes.

Bolduc, Benjamin; Shaughnessy, Daniel P.; Wolf, Yuri I.; Koonin, Eugene V.; Roberto, Francisco F.

2012-01-01

189

Silencing of Host Genes Directed by Virus-Derived Short Interfering RNAs in Caenorhabditis elegans  

PubMed Central

Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) processed from viral replication intermediates by RNase III-like enzyme Dicer guide sequence-specific antiviral silencing in fungi, plants, and invertebrates. In plants, virus-derived siRNAs (viRNAs) can target and silence cellular transcripts and, in some cases, are responsible for the induction of plant diseases. Currently it remains unclear whether viRNAs are also capable of modulating the expression of cellular genes in the animal kingdom, although animal virus-encoded microRNAs (miRNAs) are known to guide efficient silencing of host genes, thereby facilitating virus replication. In this report, we showed that viRNAs derived from a modified nodavirus triggered potent silencing of homologous cellular transcripts produced by the endogenous gene or transgene in the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans. Like that found in plants, virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) in C. elegans also involves RRF-1, a worm RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) that is known to produce single-stranded secondary siRNAs in a Dicer-independent manner. We further demonstrated that VIGS in C. elegans is inheritable, suggesting that VIGS has the potential to generate profound epigenetic consequences in future generations. Altogether, these findings, for the first time, confirmed that viRNAs have the potential to modulate host gene expression in the animal kingdom. Most importantly, the success in uncoupling the trigger and the target of the antiviral silencing would allow for the exploration of novel features of virus-host interactions mediated by viRNAs in the animal kingdom.

Guo, Xunyang; Li, Wan-Xiang

2012-01-01

190

Molecular characterisation of sea bream (Sparus aurata) transforming growth factor beta1.  

PubMed

A transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF beta1) full length cDNA was characterised and sequenced from the head kidney of sea bream (Sparus aurata) previously challenged with a nodavirus. The cloned cDNA of 1778bp contains a predicted open reading frame of 379 amino acids, which includes the mature peptide region of 112 amino acids. The regulating region of the peptide possesses four potential N-linked glycosylation sites (N-X-T/S), as well as an RGD integrin binding site, an RKKR tetrabasic cut site and nine conserved cysteines all characteristic of the TGF beta superfamily. Compared to other teleost TGF beta1 genes, the sea bream TGF beta1 is most closely related to hybrid striped bass (Moronesaxatilis xM. chrysops) TGF beta1 (80% amino acid identity). The genomic organisation of TGF beta1 was determined through the generation of contiguous PCR clones. The sea bream TGF beta1 gene is approximately 3.6kb in length and consists of five coding regions. Two introns are absent in comparison to the genomic organisation of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss TGF beta1, whilst an additional intron not present in other sequenced TGF beta genes, but present in the trout TGF beta1 gene, is conserved in sea bream.A reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay was developed to study TGF beta expression in different sea bream tissues. Constitutive TGF beta1 expression was detected in the liver, brain, muscle, kidney, heart, gills and spleen of sea bream, as well as in head kidney macrophages and blood leucocytes. PMID:12711274

Tafalla, C; Aranguren, R; Secombes, C J; Castrillo, J L; Novoa, B; Figueras, A

2003-05-01

191

Identification of novel positive-strand RNA viruses by metagenomic analysis of archaea-dominated Yellowstone hot springs.  

PubMed

There are no known RNA viruses that infect Archaea. Filling this gap in our knowledge of viruses will enhance our understanding of the relationships between RNA viruses from the three domains of cellular life and, in particular, could shed light on the origin of the enormous diversity of RNA viruses infecting eukaryotes. We describe here the identification of novel RNA viral genome segments from high-temperature acidic hot springs in Yellowstone National Park in the United States. These hot springs harbor low-complexity cellular communities dominated by several species of hyperthermophilic Archaea. A viral metagenomics approach was taken to assemble segments of these RNA virus genomes from viral populations isolated directly from hot spring samples. Analysis of these RNA metagenomes demonstrated unique gene content that is not generally related to known RNA viruses of Bacteria and Eukarya. However, genes for RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), a hallmark of positive-strand RNA viruses, were identified in two contigs. One of these contigs is approximately 5,600 nucleotides in length and encodes a polyprotein that also contains a region homologous to the capsid protein of nodaviruses, tetraviruses, and birnaviruses. Phylogenetic analyses of the RdRps encoded in these contigs indicate that the putative archaeal viruses form a unique group that is distinct from the RdRps of RNA viruses of Eukarya and Bacteria. Collectively, our findings suggest the existence of novel positive-strand RNA viruses that probably replicate in hyperthermophilic archaeal hosts and are highly divergent from RNA viruses that infect eukaryotes and even more distant from known bacterial RNA viruses. These positive-strand RNA viruses might be direct ancestors of RNA viruses of eukaryotes. PMID:22379100

Bolduc, Benjamin; Shaughnessy, Daniel P; Wolf, Yuri I; Koonin, Eugene V; Roberto, Francisco F; Young, Mark

2012-05-01

192

Photobacterium sanctipauli sp. nov. isolated from bleached Madracis decactis (Scleractinia) in the St Peter & St Paul Archipelago, Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Brazil.  

PubMed

Five novel strains of Photobacterium (A-394T, A-373, A-379, A-397 and A-398) were isolated from bleached coral Madracis decactis (scleractinian) in the remote St Peter & St Archipelago (SPSPA), Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Brazil. Healthy M. decactis specimens were also surveyed, but no strains were related to them. The novel isolates formed a distinct lineage based on the 16S rRNA, recA, and rpoA gene sequences analysis. Their closest phylogenetic neighbours were Photobacterium rosenbergii, P. gaetbulicola, and P. lutimaris, sharing 96.6 to 95.8% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. The novel species can be differentiated from the closest neighbours by several phenotypic and chemotaxonomic markers. It grows at pH 11, produces tryptophane deaminase, presents the fatty acid C18:0, but lacks C16:0 iso. The whole cell protein profile, based in MALDI-TOF MS, distinguished the strains of the novel species among each other and from the closest neighbors. In addition, we are releasing the whole genome sequence of the type strain. The name Photobacterium sanctipauli sp. nov. is proposed for this taxon. The G + C content of the type strain A-394(T) (= LMG27910(T) = CAIM1892(T)) is 48.2 mol%. PMID:25024905

Moreira, Ana Paula B; Duytschaever, Gwen; Chimetto Tonon, Luciane A; Fróes, Adriana M; de Oliveira, Louisi S; Amado-Filho, Gilberto M; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo B; De Vos, Paul; Swings, Jean; Thompson, Cristiane C; Thompson, Fabiano L

2014-01-01

193

Photobacterium sanctipauli sp. nov. isolated from bleached Madracis decactis (Scleractinia) in the St Peter & St Paul Archipelago, Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Five novel strains of Photobacterium (A-394T, A-373, A-379, A-397 and A-398) were isolated from bleached coral Madracis decactis (scleractinian) in the remote St Peter & St Archipelago (SPSPA), Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Brazil. Healthy M. decactis specimens were also surveyed, but no strains were related to them. The novel isolates formed a distinct lineage based on the 16S rRNA, recA, and rpoA gene sequences analysis. Their closest phylogenetic neighbours were Photobacterium rosenbergii, P. gaetbulicola, and P. lutimaris, sharing 96.6 to 95.8% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. The novel species can be differentiated from the closest neighbours by several phenotypic and chemotaxonomic markers. It grows at pH 11, produces tryptophane deaminase, presents the fatty acid C18:0, but lacks C16:0 iso. The whole cell protein profile, based in MALDI-TOF MS, distinguished the strains of the novel species among each other and from the closest neighbors. In addition, we are releasing the whole genome sequence of the type strain. The name Photobacterium sanctipauli sp. nov. is proposed for this taxon. The G + C content of the type strain A-394T (= LMG27910T = CAIM1892T) is 48.2 mol%.

Moreira, Ana Paula B.; Duytschaever, Gwen; Chimetto Tonon, Luciane A.; Froes, Adriana M.; de Oliveira, Louisi S.; Amado-Filho, Gilberto M.; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo B.; De Vos, Paul; Swings, Jean; Thompson, Cristiane C.

2014-01-01

194

Genetic analysis of vibriosis and viral nervous necrosis resistance in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) using a cure model.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate whether observed time-until-death of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) juveniles in separate challenge tests with Vibrio anguillarum (causes vibriosis) and nodavirus [causes viral nervous necrosis (VNN)] are due to differences in susceptibility (whether at risk or not) or increased endurance (individual hazard, given that the animal is susceptible) using a cure mixture (CURE) model with Gibbs sampling. Observed time-until-death, prepared as sequential binary records, were analyzed with the CURE model and results were compared with cross-sectional threshold (SIMPLE) and an ordinary longitudinal survival score (NAÏVE) model (i.e., assuming that all animals are susceptible). Overall mortality at the end of the test was 86 and 71% for vibriosis and VNN, respectively. But the CURE model estimated 92 and 82% of the population to be susceptible to vibriosis and VNN, respectively. Hence, a substantial fraction among the survivors were considered to be susceptible but with high endurance. The underlying heritability of susceptibility was moderate for vibriosis (0.33) and extremely high for VNN (0.91), somewhat greater compared with classical SIMPLE model (0.19 and 0.76 for vibriosis and VNN, respectively), analyzing end survival as a cross-sectional binary trait. Estimates of the underlying heritability were low for single test-day scores of both endurance (0.02 and 0.15 for vibriosis and VNN, respectively) in the CURE model and for the NAÏVE model (0.02 and 0.18 for vibriosis and VNN, respectively). Based on the CURE model, the genetic correlation between susceptibility and endurance was low to moderately positive and significantly different from unity (P < 0.01) for both vibriosis (0.13) and VNN (0.47). Estimated breeding values from the SIMPLE and NAÏVE models showed moderate to high correlations (0.41 to 0.96) with EBV for susceptibility and endurance in the CURE model. The analyses indicate that susceptibility and endurance are apparently distinct genetic traits. Still, the genetic variation estimated in the SIMPLE and NAÏVE models seems to a large extent to be controlled by susceptibility and an efficient genetic selection for reduced susceptibility to vibriosis and VNN is therefore likely feasible even when using classical (noncure) models. Earlier termination of the challenge test or back truncation of survival data is not recommended as this likely shifts the focus of selection towards endurance rather than susceptibility. PMID:23736060

Bangera, R; Ødegård, J; Nielsen, H M; Gjøen, H M; Mortensen, A

2013-08-01

195

Concentrations of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in fish and shrimp in Jiangsu Province, China.  

PubMed

Pentachlorophenol (PCP) concentrations were determined in 55 samples of fish, shrimp, crabs, frogs and turtles collected in Jiangsu Province and 55 freshwater shrimp samples collected from the Huiming Fish Market, Nanjing, China between 2003 and 2004. PCP concentrations ranged from less than the method detection limit (MDL: 0.5 microg/kg ww) to 61 microg/kg ww, with a mean of 5.2 microg/kg ww in 55 samples collected across Jiangsu Province and a mean of 0.5 microg/kg ww for freshwater shrimp collected from the Huiming Fish Market. Concentrations of PCP in common carp (Carassius auratus) were significantly greater than concentrations of PCP in other species from all of the areas studied. Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) contained the second greatest concentrations and crustacean species contained the least concentrations. Concentrations of PCP were greater in samples collected from Southern Jiangsu than those collected from other areas of Jiangsu Province. Concentrations of PCP in the freshwater shrimp (Macrobrachium nipponense) from the Huiming Fish Market were greater in March and September than those collected in June and December. Based on the allowable daily intake (ADI) set by the US National Academy of Science, current concentrations of PCP measured in aquatic products from Jiangsu Province presented minimus health risks to humans. PMID:17537482

Ge, Jiachun; Pan, Jianling; Fei, Zhiliang; Wu, Guanghong; Giesy, John P

2007-08-01

196

Decapod crustacean chelipeds: an overview.  

PubMed

The structure, growth, differentiation and function of crustacean chelipeds are reviewed. In many decapod crustaceans growth of chelae is isometric with allometry level reaching unity till the puberty moult. Afterwards the same trend continues in females, while in males there is a marked spurt in the level of allometry accompanied by a sudden increase in the relative size of chelae. Subsequently they are differentiated morphologically into crusher and cutter making them heterochelous and sexually dimorphic. Of the two, the major chela is used during agonistic encounters while the minor is used for prey capture and grooming. Various biotic and abiotic factors exert a negative effect on cheliped growth. The dimorphic growth pattern of chelae can be adversely affected by factors such as parasitic infection and substrate conditions. Display patterns of chelipeds have an important role in agonistic and aggressive interactions. Of the five pairs of pereiopods, the chelae are versatile organs of offence and defence which also make them the most vulnerable for autotomy. Regeneration of the autotomized chelipeds imposes an additional energy demand called "regeneration load" on the incumbent, altering energy allocation for somatic and/or reproductive processes. Partial withdrawal of chelae leading to incomplete exuviation is reported for the first time in the laboratory and field in Macrobrachium species. PMID:11022233

Mariappan, P; Balasundaram, C; Schmitz, B

2000-09-01

197

DDT and Derivatives in Indicator Species of the Aquatic Food Web of Rangsit Agricultural Area, Central Thailand  

PubMed Central

The presence of DDT and derivatives in the food web of freshwater ecosystems of Rangsit agricultural area, Pathum Thani Province, Thailand were investigated from June 2004 to May 2007. By using gas chromatography (GC) with micro electron capture detector (? ECD), DDT and derivatives in water, sediment, and fifteen indicator species i.e., 2 producers; Eichhornia crassipes and plankton (phyto- and zoo- plankton), an herbivore; Trichogaster microlepis (3) 3 omnivores; Trichogaster trichopterus, Oreochromis niloticus, and Puntius gonionotus, 6 carnivores; Channa striatus, Oxyeleotris marmoratus, Macrognathus siamensis, Parambassis siamensis, Anabas testudineus, and Pristolepis fasciatus, and 3 detritivores; Macrobrachium lanchesteri, Pomacea sp., and Filopaludina mertensi were measured. Results show low concentration levels (part per billion) of DDT & derivatives in each food web compartment i.e. water, sediment, aquatic plant, plankton, fish, and invertebrates. Magnification patterns, i.e. bioconcentration, bioaccumulation, and biomagnification, based on habitat and foraging behavior of selected freshwater species indicates that DDT & derivatives can accumulate and be magnified through the food chain from the lowest up to the highest trophic level. Therefore, the presence of residues and the evidence of magnification patterns can be observed as ecological indicators for evaluating ecological health risk.

Siriwong, W.; Thirakhupt, K.; Sitticharoenchai, D.; Rohitrattana, J.; Thongkongowm, P.; Borjan, M.; Robson, M.

2009-01-01

198

Updating the Vibrio clades defined by multilocus sequence phylogeny: proposal of eight new clades, and the description of Vibrio tritonius sp. nov.  

PubMed

To date 142 species have been described in the Vibrionaceae family of bacteria, classified into seven genera; Aliivibrio, Echinimonas, Enterovibrio, Grimontia, Photobacterium, Salinivibrio and Vibrio. As vibrios are widespread in marine environments and show versatile metabolisms and ecologies, these bacteria are recognized as one of the most diverse and important marine heterotrophic bacterial groups for elucidating the correlation between genome evolution and ecological adaptation. However, on the basis of 16S rRNA gene phylogeny, we could not find any robust monophyletic lineages in any of the known genera. We needed further attempts to reconstruct their evolutionary history based on multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) and/or genome wide taxonomy of all the recognized species groups. In our previous report in 2007, we conducted the first broad multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) to infer the evolutionary history of vibrios using nine housekeeping genes (the 16S rRNA gene, gapA, gyrB, ftsZ, mreB, pyrH, recA, rpoA, and topA), and we proposed 14 distinct clades in 58 species of Vibrionaceae. Due to the difficulty of designing universal primers that can amplify the genes for MLSA in every Vibrionaceae species, some clades had yet to be defined. In this study, we present a better picture of an updated molecular phylogeny for 86 described vibrio species and 10 genome sequenced Vibrionaceae strains, using 8 housekeeping gene sequences. This new study places special emphasis on (1) eight newly identified clades (Damselae, Mediterranei, Pectenicida, Phosphoreum, Profundum, Porteresiae, Rosenbergii, and Rumoiensis); (2) clades amended since the 2007 proposal with recently described new species; (3) orphan clades of genomospecies F6 and F10; (4) phylogenetic positions defined in 3 genome-sequenced strains (N418, EX25, and EJY3); and (5) description of V. tritonius sp. nov., which is a member of the "Porteresiae" clade. PMID:24409173

Sawabe, Tomoo; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Matsumura, Yuta; Feng, Gao; Amin, Akm Rohul; Mino, Sayaka; Nakagawa, Satoshi; Sawabe, Toko; Kumar, Ramesh; Fukui, Yohei; Satomi, Masataka; Matsushima, Ryoji; Thompson, Fabiano L; Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Christen, Richard; Maruyama, Fumito; Kurokawa, Ken; Hayashi, Tetsuya

2013-01-01

199

Updating the Vibrio clades defined by multilocus sequence phylogeny: proposal of eight new clades, and the description of Vibrio tritonius sp. nov.  

PubMed Central

To date 142 species have been described in the Vibrionaceae family of bacteria, classified into seven genera; Aliivibrio, Echinimonas, Enterovibrio, Grimontia, Photobacterium, Salinivibrio and Vibrio. As vibrios are widespread in marine environments and show versatile metabolisms and ecologies, these bacteria are recognized as one of the most diverse and important marine heterotrophic bacterial groups for elucidating the correlation between genome evolution and ecological adaptation. However, on the basis of 16S rRNA gene phylogeny, we could not find any robust monophyletic lineages in any of the known genera. We needed further attempts to reconstruct their evolutionary history based on multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) and/or genome wide taxonomy of all the recognized species groups. In our previous report in 2007, we conducted the first broad multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) to infer the evolutionary history of vibrios using nine housekeeping genes (the 16S rRNA gene, gapA, gyrB, ftsZ, mreB, pyrH, recA, rpoA, and topA), and we proposed 14 distinct clades in 58 species of Vibrionaceae. Due to the difficulty of designing universal primers that can amplify the genes for MLSA in every Vibrionaceae species, some clades had yet to be defined. In this study, we present a better picture of an updated molecular phylogeny for 86 described vibrio species and 10 genome sequenced Vibrionaceae strains, using 8 housekeeping gene sequences. This new study places special emphasis on (1) eight newly identified clades (Damselae, Mediterranei, Pectenicida, Phosphoreum, Profundum, Porteresiae, Rosenbergii, and Rumoiensis); (2) clades amended since the 2007 proposal with recently described new species; (3) orphan clades of genomospecies F6 and F10; (4) phylogenetic positions defined in 3 genome-sequenced strains (N418, EX25, and EJY3); and (5) description of V. tritonius sp. nov., which is a member of the “Porteresiae” clade.

Sawabe, Tomoo; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Matsumura, Yuta; Feng, Gao; Amin, AKM Rohul; Mino, Sayaka; Nakagawa, Satoshi; Sawabe, Toko; Kumar, Ramesh; Fukui, Yohei; Satomi, Masataka; Matsushima, Ryoji; Thompson, Fabiano L.; Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Christen, Richard; Maruyama, Fumito; Kurokawa, Ken; Hayashi, Tetsuya

2013-01-01

200

Challenges in understanding the sources of bioaccumulated metals in biota inhabiting turbid river systems.  

PubMed

Bioaccumulation of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn by Macrobrachium prawns was observed to occur in the Strickland River downstream of a gold mine at Porgera, Papua New Guinea. This was despite the total metal concentrations of waters and sediments indicating no difference from reference sites within tributaries. To provide information on potential sources and bioavailability of metals to prawns, an extensive range of analyses were made on waters, suspended solids, deposited sediments and plant materials within the river system. Dissolved metal concentrations were mostly sub-micrograms per liter and no major differences existed in concentrations or speciation between sites within the Strickland River or its tributaries. Similarly, no differences were detected between sites for total or dilute acid-extractable metal concentrations in bed sediments and plant materials, which may be ingested by the prawns. However, the rivers in this region are highly turbid and the dilute acid-extractable cadmium and zinc concentrations in suspended solids were greater at sites in the Strickland River than at sites in tributaries. The results indicated that mine-derived inputs increased the proportion of these forms of metals or metalloids in the Strickland River. These less strongly bound metals and metalloids would be more bioavailable to the prawns via the dietary pathway. The results highlighted many of the difficulties in using routine monitoring data without information on metal speciation to describe metal uptake and predict potential effects when concentrations are low and similar to background. The study indicated that the monitoring of contaminant concentrations in organisms that integrate the exposure from multiple exposure routes and durations may often be more effective for detecting impacts than intermittent monitoring of contaminants in waters and sediments. PMID:24014223

Cresswell, Tom; Smith, Ross E W; Simpson, Stuart L

2014-02-01

201

Risk assessment of heavy metal contamination in shrimp farming in Mai Po Nature Reserve, Hong Kong.  

PubMed

An ecological survey was carried out to determine the sediment concentrations of nutrients and heavy metals and bioaccumulation of heavy metals in fish and shrimp including tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus x O. nilotica), grey mullet (Mugil cephalus), gei wai shrimp (Metapenaeus ensis) and caridean shrimp (Macrobrachium nipponensis) in the traditional tidal shrimp ponds (gei wais) of Mai Po Nature Reserve, Hong Kong. The sediments collected from the landward sites contained higher nutrient contents, as well as zinc (Zn), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni) and cadmium (Cd) than those collected from the seaward sites, but vice versa for lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg). However, the concentrations of all metals were exceptionally high in the two sites located outside the reserve, suggesting that waters from Deep Bay might be the possible source of metal contamination affecting the reserve. All metals studied seemed to accumulate in the viscera of fish. Body size was the determining factor for the accumulation of heavy metals in caridean shrimp and gei wai shrimp but not fish. Concentrations of the metals studied in tissues of grey mullet and gei wai shrimp were found to be safe for human consumption. Concentrations of Cr in tilapia whole body (0.68-1.10 mg kg(-1) wet weight) were close to or over the guideline value of 1 mg kg(-1) set by the Food Adulteration (Metallic Contamination) Regulations of Hong Kong. Tilapia flesh and small caridean shrimp collected from gei wais were contaminated by Cr and Pb but still fit for human consumption. Caution is required if large caridean shrimp is to be consumed in large amounts continuously because the concentration of Pb exceeded the maximum permitted concentration (6 mg kg(-1)). The rather high Cr concentrations in tilapia whole body should not be overlooked as the fish will serve as a food source for migratory birds visiting the site. PMID:16528597

Cheung, K C; Wong, M H

2006-01-01

202

Use of a 15N tracer to determine linkages between a mangrove and an upland freshwater swamp  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mangrove forests and adjacent upland freshwater swamps are important components of subsistence-based economies of Pacific islands. Mangroves provide valuable firewood (Rhizophora apiculata) and mangrove crabs (Scylla serrata); intact freshwater swamps are often used for agroforestry (e.g., taro cultivation). While these two systems are connected hydrologically via groundwater and surface flows, little information is available on how they may be biogeochemically or ecologically linked. For example, mangrove leaf litter was once thought to be an important food source for resident and transient nekton and invertebrates, but this value may have been overestimated. Instead, nutrients or allochthonous material (e.g., phytoplankton, detritus) delivered via groundwater or surface water from upland freshwater swamps may play a larger role in mangrove food webs. Understanding the linkages between these two ecologically and culturally important ecosystems will help us to understand the potential impacts of hydrological alterations that occur when roads or bridges are constructed through them. We conducted a 15N tracer study in the Yela watershed on the island of Kosrae, Federated States of Micronesia. K15NO3 was continually added at trace levels for 4 weeks to the Yela River in an upland freshwater swamp adjacent to a mangrove forest. Nitrate and ammonium pools, major primary producers, macroinvertebrates, and fish were sampled from stations 5 m upstream (freshwater swamp) and 138, 188, 213, and 313 m downstream (mangrove) from the tracer addition. Samples were collected once a week prior to, during, and after the 15N addition for a total of 6 weeks. Preliminary results revealed no significant enrichment (< 1 ‰) in the 15N isotope composition of either resident shrimp (Macrobrachium sp.) or mudskipper fish (Periophthalmus sp.). However, the 15N signature of ammonium pools was enriched 10-60 ‰ by the end of the third week. These results suggest that the tracer was present in the mangrove but was either unavailable to higher organisms or was incorporated into organic matter not utilized by shrimp or mudskippers.

MacKenzie, R. A.; Cormier, N.

2005-05-01

203

Molecular evidence for sequential colonization and taxon cycling in freshwater decapod shrimps on a Caribbean island.  

PubMed

Taxon cycling, i.e. sequential phases of expansions and contractions in species' distributions associated with ecological or morphological shifts, are postulated to characterize dynamic biogeographic histories in various island faunas. The Caribbean freshwater shrimp assemblage is mostly widespread and sympatric throughout the region, although one species (Atyidae: Atya lanipes) is geographically restricted and ecologically and morphologically differentiated from other Atya species. Using patterns of nucleotide variation at the COI mtDNA gene in five species of freshwater shrimp (A. lanipes, A. scabra, A. innocuous; Xiphocarididae: Xiphocaris elongata; Palaemonidae: Macrobrachium faustinum) from Puerto Rico, we expected to detect a signature of sequential colonization in these shrimp, consistent with the concept of taxon cycling, and expected that A. lanipes would be at a different taxon stage (i.e. an early stage species) to all other species. We also examined patterns of genetic population structure in each species expected with poor, intermediate and well-developed abilities for among-river dispersal. Population expansions were detected in all species, although the relative timing of the expansions varied among them. Assuming that population expansions followed colonization of Puerto Rico by freshwater shrimp, results bear the hallmarks of sequential colonization and taxon cycling in this fauna. A. lanipes had a star phylogeny, low mean pairwise nucleotide differences and recent (Holocene) estimates for an in situ population expansion in Puerto Rico, and it was inferred as an early stage species in the taxon cycle undergoing a secondary phase of expansion. All other species were inferred as late stage species undergoing regional population expansions, as their mean pairwise nucleotide differences were relatively high and phylogenetic patterns were more complex than A. lanipes. High rates of gene flow without isolation by distance among rivers were detected in all species, although results should be treated cautiously as some populations are unlikely to be in mutation-drift equilibrium. Nested clade analysis produced inconsistent results among species that all have high rates of gene flow and expanding populations. PMID:18261048

Cook, Benjamin D; Pringle, Catherine M; Hughes, Jane M

2008-02-01

204

Fish tissue quality in the lower Mississippi River and health risks from fish consumption.  

PubMed

Between 1990 and 1994, samples of three shellfish species (i.e. blue crab, Callinectes sapidus;crayfish, Procambarus acutis; and river shrimp, Macrobrachium ohionii) and 16 fish species and were collected at six sites along the lower Mississippi River by the Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality, Office of Water Resources in coordination with the US Environmental Protection Agency. The fish species included: bigmouth buffalo (Ictiobus cyanellus); blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus); carp (Cyprinus carpio); channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus); cobia (Rachycentron canadum); flathead catfish (Pylodictis olivaris); freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens); largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides); long nose gar (Lepisosteus osseus); red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus); red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus); smallmouth buffalo (Ictiobus bubalus); spotted gar (Lepisosteus oculatus); striped bass (Morone saxatilis); white bass (Morone chrysops); and white crappie (Pomoxis annularis). Organic compound and heavy metal concentrations were measured in 161 composite fish tissue samples where each composite included three to 10 individual fish. Nineteen chemicals, found at measurable levels in sample tissues, were used in calculations of lifetime excess cancer and non-cancer risks due to fish consumption. We calculated: 574 chemical-specific cancer risks; 41 total cancer risks; and 697 margins of exposure based on a consumption rate of one 8-ounce meal per week (0.032 kg/day), a body weight of 70 kg and reported cancer potency factors and reference doses. We identified nine species of concern (blue catfish, carp, channel catfish, cobia, crayfish, flathead catfish, red drum, spotted gar and striped bass) based on total cancer risk greater than 10(-4) or margin of exposure greater than 1, and whether or not samples collected in subsequent years resulted in lower risks. The compounds primarily responsible for the elevated risks were aldrin, dieldrin, alpha-benzene hexachloride, gamma-benzene hexachloride, heptachlor epoxide, arsenic and mercury. PMID:12526903

Watanabe, Karen H; Desimone, Frank W; Thiyagarajah, Arunthavarani; Hartley, William R; Hindrichs, Albert E

2003-01-20

205

210-Polonium studies in some environmental and biological matrices of Domiasiat uranium deposit area, West Khasi Hills, Meghalaya, India.  

PubMed

The study was performed using a silicon surface barrier alpha spectrometer at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India. Through the study, the observed (210)Po activity in water sample from different locations in the Domiasiat area ranges from 0.04 to 0.69 Bq/l. The daily and annual intake of (210)Po through water was also estimated and the mean value of 0.72 and 263.61 Bq, respectively, were observed. It is observed that the effective doses through water were higher than the World Health Organization recommended dose of 0.05 mSv/year. The total annual effective doses through terrestrial ingestion for all the locations was studied and the mean annual effective dose was observed to be 0.315 mSv, which, when compared to the worldwide and the Indian values, was observed to be slightly higher. The mean activity in soil is found to be 124.8 +/-5.7 Bq/kg and in meat the activity is 0.43 +/-0.05 Bq/kg. In fishes, an activity of 0.48 +/-0.07 Bq/kg in Garra lamta, 0.29 +/-0.02 Bq/kg in Neolissocheilus hexaganolepis, and 3.3 +/-0.1 Bq/kg in Macrobrachium sp. is observed. Activity concentration in plant samples was analyzed and the activity ranges from 0.020 +/-0.002 to 9.69 +/-0.35 Bq/kg. Committed effective dose by the adult population of the Domiasiat area through intake of (210)Po through these food items was also determined and compared with the Indian average value and the worldwide average value. PMID:19242810

Marbaniang, Deswyn G; Poddar, Raj K; Nongkynrih, Phlis; Khathing, Darlando T

2010-03-01

206

Evidence of rapid shifts in the trophic base of lotic predators using experimental dietary manipulations and assimilation-based analyses.  

PubMed

Assimilation-based techniques such as stoichiometric analysis, bulk tissue stable isotope analysis (SIA), fatty acid (FA) profiling and compound-specific SIA of FAs can be used to resolve ambiguities in consumer-resource relationships, but comparisons of their effectiveness are lacking. Feeding trials and concurrent application of these techniques were used to investigate the trophic base of two shrimps from Hong Kong streams: the atyid Caridina cantonensis, which is a primary consumer, and predatory Macrobrachium hainanense (Palaemonidae). Leaf litter and periphyton were fed to C. cantonensis (CC-LF and CC-PF, respectively) reared in the laboratory for 2 months, when C. cantonensis, that had fed on a mixed diet (CC-WC), were collected from the field. Atyids from each group (CC-LF, CC-PF and CC-WC) were fed to M. hainanense (MH-L, MH-P and MH-W, respectively) during a further 2-month trial, at the end of which M. hainanense were also collected from the field (MH-R). FA biomarkers present in CC-WC and CC-PF indicated that C. cantonensis depended primarily on autochthonous foods, and FA profiles of CC-WC were distinct from those of CC-LF. Differences in C/N ratios and isotope signatures of leaf litter and periphyton were not reflected in tissues of atyids or palaemonid predators. FA profiles of M. hainanense groups were similar, but FA stable C isotope ratio (delta(13)C) signatures of MH-R and MH-W were distinct from those of MH-L and leaf litter. FA delta(13)C signatures of MH-R were similar to those of MH-P and MH-W, indicating that autochthonous resources constituted the trophic base of production for this predator. This is the first study using compound-specific SIA to study stream food chains. Compound-specific SIA and FA profiling allowed accurate elucidation of consumer-resource relationships that were not revealed by stoichiometry or bulk tissue SIA. Compound-specific SIA was particularly sensitive for detecting rapid shifts in the predator trophic base. This tool will have wide applicability for investigating food webs in a range of ecosystems. PMID:19132399

Lau, Danny C P; Leung, Kenneth M Y; Dudgeon, David

2009-04-01

207

Experimental infections reveal that common Thai crustaceans are potential carriers for spread of exotic Taura syndrome virus.  

PubMed

Taura syndrome virus (TSV) was first reported as a serious cause of shrimp mortality limited to reared Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei in the Americas, where it spread principally through regional and international transfer of live post larvae (PL) and broodstock. Subsequently, through importation of infected broodstock, TSV outbreaks spread to Asia, first to Taiwan and China and then to Thailand, Indonesia and Korea. Since its introduction to Thailand, outbreaks have occasionally been reported from rearing ponds stocked with batches of specific pathogen free (SPF) P. vannamei PL that tested negative for TSV by nested RT-PCR assay. Since it was possible that the outbreaks may have occurred via horizontal transfer of TSV from wild carrier species, we tested 5 common native crustaceans that live in and around shrimp ponds (2 palaemonid shrimp species, Palaemon styliferus and Macrobrachium lanchesteri, and 3 species of crabs, Sesarma mederi, Scylla serrata and Uca vocans) for susceptibility to TSV in experimental challenges. We found that U. vocans, S. serrata and S. mederi did not die but, respectively, gave strong RT-PCR reactions indicating heavy viral load at 5, 10 and 15 d post-injection of TSV and 10, 15 and up to 50 d after feeding with TSV-infected P. vannamei carcasses. Also after feeding, P. styliferus did not die, but a high proportion gave strong RT-PCR reactions at 5 d post-challenge and no reactions at 15 d. Similarly after feeding, M. lanchesteri showed no mortality and gave only light RT-PCR reactions at 2 d, moderate reactions at 5 d and no reaction at 15 d. By contrast, transmission experiments from the TSV-infected crabs and palaemonid shrimp via water or feeding resulted in death of all the exposed P. vannamei from 8 to 12 d post-challenge and all were positive for heavy viral load by RT-PCR assay. Despite the results of these laboratory challenge tests, natural TSV infections were not detected by nested RT-PCR in samples of these species taken from the wild. These results indicated that transmission of TSV from infected crabs and palaemonid shrimp via water or feeding might pose a potential risk to shrimp aquaculture. PMID:18589994

Kiatpathomchai, Wansika; Jaroenram, Wansadaj; Arunrut, Narong; Gangnonngiw, Warachin; Boonyawiwat, Visanu; Sithigorngul, Paisarn

2008-05-01