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1

RNA-binding region of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus capsid protein.  

PubMed

White tail disease (WTD) kills prawn larvae and causes drastic losses to the freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) industry. The main causative agent of WTD is Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV). The N-terminal end of the MrNV capsid protein is very rich in positively charged amino acids and is postulated to interact with RNA molecules. N-terminal and internal deletion mutagenesis revealed that the RNA-binding region is located at positions 20-29, where 80?% of amino acids are positively charged. Substitution of all these positively charged residues with alanine abolished the RNA binding. Mutants without the RNA-binding region still assembled into virus-like particles, suggesting that this region is not a part of the capsid assembly domain. This paper is, to the best of our knowledge, the first to report the specific RNA-binding region of MrNV capsid protein. PMID:24878641

Goh, Zee Hong; Mohd, Nur Azmina Syakirin; Tan, Soon Guan; Bhassu, Subha; Tan, Wen Siang

2014-09-01

2

Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus disease (white tail disease) in Australia.  

PubMed

The index case of white tail disease (WTD) is presented in adult broodstock prawns Macrobrachium rosenbergii from the Flinders River in western Queensland, Australia, in mid-2007. Histological examination revealed extensive myonecrosis with massive infiltration of myonuclei and some haemocytes. Juveniles from the same broodstock but not from 3 other families displayed white muscle lesions. Low-grade chronic mortalities approaching 100% over 1 yr occurred. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR) were attempted for both M. rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) with 2 sets of primers and for the satellite virus, extrasmall virus (XSV). All 3 PCRs generated amplicons of the expected sizes. Basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) analyses of the 3 consensus sequences identified a 91% match with MrNV viral capsid protein gene, 96% match with MrNV RNA-directed RNA polymerase gene, and a 99% match with M. rosenbergii XSV capsid protein gene. The clinical signs, histopathological lesions and RT-PCR amplicons could be reproduced in M. rosenbergii inoculated with cell-free extracts fulfilling River's postulates. We conclude that this is an endemic strain of MrNV as the sequences are dissimilar to strains of MrNV circulating around Asia and the Americas. This case only poorly meets the Office International des Epizooties (OIE) case definition for WTD due to the age of the prawns involved and the nature of the inclusion bodies. Perhaps the OIE case definition needs broadening. PMID:19750804

Owens, Leigh; La Fauce, Kathy; Juntunen, Karen; Hayakijkosol, Orachun; Zeng, Chaoshu

2009-07-23

3

Monoclonal antibodies against extra small virus show that it co-localizes with Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus.  

PubMed

The capsid protein (CP) gene of extra small virus (XSV) expressed in Escherichia coli as a 42 kDa glutathione S-transferase (GST)-fusion protein (GST-XCP) or a 20 kDa His6-fusion protein (His6-XCP) were purified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), combined, and used to immunize Swiss mice to produce monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Using dot blot, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) methods, 4 MAbs specific to the XSV CP detected XSV in the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii without cross-reaction to host proteins or to proteins of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) or 5 of the most pathogenic viruses of penaeid shrimp. In dot blots, the combined MAbs could detect down to ~10 to 20 fmol µl-1 of purified GST-XCP protein, which was somewhat more sensitive compared to any single MAb. Used in conjunction with an MrNV-specific MAb, white tail disease (WTD) was diagnosed more effectively. However, the sensitivity at which the combined 4 MAbs detected XSV CP was 1000-fold lower than XSV RNA detected by RT-PCR. IHC analysis of M. rosenbergii tissue sections using the MAbs showed XSV infection to co-localize at variable loads with MrNV infection in heart and muscle cells as well as cells of connective tissues in the hepatopancreas. Since XSV histopathology remained prominent in tissues of some prawns in which MAb reactivity for MrNV was low compared to MAb reactivity for XSV, XSV might play some role in WTD severity. PMID:22832718

Longyant, Siwaporn; Senapin, Saengchan; Sanont, Sirijantra; Wangman, Pradit; Chaivisuthangkura, Parin; Rukpratanporn, Sombat; Sithigorngul, Paisarn

2012-07-25

4

Encapsulation and delivery of plasmid DNA by virus-like nanoparticles engineered from Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus.  

PubMed

Virus-like particles (VLPs) are potential candidates in developing biological containers for packaging therapeutic or biologically active agents. Here, we expressed Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNv) capsid protein (encoding amino acids M1-N371 with 6 histidine residuals) in an Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). These easily purified capsid protein self-assembled into VLPs, and disassembly/reassembly could be controlled in a calcium-dependent manner. Physically, MrNv VLPs resisted to digestive enzymes, a property that should be advantageous for protection of active compounds against harsh conditions. We also proved that MrNv VLPs were capable of encapsulating plasmid DNA in the range of 0.035-0.042 mol ratio (DNA/protein) or 2-3 plasmids/VLP (assuming that MrNV VLPs is T=1, i made up of 60 capsid monomers). These VLPs interacted with cultured insect cells and delivered loaded plasmid DNA into the cells as shown by green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter. With many advantageous properties including self-encapsulation, MrNv VLPs are good candidates for delivery of therapeutic agents. PMID:24184445

Jariyapong, Pitchanee; Chotwiwatthanakun, Charoonroj; Somrit, Monsicha; Jitrapakdee, Sarawut; Xing, Li; Cheng, Holland R; Weerachatyanukul, Wattana

2014-01-22

5

Genetic analysis of RNA1 and RNA2 of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) isolated from India.  

PubMed

Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) is responsible for the newly emerging catastrophic disease known as white tail disease (WTD) in M. rosenbergii. The complete sequence of RNA2 (1175 bp) and 3126 bp region of RNA1 of an Indian strain of MrNV was generated. Sequence analysis of RNA2 revealed the presence of a single ORF encoding a capsid protein of 371 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass and pI of 41.5 kDa and 8.97 respectively. RNA1 contained two ORFs, one encoding a partial RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of length 1034 amino acids and another a B2-like protein with a length 133 amino acids. A phylogenetic analysis based on the amino acid sequence of the capsid protein, to related nodavirus sequences suggests the establishment of new genotypes within the Nodaviridae family and we suggest the name should be genus Gammanodavirus. A new reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay has been developed and optimized for the detection of shrimp nodavirus with a sensitivity to detect up to 24 copy numbers of plasmid construct. PMID:23318596

NaveenKumar, Singaiah; Shekar, Malathi; Karunasagar, Iddya; Karunasagar, Indrani

2013-05-01

6

Detection and phylogenetic profiling of nodavirus associated with white tail disease in Malaysian Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man.  

PubMed

White tail disease (WTD) is a serious viral disease in the hatcheries and nursery ponds of Macrobrachium rosenbergii in many parts of the world. A new disease similar to WTD was observed in larvae and post larvae of M. rosenbergii cultured in Malaysia. In the present study, RT-PCR assay was used to detect the causative agents of WTD, M. rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV) using specific primers for MrNV RNA2 and XSV. The results showed the presence of MrNV in the samples with or without signs of WTD. However, XSV was only detected in some of the MrNV-positive samples. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the RNA2 of our Malaysian isolates were significantly different from the other isolates. Histopathological studies revealed myofiber degeneration of the tail muscles and liquefactive myopathy in the infected prawns. This was the first report on the occurrence of MrNV in the Malaysian freshwater prawn. PMID:22223294

Saedi, Tayebeh Azam; Moeini, Hassan; Tan, Wen Siang; Yusoff, Khatijah; Daud, Hassan Mohd; Chu, Kua Beng; Tan, Soon Guan; Bhassu, Subha

2012-05-01

7

Non-permissive C6/36 cell culture for the Australian isolate of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus.  

PubMed

Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) that causes white tail disease (WTD) is an emerging disease that contributes to serious production losses in Macrobrachium hatcheries worldwide. Mosquito cell lines (C6/36) have been reported to support the growth of MrNV and used to observe the cytopathic effects (CPE) in infected cells. This study determined the susceptibility of C6/36 mosquito cells to the Australian isolate of MrNV in order to use fewer animals in further investigations. Different staining methods were used to observe MrNV viral activity in C6/36 cells. Typical cytopathic effects such as vacuolation and viral inclusion bodies were observed in infected C6/36 cells with H&E and Giemsa staining. With acridine orange, it was easier to detect presumptive MrNV messenger ribonucleic acid in the infected cells. Using neutral red staining to measure mitochondrial activity showed light absorption of infected cells maximized at day 4 (O.D. = 0.6) but was significantly lower (chi-square = 41.265, df = 1, P < 0.05) than control groups (O.D. = 2) which maximized at day 12. Using trypan blue staining to count the number of cells with disrupted cell membranes, the maximum number of presumptively dead cells at day 8 (4 × 10(5)  cells) in infected treatments was higher than the control treatment at day 10 (1.8 × 10(5)  cells). However, TaqMan real-time PCR did not confirm the replication of MrNV in the cells over 14 days. The mean viral copies and mean cycle times of positive samples were stable at 2.07 × 10(4) and 24.12, respectively. Limited evidence of viral replication was observed during four serial passages. This study determined the mortality of the C6/36 cell line to the Australian isolate of MrNV but suggests limited patent replication was occurring. Trying different cell lines or adapting the virus to the C6/36 cells may be necessary to successfully replicate Australian MrNV in cell lines. PMID:23134578

Hayakijkosol, O; Owens, L

2013-04-01

8

Production of recombinant capsid protein of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (r-MCP43) of giant freshwater prawn, M. rosenbergii (de Man) for immunological diagnostic methods.  

PubMed

White tail disease (WTD) caused by Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV) is a serious problem in prawn hatcheries. The gene for capsid protein of MrNV (MCP43) was cloned into pRSET B expression vector. The MCP43 protein was expressed as a protein with a 6-histidine tag in Escherichia coli GJ1158 with NaCl induction. This recombinant protein, which was used to raise the antiserum in rabbits, recognized capsid protein in different WTD-infected post-larvae and adult prawn. Various immunological methods such as Western blot, dot blot and ELISA techniques were employed to detect MrNV in infected samples using the antiserum raised against recombinant MCP43 of MrNV. The dot blot assay using anti-rMCP43 was found to be capable of detecting MrNV in WTD-infected post-larvae as early as at 24 h post-infection. The antiserum raised against r-MCP43 could detect the MrNV in the infected samples at the level of 100 pg of total protein. The capsid protein of MrNV estimated by ELISA using anti-rMCP43 and pure r-MCP43 as a standard was found to increase gradually during the course of infection from 24 h p.i. to moribund stage. The results of immunological diagnostic methods employed in this study were compared with that of RT-PCR to test the efficiency of antiserum raised against r-MCP43 for the detection of MrNV. The Western blot, dot blot and ELISA detected all MrNV-positive coded samples as detected by RT-PCR. PMID:23952017

Farook, M A; Madan, N; Taju, G; Majeed, S Abdul; Nambi, K S N; Raj, N Sundar; Vimal, S; Hameed, A S Sahul

2014-08-01

9

White tail disease of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii: separation of the associated virions and characterization of MrNV as a new type of nodavirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

White tail disease of the farmed freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is the cause of mortali- ties in the French West Indies, China and India. Two different sized particles, both developing in the cytoplasm of target cells, are found associated with diseased animals. These two viruses were separated, purified and subsequently characterized. The larger one, called MrNV, is icosahedral in shape

J-R Bonami; Z Shi; D Qian; J Sri Widada

2005-01-01

10

Extra small virus-like particles (XSV) and nodavirus associated with whitish muscle disease in the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

Microsoft Academic Search

A disease of Macrobrachium rosenbergii, the giant freshwater prawn, farmed in China was recently recorded in Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Shanghai, Guangxi and Guangdong provinces. The clinical sign of the disease, which develops in post-larvae (PL), is a whitish appearance of the muscles, particularly noticeable in the abdomen. Mortalities may reach 100% in some hatcheries. Investigations by trans- mission electron microscopy after

D Qian; Z Shi; S Zhang; Z Cao; W Liu; L Li; Y Xie; I Cambournac; J-R Bonami

2003-01-01

11

Setal Morphology of the Grooming Appendages of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Crustacea: Decapoda  

E-print Network

Setal Morphology of the Grooming Appendages of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Crustacea: Decapoda- nbergii, were examined using scanning electron micros- copy. Macrobrachium rosenbergii is extensively on the grooming appendages and sensory structures of the commercially important shrimp, Macrobrachium rose

Lajeunesse, Marc J.

12

White Tail Disease of Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

Macrobrachium rosenbergii is the most important cultured freshwater prawn in the world and it is now farmed on a large scale in many countries. Generally, freshwater prawn is considered to be tolerant to diseases but a disease of viral origin is responsible for severe mortalities in larval, post-larval and juvenile stages of prawn. This viral infection namely white tail disease (WTD) was reported in the island of Guadeloupe in 1995 and later in Martinique (FrenchWest Indies) in Taiwan, the People's Republic of China, India, Thailand, Australia and Malaysia. Two viruses, Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus-like particle (XSV) have been identified as causative agents of WTD. MrNV is a small icosahedral non-enveloped particle, 26-27 nm in diameter, identified in the cytoplasm of connective cells. XSV is also an icosahedral virus and 15 nm in diameter. Clinical signs observed in the infected animals include lethargy, opaqueness of the abdominal muscle, degeneration of the telson and uropods, and up to 100 % within 4 days. The available diagnostic methods to detect WTD include RT-PCR, dot-blot hybridization, in situ hybridization and ELISA. In experimental infection, these viruses caused 100 % mortality in post-larvae but failed to cause mortality in adult prawns. The reported hosts for these viruses include marine shrimp, Artemia and aquatic insects. Experiments were carried out to determine the possibility of vertical transmission of MrNV and XSV in M. rosenbergii. The results indicate that WTD may be transferred from infected brooders to their offspring during spawning. Replication of MrNV and XSV was investigated in apparently healthy C6/36 Aedes albopictus and SSN-1 cell lines. The results revealed that C6/36 and SSN-1cells were susceptible to these viruses. No work has been carried out on control and prevention of WTD and dsRNA against protein B2 produced RNAi that was able to functionally prevent and reduce mortality in WTD-infected redclaw crayfish. PMID:23997437

Sahul Hameed, A S; Bonami, Jean-Robert

2012-09-01

13

Changes of Myofibrillar Proteins and Texture in Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, During Iced Storage  

E-print Network

Changes of Myofibrillar Proteins and Texture in Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii has been reported to be 3-4 days with devel opment of mushiness proteins and texture offreshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, during 14-day iced storage were studied

14

Production and Application of Polyclonal Antibodies Against Recombinant Capsid Protein of Extra Small Virus of Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus along with a satellite virus, extra small virus (XSV) causes white tail disease (WTD) in the giant freshwater prawn M. rosenbergii. Infected M. rosenbergii postlarvae were collected from a hatchery in Kakinada, Andhra Pradesh. The gene coding the capsid protein of XSV was cloned in a bacterial expression vector pRSET A and the recombinant protein was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)pLysS cells. The recombinant protein was purified by Nickel affinity chromatography. Polyclonal antibodies were produced in mice against the recombinant protein and the antibodies reacted specifically with the recombinant protein and XSV in WTD-infected tissues. This is the first report of detection of XSV using antibodies against recombinant capsid protein. PMID:24293828

Neethi, V; Sivakumar, N; Kumar, Kundan; Rajendran, K V; Makesh, M

2012-12-01

15

Hybridization between the freshwater prawns Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man) and M. carcinus (L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of hybrids between Macrobrachium rosenbergii and other Macrobrachium species has great economical importance for aquaculture, but also has serious environmental implications when M. rosenbergii is present as an exotic species. In this study, intra- and interspecific crosses between M. rosenbergii and M. carcinus were carried out through natural mating and artificial insemination. For the natural crosses, a fertile

César Graziani; Carlos Moreno; Elvis Villarroel; Tomás Orta; César Lodeiros; Marcos De Donato

2003-01-01

16

Responses of freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii , to chemical attractants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemoreception in the adults of the freshwater prawnMacrobrachium rosenbergii was investigated under controlled laboratory conditions, using behavioral assays. Tests were carried out on groups, as well as on individuals, all at their intermolt stages of the molt cycle, and prestarved for three to four days. Of 28 different substances tested, the amino acids taurine, glycine, arginine, and betaine, as well

Sheenan Harpaz; David Kahan; Rachel Galun; Itzhak Moore

1987-01-01

17

Tolerance of Macrobrachium rosenbergii to white spot syndrome virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The susceptibility of Macrobrachium idella, M. lamerrae and M. rosenbergii to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was tested by immersion challenge, oral route and intramuscular injection. Their susceptibility to WSSV was compared with that of Penaeus indicus and P. monodon. The WSSV caused 43.3% and 53.3% mortality in M. lamerrae and M. idella, respectively, by immersion method and 53.3% and

A. S Sahul Hameed; M. Xavier Charles; M Anilkumar

2000-01-01

18

Protection of Macrobrachium rosenbergii against white tail disease by oral administration of bacterial expressed and encapsulated double-stranded RNA.  

PubMed

White tail disease (WTD) of cultured Macrobrachium rosenbergii is caused by M. rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and an extra small virus (XSV), both present together, and the mortality rate can be as high as 100% within 2 or 3 days of infection. Possible protection of M. rosenbergii against WTD by oral administration of bacterial expressed and encapsulated double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) was studied. Juvenile M. rosenbergii were fed with the feed coated with inactivated bacteria encapsulated dsRNA of MrNV and XSV genes individually and in combination for 7 days followed by challenge with WTD causing agents at 24 h and 72 h post-feeding. Test animals fed with a combination of dsRNA of MrNV and XSV capsid genes showed the highest relative percent survival (RPS) when compared to other treatments with RPS of 80% and 75% at 24 and 72 h respectively. One hundred percent mortality was observed in test animals fed with control dsRNA coated feed. Although in the literature, injection is the most common method used to deliver dsRNA, this study shows that oral administration is effective, feasible and economical. PMID:23811407

Naveen Kumar, Singaiah; Karunasagar, Indrani; Karunasagar, Iddya

2013-09-01

19

A sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (S-ELISA) for detection of MrNV in the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man).  

PubMed

A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (S-ELISA) was developed to improve diagnosis of white tail disease of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, caused by the nodavirus, MrNV. Polyclonal antibodies were produced by immunization of Balb/C mice using a purified suspension of the virus and IgG anti-MrNV were purified from ascitic fluid. A sandwich method was successfully developed, coating first with unlabelled antibody and detecting trapped antigens with a second biotinylated antibody. Reaction was demonstrated using an avidin-peroxidase conjugate. Tissue extracts from M. rosenbergii infected with MrNV or purified viral extracts (control) were successfully identified in an individual ELISA, thus confirming the validity of the method. This S-ELISA should be the technique of choice for epidemiological studies of this disease and is a rapid and inexpensive assay with high specificity and sensitivity. PMID:12962215

Romestand, B; Bonami, J R

2003-02-01

20

Nutritional requirements, feed formulation, and feeding practices for intensive culture of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research results concerning nutrition of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and applicability to the production of feed for intensive culture are presented. Future research approaches are recommended and comparisons to the nutrition of penaeid shrimp species are provided.Quantitative requirements of essential amino acids for M. rosenbergii are undefined; however, arginine, methionine, and lysine are suspected as being the first limiting

Louis R. DAbramo

1994-01-01

21

The virulence of Enterococcus to freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and its immune resistance under ammonia stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth of pathogen bacterium, Enterococcus was not affected in tryptic soy broth (TSB) medium containing ammonia-N concentration in the range of 0–5·14mg l?1. Giant freshwater prawnMacrobrachium rosenbergii (8–12g) were challenged with Enterococcus which had been incubated for 24h in TSB medium containing different concentrations of ammonia-N at 0–5·14mg l?1. Cumulative mortality of M. rosenbergii was higher for the bacteria incubated

Winton Cheng; Jiann-Chu Chen

2002-01-01

22

Feasibility of direct utilization of selected geothermal water for aquaculture of macrobrachium rosenbergii. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility was tested of direct utilization of geothermal water for the aquaculture of Malaysian freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). A problem with using geothermal water for aquaculture is the chemical composition of the water with high flouride levels being a particular problem. Results show that (1) some geothermal water in Idaho can be used directly for the aquaculture of Macrobrachium rosenbergii, (2) high flouride levels cannot be directly correlated with high mortality rates and (3) low flouride levels do not correlate with high growth rates.

Spinosa, C.

1984-05-01

23

Antibiotic administration by osmotic infiltration in the freshwater shrimp, Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

E-print Network

ANTIBIOTIC ADMINISTRATION BY OSMOTIC INFILTRATION IN THE FRESHWATER SHRIMP, MACROBRACHIUM POSENBERGII A Thesis by ALCESTIS TRILLO LLOBRERA Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A%M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1980 Major Subject: Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology ANTIBIOTIC ADMINISTRATION BY OSMOTIC INFILTRATION IN THE FRESHWATER SHRIMP, MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERGII A Thesis by ALCESTIS TRILLO LLOBRERA Approved...

Llobrera, Alcestis Trillo

2012-06-07

24

Ingestion rates of Artemia nauplii for different larval stages of Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The functional response between ingestion rate and food concentration was determined for each larval stage of Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Artemia franciscana nauplii were supplied at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 per milliliter. The nauplii were counted by sight using a Pasteur pipette and transferred to Petri dishes containing 40 ml of brackish water (12‰) lying on the top of

H. P. Barros; W. C. Valenti

2003-01-01

25

Bacterial agglutination by the sialic acid specific serum lectin from Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have isolated a serum lectin from the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii that agglutinates Bacillus cereus and Aeromona sp. This lectin also agglutinates other bacteria such as Pasteurella haemolytica biotype A (capsular serotype 12), several serotypes from P. multocida and Staphylococcus aureus and to a lesser extent Escherichia coli and Salmonella arizona.Lectin recognition of well known polysaccharide components seems to

Lorena Vazquez; Laura Jaramillo; Ricardo Lascurain; Edwin L. Cooper; Patricia Rosas; Edgar Zenteno

1996-01-01

26

Effects and toxicity of phthalate esters to hemocytes of giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phthalate esters (PAEs) have been considered as environmental pollutants and have been subject to control in the United States of America and Japan. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and toxicity of eight PAEs to hemocytes and the defense functions of giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), including hemocytic adhesion, pseudopodia formation, phenoloxidase (PO) activity, and superoxide

Hung-Hung Sung; Wei-Yi Kao; Yi-Jen Su

2003-01-01

27

Effects of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on the haemocyte profile of the prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii was investigated for its total haemocyte count (THC) based on season, sex, size and feeding rate. The THC, when the prawns were subjected to injections of foreign materials was also investigated. The prawns displayed the highest and lowest THC in autumn and winter respectively, with no significant difference between male and female, or among

Winton Cheng; Jiann-Chu Chen

2001-01-01

28

Observations on the behavior of the malaysian prawn, macrobrachium rosenbergii (de man), to artificial habitats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six studies examined the spatial and temporal behavior of juvenile Macrobrachium rosenbergii prawns to a variety of habitat configurations and materials. Of the configurations tested, a layered habitat design was preferred. A significant (P < 0.001) preference for edge or perimeter areas of solid layer habitat units was displayed by the prawns. However, modification of the layers to consist of

Theodore I. J. Smith; Paul A. Sandifer

1979-01-01

29

In vitro culture of embryonic cells from the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were carried out to develop cell line cultures from embryonic tissue of Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Good yields of dissociated, uncontaminated, viable cell suspensions were obtained by physical disruption of harvested eggs in the presence of buffered iodophore disinfectant and malachite green. Primary cultures in the form of proliferating foci of cells were readily initiated using a wide range of mammalian

G. N. Frerichs

1996-01-01

30

Detection of white spot baculovirus (WSBV) in giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, using polymerase chain reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

White spot baculovirus (WSBV) is the causative agent of a disease which decimated some cultured penaeid shrimp populations and inflicted severe economic damage in Taiwan. Until very recently, the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii was thought to be unaffected by this virus, but now signs closely resembling white spot syndrome (WSS) have been observed on its exoskeleton. In this paper,

S. E Peng; C. F Lo; C. H Ho; C. F Chang; G. H Kou

1998-01-01

31

Microbiological Quality of Farmed Tropical Freshwater Prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine the microbiological quality of farmed giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) collected from four freshwater farms located in Kerala (India). Microbiological counts on whole, deheaded, and deheaded and deveined prawn as well as on head and intestine were determined. Average counts (log10 cfu g) on whole prawn were 6.9 (total mesophilic counts (TPC)

K. V. Lalitha; P. K. Surendran

2006-01-01

32

Induced thermotolerance and stress resistance in larvae of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man, 1879)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimal conditions for heat shock (HS) were used to demonstrate induced thermotolerance (ITT) in larvae of the prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Larvae from three different broodstock nutritional regimes exhibited comparable degrees of ITT, which remained high for about 4 days. Survival and growth of larvae given the standard HS treatment (37 °C for 30min) were not statistically different from those of

M. M. Rahman; M. Wille; R. O. Cavalli; P. Sorgeloos; J. S. Clegg

2004-01-01

33

ONTOGENY OF SOCIAL STRUTURE AND POPULATION DYNAMICS IN THE GIANT FRESHWATER PRAWN, MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERGII (DE MAN)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social organization apparent in adult populations of giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii was analyzed with respect to: a) the weight distribution of a mature population, b) morphological definition of the three male types, and c) growth and maturation characteristics of males and females, including behavioral observations. The ontogeny of social structure was then followed starting from newly metamorphosed postlarvae up

ZIVA RA' ANAN; DAN COHEN

34

Microbiological changes in farm reared freshwater prawn ( Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man) in ice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microbiological changes in farm reared freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man) during ice storage were studied. A total of 156 bacterial cultures from fresh and ice-stored farmed freshwater prawn were isolated and characterized. Total aerobic, mesophilic and psychrotrophic counts and hydrogen sulphide producing bacterial counts were determined. The total aerobic counts at 20 and 37°C on fresh prawn was

K. V. Lalitha; P. K. Surendran

2006-01-01

35

Chromosome behaviour upon fertilization in eggs of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronological changes of the chromosomes upon feritilization of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man), were followed. Egg chromosomes, within 2 min after spawning, were at the second meiotic metaphase whereas sperm nucleus retained a cupped shape of the base region. The egg chromosomes progressed to the second meiotic anaphase by 10–15 min and completed maturation by 20 min

PRANEET DAMRONGPHOL; NITTAYA EANGCHUAN; BOONSERM POOLSANGUAN

1991-01-01

36

Spermatogenesis and distinctive mature sperm in the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1879)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structures of differentiating male germ cells in the testis of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, were studied by light and electron microscopy. Based on ultrastructural characteristics, the developing male germ cells are classified into 12 stages, including spermatogonia, six phases of primary spermatocytes (leptotene, zygotene, pachytene, diplotene, diakinesis and metaphase), secondary spermatocyte, three stages of spermatids and mature

Jaruwan Poljaroen; Rapeepun Vanichviriyakit; Yotsawan Tinikul; Ittipon Phoungpetchara; Vichai Linthong; Wattana Weerachatyanukul; Prasert Sobhon

2010-01-01

37

CERVUS vs. COLONY for successful parentage and sibship determinations in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assesses the properties of 10 microsatellite loci and two popular computer programs for likelihood-based parentage identification in commercial strains of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. It was our interest to determine the number of markers needed to optimize between genotyping cost and power of the test. Nine loci were informative, with average expected heterozygosity of 0.80 and

Thuchapol Karaket; Supawadee Poompuang

38

??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? Response to within-family selection on growth rate of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selective breeding program to improve growth rate of giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii has been carried out at the National Aquaculture Genetics Research Institute during 1998 to 2000. Within-family selection procedure was applied on growth rate of culture prawns. The experiment consisted of two lines including a high growth selected line and a control line. The selection responses were estimated

Supattra Uraiwan; Surang Sumanojitraporn; Siriporn Jeenmauk

39

Optimisation of reverse transcriptase loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid detection of Macrobrachium rosenbergii noda virus and extra small virus in Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

The standardisation and optimisation of a one step single tube reverse transcriptase loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) procedure is described for rapid diagnosis of white tail disease, a viral disease caused by Macrobrachium rosenbergii noda virus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV), in giant fresh water prawn, M. rosenbergii. Time, temperature and quantity of each reagent were optimised for the detection of the two viruses. This method was more sensitive than the conventional reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for detecting the two viruses. The RT-LAMP reaction is highly suited for disease diagnosis in developing countries. Amplification of DNA can be detected without the use of agarose gel electrophoresis, by the production of a whitish precipitate of magnesium pyrophosphate as a by-product. The cost of RT-LAMP for one reaction is nearly 4 times less than that of RT-PCR. PMID:20307575

Haridas, Divya V; Pillai, Devika; Manojkumar, B; Nair, C Mohanakumaran; Sherief, P M

2010-07-01

40

Effects of temperature on oxygen consumption and nitrogenous excretion of juvenile Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxygen consumption (O2 mg g?1 h?1) and ammonia-N, urea-N, organic-N and total nitrogen excretion (N ?g g?1 h?1) of juvenile Macrobrachium rosenbergii increased directly with temperature in the range of 17–32 °C. No urea-N excretion was found at 17 °C. The proportion of ammonia-N excretion to total nitrogen excreted by prawns was inversely related to temperature, whereas the proportion of

Jiann-Chu Chen; Tsu-Tau Kou

1996-01-01

41

Performance of Macrobrachium rosenbergii broodstock fed diets with different fatty acid composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of linoleic acid (18:2n?6) and n?3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) on the reproductive performance and offspring quality of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii was evaluated in a 180-day trial. Three isonitrogenous and isolipidic diets containing different levels of fatty acids, high 18:2n?6 and n?3 HUFA concentrations, high 18:2n?6 and low n?3 HUFA, and low 18:2n?6 and n?3

Ronaldo O Cavalli; Patrick Lavens; Patrick Sorgeloos

1999-01-01

42

A successful microbound diet for the larval culture of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high moisture (63–71%), semi-purified microbound diet containing alginate was compared to newly hatched live Artemia nauplii as an exclusive diet for the culture of larval freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii from 5th stage (weighted mean) through metamorphosis to postlarva. Two separate trials, representing larvae from different hatches, were conducted. Larvae were stocked at 50\\/l into cone-shaped vessels that contained 2

Ekaterina E Kovalenko; Louis R D'Abramo; Cortney L Ohs; Randal K Buddington

2002-01-01

43

Transcriptomics of a Giant Freshwater Prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii): De Novo Assembly, Annotation and Marker Discovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundGiant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii or GFP), is the most economically important freshwater crustacean species. However, as little is known about its genome, 454 pyrosequencing of cDNA was undertaken to characterise its transcriptome and identify genes important for growth.Methodology and Principal FindingsA collection of 787,731 sequence reads (244.37 Mb) obtained from 454 pyrosequencing analysis of cDNA prepared from muscle, ovary

Hyungtaek Jung; Russell E. Lyons; Hung Dinh; David A. Hurwood; Sean McWilliam; Peter B. Mather

2011-01-01

44

Effect of tributyltin on the early embryonic development in the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organotin compounds particularly tributyltin (TBT) has been used as an antifouling biocides. In the present investigation, effects of TBT on the embryonic development, growth, hatchability and hatching success of eggs exposed to TBT were studied in both control and treated groups of the freshwater prawn (brooder) Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Three concentrations viz. 0.78ppm, 1.56ppm and 3.12ppm were selected for treatment. TBT

Peranandam Revathi; Natesan Munuswamy

2010-01-01

45

Serotonin induces ovarian maturation in giant freshwater prawn broodstock, Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effects of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5HT) on ovarian development in Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man. Adult female prawns at the ovarian stage I (spent) were injected with 5HT at 1, 5, 10, 20 and 50 ?g g?1 body weight (BW) intramuscularly on days 0, 5 and 10, and sacrificed on day 15. The doses as related to the

Prasert Meeratana; Boonsirm Withyachumnarnkul; Praneet Damrongphol; Kanokphan Wongprasert; Anchalee Suseangtham; Prasert Sobhon

2006-01-01

46

Effect of cadmium on the ovarian development in the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this investigation, effect of cadmium chloride (25?g\\/l) on oogenesis of freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii was studied. In vivo experiments were performed with both intact and eyestalk ablated prawns. The intact, cadmium-exposed prawns exhibited decrease in Gonado Somatic Index (GSI) and ovarian development compared to controls. Whereas, ablated treated ovary showed reduction of yolk material and oocyte membrane thickness at

Peranandam Revathi; Lourduraj Arockia Vasanthi; Natesan Munuswamy

2011-01-01

47

Development of cell culture system from the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new cell culture system (MRH) was developed for the first time from 2 months old freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Primary cultures were developed from heart tissues by explant culture technique. Cell outgrowth was obtained from the heart\\u000a explant after 14 days of explant culture. The culture medium used was Leibovitz-15 supplemented with 20% Fetal Bovine Serum\\u000a along with 1% prawn hemolymph

Mukunda Goswami; Wazir S. Lakra; T. Rajaswaminathan; Gourav Rathore

2010-01-01

48

USING DIFFERENT SHELTER AREAS ON NURSING OF GIANT FRESHWATER PRAWN, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man, 1879) POSTLARVA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nursing of giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man, 1879) from the postlarval stage to the size of 2 cm with six different sizes shelters, including 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 m 2 , respectively. The experiment was carried out in 2.5 m diameter cement tank, contained 2.5 m 3 filtered water in 0.5 m water level. The

Supat Sripat; Nipon Chanprathad

49

Effects of dissolved oxygen on hemolymph parameters of freshwater giant prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Profiles of changes in physiological parameters of freshwater giant prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, exposed to various dissolved oxygen (DO) levels of 7.75, 4.75, 2.75, and 1.75 mg l?1 are reported. The parameters involved in osmoregulation and oxygen transport were monitored for a 6-day period. Notable depressions in hemolymph osmolality, Na+, K+, and Cl? contents were observed within 24 h after exposure

Winton Cheng; Chun-Hung Liu; Ching-Ming Kuo

2003-01-01

50

Salinity effects on reproduction of giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the role of salinity in breeding and growth has the potential to enhance production of giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. This study investigated the reproduction of females reared in salinities of 0, 6, 12, and 18 g L?1. Mean weight of females decreased with increased salinity (31.40±1.54, 25.14±1.16, 20.80±0.81, and 16.62±1.04 g at 0, 6, 12, and 18 g L?1, respectively). Larval

Pham Truong Yen; Amrit N. Bart

2008-01-01

51

Effects of nitrite on mortality, ion regulation and acid-base balance of Macrobrachium rosenbergii at different external chloride concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 96 h LC50 of nitrite-N to juvenile Macrobrachium rosenbergii was 8.49, 11.21, and 12.87 mg l?1 at 15, 24 and 34 mg Cl? per liter of water, respectively. M. rosenbergii which had been exposed individually to 0 (control), 2, 5, 10 mg nitrite-N per liter for 24 h at 15, 33, 50 mg Cl? per liter were analyzed for

Jiann-Chu Chen; Yuh Lee

1997-01-01

52

Phenoloxidase Activity of Hemocytes Derived from Penaeus monodonand Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phenoloxidase (PO) activity of hemocyte lysate supernatant (HLS) from both tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) and giant freshwater prawn (Macrobranchium rosenbergii) was examined by treating HLS with various factors, such as an increase in temperatures from 25 to 70°C, one of four elicitors (?-1,3-1,6-glucan, zymosan, heat-killedVibriocells, and lipopolysaccharide), trypsin, one of three protease inhibitors (soybean trypsin inhibitor,p-nitrophenyl-p?-guanidinobenzoate, and benzamidine), and

Hung-Hung Sung; Hung-Jun Chang; Cheng-Hao Her; Jen-Chang Chang; Yen-Ling Song

1998-01-01

53

Physiology of chemoreceptor cells in the legs of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

1. Chemoreceptor cells in the first pereiopods (legs) of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, were investigated using single-unit, extracellular electrophysiological recording techniques on an isolated, perfused leg preparation. 2. The cells were responsive to aqueous extracts of food (shrimp, mullet, trout chow), a salt mixture (artificial sea-water), amino acids (L-arginine HCl, taurine), a quaternary ammonium compound (betaine HCl) and ammonium chloride. 3. The response specificity of individual cells ranged from narrow to broad, but on average was broad, being more similar to chemoreceptor cells of freshwater crayfish than of marine spiny or clawed lobsters. 4. Responses were generally excitatory. However, some responses were inhibitory, the first such demonstration in aquatic crustaceans. 5. These electrophysiological results highly correlate with results of feeding behavioral assays carried out on M. rosenbergii. PMID:2900111

Derby, C D; Harpaz, S

1988-01-01

54

Cloning and expression analysis of an anti-lipopolysaccharide factor from giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

Anti-lipopolysaccharide factors (ALFs) are a group of effector molecules that are classified as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). They are found in limulids and crustaceans and show a broad range of antimicrobial activity. In the current study, an ALF gene from Macrobrachium rosenbergii (MrALF) was identified. Its full length was 690 bp and it encoded a 124 amino acid protein. A signal peptide and a conserved LPS-binding domain with two conserved cysteine residues that comprise a cluster of positive charged residues within a disulfide loop were predicted in MrALF. The M. rosenbergii ALF clusters with the Macrobrachium olfersii ALF and further clusters with most crustacean ALFs, suggesting that they should originate from one common ancestor. Positive selections should have sharpen the evolution of M. rosenbergii and M. olfersii ALF genes. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that MrALF was expressed in all detected tissues. In the epidermis, MrALF was obviously upregulated 24 h after the LPS challenge. In the stomach and gills, MrALF was upregulated upon LPS challenge. The results show that MrALF might have important roles in the immune defense against invading bacteria. The positive selections that occur in the ALFs of crustaceans might have resulted from a Red Queen's race with its pathogens. We found evidence of positive selection acting to drive functional divergence during the evolution crustacean ALF genes, especially in the M. rosenbergii ALF gene. The evolutionary changes might correspond to the challenges induced by pathogens that infect crustaceans. PMID:22350161

Ren, Qian; Du, Zhi-Qiang; Li, Meng; Zhang, Chi-Yu; Chen, Ke-Ping

2012-07-01

55

Thermal tolerance and oxygen consumption of Macrobrachium rosenbergii acclimated to three temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Critical thermal maxima (CTmax), critical thermal minima (CTmin) and oxygen consumption rate of four-month-old adult Macrobrachium rosenbergii (38 ± 3.1g) were measured after acclimating to 3 preset temperatures (25°C, 30°C and 35°C) for 30 days.2.CTmax and CTmin were 40.73±0.16°C, 41.06±0.17°C, 41.96±0.17°C and 14.9±0.13°C, 15.4±0.14°C, 16.98+0.21°C, respectively, and were significantly different (p<0.05).3.Rate of oxygen consumption with increasing acclimation temperatures were 2.11±0.11,

S. M. Manush; A. K. Pal; N. Chatterjee; T. Das; S. C. Mukherjee

2004-01-01

56

[Influence of lecithotrofic feeding on growth and development of larvae of freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium rosenbergii].  

PubMed

In the giant freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man), lecithotrofic feeding was discovered at the zoea I stage, and facultative lecithotrofic feeding was found at the zoea II stage. Cases of the completion of the first two stages without feeding were detected. However, a delay in feeding at the zoea II stage caused the inhibition of the growth and development of larvae. In this connection, we recommend to introduce food to the aquaculture of the giant freshwater shrimp on the end of the first day after hatching, when the first zoea II larvae emerge. PMID:21786650

Borisov, R R; Kriakhova, N V

2011-01-01

57

Effects of complete and supplemental diets and organic pond fertilization on production of Macrobrachium rosenbergii and associated benthic macroinvertebrate populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth and population characteristics of freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, fed either a complete diet, a supplemental diet (with fish meal replaced and vitamin and mineral supplements deleted), or the supplemental diet with an adjunct organic pond fertilization regime were examined. Effects of these treatments on potential forage organisms (benthic macroinvertebrates) were also evaluated. Juvenile prawns averaging 0.46 ± 0.49 g

James H. Tidwell; Carl D. Webster; John D. Sedlacek; Paul A. Weston; Wanda L. Knight; Sankie J. Hill; Louis R. D'Abramo; William H. Daniels; Marty J. Fuller; J. Labrenty Montañez

1995-01-01

58

Bacterial Flora of Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii(de Man), Cultured in Concrete Tanks in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial counts and the aerobic heterotrophic bacterial flora in the digestive tract of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, in Saudi Arabia were investigated, and the isolates were identified to the species level. Physicochemical characteristics, bacterial counts, and bacterial flora of freshwater prawn culture tank water, tank sediment, and freshwater prawn carapace were also investigated. Total viable bacterial counts ranged from

Ahmed H. Al-Harbi

2003-01-01

59

TBT effects on the development of intersex (ovotestis) in female fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

The impact of tributyltin (TBT) on the female gonad and the endocrine system in Macrobrachium rosenbergii was studied. Prawns were exposed to environmentally realistic concentrations of 10, 100, and 1000?ng/L of TBT for 6 months. Dose dependent effects were noticed in TBT exposed prawns. At 1000?ng/L TBT caused ovotestis formation (formation of male germ cells in ovary). Presence immature oocytes, fusion of developing oocytes, increase in interstitial connective tissues, and its modification into tubular like structure and abundance of spermatogonia in the ovary of TBT treated prawns. The control prawn ovary showed normal architecture of cellular organelles such as mature oocytes with type 2 yolk globules, lipid droplets, normal appearance of yolk envelop, and uniformly arranged microvilli. On the other hand, type 1 yolk globules, reduced size of microvilli, spermatogonial cells in ovary, spermatogonia with centrally located nucleus, and chromatin distribution throughout the nucleoplasm were present in the TBT treated group. Immunofluorescence staining indicated a reduction in vitellin content in ovary of TBT treated prawn. Moreover, TBT had inhibited the vitellogenesis by causing hormonal imbalance in M. rosenbergii. Thus, the present investigation demonstrates that TBT substantially affects sexual differentiation and gonadal development in M. rosenbergii. PMID:25121096

Peranandam, Revathi; Palanisamy, Iyapparaj; Lourdaraj, Arockia Vasanthi; Natesan, Munuswamy; Vimalananthan, Arun Prasanna; Thangaiyan, Suganya; Perumal, Anantharaman; Muthukalingan, Krishnan

2014-01-01

60

Molecular functions of chaperonin gene, containing tailless complex polypeptide 1 from Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

Chaperonin (MrChap) was identified from a constructed transcriptome dataset of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The MrChap peptide contains a long chaperone super family domain between 11 and 525. Three chaperone tailless complex polypeptide (TCP-1) signatures are present in the MrChap peptide sequence at 36-48, 57-73 and 85-93. The gene expressions of MrChap in both healthy M. rosenbergii and those infected with infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) were examined using qRT-PCR. To understand its biological activity, the recombinant MrChap gene was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The results of ATPase assay showed that the recombinant MrChap protein exhibited apparent ATPase activity. Chaperone activity assay showed that the recombinant MrChap protein is an active chaperone. These results suggest that MrChap is potentially involved in the immune responses against viral infection in M. rosenbergii. These findings indicate that the recombinant MrChap protein may be used in immunotherapeutic approaches. PMID:22903032

Arockiaraj, Jesu; Vanaraja, Puganeshwaran; Easwvaran, Sarasvathi; Singh, Arun; Othman, Rofina Yasmin; Bhassu, Subha

2012-10-25

61

Immunological role of thiol-dependent peroxiredoxin gene in Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

In this study, we have reported a full length of peroxiredoxin (designated MrPrdx) gene, identified from the transcriptome of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The complete gene sequence of the MrPrdx is 940 base pairs in length, and encodes 186 amino acids. MrPrdx contains a long thioredoxin domain in the amino acid sequence between 34 and 186. The gene expressions of MrPrdx in healthy and the infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) challenged M. rosenbergii were examined using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. MrPrdx is highly expressed in all the other tissues of M. rosenbergii considered for analysis and the highest in gills. The expression is strongly up-regulated in gills after IHHNV infection. To understand MrPrdx functional properties, the recombinant MrPrdx protein was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and purified. A peroxidise activity assay was conducted using recombinant MrPrdx protein at different concentrations. This peroxidises activity showed that the recombinant MrPrdx is a thiol-dependant protein. Additionally, this result showed that recombinant MrPrdx protein, as a secretory protein can remove H?O? and protect DNA damage. This finding leads a possible way to propose the recombinant MrPrdx protein as an effective medicine for reactive oxygen species (ROS) related diseases. PMID:22565019

Arockiaraj, Jesu; Easwvaran, Sarasvathi; Vanaraja, Puganeshwaran; Singh, Arun; Othman, Rofina Yasmin; Bhassu, Subha

2012-07-01

62

TBT Effects on the Development of Intersex (Ovotestis) in Female Fresh Water Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

PubMed Central

The impact of tributyltin (TBT) on the female gonad and the endocrine system in Macrobrachium rosenbergii was studied. Prawns were exposed to environmentally realistic concentrations of 10, 100, and 1000?ng/L of TBT for 6 months. Dose dependent effects were noticed in TBT exposed prawns. At 1000?ng/L TBT caused ovotestis formation (formation of male germ cells in ovary). Presence immature oocytes, fusion of developing oocytes, increase in interstitial connective tissues, and its modification into tubular like structure and abundance of spermatogonia in the ovary of TBT treated prawns. The control prawn ovary showed normal architecture of cellular organelles such as mature oocytes with type 2 yolk globules, lipid droplets, normal appearance of yolk envelop, and uniformly arranged microvilli. On the other hand, type 1 yolk globules, reduced size of microvilli, spermatogonial cells in ovary, spermatogonia with centrally located nucleus, and chromatin distribution throughout the nucleoplasm were present in the TBT treated group. Immunofluorescence staining indicated a reduction in vitellin content in ovary of TBT treated prawn. Moreover, TBT had inhibited the vitellogenesis by causing hormonal imbalance in M. rosenbergii. Thus, the present investigation demonstrates that TBT substantially affects sexual differentiation and gonadal development in M. rosenbergii. PMID:25121096

Peranandam, Revathi; Palanisamy, Iyapparaj; Lourdaraj, Arockia Vasanthi; Natesan, Munuswamy; Vimalananthan, Arun Prasanna; Thangaiyan, Suganya; Perumal, Anantharaman; Muthukalingan, Krishnan

2014-01-01

63

Effect of Methyl Farnesoate on Late Larval Development and Metamorphosis in the Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Decapoda, Palaemonidae): A Juvenoid-like Effect?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methyl famesoate (MF), the unepoxidated form of insect juvenile hormone III, was detected in larvae of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, which metamorphose to post-larvae following 11 larval stages. The possible role of MF as a morphogen was studied by administering the compound to M. rosenbergii larvae via an Artemia vector. Higher MF levels caused earlier retardation of late larval

URI ABDU; PETER TAKAC; HANS LAUFER; AMIR SAGI

64

The Concentrations of Vitellogenin (Vitellin) and Protein in Hemolymph, Ovary and Hepatopancreas in Different Ovarian Stages of the Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives were to measure the concentrations of vitellogenin (vitellin) and protein in hemolymph, ovary, and hepatopancreas of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, in different stages of ovarian development. The ovarian development of M. rosenbergii was classified into five developmental stages (Stages I–V). Vitellogenin concentrations increased in the hemolymph of prawns in the early stages of ovarian development (Stage I

Fang-Yi Lee; Ching-Fong Chang

1997-01-01

65

Huxley's line demarcates extensive genetic divergence between eastern and western forms of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

Phylogenetic analysis of representatives from 18 wild populations of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, utilising a fragment of the 16S rRNA mitochondrial gene, identified two major reciprocally monophyletic clades either side of a well-known biogeographic barrier, Huxley's line. The level of divergence between the two clades (maximum 6.2%) far exceeds divergence levels within either clade (maximum 0.9%), and does not concord with geographical distance among sites. 'Eastern' and 'western' M. rosenbergii clades have probably been separated since Miocene times. Within-clade diversity appears to have been shaped by dispersal events influenced by eustatic change. PMID:15022775

de Bruyn, Mark; Wilson, John A; Mather, Peter B

2004-01-01

66

First report on interferon related developmental regulator-1 from Macrobrachium rosenbergii: bioinformatic analysis and gene expression.  

PubMed

This study reports the first full length gene of interferon related developmental regulator-1 (designated as MrIRDR-1), identified from the transcriptome of Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The complete gene sequence of the MrIRDR-1 is 2459 base pair long with an open reading frame of 1308 base pairs and encoding a predicted protein of 436 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 48 kDa. The MrIRDR-1 protein contains a long interferon related developmental regulator super family domain between 30 and 330. The mRNA expressions of MrIRDR-1 in healthy and the infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) infected M. rosenbergii were examined using qRT-PCR. The MrIRDR-1 is highly expressed in hepatopancreas along with all other tissues (walking leg, gills, muscle, haemocyte, pleopods, brain, stomach, intestine and eye stalk). After IHHNV infection, the expression is highly upregulated in hepatopancreas. This result indicates an important role of MrIRDR-1 in prawn defense system. PMID:22361112

Arockiaraj, Jesu; Easwvaran, Sarasvathi; Vanaraja, Puganeshwaran; Singh, Arun; Othman, Rofina Yasmin; Bhassu, Subha

2012-05-01

67

Toxicity of phenol on Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) eggs, larvae, and post-larvae  

SciTech Connect

Literature on the toxicities of phenol on aquatic organisms is very limited. USEPA reported that the acute and chronic toxicities of phenol to freshwater aquatic life occur at concentrations as low as 10.2 mg/L and 2.56 mg/L, respectively. While for the saltwater aquatic life the acute toxicity occurs at concentrations as low as 5.8 mg/L. No data are available for the chronic toxicity of phenol to saltwater aquatic life. Sublethal concentrations of phenol have significant effects on the physiological and histological processes of the aquatic organisms: such as gill necrosis; destruction of erythrocyte cells; inhibition of sexual activities; suppression on growth and reduction of resistance to diseases. Macrobrachium rosenbergii(de Man) is the sole freshwater prawn cultured in Malaysia. Occasionally, the hatcheries are unable to produce the post-larvae because of undefined pollutants present in the water supplies. It has been observed that the use of cracked fiberglass tanks for larvae rearing is correlated with high mortality. This high mortality is probably due to the toxicity of the phenolic compounds which are leached out from the fiber glass tank into the water. This study was undertaken to evaluate the toxicity of phenol on eggs, larvae and post-larvae of M. rosenbergii and to set the water quality criteria of phenol for the said species. 16 refs., 3 tabs.

Law, A.T.; Yeo, M.E. [Universiti Kolej Terengganu (UPM), Darul Iman (Malaysia)] [Universiti Kolej Terengganu (UPM), Darul Iman (Malaysia)

1997-03-01

68

Bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls and metals from contaminated sediment by freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii and clams, Corbicula fluminea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freshwater prawns,Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and clams,Corbicula fluminea, were exposed for 48 or 50 days to three concentrations of a river sediment that contained environmental contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and metals. Sediment was obtained twice during 1980 from the same location. Prawns were exposed to the first batch, sediment 5–80, which contained higher concentrations of some metals and PCBs compared

Henry E. Tatem

1986-01-01

69

Performance of Giant Freshwater Prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man) Reared in Earthen Ponds Beneath Plastic Film Shelters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effects of using plastic film shelters on the survival, growth and production cost of giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). Three ponds were covered with plastic shelters, whilst three other were left unsheltered as controls. The surface area of all ponds was 100 square meters (6x16.7),with a water depth of 1.0 meter. Post larvae (0.012 g. mean

Niwooti Whangchai

70

Effects of an organophosphorus insecticide, trichlorfon, on hematological parameters of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemolymph osmolality, ion concentration, acid–base balance, and immune parameters in Macrobrachium rosenbergii (15–20 g) were measured after 8 days of exposure to 0–0.3 mg l?1 trichlorfon. A significant depression in hemolymph osmolality and Cl?1 contents were observed with exposure to 0.3 mg l?1 trichlorfon. Similarly, hemolymph pH, HCO3?, and TCO2 decreased significantly when prawns were exposed to concentration of greater

Shinn-Pyng Yeh; Tzeng-Gan Sung; Chin-Chyuan Chang; Winton Cheng; Ching-Ming Kuo

2005-01-01

71

The distribution of APGWamide and RFamides in the central nervous system and ovary of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immunohistochemistry was used to identify the distribution of both APGWamide-like and RFamide-like peptides in the central\\u000a nervous system (CNS) and ovary of the mature female giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. APGWamide-like immunoreactivity (ALP-ir) was found only within the sinus gland (SG) of the eyestalk, in small- and medium-sized\\u000a neurons of cluster 4, as well as their varicosed axons. RFamide-like immunoreactivity

Ronnarong Palasoon; Sasiporn Panasophonkul; Prapee Sretarugsa; Peter Hanna; Prasert Sobhon; Jittipan Chavadej

2011-01-01

72

Epidermal growth factor receptor in the prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii: function and putative signaling cascade.  

PubMed

Epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs) are highly conserved members of the tyrosine kinase receptor superfamily found in metazoans and plants. In arthropods, EGFRs are vital for the proper development of embryos and of adult limbs, gonads, and eyes as well as affecting body size. In searching for genes involved in the growth and development of our model organism, the decapod crustacean (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), a comprehensive transcript library was established using next-generation sequencing. Using this library, the expression of several genes assigned to the signal transduction pathways mediated by EGFRs was observed, including a transcript encoding M. rosenbergii EGFR (Mr-EGFR), several potential ligands upstream to the receptor, and most of the putative downstream signal transducer genes. The deduced protein encoded by Mr-EGFR, representing the first such receptor reported thus far in crustaceans, shows sequence similarity to other arthropod EGFRs. The M. rosenbergii gene is expressed in most tested tissues. The role of Mr-EGFR was revealed by temporarily silencing the transcript through weekly injections of double-stranded Mr-EGFR RNA. Such treatment resulted in a significant reduction in growth and a delay in the appearance of a male secondary sexual characteristic, namely the appendix masculina. An additional function of Mr-EGFR was revealed with respect to eye development. Although the optic ganglion appeared to have retained its normal morphology, Mr-EGFR-silenced individuals developed abnormal eyes that presented irregular organization of the ommatidia, reflected by unorganized receptor cells occupying large areas of the dioptric portion and by a shortened crystalline tract layer. PMID:23825131

Sharabi, Omri; Ventura, Tomer; Manor, Rivka; Aflalo, Eliahu D; Sagi, Amir

2013-09-01

73

Crustin, a WAP domain containing antimicrobial peptide from freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii: immune characterization.  

PubMed

Crustin (MrCrs) was sequenced from a freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The MrCrs protein contains a signal peptide region at N-terminus between 1 and 22 and a long whey acidic protein domain (WAP domain) at C-terminus between 57 and 110 along with a WAP-type 'four-disulfide core' motif. Phylogenetic results show that MrCrs is clustered together with other crustacean crustin groups. MrCrs showed high sequence similarity (77%) with crustin from Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and Japanese spiny lobster Panulirus japonicas. I-TASSER uses the best structure templates to predict the possible structures of MrCrs along with PDB IDs such as 2RELA and 1FLEI. The gene expressions of MrCrs in both healthy M. rosenbergii and those infected with virus including infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila (Gram-negative) and Enterococcus faecium (Gram-positive) were examined using quantitative real time PCR. To understand its biological activity, the recombinant MrCrs gene was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The recombinant MrCrs protein agglutinated with the bacteria considered for analysis at a concentration of 25 ?g/ml, except Lactococcus lactis. The bactericidal results showed that the recombinant MrCrs protein destroyed all the bacteria after incubation, even less than 6 h. These results suggest that MrCrs is a potential antimicrobial peptide, which is involved in the defense system of M. rosenbergii against viral and bacterial infections. PMID:23069787

Arockiaraj, Jesu; Gnanam, Annie J; Muthukrishnan, Dhanaraj; Gudimella, Ranganath; Milton, James; Singh, Arun; Muthupandian, Saravanan; Kasi, Marimuthu; Bhassu, Subha

2013-01-01

74

Macrobrachium rosenbergii cathepsin L: molecular characterization and gene expression in response to viral and bacterial infections.  

PubMed

Cathepsin L (MrCathL) was identified from a constructed cDNA library of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. MrCathL full-length cDNA is 1161 base pairs (bp) with an ORF of 1026bp which encodes a polypeptide of 342 amino acid (aa) long. The eukaryotic cysteine proteases, histidine and asparagine active site residues were identified in the aa sequence of MrCathL at 143-154, 286-296 and 304-323, respectively. The pair wise clustalW analysis of MrCathL showed the highest similarity (97%) with the homologous cathepsin L from Macrobrachium nipponense and the lowest similarity (70%) from human. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two distinct clusters of the invertebrates and vertebrates cathepsin L in the phylogenetic tree. MrCathL and cathepsin L from M. nipponense were clustered together, formed a sister group to cathepsin L of Penaeus monodon, and finally clustered to Lepeophtheirus salmonis. High level of (P<0.05) MrCathL gene expression was noticed in haemocyte and lowest in eyestalk. Furthermore, the MrCathL gene expression in M. rosenbergii was up-regulated in haemocyte by virus [M. rosenbergii nodovirus (MrNV) and white spot syndrome baculovirus (WSBV)] and bacteria (Vibrio harveyi and Aeromonas hydrophila). The recombinant MrCathL exhibited a wide range of activity in various pH between 3 and 10 and highest at pH 7.5. Cysteine proteinase (stefin A, stefin B and antipain) showed significant influence (100%) on recombinant MrCathL enzyme activity. The relative activity and residual activity of recombinant MrCathL against various metal ions or salts and detergent tested at different concentrations. These results indicated that the metal ions, salts and detergent had an influence on the proteinase activity of recombinant MrCathL. Conclusively, the results of this study imply that MrCathL has high pH stability and is fascinating object for further research on the function of cathepsin L in prawn innate immune system. PMID:23669240

Arockiaraj, Jesu; Gnanam, Annie J; Muthukrishnan, Dhanaraj; Thirumalai, Muthukumaresan Kuppusamy; Pasupuleti, Mukesh; Milton, James; Kasi, Marimuthu

2013-11-01

75

Susceptibility of juvenile Macrobrachium rosenbergii to different doses of high and low virulence strains of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV).  

PubMed

As some literature on the susceptibility of different life stages of Macrobrachium rosenbergii to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is conflicting, the pathogenesis, infectivity and pathogenicity of 2 WSSV strains (Thai-1 and Viet) were investigated here in juveniles using conditions standardized for Penaeus vannamei. As with P. vannamei, juvenile M. rosenbergii (2 to 5 g) injected with a low dose of WSSV-Thai-1 or a high dose of WSSV-Viet developed comparable clinical pathology and numbers of infected cells within 1 to 2 d post-infection. In contrast, a low dose of WSSV-Viet capable of causing mortality in P. vannamei resulted in no detectable infection in M. rosenbergii. Mean prawn infectious dose 50% endpoints (PID?? ml?¹) determined in M. rosenbergii were in the order of 100-fold higher for WSSV-Thai-1 (105.3 ± 0.4 PID?? ml?¹) than for WSSV-Viet (103.2 ± 0.2 PID?? ml?¹), with each of these being about 20-fold and 400-fold lower, respectively, than found previously in P. vannamei. The median lethal dose (LD?? ml?¹) determined in M. rosenbergii was also far higher (~1000-fold) for WSSV-Thai-1 (105.4 ± 0.4 LD?? ml?¹) than for WSSV-Viet (102.3 ± 0.3 LD?? ml?¹). Based on these data, it is clear that juvenile M. rosenbergii are susceptible to WSSV infection, disease and mortality. In comparison to P. vannamei, however, juvenile M. rosenbergii appear more capable of resisting infection and disease, particularly in the case of a WSSV strain with lower apparent virulence. PMID:22968789

Corteel, Mathias; Dantas-Lima, João J; Tuan, Vo Van; Thuong, Khuong Van; Wille, Mathieu; Alday-Sanz, Victoria; Pensaert, Maurice B; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Nauwynck, Hans J

2012-09-12

76

Three different anti-lipopolysaccharide factors identified from giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

Anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF) is a type of basic protein and an important antimicrobial peptide that can bind and neutralize lipopolysaccharides (LPS). This protein shows a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. In this study, three forms of ALF designated as MrALF5, MrALF6, and MrALF7 were identified from giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. MrALF5, MrALF6, and MrALF7 genes encode 133, 121, and 120 amino acids of the corresponding proteins, respectively. All these ALF proteins contain LPS-binding domain with two conserved cysteine residues. The genomic sequences of MrALF5 and MrALF7 were amplified. The genomic structures of MrALF5 and MrALF7 comprise three exons interrupted by two introns. Phylogenetic analysis showed that MrALF5, MrALF6, and MrALF7 were clustered into clade II. Evolutionary analysis showed that ALF genes from M. rosenbergii may suffer a rapid evolution. MrALF5 was expressed mainly in the hepatopancreas, gills, and heart. MrALF6 was mainly distributed in the intestine and hepatopancreas. The highest expression level of MrALF7 was detected in the hepatopancreas. MrALF6, as well as MrALF7, was downregulated by Escherichia coli challenge, and all three ALF genes were upregulated by Vibrio or white spot syndrome virus challenge. MrALF6 was also upregulated by Staphylococcus aureus challenge. In summary, the three isoforms of ALF genes may participate in the innate immune response against bacteria and virus infecting the giant fresh water prawn. PMID:22800688

Ren, Qian; Zhang, Zhao; Li, Xin-Chang; Jie-Du; Hui, Kai-Min; Zhang, Chi-Yu; Wang, Wen

2012-10-01

77

Ultrastructure of differentiating oocytes and vitellogenesis in the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man).  

PubMed

The ultrastructure of oogenesis in Macrobrachium rosenbergii, with reference to vitellogenesis, has not been reported. We used light and electron microscopy, as well as vitellin (Vn) purification and antibody production, to study the temporal and spatial production of Vn in the ovary by immunofluorescence. Histologically, the ovary is subdivided into cone-shaped ovarian pouches with a central core containing layers of oogonia. These divide to produce oocytes that migrate outwardly and differentiate into mature oocytes. During the course of differentiation, oocytes undergo modifications, including the rearrangement of nuclear chromatin, the accumulation of ribosomes, rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), and lipid, and the formation of secretory and yolk granules, resulting in four stages. Ultrastructurally, early previtellogenic oocytes (Oc(1)) are characterized by the accumulation of new ribosomal aggregates, translocated from the nucleus. Late previtellogenic oocytes (Oc(2)) show nuclear heterochromatin with a "clock face" pattern, the presence of RER, and three types of secretory granules. Follicular cells occupy the intercellular spaces and surround the Oc(2). Early vitellogenic oocytes (Oc(3)) are larger, with nuclei containing predominantly decondensed euchromatin, and cytoplasm with yolk and secretory granules, and few lipid droplets. Late vitellogenic oocytes (Oc(4)) are characterized by completely euchromatic nuclei, an indistinct plasma membrane, yolk platelets and secretory granules, and abundant lipid. Vitellogenin (Vg) in ovaries of M. rosenbergii consist of two main bands at MW 90 and 102 kDa. Our data indicates that Vn is present, and probably synthesized in Oc(3) and Oc(4), but there may be some undetected exogenous Vg production. PMID:22648947

Soonklang, Nantawan; Wanichanon, Chaitip; Stewart, Michael J; Stewart, Praphaporn; Meeratana, Prasert; Hanna, Peter J; Sobhon, Prasert

2012-10-01

78

Post-embryonic transcriptomes of the prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii: multigenic succession through metamorphosis.  

PubMed

Like many metazoans, the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii begins its post-embryonic life with a set of morphologically distinct planktonic larval stages, followed by a benthic post-larval stage during which the maturing organism differs from the larvae both ecologically and physiologically. Understanding of the molecular basis underlying morphogenesis in crustaceans is limited to the observation that methyl farnesoate, the non-epoxidated form of the insect juvenile hormone, acts as the active crustacean juvenoid. Molt steroids were also linked to morphogenesis and several other molecular pathways, such as Hedgehog and Wnt, are known to underlie morphogenesis in all metazoans examined and, as such, are thought to do the same in crustaceans. Using next generation sequencing, we deep-sequenced the transcriptomes of several larval and post-larval stages. De novo assembly, followed by bioinformatics analysis, revealed that many novel transcripts are over-expressed in either larvae- or post-larvae-stage prawn, shedding light on the molecular basis underlying M. rosenbergii metamorphosis. Fast larval molting rates and periodic morphological changes were reflected in over-expression of transcripts annotated to the cell cycle, DNA replication and morphogenic pathways (i.e., Hedgehog and Wnt). Further characterization of transcripts assigned to morphogenic pathways by real-time RT-PCR reconfirmed their over-expression in larvae, albeit with a more complex expression pattern when examined in the individual developmental stages. The expression level of an orthologue of cytochrome P450, 15A1, known to epoxidize methyl farnesoate in insects, was increased in the late larval and early post-larval stages, in accordance with the role of methyl farnesoate in crustacean metamorphosis. This study exemplifies the applicability of a high-throughput sequencing approach for studying complex traits, including metamorphosis, providing new insight into this unexplored area of crustacean research. PMID:23372848

Ventura, Tomer; Manor, Rivka; Aflalo, Eliahu D; Chalifa-Caspi, Vered; Weil, Simy; Sharabi, Omri; Sagi, Amir

2013-01-01

79

Cloning and characterization of two different ficolins from the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

Ficolins, a kind of lectin containing collagen-like and fibrinogen-related domains (FReDs, also known as FBG or FREP), are involved in the first line of host defense against pathogens. In this study, two ficolins, namely, MrFico1 and MrFico2, from the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii were identified. In contrast to other ficolins, these two ficolins have no collagen-like domain, but such ficolins contain a coiled region and a FReD domain. Phylogenetic analysis showed that MrFico1 and MrFico2, together with two ficolin-like proteins from Pacifastacus leniusculus, belonged to one group. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) showed that both MrFico1 and MrFico2 were expressed in hepatopancreas, stomach and intestine, with the highest expression in stomach for MrFico1, compared to the highest expression in hepatopancreas for MrFico2. qRT-PCR analysis also showed that MrFico1 was obviously upregulated upon Vibrio anguillarium challenge, while MrFico2 was upregulated after challenged by V. anguillarium or white spot syndrome virus. Bacterium-binding experiment showed that MrFico1 and MrFico2 could bind to different microbes, and sugar-binding assay revealed that these two ficolins could also bind to lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycan, the glycoconjugates of bacteria surface. Moreover, these two ficolins could agglutinate bacteria in a calcium-dependent manner, and the results of bacteria clearance experiment showed that both ficolins could facilitate the clearance of injected bacteria in the prawn. Our results suggested that MrFico1 and MrFico2 may function as pattern-recognition receptors in the immune system of M. rosenbergii. PMID:24462836

Zhang, Xiao-Wen; Wang, Xian-Wei; Huang, Ying; Hui, Kai-Min; Shi, Yan-Ru; Wang, Wen; Ren, Qian

2014-06-01

80

Post-Embryonic Transcriptomes of the Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii: Multigenic Succession through Metamorphosis  

PubMed Central

Like many metazoans, the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii begins its post-embryonic life with a set of morphologically distinct planktonic larval stages, followed by a benthic post-larval stage during which the maturing organism differs from the larvae both ecologically and physiologically. Understanding of the molecular basis underlying morphogenesis in crustaceans is limited to the observation that methyl farnesoate, the non-epoxidated form of the insect juvenile hormone, acts as the active crustacean juvenoid. Molt steroids were also linked to morphogenesis and several other molecular pathways, such as Hedgehog and Wnt, are known to underlie morphogenesis in all metazoans examined and, as such, are thought to do the same in crustaceans. Using next generation sequencing, we deep-sequenced the transcriptomes of several larval and post-larval stages. De novo assembly, followed by bioinformatics analysis, revealed that many novel transcripts are over-expressed in either larvae- or post-larvae-stage prawn, shedding light on the molecular basis underlying M. rosenbergii metamorphosis. Fast larval molting rates and periodic morphological changes were reflected in over-expression of transcripts annotated to the cell cycle, DNA replication and morphogenic pathways (i.e., Hedgehog and Wnt). Further characterization of transcripts assigned to morphogenic pathways by real-time RT-PCR reconfirmed their over-expression in larvae, albeit with a more complex expression pattern when examined in the individual developmental stages. The expression level of an orthologue of cytochrome P450, 15A1, known to epoxidize methyl farnesoate in insects, was increased in the late larval and early post-larval stages, in accordance with the role of methyl farnesoate in crustacean metamorphosis. This study exemplifies the applicability of a high-throughput sequencing approach for studying complex traits, including metamorphosis, providing new insight into this unexplored area of crustacean research. PMID:23372848

Ventura, Tomer; Manor, Rivka; Aflalo, Eliahu D.; Chalifa-Caspi, Vered; Weil, Simy; Sharabi, Omri; Sagi, Amir

2013-01-01

81

Bioaccumulation of copper in post-larvae and juveniles of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) exposed to sub-lethal levels of copper sulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The culture of giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) is fast expanding in Asia including India. Copper sulfate is extensively used in freshwater prawn culture ponds to control diseases and filamentous algae. In the present investigation, bioaccumulation of copper was studied in post-larvae (10±1 mm; 0.008±0.002 g) and juvenile (58±5 mm; 1.25±0.28 g) M. rosenbergii. The post-larvae and juveniles

Rameswara Reddy; Bindu R. Pillai; Subhendu Adhikari

2006-01-01

82

Dietary administration of bovine lactoferrin influences the immune ability of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) and its resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila infection and nitrite stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Haemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity, agglutinin levels, total protein content, bacterial clearance efficiency, resistance to the pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila and nitrite stress were measured in the giant freshwater intermoult subadult prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (15–20g) which had been fed diets containing bovine lactoferrin (Lf) at 50, 100, 200mg kg?1 feed for 7 or 14days. M. rosenbergii fed a diet containing 100mg Lf

R. K. Chand; P. K. Sahoo; Jaya Kumari; Bindu R. Pillai; B. K. Mishra

2006-01-01

83

Identification and characterization of the vitellogenin receptor in Macrobrachium rosenbergii and its expression during vitellogenesis.  

PubMed

In oviparous organisms, oocyte maturation depends on massive production of the egg yolk-precursor protein, vitellogenin (Vg). Vg is taken up by the developing oocytes through receptor-mediated endocytosis (RME), a process essential to successful reproduction. The aims of this study were to identify and characterize the yet-unknown vitellogenin receptor (VgR) from the pleocyamate crustacean Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and to investigate its expression levels during vitellogenesis and its interaction with Vg. The VgR gene was cloned, and its translated protein was specifically located at the oocyte membrane. Moreover, for the first time, a VgR protein was identified and sequenced by mass spectrometry. The putative MrVgR displayed high sequence similarity to VgRs from crustaceans, insects, and vertebrates, and its structure includes typical elements, such as an extracellular, lipoprotein-binding domain (LBD), EGF-like, and O-glycosylation domains, a transmembrane domain, and a short, C-terminal, cytosolic tail. In this article, we identify the first crustacean VgR protein, and present data demonstrating its high affinity for a Vg column followed by elution with suramin and EDTA. Additionally we demonstrate that VgR expression in the oocyte is elevated during vitellogenesis. Our results contribute to the fundamental understanding of oocyte maturation in crustaceans, and particularly elucidate Vg uptake through RME via the VgR. PMID:22674884

Roth, Ziv; Khalaila, Isam

2012-07-01

84

Nutrient budgets and effluent characteristics in giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) culture ponds.  

PubMed

It is important to understand nutrient budgets of aquaculture practices for efficiency of input resources and to utilize all output nutrient sources. The aim of the present study was to develop a nutrient budget for giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) culture ponds. The study was conducted in farmer's ponds (0.25-0.5 ha) of Odisha, India, and the results showed that feed accounted 97% total nitrogen (N), 98.7% total phosphorus (P) and 90% total organic carbon (OC), respectively. The harvested prawn accounted for recovery of 37% N, 10% P and 15% OC, respectively. The N, P and OC accumulated in sediment were 52%, 76%, and 65%, respectively. Nutrient loads in the effluents were 2.22 ± 0.66 kg inorganic N, 0.40 ± 0.15 kg P, and 21.01 ± 6.4 kg OC per ton of prawn production. The present study implicated that high nutrient values observed in both water and sediment provide important opportunities for nutrient reuse through pond sediment applications to croplands as an organic manure, as well as pond water irrigation to crops as a "liquid fertilizer". PMID:24522829

Adhikari, Subhendu; Sahu, Bharat Chandra; Mahapatra, Abhijit S; Dey, Lambodar

2014-05-01

85

GYRKPPFNGSIFamide (Gly-SIFamide) Modulates Aggression in the Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

PubMed Central

The freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii is a tropical crustacean with characteristics similar to those of lobsters and crayfish. Adult males develop through three morphological types—small (SC), yellow (YC), and blue claws (BC)—with each representing a level in the dominance hierarchy of a group, BC males being the most dominant. We are interested in understanding the role played by neuropeptides in the mechanisms underlying aggressive behavior and the establishment of dominance hierarchies in this type of prawn. SIFamides are a family of arthropod peptides recently identified in the central nervous system of insects and crustaceans, where it has been linked to olfaction, sexual behavior, and gut endocrine functions. One of the six SIFamide isoforms, GYRKPPFNGSIFamide (Gly-SIFamide), is highly conserved among decapod crustaceans such as crabs and crayfish. We wanted to determine whether Gly-SIFamide plays a role in modulating aggression and dominant behavior in the prawn. To do this, we performed behavioral experiments in which interactions between BC/YC pairs were recorded and quantified before and after injecting Gly-SIFamide directly into the circulating hemolymph of the living animal. Behavioral data showed that aggression among interacting BC/YC prawns was enhanced by injection of Gly-SIFamide, suggesting that this neuropeptide does have a modulatory role for this type of behavior in the prawn. PMID:20040755

Vazquez-Acevedo, Nietzell; Rivera, Nilsa M.; Torres-Gonzalez, Alejandra M.; Rullan-Matheu, Yarely; Ruiz-Rodriguez, Eduardo A.; Sosa, Maria A.

2010-01-01

86

Effect of hypoxia on the immune response of giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and its susceptibility to pathogen Enterococcus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Giant freshwater prawns Macrobrachium rosenbergii (14–19g) were challenged withEnterococcus (3×105cfu prawn?1) previously incubated in TSB medium for 24h, then placed in water having concentrations of dissolved oxygen (DO) at 7·75, 4·75, 2·75 and 1·75mg l?1. Onset of mortality occurred after 6h exposure to 1·75mg l?1 DO, and after 12h exposure to 2·75mg l?1 DO. Cumulative mortality of prawns at 1·75mg

Winton Cheng; Chun-Hung Liu; Jung-Ping Hsu; Jiann-Chu Chen

2002-01-01

87

Changes in osmotic and ionic concentrations in the hemolymph of Macrobrachium rosenbergii exposed to varying salinities and correlation to ionic and crystalline composition of the cuticle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osmotic and ionic regulatory ability were examined in the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii in response to varying salinities. In freshwater, and under conditions of low salinity, hemolymph osmolality was maintained around 450 mOsm. Under high salinity, osmolality values increased in a time-wise manner until reaching levels of the surrounding rearing water. Changes in sodium concentration generally paralleled osmotic change,

Marcy N Wilder; Kazumasa Ikuta; Muharijadi Atmomarsono; Tamao Hatta; Kosei Komuro

1998-01-01

88

Induction of Female Breeding Characteristics by Ovarian Tissue Implants in Androgenic Gland Ablated Male Freshwater Prawns Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) (Decapoda, Palaemonidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Implantation of ovarian tissue into androgenic gland ablated male prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) induced the development of ovigerous and ovipositing setae and brood chambers, suggesting that in females, these secondary sexual characteristics are induced by the ovary. This model system has potential for the study of morphological changes associated with breeding in the Decapoda.

Claude Nagamine; Allen W. Knight

1987-01-01

89

Embryonic development, hatching, mineral consumption, and survival of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) reared in artificial seawater in closed recirculating water system at different levels of salinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experiment aims to study the effect of different levels of salinity (5, 15 and 25 ppt) using artificial sea water on the embryonic development and hatching percentage of the eggs of unripe berried female giant freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) with an average size of 14.3+0.6 cm TL. After incubation through the heart beating stage (grayish black eggs), the brooders

Krasindh Hangsapreurke; Thon Thamrongnawasawat; Sorawit Powtongsook; Prajuab Lumubol

90

An unconventional antimicrobial protein histone from freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii: analysis of immune properties.  

PubMed

In this study, we have reported the first histone characterized at molecular level from freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (MrHis). A full length cDNA of MrHis (751 base pairs) was identified from an established M. rosenbergii cDNA library using GS-FLX technique. It encodes 137 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 15 kDa and an isoelectric point of 10.5. MrHis peptide contains a histone H2A signature between 21 and 27 amino acids. Homologous analysis showed that MrHis had a significant sequence identity (99%) with other known histone H2A groups especially from Penaeus monodon. Phylogenetic analysis of MrHis showed a strong relationship with other amino acid sequences from histone H2A arthropod groups. Further phylogenetic analysis showed that the MrHis belongs to histone H2A superfamily and H2A1A sub-family. Secondary structure of MrHis showed that the protein contains 50.36% ?-helical region and 49.64% coils. The 3D model of MrHis was predicted by I-Tasser program and the model was evaluated for quality analysis including C-score analysis, Ramachandran plot analysis and RMSD analysis. The surface view analysis of MrHis showed the active domain at the N terminal. The antimicrobial property of MrHis protein was confirmed by the helical structure and the total hydrophobic surface along with its net charge. The MFE of the predicted RNA structure of MrHis is -128.62 kcal/mol, shows its mRNA stability. Schiffer-Edmundson helical wheel analysis of the N-terminal of MrHis showed a perfect amphipathic nature of the peptide. Significantly (P < 0.05) highest gene expression was noticed in the hemocyte and is induced with viral (WSBV and MrNV) and bacteria (A eromonas hydrophila and Vibrio harveyi) infections. The coding sequence of recombinant MrHis protein was expressed in a pMAL vector and purified to study the antimicrobial properties. The recombinant product showed antimicrobial activity against both Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria. In this study, the recombinant MrHis protein displayed antimicrobial activity in its entirety. Hence, it is possible to suggest that the activity may be due to the direct defense role of histone or its N-terminal antimicrobial property. However, this remains to be verified by detailed investigations. PMID:23994279

Arockiaraj, Jesu; Gnanam, Annie J; Kumaresan, Venkatesh; Palanisamy, Rajesh; Bhatt, Prasanth; Thirumalai, Muthukumaresan Kuppusamy; Roy, Arpita; Pasupuleti, Mukesh; Kasi, Marimuthu

2013-11-01

91

Diversity of lectins in Macrobrachium rosenbergii and their expression patterns under spiroplasma MR-1008 stimulation.  

PubMed

Lectins play important roles in crustacean innate immunity through recognition of foreign pathogens. In this study, 20 lectins including C-type lectins [dual-carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) type and single-CRD type], L-type lectin, and lectin with low-density lipoprotein class A (LDLa) domain were identified from the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The tissue distribution and expression patterns of these lectins under spiroplasma strain MR-1008 challenge were investigated. Most of the lectins were found to be mainly distributed in the hepatopancreas. Lectin5, Lectin14, Lectin17, and Lectin18 exhibited the highest expression level in the hemocytes, nerve, intestine, and heart, respectively. MrLec1 to MrLec6 (dual-CRD lectins) in the hepatopancreas were up-regulated by spiroplasma challenge. Single-CRD lectins reached the highest level at 72 h after spiroplasma challenge. Lectin9 and Lectin15 both belong to L-type lectins. At post-spiroplasma challenge, Lectin9 expression was up-regulated, whereas Lectin15 expression was down-regulated. Lectin11 with LDLa domain showed the highest level after 12 h Lectin18 and Lectin20, namely, CD209, were also up-regulated by spiroplasma challenge. Lectin14, a C-type lectin, quickly reached the highest level after 2 h Lectin16 showed the highest level after 72 h Lectin5 reached the highest level in cultured hemocytes after 6 h Lectin17 in the intestine and Lectin14 in the nerve were slightly up-regulated after 6 and 2 h, respectively. Our research results indicate that lectins may play important roles in early or late immune responses against spiroplasma challenge. PMID:23664913

Zhu, Huanxi; Du, Jie; Hui, Kai-Min; Liu, Peng; Chen, Jing; Xiu, Yunji; Yao, Wei; Wu, Ting; Meng, Qingguo; Gu, Wei; Ren, Qian; Wang, Wen

2013-08-01

92

Molecular cloning and characterization of a Toll receptor gene from Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

Toll receptors are cell surface molecules acting as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that have been implicated in the signaling pathway of innate immune responses. In this study, the full-length cDNA of a Toll receptor gene of Macrobrachium rosenbergii, designated MrToll, was successfully isolated using designed degenerate primers and the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The MrToll gene sequence contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 2799 nucleotides encoding a protein of 932 amino acid residues. The protein contained distinct structural motifs of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family, including an extracellular domain containing 15 leucine-rich repeats (LRRs), a transmembrane segment of 23 amino acids, and a cytoplasmic Toll/interleukin-1R (TIR) domain of 139 residues. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that MrToll and Toll receptor of Marsupenaeus japonicus (MjToll) evolved closely. However, the MrToll ORF demonstrated only 48-49% identity with shrimp Toll1, suggesting that MrToll isolated from a palaemonid shrimp might belong to a novel class of Toll receptors in shrimp. The transcripts of the MrToll gene were constitutively expressed in various tissues, with high levels in hemocytes, the stomach and muscle. A reverse transcriptase PCR assay demonstrated that the expression patterns of MrToll were distinctly modulated after Aeromonas caviae stimulation, with significant enhancement at 3-12 h post-challenge and a decline to basal levels at 24 h post-challenge. In addition, when MrToll-silenced shrimp were challenged with A. caviae, there was a significant increase in mortality and bacterial CFU counts. These results suggest that MrToll might be involved in host innate defense, especially against the pathogen A. caviae. PMID:24398262

Srisuk, Chutima; Longyant, Siwaporn; Senapin, Saengchan; Sithigorngul, Paisarn; Chaivisuthangkura, Parin

2014-02-01

93

Genetic inheritance of female and male morphotypes in giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

Giant freshwater prawn (GFP) Macrobrachium rosenbergii is unique with males categorized in five different morphotypes (small claw, orange claw, blue claw, old blue claw and no claw males) and females in three reproductive statuses (mature ovary, berried and spawned females). In the present study we examined genetic inheritance of female and male morphotypes, their body weights and genetic associations between morphotypes and body traits. Restricted maximum likelihood fitting a multi-trait animal model was performed on a total of 21,459 body records collected over five generations in a GFP population selected for high growth rate. The estimates of variance components showed that there were substantial differences in additive genetic variance in body weight between male morphotypes. The low and significantly different from one genetic correlations between the expressions of body weight in male morphotypes also suggest that these traits should be treated as genetically different traits in selective breeding programs. By contrast, body weights of female types are essentially the same characters as indicated by the high genetic correlations between homologous trait expressions. In addition to body weight, male morphotypes and female reproductive statuses were treated as traits in themselves and were analysed as binary observations using animal and sire linear mixed models, and logit and probit threshold models. The estimates of heritability back-transformed from the liability scale were in good agreement with those obtained from linear mixed models, ranging from 0.02 to 0.43 for male morphotypes and 0.06 to 0.10 for female types. The genetic correlations among male morphoptypes were generally favourable. Body weight showed negative genetic associations with SM (-0.96), whereas those of body weight with other male morphotypes were positive (0.25 to 0.76). Our results showed that there is existence of heritable (additive genetic) component for male morphotypes, giving prospects for genetic selection to change population structure of GFP. PMID:24587246

Dinh, Hung; Nguyen, Nguyen Hong

2014-01-01

94

Identification of the major allergen of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (giant freshwater prawn)  

PubMed Central

Objective To characterize the major allergens of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (giant freshwater prawn). Methods Raw and cooked extracts of the giant freshwater prawn were prepared. The IgE reactivity pattern was identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting technique with the sera of 20 skin prick test (SPT) positive patients. The major allergen identified was then characterized using the proteomics approach involving a combination of two-dimensional (2-DE) electrophoresis, mass spectrometry and bioinformatics tools. Results SDS-PAGE of the raw extract showed 23 protein bands (15–250 kDa) but those ranging from 40 to 100 kDa were not found in the cooked extract. From immunoblotting experiments, raw and cooked extracts demonstrated 11 and 5 IgE-binding proteins, respectively, with a molecular mass ranging from 15 to 155 kDa. A heat-resistant 36 kDa protein was identified as the major allergen of both extracts. In addition, a 42 kDa heat-sensitive protein was shown to be a major allergen of the raw extract. The 2-DE gel fractionated the prawn proteins to more than 50 different protein spots. Of these, 10 spots showed specific IgE reactivity with patients' sera. Matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) analysis led to identification of 2 important allergens, tropomyosin and arginine kinase. Conclusions It can be concluded that the availability of such allergens would help in component-based diagnosis and therapy of prawn allergies. PMID:23569834

Yadzir, Zailatul Hani Mohamad; Misnan, Rosmilah; Abdullah, Noormalin; Bakhtiar, Faizal; Arip, Masita; Murad, Shahnaz

2012-01-01

95

Molecular cloning and characterisation of cytosolic manganese superoxide dismutase (cytMn-SOD) from the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

A cytosolic manganese superoxide dismutase (cytMn-SOD) cDNA was cloned from the hepatopancreas of giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) by degenerate primers. Both 3'- and 5'-regions were isolated by rapid amplification of cDNA end RACE method. Analysis of nucleotide sequence revealed that the cytMn-SOD cDNA clone consists of 1339 bp with an open reading frame of 858 bp encoding a protein of 286 amino acids. The calculated molecular mass of the mature proteins (286 amino acids) is 31 kDa with an estimated pI of 5.52. Two putative N-glycosylation sites, NXT and NXS were observed in the cytMn-SOD. Four conserved amino acids responsible for binding manganese were observed (H110, H158, D243 and H247). Sequence comparison showed that the cytMn-SOD deduced amino acid sequence of M. rosenbergii has an overall similarity of 77% and 54% to that of blue crab Callinectes sapidus and tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon, respectively. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that cytMn-SOD transcript in hepatopancreas of M. rosenbergii decreased 3h after Lactococcus garvieae injection, but no significant change in cytMn-SOD transcript was observed in the haemocytes 3-24 h after L. garvieae injection. PMID:16154362

Cheng, Winton; Tung, Ying-Hsiu; Liu, Chun-Hung; Chen, Jiann-Chu

2006-04-01

96

Molecular cloning, characterization and gene expression of an antioxidant enzyme catalase (MrCat) from Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

In this study, we reported a full length of catalase gene (designated as MrCat), identified from the transcriptome database of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The complete gene sequence of the MrCat is 2504 base pairs in length, and encodes 516 amino acids. The MrCat protein contains three domains such as catalase 1 (catalase proximal heme-ligand signature) at 350-358, catalase 2 (catalase proximal active site signature) at 60-76 and catalase 3 (catalase family profile) at 20-499. The mRNA expressions of MrCat in healthy and the infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) challenged M. rosenbergii were examined using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The MrCat is highly expressed in digestive tract and all the other tissues (walking leg, gills, muscle, hemocyte, hepatopancreas, pleopods, brain and eye stalk) of M. rosenbergii taken for analysis. The expression is strongly up-regulated in digestive tract after IHHNV challenge. To understand its biological activity, the recombinant MrCat gene was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The recombinant MrCat existed in high thermal stability and broad spectrum of pH, which showed over 95% enzyme activity between pH 5 and 10.5, and was stable from 40 °C to 70 °C, and exhibited 85-100% enzyme activity from 30 °C to 40 °C. PMID:22293093

Arockiaraj, Jesu; Easwvaran, Sarasvathi; Vanaraja, Puganeshwaran; Singh, Arun; Othman, Rofina Yasmin; Bhassu, Subha

2012-05-01

97

Flow cytometry studies on the Macrobrachium rosenbergii hemocytes sub-populations and immune responses to novel pathogen spiroplasma MR-1008.  

PubMed

Flow cytometry provides rapid and reproducible methods for analyzing crustacean cellular immune responses to pathogens. We used this method to investigate the hemocytes sub-populations of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and their immune responses to a novel pathogen spiroplasma MR-1008. M. rosenbergii inoculated with 100 ?l spiroplasma strain MR-1008 in logarithmic phase (10(8) spiroplasmas ml(-1)) were examined for total hemocytes count (THC) and changes in differential involvement of hemocytes sub-populations during 1-28 d after inoculation. The results showed that THC was dramatically lowered 1 d after inoculation, and it obviously increased at the 5 d after inoculation; thereafter, a high level of THC was maintained to 15 d. Three morphologically distinct hemocytes sub-populations including granular cells (GC), semigranular cells (SGC) and hyaline cells (HC) could be identified by flow cytometry, and the proportions of the 3 kinds of cell categories varied obviously during the infection of spiroplasma suggesting differential involvement according to the pathogen. The flow cytometry used in this study confirmed that the semigranular cells were the main hemocytes involved in the cellular defense against spiroplasma in the M. rosenbergii. PMID:22842149

Du, Jie; Zhu, Huanxi; Ren, Qian; Liu, Peng; Chen, Jing; Xiu, Yunji; Yao, Wei; Meng, Qingguo; Gu, Wei; Wang, Wen

2012-10-01

98

Identification and cloning of a transglutaminase from giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and its transcription during pathogen infection and moulting.  

PubMed

Complementary (c)DNA encoding transglutaminase (TG) messenger (m)RNA of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, was cloned from haemocytes by a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) using oligonucleotide primers based on the TG sequence of the horseshoe crab, Tachypleus tridentatus; tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon; kuruma shrimp, Marsupenaeus japonicus; and crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus. The 2722-bp cDNA contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 2334 bp, a 72-bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), and a 316-bp 3'-UTR containing a stop codon and a poly A tail. The molecular mass of the deduced amino acid (aa) sequence (778 aa) was 86.67 kDa with an estimated pI of 5.4. The M. rosenbergii TG (abbreviated MrTG, accession no.: JF309296) contains a typical transglutaminase-like homologue, two putative integrin-binding motifs (RGD), ten glycosylation sites, and four calcium-binding sites; a catalytic triad is present as in arthropod TGs. Sequence comparison and a phylogenetic analysis revealed that shrimp TG can be separated into three subgroups, penaeid TG1, freshwater crustacean TG2 and marine crustacean TG2, and MrTG was more closely related to TG2 than to TG1. MrTG mRNA and TG activities were detected in all tested tissues of M. rosenbergii, with MrTG mainly being synthesised by haemocytes. There was a negative correlation between clotting time of haemolymph, and MrTG expression and TG activity of haemocytes in prawn injected with Lactococcus garvieae. The pattern of MrTG mRNA expression and TG activity in haemocytes exhibited a contrary tendency with clotting time of haemolymph during the moult stages. Those results indicate that cloned MrTG is involved in the defence response, and is probably the major functional TG for haemolymph coagulation in M. rosenbergii. PMID:21854853

Liu, Chun-Hung; Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Chiu, Yun-Chih; Cheng, Winton; Yeh, Maw-Sheng

2011-12-01

99

A new nodavirus is associated with covert mortality disease of shrimp.  

PubMed

A new nodavirus, named covert mortality nodavirus (CMNV), is associated with covert mortality disease of shrimp which has caused serious loss in China since 2009. Histopathological examination of shrimp suffering the disease revealed coagulative necrosis of striated muscle similar to typical histopathology features of infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV), Penaeus vannamei nodavirus (PvNV) and Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV). However, shrimp suffering this disease tested negative for IMNV, MrNV and PvNV by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. Additionally, eosinophilic inclusions were found in epithelium of the tubules in the hepatopancreas and lymphoid organ, and mass karyopyknotic nuclei existed in the muscle and lymphoid organ. The tubular epithelium of the hepatopancreas showed significant atrophy. A cDNA library was constructed from total RNA of infected shrimp. Sequencing and alignment analysis showed that one clone with an 1185 bp insert (designated CMNV-7) shared 54?, 53? and 39?% identity with the amino acid sequences of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase from Flock House virus, black beetle virus and MrNV. The results of fluorescence in situ hybridization showed that the hepatopancreas, striated muscle and lymphoid organ were positively reacting tissues. The mean size of negative-stained virus particles was 32 nm. In addition, a nested RT-PCR assay was developed for CMNV, and the RT-PCR detection results revealed that Fenneropenaeus chinensis, Litopenaeus vannamei and Marsupenaeus japonicus suffering from this disease were CMNV-positive. PMID:25205685

Zhang, Qingli; Liu, Qun; Liu, Shuang; Yang, Haolin; Liu, Sun; Zhu, Luoluo; Yang, Bing; Jin, Jiting; Ding, Lixue; Wang, Xiuhua; Liang, Yan; Wang, Qintao; Huang, Jie

2014-12-01

100

Molecular and immunological responses of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, to the organophosphorus insecticide, trichlorfon.  

PubMed

Trichlorfon is an organophosphorus (OP) insecticide that is used as an agriculture pesticide to destroy insects, a human medicine to combat internal parasites, and an ectoparasiticide in the livestock and aquaculture industries, but which has caused aquatic toxicity in the prawn industry. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of trichlorfon on molecular and enzymatic processes of the immunological response of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, at 0, 0.2, and 0.4mgL(-1) with 0, 3, 6, 12, and 24h of exposure. The total hemocyte count (THC), respiratory bursts (RBs), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were examined to evaluate immunological responses and oxidative stress. Results showed that THCs of the prawn exposed to trichlorfon at both concentrations (0.2 and 0.4mgL(-1)) had increased after 12 and 24h; SOD and PO activities had significantly increased at 3h, whereas production of RBs had dramatically increased as oxidative stress at each sampling time after exposure to trichlorfon compared to the control. A potential biomarker of OPs, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) revealed a significant decrease after exposure for 6h, and showed a time-dependent tendency. Immune gene expressions, including prophenoloxidase (proPO), the lipopolysaccharide- and ?-1,3-glucan-binding protein (LGBP), peroxinectin (PE), ?2-macroglubulin (?2M), transglutaminase (TG), and copper, zinc (Cu,Zn)-SOD, of prawns exposed to trichlorfon at 0, 0.2, and 0.4mgL(-1) for 0, 6, and 24h were further evaluated. Expressions of all of the immune genes significantly decreased when prawns were exposed to 0.4mgL(-1) trichlorfon for 24h, and among them, an increase in SOD expression was seen after exposure to 0.4mgL(-1) for 6h. Prawns exposed to trichlorfon within 24h exhibited the decrease of circulating hemocytes, and also the induction of oxidative stress, which caused subsequent damage to DNA formation of immune genes. From these results, we concluded that immunological responses and immune gene expressions of prawn exposed to trichlorfon at 0.4mgL(-1) for 24h were perturbed, thus causing a deficiency in immunity and subsequent increased susceptibility to pathogen infections. PMID:23340335

Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Rahmawaty, Atiek; Chang, Zhong-Wen

2013-04-15

101

Setal morphology of the grooming appendages of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea: Palaemonidae) and review of decapod setal classification.  

PubMed

Setae are vital in grooming activities and aiding in the removal of epibionts and sedimentary fouling from the body surfaces of decapod crustaceans. Thus, the setal structures and their arrangement on the grooming appendages and sensory structures of the commercially important shrimp, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, were examined using scanning electron microscopy. Macrobrachium rosenbergii is extensively grown in aquaculture and exhibits unique male morphological forms, termed morphotypes. The three male morphotypes are termed blue-clawed males, orange-clawed males, and small-clawed or undifferentiated males and all three differ in their dominance, behavior, body morphology, and reproductive success. Seven setal types, two of which have never been described in the literature, are identified on the grooming appendages (third maxillipeds, first, second, and fifth pereopods) and antennae: simple, serrate, serrulate, spiniform, pappose, crinoid, and spinulate. The latter two setae are newly identified. Certain setal types, such as serrate and serrulate setae were located and associated with specific grooming appendages such as the first pereopods. The types of setae on the grooming appendages varied among females and male morphotypes and the novel setal types (crinoid and spinulate) were found only on two of the male morphotypes. A literature review of terminology related to the structure of setae and setal types in decapod crustaceans is offered as the usage of various terms is ambiguous and conflicting in the literature. The intention of this review is to provide future authors with a comprehensive collection of terms and images that can be used to describe various aspects of setal morphology in decapods. PMID:24500885

Wortham, Jennifer L; Vanmaurik, Lauren N; Wayne Price, W

2014-06-01

102

Immunomodulatory effect of Withania somnifera supplementation diet in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) against Aeromonas hydrophila.  

PubMed

The effect of Withania somnifera extract supplementation diets on innate immune response in giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) against Aeromonas hydrophila was investigated. The bacterial clearance efficiency significantly increased in prawn fed with 0.1% and 1.0% doses of W. somnifera supplementation diet against pathogen from weeks 1-4 as compared to the control. The innate immune parameters such as, phenoloxidase activity, superoxide anion level, superoxide dismutase activity, nitrate, and nitrite concentrations were significantly enhanced in prawn fed with 0.1% and 1.0% doses of W. somnifera supplementation diet from weeks 1-4 against pathogen. The total hemocyte counts (THC) significantly increased in prawn fed with 0.1% and 1.0% doses diet from weeks 1-4 against pathogen as compared to the control. These results strongly suggested that administration of W. somnifera through supplementation diet positively enhances the innate immune system and enhanced survival rate in M. rosenbergii against A. hydrophila infection. PMID:22118967

Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Balasundaram, Chellam; Jawahar, Sundaram; Heo, Moon-Soo

2012-01-01

103

Isolation and Characterization of the Female-Specific Protein (Vitellogenin) in Mature Female Hemolymph of the Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii:Comparison with Ovarian Vitellin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purification and characterization of the female-specific protein (vitellogenin) from the hemolymph of mature female prawn,Macrobrachium rosenbergii,were the objectives of this study. The comparison of biochemical characteristics between vitellogenin and ovarian vitellin was also conducted. Hemolymph vitellogenin was purified with DEAE, hydroxylapatite, and another DEAE chromatographic column. The specific protein (vitellogenin) was shown in the fractions of chromatographic columns on the

Fang-Yi Lee; Tung-Wei Shih; Ching-Fong Chang

1997-01-01

104

The effects of biogenic amines, gonadotropin-releasing hormones and corazonin on spermatogenesis in sexually mature small giant freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1879)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurotransmitters such as the serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA), as well as the neurohormones gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRHs) and corazonin (Crz), are known to have various effects on decapod crustaceans, including ovarian maturation and spermatogenesis. The effects of these neurotransmitters and neurohormones on spermatogenesis in the small male freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, have not been reported. So, we undertook histological and

Jaruwan Poljaroen; Yotsawan Tinikul; Ittipon Phoungpetchara; Wilairat Kankoun; Saowaros Suwansa-ard; Tanapan Siangcham; Prasert Meeratana; Scott F. Cummins; Prapee Sretarugsa; Peter J. Hanna; Prasert Sobhon

2011-01-01

105

L-( sup 3 H) glutamate binding to a membrane preparation from the optic lobe of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membrane preparation from the optic lobe of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man, was examined for the presence of specific L-(³H) glutamate binding. The optic lobes were isolated from live animals. The tissue was homogenized and the membrane fraction isolated by differential centrifugation. The membrane suspension was incubated with 10-1,000 nM of L-(³H) glutamate at 37°C for 60

P. Pratumtan; P. Govitrapong; B. Withyachumnarnkul; B. Poolsanguan

1991-01-01

106

Preliminary obervations on use of ethanol distiller's by-products for polyculture of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) and golden shiner (Notemigonus crysoleucas)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two major by-products of ethanol distillation, corn distiller's solubles and corn distiller's mash, were evaluated for their potential use as a food source for freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) and golden shiner (Notemigonus crysoleucas) in mid-western United States. Corn distiller's solubles were not found to be highly toxic to aquatic organisms at concentrations ranging up to 10,000 ppM. However, the high

C. C. Kohler; W. M. Lewis; S. P. Krueger

1983-01-01

107

A candidate gene association study for growth performance in an improved giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii ) culture line.  

PubMed

A candidate gene approach using type I single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers can provide an effective method for detecting genes and gene regions that underlie phenotypic variation in adaptively significant traits. In the absence of available genomic data resources, transcriptomes were recently generated in Macrobrachium rosenbergii to identify candidate genes and markers potentially associated with growth. The characterisation of 47 candidate loci by ABI re-sequencing of four cultured and eight wild samples revealed 342 putative SNPs. Among these, 28 SNPs were selected in 23 growth-related candidate genes to genotype in 200 animals selected for improved growth performance in an experimental GFP culture line in Vietnam. The associations between SNP markers and individual growth performance were then examined. For additive and dominant effects, a total of three exonic SNPs in glycogen phosphorylase (additive), heat shock protein 90 (additive and dominant) and peroxidasin (additive), and a total of six intronic SNPs in ankyrin repeats-like protein (additive and dominant), rolling pebbles (dominant), transforming growth factor-? induced precursor (dominant), and UTP-glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase 2 (dominant) genes showed significant associations with the estimated breeding values in the experimental animals (P =0.001-0.031). Individually, they explained 2.6-4.8 % of the genetic variance (R²=0.026-0.048). This is the first large set of SNP markers reported for M. rosenbergii and will be useful for confirmation of associations in other samples or culture lines as well as having applications in marker-assisted selection in future breeding programs. PMID:24122143

Jung, Hyungtaek; Lyons, Russell E; Li, Yutao; Thanh, Nguyen Minh; Dinh, Hung; Hurwood, David A; Salin, Krishna R; Mather, Peter B

2014-04-01

108

The androgenic gland and monosex culture of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man): a biotechnological perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Males of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosen- bergii (De Man) grow faster and reach a larger size at harvest than females of the species. It is thus obvious that culture of monosex all-male populations would be economically advantageous. Sexual di¡erentia- tion in crustaceans is regulated by the androgenic gland (AG), which plays a pivotal role in the regula- tion of

Amir Sagi; Eliahu D Aflalo

2005-01-01

109

Retardation of post-mortem changes of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) stored in ice by legume seed extracts.  

PubMed

Meat quality of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) treated with soybean and bambara groundnut extracts at different concentrations was monitored during 10 days of iced storage. During storage, the control sample (without treatment) had a higher pH, TCA-soluble peptide content, heat soluble collagen content, proteolytic activities and psychrophilic bacterial count than did samples treated with soybean and bambara groundnut extracts. Conversely, shear force value and likeness scores of the control sample decreased (p<0.05), more likely associated with softening of muscle. The decrease in myosin heavy chain in the control sample was found after 6 days of storage. However, no changes in protein patterns of samples treated with soybean extracts at 2.5 mg/mL were found after 10 days of storage. Therefore, the injections of legume seed extracts, especially soybean extract, at a sufficient concentration, could be a means to retard muscle softening and maintain the qualities of freshwater prawn during iced storage. PMID:22868130

Sriket, Chodsana; Benjakul, Soottawat; Visessanguan, Wonnop; Hara, Kenji; Yoshida, Asami

2012-11-15

110

Immune responses and gene expression in hepatopancreas from Macrobrachium rosenbergii challenged by a novel pathogen spiroplasma MR-1008.  

PubMed

Freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii inoculated with 100 ?l novel pathogen spiroplasma strain MR-1008 in logarithmic phase (10(8) spiroplasmas ml(-1)) were examined for alkaline phosphatase (AKP) activity, acid phosphatase (ACP) activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, catalase (CAT) activity, as well as expressions of 7 immune related genes in hepatopancreas after 1-28 d. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining showed obvious pathological features in hepatopancreas connective and epithelial tissue. Enzyme activity analyze showed that hepatopancreas AKP and ACP activity increased markedly (P < 0.05) when inoculated with spiroplasma MR-1008 after 5 d and 10 d, respectively. SOD enzyme activity changed less obviously and slightly increased at 1 day post-inoculation, but CAT activity decreased significantly after 5 d inoculation. The expression levels of lipopolysaccharide and ?-1,3-glucan-binding protein (LGBP), peroxinectin (PE), ?2-macroglobulin (?2M), AKP, ACP, CAT, and copper/zinc SOD (Cu, Zn-SOD) genes in the hepatopancreas were examined by Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR) and the results demonstrated that these immune related genes were induced by challenge with spiroplasma MR-1008. The results suggested that the prawn immune responses could be activated or inhibited by spiroplasma MR-1008, and that the hepatopancreas also plays key roles in innate immunity for defense against the pathogen. PMID:23178264

Du, Jie; Zhu, Huanxi; Liu, Peng; Chen, Jing; Xiu, Yunji; Yao, Wei; Wu, Ting; Ren, Qian; Meng, Qingguo; Gu, Wei; Wang, Wen

2013-01-01

111

Effects of (60)Co gamma irradiation on behavior and gill histoarchitecture of giant fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (DE MAN).  

PubMed

Present study was designed to observe the effects of (60)Co gamma radiation in behavioral and histological changes in the gills of giant fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The adult prawns were irradiated with four different dose levels (3mGy, 30mGy, 300mGy and 3000mGy) and the control group (without irradiation) was maintained separately. Behavioral changes like hyperactivity, loss of balance, reduced swimming rate, slower rate of food intake and convulsions were observed in higher dose levels of 300mGy and 3000mGy. The histological alterations such as accumulated haemocytes in haemocoelic spaces, abnormal gill tips, lifted lamellar epithelium, swollen and fused lamellae, hyperplasic, necrotic, clavate-globate and complete disorganization of lamellae were observed in (60)Co gamma irradiated prawns. Significantly more considerable histological alterations were observed in the highest dose level of 3000mGy, but no mortality was evidenced. This study serves as biomonitoring tool to assess the radiation pollution in the aquatic environment. PMID:23587558

Stalin, A; Broos, K V; Sadiq Bukhari, A; Syed Mohamed, H E; Singhal, R K; Venu-babu, P

2013-06-01

112

Identification and characterization of differentially expressed transcripts in the gills of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) under salt stress.  

PubMed

The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is an economically important species. It is a euryhaline shrimp, surviving in wide-range salinity conditions. A change in gene expression has been suggested as an important component for stress management. To better understand the osmoregulatory mechanisms mediated by the gill, a subtractive and suppressive hybridization (SSH) tool was used to identify expressed transcripts linked to adaptations in saline water. A total of 117 transcripts represented potentially expressed under salinity conditions. BLAST analysis identified 22% as known genes, 9% as uncharacterized showing homologous to unannotated ESTs, and 69% as unknown sequences. All the identified known genes representing broad spectrum of biological pathways were particularly linked to stress tolerance including salinity tolerance. Expression analysis of 10 known genes and 7 unknown/uncharacterized genes suggested their upregulation in the gills of prawn exposed to saline water as compared to control indicating that these are likely to be associated with salinity acclimation. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) was used for obtaining full-length cDNA of MRSW-40 clone that was highly upregulated during salt exposure. The sequenced ESTs presented here will have potential implications for future understanding about salinity acclimation and/or tolerance of the prawn. PMID:22619594

Barman, Hirak Kumar; Patra, Swagat Kumar; Das, Varsha; Mohapatra, Shibani Dutta; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Mohapatra, Chinmayee; Mohanta, Ramya; Panda, Rudra Prasanna; Rath, Surya Narayan

2012-01-01

113

Gene profiling and characterization of arginine kinase-1 (MrAK-1) from freshwater giant prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii).  

PubMed

Arginine kinase-1 (MrAK-1) was sequenced from the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii using Illumina Solexa Genome Analyzer Technique. MrAK-1 consisted of 1068 bp nucleotide encoded 355 polypeptide with an estimated molecular mass of 40 kDa. MrAK-1 sequence contains a potential ATP:guanido phosphotransferases active domain site. The deduced amino acid sequence of MrAK-1 was compared with other 7 homologous arginine kinase (AK) and showed the highest identity (96%) with AK-1 from cherry shrimp Neocaridina denticulate. The qRT-PCR analysis revealed a broad expression of MrAK-1 with the highest expression in the muscle and the lowest in the eyestalk. The expression of MrAK-1 after challenge with the infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) was tested in muscle. In addition, MrAK-1 was expressed in Escherichia coli by prokaryotic expression plasmid pMAL-c2x. The optimum temperature (30 °C) and pH (8.5) was determined for the enzyme activity assay. MrAK-1 showed significant (P < 0.05) activity towards 10-50 mM ATP concentration. The enzyme activity was inhibited by ?-ketoglutarate, glucose and ATP at the concentration of 10, 50 and 100 mM respectively. Conclusively, the findings of this study indicated that MrAK-1 might play an important role in the coupling of energy production and utilization and the immune response in shrimps. PMID:21549198

Arockiaraj, Jesu; Vanaraja, Puganeshwaran; Easwvaran, Sarasvathi; Singh, Arun; Alinejaid, Tahereh; Othman, Rofina Yasmin; Bhassu, Subha

2011-07-01

114

Effects of Nitrite Exposure on Acid–Base Balance, Respiratory Protein, and Ion Concentrations of Giant Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii at Low pH  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  \\u000a \\u000a Macrobrachium rosenbergii that had been exposed individually for 24 h to 0 (control), 2, 5, 10 mg\\/L nitrite-N (nitrite as nitrogen) at 4.3 and 7.7\\u000a pH levels were examined for hemolymph nitrite-N, oxyhemocyanin, protein, acid–base balance, ion concentrations, and ammonia-N\\u000a (ammonia as nitrogen) excretion. Hemolymph oxyhemocyanin, protein, pH, HCO3\\u000a \\u000a ? , TCO2, osmolality, and ion concentrations were inversely related

J.-C. Chen; Y. Lee

1997-01-01

115

Immune response of four dual-CRD C-type lectins to microbial challenges in giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

C-type lectins (CTLs) are believed to play important roles in the innate immunity of invertebrates and serve as pattern recognition receptors, opsonins, or effector molecules. In this study, the full-lengths cDNA of 4 CTL genes from giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii were cloned and designated as MrLec1, MrLec2, MrLec3, and MrLec4. All of these 4 lectin cDNAs encode proteins with 2 carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs). While MrLec1, MrLec3, and MrLec4 had signal peptides, no signal peptide was detected in MrLec2. Two carbohydrate recognition motifs within two CRDs of each lectin were predicted (QPE, EPG in MrLec1; EPT, EPA in MrLec2; QPT, NPR in MrLec3; KPN, EPD in MrLec4). Phylogenetic analysis showed that MrLec4 belongs to group A whereas MrLec1, MrLec2, and MrLec3 belong to group B. Positive selection in dual-CRD lectins suggested their probable roles in innate immunity, and positively selected induced amino acid diversity of lectins may confer their ability to recognize a broad range of microbes. The qRT-PCR analysis in adult prawns showed that MrLec1 is mainly expressed in the hepatopancreas, gills, and stomach, MrLec2 and MrLec4 are mainly distributed in the hepatopancreas, and MrLec3 is mainly expressed in the hepatopancreas and stomach. Time-course analysis using qRT-PCR showed that MrLec1 to MrLec4 are all upregulated by the Vibrio anguillarum challenge. MrLec1 is upregulated after 2, 12, and 24 h of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenge. The expression of MrLec2 increases after 12 and 24 h of WSSV challenge, and the transcript of MrLec3 and MrLec4 are downregulated after 2 h of WSSV challenge. The results suggest the potential roles of dual-CRD lectins in the innate immunity of M. rosenbergii. PMID:22450241

Ren, Qian; Li, Meng; Du, Jie; Zhang, Chi-Yu; Wang, Wen

2012-08-01

116

Subcellular localization and kinetic characterization of a gill (Na+, K+)-ATPase from the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

The stimulation by Mg(2+), Na(+), K(+), NH4 (+), and ATP of (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase activity in a gill microsomal fraction from the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii was examined. Immunofluorescence labeling revealed that the (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase ?-subunit is distributed predominantly within the intralamellar septum, while Western blotting revealed a single ?-subunit isoform of about 108 kDa M r. Under saturating Mg(2+), Na(+), and K(+) concentrations, the enzyme hydrolyzed ATP, obeying cooperative kinetics with V(M) = 115.0 ± 2.3 U mg(-1), K(0.5) = 0.10 ± 0.01 mmol L(-1). Stimulation by Na(+) (V(M) = 110.0 ± 3.3 U mg(-1), K(0.5) = 1.30 ± 0.03 mmol L(-1)), Mg(2+) (V(M) = 115.0 ± 4.6 U mg(-1), K(0.5) = 0.96 ± 0.03 mmol L(-1)), NH4 (+) (V(M) = 141.0 ± 5.6 U mg(-1), K(0.5) = 1.90 ± 0.04 mmol L(-1)), and K(+) (V(M) = 120.0 ± 2.4 U mg(-1), K(M) = 2.74 ± 0.08 mmol L(-1)) followed single saturation curves and, except for K(+), exhibited site-site interaction kinetics. Ouabain inhibited ATPase activity by around 73% with K(I) = 12.4 ± 1.3 mol L(-1). Complementary inhibition studies suggest the presence of F0F1-, Na(+)-, or K(+)-ATPases, but not V(H(+))- or Ca(2+)-ATPases, in the gill microsomal preparation. K(+) and NH4(+) synergistically stimulated enzyme activity (?25%), suggesting that these ions bind to different sites on the molecule. We propose a mechanism for the stimulation by both NH4(+), and K(+) of the gill enzyme. PMID:23784064

França, Juliana L; Pinto, Marcelo R; Lucena, Malson N; Garçon, Daniela P; Valenti, Wagner C; McNamara, John C; Leone, Francisco A

2013-07-01

117

Cloning and identification of four Mu-type glutathione S-transferases from the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are essential components of the cellular detoxification system because of their capability to protect organisms against the toxicity of reactive oxygen species (ROSs). Four different GSTs (MrMuGST1-MrMuGST4) showing similarities with Mu-type GSTs were cloned from the hepatopancreas of Macrobrachium rosenbergii. These four GSTs have 219, 216, 218 and 219 amino acids in length, respectively. MrMuGST1-MrMuGST4 proteins all have a G-site in the N-terminus and an H-site in the C-terminus. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that four Mu-type GSTs are classified into two different clades (MrMuGST2 one clade; MrMuGST1, MrMuGST3 and MrMuGST4 other clades). Nonetheless, no site under positive selection was detected but rapid evolution was found in the few of MuGST genes. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results showed that MrMuGST1 and MrMuGST2 transcripts were expressed in all detected tissues, however, MrMuGST3 and MrMuGST4 were just mainly expressed in hepatopancreas and intestines. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that MrMuGST1 and MrMuGST2 were down-regulated upon Vibrio anguillarum challenge, whereas MrMuGST3 and MrMuGST4 were quickly up-regulated 2 h after the Vibrio challenge. Our results imply that different Mu-type GSTs may respond to Vibrio challenge with different manners. PMID:23727284

Hui, Kai-Min; Hao, Fang-Yuan; Li, Wen; Zhang, Zhao; Zhang, Chi-Yu; Wang, Wen; Ren, Qian

2013-08-01

118

Detection and genetic profiling of infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) infections in wild berried freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii collected for hatchery production.  

PubMed

Infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) has been detected widely in penaeid culture facilities in Asia and the Americas. IHHNV infection on sub-adult and postlarvae of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii which had caused up to 80% mortalities was first reported in Southeast Taiwan in 2006. In Malaysia, although, there has been no report on IHHNV infections in M. rosenbergii, preliminary work suggests that there is an urgent need to setup a screening protocol for IHHNV for both wild and cultured populations. In this study, polymerase chain reaction based screening was carried out on 30 randomly sampled berried wild M. rosenbergii before and after spawning. All samples did not showed any sign of IHHNV infection. However, the results showed that 20% of the samples were IHHNV positive. Sequence analysis of the amplified band using NCBI-BLAST showed that the putative IHHNV sequence had 98% nucleotide sequence (388 bp) identity with the IHHNV isolate AC-05-005 non-structural protein 1 gene and seven other IHHNV strains in the data bank further affirming the suggestion on the presence of IHHNV in wild freshwater prawn populations in Malaysia. PMID:21755294

Hazreen Nita, M K; Kua, B C; Bhassu, S; Othman, R Y

2012-04-01

119

Gene expression and functional studies of small heat shock protein 37 (MrHSP37) from Macrobrachium rosenbergii challenged with infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV).  

PubMed

In this study, we have reported a full length of small heat shock protein 37 (designated MrHSP37) gene, identified from the transcriptome database of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The complete gene sequence of the MrHSP37 is 2,425 base pairs in length, and encodes 338 amino acids. MrHSP37 contains a long heat shock protein family profile in the amino acid sequence between 205 and 288. The mRNA expressions of MrHSP37 in healthy and the infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) challenged M. rosenbergii were examined using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). MrHSP37 is highly expressed in hepatopancreas and all the other tissues (walking leg, gills, muscle, stomach, haemocyte, intestine, pleopods, brain and eye stalk) of M. rosenbergii taken for analysis. The expression is strongly up-regulated after IHHNV challenge. To understand its biological activity, the recombinant MrHSP37 gene was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The results of ATPase assay showed that the recombinant MrHSP37 protein exhibited apparent ATPase activity which increased with the concentration of the protein. And also the purified recombinant MrHSP37 protein was used for thermal aggregation assay (chaperone activity). It showed that the recombinant MrHSP37 protein is an active chaperone in this assay. Taken together, these results suggest that MrHSP37 is potentially involved in the immune responses against IHHNV challenge in M. rosenbergii. PMID:22290288

Arockiaraj, Jesu; Vanaraja, Puganeshwaran; Easwvaran, Sarasvathi; Singh, Arun; Othman, Rofina Yasmin; Bhassu, Subha

2012-06-01

120

Effects of dietary administration of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) extracts on the immune responses and disease resistance of giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

The hot-water extract of Eichhornia crassipes leaves (ECE) was produced and incorporated into the diet of the prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, as an immunostimulant. Survival rates of prawn against Lactococcus garvieae, and its immune parameters including the total haemocyte count (THC), different haemocyte count (DHC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts (RBs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, transglutaminase (TG) activity, haemolymph coagulation time, and phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency against L. garvieae by M. rosenbergii were determined when prawn (23.0 ± 2.8 g) were fed ECE-containing diets at 0, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 g kg(-1). Prawn fed a diet containing ECE at 2.0 and 3.0 g kg(-1) for 12 days showed significantly increased THC, HC, GC, PO activity, RBs, SOD activity, GPx activity, and TG activity, and a significantly decreased coagulation time. The phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency against L. garvieae of prawn fed the ECE-containing diets at 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 g kg(-1) were significantly higher than those of prawn fed the control diet at 3-12 days. Survival rates of M. rosenbergii fed the diet containing ECE at concentrations of 2 and 3 g kg(-1) were significantly higher than those fed the control diet after challenge with L. garvieae for 48-144 h. The relative percentage survival of prawn fed the 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 g kg(-1) ECE-containing diets for 12 days were 17.5%, 39.1%, and 52.2%. It was concluded that the ECE can be used as an immunostimulant for prawn through dietary administration to enhance immune responses and resistance of M. rosenbergii against L. garvieae. PMID:23603238

Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Tan, Hui-Ching; Cheng, Winton

2013-07-01

121

De Novo Transcriptome Sequencing Analysis and Comparison of Differentially Expressed Genes (DEGs) in Macrobrachium rosenbergii in China.  

PubMed

Giant freshwater prawn (GFP; Macrobrachium rosenbergii) is an exotic species that was introduced into China in 1976 and thereafter it became a major species in freshwater aquaculture. However the gene discovery in this species has been limited to small-scale data collection in China. We used the next generation sequencing technology for the experiment; the transcriptome was sequenced of samples of hepatopancreas organ in individuals from 4 GFP groups (A1, A2, B1 and B2). De novo transcriptome sequencing generated 66,953 isogenes. Using BLASTX to search the Non-redundant (NR), Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes (STRING), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome (KEGG) databases; 21,224 unigenes were annotated, 9,552 matched unigenes with the Gene Ontology (GO) classification; 5,782 matched unigenes in 25 categories of Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COG) and 20,859 unigenes were consequently assigned to 312 KEGG pathways. Between the A and B groups 147 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified; between the A1 and A2 groups 6,860 DEGs were identified and between the B1 and B2 groups 5,229 DEGs were identified. After enrichment, the A and B groups identified 38 DEGs, but none of them were significantly enriched. The A1 and A2 groups identified 21,856 DEGs in three main categories based on functional groups: biological process, cellular_component and molecular function and the KEGG pathway defined 2,459 genes had a KEGG Ortholog - ID (KO-ID) and could be categorized into 251 pathways, of those, 9 pathways were significantly enriched. The B1 and B2 groups identified 5,940 DEGs in three main categories based on functional groups: biological process, cellular_component and molecular function, and the KEGG pathway defined 1,543 genes had a KO-ID and could be categorized into 240 pathways, of those, 2 pathways were significantly enriched. We investigated 99 queries (GO) which related to growth of GFP in 4 groups. After enrichment we identified 23 DEGs and 1 KEGG PATHWAY 'ko04711' relation with GFP growth. PMID:25329319

Nguyen Thanh, Hai; Zhao, Liangjie; Liu, Qigen

2014-01-01

122

De Novo Transcriptome Sequencing Analysis and Comparison of Differentially Expressed Genes (DEGs) in Macrobrachium rosenbergii in China  

PubMed Central

Giant freshwater prawn (GFP; Macrobrachium rosenbergii) is an exotic species that was introduced into China in 1976 and thereafter it became a major species in freshwater aquaculture. However the gene discovery in this species has been limited to small-scale data collection in China. We used the next generation sequencing technology for the experiment; the transcriptome was sequenced of samples of hepatopancreas organ in individuals from 4 GFP groups (A1, A2, B1 and B2). De novo transcriptome sequencing generated 66,953 isogenes. Using BLASTX to search the Non-redundant (NR), Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes (STRING), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome (KEGG) databases; 21,224 unigenes were annotated, 9,552 matched unigenes with the Gene Ontology (GO) classification; 5,782 matched unigenes in 25 categories of Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COG) and 20,859 unigenes were consequently assigned to 312 KEGG pathways. Between the A and B groups 147 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified; between the A1 and A2 groups 6,860 DEGs were identified and between the B1 and B2 groups 5,229 DEGs were identified. After enrichment, the A and B groups identified 38 DEGs, but none of them were significantly enriched. The A1 and A2 groups identified 21,856 DEGs in three main categories based on functional groups: biological process, cellular_component and molecular function and the KEGG pathway defined 2,459 genes had a KEGG Ortholog - ID (KO-ID) and could be categorized into 251 pathways, of those, 9 pathways were significantly enriched. The B1 and B2 groups identified 5,940 DEGs in three main categories based on functional groups: biological process, cellular_component and molecular function, and the KEGG pathway defined 1,543 genes had a KO-ID and could be categorized into 240 pathways, of those, 2 pathways were significantly enriched. We investigated 99 queries (GO) which related to growth of GFP in 4 groups. After enrichment we identified 23 DEGs and 1 KEGG PATHWAY ‘ko04711’ relation with GFP growth. PMID:25329319

Liu, Qigen

2014-01-01

123

Determination and kinetics of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin in Tra catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) and giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) using a liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method.  

PubMed

Determination and kinetics of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin in Tra catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) and giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) using a liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method. J. vet. Pharmacol. Therap. 34, 142-152. The fluoroquinolones enrofloxacin (EF) and ciprofloxacin (CF) residues were investigated in the edible tissues of two important Asian aquacultured species such as Tra catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) and giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) using a sensitive liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry method. Fish and prawn were treated with medicated feed with multiple doses of EF, in field conditions. A validation study of the analytical method was realized in terms of linearity, specificity, precision (repeatability and within-laboratory reproducibility), recovery and decision limit (CC?). The time needed before the antibiotic disappears from animal tissues or reach the maximum residue limit (MRL, 100?g/kg) was assessed. The concentration values of EF detected in Tra catfish tissue were between the MRL and 2×MRL concentrations, according to the fish density, 7days following the end of the enrofloxacin treatment (20mg/kg body weight per day, for seven consecutive days). The concentration value of ER in prawn tissue was lower than the MRL and the limit of quantification (LOQ, 14?g/kg) 5 and 7days after the stop of the EF treatment (50mg/kg body weight per day, for five consecutive days), respectively. The mean detected levels of CF was much lower in comparison with that of EF, indicating that only a small part of EF is metabolized into CF (<5%) in both Tra catfish and prawn. PMID:21395605

Danyi, S; Widart, J; Douny, C; Dang, P K; Baiwir, D; Wang, N; Tu, H T; Tung, V T; Phuong, N-T; Kestemont, P; Scippo, M-L

2011-04-01

124

Function of an anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF) isoform isolated from the hemocytes of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii in protecting against bacterial infection.  

PubMed

In this study, a 780-bp full-length cDNA encoding Macrobrachium rosenbergii anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (MrALF) from hemocytes was cloned and identified. The ALF isoform exhibited immune activities, and its concentration in hemolymph was determined. An in vivo expression study showed that the ALF mRNA level of hemocytes could be induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) in an exposure time-dependent manner. Purified recombinant MrALF (rMrALF) expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris SMD1168 eukaryotic protein expression system demonstrated antibacterial activity against the Gram-negative prawn pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)=0.806?M, minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC)=1.606?M) but not the Gram-positive pathogen Lactococcus garvieae exposed to 25.696?M of rALF. However, rMrALF can bind to Gram-negative and -positive bacteria. An in vivo expression study demonstrated that the ALF concentrations in prawn hemocytes and plasma were 0.176?M and 0.168?M, respectively; following LPS treatment for 6h, the corresponding concentrations were 0.133?M in hemocytes and 0.272?M in plasma. Furthermore, the percentage of hemocytes phagocytosing bacteria cells was higher in hemoyctes previously treated with MrALF than those treated with sterile medium. These results suggest that in the innate immune response of M. rosenbergii, the MrALF from hemocytes may play an opsonin during a bacterial invasion. PMID:24333685

Liu, Chia-Chen; Chung, Chien-Pang; Lin, Chang-Yi; Sung, Hung-Hung

2014-02-01

125

The history of the introduction of the giant river prawn, Macrobrachium cf. rosenbergii (Decapoda, Palaemonidae), in Brazil: New insights from molecular data  

PubMed Central

The giant river prawn, Macrobrachium cf. rosenbergii, is one of the most cultivated freshwater prawns in the world and has been introduced into more than 40 countries. In some countries, this prawn is considered an invasive species that requires close monitoring. Recent changes in the taxonomy of this species (separation of M. rosenbergii and M. dacqueti) require a re-evaluation of introduced taxa. In this work, molecular analyses were used to determine which of these two species was introduced into Brazil and to establish the geographic origin of the introduced populations that have invaded Amazonian coastal waters. The species introduced into Brazil was M. dacqueti through two introduction events involving prawns originating from Vietnam and either Bangladesh or Thailand. These origins differ from historical reports of the introductions and underline the need to confirm the origin of other exotic populations around the world. The invading populations in Amazonia require monitoring not only because the biodiversity of this region may be affected by the introduction, but also because admixture of different native haplotypes can increase the genetic variability and the likelihood of persistence of the invading species in new habitats. PMID:21637558

Iketani, Gabriel; Pimentel, Luciana; Silva-Oliveira, Glaucia; Maciel, Cristiana; Valenti, Wagner; Schneider, Horacio; Sampaio, Iracilda

2011-01-01

126

?NH H??NG C?A KÍCH C? GI?NG LÊN N?NG SU?T TÔM CÀNG XANH (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) NUÔI TRONG M??NG V??N ? V?NH LONG  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study on farming of giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) in garden ditch was carried in Vinh Long province during the year 2003- 2004. Experiment was conducted with 2 treatments of stocking postlarvae at density of 9 inds.\\/m2 and stocking juvenile at density of 6 inds.\\/m2 . Areas of the experimental ponds varied between 1,000 and 1,500 m2. Prawn was fed

Lý V?n

127

The effects of serotonin, dopamine, gonadotropin-releasing hormones, and corazonin, on the androgenic gland of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

Neurotransmitters and neurohormones are agents that control gonad maturation in decapod crustaceans. Of these, serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) are neurotransmitters with known antagonist roles in female reproduction, whilst gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRHs) and corazonin (Crz) are neurohormones that exercise both positive and negative controls in some invertebrates. However, the effects of these agents on the androgenic gland (AG), which controls testicular maturation and male sex development in decapods, via insulin-like androgenic gland hormone (IAG), are unknown. Therefore, we set out to assay the effects of 5-HT, DA, l-GnRH-III, oct-GnRH and Crz, on the AG of small male Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Mr), using histological studies, a BrdU proliferative cell assay, immunofluorescence of Mr-IAG, and ELISA of Mr-IAG. The results showed stimulatory effects by 5-HT and l-GnRH-III through significant increases in AG size, proliferation of AG cells, and Mr-IAG production (P<0.05). In contrast, DA and Crz caused inhibitory effects on the AG through significant decreases in AG size, proliferation of AG cells, and Mr-IAG production (P<0.05). Moreover, the prawns treated with Crz died before day 16 of the experimental period. We propose that 5-HT and certain GnRHs can be now used to stimulate reproduction in male M. rosenbergii, as they induce increases in AG and testicular size, IAG production, and spermatogenesis. The mechanisms by which these occur are part of our on-going research. PMID:23867230

Siangcham, Tanapan; Tinikul, Yotsawan; Poljaroen, Jaruwan; Sroyraya, Morakot; Changklungmoa, Narin; Phoungpetchara, Ittipon; Kankuan, Wilairat; Sumpownon, Chanudporn; Wanichanon, Chaitip; Hanna, Peter J; Sobhon, Prasert

2013-11-01

128

Simultaneous identification and quantification of 4-cumylphenol, 2,4-bis-(dimethylbenzyl)phenol and bisphenol A in prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

Bisphenol A (BPA), 4-cumylphenol (4-CP) and 2,4-bis-(dimethylbenzyl)phenol (2,4-DCP) are all high production volume chemicals and widely used in plastic and other consumer products. During the past two decades, BPA has attracted a great deal of scientific and public attention due to its presence in the environment and estrogenic property. Although 4-CP and 2,4-DCP are much more estrogenic and toxic than BPA, little information is available about their occurrence and fate in the environment. In this study, a rapid, selective, accurate and reliable analytical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 4-CP, 2,4-DCP and BPA in prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The method comprises an ultrasound-accelerated extraction followed by capillary gas chromatographic (GC) separation. The detection limits range from 1.50 to 36.4 ng kg(-1) for the three alkylphenols. The calibration curves are linear over the concentration range tested with the coefficients of determination, R(2), greater than 0.994. The developed method was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of 4-CP, 2,4-DCP and BPA in prawn samples. The peak identification was confirmed using GC-MS. Bisphenol A, 2,4-bis-(dimethylbenzyl)phenol and 4-cumylphenol were found in prawn samples in the concentration ranges of 0.67-5.51, 0.36-1.61, and 0.00-1.96 ng g(-1) (wet weight), respectively. All relative standard deviations are less than 4.8%. At these environmentally relevant concentration levels, 4-CP, 2,4-DCP and BPA may affect the reproduction and development of aquatic organisms, including negative influence on crustaceans' larval survival, molting, metamorphosis and shell hardening. This is the first study reported on the occurrence of 4-CP, 2,4-DCP and BPA in prawn M. rosenbergii. PMID:24560775

Zuo, Yuegang; Zhu, Zhuo

2014-07-01

129

Phylogeny of Macrobrachium PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS IN SOME  

E-print Network

and one species,Macrobrachium rosenbergii (DeMan) 1scultivated worldwide. The alpha taxonomy of the gePhylogeny of Macrobrachium I 1 PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS IN SOME SPECIES OF THE GENUS MACROBRACHIUM 1 BASED ON NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCES OF THE MITOCHONDRIAL GENE CYTOCHROME OXIDASE I Guido Pereira

Farrell, Brian D.

130

Timing sexual differentiation: full functional sex reversal achieved through silencing of a single insulin-like gene in the prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

In Crustacea, an early evolutionary group (?50?000 species) inhabiting most ecological niches, sex differentiation is regulated by a male-specific androgenic gland (AG). The identification of AG-specific insulin-like factors (IAGs) and genomic sex markers offers an opportunity for a deeper understanding of the sexual differentiation mechanism in crustaceans and other arthropods. Here, we report, to our knowledge, the first full and functional sex reversal of male freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) through the silencing of a single IAG-encoding gene. These "neofemales" produced all-male progeny, as proven by sex-specific genomic markers. This finding offers an insight regarding the biology and evolution of sex differentiation regulation, with a novel perspective for the evolution of insulin-like peptides. Our results demonstrate how temporal intervention with a key regulating gene induces a determinative, extreme phenotypic shift. Our results also carry tremendous ecological and commercial implications. Invasive and pest crustacean species represent genuine concerns worldwide without an apparent solution. Such efforts might, therefore, benefit from sexual manipulations, as has been successfully realized with other arthropods. Commercially, such manipulation would be significant in sexually dimorphic cultured species, allowing the use of nonbreeding, monosex populations while dramatically increasing yield and possibly minimizing the invasion of exotic cultured species into the environment. PMID:22133694

Ventura, Tomer; Manor, Rivka; Aflalo, Eliahu D; Weil, Simy; Rosen, Ohad; Sagi, Amir

2012-03-01

131

The cloning of the cdk2 transcript and the localization of its expression during gametogenesis in the freshwater giant prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

Cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks) are key regulators of the cell cycle. In mammals, cdk2 plays an essential role in the meiosis of spermatocytes and oocytes. To investigate the role of cdk2 kinase during gametogenesis in crustaceans, we cloned a complete cDNA sequence of cdk2 from the freshwater giant prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and examined its localization and expression in the developing gonads. The prawn cdk2 cDNA is 1,745 bp in length and encodes a putative protein of 305 amino acids. The deduced protein contains a conserved cyclin binding motif PSTAIRE and shares high homology with reported cdk2 kinases of other species. RT-PCR analysis showed a wide distribution of the cdk2 mRNA in all tested organs including the testis, ovary, heart, muscles, hepatopancreas and gills, and the highest level of expression in the ovary and testis. Localization by in situ hybridization of cdk2 mRNA in the ovary showed high expression in the ooplasm of previtellogenic and the nuclei of late vitellogenic oocytes. In testicular sections, cdk2 transcript is low in spermatogonia, high in spermatocytes, but reduced in spermatids and sperm. The high expression of the cdk2 transcripts in meiotic spermatocytes and oocytes indicated that the cdk2 gene has the conservative function in the germ cells meiosis during gametogenesis. PMID:23653005

Chen, Jie; Liu, Ping; Li, Zhen; Chen, Ying; Qiu, Gao-Feng

2013-08-01

132

Expression of the male reproduction-related gene (Mar-Mrr) in the spermatic duct of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

Phosphorylated sperm proteins are crucial for sperm maturation and capacitation as a priori to their fertilization with eggs. In the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, a male reproduction-related protein (Mar-Mrr) was known to be expressed only in the spermatic ducts as a protein with putative phosphorylation and may be involved in sperm capacitation in this species. We investigated further the temporal and spatial expression of the Mar-Mrr gene using RT-PCR and in situ hybridization and the characteristics and fate of the protein using immunblotting and immunocytochemistry. The Mar-Mrr gene was first expressed in 4-week-old post larvae and the protein was produced in epithelial cells lining the spermatic ducts, at the highest level in the proximal region and decreased in the middle and distal parts. The native protein had a MW of 17 kDa and a high degree of serine/threonine phosphorylation. It was transferred from the epithelial cells to become a major protein at the anterior region of the sperm. We suggest that it is involved in sperm capacitation and fertilization in this open thelycal species and this is being investigated. PMID:22427066

Phoungpetchara, Ittipon; Tinikul, Yotsawan; Poljaroen, Jaruwan; Changklungmoa, Narin; Siangcham, Tanapan; Sroyraya, Morakot; Chotwiwatthanakun, Charoonroj; Vanichviriyakit, Rapeepun; Hanna, Peter J; Sobhon, Prasert

2012-06-01

133

Structure of the olfactory receptor organs, their GABAergic neural pathways, and modulation of mating behavior, in the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

In the giant male prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, the olfactory system is thought to be the main pathway for modulating sexual behavior through pheromone perception. In this report, we first used gross anatomical, histological, and SEM methods to describe the structures of the olfactory receptors (sensilla setae), their neural pathways, and possible role in modulating mating behavior. On the surfaces of antennule and antenna filaments there are four types of sensory receptors, viz single spike-like setae, single flagellum-like setae, multiple flagella-like setae, and aesthetascs (ASs). The ASs, which had previously been proposed to be odor receptor setae, are found only on the short filament of lateral antennule (slAn). Each AS on the slAn connects with olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), whose axons form an outer central antennule nerve (ocAnNv), which then connects with the olfactory neutrophil (ON) of the brain. Thus, the slAn is the major olfactory organ that conveys sensory inputs from each AS to the ON within the deutocerebrum. GABA immunoreactivity was present in ASs, neurons of ORNs, inner central antennular, lateral tegumentary nerve, ocAnNv and the ON, inferring that GABA is the likely neurotransmitter in modulating olfaction. Disruption of the slAn by ablation or covering with Vaseline, resulted in significant reduction of mating behavior, indicating that this organ is crucial for sex pheromone perception. Identification of the active pheromones and further bioassays are now being performed. PMID:23495186

Kruangkum, Thanapong; Chotwiwatthanakun, Charoonroj; Vanichviriyakit, Rapeepun; Tinikul, Yotsawan; Anuracpreeda, Panat; Wanichanon, Chaitip; Hanna, Peter J; Sobhon, Prasert

2013-06-01

134

Female-only sex-linked amplified fragment length polymorphism markers support ZW/ZZ sex determination in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

Sex determination mechanisms in many crustacean species are complex and poorly documented. In the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, a ZW/ZZ sex determination system was previously proposed based on sex ratio data obtained by crosses of sex-reversed females (neomales). To provide molecular evidence for the proposed system, novel sex-linked molecular markers were isolated in this species. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) using 64 primer combinations was employed to screen prawn genomes for DNA markers linked with sex loci. Approximately 8400 legible fragments were produced, 13 of which were uniquely identified in female prawns with no indication of corresponding male-specific markers. These AFLP fragments were reamplified, cloned and sequenced, producing two reliable female-specific sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers. Additional individuals from two unrelated geographic populations were used to verify these findings, confirming female-specific amplification of single bands. Detection of internal polymorphic sites was conducted by designing new primer pairs based on these internal fragments. The internal SCAR fragments also displayed specificity in females, indicating high levels of variation between female and male specimens. The distinctive feature of female-linked SCAR markers can be applied for rapid detection of prawn gender. These sex-specific SCAR markers and sex-associated AFLP candidates unique to female specimens support a sex determination system consistent with female heterogamety (ZW) and male homogamety (ZZ). PMID:23763724

Jiang, Xue-Hui; Qiu, Gao-Feng

2013-12-01

135

Characterization of a novel nm23 gene and its potential roles in gametogenesis in the prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man, 1879) (Crustacea: Decapoda).  

PubMed

Nm23 is a family of genes encoding the nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase, which functions in a wide variety of biological processes, including growth, development, differentiation and tumor metastasis. In this study, a novel nm23 gene, designated as Mrnm23, was identified from the freshwater giant prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The full-length cDNA was 776bp in length, encoding for a protein of 176 amino acids with one typical NDP kinase domain that harbored all the crucial residues for nucleotide binding and enzymatic activity. Like human novel nm23-H1B, the putative protein contained a unique 21-amino-acid NH2-terminal extension as compared to human nm23 (nm23-H1) homologs. Further, 3 extra amino acid residues prolonged the COOH-terminus. The Mrnm23 was ubiquitously expressed in all tissues examined, including androgenic gland, gill, heart, liver, muscle, ovary, and testis. In situ hybridization to gonad sections indicated that the Mrnm23 mRNA was localized in the cytoplasm of cup-base of differentiating spermatids, in the spike of the umbrella-shaped spermatozoa and in the cytoplasm of the early previtellogenic oocytes, suggesting that the Mrnm23 has potential roles in spermiogenesis and early differentiation of oocyte. PMID:23994193

Song, Ya-Nan; Lu, Cui-Yun; Chen, Jie; Qiu, Gao-Feng

2013-11-15

136

L-( sup 3 H) glutamate binding to a membrane preparation from the optic lobe of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man  

SciTech Connect

Membrane preparation from the optic lobe of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man, was examined for the presence of specific L-({sup 3}H) glutamate binding. The optic lobes were isolated from live animals. The tissue was homogenized and the membrane fraction isolated by differential centrifugation. The membrane suspension was incubated with 10-1,000 nM of L-({sup 3}H) glutamate at 37{degree}C for 60 min. Nonspecific binding was determined by incubating the mixture with 100 {mu}M L-glutamate. L-({sup 3}H) glutamate specifically bound to the membrane fraction with a dissociation equilibrium constant (Kd) of 205 nM and maximum number of binding sites (Bmax) of 2.04 n mol/mg protein. By using LIGAND computerized program, the saturation isotherm binding pattern indicates a single type of binding. To determine the type of glutamate receptors, competitive inhibition and IC{sub 50} of several glutamate agonists and antagonists were determined. The study reveals a metabotropic type of binding site.

Pratumtan, P.; Govitrapong, P.; Withyachumnarnkul, B.; Poolsanguan, B. (Mahidol Univ., Bangkok (Thailand) Mahidol Univ., Nakorn Pathom (Thailand))

1991-01-01

137

Molecular characterization and immunological response analysis of a novel transferrin-like, pacifastin heavy chain protein in giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1879).  

PubMed

The full-length cDNA of the pacifastin heavy chain gene from giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii, Mr-PHC) was cloned and characterized. The full sequence of the Mr-PHC cDNA was 4331 bp and contained a 119-bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), a 3990-bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 1329 amino acid residues and a 222-bp 3' UTR. The Mr-PHC protein predicted by its full ORF, exhibited a unique transferrin-like protein structure containing 4 different lobes that have not been previously identified. Three of the four lobes contained highly conserved of iron/anion binding residues. Expression analyses by conventional RT-PCR demonstrated that Mr-PHC was expressed predominantly during postlarval stage 45 and also in the foregut and gills of the adult prawn. Interestingly, dose response analyses that were quantified using quantitative real-time PCR indicated a significant upregulation of Mr-PHC during postlarval stage 45 in prawn grown at hour 24 after challenging with 10(9) cfu/ml of Aeromonas hydrophila, which is a pathogenic bacterium. Mr-HPC in the adult prawn was significantly upregulated at both hour 12 and day 7 after stimulation with A. hydrophila (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). Additionally, a delayed induction response of the Mr-PHC gene was observed at 14 days when the experimental adult prawns were fed with ?-glucan-supplemented feed. Based on results of this study, the transferrin-like protein encoded by the pacifastin heavy chain gene may exist in all decapod crustaceans. Even though the function as an iron transporter is not proven, immune response studies are clearly indicated that PHC is critically involved in the immune system in these animals. PMID:23198290

Toe, Aung; Areechon, Nontawith; Srisapoome, Prapansak

2012-10-01

138

Preliminary obervations on use of ethanol distiller's by-products for polyculture of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) and golden shiner (Notemigonus crysoleucas)  

SciTech Connect

Two major by-products of ethanol distillation, corn distiller's solubles and corn distiller's mash, were evaluated for their potential use as a food source for freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) and golden shiner (Notemigonus crysoleucas) in mid-western United States. Corn distiller's solubles were not found to be highly toxic to aquatic organisms at concentrations ranging up to 10,000 ppM. However, the high biological oxygen demand of the material requires that single applications not exceed 2000 ppM. Yield trials were conducted over a four month period in five 0.1 ha earthen ponds, located in proximity to an ethanol distillery. Each pond was stocked with 2000 postlarval shrimp (0.02 g mean weight). Three of these ponds were also each stocked with 75 adult golden shiner (27.0 g mean weight). One application of corn distiller's solubles (equivalent to approx. 2000 ppM) and three applications of corn distiller's mash (approx. 5 kg/application) were made over the course of the yield trails (approx. 120 days). No other food or fertilizer was added to the ponds. Survival of shrimp ranged from 34 to 75%. Survival of brood fish exceeded 90%. Mean weight of shrimp at harvest was approximately 12 g, and average production was equivalent to approximately 104 kg ha/sup -1/. Golden shiner reared in the same ponds as shrimp had production rates equivalent to approxmately 130 kg ha/sup -1/. The presence of fish did not appear to impede shrimp production. Although production results of fish and shrimp were encouraging, several factors existed which impeded production; these included: (1) little by-product was applied to ponds because the distillery was undergoing its shakedown period; (2) ponds were new and had minimal natural productivity; (3) grass was not fully established on the watershed and ponds became turbid; and (4) lower than normal temperatures prevailed over much of the growing period. 11 references, 2 figures, 8 tables.

Kohler, C.C.; Lewis, W.M.; Krueger, S.P.

1983-01-01

139

Cloning and immunoreactivity of the 5-HT1Mac and 5-HT2Mac receptors in the central nervous system of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

PubMed Central

Biogenic amines are implicated in several mental disorders, many of which involve social interactions. Simple model systems, such as crustaceans, are often more amenable than vertebrates for studying mechanisms underlying behaviors. Although various cellular responses of biogenic amines have been characterized in crustaceans, the mechanisms linking these molecules to behavior remain largely unknown. Observed effects of serotonin receptor agonists and antagonists in abdomen posture, escape responses, and fighting have led to the suggestion that biogenic amine receptors may play a role in modulating interactive behaviors. As a first step in understanding this potential role of such receptors, we have cloned and fully sequenced two serotonin receptors, 5-HT1Mac and 5-HT2Mac, from the CNS of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and have mapped their CNS immunohistochemical distribution. 5-HT1Mac was found primarily on the membranes of subsets of cells in all CNS ganglia, in fibers that traverse all CNS regions, and in the cytoplasm of a small number of cells in the brain, circum- and subesophageal ganglia (SEG), most of which also appear to contain dopamine. The pattern of 5-HT2Mac immunoreactivity was found to differ significantly, being found mostly in the central neuropil area of all ganglia, in glomeruli of the brain’s olfactory lobes, and in the cytoplasm of a small number of neurons in the SEG, thoracic and some abdominal ganglia. The observed differences in terms of localization, distribution within cells, and intensity of immunoreactive staining throughout the prawn’s CNS suggest that these receptors are likely to play different roles. PMID:19184976

Vazquez-Acevedo, Nietzell; Reyes-Colon, Dalynes; Ruiz-Rodriguez, Eduardo A.; Rivera, Nilsa M.; Rosenthal, Joshua; Kohn, Andrea B.; Moroz, Leonid L.; Sosa, Maria A.

2009-01-01

140

Prostaglandin E 2 in Previtellogeic Ovaries of the Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii: Synthesis and Effect on the Level of cAMP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elcosanoids are thought to play a role in the regulation of invertebrate reproduction, as they do in vertebrate systems. This was investigated using the previtellogenic ovary of the freshwater prawn Macyobrachium rosenbergii as a biological model. Concentrations of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), assessed by means of radioimmunoassay, in the previtellogenic ovary (oocyte diameter 20-40 ?m) were 32.4 ± 14.1 pg\\/mg ovary.

Amir Sagi; Julia Silkovsy; Sigal Fleisher-Berkovich; Abraham Danon; Reuben Chayoth

1995-01-01

141

Overview of recent research and development in temperate culture of the freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii De Man) in the South Central United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research and development e¡orts concerning fresh- water prawn farming have in the past been princi- pally conducted in tropical regions. However, activities in temperate regions also date back several decades. Culture of Macrobrachium in temperate zones o¡ers positive opportunities, despite the inabil- ity to culture year-round. Unique problems imposed by a restricted growing season must be addressed, and opportunities capitalized

James H Tidwell; Louis R D'Abramo; Shawn D Coyle; David Yasharian

2005-01-01

142

Ingestion and absorption of nutrients by the freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosengergii)  

E-print Network

INGESTION AND ABSORPTION OF NUTRIENTS BY THE FRESHWATER PRAWN (MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERGII) A Thesis by SUCHAT TAECHANURUK Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OP SCIENCE May 1982 Major Subject: Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences INGESTION AND ABSORPTION OF NUTRIENTS BY THE FRESHWATER PRAWN (MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERGII) A Thesis by SUCHAT TAECHANURUK Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman...

Taechanuruk, Suchat

2012-06-07

143

Apptication of Biofloc Technology (BFI) in Ihe nunery rearing and farming of giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachillm rosenbergii (de Man).  

E-print Network

??This thesis Entitled Application of Biofloc technology (BFT) In the Nursery Rearing and Farming of Giant Freshwater Prawn,Macrobrachium Rosenbergii(De Man). Aquaculture, rearing plants and animals… (more)

Prajith, K K

2011-01-01

144

Ozone treatment in a closed culture system for Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

E-print Network

; Whltfie1d, 1974; Hampson& 1977). The relative toxicities of unionized and ionized forms of ammonia have been documented for many aquatic animals in freshwater and marine environments; these studies have been reviewed by Bonn snd Chavin (1976). In all... bacteria, fungi snd viruses (Dickerman et al. , 1954; Fetner and Ingols, 1959; Kinman, 1972; Lawrence snd Cappelli, 1977), considerable knowledge and care are required in its application because of its potential toxicity to cultured organisms. Giese snd...

Yamaguchi, Ryoji

2012-06-07

145

Protein metabolism and energetics in the freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

E-print Network

-related (Ikeda, 1974; White, 1975) variations have been documented. Weiser (1972) reported a decrease in 0:N ratios of terrestrial isopods during starvation, lending further support to the belief that nitro- genous substances play an important role in energy... of this index is at best quali- tative. Indeed, several investigators have reported values less than seven which are clearly impossible in light of theoretical considera- tians. Bayne (1976) notes that "careful interpretation of 0:N data is necessary...

Clifford, Henry Charles

2012-06-07

146

Experimental infection of Atlantic halibut Hippoglossus hippoglossus with nodavirus: tissue distribution and immune response.  

PubMed

Atlantic halibut Hippoglossus hippoglossus, age 8 mo and weighing 20 g, were challenged by either intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) or by bath exposure using nodavirus isolated from Atlantic halibut. Fish were sampled at intervals over a 41 d period, starting on Day 5 post-challenge. Although no clinical disease or mortality was recorded, the data show that nodavirus did successfully propagate in i.p.-challenged fish. Using conventional end-point reverse transcription (RT)-PCR, nodavirus was detected in the kidney of all examined i.p.-challenged fish, and further in the head, heart, liver and posterior intestine of most of these individuals. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR revealed that the amount of virus in head samples from the i.p.-challenged group increased during the experiment. The presence of nodavirus in nervous tissue of i.p.-challenged fish was detected by immunohistochemistry from Day 13 post-challenge. In the retina, virus positive cells were found adjacent to the circumferential germinal zone at the ciliary margin towards the iris. In the brain, a few positive cells were detected in the tectum opticum. An ELISA was developed to detect anti-nodavirus activity in plasma. The method included an optimized coating procedure, which allowed the use of non-purified nodavirus as the coating antigen in a simple indirect ELISA. An anti-nodavirus antibody response was detected from Day 19 post-challenge in i.p.-challenged fish, while a response was not detected in the bath-challenged or control fish. This experiment demonstrates a subclinical nodavirus infection in Atlantic halibut at a post-juvenile stage induced by i.p. injection of virus. PMID:12691192

Grove, S; Johansen, R; Dannevig, B H; Reitan, L J; Ranheim, T

2003-02-27

147

Immune role of MrNF?BI-?, an I?B family member characterized in prawn M. rosenbergii.  

PubMed

NF kappa B inhibitor alpha (MrNF?BI-?) was sequenced from a freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The MrNF?BI-? protein contains a long ankyrin repeat region circular domain between 193 and 413 along with its 6 repeats (ankyrin repeat 1,2,3,4,5 and 6). An I?B degradation motif and a putative PEST motif is present at 37-64 and 418-471 of the N- and C-terminal regions of MrNF?BI-? respectively. The gene expressions of MrNF?BI-? in healthy and infectious hematopoietic and hypodermal necrosis virus (IHHNV), poly I:C, Aeromonas hydrophila and Enterococcus faecium injected M. rosenbergii were examined using quantitative real time PCR. The MrNF?BI-? is expressed in all the tissues taken for examination and the highest is observed in hemocytes. The MrNF?BI-? gene expression is strongly up-regulated in hemocytes of prawn after IHHNV, poly I:C, A. hydrophila and E. faecium infection. This result indicates an important role of MrNF?BI-? in M. rosenbergii immune system. This, however, remains to be verified by further studies. PMID:22750025

Arockiaraj, Jesu; Avin, Farhat Ahmadi; Vanaraja, Puganeshwaran; Easwvaran, Sarasvathi; Singh, Arun; Othman, Rofina Yasmin; Bhassu, Subha

2012-09-01

148

Molecular detection and characterization of nodavirus in several marine fish species from the northeastern Atlantic.  

PubMed

Nodaviruses (NNV) are responsible for causing disease outbreaks mainly in hatchery-reared larvae and juveniles of a wide variety of fishes throughout the world. This disease has seriously limited the culture of marine fishes over the last decade. In the Atlantic provinces of Canada, disease caused by a nodavirus was first reported in juvenile Atlantic cod being reared in Nova Scotia, in 1999. More recently, disease outbreaks caused by nodavirus have been identified in hatchery-reared Atlantic cod and haddock in Newfoundland and New Brunswick, respectively, and along the east coast of the USA. The presence of NNV in wild Atlantic cod adults and wild winter flounder has also been reported. Nodaviruses were isolated from cultured Atlantic cod and haddock, as well as from wild winter flounder from a variety of geographical localities, and their virus coat (capsid) protein genes were partially sequenced. An analysis of the data indicates that all of the nodaviruses isolated from eastern North America were closely related to one another, but that they were distinct from the European isolates already sequenced. Regardless of host species, isolates from close geographical localities were more similar than those from distant geographical areas. At the protein level, differences in coat protein sequences were seen only for strains isolated from Atlantic cod originating from Newfoundland. Our results suggest that NNV may have been present in the Atlantic off Canada and on the east coast of the USA for some time, and has evolved to form a monophyletic group, distinct from other isolates found in cold-water species. Non-lethal methods for detection of NNV are necessary to develop management strategies for this disease, and would be an asset to diagnosticians and producers. Based on the results of this study, new primers were designed and developed for an improved RT-PCR assay able to detect North Atlantic nodaviruses in ovarian fluids, eggs and other tissues. The application of this test to field samples is discussed. PMID:15672873

Gagné, N; Johnson, S C; Cook-Versloot, M; MacKinnon, A M; Olivier, G

2004-12-13

149

Quantitative investigation of antigen and immune response in nervous and lymphoid tissues of Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) challenged with nodavirus.  

PubMed

The present study reports the quantitative analysis of the spatio-temporal development of nodavirus infection and corresponding immune response in juvenile Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) challenged by intramuscular injection of nodavirus. Novel quantitative real-time RT-PCR protocols were applied to evaluate the absolute copy numbers of nodavirus RNA2 (RNA2) and secretory-IgM mRNA (sec-igmicro) in the eye, brain, mid/posterior kidney and spleen sampled over a period of 81 days. In the eye and brain, levels of both RNA2 and sec-igmicro increased significantly early in the infection. In the spleen and mid/posterior kidney, both RNA2 and sec-igmicro were detected but the levels remained unchanged during the experimental period. The levels of RNA2 and sec-igmicro in the eye and brain were strongly correlated (P<0.0001). Nodavirus antigen was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in the retina of eyes from a relatively few fish from day 34 post challenge (brain not examined), but not at any time in the spleen and anterior kidney. By IHC, IgM+ cells were observed in conjunction with nodavirus positive IHC labelling in the retina. In both the spleen and anterior kidney, the number of IgM+ cells increased from day 3 post challenge. By conventional real-time RT-PCR, RNA2 was only sporadically demonstrated in the posterior intestine, heart and gills. ELISA analysis revealed a nodavirus specific antibody response in serum that was significant from day 18 post challenge. No clinical signs or mortality related to nodavirus infection were observed in the challenged halibut. The results suggest that the nodavirus infection induced a significant antibody response through activation of B-cells in the kidney and spleen, and involved a substantial migration of antibody-secreting cells to infected peripheral tissues. PMID:16682232

Grove, Søren; Johansen, Renate; Reitan, Liv J; Press, Charles M; Dannevig, Birgit H

2006-11-01

150

Preliminary approach to find synthetic peptides from nodavirus capsid potentially protective against sea bass viral encephalopathy and retinopathy.  

PubMed

Four synthetic peptides of 15 amino acids (aa), corresponding to sequences of the nodavirus DIEV RNA(2) protein, were chosen to test their potential immunogenicity in sea bass. Two of these included the N or C terminal regions (N-ter or C-ter) and the sequences of the others contained a potential external site (aa 127-140: Lp1 and as 266-279: Lp2). Two heat inactivated strains of nodavirus (HI Sb1 and HI Sb2), were used as positive controls and the carrier (KLH) as a negative control. ELISAs were performed to quantify serum antibodies specific to nodavirus, to peptides, and to the carrier in order to monitor their immunogenicity. All the fish reacted to the peptides C-Ter, Lp1 and Lp2 but only 55% of animals injected with N-ter produced specific antibodies. The proportion of fish that produced antibodies that cross reacted with nodavirus was very different with regard to the antigen injected: HI Sb1=88%; HI Sb2=85%; N-ter=38%; C-ter=27%. Protection against nodavirus was investigated by challenging the fish with a virulent viral suspension. The results showed that heat-inactivated Nodavirus protect fish and the N-ter peptide is a potential protective peptide. This initial approach showed that although vaccinating fish with peptides is possible, the tools and strategies of the research used in this field still need to be adapted to fish. PMID:12711276

Coeurdacier, Jean-Luc; Laporte, Florent; Pepin, Jean-François

2003-05-01

151

Cortney L. Ohs, PhD Select Publications Cassiano, E.J., C.L. Ohs, C.R. Weirich, N.E. Breen, and A.L. Rhyne. 2011. Evaluation of larval  

E-print Network

prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii in earthen ponds. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 41: 841 of dietary administration of 17alpha - methyltestosterone to freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii through dietary administration of dopamine hydrochloride. Journal

Hill, Jeffrey E.

152

Antimicrobial activity of chitosan against vibrios from freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii larval rearing systems.  

PubMed

Chitosan is a biocompatible and biodegradable natural polymer with established antimicrobial properties against specific microorganisms. The present study demonstrates its antibacterial activity against 48 isolates of Vibrio species from prawn larval rearing systems. The antibacterial activity had a positive correlation with the concentration of chitosan. This work opens up avenues for using chitosan as a prophylactic biopolymer for protecting prawn larvae from vibriosis. PMID:16385825

Anas, A; Paul, S; Jayaprakash, N S; Philip, R; Bright Singh, I S

2005-11-01

153

Physiological involvement of DA in ovarian development of the freshwater giant prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogenic amines such as dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) are able to affect numerous physiological processes in crustaceans through their actions as neuroregulators. Both DA and serotonin have been shown to be involved in the synthesis and release of neurohormones such as crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH), vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone (VIH), molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH) and those related to pigmentation which in

Y. N. Chen; H. F. Fan; S. L. Hsieh; C. M. Kuo

2003-01-01

154

Effect of dietary cellulose on digestion in the prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of dietary cellulose on digestion and absorption in Macrobrachiumrosenbergii were studied by inclusion of ?-cellulose at the expense of starch into four purified diets. The results showed that increasing ?-cellulose reduced the apparent digestibility of both dry matter and protein, but also showed that cellulose itself is digestible, with an apparent digestibility of 80%. Increasing dietary levels of

M. del C González-Peña; Alex J Anderson; David M Smith; Gloria S Moreira

2002-01-01

155

Toxicity of ammonia to larvae of the freshwater shrimp, Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

E-print Network

V Growth and survival rates of larval M. ~*b ' ' f't* e'ght-d y p* e t 0, 3. 2, and 7. 5 mg/I ammonia-N at pH 8. 03, 28 C, and 12 ppt salinity 29 VI Number and percentage of surviving M. ~nb ' larvae 'n d ffer nt d elop- mental stages observed... strength (e. g. , salinity) of the solution is also known to have a lesser, but significant effect (Stumm and Morgan, 1970; Whitfield, 1974; Emerson et al. , 1975; Hampson, 1976). An increase in pH from 7 to 8 leads to an approximately ten- fold...

Llobrera, Jose Alvarez

2012-06-07

156

Classification of differentiating oocytes during ovarian cycle in the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii de man  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the light microscopic observations of cells' sizes, chromatin patterns, amount of lipid droplets and yolk granules, the female germ cells could be classified into four different phases, which include 1) oogonia (Oog), 2) primary oocytes (pOc), 3) secondary oocytes (sOc), and 4) mature oocyte (mOc). Oog are small oval-shaped cells with irregular-shaped nuclei sizing 4–6 ?m in diameter. They

Prasert Meeratana; Prasert Sobhon

2007-01-01

157

The ecdysteroid titer in the female prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii during the molt cycle  

E-print Network

HPI C resolution of ecdysone and 20-hydroxyecdysone from prawn 823. HPLC resolution of ecdysone and 20-hydroxyecdysone from prawn PZ4. 40 43 44 INTRODUCTION Molting in crustaceans results from tissue response to high circula- ting ti ters of a... the silkworm ~Bomb x mori (Butenandt and Karlson, 1954) and its subsequent structure determination (Huber and Hoppe, 1965), other arthropod ecdysteroids have been isolated and identified: 20-hydroxyecdysone (crustecdysone, ecdysterone, a-ecdysone) (Hampshire...

Newitt, Richard Allen

2012-06-07

158

Nursing of Giant Freshwater Prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) Postlarvae in Ponds with Different Stocking Densities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study on the effects of different stocking densities on growth, survival rate and economic return of prawns from postlarvae to juvenile stage in ponds was conducted in Tam Binh district, Vinh Long province. Experiment was designed with two treatments of 50 and 100 PL\\/m2 and lasted for 45 days. During the experiment, prawns were fed commercial diet of 33 %

Nguyen Thanh Phuong; Ly Van Khanh; Marcy N. Wilder

159

MALCOLM B. HALE and MELVIN E. WATERS Frozen Storage Stability of  

E-print Network

Prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii Introduction The culture of freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is being increas- ingly cultured in tropical regions and has restaurant product, as in Hawaii. Materials and Methods The Macrobrachium prawns used in this study were

160

Molecular cloning and characterization of the lipopolysaccharide and ?-1,3-glucan binding protein from oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense.  

PubMed

The lipopolysaccharide and ?-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP), one of the pattern recognition proteins, plays an important role in the innate immune response of invertebrates. A 1,506 bp full-length cDNA of a LGBP gene was cloned and characterized from the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense (named as MnLGBP). Analysis of the nucleotide sequence revealed that the cDNA clone has an open reading frame of 1,119 bp, encoding a protein of 372 amino acids including a 21-aa signal peptide. The calculated molecular mass of the mature protein (351 aa) was 39.9 kDa with an estimated pI of 4.63. The MnLGBP sequence contains: (1) two putative integrin-binding motifs, (2) a glucanase motif, (3) two putative N-glycosylation sites, (4) one protein kinase C phosphorylation site, and (5) a putative recognition motif for ?-1,3-linkage of polysaccharides. Sequence comparison based on the deduced amino acid sequence of MnLGBP showed varied identity of 89, 76 and 74% with those of Macrobrachium rosenbergii LGBP, Marsupenaeus japonicus ?-1,3-glucan binding proteins, and Fenneropenaeus chinensis LGBP, respectively. Quantitative RT-PCR results showed that MnLGBP was expressed in nerve, intestine, muscle, gill, heart, haemocytes and at the highest level in hepatopancreas. After challenge with the pathogen, Aeromonas hydrophila and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, the expression of MnLGBP mRNA was significantly upregulated in the hepatopancreas compared to the control group. At the same time, the mRNA level of MnproPO increased dramatically at 48 h after injection of bacteria. These data should be helpful to better understand the function of MnLGBP in the prawn immune system. PMID:24584659

Xiu, Yunji; Wu, Ting; Liu, Peng; Huang, Ying; Ren, Qian; Gu, Wei; Meng, Qingguo; Wang, Wen

2014-06-01

161

The microbial flora of pond-reared shrimp (Penaeus stylirostris, P. setiferus, P. vannamei, and Macrobrachium rosenbergii)  

E-print Network

stored on ice for 1V eight days ranged from 5. 1-9. 4 X 10 . The microbial flora 2 of stored shrimp was dominated by coryneform bacteria, Pseudomonas, and Nicrococcus species. The aerobic plate counts of pond waters ranged from 6. 1 X 10 ? 2. 2 X 10.... Coliforms were not present in detectable numbers. In a later report on Gulf Coast shrimp, Campbell and Williams (5) reported that Nicrococcus, Pseudomonas, Flavo- bacterium, and Bacillus were the dominant species. In the past few years, British...

Christopher, Frank Mitchell

2012-06-07

162

Chemical characterization of the lectin from the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man) by MALDI-TOF  

Microsoft Academic Search

The serum of the freshwater prawn contains a sialic acid specific lectin (MrL) that agglutinates erythrocytes from rat and rabbit, as well as some Gram negative and positive bacterial strains. In this work, we performed the chemical characterization of the MrL purified by affinity chromatography on stroma from rat erythrocytes and by ion exchange chromatography. In its active form, MRL

Roberto Zenteno; Lorena Vazquez; Claudia Sierra; Ali Pereyra; Marie Christine Slomianny; Stephane Bouquelet; Edgar Zenteno

2000-01-01

163

DNA microsatellite-based evaluation of early growth performance among strains of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microsatellite DNA markers were used to assess early growth performance among different strains of freshwater prawn under separate and communal rearing conditions. Two-hundred-and-twenty broodstock individuals from three prawn strains were collected and used as baseline populations for assignment tests. The exclusion–simulation approach was performed on different sets of one to seven microsatellite loci to determine the power of the assignment

Thuchapol Karaket; Supawadee Poompuang; Uthairat Na-Nakorn; Wongpathom Kamonrat; Eric M. Hallerman

2011-01-01

164

Genome-Wide Analysis of Host Factors in Nodavirus RNA Replication  

PubMed Central

Flock House virus (FHV), the best studied of the animal nodaviruses, has been used as a model for positive-strand RNA virus research. As one approach to identify host genes that affect FHV RNA replication, we performed a genome-wide analysis using a yeast single gene deletion library and a modified, reporter gene-expressing FHV derivative. A total of 4,491 yeast deletion mutants were tested for their ability to support FHV replication. Candidates for host genes modulating FHV replication were selected based on the initial genome-wide reporter gene assay and validated in repeated Northern blot assays for their ability to support wild type FHV RNA1 replication. Overall, 65 deletion strains were confirmed to show significant changes in the replication of both FHV genomic RNA1 and sub-genomic RNA3 with a false discovery rate of 5%. Among them, eight genes support FHV replication, since their deletion significantly reduced viral RNA accumulation, while 57 genes limit FHV replication, since their deletion increased FHV RNA accumulation. Of the gene products implicated in affecting FHV replication, three are localized to mitochondria, where FHV RNA replication occurs, 16 normally reside in the nucleus and may have indirect roles in FHV replication, and the remaining 46 are in the cytoplasm, with functions enriched in translation, RNA processing and trafficking. PMID:24752411

Hao, Linhui; Lindenbach, Brett; Wang, Xiaofeng; Dye, Billy; Kushner, David; He, Qiuling; Newton, Michael; Ahlquist, Paul

2014-01-01

165

MACROBRACHIUM VICCONI, NEW SPECIES, A FRESH-WATER SHRIMP FROM A RAIN FOREST IN SOUTHEAST MEXICO, AND COMPARISON WITH CONGENERS (DECAPODA: PALAEMONIDAE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macrobrachium vicconi, new species, from a rain forest of southeastern Mexico is described. It is similar to Macrobrachium quelchi and Macrobrachium atabapense in total length, partially abbrevi- ated larval development, and cornea not reduced. Macrobrachium vicconi differs from those species in the size-ratio of the articles of the legs, the spinous ornamentation, and the length of the second pereiopods. Macrobrachium

Ramiro Román; A. Laura Ortega; Luis M. Mejía

2000-01-01

166

Natural and Experimental Infection of Caenorhabditis Nematodes by Novel Viruses Related to Nodaviruses  

PubMed Central

An ideal model system to study antiviral immunity and host-pathogen co-evolution would combine a genetically tractable small animal with a virus capable of naturally infecting the host organism. The use of C. elegans as a model to define host-viral interactions has been limited by the lack of viruses known to infect nematodes. From wild isolates of C. elegans and C. briggsae with unusual morphological phenotypes in intestinal cells, we identified two novel RNA viruses distantly related to known nodaviruses, one infecting specifically C. elegans (Orsay virus), the other C. briggsae (Santeuil virus). Bleaching of embryos cured infected cultures demonstrating that the viruses are neither stably integrated in the host genome nor transmitted vertically. 0.2 µm filtrates of the infected cultures could infect cured animals. Infected animals continuously maintained viral infection for 6 mo (?50 generations), demonstrating that natural cycles of horizontal virus transmission were faithfully recapitulated in laboratory culture. In addition to infecting the natural C. elegans isolate, Orsay virus readily infected laboratory C. elegans mutants defective in RNAi and yielded higher levels of viral RNA and infection symptoms as compared to infection of the corresponding wild-type N2 strain. These results demonstrated a clear role for RNAi in the defense against this virus. Furthermore, different wild C. elegans isolates displayed differential susceptibility to infection by Orsay virus, thereby affording genetic approaches to defining antiviral loci. This discovery establishes a bona fide viral infection system to explore the natural ecology of nematodes, host-pathogen co-evolution, the evolution of small RNA responses, and innate antiviral mechanisms. PMID:21283608

Wu, Guang; Nuez, Isabelle; Belicard, Tony; Jiang, Yanfang; Zhao, Guoyan; Franz, Carl J.; Goldstein, Leonard D.; Sanroman, Mabel; Miska, Eric A.; Wang, David

2011-01-01

167

Protection against Atlantic halibut nodavirus in turbot is induced by recombinant capsid protein vaccination but not following DNA vaccination.  

PubMed

Fish nodaviruses (betanodaviruses) are small, non-enveloped icosahedral single-stranded positive-sense RNA viruses that can cause viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER) in a number of cultured marine teleost species, including Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus). A recombinant protein vaccine and a DNA vaccine were produced, based on the same capsid-encoding region of the Atlantic halibut nodavirus (AHNV) genome, and tested for protection in juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). Vaccine efficacy was demonstrated in the fish vaccinated with recombinant capsid protein but not in the DNA-vaccinated fish, despite the fact that in vivo expression of the DNA vaccine-encoded antigen was confirmed by RNA in situ hybridisation and immunohistochemistry. Combined DNA and recombinant vaccine administration did not improve the effect of the latter. Surprisingly, fish vaccinated with 50 microg recombinant protein demonstrated a threefold lower survival rate than the two groups that received 10 microg recombinant protein. Neither the recombinant protein vaccine nor the DNA vaccine induced anti-viral antibodies 9 weeks after immunisation, while antibodies reactive with the recombinant protein were detectable mainly in fish vaccinated with 50 microg recombinant protein. The study also demonstrates evidence of viral replication inside the myocytes of intramuscularly challenged fish. PMID:15450965

Sommerset, Ingunn; Skern, Rasmus; Biering, Eirik; Bleie, Hogne; Fiksdal, Ingrid Uglenes; Grove, Søren; Nerland, Audun Helge

2005-01-01

168

A novel effect of imidazole derivative KK-42 on increasing survival of Aeromonas hydrophila challenged prawn Macrobrachium nipponense.  

PubMed

Imidazole derivative KK-42 is well known as the insect growth regulator. Here we find that KK-42 pretreatment could promote the survival of Macrobrachium nipponense infected with Aeromonas hydrophila, which is considered to be possibly related to the prophenoloxidase (proPO), a conserved copper-containing enzyme that plays an important role in defense against pathogens. In this study, a full-length of proPO gene from M. nipponense haemocytes, designated as MnproPO, was firstly cloned and characterized. The full-length cDNA contained 2428 bp with a 2013 bp open reading frame encoding a putative proPO protein of 671 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 76.5 kDa and pI of 7.31. It was predicted to possess all the expected features of proPO members, including two putative copper-binding sites with six histidine residues and a thiol ester-like motif. Sequence analysis showed that MnproPO exhibited the highest amino acid sequence similarity (93%) to a proPO of Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The gene was expressed highly in haemocytes and weakly in hepatopancreas. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that the MnproPO expression increased significantly at 3, 12 and 24 h after KK-42 treatment, the PO activity also importantly rose from 6 to 48 h in KK-42-treated prawns and reached the maximum at 24 h with a 2.3-fold higher than that in control group. Injection of A. hydrophila could stimulate the MnproPO transcription and PO activity whether or not the prawns were pretreated by KK-42, the mRNA level increased obviously only at 3 h and 6 h after the bacterium injection (challenged control), but increased constantly during the phase of experiment except at 6 h under the condition of KK-42 pretreatment (challenged treatment group). The change trend of PO activity was basically similar to that of MnproPO expression. Our present results demonstrate that the MnproPO expression as well as PO activity may be induced by KK-42, which is likely one of the molecular mechanisms of KK-42 acts for increasing survival of the prawn infected with A. hydrophila. PMID:23123639

Wang, Wen-Feng; Yang, Hong; Liu, Fang; Chen, Xiang-Li; Lv, Yan-Jie; Ning, Qian-Ji

2013-01-01

169

Important disease conditions of newly cultured species in intensive freshwater farms in Greece: first incidence of nodavirus infection in Acipenser sp.  

PubMed

We describe here the main pathological conditions of freshwater fish recently introduced for intensive rearing (open ponds and recirculating freshwater systems) in Greece. Sturgeon were susceptible to skeletal abnormalities of the spine (scoliosis and lordosis) of unknown aetiology. Horizontal transmission of nodavirus from infected sea bass to sturgeon was detected for the first time. This caused serious pathology and clinical signs, such as lethargy and imbalance, leading to secondary infections with Aeromonas hydrophila and Trichodina sp. and chronic, but steady, mortality. Sea bass were very susceptible to nodavirus infection, monogenean infections and gas bubble disease. Mullet reared under recirculated and open-flow conditions were very sensitive to Chilodonella sp. infection, whereas catfish were susceptible to infection with Ichthyophthirius sp. leading to secondary infections with A. hydrophila, Saprolegnia sp. and Myxobacteria spp. Tilapia were very susceptible to gas bubble disease and A. hydrophila. This bacterium was associated with management manipulations for all species and fully responsive to corrective hygiene methods. PMID:15521324

Athanassopoulou, F; Billinis, C; Prapas, Th

2004-09-01

170

C. Ohs Page 1 Cortney L. Ohs  

E-print Network

Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Masters of Science in Wildlife and Fisheries Ecology / Aquaculture 1995 of a spray-dried artificial diet for larval culture of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), hybrid prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii in earthen ponds. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 41: 841

Watson, Craig A.

171

Characterization of Proteolytic and Collagenolytic Psychrotrophic Bacteria of  

E-print Network

-Stored Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii R. J. PREMARATNE, W. K. NIP, and J. H. MOY Introduction Freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii culture is a relatively new and rapidly expanding industry-storedfreshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, was conducted to enumerate, isolate, identify, and test

172

Regulation of laboratory populations of snails (Biomphalaria and Bulinus spp.) by river prawns, Macrobrachium spp. (Decapoda, Palaemonidae): implications for control of schistosomiasis.  

PubMed

Human schistosomiasis is a common parasitic disease endemic in many tropical and subtropical countries. One barrier to achieving long-term control of this disease has been re-infection of treated patients when they swim, bathe, or wade in surface fresh water infested with snails that harbor and release larval parasites. Because some snail species are obligate intermediate hosts of schistosome parasites, removing snails may reduce parasitic larvae in the water, reducing re-infection risk. Here, we evaluate the potential for snail control by predatory freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii and M. vollenhovenii, native to Asia and Africa, respectively. Both prawn species are high value, protein-rich human food commodities, suggesting their cultivation may be beneficial in resource-poor settings where few other disease control options exist. In a series of predation trials in laboratory aquaria, we found both species to be voracious predators of schistosome-susceptible snails, hatchlings, and eggs, even in the presence of alternative food, with sustained average consumption rates of 12% of their body weight per day. Prawns showed a weak preference for Bulinus truncatus over Biomphalaria glabrata snails. Consumption rates were highly predictable based on the ratio of prawn: snail body mass, suggesting satiation-limited predation. Even the smallest prawns tested (0.5-2g) caused snail recruitment failure, despite high snail fecundity. With the World Health Organization turning attention toward schistosomiasis elimination, native prawn cultivation may be a viable snail control strategy that offers a win-win for public health and economic development. PMID:24388955

Sokolow, Susanne H; Lafferty, Kevin D; Kuris, Armand M

2014-04-01

173

A standardized comparison of semi-intensive pond culture of freshwater prawns Macrobrachium rosenbergii at different latitudes: production increases associated with lower water temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different ambient water temperatures on growth and population structure of freshwater prawns raised under standardized culture conditions. Juvenile prawns averaging 0.26 ± 0.14 g were stocked into seven 0.04 ha ponds at two study sites. Three ponds were located in Kentucky (KSU:latitude 38 °12?) with seasonal water temperatures averaging 24–26 °C.

James H. Tidwell; Louis R. D'Abramo; Carl D. Webster; Shawn D. Coyle; William H. Daniels

1996-01-01

174

Inter and intra-individual variation in resting oxygen consumption in post-larvae of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a study of the factors that influence metabolic rate in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachiumrosenbergii, resting oxygen consumption (ROC) was measured in 90 post-larvae ranging in size from 0.1 to 2.8 g. As in many other animal species, ROC was strongly negatively related to body weight. A stressful event (anaesthesia with or without tagging) caused a sharp increase in

Alan Taylor; Ben Ross; Shona McCauley; Janet H Brown; Felicity Huntingford

2002-01-01

175

RNA Binding by a Novel Helical Fold of B2 Protein from Wuhan Nodavirus Mediates the Suppression of RNA Interference and Promotes B2 Dimerization ?  

PubMed Central

Wuhan nodavirus (WhNV) is a newly identified member of the Nodaviridae family with a bipartite genome of positive-sense RNAs. A nonstructural protein encoded by subgenomic RNA3 of nodaviruses, B2, serves as a potent RNA silencing suppressor (RSS) by sequestering RNA duplexes. We have previously demonstrated that WhNV B2 blocks RNA silencing in cultured Drosophila cells. However, the molecular mechanism by which WhNV B2 functions remains unknown. Here, we successfully established an RNA silencing system in cells derived from Pieris rapae, a natural host of WhNV, by introducing into these cells double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-expressing plasmids or chemically synthesized small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Using this system, we revealed that the WhNV B2 protein inhibited Dicer-mediated dsRNA cleavage and the incorporation of siRNA into the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) by sequestering dsRNA and siRNA. Based on the modeled B2 3-dimensional structure, serial single alanine replacement mutations and N-terminal deletion analyses showed that the RNA-binding domain of B2 is formed by its helices ?2 and ?3, while helix ?1 mediates B2 dimerization. Furthermore, positive feedback between RNA binding and B2 dimerization was uncovered by gel shift assay and far-Western blotting, revealing that B2 dimerization is required for its binding to RNA, whereas RNA binding to B2 in turn promotes its dimerization. All together, our findings uncovered a novel RNA-binding mode of WhNV B2 and provided evidence that the promotion effect of RNA binding on dimerization exists in a viral RSS protein. PMID:21734038

Qi, Nan; Cai, Dawei; Qiu, Yang; Xie, Jiazheng; Wang, Zhaowei; Si, Jie; Zhang, Jiamin; Zhou, Xi; Hu, Yuanyang

2011-01-01

176

Open Journal of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, 2012, 2, 75-86 OJMIP doi:10.4236/ojmip.2012.23011 Published Online August 2012 (http://www.SciRP.org/journal/ojmip/)  

E-print Network

(Macrobrachium rosenbergii) species Yoo Sun Chung, Richard M. Cooper, Justin Graff, Robin L. Cooper* Department. The ability of the cr- ayfish Procambarus clarkii and the prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii to acclimate on heart rate (HR) and neuronal function in crayfish Procam- barus clarkii and prawns Macrobrachium

Cooper, Robin L.

177

ALTERNATIVE MATING STRATEGIES IN MALE MORPHOTYPES OF THE FRESHWATER PRAWN MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERGH (DE MAN)  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Males in a mature, single-age, pond population of the freshwater prawn Macro brachium rosenbergii,can be divided into three distinct morphological types, repre sentingthreephasesin the maledevelopmentalpathway(Brodyet a!., 1980).Behavioral and physical characteristicsof all three morphotypeswere examined with regardto mating behavior and reproductiveprobabilities. Two alternativemating strategiesare described.The largest,dominant males ac tively courtand protectthe femalespriorto mating.Malesof the intermediatecategory demonstrate,a reduced,rate of reproductive,activities in

Ziva Ra'anan; Amir Sagi

178

'Source: Holthuis, L. B. FAO Species Catalogue: Shrimps and Prawns of the World. FIRls125 Vol. 1 Foreign Fishery Developments  

E-print Network

Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The Irrawaddy River Delta area, com- prised of swamps, mangroves, and other estuaries, and phytoplankton are cultured to feed the larval shrimp. The PPFC operates a semi-intensive farm for M. rosenbergii- ful grow-out studies on M. rosenbergii were completed in 1979 at the Thaketa Research Station

179

Abbreviated larval development of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium pilimanus (De Man, 1879) (Decapoda, Palaemonidae), reared in the laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The larvae of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium pilimanus (De Man, 1879), were reared in the laboratory. Larval development was highly abbreviated, with two zoeal and one megalopal stages. Newly hatched larvae were benthic, with a tendency to cling on to roughened surfaces. All larval stages subsisted solely on endogenous yolk. Morphological and behavioural differences between the first zoea of this

Samuel S. C. Chong; H. W. Khoo

1987-01-01

180

Effects of eyestalk ablation on growth and food conversion efficiency of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium lanchesteri (de Man)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bilateral eyestalk ablation in the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium lanchesteri results in high mortality, while unilateral eyestalk ablated prawns exhibited a high survival rate. There was marked increase in the growth of bilateral eyestalk-ablated prawns (47.70 mg\\/prawn) as compared to those that were unilaterally ablated (19.19 mg\\/prawn).

R. Ponnuchamy; S. Ravichandra Reddy; Katre Shakuntala

1981-01-01

181

Structural changes of oviduct of freshwater shrimp, Macrobrachium nipponense (Decapoda, Palaemonidae), during spawning*  

PubMed Central

The structural change of the oviduct of freshwater shrimp (Macrobrachium nipponense) during spawning was examined by electron microscopy. The oviduct wall structural characteristics seem to be influenced significantly by the spawning process. Before the parturition and ovulation, two types of epithelial cells (types I and II) are found in the epithelium. The free surfaces of type I and type II cells have very dense long microvilli. Under the type I and type II cells, are a relatively thick layer of secreting material and a layer of mostly dead cells. After ovulation, two other types of epithelial cells (types III and IV) are found in the oviduct wall epithelium. The free surface of type III cells only has short microvilli scattered on the surface. The thick layer with secreting material and the dead cell layer disappeared at this stage. In some type III cells, the leaking out of cytoplasm from broken cell membrane led to the death of these type III cells. The transformation of all four types of epithelial cells was in the order: IV?I?II?III. PMID:16365928

Lu, Jian-ping; Zhang, Xiao-hui; Yu, Xiao-yun

2006-01-01

182

Partial susceptibility of the SSN-1 fish cell line to a crustacean virus: a defective replication study.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the possible use of the fish SSN-1 cell line to investigate the development of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV). Cells were incubated with viral particles and cytopathic effects were observed. De novo synthesis of viral capsid proteins was shown by immuno-fluorescence labelling and a sandwich ELISA test. Viral genomic replication was demonstrated by RT-PCR using primers specific to RNA-1 as well as by quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR). Using electron microscopy, only a few empty particles were observed and attempts to isolate complete infectious particles or to re-infect healthy cells (second passage) were unsuccessful. As complete viral particles were rarely observed, it appeared that defaults in MrNV virogenesis might arise resulting in the formation of scarce and non-infectious particles. SSN-1 cells were found to be partially permissive to MrNV infection that induced cell lysis, but key elements for viral infection were lacking such as regulatory factors for gene replication or post-translational modifications. PMID:17958611

Hernandez-Herrera, R I; Chappe-Bonnichon, V; Roch, P; Sri Widada, J; Bonami, J-R

2007-11-01

183

Immunological-based assays for specific detection of shrimp viruses.  

PubMed

Among shrimp viral pathogens, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and yellow head virus (YHV) are the most lethal agents, causing serious problems for both the whiteleg shrimp, Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei, and the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus (Penaeus) monodon. Another important virus that infects P. vannamei is infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV), which induces the white discoloration of affected muscle. In the cases of taura syndrome virus and Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV; formerly known as infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus), their impacts were greatly diminished after the introduction of tolerant stocks of P. vannamei. Less important viruses are Penaeus monodon densovirus (PmDNV; formerly called hepatopancreatic parvovirus), and Penaeus monodon nucleopolyhedrovirus (PemoNPV; previously called monodon baculovirus). For freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus and extra small virus are considered important viral pathogens. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific to the shrimp viruses described above have been generated and used as an alternative tool in various immunoassays such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, dot blotting, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Some of these MAbs were further developed into immunochromatographic strip tests for the detection of WSSV, YHV, IMNV and PemoNPV and into a dual strip test for the simultaneous detection of WSSV/YHV. The strip test has the advantages of speed, as the result can be obtained within 15 min, and simplicity, as laboratory equipment and specialized skills are not required. Therefore, strip tests can be used by shrimp farmers for the pond-side monitoring of viral infection. PMID:24567913

Chaivisuthangkura, Parin; Longyant, Siwaporn; Sithigorngul, Paisarn

2014-02-12

184

75 FR 16436 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the farmed and wild-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii),...

2010-04-01

185

75 FR 51756 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Changed...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the farmed and wild-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii),...

2010-08-23

186

78 FR 33344 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Preliminary Countervailing Duty Determination  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the farmed and wild-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii),...

2013-06-04

187

78 FR 33347 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Ecuador: Preliminary Negative Countervailing Duty Determination  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the farmed and wild-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii),...

2013-06-04

188

75 FR 13492 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed-Circumstances...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the farmed and wild-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii),...

2010-03-22

189

Shrimp Farming in the Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In inquiry-based instruction, discovery and learning belong to the students. In this exploration, jumbo shrimp are the source of inspiration. The magic in this project lies not in successfully culturing these shrimp, known as Macrobrachium rosenbergii

Ruggiero, Lovelle

2000-01-01

190

Larval biomass and chemical composition at hatching in two geographically isolated clades of the shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum: intra- or interspecific variation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller 1862) has an extremely large geographic range (>4000?km across) in northern and central South America, comprising estuarine and fully limnic inland populations, which are hydrologically isolated from each other. Significant variations in ecology, physiology, reproduction, and larval development suggest an at least incipient allopatric speciation due to limited genetic exchange. In a comparative experimental investigation

Ángel Urzúa; Klaus Anger

2011-01-01

191

Purification and catalytic properties of glutathione transferase from the hepatopancreas of crayfish macrobrachium vollenhovenii (herklots).  

PubMed

Glutathione transferase from the hepatopancreas of fresh water crayfish Macrobrachium vollenhovenii was purified to apparent homogeneity by ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and by gel filtration on Sephadex G-100. The enzyme appeared to be a homodimer with molecular weight (Mr) of 46.0 +/- 1.4 kDa and a subunit Mr of 24.1 +/- 0.35 kDa. Chromatofocusing of the apparently pure enzyme revealed microheterogeneity and resolved it into two isozymic peaks, which were eluted at pH 8.36 and 8.22 respectively. Inhibition studies showed that the I50 value for cibacron blue, S-hexylglutathione, hematin, and N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) were 0.01 microM, 340 microM, 5 microM and 33 mM respectively. Out of the several substrates tested, only 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and 7-chloro-4-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole could be conjugated with glutathione. Chemical modification studies with DTNB revealed that two sulphydryl groups per dimer were essential to the activity of the enzymes. On the basis of structural and catalytic characteristics, M. vollenhovenii GST seems close, tentatively, to the omega and zeta classes of GST. Initial-velocity studies of the enzyme are consistent with a steady-state random kinetic mechanism. Denaturation and renaturation studies with guanidine HCl (Gdn-HCl) revealed that though low Gdn-HCl concentrations (less than 0.5 M) denatured the enzyme, the enzyme was able to renature completely (100%). At higher concentration of the denaturant (0.5-4 M), refolding studies indicated that complete renaturation was not achieved. The extent of renaturation was however a function of protein concentration. Our results are consistent with a three-state unfolding process. PMID:15674845

Adewale, Isaac Olusanjo; Afolayan, Adeyinka

2004-01-01

192

Effect of replacement of fish meal by meat and bone meal and poultry by-product meal in diets on the growth and immune response of Macrobrachium nipponense  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential use of poultry by-product meal (PBM) and meat and bone meal (MBM) as alternative dietary protein sources for juvenile Macrobrachium nipponense was studied by a 70-day growth trial. Triplicate groups of M. nipponense (initial body weight: 0.37g) were fed at 20.7–22.4°C on each of the five isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets (protein content about 38%) with different replacement of

Yong Yang; Shouqi Xie; Wu Lei; Xiaoming Zhu; Yunxia Yang

2004-01-01

193

Calcium-calmodulin dependent protein kinase I from Macrobrachium nipponense: cDNA cloning and involvement in molting.  

PubMed

Calcium-calmodulin dependent protein kinase I is a component of a calmodulin-dependent protein kinase cascade and involved in many physiological processes. The full-length cDNA of calcium-calmodulin dependent protein kinase I (MnCaMKI) was cloned from the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium nipponense and its expression pattern during the molt cycle and after eyestalk ablation is described. The full-length cDNA of MnCaMKI is 3,262 bp in length and has an open reading frame (ORF) of 1,038 bp, encoding a 345 amino acid protein. The expression of MnCaMKI in three examined tissues was upregulated in the premolt stage of the molt cycle. Its expression was induced after eyestalk ablation (ESA): the highest expression level was reached 1 day after ESA in hepatopancreas, and 3 days after ESA in muscle. By dsRNA-mediated RNA interference assay, expression of MnCaMKI and ecydone receptor gene (MnEcR) was significantly decreased in prawns treated by injection of dsMnCaMKI, while expression of these two genes was also significantly decreased in prawns treated by injection of dsMnEcR, demonstrating a close correlation between the expression of these two genes. These results suggest that CaMKI in M. nipponense is involved in molting. PMID:24491503

Shen, Huaishun; Hu, Yacheng; Zhang, Yuanqin; Zhou, Xin; Xu, Zenghong

2014-04-01

194

Population structure of Macrobrachium australiense (Decapoda: Palaemonidae) in Western Queensland, Australia: the role of contemporary and historical processes.  

PubMed

Rivers of Western Queensland, Australia, represent a discontinuous and variable aquatic habitat for the freshwater fauna of the region. Rivers periodically fluctuate between being highly fragmented, with numerous disconnected waterholes and ephemeral channels, and being highly connected by a dominant system of anastomosing channels. We used mitochondrial sequences to investigate the genetic structure and inferred patterns of dispersal associated with this flow regime for the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium australiense (Decapoda: Palaemonidae), sampling 28 localities throughout eight catchments. Based on a 505 base pair fragment of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, we identified 98 haplotypes in a sample of 402 individuals. The haplotypes clustered into two main clades corresponding geographically to the major drainages: the Lake Eyre and Murray-Darling basins. Populations of M. australiense inhabiting the two basins appear to have diverged around 800,000 years ago (estimated sequence divergence of 1.6%). Analysis of population differentiation indicated contemporary high levels of genetic subdivision and restricted gene flow among populations within and among catchments. Phylogenetic analysis detected a series of historical range expansions in the region and we suggest that climate fluctuations during the Pleistocene have resulted in extensive floods that have promoted historical movements of aquatic organisms across catchment boundaries. PMID:15329659

Carini, G; Hughes, J M

2004-10-01

195

Regulation of essential heavy metals (Cu, Cr, and Zn) by the freshwater prawn macrobrachium malcolmsonii (Milne Edwards)  

SciTech Connect

Despite the low concentrations of heavy metals in the surrounding medium, aquatic organisms take them up and accumulate them in their soft tissues to concentrations several fold higher than those of ambient levels. Knowledge of accumulation patterns of a particular trace metal is a prerequisite for understanding the significance of an observed metal concentration in a particular animal, especially from the aspect of biomonitoring. Many marine invertebrates accumulate heavy metals without any regulation and the accumulation necessarily being associated with mechanisms to store the metals in a detoxified form. Two detoxification mechanisms have been described, both of which may occur in one specimen. Heavy metals can either be bound up in insoluble metalliferous {open_quote}granules{close_quote}, or are bound to soluble metal-binding ligands, such as metallothioneins. Some marine decapod crustaceans have an innate ability to regulate the internal concentrations of essential but potentially toxic metals within a constant level, presumably to meet their metabolic demands. However, at present, there is no such information relating to freshwater decapod crustaceans, especially shrimps which occupy a totally different environment. Macrobrachium malcolmsonii, a potential aquaculture species for freshwater is found in abundance in one of the major Indian rivers, the Cauvery. In the present study, an attempt was made to determine whether the freshwater prawn, M. malcolmsonlii, is able to regulate the three essential elements, copper, chromium and zinc, over a wide range of dissolved concentrations. These three metals were chosen because the Cauvery River receives pollutants containing these metals.

Vijayram, K. [Periyar E.V.R. College, Tiruchirappalli (India)] [Periyar E.V.R. College, Tiruchirappalli (India); Geraldine, P. [Bharathidasan Univ., Tiruchirappalli (India)] [Bharathidasan Univ., Tiruchirappalli (India)

1996-02-01

196

Comparative acute toxicity of gallium(III), antimony(III), indium(III), cadmium(II), and copper(II) on freshwater swamp shrimp (Macrobrachium nipponense)  

PubMed Central

Background Acute toxicity testing were carried out the freshwater swamp shrimp, Macrobrachium nipponense, as the model animal for the semiconductor applied metals (gallium, antimony, indium, cadmium, and copper) to evaluate if the species is an suitable experimental animal of pollution in aquatic ecosystem. Results The static renewal test method of acute lethal concentrations determination was used, and water temperature was maintained at 24.0?±?0.5°C. Data of individual metal obtained from acute toxicity tests were determined using probit analysis method. The median lethal concentration (96-h LC50) of gallium, antimony, indium, cadmium, and copper for M. nipponense were estimated as 2.7742, 1.9626, 6.8938, 0.0539, and 0.0313 mg/L, respectively. Conclusions Comparing the toxicity tolerance of M. nipponense with other species which exposed to these metals, it is obviously that the M. nipponense is more sensitive than that of various other aquatic animals. PMID:25027256

2014-01-01

197

Toxicity of the organophosphorous insecticide metamidophos (o,s-dimethyl phosphoramidothioate) to larvae of the freshwater prawn and the blue shrimp  

SciTech Connect

The organophosphorous insecticide O,S-dimethyl phosphoramidothioate (Metamidophos, Tamaron, Monitor, Hamidop) is widely used for pest control in tropical crops. If washed down to streams and estuaries its residues could adversely affect populations of commercially important crustaceans, like those of the palaemonid prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and the penaeid shrimp Penaeus stylirostris. This paper presents information on the toxicity of O,S-dimethyl phosphoramidothioate to larvae of M. rosenbergii and P. stylirostris.

Juarez, L.M.; Sanchez, J. (Monterrey Institute of Technology, Sonora (Mexico))

1989-08-01

198

The prawn Macrobrachium vollenhovenii in the Senegal River basin: towards sustainable restocking of all-male populations for biological control of schistosomiasis.  

PubMed

Early malacological literature suggests that the outbreak of schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease transmitted by aquatic snails, in the Senegal River basin occurred due to ecological changes resulting from the construction of the Diama dam. The common treatment, the drug praziquantel, does not protect from the high risk of re-infection due to human contact with infested water on a daily basis. The construction of the dam interfered with the life cycle of the prawn Macrobrachium vollenhovenii by blocking its access to breeding grounds in the estuary. These prawns were demonstrated to be potential biological control agents, being effective predators of Schistosoma-susceptible snails. Here, we propose a responsible restocking strategy using all-male prawn populations which could provide sustainable disease control. Male prawns reach a larger size and have a lower tendency to migrate than females. We, therefore, expect that periodic restocking of all-male juveniles will decrease the prevalence of schistosomiasis and increase villagers' welfare. In this interdisciplinary study, we examined current prawn abundance along the river basin, complemented with a retrospective questionnaire completed by local fishermen. We revealed the current absence of prawns upriver and thus demonstrated the need for restocking. Since male prawns are suggested to be preferable for bio-control, we laid the molecular foundation for production of all-male M. vollenhovenii through a complete sequencing of the insulin-like androgenic gland-encoding gene (IAG), which is responsible for sexual differentiation in crustaceans. We also conducted bioinformatics and immunohistochemistry analyses to demonstrate the similarity of this sequence to the IAG of another Macrobrachium species in which neo-females are produced and their progeny are 100% males. At least 100 million people at risk of schistosomiasis are residents of areas that experienced water management manipulations. Our suggested non-breeding sustainable model of control-if proven successful-could prevent re-infections and thus prove useful throughout the world. PMID:25166746

Savaya Alkalay, Amit; Rosen, Ohad; Sokolow, Susanne H; Faye, Yacinthe P W; Faye, Djibril S; Aflalo, Eliahu D; Jouanard, Nicolas; Zilberg, Dina; Huttinger, Elizabeth; Sagi, Amir

2014-08-01

199

The Prawn Macrobrachium vollenhovenii in the Senegal River Basin: Towards Sustainable Restocking of All-Male Populations for Biological Control of Schistosomiasis  

PubMed Central

Early malacological literature suggests that the outbreak of schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease transmitted by aquatic snails, in the Senegal River basin occurred due to ecological changes resulting from the construction of the Diama dam. The common treatment, the drug praziquantel, does not protect from the high risk of re-infection due to human contact with infested water on a daily basis. The construction of the dam interfered with the life cycle of the prawn Macrobrachium vollenhovenii by blocking its access to breeding grounds in the estuary. These prawns were demonstrated to be potential biological control agents, being effective predators of Schistosoma-susceptible snails. Here, we propose a responsible restocking strategy using all-male prawn populations which could provide sustainable disease control. Male prawns reach a larger size and have a lower tendency to migrate than females. We, therefore, expect that periodic restocking of all-male juveniles will decrease the prevalence of schistosomiasis and increase villagers' welfare. In this interdisciplinary study, we examined current prawn abundance along the river basin, complemented with a retrospective questionnaire completed by local fishermen. We revealed the current absence of prawns upriver and thus demonstrated the need for restocking. Since male prawns are suggested to be preferable for bio-control, we laid the molecular foundation for production of all-male M. vollenhovenii through a complete sequencing of the insulin-like androgenic gland-encoding gene (IAG), which is responsible for sexual differentiation in crustaceans. We also conducted bioinformatics and immunohistochemistry analyses to demonstrate the similarity of this sequence to the IAG of another Macrobrachium species in which neo-females are produced and their progeny are 100% males. At least 100 million people at risk of schistosomiasis are residents of areas that experienced water management manipulations. Our suggested non-breeding sustainable model of control—if proven successful—could prevent re-infections and thus prove useful throughout the world. PMID:25166746

Savaya Alkalay, Amit; Rosen, Ohad; Sokolow, Susanne H.; Faye, Yacinthe P. W.; Faye, Djibril S.; Aflalo, Eliahu D.; Jouanard, Nicolas; Zilberg, Dina; Huttinger, Elizabeth; Sagi, Amir

2014-01-01

200

Transcriptome Analysis of Androgenic Gland for Discovery of Novel Genes from the Oriental River Prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense, Using Illumina Hiseq 2000  

PubMed Central

Background The oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense, is an important aquaculture species in China, even in whole of Asia. The androgenic gland produces hormones that play crucial roles in sexual differentiation to maleness. This study is the first de novo M. nipponense transcriptome analysis using cDNA prepared from mRNA isolated from the androgenic gland. Illumina/Solexa was used for sequencing. Methodology and Principal Finding The total volume of RNA sample was more than 5 ug. We generated 70,853,361 high quality reads after eliminating adapter sequences and filtering out low-quality reads. A total of 78,408 isosequences were obtained by clustering and assembly of the clean reads, producing 57,619 non-redundant transcripts with an average length of 1244.19 bp. In total 70,702 isosequences were matched to the Nr database, additional analyses were performed by GO (33,203), KEGG (17,868), and COG analyses (13,817), identifying the potential genes and their functions. A total of 47 sex-determination related gene families were identified from the M. nipponense androgenic gland transcriptome based on the functional annotation of non-redundant transcripts and comparisons with the published literature. Furthermore, a total of 40 candidate novel genes were found, that may contribute to sex-determination based on their extremely high expression levels in the androgenic compared to other sex glands,. Further, 437 SSRs and 65,535 high-confidence SNPs were identified in this EST dataset from which 14 EST-SSR markers have been isolated. Conclusion Our study provides new sequence information for M. nipponense, which will be the basis for further genetic studies on decapods crustaceans. More importantly, this study dramatically improves understanding of sex-determination mechanisms, and advances sex-determination research in all crustacean species. The huge number of potential SSR and SNP markers isolated from the transcriptome may shed the lights on research in many fields, including the evolution and molecular ecology of Macrobrachium species. PMID:24204682

Jin, Shubo; Fu, Hongtuo; Zhou, Qiao; Sun, Shengming; Jiang, Sufei; Xiong, Yiwei; Gong, Yongsheng; Qiao, Hui; Zhang, Wenyi

2013-01-01

201

A clip-domain serine proteinase homolog (SPH) in oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense provides insights into its role in innate immune response.  

PubMed

In this study, a clip-domain serine proteinase homolog designated as MnSPH was cloned and characterized from a freshwater prawn Macrobrachium nipponense. The full-length cDNA of MnSPH was 1897 bp and contained a 1701 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein of 566 amino acids, a 103 bp 5'-untranslated region, and a 93 bp 3'-untranslated region. Sequence comparison showed that the deduced amino acids of MnSPH shared 30-59% identity with sequences reported in other animals. Tissue distribution analysis indicated that the MnSPH transcripts were present in all detected tissues with highest in the hepatopancreas and ovary. The MnSPH mRNA levels in the developing ovary were stable at the initial three developmental stages, then increased gradually from stage IV (later vitellogenesis), and reached a maximum at stage VI (paracmasis). Furthermore, the expression of MnSPH mRNA in hemocytes was significantly up-regulated at 1.5 h, 6 h, 12 h and 48 h post Aeromonas hydrophila injection. The increased phenoloxidase activity also demonstrated a clear time-dependent pattern after A. hydrophila challenge. These results suggest that MnSPH participates in resisting to pathogenic microorganisms and plays a pivotal role in host defense against microbe invasion in M. nipponense. PMID:24878742

Ding, Zhili; Kong, Youqin; Chen, Liqiao; Qin, Jianguang; Sun, Shengming; Li, Ming; Du, Zhenyu; Ye, Jinyun

2014-08-01

202

Use of the Multispecies Freshwater Biomonitor to assess behavioral changes of Poecilia reticulata (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae) and Macrobrachium lanchesteri (Decapoda: Palaemonidae) in response to acid mine drainage: laboratory exposure.  

PubMed

The behavioral responses of guppy Poecilia reticulata (Poeciliidae) and prawn Macrobrachium lanchesteri (Palaemonidae) individuals exposed to acid mine drainage (AMD) were monitored online in the laboratory with a Multispecies Freshwater Biomonitor™ (MFB). These responses were compared to those to reference water acidified to the respective pH values (ACID). Test animals in the juvenile stage were used for both species and were exposed to AMD and ACID for 24 hours. The stress behaviors of both test animals consisted mainly of decreased activity in AMD and increased activity in ACID, indicating that the metals in the AMD played a role as a stress factor in addition to pH. The locomotor activity levels of guppies and prawns for the ACID treatment were higher than the locomotor activity levels for the AMD treatment with increasing pH value. For guppies, significant differences were observed when specimens were exposed to AMD and ACID at pH 5.0 and 6.0; the percentage activities were only 16% and 12%, respectively, for AMD treatment, whereas for ACID treatment, the percentage activities were 35% and 40%, respectively, similar to the value of 36% for the controls. Similar trends were also observed for prawns, for which the percentage activities were only 6% and 4%, respectively, for AMD treatment, whereas for ACID treatment, the percentage activities were 31% and 38%, respectively, compared to 44% in the controls. This study showed that both species are suitable for use as indicators for ecotoxicity testing with the MFB. PMID:22868673

Mohti, Azmah; Shuhaimi-Othman, Mohammad; Gerhardt, Almut

2012-09-01

203

A spring-matrix model for pigment translocation in the red ovarian chromatophores of the freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium olfersi (Crustacea, Decapoda).  

PubMed

A model for intracellular transport of pigment granules in the red ovarian chromatophores of the freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium olfersi is proposed on the basis of shifts in the equilibrium of resting forces acting on an elastic pigment matrix. The model describes a pigment-transport mechanism in which mechanochemical protein motors like kinesin and myosin alternately stretch and compress a structurally unified, elastic pigment matrix. Quantifiable properties of the spring-matrix obey Hooke's Law during the rapid phases of pigment aggregation and dispersion. The spring-like response of the pigment mass is estimated from previous kinetic experiments on pigment translocation induced by red pigment concentrating hormone, or by the calcium ionophore A23187. Both translocation effectors trigger an initial phase of rapid pigment aggregation, and their removal or washout after complete aggregation produces a phase of rapid pigment dispersion, followed by slow pigment translocation. The rapid-phase kinetics of pigment transport are in reasonable agreement with Hooke's Law, suggesting that such phases represent the release of kinetic energy, probably produced by the mechanochemical protein motors and stored in the form of matrix deformation during the slow phases of translocation. This semiquantitative model should aid in analyzing intracellular transport systems that incorporate an elastic component. PMID:18400993

Boyle, Robert Tew; McNamara, John Campbell

2008-04-01

204

Effect of replacement of fish meal by meat and bone meal and poultry by-product meal in diets on the growth and immune response of Macrobrachium nipponense.  

PubMed

The potential use of poultry by-product meal (PBM) and meat and bone meal (MBM) as alternative dietary protein sources for juvenile Macrobrachium nipponense was studied by a 70-day growth trial. Triplicate groups of M. nipponense (initial body weight: 0.37 g) were fed at 20.7-22.4 degrees C on each of the five isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets (protein content about 38%) with different replacement of fish meal by MBM or PBM. The control diet used white fish meal as the sole protein source, the other four diets were prepared with 15% or 50% fish meal protein substituted by either MBM (MBM(15), MBM(50)) or PBM (PBM(15), PBM(50)). The results showed that replacement of fish meal by MBM in diets did not affect growth performance of M. nipponense (P > 0.05), while specific growth rate in PBM(15) was significantly higher than that in other groups (P < 0.05). Survival rates of shrimp fed with MBM(15) diet were significantly higher than that in other groups (P < 0.05). No significant differences in immunological parameters, including total haemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase activity (PO) and respiratory burst (O(2)(-)), were observed between the shrimps that were fed five experimental diets, and all determined immunological parameters in control groups were slightly higher than those in replacement groups. In conclusion, either MBM or PBM investigated could replace up to 50% fish meal protein in diets for M. nipponense. PMID:15212730

Yang, Yong; Xie, Shouqi; Lei, Wu; Zhu, Xiaoming; Yang, Yunxia

2004-08-01

205

Integration of thermal and food processing residuals into a system for commercial culture of freshwater shrimp. (power plant waste heat utilization in aquaculture). Volume 3. Final report, July 1974October 1976  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principal objective of this project is to develop procedures and methods for the commercial culture of the giant fresh water shrimp, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and the rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri, in the thermal discharge water of the Mercer Power Plant (Trenton, N.J.). The energy source for this power plant is coal. Discharge water from this plant was used in a

Farmanfarmian

1977-01-01

206

A Simple "in Vitro" Culture of Freshwater Prawn Embryos for Laboratory Investigations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Giant freshwater prawn ("Macrobrachium rosenbergii" De Man) embryos can be cultured "in vitro" to hatching in 15% (v/v) artificial seawater (ASW). This technique can be applied as a bioassay for testing toxicity or for the effects of various substances on embryo development and can be used as a simple and low-cost model for studying embryo…

Porntrai, Supaporn; Damrongphol, Praneet

2008-01-01

207

Six chitinases from oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense: cDNA characterization, classification and mRNA expression during post-embryonic development and moulting cycle.  

PubMed

Chitinase plays crucial physiological roles in crustaceans, including the digestion of chitin-containing food, moulting and the defense of shrimp against viruses. However, in contrast to insect species, no genome-wide analysis has been carried out in crustacean species and cDNAs encoding chitinase and chitinase-like proteins have been characterized in relatively few species. In this study, we identified six chitinase genes in the oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense, according to the established expressed sequence tag (EST) information using Rapid Amplification of the cDNA Ends (RACE) technique and homology cloning. We assigned these genes to three different chitinase groupings, which were designated MnCht1A, 1B, 3A, 3B, 3C and 4. The domain organization analysis of the six MnCht proteins revealed that only MnCht3C and MnCht4 possessed full structure, while MnCht1A, 1B, 3A and 3B lacked the serine/threonine (S/T)-rich linker and chitin-binding domains (CBDs). Their expression in different tissues and different developmental stages suggested that all of them have a function in the digestion of chitinous foods, modification of gut peritrophic membrane and degradation of the chitin exoskeleton. Analysis of the stage-specific moulting cycle and different temperature stimulation provided further evidence that MnCht1A, 1B and 3B have pivotal roles in the moulting cycle, while MnCht 4 only assists in the moulting process. This study provides important information for further investigations on the functions of chitinase in M. nipponense and other crustaceans. PMID:24096116

Zhang, Shiyong; Jiang, Sufei; Xiong, Yiwei; Fu, Hongtuo; Sun, Shengming; Qiao, Hui; Zhang, Wenyi; Jiang, Fengwei; Jin, Shubo; Gong, Yongsheng

2014-01-01

208

A marine bacterium, Micrococcus MCCB 104, antagonistic to vibrios in prawn larval rearing systems.  

PubMed

A marine bacterium, Micrococcus MCCB 104, isolated from hatchery water, demonstrated extracellular antagonistic properties against Vibrio alginolyticus, V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus, V. fluviallis, V. nereis, V. proteolyticus, V. mediterranei, V cholerae and Aeromonas sp., bacteria associated with Macrobrachium rosenbergii larval rearing systems. The isolate inhibited the growth of V. alginolyticus during co-culture. The antagonistic component of the extracellular product was heat-stable and insensitive to proteases, lipase, catalase and alpha-amylase. Micrococcus MCCB 104 was demonstrated to be non-pathogenic to M. rosenbergii larvae. PMID:16465832

Jayaprakash, N S; Pai, S Somnath; Anas, A; Preetha, R; Philip, Rosamma; Singh, I S Bright

2005-12-30

209

Effects of temperature and dissolved oxygen content on oxygen consumption rate of Chinese prawn, giant tiger prawn and giant freshwater prawn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temperature and the dissolved oxygen content affect the oxygen consumption of juveniles of Chinese prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant tiger prawn (P. monodon) and giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). There is good correlation between the oxygen consumption rate (V, mg\\/g·h) of the above three prawn species and the water temperature, and dissolved oxygen. In the range of test temperature,V increased with

Xi-Lin Dai; Wei-Ling Zang; Wei-Dong Wang; Yong-Hai Shi; Wen-Cui Liu; Gui-Rong Xu; Shi-Hua Li

1999-01-01

210

Direct use of low temperature geothermal water by Aquafarms International, Inc. for freshwater aquaculture (prawns and associated species). An operations and maintenance manual  

SciTech Connect

In connection with an ongoing commercial aquaculture project in the Coachella Valley, California; a twelve month prawn growout demonstration project was conducted. This project began in August, 1979 and involved the use of low temperature (85/sup 0/F) geothermal waters to raise freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (deMan), in earthen ponds. The following publication is an operations and maintenance guide which may by useful for those interested in conducting similar enterprises.

Broughton, R.; Price, M.; Price, V.; Grajcer, D.

1984-04-01

211

Studies on the ingestion characteristics of giant freshwater prawn, Chinese prawn and giant tiger prawn  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ingestion of giant freshwater prawn, Chinese prawn and giant tiger prawn had continuity and the ingestion high peak occurred at night. Light and temperature had significant effects on the daily ingestion rate (DIR) of giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Red light and blue light favorably induced favorable ingestion. In the adaptive range of temperature, the DIR increased with rising temperature and feeding frequency, but decreased with rising body weight.

Zang, Wei-Ling; Wang, Wei-Dong; Dai, Xi-Lin; Jiang, Min; Zhu, Zheng-Guo; Yang, Ming-Hui; Liu, Xian-Zhong; Xu, Gui-Rong; Ding, Fu-Jiang

2000-12-01

212

Integration of thermal and food processing residuals into a system for commercial culture of freshwater shrimp. (power plant waste heat utilization in aquaculture). Volume II. Final report Jul 74--Oct 76  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been demonstrated that all life-cycle stages of the tropical freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, can be cultured successfully using waste-heat effluents of the Mercer Generating Station, Trenton, N.J. Further, high-density culture of the prawn is possible and practical. Rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) culture has also been successfully demonstrated utilizing the waste-heat discharges of an electric generating station. Efficient systems

Eble

1977-01-01

213

Integration of thermal and food processing residuals into a system for commercial culture of freshwater shrimp (power plant waste heat utilization in aquaculture). Volume I. Final report 1 Jul 74-31 Oct 76  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objective of this study was to establish the bilogical feasibility of rearing the freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium rosenbergii and rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri in the thermal effluents from PSEandG's Mercer Generating Station. A new approach in aquaculture involving semiannual grow-out periods, diseasonal aquaculture was the result of the large seasonal variation in Delaware River temperature (0.2 to 29°C), since

C. R. Guerra; B. L. Godfriaux; A. F. Eble; A. F. Farmanfarmian

1977-01-01

214

Geothermal aquaculture: a guide to freshwater prawn culture  

SciTech Connect

Biological data of the Malaysian prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, are summarized. A history on its rearing techniques is given, but through the use of geothermal water or industrial warm water effluent, its range can be expanded. The use of wasted geothermal water at the Oregon Institute of Technology for prawn ponds is noted. Pond management and design; the hatchery design and function for larval culture; and geothermal applications (legal aspects and constraints) are discussed. (MCW)

Hayes, A.; Johnson, W.C.

1980-05-01

215

Multi-culture solar heated bio-shelter. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A rooftop greenhouse (bio-shelter) that is heated with active and passive solar systems is presented. The intent of the greenhouse is to grow vegetables hydroponically the year-round using a nutrient flow technique; and to growth the giant tropical Malaysian prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii in a recycling raceway water system heated with solar power. The produce grown was continuously monitored and the harvests weighed in order to estimate the year-round production potential of the bio-shelter greenhouse.

Not Available

1985-01-01

216

Rice-Freshwater Prawn Integrated Culture in Tan Phu Thanh Village, Chau Thanh A district, Can Tho Province  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trials of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) farming in rice field and garden ditch is being conducted at JIRCAS project research site, Tan Phu Thanh village, Chau Thanh A, Can Tho province. It includes three rice-prawn farms and one garden ditch prawn farm. Juvenile prawns of 0,045 g\\/prawn in average were stocked at a density of 2 prawn\\/m2 in rice-prawn farms,

Nguyen Thanh Phuong; Vu Nam; Vo Thanh Toan; Tran Thi; Thanh Hien; Pham Minh Duc

217

Kinetic analysis of gill (Na?,K?)-ATPase activity in selected ontogenetic stages of the Amazon River shrimp, Macrobrachium amazonicum (Decapoda, Palaemonidae): interactions at ATP- and cation-binding sites.  

PubMed

We investigated modulation by ATP, Mg²?, Na?, K? and NH?? and inhibition by ouabain of (Na?,K?)-ATPase activity in microsomal homogenates of whole zoeae I and decapodid III (formerly zoea IX) and whole-body and gill homogenates of juvenile and adult Amazon River shrimps, Macrobrachium amazonicum. (Na?,K?)-ATPase-specific activity was increased twofold in decapodid III compared to zoea I, juveniles and adults, suggesting an important role in this ontogenetic stage. The apparent affinity for ATP (K(M) = 0.09 ± 0.01 mmol L?¹) of the decapodid III (Na?,K?)-ATPase, about twofold greater than the other stages, further highlights this relevance. Modulation of (Na?,K?-ATPase activity by K? also revealed a threefold greater affinity for K? (K?.? = 0.91 ± 0.04 mmol L?¹) in decapodid III than in other stages; NH?? had no modulatory effect. The affinity for Na? (K?.? = 13.2 ± 0.6 mmol L?¹) of zoea I (Na?,K?)-ATPase was fourfold less than other stages. Modulation by Na?, Mg²? and NH?? obeyed cooperative kinetics, while K? modulation exhibited Michaelis-Menten behavior. Rates of maximal Mg²? stimulation of ouabain-insensitive ATPase activity differed in each ontogenetic stage, suggesting that Mg²?-stimulated ATPases other than (Na?,K?)-ATPase are present. Ouabain inhibition suggests that, among the various ATPase activities present in the different stages, Na?-ATPase may be involved in the ontogeny of osmoregulation in larval M. amazonicum. The NH??-stimulated, ouabain-insensitive ATPase activity seen in zoea I and decapodid III may reflect a stage-specific means of ammonia excretion since functional gills are absent in the early larval stages. PMID:22544049

Leone, Francisco Assis; Masui, Douglas Chodi; de Souza Bezerra, Thais Milena; Garçon, Daniela Pereira; Valenti, Wagner Cotroni; Augusto, Alessandra Silva; McNamara, John Campbell

2012-04-01

218

Coastal Aquaculture Development in Bangladesh: Unsustainable and Sustainable Experiences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal aquaculture in Bangladesh consists mainly of two shrimp species ( Penaeus monodon and Macrobrachium rosenbergii). Currently, there are about 16,237 marine shrimp ( P. monodon) farms covering 148,093 ha and 36,109 fresh water shrimp ( M. rosenbergii) farms covering 17,638 ha coastal area. More than 0.7 million people are employed in the farmed shrimp sector and in 2005-2006 the export value of shrimp was 403.5 million USD. Thus, coastal aquaculture contributes significantly to rural employment and economy but this is overshadowed by negative social and ecological impacts. This article reviews the key issues, constraints and opportunities of sustainable shrimp farming. In addition we present the results of two case studies from southwestern coastal areas where shrimp farming originated and central coastal areas where shrimp farming, especially M. rosenbergii, began in recent years. Lessons learned from the review and case studies are considered in the context of recommendations to encompass a socially equitable and ecologically sound coastal aquaculture.

Azad, A. Kalam; Jensen, Kathe R.; Lin, C. Kwei

2009-10-01

219

Identification of a novel cognate cytosolic Hsp70 gene (MnHsc70-2) from oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense and comparison of its expressions with the first cognate Hsc70 (MnHsc70-1) under different stresses.  

PubMed

The 70-kDa family of heat-shock proteins (Hsp70) plays an important role in the host immunity, which is widely expressed in eukaryotic cells as a major chaperone protein. In the present study, the full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) of a second cognate cytosolic Hsp70 family member (MnHsc70-2) was cloned and characterized from Macrobrachium nipponense, which is an economically and nutritionally important crustacean. The cDNA was 2,717 bp, containing an open reading frame (ORF) of 1,950 bp, which encodes a protein of 649 amino acids with a theoretical molecular weight of 71.1 kDa and an isoelectric point of 5.27. Sequence alignment showed that the MnHsc70-2 shared 75-97 % identity with other heat-shock proteins. Compared to the previously identified cognate Hsp70 (MnHsc70-1) in M. nipponense, MnHsc70-2 showed quite different expression profiles under unstressed conditions in all tested tissues, including the hemocytes, heart, hepatopancreas, gill, intestine, nerve, and muscle. The phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that MnHsc70-2 showed the closest relationship with MnHsc70-1. Heat-inducibility assays showed that two isolated messenger RNAs (mRNAs) displayed different expression profiles in both the hepatopancreas and gill tissues. MnHsc70-1 mRNA expression level decreased at first and then increased to the normal level, whereas MnHsc70-2 mRNA level increased at first and then decreased. The expressions of two MnHsc70s showed substantial obvious heat-inducible regulation in both the hepatopancreas and gill. Under bacterial challenge by Aeromonas hydrophila, both MnHsc70-1 and MnHsc70-2 mRNA level was up-regulated moderately. The results suggested that two cognate Hsc70s may play essential functions in mediating responses to heat-shock and bacterial challenge. PMID:24859888

Xiu, Yunji; Feng, Jia; Lu, Weiqiang; Liu, Dandan; Wu, Ting; Zhu, Huanxi; Liu, Peng; Li, Wenjie; Ren, Qian; Gu, Wei; Meng, Qingguo; Wang, Wen

2014-11-01

220

Complete mitochondrial genome of the Japanese snapping shrimp Alpheus japonicus (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea): gene rearrangement and phylogeny within Caridea.  

PubMed

The complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the Japanese snapping shrimp Alpheus japonicus Miers (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea) is presented here. A comparative analysis based on the currently available mitochondrial genomic data revealed many previously unknown characteristics of the mitochondrial genomes of caridean shrimps. The A. japonicus mitochondrial genome is 16487 bp long and contains the typical set of 37 metazoan genes. The gene arrangements in the mitochondrial genomes of four previously studied carideans (Macrobrachium rosenbergii, M. nipponense, M. lanchesteri and Halocaridina rubra) were found to be identical to the pancrustacean ground pattern; thus, it was considered that gene rearrangements probably did not occur in the suborder Caridea. In the present study, a translocation of the trnE gene involving inversion was found in Alpheus mitochondrial genomes. This phenomenon has not been reported in any other crustacean mitochondrial genome that has been studied so far; however, the translocation of one transfer RNA gene (trnP or trnT) was reported in the mitochondrial genome of Exopalaemon carinicauda. When the ratios of the nonsynonymous and synonymous substitutions rates (Ka/Ks) for the 13 protein coding genes from two Alpheus species (A. japonicus and A. distinguendus) and three Macrobrachium species (M. rosenbergii, M. nipponense, M. lanchesteri) were calculated, the Ka/Ks values for all the protein coding genes in Alpheus and Macrobrachium mitochondrial genomes were found to be less than 1 (between 0.0048 and 0.2057), indicating that a strong purification selection had occurred. The phylogenetic tree that was constructed based on the mitochondrial protein coding genes in the genomes of nine related species indicated that Palaemonidae and Alpheidae formed a monophyly and shared a statistically significant relationship, (Palaemonidae+Alpheidae)+Atyidae, at the family level. PMID:22864833

Shen, Xin; Li, Xiao; Sha, Zhongli; Yan, Binlun; Xu, Qihua

2012-07-01

221

In Vivo Self-Interaction of Nodavirus RNA Replicase Protein A Revealed by Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flock house virus (FHV) is the best-characterized member of the Nodaviridae, a family of small, positive- strand RNA viruses. Unlike most RNA viruses, FHV encodes only a single polypeptide, protein A, that is required for RNA replication. Protein A contains a C-proximal RNA-dependent RNA polymerase domain and localizes via an N-terminal transmembrane domain to the outer mitochondrial membrane, where FHV

Billy T. Dye; David J. Miller; Paul Ahlquist

2005-01-01

222

The invasion of five alien species in the Delta do Parnaíba Environmental Protection Area, Northeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

Marine biological invasions have been regarded as one of the major causes of native biodiversity loss, with shipping and aquaculture being the leading contributors for the introductions of alien species in aquatic ecosystems. In the present study, five aquatic alien species (one mollusk, three crustaceans and one fish species) were detected during dives, shore searches and from the fisheries on the coast of the Delta do Parnaíba Environmental Protection Area, in the States of Piauí and Maranhão, Northeastern Brazil. The species were the bicolor purse-oyster Isognomon bicolor, the whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, the giant river prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, the Indo-Pacific swimming crab Charybdis hellerii and, the muzzled blenny Omobranchus punctatus. Ballast water (I. bicolor, C. hellerii, and O. punctatus) and aquaculture activities (L. vannamei and M. rosenbergii) in adjacent areas are the most likely vectors of introduction. All exotic species found have potential impact risks to the environment because they are able to compete against native species for resources (food and habitat). Isognomon bicolor share the same habitat and food items with the native bivalve species of mussels and barnacles. Litopenaeus vannamei share the same habitat and food items with the native penaeids such as the pinkspot shrimp Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis, the Southern brown shrimp Farfantepenaeus subtilis, and the Southern white shrimp Litopenaeus schmitti, and in the past few years L. vannamei was responsible for a viral epidemics in the cultivation tanks that could be transmitted to native penaeid shrimps. Charybdis hellerii is also able to cause impacts on the local fisheries as the species can decrease the populations of native portunid crabs which are commercialized in the studied region. Macrobrachium rosenbergii may be sharing natural resources with the Amazon River prawn Macrobrachium amazonicum. Omobranchus punctatus shares habit with the native redlip blenny Ophioblennius atlanticus and other fishes, such as the frillfin goby Bathigobius soporator Some immediate remedial measures to prevent further introductions from ballast water and shrimp farm ponds should be: (i) to prevent the release of ballast water by ship/vessels in the region; (ii) to reroute all effluent waters from shrimp rearing facilities through an underground or above-ground dry well; (iii) to install adequate sand and gravel filter which will allow passage of water but not livestock; (iv) outdoor shrimp pounds located on floodable land should be diked, and; (v) to promote environmental awareness of those directly involved with ballast water (crews of ship/vessels) and shrimp farms in the region. PMID:20737846

Loebmann, Daniel; Mai, Ana Cecília G; Lee, James T

2010-09-01

223

The Apparent Quorum-Sensing Inhibitory Activity of Pyrogallol Is a Side Effect of Peroxide Production  

PubMed Central

There currently is more and more interest in the use of natural products, such as tea polyphenols, as therapeutic agents. The polyphenol compound pyrogallol has been reported before to inhibit quorum-sensing-regulated bioluminescence in Vibrio harveyi. Here, we report that the addition of 10 mg · liter?1 pyrogallol protects both brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) and giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) larvae from pathogenic Vibrio harveyi, whereas the compound showed relatively low toxicity (therapeutic index of 10). We further demonstrate that the apparent quorum-sensing-disrupting activity is a side effect of the peroxide-producing activity of this compound rather than true quorum-sensing inhibition. Our results emphasize that verification of minor toxic effects by using sensitive methods and the use of appropriate controls are essential when characterizing compounds as being able to disrupt quorum sensing. PMID:23545532

Pande, Gde Sasmita Julyantoro; Baruah, Kartik; Bossier, Peter

2013-01-01

224

Power plant waste heat utilization in aquaculture. Volume III. Final report, 1 November 1976-1 November 1979  

SciTech Connect

This report is part of a three year research study on the constructive use of electric generating station waste heat in cooling water effluents for fish production. It describes procedures and methods for the commercial culture of the giant fresh water shrimp, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and the rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri, in the thermal discharge water of the Mercer Power Plant in Trenton, New Jersey. Discharge water from this plant was used in a preliminary assessment of the survival, growth, and food conversion ratio of these species. It was shown that acute or chronic exposure to power plant intake and discharge water; discharge with or without coal particles; and discharge with or without slurry overflow mix does not significantly affect metabolism, short-term survival, growth, or conversion efficiency of shrimp or trout.

Farmanfarmaian, A.

1980-03-01

225

Total and inorganic arsenic in freshwater fish and prawn in Thailand.  

PubMed

Total and inorganic arsenic levels were determined in 120 samples of eight freshwater animal species collected from five distribution centers in the central region of Thailand between January and March 2011. Eight species with the highest annual catch, consisting of seven fish species and one prawn species, were analyzed. Concentrations of inorganic arsenic (on a wet weight basis) ranged from 0.010 ?g/g in giant prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) to 0.230 ?g/g in striped snakehead (Channa striata). Climbing perch (Anabas testudineus) exhibited the highest mean concentrations of total arsenic (0.459 ± 0.137 ?g/g), inorganic arsenic (0.121 ± 0.044 ?g/g), and percentage of inorganic arsenic (26.2%). Inorganic arsenic levels found in freshwater animals in this study were much lower than the Thai regulatory standard of 2 ?g/g. PMID:23043844

Saipan, Piyawat; Ruangwises, Suthep; Tengjaroenkul, Bundit; Ruangwises, Nongluck

2012-10-01

226

The apparent quorum-sensing inhibitory activity of pyrogallol is a side effect of peroxide production.  

PubMed

There currently is more and more interest in the use of natural products, such as tea polyphenols, as therapeutic agents. The polyphenol compound pyrogallol has been reported before to inhibit quorum-sensing-regulated bioluminescence in Vibrio harveyi. Here, we report that the addition of 10 mg · liter(-1) pyrogallol protects both brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) and giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) larvae from pathogenic Vibrio harveyi, whereas the compound showed relatively low toxicity (therapeutic index of 10). We further demonstrate that the apparent quorum-sensing-disrupting activity is a side effect of the peroxide-producing activity of this compound rather than true quorum-sensing inhibition. Our results emphasize that verification of minor toxic effects by using sensitive methods and the use of appropriate controls are essential when characterizing compounds as being able to disrupt quorum sensing. PMID:23545532

Defoirdt, Tom; Pande, Gde Sasmita Julyantoro; Baruah, Kartik; Bossier, Peter

2013-06-01

227

The occurrence of semicarbazide in the meat and shell of Bangladeshi fresh-water shrimp.  

PubMed

There is evidence that semicarbazide (SEM), a marker for the banned nitrofuran nitrofurazone, can arise from other, unrelated sources. Recently, Belgium rejected 54 consignments of Bangladeshi freshwater shrimp (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), following a laboratory decision to test meat and exoskeleton combined. To study the possible natural occurrence of SEM in wild shrimp, samples were collected and analysed from 29 sites across Bangladesh. SEM (<1.0 ?g/kg) was detected in ?65% of meat samples. However, SEM concentrations were approximately 100 times higher in the exoskeleton, and were unrelated to sampling location, strongly suggesting natural occurrence. In meat, most SEM was surface-associated. When the shrimp was shelled, some of the epidermal layer (which synthesises new exoskeleton) remained with the shell and some remained with the meat--leading to differing levels of natural SEM on the shrimp surface. This has implications for the use of SEM and the analytical strategy used to control nitrofuran use. PMID:23194563

McCracken, Robert; Hanna, Bob; Ennis, David; Cantley, Lynne; Faulkner, Dermot; Kennedy, D Glenn

2013-02-15

228

Effects of temperature and dissolved oxygen content on oxygen consumption rate of Chinese prawn, giant tiger prawn and giant freshwater prawn  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperature and the dissolved oxygen content affect the oxygen consumption of juveniles of Chinese prawn ( Penaeus chinensis), giant tiger prawn ( P. monodon) and giant freshwater prawn ( Macrobrachium rosenbergii). There is good correlation between the oxygen consumption rate ( V, mg/g·h) of the above three prawn species and the water temperature, and dissolved oxygen. In the range of test temperature, V increased with water temperature and dissolved oxygen content. The V of the above three prawn species increased 0.085 mg/g·h, 0.093 mg/g·h and 0.08 mg/g·h respectively with each °C of rising temperature. The comatose point and stifling point of the juveniles rose obviously at unsuitable temperature.

Dai, Xi-Lin; Zang, Wei-Ling; Wang, Wei-Dong; Shi, Yong-Hai; Liu, Wen-Cui; Xu, Gui-Rong; Li, Shi-Hua

1999-06-01

229

Permanent genetic resources added to molecular ecology resources database 1 December 2012-31 January 2013.  

PubMed

This article documents the addition of 268 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Alburnoides bipunctatus, Chamaerops humilis, Chlidonias hybrida, Cyperus papyrus, Fusarium graminearum, Loxigilla barbadensis, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, Odontesthes bonariensis, Pelteobagrus vachelli, Posidonia oceanica, Potamotrygon motoro, Rhamdia quelen, Sarotherodon melanotheron heudelotii, Sibiraea angustata, Takifugu rubripes, Tarentola mauritanica, Trimmatostroma sp. and Wallago attu. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Alburnoides fasciatus, Alburnoides kubanicus, Alburnoides maculatus, Alburnoides ohridanus, Alburnoides prespensis, Alburnoides rossicus, Alburnoides strymonicus, Alburnoides thessalicus, Alburnoides tzanevi, Carassius carassius, Fusarium asiaticum, Leucaspius delineatus, Loxigilla noctis dominica, Pelecus cultratus, Phoenix canariensis, Potamotrygon falkneri, Trachycarpus fortune and Vimba vimba. PMID:23521844

Arranz, Silvia E; Avarre, Jean-Christophe; Balasundaram, Chellam; Bouza, Carmen; Calcaterra, Nora B; Cezilly, Frank; Chen, Shi-long; Cipriani, Guido; Cruz, V P; D'Esposito, D; Daniel, Carla; Dejean, Alain; Dharaneedharan, Subramanian; Díaz, Juan; Du, Man; Durand, Jean-Dominique; Dziadek, Jaros?aw; Foresti, F; Peng-cheng, Fu; Gao, Qing-bo; García, Graciela; Gauffre-Autelin, Pauline; Giovino, Antonio; Goswami, Mukunda; Guarino, Carmine; Guerra-Varela, Jorge; Gutiérrez, Verónica; Harris, D J; Heo, Moon-Soo; Khan, Gulzar; Kim, Mija; Lakra, Wazir S; Lauth, Jérémie; Leclercq, Pierre; Lee, Jeonghwa; Lee, Seung-Ho; Lee, Soohyung; Lee, Theresa; Li, Yin-hu; Liu, Hongbo; Liu, Shufang; Malé, Pierre-Jean G; Mandhan, Rishi Pal; Martinez, Paulino; Mayer, Veronika E; Mendel, Jan; Mendes, N J; Mendonça, F F; Minias, Alina; Minias, Piotr; Oh, Kyeong-Suk; Oliveira, C; Orivel, Jérôme; Orsini, L; Pardo, Belén G; Perera, A; Procaccini, G; Rato, C; Ríos, Néstor; Scibetta, Silvia; Sharma, Bhagwati S; Sierens, Tim; Singh, Akhilesh; Terer, Taita; Triest, Ludwig; Urbánková, So?a; Vera, Manuel; Villanova, Gabriela V; Voglmayr, Hermann; Vysko?ilová, Martina; Wang, Hongying; Wang, Jiu-li; Wattier, Rémi A; Xing, Rui; Yadav, Kamalendra; Yin, Guibo; Yuan, Yanjiao; Yun, Jong-Chul; Zhang, Fa-qi; Zhang, Jing-hua; Zhuang, Zhimeng

2013-05-01

230

Deep parallel sequencing reveals conserved and novel miRNAs in gill and hepatopancreas of giant freshwater prawn.  

PubMed

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are ~20-22 nucleotides, non protein-coding RNA regulatory genes that post-transcriptionally regulate many protein-coding genes, influencing critical biological and metabolic processes. While the number of known microRNA is increasing, there is currently no published data for miRNA from giant freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (M. rosenbergii), a commercially cultured and economically important food species. In this study, we identified novel miRNAs in the gill and hepatopancreas of M. rosenbergii. Through a deep parallel sequencing analysis and an in silico data analysis approach, 327 miRNA families were identified from small RNA libraries with reference to both the de novo transcriptome of M. rosenbergii obtained from RNA-Seq and to miRBase (Release 18.0, November 2012). Based on the identified mature miRNA and recovered precursor sequences that form appropriate hairpin structures, three conserved miRNA (miR125, miR750, miR993) and 27 novel miRNA candidates encoding messenger-like non-coding RNA were identified. miR-125, miR-750, G-m0002/H-m0009, G-m0005, G-m0008/H-m0016, G-m0011/H-m0027 and G-m0015 were selected for experimental validation with stem-loop quantitative RT-PCR and were found to be coherent with the expression profile of deep sequencing data as evaluated with Pearson's correlation coefficient (r = 0.835178 for miRNA in gill, r = 0.724131 for miRNA in hepatopancreas). Using a combinatorial approach of pathway enrichment analysis and inverse expression relationship of miRNA and mRNA, four co-expressed novel miRNA candidates (G-m0005, G-m0008/H-m0016, G-m0011/H-m0027, and G-m0015) were found to be associated with energy metabolism. In addition, the expression of the three novel miRNA candidates (G-m0005, G-m0008/H-m0016, and G-m0011/H-m0027) were also found to be significantly reduced at 9 and 24 h post infection in M. rosenbergii challenged with infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus, suggesting a functional role of these miRNAs in crustacean immune defense. PMID:23816854

Tan, Tian Tian; Chen, Maoshan; Harikrishna, Jennifer Ann; Khairuddin, Norliana; Mohd Shamsudin, Maizatul Izzah; Zhang, Guojie; Bhassu, Subha

2013-10-01

231

Oxygen delivery does not limit thermal tolerance in a tropical eurythermal crustacean.  

PubMed

In aquatic environments, rising water temperatures reduce water oxygen content while increasing oxygen demand, leading several authors to propose cardiorespiratory oxygen transport capacity as the main determinant of aquatic animal fitness. It has also been argued that tropical species, compared with temperate species, live very close to their upper thermal limit and hence are vulnerable to even small elevations in temperature. Little, however, is known about physiological responses to high temperatures in tropical species. Here we report that the tropical giant freshwater shrimp (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) maintains normal growth when challenged by a temperature rise of 6°C above the present day average (from 27°C to 33°C). Further, by measuring heart rate, gill ventilation rate, resting and maximum oxygen uptake, and hemolymph lactate, we show that oxygen transport capacity is maintained up to the critical maximum temperature around 41°C. In M. rosenbergii heart rate and gill ventilation rate increases exponentially until immediately below critical temperatures and at 38°C animals still retained more than 76% of aerobic scope measured at 30°C, and there was no indication of anaerobic metabolism at the high temperatures. Our study shows that the oxygen transport capacity is maintained at high temperatures, and that other mechanisms, such as protein dysfunction, are responsible for the loss of ecological performance at elevated temperatures. PMID:24198257

Ern, Rasmus; Huong, Do Thi Thanh; Phuong, Nguyen Thanh; Wang, Tobias; Bayley, Mark

2014-03-01

232

In-depth tanscriptomic analysis on giant freshwater prawns.  

PubMed

Gene discovery in the Malaysian giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) has been limited to small scale data collection, despite great interest in various research fields related to the commercial significance of this species. Next generation sequencing technologies that have been developed recently and enabled whole transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq), have allowed generation of large scale functional genomics data sets in a shorter time than was previously possible. Using this technology, transcriptome sequencing of three tissue types: hepatopancreas, gill and muscle, has been undertaken to generate functional genomics data for M. rosenbergii at a massive scale. De novo assembly of 75-bp paired end Ilumina reads has generated 102,230 unigenes. Sequence homology search and in silico prediction have identified known and novel protein coding candidate genes (?24%), non-coding RNA, and repetitive elements in the transcriptome. Potential markers consisting of simple sequence repeats associated with known protein coding genes have been successfully identified. Using KEGG pathway enrichment, differentially expressed genes in different tissues were systematically represented. The functions of gill and hepatopancreas in the context of neuroactive regulation, metabolism, reproduction, environmental stress and disease responses are described and support relevant experimental studies conducted previously in M. rosenbergii and other crustaceans. This large scale gene discovery represents the most extensive transcriptome data for freshwater prawn. Comparison with model organisms has paved the path to address the possible conserved biological entities shared between vertebrates and crustaceans. The functional genomics resources generated from this study provide the basis for constructing hypotheses for future molecular research in the freshwater shrimp. PMID:23734171

Mohd-Shamsudin, Maizatul Izzah; Kang, Yi; Lili, Zhao; Tan, Tian Tian; Kwong, Qi Bin; Liu, Hang; Zhang, Guojie; Othman, Rofina Yasmin; Bhassu, Subha

2013-01-01

233

A novel prophenoloxidase, hemocyanin encoded copper containing active enzyme from prawn: gene characterization.  

PubMed

The copper containing prophenoloxidase enzyme plays a crucial role in the defense system of arthropods, especially crustaceans and insects. In this study, we have reported a full length cDNA of prophenoloxidase identified from the constructed cDNA library of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii by genome sequence FLX technology. The identified full length M. rosenbergii prophenoloxidase (MrProPO) consists of 3378 base pairs (bp) with an open reading frame (ORF) of 2099 bp. This ORF encoded a polypeptide of 700 amino acids (aa) with an estimated molecular mass of 80 kDa and a predicted isoelectric point (pI) of 6.7. The motif analysis of MrProPO shows two copper binding sites (CuA and CuB) along with hemocyanin signatures and a thiol-ester like motif. MrProPO exhibited the maximum similarity (97%) with ProPO from Macrobrachium nipponense and is closely clustered with other crustacean ProPO in the phylogenetic tree. Bioinformatics analysis suggests that MrProPO is a member of the prophenoloxidase family, due to the conserved domains, motifs and similarity with other known ProPOs. The 3D structural analysis of MrProPO reveals that it has more random coils, moderate ?-helices, few extended ?-sheets and a very few ?-turns. Among the 700 aa of MrProPO, 355 (50.71%), 206 (29.43%), 110 (15.71%) and 29 (4.14%) amino acids are responsible for random coils, ?-helices, extended ?-sheets and ?-turns respectively. The gene expression results indicate MrProPO is widely distributed in all the tissues studied, but significantly (P<0.05) highest expression was observed in hepatopancreas. The relative expression of mRNA was quantified in hepatopancreas after being infected with virus [white spot syndrome baculovirus (WSBV) and M. rosenbergii nodovirus (MrNV)] and bacteria (Aeromonas hydrophila and Vibrio harveyi) using real-time PCR. MrProPO mRNA transcription significantly (P<0.05) increased at 24h post injection (p.i.) with subsequent decrease at 48 h p.i. in both viral and bacterial infected prawns. The highest enzyme activity was observed in hepatopancreas, which was also significantly higher (P<0.05) than detected in other tissues. Similar to gene expression results, the enzyme activity reached the peak at 24h p.i. and then the activity started decreasing. Overall results indicate that MrProPO is very likely to participate in the acute response against pathogen entry in prawns. PMID:23639965

Arockiaraj, Jesu; Gnanam, Annie J; Pothikasalam, Gopi; Milton, James; Pasupuleti, Mukesh; Bhatt, Prasanth; Palanisamy, Rajesh; Kumaresan, Venkatesh; Thirumalai, Muthukumaresan Kuppusamy; Arasu, Abirami; Sathyamoorthi, Akila; Prabha, Nagaram

2013-07-25

234

Beta-nodavirus B2 protein induces hydrogen peroxide production, leading to Drp1-recruited mitochondrial fragmentation and cell death via mitochondrial targeting.  

PubMed

Because the role of the viral B2 protein in the pathogenesis of nervous necrosis virus infection remains unknown, the aim of the present study was to determine the effects of B2 protein on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-mediated cell death via mitochondrial targeting. Using a B2 deletion mutant, the B2 mitochondrial targeting signal sequence ((41)RTFVISAHAA(50)) correlated with mitochondrial free radical production and cell death in fish cells, embryonic zebrafish, and human cancer cells. After treatment of grouper fin cells (GF-1) overexpressing B2 protein with the anti-oxidant drug, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), and overexpression of the antioxidant enzymes, zfCu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) and zfCatalase, decreased H2O2 production and cell death were observed. To investigate the correlation between B2 cytotoxicity and H2O2 production in vivo, B2 was injected into zebrafish embryos. Cell damage, as assessed by the acridine orange assay, gradually increased over 24 h post-fertilization, and was accompanied by marked increases in H2O2 production and embryonic death. Increased oxidative stress, as evidenced by the up-regulation of Mn SOD, catalase, and Nrf2, was also observed during this period. Finally, B2-induced dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1)-mediated mitochondrial fragmentation and cell death could be reversed by NAC and inhibitors of Drp1 and Mdivi in GF-1 cells. Taken together, betanodavirus B2 induces H2O2 production via targeting the mitochondria, where it inhibits complex II function. H2O2 activates Drp1, resulting in its association with the mitochondria, mitochondrial fission and cell death in vitro and in vivo. PMID:25008790

Su, Yu C; Chiu, Hsuan W; Hung, Jo C; Hong, Jiann R

2014-10-01

235

A prawn transglutaminase: molecular characterization and biochemical properties.  

PubMed

In this study, we report the bioinformatics characterization, gene expression, transglutaminase activity and coagulation assays of transglutaminase (TGase) of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii identified from the constructed cDNA library by GS FLX™ technology. Even though, TGase have sequence similarity, they differ extensively in their substrate specificity and are thought to play an important in variety of functions such as development, tissue differentiation and immune responses etc. Gene expression studies show that MrTGase is widely distributed in the tissues such as heart, muscle, intestine, brain, etc., but higher amounts are found in hemocyte. Results of TGase mRNA relative expression in hemocyte, before and after infected with white spot syndrome baculovirus (WSBV) and Vibrio harveyi show that the gene expression initially increases up to 24 h and then it falls down. Coagulation assay results showed that the endogenous TGase is involved in the rapid assembly of a specific, plasma clotting protein. Structural studies show that MrTGase contains a typical TGc domain between 323 and 424, and two putative integrin-binding motifs at Arg(180)-Gly(181)-Asp(182) and Arg(269)-Gly(270)-Asp(271). The predicted 3D model of MrTGase contains 47.04% coils (366 amino acid residues), 26.74% extended strand (208 residues), 21.72% ?-helix (169 residues) and 4.5% beta turns (35 residues). BLASTp analysis of MrTGase exhibited high sequence similarities with other crustacean TGase, with the highest observed in white shrimp (77.1%). Moreover, the phylogenetic analysis also showed that MrTGase clustered with the other members of crustacean TGase. Overall, these results suggested that MrTGase is a major and functional TGase of M. rosenbergii for haemolymph coagulation and also in spread of infection. PMID:24012776

Arockiaraj, Jesu; Gnanam, Annie J; Palanisamy, Rajesh; Kumaresan, Venkatesh; Bhatt, Prasanth; Thirumalai, Muthukumaresan Kuppusamy; Roy, Arpita; Pasupuleti, Mukesh; Kasi, Marimuthu; Sathyamoorthi, Akila; Arasu, Abirami

2013-12-01

236

Expression of the male reproduction-related gene in spermatic ducts of the blue swimming crab, Portunus pelagicus, and transfer of modified protein to the sperm acrosome.  

PubMed

Expression of a sex-specific gene in Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Mr-Mrr), encoding a male reproduction-related (Mrr) protein, has been identified in the spermatic ducts (SDs) and postulated to be involved in sperm maturation processes. M. rosenbergii is the only decapod that the expression and fate of the Mrr protein has been studied. To determine that this protein was conserved in decapods, we firstly used cloning techniques to identify the Mrr gene in two crabs, Portunus pelagicus (Pp-Mrr) and Scylla serrata (Ss-Mrr). We then investigated expression of Pp-Mrr by in situ hybridization, and immunolocalization, as well as phosphorylation and glycosylation modifications, and the fate of the protein in the male reproductive tract. Pp-Mrr was shown to have 632 nucleotides, and a deduced protein of 110 amino acids, with an unmodified molecular weight of 11.79 kDa and a mature protein with molecular weight of 9.16 kDa. In situ hybridization showed that Pp-Mrr is expressed in the epithelium of the proximal, middle, distal SDs, and ejaculatory ducts. In Western blotting, proteins of 10.9 and 17.2 kDa from SDs were all positive using anti-Mrr, antiphosphoserine/threonine, and antiphosphotyrosine. PAS staining showed they were also glycosylated. Immunolocalization studies showed Pp-Mrr in the SD epithelium, lumen, and on the acrosomes of spermatozoa. Immunofluorescence staining indicated the acrosome of spermatozoa contained the Mrr protein, which is phosphorylated with serine/threonine and tyrosine, and also glycosylated. The Mrr is likely to be involved in acrosomal activation during fertilization of eggs. PMID:23108973

Sroyraya, Morakot; Hanna, Peter J; Changklungmoa, Narin; Senarai, Thanyaporn; Siangcham, Tanapan; Tinikul, Yotsawan; Sobhon, Prasert

2013-01-01

237

A novel single-domain peptide, anti-LPS factor from prawn: synthesis of peptide, antimicrobial properties and complete molecular characterization.  

PubMed

In this study, we reported a complete molecular characterization including bioinformatics features, gene expression, peptide synthesis and its antimicrobial activities of an anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) factor (ALF) cDNA identified from the established cDNA library of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (named as MrALF). The mature protein has an estimated molecular weight of 11.240 kDa with an isoelectric point of 9.46. The bioinformatics analysis showed that the MrALF contains an antimicrobial peptide (AMP) region between T54 and P77 with two conserved cysteine residues (Cys55 and Cys76) which have an anti-parallel ?-sheet confirmation. The ?-sheet is predicted as cationic with hydrophobic nature containing a net charge of +5. The depicted AMP region is determined to be amphipathic with a predicted hydrophobic face 'FPVFI'. A highest MrALF gene expression was observed in hemocytes and is up-regulated with virus [white spot syndrome baculovirus (WSBV)], bacteria (Aeromonas hydrophila) and Escherichia coli LPS at various time points. The LPS binding region of MrALF peptide was synthesized to study the antimicrobial property, bactericidal efficiency and hemolytic capacity. The peptide showed antimicrobial activity against both the Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The bactericidal assay showed that the peptide recognized the LPS of bacterial cell walls and binding on its substrate and thereby efficiently distinguishing the pathogens. The hemolytic activity of MrALF peptide is functioning in a concentration dependant manner. In summary, the comprehensive analysis of MrALF showed it to be an effective antimicrobial peptide and thus it plays a crucial role in the defense mechanism of M. rosenbergii. PMID:24269604

Arockiaraj, Jesu; Kumaresan, Venkatesh; Bhatt, Prasanth; Palanisamy, Rajesh; Gnanam, Annie J; Pasupuleti, Mukesh; Kasi, Marimuthu; Chaurasia, Mukesh Kumar

2014-03-01

238

Distribution of centrifugal neurons targeting the soma clusters of the olfactory midbrain among decapod crustaceans.  

PubMed

To determine the distribution of two systems of centrifugal neurons innervating the soma clusters of the olfactory midbrain across decapod crustaceans, brains of the following nine species comprising most infraorders were immunostained with antibodies against dopamine and the neuropeptides substance P and FMRFamide: Macrobrachium rosenbergii, Homarus americanus, Cherax destructor, Orconectes limosus, Procambarus clarkii, Astacus leptodactylus, Carcinus maenas, Eriocheir sinensis and Pagurus bernhardus. One system consisting of several neurons with dopamine-like immunoreactivity that originate in the eyestalk ganglia was present in the four crayfish but not in any other species. These neurons project mainly into the lateral soma clusters (cluster 10) comprising the somata of ascending olfactory projection neurons and innervate very sparsely the medial soma clusters (clusters 9 and 11) containing the somata of local interneurons. In the innervation pattern of the lateral cluster, the dopamine-immunoreactive neurons showed large species-specific differences. The other system comprises a pair of giant neurons with substance P-like immunoreactivity. These neurons have somata in the median protocerebrum of the central brain and major projections into the lateral clusters and the core of the olfactory lobes, the neuropils that are the first synaptic relay in the central olfactory pathway of decapods; minor arborizations are present in the medial clusters. The system of substance P-immunoreactive giant neurons was present and of great morphological similarity in all studied species. Only in one species, the shrimp Macrobrachium rosenbergii, evidence for co-localization of FMRFamide-like with substance P-like immunoreactivity in these neurons was obtained. These and previously collected data indicate that the centrifugal neurons with dopamine-like immunoreactivity may be associated with the presence of an accessory lobe, a second-order neuropil that receives input from the olfactory lobe and only occurs in spiny lobsters, clawed lobsters and crayfish. The pair of centrifugal giant neurons with substance P-like immunoreactivity, on the other hand, appears to be a constitutive component of the decapod crustacean brain that most likely is functionally associated with the olfactory lobe. Both systems apparently exert modulatory functions on olfactory information processing by preferentially targeting the somata of the projection neurons. Thus, in the olfactory projection neurons, the somata seem to be more directly involved in information processing than in most other neurons of the arthropod CNS. PMID:9106436

Schmidt, M

1997-03-28

239

Identification of the essential and free amino acids of the freshwater shrimp, Macrobrachium ohione  

E-print Network

. Both the selenium and mercuric oxide catalysts were utilized in 17 the digestions in an effort to determine the catalyst producing the more consistent results. The digested samples were distilled and the distillate collected in a boric acid solution.... Both the selenium and mercuric oxide catalysts were utilized in 17 the digestions in an effort to determine the catalyst producing the more consistent results. The digested samples were distilled and the distillate collected in a boric acid solution...

Miyajima, Lester Shigemi

2012-06-07

240

The complete mitochondrial genome of the Hawaiian anchialine shrimp Halocaridina rubra Holthuis, 1963 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Atyidae).  

PubMed

Shrimp of the family Atyidae are important members of nearly all tropical (and most temperate) fresh and brackish water ecosystems in the world. To date, a complete mitochondrial genome from this important crustacean group has not been reported. Here, we present the complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of the Hawaiian atyid Halocaridina rubra [Holthuis, L.B., 1963. On red coloured shrimps (Decapoda, Caridea) from tropical land-locked saltwater pools. Zool. Meded.16, 261-279.] (Crustacea: Decapoda: Atyidae). The genome is a circular molecule of 16,065 bp and encodes the 37 mitochondrial genes (13 protein-coding, 22 tRNAs, and two rRNAs) typically found in the metazoa. Gene order and orientation in the H. rubra mitochondrial genome is syntenic with most malacostracans that have been examined to date. Of special note is the absence of the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm stem from tRNA(Tyr) and the use of CCG as an initiation codon for cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI); these represent the first reported examples of such phenomena in the Malacostraca. Phylogenetic analyses utilizing complete mitochondrial sequences from other malacostracans place H. rubra as sister to Macrobrachium rosenbergii, which also belongs to the Infraorder Caridea. However, the placement of this infraorder, as well as the Infraorder Dendrobrachiata, in the phylogeny of the Decapoda varied depending on outgroup selection. Data from additional mitochondrial genomes, such as basal decapods like the Stenopodidea, should contribute to a better overall understanding of decapod phylogenetics. PMID:17317038

Ivey, Jennifer L; Santos, Scott R

2007-06-01

241

Stability of the WSSV ORF94 VNTR genotype marker during passage in marine shrimp, freshwater crayfish and freshwater prawns.  

PubMed

The white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) genome contains 3 variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) regions, located in open reading frame (ORF) 75, ORF94 and ORF125, which have been employed for molecular epizootiological studies. A previous report suggested that the ORF 94 VNTR is highly unstable, varying in the number of tandem repeats during single passages from shrimp to other crustaceans. As such rapid variations would have profound implications for the interpretation of molecular epizootiological data, we re-examined the stability of the ORF94 VNTR. Two WSSV isolates with different ORF94 VNTR genotypes (TRS5 and TRS7) were obtained from disease outbreaks in farmed black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon in Indonesia. High titre stocks of each virus were produced by injection in specific pathogen-free (SPF) Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei with filtered infected tissue extracts, and the genotypes were confirmed. Each stock (macerated tissue) was then used to feed SPF Pacific white shrimp, freshwater crayfish (Cherax sp.) and freshwater prawns Macrobrachium rosenbergii through 3 successive passages involving alternative hosts at each level. Taqman real-time PCR was conducted on samples from each group to confirm infection and quantify viral genetic loads. ORF94 VNTR genotype analysis conducted on samples from each of the 43 passage groups indicated no variations in the VNTR number in either genotype TRS5 or genotype TRS7. This finding is contrary to the previous report and suggests that ORF94 VNTR are stable during multiple passages in these crustaceans. PMID:25320037

Gudkovs, Nicholas; Murwantoko, Murwantoko; Walker, Peter J

2014-10-16

242

Effect of legume seed extracts on the inhibition of proteolytic activity and muscle degradation of fresh water prawn (Macrobrachiumrosenbergii).  

PubMed

Trypsin inhibitors in the extracts from soybean (Glycine max), adzuki bean (Vigna angularis), bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea) and red kidney bean (Phaseoulus vulgaris) varied in amount and molecular weight. The soybean extract had the highest level of trypsin inhibitor with molecular weight (MW) of 21kDa, followed by bambara groundnut extract possessing trypsin inhibitor with MW of 15kDa. Both extracts showed a more effective inhibition towards crude protease extract (CE) from the hepatopancreas of fresh water prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) than the extracts from adzuki and red kidney beans. Activity staining also reconfirmed the higher inhibitory activity on CE from hepatopancreas by the extracts from both soybean and bambara groundnut. The extracts from all seeds were able to inhibit the degradation of fresh water prawn meat containing CE in a concentration dependent manner. Based on inhibitor study, the extracts from soybean and bambara groundnut can be a potential aid to suppress the muscle softening of fresh water prawn, mediated by trypsin-like proteases released from hepatopancreas, during extended iced storage. PMID:25212342

Sriket, Chodsana; Benjakul, Soottawat; Visessanguan, Wonnop; Hara, Kenji

2011-12-01

243

Utilization of warm well water, eastern Washington state  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Utilizing the warm well water for a geothermal greenhouse heating system is highly economically feasible. This is based on using the 88 F water from Anderson Well No. 1 to heat greenhouses totaling approximately 10.6 acres. The additional investment of $640,000 above the cost for a conventional electric boiler system shows a rate of return of 48.3% on a 20 year life cycle analysis. The simple payback is 3 years. The 88 F well water is not warm enough for prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) aquaculture, since water flow requirements are excessive to maintain the desired 80 F pond temperature. However, the water is warm enough to maintain a 60 F pond temperature for trout farming. Trout farming using the 88 F well water directly is probably not economically feasible due to high electrical pumping cost (34,626 per year) for the seven 1/2 acre ponds that could be heated. Trout farming using the 75 F effluent water from the 10.6 acre greenhouse to heat four 1/2 acre ponds may be economically feasible since the water booster pumping cost is low ($1189 per year).

1982-03-01

244

Utilization of warm well water, eastern Washington State  

SciTech Connect

Utilizing the warm well water for a geothermal greenhouse heating system is highly economically feasible. This is based on using the 88/sup 0/F water from Anderson Well No. 1 to heat greenhouses totaling approximately 10.6 acres. The additional investment of $640,000 above the cost for a conventional electric boiler system shows a rate of return of 48.3% on a 20 year life cycle analysis. The simple payback is 3 years. The 88/sup 0/F well water is not warm enough for prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) aquaculture, since water flow requirements are excessive to maintain the desired 80/sup 0/F pond temperature. However, the water is warm enough to maintain a 60/sup 0/F pond temperature for trout farming. Trout farming using the 88/sup 0/F well water directly is probably not economically feasible due to high electrical pumping cost (34,626 per year) for the seven 1/2 acre ponds that could be heated. Trout farming using the 75/sup 0/F effluent water from the 10.6 acre greenhouse to heat four 1/2 acre ponds may be economically feasible since the water booster pumping cost is low $1189 per year.

Not Available

1982-03-01

245

Identification of receptor-interacting regions of vitellogenin within evolutionarily conserved ?-sheet structures by using a peptide array.  

PubMed

Vitellogenesis, a key process in oviparous animals, is characterized by enhanced synthesis of the lipoprotein vitellogenin, which serves as the major yolk-protein precursor. In most oviparous animals, and specifically in crustaceans, vitellogenin is mainly synthesized in the hepatopancreas, secreted to the hemolymph, and taken up into the ovary by receptor-mediated endocytosis. In the present study, localization of the vitellogenin receptor and its interaction with vitellogenin were investigated in the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The receptor was immuno-histochemically localized to the cell periphery and around yolk vesicles. A receptor blot assay revealed that the vitellogenin receptor interacts with most known vitellogenin subunits, the most prominent being the 79 kDa subunit. The receptor was, moreover, able to interact with trypsin-digested vitellogenin peptides. By combining a novel peptide-array approach with tandem mass spectrometry, eleven vitellogenin-derived peptides that interacted with the receptor were identified. A 3D model of vitellogenin indicated that four of the identified peptides are N-terminally localized. One of the peptides is homologous to the receptor-recognized site of vertebrate vitellogenin, and assumes a conserved ?-sheet structure. These findings suggest that this specific ?-sheet region in the vitellogenin N-terminal lipoprotein domain is the receptor-interacting site, with the rest of the protein serving to enhance affinity for the receptor. The conservation of the receptor recognition site in invertebrate and vertebrate vitellogenin might have vast implications for oviparous species reproduction, development, immunity, and pest management. PMID:23733483

Roth, Ziv; Weil, Simy; Aflalo, Eliahu D; Manor, Rivka; Sagi, Amir; Khalaila, Isam

2013-06-17

246

Evaluation of trace metal content by ICP-MS using closed vessel microwave digestion in fresh water fish.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to investigate trace metal levels of different varieties of fresh water fish using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrophotometer after microwave digestion (MD-ICPMS). Fish samples were collected from the outlets of twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad. The trace metal content in different varieties of analyzed fish were ranged from 0.24 to 1.68?mg/kg for Chromium in Cyprinus carpio and Masto symbollon, 0.20 to 7.52?mg/kg for Manganese in Labeo rohita and Masto symbollon, 0.006 to 0.07?mg/kg for Cobalt in Rastrelliger kanagurta and Pampus argenteus, 0.31 to 2.24?mg/kg for Copper in Labeo rohita and Penaeus monodon, 3.25 to 14.56?mg/kg for Zinc in Cyprinus carpio and Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and 0.01 to 2.05?mg/kg for Selenium in Rastrelliger kanagurta and Pampus argenteus, respectively. Proximate composition data for the different fishes were also tabulated. Since the available data for different trace elements for fish is scanty, here an effort is made to present a precise data for the same as estimated on ICP-MS. Results were in accordance with recommended daily intake allowance by WHO/FAO. PMID:24744789

Jarapala, Sreenivasa Rao; Kandlakunta, Bhaskarachary; Thingnganing, Longvah

2014-01-01

247

Distribution of presumptive chemosensory afferents with FMRFamide- or substance P-like immunoreactivity in decapod crustaceans.  

PubMed

In five species of decapod crustaceans--Cherax destructor (crayfish), Carcinus maenas (crab), Homarus americanus (clawed lobster), Eriocheir sinensis (crab), Macrobrachium rosenbergii (shrimp)--immunocytochemical stainings revealed the presence of sensory afferents with FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity in the central nervous system. These afferents were extremely thin, very numerous, and innervated all sensory neuropils except the optic and olfactory lobes. In their target neuropils they gave rise to condensed net- or ball-like terminal structures. Only in Homarus americanus but not in any other studied species immunocytochemistry revealed a separate, non-overlapping class of sensory afferents with substance P-like immunoreactivity. Also the afferents with substance P-like immunoreactivity were very thin and numerous, innervated all sensory neuropils except optic and olfactory lobes, and gave rise to condensed terminal structures. From their morphological characteristics it can be concluded that likely both classes of afferents are chemosensory. The substance P-like immunoreactivity suggests a link with the nociceptor afferents of vertebrates, with which both classes of afferents share several other morphological features. PMID:9037486

Schmidt, M

1997-01-23

248

Evaluation of Trace Metal Content by ICP-MS Using Closed Vessel Microwave Digestion in Fresh Water Fish  

PubMed Central

The objective of the present study was to investigate trace metal levels of different varieties of fresh water fish using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrophotometer after microwave digestion (MD-ICPMS). Fish samples were collected from the outlets of twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad. The trace metal content in different varieties of analyzed fish were ranged from 0.24 to 1.68?mg/kg for Chromium in Cyprinus carpio and Masto symbollon, 0.20 to 7.52?mg/kg for Manganese in Labeo rohita and Masto symbollon, 0.006 to 0.07?mg/kg for Cobalt in Rastrelliger kanagurta and Pampus argenteus, 0.31 to 2.24?mg/kg for Copper in Labeo rohita and Penaeus monodon, 3.25 to 14.56?mg/kg for Zinc in Cyprinus carpio and Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and 0.01 to 2.05?mg/kg for Selenium in Rastrelliger kanagurta and Pampus argenteus, respectively. Proximate composition data for the different fishes were also tabulated. Since the available data for different trace elements for fish is scanty, here an effort is made to present a precise data for the same as estimated on ICP-MS. Results were in accordance with recommended daily intake allowance by WHO/FAO. PMID:24744789

Jarapala, Sreenivasa Rao; Kandlakunta, Bhaskarachary; Thingnganing, Longvah

2014-01-01

249

Effect of Shrimp Chitin and Shrimp Chitin Hydrolysate on the Freeze-Induced Denaturation, and on the Amount of Unfreezable Water of Wanieso Lizardfish Myofibrillar Protein  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In view of potential utilization of shrimp waste, shrimp chitin (SC) and shrimp chitin hydrolysate (SCH) were prepared from 3 kinds of shrimp species, namely: black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon, endeavour shrimp Metapenaeus endeavouri and giant freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The effects of 5% SC and SCH (dry weight) on the state of water and on the denaturation of wanieso lizardfish Saurida wanieso myofibrillar protein (Mf) were evaluated based on changes in Mf Ca-ATPase activity and the amount of unfreezable water during frozen storage. Each effect was compared with those of Mf without additives (control) and Mf with glucose. The changes in Ca-ATPase activity of control and Mf with SC during frozen storage were exhibited biphasic pattern while those of SCH and glucose exhibited monophasic pattern. The amount of unfreezable water of Mf with SC was lower than that of control while those of Mf with SCH and glucose were higher than that of control. Present findings suggested that the preventive effect of SCH on freeze-induced denaturation of Mf is caused by the stabilizing the hydrated water molecule surrounding the Mf.

Somjit, Kingduean; Kongpun, Orawan; Osatomi, Kiyoshi; Hara, Kenji; Nozaki, Yukinori

250

Effect of stocking density on extensive production of freshwater shrimp in coal mine reclamation ponds  

SciTech Connect

The use of post-mining reclamation ponds for the production of freshwater shrimp was evaluated by examining different stocking densities. Juvenile shrimp (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) averaging 0.5g each were stocked into four existing ponds at Peabody`s Ken Surface Mine at 6,175; 12,350; 18,500; and 24,700/ha (2,500, 5,000, 7,500, and 10,000/acre) on June 1, 1995. Shrimp were fed twice a week for 103 days, with harvest conducted September 13, 1995. Survival averaged 40%, overall. Average individual weight size was inversely related to stocking density ranging from 52 g (8.7 shrimp/lb) at 6,175/ha to 20.3 g (22.7 shrimp/lb) at 18,500/acre. Total production was directly related to stocking density ranging from 97 kg/ha (86 lbs/acre) at low density to 211 kg/ha (188 lbs/acre) at 18,500/ha shrimp acre. The major difficulty was at harvest due to difficulty in draining ponds. Construction of designed culture ponds with gravity drains during reclamation could greatly enhance survival, harvestability, and commercial feasibility.

Tidwell, J.H.; Wynne, F.; Coyle, S.D. [Kentucky State Univ., Frankfort, KY (United States). Aquaculture Research Center; Grey, B. [Peabody Coal Co., Rockport, KY (United States); McGuire, J.

1998-12-31

251

Expression of an Androgenic Gland-Specific Insulin-Like Peptide during the Course of Prawn Sexual and Morphotypic Differentiation  

PubMed Central

The crustacean male-specific androgenic gland (AG) regulates sexual differentiation. In the prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, silencing an AG-specific insulin-like encoding transcript (Mr-IAG) inhibited the development of male sexual characters, suggesting that Mr-IAG is a key androgenic hormone. We used recombinant pro-Mr-IAG peptide to generate antibodies that recognized the peptide in AG cells and extracts, as verified by mass spectrometry. We revealed the temporal expression pattern of Mr-IAG and studied its relevance to the timetable of sex differentiation processes in juveniles and after puberty. Mr-IAG was expressed from as early as 20 days after metamorphosis, prior to the appearance of external male sexual characters. Mr-IAG expression was lower in the less reproductively active orange-clawed males than in both the dominant blue-clawed males and the actively sneak mating small males. These results suggest a role for Mr-IAG both in the timing of male sexual differentiation and in regulating reproductive strategies. PMID:22363879

Ventura, Tomer; Manor, Rivka; Aflalo, Eliahu D.; Weil, Simy; Khalaila, Isam; Rosen, Ohad; Sagi, Amir

2011-01-01

252

Comparison of genetic characteristics and pathogenicity of Lactococcus garvieae isolated from aquatic animals in Taiwan.  

PubMed

Seventy-six Taiwanese bacterial isolates including 74 from diseased, cultured, aquatic animals (54 grey mullet Mugil cephalus, 3 basket mullet Chelon alatus, 2 tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, 1 grouper Epinephelus coioides, 2 yellowfin seabream Acanthopagrus latus, 1 Borneo mullet Chelon macrolepis, 1 bullfrog Rana catesbeiana, 1 Japanese eel Anguilla japonica, and 9 giant freshwater prawns Macrobrachium rosenbergii), 1 wild-caught seafood species (squid muscle collected from a restaurant) and 1 human isolate (from a patient with a history of consuming raw squid in the previously mentioned restaurant), all collected between 1999 and 2006, were confirmed by PCR assay to be Lactococcus garvieae. The phenotypic characterization was determined by rabbit anti-KG+ and KG- serums, and 74 of the 76 Taiwanese strains displayed a KG- phenotype. The genetic characterization was investigated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Genomic DNA was digested with restriction endonucleases ApaI and SmaI and separated by PFGE. Ten different L. garvieae pulsotypes were identified. Predominant pulsotypes A1a/S1a were obtained from >96% of strains (52 of 54) from grey mullet, demonstrating a clonal dissemination of L. garvieae in grey mullet in Taiwan. In experimental challenges with grey mullet and tilapia, L. garvieae pulsotypes A1/S1 and A11/S11 showed higher virulence compared with other pulsotypes. PMID:23209077

Tsai, Ming-An; Wang, Pei-Chyi; Liaw, Li-Ling; Yoshida, Terutoyo; Chen, Shih-Chu

2012-12-01

253

Fishing for prawn larvae in Bangladesh: an important coastal livelihood causing negative effects on the environment.  

PubMed

Freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) farming in Bangladesh has, to a large extent, been dependent on the supply of wild larvae. Although there are 81 freshwater prawn hatcheries in the country, a lack of technical knowledge, inadequate skilled manpower, and an insufficient supply of wild broods have limited hatchery production. Many thousands of coastal poor people, including women, are engaged in fishing for wild prawn larvae along the coastline during a few months each year. On average, 40% of the total yearly income for these people comes from prawn larvae fishing activity. However, indiscriminate fishing of wild larvae, with high levels of bycatch of juvenile fish and crustaceans, may impact negatively on production and biodiversity in coastal ecosystems. This concern has provoked the imposition of restrictions on larvae collection. The ban has, however, not been firmly enforced because of the limited availability of hatchery-raised larvae, the lack of an alternative livelihood for people involved in larvae fishing, and weak enforcement power. This article discusses the environmental and social consequences of prawn larvae fishing and concludes that, by increasing awareness among fry fishers, improving fishing techniques (reducing bycatch mortality), and improving the survival of fry in the market chain, a temporal ban may be a prudent measure when considering the potential negative impacts of bycatch. However, it also suggests that more research is needed to find out about the impact of larvae fishing on nontarget organisms and on the populations of targeted species. PMID:20496649

Ahmed, Nesar; Troell, Max

2010-02-01

254

A sequential study of pathological findings in Atlantic halibut, Hippoglossus hippoglossus (L), throughout one year after an acute outbreak of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy.  

PubMed

Following a natural outbreak of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER) at a commercial farm in Norway, surviving Atlantic halibut, Hippoglossus hippoglossus, were sequentially studied for distribution of nodavirus, immune response and histopathology over 1 year. Typical clinical signs and histopathology of VER were observed during the acute stage of the disease. Most of the surviving fish became subclinical carriers of nodavirus with clusters of nodavirus-containing cells in the central nervous system. Four random samplings of presumably healthy fish were performed from two fish groups, with low and high growth rates respectively, over a 7-month period. Immunohistochemical (IHC) examination revealed a higher number of nodavirus-positive cells in fish with a low growth rate than in fish with a high growth rate. All IHC positive fish were also reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) positive for nodavirus and for nodavirus antibodies detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) at all sampling points. The percentage of PCR- and ELISA-positive fish remained high throughout the year, while the number of IHC-positive fish decreased, especially in the group with a high growth rate. Several other histopathological changes were observed, including pericarditis, steatitis, changes in liver and kidney, and necrosis of the intestinal wall. None of these findings seemed to be related to the nodavirus infection. Nodavirus was reisolated in cell culture from subclinically infected fish one year after the acute VER outbreak, which indicates that the virus was still infectious. PMID:15189373

Johansen, R; Grove, S; Svendsen, A K; Modahl, I; Dannevig, B

2004-06-01

255

Abundance of Ohio shrimp (Macrobrachium ohione) and Glass shrimp (Palaemonetes kadiakensis) in the unimpounded Upper Mississippi River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Large rivers of the United States have been altered by construction and maintenance of navigation channels, which has resulted in habitat loss and degradation. Using 7 y of Long Term Resource Monitoring Program data collected from the unimpounded upper Mississippi River, we investigated Ohio and Glass Shrimp abundance collected from four physical habitats of the unimpounded upper Mississippi River: main channel border, main channel border with wing dike, open side channel and closed side channel. Our objective was to assess associations between Ohio and Glass Shrimp abundance, environmental measurements and the four habitats to better understand the ecology of these species in a channelized river system. Ohio Shrimp were most abundant in the open side channels, while Glass Shrimp were most abundant in the main channel border wing dike habitat. Thirty-two percent of the variance in Glass Shrimp abundance was explained by year 1995, year 1998, water temperature, depth of gear deployment, Secchi disk transparency and river elevation. Approximately 8% of variation in Ohio Shrimp abundance was explained by Secchi disk transparency. Catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) was greatest in 1998 for Glass Shrimp but lowest in 1997. Conversely, CPUE was greatest in 1996 for Ohio Shrimp and lowest in 2000. Both species exhibited inter-annual variability in CPUE. Long-term impacts of river modifications on aquatic invertebrates have not been well documented in many large, river systems and warrants further study. The findings from this study provide ecological information on Glass and Ohio Shrimp in a channelized river system.

Barko, V.A.; Hrabik, R.A.

2004-01-01

256

Electrogenic 2 Na+/1 H+ exchange in crustaceans.  

PubMed

Hepatopancreatic brush border membrane vesicles of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii and the marine lobster, Homarus americanus exhibited 22Na uptake which was Cl-independent, amiloride sensitive, and stimulated by a transmembrane H gradient (Hi greater than Ho). Sodium influx by vesicles of both species were sigmoidal functions of [Na]o, yielding Hill coefficients that were not significantly different (P greater than 0.5) than 2.0. Estimations of half-saturation constants (KNa) were 82.2 mM (prawn) and 280.1 mM (lobster), suggesting a possible adaptation of this transporter to environmental salinity. Trans-stimulation and cis-inhibition experiments involving variable [H] suggested that the exchangers in both species possessed single internal cation binding sites (pK 6.5-6.7) and two external cation binding sites (prawn, pK 4.0 and 5.7; lobster pK 3.5 and 6.1). Similar cis inhibition studies using amiloride as a competitive inhibitor of Na uptake supported the occurrence of dual external sites (prawn, Ki50 and 1520 microM; lobster Ki9 and 340 microM). Electrogenic Na/H exchange by vesicles from both crustaceans was demonstrated using equilibrium shift experiments where a transmembrane potential was used as the only driving force for the transport event. Transport stoichiometries of the antiporters were determined using Static Head analysis where driving forces for cation transfer were balanced using a 10:1 Na gradient, a 100:1 H gradient, and a stoichiometry of 2.0. These electrogenic 2 Na/1 H exchangers appear thermodynamically capable of generating sufficient gastric acidification for organismic digestive activities. PMID:2167376

Ahearn, G A; Franco, P; Clay, L P

1990-07-01

257

FishMicrosat: a microsatellite database of commercially important fishes and shellfishes of the Indian subcontinent  

PubMed Central

Background Microsatellite DNA is one of many powerful genetic markers used for the construction of genetic linkage maps and the study of population genetics. The biological databases in public domain hold vast numbers of microsatellite sequences for many organisms including fishes. The microsatellite data available in these data sources were extracted and managed into a database that facilitates sequences analysis and browsing relevant information. The system also helps to design primer sequences for flanking regions of repeat loci for PCR identification of polymorphism within populations. Description FishMicrosat is a database of microsatellite sequences of fishes and shellfishes that includes important aquaculture species such as Lates calcarifer, Ctenopharyngodon idella, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Penaeus monodon, Labeo rohita, Oreochromis niloticus, Fenneropenaeus indicus and Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The database contains 4398 microsatellite sequences of 41 species belonging to 15 families from the Indian subcontinent. GenBank of NCBI was used as a prime data source for developing the database. The database presents information about simple and compound microsatellites, their clusters and locus orientation within sequences. The database has been integrated with different tools in a web interface such as primer designing, locus finding, mapping repeats, detecting similarities among sequences across species, and searching using motifs and keywords. In addition, the database has the ability to browse information on the top 10 families and the top 10 species, through record overview. Conclusions FishMicrosat database is a useful resource for fish and shellfish microsatellite analyses and locus identification across species, which has important applications in population genetics, evolutionary studies and genetic relatedness among species. The database can be expanded further to include the microsatellite data of fishes and shellfishes from other regions and available information on genome sequencing project of species of aquaculture importance. PMID:24047532

2013-01-01

258

Poly-ß-hydroxybutyrate content and dose of the bacterial carrier for Artemia enrichment determine the performance of giant freshwater prawn larvae.  

PubMed

The beneficial effects of poly-?-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) for aquaculture animals have been shown in several studies. The strategy of applying PHB contained in a bacterial carrier has, however, hardly been considered. The effect of administering PHB-accumulated Alcaligenes eutrophus H16 containing 10 or 80 % PHB on dry weight, named A10 and A80, respectively, through the live feed Artemia was investigated on the culture performance of larvae of the giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). Feeding larvae with Artemia nauplii enriched in a medium containing 100 and 1,000 mg L(-1) A80 significantly increased the survival with about 15 % and the development of the larvae with a larval stage index of about 1 as compared to feeding non-enriched Artemia. The survival of the larvae also significantly increased with about 35 % in case of a challenge with Vibrio harveyi. The efficiency of these treatments was equal to a control treatment of Artemia enriched in an 800 mg L(-1) PHB powder suspension, while Artemia enriched in 10 mg L(-1) A80, 100 mg L(-1) A10, and 1,000 mg L(-1) A10 did not bring similar effects. From our results, it can be concluded that PHB supplemented in a bacterial carrier (i.e., amorphous PHB) can increase the larviculture efficiency of giant freshwater prawn similar to supplementation of PHB in powdered form (i.e., crystalline PHB). When the level of PHB in the bacterial carrier is high, similar beneficial effects can be achieved as crystalline PHB, but at a lower live food enrichment concentration expressed on PHB basis. PMID:24615382

Thai, Truong Quoc; Wille, Mathieu; Garcia-Gonzalez, Linsey; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Bossier, Peter; De Schryver, Peter

2014-06-01

259

Characterization of a Prawn OA/TA Receptor in Xenopus Oocytes Suggests Functional Selectivity between Octopamine and Tyramine  

PubMed Central

Here we report the characterization of an octopamine/tyramine (OA/TA or TyrR1) receptor (OA/TAMac) cloned from the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, an animal used in the study of agonistic social behavior. The invertebrate OA/TA receptors are seven trans-membrane domain G-protein coupled receptors that are related to vertebrate adrenergic receptors. Behavioral studies in arthropods indicate that octopaminergic signaling systems modulate fight or flight behaviors with octopamine and/or tyramine functioning in a similar way to the adrenalins in vertebrate systems. Despite the importance of octopamine signaling in behavioral studies of decapod crustaceans there are no functional data available for any of their octopamine or tyramine receptors. We expressed OA/TAMac in Xenopus oocytes where agonist-evoked trans-membrane currents were used as readouts of receptor activity. The currents were most effectively evoked by tyramine but were also evoked by octopamine and dopamine. They were effectively blocked by yohimbine. The electrophysiological approach we used enabled the continuous observation of complex dynamics over time. Using voltage steps, we were able to simultaneously resolve two types of endogenous currents that are affected over different time scales. At higher concentrations we observe that octopamine and tyramine can produce different and opposing effects on both of these currents, presumably through the activity of the single expressed receptor type. The pharmacological profile and apparent functional-selectivity are consistent with properties first observed in the OA/TA receptor from the insect Drosophila melanogaster. As the first functional data reported for any crustacean OA/TA receptor, these results suggest that functional-selectivity between tyramine and octopamine is a feature of this receptor type that may be conserved among arthropods. PMID:25350749

Jezzini, Sami H.; Reyes-Colón, Dalynés; Sosa, María A.

2014-01-01

260

Cloning and characterisation of a prophenoloxidase from the haemocytes of mud crab Scylla serrata.  

PubMed

A prophenoloxidase (proPO) cDNA was cloned from the haemocytes of mud crab Scylla serrata using oligonucleotide primers and RT-PCR. Both 3'- and 5'-regions were isolated by rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE) method. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence revealed that the cDNA clone has a full length of 2663bp, with an open reading frame of 2019bp, a 124-bp 5'-untranslated region, and a 520-bp 3'-untranslated region containing a poly A signal. It encodes a protein of 673 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 77.5kDa and with an estimated pI of 5.96. It contains two putative tyrosinase copper-binding motifs with six histidine residues (copper A, 185, 189, 211, and copper B, 346, 350, 386). The proPO has thiol-ester-like motif (GCGWPQHM), which showed similar structural features of proPOs from other decapod crustaceans. It also contains five possible glycosylation sites, and a conserved C-terminal region common to all known proPOs. Sequence comparison showed that the proPO-deduced amino acid of mud crab S. serrata has an overall similarity of 78%, 57%, 56%, 51-55%, 54%, 53%, 52%, 52%, and 52% to that of Dungeness crab Cancer magister, American lobster Homarus americanus, European lobster Homarus gammarus, kuruma prawn Marsupenaeus japonicus, crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus, white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon, green tiger shrimp Penaeus semisulcatus, and giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, respectively. The proPO was strongly expressed in haemocytes, but not in heart, eyestalk, gill, muscle, ovary, hepatopancreas, stomach, and intestine. The proPO transcript of mud crab S. serrata increased significantly in 12 and 24h post-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection, but returned to the original values in 72h post injection. PMID:16806468

Ko, Chi-Fong; Chiou, Tzu-Ting; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam; Lu, Jenn-Kan; Chen, Jiann-Chu

2007-01-01

261

Pigment granule translocation in red ovarian chromatophores from the palaemonid shrimp Macrobrachium olfersi (Weigmann, 1836): Functional roles for the cytoskeleton and its molecular motors.  

PubMed

The binding of red pigment concentrating hormone (RPCH) to membrane receptors in crustacean chromatophores triggers Ca(2+)/cGMP signaling cascades that activate cytoskeletal motors, driving pigment granule translocation. We investigate the distributions of microfilaments and microtubules and their associated molecular motors, myosin and dynein, by confocal and transmission electron microscopy, evaluating a functional role for the cytoskeleton in pigment translocation using inhibitors of polymer turnover and motor activity in vitro. Microtubules occupy the chromatophore cell extensions whether the pigment granules are aggregated or dispersed. The inhibition of microtubule turnover by taxol induces pigment aggregation and inhibits re-dispersion. Phalloidin-FITC actin labeling, together with tannic acid fixation and ultrastructural analysis, reveals that microfilaments form networks associated with the pigment granules. Actin polymerization induced by jasplaquinolide strongly inhibits RPCH-induced aggregation, causes spontaneous pigment dispersion, and inhibits pigment re-dispersion. Inhibition of actin polymerization by latrunculin-A completely impedes pigment aggregation and re-dispersion. Confocal immunocytochemistry shows that non-muscle myosin II (NMMII) co-localizes mainly with pigment granules while blebbistatin inhibition of NMMII strongly reduces the RPCH response, also inducing spontaneous pigment dispersion. Myosin II and dynein also co-localize with the pigment granules. Inhibition of dynein ATPase by erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl) adenine induces aggregation, inhibits RPCH-triggered aggregation, and inhibits re-dispersion. Granule aggregation and dispersion depend mainly on microfilament integrity although microtubules may be involved. Both cytoskeletal polymers are functional only when subunit turnover is active. Myosin and dynein may be the molecular motors that drive pigment aggregation. These mechanisms of granule translocation in crustacean chromatophores share various features with those of vertebrate pigment cells. PMID:25182860

Milograna, Sarah Ribeiro; Ribeiro, Márcia Regina; Baqui, Munira Muhammad Abdel; McNamara, John Campbell

2014-12-01

262

Modulation by K+ Plus NH4+ of microsomal (Na+, K+)-ATPase activity in selected ontogenetic stages of the diadromous river shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum (Decapoda, Palaemonidae).  

PubMed

We investigate the synergistic stimulation by K(+) plus NH4 (+) of (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase activity in microsomal preparations of whole zoea I and decapodid III, and in juvenile and adult river shrimp gills. Modulation of (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase activity is ontogenetic stage-specific, and particularly distinct between juveniles and adults. Although both gill enzymes exhibit two different sites for K(+) and NH4 (+) binding, in the juvenile enzyme, these two sites are equivalent: binding by both ions results in slightly stimulated activity compared to that of a single ionic species. In the adult enzyme, the sites are not equivalent: when one ion occupies its specific binding site, (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase activity is stimulated synergistically by ? 50% on binding of the complementary ion. Immunolocalization reveals the enzyme to be distributed predominantly throughout the intralamellar septum in the gill lamellae of juveniles and adults. Western blot analyses demonstrate a single immunoreactive band, suggesting a single (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase ?-subunit isoform that is distributed into different density membrane fractions, independently of ontogenetic stage. We propose a model for the modulation by K(+) and NH4 (+) of gill (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase activity. These findings suggest that the gill enzyme may be regulated by NH4 (+) during ontogenetic development in M. amazonicum. PMID:24586919

Leone, Francisco A; Bezerra, Thais M S; Garçon, Daniela P; Lucena, Malson N; Pinto, Marcelo R; Fontes, Carlos F L; McNamara, John C

2014-01-01

263

Tucurui dam.and the populations of the prawn Macrobrachium amazonicum in the Lower Tocantins (Pa-Brazil): a four year study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A four year survey of the prawn Manobrachimi atnazonicum (HELLER, 1862) on the Tocantins river studies che shon term impact of the Tucurui hydroelectric project on downstream fishery and reservoir populations. The furthest downstream site below the dam has been the most affected. Before the closure of the dam, the annual prawn catch in Camera and the flood intensity were

OLGA ODINETZ COLLART

264

Modulation By K+ Plus NH4+ of Microsomal (Na+, K+)-ATPase Activity in Selected Ontogenetic Stages of the Diadromous River Shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum (Decapoda, Palaemonidae)  

PubMed Central

We investigate the synergistic stimulation by K+ plus NH4+ of (Na+, K+)-ATPase activity in microsomal preparations of whole zoea I and decapodid III, and in juvenile and adult river shrimp gills. Modulation of (Na+, K+)-ATPase activity is ontogenetic stage-specific, and particularly distinct between juveniles and adults. Although both gill enzymes exhibit two different sites for K+ and NH4+ binding, in the juvenile enzyme, these two sites are equivalent: binding by both ions results in slightly stimulated activity compared to that of a single ionic species. In the adult enzyme, the sites are not equivalent: when one ion occupies its specific binding site, (Na+, K+)-ATPase activity is stimulated synergistically by ?50% on binding of the complementary ion. Immunolocalization reveals the enzyme to be distributed predominantly throughout the intralamellar septum in the gill lamellae of juveniles and adults. Western blot analyses demonstrate a single immunoreactive band, suggesting a single (Na+, K+)-ATPase ?-subunit isoform that is distributed into different density membrane fractions, independently of ontogenetic stage. We propose a model for the modulation by K+ and NH4+ of gill (Na+, K+)-ATPase activity. These findings suggest that the gill enzyme may be regulated by NH4+ during ontogenetic development in M. amazonicum. PMID:24586919

Leone, Francisco A.; Bezerra, Thais M. S.; Garcon, Daniela P.; Lucena, Malson N.; Pinto, Marcelo R.; Fontes, Carlos F. L.; McNamara, John C.

2014-01-01

265

Monodon baculovirus of shrimp.  

PubMed

Among the viruses infecting penaeid shrimp, monodon-type baculovirus (MBV) otherwise known as Penaeus monodon singly enveloped nuclear polyhedrosis virus (PmSNPV), is one of the widely reported and well described viruses. It is a rod-shaped, enveloped, double-stranded DNA virus, and considered till recently, as the type A baculovirus. Besides MBV, two strains of SNPV are reported-plebejus baculovirus and bennettae baculovirus. MBV was reported to be originated from Taiwan and has wide geographic distribution and is reported to be enzootic in wild penaeids of the Indo-pacific coasts of Asia. The virus also has diverse host-range including a variety of cultured and captured shrimp species and freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. MBV has been reported in all life stages of P. monodon with late larval, postlarval and young juvenile as the most susceptible stages/ages. However, MBV has not been documented in early larval stages. Although MBV has been reported to be tolerated well by shrimp, the infection has been attributed to decreased productivity. The target organs or tissues of MBV are the hepatopancreatic tubules and duct epithelium of postlarvae, juveniles and adults, and the anterior midgut epithelium of very young postlarvae. The prominent clinical sign of infection is the presence of multiple spherical inclusion bodies in the hepatopancreas and midgut epithelial cells. The major mode of transmission of the virus is horizontal through oral exposure to occlusion bodies, contaminated tissues or fomites. Minor morphometric variation of the virus has been reported among different isolates. The rod-shaped enveloped virus particles range from 265-324 nm in length and 42-77 nm in diameter. Although complete genome sequence of MBV is not available, nucleic acid of MBV is circular, double-stranded DNA with a genome size ranging from 80 to 160 kbp. The virus codes for a 53 kDa major polyhedrin polypeptide and two minor 47 and 49 kDa polypeptides. A variety of diagnostic tools have been reported for this virus including real-time PCR and LAMP-based detection. Taxonomic position is still uncertain and International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses lists MBV as a tentative species named PemoNPV in the genus Nucleopolyhedrovirus. However, according to the latest genomic information on the virus, it has been suggested to create a new group of non-occluded bacilliform viruses called nudiviruses with MBV as one of the members. The aim of the current work is to describe the knowledge on the status, distribution and host-range, pathology, transmission, virus structure and morphogenesis, genomic characteristics, diagnosis and the latest taxonomic position of MBV. PMID:23997439

Rajendran, K V; Makesh, M; Karunasagar, I

2012-09-01

266

Orsay virus utilizes ribosomal frameshifting to express a novel protein that is incorporated into virions?  

PubMed Central

Orsay virus is the first identified virus that is capable of naturally infecting Caenorhabditis elegans. Although it is most closely related to nodaviruses, Orsay virus differs from nodaviruses in its genome organization. In particular, the Orsay virus RNA2 segment encodes a putative novel protein of unknown function, termed delta, which is absent from all known nodaviruses. Here we present evidence that Orsay virus utilizes a ribosomal frameshifting strategy to express a novel fusion protein from the viral capsid (alpha) and delta ORFs. Moreover, the fusion protein was detected in purified virus fractions, demonstrating that it is most likely incorporated into Orsay virions. Furthermore, N-terminal sequencing of both the fusion protein and the capsid protein demonstrated that these proteins must be translated from a non-canonical initiation site. While the function of the alpha–delta fusion remains cryptic, these studies provide novel insights into the fundamental properties of this new clade of viruses. PMID:24503084

Jiang, Hongbing; Franz, Carl J.; Wu, Guang; Renshaw, Hilary; Zhao, Guoyan; Firth, Andrew E.; Wang, David

2014-01-01

267

Cloning of crystallin from orange-spotted grouper and characterization of its activity as potential protective agent  

PubMed Central

Oxidative stress associated with nodavirus infection is poorly understood, especially pertaining to infection-mediated brain injury. Indirect evidence indicates that infection increases cellular abundance of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with consequent increase in cellular dityrosine production. The detection of dityrosine in nodavirus-infected grouper was demonstrated using immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. Proteomic analyses with eye tissues of healthy grouper revealed more abundant expression of crystallin protein in the eye than in various tissues, which was confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and IHC analyses. Grouper crystallin belongs to a small heat shock protein family with chaperone-like function that prevents heat-induced and oxidative stress-induced protein aggregation. Recombinant crystallin induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7 cells after treatment. The results provide new insight into the pathogenesis of nodavirus and demonstrate an experimental rationale for antioxidant therapy research. PMID:24371554

Chen, Young-Mao; Kuo, Cham-En; Lin, Chun-Mao; Shie, Pei-Shiuan; Chen, Tzong-Yueh

2011-01-01

268

JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY, Oct. 1996, p. 65766588 Vol. 70, No. 10 0022-538X/96/$04.00 0  

E-print Network

of the host cell (lysosomes, trans-Golgi stack and trans-Golgi network, and endoplasmic reticulum) contributed nonstructural protein 2C. Biochemical analysis of the isolated membranes revealed that several organelles complexes from flock house virus, a nodavirus, can be isolated only in association with membranes of unknown

Kirkegaard, Karla

269

Sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax nervous necrosis virus isolates with distinct pathogenicity to sea bass larvae.  

PubMed

Reproduction of nodavirus disease was performed by experimental infection of sea bass eggs during fertilization or at larval stage 4 with 2 genetically distinguishable nodavirus strains (Sb1 and Sb2) isolated from sea bass collected along the Atlantic and Mediterranean French coast. The pathogenicity of the virus strains was assigned after detection of the virus by ELISA and immunohistochemistry (IHC). The Atlantic (Sb1) strain was more pathogenic than the Mediterranean (Sb2) strain during the fertilization step whilst both strains were pathogenic following experimental exposure of 4 d old larvae. Virus lesions developed in the brain 4 to 6 d following experimental exposure. Experimental ELISA proved very sensitive for detecting the nodavirus in Sb1 or Sb2 experimentally infected larvae, as well as in naturally infected sea bass larvae collected in French hatcheries or in barramundi larvae reared in the Pacific area. The development of an ELISA specific for the 2 nodavirus strains isolated from the sea bass should be useful for the detection of the virus, in addition to other techniques recommended by the Office International des Epizooties (OIE). PMID:11411641

Breuil, G; Mouchel, O; Fauvel, C; Pepin, J F

2001-05-01

270

Comparison of betanodavirus replication efficiency in ten Indian fish cell lines.  

PubMed

Ten cell lines established from Indian marine, brackishwater and freshwater fish were tested for their susceptibility to fish nodavirus. In addition, the efficiency of betanodavirus replication was tested in these cell lines. Multiple vacuolation, a typical cytopathic effect for virus infection, was observed in infected SISK, SISS, SIGE and ICF cells. Infection of the different fish cell lines was confirmed by RT-PCR, immunodot blot assay and indirect ELISA. The virus concentration in culture supernatant collected from infected sea bass and grouper cell lines increased progressively from 10(3) at day 1 postinfection to 10(8) TCID50 ml(-1) at day 9. The amount of virus in different cell lines was also quantified by real-time PCR. These results indicate the suitability of the SISK, SISS, and SIGE cell lines for fish nodavirus propagation for developing viral diagnostics and vaccines. PMID:23392632

Sarath Babu, V; Abdul Majeed, S; Nambi, K S N; Taju, G; Madan, N; Sundar Raj, N; Sahul Hameed, A S

2013-06-01

271

.i.^f 0*^00. NOAA Technical Report N.  

E-print Network

, by season, of fishes caught with an otter trawl near Woods Hole, Massachusetts, September 1961 to December 1 of the freshwater shrimp, Macrobrachium , in the Lower St. Paul River. Liberia. 1952-53. By George C. Miller

272

Male reproduction in penaeid shrimp: sperm quality and spermatophore production in wild and captive populations  

E-print Network

, the gland does not degenerate completely but shows a very low level of activity (Adiyodi, 1984). A similar pattern of androgenic gland activity has also been observed in Macrobrachium. During non-breeding periods, only a few males with spermatophores..., the gland does not degenerate completely but shows a very low level of activity (Adiyodi, 1984). A similar pattern of androgenic gland activity has also been observed in Macrobrachium. During non-breeding periods, only a few males with spermatophores...

Leung-Trujillo, Joanna R

2012-06-07

273

Comparative studies of T = 3 and T = 4 icosahedral RNA insect viruses  

PubMed Central

Summary Crystallographic and molecular biological studies of T = 3 nodaviruses (180 identical subunits in the particle) and T = 4 tetraviruses (240 identical subunits in the particle) have revealed similarity in both the architecture of the particles and the strategy for maturation. The comparative studies provide a novel opportunity to examine an apparent evolution of particle size, from smaller (T = 3) to larger (T = 4), with both particles based on similar subunits. The BBV and FHV nodavirus structures are refined at 2.8 Å and 3 Å respectively, while the N?V structure is at 6 Å resolution. Nevertheless, the detailed comparisons of the noda and tetravirus X-ray electron density maps show that the same type of switching in subunit twofold contacts is used in the T = 3 and T = 4 capsids, although differences must exist between quasi and icosahedral threefold contacts in the T = 4 particle that have not yet been detected. The analyses of primary and tertiary structures of noda and tetraviruses show that N?V subunits undergo a post assembly cleavage like that observed in nodaviruses and that the cleaved 76 C-terminal residues remain associated with the particle. PMID:8032278

Johnson, J. E.; Munshi, S.; Liljas, L.; Agrawal, D.; Olson, N. H.; Reddy, V.; Fisher, A.; McKinney, B.; Schmidt, T.; Baker, T. S.

2014-01-01

274

Nonhomologous RNA recombination during negative-strand synthesis of flock house virus RNA.  

PubMed Central

During sequential replicative passages of viral RNA from the nodavirus flock house virus, spontaneous deletion of RNA sequences occurred frequently. Families of deleted RNA molecules were derived from both segments of the bipartite viral genome and found to contain single, double, or triple deletions. These deletions were attributed to template switching by the flock house virus RNA replicase, resulting in recombination between distant sequences and excision of the intervening nucleotides. From sequence analysis of the recombination junctions, we concluded that the process of template switching was influenced by both the primary sequence and the secondary structure of the RNA and that it occurred predominantly during synthesis of RNA negative strands. PMID:7685402

Li, Y; Ball, L A

1993-01-01

275

Regulation of natural killer enhancing factor (NKEF) genes in teleost fish, gilthead seabream and European sea bass.  

PubMed

Peroxiredoxins (Prx) are a family of antioxidant proteins also involved in inflammation and innate immunity. Prx1 and Prx2 are also known as natural killer enhancing factor (NKEF)-A and NKEF-B, respectively, by their ability to prime the mammalian NK-cells activity. In teleost fish, NKEF genes have been isolated but their regulation has been scarcely evaluated. We have identified orthologues of the NKEF-A and NKEF-B genes in the teleost European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) which showed constitutive expression and wide distribution in their tissues. In vitro, the gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) and sea bass NKEFs were slightly up-regulated in head-kidney leucocytes after stimulation with unmethylated CpG oligodeoxynucleotides, poly I:C or pathogenic bacteria. In vivo, seabream and sea bass infection with nodavirus up-regulated the expression of NKEF genes in the brain (target tissue for nodavirus) and head-kidney at different infection times. Although further studies are necessary to ascertain their role as antioxidant proteins and in the immune response in teleost fish, our results suggest a primary role of seabream and sea bass NKEFs in the innate immune response against bacterial and viral agents. PMID:23511025

Esteban, María A; Chaves-Pozo, Elena; Arizcun, Marta; Meseguer, José; Cuesta, Alberto

2013-10-01

276

Diseases, prophylaxis and treatment of the Atlantic halibut Hippoglossus hippoglossus: a review.  

PubMed

After substantial investments in research, the Atlantic halibut Hippoglossus hippoglossus is now being cultivated commercially in Norway, Iceland, Scotland and Canada. As with other domesticated species, disease problems have been experienced. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge of diseases of the Atlantic halibut, and their diagnosis, prophylaxis and treatment. In economic terms, the most important losses have been suffered at the larval and juvenile stages. The most important infections are caused by nodaviruses, causative agents of Viral Encephalopathy and Retinopathy (VER), which are the major reason why Norway's production of halibut fry has been level since 1995. An aquatic birnavirus, Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus, is also an important agent of mortality. Vibrio anguillarum, Flexibacter ovolyticus and atypical Aeromonas salmonicida are the major bacterial pathogens. The protozoan parasites recorded include Ichthyobodo sp., the microsporidium Enterocytozoon sp., Trichodina hippoglossi, and the metazoan pathogens include myxozoans, helminths, Entobdella hippoglossi, Lepeophtheirus hippoglossi and other parasitic copepods. Experimental vaccines have been tested against V anguillarum and atypical A. salmonicida, with good results. A recombinant vaccine against nodaviruses is under development. A few trials have been carried out on non-specific immunostimulants, but no such treatment is currently available. A number of efficacy and pharmacokinetic trials with various antibacterial agents have also been published. PMID:11843141

Bergh, O; Nilsen, F; Samuelsen, O B

2001-12-20

277

Development, characterization and application of a new fibroblastic-like cell line from kidney of a freshwater air breathing fish Channa striatus (Bloch, 1793).  

PubMed

A new cell line, Channa striatus kidney (CSK), derived from the kidney tissue of murrel, was established and characterized. The CSK cell line was maintained in Leibovitz's L-15 supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum and has been subcultured more than 140 times. This cell line was able to grow in a range of temperatures from 22 to 32°C with optimal growth at 28°C. The plating efficiency was very high (67.54%) and doubling time was approximately 29h. The kidney cell line was cryopreserved at different passage levels and revived successfully with 90-92% survival. Polymerase chain reaction amplification of mitochondrial 16S rRNA using primer specific to C. striatus confirmed the origin of this cell line from murrel. The cell line was further characterized by chromosome number, transfection and mycoplasma detection. A marine fish nodavirus was tested to determine the susceptibility of this new cell line. The CSK cell line was found to be susceptible to nodavirus and the infection was confirmed by cytopathic effect (CPE), reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunodot blot, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), virus replication efficiency and real time RT-PCR. The present study highlights the development and characterization of a new kidney cell line from an air breathing fish that could be used as an in vitro tools for propagation of fish viruses and gene expression studies. PMID:23558109

Abdul Majeed, S; Nambi, K S N; Taju, G; Sahul Hameed, A S

2013-07-01

278

Adaptive patterns of osmotic and ionic regulation, and the invasion of fresh water by the palaemonid shrimps  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate trends in the osmoregulatory behavior of neotropical, palaemonid shrimps, we investigated osmotic and ionic regulatory patterns in five species of Palaemon or Macrobrachium. The species’ life histories depend on saline water to differing degrees, their habitats ranging from the marine\\/intertidal (P. northropi), through estuaries (P. pandaliformis) to coastal, freshwater streams (M. olfersii, M. potiuna) and inland, continental river

Carolina A. Freire; Fabiola Cavassin; Ellen N. Rodrigues; Antonio H. Torres; John C. McNamara

2003-01-01

279

Fish tissue quality in the lower Mississippi River and health risks from fish consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1990 and 1994, samples of three shellfish species (i.e. blue crab, Callinectes sapidus;crayfish, Procambarus acutis; and river shrimp, Macrobrachium ohionii) and 16 fish species and were collected at six sites along the lower Mississippi River by the Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality, Office of Water Resources in coordination with the US Environmental Protection Agency. The fish species included: bigmouth

Karen H. Watanabe; Frank W. Desimone; Arunthavarani Thiyagarajah; William R. Hartley; Albert E. Hindrichs

2003-01-01

280

fishes of the Sacramento-San Joaquin drainage system. IV. A review. Univ. Calif. Pub!. Zoo!' 115:225-256.  

E-print Network

of fish production in fresh waters, p. 93- 123. Blackwell Sci. Pub!., Oxford. THORNDIKE, R. M. 1978 and rate of digestion. In W. E. Ricker (editor), Methods for assessment of fish production in fresh waters ofexploitedMacrobrachium stocks have been carried out in large, low-gradient rivers in Liberia (Miller 1971

281

PRIMARY RESEARCH PAPER Phylogeography and the genetic structure of the land-locked  

E-print Network

April 2011 Ã? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011 Abstract Macrobrachium asperulum is a land struc- ture is deeply influenced by the periodic oscillation of glaciations, followed by fragmentation and biogeo- graphical events in the history of a species (Avise, Handling editor: Christian Sturmbauer M

Dever, Jennifer A.

282

A UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF  

E-print Network

, by season, of fishes caught with an otter trawl near Woods H. Ie \\Iassdl'husetts, September 1961 to December. Macrobrachium, in the Lower St Paul River, Libena, 1952-53. By George C. Miller. February 1971. iii + 13 pp.. 8

283

Effects of environmental salinity and dietary protein levels on digestibility in four species of penaeid shrimp  

E-print Network

are used in osmoregulation in penaeid shrimp. Working with P. setiferus and P. stylirostris, McCoid (1983) observed that glycine, proline, arginine, serine/threonine, and alanine represent 91-96% of the total free amino acid pool. She noted that proline... of salinity. Total amino acid levels in tissue of Nacrobrarhium rosenbergii significantly increased after hypezosmotic acclimation to 20 ppt (Fox et a1. , 1984). Studies with other crustaceans were compatible with these reports (Shaw, 1958; Duchateau et al...

Coelho, Silvio Romero de C.

2012-06-07

284

Optimisation of Lime-Soda process parameters for reduction of hardness in aqua-hatchery practices using Taguchi methods.  

PubMed

This paper presents the optimisation of Lime-Soda process parameters for the reduction of hardness in aqua-hatchery practices in the context of M. rosenbergii. The fresh water in the development of fisheries needs to be of suitable quality. Lack of desirable quality in available fresh water is generally the confronting restraint. On the Indian subcontinent, groundwater is the only source of raw water, having varying degree of hardness and thus is unsuitable for the fresh water prawn hatchery practices (M. rosenbergii). In order to make use of hard water in the context of aqua-hatchery, Lime-Soda process has been recommended. The efficacy of the various process parameters like lime, soda ash and detention time, on the reduction of hardness needs to be examined. This paper proposes to determine the parameter settings for the CIFE well water, which is pretty hard by using Taguchi experimental design method. Orthogonal Arrays of Taguchi, Signal-to-Noise Ratio, the analysis of variance (ANOVA) have been applied to determine their dosage and analysed for their effect on hardness reduction. The tests carried out with optimal levels of Lime-Soda process parameters confirmed the efficacy of the Taguchi optimisation method. Emphasis has been placed on optimisation of chemical doses required to reduce the total hardness using Taguchi method and ANOVA, to suit the available raw water quality for aqua-hatchery practices, especially for fresh water prawn M. rosenbergii. PMID:24749379

Yavalkar, S P; Bhole, A G; Babu, P V Vijay; Prakash, Chandra

2012-04-01

285

Effects of different ration levels on survival, moulting and food conversion in two freshwater prawns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of different daily rations of the oligochaete wormTubifex tubifex on survival, moulting and food conversion ofMacrobrachium lanchesteri (Palaemonidae) andCaridina weberi (Atyidae) have been described. Moulting is a metabolic necessity for either species and occurs even at the expense of organic\\u000a reserves of starving prawns. The geometric derivation of the growth-feeding rate relations inM. Lanchesteri indicated that, 88, 162 and

R Ponnuchamy; S Ravichandra Reddy; Katre Shakuntala

1983-01-01

286

Comparative studies on the effects of population density on moult production and food conversion in two freshwater prawns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conspecific population density stress affects moult production and growth ofMacrobrachium lanchesteri (Palaemonidae) andCaridina weberi (Atyidae). In either species an intermediate density level of 4 and 8 individuals\\/151 of freshwater respectively, appears\\u000a to be ideal for growth. While the effects of increased population densities on the physiological processes of food conversion\\u000a of either species are comparable, intergeneric variations in the regulation

R Ponnuchamy; S Ravichandra Reddy; Katre Shakuntala

1984-01-01

287

Comparison of the acute toxicity for gamma-cyhalothrin and lambda-cyhalothrin to zebra fish and shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gamma-cyhalothrin 15CS (GCH) contains only the active stereoisomer of the two isomers found in lambda-cyhalothrin 25EW (LCH). GCH (0.5×rate) provides equivalent overall insect control as LCH (1×rate). Both formulations showed high acute toxicity to zebra fish (Brachydanio rerio H.B.) and shrimp (Macrobrachium nippoensis de Haan). The 96-h LC50(zebra fish,GCH) is 1.93?g a.i\\/L and LC50(zebra fish,LCH) is 1.94?g a.i\\/L. LC50(shrimp,GCH) is

Wei Wang; D. J. Cai; Z. J. Shan; W. L. Chen; Nick Poletika; X. W. Gao

2007-01-01

288

Replication of the genomic RNA of a positive-strand RNA animal virus from negative-sense transcripts.  

PubMed Central

Studies of RNA replication among the positive-strand RNA animal viruses have been hindered by the apparent inability of their RNA-dependent RNA polymerases to initiate replication on the corresponding negative-sense RNAs. However, here I report that in the case of the nodavirus flock house virus (FHV), which has a bipartite positive-sense RNA genome, the viral RNA replicase can replicate a negative-sense transcript of the genome segment that encodes the viral capsid proteins. For this work, the FHV replication cycle was experimentally reconstructed in baby hamster kidney cells that were transfected with specialized transcription plasmids designed to direct the synthesis of RNAs which corresponded closely to the two genome segments of FHV. The RNA replicase encoded by the larger genome segment could utilize either the positive or the negative strand of the smaller segment as a template, and it catalyzed RNA replication to produce similar RNA products in the two situations. Surprisingly, studies of the nucleotide sequences that were required for replication showed that the 3' end of the negative-strand RNA contained only a minimal cis-acting signal. The success of these experiments will facilitate further studies of the cis- and trans-acting factors involved in the recognition and replication of negative-sense RNA in this system. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7809056

Ball, L A

1994-01-01

289

Optimization of virus detection in cells using massively parallel sequencing.  

PubMed

Massively parallel sequencing (MPS)-based virus detection has potential regulatory applications. We studied the ability of one of these approaches, based on degenerate oligonucleotide primer (DOP)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR), to detect viral sequences in cell lines known to express viral genes or particles. DOP-PCR was highly sensitive for the detection of small quantities of isolated viral sequences. Detected viral sequences included nodavirus, bracovirus, and endogenous retroviruses in High Five cells, porcine circovirus type 1 and porcine endogenous retrovirus in PK15 cells, human T-cell leukemia virus 1 in MJ cells, human papillomavirus 18 in HeLa cells, human herpesvirus 8 in BCBL-1 cells, and Epstein-Barr Virus in Raji cells. Illumina sequencing (for which primers were most efficiently added using PCR) provided greater sensitivity for virus detection than Roche 454 sequencing. Analyzing nucleic acids extracted both directly from samples and from capsid-enriched preparations provided useful information. Although there are limitations of these methods, these results indicate significant promise for the combination of nonspecific PCR and MPS in identifying contaminants in clinical and biological samples, including cell lines and reagents used to produce vaccines and therapeutic products. PMID:24309095

McClenahan, Shasta D; Uhlenhaut, Christine; Krause, Philip R

2014-01-01

290

Crystallization and X-ray diffraction of virus-like particles from a piscine betanodavirus.  

PubMed

Dragon grouper nervous necrosis virus (DGNNV), a member of the genus Betanodavirus, causes high mortality of larvae and juveniles of the grouper fish Epinephelus lanceolatus. Currently, there is no reported crystal structure of a fish nodavirus. The DGNNV virion capsid is derived from a single open reading frame that encodes a 338-amino-acid protein of approximately 37?kDa. The capsid protein of DGNNV was expressed to form virus-like particles (VLPs) in Escherichia coli. The VLP shape is T = 3 quasi-symmetric with a diameter of ?38?nm in cryo-electron microscopy images and is highly similar to the native virion. In this report, crystals of DGNNV VLPs were grown to a size of 0.27?mm within two weeks by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 283?K and diffracted X-rays to ?7.5?Å resolution. In-house X-ray diffraction data of the DGNNV VLP crystals showed that the crystals belonged to space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 353.00, c = 800.40?Å, ? = ? = 90, ? = 120°. 23?268 unique reflections were acquired with an overall Rmerge of 18.2% and a completeness of 93.2%. Self-rotation function maps confirmed the fivefold, threefold and twofold symmetries of the icosahedron of DGNNV VLPs. PMID:25084387

Luo, Yu-Chun; Wang, Chun-Hsiung; Wu, Yi-Min; Liu, Wangta; Lu, Ming-Wei; Lin, Chan-Shing

2014-08-01

291

Use of intertidal areas by shrimps (Decapoda) in a Brazilian Amazon estuary.  

PubMed

The present work investigated the occupation and the correlation of the shrimp abundance in relation to environmental variables in different habitats (mangroves, salt marshes and rocky outcrops) in an Amazon estuary. The collections were made in August and November 2009, at low syzygy tide on Areuá Beach, situated in the Extractive Reserve of Mãe Grande de Curuçá, Pará, Brazil totaling 20 pools. In each environment, we recorded the physical-chemical factors (pH, salinity, and temperature) and measured the area (m2) and volume (m3) of every pool through bathymetry. The average pH, salinity, temperature, area and volume of tide pools were 8.75 (± 0.8 standard deviation), 35.45 (± 3), 29.49 °C (± 2.32), 27.41 m2 (± 41.18), and 5.19 m3 (± 8.01), respectively. We caught a total of 4,871 shrimps, distributed in three families and four species: Farfantepenaeus subtilis (98.36%) (marine) followed by Alpheus pontederiae (0.76%) (estuarine), Macrobrachium surinamicum (0.45%) and Macrobrachium amazonicum (0.43%) predominantly freshwater. The species F. subtilis and A. pontederiae occurred in the three habitats, whereas M. surinamicum occurred in salt marsh and rocky outcrop and M. amazonicum only in marisma. Temperature and pH were the most important environmental descriptors that significantly affected the density and biomass of shrimps. PMID:24676171

Sampaio, Hebert A; Martinelli-Lemos, Jussara M

2014-03-01

292

Molecular characterisation of sea bream (Sparus aurata) transforming growth factor beta1.  

PubMed

A transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF beta1) full length cDNA was characterised and sequenced from the head kidney of sea bream (Sparus aurata) previously challenged with a nodavirus. The cloned cDNA of 1778bp contains a predicted open reading frame of 379 amino acids, which includes the mature peptide region of 112 amino acids. The regulating region of the peptide possesses four potential N-linked glycosylation sites (N-X-T/S), as well as an RGD integrin binding site, an RKKR tetrabasic cut site and nine conserved cysteines all characteristic of the TGF beta superfamily. Compared to other teleost TGF beta1 genes, the sea bream TGF beta1 is most closely related to hybrid striped bass (Moronesaxatilis xM. chrysops) TGF beta1 (80% amino acid identity). The genomic organisation of TGF beta1 was determined through the generation of contiguous PCR clones. The sea bream TGF beta1 gene is approximately 3.6kb in length and consists of five coding regions. Two introns are absent in comparison to the genomic organisation of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss TGF beta1, whilst an additional intron not present in other sequenced TGF beta genes, but present in the trout TGF beta1 gene, is conserved in sea bream.A reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay was developed to study TGF beta expression in different sea bream tissues. Constitutive TGF beta1 expression was detected in the liver, brain, muscle, kidney, heart, gills and spleen of sea bream, as well as in head kidney macrophages and blood leucocytes. PMID:12711274

Tafalla, C; Aranguren, R; Secombes, C J; Castrillo, J L; Novoa, B; Figueras, A

2003-05-01

293

Cellular and molecular immune responses of the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) experimentally infected with betanodavirus.  

PubMed

Naïve sea bass juveniles (38.4 + or - 4.5 g) were intramuscularly infected with a sublethal dose of betanodavirus isolate 378/I03, followed after 43 days by a similar boosting. This infection resulted in an overall mortality of 7.6%. At various intervals, sampling of fish tissues was performed to investigate: i) B and T lymphocyte content in organs and tissues; ii), proliferation of leucocytes re-stimulated in vitro with inactivated virus; iii) presence of serum antibody specific for betanodavirus; iv) expression of genes coding for the following immunoregulatory molecules involved in innate and acquired responses: type I IFN, Mx, IL-1, Cox-2; IL-10, TGF-beta, TCRbeta, CD4, CD8alpha, IgM, by using a quantitative PCR array system developed for sea bass. The obtained results showed a detectable increase of T cells and B cells in PBL during betanodavirus infection. Furthermore, leucocytes obtained from blood, head kidney, and gills showed a detectable "in vitro" increase in viability upon addition of inactivated viral particles, as determined by measuring intracellular ATP concentration. ELISA analysis of sera showed that exposure to nodavirus induced a low, but specific antibody titer measured 43 days after infection, despite the presence of measurable levels of natural antibody. Finally, a strong upregulation of genes coding for type I IFN, Mx, and IgM was identified after both infection and boosting. Interestingly, an upregulation of Cox-2 until boosting, and of TGF-beta and IL-10 after boosting was also observed, while the other tested genes did not show any significant variations with respect to mock-treated fish. Overall, our work represents a first comprehensive analysis of cellular and molecular immune parameters in a fish species exposed to a pathogenic virus. PMID:19925869

Scapigliati, G; Buonocore, F; Randelli, E; Casani, D; Meloni, S; Zarletti, G; Tiberi, M; Pietretti, D; Boschi, I; Manchado, M; Martin-Antonio, B; Jimenez-Cantizano, R; Bovo, G; Borghesan, F; Lorenzen, N; Einer-Jensen, K; Adams, S; Thompson, K; Alonso, C; Bejar, J; Cano, I; Borrego, J J; Alvarez, M C

2010-02-01

294

Photobacterium sanctipauli sp. nov. isolated from bleached Madracis decactis (Scleractinia) in the St Peter & St Paul Archipelago, Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Five novel strains of Photobacterium (A-394T, A-373, A-379, A-397 and A-398) were isolated from bleached coral Madracis decactis (scleractinian) in the remote St Peter & St Archipelago (SPSPA), Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Brazil. Healthy M. decactis specimens were also surveyed, but no strains were related to them. The novel isolates formed a distinct lineage based on the 16S rRNA, recA, and rpoA gene sequences analysis. Their closest phylogenetic neighbours were Photobacterium rosenbergii, P. gaetbulicola, and P. lutimaris, sharing 96.6 to 95.8% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. The novel species can be differentiated from the closest neighbours by several phenotypic and chemotaxonomic markers. It grows at pH 11, produces tryptophane deaminase, presents the fatty acid C18:0, but lacks C16:0 iso. The whole cell protein profile, based in MALDI-TOF MS, distinguished the strains of the novel species among each other and from the closest neighbors. In addition, we are releasing the whole genome sequence of the type strain. The name Photobacterium sanctipauli sp. nov. is proposed for this taxon. The G + C content of the type strain A-394T (= LMG27910T = CAIM1892T) is 48.2 mol%. PMID:25024905

Moreira, Ana Paula B.; Duytschaever, Gwen; Chimetto Tonon, Luciane A.; Fróes, Adriana M.; de Oliveira, Louisi S.; Amado-Filho, Gilberto M.; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo B.; De Vos, Paul; Swings, Jean; Thompson, Cristiane C.

2014-01-01

295

Heterochrony in mandible development of larval shrimp (Decapoda: Caridea)-A comparative morphological SEM study of two carideans.  

PubMed

Mandible development in the larval stages I-V of two palaemonid shrimp species, Palaemon elegans and Macrobrachium amazonicum, was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, light microscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. In contrast to the zoea I of P. elegans, first-stage larvae of M. amazonicum are nonfeeding. At hatching, the morphology of the mandibles is fully expressed in P. elegans, while it appears underdeveloped in M. amazonicum, presenting only small precursors of typical caridean features. In successive zoeal stages, both species show similar developmental changes, but the mandibular characters of the larvae in M. amazonicum were delayed compared to the equivalent stages in P. elegans, especially in the development of submarginal setae and mandible size. In conclusion, our results indicate heterochrony (postdisplacement) of mandible development in M. amazonicum compared to that in P. elegans, which is related to initial lack of mandible functionality or planktivorous feeding at hatching, respectively. This conclusion is supported by comparison with other palaemonid zoeae exhibiting different feeding modes. Our data suggest that an evolutionary ground pattern of mandible morphology is present even in species with nonfeeding first-stage larvae. J. Morphol. 275:1258-1272, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24888760

Batel, Annika; Melzer, Roland R; Anger, Klaus; Geiselbrecht, Hannes

2014-11-01

296

DDT and Derivatives in Indicator Species of the Aquatic Food Web of Rangsit Agricultural Area, Central Thailand  

PubMed Central

The presence of DDT and derivatives in the food web of freshwater ecosystems of Rangsit agricultural area, Pathum Thani Province, Thailand were investigated from June 2004 to May 2007. By using gas chromatography (GC) with micro electron capture detector (? ECD), DDT and derivatives in water, sediment, and fifteen indicator species i.e., 2 producers; Eichhornia crassipes and plankton (phyto- and zoo- plankton), an herbivore; Trichogaster microlepis (3) 3 omnivores; Trichogaster trichopterus, Oreochromis niloticus, and Puntius gonionotus, 6 carnivores; Channa striatus, Oxyeleotris marmoratus, Macrognathus siamensis, Parambassis siamensis, Anabas testudineus, and Pristolepis fasciatus, and 3 detritivores; Macrobrachium lanchesteri, Pomacea sp., and Filopaludina mertensi were measured. Results show low concentration levels (part per billion) of DDT & derivatives in each food web compartment i.e. water, sediment, aquatic plant, plankton, fish, and invertebrates. Magnification patterns, i.e. bioconcentration, bioaccumulation, and biomagnification, based on habitat and foraging behavior of selected freshwater species indicates that DDT & derivatives can accumulate and be magnified through the food chain from the lowest up to the highest trophic level. Therefore, the presence of residues and the evidence of magnification patterns can be observed as ecological indicators for evaluating ecological health risk. PMID:20161116

Siriwong, W.; Thirakhupt, K.; Sitticharoenchai, D.; Rohitrattana, J.; Thongkongowm, P.; Borjan, M.; Robson, M.

2009-01-01

297

Deriving Freshwater Quality Criteria for Iron, Lead, Nickel, and Zinc for Protection of Aquatic Life in Malaysia  

PubMed Central

Freshwater quality criteria for iron (Fe), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) were developed with particular reference to aquatic biota in Malaysia, and based on USEPA's guidelines. Acute toxicity tests were performed on eight different freshwater domestic species in Malaysia which were Macrobrachium lanchesteri (prawn), two fish: Poecilia reticulata and Rasbora sumatrana, Melanoides tuberculata (snail), Stenocypris major (ostracod), Chironomus javanus (midge larvae), Nais elinguis (annelid), and Duttaphrynus melanostictus (tadpole) to determine 96 h LC50 values for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn. The final acute value (FAV) for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn were 74.5, 17.0, 165, and 304.9??g L?1, respectively. Using an estimated acute-to-chronic ratio (ACR) of 8.3, the value for final chronic value (FCV) was derived. Based on FAV and FCV, a criterion maximum concentration (CMC) and a criterion continuous concentration (CCC) for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn that are 37.2, 8.5, 82.5, and 152.4??g?L?1 and 9.0, 2.0, 19.9, and 36.7??g?L?1, respectively, were derived. The results of this study provide useful data for deriving national or local water quality criteria for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn based on aquatic biota in Malaysia. Based on LC50 values, this study indicated that N. elinguis, M. lanchesteri, N. elinguis, and R. sumatrana were the most sensitive to Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn, respectively. PMID:22919358

Shuhaimi-Othman, M.; Nadzifah, Y.; Nur-Amalina, R.; Umirah, N. S.

2012-01-01

298

Sludge-Grown Algae for Culturing Aquatic Organisms: Part II. Sludge-Grown Algae as Feeds for Aquatic Organisms  

PubMed

This project investigated the feasibility of using sewage sludge to culture microalgae (Chlorella-HKBU) and their subsequent usage as feeds for rearing different organisms. Part II of the project evaluated the results of applying the sludge-grown algae to feed Oreochromis mossambicus (fish), Macrobrachium hainenese (shrimp), and Moina macrocopa (cladocera). In general, the yields of the cultivated organisms were unsatisfactory when they were fed the sludge-grown algae directly. The body weights of O. mossambicus and M. macrocopa dropped 21% and 37%, respectively, although there was a slight increase (4.4%) in M. hainenese. However, when feeding the algal-fed cladocerans to fish and shrimp, the body weights of the fish and shrimp were increased 7% and 11% accordingly. Protein contents of the cultivated organisms were comparable to the control diet, although they contained a rather high amount of heavy metals. When comparing absolute heavy metal contents in the cultivated organisms, the following order was observed: alga > cladocera > shrimp, fish > sludge extracts. Bioelimination of heavy metals may account for the decreasing heavy metal concentrations in higher trophic organisms. PMID:8661608

Wong; Hung; Chiu

1996-05-01

299

Sludge-grown algae for culturing aquatic organisms: Part II. Sludge-grown algae as feeds for aquatic organisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This project investigated the feasibility of using sewage sludge to culture microalgae ( Chlorella-HKBU) and their subsequent usage as feeds for rearing different organisms. Part II of the project evaluated the results of applying the sludge-grown algae to feed Oreochromis mossambicus (fish), Macrobrachium hainenese (shrimp), and Moina macrocopa (cladocera). In general, the yields of the cultivated organisms were unsatisfactory when they were fed the sludge-grown algae directly. The body weights of O. mossambicus and M. macrocopa dropped 21% and 37%, respectively, although there was a slight increase (4.4%) in M. hainenese. However, when feeding the algal-fed cladocerans to fish and shrimp, the body weights of the fish and shrimp were increased 7% and 11% accordingly. Protein contents of the cultivated organisms were comparable to the control diet, although they contained a rather high amount of heavy metals. When comparing absolute heavy metal contents in the cultivated organisms, the following order was observed: alga > cladocera > shrimp, fish > sludge extracts. Bioelimination of heavy metals may account for the decreasing heavy metal concentrations in higher trophic organisms.

Wong, M. H.; Hung, K. M.; Chiu, S. T.

1996-05-01

300

Molecular characterization of the virulent microorganisms along with their drug-resistance traits associated with the export quality frozen shrimps in Bangladesh.  

PubMed

Current investigation characterized export quality shrimp samples in terms of pathogenic load along with the drug-resistance traits of the isolates, and detected the major virulent genes present in those isolates. Among the 30 such shrimp samples (15 each of Macrobrachium rosenbergi or Golda and Penaeus monodon or Bagda) studied, almost all were found to be contaminated with a huge load of bacteria (10(6)-10(8) cfu/g) and fungi (10(4)-10(5) cfu/g). Among the specific pathogens, presence of Escherichia coli, Vibrio spp., Aeromonas spp., Klebsiella spp., Shigella spp., Staphylococcus spp. and Listeria spp. were detected, of which most were likely to be resistant against commonly used antibiotics. Gene specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) study revealed the presence of eae gene in E. coli, aero specific gene in Aeromonas spp., and sodB gene in Vibrio spp. Together with the huge extent of microbial contamination with a drug-resistance attribute, presence of such virulent genes further projects the probable public health risk upon consumption of the export quality shrimps. PMID:25197622

Noor, Rashed; Hasan, Md Faqrul; Rahman, M Majibur

2014-01-01

301

Geographical variation in allometry in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata).  

PubMed

Variation in static allometry, the power relationship between character size and body size among individuals at similar developmental stages, remains poorly understood. We tested whether predation or other ecological factors could affect static allometry by comparing the allometry between the caudal fin length and the body length in adult male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) among populations from different geographical areas, exposed to different predation pressures. Neither the allometric slopes nor the allometric elevations (intercept at constant slope) changed with predation pressure. However, populations from the Northern Range in Trinidad showed allometry with similar slopes but lower intercepts than populations from the Caroni and the Oropouche drainages. Because most of these populations are exposed to predation by the prawn Macrobrachium crenulatum, we speculated that the specific selection pressures exerted by this predator generated this change in relative caudal fin size, although effects of other environmental factors could not be ruled out. This study further suggests that the allometric elevation is more variable than the allometric slope. PMID:21955207

Egset, C K; Bolstad, G H; Rosenqvist, G; Endler, J A; Pélabon, C

2011-12-01

302

Convergence of life-history phenotypes in a Trinidadian killifish (Rivulus hartii).  

PubMed

Convergent evolution is characterized by the independent evolution of similar phenotypes within similar selective environments. Previous work on Trinidadian killifish, Rivulus hartii, demonstrated repeatable life-history differences across communities that differ in predation intensity. These studies were performed in rivers located on the south slope of Trinidad's Northern Range Mountains. There exists a parallel series of rivers on the north slope of these mountains. As on the south slope, Rivulus is found across a gradient of fish predation. However, the predatory fish species in north-slope rivers are derived from marine families, whereas south-slope rivers contain a predatory fish fauna characteristic of the South American mainland. If predator-induced mortality and the associated indirect effects are the causal factors selecting for life-history patterns in Rivulus, and these are similar in north- and south-slope rivers, then the specific predatory species should be interchangeable and we would expect convergence of life-history phenotypes across slopes. Here, we characterize the life-history phenotypes of Rivulus from north-slope communities by measuring number of eggs, egg weight, reproductive allotment, reproductive tissue weight, and size at maturity. We find similar patterns of life-history divergence across analogous predator communities. Between slopes, minor differences in Rivulus life-history traits exist and one potential cause of these differences is the abundance of Macrobrachium prawns in north-slope rivers. PMID:22486701

Furness, Andrew I; Walsh, Matthew R; Reznick, David N

2012-04-01

303

Photobacterium panuliri sp. nov., an Alkalitolerant Marine Bacterium Isolated from Eggs of Spiny Lobster, Panulirus penicillatus from Andaman Sea.  

PubMed

A facultative anaerobe, alkalitolerant, gram-negative marine bacterium strain LBS5(T), was isolated from eggs carried on the pleopods of female spiny lobster (Panulirus penicillatus) in Andaman Sea from a depth of 3.5 m. Heterotrophic growth was observed at 15-38 °C and pH 5.5-11. Optimum growth occurred at 28 °C and pH 7.5. It can grow in the presence of 0.5-7 % NaCl (w/v), and the optimal NaCl required for growth was 2-4 %. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed the strain LBS5(T) belongs to the genus Photobacterium and showed 99.6 % similarity with P. aquae AE6(T), 98.2 % with P. aphoticum M46(T), 97 % with P. rosenbergii CC1(T), 96.9 % with P. lutimaris DF-42(T), and 96.6 % with P. halotolerans MACL01(T). The DNA-DNA similarities between strains LBS5(T) with other closely related strains were well below 70 %. The DNA G + C content was 50.52 (±0.9) mol%. The major fatty acids were C16:1w7c/w6c, C18:1w6c/w7c, C16:0, C15:0 iso, C16:0 10-methyl/17:1 iso w9c, C17:0 iso. Polar lipids included a phosphatidylglycerol, a diphosphatidylglycerol, a phosphatidylethanolamine, and one unidentified lipid. Based on the polyphasic evidences, strain LBS5(T) represents a novel species of the genus Photobacterium for which Photobacterium panuliri sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LBS5(T) (=DSM 27646(T) = LMG 27617(T) = JCM 19199(T)). PMID:24962598

Deep, Kamal; Poddar, Abhijit; Das, Subrata K

2014-11-01

304

Movement of carbon among estuarine habitats and its assimilation by invertebrates.  

PubMed

We measured the extent of movement of carbon and its assimilation by invertebrates among estuarine habitats by analysing carbon stable isotopes of invertebrates collected along transects crossing the boundary of two habitats. The habitats were dominated by autotrophs with distinct isotope values: (1) mudflats containing benthic microalgae (mean -22.6, SE 0.6 per thousand) and (2) seagrass and its associated epiphytic algae (similar values, pooled mean -9.8, 0.5 per thousand). Three species of invertebrates were analysed: a palaemonid shrimp, Macrobrachium intermedium, and two polychaete worms, Nephtys australiensis and Australonereis ehlersi. All species had a similar narrow range of isotope values (-9 to -14 per thousand), and showed no statistically significant relationship between position along transect and isotope values. Animals were relying on carbon from seagrass meadows whether they were in seagrass or on mudflats hundreds of metres away. Particulate organic matter collected from superficial sediments along the transects had similar values to animals (mean -11.1, SE 1.3 per thousand) and also showed no significant relationship with position. The isotope values of these relatively immobile invertebrates and the particulate detritus suggest that carbon moves from subtidal seagrass meadows to mudflats as particulate matter and is assimilated by invertebrates. This assimilation might be direct in the case of the detritivorous worm, A. ehlersi, but must be via invertebrate prey in the case of the carnivorous worm, N. australiensis and the scavenging shrimp, M. intermedium. The extent of movement of carbon among habitats, especially towards shallower habitats, is surprising since in theory, carbon is more likely to move offshore in situations such as the current study where habitats are in relatively open, unprotected waters. PMID:16001216

Connolly, Rod M; Gorman, Daniel; Guest, Michaela A

2005-08-01

305

Distribution and bioaccumulation of microcystins in water columns: a systematic investigation into the environmental fate and the risks associated with microcystins in Meiliang Bay, Lake Taihu.  

PubMed

For the purpose of understanding the environmental fate of microcystins (MCs) and the potential health risks caused by toxic cyanobacterial blooms in Lake Taihu, a systematic investigation was carried out from February 2005 to January 2006. The distribution of MCs in the water column, and toxin bioaccumulations in aquatic organisms were surveyed. The results suggested that Lake Taihu is heavily polluted during summer months by toxic cyanobacterial blooms (with a maximum biovolume of 6.7 x 10(8)cells/L) and MCs. The maximum concentration of cell-bound toxins was 1.81 mg/g (DW) and the dissolved MCs reached a maximum level of 6.69 microg/L. Dissolved MCs were always found in the entire water column at all sampling sites throughout the year. Our results emphasized the need for tracking MCs not only in the entire water column but also at the interface between water and sediment. Seasonal changes of MC concentrations in four species of hydrophytes (Eichhornic crassipes, Potamogeton maackianus, Alternanthera philoxeroides and Myriophyllum spicatum) ranged from 129 to 1317, 147 to 1534, 169 to 3945 and 124 to 956 ng/g (DW), respectively. Toxin accumulations in four aquatic species (Carassius auratus auratu, Macrobrachium nipponensis, Bellamya aeruginosa and Cristaria plicata) were also analyzed. Maximum toxin concentrations in the edible organs and non-edible visceral organs ranged from 378 to 730 and 754 to 3629 ng/g (DW), respectively. Based on field studies in Lake Taihu, risk assessments were carried out, taking into account the WHO guidelines and the tolerable daily intake (TDI) for MCs. Our findings suggest that the third largest lake in China poses serious health threats when serving as a source of drinking water and for recreational use. In addition, it is likely to be unsafe to consume aquatic species harvested in Lake Taihu due to the high-concentrations of accumulated MCs. PMID:17537477

Song, Lirong; Chen, Wei; Peng, Liang; Wan, Neng; Gan, Nanqin; Zhang, Xiaoming

2007-07-01

306

Resistance to the crayfish plague pathogen, Aphanomyces astaci, in two freshwater shrimps.  

PubMed

Aphanomyces astaci, the causal agent of the crayfish plague, has recently been confirmed to infect also freshwater-inhabiting crabs. We experimentally tested the resistance of freshwater shrimps, another important decapod group inhabiting freshwaters, to this pathogen. We exposed individuals of two Asian shrimp species, Macrobrachium dayanum and Neocaridina davidi, to zoospores of the pathogen strain isolated from Procambarus clarkii, a known A. astaci carrier likely to get into contact with shrimps. The shrimps were kept in separate vessels up to seven weeks; exuviae and randomly chosen individuals were sampled throughout the experiment. Shrimp bodies and exuviae were tested for A. astaci presence by a species-specific quantitative PCR. The results were compared with amounts of A. astaci DNA in an inert substrate to distinguish potential pathogen growth in live specimens from persisting spores or environmental DNA attached to their surface. In contrast to susceptible crayfish Astacus astacus, we did not observe mortality of shrimps. The amount of detected pathogen DNA was decreasing steadily in the inert substrate, but it was still detectable several weeks after zoospore addition, which should be considered in studies relying on molecular detection of A. astaci. Probably due to moulting, the amount of A. astaci DNA was decreasing in N. davidi even faster than in the inert substrate. In contrast, high pathogen DNA levels were detected in some non-moulting individuals of M. dayanum, suggesting that A. astaci growth may be possible in tissues of this species. Further experiments are needed to test for the potential of long-term A. astaci persistence in freshwater shrimp populations. PMID:25064254

Svoboda, J; Mruga?a, A; Kozubíková-Balcarová, E; Kouba, A; Diéguez-Uribeondo, J; Petrusek, A

2014-09-01

307

Fish tissue quality in the lower Mississippi River and health risks from fish consumption.  

PubMed

Between 1990 and 1994, samples of three shellfish species (i.e. blue crab, Callinectes sapidus;crayfish, Procambarus acutis; and river shrimp, Macrobrachium ohionii) and 16 fish species and were collected at six sites along the lower Mississippi River by the Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality, Office of Water Resources in coordination with the US Environmental Protection Agency. The fish species included: bigmouth buffalo (Ictiobus cyanellus); blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus); carp (Cyprinus carpio); channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus); cobia (Rachycentron canadum); flathead catfish (Pylodictis olivaris); freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens); largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides); long nose gar (Lepisosteus osseus); red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus); red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus); smallmouth buffalo (Ictiobus bubalus); spotted gar (Lepisosteus oculatus); striped bass (Morone saxatilis); white bass (Morone chrysops); and white crappie (Pomoxis annularis). Organic compound and heavy metal concentrations were measured in 161 composite fish tissue samples where each composite included three to 10 individual fish. Nineteen chemicals, found at measurable levels in sample tissues, were used in calculations of lifetime excess cancer and non-cancer risks due to fish consumption. We calculated: 574 chemical-specific cancer risks; 41 total cancer risks; and 697 margins of exposure based on a consumption rate of one 8-ounce meal per week (0.032 kg/day), a body weight of 70 kg and reported cancer potency factors and reference doses. We identified nine species of concern (blue catfish, carp, channel catfish, cobia, crayfish, flathead catfish, red drum, spotted gar and striped bass) based on total cancer risk greater than 10(-4) or margin of exposure greater than 1, and whether or not samples collected in subsequent years resulted in lower risks. The compounds primarily responsible for the elevated risks were aldrin, dieldrin, alpha-benzene hexachloride, gamma-benzene hexachloride, heptachlor epoxide, arsenic and mercury. PMID:12526903

Watanabe, Karen H; Desimone, Frank W; Thiyagarajah, Arunthavarani; Hartley, William R; Hindrichs, Albert E

2003-01-20