Sample records for macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus

  1. RNA-binding region of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus capsid protein.

    PubMed

    Goh, Zee Hong; Mohd, Nur Azmina Syakirin; Tan, Soon Guan; Bhassu, Subha; Tan, Wen Siang

    2014-09-01

    White tail disease (WTD) kills prawn larvae and causes drastic losses to the freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) industry. The main causative agent of WTD is Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV). The N-terminal end of the MrNV capsid protein is very rich in positively charged amino acids and is postulated to interact with RNA molecules. N-terminal and internal deletion mutagenesis revealed that the RNA-binding region is located at positions 20-29, where 80?% of amino acids are positively charged. Substitution of all these positively charged residues with alanine abolished the RNA binding. Mutants without the RNA-binding region still assembled into virus-like particles, suggesting that this region is not a part of the capsid assembly domain. This paper is, to the best of our knowledge, the first to report the specific RNA-binding region of MrNV capsid protein. PMID:24878641

  2. Development of chitosan conjugated DNA vaccine against nodavirus in Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1879).

    PubMed

    Ramya, V L; Sharma, R; Gireesh-Babu, P; Patchala, S R; Rather, A; Nandanpawar, P C; Eswaran, S

    2014-09-01

    The protective efficacy of a DNA construct containing extra small virus antisense (XSVAS) gene of nodavirus encapsulated with chitosan nanoparticles (NPs) was investigated in giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1879). The delivery was carried out using oral and immersion methods. A plasmid concentration of 100 ng ?L(-1) when conjugated with chitosan NPs was found to be more effective in increasing the survivability of the infected prawn. The particle mean size, zeta potential and loading efficiency percentage were 297 nm, 27 mV and 85%, respectively. The ability of the chitosan to form a complex with the plasmid was studied by agarose gel electrophoresis. The NPs were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Persistence study showed the presence of the DNA construct up to 30th day post-treatment. The oral treatment was found to be better than the immersion treatment for delivery of the chitosan-conjugated DNA construct. This is probably the first report on the delivery of nanoconjugated DNA construct in M. rosenbergii, against nodavirus. PMID:24117511

  3. [Rapid detection of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus isolated in China by a reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay combined with a lateral flow dipstick method].

    PubMed

    Lin, Feng; Liu, Li; Hao, Gui-Jie; Cao, Zheng; Sheng, Peng-Cheng; Wu, Ying-Lei; Shen, Jin-Yu

    2014-09-01

    White coloration of the muscle of the giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) is a serious problem in China. The Macrobrachium rosenbergii Nodavirus (MrNV) has been confirmed to be the pathogen that causes this disorder. To develop a rapid, sensitive and specific technology for the detection of Macrobrachium rosenbergii Nodavirus isolated from China (MrNV-China), a reverse-transcription loop- mediated isothermal amplification assay combined with a lateral flow dipstick (RT-LAMP-LFD) assay method is described. A set of four primers and a labeled probe were designed specifically to recognize six distinct regions of the MrNV RNA2 gene. Results showed the sensitivity of the RT-LAMP-LFD assay was ten-times higher than the reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay (RT-LAMP) with agarose gel electrophoresis. The assay was conducted with one-step amplification at 61°C in a single tube within 45 min. No product was generated from shrimps infected with other viruses, including DNA viruses (infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV); white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)) and RNA viruses (Taura syndrome virus (TSV); infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV); yellow head virus (YHV)). Results were visualized by the LFD method. Therefore, the described rapid and sensitive assay is potentially useful for MrNV detection. PMID:25562958

  4. Production of recombinant capsid protein of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (r-MCP43) of giant freshwater prawn, M. rosenbergii (de Man) for immunological diagnostic methods.

    PubMed

    Farook, M A; Madan, N; Taju, G; Majeed, S Abdul; Nambi, K S N; Raj, N Sundar; Vimal, S; Hameed, A S Sahul

    2014-08-01

    White tail disease (WTD) caused by Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV) is a serious problem in prawn hatcheries. The gene for capsid protein of MrNV (MCP43) was cloned into pRSET B expression vector. The MCP43 protein was expressed as a protein with a 6-histidine tag in Escherichia coli GJ1158 with NaCl induction. This recombinant protein, which was used to raise the antiserum in rabbits, recognized capsid protein in different WTD-infected post-larvae and adult prawn. Various immunological methods such as Western blot, dot blot and ELISA techniques were employed to detect MrNV in infected samples using the antiserum raised against recombinant MCP43 of MrNV. The dot blot assay using anti-rMCP43 was found to be capable of detecting MrNV in WTD-infected post-larvae as early as at 24 h post-infection. The antiserum raised against r-MCP43 could detect the MrNV in the infected samples at the level of 100 pg of total protein. The capsid protein of MrNV estimated by ELISA using anti-rMCP43 and pure r-MCP43 as a standard was found to increase gradually during the course of infection from 24 h p.i. to moribund stage. The results of immunological diagnostic methods employed in this study were compared with that of RT-PCR to test the efficiency of antiserum raised against r-MCP43 for the detection of MrNV. The Western blot, dot blot and ELISA detected all MrNV-positive coded samples as detected by RT-PCR. PMID:23952017

  5. Toxicity of rotenone to giant river freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquaculturists have often suffered predation losses in the production of freshwater giant river prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii due to the presence of wild fish species in culture ponds. The piscicide rotenone is widely used to remove undesirable fish species from ponds. Although evidence in the t...

  6. Tolerance of Macrobrachium rosenbergii to white spot syndrome virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S Sahul Hameed; M. Xavier Charles; M Anilkumar

    2000-01-01

    The susceptibility of Macrobrachium idella, M. lamerrae and M. rosenbergii to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was tested by immersion challenge, oral route and intramuscular injection. Their susceptibility to WSSV was compared with that of Penaeus indicus and P. monodon. The WSSV caused 43.3% and 53.3% mortality in M. lamerrae and M. idella, respectively, by immersion method and 53.3% and

  7. Optimisation of reverse transcriptase loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid detection of Macrobrachium rosenbergii noda virus and extra small virus in Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Divya V. Haridas; Devika Pillai; B. Manojkumar; C. Mohanakumaran Nair; P. M. Sherief

    2010-01-01

    The standardisation and optimisation of a one step single tube reverse transcriptase loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) procedure is described for rapid diagnosis of white tail disease, a viral disease caused by Macrobrachium rosenbergii noda virus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV), in giant fresh water prawn, M. rosenbergii. Time, temperature and quantity of each reagent were optimised for the detection

  8. Feasibility of direct utilization of selected geothermal water for aquaculture of macrobrachium rosenbergii. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Spinosa, C.

    1984-05-01

    The feasibility was tested of direct utilization of geothermal water for the aquaculture of Malaysian freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). A problem with using geothermal water for aquaculture is the chemical composition of the water with high flouride levels being a particular problem. Results show that (1) some geothermal water in Idaho can be used directly for the aquaculture of Macrobrachium rosenbergii, (2) high flouride levels cannot be directly correlated with high mortality rates and (3) low flouride levels do not correlate with high growth rates.

  9. Effects of Handling Methods on Quality Changes of Giant Freshwater Prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Punchira Vongsawasdi; Athapol Noomhorm

    2000-01-01

    Prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) were subjected to conditions, which simulated domestic and export handling practices. Prawns were mixed with crushed ice to maintain the prawn samples temperature at 0°C and were stored at room temperature (25 ±2°C) for 48 hr for the domestic handling trial, while for export handling, the samples were kept in a cold room at (0 ±1°C) for

  10. Bacterial agglutination by the sialic acid specific serum lectin from Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lorena Vazquez; Laura Jaramillo; Ricardo Lascurain; Edwin L. Cooper; Patricia Rosas; Edgar Zenteno

    1996-01-01

    We have isolated a serum lectin from the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii that agglutinates Bacillus cereus and Aeromona sp. This lectin also agglutinates other bacteria such as Pasteurella haemolytica biotype A (capsular serotype 12), several serotypes from P. multocida and Staphylococcus aureus and to a lesser extent Escherichia coli and Salmonella arizona.Lectin recognition of well known polysaccharide components seems to

  11. Routine Metabolic Rate and Limiting Oxygen Concentration of Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii Larvae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Malaysian prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, are hatched and raised indoors in small tanks. Prawns may be raised and shipped at high densities which could result in low dissolved oxygen (DO) conditions. Because DO may play an important role in prawn development and survival, we measured routine me...

  12. Development of cell culture system from the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mukunda Goswami; Wazir S. Lakra; T. Rajaswaminathan; Gourav Rathore

    2010-01-01

    A new cell culture system (MRH) was developed for the first time from 2 months old freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Primary cultures were developed from heart tissues by explant culture technique. Cell outgrowth was obtained from the heart\\u000a explant after 14 days of explant culture. The culture medium used was Leibovitz-15 supplemented with 20% Fetal Bovine Serum\\u000a along with 1% prawn hemolymph

  13. Quantification of lectin in freshwater prawn ( Macrobrachium rosenbergii) hemolymph by ELISA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Concepción Agundis; Ali Pereyra; Roberto Zenteno; Colette Brassart; Claudia Sierra; Lorena Vazquez; Edgar Zenteno

    2000-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay was developed to quantify the lectin present in the hemolymph of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. This method involves the use of murine monoclonal IgG1 with ? light chain (designated as 3G1) antibodies raised against the purified lectin, the assay that we developed recognized as little as 30 ng\\/ml of lectin, and was used to measure

  14. Transcriptomics of a Giant Freshwater Prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii): De Novo Assembly, Annotation and Marker Discovery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyungtaek Jung; Russell E. Lyons; Hung Dinh; David A. Hurwood; Sean McWilliam; Peter B. Mather

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundGiant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii or GFP), is the most economically important freshwater crustacean species. However, as little is known about its genome, 454 pyrosequencing of cDNA was undertaken to characterise its transcriptome and identify genes important for growth.Methodology and Principal FindingsA collection of 787,731 sequence reads (244.37 Mb) obtained from 454 pyrosequencing analysis of cDNA prepared from muscle, ovary

  15. Effects of anthraquinones extracted from Rheum officinale Bail on the growth, non-specific immune response of Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bo Liu; Xianping Ge; Yanhui He; Jun Xie; Pao Xu; Yijin He; Qunlan Zhou; Liangkun Pan; Ruli Chen

    2010-01-01

    The effects of anthraquinone extracted from Rheum officinale Bail on growth, some non-specific immunite parameters, and disease resistance of Macrobrachium rosenbergii were studied in this experiment. M. rosenbergii were randomly divided into five groups: a control group was fed with basal diet, and four treated groups fed with basal diet supplemented with 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.4% anthraquinone extract for

  16. The microbial flora of pond-reared shrimp (Penaeus stylirostris, P. setiferus, P. vannamei, and Macrobrachium rosenbergii)

    E-print Network

    Christopher, Frank Mitchell

    1976-01-01

    THE MICROBIAL FLORA OF POND-REARED SHRIMP (PENAEUS STYLIROSTRIS, P. SETIFERUS, P. VANNAMEI, AND MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERQII) A Thesis Frank Mitchell Christopher Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1976 Major Subjectc Microbiology THE MICROBIAL FLORA OF POND-REARED SHRIMP ( PENAEUS STYLI ROSTR I S P SET I FERUS ~ P VANNAME I y AND MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERGII ) A Thesis Frank Mitchell...

  17. Grooming as a secondary behavior in the shrimp Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Crustacea, Decapoda, Caridea)

    PubMed Central

    VanMaurik, Lauren N.; Wortham, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is a large shrimp extensively used in aquaculture whose grooming behaviors were analyzed in this study. Macrobrachium rosenbergii exhibits three unique male morphotypes that differ in their behavior, morphology and physiology: small-clawed males (SM), orange-clawed males (OC) and blue-clawed males (BC). The largest and most dominant males, BC males, are predicted to have significantly different grooming behaviors compared to females and the other two male morphotypes. These BC males may be too large and bulky to efficiently groom and may dedicate more time to mating and agonistic interactions than grooming behaviors. Observations were conducted to look at the prevalence of grooming behaviors in the absence and presence of conspecifics and to determine if any differences in grooming behavior exist among the sexes and male morphotypes. Significant differences in the grooming behaviors of all individuals (females and male morphotypes) were found. BC males tended to have the highest grooming time budget (percent of time spent grooming) while SM males had a relatively low grooming time budget. The grooming behaviors of the male morphotypes differed, indicating while these males play distinct, separate roles in the social hierarchy, they also have different grooming priorities. The conditions in which Macrobrachium rosenbergii are cultured may result in increased body fouling, which may vary, depending on the grooming efficiencies and priorities of these male morphotypes. Overall, grooming behaviors were found to be a secondary behavior which only occurred when primary behaviors such as mating, feeding or fighting were not present. PMID:25561831

  18. Cloning and expression analysis of an anti-lipopolysaccharide factor from giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Ren, Qian; Du, Zhi-Qiang; Li, Meng; Zhang, Chi-Yu; Chen, Ke-Ping

    2012-07-01

    Anti-lipopolysaccharide factors (ALFs) are a group of effector molecules that are classified as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). They are found in limulids and crustaceans and show a broad range of antimicrobial activity. In the current study, an ALF gene from Macrobrachium rosenbergii (MrALF) was identified. Its full length was 690 bp and it encoded a 124 amino acid protein. A signal peptide and a conserved LPS-binding domain with two conserved cysteine residues that comprise a cluster of positive charged residues within a disulfide loop were predicted in MrALF. The M. rosenbergii ALF clusters with the Macrobrachium olfersii ALF and further clusters with most crustacean ALFs, suggesting that they should originate from one common ancestor. Positive selections should have sharpen the evolution of M. rosenbergii and M. olfersii ALF genes. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that MrALF was expressed in all detected tissues. In the epidermis, MrALF was obviously upregulated 24 h after the LPS challenge. In the stomach and gills, MrALF was upregulated upon LPS challenge. The results show that MrALF might have important roles in the immune defense against invading bacteria. The positive selections that occur in the ALFs of crustaceans might have resulted from a Red Queen's race with its pathogens. We found evidence of positive selection acting to drive functional divergence during the evolution crustacean ALF genes, especially in the M. rosenbergii ALF gene. The evolutionary changes might correspond to the challenges induced by pathogens that infect crustaceans. PMID:22350161

  19. Nitrogenous excretion in Macrobrachium rosenbergii at different pH levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiann-Chu Chen; Chu-Tau Kou

    1996-01-01

    Macrobrachium rosenbergii (31.1 ± 1.9 g) were maintained individually in freshwater with pH levels of 4.15, 5.55, 7.10, 8.61 and 10.15 for 7 days, and then nitrogenous excretions from each animal for one day were measured. Ammonia-N excretion (?g g?1 h?1) and total nitrogen excretion (?g g?1 h?1) decreased with increased pH level, whereas urea-N excretion (?g g?1 h?1), nitrite-N

  20. Genetic diversity of cultured and wild populations of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii based on microsatellite analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii culture in the Western Hemisphere is primarily, if not entirely, based on thirty-six individual prawn introduced to Hawaii from Malaysia in 1965 and 1966. Little information is available regarding the genetic background or current population status of cult...

  1. TBT Effects on the Development of Intersex (Ovotestis) in Female Fresh Water Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    PubMed Central

    Peranandam, Revathi; Palanisamy, Iyapparaj; Lourdaraj, Arockia Vasanthi; Natesan, Munuswamy; Vimalananthan, Arun Prasanna; Thangaiyan, Suganya; Perumal, Anantharaman; Muthukalingan, Krishnan

    2014-01-01

    The impact of tributyltin (TBT) on the female gonad and the endocrine system in Macrobrachium rosenbergii was studied. Prawns were exposed to environmentally realistic concentrations of 10, 100, and 1000?ng/L of TBT for 6 months. Dose dependent effects were noticed in TBT exposed prawns. At 1000?ng/L TBT caused ovotestis formation (formation of male germ cells in ovary). Presence immature oocytes, fusion of developing oocytes, increase in interstitial connective tissues, and its modification into tubular like structure and abundance of spermatogonia in the ovary of TBT treated prawns. The control prawn ovary showed normal architecture of cellular organelles such as mature oocytes with type 2 yolk globules, lipid droplets, normal appearance of yolk envelop, and uniformly arranged microvilli. On the other hand, type 1 yolk globules, reduced size of microvilli, spermatogonial cells in ovary, spermatogonia with centrally located nucleus, and chromatin distribution throughout the nucleoplasm were present in the TBT treated group. Immunofluorescence staining indicated a reduction in vitellin content in ovary of TBT treated prawn. Moreover, TBT had inhibited the vitellogenesis by causing hormonal imbalance in M. rosenbergii. Thus, the present investigation demonstrates that TBT substantially affects sexual differentiation and gonadal development in M. rosenbergii. PMID:25121096

  2. Identification and function of 11 Rab GTPases in giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Ren, Qian

    2015-03-01

    Rab GTPases, members of the Ras-like GTPase superfamily, are central elements in endocytic membrane trafficking. However, little is known of the Rab genes in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. In this study, 11 Rab genes were identified from M. rosenbergii. All MrRabs have a RAB domain. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these 11 MrRabs were divided into different groups. The MrRab genes were ubiquitously expressed in heart, hemocytes, hepatopancreas, gills, stomach, and intestines. Real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed that the MrRab genes were significantly upregulated by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in the prawns, indicating that MrRabs might play an important role in innate immune response against WSSV. Moreover, after challenge with Vibrio parahaemolyticus, the expression levels of all MrRabs in the hepatopancreas were also upregulated, which might indicated the involvement of MrRabs in prawns antibacterial immunity. In all, these preliminary results showed that MrRabs were involved in innate immunity of M. rosenbergii. PMID:25542378

  3. TBT effects on the development of intersex (ovotestis) in female fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Peranandam, Revathi; Palanisamy, Iyapparaj; Lourdaraj, Arockia Vasanthi; Natesan, Munuswamy; Vimalananthan, Arun Prasanna; Thangaiyan, Suganya; Perumal, Anantharaman; Muthukalingan, Krishnan

    2014-01-01

    The impact of tributyltin (TBT) on the female gonad and the endocrine system in Macrobrachium rosenbergii was studied. Prawns were exposed to environmentally realistic concentrations of 10, 100, and 1000?ng/L of TBT for 6 months. Dose dependent effects were noticed in TBT exposed prawns. At 1000?ng/L TBT caused ovotestis formation (formation of male germ cells in ovary). Presence immature oocytes, fusion of developing oocytes, increase in interstitial connective tissues, and its modification into tubular like structure and abundance of spermatogonia in the ovary of TBT treated prawns. The control prawn ovary showed normal architecture of cellular organelles such as mature oocytes with type 2 yolk globules, lipid droplets, normal appearance of yolk envelop, and uniformly arranged microvilli. On the other hand, type 1 yolk globules, reduced size of microvilli, spermatogonial cells in ovary, spermatogonia with centrally located nucleus, and chromatin distribution throughout the nucleoplasm were present in the TBT treated group. Immunofluorescence staining indicated a reduction in vitellin content in ovary of TBT treated prawn. Moreover, TBT had inhibited the vitellogenesis by causing hormonal imbalance in M. rosenbergii. Thus, the present investigation demonstrates that TBT substantially affects sexual differentiation and gonadal development in M. rosenbergii. PMID:25121096

  4. First report on vertical transmission of a plasmid DNA in freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Labrechai Mog; Gireesh-Babu, P; Pavan-Kumar, A; Suresh Babu, P P; Chaudhari, Aparna

    2014-09-01

    Outbreak of WSSV disease is one of the major stumbling blocks in shrimp aquaculture. DNA vaccines have shown potential for mass scale vaccination owing to their stability, cost effectiveness and easy maintenance. Development of economically feasible delivery strategies remains to be a major challenge. This study demonstrates vertical transmission of a plasmid DNA in a decapod Macrobrachium rosenbergii for the first time. Females at three different maturation stages (immature, matured and berried) and mature males were injected with a plasmid DNA and allowed to spawn with untreated counterparts. Using specific primers the plasmid DNA could be amplified from the offspring of all groups except that of berried females. For this confirmation genomic DNA was isolated from 3 pools of 10 post larvae in each group. This presents an ideal strategy to protect young ones at zero stress. PMID:24933022

  5. First report on interferon related developmental regulator-1 from Macrobrachium rosenbergii: bioinformatic analysis and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Arockiaraj, Jesu; Easwvaran, Sarasvathi; Vanaraja, Puganeshwaran; Singh, Arun; Othman, Rofina Yasmin; Bhassu, Subha

    2012-05-01

    This study reports the first full length gene of interferon related developmental regulator-1 (designated as MrIRDR-1), identified from the transcriptome of Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The complete gene sequence of the MrIRDR-1 is 2459 base pair long with an open reading frame of 1308 base pairs and encoding a predicted protein of 436 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 48 kDa. The MrIRDR-1 protein contains a long interferon related developmental regulator super family domain between 30 and 330. The mRNA expressions of MrIRDR-1 in healthy and the infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) infected M. rosenbergii were examined using qRT-PCR. The MrIRDR-1 is highly expressed in hepatopancreas along with all other tissues (walking leg, gills, muscle, haemocyte, pleopods, brain, stomach, intestine and eye stalk). After IHHNV infection, the expression is highly upregulated in hepatopancreas. This result indicates an important role of MrIRDR-1 in prawn defense system. PMID:22361112

  6. Toxicity of phenol on Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) eggs, larvae, and post-larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Law, A.T.; Yeo, M.E. [Universiti Kolej Terengganu (UPM), Darul Iman (Malaysia)] [Universiti Kolej Terengganu (UPM), Darul Iman (Malaysia)

    1997-03-01

    Literature on the toxicities of phenol on aquatic organisms is very limited. USEPA reported that the acute and chronic toxicities of phenol to freshwater aquatic life occur at concentrations as low as 10.2 mg/L and 2.56 mg/L, respectively. While for the saltwater aquatic life the acute toxicity occurs at concentrations as low as 5.8 mg/L. No data are available for the chronic toxicity of phenol to saltwater aquatic life. Sublethal concentrations of phenol have significant effects on the physiological and histological processes of the aquatic organisms: such as gill necrosis; destruction of erythrocyte cells; inhibition of sexual activities; suppression on growth and reduction of resistance to diseases. Macrobrachium rosenbergii(de Man) is the sole freshwater prawn cultured in Malaysia. Occasionally, the hatcheries are unable to produce the post-larvae because of undefined pollutants present in the water supplies. It has been observed that the use of cracked fiberglass tanks for larvae rearing is correlated with high mortality. This high mortality is probably due to the toxicity of the phenolic compounds which are leached out from the fiber glass tank into the water. This study was undertaken to evaluate the toxicity of phenol on eggs, larvae and post-larvae of M. rosenbergii and to set the water quality criteria of phenol for the said species. 16 refs., 3 tabs.

  7. Performance of Giant Freshwater Prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man) Reared in Earthen Ponds Beneath Plastic Film Shelters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Niwooti Whangchai

    This study investigated the effects of using plastic film shelters on the survival, growth and production cost of giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). Three ponds were covered with plastic shelters, whilst three other were left unsheltered as controls. The surface area of all ponds was 100 square meters (6x16.7),with a water depth of 1.0 meter. Post larvae (0.012 g. mean

  8. Dopamine depresses the immune ability and increases susceptibility to Lactococcus garvieae in the freshwater giant prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian-Tong Li; Pai-Po Lee; Ou-Chuan Chen; Winton Cheng; Ching-Ming Kuo

    2005-01-01

    The total haemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase activity, respiratory burst (release of superoxide anion), superoxide dismutase activity, and phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency to the pathogen Lactococcus garvieae were measured when freshwater giant prawns Macrobrachium rosenbergii (16.2±2.1 g) were individually injected with saline, or dopamine at 0.5, 5.0, or 50.0 pmol prawn?1. The results show that a transient period of immunosuppression

  9. Trichlorfon, an organophosphorus insecticide, depresses the immune responses and resistance to Lactococcus garvieae of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chin-Chyuan Chang; Pai-Po Lee; Chun Hung Liu; Winton Cheng

    2006-01-01

    The total haemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase activity, respiratory bursts (release of superoxide anions), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency to the pathogen Lactococcus garvieae were measured when freshwater giant prawns Macrobrachium rosenbergii (18.2±2.1g) were individually reared in water containing concentrations of trichlorfon of 0, 0.2, or 0.4mgL?1 for a 144-h period. No significant differences in the

  10. Effect of Densities and Culture Systems on Growth, Survival, Yield, and Economic Return of Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergiiFarming in the Rice Field in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lam My Lan; Jean-Claude Micha; Duong Nhut Long; Pham Truong Yen

    2006-01-01

    Postlarvae of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man 1879) were stocked at 2, 4, and 6 postlarvae (PL)\\/m into rice fields under two culture systems, the integrated and the rotational prawn-rice system. Prawn was fed pellet feed twice daily. The growth of Macrobrachium rosenbergii decreased at higher stocking densities. Prawns in the rotational system grew faster than those in the integrated system.

  11. A cytosolic glutathione s-transferase, GST-theta from freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii: molecular and biochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Arockiaraj, Jesu; Gnanam, Annie J; Palanisamy, Rajesh; Bhatt, Prasanth; Kumaresan, Venkatesh; Chaurasia, Mukesh Kumar; Pasupuleti, Mukesh; Ramaswamy, Harikrishnan; Arasu, Abirami; Sathyamoorthi, Akila

    2014-08-10

    Glutathione S-transferases play an important role in cellular detoxification and may have evolved to protect cells against reactive oxygen metabolites. In this study, we report the molecular characterization of glutathione s-transferase-theta (GST-?) from freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. A full length cDNA of GSTT (1417 base pairs) was isolated and characterized bioinformatically. Exposure to virus (white spot syndrome baculovirus or M. rosenbergii nodovirus), bacteria (Aeromonas hydrophila or Vibrio harveyi) or heavy metals (cadmium or lead) significantly increased the expression of GSTT (P<0.05) in hepatopancreas. Recombinant GST-? with monochlorobimane substrate had an optimum activity at pH7.5 and 35 °C. Furthermore recombinant GST-? activity was abolished by the denaturants triton X-100, Gua-HCl, Gua-thiocyanate, SDS and urea in a dose-dependent manner. Overall, the results suggest a potential role for M. rosenbergii GST-? in detoxification and possibly conferring immune protection. PMID:24879918

  12. Cloning and characterization of two different ficolins from the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Wen; Wang, Xian-Wei; Huang, Ying; Hui, Kai-Min; Shi, Yan-Ru; Wang, Wen; Ren, Qian

    2014-06-01

    Ficolins, a kind of lectin containing collagen-like and fibrinogen-related domains (FReDs, also known as FBG or FREP), are involved in the first line of host defense against pathogens. In this study, two ficolins, namely, MrFico1 and MrFico2, from the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii were identified. In contrast to other ficolins, these two ficolins have no collagen-like domain, but such ficolins contain a coiled region and a FReD domain. Phylogenetic analysis showed that MrFico1 and MrFico2, together with two ficolin-like proteins from Pacifastacus leniusculus, belonged to one group. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) showed that both MrFico1 and MrFico2 were expressed in hepatopancreas, stomach and intestine, with the highest expression in stomach for MrFico1, compared to the highest expression in hepatopancreas for MrFico2. qRT-PCR analysis also showed that MrFico1 was obviously upregulated upon Vibrio anguillarium challenge, while MrFico2 was upregulated after challenged by V. anguillarium or white spot syndrome virus. Bacterium-binding experiment showed that MrFico1 and MrFico2 could bind to different microbes, and sugar-binding assay revealed that these two ficolins could also bind to lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycan, the glycoconjugates of bacteria surface. Moreover, these two ficolins could agglutinate bacteria in a calcium-dependent manner, and the results of bacteria clearance experiment showed that both ficolins could facilitate the clearance of injected bacteria in the prawn. Our results suggested that MrFico1 and MrFico2 may function as pattern-recognition receptors in the immune system of M. rosenbergii. PMID:24462836

  13. Transcriptomics of a Giant Freshwater Prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii): De Novo Assembly, Annotation and Marker Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hyungtaek; Lyons, Russell E.; Dinh, Hung; Hurwood, David A.; McWilliam, Sean; Mather, Peter B.

    2011-01-01

    Background Giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii or GFP), is the most economically important freshwater crustacean species. However, as little is known about its genome, 454 pyrosequencing of cDNA was undertaken to characterise its transcriptome and identify genes important for growth. Methodology and Principal Findings A collection of 787,731 sequence reads (244.37 Mb) obtained from 454 pyrosequencing analysis of cDNA prepared from muscle, ovary and testis tissues taken from 18 adult prawns was assembled into 123,534 expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Of these, 46% of the 8,411 contigs and 19% of 115,123 singletons possessed high similarity to sequences in the GenBank non-redundant database, with most significant (E value < 1e–5) contig (80%) and singleton (84%) matches occurring with crustacean and insect sequences. KEGG analysis of the contig open reading frames identified putative members of several biological pathways potentially important for growth. The top InterProScan domains detected included RNA recognition motifs, serine/threonine-protein kinase-like domains, actin-like families, and zinc finger domains. Transcripts derived from genes such as actin, myosin heavy and light chain, tropomyosin and troponin with fundamental roles in muscle development and construction were abundant. Amongst the contigs, 834 single nucleotide polymorphisms, 1198 indels and 658 simple sequence repeats motifs were also identified. Conclusions The M. rosenbergii transcriptome data reported here should provide an invaluable resource for improving our understanding of this species' genome structure and biology. The data will also instruct future functional studies to manipulate or select for genes influencing growth that should find practical applications in aquaculture breeding programs. PMID:22174756

  14. Post-Embryonic Transcriptomes of the Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii: Multigenic Succession through Metamorphosis

    PubMed Central

    Ventura, Tomer; Manor, Rivka; Aflalo, Eliahu D.; Chalifa-Caspi, Vered; Weil, Simy; Sharabi, Omri; Sagi, Amir

    2013-01-01

    Like many metazoans, the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii begins its post-embryonic life with a set of morphologically distinct planktonic larval stages, followed by a benthic post-larval stage during which the maturing organism differs from the larvae both ecologically and physiologically. Understanding of the molecular basis underlying morphogenesis in crustaceans is limited to the observation that methyl farnesoate, the non-epoxidated form of the insect juvenile hormone, acts as the active crustacean juvenoid. Molt steroids were also linked to morphogenesis and several other molecular pathways, such as Hedgehog and Wnt, are known to underlie morphogenesis in all metazoans examined and, as such, are thought to do the same in crustaceans. Using next generation sequencing, we deep-sequenced the transcriptomes of several larval and post-larval stages. De novo assembly, followed by bioinformatics analysis, revealed that many novel transcripts are over-expressed in either larvae- or post-larvae-stage prawn, shedding light on the molecular basis underlying M. rosenbergii metamorphosis. Fast larval molting rates and periodic morphological changes were reflected in over-expression of transcripts annotated to the cell cycle, DNA replication and morphogenic pathways (i.e., Hedgehog and Wnt). Further characterization of transcripts assigned to morphogenic pathways by real-time RT-PCR reconfirmed their over-expression in larvae, albeit with a more complex expression pattern when examined in the individual developmental stages. The expression level of an orthologue of cytochrome P450, 15A1, known to epoxidize methyl farnesoate in insects, was increased in the late larval and early post-larval stages, in accordance with the role of methyl farnesoate in crustacean metamorphosis. This study exemplifies the applicability of a high-throughput sequencing approach for studying complex traits, including metamorphosis, providing new insight into this unexplored area of crustacean research. PMID:23372848

  15. Nutrient budgets and effluent characteristics in giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) culture ponds.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Subhendu; Sahu, Bharat Chandra; Mahapatra, Abhijit S; Dey, Lambodar

    2014-05-01

    It is important to understand nutrient budgets of aquaculture practices for efficiency of input resources and to utilize all output nutrient sources. The aim of the present study was to develop a nutrient budget for giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) culture ponds. The study was conducted in farmer's ponds (0.25-0.5 ha) of Odisha, India, and the results showed that feed accounted 97% total nitrogen (N), 98.7% total phosphorus (P) and 90% total organic carbon (OC), respectively. The harvested prawn accounted for recovery of 37% N, 10% P and 15% OC, respectively. The N, P and OC accumulated in sediment were 52%, 76%, and 65%, respectively. Nutrient loads in the effluents were 2.22 ± 0.66 kg inorganic N, 0.40 ± 0.15 kg P, and 21.01 ± 6.4 kg OC per ton of prawn production. The present study implicated that high nutrient values observed in both water and sediment provide important opportunities for nutrient reuse through pond sediment applications to croplands as an organic manure, as well as pond water irrigation to crops as a "liquid fertilizer". PMID:24522829

  16. Molecular cloning and characterisation of peroxinectin, a cell adhesion molecule, from the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Pei-I; Liu, Chun-Hung; Tseng, Deng-Yu; Lee, Pai-Po; Cheng, Winton

    2006-07-01

    Expression of peroxinectin cDNA was determined from haemocytes of giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii using oligonucleotide primers and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) based on the peroxinectin sequence of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon, and freshwater crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus. The peroxinectin of M. rosenbergii was constitutively expressed. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence revealed that the cDNA clone has an open reading frame of 2,403 bp encoding a protein of 801 amino acids including a 20 amino acid signal peptide. The calculated molecular mass of the mature protein (781 amino acids) was 88.7 kDa with an estimated pI of 6.8. A putative peroxidase domain and a putative integrin-binding motif, KGD (Lys-Gly-Asp) were observed in prawn peroxinectin at the C-terminal. Sequence comparison showed that peroxinectin deduced amino acid of M. rosenbergii had an overall similarity of 62%, 64%, and 66% to that of P. leniusculus, P. monodon, and L. vannamei, respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that peroxinectin transcript in haemocyte of M. rosenbergii decreased significantly after 3, 6 and 12h injection with Lactococcus garvieae. PMID:16377210

  17. Influence of short term exposure of TBT on the male reproductive activity in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man).

    PubMed

    Revathi, Peranandam; Iyapparaj, Palanisamy; Vasanthi, Lourduraj Arockia; Munuswamy, Natesan; Prasanna, Vimalanathan Arun; Pandiyarajan, Jayaraj; Krishnan, Muthukalingan

    2014-10-01

    In the present study, the effect of tributyltin (TBT) on the histopathological and hormonal changes during spermatogenesis in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii was documented. Three experimental concentrations such as 10, 100 and 1,000 ng/L were selected and exposed to prawns for 45 days. After TBT exposure, the reproductive activities like sperm count and sperm length were decreased when compared with control. Further, abnormal structure of the seminiferous tubule, decrease in spermatozoa concentration, diminution of the seminiferous tubule membrane and the abundance of spermatocytes in the testis were noticed in treated prawns. Interestingly, radioimmunoassay clearly revealed the reduction of testosterone level in TBT exposed groups. Thus, TBT has considerably reduced the level of testosterone and caused the impairment of spermatogenesis in the freshwater male prawn M. rosenbergii. PMID:25016935

  18. Cloning and characterisation of mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase (mtMnSOD) from the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Winton; Tung, Ying-Hsiu; Chiou, Tzu-Ting; Chen, Jiann-Chu

    2006-10-01

    A cDNA encoding a mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase (mtMnSOD) was cloned from the hepatopancreas of giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) by degenerate primers. Both 3'- and 5'-regions were isolated by rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE) PCR method. Analysis of nucleotide sequence revealed that the mtMnSOD full-length cDNA consists of 1202bp containing an open reading frame of 654bp, which encodes a protein consisting of 218 amino acids including a signal peptide of 16 amino acid residues. The calculated molecular mass of the mature proteins (202 amino acids) is 24kDa with an estimated pI of 7.12. Two putative N-glycosylation sites, NXT and NXS were observed in the mtMnSOD. Manganese superoxide dismutase signatures from 180 to 187 (DVWEHAYY), and four conserved amino acids responsible for binding manganese were observed (H48, H96, D180 and H184). Sequence comparison showed that the mtMnSOD deduced amino acid sequence of Macrobrachium rosenbergii has similarity of 88%, 78%, 56%, 54% and 46% to that of blue crab Callinectes sapidus, crucifix crab Charybdis feriatus, brown shrimp Farfantepenaeus aztecus, European lobster Palinurus vulgaris, and grass shrimp Palaemontes pugio, respectively, and has similarity of 45%, 44%, 43%, 26% and 25% to cytMnSOD (cytosolic MnSOD) deduced amino acid sequence of blue crab C. sapidus, prawn M. rosenbergii, tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon, grass shrimp P. pugio and brown shrimp F. aztecus, respectively. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that levels of mtMn-SOD transcripts in hepatopancreas and haemocytes were not significantly different between the M. rosenbergii injected with Lactococcus garvieae, and that injected with saline after 3h to 24h. PMID:16621606

  19. Embryonic development, hatching, mineral consumption, and survival of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) reared in artificial seawater in closed recirculating water system at different levels of salinity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krasindh Hangsapreurke; Thon Thamrongnawasawat; Sorawit Powtongsook; Prajuab Lumubol

    This experiment aims to study the effect of different levels of salinity (5, 15 and 25 ppt) using artificial sea water on the embryonic development and hatching percentage of the eggs of unripe berried female giant freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) with an average size of 14.3+0.6 cm TL. After incubation through the heart beating stage (grayish black eggs), the brooders

  20. Effects of Two Densities of Caged Monosex Nile Tilapia Oreochromis Niloticus on Water Quality, Phytoplankton Populations and Production When Polycultured With Macrobrachium rosenbergii in Temperate Ponds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elevated pH levels from the photosynthetic activity of phytoplankton can be a major problem in semi-intensive freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) production systems. Phytoplanktontiverous fish may be able to graze excess phytoplankton and lower pH. The effect of different densities of cag...

  1. Impact of TBT on the vitellogenesis and sex hormones in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1879)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tributyltin (TBT) is a ubiquitous persistent xenobiotic that can be found in freshwater, estuarine and marine ecosystem. TBT is a strong endocrine disrupting compound (EDC) that can cause toxic threat to aquatic organisms. Imposex, sexual deformities and endocrine dysfunctions are the causes of TBT to most of the aquatic organisms. Effect of TBT on the vitellogenesis and sex hormonal changes in Macrobrachium rosenbergii has never been reported. Hence, the present investigation was undertaken to find out the impact of TBT on histological changes in the different reproductive tissues, sex hormonal alterations and level of biomarkers like vitellogenin and vitellin in M. rosenbergii. Results The present investigation documents the possible impact of tributyltin (TBT) on the vitellogenesis in freshwater female prawn M. rosenbergii. TBT at 10 ng/l, 100 ng/l and 1000 ng/l concentrations were exposed individually to prawns for a period of three months. At higher concentration of 1000 ng/l, the ovarian development was arrested and ovary remained at spent stage. At lower concentration of TBT (10 ng/l), the development proceeded up to early vitellogenic stage. At intermediate concentration of 100 ng/l TBT, the ovary remained at pre vitellogenic stage and thereafter no development was noticed. Histological results indicated the normal ovarian development with vitellogenic oocytes, filled with yolk globules in control prawn. On the other hand, the TBT treated groups showed reduction in yolk globules, fusion of developing oocytes and abundance of immature oocytes. Immunofluorescence staining denoted the remarkable reduction in vitellin content in ovary of TBT treated prawn. Hence, TBT had conspicuously inhibited the vitellogenesis by causing hormonal imbalance in M. rosenbergii. Conclusion TBT had notably inhibited the vitellogenesis due to hormonal imbalance. This endocrine dysfunction ultimately impaired the oogenesis in the freshwater female prawn M. rosenbergii. PMID:23634699

  2. Identification of the major allergen of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (giant freshwater prawn)

    PubMed Central

    Yadzir, Zailatul Hani Mohamad; Misnan, Rosmilah; Abdullah, Noormalin; Bakhtiar, Faizal; Arip, Masita; Murad, Shahnaz

    2012-01-01

    Objective To characterize the major allergens of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (giant freshwater prawn). Methods Raw and cooked extracts of the giant freshwater prawn were prepared. The IgE reactivity pattern was identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting technique with the sera of 20 skin prick test (SPT) positive patients. The major allergen identified was then characterized using the proteomics approach involving a combination of two-dimensional (2-DE) electrophoresis, mass spectrometry and bioinformatics tools. Results SDS-PAGE of the raw extract showed 23 protein bands (15–250 kDa) but those ranging from 40 to 100 kDa were not found in the cooked extract. From immunoblotting experiments, raw and cooked extracts demonstrated 11 and 5 IgE-binding proteins, respectively, with a molecular mass ranging from 15 to 155 kDa. A heat-resistant 36 kDa protein was identified as the major allergen of both extracts. In addition, a 42 kDa heat-sensitive protein was shown to be a major allergen of the raw extract. The 2-DE gel fractionated the prawn proteins to more than 50 different protein spots. Of these, 10 spots showed specific IgE reactivity with patients' sera. Matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) analysis led to identification of 2 important allergens, tropomyosin and arginine kinase. Conclusions It can be concluded that the availability of such allergens would help in component-based diagnosis and therapy of prawn allergies. PMID:23569834

  3. Genetic Inheritance of Female and Male Morphotypes in Giant Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Giant freshwater prawn (GFP) Macrobrachium rosenbergii is unique with males categorized in five different morphotypes (small claw, orange claw, blue claw, old blue claw and no claw males) and females in three reproductive statuses (mature ovary, berried and spawned females). In the present study we examined genetic inheritance of female and male morphotypes, their body weights and genetic associations between morphotypes and body traits. Restricted maximum likelihood fitting a multi-trait animal model was performed on a total of 21,459 body records collected over five generations in a GFP population selected for high growth rate. The estimates of variance components showed that there were substantial differences in additive genetic variance in body weight between male morphotypes. The low and significantly different from one genetic correlations between the expressions of body weight in male morphotypes also suggest that these traits should be treated as genetically different traits in selective breeding programs. By contrast, body weights of female types are essentially the same characters as indicated by the high genetic correlations between homologous trait expressions. In addition to body weight, male morphotypes and female reproductive statuses were treated as traits in themselves and were analysed as binary observations using animal and sire linear mixed models, and logit and probit threshold models. The estimates of heritability back-transformed from the liability scale were in good agreement with those obtained from linear mixed models, ranging from 0.02 to 0.43 for male morphotypes and 0.06 to 0.10 for female types. The genetic correlations among male morphoptypes were generally favourable. Body weight showed negative genetic associations with SM (?0.96), whereas those of body weight with other male morphotypes were positive (0.25 to 0.76). Our results showed that there is existence of heritable (additive genetic) component for male morphotypes, giving prospects for genetic selection to change population structure of GFP. PMID:24587246

  4. Identification and cloning of a transglutaminase from giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and its transcription during pathogen infection and moulting.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun-Hung; Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Chiu, Yun-Chih; Cheng, Winton; Yeh, Maw-Sheng

    2011-12-01

    Complementary (c)DNA encoding transglutaminase (TG) messenger (m)RNA of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, was cloned from haemocytes by a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) using oligonucleotide primers based on the TG sequence of the horseshoe crab, Tachypleus tridentatus; tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon; kuruma shrimp, Marsupenaeus japonicus; and crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus. The 2722-bp cDNA contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 2334 bp, a 72-bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), and a 316-bp 3'-UTR containing a stop codon and a poly A tail. The molecular mass of the deduced amino acid (aa) sequence (778 aa) was 86.67 kDa with an estimated pI of 5.4. The M. rosenbergii TG (abbreviated MrTG, accession no.: JF309296) contains a typical transglutaminase-like homologue, two putative integrin-binding motifs (RGD), ten glycosylation sites, and four calcium-binding sites; a catalytic triad is present as in arthropod TGs. Sequence comparison and a phylogenetic analysis revealed that shrimp TG can be separated into three subgroups, penaeid TG1, freshwater crustacean TG2 and marine crustacean TG2, and MrTG was more closely related to TG2 than to TG1. MrTG mRNA and TG activities were detected in all tested tissues of M. rosenbergii, with MrTG mainly being synthesised by haemocytes. There was a negative correlation between clotting time of haemolymph, and MrTG expression and TG activity of haemocytes in prawn injected with Lactococcus garvieae. The pattern of MrTG mRNA expression and TG activity in haemocytes exhibited a contrary tendency with clotting time of haemolymph during the moult stages. Those results indicate that cloned MrTG is involved in the defence response, and is probably the major functional TG for haemolymph coagulation in M. rosenbergii. PMID:21854853

  5. A new nodavirus is associated with covert mortality disease of shrimp.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingli; Liu, Qun; Liu, Shuang; Yang, Haolin; Liu, Sun; Zhu, Luoluo; Yang, Bing; Jin, Jiting; Ding, Lixue; Wang, Xiuhua; Liang, Yan; Wang, Qintao; Huang, Jie

    2014-12-01

    A new nodavirus, named covert mortality nodavirus (CMNV), is associated with covert mortality disease of shrimp which has caused serious loss in China since 2009. Histopathological examination of shrimp suffering the disease revealed coagulative necrosis of striated muscle similar to typical histopathology features of infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV), Penaeus vannamei nodavirus (PvNV) and Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV). However, shrimp suffering this disease tested negative for IMNV, MrNV and PvNV by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. Additionally, eosinophilic inclusions were found in epithelium of the tubules in the hepatopancreas and lymphoid organ, and mass karyopyknotic nuclei existed in the muscle and lymphoid organ. The tubular epithelium of the hepatopancreas showed significant atrophy. A cDNA library was constructed from total RNA of infected shrimp. Sequencing and alignment analysis showed that one clone with an 1185 bp insert (designated CMNV-7) shared 54, 53 and 39% identity with the amino acid sequences of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase from Flock House virus, black beetle virus and MrNV. The results of fluorescence in situ hybridization showed that the hepatopancreas, striated muscle and lymphoid organ were positively reacting tissues. The mean size of negative-stained virus particles was 32 nm. In addition, a nested RT-PCR assay was developed for CMNV, and the RT-PCR detection results revealed that Fenneropenaeus chinensis, Litopenaeus vannamei and Marsupenaeus japonicus suffering from this disease were CMNV-positive. PMID:25205685

  6. Carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus budget in scampi (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) culture ponds.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Bharat Chandra; Adhikari, Subhendu; Mahapatra, Abhijit S; Dey, Lambodar

    2013-12-01

    Experiments were conducted for the study of nutrient budget in ten farmer's ponds (0.2-0.5 ha) in Orissa, India with a mean water depth of 1.0-1.2 m. Scampi (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) were stocked in these ponds at stocking density of 3.75-5.0/m(2). The average initial body weight of scampi was 0.02 mg. The culture period was for 4 months. Feed was the main input. Total feed applied to these ponds ranged from 945 to 2261 kg pond/cycle (crop). The feed conversion ratio varied 1.65 to 1.78. In addition to feed, rice straw, urea, and single super phosphate were applied to these ponds in small amounts for plankton production. At harvest time, the average weight of scampi varied from 60-90 g. The budget showed that feed was the major input of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and carbon in these ponds. The inorganic fertilizer (urea and single super phosphate), organic fertilizer (rice straw and yeast extract), and inlet water, either from the initial fills or from rainwater, were the source of all other N, P, and organic carbon (OC) to these ponds. Total N applied to these ponds through all these inputs ranged from 44.45 to 103.98 kg N per crop, 12.23 to 28.79 kg P per crop, and from 381.54 to 905.22 kg OC per crop, respectively. Among all the inputs, feed alone accounted for 95.34 % N, 97.98 % P, and 94.27 % OC, respectively. Recovery of 16.34 to 38.66 kg N (average 29.27 kg), 1.28 to 3.02 kg P (average 2.29 kg), and 63.21 to 149.51 kg OC (average 113.20 kg), respectively, by the scampi harvest were observed in these ponds. Thus, harvest of scampi accounted for recovery of 35.18 to 39.01 (average 36.85%) of added N, 10.09 to 10.97 (average 10.44%) of added P, and 7.57 to 17.12 (average 16.34%) of added OC, respectively. PMID:23832231

  7. Setal morphology of the grooming appendages of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea: Palaemonidae) and review of decapod setal classification.

    PubMed

    Wortham, Jennifer L; Vanmaurik, Lauren N; Wayne Price, W

    2014-06-01

    Setae are vital in grooming activities and aiding in the removal of epibionts and sedimentary fouling from the body surfaces of decapod crustaceans. Thus, the setal structures and their arrangement on the grooming appendages and sensory structures of the commercially important shrimp, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, were examined using scanning electron microscopy. Macrobrachium rosenbergii is extensively grown in aquaculture and exhibits unique male morphological forms, termed morphotypes. The three male morphotypes are termed blue-clawed males, orange-clawed males, and small-clawed or undifferentiated males and all three differ in their dominance, behavior, body morphology, and reproductive success. Seven setal types, two of which have never been described in the literature, are identified on the grooming appendages (third maxillipeds, first, second, and fifth pereopods) and antennae: simple, serrate, serrulate, spiniform, pappose, crinoid, and spinulate. The latter two setae are newly identified. Certain setal types, such as serrate and serrulate setae were located and associated with specific grooming appendages such as the first pereopods. The types of setae on the grooming appendages varied among females and male morphotypes and the novel setal types (crinoid and spinulate) were found only on two of the male morphotypes. A literature review of terminology related to the structure of setae and setal types in decapod crustaceans is offered as the usage of various terms is ambiguous and conflicting in the literature. The intention of this review is to provide future authors with a comprehensive collection of terms and images that can be used to describe various aspects of setal morphology in decapods. PMID:24500885

  8. Isolation and characterization of a female-specific DNA marker in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    PubMed Central

    Ventura, T; Aflalo, E D; Weil, S; Kashkush, K; Sagi, A

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a female-specific DNA marker in the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii was identified through amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). The AFLP-derived sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker was tested in over 200 individuals, giving reproducible sex identification. Further molecular characterization of the sex-marker's genomic region (?3?kb long) revealed the presence of tandem and inverted repeats. The ?3-kb sequence was identified both in male and female prawns, but with subtle differences: a deletion of 3?bp (present in female prawn but absent in male prawn) identified upstream of the SCAR marker sequence and two female-specific single-nucleotide polymorphisms, both indicating that male prawns are homozygous, whereas female prawns are heterozygous in this locus. Fluorescent in situ hybridization showed the ?3-kb sequence to be unique: to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a unique sex-specific sequence observed in situ in crustaceans. The sex-specific marker identified in M. rosenbergii may have considerable applied merit for crustacean culture in that it will enable the determination of genetic sex at early developmental stages when phenotypic differences are not identifiable. PMID:21522169

  9. Morphological and histological studies on freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de man) irradiated with (60)Co gamma radiation.

    PubMed

    Stalin, A; Broos, K V; Sadiq Bukhari, A; Syed Mohamed, H E; Singhal, R K; Venu-Babu, P

    2013-11-15

    This study was framed to investigate the (60)Co gamma radiation induced morphological and histological variations in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The LD50 value of (60)Co gamma irradiated M. rosenbergii observed (by probit analysis) at 30 Gy. Prawns were irradiated to four different dose levels (3 mGy, 30 mGy, 300 mGy and 3,000 mGy) using Theratron Phoenix TeleCobalt Unit [P-33] and one control group (without irradiation) maintained separately. Irradiated groups exhibited several morphological variations such as discoloration; damaged rostrum; opaque coloration in cephalothorax; black bands and dot formation in abdomen; deformed uropods and telson in tail regions when compared with control group. The Hepato Somatic Index reflected the severity of radiation on hepatopancreas. Histological variations in gills, hepatopancreas and muscles of irradiated groups were observed. In gills, structural changes such as swollen and fused lamellae, abnormal gill tips, hyperplasic, necrotic and clavate-globate lamellae were observed in gamma irradiated prawns. Accumulation of hemocytes in hemocoelic space, interstitial sinuses filled with abnormal infiltrated hemocytes, the tubular epithelium with ruptured basal laminae, abnormal and coagulated lumen, necrotic tubules, thickened basal laminae, tissue debris, necrotic hepatocytes were observed in irradiated prawn hepatopancreas. In muscle, shrinkage of muscular fiber and necrotic musculature were observed in irradiated prawns. These structural alterations of the organs it is felt could affect the vital physiological functions such as respiration, osmotic and ionic regulation in gills and muscles; absorption, storage and secretion of the hepatopancreas which in turn could adversely affect the growth and survival of freshwater prawn M. rosenbergii. PMID:24140570

  10. Norepinephrine depresses the immunity and disease-resistance ability via ?1- and ?1-adrenergic receptors of Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Hung, Ming-Di; Cheng, Winton

    2011-06-01

    In this study, we determined the effects of norepinephrine (NE) on immunity and the pathway of its function in the freshwater giant prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The total hemocyte count (THC), differential hemocyte count (DHC), phenoloxidase activity, respiratory bursts, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, phagocytic activity, and clearance efficiency in response to the pathogen, Lactococcus garvieae, were measured when the freshwater giant prawn, M. rosenbergii (16.2±2.1 g) was individually injected with saline or NE at 0.5, 5.0, and 50.0 pmol prawn(-1). Results showed that semi-granular cells, respiratory bursts and phagocytic activity at 2 h, PO activity and clearance efficiency from 2 to 4 h, THC at 8 h, and SOD activity from 4 to 8 h significantly decreased, but hyaline cells at 2 h, and respiratory bursts at 8 h had significantly increased after injection of NE at 50.0 pmol prawn(-1). In prawns that had received 5.0 pmol NE prawn(-1), the PO activity had decreased at 2 h, SOD activity at 8 h, and the clearance efficiency at 2 h. PO activity had decreased at 2 h after prawns had received 0.5 pmol NE prawn(-1). All of the immune parameters had returned to control values by 16 h after receiving NE. However, no significant differences were observed in the granular cells during the experimental period. An injection of NE also significantly increased the mortality of prawns challenged with L. garvieae, which appeared to be dose dependent. In another experiment, NE co-injected with prazosin, metoprolol, or propranolol significantly decreased the mortality of challenged prawns, especially when co-injected with prazosin and metoprolol. These results suggest that stress-inducing NE suppresses the immune system, which in turn promotes the susceptibility of M. rosenbergii to L. garvieae via both ?1- and ?1-adrenergic receptors. PMID:21295067

  11. Effects of anthraquinone extract from Rheum officinale Bail on the growth performance and physiological responses of Macrobrachium rosenbergii under high temperature stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bo Liu; Jun Xie; Xianping Ge; Pao Xu; Aiming Wang; Yijin He; Qunlan Zhou; Liangkun Pan; Ruli Chen

    2010-01-01

    In order to study the effects of anthraquinone extract from Rheum officinale Bail on Macrobrachium rosenbergii under high temperature stress, freshwater prawns were randomly divided into five groups: a control group was fed with basal diet, and four treatment groups fed with basal diet supplemented with 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.4% anthraquinone extracts for 10 weeks, respectively. Then, freshwater prawns

  12. Effects of temperature, pH, salinity and ammonia on the phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency of giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii to Lactococcus garvieae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Winton Cheng; Su-Mei Chen; Feng-I Wang; Pei-I Hsu; Chun-Hung Liu; Jiann-Chu Chen

    2003-01-01

    The giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (14–17 g) was exposed to different temperatures (20, 25, 30 and 35 °C), pH values (4.22, 7.27 and 9.31), salinity levels (0‰, 5‰, 10‰ and 15‰) and different concentrations (0.02 (control), 0.55, 1.20 and 3.07 mg l?1) of ammonia-N (ammonia as nitrogen) for 7 days. They were then examined for phagocytic activity and clearance

  13. The immune response of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and its susceptibility to Lactococcus garvieae in relation to the moult stage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Winton Cheng; Feng-Ming Juang; Jian-Tong Li; Meng-Chung Lin; Chun-Hung Liu; Jiann-Chu Chen

    2003-01-01

    The giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (12–18 g) was examined for phenoloxidase activity, respiratory burst (release of superoxide anion), phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency for the pathogen Lactococcus garvieae at 28 °C. Phenoloxidase activity was higher at intermoult (C stage), whereas respiratory burst was the lowest at C stage among the moult stages of A, B, C, D1\\/D2 and D3.

  14. Dietary supplementation of zinc nanoparticles and its influence on biology, physiology and immune responses of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Muralisankar, Thirunavukkarasu; Bhavan, Periyakali Saravana; Radhakrishnan, Subramanian; Seenivasan, Chandirasekar; Manickam, Narasimman; Srinivasan, Veeran

    2014-07-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the influence of dietary zinc nanoparticles (size 50 nm) on the growth, biochemical constituents, enzymatic antioxidant levels and the nonspecific immune response of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii post larvae (PL). The concentrations of dietary supplement zinc nanoparticles (ZnNPs) were 0, 10, 20, 40, 60 and 80 mg kg(-1) with the basal diet, and the level of Zn in ZnNP-supplemented diets were 0.71, 10.61, 20.73, 40.73, 60.61 and 80.60 mg kg(-1), respectively. ZnNP-incorporated diets were fed to M. rosenbergii PL (initial body weight, 0.18 ± 0.02 g) in a triplicate experimental setup for a period of 90 days. ZnNP supplemented feed fed PL up to 60 mg kg(-1) showed significantly (P < 0.05) improved performance in survival, growth and activities of digestive enzymes (protease, amylase and lipase). The concentrations of biochemical constituents (total protein, total amino acid, total carbohydrate and total lipid), total haemocyte count and differential haemocyte count were elevated in 10-60 mg kg(-1) ZnNP supplemented feed fed PL. However, the PL fed with 80 mg ZnNPs kg(-1) showed negative results. Activities of enzymatic antioxidants [superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT)], metabolic enzymes [glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (GPT)] and the process of lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the hepatopancreas and muscle showed no significant alterations in 10-60 mg kg(-1) ZnNP supplemented feed fed PL. Whereas, 80 mg ZnNPs kg(-1) supplemented feed fed PL showed significant elevations in SOD, CAT, LPO, GOT and GPT. Therefore, 80 mg ZnNPs kg(-1) was found to be toxic to M. rosenbergii PL. Thus, the study suggests that up to 60 mg ZnNPs kg(-1) can be supplemented for regulating survival, growth and immunity of M. rosenbergii. PMID:24874230

  15. A candidate gene association study for growth performance in an improved giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii ) culture line.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyungtaek; Lyons, Russell E; Li, Yutao; Thanh, Nguyen Minh; Dinh, Hung; Hurwood, David A; Salin, Krishna R; Mather, Peter B

    2014-04-01

    A candidate gene approach using type I single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers can provide an effective method for detecting genes and gene regions that underlie phenotypic variation in adaptively significant traits. In the absence of available genomic data resources, transcriptomes were recently generated in Macrobrachium rosenbergii to identify candidate genes and markers potentially associated with growth. The characterisation of 47 candidate loci by ABI re-sequencing of four cultured and eight wild samples revealed 342 putative SNPs. Among these, 28 SNPs were selected in 23 growth-related candidate genes to genotype in 200 animals selected for improved growth performance in an experimental GFP culture line in Vietnam. The associations between SNP markers and individual growth performance were then examined. For additive and dominant effects, a total of three exonic SNPs in glycogen phosphorylase (additive), heat shock protein 90 (additive and dominant) and peroxidasin (additive), and a total of six intronic SNPs in ankyrin repeats-like protein (additive and dominant), rolling pebbles (dominant), transforming growth factor-? induced precursor (dominant), and UTP-glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase 2 (dominant) genes showed significant associations with the estimated breeding values in the experimental animals (P =0.001-0.031). Individually, they explained 2.6-4.8 % of the genetic variance (R²=0.026-0.048). This is the first large set of SNP markers reported for M. rosenbergii and will be useful for confirmation of associations in other samples or culture lines as well as having applications in marker-assisted selection in future breeding programs. PMID:24122143

  16. Characterization of two novel ADP ribosylation factors from giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and their responses to WSSV challenge.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zheng-Feng; Ren, Jie; Tan, Jing-Min; Wang, Zheng; Yin, Shao-Wu; Huang, Ying; Huang, Xin; Wang, Wen; Lan, Jiang-Feng; Ren, Qian

    2015-01-01

    ADP-ribosylation factors (Arfs) are small GTP-binding proteins that have an essential function in intracellular trafficking and organelle structure. To date, little information is available on the Arfs in the economically important giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and their relationship to viral infection. Here we identified two Arf genes from M.?rosenbergii (MrArf1 and MrArf2) for the first time. Phylogenetic analysis showed that MrArf1, together with MjArf1 from shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus belonged to Class I Arfs. By contrast, MrArf2 didn't not match any of the Arfs classes of I/II/III, although it could be clustered with an Arf protein from M.?japonicas called MjArfn, which may represent an analog of the Arf. MrArf1 was ubiquitously expressed in all the examined tissues, with the highest transcription level in the hepatopancreas, whereas MrArf2 was only highly expressed in the hepatopancreas and exhibited very low levels in the heart, stomach, gills and intestine. The expression level of MrArf1 in the gills was down-regulated post 24?h WSSV challenge, and reached the maximal level at 48?h. MrArf1 in the hepatopancreas went up from 24 to 48?h WSSV challenge. MrArf2 transcript in the gill also went down at 24?h and then was upregulated at 48?h WSSV challenge. MrArf2 increased significantly in the hepatopancreas 24?h after infection and then went down at 48?h WSSV challenge. RNAi results showed that knockdown of MrArf1 or MrArf2 could inhibit the expression of the envelope protein gene vp28 of the WSSV. So, it could be speculated that MrArf1 and MrArf2 might play important roles in the innate immune system against WSSV infection. PMID:25451300

  17. Predation and control of laboratory populations of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata by the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Roberts, J K; Kuris, A M

    1990-08-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted on predation by the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, on Biomphalaria glabrata, a snail intermediate host of human schistosomiasis. Prawns greater than 22 mm carapace length could consume snails of any size. Smaller prawns exhibited a size-specific upper limit on the size of snail they could kill. Below the maximum size of prey consumed, little selectivity for prey size was demonstrated. All prawns heavier than 2.5 g killed the largest size of snail offered (16 mm diameter). Consumption, in terms of the numbers of snails killed, and the snails' wet weight and percentage of prawn body weight eaten per day, increased with prawn size. Large prawns consumed snails at a high rate (39% of body weight per day). Population experiments demonstrated that a prawn of 25 mm carapace length could eliminate 95% of a population of 80 snails in a 20-1 aquarium within 20 days and all snails by day 40. A prawn of 15 mm carapace length could not eliminate all snails. Large snails (24% of the initial population) had some protection from predation because of their size. Although the snails bred continuously, no snails were able to recruit to these populations in the presence of small prawns. In contrast, snail populations in control aquaria without prawns expanded to a mean of 919 snails by the end of the experiment (day 70). Since M. rosenbergii are voracious predators on B. glabrata, exhibit considerable habitat overlap with the snail prey, and are likely to treat snails as highly preferred food, further experimentation on these prawns in the context of biological control of schistosomiasis is warranted. The ready availability of prawns through established prawn hatcheries and the synergistic use of these prawns in aquaculture may ensure the reliability of stocking procedures and meet the standards of availability and cost-effectiveness required of a biological control agent. Polyculture of Macrobrachium with fin fish (Tilapia) indicates that these prawns may be a particularly useful control agent in aquacultural environments. PMID:2260905

  18. Identification and Characterization of Differentially Expressed Transcripts in the Gills of Freshwater Prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) under Salt Stress

    PubMed Central

    Barman, Hirak Kumar; Patra, Swagat Kumar; Das, Varsha; Mohapatra, Shibani Dutta; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Mohapatra, Chinmayee; Mohanta, Ramya; Panda, Rudra Prasanna; Rath, Surya Narayan

    2012-01-01

    The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is an economically important species. It is a euryhaline shrimp, surviving in wide-range salinity conditions. A change in gene expression has been suggested as an important component for stress management. To better understand the osmoregulatory mechanisms mediated by the gill, a subtractive and suppressive hybridization (SSH) tool was used to identify expressed transcripts linked to adaptations in saline water. A total of 117 transcripts represented potentially expressed under salinity conditions. BLAST analysis identified 22% as known genes, 9% as uncharacterized showing homologous to unannotated ESTs, and 69% as unknown sequences. All the identified known genes representing broad spectrum of biological pathways were particularly linked to stress tolerance including salinity tolerance. Expression analysis of 10 known genes and 7 unknown/uncharacterized genes suggested their upregulation in the gills of prawn exposed to saline water as compared to control indicating that these are likely to be associated with salinity acclimation. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) was used for obtaining full-length cDNA of MRSW-40 clone that was highly upregulated during salt exposure. The sequenced ESTs presented here will have potential implications for future understanding about salinity acclimation and/or tolerance of the prawn. PMID:22619594

  19. Expression of biotransformation and oxidative stress genes in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii exposed to chlordecone.

    PubMed

    Gaume, Béatrice; Dodet, Nathalie; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Lemoine, Soazig

    2014-06-13

    Chlordecone is a persistent organochlorine pesticide widely used between 1972 and 1993 in the French West Indies to control the root borer in banana fields. Chlordecone use resulted in long-term pollution of soils, contamination of waters, of aquatic organisms, and of fields. Chlordecone is known to be neurotoxic, to increase prostate cancer, and to have negative effects on cognitive and motor development during infancy. In Guadeloupe, most of the freshwater species living in contaminated rivers exceed the French legal limit of 20 ?g·kg(-1) wet weight. In the present study, we chose a transcriptomic approach to study the cellular effects of chlordecone in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, an important economical species in Guadeloupe. Quantitative PCR revealed an induction of genes involved in defense mechanism against oxidative stress (catalase and selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase) in prawns exposed to low environmental concentrations of chlordecone after 12 and 24 h of exposure. In prawns reared in a contaminated farm, transcription of genes involved in the biotransformation process (cytochrome P450 and glutathione-S-transferase (GST)) were induced after 8 days of exposure. Our results provide information on the mechanims of defense induced by chlordecone in aquatic crustacean species. This gene expression study of selected genes should be further strengthened by proteomic analyses and enzymatic activity assays to confirm the response of these biomarkers of stress in crustaceans and to give new insights into the mechanism of toxicity by chlordecone. PMID:24920261

  20. Function of a novel C-type lectin with two CRD domains from Macrobrachium rosenbergii in innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xin; Huang, Ying; Shi, Yan-Ru; Ren, Qian; Wang, Wen

    2015-03-01

    C-type lectins play crucial roles in innate immunity. In the present study, a novel C-type lectin gene, designated as MrCTL, was identified from Macrobrachium rosenbergii. MrCTL contains 2 carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs), namely MrCRD1 and MrCRD2. The MrCRD1 contains a QEP motif and MrCRD2 contains a motif of EPD. MrCTL was mainly expressed in the hepatopancreas. The expression level of MrCTL in hepatopancreas was significantly upregulated after a challenge with Vibrio parahaemolyticus or White spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The recombinant MrCTL, MrCRD1 and MrCRD2 have an ability to agglutinate both Gram-negative (V. parahaemolyticus) and Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus) in a calcium dependent manner. The recombinant MrCTL, MrCRD1 and MrCRD2 bind directly to all tested microorganisms. All these results suggested that MrCTL may have important roles in immune defense against invading pathogens in prawns. PMID:25475962

  1. Toxicity study of the oil dispersant Corexit 9527 on Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) egg hatchability by using a flow-through bioassay technique.

    PubMed

    Law, A T

    1995-01-01

    The effect of the oil-spill dispersant Corexit 9527 on egg-hatching rate of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) was studied by using an innovated flow-through bioassay technique. This bioassay method relies on the fact that M. rosenbergii fertilized eggs when detached from the mother prawn were able to hatch artificially. The flow-through system generated a stable and good water quality environment for hatching the eggs successfully. The Corexit 9527 had a pronounced effect on hatching rate of the M. rosenbergii eggs. In the control, the hatching rate of the eggs was 95.55% +/- 1.74%. However, it was reduced drastically with increasing concentrations of Corexit 9527. A 100% inhibition of egg hatchability was found when the level of Corexit 9527 was higher than 250 mg litre(-1). The EC(50) and the EC(95) values estimated by the probit method were 80.4 +/- 5.5 mg litre(-1) and 193.5 +/- 39.9 mg litre(-1) respectively (P = 0.05). The recommended safety level of Corexit 9527 for M. rosenbergii in Malaysian estuarine waters is below 40 mg litre(-1). PMID:15091547

  2. Prophenoloxidase activating enzyme-III from giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii: characterization, expression and specific enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Arockiaraj, Jesu; Easwvaran, Sarasvathi; Vanaraja, Puganeshwaran; Singh, Arun; Othman, Rofina Yasmin; Bhassu, Subha

    2012-02-01

    The prophenoloxidase activating system is an important innate immune response against microbial infections in invertebrates. The major enzyme, phenoloxidase, is synthesized as an inactive precursor and its activation to an active enzyme is mediated by a cascade of clip domain serine proteinases. In this study, a cDNA encoding a prophenoloxidase activating enzyme-III from the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, designated as MrProAE-III, was identified and characterized. The full-length cDNA contains an open reading frame of 1110 base pair (bp) encoding a predicted protein of 370 amino acids including an 22 amino acid signal peptide. The MrProAE-III protein exhibits a characteristic sequence structure of a long serine proteases-trypsin domain and an N- and C-terminal serine proteases-trypsin family histidine active sites, respectively, which together are the characteristics of the clip-serin proteases. Sequence analysis showed that MrProAE-III exhibited the highest amino acid sequence similarity (63%) to a ProAE-III from Atlantic blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. MrProAE-III mRNA and enzyme activity of MrProAE-III were detectable in all examined tissues, including hepatopancreas, hemocytes, pleopods, walking legs, eye stalk, gill, stomach, intestine, brain and muscle with the highest level of both in hepatopancreas. This is regulated after systemic infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus infection supporting that it is an immune-responsive gene. These results indicate that MrProAE-III functions in the proPO system and is an important component in the prawn immune system. PMID:21614523

  3. Characterization of a gC1qR from the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Ye, Ting; Huang, Xin; Wang, Xian-Wei; Shi, Yan-Ru; Hui, Kai-Min; Ren, Qian

    2015-03-01

    gC1qR, as a multicompartmental and a multifunctional protein, plays an important role in innate immunity. In this study, a gC1qR homolog (MrgC1qR) in the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii was identified. MrgC1qR, a 258-amino-acid polypeptide, shares high identities with gC1qR from other species. MrgC1qR gene was expressed in different tissues and was highest expressed in the hepatopancreas. In addition, the MrgC1qR transcript was significantly enhanced after 6 h of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection or post 2 h, 24 h of Vibrio anguillarum challenge compared to appropriate controls. Moreover, recombinant MrgC1qR (rMrgC1qR) had bacterial binding activity, the result also revealed that rMrgC1qR could bind pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) such as LPS or PGN, suggesting that MrgC1qRmight function as a pathogen-recognition receptor (PRR). Furthermore, glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down assays showed that rMrgC1qR with GST-tag could bind to rMrFicolin1 or rMrFicolin2 with His-tag. Altogether, these results may demonstrate a role for MrgC1qR in innate immunity in the giant freshwater prawns. PMID:25555810

  4. Gene expression and functional studies of small heat shock protein 37 (MrHSP37) from Macrobrachium rosenbergii challenged with infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV).

    PubMed

    Arockiaraj, Jesu; Vanaraja, Puganeshwaran; Easwvaran, Sarasvathi; Singh, Arun; Othman, Rofina Yasmin; Bhassu, Subha

    2012-06-01

    In this study, we have reported a full length of small heat shock protein 37 (designated MrHSP37) gene, identified from the transcriptome database of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The complete gene sequence of the MrHSP37 is 2,425 base pairs in length, and encodes 338 amino acids. MrHSP37 contains a long heat shock protein family profile in the amino acid sequence between 205 and 288. The mRNA expressions of MrHSP37 in healthy and the infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) challenged M. rosenbergii were examined using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). MrHSP37 is highly expressed in hepatopancreas and all the other tissues (walking leg, gills, muscle, stomach, haemocyte, intestine, pleopods, brain and eye stalk) of M. rosenbergii taken for analysis. The expression is strongly up-regulated after IHHNV challenge. To understand its biological activity, the recombinant MrHSP37 gene was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The results of ATPase assay showed that the recombinant MrHSP37 protein exhibited apparent ATPase activity which increased with the concentration of the protein. And also the purified recombinant MrHSP37 protein was used for thermal aggregation assay (chaperone activity). It showed that the recombinant MrHSP37 protein is an active chaperone in this assay. Taken together, these results suggest that MrHSP37 is potentially involved in the immune responses against IHHNV challenge in M. rosenbergii. PMID:22290288

  5. Effects of dietary administration of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) extracts on the immune responses and disease resistance of giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Tan, Hui-Ching; Cheng, Winton

    2013-07-01

    The hot-water extract of Eichhornia crassipes leaves (ECE) was produced and incorporated into the diet of the prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, as an immunostimulant. Survival rates of prawn against Lactococcus garvieae, and its immune parameters including the total haemocyte count (THC), different haemocyte count (DHC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts (RBs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, transglutaminase (TG) activity, haemolymph coagulation time, and phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency against L. garvieae by M. rosenbergii were determined when prawn (23.0 ± 2.8 g) were fed ECE-containing diets at 0, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 g kg(-1). Prawn fed a diet containing ECE at 2.0 and 3.0 g kg(-1) for 12 days showed significantly increased THC, HC, GC, PO activity, RBs, SOD activity, GPx activity, and TG activity, and a significantly decreased coagulation time. The phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency against L. garvieae of prawn fed the ECE-containing diets at 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 g kg(-1) were significantly higher than those of prawn fed the control diet at 3-12 days. Survival rates of M. rosenbergii fed the diet containing ECE at concentrations of 2 and 3 g kg(-1) were significantly higher than those fed the control diet after challenge with L. garvieae for 48-144 h. The relative percentage survival of prawn fed the 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 g kg(-1) ECE-containing diets for 12 days were 17.5%, 39.1%, and 52.2%. It was concluded that the ECE can be used as an immunostimulant for prawn through dietary administration to enhance immune responses and resistance of M. rosenbergii against L. garvieae. PMID:23603238

  6. De Novo Transcriptome Sequencing Analysis and Comparison of Differentially Expressed Genes (DEGs) in Macrobrachium rosenbergii in China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qigen

    2014-01-01

    Giant freshwater prawn (GFP; Macrobrachium rosenbergii) is an exotic species that was introduced into China in 1976 and thereafter it became a major species in freshwater aquaculture. However the gene discovery in this species has been limited to small-scale data collection in China. We used the next generation sequencing technology for the experiment; the transcriptome was sequenced of samples of hepatopancreas organ in individuals from 4 GFP groups (A1, A2, B1 and B2). De novo transcriptome sequencing generated 66,953 isogenes. Using BLASTX to search the Non-redundant (NR), Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes (STRING), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome (KEGG) databases; 21,224 unigenes were annotated, 9,552 matched unigenes with the Gene Ontology (GO) classification; 5,782 matched unigenes in 25 categories of Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COG) and 20,859 unigenes were consequently assigned to 312 KEGG pathways. Between the A and B groups 147 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified; between the A1 and A2 groups 6,860 DEGs were identified and between the B1 and B2 groups 5,229 DEGs were identified. After enrichment, the A and B groups identified 38 DEGs, but none of them were significantly enriched. The A1 and A2 groups identified 21,856 DEGs in three main categories based on functional groups: biological process, cellular_component and molecular function and the KEGG pathway defined 2,459 genes had a KEGG Ortholog - ID (KO-ID) and could be categorized into 251 pathways, of those, 9 pathways were significantly enriched. The B1 and B2 groups identified 5,940 DEGs in three main categories based on functional groups: biological process, cellular_component and molecular function, and the KEGG pathway defined 1,543 genes had a KO-ID and could be categorized into 240 pathways, of those, 2 pathways were significantly enriched. We investigated 99 queries (GO) which related to growth of GFP in 4 groups. After enrichment we identified 23 DEGs and 1 KEGG PATHWAY ‘ko04711’ relation with GFP growth. PMID:25329319

  7. Effects of nitrite exposure on acid-base balance, respiratory protein, and ion concentrations of giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii at low pH.

    PubMed

    Chen, J C; Lee, Y

    1997-10-01

    Macrobrachium rosenbergii that had been exposed individually for 24 h to 0 (control), 2, 5, 10 mg/L nitrite-N (nitrite as nitrogen) at 4. 3 and 7.7 pH levels were examined for hemolymph nitrite-N, oxyhemocyanin, protein, acid-base balance, ion concentrations, and ammonia-N (ammonia as nitrogen) excretion. Hemolymph oxyhemocyanin, protein, pH, HCO3- , TCO2, osmolality, and ion concentrations were inversely related to ambient nitrite-N concentration and were lower at pH 4.3. However, hemolymph nitrite-N, PO2 and PCO2 levels, and ammonia-N excretion were directly related to ambient nitrite-N, and were higher at pH 4.3. Ambient nitrite-N and pH level interacted to cause changes in hemolymph nitrite-N, oxyhemocyanin, protein, PO2, and pH levels. It is concluded that for M. rosenbergii following nitrite exposure, the incorporated nitrite causes a decrease of pH and an increase of PO2 in the hemolymph where it reduces oxyhemocyanin level; disturbs nitrogen excretion, ion regulation, and respiratory gas exchange; and may lead to a decrease of oxygen-carrying capacity, which are affected more at low pH. PMID:9353207

  8. Ultrastructural changes during spermatogenesis, biochemical and hormonal evidences of testicular toxicity caused by TBT in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1879).

    PubMed

    Revathi, Peranandam; Iyapparaj, Palanisamy; Vasanthi, Lourduraj Arockia; Munuswamy, Natesan; Krishnan, Muthukalingan

    2014-10-01

    The present investigation documents the impact of tributyltin (TBT) on the ultrastructural variation of spermatogenesis in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The environmentally realistic concentration of TBT can cause damages to the endocrine and reproductive physiology of crustaceans. In this context, three concentrations viz. 10, 100, and 1000 ng/L were selected and exposed to prawns for 90 days. The TBT exposed prawn exhibited decrease the reproductive activity as evidenced by sperm count and sperm length compared to control. Histopathological results revealed the retarded testicular development, abnormal structure of seminiferous tubule, decrease in the concentration of spermatozoa, diminution of seminiferous tubule membrane, abundance of spermatocytes and vacuolation in testis of treated prawns. Ultrastructural study also confirmed the impairment of spermatogenesis in treated prawns. Furthermore, radioimmunoassay (RIA) clearly documented the reduction of testosterone level in TBT exposed groups. Thus, TBT substantially reduced the level of male sex hormone as well as biochemical constituents which ultimately led to impairment of spermatogenesis in the freshwater male prawn M. rosenbergii. PMID:23362226

  9. Function of an anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF) isoform isolated from the hemocytes of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii in protecting against bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chia-Chen; Chung, Chien-Pang; Lin, Chang-Yi; Sung, Hung-Hung

    2014-02-01

    In this study, a 780-bp full-length cDNA encoding Macrobrachium rosenbergii anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (MrALF) from hemocytes was cloned and identified. The ALF isoform exhibited immune activities, and its concentration in hemolymph was determined. An in vivo expression study showed that the ALF mRNA level of hemocytes could be induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) in an exposure time-dependent manner. Purified recombinant MrALF (rMrALF) expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris SMD1168 eukaryotic protein expression system demonstrated antibacterial activity against the Gram-negative prawn pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)=0.806?M, minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC)=1.606?M) but not the Gram-positive pathogen Lactococcus garvieae exposed to 25.696?M of rALF. However, rMrALF can bind to Gram-negative and -positive bacteria. An in vivo expression study demonstrated that the ALF concentrations in prawn hemocytes and plasma were 0.176?M and 0.168?M, respectively; following LPS treatment for 6h, the corresponding concentrations were 0.133?M in hemocytes and 0.272?M in plasma. Furthermore, the percentage of hemocytes phagocytosing bacteria cells was higher in hemoyctes previously treated with MrALF than those treated with sterile medium. These results suggest that in the innate immune response of M. rosenbergii, the MrALF from hemocytes may play an opsonin during a bacterial invasion. PMID:24333685

  10. Dietary administration of bovine lactoferrin influences the immune ability of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) and its resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila infection and nitrite stress.

    PubMed

    Chand, R K; Sahoo, P K; Kumari, Jaya; Pillai, Bindu R; Mishra, B K

    2006-08-01

    Haemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity, agglutinin levels, total protein content, bacterial clearance efficiency, resistance to the pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila and nitrite stress were measured in the giant freshwater inter-moult sub-adult prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (15-20 g) which had been fed diets containing bovine lactoferrin (Lf) at 50, 100, 200mg kg(-1) feed for 7 or 14 days. M. rosenbergii fed a diet containing 100mg Lf kg(-1) diet for 7 days showed significant (P<0.05) increase in total protein levels, agglutination titres against bacteria A. hydrophila and rabbit RBC, phenoloxidase activity, bacterial clearance (as observed through reduced number of circulating bacteria) as well as survival against A. hydrophila challenge. Increased bacterial clearance was also noticed in prawns fed Lf at 50 or 200mg kg(-1) for 14 days compared to control. Feeding of Lf at 50mg kg(-1) diet for 7 or 14 days was able to enhance only PO activity and reduce percent mortality against A. hydrophila challenge compared to its control. Total haemocyte count was higher in the lowest dose of Lf feeding, i.e. 50mg kg(-1) for 7 days. However, there was no significant alteration in the differential haemocyte population with respect to graded levels of Lf feeding for 7 or 14 days. A notable reduction in mortality percent after 120 h of nitrite stress was observed in prawn fed Lf at 100mg kg(-1) diet for 14 days. On the contrary, feeding of the highest dose of Lf, i.e. 200mg kg(-1) diet for 14 days failed to stimulate most of the innate immune parameters or reduce the percent mortality against A. hydrophila challenge or nitrite stress. It is therefore concluded that administration of Lf in the diet at 100mg kg(-1) for 7 days could enhance the immune ability of M. rosenbergii and increase its resistance to A. hydrophila infection or nitrite stress. PMID:16413208

  11. Metagenomic identification of a nodavirus and a circular ssDNA virus in semi-purified viral nucleic acids from the hepatopancreas of healthy Farfantepenaeus duorarum shrimp.

    PubMed

    Ng, Terry Fei; Alavandi, Shankar; Varsani, Arvind; Burghart, Scott; Breitbart, Mya

    2013-09-01

    Fisheries and aquaculture are impacted sporadically by newly emerged viral diseases. In most cases, searches for a causative pathogen only occur after a serious disease has emerged. As random shotgun sequencing (metagenomics) offers opportunities to identify novel viruses preemptively, the method was tested on nucleic acids extracted from the hepatopancreas of 12 healthy northern pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus duorarum captured from the Gulf of Mexico. Among the sequences, a nodavirus (Farfantepenaeus duorarum nodavirus, FdNV) and a virus with similarities to circoviruses and cycloviruses that possess circular single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) genomes, were identified. The FdNV genome sequence was most closely related phylogenetically to nodaviruses causing white tail disease in Macrobrachium rosenbergii and muscle necrosis disease in Litopenaeus vannamei. While the circular ssDNA virus represents the third to be detected in association with a marine invertebrate, transmission trials are needed to confirm its infectivity for F. duorarum. This study highlights the potential for using metagenomic approaches in fisheries and aquaculture industries to identify new potential pathogens in asymptomatic marine invertebrates, uncharacterized pathogens causing a new disease, or multiple pathogens associated with disease syndromes. PMID:23999707

  12. Molecular cloning and characterisation of prophenoloxidase cDNA from haemocytes of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and its transcription in relation with the moult stage.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun-Hung; Tseng, Deng-Yu; Lai, Ching-Yi; Cheng, Winton; Kuo, Ching-Ming

    2006-07-01

    Expression of prophenoloxidase (proPO) cDNA was determined from haemocytes of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii by a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA using oligonucleotide primers based on the proPO sequence of tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon, freshwater crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus, green tiger shrimp Penaeus semisulcatus, kuruma shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus, and white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. The proPO of M. rosenbergii was constitutively expressed. The 2,547-bp cDNA contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 2,013 bp, a 96-bp 5'-untranslated region, and a 438-bp 3'-untranslated region containing the poly A tail. The molecular mass of the deduced amino acid (aa) sequence (671 aa) was 76.7 kDa with an estimated pI of 7.05. It contained putative copper-binding sites, a complement-like motif (GCGWPRHM), a proteolytic activation site, and a conserved C-terminal region common to all known proPOs. However, no signal peptide sequence was detected in giant freshwater prawn proPO. Comparison of amino acid sequences showed that prawn proPO is similar to the proPO of penaeid, crayfish and lobster. Prawn proPO was only synthesised in haemocytes. The proPO transcript was significantly increased in the A stage and achieved the highest level in the B stage, and then declined sharply in the C stage and reached the lowest level in the D(2)/D(3) stage. PMID:16376571

  13. Simultaneous identification and quantification of 4-cumylphenol, 2,4-bis-(dimethylbenzyl)phenol and bisphenol A in prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Yuegang; Zhu, Zhuo

    2014-07-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), 4-cumylphenol (4-CP) and 2,4-bis-(dimethylbenzyl)phenol (2,4-DCP) are all high production volume chemicals and widely used in plastic and other consumer products. During the past two decades, BPA has attracted a great deal of scientific and public attention due to its presence in the environment and estrogenic property. Although 4-CP and 2,4-DCP are much more estrogenic and toxic than BPA, little information is available about their occurrence and fate in the environment. In this study, a rapid, selective, accurate and reliable analytical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 4-CP, 2,4-DCP and BPA in prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The method comprises an ultrasound-accelerated extraction followed by capillary gas chromatographic (GC) separation. The detection limits range from 1.50 to 36.4 ng kg(-1) for the three alkylphenols. The calibration curves are linear over the concentration range tested with the coefficients of determination, R(2), greater than 0.994. The developed method was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of 4-CP, 2,4-DCP and BPA in prawn samples. The peak identification was confirmed using GC-MS. Bisphenol A, 2,4-bis-(dimethylbenzyl)phenol and 4-cumylphenol were found in prawn samples in the concentration ranges of 0.67-5.51, 0.36-1.61, and 0.00-1.96 ng g(-1) (wet weight), respectively. All relative standard deviations are less than 4.8%. At these environmentally relevant concentration levels, 4-CP, 2,4-DCP and BPA may affect the reproduction and development of aquatic organisms, including negative influence on crustaceans' larval survival, molting, metamorphosis and shell hardening. This is the first study reported on the occurrence of 4-CP, 2,4-DCP and BPA in prawn M. rosenbergii. PMID:24560775

  14. L-( sup 3 H) glutamate binding to a membrane preparation from the optic lobe of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man

    SciTech Connect

    Pratumtan, P.; Govitrapong, P.; Withyachumnarnkul, B.; Poolsanguan, B. (Mahidol Univ., Bangkok (Thailand) Mahidol Univ., Nakorn Pathom (Thailand))

    1991-01-01

    Membrane preparation from the optic lobe of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man, was examined for the presence of specific L-({sup 3}H) glutamate binding. The optic lobes were isolated from live animals. The tissue was homogenized and the membrane fraction isolated by differential centrifugation. The membrane suspension was incubated with 10-1,000 nM of L-({sup 3}H) glutamate at 37{degree}C for 60 min. Nonspecific binding was determined by incubating the mixture with 100 {mu}M L-glutamate. L-({sup 3}H) glutamate specifically bound to the membrane fraction with a dissociation equilibrium constant (Kd) of 205 nM and maximum number of binding sites (Bmax) of 2.04 n mol/mg protein. By using LIGAND computerized program, the saturation isotherm binding pattern indicates a single type of binding. To determine the type of glutamate receptors, competitive inhibition and IC{sub 50} of several glutamate agonists and antagonists were determined. The study reveals a metabotropic type of binding site.

  15. Evaluation of paraprobiotic applicability of Lactobacillus plantarum in improving the immune response and disease protection in giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man, 1879).

    PubMed

    Dash, Gyanaranjan; Raman, Ram Prakash; Pani Prasad, K; Makesh, M; Pradeep, M A; Sen, Swatipriyanka

    2015-03-01

    Paraprobiotics, also known as ghost probiotics, are non-viable microbial cells which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a benefit on the host. However, the advantage of non-viable microbes over their viable counterparts is a much debated topic in aquaculture. Therefore, the present study was conducted to evaluate paraprobiotic effect of heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum on giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. A 90-day feeding trial was conducted by feeding prawn juveniles (mean weight ± SE: 0.54 ± 0.03 g) with three experimental diets prepared by supplementing basal diet (Crude protein: 38%; Gross energy: 387 kcal 100 g(-1)) with different concentrations of heat-killed probiotics bacteria viz. HKPB1 (10(7) cfu g(-1) diet), HKPB2 (10(8) cfu g(-1) diet), HKPB3 (10(9) cfu g(-1) diet) and control diet (unsupplemented diet). In the present study, growth parameters viz. WG % and SGR and feed utilization parameters viz. FCE, FCR and PER, though improved marginally in all experimental groups, were found to be insignificant (P > 0.05) compared to the control. The immune parameters viz. total hemocyte count (THC), phenol oxidase (PO) activity, respiratory burst (RB) activity and clearance efficiency were significantly improved (P < 0.05) with concurrent decrease (P < 0.05) in cumulative mortality against Aeromonas hydrophila challenge in all the experimental groups except for HKPB1, where PO and RB activity did not improve significantly (P > 0.05) compared to the control. Among the experimental groups, though the improvement in immune parameters was higher (P < 0.05) in HKPB2 and HKPB3 compared to HKPB1 and the control, no significant difference (P > 0.05) was observed between HKPB2 and HKPB3. The results obtained from the present study indicate that the application of heat-killed L. plantarum at a concentration of 10(8) cfu g(-1) diet, though not effective in augmenting the growth and feed utilization parameters, can significantly improve immune parameters and disease resistance of M. rosenbergii in the laboratory condition. PMID:25542379

  16. Molecular cloning and characterization of lipopolysaccharide- and beta-1,3-glucan-binding protein from the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and its transcription in relation to foreign material injection and the molt stage.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Maw-Sheng; Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Cheng, Winton

    2009-12-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and beta-1,3-glucan-binding protein (LGBP) complementary (c)DNA was cloned from the hepatopancreas of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii using oligonucleotide primers and a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Both 3'- and 5'-regions were isolated by the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence revealed that the cDNA clone has an open reading frame of 1389 bp encoding a protein of 378 amino acids (aa) including a 15-aa signal peptide. The calculated molecular mass of the mature protein (363 aa) was 41.2 kDa with an estimated pI of 4.73. The M. rosenbergii LGBP sequence contains (1) three putative integrin-binding motifs, (2) a glucanase motif, (3) a putative N-glycosylation site, (4) four protein kinase C phosphorylation sites, (5) four casein kinase II phosphorylation sites, and (6) a putative recognition motif. Sequence comparison showed that the deduced amino acids of LGBP of M. rosenbergii had overall similarities of 60-71% to those of known crustacean LGBPs and beta-1,3-glucan-binding proteins (BGBPs). The LGBP of M. rosenbergii was mainly expressed in the hepatopancreas. The LGBP transcript of M. rosenbergii was downregulated in haemocytes, but was upregulated in the hepatopancreas when injected with LPS and poly:IC after 12 h. The LGBP messenger (m)RNA expression of prawns in the postmolt stage was significantly upregulated in haemocytes, but downregulated in the hepatopancreas, which revealed a complementary relationship between haemocytes and the hepatopancreas in the molt cycle. PMID:19766194

  17. Cloning and immunoreactivity of the 5-HT1Mac and 5-HT2Mac receptors in the central nervous system of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez-Acevedo, Nietzell; Reyes-Colón, Dalynés; Ruíz-Rodríguez, Eduardo A.; Rivera, Nilsa M.; Rosenthal, Joshua; Kohn, Andrea B.; Moroz, Leonid L.; Sosa, María A.

    2009-01-01

    Biogenic amines are implicated in several mental disorders, many of which involve social interactions. Simple model systems, such as crustaceans, are often more amenable than vertebrates for studying mechanisms underlying behaviors. Although various cellular responses of biogenic amines have been characterized in crustaceans, the mechanisms linking these molecules to behavior remain largely unknown. Observed effects of serotonin receptor agonists and antagonists in abdomen posture, escape responses, and fighting have led to the suggestion that biogenic amine receptors may play a role in modulating interactive behaviors. As a first step in understanding this potential role of such receptors, we have cloned and fully sequenced two serotonin receptors, 5-HT1Mac and 5-HT2Mac, from the CNS of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and have mapped their CNS immunohistochemical distribution. 5-HT1Mac was found primarily on the membranes of subsets of cells in all CNS ganglia, in fibers that traverse all CNS regions, and in the cytoplasm of a small number of cells in the brain, circum- and subesophageal ganglia (SEG), most of which also appear to contain dopamine. The pattern of 5-HT2Mac immunoreactivity was found to differ significantly, being found mostly in the central neuropil area of all ganglia, in glomeruli of the brain’s olfactory lobes, and in the cytoplasm of a small number of neurons in the SEG, thoracic and some abdominal ganglia. The observed differences in terms of localization, distribution within cells, and intensity of immunoreactive staining throughout the prawn’s CNS suggest that these receptors are likely to play different roles. PMID:19184976

  18. Changes of Phosphatidylcholine and Fatty Acids in Germ Cells during Testicular Maturation in Three Developmental Male Morphotypes of Macrobrachium rosenbergii Revealed by Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Siangcham, Tanapan; Chansela, Piyachat; Hayasaka, Takahiro; Masaki, Noritaka; Sroyraya, Morakot; Poljaroen, Jaruwan; Suwansa-ard, Saowaros; Engsusophon, Attakorn; Hanna, Peter J.; Sobhon, Prasert; Setou, Mitsutoshi

    2015-01-01

    Testis maturation, germ cell development and function of sperm, are related to lipid composition. Phosphatidylcholines (PCs) play a key role in the structure and function of testes. As well, increases of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA), especially arachidonic acid (ARA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are essential for male fertility. This study is the first report to show the composition and distribution of PCs and total fatty acids (FAs) in three groups of seminiferous tubules (STs) classified by cellular associations [i.e., A (STs with mostly early germ cells), B (STs with mostly spermatids), and C (STs with spermatozoa)], in three morphotypes of Macrobrachium rosenbergii, [i.e., small male (SM), orange claw male (OC), and blue claw male (BC)]. Thin layer chromatography exhibited levels of PCs reaching maxima in STs of group B. Imaging mass spectrometry showed remarkably high signals corresponding to PC (16:0/18:1), PC (18:0/18:2), PC (18:2/20:5), and PC (16:0/22:6) in STs of groups A and B. Moreover, most signals were detected in the early developing cells and the intertubular area, but not at the area containing spermatozoa. Finally, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry indicated that the major FAs present in the testes were composed of 14:0, 16:0, 17:0, 18:0, 16:1, 18:1, 18:2, 20:1, 20:2, 20:4, 20:5, and 22:6. The testes of OC contained the greatest amounts of these FAs while the testes of BC contained the least amounts of these FAs, and there was more EPA (20:5) in the testes of SM and OC than those in the BC. The increasing amounts of FAs in the SM and OC indicate that they are important for spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis. This knowledge will be useful in formulating diets containing PUFA and HUFA for prawn broodstocks in order to improve testis development, and lead to increased male fecundity. PMID:25781176

  19. Effects of anthraquinone extract from Rheum officinale Bail on the growth performance and physiological responses of Macrobrachium rosenbergii under high temperature stress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Xie, Jun; Ge, Xianping; Xu, Pao; Wang, Aiming; He, Yijin; Zhou, Qunlan; Pan, Liangkun; Chen, Ruli

    2010-07-01

    In order to study the effects of anthraquinone extract from Rheum officinale Bail on Macrobrachium rosenbergii under high temperature stress, freshwater prawns were randomly divided into five groups: a control group was fed with basal diet, and four treatment groups fed with basal diet supplemented with 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.4% anthraquinone extracts for 10 weeks, respectively. Then, freshwater prawns were exposed to high temperature stress at 35 degrees C for 48h. The growth, changes in haemolymph total protein, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lysozyme, nitrogen monoxide (NO) and hepatic catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were investigated. The results showed that compared the control group, the specific growth rates, feed conversion efficiency, haemolymph ALP and lysozyme activities, total protein contents, hepatic CAT and SOD activities increased while haemolymph AST, ALT and hepatic MDA contents decreased in treatment groups before the stress, but their levels did not correlate with the doses of anthraquinone extracts. The specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion efficiency and haemolymph lysozyme activity significantly increased but haemolymph AST activity decreased in 0.1% dose group; whereas haemolymph ALP activity and feed conversion efficiency increased but ALT activity and hepatic MDA contents significantly decreased in 0.2% dose group before the stress compared with the control. After high temperature stress, 0.1-0.2% anthraquinone extract also could improve the haemolymph total proteins, lysozyme and ALP activities, hepatic catalase, and superoxide dismutase, and reduce haemolymph ALT and AST activities, hepatic malondialdehyde contents. The cumulative mortality in the control was about 100% at 48h after high temperature stress while the cumulative mortality in the treatment groups supplemented with 0.1-0.2% anthraquinone extract were about 48-65%. The artificial infection with Vibrio anguillarum also showed the cumulative mortality in the control was about 100% while the cumulative mortality in the treatment groups supplemented with 0.1-0.2% anthraquinone extracts were about 57-80%. The present study suggested that ingestion of a basal diet supplemented with 0.1-0.20% anthraquinone extracts could prevent high temperature stress and promote the growth of prawns. PMID:20219682

  20. Changes of Phosphatidylcholine and Fatty Acids in Germ Cells during Testicular Maturation in Three Developmental Male Morphotypes of Macrobrachium rosenbergii Revealed by Imaging Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Siangcham, Tanapan; Chansela, Piyachat; Hayasaka, Takahiro; Masaki, Noritaka; Sroyraya, Morakot; Poljaroen, Jaruwan; Suwansa-Ard, Saowaros; Engsusophon, Attakorn; Hanna, Peter J; Sobhon, Prasert; Setou, Mitsutoshi

    2015-01-01

    Testis maturation, germ cell development and function of sperm, are related to lipid composition. Phosphatidylcholines (PCs) play a key role in the structure and function of testes. As well, increases of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA), especially arachidonic acid (ARA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are essential for male fertility. This study is the first report to show the composition and distribution of PCs and total fatty acids (FAs) in three groups of seminiferous tubules (STs) classified by cellular associations [i.e., A (STs with mostly early germ cells), B (STs with mostly spermatids), and C (STs with spermatozoa)], in three morphotypes of Macrobrachium rosenbergii, [i.e., small male (SM), orange claw male (OC), and blue claw male (BC)]. Thin layer chromatography exhibited levels of PCs reaching maxima in STs of group B. Imaging mass spectrometry showed remarkably high signals corresponding to PC (16:0/18:1), PC (18:0/18:2), PC (18:2/20:5), and PC (16:0/22:6) in STs of groups A and B. Moreover, most signals were detected in the early developing cells and the intertubular area, but not at the area containing spermatozoa. Finally, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry indicated that the major FAs present in the testes were composed of 14:0, 16:0, 17:0, 18:0, 16:1, 18:1, 18:2, 20:1, 20:2, 20:4, 20:5, and 22:6. The testes of OC contained the greatest amounts of these FAs while the testes of BC contained the least amounts of these FAs, and there was more EPA (20:5) in the testes of SM and OC than those in the BC. The increasing amounts of FAs in the SM and OC indicate that they are important for spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis. This knowledge will be useful in formulating diets containing PUFA and HUFA for prawn broodstocks in order to improve testis development, and lead to increased male fecundity. PMID:25781176

  1. Macrobrachium rosenbergii mannose binding lectin: Synthesis of MrMBL-N20 and MrMBL-C16 peptides and their antimicrobial characterization, bioinformatics and relative gene expression analysis.

    PubMed

    Arockiaraj, Jesu; Chaurasia, Mukesh Kumar; Kumaresan, Venkatesh; Palanisamy, Rajesh; Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Pasupuleti, Mukesh; Kasi, Marimuthu

    2015-04-01

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL), an antimicrobial protein, is an important component of innate immune system which recognizes repetitive sugar groups on the surface of bacteria and viruses leading to activation of the complement system. In this study, we reported a complete molecular characterization of cDNA encoded for MBL from freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Mr). Two short peptides (MrMBL-N20: (20)AWNTYDYMKREHSLVKPYQG(39) and MrMBL-C16: (307)GGLFYVKHKEQQRKRF(322)) were synthesized from the MrMBL polypeptide. The purity of the MrMBL-N20 (89%) and MrMBL-C16 (93%) peptides were confirmed by MS analysis (MALDI-ToF). The purified peptides were used for further antimicrobial characterization including minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay, kinetics of bactericidal efficiency and analysis of hemolytic capacity. The peptides exhibited antimicrobial activity towards all the Gram-negative bacteria taken for analysis, whereas they showed the activity towards only a few selected Gram-positive bacteria. MrMBL-C16 peptides produced the highest inhibition towards both the Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria compared to the MrMBL-N20. Both peptides do not produce any inhibition against Bacillus sps. The kinetics of bactericidal efficiency showed that the peptides drastically reduced the number of surviving bacterial colonies after 24 h incubation. The results of hemolytic activity showed that both peptides produced strong activity at higher concentration. However, MrMBL-C16 peptide produced the highest activity compared to the MrMBL-N20 peptide. Overall, the results indicated that the peptides can be used as bactericidal agents. The MrMBL protein sequence was characterized using various bioinformatics tools including phylogenetic analysis and structure prediction. We also reported the MrMBL gene expression pattern upon viral and bacterial infection in M. rosenbergii gills. It could be concluded that the prawn MBL may be one of the important molecule which is involved in antimicrobial mechanism. Moreover, MrMBL derived MrMBL-N20 and MrMBL-C16 peptides are important antimicrobial peptides for the recognition and eradication of viral and bacterial pathogens. PMID:25575476

  2. Dietary supplement of banana (Musa acuminata) peels hot-water extract to enhance the growth, anti-hypothermal stress, immunity and disease resistance of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Rattanavichai, Wutti; Cheng, Winton

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, Macrobrachium rosenbergii were fed with diets containing extracts of banana, Musa acuminate, fruit's peel (banana peels extract, BPE) at 0, 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1). The non-specific immune parameters, disease resistance and anti-hypothermal stress were evaluated at 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 days of post feeding. Also, we demonstrated the percent weight gain (PWG), percent length gain (PLG), feeding efficiency (FE), and survival rate of giant freshwater prawn at 30, 60, 90, and 120 days of post feeding. The PWG, PLG, FE and survival rate of prawns fed at 0, 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1) BPE-containing diets after 120 days were 69.5%, 75.4%, 77.8% and 83.3%; 21.8%, 23.6%, 27.8% and 33.9%; 0.60, 0.72, 0.75 and 0.90; and 55.4%, 62.2%, 62.3% and 75.3%, respectively. After 32 days of post feeding, a significant increase in total haemocyte count (THC), different haemocyte count (DHC), respiratory bursts (RBs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, phenoloxidase (PO) activity and transglutaminase (TG) activity, and meanwhile, a decreased haemolymph coagulation time was observed. Furthermore, phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency of prawns against Lactococcus garvieae infection were significantly increased. Prawns challenged with L. garvieae after 32 days of feeding at 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1) had a significantly higher survival rate (33.3%, 40.0% and 56.7%) than those fed with the control diet. Subsequently, hypothermal (14 °C) stress was 43.4%, 50.0% and 50.0%, respectively. Altogether, we therefore recommend the dietary BPE administration at 6.0 g kg(-1) promotes growth, anti-hypothermal stress, and enhance immunity and resistance against L. garvieae in M. rosenbergii. PMID:25634258

  3. Protein metabolism and energetics in the freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    E-print Network

    Clifford, Henry Charles

    1979-01-01

    % in diets for P. setiferus based on menhaden meal resulted in reduced growth rates unless carbohydrate or lipid levels were also increased (Andrews et al. , 1972). Mhen 30K starch was provided in lipid-free diets as a replacement for cellulose...% with lipid:carbohydrate ratios (L:C) of 1:2 in addition to isonitrogenous diets containing L:C Table 1. tlutrient and energy cuntent of expertaentaI diet foruelattons. ingredients tlenltdden aledl Soybean seal Menhaden otl Aeylose starch Egg albuaen...

  4. Ozone treatment in a closed culture system for Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    E-print Network

    Yamaguchi, Ryoji

    1978-01-01

    of its high reactivity, ozone has been used for treating water to remove dissolved organic and inorganic wastes (Torricelli, 1959; Diaper, 1972) . The effectiveness of ozonation has been discussed by Dickerman et al. (1954), Fetner and Ingols (1959... the ozone yield and accelerates the formation of nitrogen oxides which affect the electrodes and the life span of the dielectric material (Diaper, 1972). 37 The decomposition of ozone to oxygen is very temperature-sensitive, so that high temperatures...

  5. Antimicrobial peptides (AMP) with antiviral activity against fish nodavirus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ta-Jui Chia; Yu-Chi Wu; Jyh-Yih Chen; Shau-Chi Chi

    2010-01-01

    Nervous necrosis virus (NNV) is classified as betanodavirus of Nodaviridae, and has caused mass mortality of numerous marine fish species at larval stage. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) play an important role of innate immunity either against bacterial pathogens or viruses. Up to date, little is known if any AMP could effectively inhibit fish nodaviruses and its mechanism. In this study, the antiviral

  6. Virus-Like Particles of a Fish Nodavirus Display a Capsid Subunit Domain Organization Different from That of Insect Nodaviruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liang Tang; Chan-Shing Lin; Neel K. Krishna; Mark Yeager; Anette Schneemann; John E. Johnson

    2002-01-01

    The structure of recombinant virus-like particles of malabaricus grouper nervous necrosis virus (MGNNV), a fish nodavirus isolated from the grouper Epinephelus malabaricus, was determined by electron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM) and three-dimensional reconstruction at 23-Å resolution. The cryoEM structure, sequence compar- ison, and protein fold recognition analysis indicate that the coat protein of MGNNV has two domains resembling those of tomato bushy

  7. Identification of novel allergen in edible insect, Gryllus bimaculatus and its cross-reactivity with Macrobrachium spp. allergens.

    PubMed

    Srinroch, Chutima; Srisomsap, Chantragan; Chokchaichamnankit, Daranee; Punyarit, Phaibul; Phiriyangkul, Pharima

    2015-10-01

    Edible insects have recently been promoted as a source of protein and have a high nutrition value. Identification of allergens and cross-reactivity between Macrobrachium spp. and the field cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus) is necessary for food safety control and to assist in the diagnosis and therapy of allergy symptoms. Denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was used to separate proteins. Allergens were determined and identified by IgE-immunoblotting with pooled sera from prawn-allergic patients (n=16) and LC-MS/MS. Arginine kinase (AK) and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) were determined as the important allergens in muscle of Macrobrachium rosenbergii whereas, hemocyanin (HC) was identified as an allergen in Macrobrachium spp. The allergens in Macrobrachium lanchesteri were identified as AK and HC. In addition, hexamerin1B (HEX1B) was identified as a novel and specific allergen in G. bimaculatus. The important allergen in G. bimaculatus and Macrobrachium spp. is AK and was found to cross-react between both species. PMID:25872439

  8. Pathological changes in juvenile Atlantic halibut Hippoglossus hippoglossus persistently infected with nodavirus.

    PubMed

    Johans, R; Ranheim, T; Hansen, M K; Taksdal, T; Totland, G K

    2002-07-29

    This is the first description of a persistent subclinical nodavirus infection in the Atlantic halibut Hippoglossus hippoglossus. Juvenile fish (1 to 5 g) were sampled at 4, 5 and 8 mo of age at a fish farm in Norway during and after weaning. None showed clinical signs of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER) or other disease. Pathological changes and/or nodavirus were detected by light microscopy, immunohistochemistry, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and transmission electron microscopy in all fish examined. High numbers of virus particles were found in macrophage-like cells in the central nervous system, including brain and retina (CNS). The virus particles displayed the icosahedral shape and size (approximately 25 nm) characteristic of nodaviruses. The virus-infected cells formed focal cell aggregates and were seen in all regions of the brain and all nuclear cell layers of the retina. The cytoplasm of the infected cells was filled with membrane-enclosed inclusions packed with virus particles. Some virus particles lay along membranes and formed membrane-bound necklace-like arrangements. The virus-infected cells of the retina also contained pigment granula located generally inside virus inclusions and sometimes forming a coating around the virus particles. All frontal parts with the eyes and brain and 50% of the mid-parts, which included the abdominal organs, were found positive for nodavirus with RT-PCR. Pathological changes in these persistently nodavirus-infected fish differ from earlier descriptions in Atlantic halibut during outbreaks of VER. Vertical transmission from infected spawners is believed to be a major route for nodavirus infection. Detection of nodavirus in subclinical infected fish and a better understanding of its pathogenesis are important in order to prevent the spread of nodavirus in the fish-farming industry. PMID:12219972

  9. Acute toxicity of organochlorine insecticide endosulfan to the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrochium rosenbergii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Xilin; Xiong, Zhaodi; Xie, Jian; Ding, Fujiang

    2014-01-01

    Endosulfan, an organochlorine pesticide, is highly toxic and effective at controlling pests in agriculture, horticulture, and public health programs. In this study, static bioassays were used to evaluate the toxicity of endosulfan to freshwater prawns ( Macrobrachium rosenbergii) of various lengths (1.5±0.03, 4±0.08, and 7±0.06 cm). Additionally, the activities of peroxidase (POD), acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and Na+/K+-ATPase were analyzed to reflect the effects of endosulfan exposure. The 96 h LC50 of endosulfan for prawns 1.5, 4, and 7 cm long were 1.86, 4.53, and 6.09 ?g/L, respectively, improved tolerance to endosulfan with growth. The POD activities of test organisms exposed to low concentrations of endosulfan were inhibited, indicating the presence of oxygen damaged tissue. Moreover, a notable decrease in AChE activity was observed due to overstimulation of neurotransmission, which might result in abnormal behavior. The effect caused by endosulfan on phosphatase production in the hepatopancreas of prawns 1.5, 4, and 7 cm long was different because the ability of nonspecific immune regulation increased with growth. The 96 h LC50 values obtained in this study could be used in the formulation of water-quality criteria in China. Moreover, the changes in enzymes activities of M. rosenbergii under stress of endosulfan could be applied in the establishment of early warning indicators for bio-safety.

  10. Two Kazal-type protease inhibitors from Macrobrachium nipponense and Eriocheir sinensis: comparative analysis of structure and activities.

    PubMed

    Qian, Ye-Qing; Li, Ye; Yang, Fan; Yu, Yan-Qin; Yang, Jin-Shu; Yang, Wei-Jun

    2012-03-01

    Kazal-type inhibitors (KPIs) play important roles in many biological and physiological processes, such as blood clotting, the immune response and reproduction. In the present study, two male reproductive tract KPIs, termed Man-KPI and Ers-KPI, were identified in Macrobrachium nipponense and Eriocheir sinensis, respectively. The inhibitory activities of recombinant Man-KPI and Ers-KPI against chymotrypsin, elastase, trypsin and thrombin were determined. The results showed that both of them strongly inhibit chymotrypsin and elastase. Kinetic studies were performed to elucidate their inhibition mechanism. Furthermore, individual domains were also expressed to learn further which domain contributes to the inhibitory activities of intact KPIs. Only Man-KPI_domain3 is active in the inhibition of chymotrypsin and elastase. Meanwhile, Ers-KPI_domain2 and 3 are responsible for inhibition of chymotrypsin, and Ers-KPI_domains2, 3 and 4 are responsible for the inhibition of elastase. Meanwhile, the inhibitory activities of these two KPIs toward Macrobrachium rosenbergii, M. nipponense and E. sinensis sperm were compared with that of the Kazal-type peptidase inhibitor (MRPINK) characterized from the M. rosenbergii reproductive tract in a previous study. The results demonstrated that KPIs can completely inhibit the gelatinolytic activities of sperm proteases from their own species, while different levels of cross-inhibition were observed between KPI and proteases from different species. These results may provide new perspective to further clarify the mechanism of KPI-proteases interaction in the male reproductive system. PMID:22200638

  11. Molecular detection and characterization of nodavirus in several marine fish species from the northeastern Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Gagné, N; Johnson, S C; Cook-Versloot, M; MacKinnon, A M; Olivier, G

    2004-12-13

    Nodaviruses (NNV) are responsible for causing disease outbreaks mainly in hatchery-reared larvae and juveniles of a wide variety of fishes throughout the world. This disease has seriously limited the culture of marine fishes over the last decade. In the Atlantic provinces of Canada, disease caused by a nodavirus was first reported in juvenile Atlantic cod being reared in Nova Scotia, in 1999. More recently, disease outbreaks caused by nodavirus have been identified in hatchery-reared Atlantic cod and haddock in Newfoundland and New Brunswick, respectively, and along the east coast of the USA. The presence of NNV in wild Atlantic cod adults and wild winter flounder has also been reported. Nodaviruses were isolated from cultured Atlantic cod and haddock, as well as from wild winter flounder from a variety of geographical localities, and their virus coat (capsid) protein genes were partially sequenced. An analysis of the data indicates that all of the nodaviruses isolated from eastern North America were closely related to one another, but that they were distinct from the European isolates already sequenced. Regardless of host species, isolates from close geographical localities were more similar than those from distant geographical areas. At the protein level, differences in coat protein sequences were seen only for strains isolated from Atlantic cod originating from Newfoundland. Our results suggest that NNV may have been present in the Atlantic off Canada and on the east coast of the USA for some time, and has evolved to form a monophyletic group, distinct from other isolates found in cold-water species. Non-lethal methods for detection of NNV are necessary to develop management strategies for this disease, and would be an asset to diagnosticians and producers. Based on the results of this study, new primers were designed and developed for an improved RT-PCR assay able to detect North Atlantic nodaviruses in ovarian fluids, eggs and other tissues. The application of this test to field samples is discussed. PMID:15672873

  12. A fish nodavirus associated with mass mortality in hatchery-reared red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Myung-Joo Oh; Sung-Ju Jung; Suk-Ryul Kim; K. V Rajendran; Young-Jin Kim; Tae-Jin Choi; Hyeung-Rak Kim; Jin-Do Kim

    2002-01-01

    A nodavirus was detected in the larval stages of red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus, from Korea. The fish suffered heavy mortality (80–90%) and the principal signs of the disease included darkening of the body, anorexia, whirling movement, spinal deformity and enlarged swim bladder. Histological findings revealed vacuolation and necrosis in the nerve cells of brain, spinal cord and retina. Electron microscopic

  13. Antimicrobial peptides (AMP) with antiviral activity against fish nodavirus.

    PubMed

    Chia, Ta-Jui; Wu, Yu-Chi; Chen, Jyh-Yih; Chi, Shau-Chi

    2010-03-01

    Nervous necrosis virus (NNV) is classified as betanodavirus of Nodaviridae, and has caused mass mortality of numerous marine fish species at larval stage. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) play an important role of innate immunity either against bacterial pathogens or viruses. Up to date, little is known if any AMP could effectively inhibit fish nodaviruses and its mechanism. In this study, the antiviral activities of three antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) against grouper NNV (GNNV) were screened in the fish cell line. Two of the three AMPs, tilapia hepcidin 1-5 (TH 1-5) and cyclic shrimp anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (cSALF), were able to agglutinate purified NNV particles into clump, and the clumps were further confirmed to be viral proteins by TEM and Western blot. The NNV solution, separately pre-mixed with AMP (TH 1-5 or cSALF) or deionized-distilled water for 1 h, was used to infect GF-1 cells, and the levels of capsid protein in the GNNV-AMP-infected cells at 1 h post infection were much lower than that in the GNNV-H(2)O-infected cells, indicating that only a small portion of viral particles in the GNNV-AMP mixture could successfully infected the cells. Treatment of cBB cells with TH 1-5 and cSALF did not induce Mx gene expression; however, grouper epinecidin-1 (CP643-1) could induce the expression of Mx in the pre-treated cBB cells. This study revealed three AMPs with anti-NNV activity through two different mechanisms, and shed light on the future application in aquaculture. PMID:20004246

  14. The ecdysteroid titer in the female prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii during the molt cycle

    E-print Network

    Newitt, Richard Allen

    1981-01-01

    ~ g of 20-hydroxyecdysone were injected onto the HPLC column. Fractions were collected from 5 to 18 min. , evaporated by vacuum centrifugation, and assayed. Data from three runs are shown in Figure 10. It is clear that. both ecdysone and 20... of labeled and unlabeled ecdysone through purification. Experiment 49: Ecdysteroid titer of prawn carcasses with determination of recovery. 38 39 TABLE 5. Experiment 410: HPLC analysis of zone E from TLC separations 45 TABLE 6. Experiment iI11...

  15. Identification and cloning of a selenium dependent glutathione peroxidase from giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Shinn-Pyng; Liu, Kuan-Fu; Chiu, Shieh-Tsung; Jian, Shun-Ji; Cheng, Winton; Liu, Chun-Hung

    2009-08-01

    A selenium dependent glutathione peroxidase (Se-GPx) cDNA was cloned from haemocyte by a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA (RACE). The 913 bp cDNA contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 558 bp encoded a deduced amino acid sequence of 186 amino acids. The prawn Se-GPx sequence contains a selenocysteine (Sec) residue which is encoded by the unusual stop codon, (115)TGA(117). According to the molecular modeling analysis, the active site Sec residue, located in the loop between beta3 and alpha2 in a pocket on the protein surface, and hydrogen bonded to Gln(73) and Trp(141). A GPx signature motif 2, (63)LAFPCNQF(70) and active site motif, (151)WNFEKF(156), two arginine (R) residues, R(89) and R(167) contribute to the electrostatic architecture that directs the glutathione donor substrate, and two putative N-glycosylation site, (75)NNT(77) and (107)NGS(109) were observed in the prawn Se-GPx sequence. In addition, the eukaryotic selenocysteine insertion sequence element is conserved in the 3'-UTR. Comparison of amino acid sequences showed that prawn Se-GPx is more closely related to vertebrate GPx 1. The prawn Se-GPx was synthesized in haemocyte, hepatopancreas, muscle, stomach, gill, intestine, eyestalk, heart, epidermis, lymph organ, ventral nerve cord, testis and ovary. The increase of respiratory burst in haemocyte was observed in pathogen, Debaryomyces hansenii-injected prawn in order to kill the pathogen, and the up-regulation in SOD and GPx acitivity, and prawn Se-GPx mRNA transcription were involved with the protection against damage from oxidation. PMID:19376233

  16. Antibiotic administration by osmotic infiltration in the freshwater shrimp, Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    E-print Network

    Llobrera, Alcestis Trillo

    1980-01-01

    in 0. 1 N HC1 to give a concentration of' 1 mg/ml. Sarcina lutea ATCC 9341 was used to assay the antibiotic erythro- mycin and Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778 for oxytetracycline. Antibiotic medium 1 (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, Michigan) was used...

  17. Toxicity of ammonia to larvae of the freshwater shrimp, Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    E-print Network

    Llobrera, Jose Alvarez

    1979-01-01

    -*1d 1 of M. ~b in six hours and calculated food consumption rate of each larva XI Mean cumulative percentage recovery of larval M. ~st?'' 'n aaa n' -f e at r of various pH levels after immobilization by 180 mg/I ammonia-N 38 INTR ODUCT I.... (1977) reported a 96-hour LC50 of 49 mg/I ammonia-N for larval lobsters (Homarus americanus). In addition to its lethal effect at elevated concentra- tions, sublethal levels of ammonia have been shown to adversely affect exposed organisms. Burrows...

  18. Effect of salt treatments on survival and consumer acceptance of freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Post harvest acclimation of live freshwater prawns to a mixture of water and marine salt increases the consumer acceptability of the finished product. However, the high cost of marine salts prohibits their use in commercial practice. Therefore, the identification of successful, cost effective salt a...

  19. An Automated Microfluidic Chip System for Detection of Piscine Nodavirus and Characterization of Its Potential Carrier in Grouper Farms

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Hao-Hsuan; Lee, Szu-Hsien; Chen, Young-Mao; Tsai, Tieh-Jung; Ou, Ming-Chang; Ku, Hsiao-Tung; Lee, Gwo-Bin; Chen, Tzong-Yueh

    2012-01-01

    Groupers of the Epinephelus spp. are an important aquaculture species of high economic value in the Asia Pacific region. They are susceptible to piscine nodavirus infection, which results in viral nervous necrosis disease. In this study, a rapid and sensitive automated microfluidic chip system was implemented for the detection of piscine nodavirus; this technology has the advantage of requiring small amounts of sample and has been developed and applied for managing grouper fish farms. Epidemiological investigations revealed an extremely high detection rate of piscine nodavirus (89% of fish samples) from 5 different locations in southern Taiwan. In addition, positive samples from the feces of fish-feeding birds indicated that the birds could be carrying the virus between fish farms. In the present study, we successfully introduced this advanced technology that combines engineering and biological approaches to aquaculture. In the future, we believe that this approach will improve fish farm management and aid in reducing the economic loss experienced by fish farmers due to widespread disease outbreaks. PMID:22912690

  20. Molecular cloning and characterization of the lipopolysaccharide and ?-1,3-glucan binding protein from oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense.

    PubMed

    Xiu, Yunji; Wu, Ting; Liu, Peng; Huang, Ying; Ren, Qian; Gu, Wei; Meng, Qingguo; Wang, Wen

    2014-06-01

    The lipopolysaccharide and ?-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP), one of the pattern recognition proteins, plays an important role in the innate immune response of invertebrates. A 1,506 bp full-length cDNA of a LGBP gene was cloned and characterized from the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense (named as MnLGBP). Analysis of the nucleotide sequence revealed that the cDNA clone has an open reading frame of 1,119 bp, encoding a protein of 372 amino acids including a 21-aa signal peptide. The calculated molecular mass of the mature protein (351 aa) was 39.9 kDa with an estimated pI of 4.63. The MnLGBP sequence contains: (1) two putative integrin-binding motifs, (2) a glucanase motif, (3) two putative N-glycosylation sites, (4) one protein kinase C phosphorylation site, and (5) a putative recognition motif for ?-1,3-linkage of polysaccharides. Sequence comparison based on the deduced amino acid sequence of MnLGBP showed varied identity of 89, 76 and 74% with those of Macrobrachium rosenbergii LGBP, Marsupenaeus japonicus ?-1,3-glucan binding proteins, and Fenneropenaeus chinensis LGBP, respectively. Quantitative RT-PCR results showed that MnLGBP was expressed in nerve, intestine, muscle, gill, heart, haemocytes and at the highest level in hepatopancreas. After challenge with the pathogen, Aeromonas hydrophila and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, the expression of MnLGBP mRNA was significantly upregulated in the hepatopancreas compared to the control group. At the same time, the mRNA level of MnproPO increased dramatically at 48 h after injection of bacteria. These data should be helpful to better understand the function of MnLGBP in the prawn immune system. PMID:24584659

  1. Comparing trace metal bioaccumulation characteristics of three freshwater decapods of the genus Macrobrachium.

    PubMed

    Cresswell, Tom; Smith, Ross E W; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Simpson, Stuart L

    2014-07-01

    Potential sources and kinetics of metal bioaccumulation by the three Macrobrachium prawn species M. australiense, M. rosenbergii and M. latidactylus were assessed in laboratory experiments. The prawns were exposed to two scenarios: cadmium in water only; and exposure to metal-rich mine tailings in the same water. The cadmium accumulation from the dissolved exposure during 7 days, followed by depuration in cadmium-free water for 7 days, was compared with predictions from a biokinetic model that had previously been developed for M. australiense. M. australiense and M. latidactylus accumulated significant tissue cadmium during the exposure phase, albeit with different uptake rates. All three species retained >95% of the bioaccumulated cadmium during the depuration phase, indicating very slow efflux rates. Following exposure to tailings, there were significant (p<0.05) differences in tissue arsenic, cadmium, lead and zinc concentrations among species. Cadmium and zinc concentrations were increased relative to controls for all three species but were not different between treatments (direct/indirect contact with tailings), suggesting these metals were primarily accumulated via the dissolved phase. All species bioaccumulated significantly greater arsenic and lead when in direct contact with mine tailings, demonstrating the importance of an ingestion pathway for these metals. Copper was not bioaccumulated above control concentrations for any species. The differences between the metal accumulation of the three prawns indicated that a biokinetic model of cadmium bioaccumulation for M. australiense could potentially be used to describe the metal bioaccumulation of the other two prawn species, albeit with an over-prediction of 3-9 times. Despite these being the same genus of decapod crustacean, the study highlights the issues with using surrogate species, even under controlled laboratory conditions. It is recommended that future studies using surrogate species quantify the metal bioaccumulation characteristics of each species in order to account for any differences between species. PMID:24800868

  2. Molecular perspective on the American transisthmian species of Macrobrachium (Caridea, Palaemonidae)

    PubMed Central

    Pileggi, Leonardo G.; Rossi, Natália; Wehrtmann, Ingo S.; Mantelatto, Fernando L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The closure of the Isthmus of Panama (about 3.1 million years ago) separated previously continuous populations and created two groups of extant species, which live now in the Pacific and Atlantic drainage systems. This relatively recent event was a trigger to diversification of various species in the Neotropics, nonetheless there are exemplars that do not show sufficient morphologic variability to separate them by traditional morphological tools. About 60 years ago, some freshwater decapod species with high morphological similarity were separate by previous researchers, based on geographical distribution, in Pacific and Atlantic and considered as “sister species”. However, the complete isolation of these prawns by this geographical barrier is questionable, and it has generated doubts about the status of the following transisthmian pairs of sibling species: Macrobrachium occidentale × Macrobrachium heterochirus, Macrobrachium americanum × Macrobrachium carcinus, Macrobrachium digueti × Macrobrachium olfersii, Macrobrachium hancocki × Macrobrachium crenulatum, Macrobrachium tenellum × Macrobrachium acanthurus and Macrobrachium panamense × Macrobrachium amazonicum. Here we evaluated the relation among these pairs of sibling species in a molecular phylogenetic context. We generated 95 new sequences: 26 sequences of 16S rDNA, 25 of COI mtDNA and 44 of 18S nDNA. In total, 181 sequences were analyzed by maximum likelihood phylogenetic method, including 12 Macrobrachium transisthmian species, as well as seven other American Macrobrachium species, and two other palaemonids. Our analysis corroborated the morphological proximity of the sibling species. Despite the high degree of morphological similarities and considerable genetic diversification encountered among the transisthmian sister species, our data support the conclusion that all species included in sibling groups studied herein are valid taxonomic entities, but not all pairs of siblings form natural groups. PMID:25561833

  3. Functional analysis of an orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) interferon gene and characterisation of its expression in response to nodavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Young-Mao; Kuo, Cham-En; Chen, Guan-Ru; Kao, Yu-Ting; Zou, Jun; Secombes, Chris J; Chen, Tzong-Yueh

    2014-10-01

    We cloned and sequenced 2C I-IFN, a two-cysteine containing type I interferon (I-IFN) gene, in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). The cDNA has 769 base pairs, the protein has 172 amino acids, and the predicted signal peptide has 18 amino acids with two cysteines. This gene is similar to I-FNs from sea bass and other teleosts. 2C I-IFN has 5 exons and 4 introns, also similar to other teleost I-IFNs. Immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis indicated that expression is predominantly membrane-localized in healthy grouper, but has a zonal distribution in nodavirus-infected grouper. Grouper infected with nodavirus had elevated levels of 2C I-IFN at 72 h and Mx at days 6-7. Recombinant 2C I-IFN activated grouper Mx, leading to upregulated antiviral activity. The grouper Mx promoter was highly induced after treatment with recombinant 2C I-IFN. The present results suggest that expression of grouper 2C I-IFN may participate in the immunologic barrier function against nodavirus. PMID:24731841

  4. Effects of hot-water extract of banana (Musa acuminata) fruit's peel on the antibacterial activity, and anti-hypothermal stress, immune responses and disease resistance of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbegii.

    PubMed

    Rattanavichai, Wutti; Cheng, Winton

    2014-08-01

    The hot-extracts isolated from fruit's peel of banana, Musa acuminata, was evaluated on the antibacterial activity to pathogens from aquatic animals, and immunostimulating potential, disease resistance and anti-hypothermal stress in giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii through injection administration. The banana peel extract (BPE) showed good activity against 1 Gram-positive and 3 Gram-negative pathogens, including Lactococcus garvieae, Photobacteria damsella, Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio parahemolyticus especially in prawn pathogen of L. garvieae strain, which were carried out by a disk diffusion method. Prawn received BPE via injection administration at 1-6 ?g (g prawn)(-1) significantly increased total haemocyte count (THC), hyaline cell (HC), granular cell (GC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity and phagocytic activity against L. garvieae from 3 to 6 days, and significantly increased clearance efficiency against L. garvieae and a significantly decreased coagulation time of prawn from 1 to 6 days. Prawn injected with BPE at 6.0 ?g (g prawn)(-1) for 6 days showed significantly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, but significantly decreased respiratory bursts (RBs) of per haemocyte. Survival rates of M. rosenbergii injected with BPE at concentrations of 1, 3 and 6 ?g (g prawn)(-1) were significantly higher than those injected with saline control after challenge with L. garvieae for 4-6 days, and the respective relative survival percentages of prawn were 28.6%, 38.1%, and 47.8%, respectively at 6 days. The sublethal time of prawns that had received saline and BPE at 1, 3 and 6 ?g (g prawn)(-1) for 6 days and then were transferred from 28 °C to 14 °C were 69.4, 79.8, 83.6, and 90.2 h, respectively. It was concluded that the BPE can be used as the bacteriostat, and immunostimulant and physiological regulator for prawn through injection administration to enhance immunity, physiological responses, and resistance against L. garvieae. PMID:24906123

  5. Potential recombinant vaccine against influenza A virus based on M2e displayed on nodaviral capsid nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Chean Yeah; Yeap, Swee Keong; Ho, Kok Lian; Omar, Abdul Rahman; Tan, Wen Siang

    2015-01-01

    Influenza A virus poses a major threat to human health, causing outbreaks from time to time. Currently available vaccines employ inactivated viruses of different strains to provide protection against influenza virus infection. However, high mutation rates of influenza virus hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N) glycoproteins give rise to vaccine escape mutants. Thus, an effective vaccine providing protection against all strains of influenza virus would be a valuable asset. The ectodomain of matrix 2 protein (M2e) was found to be highly conserved despite mutations of the H and N glycoproteins. Hence, one to five copies of M2e were fused to the carboxyl-terminal end of the recombinant nodavirus capsid protein derived from Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The chimeric proteins harboring up to five copies of M2e formed nanosized virus-like particles approximately 30 nm in diameter, which could be purified easily by immobilized metal affinity chromatography. BALB/c mice immunized subcutaneously with these chimeric proteins developed antibodies specifically against M2e, and the titer was proportional to the copy numbers of M2e displayed on the nodavirus capsid nanoparticles. The fusion proteins also induced a type 1 T helper immune response. Collectively, M2e displayed on the nodavirus capsid nanoparticles could provide an alternative solution to a possible influenza pandemic in the future.

  6. Antimicrobial response is increased in the testis of European sea bass, but not in gilthead seabream, upon nodavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Valero, Yulema; García-Alcázar, Alicia; Esteban, M Ángeles; Cuesta, Alberto; Chaves-Pozo, Elena

    2015-05-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have a crucial role in the fish innate immune response, being considered a fundamental component of the first line of defence against pathogens. Moreover, AMPs have not been studied in the fish gonad since this is used by some pathogens as a vehicle or a reservoir to be transmitted to the progeny, as occurs with nodavirus (VNNV), which shows vertical transmission through the gonad and/or gonadal fluids, but no study has looked into the gonad of infected fish. In this framework, we have characterized the antimicrobial response triggered by VNNV in the testis of European sea bass, a very susceptible species of the virus, and in the gilthead seabream, which acts as a reservoir, both in vivo and in vitro, and compared with that present in the serum and brain (target tissue of VNNV). First, our data show a great antiviral response in the brain of gilthead seabream and in the gonad of European sea bass. In addition, for the first time, our results demonstrate that the antimicrobial activities (complement, lysozyme and bactericidal) and the expression of AMP genes such as complement factor 3 (c3), lysozyme (lyz), hepcidin (hamp), dicentracin (dic), piscidin (pis) or ?-defensin (bdef) in the gonad of both species are very different, but generally activated in the European sea bass, probably related with the differences of susceptibility upon VNNV infection, and even differs to the brain response. Furthermore, the in vitro data suggest that some AMPs are locally regulated playing a local immune response in the gonad, while others are more dependent of the systemic immune system. Data are discussed in the light to ascertain their potential role in viral clearance by the gonad to avoid vertical transmission. PMID:25707600

  7. Regulation of laboratory populations of snails (Biomphalaria and Bulinus spp.) by river prawns, Macrobrachium spp. (Decapoda, Palaemonidae): implications for control of schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kuris, Armand M.

    2014-01-01

    Human schistosomiasis is a common parasitic disease endemic in many tropical and subtropical countries. One barrier to achieving long-term control of this disease has been re-infection of treated patients when they swim, bathe, or wade in surface fresh water infested with snails that harbor and release larval parasites. Because some snail species are obligate intermediate hosts of schistosome parasites, removing snails may reduce parasitic larvae in the water, reducing re-infection risk. Here, we evaluate the potential for snail control by predatory freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii and M. vollenhovenii, native to Asia and Africa, respectively. Both prawn species are high value, protein-rich human food commodities, suggesting their cultivation may be beneficial in resource-poor settings where few other disease control options exist. In a series of predation trials in laboratory aquaria, we found both species to be voracious predators of schistosome-susceptible snails, hatchlings, and eggs, even in the presence of alternative food, with sustained average consumption rates of 12% of their body weight per day. Prawns showed a weak preference for Bulinus truncatus over Biomphalaria glabrata snails. Consumption rates were highly predictable based on the ratio of prawn: snail body mass, suggesting satiation-limited predation. Even the smallest prawns tested (0.5–2g) caused snail recruitment failure, despite high snail fecundity. With the World Health Organization turning attention toward schistosomiasis elimination, native prawn cultivation may be a viable snail control strategy that offers a win-win for public health and economic development. PMID:24388955

  8. Regulation of laboratory populations of snails (Biomphalaria and Bulinus spp.) by river prawns, Macrobrachium spp. (Decapoda, Palaemonidae): implications for control of schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Sokolow, Susanne H; Lafferty, Kevin D; Kuris, Armand M

    2014-04-01

    Human schistosomiasis is a common parasitic disease endemic in many tropical and subtropical countries. One barrier to achieving long-term control of this disease has been re-infection of treated patients when they swim, bathe, or wade in surface fresh water infested with snails that harbor and release larval parasites. Because some snail species are obligate intermediate hosts of schistosome parasites, removing snails may reduce parasitic larvae in the water, reducing re-infection risk. Here, we evaluate the potential for snail control by predatory freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii and M. vollenhovenii, native to Asia and Africa, respectively. Both prawn species are high value, protein-rich human food commodities, suggesting their cultivation may be beneficial in resource-poor settings where few other disease control options exist. In a series of predation trials in laboratory aquaria, we found both species to be voracious predators of schistosome-susceptible snails, hatchlings, and eggs, even in the presence of alternative food, with sustained average consumption rates of 12% of their body weight per day. Prawns showed a weak preference for Bulinus truncatus over Biomphalaria glabrata snails. Consumption rates were highly predictable based on the ratio of prawn: snail body mass, suggesting satiation-limited predation. Even the smallest prawns tested (0.5-2g) caused snail recruitment failure, despite high snail fecundity. With the World Health Organization turning attention toward schistosomiasis elimination, native prawn cultivation may be a viable snail control strategy that offers a win-win for public health and economic development. PMID:24388955

  9. Electrochemical measurement of hydrogen peroxide in plasma: evaluation of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) and crucian carp (Cyprinus carpio) phagocytes under natural conditions.

    PubMed

    Pinhong, Wang; Wei, Ji; Yaqing, Chang

    2007-12-01

    An electrochemical technique for the real-time detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was employed to describe respiratory burst activity (RBA) of phagocytes in plasma which can be used to evaluate the ability of immune system and disease resistance. The method is based upon the electric current changes, by redox reaction on platinum electrode of extracellular hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) released from phagocytes stimulated by the zymosan at 680 mV direct current (d.c.). Compared with the control, activation of respiratory burst by zymosan particles results in a high amperometric response, and a current peak was obtained during the whole monitoring process. The peak current was proved by addition of Cu2+ and other controls, to be the result of intense release of H2O2 from phagocytes. The peak area was calculated and used to evaluate the quantity of effective H2O2, which represents the quantity of H2O2 beyond the clearance of related enzymes in plasma. According to Faraday's law, the phagocytes' ability of prawns to generate effective H2O2 was evaluated from 1.253 x 10(-14) mol/cell to 6.146 x 10(-14) mol/cell, and carp from 1.689 x 10(-15) mol/cell to 7.873 x 10(-15) mol/cell. This method is an acute and quick detection of extracellular effective H2O2 in plasma and reflects the capacity of phagocytes under natural conditions, which could be applied for selecting species and parents with high immunity for breeding in aquaculture. PMID:17728150

  10. The status of the species Hyphomonas rosenbergii Weiner et al. 2000. Request for an Opinion.

    PubMed

    Lai, Qiliang; Li, Chongping; Shao, Zongze

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and several key phenotypic features, it was ascertained that the culture cited as the type strain of the species Hyphomonas rosenbergii, ATCC 43869(T), does not conform to the description of the species, [Weiner, R. M., Melick, M., O'Neill, K. & Quintero, E. (2000). Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 50, 459-469]. The type strain does not exist in any other established culture collection or with the authors who described this species. Therefore, it cannot be included in any scientific study. It is proposed that the Judicial Commission place the name Hyphomonas rosenbergii on the list of rejected names if a suitable replacement type strain is not found or a neotype is not proposed within two years following the publication of this Request for an Opinion. PMID:25602083

  11. RNA Binding by a Novel Helical Fold of B2 Protein from Wuhan Nodavirus Mediates the Suppression of RNA Interference and Promotes B2 Dimerization ?

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Nan; Cai, Dawei; Qiu, Yang; Xie, Jiazheng; Wang, Zhaowei; Si, Jie; Zhang, Jiamin; Zhou, Xi; Hu, Yuanyang

    2011-01-01

    Wuhan nodavirus (WhNV) is a newly identified member of the Nodaviridae family with a bipartite genome of positive-sense RNAs. A nonstructural protein encoded by subgenomic RNA3 of nodaviruses, B2, serves as a potent RNA silencing suppressor (RSS) by sequestering RNA duplexes. We have previously demonstrated that WhNV B2 blocks RNA silencing in cultured Drosophila cells. However, the molecular mechanism by which WhNV B2 functions remains unknown. Here, we successfully established an RNA silencing system in cells derived from Pieris rapae, a natural host of WhNV, by introducing into these cells double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-expressing plasmids or chemically synthesized small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Using this system, we revealed that the WhNV B2 protein inhibited Dicer-mediated dsRNA cleavage and the incorporation of siRNA into the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) by sequestering dsRNA and siRNA. Based on the modeled B2 3-dimensional structure, serial single alanine replacement mutations and N-terminal deletion analyses showed that the RNA-binding domain of B2 is formed by its helices ?2 and ?3, while helix ?1 mediates B2 dimerization. Furthermore, positive feedback between RNA binding and B2 dimerization was uncovered by gel shift assay and far-Western blotting, revealing that B2 dimerization is required for its binding to RNA, whereas RNA binding to B2 in turn promotes its dimerization. All together, our findings uncovered a novel RNA-binding mode of WhNV B2 and provided evidence that the promotion effect of RNA binding on dimerization exists in a viral RSS protein. PMID:21734038

  12. Influence of bilateral eyestalk ablation on gonads of fresh water prawn, Macrobrachium dayanum.

    PubMed

    Pervaiz, Pervaiz Ahmed; Sikdar, Malabika

    2014-09-01

    The study was carried out in laboratory for one month to know the effect of bilateral eyestalk ablation on gonads of Macrobrachium dayanum. Healthy specimens of Macrobrachium dayanum in the size group of (4-6 cm in length) were taken for the experiment. The eyestalk ablation was done by cutting away the eyestalks from their bases with sterilized scissor. The results here obtained indicated positive effects of eyestalk ablation on ovary and testes of Macrobrachium dayanum. The histological details of the female prawns which were ablated showed post-vitellogenic oocytes; where as unablated females prawn never developed beyond pre-vitellogenic oocytes. Similarly in males, testes showed pronounced development of different cells as compared to unablated ones. Fully developed spermatozoa were seen in ablated ones. Gonadosomatic studies also showed that ovarian and testicular cells developed better as compared to control and these findings suggest the fact that the eyestalks of M. dayanum contain ovary and testis inhibiting factors. PMID:25204053

  13. 77 FR 20358 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

  14. 75 FR 75965 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

  15. 75 FR 37757 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Vietnam: Initiation and Preliminary Results of Changed-Circumstances...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    ...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

  16. 75 FR 61122 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Amended Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-04

    ...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted [[Page 61123

  17. 78 FR 33346 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Countervailing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

  18. 78 FR 33344 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Preliminary Countervailing Duty Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

  19. 75 FR 47546 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

  20. 77 FR 23222 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

  1. 75 FR 3446 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Intent To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

  2. 78 FR 33347 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Ecuador: Preliminary Negative Countervailing Duty Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

  3. 78 FR 33349 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Indonesia: Negative Preliminary Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

  4. 78 FR 35643 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-13

    ...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

  5. 75 FR 74684 - Notice of Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review: Certain Frozen...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-01

    ...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

  6. 75 FR 52718 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

  7. 75 FR 54847 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Thailand: Final Results and Partial Rescission of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

  8. 78 FR 33342 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

  9. 78 FR 50379 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Thailand: Final Negative Countervailing Duty Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

  10. 78 FR 33350 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Thailand: Preliminary Countervailing Duty Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

  11. 76 FR 64307 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Amended Final Results and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-18

    ...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

  12. 75 FR 16436 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

  13. 76 FR 12033 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Thailand: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

  14. 77 FR 64953 - Notice of Initiation and Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

  15. 77 FR 40574 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Thailand: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

  16. 75 FR 51756 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Changed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

  17. 75 FR 36635 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Rescission of New Shipper...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

  18. 75 FR 49889 - Notice of Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed-Circumstances Review: Frozen Warmwater Shrimp...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

  19. 75 FR 13492 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed-Circumstances...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

  20. 76 FR 40881 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Thailand: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

  1. 75 FR 61702 - Notice of Initiation and Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

  2. 77 FR 73619 - Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review: Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

  3. 77 FR 13082 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Thailand: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

  4. 76 FR 30648 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

  5. 75 FR 44229 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Changed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    ...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

  6. 76 FR 45775 - Fourth New Shipper Review of Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

  7. Genetic variability and phylogenetic aspects in species of the genus Macrobrachium.

    PubMed

    Guerra, A L; Lima, A V B; Lucato Júnior, R V; Chiachio, M C; Taddei, F G; Castiglioni, L

    2014-01-01

    The genus Macrobrachium includes prawns, which are widely distributed in lakes, floodplains, and rivers in tropical and subtropical regions of South America. This genus presents nearly 210 known species with great ecological and economic importance. However, few studies are related to the biology of these crustaceans. In this study, we analyzed the genetic variability and phylogenetic relationship between Macrobrachium amazonicum and Macrobrachium jelskii, which are closely related species. Additionally, they are syntopics and their taxonomy poses problems because it is difficult to differentiate between the species. We used the mitochondrial gene sequences COI and 16S rRNA to assess the genetic structure of these species in 3 populations that were collected from Tiete hydrographic basin (São Paulo State, Brazil). The interspecific comparison of samples that were collected at the same and different locations showed a low rate of genetic variability. This similarity was attributed to the recent introduction of these species in the regions that were sampled and the habitat conditions in which they inhabit. In addition, these results may be consistent with the hypothesis that they are a single species, interspecific hybrids, or metapopulation. The dendrogram analyses did not reveal the formation of clusters, confirming the disturbances in the genetic structure of the samples that were analyzed in this study. These data are pioneers to these crustaceans, and they confirm the ecological and evolutionary problems between these Macrobrachium species. PMID:24854444

  8. Species composition and gear characteristics of the Macrobrachium fishery of the Cross River Estuary, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nwosu, Francis M.

    2010-03-01

    The Cross River Estuary, Nigeria, is an important shrimping area for artisanal fishermen of the coastal communities. The multi-species Macrobrachium fishery is exploited with three main gears, namely beach seine, push net and trap. Studies on species composition of this fishery recorded thirteen shrimp species, one swimming crab ( Callinectes amnicola) and two fish species ( Eleotris sp. and Pellonula leonensis). The shrimp species identified included Macrobrachium macrobrachion (83.39% and 55.69% by number and weight, respectively), M. vollenhovenii (9.66% and 37.18%), M. equidens (3.8% and 2.87%), juveniles-sub-adults of Penaeus notialis (1.11% and 1.3%), M. dux, M. felicinum, Palaemonetes africanus, Palaemon maculatus, Palaemon elegans, Desmocaris sp., Leander sp., Nematopalaemon hastatus and Alpheus pontederiae. While the selectivity index for trap was 0.25, beach seine and push net had a lower index of 0.063. The results present the first comprehensive and representative report for the Estuary shrimp fishery and will assist in the management of the biodiversity of this ecosystem.

  9. Molecular perspective on the American transisthmian species of Macrobrachium (Caridea, Palaemonidae).

    PubMed

    Pileggi, Leonardo G; Rossi, Natália; Wehrtmann, Ingo S; Mantelatto, Fernando L

    2014-01-01

    The closure of the Isthmus of Panama (about 3.1 million years ago) separated previously continuous populations and created two groups of extant species, which live now in the Pacific and Atlantic drainage systems. This relatively recent event was a trigger to diversification of various species in the Neotropics, nonetheless there are exemplars that do not show sufficient morphologic variability to separate them by traditional morphological tools. About 60 years ago, some freshwater decapod species with high morphological similarity were separate by previous researchers, based on geographical distribution, in Pacific and Atlantic and considered as "sister species". However, the complete isolation of these prawns by this geographical barrier is questionable, and it has generated doubts about the status of the following transisthmian pairs of sibling species: Macrobrachiumoccidentale × Macrobrachiumheterochirus, Macrobrachiumamericanum × Macrobrachiumcarcinus, Macrobrachiumdigueti × Macrobrachiumolfersii, Macrobrachiumhancocki × Macrobrachiumcrenulatum, Macrobrachiumtenellum × Macrobrachiumacanthurus and Macrobrachiumpanamense × Macrobrachiumamazonicum. Here we evaluated the relation among these pairs of sibling species in a molecular phylogenetic context. We generated 95 new sequences: 26 sequences of 16S rDNA, 25 of COI mtDNA and 44 of 18S nDNA. In total, 181 sequences were analyzed by maximum likelihood phylogenetic method, including 12 Macrobrachium transisthmian species, as well as seven other American Macrobrachium species, and two other palaemonids. Our analysis corroborated the morphological proximity of the sibling species. Despite the high degree of morphological similarities and considerable genetic diversification encountered among the transisthmian sister species, our data support the conclusion that all species included in sibling groups studied herein are valid taxonomic entities, but not all pairs of siblings form natural groups. PMID:25561833

  10. Bioaccumulation and retention kinetics of cadmium in the freshwater decapod Macrobrachium australiense.

    PubMed

    Cresswell, Tom; Simpson, Stuart L; Smith, Ross E W; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Mazumder, Debashish; Twining, John

    2014-03-01

    The potential sources and mechanisms of cadmium bioaccumulation by the native freshwater decapods Macrobrachium species in the waters of the highly turbid Strickland River in Papua New Guinea were examined using (109)Cd-labelled water and food sources and the Australian species Macrobrachium australiense as a surrogate. Synthetic river water was spiked with environmentally relevant concentrations of cadmium and animals were exposed for 7 days with daily renewal of test solutions. Dietary assimilation of cadmium was assessed through pulse-chase experiments where prawns were fed separately (109)Cd-labelled fine sediment, filamentous algae and carrion (represented by cephalothorax tissue of water-exposed prawns). M. australiense readily accumulated cadmium from the dissolved phase and the uptake rate increased linearly with increasing exposure concentration. A cadmium uptake rate constant of 0.10 ± 0.05 L/g/d was determined in synthetic river water. During depuration following exposure to dissolved cadmium, efflux rates were low (0.9 ± 5%/d) and were not dependent on exposure concentration. Assimilation efficiencies of dietary sources were comparable for sediment and algae (48-51%), but lower for carrion (28 ± 5%) and efflux rates were low (0.2-2.6%/d) demonstrating that cadmium was well retained by M. australiense. A biokinetic model of cadmium accumulation by M. australiense predicted that for exposures to environmentally relevant cadmium concentrations in the Strickland River, uptake from ingestion of fine sediment and carrion would be the predominant sources of cadmium to the organism. The model predicted the total dietary route would represent 70-80% of bioaccumulated cadmium. PMID:24508761

  11. Vacuolating encephalopathy and retinopathy associated with a nodavirus-like agent: a probable cause of mass mortality of wild Golden grey mullet (Liza aurata) and Sharpnose grey mullet (Liza saliens) in Iranian waters of the Caspian Sea.

    PubMed

    Zorriehzahra, Mohammad Jalil; Nazari, Alireza; Ghasemi, Mohaddes; Ghiasi, Maryam; Karsidani, Somayeh Haghighi; Bovo, Giuseppe; Daud, Hassan Hj Mohd

    2014-12-01

    Mullets are dominant fishes in the catch composition in the southern coasts of the Caspian Sea and after (Rutilus frisii kutum Kamensky, 1901) have a worthy role in production of marine proteins and incomings of north provinces of Iran. Mullets stocks decreased dramatically in recent decades in the Caspian Sea and catch amount reached from 6446 MT on 2002 to 2151 MT in 2012. Mysterious mortalities occurred in wild mullet (Liza auratu) and (Liza saliens) in Iranian waters of Caspian Sea in recent years. Regarding to investigation of causative agent of mentioned outbreak about 322 suspected samples were collected from coastal capture sites of Iranian north provinces in 2008 till 2011. Moribund fish revealed skin darkening, erratic swimming, belly-up at rest and high distension of swim bladder. Target tissues such as brain and eye were removed and then fixed for histopathology and TEM assay. Widespread and massive vacuolation were observed in brain, spinal cord, retina and optical nerve and intracytoplasmic vacuoles and virus particles in retina. So concerning to clinical signs, histopathological and TEM findings, it could be concluded that nodavirus-like agent could be probable cause of mass mortality of wild mullet in Iranian waters of the Caspian Sea. PMID:25674618

  12. Immunological-based assays for specific detection of shrimp viruses

    PubMed Central

    Chaivisuthangkura, Parin; Longyant, Siwaporn; Sithigorngul, Paisarn

    2014-01-01

    Among shrimp viral pathogens, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and yellow head virus (YHV) are the most lethal agents, causing serious problems for both the whiteleg shrimp, Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei, and the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus (Penaeus) monodon. Another important virus that infects P. vannamei is infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV), which induces the white discoloration of affected muscle. In the cases of taura syndrome virus and Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV; formerly known as infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus), their impacts were greatly diminished after the introduction of tolerant stocks of P. vannamei. Less important viruses are Penaeus monodon densovirus (PmDNV; formerly called hepatopancreatic parvovirus), and Penaeus monodon nucleopolyhedrovirus (PemoNPV; previously called monodon baculovirus). For freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus and extra small virus are considered important viral pathogens. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific to the shrimp viruses described above have been generated and used as an alternative tool in various immunoassays such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, dot blotting, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Some of these MAbs were further developed into immunochromatographic strip tests for the detection of WSSV, YHV, IMNV and PemoNPV and into a dual strip test for the simultaneous detection of WSSV/YHV. The strip test has the advantages of speed, as the result can be obtained within 15 min, and simplicity, as laboratory equipment and specialized skills are not required. Therefore, strip tests can be used by shrimp farmers for the pond-side monitoring of viral infection. PMID:24567913

  13. Shrimp Farming in the Classroom

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lovelle Ruggiero

    2000-01-01

    In inquiry-based instruction, discovery and learning belong to the students. In this exploration, jumbo shrimp are the source of inspiration. The magic in this project lies not in successfully culturing these shrimp, known as Macrobrachium rosenbergii

  14. Cellular signalling of PCH-induced pigment aggregation in the crustacean Macrobrachium potiuna erythrophores.

    PubMed

    Nery, L E; da Silva, M A; Josefsson, L; Castrucci, A M

    1997-11-01

    The cellular system responsible for the transduction of the pigment-concentrating hormone (PCH) signal was investigated in erythrophores of the freshwater shrimp, Macrobrachium potiuna. Dose-response curves to the hormone were determined in the absence and in the presence of several drugs that affect sequential steps of the Ca(2+)-dependent signalling pathway. Additionally, the ability of forskolin to induce pigment dispersion was evaluated. Neomycin sulphate (10(-4) and 10(-3) mol.l-1), trifluoperazine (10(-5) and 10(-4) mol.l-1), 1-(5-isoquinolinesulfonlyl)-2-methylpiperazine (10(-7) and 10(-5) mol.l-1) and okadaic acid (10(-7) mol.l-1) significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the responses to PCH. However, okadaic acid at low concentration (10(-9) mol.l-1) and cyclosporin A (10(-6) and 10(-5) mol.l-1) did not significantly (P > 0.05) affect PCH activity. Forskolin (10(-4) mol.l-1) was able to half-maximally reverse the hormone-induced aggregation. Our results suggest that the pigment-concentrating hormone induces pigment aggregation through a Ca(2+)-dependent pathway with a posteriori phosphatase activation, probably the serine/threonine phosphatase 1. PMID:9404017

  15. Structural changes of oviduct of freshwater shrimp, Macrobrachium nipponense (Decapoda, Palaemonidae), during spawning*

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jian-ping; Zhang, Xiao-hui; Yu, Xiao-yun

    2006-01-01

    The structural change of the oviduct of freshwater shrimp (Macrobrachium nipponense) during spawning was examined by electron microscopy. The oviduct wall structural characteristics seem to be influenced significantly by the spawning process. Before the parturition and ovulation, two types of epithelial cells (types I and II) are found in the epithelium. The free surfaces of type I and type II cells have very dense long microvilli. Under the type I and type II cells, are a relatively thick layer of secreting material and a layer of mostly dead cells. After ovulation, two other types of epithelial cells (types III and IV) are found in the oviduct wall epithelium. The free surface of type III cells only has short microvilli scattered on the surface. The thick layer with secreting material and the dead cell layer disappeared at this stage. In some type III cells, the leaking out of cytoplasm from broken cell membrane led to the death of these type III cells. The transformation of all four types of epithelial cells was in the order: IV?I?II?III. PMID:16365928

  16. Adaptation to freshwater in the palaemonid shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum: comparative ontogeny of osmoregulatory organs.

    PubMed

    Boudour-Boucheker, Nesrine; Boulo, Viviane; Lorin-Nebel, Catherine; Elguero, Camille; Grousset, Evelyse; Anger, Klaus; Charmantier-Daures, Mireille; Charmantier, Guy

    2013-07-01

    The ontogeny of osmoregulatory organs was studied in two geographically isolated populations of the palaemonid shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum, one originating from the Amazon estuary (A) and the other from inland waters of the Pantanal (P) in northeastern and southwestern Brazil, respectively. A previous investigation had shown that the estuarine population is able to hypo-osmoregulate in seawater, whereas the hololimnetic inland population has lost this physiological function. In the present study, the structural development of the branchial chamber and excretory glands and the presence of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) were compared between populations and between larval and juvenile stages after exposure to two salinities representing hypo- and hypertonic environments. In the newly hatched zoea I stage of both populations, gills were absent and NKA was localized along the inner epithelium of the branchiostegite. In intermediate (zoea V) and late larval stages (decapodids), significant differences between the two populations were observed in gill development and NKA expression. In juveniles, NKA was detected in the gills and branchiostegite, with no differences between populations. At all developmental stages and in both populations, NKA was present in the antennal glands upon hatching. The strong hypo-osmoregulatory capacity of the early developmental stages in population A could be linked to ion transport along the inner side of the branchiostegite; this seemed to be absent or weak in population P. The presence of fully functional gills expressing NKA appears to be essential for efficient hyper-osmoregulation in late developmental stages during successful freshwater adaptation and colonization. PMID:23616029

  17. Toxicity of cryoprotectants agents in freshwater prawn embryos of Macrobrachium amazonicum.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Arthur Vinícius Lourenço; Castro, Elias José Teles; Barbosa, Mariana Silva Alves; de Sousa, Míriam Luzia Nogueira Martins; de Araújo Neto, Manoel Paiva; Filho, Aldeney Andrade Soares; de Souza Sampaio, Celia Maria

    2014-09-26

    Summary The process of cooling and cryopreservation of prawn embryos is a viable alternative for a continuous supply of larvae for freshwater prawn farming ponds. However, studies involving the application of those techniques as well as on toxicity of cryoprotectants in freshwater prawn embryos are scarce. Thus, this study aims to test the toxicity of methylic alcohol (MET), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and ethylene glycol (EG) on Macrobrachium amazonicum embryos. For the present experiment, pools of embryos were taken from 15 M. amazonicum females and were divided into three groups and tested in duplicate at concentrations of 10, 5, 3; 1, 0.5 or 0.1%. Toxicity tests were conducted for 24 h in Falcon® pipes to obtain the lethal concentration for 50% of the larvae (LC50). After the set period for testing, random samples of embryos were removed for morphological analysis under stereoscopic microscopes. Results were analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's test at a 5% significance level and Trimmed Spearman-Karber Analysis to determine LC50-24 h. DMSO toxicity tests revealed that 5% and 10% concentrations showed the highest toxicity and differed from the control (P ? 0.05), 24h-LC50 was 437.4 ± 14.4 µL. MET was less toxic among the tested cryoprotectants and concentrations did not allow the determination of its LC50-24h. For tests with EG, concentrations of 3, 5 or 10% solutions resulted in a 100% mortality to tested embryos; EG was the tested cryoprotectant with the highest toxicity, with an LC50-24h average of 81.91 ± 35.3 µl. PMID:25255785

  18. Identification and characterization of a Macrobrachium nipponense ferritin subunit regulated by iron ion and pathogen challenge.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shengming; Gu, Zhimin; Fu, Hongtuo; Zhu, Jian; Xuan, Fujun; Ge, Xianping

    2014-09-01

    Ferritin, a major iron storage protein in most living organisms, plays a crucial role in iron metabolism. In this study, the ferritin subunit MnFer was identified in the oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) and functionally characterized. The full-length cDNA of MnFer is 999 bp in size with a 122-bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), a 364-bp 3'-UTR and a 513-bp open reading frame that encodes a protein possessing 171 amino acids and a deduced molecular weight of 19.40 kDa. Prawn ferritin transcripts are expressed in muscle, heart, hepatopancreas, gill, hemocytes, ovary and testis. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that the abundance of ferritin transcript was highest in the hepatopancreas followed by muscle. Ferritin transcript expression in muscle increased six-fold 3 h after the injection of iron. In the gill, a four-fold increase in ferritin transcript expression was detected 3 h post-injection; the expression remained elevated for 48 h. Heart ferritin mRNA expression increased up to seven-fold at 24 h post-injection. No significant difference was found in the hepatopancreas. The iron binding capacity of recombinant ferritin protein was also demonstrated in this study. In hemocyte experiments, the transcriptional expression of MnFer showed the strongest response to Aeromonas hydrophila. As a whole, our study suggested that the ferritin from M. nipponense may play critical roles in cellular and organismic iron homeostasis along with in innate immune defense. PMID:25038282

  19. Factors affecting the distribution and abundance of Macrobrachium petersi (Hilgendorf) in the Keiskamma River and estuary, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, G. H. L.

    1985-09-01

    A dry (1979-1980) and a wet (1980-1981) season had a marked effect on the freshwater inflow into the Keiskamma estuary. Under low inflow conditions, which results in elevated salinities in the upper reaches, an upstream migration of adult Macrobrachium petersi (Hilgendorf) to freshwater takes place. During periods of increased river inflow adult M. petersi move downstream to the more saline reaches of the estuary. These two migratory responses have been interpreted as (a) a breeding migration under high inflow conditions which ensures that larvae are in close proximity to salinities that favour growth and development, and (b) an adult upstream migration back to freshwater to escape elevated estuarine salinities as a result of the low freshwater inflow.

  20. Aspects of larval, post-larval and juvenile ecology of Macrobrachium petersi (Hilgendorf) in the Keiskamma estuary, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, G. H. L.

    1985-10-01

    Although Macrobrachium petersi has nine larval stages, only stage I and a minimal number of stage II M. petersi larvae were caught in the Keiskamma estuary. Stage I larvae undergo a vertical migration at night which is markedly influenced by salinity, especially under stratified conditions. Larvae remain in the water column on the ebb tide, a behavioural pattern which effectively carried them to favourable salinities for growth and development. Stage I larvae show an association with salt front regions. The sudden decline in larval abundance from stage I to stage II downstream from the front suggests a change from a pelagic to an epibenthic existence. Later larval stages failed to appear in the plankton. However, post-larvae were caught in the estuary and a juvenile migration from the estuary to freshwater was monitored.

  1. Reproductive and morphometric traits of Macrobrachium amazonicum (Decapoda: Palaemonidae) from the Pantanal, Brazil, suggests initial speciation.

    PubMed

    Hayd, Liliam; Anger, Klaus

    2013-03-01

    The palaemonid shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum shows an unusually large geographic range (ca. 4000km across) living in coastal, estuarine, and limnic inland habitats of the upper Amazon, Orinoco, and La Plata basins. This raises doubts whether allopatric, ecologically diverse populations belong to the same species. While shrimps from estuarine and Amazonian habitats have been studied in great detail, very little is known about hololimnetic inland populations. In the present study, biological traits related to growth (maximum body size, fresh weight, morphometric relationships) and reproduction (sex ratio; occurrence of male morphotypes; minimum sexable size; minimum size of ovigerous females; fecundity; egg size), were studied in M amazonicum collected from a pond culture and two natural freshwater habitats (Rio Miranda; Lagoa Baiazinha) in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. In total, 2270 shrimps were examined (603 males; 1667 females, 157 of these ovigerous). Sex ratio (males:females) was at all sampling sites strongly female-biased, ranging from 0.2-0.6. Maximum body size was larger in natural habitats compared to the pond culture, suggesting reduced growth or a shorter life span under artificial mass rearing conditions. Maximum fecundity observed in our material was 676 eggs, reached by the largest female (TL=65mm; Lagoa Baiazinha). A significant difference between slope parameters of linear regressions describing fecundity, either in terms of numbers of eggs laid or of larvae released, in relation to female fresh weight, indicates egg losses. This may be due in part to a 2.4-fold increase in egg volume occurring during the course of embryonic development, while the available space under the abdomen remains limited. Size-weight relationships differed significantly between males and females, indicating sexspecific morphometric differences. Males appear to have a more slender body shape than females, reaching thus lower weight at equal TL. When reproductive and morphometric traits are compared with literature data from estuarine and inland populations living in the Amazon and Orinoco plains, shrimps from the Pantanal show conspicuous peculiarities differing from other populations: (1) maximum body size is far smaller, suggesting shorter longevity; (2) females are consistently larger than males; (3) different male morphotypes are absent; (4) minimum sexable size and (5) minimum size of ovigerous females are smaller. These traits suggest a heterochronic shift (predisplacement) of sexual maturation and r-selection. In summary, our data show biologically relevant differences in life-history traits of shrimps from the Pantanal compared to M. amazonicum populations in other regions. All these differences persist also in long-term cultures maintained under constant conditions. Altogether, our data support the hypothesis that M amazonicum in the Paraná-Paraguay drainage basin has phylogenetically diverged from allopatric populations that are hydrologically separated by continental watersheds, implying an at least incipient vicariant speciation. PMID:23894962

  2. Antioxidant response and oxidative stress levels in Macrobrachium borellii (Crustacea: Palaemonidae) exposed to the water-soluble fraction of petroleum.

    PubMed

    Lavarías, S; Heras, H; Pedrini, N; Tournier, H; Ansaldo, M

    2011-05-01

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of the water soluble fraction of hydrocarbons (WSF) on the antioxidant status of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium borellii. First, seasonal variations were studied in a non-polluted area. Hepatopancreas and gills showed season-related fluctuations in catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities and in lipid peroxidation levels (LPO), but not in superoxide dismutase (SOD). Then, adults were exposed semi-statically to sublethal doses for 7days. CAT, SOD, GST, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities and LPO, reduced glutathione (GSH) and protein oxidation (PO) levels were determined. Exposed individuals showed significant increases in CAT, SOD, and GST activities in hepatopancreas and CAT activity in gills. GPx activity did not vary in either tissues. While LPO levels increased, GSH levels decreased significantly in hepatopancreas of exposed animals, but PO levels showed no variation. Induction of SOD was also assessed by Real-time PCR mRNA expression in hepatopancreas. The non-enzymatic antioxidant activity was also tested; ABTS 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) was higher in hemolymph of treated-prawns compared to controls, but ferric reducing activity of plasma assay (FRAP) values did not change. Taken together, the present results indicated that the antioxidant defenses of M. borellii, mainly in hepatopancreas, were significantly affected by aquatic hydrocarbon contamination, regardless of the season. PMID:21320634

  3. cDNA Cloning and Expression Analysis of Gustavus Gene in the Oriental River Prawn Macrobrachium nipponense

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fengying; Chen, Liqiao; Qin, Jianguang; Zhao, Weihong; Wu, Ping; Yu, Na; Ma, Lingbo

    2011-01-01

    The gustavus gene is required for localizing pole plasm and specifying germ cells. Research on gustavus gene expression will advance our understanding of the biological function of gustavus in animals. A cDNA encoding gustavus protein was identified and termed MnGus in the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense. Bioinformatic analyses showed that this gene encoded a protein of 262 amino acids and the protein belongs to the Spsb1 family. Real-time quantitative PCR analyses revealed that the expression level of MnGus in prawn embryos was slightly higher at the cleavage stage than at the blastula stage, and reached the maximum level during the zoea stage of embryos. The minimum level of MnGus expression occurred during the perinucleolus stage in the ovary, while the maximum was at the oil globule stage, and then the level of MnGus expression gradually decreased with the advancement of ovarian development. The expression level of MnGus in muscle was much higher than that in other tissues in mature prawn. The gustavus cDNA sequence was firstly cloned from the oriental river prawn and the pattern of gene expression was described during oocyte maturation, embryonic development, and in other tissues. The differential expression patterns of MnGus in the embryo, ovary and other somatic tissues suggest that the gustavus gene performs multiple physiological functions in the oriental river prawn. PMID:21359189

  4. Ocurrence of male morphotypes of Macrobrachium amazonicum (Caridea, Palaemonidae) in a population with an entirely freshwater life cycle.

    PubMed

    Pantaleão, J A F; Hirose, G L; Costa, R C

    2014-08-01

    This study records, for the first time, the occurrence of all four male morphotypes in a population of Macrobrachium amazonicum from a continental environment, with an entirely freshwater life cycle. The specimens studied came from the Tietê River, state of São Paulo, Brazil, and were collected in a lotic environment downstream from Ibitinga Dam. This population was compared with other continental populations, including a population from the dam itself, collected in a previous study. Four samples of 30 minutes were taken monthly, using a trap, from January to April 2011. Each male specimen was measured with respect to seven body dimensions as follows: carapace length (CL), right cheliped length (RCL), dactyl length (DCL), propodus length (PPL), carpus length (CRL), merus length (ML) and ischium length (IL). The relative growth was analyzed based on the change in growth patterns of certain body parts in relation to the independent variable CL. The four male morphotypes proposed for the species were found using morphological and morphometric analyses. Different biological characteristics were found between the populations studied. The male population of the lake of Ibitinga and from Pantanal presented mean sizes and number of morphotypes lower than the population studied here. These differences seem to be closely related to ecological characteristics of the environments inhabited by these populations. Our results supported the hypothesis that coastal and continental populations of M. amazonicum belong to the same species. PMID:25627389

  5. Identification of spliced mRNA isoforms of retinoid X receptor (RXR) in the Oriental freshwater prawn Macrobrachium nipponense.

    PubMed

    Li, Z; Wang, W Q; Zhang, E F; Qiu, G F

    2014-01-01

    Retinoid X receptors (RXR) are members of the nuclear receptor family that are conserved from invertebrates to vertebrates, and they play an essential role in regulating reproductive maturation, molting, and embryo development. In this study, five RXR isoforms, named RXRL2 (L, long form), RXRL3, RXRS1 (S, short form), RXRS2, and RXRS3, containing six domains from A to F, were cloned from the prawn Macrobrachium nipponense using 5'- and 3'- rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Differences among their structures were observed not only in the D and E domains but also in the A/B domain, which were previously found in insects but not in crustaceans. This is the first report to show that differences occur in the A/B domain of RXR in crustaceans. RXR expressions were also examined in various tissues including the ovary, testis, muscle, hepatopancreas, heart, gill, stomach, intestine, and cuticle. Expression pattern investigations indicated that the five isoforms were differentially expressed. RXRS3 was only detected in the ovary, and the other RXRs were abundant in the ovary and testis. These data suggested that RXR mediates a series of processes related to reproduction. PMID:24938602

  6. Calcium-calmodulin dependent protein kinase I from Macrobrachium nipponense: cDNA cloning and involvement in molting.

    PubMed

    Shen, Huaishun; Hu, Yacheng; Zhang, Yuanqin; Zhou, Xin; Xu, Zenghong

    2014-04-01

    Calcium-calmodulin dependent protein kinase I is a component of a calmodulin-dependent protein kinase cascade and involved in many physiological processes. The full-length cDNA of calcium-calmodulin dependent protein kinase I (MnCaMKI) was cloned from the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium nipponense and its expression pattern during the molt cycle and after eyestalk ablation is described. The full-length cDNA of MnCaMKI is 3,262 bp in length and has an open reading frame (ORF) of 1,038 bp, encoding a 345 amino acid protein. The expression of MnCaMKI in three examined tissues was upregulated in the premolt stage of the molt cycle. Its expression was induced after eyestalk ablation (ESA): the highest expression level was reached 1 day after ESA in hepatopancreas, and 3 days after ESA in muscle. By dsRNA-mediated RNA interference assay, expression of MnCaMKI and ecydone receptor gene (MnEcR) was significantly decreased in prawns treated by injection of dsMnCaMKI, while expression of these two genes was also significantly decreased in prawns treated by injection of dsMnEcR, demonstrating a close correlation between the expression of these two genes. These results suggest that CaMKI in M. nipponense is involved in molting. PMID:24491503

  7. Feeding and larval growth of an exotic freshwater prawn Macrobrachium equidens (Decapoda: Palaemonidae), from Northeastern Pará, Amazon Region.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Jean N; Abrunhosa, Fernando A; Costa, Anne K; Maciel, Cristiana R

    2014-09-01

    In the present study, we carried out experiments on the diet of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium equidens. We tested which type of food and which density of food is suitable for larval development. For the experiment on the type of food, eight treatments were carried out: (I) starvation, (AL) microalgae, (RO) rotifers, (AN) Artemia, (RO + AN) rotifers + Artemia, (AL + RO) microalgae + rotifers, (AL + AN) microalgae + Artemia, (AL + RO + AN) microalgae + rotifers + Artemia. For the experiment on the density of food, we used the type of food, which had resulted in a high survival rate in the previous experiment. Three treatments were carried out: 4, 8 and 16 Artemia nauplii /mL. The rate of feeding during larval development was observed. The survival, weight and percentage of juveniles of each feeding experiment were determined. We found that larvae are carnivores; however, they have requirements with respect to the type of food, because larvae completed their cycle from the zoeal to the juvenile stage only when Artemia nauplii were available. We also verified that the larvae feed mainly during the day-time, and are opportunistic with respect to the density of food offered. PMID:25119734

  8. Effect of thermal acclimation on organ mass, tissue respiration, and allometry in Leichhardtian river prawns Macrobrachium tolmerum (Riek, 1951).

    PubMed

    Crispin, Taryn S; White, Craig R

    2013-01-01

    Changes to an animal's abiotic environment-and consequent changes in the allometry of metabolic rate in the whole animal and its constituent parts-has considerable potential to reveal important patterns in both intraspecific and interindividual variation of metabolic rates. This study demonstrates that, after 6 wk of thermal acclimation at replicate treatments of 16°, 21°, and 25°C, standard metabolic rate (SMR) scales allometrically in Leichhardtian river prawns Macrobrachium tolmerum ([Formula: see text]) and that the scaling exponent and normalization constant of the relationship between SMR and body mass is not significantly different among acclimation treatments when measured at 21°C. There is, however, significant variation among individuals in whole-animal metabolic rate. We hypothesized that these observations may arise because of changes in the metabolic rate and allometry of metabolic rate or mass of organ tissues within the animal. To investigate this hypothesis, rates of oxygen consumption in a range of tissues (gills, gonads, hepatopancreas, chelae muscle, tail muscle) were measured at 21°C and related to the body mass (M) and whole-animal SMR of individual prawns. We demonstrate that thermal acclimation had no effect on organ and tissue mass, that most organ and tissue (gills, gonads, hepatopancreas) respiration rates do not change with acclimation temperature, and that residual variation in the allometry of M. tolmerum SMR is not explained by differences in organ and tissue mass and respiration rates. These results suggest that body size and ambient temperature may independently affect metabolic rate in this species. Both chelae and tail muscle, however, exhibited a reduction in respiration rate in animals acclimated to 25° relative to those acclimated to 16° and 21°C. This reduction in respiration rates of muscle at higher temperatures is evidence of a tissue-specific acclimation response that was not detectable at the whole-animal level. PMID:23799841

  9. Transcriptome Analysis of the Oriental River Prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense Using 454 Pyrosequencing for Discovery of Genes and Markers

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Keyi; Qiu, Gaofeng; Feng, Jianbin; Li, Jiale

    2012-01-01

    Background The oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense, is an economically and nutritionally important species of the Palaemonidae family of decapod crustaceans. To date, the sequencing of its whole genome is unavailable as a non-model organism. Transcriptomic information is also scarce for this species. In this study, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing to produce the first comprehensive expressed sequence tag (EST) dataset for M. nipponense using high-throughput sequencing technologies. Methodology and Principal Findings Total RNA was isolated from eyestalk, gill, heart, ovary, testis, hepatopancreas, muscle, and embryos at the cleavage, gastrula, nauplius and zoea stages. Equal quantities of RNA from each tissue and stage were pooled to construct a cDNA library. Using 454 pyrosequencing technology, we generated a total of 984,204 high quality reads (338.59Mb) with an average length of 344 bp. Clustering and assembly of these reads produced a non-redundant set of 81,411 unique sequences, comprising 42,551 contigs and 38,860 singletons. All of the unique sequences were involved in the molecular function (30,425), cellular component (44,112) and biological process (67,679) categories by GO analysis. Potential genes and their functions were predicted by KEGG pathway mapping and COG analysis. Based on our sequence analysis and published literature, many putative genes involved in sex determination, including DMRT1, FTZ-F1, FOXL2, FEM1 and other potentially important candidate genes, were identified for the first time in this prawn. Furthermore, 6,689 SSRs and 18,107 high-confidence SNPs were identified in this EST dataset. Conclusions The transcriptome provides an invaluable new data for a functional genomics resource and future biological research in M. nipponense. The molecular markers identified in this study will provide a material basis for future genetic linkage and quantitative trait loci analyses, and will be essential for accelerating aquaculture breeding programs with this species. PMID:22745820

  10. Molecular cloning of two tropomyosin family genes and expression analysis during development in oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense.

    PubMed

    Jin, Shubo; Jiang, Sufei; Xiong, Yiwei; Qiao, Hui; Sun, Shengming; Zhang, Wenyi; Li, Fajun; Gong, Yongsheng; Fu, Hongtuo

    2014-08-10

    This paper reports that Slow-tonic S2 tropomyosin (Sst) and Slow tropomyosin isoform (Sti) was highly expressed in androgenic gland transcriptome of Macrobrachium nipponense, which may play crucial roles in sexual differentiation to maleness. In this study, two Sst and Sti gene homologues designated as Mnsst and Mnsti were cloned and characterized from a freshwater prawn M. nipponense. The full-length cDNA of Mnsst and Mnsti consists of 997 bp and 1926 bp, respectively, with an ORF of 852 bp encoding 284 amino acids, and the similarity in ORF reached to 95.82%. The deduced amino acid sequences of Mnsst and Mnsti shared the highest identity with Slow-tonic S2 tropomyosin and Slow tropomyosin isoform of Homarus americanus. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR showed that the Mnsst and Mnsti genes were expressed in different tissues with the highest level of expression in the androgenic gland, implying that these two genes may be related to sex-determination in M. nipponense. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR revealed that in addition, Mnsst and Mnsti were speculated to be related with embryonic organogenesis of M. nipponense, especially for the formation of complete mouthpart and digestive organ and stimulating larval changes of morphology and initiate metamorphosis, the results of present study implied that the two genes may play complex and important roles in sex differentiation of M. nipponense. Thus, we isolated two candidate genes that may advance the studies of sex-determination mechanism in M. nipponense and even the whole crustacean species, as well as promoting the all-male population culture of M. nipponense. PMID:24809964

  11. A kinetic characterization of the gill V(H(+))-ATPase in juvenile and adult Macrobrachium amazonicum, a diadromous palaemonid shrimp.

    PubMed

    Lucena, Malson N; Pinto, Marcelo R; Garçon, Daniela P; McNamara, John C; Leone, Francisco A

    2015-03-01

    Novel kinetic properties of a microsomal gill V(H(+))-ATPase from juvenile and adult Amazon River shrimp, Macrobrachium amazonicum, are described. While protein expression patterns are markedly different, Western blot analysis reveals a sole immunoreactive band, suggesting a single V(H(+))-ATPase subunit isoform, distributed in membrane fractions of similar density in both ontogenetic stages. Immunofluorescence labeling locates the V(H(+))-ATPase in the apical regions of the lamellar pillar cells in both stages in which mRNA expression of the V(H(+))-ATPase B-subunit is identical. Juvenile (36.6±3.3 nmol Pi min(-1) mg(-1)) and adult (41.6±1.3 nmol Pi min(-1) mg(-1)) V(H(+))-ATPase activities are similar, the apparent affinity for ATP of the adult enzyme (K0.5=0.21±0.02 mmol L(-1)) being 3-fold greater than for juveniles (K0.5=0.61±0.01 mmol L(-1)). The K0.5 for Mg(2+) interaction with the juvenile V(H(+))-ATPase (1.40 ± 0.07 mmol L(-1)) is ?6-fold greater than for adults (0.26±0.02 mmol L(-1)) while the bafilomycin A1 inhibition constant (KI) is 45.0±2.3 nmol L(-1) and 24.2±1.2 nmol L(-1), for juveniles and adults, respectively. Both stages exhibited residual bafilomycin-insensitive ATPase activity of ?25 nmol Pi min(-1) mg(-1), suggesting the presence of ATPases other than the V(H(+))-ATPase. These differences may reflect a long-term regulatory mechanism of V(H(+))-ATPase activity, and suggest stage-specific enzyme modulation. This is the first kinetic analysis of V(H(+))-ATPase activity in different ontogenetic stages of a freshwater shrimp and allows better comprehension of the biochemical adaptations underpinning the establishment of palaemonid shrimps in fresh water. PMID:25461614

  12. Toxicity of the organophosphorous insecticide metamidophos (o,s-dimethyl phosphoramidothioate) to larvae of the freshwater prawn and the blue shrimp

    SciTech Connect

    Juarez, L.M.; Sanchez, J. (Monterrey Institute of Technology, Sonora (Mexico))

    1989-08-01

    The organophosphorous insecticide O,S-dimethyl phosphoramidothioate (Metamidophos, Tamaron, Monitor, Hamidop) is widely used for pest control in tropical crops. If washed down to streams and estuaries its residues could adversely affect populations of commercially important crustaceans, like those of the palaemonid prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and the penaeid shrimp Penaeus stylirostris. This paper presents information on the toxicity of O,S-dimethyl phosphoramidothioate to larvae of M. rosenbergii and P. stylirostris.

  13. The effect of astaxanthin on resistance of juvenile prawns Macrobrachium nipponense (Decapoda: Palaemonidae) to physical and chemical stress.

    PubMed

    Tizkar, Babak; Seidavi, Alireza; Ponce-Palafox, Jesús Trinidad; Pourashoori, Parastoo

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, the use of new scientific techniques has effectively improved aquaculture production processes. Astaxanthin has various properties in aquaculture and its antioxidant benefits have been closely related to stress resistance; besides, it is an essential factor for growth in many crustaceans and fish. The objective of this study was to evaluate the resistance of prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) fed diets containing different amounts of astaxanthin (AX) to the shock and stress of different physicochemical environments. A 70-day trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplementation of a source of astaxanthin (Carophyll Pink, 10% astaxanthin, w/w, Hoffman-La Roche, Switzerland) at various levels in the diet of M. nipponense juveniles. Four dry diets were prepared: AX0 without astaxanthin, AX50 with 50 mg/kg, AX100 with 100 mg/kg, and AX150 with 150 mg/kg astaxanthin. The feeding trial was conducted in a recirculation water system consisting of 12 fiberglass tanks (1000L) used for holding prawns. Three replicate aquaria were initially stocked with 36 org/m2 per tank. During the trial, prawns were maintained on a 12:12-h light:dark photoperiod with an ordinary incandescent lamp, and the water quality parameters were maintained as follows: water temperature, 25-26°C; salinity, 1 g/L; pH, 8.5-8.8; dissolved oxygen, 6.0-6.5 mg/L; and ammonia-nitrogen, 0.05 mg/L. Incorporation of AX, production output, and physiological condition were recorded after 10 weeks of feeding. At the end of the growing period, the prawns were exposed to thermal shock (0°C), ammonia (0.75 mg/L), and reduced oxygen (0.5 mg/L). The time to lethargy and the time to complete death of the prawns were recorded. The results showed that control prawns had the shortest time to lethargy and death compared with prawns subjected to the other treatments. The results of this study have shown that the amount of muscle tissue and gill carotenoids in prawn fed with an AX150 diet showed greater reduction than those exposed to other treatments. It is possible that higher levels of astaxanthin in the body under oxygen reduction stress can be beneficial for prawns. These results suggest that male prawns showed lethargy earlier than females, and the percentage of carotenoid reduction in muscle and gill tissues was higher in males. PMID:25720170

  14. Comparative acute toxicity of gallium(III), antimony(III), indium(III), cadmium(II), and copper(II) on freshwater swamp shrimp (Macrobrachium nipponense)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute toxicity testing were carried out the freshwater swamp shrimp, Macrobrachium nipponense, as the model animal for the semiconductor applied metals (gallium, antimony, indium, cadmium, and copper) to evaluate if the species is an suitable experimental animal of pollution in aquatic ecosystem. Results The static renewal test method of acute lethal concentrations determination was used, and water temperature was maintained at 24.0?±?0.5°C. Data of individual metal obtained from acute toxicity tests were determined using probit analysis method. The median lethal concentration (96-h LC50) of gallium, antimony, indium, cadmium, and copper for M. nipponense were estimated as 2.7742, 1.9626, 6.8938, 0.0539, and 0.0313 mg/L, respectively. Conclusions Comparing the toxicity tolerance of M. nipponense with other species which exposed to these metals, it is obviously that the M. nipponense is more sensitive than that of various other aquatic animals. PMID:25027256

  15. The Prawn Macrobrachium vollenhovenii in the Senegal River Basin: Towards Sustainable Restocking of All-Male Populations for Biological Control of Schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Savaya Alkalay, Amit; Rosen, Ohad; Sokolow, Susanne H.; Faye, Yacinthe P. W.; Faye, Djibril S.; Aflalo, Eliahu D.; Jouanard, Nicolas; Zilberg, Dina; Huttinger, Elizabeth; Sagi, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Early malacological literature suggests that the outbreak of schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease transmitted by aquatic snails, in the Senegal River basin occurred due to ecological changes resulting from the construction of the Diama dam. The common treatment, the drug praziquantel, does not protect from the high risk of re-infection due to human contact with infested water on a daily basis. The construction of the dam interfered with the life cycle of the prawn Macrobrachium vollenhovenii by blocking its access to breeding grounds in the estuary. These prawns were demonstrated to be potential biological control agents, being effective predators of Schistosoma-susceptible snails. Here, we propose a responsible restocking strategy using all-male prawn populations which could provide sustainable disease control. Male prawns reach a larger size and have a lower tendency to migrate than females. We, therefore, expect that periodic restocking of all-male juveniles will decrease the prevalence of schistosomiasis and increase villagers' welfare. In this interdisciplinary study, we examined current prawn abundance along the river basin, complemented with a retrospective questionnaire completed by local fishermen. We revealed the current absence of prawns upriver and thus demonstrated the need for restocking. Since male prawns are suggested to be preferable for bio-control, we laid the molecular foundation for production of all-male M. vollenhovenii through a complete sequencing of the insulin-like androgenic gland-encoding gene (IAG), which is responsible for sexual differentiation in crustaceans. We also conducted bioinformatics and immunohistochemistry analyses to demonstrate the similarity of this sequence to the IAG of another Macrobrachium species in which neo-females are produced and their progeny are 100% males. At least 100 million people at risk of schistosomiasis are residents of areas that experienced water management manipulations. Our suggested non-breeding sustainable model of control—if proven successful—could prevent re-infections and thus prove useful throughout the world. PMID:25166746

  16. The prawn Macrobrachium vollenhovenii in the Senegal River basin: towards sustainable restocking of all-male populations for biological control of schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Savaya Alkalay, Amit; Rosen, Ohad; Sokolow, Susanne H; Faye, Yacinthe P W; Faye, Djibril S; Aflalo, Eliahu D; Jouanard, Nicolas; Zilberg, Dina; Huttinger, Elizabeth; Sagi, Amir

    2014-08-01

    Early malacological literature suggests that the outbreak of schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease transmitted by aquatic snails, in the Senegal River basin occurred due to ecological changes resulting from the construction of the Diama dam. The common treatment, the drug praziquantel, does not protect from the high risk of re-infection due to human contact with infested water on a daily basis. The construction of the dam interfered with the life cycle of the prawn Macrobrachium vollenhovenii by blocking its access to breeding grounds in the estuary. These prawns were demonstrated to be potential biological control agents, being effective predators of Schistosoma-susceptible snails. Here, we propose a responsible restocking strategy using all-male prawn populations which could provide sustainable disease control. Male prawns reach a larger size and have a lower tendency to migrate than females. We, therefore, expect that periodic restocking of all-male juveniles will decrease the prevalence of schistosomiasis and increase villagers' welfare. In this interdisciplinary study, we examined current prawn abundance along the river basin, complemented with a retrospective questionnaire completed by local fishermen. We revealed the current absence of prawns upriver and thus demonstrated the need for restocking. Since male prawns are suggested to be preferable for bio-control, we laid the molecular foundation for production of all-male M. vollenhovenii through a complete sequencing of the insulin-like androgenic gland-encoding gene (IAG), which is responsible for sexual differentiation in crustaceans. We also conducted bioinformatics and immunohistochemistry analyses to demonstrate the similarity of this sequence to the IAG of another Macrobrachium species in which neo-females are produced and their progeny are 100% males. At least 100 million people at risk of schistosomiasis are residents of areas that experienced water management manipulations. Our suggested non-breeding sustainable model of control-if proven successful-could prevent re-infections and thus prove useful throughout the world. PMID:25166746

  17. Transcriptome Analysis of Androgenic Gland for Discovery of Novel Genes from the Oriental River Prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense, Using Illumina Hiseq 2000

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Shubo; Fu, Hongtuo; Zhou, Qiao; Sun, Shengming; Jiang, Sufei; Xiong, Yiwei; Gong, Yongsheng; Qiao, Hui; Zhang, Wenyi

    2013-01-01

    Background The oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense, is an important aquaculture species in China, even in whole of Asia. The androgenic gland produces hormones that play crucial roles in sexual differentiation to maleness. This study is the first de novo M. nipponense transcriptome analysis using cDNA prepared from mRNA isolated from the androgenic gland. Illumina/Solexa was used for sequencing. Methodology and Principal Finding The total volume of RNA sample was more than 5 ug. We generated 70,853,361 high quality reads after eliminating adapter sequences and filtering out low-quality reads. A total of 78,408 isosequences were obtained by clustering and assembly of the clean reads, producing 57,619 non-redundant transcripts with an average length of 1244.19 bp. In total 70,702 isosequences were matched to the Nr database, additional analyses were performed by GO (33,203), KEGG (17,868), and COG analyses (13,817), identifying the potential genes and their functions. A total of 47 sex-determination related gene families were identified from the M. nipponense androgenic gland transcriptome based on the functional annotation of non-redundant transcripts and comparisons with the published literature. Furthermore, a total of 40 candidate novel genes were found, that may contribute to sex-determination based on their extremely high expression levels in the androgenic compared to other sex glands,. Further, 437 SSRs and 65,535 high-confidence SNPs were identified in this EST dataset from which 14 EST-SSR markers have been isolated. Conclusion Our study provides new sequence information for M. nipponense, which will be the basis for further genetic studies on decapods crustaceans. More importantly, this study dramatically improves understanding of sex-determination mechanisms, and advances sex-determination research in all crustacean species. The huge number of potential SSR and SNP markers isolated from the transcriptome may shed the lights on research in many fields, including the evolution and molecular ecology of Macrobrachium species. PMID:24204682

  18. C. Ohs Page 1 Cortney L. Ohs

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    : Development of Methodology to Control Gender Differentiation and Male Morphotypic Expression in the Freshwater of a spray-dried artificial diet for larval culture of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), hybrid rhomboides) at different stocking densities and salinities in recirculating aquaculture systems. North

  19. A Simple "in Vitro" Culture of Freshwater Prawn Embryos for Laboratory Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porntrai, Supaporn; Damrongphol, Praneet

    2008-01-01

    Giant freshwater prawn ("Macrobrachium rosenbergii" De Man) embryos can be cultured "in vitro" to hatching in 15% (v/v) artificial seawater (ASW). This technique can be applied as a bioassay for testing toxicity or for the effects of various substances on embryo development and can be used as a simple and low-cost model for studying embryo…

  20. Levels of platinum group metals in selected species (Sarotherodon melanotheron, Chonophorus lateristriga, Macrobrachium vollenhovenii and Crassostrea tulipa) in some estuaries and lagoons along the coast of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Essumang, D K; Adokoh, C K; Boamponsem, L

    2010-01-01

    The use of some biota as bioindicators of heavy metal pollution has been demonstrated as particularly adequate due to their capacity of bioconcentration. This study evaluated the levels of platinum group metals (PGMs) in some selected species along the coastal belt of Ghana, using the neutron activation analysis (NAA) method. The result was processed to evaluate pollution indices in order to map the distribution of the metals in those species in the lagoons and estuaries along the costal belt of Ghana. The analysis showed significant levels of all PGMs in blackchin tilapia (Sarotherodon melanotheron Cichlidae), brown goby (Chonophorus lateristriga Gobiidae), shrimp (Macrobrachium vollenhovenii Palaemonidae), and mangrove oysters (Crassostrea tulipa Ostreidae) in the lagoons and river Pra estuary. However, the oysters showed an elevated mean concentration of 0.13 ?g/g (dry weight) Pd. From the pollution indices, most of the sampling sites registered mean contamination factor (CF) values between 1.20 and 3.00 for Pt, Pd, and Rh. The pollution load index (PLI) conducted also gave an average pollution index between 0.79 and 2.37, indicating progressive contamination levels. The results revealed that anthropogenic sources, industrial and hospital effluent, etc., together with vehicular emissions, could be the contributing factors to the deposition of PGMs along the Ghanaian coast. PMID:20953547

  1. A clip-domain serine proteinase homolog (SPH) in oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense provides insights into its role in innate immune response.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhili; Kong, Youqin; Chen, Liqiao; Qin, Jianguang; Sun, Shengming; Li, Ming; Du, Zhenyu; Ye, Jinyun

    2014-08-01

    In this study, a clip-domain serine proteinase homolog designated as MnSPH was cloned and characterized from a freshwater prawn Macrobrachium nipponense. The full-length cDNA of MnSPH was 1897 bp and contained a 1701 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein of 566 amino acids, a 103 bp 5'-untranslated region, and a 93 bp 3'-untranslated region. Sequence comparison showed that the deduced amino acids of MnSPH shared 30-59% identity with sequences reported in other animals. Tissue distribution analysis indicated that the MnSPH transcripts were present in all detected tissues with highest in the hepatopancreas and ovary. The MnSPH mRNA levels in the developing ovary were stable at the initial three developmental stages, then increased gradually from stage IV (later vitellogenesis), and reached a maximum at stage VI (paracmasis). Furthermore, the expression of MnSPH mRNA in hemocytes was significantly up-regulated at 1.5 h, 6 h, 12 h and 48 h post Aeromonas hydrophila injection. The increased phenoloxidase activity also demonstrated a clear time-dependent pattern after A. hydrophila challenge. These results suggest that MnSPH participates in resisting to pathogenic microorganisms and plays a pivotal role in host defense against microbe invasion in M. nipponense. PMID:24878742

  2. Determination of microcystin-LR and its metabolites in snail (Bellamya aeruginosa), shrimp (Macrobrachium nipponensis) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) from Lake Taihu, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dawen; Xie, Ping; Chen, Jun; Dai, Ming; Qiu, Tong; Liu, Yaqin; Liang, Gaodao

    2009-08-01

    This paper describes seasonal changes of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and its glutathione (MC-LR-GSH) and cysteine conjugates (MC-LR-Cys) in three aquatic animals--snail (Bellamya aeruginosa), shrimp (Macrobrachium nipponensis) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) collected from Lake Taihu, China. MC-LR, MC-LR-GSH, and MC-LR-Cys were determined by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrum (LC-ESI-MS). The mean MC-LR concentrations in the hepatopancreas of snail and shrimp and liver of silver carp were 6.61, 0.24, and 0.027 microg g(-1) dry weight (DW), respectively; while the average MC-LR-Cys concentrations were 0.50, 0.97, and 5.72 microg g(-1) DW, respectively. MC-LR-GSH was usually not detectable in these samples. The above results suggest that: (1) in aquatic animals, especially fish, the main excretion form of MC-LR could be MC-LR-Cys, but not MC-LR-GSH, whereas MC-LR-Cys might play an important role in detoxication of MC-LR and (2) that efficiency of MC-LR-Cys formation differs among species. The main detoxication pathway of MC-LR in aquatic animals is suggested as follows: when MC-LR enters into liver/hepatopancreas, it firstly conjugates with polypeptide or protein (including GSH, PP-1 and 2A) containing Cys residues, perhaps also some free cysteine; subsequently, MC-LR-Cys is degraded from these polypeptide or protein; and finally is excreted from animals by the compound of MC-LR-Cys. PMID:19473685

  3. Molecular characterization and developmental expression of vitellogenin in the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense and the effects of RNA interference and eyestalk ablation on ovarian maturation.

    PubMed

    Bai, Hongkun; Qiao, Hui; Li, Fajun; Fu, Hongtuo; Sun, Shengming; Zhang, Wenyi; Jin, Shubo; Gong, Yongsheng; Jiang, Sufei; Xiong, Yiwei

    2015-05-10

    Vitellogenin (Vg) is the precursor of yolk protein, which functions as a nutritive resource that is important for embryonic growth and gonad development. In this study, the cDNA encoding the Vg gene from the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense was cloned using expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis and the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) approach. The transcript encoded 2536 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 286.810kDa. Quantitative real-time PCR indicated high expression of Mn-Vg in the female ovary, hemocytes, and hepatopancreas. As ovaries developed, the expression level of Mn-Vg increased in both the hepatopancreas and ovary. In the hepatopancreas, the expression level rose more slowly at the early stage of vitellogenesis and reached the peak more rapidly compared to the expression pattern in ovary. The observed changes in Mn-Vg expression level at different development stages suggest the role of nutrient source in embryonic and larval development. Eyestalk ablation caused the Mn-Vg expression level to increase significantly compared to eyestalk-intact groups during the ovary development stages. Ablation accelerated ovary maturation by removing hormone inhibition of Mn-Vg in the hepatopancreas and ovary. In adult females, Mn-Vg dsRNA injection resulted in decreased expression of Mn-Vg in both the hepatopancreas and ovary, and two injection treatment dramatically delayed ovary maturation. Vg RNA interference down-regulated the vitellogenin receptor (VgR) expression level in the ovary, which illustrates the close relationship between Vg and VgR in the process of vitellogenesis. PMID:25499697

  4. An evaluation of replacing fish meal with fermented soybean meal in the diet of Macrobrachium nipponense: Growth, nonspecific immunity, and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhili; Zhang, Yixiang; Ye, Jinyun; Du, Zhenyu; Kong, Youqin

    2015-05-01

    Partial or complete replacement of fish meal (FM) with fermented soybean meal (FSM) was examined in Macrobrachium nipponense over an 8-week growth trial. Growth and immune characteristics were evaluated. Fermented soybean meal replaced 0 (FM, control), 25% (R25), 50% (R50), 75% (R75), or 100% of the FM (R100) in five isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets. Each diet was fed to juvenile prawns (mean weight, 0.103 ± 0.0009 g) twice daily to apparent satiation in five replicates. Weight gain and specific growth rate of M. nipponense were significantly higher in prawns fed the R25 diet than that of prawns fed the FM diet. No significant differences were observed among the other treatments. Total hemocyte count and hemolymph phagocytic activity decreased as the proportion of FSM increased. Total antioxidant activity competence and malondialdehyde level in the hepatopancreas were highest in prawns fed the R100 diet. mRNA levels of the antioxidant genes Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase and catalase, heat shock cognate protein 70, and heat shock protein 90 were significantly differentially regulated in the prawn hepatopancreas. In addition, percent mortality increased after challenge with live Aeromonas hydrophila. Percent mortality of prawns fed the R100 diet was significantly higher than that of prawns fed the FM and R25 diets. These findings demonstrate that (1) M. nipponense growth performance was not affected by including a high proportion of FSM in the diet, and the best growth performance was obtained when 25% of the FM was replaced with FSM; (2) nonspecific immunity was impaired when all of the FM was replaced with FSM. PMID:25707598

  5. Fishing for Prawn Larvae in Bangladesh: An Important Coastal Livelihood Causing Negative Effects on the Environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nesar Ahmed; Max Troell

    2010-01-01

    Freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) farming in Bangladesh has, to a large extent, been dependent on the supply of wild larvae. Although there are 81 freshwater\\u000a prawn hatcheries in the country, a lack of technical knowledge, inadequate skilled manpower, and an insufficient supply of\\u000a wild broods have limited hatchery production. Many thousands of coastal poor people, including women, are engaged in

  6. Geothermal aquaculture: a guide to freshwater prawn culture

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, A.; Johnson, W.C.

    1980-05-01

    Biological data of the Malaysian prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, are summarized. A history on its rearing techniques is given, but through the use of geothermal water or industrial warm water effluent, its range can be expanded. The use of wasted geothermal water at the Oregon Institute of Technology for prawn ponds is noted. Pond management and design; the hatchery design and function for larval culture; and geothermal applications (legal aspects and constraints) are discussed. (MCW)

  7. Effects of temperature and dissolved oxygen content on oxygen consumption rate of Chinese prawn, giant tiger prawn and giant freshwater prawn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xi-Lin Dai; Wei-Ling Zang; Wei-Dong Wang; Yong-Hai Shi; Wen-Cui Liu; Gui-Rong Xu; Shi-Hua Li

    1999-01-01

    Temperature and the dissolved oxygen content affect the oxygen consumption of juveniles of Chinese prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant tiger prawn (P. monodon) and giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). There is good correlation between the oxygen consumption rate (V, mg\\/g·h) of the above three prawn species and the water temperature, and dissolved oxygen. In the range of test temperature,V increased with

  8. Studies on the ingestion characteristics of giant freshwater prawn, Chinese prawn and giant tiger prawn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, Wei-Ling; Wang, Wei-Dong; Dai, Xi-Lin; Jiang, Min; Zhu, Zheng-Guo; Yang, Ming-Hui; Liu, Xian-Zhong; Xu, Gui-Rong; Ding, Fu-Jiang

    2000-12-01

    The ingestion of giant freshwater prawn, Chinese prawn and giant tiger prawn had continuity and the ingestion high peak occurred at night. Light and temperature had significant effects on the daily ingestion rate (DIR) of giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Red light and blue light favorably induced favorable ingestion. In the adaptive range of temperature, the DIR increased with rising temperature and feeding frequency, but decreased with rising body weight.

  9. Direct use of low temperature geothermal water by Aquafarms International, Inc. for freshwater aquaculture (prawns and associated species). An operations and maintenance manual

    SciTech Connect

    Broughton, R.; Price, M.; Price, V.; Grajcer, D.

    1984-04-01

    In connection with an ongoing commercial aquaculture project in the Coachella Valley, California; a twelve month prawn growout demonstration project was conducted. This project began in August, 1979 and involved the use of low temperature (85/sup 0/F) geothermal waters to raise freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (deMan), in earthen ponds. The following publication is an operations and maintenance guide which may by useful for those interested in conducting similar enterprises.

  10. Organochlorine Pesticides and Biomarker Responses in Two Fishes Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus (Lacepede, 1803) and an Invertebrate, Macrobrachium vollenhovenii (Herklot, 1857), from the Lake Taabo (Cote d`Ivoire)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roche, Helene; Tidou, Abiba; Persic, Ana

    The concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in muscle samples of two species of fish, tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and the catfish (Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus) and the prawn (Macrobrachium vollenhovenii) found in Lake Taabo (Cote d`Ivoire). Simultaneous measurements of enzymatic biomarkers were made to evaluate the ecotoxicological risk in this hydroelectric reservoir. Lindane and endosulfan were the dominant contaminants, suggesting their current use in neighboring agricultural areas. Other organochlorine (OC) compounds were detected, including some currently banned substances. Ranked in an order of descending concentrations, we found: DDT and its metabolites (17.8-57.2 ng g-1 dry weight), endrin (7.17-25.0 ng g-1 dry weight) and heptachlor (7.36-23.6 ng g-1 dry weight), as well as traces of isomers of chlordane, aldrin and fipronil. The hepatic Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) activity measured in fishes was not correlated with pesticide contamination; whereas the antioxidant biomarkers demonstrated some significant associations, especially hepatic catalase with lindane (R = 0.83) and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) with heptachlor epoxide (R = 0.84) and with pp`DDT (R = 0.81). In the prawns, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity showed significant negative correlations with DDT and its metabolites (R = -0.91). The results of this study emphasize the urgent need for overall environmental risk assessment studies in the region of Taabo and other developing areas.

  11. Kinetic analysis of gill (Na?,K?)-ATPase activity in selected ontogenetic stages of the Amazon River shrimp, Macrobrachium amazonicum (Decapoda, Palaemonidae): interactions at ATP- and cation-binding sites.

    PubMed

    Leone, Francisco Assis; Masui, Douglas Chodi; de Souza Bezerra, Thais Milena; Garçon, Daniela Pereira; Valenti, Wagner Cotroni; Augusto, Alessandra Silva; McNamara, John Campbell

    2012-04-01

    We investigated modulation by ATP, Mg²?, Na?, K? and NH?? and inhibition by ouabain of (Na?,K?)-ATPase activity in microsomal homogenates of whole zoeae I and decapodid III (formerly zoea IX) and whole-body and gill homogenates of juvenile and adult Amazon River shrimps, Macrobrachium amazonicum. (Na?,K?)-ATPase-specific activity was increased twofold in decapodid III compared to zoea I, juveniles and adults, suggesting an important role in this ontogenetic stage. The apparent affinity for ATP (K(M) = 0.09 ± 0.01 mmol L?¹) of the decapodid III (Na?,K?)-ATPase, about twofold greater than the other stages, further highlights this relevance. Modulation of (Na?,K?-ATPase activity by K? also revealed a threefold greater affinity for K? (K?.? = 0.91 ± 0.04 mmol L?¹) in decapodid III than in other stages; NH?? had no modulatory effect. The affinity for Na? (K?.? = 13.2 ± 0.6 mmol L?¹) of zoea I (Na?,K?)-ATPase was fourfold less than other stages. Modulation by Na?, Mg²? and NH?? obeyed cooperative kinetics, while K? modulation exhibited Michaelis-Menten behavior. Rates of maximal Mg²? stimulation of ouabain-insensitive ATPase activity differed in each ontogenetic stage, suggesting that Mg²?-stimulated ATPases other than (Na?,K?)-ATPase are present. Ouabain inhibition suggests that, among the various ATPase activities present in the different stages, Na?-ATPase may be involved in the ontogeny of osmoregulation in larval M. amazonicum. The NH??-stimulated, ouabain-insensitive ATPase activity seen in zoea I and decapodid III may reflect a stage-specific means of ammonia excretion since functional gills are absent in the early larval stages. PMID:22544049

  12. Characterization and expression pattern of KIFC1-like kinesin gene in the testis of the Macrobrachium nipponense with discussion of its relationship with structure lamellar complex (LCx) and acroframosome (AFS).

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Ting; Mao, Huan; Hou, Cong-Cong; Sun, Xiao; Wang, Da-Hui; Zhou, Hong; Yang, Wan-Xi

    2012-07-01

    Spermiogenesis is a developmental process undergoing continuous differentiation to drive a diploid spermatogonium towards a haploid sperm cell. This striking transformation from spermatogonium to spermatozoa is made possible by the stage-specific adaption of cytoskeleton and associated molecular motor proteins. KIFC1 is a C-terminal kinesin motor found to boast essential roles in acrosome biogenesis and nuclear reshaping during spermiogenesis in rat. To explore its functions during the same process in Macrobrachium nipponense, we have cloned and sequenced the cDNA of a mammalian KIFC1 homologue (termed mn-KIFC1) from the total RNA of the testis. The 2,296 bp mn-KIFC1 cDNA contained a 87 bp 5' untranslated region, a 211 bp 3' untranslated region and a 1,998 bp open reading frame. Protein alignment demonstrated that mn-KIFC1 had 37.7, 58.7, 38.4, 37.2, 38.9 and 37.8% identity with its homologues in Salmo salar, Eriocheir sinensis, Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Danio rerio and Xenopus laevis respectively. The phylogenetic tree revealed that mn-KIFC1 is most related to E. Sinensis KIFC1 among the examined species. Tissue expression analysis showed the presence of mn-KIFC1 in the testis, hepatopancreas, gill, muscle and heart. In situ hybridization showed that the mn-KIFC1 mRNA was localized at the periphery of the nuclear membrane and in the proacrosomal vesicle in early and middle spermatids. In late spermatids and spermatozoa, mn-KIFC1 was expressed in the acrosome and in the spike. In situ hybridization also indicated that KIFC1 works together with lamellar complex (LCx) and acroframosome (AFS) to drive acrosome formation and cellular transformation. LCx and AFS have both been previously proved to have essential roles during spermiogenesis in M. nipponense. In conclusion, the expression of mn-kifc1 at specific stages of spermiogenesis suggests a role in cellular transformations in M. nipponense. PMID:22327780

  13. Natural and Experimental Infection of Caenorhabditis Nematodes by Novel Viruses Related to Nodaviruses

    E-print Network

    Wang, David

    Natural and Experimental Infection of Caenorhabditis Nematodes by Novel Viruses Related and host-pathogen co-evolution would combine a genetically tractable small animal with a virus capable has been limited by the lack of viruses known to infect nematodes. From wild isolates of C. elegans

  14. Cellular expression of a functional nodavirus RNA replicon from vaccinia virus vectors.

    PubMed Central

    Ball, L A

    1992-01-01

    RNA replication provides a powerful means for the amplification of RNA, but to date it has been found to occur naturally only among RNA viruses. In an attempt to harness this process for the amplification of heterologous mRNAs, both an RNA replicase and its corresponding RNA templates have been expressed in functional form, using vaccinia virus-bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase vectors. Plasmids were constructed which contained in 5'-to-3' order (i) a bacteriophage T7 promoter; (ii) a full-length cDNA encoding either the RNA replicase (RNA 1) or the coat protein (RNA 2) of flock house virus (FHV), (iii) a cDNA sequence that encoded the self-cleaving ribozyme of satellite tobacco ringspot virus, and (iv) a T7 transcriptional terminator. Both in vitro and in vivo, circular plasmids of this structure were transcribed by T7 RNA polymerase to produce RNAs with sizes that closely resembled those of the two authentic FHV genomic RNAs, RNA 1 and RNA 2. In baby hamster kidney cells that expressed authentic FHV RNA replicase, the RNA 2 (coat protein) transcripts were accurately replicated. Moreover, the RNA 1 (replicase) transcripts directed the synthesis of an enzyme that could replicate not only authentic virion-derived FHV RNA but also the plasmid-derived transcripts themselves. Under the latter conditions, replicative amplification of the RNA transcripts ensued and resulted in a high rate of synthesis of the encoded proteins. This successful expression from a DNA vector of the complex biological process of RNA replication will greatly facilitate studies of its mechanism and is a major step towards the goal of harnessing RNA replication for mRNA amplification. Images PMID:1548766

  15. Nodavirus infection in freshwater ornamental fish, guppy, Poicelia reticulata – comparative characterization and pathogenicity studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Hegde; H. C. Teh; T. J. Lam; Y. M. Sin

    2003-01-01

    Summary.  ?Biochemical, genomic and serological studies were carried out to characterize a virus obtained from diseased guppy, Poicelia reticulata. The SDS-PAGE analysis of CsCl purified virus showed two distinct bands with molecular weight of 42?kDa and 110?kDa. A 1367\\u000a nucleotide region of the coat protein gene was sequenced, which includes one full open reading frame of 1017 nucleotides and\\u000a a region

  16. Phylogeny of Macrobrachium PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS IN SOME

    E-print Network

    Farrell, Brian D.

    , Hilda De Stefano, Joseph Staton and Brian Farrell G e Universidad Central de Venezuela,lnstituto de Zoologia Tropical, Apartado 47058, Caracas 1041-A. Venezuela HDS, Universidad Nacional Experimental Sirn6n, Apartado 47925 Caracas 1041-A,Venezuela IS, BF, Hurvard University,Museum of Comparative Zoology, 26 Oxford

  17. Monoclonal antibody based immunodot for specific detection of proteins of the shrimp Penaeus species.

    PubMed

    Abhiman, P B; Shankar, K M; Patil, Rajreddy; Suresh Babu, P P; Sahoo, A K; Shamasundar, B A

    2014-05-01

    Frozen shrimp continued to be the single largest item of export from India in terms of value accounting for about 44% of the total marine export earnings. Headless, peeled frozen shrimp is a common and dominant item in the market and there is need for differentiating peeled Penaeus sp from Metapenaeus, Parapenopsis and Macrobrachium sp as consumer preference and price vary. Furthermore, there is need to find out original species used in value addition of shrimp products. Hence, it is essential for development of simple and consumer friendly technique for the identification of shrimp and their products in the market. Two monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) C-15 (IgG3) and C-52 (IgG2a) reacting with 65 and 47 kD proteins of Penaeus monodon respectively in the Western blot were selected. In epitope analysis by immunodot, the two MAbs reacted and recognized specific proteins of P. monodon, Fenneropenaeus indicus and Littopenaeus vannamei and not that of Metapenaeus, Parapenopsis, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, crabs and fishes. The immunodot required 120 min for completion. The sensitivity of the immunodot to detect proteins of P. monodon was 0.225 mg with MAb C-15 and 0.028 mg with MAb C-52. The MAb based immunodot developed, could be used for identifying and differentiating meat of P. monodon, F. indicus, and L. vannamei from that of Metapenaeus, Parapenopsis, M. rosenbergii, crabs and fishes. PMID:24803705

  18. Coastal Aquaculture Development in Bangladesh: Unsustainable and Sustainable Experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azad, A. Kalam; Jensen, Kathe R.; Lin, C. Kwei

    2009-10-01

    Coastal aquaculture in Bangladesh consists mainly of two shrimp species ( Penaeus monodon and Macrobrachium rosenbergii). Currently, there are about 16,237 marine shrimp ( P. monodon) farms covering 148,093 ha and 36,109 fresh water shrimp ( M. rosenbergii) farms covering 17,638 ha coastal area. More than 0.7 million people are employed in the farmed shrimp sector and in 2005-2006 the export value of shrimp was 403.5 million USD. Thus, coastal aquaculture contributes significantly to rural employment and economy but this is overshadowed by negative social and ecological impacts. This article reviews the key issues, constraints and opportunities of sustainable shrimp farming. In addition we present the results of two case studies from southwestern coastal areas where shrimp farming originated and central coastal areas where shrimp farming, especially M. rosenbergii, began in recent years. Lessons learned from the review and case studies are considered in the context of recommendations to encompass a socially equitable and ecologically sound coastal aquaculture.

  19. Identification of a novel cognate cytosolic Hsp70 gene (MnHsc70-2) from oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense and comparison of its expressions with the first cognate Hsc70 (MnHsc70-1) under different stresses.

    PubMed

    Xiu, Yunji; Feng, Jia; Lu, Weiqiang; Liu, Dandan; Wu, Ting; Zhu, Huanxi; Liu, Peng; Li, Wenjie; Ren, Qian; Gu, Wei; Meng, Qingguo; Wang, Wen

    2014-11-01

    The 70-kDa family of heat-shock proteins (Hsp70) plays an important role in the host immunity, which is widely expressed in eukaryotic cells as a major chaperone protein. In the present study, the full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) of a second cognate cytosolic Hsp70 family member (MnHsc70-2) was cloned and characterized from Macrobrachium nipponense, which is an economically and nutritionally important crustacean. The cDNA was 2,717 bp, containing an open reading frame (ORF) of 1,950 bp, which encodes a protein of 649 amino acids with a theoretical molecular weight of 71.1 kDa and an isoelectric point of 5.27. Sequence alignment showed that the MnHsc70-2 shared 75-97 % identity with other heat-shock proteins. Compared to the previously identified cognate Hsp70 (MnHsc70-1) in M. nipponense, MnHsc70-2 showed quite different expression profiles under unstressed conditions in all tested tissues, including the hemocytes, heart, hepatopancreas, gill, intestine, nerve, and muscle. The phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that MnHsc70-2 showed the closest relationship with MnHsc70-1. Heat-inducibility assays showed that two isolated messenger RNAs (mRNAs) displayed different expression profiles in both the hepatopancreas and gill tissues. MnHsc70-1 mRNA expression level decreased at first and then increased to the normal level, whereas MnHsc70-2 mRNA level increased at first and then decreased. The expressions of two MnHsc70s showed substantial obvious heat-inducible regulation in both the hepatopancreas and gill. Under bacterial challenge by Aeromonas hydrophila, both MnHsc70-1 and MnHsc70-2 mRNA level was up-regulated moderately. The results suggested that two cognate Hsc70s may play essential functions in mediating responses to heat-shock and bacterial challenge. PMID:24859888

  20. In Vivo Self-Interaction of Nodavirus RNA Replicase Protein A Revealed by Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Billy T. Dye; David J. Miller; Paul Ahlquist

    2005-01-01

    Flock house virus (FHV) is the best-characterized member of the Nodaviridae, a family of small, positive- strand RNA viruses. Unlike most RNA viruses, FHV encodes only a single polypeptide, protein A, that is required for RNA replication. Protein A contains a C-proximal RNA-dependent RNA polymerase domain and localizes via an N-terminal transmembrane domain to the outer mitochondrial membrane, where FHV

  1. N-glycan moieties of the crustacean egg yolk protein and their glycosylation sites.

    PubMed

    Roth, Ziv; Parnes, Shmuel; Wiel, Simy; Sagi, Amir; Zmora, Nili; Chung, J Sook; Khalaila, Isam

    2010-01-01

    Vitellogenin (Vg) is the precursor of the egg yolk glycoprotein of crustaceans. In the prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, Vg is synthesized in the hepatopancreas, secreted to the hemolymph, and taken up by means of receptor-mediated endocytosis into the oocytes. The importance of glycosylation of Vg lies in its putative role in the folding, processing and transport of this protein to the egg yolk and in the fact that the N-glycan moieties could provide a source of carbohydrate during embryogenesis. The present study describes, for the first time, the structure of the glycan moieties and their sites of attachment to the Vg of M. rosenbergii. Bioinformatics analysis revealed seven putative N-glycosylation sites in M. rosenbergii Vg; two of these glycosylation sites are conserved throughout the Vgs of decapod crustaceans from the Pleocyemata suborder (N 159 and N 660). The glycosylation of six putative sites of M. rosenbergii Vg (N 151, N 159, N ,168 N ,614 N 660 and N 2300) was confirmed; three of the confirmed glycosylation sites are localized around the N-terminally conserved N-glycosylation site N 159. From a theoretical three-dimensional structure, these three N-glycosylated sites N 151, N 159, and N 168 were localized on the surface of the Vg consensus sequence. In addition, an uncommon high mannose N-linked oligosaccharide structure with a glucose cap (Glc1Man9GlcNAc2) was characterized in the secreted Vg. These findings thus make a significant contribution to the structural elucidating of the crustacean Vg glycan moieties, which may shed light on their role in protein folding and transport and in recognition between Vg and its target organ, the oocyte. PMID:19921429

  2. The invasion of five alien species in the Delta do Parnaíba Environmental Protection Area, Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Loebmann, Daniel; Mai, Ana Cecília G; Lee, James T

    2010-09-01

    Marine biological invasions have been regarded as one of the major causes of native biodiversity loss, with shipping and aquaculture being the leading contributors for the introductions of alien species in aquatic ecosystems. In the present study, five aquatic alien species (one mollusk, three crustaceans and one fish species) were detected during dives, shore searches and from the fisheries on the coast of the Delta do Parnaíba Environmental Protection Area, in the States of Piauí and Maranhão, Northeastern Brazil. The species were the bicolor purse-oyster Isognomon bicolor, the whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, the giant river prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, the Indo-Pacific swimming crab Charybdis hellerii and, the muzzled blenny Omobranchus punctatus. Ballast water (I. bicolor, C. hellerii, and O. punctatus) and aquaculture activities (L. vannamei and M. rosenbergii) in adjacent areas are the most likely vectors of introduction. All exotic species found have potential impact risks to the environment because they are able to compete against native species for resources (food and habitat). Isognomon bicolor share the same habitat and food items with the native bivalve species of mussels and barnacles. Litopenaeus vannamei share the same habitat and food items with the native penaeids such as the pinkspot shrimp Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis, the Southern brown shrimp Farfantepenaeus subtilis, and the Southern white shrimp Litopenaeus schmitti, and in the past few years L. vannamei was responsible for a viral epidemics in the cultivation tanks that could be transmitted to native penaeid shrimps. Charybdis hellerii is also able to cause impacts on the local fisheries as the species can decrease the populations of native portunid crabs which are commercialized in the studied region. Macrobrachium rosenbergii may be sharing natural resources with the Amazon River prawn Macrobrachium amazonicum. Omobranchus punctatus shares habit with the native redlip blenny Ophioblennius atlanticus and other fishes, such as the frillfin goby Bathigobius soporator Some immediate remedial measures to prevent further introductions from ballast water and shrimp farm ponds should be: (i) to prevent the release of ballast water by ship/vessels in the region; (ii) to reroute all effluent waters from shrimp rearing facilities through an underground or above-ground dry well; (iii) to install adequate sand and gravel filter which will allow passage of water but not livestock; (iv) outdoor shrimp pounds located on floodable land should be diked, and; (v) to promote environmental awareness of those directly involved with ballast water (crews of ship/vessels) and shrimp farms in the region. PMID:20737846

  3. The apparent quorum-sensing inhibitory activity of pyrogallol is a side effect of peroxide production.

    PubMed

    Defoirdt, Tom; Pande, Gde Sasmita Julyantoro; Baruah, Kartik; Bossier, Peter

    2013-06-01

    There currently is more and more interest in the use of natural products, such as tea polyphenols, as therapeutic agents. The polyphenol compound pyrogallol has been reported before to inhibit quorum-sensing-regulated bioluminescence in Vibrio harveyi. Here, we report that the addition of 10 mg · liter(-1) pyrogallol protects both brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) and giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) larvae from pathogenic Vibrio harveyi, whereas the compound showed relatively low toxicity (therapeutic index of 10). We further demonstrate that the apparent quorum-sensing-disrupting activity is a side effect of the peroxide-producing activity of this compound rather than true quorum-sensing inhibition. Our results emphasize that verification of minor toxic effects by using sensitive methods and the use of appropriate controls are essential when characterizing compounds as being able to disrupt quorum sensing. PMID:23545532

  4. Effects of temperature and dissolved oxygen content on oxygen consumption rate of Chinese prawn, giant tiger prawn and giant freshwater prawn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Xi-Lin; Zang, Wei-Ling; Wang, Wei-Dong; Shi, Yong-Hai; Liu, Wen-Cui; Xu, Gui-Rong; Li, Shi-Hua

    1999-06-01

    Temperature and the dissolved oxygen content affect the oxygen consumption of juveniles of Chinese prawn ( Penaeus chinensis), giant tiger prawn ( P. monodon) and giant freshwater prawn ( Macrobrachium rosenbergii). There is good correlation between the oxygen consumption rate ( V, mg/g·h) of the above three prawn species and the water temperature, and dissolved oxygen. In the range of test temperature, V increased with water temperature and dissolved oxygen content. The V of the above three prawn species increased 0.085 mg/g·h, 0.093 mg/g·h and 0.08 mg/g·h respectively with each °C of rising temperature. The comatose point and stifling point of the juveniles rose obviously at unsuitable temperature.

  5. Oxygen delivery does not limit thermal tolerance in a tropical eurythermal crustacean.

    PubMed

    Ern, Rasmus; Huong, Do Thi Thanh; Phuong, Nguyen Thanh; Wang, Tobias; Bayley, Mark

    2014-03-01

    In aquatic environments, rising water temperatures reduce water oxygen content while increasing oxygen demand, leading several authors to propose cardiorespiratory oxygen transport capacity as the main determinant of aquatic animal fitness. It has also been argued that tropical species, compared with temperate species, live very close to their upper thermal limit and hence are vulnerable to even small elevations in temperature. Little, however, is known about physiological responses to high temperatures in tropical species. Here we report that the tropical giant freshwater shrimp (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) maintains normal growth when challenged by a temperature rise of 6°C above the present day average (from 27°C to 33°C). Further, by measuring heart rate, gill ventilation rate, resting and maximum oxygen uptake, and hemolymph lactate, we show that oxygen transport capacity is maintained up to the critical maximum temperature around 41°C. In M. rosenbergii heart rate and gill ventilation rate increases exponentially until immediately below critical temperatures and at 38°C animals still retained more than 76% of aerobic scope measured at 30°C, and there was no indication of anaerobic metabolism at the high temperatures. Our study shows that the oxygen transport capacity is maintained at high temperatures, and that other mechanisms, such as protein dysfunction, are responsible for the loss of ecological performance at elevated temperatures. PMID:24198257

  6. In-Depth Tanscriptomic Analysis on Giant Freshwater Prawns

    PubMed Central

    Mohd-Shamsudin, Maizatul Izzah; Kang, Yi; Lili, Zhao; Tan, Tian Tian; Kwong, Qi Bin; Liu, Hang; Zhang, Guojie; Othman, Rofina Yasmin; Bhassu, Subha

    2013-01-01

    Gene discovery in the Malaysian giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) has been limited to small scale data collection, despite great interest in various research fields related to the commercial significance of this species. Next generation sequencing technologies that have been developed recently and enabled whole transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq), have allowed generation of large scale functional genomics data sets in a shorter time than was previously possible. Using this technology, transcriptome sequencing of three tissue types: hepatopancreas, gill and muscle, has been undertaken to generate functional genomics data for M. rosenbergii at a massive scale. De novo assembly of 75-bp paired end Ilumina reads has generated 102,230 unigenes. Sequence homology search and in silico prediction have identified known and novel protein coding candidate genes (?24%), non-coding RNA, and repetitive elements in the transcriptome. Potential markers consisting of simple sequence repeats associated with known protein coding genes have been successfully identified. Using KEGG pathway enrichment, differentially expressed genes in different tissues were systematically represented. The functions of gill and hepatopancreas in the context of neuroactive regulation, metabolism, reproduction, environmental stress and disease responses are described and support relevant experimental studies conducted previously in M. rosenbergii and other crustaceans. This large scale gene discovery represents the most extensive transcriptome data for freshwater prawn. Comparison with model organisms has paved the path to address the possible conserved biological entities shared between vertebrates and crustaceans. The functional genomics resources generated from this study provide the basis for constructing hypotheses for future molecular research in the freshwater shrimp. PMID:23734171

  7. Reconciling geography and genealogy: phylogeography of giant freshwater prawns from the Lake Carpentaria region.

    PubMed

    de Bruyn, Mark; Wilson, John C; Mather, Peter B

    2004-11-01

    There is convincing geological evidence for the historical existence of an ancient lake on the Australian-New Guinea continental shelf during the late Pleistocene. Lake Carpentaria was a vast fresh- to brackishwater lake that would presumably have provided habitat for, and facilitated gene flow among, aquatic taxa that tolerate low to moderate salinities in this region. Moreover, it has been argued that the outflow of Papua New Guinea's Fly River was diverted westward into Lake Carpentaria during this period, although this hypothesis is controversial. We predicted that these events, if a true history, would have promoted gene flow and population growth via range-expansion events in the giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) and restricted gene flow subsequently by way of a vicariant event as sea levels rose during the late Pleistocene, and a marine environment replaced Lake Carpentaria. We tested these hypotheses using phylogeographical and phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA variation in M. rosenbergii populations sampled from the Lake Carpentaria region. Our results support the hypothesis that Lake Carpentaria facilitated gene flow among populations of M. rosenbergii that are today isolated, but contest claims of a westward diversion of the Fly River. We inferred the timing of initial expansion in the 'Lake Carpentaria lineage' and found the timing of this event to be broadly concordant with geological dating of the formation of Lake Carpentaria. Reconciling geological and molecular data, as presented here, provides a powerful framework for investigating the influence of historical earth history events on the distribution of biological (i.e. molecular) diversity. PMID:15488008

  8. Mapping a neutralizing epitope on the coat protein of striped jack nervous necrosis virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toyohiko Nishizawa; Ryoko Takano; Kiyokuni Muroga

    1999-01-01

    Striped jack nervous necrosis virus (SJNNV), a fish nodavirus, is the causative agent of viral nervous necrosis in marine fishes. The fish nodaviruses are divided into four different genotypes based on the nucleotide sequence of the coat protein gene. In the present study, partial coat protein genes of fish nodaviruses were expressed. This allowed the sero- logical relationship among the

  9. A prawn core histone 4: derivation of N- and C-terminal peptides and their antimicrobial properties, molecular characterization and mRNA transcription.

    PubMed

    Chaurasia, Mukesh Kumar; Palanisamy, Rajesh; Bhatt, Prasanth; Kumaresan, Venkatesh; Gnanam, Annie J; Pasupuleti, Mukesh; Kasi, Marimuthu; Harikrishnan, Ramaswamy; Arockiaraj, Jesu

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the complete molecular characterization including bioinformatics characterization, gene expression, synthesis of N and C terminal peptides and their antimicrobial activity of the core histone 4 (H4) from freshwater giant prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Mr). A cDNA encoding MrH4 was identified from the constructed cDNA library of M. rosenbergii during screening and the sequence was obtained using internal sequencing primers. The MrH4 coding region possesses a polypeptide of 103 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 11kDa and an isoelectric point of 11.5. The bioinformatics analysis showed that the MrH4 polypeptide contains a H4 signature at (15)GAKRH(19). Multiple sequence alignment of MrH4 showed that the N-terminal (21-42) and C-terminal (87-101) antimicrobial peptide regions and the pentapeptide or H4 signature (15-19) are highly conserved including in humans. The phylogenetic tree formed two separate clades of vertebrate and invertebrate H4, wherein MrH4 was located within the arthropod monophyletic clade of invertebrate H4 groups. Three-dimensional model of MrH4 was established using I-TASSER program and the model was validated using Ramachandran plot analysis. Schiffer-Edmundson helical wheel modeling was used to predict the helix propensity of N (21-42) and C (87-101) terminal derived Mr peptides. The highest gene expression was observed in gills and is induced by viral [white spot syndrome baculovirus (WSBV) and M. rosenbergii nodovirus (MrNV)] and bacterial (Aeromonas hydrophila and Vibrio harveyi) infections. The N and C terminal peptides were synthesized and their antimicrobial and hemolytic properties were examined. Both peptides showed activity against the tested Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria; however, the highest activity was noticed against Gram negative bacteria. Among the two peptides used in this study, C-terminal peptide yielded better results than the N-terminal peptide. Therefore, C terminal peptide can be recommended for the development of an antimicrobial agent. PMID:25271126

  10. Ingestion and absorption of nutrients by the freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosengergii)

    E-print Network

    Taechanuruk, Suchat

    1982-01-01

    ) showed no significant effect on protein absorbabilitv due to temperature differences between 10 and 20 C; rhus, different rates 0 of passage through the digestive tract alone may not significantly influence absorption efficiency, particularly...

  11. Identification of the essential and free amino acids of the freshwater shrimp, Macrobrachium ohione

    E-print Network

    Miyajima, Lester Shigemi

    1975-01-01

    . Both the selenium and mercuric oxide catalysts were utilized in 17 the digestions in an effort to determine the catalyst producing the more consistent results. The digested samples were distilled and the distillate collected in a boric acid solution...IDENTIFICATION OF THE ESSENTIAL AND FREE AMINO ACIDS OF THE FRESHWATER SHRIMP, MACROBRACHIUN OH?ONE A Thesis by LESTER SHIGEMI MIYAJIMA Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement...

  12. Effect of stocking density on extensive production of freshwater shrimp in coal mine reclamation ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Tidwell, J.H.; Wynne, F.; Coyle, S.D. [Kentucky State Univ., Frankfort, KY (United States). Aquaculture Research Center; Grey, B. [Peabody Coal Co., Rockport, KY (United States); McGuire, J.

    1998-12-31

    The use of post-mining reclamation ponds for the production of freshwater shrimp was evaluated by examining different stocking densities. Juvenile shrimp (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) averaging 0.5g each were stocked into four existing ponds at Peabody`s Ken Surface Mine at 6,175; 12,350; 18,500; and 24,700/ha (2,500, 5,000, 7,500, and 10,000/acre) on June 1, 1995. Shrimp were fed twice a week for 103 days, with harvest conducted September 13, 1995. Survival averaged 40%, overall. Average individual weight size was inversely related to stocking density ranging from 52 g (8.7 shrimp/lb) at 6,175/ha to 20.3 g (22.7 shrimp/lb) at 18,500/acre. Total production was directly related to stocking density ranging from 97 kg/ha (86 lbs/acre) at low density to 211 kg/ha (188 lbs/acre) at 18,500/ha shrimp acre. The major difficulty was at harvest due to difficulty in draining ponds. Construction of designed culture ponds with gravity drains during reclamation could greatly enhance survival, harvestability, and commercial feasibility.

  13. Evaluation of trace metal content by ICP-MS using closed vessel microwave digestion in fresh water fish.

    PubMed

    Jarapala, Sreenivasa Rao; Kandlakunta, Bhaskarachary; Thingnganing, Longvah

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate trace metal levels of different varieties of fresh water fish using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrophotometer after microwave digestion (MD-ICPMS). Fish samples were collected from the outlets of twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad. The trace metal content in different varieties of analyzed fish were ranged from 0.24 to 1.68?mg/kg for Chromium in Cyprinus carpio and Masto symbollon, 0.20 to 7.52?mg/kg for Manganese in Labeo rohita and Masto symbollon, 0.006 to 0.07?mg/kg for Cobalt in Rastrelliger kanagurta and Pampus argenteus, 0.31 to 2.24?mg/kg for Copper in Labeo rohita and Penaeus monodon, 3.25 to 14.56?mg/kg for Zinc in Cyprinus carpio and Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and 0.01 to 2.05?mg/kg for Selenium in Rastrelliger kanagurta and Pampus argenteus, respectively. Proximate composition data for the different fishes were also tabulated. Since the available data for different trace elements for fish is scanty, here an effort is made to present a precise data for the same as estimated on ICP-MS. Results were in accordance with recommended daily intake allowance by WHO/FAO. PMID:24744789

  14. Sialylated and O-glycosidically linked glycans in prion protein deposits in a case of Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease.

    PubMed

    Zomosa-Signoret, Viviana; Mayoral, Miguel; Limón, Daniel; Espinosa, Blanca; Calvillo, Minerva; Zenteno, Edgar; Martínez, Victor; Guevara, Jorge

    2011-04-01

    Prion diseases are caused by an abnormal form of the prion protein (PrP(Sc)). We identified, with lectins, post-translational modifications of brain proteins due to glycosylation in a Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker (GSS) patient. The lectin Amaranthus leucocarpus (ALL), specific for mucin type O-glycosylated structures (Galß1,3 GalNAc?1,0 Ser/Thr or GalNAc?1,0 Ser/Thr), and Sambucus nigra agglutinin (SNA), specific for Neu5Ac?2,6 Gal/GalNAc, showed positive labeling in all the prion deposits and in the core of the PrP(Sc) deposits, respectively, indicating specific distribution of O-glycosylated and sialylated structures. Lectins from Maackia amurensis (MAA, Neu5Ac?2,3), Macrobrachium rosenbergii (MrL, Neu5,9Ac2-specific) and Arachis hypogaea (PNA, Gal-specific) showed low staining of prion deposits. Immunohistochemistry colocalization with prion antibody indicated that all lectins stained prion protein deposits. These results show that specific modifications in the glycosylation pattern are closely related to the hallmark lesions and might be an early event in neuronal degeneration in GSS disease. PMID:20667006

  15. Treatment efficiency of effluent prawn culture by wetland with floating aquatic macrophytes arranged in series.

    PubMed

    Henares, M N P; Camargo, A F M

    2014-11-01

    The efficiency of a series of wetland colonized with Eichhornia crassipes and Salvinia molesta to treat the effluent of a giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) broodstock pond was evaluated in this study. The experimental design was completely randomized and was performed in 9 rectangular tanks (1.6 m3) with three treatments (constructed wetlands) and three replicates. The treatment types included: a wetland colonized with E. crassipes and S. molesta (EcSm) arranged sequentially, a wetland with E. crassipes only (Ec) and a wetland with S. molesta only (Sm). The means of suspended particulate material (SPM), total inorganic nitrogen (TIN), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), P-orthophosphate (PO4-P) and total phosphorus (TP) of the treated effluents were compared using ANOVA followed by Tukey's test (P<0.05). The effluent treated in Ec and EcSm wetlands exhibited lower SPM concentrations. The Ec wetland reduced TIN, TKN, PO4-P and TP by 46.0, 43.7, 44.4 and 43.6%, respectively. In the EcSm wetland, the reduction of TIN (23.0%), TKN (33.7%) and PO4-P (26.7%) was similar to the Sm wetland (19.8% TIN, 30.9% TKN and 23.8% PO4-P). The Ec wetland was more efficient in treating pond effluent due likely to the higher root surface of E. crassipes, which forms an extensive area favorable to retention and adsorption of debris and absorption of nutrients. PMID:25627602

  16. Stability of the WSSV ORF94 VNTR genotype marker during passage in marine shrimp, freshwater crayfish and freshwater prawns.

    PubMed

    Gudkovs, Nicholas; Murwantoko, Murwantoko; Walker, Peter J

    2014-10-16

    The white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) genome contains 3 variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) regions, located in open reading frame (ORF) 75, ORF94 and ORF125, which have been employed for molecular epizootiological studies. A previous report suggested that the ORF 94 VNTR is highly unstable, varying in the number of tandem repeats during single passages from shrimp to other crustaceans. As such rapid variations would have profound implications for the interpretation of molecular epizootiological data, we re-examined the stability of the ORF94 VNTR. Two WSSV isolates with different ORF94 VNTR genotypes (TRS5 and TRS7) were obtained from disease outbreaks in farmed black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon in Indonesia. High titre stocks of each virus were produced by injection in specific pathogen-free (SPF) Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei with filtered infected tissue extracts, and the genotypes were confirmed. Each stock (macerated tissue) was then used to feed SPF Pacific white shrimp, freshwater crayfish (Cherax sp.) and freshwater prawns Macrobrachium rosenbergii through 3 successive passages involving alternative hosts at each level. Taqman real-time PCR was conducted on samples from each group to confirm infection and quantify viral genetic loads. ORF94 VNTR genotype analysis conducted on samples from each of the 43 passage groups indicated no variations in the VNTR number in either genotype TRS5 or genotype TRS7. This finding is contrary to the previous report and suggests that ORF94 VNTR are stable during multiple passages in these crustaceans. PMID:25320037

  17. Utilization of warm well water, eastern Washington state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-03-01

    Utilizing the warm well water for a geothermal greenhouse heating system is highly economically feasible. This is based on using the 88 F water from Anderson Well No. 1 to heat greenhouses totaling approximately 10.6 acres. The additional investment of $640,000 above the cost for a conventional electric boiler system shows a rate of return of 48.3% on a 20 year life cycle analysis. The simple payback is 3 years. The 88 F well water is not warm enough for prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) aquaculture, since water flow requirements are excessive to maintain the desired 80 F pond temperature. However, the water is warm enough to maintain a 60 F pond temperature for trout farming. Trout farming using the 88 F well water directly is probably not economically feasible due to high electrical pumping cost (34,626 per year) for the seven 1/2 acre ponds that could be heated. Trout farming using the 75 F effluent water from the 10.6 acre greenhouse to heat four 1/2 acre ponds may be economically feasible since the water booster pumping cost is low ($1189 per year).

  18. Effect of Shrimp Chitin and Shrimp Chitin Hydrolysate on the Freeze-Induced Denaturation, and on the Amount of Unfreezable Water of Wanieso Lizardfish Myofibrillar Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somjit, Kingduean; Kongpun, Orawan; Osatomi, Kiyoshi; Hara, Kenji; Nozaki, Yukinori

    In view of potential utilization of shrimp waste, shrimp chitin (SC) and shrimp chitin hydrolysate (SCH) were prepared from 3 kinds of shrimp species, namely: black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon, endeavour shrimp Metapenaeus endeavouri and giant freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The effects of 5% SC and SCH (dry weight) on the state of water and on the denaturation of wanieso lizardfish Saurida wanieso myofibrillar protein (Mf) were evaluated based on changes in Mf Ca-ATPase activity and the amount of unfreezable water during frozen storage. Each effect was compared with those of Mf without additives (control) and Mf with glucose. The changes in Ca-ATPase activity of control and Mf with SC during frozen storage were exhibited biphasic pattern while those of SCH and glucose exhibited monophasic pattern. The amount of unfreezable water of Mf with SC was lower than that of control while those of Mf with SCH and glucose were higher than that of control. Present findings suggested that the preventive effect of SCH on freeze-induced denaturation of Mf is caused by the stabilizing the hydrated water molecule surrounding the Mf.

  19. Evaluation of Trace Metal Content by ICP-MS Using Closed Vessel Microwave Digestion in Fresh Water Fish

    PubMed Central

    Jarapala, Sreenivasa Rao; Kandlakunta, Bhaskarachary; Thingnganing, Longvah

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate trace metal levels of different varieties of fresh water fish using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrophotometer after microwave digestion (MD-ICPMS). Fish samples were collected from the outlets of twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad. The trace metal content in different varieties of analyzed fish were ranged from 0.24 to 1.68?mg/kg for Chromium in Cyprinus carpio and Masto symbollon, 0.20 to 7.52?mg/kg for Manganese in Labeo rohita and Masto symbollon, 0.006 to 0.07?mg/kg for Cobalt in Rastrelliger kanagurta and Pampus argenteus, 0.31 to 2.24?mg/kg for Copper in Labeo rohita and Penaeus monodon, 3.25 to 14.56?mg/kg for Zinc in Cyprinus carpio and Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and 0.01 to 2.05?mg/kg for Selenium in Rastrelliger kanagurta and Pampus argenteus, respectively. Proximate composition data for the different fishes were also tabulated. Since the available data for different trace elements for fish is scanty, here an effort is made to present a precise data for the same as estimated on ICP-MS. Results were in accordance with recommended daily intake allowance by WHO/FAO. PMID:24744789

  20. Comparison of genetic characteristics and pathogenicity of Lactococcus garvieae isolated from aquatic animals in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ming-An; Wang, Pei-Chyi; Liaw, Li-Ling; Yoshida, Terutoyo; Chen, Shih-Chu

    2012-12-01

    Seventy-six Taiwanese bacterial isolates including 74 from diseased, cultured, aquatic animals (54 grey mullet Mugil cephalus, 3 basket mullet Chelon alatus, 2 tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, 1 grouper Epinephelus coioides, 2 yellowfin seabream Acanthopagrus latus, 1 Borneo mullet Chelon macrolepis, 1 bullfrog Rana catesbeiana, 1 Japanese eel Anguilla japonica, and 9 giant freshwater prawns Macrobrachium rosenbergii), 1 wild-caught seafood species (squid muscle collected from a restaurant) and 1 human isolate (from a patient with a history of consuming raw squid in the previously mentioned restaurant), all collected between 1999 and 2006, were confirmed by PCR assay to be Lactococcus garvieae. The phenotypic characterization was determined by rabbit anti-KG+ and KG- serums, and 74 of the 76 Taiwanese strains displayed a KG- phenotype. The genetic characterization was investigated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Genomic DNA was digested with restriction endonucleases ApaI and SmaI and separated by PFGE. Ten different L. garvieae pulsotypes were identified. Predominant pulsotypes A1a/S1a were obtained from >96% of strains (52 of 54) from grey mullet, demonstrating a clonal dissemination of L. garvieae in grey mullet in Taiwan. In experimental challenges with grey mullet and tilapia, L. garvieae pulsotypes A1/S1 and A11/S11 showed higher virulence compared with other pulsotypes. PMID:23209077

  1. Transcript profiles of mitochondrial and cytoplasmic manganese superoxide dismutases in Exopalaemon carinicauda under ammonia stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Hai; Li, Jian; Li, Jitao; Liu, Ping; Liang, Zhongxiu; Wu, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is one of the most important antioxidant defense enzymes, and is considered as the first line against oxidative stress. In this study, we cloned a mitochondrial manganese (Mn) SOD (mMnSOD) cDNA from the ridgetail white prawn Exopalaemon carinicauda by using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) methods. The full-length cDNA for mMnSOD was 1 014-bp long, containing a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of 37-bp, a 3'-UTR of 321-bp with a poly (A) tail, and included a 657-bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 218 amino acids with a 16-amino-acid signal peptide. The protein had a calculated molecular weight of 23.87 kDa and a theoretical isoelectric point of 6.75. The mMnSOD sequence included two putative N-glycosylation sites (NHT and NLS), the MnSOD signature sequence 180DVWEHAYY187, and four putative Mn binding sites (H48, H96, D180, and H184). Sequence comparison showed that the mMnSOD deduced amino acid sequence of E. carinicauda shared 97%, 95%, 89%, 84%, 82%, 72%, and 69% identity with that of Macrobrachium rosenbergii, Macrobrachium nipponense, Fenneropeneaus chinensis, Callinectes sapidus, Perisesarma bidens, Danio rerio, and Homo sapiens, resectively. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that mMnSOD transcripts were present in all E. carinicauda tissues examined, with the highest levels in the hepatopancreas. During an ammonia stress treatment, the transcript levels of mMnSOD and cMnSOD were up-regulated at 12 h in hemocytes and at 24 h in the hepatopancreas. As the duration of the ammonia stress treatment extended to 72 h, the transcript levels of mMnSOD and cMnSOD significantly decreased both in hemocytes and hepatopancreas. These findings indicate that the SOD system is induced to respond to acute ammonia stress, and may be involved in environmental stress responses in E. carinicauda.

  2. Abundance of Ohio shrimp (Macrobrachium ohione) and Glass shrimp (Palaemonetes kadiakensis) in the unimpounded Upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barko, V.A.; Hrabik, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    Large rivers of the United States have been altered by construction and maintenance of navigation channels, which has resulted in habitat loss and degradation. Using 7 y of Long Term Resource Monitoring Program data collected from the unimpounded upper Mississippi River, we investigated Ohio and Glass Shrimp abundance collected from four physical habitats of the unimpounded upper Mississippi River: main channel border, main channel border with wing dike, open side channel and closed side channel. Our objective was to assess associations between Ohio and Glass Shrimp abundance, environmental measurements and the four habitats to better understand the ecology of these species in a channelized river system. Ohio Shrimp were most abundant in the open side channels, while Glass Shrimp were most abundant in the main channel border wing dike habitat. Thirty-two percent of the variance in Glass Shrimp abundance was explained by year 1995, year 1998, water temperature, depth of gear deployment, Secchi disk transparency and river elevation. Approximately 8% of variation in Ohio Shrimp abundance was explained by Secchi disk transparency. Catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) was greatest in 1998 for Glass Shrimp but lowest in 1997. Conversely, CPUE was greatest in 1996 for Ohio Shrimp and lowest in 2000. Both species exhibited inter-annual variability in CPUE. Long-term impacts of river modifications on aquatic invertebrates have not been well documented in many large, river systems and warrants further study. The findings from this study provide ecological information on Glass and Ohio Shrimp in a channelized river system.

  3. cDNA cloning, characterization and expression analysis of peroxiredoxin 5 gene in the ridgetail white prawn Exopalaemon carinicauda.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yafei; Liu, Ping; Li, Jitao; Li, Jian; Gao, Baoquan; Chen, Ping

    2013-12-01

    Peroxiredoxin is a superfamily of antioxidative proteins that play important roles in protecting organisms against the toxicity of reactive oxygen species. In this study, a full-length of peroxiredoxin 5 (designated EcPrx5) cDNA was cloned from the ridgetail white prawn Exopalaemon carinicauda by using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) approaches. The full-length cDNA of the EcPrx5 was of 827 bp, containing a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 14 bp, a 3' UTR of 228 bp with a poly (A) tail, and an open reading frame of 585 bp encoding a polypeptide of 194 amino acids with the predicted molecular weight of 20.83 kDa and estimated isoelectric point of 7.62. BLAST analysis revealed that amino acids of EcPrx5 shared 89, 68, 66, 65, 53 and 51 % identity with that of Macrobrachium rosenbergii, Megachile rotundata, Harpegnathos saltator, Acromyrmex echinatior, Danio rerio, and Homo sapiens counterparts, respectively. The conserved Prx domain and the signature of peroxiredoxin catalytic center identified in EcPrx5 suggested that EcPrx5 belonged to the atypical 2-Cys Prx subgroup. Real time quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated that EcPrx5 could be detected in all the tested tissues with highest expression level in hepatopancreas. As time progressed, the expression level of EcPrx5 both in hemocytes and hepatopancreas increased in the first 6 h after Vibrio anguillarum and white spot syndrome virus challenge, and showed different expression profiles. The results indicated that EcPrx5 involved in immune response against bacterial and viral infection in E. carinicauda. PMID:24141991

  4. Cloning and characterisation of a prophenoloxidase from the haemocytes of mud crab Scylla serrata.

    PubMed

    Ko, Chi-Fong; Chiou, Tzu-Ting; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam; Lu, Jenn-Kan; Chen, Jiann-Chu

    2007-01-01

    A prophenoloxidase (proPO) cDNA was cloned from the haemocytes of mud crab Scylla serrata using oligonucleotide primers and RT-PCR. Both 3'- and 5'-regions were isolated by rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE) method. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence revealed that the cDNA clone has a full length of 2663bp, with an open reading frame of 2019bp, a 124-bp 5'-untranslated region, and a 520-bp 3'-untranslated region containing a poly A signal. It encodes a protein of 673 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 77.5kDa and with an estimated pI of 5.96. It contains two putative tyrosinase copper-binding motifs with six histidine residues (copper A, 185, 189, 211, and copper B, 346, 350, 386). The proPO has thiol-ester-like motif (GCGWPQHM), which showed similar structural features of proPOs from other decapod crustaceans. It also contains five possible glycosylation sites, and a conserved C-terminal region common to all known proPOs. Sequence comparison showed that the proPO-deduced amino acid of mud crab S. serrata has an overall similarity of 78%, 57%, 56%, 51-55%, 54%, 53%, 52%, 52%, and 52% to that of Dungeness crab Cancer magister, American lobster Homarus americanus, European lobster Homarus gammarus, kuruma prawn Marsupenaeus japonicus, crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus, white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon, green tiger shrimp Penaeus semisulcatus, and giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, respectively. The proPO was strongly expressed in haemocytes, but not in heart, eyestalk, gill, muscle, ovary, hepatopancreas, stomach, and intestine. The proPO transcript of mud crab S. serrata increased significantly in 12 and 24h post-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection, but returned to the original values in 72h post injection. PMID:16806468

  5. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of extracellular copper-zinc superoxide dismutase gene from swimming crab Portunus trituberculatus.

    PubMed

    Li, Jitao; Chen, Ping; Liu, Ping; Gao, Baoquan; Wang, Qingyin; Li, Jian

    2011-03-01

    An extracellular CuZnSOD cDNA was cloned from the haemocytes of swimming crab Portunus trituberculatus by a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE) method. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence revealed that the ecCuZnSOD full-length cDNA consisted of 965 bp with an open reading frame of 579 bp. It encoded a polypeptide of 192 amino acids which had a predicted molecular weight of 20.0 kDa and with an estimated pI of 6.23. The deduced amino acid sequence contained a putative signal peptide of 31 amino acids. It is predicted to possess all the expected features of CuZnSOD members, including amino acids responsible for binding Cu and Zn, two putative CuZnSOD signatures, two cysteines and one N-linked glycosylation site. Sequence comparison showed that the CuZnSOD deduced amino acid sequence of P. trituberculatus has similarity of 80%, 76%, 55% and 50% to that of blue crab Callinectes sapidus, mud crab Scylla serrata, crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus and freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, respectively. The ecCuZnSOD transcripts expressed in all examined tissues, including haemocytes, hepatopancreas, heart, stomach, intestine, gill, ovary and muscle. RT-PCR analysis indicated that ecCuZnSOD transcripts both in haemocytes and hepatopancreas increased in the first 3 h after Vibrio alginolyticus challenging, as the bacterial infection progressed, the challenged crabs decreased to levels significantly lower than control by 96 h post-infection. These facts indicated that ecCuZnSOD was potentially involved in the acute response against invading bacteria in P. trituberculatus. PMID:20848212

  6. FishMicrosat: a microsatellite database of commercially important fishes and shellfishes of the Indian subcontinent

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Microsatellite DNA is one of many powerful genetic markers used for the construction of genetic linkage maps and the study of population genetics. The biological databases in public domain hold vast numbers of microsatellite sequences for many organisms including fishes. The microsatellite data available in these data sources were extracted and managed into a database that facilitates sequences analysis and browsing relevant information. The system also helps to design primer sequences for flanking regions of repeat loci for PCR identification of polymorphism within populations. Description FishMicrosat is a database of microsatellite sequences of fishes and shellfishes that includes important aquaculture species such as Lates calcarifer, Ctenopharyngodon idella, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Penaeus monodon, Labeo rohita, Oreochromis niloticus, Fenneropenaeus indicus and Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The database contains 4398 microsatellite sequences of 41 species belonging to 15 families from the Indian subcontinent. GenBank of NCBI was used as a prime data source for developing the database. The database presents information about simple and compound microsatellites, their clusters and locus orientation within sequences. The database has been integrated with different tools in a web interface such as primer designing, locus finding, mapping repeats, detecting similarities among sequences across species, and searching using motifs and keywords. In addition, the database has the ability to browse information on the top 10 families and the top 10 species, through record overview. Conclusions FishMicrosat database is a useful resource for fish and shellfish microsatellite analyses and locus identification across species, which has important applications in population genetics, evolutionary studies and genetic relatedness among species. The database can be expanded further to include the microsatellite data of fishes and shellfishes from other regions and available information on genome sequencing project of species of aquaculture importance. PMID:24047532

  7. Molecular cloning and characterization of alpha 2-macroglobulin (alpha2-M) from the haemocytes of Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis.

    PubMed

    Qin, Chuanjie; Chen, Liqiao; Qin, Jian G; Zhao, Daxian; Zhang, Hao; Wu, Ping; Li, Erchao; Yu, Na

    2010-08-01

    Alpha 2-macroglobulin (alpha2-M) is a large protein in blood and is able to inactivate a variety of proteinases in invertebrates and vertebrates. The alpha2-M gene was obtained from the Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis, by the reverse transcript-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The alpha2-M cDNA of E. sinensis contained 4851 bp with an open reading frame of 4371 bp, a 70 bp 5'-untranslated region, a 410 bp 3'-untranslated region, and three common putative functional domains. The putative domains include a bait region, a GCGEQNM thiol ester domain, and a receptor-binding domain in E. sinensis, which are similar to those in other species. Sequence comparison indicates that the alpha2-M deduced amino acid sequence of E. sinensis has an overall identity of 44%, 44%, 43% and 38% to that of Marsupenaeus japonicus, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, Litopenaeus vannamei and Scylla serrata, respectively. Alignment of deduced amino acid sequence to other species shows that the overall structure of alpha2-M is evolutionarily conserved. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that the E. sinensis alpha2-M is closely related to the alpha2-Ms in other arthropods. Quantitative PCR analysis showed that alpha2-M was mainly expressed in haemocytes, but not in gill, muscle, hepatopancreas, gut and stomach. Its mRNA transcript in haemocytes of E. sinensis increased significantly at 12, 24 and 48 h post-Aeromonas hydrophila (Gram negative bacteria) injection, indicating that A. hydrophila could induce alpha2-M mRNA expression in E. sinensis. PMID:20394825

  8. Characterization of a Prawn OA/TA Receptor in Xenopus Oocytes Suggests Functional Selectivity between Octopamine and Tyramine

    PubMed Central

    Jezzini, Sami H.; Reyes-Colón, Dalynés; Sosa, María A.

    2014-01-01

    Here we report the characterization of an octopamine/tyramine (OA/TA or TyrR1) receptor (OA/TAMac) cloned from the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, an animal used in the study of agonistic social behavior. The invertebrate OA/TA receptors are seven trans-membrane domain G-protein coupled receptors that are related to vertebrate adrenergic receptors. Behavioral studies in arthropods indicate that octopaminergic signaling systems modulate fight or flight behaviors with octopamine and/or tyramine functioning in a similar way to the adrenalins in vertebrate systems. Despite the importance of octopamine signaling in behavioral studies of decapod crustaceans there are no functional data available for any of their octopamine or tyramine receptors. We expressed OA/TAMac in Xenopus oocytes where agonist-evoked trans-membrane currents were used as readouts of receptor activity. The currents were most effectively evoked by tyramine but were also evoked by octopamine and dopamine. They were effectively blocked by yohimbine. The electrophysiological approach we used enabled the continuous observation of complex dynamics over time. Using voltage steps, we were able to simultaneously resolve two types of endogenous currents that are affected over different time scales. At higher concentrations we observe that octopamine and tyramine can produce different and opposing effects on both of these currents, presumably through the activity of the single expressed receptor type. The pharmacological profile and apparent functional-selectivity are consistent with properties first observed in the OA/TA receptor from the insect Drosophila melanogaster. As the first functional data reported for any crustacean OA/TA receptor, these results suggest that functional-selectivity between tyramine and octopamine is a feature of this receptor type that may be conserved among arthropods. PMID:25350749

  9. Poly-ß-hydroxybutyrate content and dose of the bacterial carrier for Artemia enrichment determine the performance of giant freshwater prawn larvae.

    PubMed

    Thai, Truong Quoc; Wille, Mathieu; Garcia-Gonzalez, Linsey; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Bossier, Peter; De Schryver, Peter

    2014-06-01

    The beneficial effects of poly-?-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) for aquaculture animals have been shown in several studies. The strategy of applying PHB contained in a bacterial carrier has, however, hardly been considered. The effect of administering PHB-accumulated Alcaligenes eutrophus H16 containing 10 or 80 % PHB on dry weight, named A10 and A80, respectively, through the live feed Artemia was investigated on the culture performance of larvae of the giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). Feeding larvae with Artemia nauplii enriched in a medium containing 100 and 1,000 mg L(-1) A80 significantly increased the survival with about 15 % and the development of the larvae with a larval stage index of about 1 as compared to feeding non-enriched Artemia. The survival of the larvae also significantly increased with about 35 % in case of a challenge with Vibrio harveyi. The efficiency of these treatments was equal to a control treatment of Artemia enriched in an 800 mg L(-1) PHB powder suspension, while Artemia enriched in 10 mg L(-1) A80, 100 mg L(-1) A10, and 1,000 mg L(-1) A10 did not bring similar effects. From our results, it can be concluded that PHB supplemented in a bacterial carrier (i.e., amorphous PHB) can increase the larviculture efficiency of giant freshwater prawn similar to supplementation of PHB in powdered form (i.e., crystalline PHB). When the level of PHB in the bacterial carrier is high, similar beneficial effects can be achieved as crystalline PHB, but at a lower live food enrichment concentration expressed on PHB basis. PMID:24615382

  10. Molecular characterization of a cytosolic manganese superoxide dismutase from the Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, D X; Chen, L Q; Qin, J G; Qin, C J; Zhang, H; Wu, P; Li, E C

    2014-01-01

    A cytosolic manganese superoxide dismutase gene (Es-cMnSOD) was cloned from the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis, using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and the rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The open reading frame of Es-cMnSOD is 867 bp in length and encodes a 288-amino acid protein without a signal peptide. The calculated molecular mass of the translated protein of Es-cMnSOD is 31.43 kDa, with an estimated isoelectric point of 6.30. The deduced amino acid sequence of Es-cMnSOD has similarities of 90, 89, 84, 87, and 81% to those of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei MnSOD, black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon MnSOD, giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii MnSOD, blue crab Callinectes sapidus MnSOD, and red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii MnSOD, respectively. Es-cMnSOD contains a manganese superoxide dismutase domain (DVWEHAYY) and 4 conserved amino acids responsible for binding manganese. Es-cMnSOD was expressed in the hemocytes, eyestalk, muscle, intestine, gill, and hepatopancreas. Es-cMnSOD transcripts in hemocytes of E. sinensis increased at 1.5 and 48 h after injection of Aeromonas hydrophila, indicating that the induction of the SOD system response occurred within a short period of time. This study suggests that MnSOD may play a critical role in crab immunity, allowing efficient activation of an early innate immune response in the crab. PMID:25501153

  11. One precursor, three apolipoproteins: the relationship between two crustacean lipoproteins, the large discoidal lipoprotein and the high density lipoprotein/?-glucan binding protein.

    PubMed

    Stieb, Stefanie; Roth, Ziv; Dal Magro, Christina; Fischer, Sabine; Butz, Eric; Sagi, Amir; Khalaila, Isam; Lieb, Bernhard; Schenk, Sven; Hoeger, Ulrich

    2014-12-01

    The novel discoidal lipoprotein (dLp) recently detected in the crayfish, differs from other crustacean lipoproteins in its large size, apoprotein composition and high lipid binding capacity, We identified the dLp sequence by transcriptome analyses of the hepatopancreas and mass spectrometry. Further de novo assembly of the NGS data followed by BLAST searches using the sequence of the high density lipoprotein/1-glucan binding protein (HDL-BGBP) of Astacus leptodactylus as query revealed a putative precursor molecule with an open reading frame of 14.7 kb and a deduced primary structure of 4889 amino acids. The presence of an N-terminal lipid bind- ing domain and a DUF 1943 domain suggests the relationship with the large lipid transfer proteins. Two-putative dibasic furin cleavage sites were identified bordering the sequence of the HDL-BGBP. When subjected to mass spectroscopic analyses, tryptic peptides of the large apoprotein of dLp matched the N-terminal part of the precursor, while the peptides obtained for its small apoprotein matched the C-terminal part. Repeating the analysis in the prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii revealed a similar protein with identical domain architecture suggesting that our findings do not represent an isolated instance. Our results indicate that the above three apolipoproteins (i.e HDL-BGBP and both the large and the small subunit of dLp) are translated as a large precursor. Cleavage at the furin type sites releases two subunits forming a heterodimeric dLP particle, while the remaining part forms an HDL-BGBP whose relationship with other lipoproteins as well as specific functions are yet to be elucidated. PMID:25281909

  12. Differential distribution of V-type H(+)-ATPase and Na (+)/K (+)-ATPase in the branchial chamber of the palaemonid shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum.

    PubMed

    Boudour-Boucheker, Nesrine; Boulo, Viviane; Charmantier-Daures, Mireille; Grousset, Evelyse; Anger, Klaus; Charmantier, Guy; Lorin-Nebel, Catherine

    2014-07-01

    V-H(+)-ATPase and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase were localized in the gills and branchiostegites of M. amazonicum and the effects of salinity on the branchial chamber ultrastructure and on the localization of transporters were investigated. Gills present septal and pillar cells. In freshwater (FW), the apical surface of pillar cells is amplified by extensive evaginations associated with mitochondria. V-H(+)-ATPase immunofluorescence was localized in the membranes of the apical evaginations and in clustered subapical areas of pillar cells, suggesting labeling of intracellular vesicle membranes. Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase labeling was restricted to the septal cells. No difference in immunostaining was recorded for both proteins according to salinity (FW vs. 25 PSU). In the branchiostegite, both V-H(+)-ATPase and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase immunofluorescence were localized in the same cells of the internal epithelium. Immunogold revealed that V-H(+)-ATPase was localized in apical evaginations and in electron-dense areas throughout the inner epithelium, while Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase occurred densely along the basal infoldings of the cytoplasmic membrane. Our results suggest that morphologically different cell types within the gill lamellae may also be functionally specialized. We propose that, in FW, pillar cells expressing V-H(+)-ATPase absorb ions (Cl(-), Na(+)) that are transported either directly to the hemolymph space or through a junctional complex to the septal cells, which may be responsible for active Na(+) delivery to the hemolymph through Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. This suggests a functional link between septal and pillar cells in osmoregulation. When shrimps are transferred to FW, gill and branchiostegite epithelia undergo ultrastructural changes, most probably resulting from their involvement in osmoregulatory processes. PMID:24805036

  13. Modulation By K+ Plus NH4+ of Microsomal (Na+, K+)-ATPase Activity in Selected Ontogenetic Stages of the Diadromous River Shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum (Decapoda, Palaemonidae)

    PubMed Central

    Leone, Francisco A.; Bezerra, Thais M. S.; Garçon, Daniela P.; Lucena, Malson N.; Pinto, Marcelo R.; Fontes, Carlos F. L.; McNamara, John C.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the synergistic stimulation by K+ plus NH4+ of (Na+, K+)-ATPase activity in microsomal preparations of whole zoea I and decapodid III, and in juvenile and adult river shrimp gills. Modulation of (Na+, K+)-ATPase activity is ontogenetic stage-specific, and particularly distinct between juveniles and adults. Although both gill enzymes exhibit two different sites for K+ and NH4+ binding, in the juvenile enzyme, these two sites are equivalent: binding by both ions results in slightly stimulated activity compared to that of a single ionic species. In the adult enzyme, the sites are not equivalent: when one ion occupies its specific binding site, (Na+, K+)-ATPase activity is stimulated synergistically by ?50% on binding of the complementary ion. Immunolocalization reveals the enzyme to be distributed predominantly throughout the intralamellar septum in the gill lamellae of juveniles and adults. Western blot analyses demonstrate a single immunoreactive band, suggesting a single (Na+, K+)-ATPase ?-subunit isoform that is distributed into different density membrane fractions, independently of ontogenetic stage. We propose a model for the modulation by K+ and NH4+ of gill (Na+, K+)-ATPase activity. These findings suggest that the gill enzyme may be regulated by NH4+ during ontogenetic development in M. amazonicum. PMID:24586919

  14. Pigment granule translocation in red ovarian chromatophores from the palaemonid shrimp Macrobrachium olfersi (Weigmann, 1836): Functional roles for the cytoskeleton and its molecular motors.

    PubMed

    Milograna, Sarah Ribeiro; Ribeiro, Márcia Regina; Baqui, Munira Muhammad Abdel; McNamara, John Campbell

    2014-12-01

    The binding of red pigment concentrating hormone (RPCH) to membrane receptors in crustacean chromatophores triggers Ca(2+)/cGMP signaling cascades that activate cytoskeletal motors, driving pigment granule translocation. We investigate the distributions of microfilaments and microtubules and their associated molecular motors, myosin and dynein, by confocal and transmission electron microscopy, evaluating a functional role for the cytoskeleton in pigment translocation using inhibitors of polymer turnover and motor activity in vitro. Microtubules occupy the chromatophore cell extensions whether the pigment granules are aggregated or dispersed. The inhibition of microtubule turnover by taxol induces pigment aggregation and inhibits re-dispersion. Phalloidin-FITC actin labeling, together with tannic acid fixation and ultrastructural analysis, reveals that microfilaments form networks associated with the pigment granules. Actin polymerization induced by jasplaquinolide strongly inhibits RPCH-induced aggregation, causes spontaneous pigment dispersion, and inhibits pigment re-dispersion. Inhibition of actin polymerization by latrunculin-A completely impedes pigment aggregation and re-dispersion. Confocal immunocytochemistry shows that non-muscle myosin II (NMMII) co-localizes mainly with pigment granules while blebbistatin inhibition of NMMII strongly reduces the RPCH response, also inducing spontaneous pigment dispersion. Myosin II and dynein also co-localize with the pigment granules. Inhibition of dynein ATPase by erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl) adenine induces aggregation, inhibits RPCH-triggered aggregation, and inhibits re-dispersion. Granule aggregation and dispersion depend mainly on microfilament integrity although microtubules may be involved. Both cytoskeletal polymers are functional only when subunit turnover is active. Myosin and dynein may be the molecular motors that drive pigment aggregation. These mechanisms of granule translocation in crustacean chromatophores share various features with those of vertebrate pigment cells. PMID:25182860

  15. Orsay virus utilizes ribosomal frameshifting to express a novel protein that is incorporated into virions?

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hongbing; Franz, Carl J.; Wu, Guang; Renshaw, Hilary; Zhao, Guoyan; Firth, Andrew E.; Wang, David

    2014-01-01

    Orsay virus is the first identified virus that is capable of naturally infecting Caenorhabditis elegans. Although it is most closely related to nodaviruses, Orsay virus differs from nodaviruses in its genome organization. In particular, the Orsay virus RNA2 segment encodes a putative novel protein of unknown function, termed delta, which is absent from all known nodaviruses. Here we present evidence that Orsay virus utilizes a ribosomal frameshifting strategy to express a novel fusion protein from the viral capsid (alpha) and delta ORFs. Moreover, the fusion protein was detected in purified virus fractions, demonstrating that it is most likely incorporated into Orsay virions. Furthermore, N-terminal sequencing of both the fusion protein and the capsid protein demonstrated that these proteins must be translated from a non-canonical initiation site. While the function of the alpha–delta fusion remains cryptic, these studies provide novel insights into the fundamental properties of this new clade of viruses. PMID:24503084

  16. Morphological Changes in the T=3 Capsid of Flock House Virus during Cell Entry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hanna E. Walukiewicz; John E. Johnson; Anette Schneemann

    2006-01-01

    We report the identification and characterization of a viral intermediate formed during infection of Dro- sophila cells with the nodavirus Flock House virus (FHV). We observed that even at a very low multiplicity of infection, only 70% of the input virus stayed attached to or entered the cells, while the remaining 30% of the virus eluted from cells after initial

  17. Genetic Analysis of Betanodaviruses in Subclinically Infected Aquarium Fish and Invertebrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis K. Gomez; Gun Wook Baeck; Ji Hyung Kim; Casiano H. Choresca Jr; Se Chang Park

    2008-01-01

    Betanodaviruses causing viral nervous necrosis (VNN) have been detected and isolated from several species of cultured marine\\u000a fish worldwide. In Korea, VNN was identified in several species of cultured marine fish. This study presents data on the amplified\\u000a nested PCR product (420 bp) of 11 nodavirus strains from different species of apparently healthy aquarium fish and invertebrates\\u000a collected in one private

  18. Persistent infection of betanodavirus in a novel cell line derived from the brain tissue of barramundi Lates calcarifer.

    PubMed

    Chi, S C; Wu, Y C; Cheng, T M

    2005-06-01

    In order to obtain an in vitro system for studying the mechanism of persistent infection of fish nodavirus, a novel cell line (BB) was established from the brain tissue of a barramundi, Lates calcarifer, which had survived viral nervous necrosis disease. The cell line has been subcultured > 100 times. The persistence of fish nodavirus designated as barramundi brain nervous necrosis virus (BBNNV) in the BB cells was demonstrated by: (1) the detection of the infectious virus in the culture supernatants, (2) the detection of NNV nucleic acids extracted from the BB cells, (3) the positive result of immunochemical staining using an NNV-specific monoclonal antibody and (4) their resistance to infection by another fish nodavirus grouper NNV (GNNV). No temperature-sensitive mutants were detected in the culture supernatant of the BB cells. Neither truncated genome (RNA1 or RNA2) nor smaller coat protein was found in the purified BBNNV particles, suggesting that defective interfering particles were unlikely to be important in the NNV-persistent infection in the BB cells. The result of the neutralization test indicated that the 5 antigenic determinants, recognized by GNNV-specific neutralizing antibodies, also existed on the coat protein of BBNNV. The BB cell line is the first cell line reported to be persistently infected with NNV, and would be a useful model for understanding the mechanisms of NNV-persistent infection in vitro and in vivo. PMID:16060261

  19. SPECIES INTERACTIONS BETWEEN ESTUARINE DETRITIVORES: INHIBITION OR FACILITATION?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Native Hawaiian estuarine detritivores; the prawn Macrobrachium grandimanus, and the neritid gastropod Neritina vespertina, were maintained in flow-through microcosms with conditioned leaves from two riparian tree species, Hau (Hibiscus tiliaceus) and guava (Psidium guajava). Th...

  20. The implementation of a regional biomonitoring program in northeast Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Watanabea; R. A. Coler; R. J. Paz

    1999-01-01

    A methodology to inventory water quality in northeast Brazil through biomonitoring is described. Essentially the methodology is based on the United States Environmental Protection Agency protocol supplemented by benthic macroinvertebrate diversity data. To date six test species have been selected to represent the overall aquatic biota response to different pollutants: the snail (Pomacea linetata), fish (Molienesia sp.), prawn (Macrobrachium amazonicum),

  1. Fish tissue quality in the lower Mississippi River and health risks from fish consumption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen H. Watanabe; Frank W. Desimone; Arunthavarani Thiyagarajah; William R. Hartley; Albert E. Hindrichs

    2003-01-01

    Between 1990 and 1994, samples of three shellfish species (i.e. blue crab, Callinectes sapidus;crayfish, Procambarus acutis; and river shrimp, Macrobrachium ohionii) and 16 fish species and were collected at six sites along the lower Mississippi River by the Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality, Office of Water Resources in coordination with the US Environmental Protection Agency. The fish species included: bigmouth

  2. Nervous necrosis virus replicates following the embryo development and dual infection with iridovirus at juvenile stage in grouper.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Hsiao-Che; Wang, Ting-Yu; Hsu, Hao-Hsuan; Chen, Peng-Peng; Lee, Szu-Hsien; Chen, Young-Mao; Tsai, Tieh-Jung; Wang, Chien-Kai; Ku, Hsiao-Tung; Lee, Gwo-Bin; Chen, Tzong-Yueh

    2012-01-01

    Infection of virus (such as nodavirus and iridovirus) and bacteria (such as Vibrio anguillarum) in farmed grouper has been widely reported and caused large economic losses to Taiwanese fish aquaculture industry since 1979. The multiplex assay was used to detect dual viral infection and showed that only nervous necrosis virus (NNV) can be detected till the end of experiments (100% mortality) once it appeared. In addition, iridovirus can be detected in a certain period of rearing. The results of real-time PCR and in situ PCR indicated that NNV, in fact, was not on the surface of the eggs but present in the embryo, which can continue to replicate during the embryo development. The virus may be vertically transmitted by packing into eggs during egg development (formation) or delivering into eggs by sperm during fertilization. The ozone treatment of eggs may fail to remove the virus, so a new strategy to prevent NNV is needed. PMID:22563447

  3. Nervous Necrosis Virus Replicates Following the Embryo Development and Dual Infection with Iridovirus at Juvenile Stage in Grouper

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Hao-Hsuan; Chen, Peng-Peng; Lee, Szu-Hsien; Chen, Young-Mao; Tsai, Tieh-Jung; Wang, Chien-Kai; Ku, Hsiao-Tung; Lee, Gwo-Bin; Chen, Tzong-Yueh

    2012-01-01

    Infection of virus (such as nodavirus and iridovirus) and bacteria (such as Vibrio anguillarum) in farmed grouper has been widely reported and caused large economic losses to Taiwanese fish aquaculture industry since 1979. The multiplex assay was used to detect dual viral infection and showed that only nervous necrosis virus (NNV) can be detected till the end of experiments (100% mortality) once it appeared. In addition, iridovirus can be detected in a certain period of rearing. The results of real-time PCR and in situ PCR indicated that NNV, in fact, was not on the surface of the eggs but present in the embryo, which can continue to replicate during the embryo development. The virus may be vertically transmitted by packing into eggs during egg development (formation) or delivering into eggs by sperm during fertilization. The ozone treatment of eggs may fail to remove the virus, so a new strategy to prevent NNV is needed. PMID:22563447

  4. Complete sequence of a viral nervous necrosis virus (NNV) isolated from red-spotted grouper (Epinephelus akaara) in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong; Teng, Yong; Zheng, Xiaocong; Wu, Yurong; Xie, Xiayang; He, Junqiang; Ye, Yiyou; Wu, Zhixin

    2012-04-01

    A nodavirus isolated from red-spotted grouper (Epinephelus akaara) larvae in China has been subjected to genome analysis. The full-length genome sequences of RNA1 and RNA2 were determined, and the 5'-non-coding region (NCR) and 3'NCR sequences were determined by 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and 3'RACE. RNA1 is 3,103 nt in length and contains a 982-amino-acid open reading frame (ORF) encoding protein A with a calculated molecular mass of 110.74 kDa. RNA2 is 1,433 nt long and contains a 338-amino-acid major ORF encoding coat protein with a calculated molecular mass of 37.059 kDa. Multiple alignment and phylogenetic analysis clearly supported including this virus in the species Redspotted grouper nervous necrosis virus, genus Betanodavirus, family Nodaviridae. PMID:22270757

  5. A comparative study of the macroinvertebrate communities in three oxbow lakes and the Brazos River in East Central Texas

    E-print Network

    Lanza, Shirley Anne

    2003-01-01

    . Erpetogomphus sp, Gomphussp. Ophiogomphus sp. Stylogomphus sp. Stylurus sp. Aeshnidae Aeshna sp. Anar sp. Corduliidae Somatochlora sp. Macromiidae Taxon Class Insects BR BB 10 . 1 46 Mo Si Total 13 10 Didymops transverse (Say) Libellulidae... Correspondence Analysis (CCA). River species Corbicula flumtnea (Muller) Macrobrachium sp. Baetis sp. Stenonema sp. Oligoneuridae sp. Erpetogomphus sp. Gomphussp. Ophiogomphus sp. Stylogomphus sp. Stylurus sp. Aeshna sp. Didymops transverse (Say...

  6. Modern fauna and quantitative parameters of invasive invertebrates in zoobenthos of upper reaches of the Kuybyshev Reservoir, Russia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. V. Yakovleva; V. A. Yakovlev

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of data for the period 1998–2008, a faunistic review of invasive species of zoobenthos in the upper reaches of\\u000a the Kuybyshev Reservoir is given. In total, 30 species are revealed: polychaetes—3; oligochaetes—2; leeches—1; mollusks—5;\\u000a crustaceans—19 (gammarids—9; corophiums—2; cumaceans and mysids—3 each; narrow-clawed crayfish Astacus leptodactilus and shrimp Macrobrachium nipponense). Invasive species account for 10.8% of the total

  7. Hydrographic Status of Sundarbans Mangrove, Bangladesh with Special Reference to Post-larvae and Juveniles Fish and Shrimp Abundance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Enamul Hoq; M. Abdul Wahab; M. Nazrul Islam

    2006-01-01

    Environmental factors, including water parameters were correlated with assemblages of shell and finfish post-larvae and juveniles\\u000a in the 5 rivers of Sundarbans mangrove for 2 years, located in the south-west of Bangladesh. Fifteen species of shellfish\\u000a belonging to 6 families and 37 species of finfish belonging to 27 families were recorded. Four species of shrimp (Metapenaeus monoceros, M. brevicornis, Macrobrachium villosimanus

  8. What They Work at is not What They eat: Incongruence of Strong Interactions and Assimilation in Shrimps and Baetid Mayflies in a Brazilian Coastal Stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moulton, T.; de Souza, M. L.; Brito, E. F.; Krsulovic, F. M.; Silveira, R. M.; Ometto, J. B.

    2005-05-01

    Exclusion experiments showed that atyid shrimps (Potimirim glabra) and baetid mayflies (Cloeodes sp., Americabaetis sp.) removed benthic material from hard substrate at different sites in the forested stream Rio Andorinha, Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro. Their effects were greater on organic material not associated with algae than on algae. Macrobrachium olfersi shrimp had a negative effect on the mayflies, causing a trophic cascade with the benthic material. Gut analysis of the atyid and baetids showed that they ingested large amounts of detritus, as expected. Macrobrachium contained mainly detritus, some algae and some insect parts. Stable isotope analysis of the gut contents confirmed these compositions, but the tissue of the shrimps and mayflies was of carbon derived from algae (as testified by enriched ? 13C corresponding to microalgae from the periphyton). Baetids appeared to be algal herbivores and both Potimirim and Macrobrachium appeared (from their ? 15N signatures) to be secondary consumers. We note that what the animals remove (both by bioturbation and ingestion) and what they assimilate are very different. We speculate that the baetids and atyid are "gardeners" and remove material to promote the growth of algal turf.

  9. Photobacterium gaetbulicola sp. nov., a lipolytic bacterium isolated from a tidal flat sediment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Ok; Kim, Kyung-Kil; Park, Sooyeon; Kang, So-Jung; Lee, Jeong-Ho; Lee, Sang-Jun; Oh, Tae-Kwang; Yoon, Jung-Hoon

    2010-11-01

    A Gram-negative, motile, non-spore-forming and lipolytic bacterial strain, designated Gung47(T), was isolated from a tidal flat on the west coast of Korea. Strain Gung47(T) grew optimally at 30 °C and with 2-5?% (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain Gung47(T) belonged to the genus Photobacterium. Strain Gung47(T) exhibited 98.1?% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Photobacterium rosenbergii LMG 22223(T) and 94.3-96.3?% similarity with other type strains of species of the genus Photobacterium. Strain Gung47(T) exhibited 47?% DNA-DNA relatedness to P. rosenbergii LMG 22223(T). Strain Gung47(T) contained Q-8 as the predominant ubiquinone and C(16?:?1)?7c and/or iso-C(15?:?0) 2-OH, C(16?:?0) and C(18?:?1)?7c as the major fatty acids. In this study, two closely related type strains, P. rosenbergii LMG 22223(T) and Photobacterium halotolerans LMG 22194(T), were also found to have Q-8 as the predominant ubiquinone. The DNA G+C content of strain Gung47(T) was 50.6 mol%. The differential phenotypic properties together with the phylogenetic and genetic distinctiveness of strain Gung47(T) demonstrated that this strain is distinguishable from recognized Photobacterium species. Therefore, strain Gung47(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Photobacterium, for which the name Photobacterium gaetbulicola sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Gung47(T) (=KCTC 22804(T) =CCUG 58399(T)). PMID:20023056

  10. Abundance and distribution of macro-crustaceans in the intake and discharge areas before and during early operation of the Cedar Bayou Generating Station

    E-print Network

    Schmidt, Monroe

    1972-01-01

    on November 5, 1970. Intake water from Cedar Bayou and Tabbs Bay was dis- charged into Trinity Bay. Brown shrimp (Penaeus aztecus), white shrimp (Penaeus setiferus), blue crabs (Callinectes sa~idus), and a grass shrimp (Palaemonetes ~u io), made up 98. 2... During This Study ~Ar ulus spp. ~E'd 1 ~1 Parasitic Isopods. Amphipods. Penaeus aztecus. Penaeus duorarum Penaeus setiferus. 1tt1 ~t1 E~tk ~k Acetes americanus louisianensi Macrobrachium ohione Palaemonetes u io P 1 ~1 Procambarus clarkii...

  11. Cloning and characterisation of cDNA sequences encoding for anti-lipopolysaccharide factors (ALFs) in Brazilian palaemonid and penaeid shrimps.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Rafael Diego; Stoco, Patricia Hermes; Barracco, Margherita Anna

    2008-11-01

    Anti-lipopolysaccharide factors (ALFs) are antimicrobial peptides found in limulids and crustaceans that have a potent and broad range of antimicrobial activity. We report here the identification and molecular characterisation of new sequences encoding for ALFs in the haemocytes of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium olfersi and also in two Brazilian penaeid species, Farfantepenaeus paulensis and Litopenaeus schmitti. All obtained sequences encoded for highly cationic peptides containing two conserved cysteine residues flanking a putative LPS-binding domain. They exhibited a significant amino acid similarity with crustacean and limulid ALF sequences, especially with those of penaeid shrimps. This is the first identification of ALF in a freshwater prawn. PMID:18778778

  12. Rapid Evolution of Virus Sequences in Intrinsically Disordered Protein Regions

    PubMed Central

    Gitlin, Leonid; Hagai, Tzachi; LaBarbera, Anthony; Solovey, Mark; Andino, Raul

    2014-01-01

    Nodamura Virus (NoV) is a nodavirus originally isolated from insects that can replicate in a wide variety of hosts, including mammals. Because of their simplicity and ability to replicate in many diverse hosts, NoV, and the Nodaviridae in general, provide a unique window into the evolution of viruses and host-virus interactions. Here we show that the C-terminus of the viral polymerase exhibits extreme structural and evolutionary flexibility. Indeed, fewer than 10 positively charged residues from the 110 amino acid-long C-terminal region of protein A are required to support RNA1 replication. Strikingly, this region can be replaced by completely unrelated protein sequences, yet still produce a functional replicase. Structure predictions, as well as evolutionary and mutational analyses, indicate that the C-terminal region is structurally disordered and evolves faster than the rest of the viral proteome. Thus, the function of an intrinsically unstructured protein region can be independent of most of its primary sequence, conferring both functional robustness and sequence plasticity on the protein. Our results provide an experimental explanation for rapid evolution of unstructured regions, which enables an effective exploration of the sequence space, and likely function space, available to the virus. PMID:25502394

  13. Rapid evolution of virus sequences in intrinsically disordered protein regions.

    PubMed

    Gitlin, Leonid; Hagai, Tzachi; LaBarbera, Anthony; Solovey, Mark; Andino, Raul

    2014-12-01

    Nodamura Virus (NoV) is a nodavirus originally isolated from insects that can replicate in a wide variety of hosts, including mammals. Because of their simplicity and ability to replicate in many diverse hosts, NoV, and the Nodaviridae in general, provide a unique window into the evolution of viruses and host-virus interactions. Here we show that the C-terminus of the viral polymerase exhibits extreme structural and evolutionary flexibility. Indeed, fewer than 10 positively charged residues from the 110 amino acid-long C-terminal region of protein A are required to support RNA1 replication. Strikingly, this region can be replaced by completely unrelated protein sequences, yet still produce a functional replicase. Structure predictions, as well as evolutionary and mutational analyses, indicate that the C-terminal region is structurally disordered and evolves faster than the rest of the viral proteome. Thus, the function of an intrinsically unstructured protein region can be independent of most of its primary sequence, conferring both functional robustness and sequence plasticity on the protein. Our results provide an experimental explanation for rapid evolution of unstructured regions, which enables an effective exploration of the sequence space, and likely function space, available to the virus. PMID:25502394

  14. Differential expression profiling of orange-spotted grouper larvae, Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton), that survived a betanodavirus outbreak.

    PubMed

    Wu, M-S; Chen, C-W; Lin, C-H; Tzeng, C-S; Chang, C-Y

    2012-03-01

    Nervous necrosis virus (NNV), a piscine nodavirus, has caused serious viral nervous necrosis and viral encephalopathy and retinopathy in hatchery-reared larvae and juveniles of a wide range of marine teleost species worldwide in the last two decades. Although the mortality of NNV-infected larvae is nearly 100%, there are still some larvae that survive this catastrophe. To comprehensively understand the variations of these survivors at the molecular level, we collected orange-spotted grouper larvae that survived an NNV outbreak in an indoor hatchery in southern Taiwan to study differential gene expression. Healthy larvae with high, medium and low levels of detected NNV were compared with morbid larvae using a 9600-clone-containing grouper larva cDNA microarray, and differential gene expression was further confirmed by a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Significant variation exists in healthy larvae. The following genes were upregulated: adenylate kinase 1-2, myosin binding protein H-like, myosin light chain 2, myosin light chain 3, tropomyosin, fast/white muscle troponin T embryonic isoform, and parvalbumin 1 and 2 genes. The following genes were downregulated: apolipoprotein A-I, trypsinogen, pyruvate kinase and astacin-like metalloprotease. Moreover, immunoglobulin M heavy chain gene transcription was significantly higher in healthy larvae that had high virus levels, indicating that humoral immunity might protect organisms from viral infection. These results suggest that some non-immune-related genes may have played important roles in survival during the larval metamorphosis stage, after betanodavirus infection. PMID:22324345

  15. Optimization of virus detection in cells using massively parallel sequencing.

    PubMed

    McClenahan, Shasta D; Uhlenhaut, Christine; Krause, Philip R

    2014-01-01

    Massively parallel sequencing (MPS)-based virus detection has potential regulatory applications. We studied the ability of one of these approaches, based on degenerate oligonucleotide primer (DOP)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR), to detect viral sequences in cell lines known to express viral genes or particles. DOP-PCR was highly sensitive for the detection of small quantities of isolated viral sequences. Detected viral sequences included nodavirus, bracovirus, and endogenous retroviruses in High Five cells, porcine circovirus type 1 and porcine endogenous retrovirus in PK15 cells, human T-cell leukemia virus 1 in MJ cells, human papillomavirus 18 in HeLa cells, human herpesvirus 8 in BCBL-1 cells, and Epstein-Barr Virus in Raji cells. Illumina sequencing (for which primers were most efficiently added using PCR) provided greater sensitivity for virus detection than Roche 454 sequencing. Analyzing nucleic acids extracted both directly from samples and from capsid-enriched preparations provided useful information. Although there are limitations of these methods, these results indicate significant promise for the combination of nonspecific PCR and MPS in identifying contaminants in clinical and biological samples, including cell lines and reagents used to produce vaccines and therapeutic products. PMID:24309095

  16. Molecular characterisation of sea bream (Sparus aurata) transforming growth factor beta1.

    PubMed

    Tafalla, C; Aranguren, R; Secombes, C J; Castrillo, J L; Novoa, B; Figueras, A

    2003-05-01

    A transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF beta1) full length cDNA was characterised and sequenced from the head kidney of sea bream (Sparus aurata) previously challenged with a nodavirus. The cloned cDNA of 1778bp contains a predicted open reading frame of 379 amino acids, which includes the mature peptide region of 112 amino acids. The regulating region of the peptide possesses four potential N-linked glycosylation sites (N-X-T/S), as well as an RGD integrin binding site, an RKKR tetrabasic cut site and nine conserved cysteines all characteristic of the TGF beta superfamily. Compared to other teleost TGF beta1 genes, the sea bream TGF beta1 is most closely related to hybrid striped bass (Moronesaxatilis xM. chrysops) TGF beta1 (80% amino acid identity). The genomic organisation of TGF beta1 was determined through the generation of contiguous PCR clones. The sea bream TGF beta1 gene is approximately 3.6kb in length and consists of five coding regions. Two introns are absent in comparison to the genomic organisation of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss TGF beta1, whilst an additional intron not present in other sequenced TGF beta genes, but present in the trout TGF beta1 gene, is conserved in sea bream.A reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay was developed to study TGF beta expression in different sea bream tissues. Constitutive TGF beta1 expression was detected in the liver, brain, muscle, kidney, heart, gills and spleen of sea bream, as well as in head kidney macrophages and blood leucocytes. PMID:12711274

  17. Evaluation of cells and biological reagents for adventitious agents using degenerate primer PCR and massively parallel sequencing.

    PubMed

    McClenahan, Shasta D; Uhlenhaut, Christine; Krause, Philip R

    2014-12-12

    We employed a massively parallel sequencing (MPS)-based approach to test reagents and model cell substrates including Chinese hamster ovary (CHO), Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK), African green monkey kidney (Vero), and High Five insect cell lines for adventitious agents. RNA and DNA were extracted either directly from the samples or from viral capsid-enriched preparations, and then subjected to MPS-based non-specific virus detection with degenerate oligonucleotide primer (DOP) PCR. MPS by 454, Illumina MiSeq, and Illumina HiSeq was compared on independent samples. Virus detection using these methods was reproducibly achieved. Unclassified sequences from CHO cells represented cellular sequences not yet submitted to the databases typically used for sequence identification. The sensitivity of MPS-based virus detection was consistent with theoretically expected limits based on dilution of virus in cellular nucleic acids. Capsid preparation increased the number of viral sequences detected. Potential viral sequences were detected in several samples; in each case, these sequences were either artifactual or (based on additional studies) shown not to be associated with replication-competent viruses. Virus-like sequences were more likely to be identified in BLAST searches using virus-specific databases that did not contain cellular sequences. Detected viral sequences included previously described retrovirus and retrovirus-like sequences in CHO, Vero, MDCK and High Five cells, and nodavirus and endogenous bracovirus sequences in High Five insect cells. Bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine hokovirus, and porcine circovirus sequences were detected in some reagents. A recently described parvo-like virus present in some nucleic acid extraction resins was also identified in cells and extraction controls from some samples. The present study helps to illustrate the potential for MPS-based strategies in evaluating the presence of viral nucleic acids in various sample types, including cell culture substrates and vaccines. PMID:25454874

  18. Identification of Novel Positive-Strand RNA Viruses by Metagenomic Analysis of Archaea-Dominated Yellowstone Hot Springs

    PubMed Central

    Bolduc, Benjamin; Shaughnessy, Daniel P.; Wolf, Yuri I.; Koonin, Eugene V.; Roberto, Francisco F.

    2012-01-01

    There are no known RNA viruses that infect Archaea. Filling this gap in our knowledge of viruses will enhance our understanding of the relationships between RNA viruses from the three domains of cellular life and, in particular, could shed light on the origin of the enormous diversity of RNA viruses infecting eukaryotes. We describe here the identification of novel RNA viral genome segments from high-temperature acidic hot springs in Yellowstone National Park in the United States. These hot springs harbor low-complexity cellular communities dominated by several species of hyperthermophilic Archaea. A viral metagenomics approach was taken to assemble segments of these RNA virus genomes from viral populations isolated directly from hot spring samples. Analysis of these RNA metagenomes demonstrated unique gene content that is not generally related to known RNA viruses of Bacteria and Eukarya. However, genes for RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), a hallmark of positive-strand RNA viruses, were identified in two contigs. One of these contigs is approximately 5,600 nucleotides in length and encodes a polyprotein that also contains a region homologous to the capsid protein of nodaviruses, tetraviruses, and birnaviruses. Phylogenetic analyses of the RdRps encoded in these contigs indicate that the putative archaeal viruses form a unique group that is distinct from the RdRps of RNA viruses of Eukarya and Bacteria. Collectively, our findings suggest the existence of novel positive-strand RNA viruses that probably replicate in hyperthermophilic archaeal hosts and are highly divergent from RNA viruses that infect eukaryotes and even more distant from known bacterial RNA viruses. These positive-strand RNA viruses might be direct ancestors of RNA viruses of eukaryotes. PMID:22379100

  19. Molecular cloning, expression and functional analysis of ISG15 in orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaohong; Huang, Youhua; Cai, Jia; Wei, Shina; Ouyang, Zhengliang; Qin, Qiwei

    2013-05-01

    Interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) is an ubiquitin homolog that is significantly induced by type I interferons or viral infections. Groupers, Epinephelus spp. being maricultured in China and Southeast Asian countries, always suffer from virus infection, including iridovirus and nodavirus. To date, the roles of grouper genes, especially interferon related genes in virus infection remained largely unknown. Here, the ISG15 homolog (EcISG15) was cloned from grouper Epinephelus coioides and its immune response to Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) and grouper nervous necrosis virus (GNNV) was investigated. The full-length EcISG15 cDNA was composed of 948 bp and encoded a polypeptide of 155 amino acids with 37-68% identity with the known ISG15 homologs from other fish species. Amino acid alignment analysis indicated that EcISG15 contained two ubiquitin-like (UBL) domains and an Ub-conjugation domain (LRGG). Expressional analysis showed that EcISG15 was dramatically induced by GNNV infection, poly I:C or poly dA-dT treatment, but no obvious changes were observed during SGIV infection. Immunofluorescence assay showed that EcISG15 localized mainly in the cytoplasm of grouper cells in response to poly I:C stimulation or GNNV infection, but not in mock or SGIV infected cells. Western blot analysis indicated that the ISGylation was absent in SGIV-infected cells, but significantly enhanced in GNNV-infected or poly I:C transfected cells, suggesting that EcISG15 might play different roles in SGIV and GNNV infection. Furthermore, overexpression of EcISG15 in vitro inhibited the transcription of GNNV genes significantly. Taken together, the results indicated that fish ISG15 might exert important roles against RNA virus infection. PMID:23403156

  20. Crystal structure of a nematode-infecting virus

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yusong R.; Hryc, Corey F.; Jakana, Joanita; Jiang, Hongbing; Wang, David; Chiu, Wah; Zhong, Weiwei; Tao, Yizhi J.

    2014-01-01

    Orsay, the first virus discovered to naturally infect Caenorhabditis elegans or any nematode, has a bipartite, positive-sense RNA genome. Sequence analyses show that Orsay is related to nodaviruses, but molecular characterizations of Orsay reveal several unique features, such as the expression of a capsid–? fusion protein and the use of an ATG-independent mechanism for translation initiation. Here we report the crystal structure of an Orsay virus-like particle assembled from recombinant capsid protein (CP). Orsay capsid has a T = 3 icosahedral symmetry with 60 trimeric surface spikes. Each CP can be divided into three regions: an N-terminal arm that forms an extended protein interaction network at the capsid interior, an S domain with a jelly-roll, ?-barrel fold forming the continuous capsid, and a P domain that forms surface spike projections. The structure of the Orsay S domain is best aligned to T = 3 plant RNA viruses but exhibits substantial differences compared with the insect-infecting alphanodaviruses, which also lack the P domain in their CPs. The Orsay P domain is remotely related to the P1 domain in calicivirus and hepatitis E virus, suggesting a possible evolutionary relationship. Removing the N-terminal arm produced a slightly expanded capsid with fewer nucleic acids packaged, suggesting that the arm is important for capsid stability and genome packaging. Because C. elegans-Orsay serves as a highly tractable model for studying viral pathogenesis, our results should provide a valuable structural framework for further studies of Orsay replication and infection. PMID:25136116

  1. [Ecophysiological adaptability of tropical water organisms to salinity changes].

    PubMed

    Chung, K S

    2001-03-01

    Physiological response of tropical organisms to salinity changes was studied for some marine, estuarine and freshwater fishes (Astyanax bimaculatus, Petenia karussii, Cyprinodon dearborni, and Oreochromis mossambicus), marine and freshwater crustaceans (Penaeus brasiliensis, Penaeus schmitti and Macrobrachium carcinus), and marine bivalves (Perna perna, Crassostrea rhizophorae, and Arca zebra) collected from Northeast Venezuela. They were acclimated for four weeks at various salinities, and (1) placed at high salinities to determine mean lethal salinity, (2) tested by increasing salinity 5@1000 per day to define upper lethal salinity tolerance limit, or (3) observed in a saline gradient tank to determine salinity preference. Acclimation level was the most significant factor. This phenomenon is important for tropical aquatic organisms in shallow waters, where they can adapt to high salinity during the dry season and cannot lose their acclimation level at low salinity during abrupt rain. For saline adaptation of tropical organisms, this behavior will contribute to their proliferation and distribution in fluctuating salinity environments. PMID:11795174

  2. Photobacterium sanctipauli sp. nov. isolated from bleached Madracis decactis (Scleractinia) in the St Peter & St Paul Archipelago, Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Ana Paula B; Duytschaever, Gwen; Chimetto Tonon, Luciane A; Fróes, Adriana M; de Oliveira, Louisi S; Amado-Filho, Gilberto M; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo B; De Vos, Paul; Swings, Jean; Thompson, Cristiane C; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2014-01-01

    Five novel strains of Photobacterium (A-394T, A-373, A-379, A-397 and A-398) were isolated from bleached coral Madracis decactis (scleractinian) in the remote St Peter & St Archipelago (SPSPA), Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Brazil. Healthy M. decactis specimens were also surveyed, but no strains were related to them. The novel isolates formed a distinct lineage based on the 16S rRNA, recA, and rpoA gene sequences analysis. Their closest phylogenetic neighbours were Photobacterium rosenbergii, P. gaetbulicola, and P. lutimaris, sharing 96.6 to 95.8% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. The novel species can be differentiated from the closest neighbours by several phenotypic and chemotaxonomic markers. It grows at pH 11, produces tryptophane deaminase, presents the fatty acid C18:0, but lacks C16:0 iso. The whole cell protein profile, based in MALDI-TOF MS, distinguished the strains of the novel species among each other and from the closest neighbors. In addition, we are releasing the whole genome sequence of the type strain. The name Photobacterium sanctipauli sp. nov. is proposed for this taxon. The G + C content of the type strain A-394(T) (= LMG27910(T) = CAIM1892(T)) is 48.2 mol%. PMID:25024905

  3. Photobacterium sanctipauli sp. nov. isolated from bleached Madracis decactis (Scleractinia) in the St Peter & St Paul Archipelago, Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Ana Paula B.; Duytschaever, Gwen; Chimetto Tonon, Luciane A.; Fróes, Adriana M.; de Oliveira, Louisi S.; Amado-Filho, Gilberto M.; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo B.; De Vos, Paul; Swings, Jean; Thompson, Cristiane C.

    2014-01-01

    Five novel strains of Photobacterium (A-394T, A-373, A-379, A-397 and A-398) were isolated from bleached coral Madracis decactis (scleractinian) in the remote St Peter & St Archipelago (SPSPA), Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Brazil. Healthy M. decactis specimens were also surveyed, but no strains were related to them. The novel isolates formed a distinct lineage based on the 16S rRNA, recA, and rpoA gene sequences analysis. Their closest phylogenetic neighbours were Photobacterium rosenbergii, P. gaetbulicola, and P. lutimaris, sharing 96.6 to 95.8% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. The novel species can be differentiated from the closest neighbours by several phenotypic and chemotaxonomic markers. It grows at pH 11, produces tryptophane deaminase, presents the fatty acid C18:0, but lacks C16:0 iso. The whole cell protein profile, based in MALDI-TOF MS, distinguished the strains of the novel species among each other and from the closest neighbors. In addition, we are releasing the whole genome sequence of the type strain. The name Photobacterium sanctipauli sp. nov. is proposed for this taxon. The G + C content of the type strain A-394T (= LMG27910T = CAIM1892T) is 48.2 mol%. PMID:25024905

  4. Photobacterium jeanii sp. nov., isolated from corals and zoanthids.

    PubMed

    Chimetto, Luciane A; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Thompson, Cristiane C; Brocchi, Marcelo; Willems, Anne; De Vos, Paul; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2010-12-01

    Four novel isolates (R-40508(T), R-40507, R-40903 and R-21419) were obtained from different cnidarian species (Phyllogorgia dilatata, Merulina ampliata and Palythoa caribaeorum) from different places in Brazil and Australia. The novel isolates formed a tight phylogenetic group based on 16S rRNA, recA, topA, ftsZ, mreB and rpoA gene sequences. Their closest phylogenetic neighbours were the type strains of Photobacterium leiognathi, P. rosenbergii and P. halotolerans, sharing 97.1-97.5?% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. DNA-DNA hybridization between a representative strain (R-40508(T)) and the type strains of these Photobacterium species revealed less than 20?% relatedness, showing that the new isolates belong to a novel species. Several phenotypic features allow the differentiation of the novel species from its closest phylogenetic neighbours. It has gelatinase and lipase activity and can utilize melibiose, but it cannot grow on 6?% NaCl. In addition, the novel species has the fatty acid iso-C(16?:?0), but lacks the fatty acids C(17?:?0), C(17?:?0) cyclo, iso-C(17?:?0), C(17?:?1)?8c and iso-C(17?:?1)?9c. The name Photobacterium jeanii sp. nov. is proposed for this species, with the type strain R-40508(T) (=LMG 25436(T) =CAIM 1817(T)). The G+C content of the type strain is 45.5mol%. PMID:20081016

  5. Genetic analysis of vibriosis and viral nervous necrosis resistance in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) using a cure model.

    PubMed

    Bangera, R; Ødegård, J; Nielsen, H M; Gjøen, H M; Mortensen, A

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether observed time-until-death of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) juveniles in separate challenge tests with Vibrio anguillarum (causes vibriosis) and nodavirus [causes viral nervous necrosis (VNN)] are due to differences in susceptibility (whether at risk or not) or increased endurance (individual hazard, given that the animal is susceptible) using a cure mixture (CURE) model with Gibbs sampling. Observed time-until-death, prepared as sequential binary records, were analyzed with the CURE model and results were compared with cross-sectional threshold (SIMPLE) and an ordinary longitudinal survival score (NAÏVE) model (i.e., assuming that all animals are susceptible). Overall mortality at the end of the test was 86 and 71% for vibriosis and VNN, respectively. But the CURE model estimated 92 and 82% of the population to be susceptible to vibriosis and VNN, respectively. Hence, a substantial fraction among the survivors were considered to be susceptible but with high endurance. The underlying heritability of susceptibility was moderate for vibriosis (0.33) and extremely high for VNN (0.91), somewhat greater compared with classical SIMPLE model (0.19 and 0.76 for vibriosis and VNN, respectively), analyzing end survival as a cross-sectional binary trait. Estimates of the underlying heritability were low for single test-day scores of both endurance (0.02 and 0.15 for vibriosis and VNN, respectively) in the CURE model and for the NAÏVE model (0.02 and 0.18 for vibriosis and VNN, respectively). Based on the CURE model, the genetic correlation between susceptibility and endurance was low to moderately positive and significantly different from unity (P < 0.01) for both vibriosis (0.13) and VNN (0.47). Estimated breeding values from the SIMPLE and NAÏVE models showed moderate to high correlations (0.41 to 0.96) with EBV for susceptibility and endurance in the CURE model. The analyses indicate that susceptibility and endurance are apparently distinct genetic traits. Still, the genetic variation estimated in the SIMPLE and NAÏVE models seems to a large extent to be controlled by susceptibility and an efficient genetic selection for reduced susceptibility to vibriosis and VNN is therefore likely feasible even when using classical (noncure) models. Earlier termination of the challenge test or back truncation of survival data is not recommended as this likely shifts the focus of selection towards endurance rather than susceptibility. PMID:23736060

  6. Two Membrane-Associated Regions within the Nodamura Virus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase Are Critical for both Mitochondrial Localization and RNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Gant, Vincent U.; Moreno, Stephanie; Varela-Ramirez, Armando

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Viruses with positive-strand RNA genomes amplify their genomes in replication complexes associated with cellular membranes. Little is known about the mechanism of replication complex formation in cells infected with Nodamura virus. This virus is unique in its ability to lethally infect both mammals and insects. In mice and in larvae of the greater wax moth (Galleria mellonella), Nodamura virus-infected muscle cells exhibit mitochondrial aggregation and membrane rearrangement, leading to disorganization of the muscle fibrils on the tissue level and ultimately in hind limb/segment paralysis. However, the molecular basis for this pathogenesis and the role of mitochondria in Nodamura virus infection remains unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that Nodamura virus establishes RNA replication complexes that associate with mitochondria in mammalian cells. Our results showed that Nodamura virus replication complexes are targeted to mitochondria, as evidenced in biochemical, molecular, and confocal microscopy studies. More specifically, we show that the Nodamura virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase interacts with the outer mitochondrial membranes as an integral membrane protein and ultimately becomes associated with functional replication complexes. These studies will help us to understand the mechanism of replication complex formation and the pathogenesis of Nodamura virus for mammals. IMPORTANCE This study will further our understanding of Nodamura virus (NoV) genome replication and its pathogenesis for mice. NoV is unique among the Nodaviridae in its ability to infect mammals. Here we show that NoV establishes RNA replication complexes (RCs) in association with mitochondria in mammalian cells. These RCs contain newly synthesized viral RNA and feature a physical interaction between mitochondrial membranes and the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), which is mediated by two membrane-associated regions. While the nature of the interaction needs to be explored further, it appears to occur by a mode distinct from that described for the insect nodavirus Flock House virus (FHV). The interaction of the NoV RdRp with mitochondrial membranes is essential for clustering of mitochondria into networks that resemble those described for infected mouse muscle and that are associated with fatal hind limb paralysis. This work therefore provides the first link between NoV RNA replication complex formation and the pathogenesis of this virus for mice. PMID:24696464

  7. Deriving Freshwater Quality Criteria for Iron, Lead, Nickel, and Zinc for Protection of Aquatic Life in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Shuhaimi-Othman, M.; Nadzifah, Y.; Nur-Amalina, R.; Umirah, N. S.

    2012-01-01

    Freshwater quality criteria for iron (Fe), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) were developed with particular reference to aquatic biota in Malaysia, and based on USEPA's guidelines. Acute toxicity tests were performed on eight different freshwater domestic species in Malaysia which were Macrobrachium lanchesteri (prawn), two fish: Poecilia reticulata and Rasbora sumatrana, Melanoides tuberculata (snail), Stenocypris major (ostracod), Chironomus javanus (midge larvae), Nais elinguis (annelid), and Duttaphrynus melanostictus (tadpole) to determine 96 h LC50 values for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn. The final acute value (FAV) for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn were 74.5, 17.0, 165, and 304.9??g L?1, respectively. Using an estimated acute-to-chronic ratio (ACR) of 8.3, the value for final chronic value (FCV) was derived. Based on FAV and FCV, a criterion maximum concentration (CMC) and a criterion continuous concentration (CCC) for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn that are 37.2, 8.5, 82.5, and 152.4??g?L?1 and 9.0, 2.0, 19.9, and 36.7??g?L?1, respectively, were derived. The results of this study provide useful data for deriving national or local water quality criteria for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn based on aquatic biota in Malaysia. Based on LC50 values, this study indicated that N. elinguis, M. lanchesteri, N. elinguis, and R. sumatrana were the most sensitive to Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn, respectively. PMID:22919358

  8. [Predator damage and shell size on the diadromous snail Neritina virginea (Gastropoda: Neritidae) in the Mameyes River, Puerto Rico].

    PubMed

    Blanco-Libreros, Juan Felipe; Arroyave-Rincón, Andrea

    2009-12-01

    We compared predators' damage with shell size in live individuals and empty shells (n=5066) of the snail Neritina virginea in the Mameyes River (Puerto Rico, Greater Antilles). According to the literature and direct observations, damages on empty shells were attributed to predation by aquatic birds (e.g. Gallinula chloropus) and decapods (e.g. Macrobrachium spp.), while damages on live individuals were due to rasping by co-specifics and erosion. Predation by decapods and birds, as estimated by the proportion of empty shells, was low (2 and 0.36%, respectively). Shell size was significantly different between types of predators (range: decapods: 3.5-15.0mm, birds: 8.1-19.4mm). By comparing sizes of the empty shells and the live individuals, we concluded that decapods specialize on large groups of small migratory juveniles, while birds specialize on the largest resident individuals. Worn shells were highly frequent in both empty shells and live individuals, and sizes did not differ between samples. A comparison by slow-flow and fast-flow habitats showed that predators do not discriminate shell sizes between environments. However, the frequency of damage by birds and decapods was greater under slow-flow conditions. Despite of the little contribution of predation to the population dynamics in this species, predation might be an important driver of size-dependent behavioral responses such as upstream migration and microhabitat selection. PMID:20073335

  9. On the Brain of a Crustacean: A Morphological Analysis of CaMKII Expression and Its Relation to Sensory and Motor Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Ammar, Dib; Nazari, Evelise M.

    2013-01-01

    Calcium/calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII) is a Ca2+-activated enzyme that is abundant in vertebrate and invertebrate brains. However, its characterization is poorly addressed in the nervous system of crustaceans, and, to our knowledge, no studies have determined the microanatomical location of CaMKII in a crustacean species. In this study, we found labeling of CaMKII in the eyestalk and brain of the prawn Macrobrachium acanthurus, by means of immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Antibodies against neuron (ß tubulin III), glutamate receptor (GluA1), and FMRFamide were used in order to further characterize the CaMKII-labeled cells in the brain. In the eyestalk, strong labeling with CaMKII was observed in the photoreceptors. These cells, especially in the rhabdom, were also reactive to anti-ß tubulin III, whereas the pigment cells were labeled with anti-CaMKII. GluA1 co-located with CaMKII in the photoreceptors. Also, CaMKII appeared in the same sites as FMRFamide in the deutocerebrum, including the olfactory lobe, and in the tritocerebrum, specifically in the antennular neuropil, indicating that the synaptic areas in these regions may be related to sensory-motor processing. In the brain, the identification of cells and regions that express CaMKII contributes to the understanding of the processing of neural connections and the modulating role of CaMKII in decapod crustaceans. PMID:23741406

  10. Molecular systematics of the Kakaducarididae (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea).

    PubMed

    Page, Timothy J; Short, John W; Humphrey, Christopher L; Hillyer, Mia J; Hughes, Jane M

    2008-03-01

    The systematic relationships of the freshwater shrimp family, Kakaducarididae, were examined using mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences. Combined nuclear (18S rDNA, 28S rDNA, Histone) and mitochondrial (16S rDNA) analyses placed the kakaducaridid genera, Kakaducaris and Leptopalaemon, as a strongly supported clade within the Palaemonidae, in a close relationship with the genus Macrobrachium. Monophyly of the Australian Kakaducarididae was strongly supported by the molecular data. Estimated net divergence times between Kakaducaris and Leptopalaemon using mitochondrial 16S rDNA equate to a late Miocene/Pliocene split. Within Leptopalaemon, each locality was distinct for mitochondrial COI haplotypes, suggesting long-term isolation or recent genetic bottlenecks, a lack of contemporary gene flow amongst sites and a small Ne. Mitochondrial groupings within Leptopalaemon were largely congruent with several previously recognised morphotypes. Estimated net divergence times between L. gagadjui and the new Leptopalaemon morphotypes equate to a split in the late Pliocene/early Pleistocene. The hypothesis that the Kakaducarididae is comprised of relict species in specialised ecological niches is not supported by the molecular data, which instead suggest a relatively recent origin for the group in northern Australia, sometime in the late Miocene or Pliocene. PMID:18255320

  11. Deriving freshwater quality criteria for iron, lead, nickel, and zinc for protection of aquatic life in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Shuhaimi-Othman, M; Nadzifah, Y; Nur-Amalina, R; Umirah, N S

    2012-01-01

    Freshwater quality criteria for iron (Fe), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) were developed with particular reference to aquatic biota in Malaysia, and based on USEPA's guidelines. Acute toxicity tests were performed on eight different freshwater domestic species in Malaysia which were Macrobrachium lanchesteri (prawn), two fish: Poecilia reticulata and Rasbora sumatrana, Melanoides tuberculata (snail), Stenocypris major (ostracod), Chironomus javanus (midge larvae), Nais elinguis (annelid), and Duttaphrynus melanostictus (tadpole) to determine 96 h LC(50) values for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn. The final acute value (FAV) for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn were 74.5, 17.0, 165, and 304.9 ?g L(-1), respectively. Using an estimated acute-to-chronic ratio (ACR) of 8.3, the value for final chronic value (FCV) was derived. Based on FAV and FCV, a criterion maximum concentration (CMC) and a criterion continuous concentration (CCC) for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn that are 37.2, 8.5, 82.5, and 152.4 ?g?L(-1) and 9.0, 2.0, 19.9, and 36.7 ?g?L(-1), respectively, were derived. The results of this study provide useful data for deriving national or local water quality criteria for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn based on aquatic biota in Malaysia. Based on LC(50) values, this study indicated that N. elinguis, M. lanchesteri, N. elinguis, and R. sumatrana were the most sensitive to Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn, respectively. PMID:22919358

  12. Heterochrony in mandible development of larval shrimp (Decapoda: Caridea)--a comparative morphological SEM study of two carideans.

    PubMed

    Batel, Annika; Melzer, Roland R; Anger, Klaus; Geiselbrecht, Hannes

    2014-11-01

    Mandible development in the larval stages I-V of two palaemonid shrimp species, Palaemon elegans and Macrobrachium amazonicum, was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, light microscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. In contrast to the zoea I of P. elegans, first-stage larvae of M. amazonicum are nonfeeding. At hatching, the morphology of the mandibles is fully expressed in P. elegans, while it appears underdeveloped in M. amazonicum, presenting only small precursors of typical caridean features. In successive zoeal stages, both species show similar developmental changes, but the mandibular characters of the larvae in M. amazonicum were delayed compared to the equivalent stages in P. elegans, especially in the development of submarginal setae and mandible size. In conclusion, our results indicate heterochrony (postdisplacement) of mandible development in M. amazonicum compared to that in P. elegans, which is related to initial lack of mandible functionality or planktivorous feeding at hatching, respectively. This conclusion is supported by comparison with other palaemonid zoeae exhibiting different feeding modes. Our data suggest that an evolutionary ground pattern of mandible morphology is present even in species with nonfeeding first-stage larvae. PMID:24888760

  13. Predator-prey imbalances due to a pesticide: density and applicability timing as determining factors for experimental assessments.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, María Florencia; Negro, Carlos Leandro

    2014-09-01

    Predator-prey relationships are determining factors in sustaining community structure but xenobiotics, including pesticides, have the potential to alter them, causing imbalances at the ecosystem level. Although invertebrate predation on zooplankton is of high importance in shallow lakes, there is still little information regarding disturbances on this trophic interaction. This work assessed the potential effects of a chlorpyrifos-based pesticide (CLP) on the interaction between prawns Macrobrachium borellii and cladocerans Ceriodaphnia dubia, taking into account prey densities, specific time of exposure and contamination level. The analysis was focused on the specific sensitivity of both species and, especially, on the predation rate of M. borellii on C. dubia. The latter was evaluated through different treatments that combined predator and/or prey exposure to the insecticide, before (lapse of 12 h) or during the interaction. Under low prey density, when prawns were previously exposed to the insecticide, their consumption rate was lower than that of controls. Conversely, when cladocerans or both species were previously exposed, the prawns' feeding rate was higher. Under high prey density, there were no substantial differences among treatments. Comparatively, cladocerans were significantly more consumed when the exposure of both species was performed before rather than during the interaction. From the results obtained, it can be assumed that the trophic interaction under study is sensitive to CLP and that individual density and specific time of exposure are important variables to be considered in similar studies in order to obtain realistic results. PMID:24903805

  14. Use of replanted mangroves as nursery grounds by shrimp communities in Gazi Bay, Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crona, B. I.; Rönnbäck, P.

    2005-11-01

    This study quantitatively assessed the distribution of postlarval and juvenile shrimps in natural, degraded and replanted stands of Sonneratia alba mangroves in Gazi Bay, Kenya in 2002-2003. Two plantations (matrix and integrated) differing in historical status and planting strategy were studied. Sampling was conducted using stake nets (2 mm mesh), each net enclosing 9 m 2 of intertidal microhabitat. A total of 615 shrimps from 19 species/taxa were caught, including several penaeid species of major commercial importance. Penaeids dominated the catch (66%) followed by Macrobrachium spp. (16%) and Acetes sp. (6%). Shrimp abundance ranged from 0.42 to 10.0 ind. per net (9 m 2) for individual sites across spring tides and significant differences were detected between sites and over time ( p<0.001). Results showed no significant difference in diversity of species/taxa between sites. However, multivariate analysis revealed significant differences in community assemblages between sites, except for the natural stand and integrated plantation. These two sites harbored higher abundances of the majority of all taxa caught. The observed distribution patterns are discussed with regard to measured environmental parameters such as elevation, structural complexity and sediment characteristics.

  15. Sludge-grown algae for culturing aquatic organisms: Part II. Sludge-grown algae as feeds for aquatic organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, M. H.; Hung, K. M.; Chiu, S. T.

    1996-05-01

    This project investigated the feasibility of using sewage sludge to culture microalgae ( Chlorella-HKBU) and their subsequent usage as feeds for rearing different organisms. Part II of the project evaluated the results of applying the sludge-grown algae to feed Oreochromis mossambicus (fish), Macrobrachium hainenese (shrimp), and Moina macrocopa (cladocera). In general, the yields of the cultivated organisms were unsatisfactory when they were fed the sludge-grown algae directly. The body weights of O. mossambicus and M. macrocopa dropped 21% and 37%, respectively, although there was a slight increase (4.4%) in M. hainenese. However, when feeding the algal-fed cladocerans to fish and shrimp, the body weights of the fish and shrimp were increased 7% and 11% accordingly. Protein contents of the cultivated organisms were comparable to the control diet, although they contained a rather high amount of heavy metals. When comparing absolute heavy metal contents in the cultivated organisms, the following order was observed: alga > cladocera > shrimp, fish > sludge extracts. Bioelimination of heavy metals may account for the decreasing heavy metal concentrations in higher trophic organisms.

  16. Updating the Vibrio clades defined by multilocus sequence phylogeny: proposal of eight new clades, and the description of Vibrio tritonius sp. nov.

    PubMed Central

    Sawabe, Tomoo; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Matsumura, Yuta; Feng, Gao; Amin, AKM Rohul; Mino, Sayaka; Nakagawa, Satoshi; Sawabe, Toko; Kumar, Ramesh; Fukui, Yohei; Satomi, Masataka; Matsushima, Ryoji; Thompson, Fabiano L.; Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Christen, Richard; Maruyama, Fumito; Kurokawa, Ken; Hayashi, Tetsuya

    2013-01-01

    To date 142 species have been described in the Vibrionaceae family of bacteria, classified into seven genera; Aliivibrio, Echinimonas, Enterovibrio, Grimontia, Photobacterium, Salinivibrio and Vibrio. As vibrios are widespread in marine environments and show versatile metabolisms and ecologies, these bacteria are recognized as one of the most diverse and important marine heterotrophic bacterial groups for elucidating the correlation between genome evolution and ecological adaptation. However, on the basis of 16S rRNA gene phylogeny, we could not find any robust monophyletic lineages in any of the known genera. We needed further attempts to reconstruct their evolutionary history based on multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) and/or genome wide taxonomy of all the recognized species groups. In our previous report in 2007, we conducted the first broad multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) to infer the evolutionary history of vibrios using nine housekeeping genes (the 16S rRNA gene, gapA, gyrB, ftsZ, mreB, pyrH, recA, rpoA, and topA), and we proposed 14 distinct clades in 58 species of Vibrionaceae. Due to the difficulty of designing universal primers that can amplify the genes for MLSA in every Vibrionaceae species, some clades had yet to be defined. In this study, we present a better picture of an updated molecular phylogeny for 86 described vibrio species and 10 genome sequenced Vibrionaceae strains, using 8 housekeeping gene sequences. This new study places special emphasis on (1) eight newly identified clades (Damselae, Mediterranei, Pectenicida, Phosphoreum, Profundum, Porteresiae, Rosenbergii, and Rumoiensis); (2) clades amended since the 2007 proposal with recently described new species; (3) orphan clades of genomospecies F6 and F10; (4) phylogenetic positions defined in 3 genome-sequenced strains (N418, EX25, and EJY3); and (5) description of V. tritonius sp. nov., which is a member of the “Porteresiae” clade. PMID:24409173

  17. Photobacterium panuliri sp. nov., an alkalitolerant marine bacterium isolated from eggs of spiny lobster, Panulirus penicillatus from Andaman Sea.

    PubMed

    Deep, Kamal; Poddar, Abhijit; Das, Subrata K

    2014-11-01

    A facultative anaerobe, alkalitolerant, gram-negative marine bacterium strain LBS5(T), was isolated from eggs carried on the pleopods of female spiny lobster (Panulirus penicillatus) in Andaman Sea from a depth of 3.5 m. Heterotrophic growth was observed at 15-38 °C and pH 5.5-11. Optimum growth occurred at 28 °C and pH 7.5. It can grow in the presence of 0.5-7 % NaCl (w/v), and the optimal NaCl required for growth was 2-4 %. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed the strain LBS5(T) belongs to the genus Photobacterium and showed 99.6 % similarity with P. aquae AE6(T), 98.2 % with P. aphoticum M46(T), 97 % with P. rosenbergii CC1(T), 96.9 % with P. lutimaris DF-42(T), and 96.6 % with P. halotolerans MACL01(T). The DNA-DNA similarities between strains LBS5(T) with other closely related strains were well below 70 %. The DNA G + C content was 50.52 (±0.9) mol%. The major fatty acids were C16:1w7c/w6c, C18:1w6c/w7c, C16:0, C15:0 iso, C16:0 10-methyl/17:1 iso w9c, C17:0 iso. Polar lipids included a phosphatidylglycerol, a diphosphatidylglycerol, a phosphatidylethanolamine, and one unidentified lipid. Based on the polyphasic evidences, strain LBS5(T) represents a novel species of the genus Photobacterium for which Photobacterium panuliri sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LBS5(T) (=DSM 27646(T) = LMG 27617(T) = JCM 19199(T)). PMID:24962598

  18. Photobacterium aphoticum sp. nov., isolated from coastal water.

    PubMed

    Lucena, Teresa; Ruvira, María A; Pascual, Javier; Garay, Esperanza; Macián, M Carmen; Arahal, David R; Pujalte, María J

    2011-07-01

    A facultatively anaerobic marine gammaproteobacterium, designated strain M46(T), was isolated from Mediterranean seawater at Malvarrosa beach, Valencia, Spain. The strain was characterized by using a polyphasic approach and was found to be situated within the genus Photobacterium in the family Vibrionaceae. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain M46(T) was closely related to P. rosenbergii CECT 7644(T), P. halotolerans CECT 5860(T) and P. ganghwense CECT 7641(T), showing sequence similarities of 96.8, 96.4 and 96.2?%, respectively. According to the results of phylogenetic analyses based on recA and gyrB gene sequences, the most closely related taxon was P. ganghwense CECT 7641(T) with 87.4 and 85.0?% sequence similarity, respectively. Regardless of the gene used in phylogenetic analysis, strain M46(T) always formed a separate and stable clade containing these three species of the genus Photobacterium. Strain M46(T) was not luminescent and produced a diffusible brown pigment. It required NaCl to grow, reduced nitrate to nitrite and oxidized a small number of substrates in Biolog GN plates. Strain M46(T) was positive for arginine dihydrolase (ADH), ?-galactosidase, aesculin hydrolysis and DNase activity. In API ZYM tests, the novel strain was positive for alkaline phosphatase, leucine arylamidase and acidic phosphatase activities. The major cellular fatty acids were unsaturated C(18) and C(16), as in other members of the genus Photobacterium, but their relative amounts and the presence or absence of other fatty acids differentiated strain M46(T) from its closest relatives. Based on the results of this polyphasic taxonomic study, strain M46(T) represents a novel species of the genus Photobacterium, for which the name Photobacterium aphoticum is proposed. The type strain is M46(T) (?=?CECT 7614(T) ?=?KCTC 23057(T)). PMID:20675441

  19. Challenges in understanding the sources of bioaccumulated metals in biota inhabiting turbid river systems.

    PubMed

    Cresswell, Tom; Smith, Ross E W; Simpson, Stuart L

    2014-02-01

    Bioaccumulation of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn by Macrobrachium prawns was observed to occur in the Strickland River downstream of a gold mine at Porgera, Papua New Guinea. This was despite the total metal concentrations of waters and sediments indicating no difference from reference sites within tributaries. To provide information on potential sources and bioavailability of metals to prawns, an extensive range of analyses were made on waters, suspended solids, deposited sediments and plant materials within the river system. Dissolved metal concentrations were mostly sub-micrograms per liter and no major differences existed in concentrations or speciation between sites within the Strickland River or its tributaries. Similarly, no differences were detected between sites for total or dilute acid-extractable metal concentrations in bed sediments and plant materials, which may be ingested by the prawns. However, the rivers in this region are highly turbid and the dilute acid-extractable cadmium and zinc concentrations in suspended solids were greater at sites in the Strickland River than at sites in tributaries. The results indicated that mine-derived inputs increased the proportion of these forms of metals or metalloids in the Strickland River. These less strongly bound metals and metalloids would be more bioavailable to the prawns via the dietary pathway. The results highlighted many of the difficulties in using routine monitoring data without information on metal speciation to describe metal uptake and predict potential effects when concentrations are low and similar to background. The study indicated that the monitoring of contaminant concentrations in organisms that integrate the exposure from multiple exposure routes and durations may often be more effective for detecting impacts than intermittent monitoring of contaminants in waters and sediments. PMID:24014223

  20. Effects of Bayluscide on Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos, the first intermediate host of the human liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini, in laboratory and field trials.

    PubMed

    Tesana, S; Thapsripair, P; Thammasiri, C; Prasopdee, S; Suwannatrai, A; Harauy, S; Piratae, S; Khampoosa, P; Kulsantiwong, J; Donthaisong, C; Chalokepanrat, P; Viyanant, V; Malone, J B

    2012-03-01

    The molluscicidal effects of Bayluscide (niclosamide) were investigated on Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos, the first intermediate host of human liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini. Lethal concentrations of 50% (LC(50)) and 95% (LC(95)) against young and adult males were 0.38 and 0.80, 0.42 and 0.86 ppm, respectively. The LC(50) and LC(95) against young and adult females were 0.42 and 0.86, 0.46 and 0.97 ppm, respectively. No significant differences in mortality rate between sexes or snail size (p > 0.05) was detected. Bayluscide-related tissue damage in B. siamensis goniomphalos included detachment of cilia of the epithelial layer of the digestive tract and decreased number of calcium cells. In tests of lethal concentrations of Bayluscide on non-target animals, no lethal effect was observed on Filopaludina martensi martensi (Viviparous snail) but high mortality rates were recorded in Puntius gonionotus fingerling, Ricefish (Oryzias mekongensis) and shrimp (Macrobrachium lanchesteri), but lower in guppy fish (Poecilia reticulata) after 24h exposure. For field trials, sufficient Bayluscide was sprayed in 3 roadside ditches to result in final concentrations of 5, 10 or 20 ppm, with mortality rates on B. siamensis goniomphalos of 10.94, 20.00 and 31.25%, respectively. Non-target snails died in small numbers but no effect was observed in other aquatic vertebrate animals. Field trials of Bayluscide on B. siamensis goniomphalos revealed low mortality rates, suggesting the need for application methods of higher efficacy or that Bayluscide is not suitable for application to operculate snails or snails which are able to escape by burying in mud. PMID:21864711

  1. Use of a 15N tracer to determine linkages between a mangrove and an upland freshwater swamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKenzie, R. A.; Cormier, N.

    2005-05-01

    Mangrove forests and adjacent upland freshwater swamps are important components of subsistence-based economies of Pacific islands. Mangroves provide valuable firewood (Rhizophora apiculata) and mangrove crabs (Scylla serrata); intact freshwater swamps are often used for agroforestry (e.g., taro cultivation). While these two systems are connected hydrologically via groundwater and surface flows, little information is available on how they may be biogeochemically or ecologically linked. For example, mangrove leaf litter was once thought to be an important food source for resident and transient nekton and invertebrates, but this value may have been overestimated. Instead, nutrients or allochthonous material (e.g., phytoplankton, detritus) delivered via groundwater or surface water from upland freshwater swamps may play a larger role in mangrove food webs. Understanding the linkages between these two ecologically and culturally important ecosystems will help us to understand the potential impacts of hydrological alterations that occur when roads or bridges are constructed through them. We conducted a 15N tracer study in the Yela watershed on the island of Kosrae, Federated States of Micronesia. K15NO3 was continually added at trace levels for 4 weeks to the Yela River in an upland freshwater swamp adjacent to a mangrove forest. Nitrate and ammonium pools, major primary producers, macroinvertebrates, and fish were sampled from stations 5 m upstream (freshwater swamp) and 138, 188, 213, and 313 m downstream (mangrove) from the tracer addition. Samples were collected once a week prior to, during, and after the 15N addition for a total of 6 weeks. Preliminary results revealed no significant enrichment (< 1 ‰) in the 15N isotope composition of either resident shrimp (Macrobrachium sp.) or mudskipper fish (Periophthalmus sp.). However, the 15N signature of ammonium pools was enriched 10-60 ‰ by the end of the third week. These results suggest that the tracer was present in the mangrove but was either unavailable to higher organisms or was incorporated into organic matter not utilized by shrimp or mudskippers.

  2. Risk assessment of heavy metal contamination in shrimp farming in Mai Po Nature Reserve, Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Cheung, K C; Wong, M H

    2006-01-01

    An ecological survey was carried out to determine the sediment concentrations of nutrients and heavy metals and bioaccumulation of heavy metals in fish and shrimp including tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus x O. nilotica), grey mullet (Mugil cephalus), gei wai shrimp (Metapenaeus ensis) and caridean shrimp (Macrobrachium nipponensis) in the traditional tidal shrimp ponds (gei wais) of Mai Po Nature Reserve, Hong Kong. The sediments collected from the landward sites contained higher nutrient contents, as well as zinc (Zn), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni) and cadmium (Cd) than those collected from the seaward sites, but vice versa for lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg). However, the concentrations of all metals were exceptionally high in the two sites located outside the reserve, suggesting that waters from Deep Bay might be the possible source of metal contamination affecting the reserve. All metals studied seemed to accumulate in the viscera of fish. Body size was the determining factor for the accumulation of heavy metals in caridean shrimp and gei wai shrimp but not fish. Concentrations of the metals studied in tissues of grey mullet and gei wai shrimp were found to be safe for human consumption. Concentrations of Cr in tilapia whole body (0.68-1.10 mg kg(-1) wet weight) were close to or over the guideline value of 1 mg kg(-1) set by the Food Adulteration (Metallic Contamination) Regulations of Hong Kong. Tilapia flesh and small caridean shrimp collected from gei wais were contaminated by Cr and Pb but still fit for human consumption. Caution is required if large caridean shrimp is to be consumed in large amounts continuously because the concentration of Pb exceeded the maximum permitted concentration (6 mg kg(-1)). The rather high Cr concentrations in tilapia whole body should not be overlooked as the fish will serve as a food source for migratory birds visiting the site. PMID:16528597

  3. Cloning of genomic sequences of three crustacean hyperglycemic hormone superfamily genes and elucidation of their roles of regulating insulin-like androgenic gland hormone gene.

    PubMed

    Li, Fajun; Bai, Hongkun; Zhang, Wenyi; Fu, Hongtuo; Jiang, Fengwei; Liang, Guoxia; Jin, Shubo; Sun, Shengming; Qiao, Hui

    2015-04-25

    The insulin-like androgenic gland hormone (IAG) gene in crustaceans plays an important role in male sexual differentiation, metabolism, and growth. However, the upstream regulation of IAG signaling schemes remains poorly studied. In the present study, we cloned the 5' flanking sequence of IAG and full-length genomic sequences of gonad-inhibiting hormone (Mn-GIH), molt-inhibiting hormone (Mn-MIH) and crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (Mn-CHH) in Macrobrachium nipponense. We identified the transcription factor-binding sites in the 5' flanking sequence of IAG and investigated the exon-intron patterns of the three CHH superfamily genes. Each CHH superfamily gene consisted of two introns separating three exons. Mn-GIH and Mn-MIH shared the same intron insertion sites, which differed from Mn-CHH. We provided DNA-level evidence for the type definition. We also identified two cAMP response elements in the 5' untranslated region. We further investigated the regulatory relationships between Mn-GIH, Mn-MIH, and Mn-CHH and IAG at the transcriptional level by injection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). IAG transcription levels were significantly increased to 660.2%, 472.9%, and 112.4% of control levels in the Mn-GIH dsRNA, Mn-MIH dsRNA, and Mn-CHH dsRNA groups, respectively. The results clearly demonstrated that Mn-GIH and Mn-MIH, but not Mn-CHH, negatively regulate the expression of the IAG gene. PMID:25680292

  4. Fish tissue quality in the lower Mississippi River and health risks from fish consumption.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Karen H; Desimone, Frank W; Thiyagarajah, Arunthavarani; Hartley, William R; Hindrichs, Albert E

    2003-01-20

    Between 1990 and 1994, samples of three shellfish species (i.e. blue crab, Callinectes sapidus;crayfish, Procambarus acutis; and river shrimp, Macrobrachium ohionii) and 16 fish species and were collected at six sites along the lower Mississippi River by the Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality, Office of Water Resources in coordination with the US Environmental Protection Agency. The fish species included: bigmouth buffalo (Ictiobus cyanellus); blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus); carp (Cyprinus carpio); channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus); cobia (Rachycentron canadum); flathead catfish (Pylodictis olivaris); freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens); largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides); long nose gar (Lepisosteus osseus); red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus); red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus); smallmouth buffalo (Ictiobus bubalus); spotted gar (Lepisosteus oculatus); striped bass (Morone saxatilis); white bass (Morone chrysops); and white crappie (Pomoxis annularis). Organic compound and heavy metal concentrations were measured in 161 composite fish tissue samples where each composite included three to 10 individual fish. Nineteen chemicals, found at measurable levels in sample tissues, were used in calculations of lifetime excess cancer and non-cancer risks due to fish consumption. We calculated: 574 chemical-specific cancer risks; 41 total cancer risks; and 697 margins of exposure based on a consumption rate of one 8-ounce meal per week (0.032 kg/day), a body weight of 70 kg and reported cancer potency factors and reference doses. We identified nine species of concern (blue catfish, carp, channel catfish, cobia, crayfish, flathead catfish, red drum, spotted gar and striped bass) based on total cancer risk greater than 10(-4) or margin of exposure greater than 1, and whether or not samples collected in subsequent years resulted in lower risks. The compounds primarily responsible for the elevated risks were aldrin, dieldrin, alpha-benzene hexachloride, gamma-benzene hexachloride, heptachlor epoxide, arsenic and mercury. PMID:12526903

  5. Resistance to the crayfish plague pathogen, Aphanomyces astaci, in two freshwater shrimps.

    PubMed

    Svoboda, J; Mruga?a, A; Kozubíková-Balcarová, E; Kouba, A; Diéguez-Uribeondo, J; Petrusek, A

    2014-09-01

    Aphanomyces astaci, the causal agent of the crayfish plague, has recently been confirmed to infect also freshwater-inhabiting crabs. We experimentally tested the resistance of freshwater shrimps, another important decapod group inhabiting freshwaters, to this pathogen. We exposed individuals of two Asian shrimp species, Macrobrachium dayanum and Neocaridina davidi, to zoospores of the pathogen strain isolated from Procambarus clarkii, a known A. astaci carrier likely to get into contact with shrimps. The shrimps were kept in separate vessels up to seven weeks; exuviae and randomly chosen individuals were sampled throughout the experiment. Shrimp bodies and exuviae were tested for A. astaci presence by a species-specific quantitative PCR. The results were compared with amounts of A. astaci DNA in an inert substrate to distinguish potential pathogen growth in live specimens from persisting spores or environmental DNA attached to their surface. In contrast to susceptible crayfish Astacus astacus, we did not observe mortality of shrimps. The amount of detected pathogen DNA was decreasing steadily in the inert substrate, but it was still detectable several weeks after zoospore addition, which should be considered in studies relying on molecular detection of A. astaci. Probably due to moulting, the amount of A. astaci DNA was decreasing in N. davidi even faster than in the inert substrate. In contrast, high pathogen DNA levels were detected in some non-moulting individuals of M. dayanum, suggesting that A. astaci growth may be possible in tissues of this species. Further experiments are needed to test for the potential of long-term A. astaci persistence in freshwater shrimp populations. PMID:25064254

  6. Identification and molecular characterization of a peritrophin-like gene, involved in the antibacterial response in Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Ma, FuTong; Wang, Wen; Ren, Qian

    2015-06-01

    Peritrophin was first isolated from insect peritrophic membrane (PM) and was thought to protect insects from invasion of microorganisms and to stimulate digestion of food. In this study, a peritrophin-like gene (EsPT) was obtained from Eriocheir sinensis. The full length cDNA of EsPT was 1232 bp, which contained 1005 bp ORF encoding a protein of 334 amino acids, including a 22 amino acid signal peptide, and 3 conserved chitin binding type 2 domains (ChtBD2) characterized by having a 6-cysteine motif. Phylogenetic analysis showed that EsPT was clustered together with 2 insect peritrophin-44-like proteins (MdP44L from Musca domestica and CcP44L from Ceratitis capitata), an insect chitin binding peritrophin-A domain containing protein (CfPT from Coptotermes formosanus) and a crustacean peritrophin (MnPT from Macrobrachium nipponense). Tissue distribution analysis revealed that EsPT was mainly expressed in hepatopancreas, intestine and hemocytes. The expression of EsPT is regulated by lipopolysaccharide, peptidoglycan, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Aeromonas hydrophila challenge. The recombinant EsPT could bind to different microbes, and enhanced the clearance of V. parahaemolyticus in vivo. In crabs, silencing of EsPT by siRNA suppressed the elimination of V. parahaemolyticus and increasing number of bacteria, finally upregulated the expression of anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF) and clip domain serine proteases (cSP). The results might indicate that EsPT was involved in the anti-bacterial innate immunity of crabs. PMID:25596425

  7. Distribution and accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the food web of Nansi Lake, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guizhai; Pan, Zhaoke; Wang, Xiaoming; Mo, Xiaojie; Li, Xiaoming

    2015-04-01

    The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed in water, sediment, and biota (aquatic plant, shrimp, and fish) of Nansi Lake by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The concentrations of total PAHs were 27.54-55.04 ng L(-1) in water, 80.31-639.23 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw) in sediments, 20.92-192.78 ng g(-1) dw in aquatic plants, and 67.3-533.9 ng g(-1) dw in fish and shrimp muscles. The ratios of phenanthrene to anthracene (Ph/An), fluoranthene to pyrene (Flu/Pyr), and low molecular weight to high molecular weight (LMW/HMW) in sediment indicated that the sources of the PAHs were a mixture of pyrolytic and petrogenic contamination at most sampling sites in Nansi Lake. The composition profile of PAHs in plants was similar to that in water and animals with 2-3 ring PAHs being dominant. The 4-6 ring PAHs were the dominant PAH compounds in sediment. There is a positive correlation between sediment and aquatic plants, but their PAH composition profiles were different, implying that aquatic plant absorption of PAHs from sediment is selective and the accumulation of PAHs in aquatic plants is different. The concentration of PAHs in fish showed a positive correlation with plants, reflecting that the PAHs in fish are mainly absorbed from aquatic plants rather than directly from the water. Bioaccumulation of LMW PAHs in aquatic biota was higher than HMW PAHs. The biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) values of total PAHs in the plants Potamogeton lucens Linn and Ceratophyllum demersum Linn were higher than that in most animals. The BSAF values of total PAHs in animals were in the following order: Cyprinus carpio?>?Macrobrachium nipponense?>?Carassius auratus?>?Channa argus. There was no significant relationship between PAH bioaccumulation and trophic levels in Nansi Lake. Risk assessment of PAHs in water, sediment, and animals indicated that the water environment of Nansi Lake is safe at present. It is worthwhile to note that benzo [a] anthracene (BaA), benzo [a] pyrene (BaP), indeno [1,2,3-cd] pyrene (InP), dibenz [a, h] anthracene (DBA), and benzo [ghi] perylene (BghiP) were detected in sediment, plants, and animals at all sampling sites, and they have potential carcinogenicity to the organisms of Nansi Lake. PMID:25762425