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White tail disease (WTD) is a serious problem in Macrobrachiumrosenbergii hatcheries and nursery ponds in Asia. The causative agents have been identified as M. rosenbergiinodavirus (MrNV) and its associated extra small virus. This is the first re- port demonstrating MrNV virus in M. rosenbergii displaying WTD signs in Taiwan by reverse tran- scriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Amplified fragments
Five different species of aquatic insects were collected from nursery ponds containing the freshwater prawn Macrobrachiumrosenbergii infected with Macrobrachiumrosenbergiinodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV). The insects were screened as potential natural carriers of MrNV and XSV. RT-PCR (reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction) analysis gave positive results for MrNV and XSV in Belostoma sp., Aesohna sp., Cybister sp. and Notonecta sp., and negative results for Nepa sp. An Aedes albopictus mosquito cell line (C6/36) was used for infectivity assays, with viral inoculum prepared from the aquatic insects, since C6/36 cells have recently been shown to be susceptible to infection with MrNV and XSV. The C6/36 cells were harvested 4 d post-challenge for examination by electron microscopy. This revealed aggregation of viral particles throughout the cytoplasm for cells challenged with inocula from all the insect species except Nepa sp. Our results indicate that several aquatic insect species may present a risk for MrNV and XSV transmission to M. rosenbergii. PMID:18500030
Sudhakaran, R; Haribabu, P; Kumar, S Rajesh; Sarathi, M; Ahmed, V P Ishaq; Babu, V Sarath; Venkatesan, C; Hameedl, A S Sahul
White tail disease (WTD) is a serious problem in hatcheries and nursery ponds of Macrobrachiumrosenbergii in India. Experiments were carried out to determine the possibility of vertical transmission of M. rosenbergiinodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV) in M. rosenbergii and Artemia. Prawn broodstock inoculated with MrNV and XSV by oral or immersion challenge survived without any clinical signs of WTD. The brooders spawned 5-7 days after inoculation and the eggs hatched. The survival rate of larvae gradually decreased, and 100% mortality was observed at the post-larvae (PL) stage. Whitish muscle, the typical sign of WTD, was seen in advanced larval developmental stages. The ovarian tissue and fertilized eggs were found to be positive for MrNV/XSV by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) whereas the larval stages showed positive by RT nested PCR (nRT-PCR). In Artemia, reproductive cysts and nauplii derived from challenged brooders were normal and survival rates were within the expected range for normal rearing conditions. The reproductive cysts were found to be positive for MrNV/XSV by RT-PCR whereas the nauplii showed MrNV/XSV-positive by nRT-PCR. The PL of M. rosenbergii fed nauplii derived from challenged Artemia brooders died at 9 days post-inoculum with clinical signs of WTD. PMID:17241402
Sudhakaran, R; Ishaq Ahmed, V P; Haribabu, P; Mukherjee, S C; Sri Widada, J; Bonami, J R; Sahul Hameed, A S
Five developmental stages of Artemia were exposed to Macrobrachiumrosenbergiinodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV) by immersion and oral routes in order to investigate the possibility of Artemia acting as a reservoir or carrier of these viruses. The second objective was to determine if virus-exposed Artemia were capable of transmitting the disease to post-larvae (PL) of M. rosenbergii. There was no significant difference in percent mortality between Artemia control groups and groups challenged with these viruses. On the other hand, all the developmental stages of Artemia were positive for both viruses by nested RT-PCR, regardless of the challenge route. In horizontal transmission experiments, 100% mortality was observed in M. rosenbergii PL fed with Artemia nauplii exposed to MrNV and XSV by either challenge route. However, no mortality was observed in PL fed with virus-free Artemia. RT-PCR analysis of the M. rosenbergii PL confirmed the presence of MrNV and XSV in the challenge group and absence in the control group. PMID:16875403
Sudhakaran, R; Yoganandhan, K; Ahmed, V P Ishaq; Hameed, A S Sahul
White tail disease (WTD) is a serious problem in hatcheries and nursery ponds of Macrobrachiumrosenbergii in India and many parts of the world. The pathogenic agents have been identified as M. rosenbergiinodavirus (MrNV) associated with extra small virus (XSV), which is 27nm and 15nm in diameter, respectively. Replication of MrNV and XSV was investigated in apparently healthy C6/36 subclone of Aedes albopictus cell line. The results revealed that C6/36 cells were susceptible to these viruses. The replication of these viruses in C6/36 cells was confirmed by RT-PCR, acridine orange staining, infectivity study and electron microscopy. Cytoplasmic ribonucleic acid (RNA) stained by acridine orange increased by 48h, and by 72h larger proportion of cells which indicated alterations in quantity and localization of RNA in the infected cells. Post-larvae, challenged by immersion method using inoculum prepared from infected cells, exhibited lethargy, anorexia and opaqueness of abdominal muscle and 100% mortality was observed at 6 days post-infection. Experimentally infected C6/36 cells and post-larvae showed positive by RT-PCR, whereas control cells and healthy post-larvae showed negative. This is the first study to report the multiplication of MrNV and XSV in C6/36 cell line. PMID:17651820
Macrobrachiumrosenbergiinodavirus (MrNV) that causes white tail disease (WTD) is an emerging disease that contributes to serious production losses in Macrobrachium hatcheries worldwide. Mosquito cell lines (C6/36) have been reported to support the growth of MrNV and used to observe the cytopathic effects (CPE) in infected cells. This study determined the susceptibility of C6/36 mosquito cells to the Australian isolate of MrNV in order to use fewer animals in further investigations. Different staining methods were used to observe MrNV viral activity in C6/36 cells. Typical cytopathic effects such as vacuolation and viral inclusion bodies were observed in infected C6/36 cells with H&E and Giemsa staining. With acridine orange, it was easier to detect presumptive MrNV messenger ribonucleic acid in the infected cells. Using neutral red staining to measure mitochondrial activity showed light absorption of infected cells maximized at day 4 (O.D. = 0.6) but was significantly lower (chi-square = 41.265, df = 1, P < 0.05) than control groups (O.D. = 2) which maximized at day 12. Using trypan blue staining to count the number of cells with disrupted cell membranes, the maximum number of presumptively dead cells at day 8 (4 × 10(5) cells) in infected treatments was higher than the control treatment at day 10 (1.8 × 10(5) cells). However, TaqMan real-time PCR did not confirm the replication of MrNV in the cells over 14 days. The mean viral copies and mean cycle times of positive samples were stable at 2.07 × 10(4) and 24.12, respectively. Limited evidence of viral replication was observed during four serial passages. This study determined the mortality of the C6/36 cell line to the Australian isolate of MrNV but suggests limited patent replication was occurring. Trying different cell lines or adapting the virus to the C6/36 cells may be necessary to successfully replicate Australian MrNV in cell lines. PMID:23134578
Macrobrachiumrosenbergii is the most important cultured freshwater prawn in the world and it is now farmed on a large scale in many countries. Generally, freshwater prawn is considered to be tolerant to diseases but a disease of viral origin is responsible for severe mortalities in larval, post-larval and juvenile stages of prawn. This viral infection namely white tail disease (WTD) was reported in the island of Guadeloupe in 1995 and later in Martinique (FrenchWest Indies) in Taiwan, the People's Republic of China, India, Thailand, Australia and Malaysia. Two viruses, Macrobrachiumrosenbergiinodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus-like particle (XSV) have been identified as causative agents of WTD. MrNV is a small icosahedral non-enveloped particle, 26-27 nm in diameter, identified in the cytoplasm of connective cells. XSV is also an icosahedral virus and 15 nm in diameter. Clinical signs observed in the infected animals include lethargy, opaqueness of the abdominal muscle, degeneration of the telson and uropods, and up to 100 % within 4 days. The available diagnostic methods to detect WTD include RT-PCR, dot-blot hybridization, in situ hybridization and ELISA. In experimental infection, these viruses caused 100 % mortality in post-larvae but failed to cause mortality in adult prawns. The reported hosts for these viruses include marine shrimp, Artemia and aquatic insects. Experiments were carried out to determine the possibility of vertical transmission of MrNV and XSV in M. rosenbergii. The results indicate that WTD may be transferred from infected brooders to their offspring during spawning. Replication of MrNV and XSV was investigated in apparently healthy C6/36 Aedes albopictus and SSN-1 cell lines. The results revealed that C6/36 and SSN-1cells were susceptible to these viruses. No work has been carried out on control and prevention of WTD and dsRNA against protein B2 produced RNAi that was able to functionally prevent and reduce mortality in WTD-infected redclaw crayfish. PMID:23997437
The freshwater prawn, Macrobrachiumrosenbergii, is being increasingly cultured in tropical regions and has aquacultural potential in temperate zones. In this study, frozen glazed prawns were stored whole (both raw and precooked) and deheaded (raw) for 9 ...
The value of algal supplements in rearing Macrobrachiumrosenbergii larvae in static water systems was investigated. Larvae were reared in 60 liter fiberglass rounded bottom tanks at concentrations ranging from 50 to 67 larvae/liter. Standard culture meth...
The feasibility was tested of direct utilization of geothermal water for the aquaculture of Malaysian freshwater prawns (Macrobrachiumrosenbergii). A problem with using geothermal water for aquaculture is the chemical composition of the water with high f...
Under certain predictable conditions Macrobrachiumrosenbergii kill one another. Under other 'field' conditions these prawns appear to segregate by molt state into different microhabitats. Experiments were conducted to determine if this segregation was th...
White tail disease (WTD) is found to cause immense economic losses in hatcheries and farms, with mortalities often reaching 100% within 2 or 3 days. The pathogenic agents have been identified as Macrobrachiumrosenbergiinodavirus (MrNV) associated with extra small virus (XSV), which are 27 and 15 nm in diameter, respectively. Experiments were carried out to characterize an Indian isolate of XSV capsid protein of 17 kDa (CP-17). The gene encoding CP-17 was cloned and its sequence analysed with sequences of other isolates such as French, Chinese, Taiwanese and Thai available in the GenBank using Bioinformatics tools such as BLASTn, clustal W and phylogenetic analysis. When compared with other isolates, 18-point mutations were observed in Indian isolate (XSV-IN) with few changes in amino acid residues. Homology comparison showed 99-96% identity with other isolates. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Indian isolate was closely related to Taiwanese and Chinese isolates than French and Thai. This shows that the possible origin of the disease in India was from Taiwan and China through the import of prawn seed decades ago. PMID:17928085
Sudhakaran, R; Syed Musthaq, S; Rajesh Kumar, S; Sarathi, M; Sahul Hameed, A S
The feasibility was tested of direct utilization of geothermal water for the aquaculture of Malaysian freshwater prawns (Macrobrachiumrosenbergii). A problem with using geothermal water for aquaculture is the chemical composition of the water with high flouride levels being a particular problem. Results show that (1) some geothermal water in Idaho can be used directly for the aquaculture of Macrobrachium
The feasibility was tested of direct utilization of geothermal water for the aquaculture of Malaysian freshwater prawns (Macrobrachiumrosenbergii). A problem with using geothermal water for aquaculture is the chemical composition of the water with high flouride levels being a particular problem. Results show that (1) some geothermal water in Idaho can be used directly for the aquaculture of Macrobrachiumrosenbergii, (2) high flouride levels cannot be directly correlated with high mortality rates and (3) low flouride levels do not correlate with high growth rates.
The objective of this study was to review the state of grow-out production for giant river prawns (Macrobrachiumrosenbergii) in Thailand, assess the perceived ecological impacts of the industry, and suggest avenues by which farmers might adopt more environmentally sound culture systems. A socioeconomic and technical survey of 100 prawn farmers was conducted during 1 May to 31 July 2005
The microbiological changes in farm reared freshwater prawn (Macrobrachiumrosenbergii de Man) during ice storage were studied. A total of 156 bacterial cultures from fresh and ice-stored farmed freshwater prawn were isolated and characterized. Total aerobic, mesophilic and psychrotrophic counts and hydrogen sulphide producing bacterial counts were determined. The total aerobic counts at 20 and 37°C on fresh prawn was
Malaysian prawns, Macrobrachiumrosenbergii, are hatched and raised indoors in small tanks. Prawns may be raised and shipped at high densities which could result in low dissolved oxygen (DO) conditions. Because DO may play an important role in prawn development and survival, we measured routine me...
Postlarval and juvenile Macrobrachiumrosenbergii were stocked in twelve 0.025 ha earthen ponds to study the effects of stocking size and density on growth and survival. The experiment was comprised of four treatments, three replicates each. One treatment...
Disease epizootics in freshwater cultured crustaceans, including freshwater prawns (Macrobrachiumrosenbergii), gained high attention recently in Jiangsu, China due to intensive development of freshwater aquaculture and their susceptibility to massive mortalities. Morphological observation indicated that the pathogen in diseased M. rosenbergii had a helical morphology and lacked a cell wall. The agent could infect hemocytes and all the connective tissues
Tingming Liang; Xinlun Li; Jie Du; Wei Yao; Guiyao Sun; Xuehong Dong; Zhiguo Liu; Jiangtao Ou; Qingguo Meng; Wei Gu; Wen Wang
In this investigation, effect of cadmium chloride (25?g\\/l) on oogenesis of freshwater prawn, Macrobrachiumrosenbergii was studied. In vivo experiments were performed with both intact and eyestalk ablated prawns. The intact, cadmium-exposed prawns exhibited decrease in Gonado Somatic Index (GSI) and ovarian development compared to controls. Whereas, ablated treated ovary showed reduction of yolk material and oocyte membrane thickness at
Water quality effects of high densities of silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, and water hyacinths Eichhornia crassipes in semi-intensive pond culture of prawns Macrobrachiumrosenbergii were examined. Additional effects of isonitrogenous additions (8 kg N?hectare?week) of dried chicken manure and chicken broiler feed were evaluated. Excretion, grazing, and sediment resuspension by the carps stimulated phytoplankton productivity and
Barry A. Costa-Pierce; Spencer R. Malecha; Edward A. Laws
A comparative studies regarding prevalence of microbial flora in the muscle of locally available tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) and giant water prawn (Macrobrachiumrosenbergii) have been analyzed in terms of aerobic plate count (APC), enterobacteriaceae and Salmonella-Shigella (SS) counts. The total counts ranged from 2.04x10 to 4.5x10 CFU\\/ml for shrimp and 1.08x10 to 1.2x10 CFU\\/ml for prawn. The total coliforms
The objectives of the present study were to determine the effect of supplementary vitamin-E (200, 400 and 600 mg\\/kg feed) on lipid peroxidation (LPX) and antioxidant defence system in gills and hepatopancreas of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachiumrosenbergii. Results indicated that vitamin-E inhibited LPX in the hepatopancreas in a comparatively lower dose than gills. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was decreased
Jagneshwar Dandapat; Gagan B. N. Chainy; K. Janardhana Rao
Experiment on rearing of giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachiumrosenbergii, with and without aeration were conducted in 1 rai earthen ponds at Kanchanadit Suratthani Thailand during July to December 2002. The paddle wheel aerator was used in the aeration treatment. Giant freshwater prawn, an initial size of 1.38 + 0.20 cm in length and 0.023 + 0.007 g in weight, were
In this study, we investigated the effect of poly ?-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) on the culture performance of larvae of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachiumrosenbergii and on the bacterial levels inside the larval gut. Instar II Artemia nauplii were cultured with or without PHB (5gl?1) and\\/or a lipid emulsion rich in highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) for 24h. The effect of
Dinh The Nhan; Mathieu Wille; Peter De Schryver; Tom Defoirdt; Peter Bossier; Patrick Sorgeloos
Quantitative and qualitative analyses of bacterial flora associated with larval rearing of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachiumrosenbergii, along with important water quality parameters, were carried out over a larval cycle. Total viable counts (TVC) varied between 1.1±0.6×104 and 9.8±1.5×106 colony forming units (cfu) ml?1 in water, 2.4±0.4×105 and 8.6±1.6×106 cfu g?1 in eggs and 2.5±1.4×104 and 1.6±1.0×108 cfu g?1
P. V. Phatarpekar; V. D. Kenkre; R. A. Sreepada; U. M. Desai; C. T. Achuthankutty
Macrobrachiumrosenbergii (31.1 ± 1.9 g) were maintained individually in freshwater with pH levels of 4.15, 5.55, 7.10, 8.61 and 10.15 for 7 days, and then nitrogenous excretions from each animal for one day were measured. Ammonia-N excretion (?g g?1 h?1) and total nitrogen excretion (?g g?1 h?1) decreased with increased pH level, whereas urea-N excretion (?g g?1 h?1), nitrite-N
Chaperonin (MrChap) was identified from a constructed transcriptome dataset of freshwater prawn Macrobrachiumrosenbergii. The MrChap peptide contains a long chaperone super family domain between 11 and 525. Three chaperone tailless complex polypeptide (TCP-1) signatures are present in the MrChap peptide sequence at 36-48, 57-73 and 85-93. The gene expressions of MrChap in both healthy M. rosenbergii and those infected with infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) were examined using qRT-PCR. To understand its biological activity, the recombinant MrChap gene was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The results of ATPase assay showed that the recombinant MrChap protein exhibited apparent ATPase activity. Chaperone activity assay showed that the recombinant MrChap protein is an active chaperone. These results suggest that MrChap is potentially involved in the immune responses against viral infection in M. rosenbergii. These findings indicate that the recombinant MrChap protein may be used in immunotherapeutic approaches. PMID:22903032
The 24-, 48-, 72- and 96-h LC50s (median lethal concentrations) of pH on Macrobrachiumrosenbergii juveniles (0.13±0.01 g) were 4.00, 4.05, 4.07 and 4.08, respectively. Survival rates of M. rosenbergii juveniles (2.65±0.06 g) following 56 days exposure to pH 8.2, 7.4, 6.8, 6.2 and 5.6 were 100%, 88.9%, 94.4%, 94.4% and 94.4%, respectively. After 42 days of exposure, the body
In this investigation, effect of cadmium chloride (25 ?g/l) on oogenesis of freshwater prawn, Macrobrachiumrosenbergii was studied. In vivo experiments were performed with both intact and eyestalk ablated prawns. The intact, cadmium-exposed prawns exhibited decrease in Gonado Somatic Index (GSI) and ovarian development compared to controls. Whereas, ablated treated ovary showed reduction of yolk material and oocyte membrane thickness at the end of 15 days exposure. Interestingly, the control prawn showed normal cellular architecture of gills, hepatopancreas and ovary with mature oocytes. But, the gills of treated prawns showed lamellar hypertrophy, cuticular dystrophy and irregular arrangement of epithelial cells. Hepatopancreas showed reduction in both tubular diameter and basement membrane thickness. Conspicuously, ovary showed hypertrophied primary oocytes with more vacuoles in intact-treated group. Cadmium had increased gonad inhibiting hormone (GIH) secretion and decreased gonad stimulating hormone (GSH) release as evident with the retardation of gonadal maturation in the intact prawns. PMID:21296420
Literature on the toxicities of phenol on aquatic organisms is very limited. USEPA reported that the acute and chronic toxicities of phenol to freshwater aquatic life occur at concentrations as low as 10.2 mg/L and 2.56 mg/L, respectively. While for the saltwater aquatic life the acute toxicity occurs at concentrations as low as 5.8 mg/L. No data are available for the chronic toxicity of phenol to saltwater aquatic life. Sublethal concentrations of phenol have significant effects on the physiological and histological processes of the aquatic organisms: such as gill necrosis; destruction of erythrocyte cells; inhibition of sexual activities; suppression on growth and reduction of resistance to diseases. Macrobrachiumrosenbergii(de Man) is the sole freshwater prawn cultured in Malaysia. Occasionally, the hatcheries are unable to produce the post-larvae because of undefined pollutants present in the water supplies. It has been observed that the use of cracked fiberglass tanks for larvae rearing is correlated with high mortality. This high mortality is probably due to the toxicity of the phenolic compounds which are leached out from the fiber glass tank into the water. This study was undertaken to evaluate the toxicity of phenol on eggs, larvae and post-larvae of M. rosenbergii and to set the water quality criteria of phenol for the said species. 16 refs., 3 tabs.
Immunohistochemistry was used to identify the distribution of both APGWamide-like and RFamide-like peptides in the central\\u000a nervous system (CNS) and ovary of the mature female giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachiumrosenbergii. APGWamide-like immunoreactivity (ALP-ir) was found only within the sinus gland (SG) of the eyestalk, in small- and medium-sized\\u000a neurons of cluster 4, as well as their varicosed axons. RFamide-like immunoreactivity
The toxicity of trichlorfon was determined in Macrobrachiumrosenbergii and the 24-, 48-, 72-, and 96-h LC50 values were 0.7739, 0.3513, 0.2697, and 0.2555 mg l?1, respectively. Prawns were exposed for 24 h to 0, 0.2, and 0.4 mg l?1 trichlorfon. Then, certain biochemical and physiological parameters, including acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, glucose, lactate, and glycogen contents, and the hemolymph osmolality,
The prophenoloxidase activating system is an important innate immune response against microbial infections in invertebrates.\\u000a The major enzyme, phenoloxidase, is synthesized as an inactive precursor and its activation to an active enzyme is mediated\\u000a by a cascade of clip domain serine proteinases. In this study, a cDNA encoding a prophenoloxidase activating enzyme-III from\\u000a the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachiumrosenbergii, designated
Cathepsin L (MrCathL) was identified from a constructed cDNA library of freshwater prawn Macrobrachiumrosenbergii. MrCathL full-length cDNA is 1161 base pairs (bp) with an ORF of 1026bp which encodes a polypeptide of 342 amino acid (aa) long. The eukaryotic cysteine proteases, histidine and asparagine active site residues were identified in the aa sequence of MrCathL at 143-154, 286-296 and 304-323, respectively. The pair wise clustalW analysis of MrCathL showed the highest similarity (97%) with the homologous cathepsin L from Macrobrachium nipponense and the lowest similarity (70%) from human. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two distinct clusters of the invertebrates and vertebrates cathepsin L in the phylogenetic tree. MrCathL and cathepsin L from M. nipponense were clustered together, formed a sister group to cathepsin L of Penaeus monodon, and finally clustered to Lepeophtheirus salmonis. High level of (P<0.05) MrCathL gene expression was noticed in haemocyte and lowest in eyestalk. Furthermore, the MrCathL gene expression in M. rosenbergii was up-regulated in haemocyte by virus [M. rosenbergii nodovirus (MrNV) and white spot syndrome baculovirus (WSBV)] and bacteria (Vibrio harveyi and Aeromonas hydrophila). The recombinant MrCathL exhibited a wide range of activity in various pH between 3 and 10 and highest at pH 7.5. Cysteine proteinase (stefin A, stefin B and antipain) showed significant influence (100%) on recombinant MrCathL enzyme activity. The relative activity and residual activity of recombinant MrCathL against various metal ions or salts and detergent tested at different concentrations. These results indicated that the metal ions, salts and detergent had an influence on the proteinase activity of recombinant MrCathL. Conclusively, the results of this study imply that MrCathL has high pH stability and is fascinating object for further research on the function of cathepsin L in prawn innate immune system. PMID:23669240
Males of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachiumrosenbergii grow faster and reach higher weights at harvest than females a fact which makes the culture of all-male populations desirable. All-male populations were produced by mating sex-reversed males, i.e., neofemales, with normal males. Neofemales capable of mating and spawning were produced by removal of the androgenic gland (AG) from immature M. rosenbergii
E. D. Aflalo; T. T. T. Hoang; V. H. Nguyen; Q. Lam; D. M. Nguyen; Q. S. Trinh; S. Raviv; A. Sagi
The effect of the oil-spill dispersant Corexit 9527 on egg-hatching rate of Macrobrachiumrosenbergii (de Man) was studied by using an innovated flow-through bioassay technique. This bioassay method relies on the fact that M. rosenbergii fertilized eggs when detached from the mother prawn were able to hatch artificially. The flow-through system generated a stable and good water quality environment for
Like many metazoans, the freshwater prawn Macrobrachiumrosenbergii begins its post-embryonic life with a set of morphologically distinct planktonic larval stages, followed by a benthic post-larval stage during which the maturing organism differs from the larvae both ecologically and physiologically. Understanding of the molecular basis underlying morphogenesis in crustaceans is limited to the observation that methyl farnesoate, the non-epoxidated form of the insect juvenile hormone, acts as the active crustacean juvenoid. Molt steroids were also linked to morphogenesis and several other molecular pathways, such as Hedgehog and Wnt, are known to underlie morphogenesis in all metazoans examined and, as such, are thought to do the same in crustaceans. Using next generation sequencing, we deep-sequenced the transcriptomes of several larval and post-larval stages. De novo assembly, followed by bioinformatics analysis, revealed that many novel transcripts are over-expressed in either larvae- or post-larvae-stage prawn, shedding light on the molecular basis underlying M. rosenbergii metamorphosis. Fast larval molting rates and periodic morphological changes were reflected in over-expression of transcripts annotated to the cell cycle, DNA replication and morphogenic pathways (i.e., Hedgehog and Wnt). Further characterization of transcripts assigned to morphogenic pathways by real-time RT-PCR reconfirmed their over-expression in larvae, albeit with a more complex expression pattern when examined in the individual developmental stages. The expression level of an orthologue of cytochrome P450, 15A1, known to epoxidize methyl farnesoate in insects, was increased in the late larval and early post-larval stages, in accordance with the role of methyl farnesoate in crustacean metamorphosis. This study exemplifies the applicability of a high-throughput sequencing approach for studying complex traits, including metamorphosis, providing new insight into this unexplored area of crustacean research.
The freshwater prawn Macrobrachiumrosenbergii is a tropical crustacean with characteristics similar to those of lobsters and crayfish. Adult males develop through three morphological types-small (SC), yellow (YC), and blue claws (BC)-with each representing a level in the dominance hierarchy of a group, BC males being the most dominant. We are interested in understanding the role played by neuropeptides in the mechanisms underlying aggressive behavior and the establishment of dominance hierarchies in this type of prawn. SIFamides are a family of arthropod peptides recently identified in the central nervous system of insects and crustaceans, where it has been linked to olfaction, sexual behavior, and gut endocrine functions. One of the six SIFamide isoforms, GYRKPPFNGSIFamide (Gly-SIFamide), is highly conserved among decapod crustaceans such as crabs and crayfish. We wanted to determine whether Gly-SIFamide plays a role in modulating aggression and dominant behavior in the prawn. To do this, we performed behavioral experiments in which interactions between BC/YC pairs were recorded and quantified before and after injecting Gly-SIFamide directly into the circulating hemolymph of the living animal. Behavioral data showed that aggression among interacting BC/YC prawns was enhanced by injection of Gly-SIFamide, suggesting that this neuropeptide does have a modulatory role for this type of behavior in the prawn. PMID:20040755
Vázquez-Acevedo, Nietzell; Rivera, Nilsa M; Torres-González, Alejandra M; Rullan-Matheu, Yarely; Ruíz-Rodríguez, Eduardo A; Sosa, María A
A molecular marker for germ cells of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachiumrosenbergii, was studied. A vasa-like gene, Mrvlg, from the ovary was isolated and characterized by a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method. A full-length sequence was obtained by the rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE) method. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence revealed that Mrvlg comprises 2,686 bps with an open reading frame of 2,130 bps encoding 710 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains four arginine-glycine-glycine motifs and eight conserved motifs belonging to the DEAD-box protein family. The MrVLG sequence shows high similarity to Vasa homologue of zebrafish (73%). In the adult tissues, the Mrvlg transcripts were specifically detected in the germ cells. In situ hybridization analysis showed that Mrvlg RNA was detected in the cytoplasm of oogonia, previtellogenic, and vitellogenic oocytes and was also detected in the nucleoplasm of mature oocytes. In the testis, the Mrvlg transcript was detected in the cytoplasm of spermatogonia and primary spermatocytes but was detected in the nuclei of secondary spermatocytes and sperm. Sequence similarity and specific localization in the germ cells suggest that Mrvlg is the prawn vasa homologue of the Drosophila gene and can be used as a molecular marker for prawn germ cells. PMID:17186538
Macrobrachiumrosenbergii (de Man) is an important commercial species whose larvae develop through several stages in brackish water, after which they metamorphose and the postlarvae migrate into fresh water. Modelling the multiple factor interactions which may affect the ontogeny of physiological adaptation during larval development provides an opportunity to evaluate Alderdice's concept (Alderdice, D.F., 1972. Factor combinations: responses of marine
A systematic study has been carried out on the quantitative and morphological variations of carbonate and phosphate compounds in giant prawn (Macrobrachiumrosenbergii) skeletons during the moulting period on the basis of infrared spectroscopy and X ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. Skeletons samples were prepared from adult giant prawns, extracted from the intact skeletons of the prawns at the ages of
Background Tributyltin (TBT) is a ubiquitous persistent xenobiotic that can be found in freshwater, estuarine and marine ecosystem. TBT is a strong endocrine disrupting compound (EDC) that can cause toxic threat to aquatic organisms. Imposex, sexual deformities and endocrine dysfunctions are the causes of TBT to most of the aquatic organisms. Effect of TBT on the vitellogenesis and sex hormonal changes in Macrobrachiumrosenbergii has never been reported. Hence, the present investigation was undertaken to find out the impact of TBT on histological changes in the different reproductive tissues, sex hormonal alterations and level of biomarkers like vitellogenin and vitellin in M. rosenbergii. Results The present investigation documents the possible impact of tributyltin (TBT) on the vitellogenesis in freshwater female prawn M. rosenbergii. TBT at 10 ng/l, 100 ng/l and 1000 ng/l concentrations were exposed individually to prawns for a period of three months. At higher concentration of 1000 ng/l, the ovarian development was arrested and ovary remained at spent stage. At lower concentration of TBT (10 ng/l), the development proceeded up to early vitellogenic stage. At intermediate concentration of 100 ng/l TBT, the ovary remained at pre vitellogenic stage and thereafter no development was noticed. Histological results indicated the normal ovarian development with vitellogenic oocytes, filled with yolk globules in control prawn. On the other hand, the TBT treated groups showed reduction in yolk globules, fusion of developing oocytes and abundance of immature oocytes. Immunofluorescence staining denoted the remarkable reduction in vitellin content in ovary of TBT treated prawn. Hence, TBT had conspicuously inhibited the vitellogenesis by causing hormonal imbalance in M. rosenbergii. Conclusion TBT had notably inhibited the vitellogenesis due to hormonal imbalance. This endocrine dysfunction ultimately impaired the oogenesis in the freshwater female prawn M. rosenbergii.
BACKGROUND: Tributyltin (TBT) is a ubiquitous persistent xenobiotic that can be found in freshwater, estuarine and marine ecosystem. TBT is a strong endocrine disrupting compound (EDC) that can cause toxic threat to aquatic organisms. Imposex, sexual deformities and endocrine dysfunctions are the causes of TBT to most of the aquatic organisms. Effect of TBT on the vitellogenesis and sex hormonal changes in Macrobrachiumrosenbergii has never been reported. Hence, the present investigation was undertaken to find out the impact of TBT on histological changes in the different reproductive tissues, sex hormonal alterations and level of biomarkers like vitellogenin and vitellin in M. rosenbergii. RESULTS: The present investigation documents the possible impact of tributyltin (TBT) on the vitellogenesis in freshwater female prawn M. rosenbergii. TBT at 10 ng/l, 100 ng/l and 1000 ng/l concentrations were exposed individually to prawns for a period of three months. At higher concentration of 1000 ng/l, the ovarian development was arrested and ovary remained at spent stage. At lower concentration of TBT (10 ng/l), the development proceeded up to early vitellogenic stage. At intermediate concentration of 100 ng/l TBT, the ovary remained at pre vitellogenic stage and thereafter no development was noticed. Histological results indicated the normal ovarian development with vitellogenic oocytes, filled with yolk globules in control prawn. On the other hand, the TBT treated groups showed reduction in yolk globules, fusion of developing oocytes and abundance of immature oocytes. Immunofluorescence staining denoted the remarkable reduction in vitellin content in ovary of TBT treated prawn. Hence, TBT had conspicuously inhibited the vitellogenesis by causing hormonal imbalance in M. rosenbergii. CONCLUSION: TBT had notably inhibited the vitellogenesis due to hormonal imbalance. This endocrine dysfunction ultimately impaired the oogenesis in the freshwater female prawn M. rosenbergii. PMID:23634699
In this study, we have reported the first histone characterized at molecular level from freshwater prawn Macrobrachiumrosenbergii (MrHis). A full length cDNA of MrHis (751 base pairs) was identified from an established M. rosenbergii cDNA library using GS-FLX™ technique. It encodes 137 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 15 kDa and an isoelectric point of 10.5. MrHis peptide contains a histone H2A signature between 21 and 27 amino acids. Homologous analysis showed that MrHis had a significant sequence identity (99%) with other known histone H2A groups especially from Penaeus monodon. Phylogenetic analysis of MrHis showed a strong relationship with other amino acid sequences from histone H2A arthropod groups. Further phylogenetic analysis showed that the MrHis belongs to histone H2A superfamily and H2A1A sub-family. Secondary structure of MrHis showed that the protein contains 50.36% ?-helical region and 49.64% coils. The 3D model of MrHis was predicted by I-Tasser program and the model was evaluated for quality analysis including C-score analysis, Ramachandran plot analysis and RMSD analysis. The surface view analysis of MrHis showed the active domain at the N terminal. The antimicrobial property of MrHis protein was confirmed by the helical structure and the total hydrophobic surface along with its net charge. The MFE of the predicted RNA structure of MrHis is -128.62 kcal/mol, shows its mRNA stability. Schiffer-Edmundson helical wheel analysis of the N-terminal of MrHis showed a perfect amphipathic nature of the peptide. Significantly (P < 0.05) highest gene expression was noticed in the hemocyte and is induced with viral (WSBV and MrNV) and bacteria (A eromonas hydrophila and Vibrio harveyi) infections. The coding sequence of recombinant MrHis protein was expressed in a pMAL vector and purified to study the antimicrobial properties. The recombinant product showed antimicrobial activity against both Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria. In this study, the recombinant MrHis protein displayed antimicrobial activity in its entirety. Hence, it is possible to suggest that the activity may be due to the direct defense role of histone or its N-terminal antimicrobial property. However, this remains to be verified by detailed investigations. PMID:23994279
Experiments were conducted for the study of nutrient budget in ten farmer's ponds (0.2-0.5 ha) in Orissa, India with a mean water depth of 1.0-1.2 m. Scampi (Macrobrachiumrosenbergii) were stocked in these ponds at stocking density of 3.75-5.0/m(2). The average initial body weight of scampi was 0.02 mg. The culture period was for 4 months. Feed was the main input. Total feed applied to these ponds ranged from 945 to 2261 kg pond/cycle (crop). The feed conversion ratio varied 1.65 to 1.78. In addition to feed, rice straw, urea, and single super phosphate were applied to these ponds in small amounts for plankton production. At harvest time, the average weight of scampi varied from 60-90 g. The budget showed that feed was the major input of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and carbon in these ponds. The inorganic fertilizer (urea and single super phosphate), organic fertilizer (rice straw and yeast extract), and inlet water, either from the initial fills or from rainwater, were the source of all other N, P, and organic carbon (OC) to these ponds. Total N applied to these ponds through all these inputs ranged from 44.45 to 103.98 kg N per crop, 12.23 to 28.79 kg P per crop, and from 381.54 to 905.22 kg OC per crop, respectively. Among all the inputs, feed alone accounted for 95.34 % N, 97.98 % P, and 94.27 % OC, respectively. Recovery of 16.34 to 38.66 kg N (average 29.27 kg), 1.28 to 3.02 kg P (average 2.29 kg), and 63.21 to 149.51 kg OC (average 113.20 kg), respectively, by the scampi harvest were observed in these ponds. Thus, harvest of scampi accounted for recovery of 35.18 to 39.01 (average 36.85 %) of added N, 10.09 to 10.97 (average 10.44 %) of added P, and 7.57 to 17.12 (average 16.34 %) of added OC, respectively. PMID:23832231
The giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachiumrosenbergii was injected with an inoculum containing LD, 96 hr dose of 10' Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC 1688) to determine the histopathological effects in vivo. The comparison of tissues of both the control and the bacterial endotoxin treated prawns after 96 hr revealed significant degenerative changes in treated prawns. Both light microscopic and electron microscopic observations revealed the infiltration of the tissues of Pseudomonas sp in the muscular and hepatopancreatic tissues of prawn. The muscular tissue changes in the myofibrillar arrangement with blockage at the gap junctions and necrotic lesions were observed. The hepatopancreatic cells were vacuolated with hypertrophied nucleus. Atrophy of hepatopancreatic tubules was conspicuous. The pathogenicity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is attributed to its infiltration and multiplication inside the tissues and the consequent release of extra-cellular enzymes for its metabolism. The degeneration of host tissues is also attributed to the latter. PMID:18380087
In this study, a female-specific DNA marker in the freshwater prawn Macrobrachiumrosenbergii was identified through amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). The AFLP-derived sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker was tested in over 200 individuals, giving reproducible sex identification. Further molecular characterization of the sex-marker's genomic region (?3?kb long) revealed the presence of tandem and inverted repeats. The ?3-kb sequence was identified both in male and female prawns, but with subtle differences: a deletion of 3?bp (present in female prawn but absent in male prawn) identified upstream of the SCAR marker sequence and two female-specific single-nucleotide polymorphisms, both indicating that male prawns are homozygous, whereas female prawns are heterozygous in this locus. Fluorescent in situ hybridization showed the ?3-kb sequence to be unique: to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a unique sex-specific sequence observed in situ in crustaceans. The sex-specific marker identified in M. rosenbergii may have considerable applied merit for crustacean culture in that it will enable the determination of genetic sex at early developmental stages when phenotypic differences are not identifiable.
Ventura, T; Aflalo, E D; Weil, S; Kashkush, K; Sagi, A
The effect of Withania somnifera extract supplementation diets on innate immune response in giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachiumrosenbergii (de Man) against Aeromonas hydrophila was investigated. The bacterial clearance efficiency significantly increased in prawn fed with 0.1% and 1.0% doses of W. somnifera supplementation diet against pathogen from weeks 1-4 as compared to the control. The innate immune parameters such as, phenoloxidase activity, superoxide anion level, superoxide dismutase activity, nitrate, and nitrite concentrations were significantly enhanced in prawn fed with 0.1% and 1.0% doses of W. somnifera supplementation diet from weeks 1-4 against pathogen. The total hemocyte counts (THC) significantly increased in prawn fed with 0.1% and 1.0% doses diet from weeks 1-4 against pathogen as compared to the control. These results strongly suggested that administration of W. somnifera through supplementation diet positively enhances the innate immune system and enhanced survival rate in M. rosenbergii against A. hydrophila infection. PMID:22118967
In the present study, we demonstrated the existence of GnRH-like peptides in the central nervous system (CNS) and ovary of\\u000a the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachiumrosenbergii using immunocytochemistry. The immunoreactivity (ir) of lamprey (l) GnRH-III was detected in the soma of medium-sized neurons\\u000a located in neuronal cluster number 11 in the middle part of supraesophageal ganglion (deutocerebrum), whereas ir-octopus (oct)
Apichart Ngernsoungnern; Piyada Ngernsoungnern; Scott Kavanaugh; Stacia A. Sower; Prasert Sobhon; Prapee Sretarugsa
Three experiments, each of 8-days, were conducted to evaluate the effects of (5) N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) either alone or in combination on the development and survival of Macrobrachiumrosenbergii larvae. Experiment 1 was carried out as preliminary trial to confirm whether AHL mixture added daily at 1 mg\\/L concentration could have any negative effect on the larval performance. In experiment
Kartik Baruah; Dang T. V. Cam; Kristof Dierckens; Mathieu Wille; Tom Defoirdt; Patrick Sorgeloos; Peter Bossier
The effects of different densities of caged Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, on water quality, phytoplankton populations, prawn, and total pond production were evaluated in freshwater prawn, Macrobrachiumrosenbergii, production ponds. The experiment consisted of three treatments with three 0.04-ha replicates each. All ponds were stocked with graded, nursed juvenile prawn (0.9 6 0.6 g) at 69,000\\/ha. Control (CTL) ponds contained
Jason J. Danaher; James H. Tidwell; Shawn D. Coyle; Siddhartha Dasgupta; Paul V. Zimba
A time course experimental challenge of WSSV was carried out to examine the clearance of WSSV in Macrobrachiumrosenbergii and the consequent immunological changes. The experimental animals were injected with WSSV and the samples of gills, pleopods, head soft tissue and hemolymph were collected at different intervals of 1, 3, 5, 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100 days post infection (p.i.). WSSV infection and clearing were confirmed by single step PCR, nested PCR and bioassay. At 3 days p.i., M. rosenbergii became lethargic and stopped feeding in contrast to the control prawns that behaved and fed normally. However, the WSSV-injected prawns suffered no mortality during the experimental period and recovered without any further gross signs of disease or any mortality over a period of 100 days p.i. The single step PCR analysis showed positive at 1, 3 and 5 days p.i. in gills, head soft tissue, pleopods and hemolymph, and all the organs showed negative at 10 days p.i. onwards. The nested PCR results showed that all organs were positive for WSSV from 3 days p.i. and extended up to 25 days p.i. At 50 days p.i, head soft tissue sample alone showed WSSV-positive while all other organs were negative by nested PCR. All the organs at 75 and 100 days p.i. showed nested PCR negative for WSSV as observed in the control prawn. The hemolymph collected from experimentally infected M. rosenbergii at 1, 3 and 5 days p.i. caused 100% mortality at 40 h p.i., 55 h p.i. and 72 h p.i, respectively in Penaeus monodon whereas hemolymph collected at 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100 days p.i. failed to cause mortality in shrimp. The moribund shrimp showed WSSV-positive and surviving shrimp showed negative by PCR. Immunological parameters such as proPO, O(2)(-) and clotting time in WSSV-injected M. rosenbergii were found to be significantly higher than those of the control groups, whereas THC and superoxide dismutase were significantly lower when compared to control groups. PMID:18603447
Sarathi, M; Nazeer Basha, A; Ravi, M; Venkatesan, C; Senthil Kumar, B; Sahul Hameed, A S
The effect of the oil-spill dispersant Corexit 9527 on egg-hatching rate of Macrobrachiumrosenbergii (de Man) was studied by using an innovated flow-through bioassay technique. This bioassay method relies on the fact that M. rosenbergii fertilized eggs when detached from the mother prawn were able to hatch artificially. The flow-through system generated a stable and good water quality environment for hatching the eggs successfully. The Corexit 9527 had a pronounced effect on hatching rate of the M. rosenbergii eggs. In the control, the hatching rate of the eggs was 95.55% +/- 1.74%. However, it was reduced drastically with increasing concentrations of Corexit 9527. A 100% inhibition of egg hatchability was found when the level of Corexit 9527 was higher than 250 mg litre(-1). The EC(50) and the EC(95) values estimated by the probit method were 80.4 +/- 5.5 mg litre(-1) and 193.5 +/- 39.9 mg litre(-1) respectively (P = 0.05). The recommended safety level of Corexit 9527 for M. rosenbergii in Malaysian estuarine waters is below 40 mg litre(-1). PMID:15091547
The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachiumrosenbergii, is an economically important species. It is a euryhaline shrimp, surviving in wide-range salinity conditions. A change in gene expression has been suggested as an important component for stress management. To better understand the osmoregulatory mechanisms mediated by the gill, a subtractive and suppressive hybridization (SSH) tool was used to identify expressed transcripts linked to adaptations in saline water. A total of 117 transcripts represented potentially expressed under salinity conditions. BLAST analysis identified 22% as known genes, 9% as uncharacterized showing homologous to unannotated ESTs, and 69% as unknown sequences. All the identified known genes representing broad spectrum of biological pathways were particularly linked to stress tolerance including salinity tolerance. Expression analysis of 10 known genes and 7 unknown/uncharacterized genes suggested their upregulation in the gills of prawn exposed to saline water as compared to control indicating that these are likely to be associated with salinity acclimation. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) was used for obtaining full-length cDNA of MRSW-40 clone that was highly upregulated during salt exposure. The sequenced ESTs presented here will have potential implications for future understanding about salinity acclimation and/or tolerance of the prawn. PMID:22619594
The effects of feeding two Bacillus spp. isolated from the intestine of the giant freshwater prawn on the growth of Giant Freshwater Prawns (Macrobrachiumrosenbergii de Man) was examined. The isolated Bacillus KKU02 and Bacillus KKU03 (approximately 10(7) CFU mL(-1)) were mixed into commercial prawn feed (200 mL kg(-1)). After rearing shrimp with the bacteria in four feed treatments, (Bacillus KKU03, Bacillus KKU02, mixed culture and control groups) for 120 days, body length and weight of the prawns in mixed culture tanks were significantly higher (p = 0.05) than in the control tanks (7.48 cm and 3.32 g, vs 6.6 cm and 2.1 g, respectively). Both isolates were found to produce amylase and protease. The stabilities of the single Bacillus sp., mixed culture and commercial probiotic in the feeds were examined during storage at 4 degrees C and room temperature. The percentage viability of Bacillus KKU02, Bacillus KKU03 and mixed culture stored at room temperature declined dramatically to 2.54, 21.88 and 10.92% within 2 weeks, respectively. At 4 degrees C however, the percentage viability of the tested probiotics reduced slowly. The survival of the commercial probiotics was the same at both temperatures about 50% after 70 days' storage. PMID:19069961
Deeseenthum, Sirirat; Leelavatcharamas, Vichai; Brookes, John D
Freshwater prawn Macrobrachiumrosenbergii inoculated with 100 ?l novel pathogen spiroplasma strain MR-1008 in logarithmic phase (10(8) spiroplasmas ml(-1)) were examined for alkaline phosphatase (AKP) activity, acid phosphatase (ACP) activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, catalase (CAT) activity, as well as expressions of 7 immune related genes in hepatopancreas after 1-28 d. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining showed obvious pathological features in hepatopancreas connective and epithelial tissue. Enzyme activity analyze showed that hepatopancreas AKP and ACP activity increased markedly (P < 0.05) when inoculated with spiroplasma MR-1008 after 5 d and 10 d, respectively. SOD enzyme activity changed less obviously and slightly increased at 1 day post-inoculation, but CAT activity decreased significantly after 5 d inoculation. The expression levels of lipopolysaccharide and ?-1,3-glucan-binding protein (LGBP), peroxinectin (PE), ?2-macroglobulin (?2M), AKP, ACP, CAT, and copper/zinc SOD (Cu, Zn-SOD) genes in the hepatopancreas were examined by Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR) and the results demonstrated that these immune related genes were induced by challenge with spiroplasma MR-1008. The results suggested that the prawn immune responses could be activated or inhibited by spiroplasma MR-1008, and that the hepatopancreas also plays key roles in innate immunity for defense against the pathogen. PMID:23178264
Four 0.02-ha earthen ponds at the UNESP Aquaculture Center, Jaboticabal, S5o Paulo, Brazil, were stocked with newly metamorphosed Mac- robrachium rosenbergii post-larvae at 1.5 animals\\/m2. After 8 mo, prawn density at harvest ranged from 0.3\\/ mz to 0.8\\/m2. Growth curves were determined for each population using von Bertalanffy growth functions. Asymptotic maximum length and asymptotic maxi- mum weight increased as
. \\u000a \\u000a Macrobrachiumrosenbergii that had been exposed individually for 24 h to 0 (control), 2, 5, 10 mg\\/L nitrite-N (nitrite as nitrogen) at 4.3 and 7.7\\u000a pH levels were examined for hemolymph nitrite-N, oxyhemocyanin, protein, acid–base balance, ion concentrations, and ammonia-N\\u000a (ammonia as nitrogen) excretion. Hemolymph oxyhemocyanin, protein, pH, HCO3\\u000a \\u000a ? , TCO2, osmolality, and ion concentrations were inversely related
We determined the cross-reactivity of a monoclonal antibody against the Macrobrachiumrosenbergii lectin with proteins in the hemolymph from Procambarus clarkii (Pc), Procambarus americanus (Pa), Litopenaeus setiferus (Ls), and Pseudothelphusa americana (Psa). Crustaceans' hemolymph agglutinated erythrocytes from rat, mouse, guinea pig, and rabbit. Decapods' hemolymph hemagglutinating activity was inhibited by N-acetylated carbohydrates as well as by antibodies. Western blot assays indicated that the antibodies recognized two main proteins of 97.5 and 80.9 kDa in all hemolymphs studied; moreover, ELISA assays indicated that, in PSa, 7.2% of total proteins showed crossreactivity with antibodies in Pa, Pc, and Lc hemolymphs represented 4.2, 3.1%, and 2.5%, respectively. Our results suggested that antibodies recognize the lectin active site in the crustacean species tested; we propose the use of antibodies as an immunological marker for lectin identification and quantification among crustaceans. PMID:19431046
The giant river prawn, Macrobrachium cf. rosenbergii, is one of the most cultivated freshwater prawns in the world and has been introduced into more than 40 countries. In some countries, this prawn is considered an invasive species that requires close monitoring. Recent changes in the taxonomy of this species (separation of M. rosenbergii and M. dacqueti) require a re-evaluation of introduced taxa. In this work, molecular analyses were used to determine which of these two species was introduced into Brazil and to establish the geographic origin of the introduced populations that have invaded Amazonian coastal waters. The species introduced into Brazil was M. dacqueti through two introduction events involving prawns originating from Vietnam and either Bangladesh or Thailand. These origins differ from historical reports of the introductions and underline the need to confirm the origin of other exotic populations around the world. The invading populations in Amazonia require monitoring not only because the biodiversity of this region may be affected by the introduction, but also because admixture of different native haplotypes can increase the genetic variability and the likelihood of persistence of the invading species in new habitats.
This study was carried out to study the impact of phased harvesting on the population structure, feed intake pattern and growth\\u000a performance of Macrobrachiumrosenbergii in polyculture with carps in a deepwater rice–fish system. There were two experimental conditions—rice–fish culture with\\u000a phased harvesting (T1) and rice–fish culture without phased harvesting (T2)— and a control, which consisted of rice monoculture without
Fisheries and aquaculture are impacted sporadically by newly emerged viral diseases. In most cases, searches for a causative pathogen only occur after a serious disease has emerged. As random shotgun sequencing (metagenomics) offers opportunities to identify novel viruses preemptively, the method was tested on nucleic acids extracted from the hepatopancreas of 12 healthy northern pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus duorarum captured from the Gulf of Mexico. Among the sequences, a nodavirus (Farfantepenaeus duorarum nodavirus, FdNV) and a virus with similarities to circoviruses and cycloviruses that possess circular single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) genomes, were identified. The FdNV genome sequence was most closely related phylogenetically to nodaviruses causing white tail disease in Macrobrachiumrosenbergii and muscle necrosis disease in Litopenaeus vannamei. While the circular ssDNA virus represents the third to be detected in association with a marine invertebrate, transmission trials are needed to confirm its infectivity for F. duorarum. This study highlights the potential for using metagenomic approaches in fisheries and aquaculture industries to identify new potential pathogens in asymptomatic marine invertebrates, uncharacterized pathogens causing a new disease, or multiple pathogens associated with disease syndromes. PMID:23999707
Cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks) are key regulators of the cell cycle. In mammals, cdk2 plays an essential role in the meiosis of spermatocytes and oocytes. To investigate the role of cdk2 kinase during gametogenesis in crustaceans, we cloned a complete cDNA sequence of cdk2 from the freshwater giant prawn, Macrobrachiumrosenbergii, and examined its localization and expression in the developing gonads. The prawn cdk2 cDNA is 1,745 bp in length and encodes a putative protein of 305 amino acids. The deduced protein contains a conserved cyclin binding motif PSTAIRE and shares high homology with reported cdk2 kinases of other species. RT-PCR analysis showed a wide distribution of the cdk2 mRNA in all tested organs including the testis, ovary, heart, muscles, hepatopancreas and gills, and the highest level of expression in the ovary and testis. Localization by in situ hybridization of cdk2 mRNA in the ovary showed high expression in the ooplasm of previtellogenic and the nuclei of late vitellogenic oocytes. In testicular sections, cdk2 transcript is low in spermatogonia, high in spermatocytes, but reduced in spermatids and sperm. The high expression of the cdk2 transcripts in meiotic spermatocytes and oocytes indicated that the cdk2 gene has the conservative function in the germ cells meiosis during gametogenesis. PMID:23653005
Nm23 is a family of genes encoding the nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase, which functions in a wide variety of biological processes, including growth, development, differentiation and tumor metastasis. In this study, a novel nm23 gene, designated as Mrnm23, was identified from the freshwater giant prawn Macrobrachiumrosenbergii. The full-length cDNA was 776bp in length, encoding for a protein of 176 amino acids with one typical NDP kinase domain that harbored all the crucial residues for nucleotide binding and enzymatic activity. Like human novel nm23-H1B, the putative protein contained a unique 21-amino-acid NH2-terminal extension as compared to human nm23 (nm23-H1) homologs. Further, 3 extra amino acid residues prolonged the COOH-terminus. The Mrnm23 was ubiquitously expressed in all tissues examined, including androgenic gland, gill, heart, liver, muscle, ovary, and testis. In situ hybridization to gonad sections indicated that the Mrnm23 mRNA was localized in the cytoplasm of cup-base of differentiating spermatids, in the spike of the umbrella-shaped spermatozoa and in the cytoplasm of the early previtellogenic oocytes, suggesting that the Mrnm23 has potential roles in spermiogenesis and early differentiation of oocyte. PMID:23994193
The full-length cDNA of the pacifastin heavy chain gene from giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachiumrosenbergii, Mr-PHC) was cloned and characterized. The full sequence of the Mr-PHC cDNA was 4331 bp and contained a 119-bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), a 3990-bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 1329 amino acid residues and a 222-bp 3' UTR. The Mr-PHC protein predicted by its full ORF, exhibited a unique transferrin-like protein structure containing 4 different lobes that have not been previously identified. Three of the four lobes contained highly conserved of iron/anion binding residues. Expression analyses by conventional RT-PCR demonstrated that Mr-PHC was expressed predominantly during postlarval stage 45 and also in the foregut and gills of the adult prawn. Interestingly, dose response analyses that were quantified using quantitative real-time PCR indicated a significant upregulation of Mr-PHC during postlarval stage 45 in prawn grown at hour 24 after challenging with 10(9) cfu/ml of Aeromonas hydrophila, which is a pathogenic bacterium. Mr-HPC in the adult prawn was significantly upregulated at both hour 12 and day 7 after stimulation with A. hydrophila (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). Additionally, a delayed induction response of the Mr-PHC gene was observed at 14 days when the experimental adult prawns were fed with ?-glucan-supplemented feed. Based on results of this study, the transferrin-like protein encoded by the pacifastin heavy chain gene may exist in all decapod crustaceans. Even though the function as an iron transporter is not proven, immune response studies are clearly indicated that PHC is critically involved in the immune system in these animals. PMID:23198290
Two major by-products of ethanol distillation, corn distiller's solubles and corn distiller's mash, were evaluated for their potential use as a food source for freshwater prawn (Macrobrachiumrosenbergii) and golden shiner (Notemigonus crysoleucas) in mid-western United States. Corn distiller's solubles were not found to be highly toxic to aquatic organisms at concentrations ranging up to 10,000 ppM. However, the high biological oxygen demand of the material requires that single applications not exceed 2000 ppM. Yield trials were conducted over a four month period in five 0.1 ha earthen ponds, located in proximity to an ethanol distillery. Each pond was stocked with 2000 postlarval shrimp (0.02 g mean weight). Three of these ponds were also each stocked with 75 adult golden shiner (27.0 g mean weight). One application of corn distiller's solubles (equivalent to approx. 2000 ppM) and three applications of corn distiller's mash (approx. 5 kg/application) were made over the course of the yield trails (approx. 120 days). No other food or fertilizer was added to the ponds. Survival of shrimp ranged from 34 to 75%. Survival of brood fish exceeded 90%. Mean weight of shrimp at harvest was approximately 12 g, and average production was equivalent to approximately 104 kg ha/sup -1/. Golden shiner reared in the same ponds as shrimp had production rates equivalent to approxmately 130 kg ha/sup -1/. The presence of fish did not appear to impede shrimp production. Although production results of fish and shrimp were encouraging, several factors existed which impeded production; these included: (1) little by-product was applied to ponds because the distillery was undergoing its shakedown period; (2) ponds were new and had minimal natural productivity; (3) grass was not fully established on the watershed and ponds became turbid; and (4) lower than normal temperatures prevailed over much of the growing period. 11 references, 2 figures, 8 tables.
There is ample evidence linking octopamine (OA) and tyramine (TA) to several neurophysiological functions in arthropods. In our laboratory we use the freshwater prawn Macrobrachiumrosenbergii to study the neural basis of aggressive behavior. As a first step towards understanding the possible role of these amines and their receptors in the modulation of interactive behaviors, we have cloned a putative octopamine/tyramine receptor. The predicted sequence of the cloned OA/TAMac receptor consists of 1,579 base pairs (bp), with an open reading frame of 1,350 bp that encodes a 450 amino acid protein. This putative protein displays sequence identities of 70% to an Aedes aegypti mosquito TA receptor, followed by 60% to a Stegomyia aegypti mosquito OA receptor, 59% and 58% to the migratory locust TA-1 and -2 receptors respectively, and 57% with the silkworm OA receptor. We also mapped the OA/TAMac receptor distribution by in-situ hybridization to the receptor’s mRNA, and by immunohistochemistry to its protein. We observed stained cell bodies for the receptor’s mRNA, mainly in the midline region of the thoracic and in the abdominal ganglia, as well as diffuse staining in the brain ganglia. For the receptor’s protein, we observed extensive punctate staining within the neuropil and on the membrane of specific groups of neurons in all ganglia throughout the CNS, including the brain, the midline region and neuropiles of the thoracic ganglia, and ventral part and neuropiles of the abdominal ganglia. The same pattern of stained cells was observed on the thoracic and abdominal ganglia in both in-situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry experiments. Diffuse staining observed with in-situ hybridization also coincides with punctate staining observed in brain, SEG, thoracic, and abdominal ganglia in immunohistochemical preparations. This work provides the first step towards characterizing the neural networks that mediate octopaminergic signaling in prawn.
Reyes-Colon, Dalynes; Vazquez-Acevedo, Nietzell; Rivera, Nilsa M.; Jezzini, Sami H.; Rosenthal, Joshua; Ruiz-Rodriguez, Eduardo A.; Baro, Deborah J.; Kohn, Andrea B.; Moroz, Leonid; Sosa, Maria A.
Flock House virus is a small icosahedral insect virus of the family Nodaviridae. Its genome consists of two positive-sense RNA molecules, which are believed to be encapsidated into a single viral particle. However, evi- dence to support this claim is circumstantial. Here we demonstrate that exposure of nodavirus particles to heat causes the two strands of viral RNA to form
A molecular phylogenetic analysis of 25 isolates of fish nodaviruses, the causative agents of viral nervous necrosis of marine fish, was performed based on the nucleotide sequences (427 bases) of the coat protein gene. These fish nodaviruses were classified into four clusters: tiger puffer nervous necrosis virus, striped jack nervous necrosis virus, berfin flounder nervous necrosis virus, and red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus.
Nishizawa, T; Furuhashi, M; Nagai, T; Nakai, T; Muroga, K
The effect of temperature, pH and electrolytes on the stability of two Mediterranean sea bass neuropathy nodavirus isolates (SBNN) and the inactivation of SBNN by heating, exposure to ultraviolet radiation and chemical disinfectants was investigated in vitro using a striped snakehead fish cell line (SSN-1) for virus propagation and assay. The two nodavirus isolates showed no significant differences in response
G. N Frerichs; A Tweedie; W. G Starkey; R. H Richards
Phenotypic identification of fifty Vibrio bacterial strains, isolated from diseased and healthy larval prawn as well as larval rearing water in prawn hatcheries, together with twenty-two reference strains were investigated by Euclidean distance with unweighted average linkage clustering. Comparison based on fourty-seven phenotypic characters showed that these isolates mainly clustered in five groups of which four were equated with the
A selenium dependent glutathione peroxidase (Se-GPx) cDNA was cloned from haemocyte by a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA (RACE). The 913 bp cDNA contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 558 bp encoded a deduced amino acid sequence of 186 amino acids. The prawn Se-GPx sequence contains a selenocysteine (Sec) residue which is encoded by the unusual stop codon, (115)TGA(117). According to the molecular modeling analysis, the active site Sec residue, located in the loop between beta3 and alpha2 in a pocket on the protein surface, and hydrogen bonded to Gln(73) and Trp(141). A GPx signature motif 2, (63)LAFPCNQF(70) and active site motif, (151)WNFEKF(156), two arginine (R) residues, R(89) and R(167) contribute to the electrostatic architecture that directs the glutathione donor substrate, and two putative N-glycosylation site, (75)NNT(77) and (107)NGS(109) were observed in the prawn Se-GPx sequence. In addition, the eukaryotic selenocysteine insertion sequence element is conserved in the 3'-UTR. Comparison of amino acid sequences showed that prawn Se-GPx is more closely related to vertebrate GPx 1. The prawn Se-GPx was synthesized in haemocyte, hepatopancreas, muscle, stomach, gill, intestine, eyestalk, heart, epidermis, lymph organ, ventral nerve cord, testis and ovary. The increase of respiratory burst in haemocyte was observed in pathogen, Debaryomyces hansenii-injected prawn in order to kill the pathogen, and the up-regulation in SOD and GPx acitivity, and prawn Se-GPx mRNA transcription were involved with the protection against damage from oxidation. PMID:19376233
Based on the light microscopic observations of cells' sizes, chromatin patterns, amount of lipid droplets and yolk granules, the female germ cells could be classified into four different phases, which include 1) oogonia (Oog), 2) primary oocytes (pOc), 3) secondary oocytes (sOc), and 4) mature oocyte (mOc). Oog are small oval-shaped cells with irregular-shaped nuclei sizing 4–6 ?m in diameter. They
The present study was carried out on the seasonal abundance and diversity of zooplankton in a semi- intensive prawn farm of Bagerhat district from July to December, 2008. Plankton samples were collected by conical shaped monofilament nylon net (Plankton net) and Lugol's solution was used for preservation. The zooplankton abundance was influenced by physico-chemical factors. During the study period 11 genera of zooplankton under 5 orders were recorded from the study ponds namely Copepoda, Rotifera, Cladocera, Ostracoda and Crustacean Larvae. Among all groups copepod was the dominant order. The percentages of Copepoda, Rotifera, Cladocera, Ostracoda and Crustacean Larvae in semi-intensive culture system were 54%, 28%, 12%, 4% and 2% respectively. But the genera Brachionus under the order of Rotifer was dominant among all other genera. Cyclops and Helidiaptomus under the order of Copepod were the 2nd dominant genera. Numbers of zooplankton species were recorded to be the highest in summer season and minimum at early winter season. Highest number of zooplankton found at the month of October. Total zooplankton shows significant positive relationship with water temperature ((r?=?+0.384), Dissolve Oxygen(r?=?+0.113), pH(r?=?+0.320), Free CO2 (r?=?+0.319), Alkalinity(r?=?+0.269), Hardness (r?=?+0.402) and negative relationship with Salinity(r?=?-0.486), Transparency(r?=?-0.693). The findings of the present study will help to improve the management strategies of shrimp culture system. PMID:23667823
Shil, Jadobendro; Ghosh, Alokesh Kumar; Rahaman, S M Bazlur
Biogenic amines such as dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) are able to affect numerous physiological processes in crustaceans through their actions as neuroregulators. Both DA and serotonin have been shown to be involved in the synthesis and release of neurohormones such as crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH), vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone (VIH), molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH) and those related to pigmentation which in
Infections with nodavirus affect a wild and farmed fish species throughout the world, mostly from the marine environment. The aim of this work was to determine the immune status of gilthead sea bream that comes as a result of a Nodavirus infection, induced by activation of the interferon response pathway by lipopolysaccharides from Vibrio alginolyticus and the expression of interferoninduced Mx protein in liver samples. The enhancement of Mx protein gene expression was detected in liver samples of experimentally nodavirus infected fish and, furthermore, the immunostimulant LPS of V. alginolyticus decreased almost three times the virus titration with respect to no-immunized or infected with nodavirus group of fish. PMID:23092730
Bravo, J; Real, F; Padilla, D; Olveira, J G; Grasso, V; Román, L; Acosta, F
In Brazil, studies with native freshwater prawn species were discontinued due to great importance of Macrobrachiumrosenbergii. Therefore, it is necessary to continue investigations about our species, in order to develop technology adequate to our reality and in a future allow prawn farmers to culture other species. The aim of this study was to determine the fecundity and fertility of Macrobrachium amazonicum captured monthly from June 1999 to June 2001 from Jaguaribe River, Itaiçaba, Ceará, Brazil. Prawns were collected using fishing net and transferred at Biological Science Laboratory, Ceara State University (Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil). Among the ovigerous M. amazonicum females, 60 were randomly selected to determine fecundity. The eggs adhered to the pleopods were taken out and they were then placed in a Gilson solution, and then stored in alcohol 70%. Individual fecundity was determined from the total egg counting, using a stereoscopic microscope. To determine fertility, ovigerous M. amazonicum females were stored in individual 10 L-glass tanks maintained under strong aeration. After the hatching, the larvae were siphoned and counted. The data referring to total length and weight of all the females, storage date, coloration and number of eggs, weight and coloration of gonad and number of hatched larvae were noted. With respect to average fecundity (F) by length classes, the lowest and highest number of eggs observed was 696 and 1,554, respectively. As for fecundity by weight classes, the lowest number of eggs observed was 760 and the highest, 1,690. The highest number of eggs observed individually per hatching was 2,193. Average fecundity/total length (L) and average fecundity/total weight (W) may be expressed by a linear relationship. The adjusted equations are: F = -411.6 + 203.1 L (p < 0.0001) and F = 566.4 + 157.3 W (p < 0.0001), respectively. In the analysis of average fertility (N) per length classes, the lowest and highest number of larvae observed was 374 and 1,301, respectively. With respect to fertility per weight classes, the lowest number of larvae was 581 and the highest, 1,391. In this work, the maximum number of larvae observed per hatching for females kept in laboratory was 2,594. Average fertility/total length and average fertility/total weight may be expressed by a linear relationship. The adjusted equations are: N = -1042.7 + 264.9 L (p < 0.0002); N = 384.1 + 160.3 W (p < 0.003). From these results we can deduced that fecundity and fertility of M. amazonicum are lower than ones commercial species, never-the-less it can be captured during all year long. The number of captured prawns was large in the months whose level of water was low; the inverse was observed in the months that the river was with a high volume of water. PMID:15622846
Nodaviruses are small nonenveloped spherical viruses with a bipartite genome of RNAs. In nodaviruses, subgenomic RNA3 (sgRNA3) plays a critical role in viral replication and survival, as it coordinates the replication of two viral genomic RNAs (RNA1 and RNA2) and encodes protein B2, which is a potent RNA-silencing inhibitor. Despite its importance, the molecular mechanism of nodaviral sgRNA3 synthesis is still poorly understood. Here, we propose that sgRNA3 of Wuhan nodavirus (WhNV) is internally initiated from a promoter on the negative template of genomic RNA1. Serial deletion and mutation analyses further revealed that the core promoter of WhNV sgRNA3 is between nucleotide positions ?22 and +6 of its transcription start site. Besides, a stem-loop structure of WhNV sgRNA3 was computationally predicted upstream of sgRNA3's transcription start site. Both the secondary structure and the primary sequence were determined to be required for promoter activity. Furthermore, our results show that the synthesis of WhNV sgRNA3 is counterregulated by the replication of WhNV genomic RNA2, which encodes a viral capsid precursor protein. And this sgRNA3 synthesis is also able to trans-activate the replication of RNA2. Altogether, findings in this study indicate that there is a newly discovered internal initiation model for the synthesis of nodaviral sgRNA.
Despite of the impact that viruses have on aquatic organisms, relatively little is known on how fish fight against these infections. In this work, the brain gene expression pattern of sea bream (Sparus aurata) in response to nodavirus infection was investigated. We used the supression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method to generate a subtracted cDNA library enriched with gene transcripts differentially
In this study, Dicentrarchus labrax encephalitis virus (DlEV), which causes sea bass encephalitis, was propagated in cell culture, thus allowing study of its lytic cycle. DlEV infection of mammalian and fish cells induced different patterns of expression of capsid proteins, which were assembled as virus-like particles, accumulating in the cytoplasm either as diffuse masses or in vesicles, as shown by electron microscopy. These particles correspond to virions, as shown by their ability to induce secondary infection. Fish cells proved to be more permissive for DlEV than mammalian cells, although virus yield remained low. RNA analysis of infected sea bass cells revealed DlEV RNA3, in addition to genomic RNA1 and RNA2, and the presence of the RNA2 minus strand, thus demonstrating the replication of the DlEV genome. In addition, DlEV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase was associated with mature virions even after purification by a CsCl gradient, but it was dissociated when capsids were destabilized. In addition to providing more information about the relatedness of DlEV to the members of the family Nodaviridae, this study shows that fish nodaviruses may not be able to infect as wide a variety of cells as insect nodaviruses can. PMID:9188647
In this study, Dicentrarchus labrax encephalitis virus (DlEV), which causes sea bass encephalitis, was propagated in cell culture, thus allowing study of its lytic cycle. DlEV infection of mammalian and fish cells induced different patterns of expression of capsid proteins, which were assembled as virus-like particles, accumulating in the cytoplasm either as diffuse masses or in vesicles, as shown by electron microscopy. These particles correspond to virions, as shown by their ability to induce secondary infection. Fish cells proved to be more permissive for DlEV than mammalian cells, although virus yield remained low. RNA analysis of infected sea bass cells revealed DlEV RNA3, in addition to genomic RNA1 and RNA2, and the presence of the RNA2 minus strand, thus demonstrating the replication of the DlEV genome. In addition, DlEV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase was associated with mature virions even after purification by a CsCl gradient, but it was dissociated when capsids were destabilized. In addition to providing more information about the relatedness of DlEV to the members of the family Nodaviridae, this study shows that fish nodaviruses may not be able to infect as wide a variety of cells as insect nodaviruses can.
RNA2, the short segment of the genome of Dicenthrarchus labrax encephalitis virus (DIEV), a fish nodavirus causing seabass encephalitis, was cloned. Sequence analysis revealed that DIEV RNA2 contains a single open reading frame (ORF), which carries the catalytic D-75 residue but lacks the site for autocatalytic proteolysis, the process yielding the two capsid proteins of insect nodaviruses. Nevertheless, SDS-PAGE analysis of mature virions revealed a 43-45 kDa protein doublet. In order to determine the mechanism of synthesis of the two capsid proteins in DIEV, wild type and mutagenized forms of RNA2 were expressed in cell-free translation extracts and in transfected cells. Results showed that, despite the presence of the catalytic D-75 residue, the DIEV capsid protein doublet did not result from the assembly-dependent autocatalytic cleavage of a protein precursor. Moreover, our data show that, although suggested by sequence analysis, the DIEV capsid protein doublet results from neither an alternative initiation codon usage nor from a--1 ribosomal frameshift. Results of cell-free translation experiments demonstrate that the capsid protein doublet neither results of the proteolytic cleavage of a precursor nor of a degradation process. Kinetics of capsid protein synthesis in cell-free translation programmed with RNA2 revealed, instead, that the two capsid proteins are cosynthesized. Together these data strongly suggest that the DIEV capsid protein doublet results from cotranslational modification(s) of the ORF-encoded protein. PMID:9672600
A preliminary survey of parasitic and infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) infections in giant freshwater prawn from the Damak Sea of Rejang River, Kuching, Sarawak was conducted. Symptoms of black spots/patches on the rostrum, carapace, pleopods or telson were observed in most of the 107 samples collected. Parasitic examination revealed sessiline peritrichs such as (Zoothamnium sp.), nematode larvae, gregarine stage and cocoon of leech with prevalences of 1.2%, 1.2%, 5% and 17% respectively. Under histopathological examination, changes like accumulation of hemocytes around hepatopancreatic tubules due to vibriosis, basophilic intranuclear inclusions in the epithelium and E-cell of hepatopancreatic tubules as a result of HPV were seen through the section. No positive infection of IHHNV was detected in 78 samples. As such, the wild giant freshwater prawns in Damak Sea of Rejang River in Kuching are IHHNV-free though infections of parvo-like virus and bacteria were seen in histopathology. PMID:21602773
Kua, Beng Chu; Choong, F C; Hazreen Nita, M K; Muhd Faizul H, A H; Bhassu, S; Imelda, R R; Mohammed, M
Nodaviruses are a family of positive-stranded RNA viruses with a bipartite genome of RNAs. In nodaviruses, genomic RNA1 encodes protein A, which is recognized as an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) and functions as the sole viral replicase protein responsible for its RNA replication. Although nodaviral RNA replication has been studied in considerable detail, and nodaviruses are well recognized models for investigating viral RNA replication, the mechanism(s) governing the initiation of nodaviral RNA synthesis have not been determined. In this study, we characterized the RdRP activity of Wuhan nodavirus (WhNV) protein A in detail and determined that this nodaviral protein A initiates RNA synthesis via a de novo mechanism, and this RNA synthesis initiation could be independent of other viral or cellular factors. Moreover, we uncovered that WhNV protein A contains a terminal nucleotidyltransferase (TNTase) activity, which is the first time such an activity has been identified in nodaviruses. We subsequently found that the TNTase activity could function in vitro to repair the 3' initiation site, which may be digested by cellular exonucleases, to ensure the efficiency and accuracy of viral RNA synthesis initiation. Furthermore, we determined the cis-acting elements for RdRP or TNTase activity at the 3'-end of positive or negative strand RNA1. Taken together, our data establish the de novo synthesis initiation mechanism and the TNTase activity of WhNV protein A, and this work represents an important advance toward understanding the mechanism(s) of nodaviral RNA replication. PMID:24019510
The present study characterized viral nervous necrosis in sea cage-reared adult spotted coralgroupers (Plectropomus maculatus). Histopathological study showed extensive vacuolation and neuronal necrosis of the olfactory bulb and the optic lobe of the forebrain and the inner and outer nuclear layer of retina. Mild necrosis was observed in the spinal cord. Homogeneous intranuclear inclusion bodies were noted in the hyperplastic and hypertrophic glandular epithelial cells of the swim bladder suggesting viral etiology. Etiological diagnosis of VNN was confirmed by RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. The immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization gave strongly positive staining in the same area of the infected cells of the brain, spinal cord and retina correlating with histopathological changes. No positive reaction was detectable in the affected gas glandular epithelium and other organs, confirming the consistent neurotropism of this nodavirus. Nodavirus was mainly detected in the olfactory bulb of the brain. The result suggests nasal transmission was the major route of infection. PMID:19232654
Seventeen isolates of piscine nodavirus from larvae or juveniles of 13 marine fish species affected with viral nervous necrosis (VNN) were examined for their infectivity to a fish cell line SSN-1. Based on cytopathic effects (CPE) and virus antigen detection by fluorescent antibody technique (FAT) after incubation at 25 degrees C, the infectivity of these virus isolates was divided into 4 groups. Group 1, including 9 virus isolates from 4 species of grouper, 2 species of sea bass, barramundi, rock porgy, and Japanese flounder showed CPE characterized by rounded, granular cells with heavy cytoplasmic vacuoles within 3 d post-incubation (p.i.), and the monolayer partially or completely disintegrated over 3 to 6 d p.i. Scattered FAT-positive cells appeared at 3 h p.i. and spread through the cell sheet with an increasing fluorescence signal over 24 h p.i. Group 2, consisting of 3 virus isolates from striped jack, induced CPE with thin or rounded, granular, refractile cells without conspicuous vacuole formation, and extensive FAT-positive reaction was observed in a time course similar to that of Group 1. Cells inoculated with Group 3 (1 isolate from tiger puffer) developed no distinct CPE but viral infection was evidenced by localized FAT-positive cells. There were no FAT-positive cells in Group 4, which included 4 isolates from Japanese flounder, Pacific cod and Atlantic halibut. However, when incubation was performed at 20 degrees C, the SSN-1 cells inoculated with the Group 3 isolate showed CPE similar to that of Group 1 and extensive FAT-positive reaction. Evidence of virus proliferation at 20 degrees C was also obtained in Group 4 isolates. The virus titers in the infected fish varied from 10(11) to 10(16) tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50) g(-1) of fish. There is a good correlation between these infectivities to the SSN-1 cells and the coat protein gene genotypes of the isolates. The present results indicate that SSN-1 cells are useful for propagating and differentiating genotypic variants of piscine nodavirus. PMID:11407403
An ideal model system to study antiviral immunity and host-pathogen co-evolution would combine a genetically tractable small animal with a virus capable of naturally infecting the host organism. The use of C. elegans as a model to define host-viral interactions has been limited by the lack of viruses known to infect nematodes. From wild isolates of C. elegans and C. briggsae with unusual morphological phenotypes in intestinal cells, we identified two novel RNA viruses distantly related to known nodaviruses, one infecting specifically C. elegans (Orsay virus), the other C. briggsae (Santeuil virus). Bleaching of embryos cured infected cultures demonstrating that the viruses are neither stably integrated in the host genome nor transmitted vertically. 0.2 µm filtrates of the infected cultures could infect cured animals. Infected animals continuously maintained viral infection for 6 mo (?50 generations), demonstrating that natural cycles of horizontal virus transmission were faithfully recapitulated in laboratory culture. In addition to infecting the natural C. elegans isolate, Orsay virus readily infected laboratory C. elegans mutants defective in RNAi and yielded higher levels of viral RNA and infection symptoms as compared to infection of the corresponding wild-type N2 strain. These results demonstrated a clear role for RNAi in the defense against this virus. Furthermore, different wild C. elegans isolates displayed differential susceptibility to infection by Orsay virus, thereby affording genetic approaches to defining antiviral loci. This discovery establishes a bona fide viral infection system to explore the natural ecology of nematodes, host-pathogen co-evolution, the evolution of small RNA responses, and innate antiviral mechanisms.
Wu, Guang; Nuez, Isabelle; Belicard, Tony; Jiang, Yanfang; Zhao, Guoyan; Franz, Carl J.; Goldstein, Leonard D.; Sanroman, Mabel; Miska, Eric A.; Wang, David
Peptidase inhibitors in the male reproductive tract are well known in mammals, in which they play roles in protecting the\\u000a tract epithelium against proteolytic damage or in regulating the fertilization process. By screening the subtracted cDNA clones\\u000a enriched for male reproductive tract-specific transcripts, one clone encoding a putative protein that showed significant similarity\\u000a to Kazal-type peptidase inhibitor (KPI) was obtained.
Jun-Xia Cao; Jie-Qiong Dai; Zhong-Min Dai; Guo-Li Yin; Wei-Jun Yang
The selective breeding of Macrobrachium acanthurus resulted in the rearing of the F2 and F3 generations to maturity, and the F4 generation to the juvenile stage. A comparison of the growth of the F1 and F3 generations reared during roughly comparable peri...
Until about the 1930s, the Ohio shrimp, Macrobrachium ohione, was common in the Mississippi River between Chester and Cairo, and also occurred in the Ohio and lower Wabash rivers bordering southern Illinois, but since then, the species declined sharply in abundance. Two specimens were captured in May 2001 from the Ohio River at Joppa, Massac Co., Illinois, and represent the
The population dynamics of Macrobrachium felicinum (Holthuis, 1949) in Lower Taylor Creek, Niger Delta, Nigeria, was analysed using monthly length-frequency data (June 2008 – May 2010). This study was aimed at determining the status of fishery and establishing the levels of exploitation that will give sustainable yields. The FAO-ICLARM stock assessment tool (FISAT II) software was used to estimate population
Macrobrachium amazonicum is considered a favorite Brazilian species of freshwater prawn for cultivation as a result of its quick development and because it is easy to maintain in captivity. The aim of this work is to describe the sexual cycle stages and determine maturation age of the female M. amazonicum, which was collected monthly from June, 2002 to May, 2003 in the Jaguaribe River, Itaiçaba, Ceará. A monthly sample of water was also collected to determine the following parameters: temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and salinity. A monthly sample of females was selected among the individuals caught, to determine the total weight (W(T)), carapace length (L( C)) and abdomen+telson length (L(A+T)) and to register the number of non-ovigerous females (NOF) and ovigerous females (OF). Determining ovarian maturation stages of M. amazonicum was done in a laboratory by observing macroscopic characters such as coloring, size, location and appearance of ovarians examined by transparent carapace. The first maturation age was determined from the relative frequency of the total length (L(T)) of young and adult females. The environmental parameters of the Jaguaribe River did not hold any influence in the number of individuals collected. A total of 1,337 prawns were sampled, 513 males (38.4%) and 824 females (61.6%). The proportion between males and females in the studied population was of 1:1.6. Among the collected females, 492 (50.7%) did not carry eggs in their abdomens (NOF) and 332 (40.3%) carried eggs in their abdomens (OF). There was no record of intact females. Non-ovigerous females with mature ovaries were recorded throughout all the months of collection. The female ovaries were classified as immature (IM), rudimentary (RU), intermediary (IN) and mature (M). M. amazonicum females reach their first sexual maturity between 4.5 and 5.5 cm of total length. PMID:18094840
Sampaio, C M S; Silva, R R; Santos, J A; Sales, S P
Wuhan nodavirus (WhNV) is a newly identified member of the Nodaviridae family with a bipartite genome of positive-sense RNAs. A nonstructural protein encoded by subgenomic RNA3 of nodaviruses, B2, serves as a potent RNA silencing suppressor (RSS) by sequestering RNA duplexes. We have previously demonstrated that WhNV B2 blocks RNA silencing in cultured Drosophila cells. However, the molecular mechanism by which WhNV B2 functions remains unknown. Here, we successfully established an RNA silencing system in cells derived from Pieris rapae, a natural host of WhNV, by introducing into these cells double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-expressing plasmids or chemically synthesized small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Using this system, we revealed that the WhNV B2 protein inhibited Dicer-mediated dsRNA cleavage and the incorporation of siRNA into the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) by sequestering dsRNA and siRNA. Based on the modeled B2 3-dimensional structure, serial single alanine replacement mutations and N-terminal deletion analyses showed that the RNA-binding domain of B2 is formed by its helices ?2 and ?3, while helix ?1 mediates B2 dimerization. Furthermore, positive feedback between RNA binding and B2 dimerization was uncovered by gel shift assay and far-Western blotting, revealing that B2 dimerization is required for its binding to RNA, whereas RNA binding to B2 in turn promotes its dimerization. All together, our findings uncovered a novel RNA-binding mode of WhNV B2 and provided evidence that the promotion effect of RNA binding on dimerization exists in a viral RSS protein.
The cellular system responsible for the transduction of the pigment-concentrating hormone (PCH) signal was investigated in\\u000a erythrophores of the freshwater shrimp, Macrobrachium potiuna. Dose-response curves to the hormone were determined in the absence and in the presence of several drugs that affect sequential\\u000a steps of the Ca2+-dependent signalling pathway. Additionally, the ability of forskolin to induce pigment dispersion was evaluated.
Luiz Eduardo Maia Nery; Marcelo Alves da Silva; Lars Josefsson; Ana Maria Lauro Castrucci
Energy partitioning, composition of lipids and fatty acids, and their utilization by embryos were determined in the lecithotrophic\\u000a shrimp Macrobrachium borellii during seven development stages. The biochemical composition at stage I is represented by lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates,\\u000a with 29.3, 28.7, and 0.2% dry weight, respectively. The former two were identified as the major energy-providing components,\\u000a contributing 131 and 60
Horacio Heras; M. R. Gonzalez-Baró; Ricardo J. Pollero
The participation of cyclic nucleotide-dependent intracellular signalling pathways in the pigment translocation induced by\\u000a pigment-dispersing hormone (? -PDH) or pigment-concentrating hormone (PCH) was investigated in the erythrophores of the freshwater\\u000a shrimp, Macrobrachium potiuna. Cholera toxin, forskolin and dibutyryl cyclic adenosine 3?5? monophosphate (dbcAMP) were able to induce pigment dispersion\\u000a with effective agonist concentrations for half maximal response (EC50?s) of 2.8?·?10?11
L. E. M. Nery; M. A. da Silva; A. M. de Lauro Castrucci
Brood stock of Macrobrachium acanthurus and M. carcinus was caught in Spring, 1973 by dip netting at night in local canals. Larvae secured from ovigerous females were raised primarily in 946-liter tanks, and were fed Artemia nauplii, Tetramin, and ground ...
The Cross River Estuary, Nigeria, is an important shrimping area for artisanal fishermen of the coastal communities. The multi-species Macrobrachium fishery is exploited with three main gears, namely beach seine, push net and trap. Studies on species composition of this fishery recorded thirteen shrimp species, one swimming crab ( Callinectes amnicola) and two fish species ( Eleotris sp. and Pellonula leonensis). The shrimp species identified included Macrobrachium macrobrachion (83.39% and 55.69% by number and weight, respectively), M. vollenhovenii (9.66% and 37.18%), M. equidens (3.8% and 2.87%), juveniles-sub-adults of Penaeus notialis (1.11% and 1.3%), M. dux, M. felicinum, Palaemonetes africanus, Palaemon maculatus, Palaemon elegans, Desmocaris sp., Leander sp., Nematopalaemon hastatus and Alpheus pontederiae. While the selectivity index for trap was 0.25, beach seine and push net had a lower index of 0.063. The results present the first comprehensive and representative report for the Estuary shrimp fishery and will assist in the management of the biodiversity of this ecosystem.
The prawn genus Macrobrachium belongs to the family Palaemonidae. Its species are widely distributed in lakes, reservoirs, floodplains, and rivers in tropical and subtropical regions of South America. Globally, the genus Macrobrachium includes nearly 210 known species, many of which have economic and ecological importance. We analyzed three species of this genus (M. jelskii, M. amazonicum and M. brasiliense) using RAPD-PCR to assess their genetic variability, genetic structure and the phylogenetic relationship between them and to look for molecular markers that enable separation of M. jelskii and M. amazonicum, which are closely related syntopic species. Ten different random decamer primers were used for DNA amplification, yielding 182 fragments. Three of these fragments were monomorphic and exclusive to M. amazonicum or M. jelskii and can be used as specific molecular markers to identify and separate these two species. Similarity indices and a phylogenetic tree showed that M. amazonicum and M. jelskii are closest to each other, while M. brasiliense was the most differentiated species among them; this may be attributed to the different habitat conditions to which these species have been submitted. This information will be useful for further studies on these important crustacean species. PMID:21128212
Guerra, A L; Lima, A V B; Taddei, F G; Castiglioni, L
Contents: Effects of Environmental Factors in the Immune Responses of Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachiumrosenbergii and Other Decapod Crustaceans; Selectivity and Accessibility of Prey in Captive Juvenile Red Drum, Sciaenops ocellatus Linnaeus; Fatty Acid De...
In the present study, it was sought to compare yeast microbiota of wild and captive Macrobrachium amazonicum and evaluate the antifungal susceptibility and production of virulence factors by the recovered isolates of Candida spp. Additionally, cultivation water was monitored for the presence of fungi. Overall, 26 yeast isolates belonging to three genera and seven species were obtained, out of which 24 were Candida spp., with Candida famata as the most prevalent species for both wild and captive prawns. From cultivation water, 28 isolates of filamentous fungi were obtained, with Penicillium spp., Cladosporium spp. and Aspergillus spp. as the most frequent genera. Eight out of 24 Candida spp. isolates were resistant to azole derivatives, out of which four were recovered from wild-harvested prawns. As for production of virulence factors, three (12.5%) and eight (33.3%) isolates presented phospholipase and protease activity, respectively. This is the first comparative study between wild and captive prawns and the first report on yeast microbiota of M. amazonicum. The most relevant finding was the high percentage of resistant Candida spp., including from wild individuals, which suggests the occurrence of an environmental imbalance in the area where these prawns were captured. PMID:21241340
Brilhante, Raimunda S N; Paiva, Manoel A N; Sampaio, Célia M S; Teixeira, Carlos E C; Castelo-Branco, Débora S C M; Leite, João J G; Moreira, Camila A; Silva, Liliane P; Cordeiro, Rossana A; Monteiro, André J; Sidrim, José J C; Rocha, Marcos F G
Whole effluent toxicity was assessed for the fish Oryzias latipes and the prawn Macrobrachium nipponense for 18 h in a dilution series (0–66%) of the inflow and effluent of a municipal waste water treatment plant as well as waste water from a teramycin producing pharmaceutical industry, before, during and after a pilot laboratory purification process. The waste waters caused acute
A. Gerhardt; L. Janssens de Bisthoven; Z. Mo; C. Wang; M. Yang; Z. Wang
The shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller 1862) has an extremely large geographic range (>4000?km across) in northern and central South America, comprising estuarine and fully limnic inland populations, which are hydrologically isolated from each other. Significant variations in ecology, physiology, reproduction, and larval development suggest an at least incipient allopatric speciation due to limited genetic exchange. In a comparative experimental investigation
A model for intracellular transport of pigment granules in the red ovarian chromatophores of the freshwa- ter shrimp Macrobrachium olfersi is proposed on the basis of shifts in the equilibrium of resting forces acting on an elastic pigment matrix. The model describes a pigment- transport mechanism in which mechanochemical protein motors like kinesin and myosin alternately stretch and com- press
Laminin receptor (Lamr) in shrimp was previously proposed to be a potential receptor protein for Taura syndrome virus (TSV) based on yeast two-hybrid assays. Since shrimp Lamr bound to the VP1 capsid protein of TSV, we were interested to know whether capsid/envelope proteins from other shrimp viruses would also bind to Lamr. Thus, capsid/envelope encoding genes from 5 additional shrimp viruses were examined. These were Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV), white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV), Macrobrachiumrosenbergiinodavirus (MrNV), and yellow head virus (YHV). Protein interaction analysis using yeast two-hybrid assay revealed that Lamr specifically interacted with capsid/envelope proteins of RNA viruses IMNV and YHV but not MrNV and not with the capsid/envelope proteins of DNA viruses PstDNV and WSSV. In vitro pull-down assay also confirmed the interaction between Lamr and YHV gp116 envelope protein, and injection of recombinant Lamr (rLamr) protein produced in yeast cells protected shrimp against YHV in laboratory challenge tests. PMID:21414409
This study determines the toxic effect of carbaryl (Sevin50% W.P) on the food utilization parameters in intermoult juveniles of the prawn, Macrobrachium malcolmsonii. The prawns (4.5-5.0 cm in length and 1.0-1.25 g wet wt.) were exposed to three sub-lethal concentrations of carbaryl (5.15, 7.73 and 15.47 microgl-1) for duration of 40 days. The toxic medium was renewed daily. The prawns were fed ad libitum with known energy quantity of boiled goat liver on daily basis. The overall wet weight gain was calculated. The energy lost through unconsumed food (15-60%), faeces (15-109%), ammonia excretion (9-27%) and moults (13-26%) of the prawns were calculated. The feeding rate, the rate and efficiency of absorption, the metabolic and food conversion rates and the gross and net food conversions efficiencies were found to be significantly declined (p<0.05) in test prawns when compared to that of the control. The energy lost through faeces, ammonia excretion and exuvia was found to be significantly elevated (p<0.05) in test prawns than that of the control. The effectof carbaryl on the bioenergetics parameters was severe in the highest sub-lethal concentration, less in the intermediate concentration and least in the lowest sub-lethal concentration. The results indicated that decrease in feeding, absorption, metabolism and food conversion are interdependent and toxicity of carbaryl diverting energy from production to maintenance pathways, which ultimately resulting in declined growth of M. malcolmsonii. PMID:22167951
Glutathione transferase from the hepatopancreas of fresh water crayfish Macrobrachium vollenhovenii was purified to apparent homogeneity by ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and by gel filtration on Sephadex G-100. The enzyme appeared to be a homodimer with molecular weight (Mr) of 46.0 +/- 1.4 kDa and a subunit Mr of 24.1 +/- 0.35 kDa. Chromatofocusing of the apparently pure enzyme revealed microheterogeneity and resolved it into two isozymic peaks, which were eluted at pH 8.36 and 8.22 respectively. Inhibition studies showed that the I50 value for cibacron blue, S-hexylglutathione, hematin, and N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) were 0.01 microM, 340 microM, 5 microM and 33 mM respectively. Out of the several substrates tested, only 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and 7-chloro-4-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole could be conjugated with glutathione. Chemical modification studies with DTNB revealed that two sulphydryl groups per dimer were essential to the activity of the enzymes. On the basis of structural and catalytic characteristics, M. vollenhovenii GST seems close, tentatively, to the omega and zeta classes of GST. Initial-velocity studies of the enzyme are consistent with a steady-state random kinetic mechanism. Denaturation and renaturation studies with guanidine HCl (Gdn-HCl) revealed that though low Gdn-HCl concentrations (less than 0.5 M) denatured the enzyme, the enzyme was able to renature completely (100%). At higher concentration of the denaturant (0.5-4 M), refolding studies indicated that complete renaturation was not achieved. The extent of renaturation was however a function of protein concentration. Our results are consistent with a three-state unfolding process. PMID:15674845
Adult Macrobrachium lanchesteri were exposed for a four-day period in the laboratory condition to a range of copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni) concentrations. The mortality was assessed and median lethal times (LT50) and concentrations (LC50) were calculated. At the end of four-day period, the survived prawns were used to determine bioconcentration of the metals. LT50 and LC50 increased with decrease
M. SHUHAIMI-OTHMAN; Y. NADZIFAH; R. NUR-AMALINA; A. AHMAD
Agricultural run off that is contaminated with pesticides enters water bodies, thereby polluting the aquatic environment. The sensitivity of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium malcolmsonii, to such pesticides is well-documented. However, the stress response to sublethal concentrations of pesticides has scarcely been investigated. In the present study, the effect of two different sublethal concentrations (1\\/5th and 1\\/10th of LC50 value) of
S. Selvakumar; P. Geraldine; S. Shanju; T. Jayakumar
This paper describes seasonal changes of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and its glutathione (MC-LR-GSH) and cysteine conjugates (MC-LR-Cys) in three aquatic animals – snail (Bellamya aeruginosa), shrimp (Macrobrachium nipponensis) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) collected from Lake Taihu, China. MC-LR, MC-LR-GSH, and MC-LR-Cys were determined by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrum (LC–ESI-MS). The mean MC-LR concentrations in the hepatopancreas of snail
Dawen Zhang; Ping Xie; Jun Chen; Ming Dai; Tong Qiu; Yaqin Liu; Gaodao Liang
The intracellular build-up of thermally damaged proteins following exposure to heat stress results in the synthesis of heat shock proteins (Hsps). In the present study, the upper thermal tolerance and expression of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) were examined in juveniles of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium malcolmsonii that had been acclimated at two different temperatures, i.e. 20 °C (group A)
The palaemonid shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum shows an unusually large geographic range (ca. 4000km across) living in coastal, estuarine, and limnic inland habitats of the upper Amazon, Orinoco, and La Plata basins. This raises doubts whether allopatric, ecologically diverse populations belong to the same species. While shrimps from estuarine and Amazonian habitats have been studied in great detail, very little is known about hololimnetic inland populations. In the present study, biological traits related to growth (maximum body size, fresh weight, morphometric relationships) and reproduction (sex ratio; occurrence of male morphotypes; minimum sexable size; minimum size of ovigerous females; fecundity; egg size), were studied in M amazonicum collected from a pond culture and two natural freshwater habitats (Rio Miranda; Lagoa Baiazinha) in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. In total, 2270 shrimps were examined (603 males; 1667 females, 157 of these ovigerous). Sex ratio (males:females) was at all sampling sites strongly female-biased, ranging from 0.2-0.6. Maximum body size was larger in natural habitats compared to the pond culture, suggesting reduced growth or a shorter life span under artificial mass rearing conditions. Maximum fecundity observed in our material was 676 eggs, reached by the largest female (TL=65mm; Lagoa Baiazinha). A significant difference between slope parameters of linear regressions describing fecundity, either in terms of numbers of eggs laid or of larvae released, in relation to female fresh weight, indicates egg losses. This may be due in part to a 2.4-fold increase in egg volume occurring during the course of embryonic development, while the available space under the abdomen remains limited. Size-weight relationships differed significantly between males and females, indicating sexspecific morphometric differences. Males appear to have a more slender body shape than females, reaching thus lower weight at equal TL. When reproductive and morphometric traits are compared with literature data from estuarine and inland populations living in the Amazon and Orinoco plains, shrimps from the Pantanal show conspicuous peculiarities differing from other populations: (1) maximum body size is far smaller, suggesting shorter longevity; (2) females are consistently larger than males; (3) different male morphotypes are absent; (4) minimum sexable size and (5) minimum size of ovigerous females are smaller. These traits suggest a heterochronic shift (predisplacement) of sexual maturation and r-selection. In summary, our data show biologically relevant differences in life-history traits of shrimps from the Pantanal compared to M. amazonicum populations in other regions. All these differences persist also in long-term cultures maintained under constant conditions. Altogether, our data support the hypothesis that M amazonicum in the Paraná-Paraguay drainage basin has phylogenetically diverged from allopatric populations that are hydrologically separated by continental watersheds, implying an at least incipient vicariant speciation. PMID:23894962
The oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) is an important freshwater prawn species in China. We collected 236 oriental river prawns from four wild stocks from Qiandao Lake, Zhejiang, China, and used nine polymorphic microsatellite markers to investigate their genetic diversity and structure, to facilitate the development of a selective breeding program. We found 185 alleles at nine loci in this sample. The observed heterozygosity (H(O)) and expected heterozygosity (H(E)) ranged from 0.43 to 0.89 and 0.56 to 0.95, respectively. The four stocks of M. nipponense displayed high genetic diversity (14.33-15.89 alleles/locus, H(O) = 0.66-0.77 and H(E) = 0.78-0.88). Genetic diversity of the stock from Weiping town was lower than the stocks from the other locations. Mutation-drift equilibrium analysis showed no significant bottleneck effect. F-statistics among stocks ranged from 0.03 to 0.07, indicating a moderate level of differentiation. Based on genetic structure analysis, the 236 individuals from the four wild stocks could be divided into two potential populations. Overall, the 09CA, 09AY and 09JJ wild stocks had higher allelic and genetic diversity than the upstream 09WP stock. These three wild stocks could be used as founders for selective breeding. PMID:23079984
The gustavus gene is required for localizing pole plasm and specifying germ cells. Research on gustavus gene expression will advance our understanding of the biological function of gustavus in animals. A cDNA encoding gustavus protein was identified and termed MnGus in the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense. Bioinformatic analyses showed that this gene encoded a protein of 262 amino acids and the protein belongs to the Spsb1 family. Real-time quantitative PCR analyses revealed that the expression level of MnGus in prawn embryos was slightly higher at the cleavage stage than at the blastula stage, and reached the maximum level during the zoea stage of embryos. The minimum level of MnGus expression occurred during the perinucleolus stage in the ovary, while the maximum was at the oil globule stage, and then the level of MnGus expression gradually decreased with the advancement of ovarian development. The expression level of MnGus in muscle was much higher than that in other tissues in mature prawn. The gustavus cDNA sequence was firstly cloned from the oriental river prawn and the pattern of gene expression was described during oocyte maturation, embryonic development, and in other tissues. The differential expression patterns of MnGus in the embryo, ovary and other somatic tissues suggest that the gustavus gene performs multiple physiological functions in the oriental river prawn.
Previously undescribed infective larvae of the cystidicolid nematode Pseudoproleptus sp. (probably conspecific with the nematode originally described as Heliconema izecksohni Fabio, 1982, a parasite of freshwater fish in Brazil), were found encapsulated in the hemocel of the Amazon river prawn Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller) (Decapoda: Palaemonidae) from the natural canals on the Mexiana Island (Amazon River Delta), Pardá State, Brazil. The prevalence in prawns (body length 48-110 mm) examined in January and March 2008 (n = 44) was 32%, with an intensity of 1-6 (mean 2) larvae per crustacean. The nematode larvae (body length 19.7-25.7 mm), characterized by the cephalic end provided with a helmet-like cuticular structure having a thickened free posterior margin, are described based on light and scanning electron microscopy. Apparently prawns play a role as intermediate hosts for this nematode species. This is the first record of a larval representative of Cystidicolidae in South America and the first record of a species of Pseudoproleptus Khera, 1955, in the Neotropics. Heliconema izecksohni is transferred to Pseudoproleptus as Pseudoproleptus izecksohni (Fabio, 1982) n. comb. PMID:19014207
Rivers of Western Queensland, Australia, represent a discontinuous and variable aquatic habitat for the freshwater fauna of the region. Rivers periodically fluctuate between being highly fragmented, with numerous disconnected waterholes and ephemeral channels, and being highly connected by a dominant system of anastomosing channels. We used mitochondrial sequences to investigate the genetic structure and inferred patterns of dispersal associated with this flow regime for the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium australiense (Decapoda: Palaemonidae), sampling 28 localities throughout eight catchments. Based on a 505 base pair fragment of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, we identified 98 haplotypes in a sample of 402 individuals. The haplotypes clustered into two main clades corresponding geographically to the major drainages: the Lake Eyre and Murray-Darling basins. Populations of M. australiense inhabiting the two basins appear to have diverged around 800,000 years ago (estimated sequence divergence of 1.6%). Analysis of population differentiation indicated contemporary high levels of genetic subdivision and restricted gene flow among populations within and among catchments. Phylogenetic analysis detected a series of historical range expansions in the region and we suggest that climate fluctuations during the Pleistocene have resulted in extensive floods that have promoted historical movements of aquatic organisms across catchment boundaries. PMID:15329659
Diadromous freshwater shrimps are exposed to brackish water both as an obligatory part of their larval life cycle and during adult reproductive migration; their well-developed osmoregulatory ability is crucial to survival in such habitats. This study examines gill microsomal Na,K-ATPase (K-phosphatase activity) kinetics and protein profiles in the freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum when in fresh water and after 10-days of acclimation to brackish water (21 per thousand salinity), as well as potential routes of Na+ uptake across the gill epithelium in fresh water. On acclimation, K-phosphatase activity decreases 2.5-fold, Na,K-ATPase alpha-subunit expression declines, total protein expression pattern is markedly altered, and enzyme activity becomes redistributed into different density membrane fractions, possibly reflecting altered vesicle trafficking between the plasma membrane and intracellular compartments. Ultrastructural analysis reveals an intimately coupled pillar cell-septal cell architecture and shows that the cell membrane interfaces between the external medium and the hemolymph are greatly augmented by apical pillar cell evaginations and septal cell invaginations, respectively. These findings are discussed regarding the putative movement of Na+ across the pillar cell interfaces and into the hemolymph via the septal cells, powered by the Na,K-ATPase located in their invaginations. PMID:19100333
Belli, N M; Faleiros, R O; Firmino, K C S; Masui, D C; Leone, F A; McNamara, J C; Furriel, R P M
Summary The apical membrane of the intestinal epithelium of the freshwater prawn,Macrobrachiumrosenbergii, has been found to possess an apparently unique allosteric carrier mechanism for the simultaneous cotransport of sodium, chloride, and calcium from mucosal solution to cytosol. Influxes of the two monovalent ions individually were sigmoidal functions of their respective luminal concentrations, and their kinetics followed the Hill equation
|Giant freshwater prawn ("Macrobrachiumrosenbergii" De Man) embryos can be cultured "in vitro" to hatching in 15% (v/v) artificial seawater (ASW). This technique can be applied as a bioassay for testing toxicity or for the effects of various substances on embryo development and can be used as a simple and low-cost model for studying embryo…
We surveyed protozoan and metazoan parasites as well as white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and infectious hypodermal hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) in white shrimp Litopenaeus setiferus and the palaemonid prawn Macrobrachium acanthurus native to the lower Jamapa River region of Veracruz, Mexico. The presence of parasites and the infection parameters were evaluated in 113 palaemonid prawns collected during the northwind (n = 45), rainy (n = 38) and dry seasons (n = 30) between October 2007 and July 2008, and in 91 shrimp collected in the rainy season between May and June 2008. In L. setiferus, ciliates of the subclass Apostomatia (Ascophrys sp.) were evident in gills, and third-stage larvae of the nematode Physocephalus sexalatus were evident in the stomach. Cestodes of the genus Prochristianella were evident in the hepatopancreas, while some gregarines of the genus Nematopsis, as well as unidentified larval cestodes, were observed in the intestine. Histology identified Ascophrys sp. in association with gill necrosis and tissue melanization. Slight inflammation was observed in intestinal epithelium near cestode larvae. In M. acanthurus, epibionts of the protozoans Epistylis sp., Acineta sp. and Lagenophrys sp. were observed under uropods, periopods and pleopods. An unidentified ciliate of the Apostomatia was also found in the gills, and Nematopsis was identified in the intestine. No histopathology was observed in association with these parasites. Moreover, neither WSSV nor IHHNV were detected by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in any of the L. setiferus or M. acanthurus analysed. PMID:22013749
Whole effluent toxicity was assessed for the fish Oryzias latipes and the prawn Macrobrachium nipponense for 18 h in a dilution series (0-66%) of the inflow and effluent of a municipal waste water treatment plant as well as waste water from a teramycin producing pharmaceutical industry, before, during and after a pilot laboratory purification process. The waste waters caused acute toxicity as measured by inhibition of light emission in the luminiscent bacterium Vibrio qingaiensis sp. nov. (Q67). EROD and aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity in in vitro carp liver-cells showed a dose-dependent toxic response to the municipal waste water. Behavioural responses and time-to-death of fish and prawn, recorded online with the "Multispecies Freshwater Biomonitor" proved to be concentration- and time-dependent sensitive toxicity indicators in both types of waste water. Behaviour changed stepwise from normal activity to (increased or decreased) activity to more time spent on ventilation and finally to increased morbidity at higher concentration and time of exposure. The municipal waste water treatment plant managed to reduce toxicity to bacteria (Q67), prawn and fish. The pharmaceutical waste water treatment process still has to be improved, in order to reduce toxicity for fish and prawn. PMID:11996134
Gerhardt, A; de Bisthoven, L Janssens; Mo, Z; Wang, C; Yang, M; Wang, Z
The androgenic gland (AG), a male-specific endocrine organ in crustacean, is responsible for the maintenance of male characteristics and gender differentiation. In this study, an AG-specific gene, the Macrobrachium nipponesne insulin-like androgenic gland factor (MnIAG) was isolated from a transcriptome library of M. nipponesne and its full-length cDNA sequences were obtained by RACE method. The cDNA was 1,547 bp in length and encoded a precursor protein of 175 amino acids. The deduced precursor protein consisted of a signal peptide, B chain, C peptide and an A chain, which exhibited the same structural organization as that of previously identified insulin-like androgenic gland in crustacean. The mature peptide of the MnIAG owned two additional conserved cysteine residues, which were also found in the Palaemonidae species reported. Results of the tissue distribution and in situ hybridization showed the MnIAG expressed exclusively in androgenic gland. The quantitative RT-PCR results demonstrated that the MnIAG transcript was present at blastula stage and later developmental stages with low levels, which suggested that the primordial cells of the AG might form at these stages. PMID:23416103
The use of some biota as bioindicators of heavy metal pollution has been demonstrated as particularly adequate due to their capacity of bioconcentration. This study evaluated the levels of platinum group metals (PGMs) in some selected species along the coastal belt of Ghana, using the neutron activation analysis (NAA) method. The result was processed to evaluate pollution indices in order to map the distribution of the metals in those species in the lagoons and estuaries along the costal belt of Ghana. The analysis showed significant levels of all PGMs in blackchin tilapia (Sarotherodon melanotheron Cichlidae), brown goby (Chonophorus lateristriga Gobiidae), shrimp (Macrobrachium vollenhovenii Palaemonidae), and mangrove oysters (Crassostrea tulipa Ostreidae) in the lagoons and river Pra estuary. However, the oysters showed an elevated mean concentration of 0.13 ?g/g (dry weight) Pd. From the pollution indices, most of the sampling sites registered mean contamination factor (CF) values between 1.20 and 3.00 for Pt, Pd, and Rh. The pollution load index (PLI) conducted also gave an average pollution index between 0.79 and 2.37, indicating progressive contamination levels. The results revealed that anthropogenic sources, industrial and hospital effluent, etc., together with vehicular emissions, could be the contributing factors to the deposition of PGMs along the Ghanaian coast. PMID:20953547
A model for intracellular transport of pigment granules in the red ovarian chromatophores of the freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium olfersi is proposed on the basis of shifts in the equilibrium of resting forces acting on an elastic pigment matrix. The model describes a pigment-transport mechanism in which mechanochemical protein motors like kinesin and myosin alternately stretch and compress a structurally unified, elastic pigment matrix. Quantifiable properties of the spring-matrix obey Hooke's Law during the rapid phases of pigment aggregation and dispersion. The spring-like response of the pigment mass is estimated from previous kinetic experiments on pigment translocation induced by red pigment concentrating hormone, or by the calcium ionophore A23187. Both translocation effectors trigger an initial phase of rapid pigment aggregation, and their removal or washout after complete aggregation produces a phase of rapid pigment dispersion, followed by slow pigment translocation. The rapid-phase kinetics of pigment transport are in reasonable agreement with Hooke's Law, suggesting that such phases represent the release of kinetic energy, probably produced by the mechanochemical protein motors and stored in the form of matrix deformation during the slow phases of translocation. This semiquantitative model should aid in analyzing intracellular transport systems that incorporate an elastic component. PMID:18400993
This paper describes seasonal changes of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and its glutathione (MC-LR-GSH) and cysteine conjugates (MC-LR-Cys) in three aquatic animals--snail (Bellamya aeruginosa), shrimp (Macrobrachium nipponensis) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) collected from Lake Taihu, China. MC-LR, MC-LR-GSH, and MC-LR-Cys were determined by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrum (LC-ESI-MS). The mean MC-LR concentrations in the hepatopancreas of snail and shrimp and liver of silver carp were 6.61, 0.24, and 0.027 microg g(-1) dry weight (DW), respectively; while the average MC-LR-Cys concentrations were 0.50, 0.97, and 5.72 microg g(-1) DW, respectively. MC-LR-GSH was usually not detectable in these samples. The above results suggest that: (1) in aquatic animals, especially fish, the main excretion form of MC-LR could be MC-LR-Cys, but not MC-LR-GSH, whereas MC-LR-Cys might play an important role in detoxication of MC-LR and (2) that efficiency of MC-LR-Cys formation differs among species. The main detoxication pathway of MC-LR in aquatic animals is suggested as follows: when MC-LR enters into liver/hepatopancreas, it firstly conjugates with polypeptide or protein (including GSH, PP-1 and 2A) containing Cys residues, perhaps also some free cysteine; subsequently, MC-LR-Cys is degraded from these polypeptide or protein; and finally is excreted from animals by the compound of MC-LR-Cys. PMID:19473685
The objective was to characterize vitellogenin expression in the ovary and hepatopancreas, and to describe the morphometry and ultrastructure of oocytes, in the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium amazonicum at various stages of ovarian development. Five ovarian stages were defined: (I) immature, (II) maturing, (III) mature, (IV) spawned, and (V) reorganized. Ovaries and hepatopancreas were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for vitellogenin expression. Vitellogenin expression in both ovary and hepatopancreas was predominantly widespread, beginning at Stage I, peaking at Stage III, and decreasing in Stages IV and V. Characterization of the ovary included measurement of the following germ cell types: oogonia (OG), and previtellogenic (PV), early vitellogenesis (EV), advanced vitellogenesis (AV), and mature (M) oocytes. Mean ± SD diameter of OG and EV oocytes in Stages I (14.2 ± 5.5 and 119.8 ± 15.7 ?m) and II (17.9 ± 4.8 and 114.3 ± 34.6 ?m), respectively, were significantly different from that in Stages IV (16.6 ± 4.7 and 107.0 ± 24.6 ?m) and V (14.4 ± 4.1 and 101.0 ± 25.2 ?m). Both scanning and transmission electron microscopy enabled identification of EV, AV and M oocytes based on the presence of a nucleus, and the organization and distribution of yolk in the cytoplasm. In summary, vitellogenesis occurred both in the hepatopancreas and ovary, with the ovary expressing vitellogenin starting as early as Stage I. This process promoted accumulation of yolk and growth of oocytes, thus favoring sexual maturation of females. This knowledge may be applied to improve production of farmed M. amazonicum. PMID:22920594
Ferreira, M A P; Resende, B M; Lima, M Y S; Santos, S S D; Rocha, R M
A marine bacterium, Micrococcus MCCB 104, isolated from hatchery water, demonstrated extracellular antagonistic properties against Vibrio alginolyticus, V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus, V. fluviallis, V. nereis, V. proteolyticus, V. mediterranei, V cholerae and Aeromonas sp., bacteria associated with Macrobrachiumrosenbergii larval rearing systems. The isolate inhibited the growth of V. alginolyticus during co-culture. The antagonistic component of the extracellular product was heat-stable and insensitive to proteases, lipase, catalase and alpha-amylase. Micrococcus MCCB 104 was demonstrated to be non-pathogenic to M. rosenbergii larvae. PMID:16465832
Jayaprakash, N S; Pai, S Somnath; Anas, A; Preetha, R; Philip, Rosamma; Singh, I S Bright
We evaluate osmotic and chloride (Cl(-)) regulatory capability in the diadromous shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum, and the accompanying alterations in hemolymph osmolality and [Cl(-)], gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity, and expression of gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase ?-subunit and V-ATPase B subunit mRNA during salinity (S) acclimation. We also characterize V-ATPase kinetics and the organization of transport-related membrane systems in the gill epithelium. Macrobrachium amazonicum strongly hyper-regulates hemolymph osmolality and [Cl(-)] in freshwater and in salinities up to 25‰ S. During a 10-day acclimation period to 25‰ S, hemolymph became isosmotic and hypo-chloremic after 5 days, [Cl(-)] alone remaining hyporegulated thereafter. Gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase ?-subunit mRNA expression increased 6.5 times initial values after 1 h, then decreased to 3 to 4 times initial values by 24 h and to 1.5 times initial values after 10 days at 25‰ S. This increased expression was accompanied by a sharp decrease at 5 h then recovery of initial Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity within 24 h, declining again after 5 days, which suggests transient Cl(-) secretion. V-ATPase B-subunit mRNA expression increased 1.5-fold within 1 h, then reduced sharply to 0.3 times initial values by 5 h, and remained unchanged for the remainder of the 10-day period. V-ATPase activity dropped sharply and was negligible after a 10-day acclimation period to 21‰ S, revealing a marked downregulation of ion uptake mechanisms. The gill epithelium consists of thick, apical pillar cell flanges, the perikarya of which are coupled to an intralamellar septum. These two cell types respectively exhibit extensive apical evaginations and deep membrane invaginations, both of which are associated with numerous mitochondria, characterizing an ion transporting epithelium. These changes in Na(+)/K(+)- and V-ATPase activities and in mRNA expression during salinity acclimation appear to underpin ion uptake and Cl(-) secretion by the palaemonid shrimp gill. PMID:21037069
Faleiros, Rogério Oliveira; Goldman, Maria Helena S; Furriel, Rosa P M; McNamara, John Campbell
The primary objective of this study was to establish the bilogical feasibility of rearing the freshwater shrimp Macrobrachiumrosenbergii and rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri in the thermal effluents from PSEandG's Mercer Generating Station. A new approach in aquaculture involving semiannual grow-out periods, diseasonal aquaculture was the result of the large seasonal variation in Delaware River temperature (0.2 to 29Â°C), since
C. R. Guerra; B. L. Godfriaux; A. F. Eble; A. F. Farmanfarmian
Vitellogenin (Vg) is the precursor of the egg yolk glycoprotein of crustaceans. In the prawn Macrobrachiumrosenbergii, Vg is synthesized in the hepatopancreas, secreted to the hemolymph, and taken up by means of receptor-mediated endocytosis\\u000a into the oocytes. The importance of glycosylation of Vg lies in its putative role in the folding, processing and transport\\u000a of this protein to the
Ziv Roth; Shmuel Parnes; Simy Wiel; Amir Sagi; Nili Zmora; J. Sook Chung; Isam Khalaila
A rooftop greenhouse (bio-shelter) that is heated with active and passive solar systems is presented. The intent of the greenhouse is to grow vegetables hydroponically the year-round using a nutrient flow technique; and to growth the giant tropical Malaysian prawn Macrobrachiumrosenbergii in a recycling raceway water system heated with solar power. The produce grown was continuously monitored and the harvests weighed in order to estimate the year-round production potential of the bio-shelter greenhouse.
Temperature and the dissolved oxygen content affect the oxygen consumption of juveniles of Chinese prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant tiger prawn (P. monodon) and giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachiumrosenbergii). There is good correlation between the oxygen consumption rate (V, mg\\/g·h) of the above three prawn species and the water temperature, and dissolved oxygen. In the range of test temperature,V increased with
Biological data of the Malaysian prawn, Macrobrachiumrosenbergii, are summarized. A history on its rearing techniques is given, but through the use of geothermal water or industrial warm water effluent, its range can be expanded. The use of wasted geothermal water at the Oregon Institute of Technology for prawn ponds is noted. Pond management and design; the hatchery design and function for larval culture; and geothermal applications (legal aspects and constraints) are discussed. (MCW)
The kinetic properties of a microsomal gill (Na+,K+)-ATPase from the freshwater shrimp, Macrobrachium olfersii, acclimated to 21 per thousand salinity for 10 days were investigated using the substrate p-nitrophenylphosphate. The enzyme hydrolyzed this substrate obeying cooperative kinetics at a rate of 123.6+/-4.9 U mg-1 and K0.5=1.31+/-0.05 mmol L-1. Stimulation of K+-phosphatase activity by magnesium (Vmax=125.3+/-7.5 U mg-1; K0.5=2.09+/-0.06 mmol L-1), potassium (Vmax=134.2+/-6.7 U mg-1; K0.5=1.33+/-0.06 mmol L-1) and ammonium ions (Vmax=130.1+/-5.9 U mg-1; K0.5=11.4+/-0.5 mmol L-1) was also cooperative. While orthovanadate abolished p-nitrophenylphosphatase activity, ouabain inhibition reached 80% (KI=304.9+/-18.3 micromol L-1). The kinetic parameters estimated differ significantly from those for freshwater-acclimated shrimps, suggesting expression of different isoenzymes during salinity adaptation. Despite the approximately 2-fold reduction in K+-phosphatase specific activity, Western blotting analysis revealed similar alpha-subunit expression in gill tissue from shrimps acclimated to 21 per thousand salinity or fresh water, although expression of phosphate-hydrolyzing enzymes other than (Na+,K+)-ATPase was stimulated by high salinity acclimation. PMID:16529963
Mendonça, N N; Masui, D C; McNamara, J C; Leone, F A; Furriel, R P M
The concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in muscle samples of two species of fish, tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and the catfish (Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus) and the prawn (Macrobrachium vollenhovenii) found in Lake Taabo (Cote d`Ivoire). Simultaneous measurements of enzymatic biomarkers were made to evaluate the ecotoxicological risk in this hydroelectric reservoir. Lindane and endosulfan were the dominant contaminants, suggesting their current use in neighboring agricultural areas. Other organochlorine (OC) compounds were detected, including some currently banned substances. Ranked in an order of descending concentrations, we found: DDT and its metabolites (17.8-57.2 ng g-1 dry weight), endrin (7.17-25.0 ng g-1 dry weight) and heptachlor (7.36-23.6 ng g-1 dry weight), as well as traces of isomers of chlordane, aldrin and fipronil. The hepatic Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) activity measured in fishes was not correlated with pesticide contamination; whereas the antioxidant biomarkers demonstrated some significant associations, especially hepatic catalase with lindane (R = 0.83) and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) with heptachlor epoxide (R = 0.84) and with pp`DDT (R = 0.81). In the prawns, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity showed significant negative correlations with DDT and its metabolites (R = -0.91). The results of this study emphasize the urgent need for overall environmental risk assessment studies in the region of Taabo and other developing areas.
The full-length cDNA of an ecdysone receptor gene (MnEcR) from Macrobrachium nipponense was cloned and the expression of the gene was investigated. MnEcR maintained a relatively low expression level in the early stages of embryos, but from nauplius stage, a steady increase in MnEcR expression was detected, it had the highest expression level in zoea stage. MnEcR was highly expressed in the hepatopancreas and gills among ten different tissues examined. MnEcR was rapidly upregulated in the premolt stage and rapidly downregulated in the postmolt stage. The expression of MnEcR was remarkably downregulated after eyestalk ablation in M. nipponense. An 18-amino-acid insertion/deletion and a 49-amino-acid substitution were found in the coding region of MnEcR, resulting in four splice variants: MnEcR-L1, -L2, -S1 and-S2. The expression of four splice variants of MnEcR in gonads was investigated using RT-PCR. Interestingly, the expression patterns of these splice variants differed between males and females. The dominant splice variants in testis were MnEcR-S1 and -S2, while in ovary they were MnEcR-L1 and -S2, indicating specific roles for these splice variants in male and female individuals. PMID:23899714
We investigated modulation by ATP, Mg²?, Na?, K? and NH?? and inhibition by ouabain of (Na?,K?)-ATPase activity in microsomal homogenates of whole zoeae I and decapodid III (formerly zoea IX) and whole-body and gill homogenates of juvenile and adult Amazon River shrimps, Macrobrachium amazonicum. (Na?,K?)-ATPase-specific activity was increased twofold in decapodid III compared to zoea I, juveniles and adults, suggesting an important role in this ontogenetic stage. The apparent affinity for ATP (K(M) = 0.09 ± 0.01 mmol L?¹) of the decapodid III (Na?,K?)-ATPase, about twofold greater than the other stages, further highlights this relevance. Modulation of (Na?,K?-ATPase activity by K? also revealed a threefold greater affinity for K? (K?.? = 0.91 ± 0.04 mmol L?¹) in decapodid III than in other stages; NH?? had no modulatory effect. The affinity for Na? (K?.? = 13.2 ± 0.6 mmol L?¹) of zoea I (Na?,K?)-ATPase was fourfold less than other stages. Modulation by Na?, Mg²? and NH?? obeyed cooperative kinetics, while K? modulation exhibited Michaelis-Menten behavior. Rates of maximal Mg²? stimulation of ouabain-insensitive ATPase activity differed in each ontogenetic stage, suggesting that Mg²?-stimulated ATPases other than (Na?,K?)-ATPase are present. Ouabain inhibition suggests that, among the various ATPase activities present in the different stages, Na?-ATPase may be involved in the ontogeny of osmoregulation in larval M. amazonicum. The NH??-stimulated, ouabain-insensitive ATPase activity seen in zoea I and decapodid III may reflect a stage-specific means of ammonia excretion since functional gills are absent in the early larval stages. PMID:22544049
Leone, Francisco Assis; Masui, Douglas Chodi; de Souza Bezerra, Thais Milena; Garçon, Daniela Pereira; Valenti, Wagner Cotroni; Augusto, Alessandra Silva; McNamara, John Campbell
Spermiogenesis is a developmental process undergoing continuous differentiation to drive a diploid spermatogonium towards a haploid sperm cell. This striking transformation from spermatogonium to spermatozoa is made possible by the stage-specific adaption of cytoskeleton and associated molecular motor proteins. KIFC1 is a C-terminal kinesin motor found to boast essential roles in acrosome biogenesis and nuclear reshaping during spermiogenesis in rat. To explore its functions during the same process in Macrobrachium nipponense, we have cloned and sequenced the cDNA of a mammalian KIFC1 homologue (termed mn-KIFC1) from the total RNA of the testis. The 2,296 bp mn-KIFC1 cDNA contained a 87 bp 5' untranslated region, a 211 bp 3' untranslated region and a 1,998 bp open reading frame. Protein alignment demonstrated that mn-KIFC1 had 37.7, 58.7, 38.4, 37.2, 38.9 and 37.8% identity with its homologues in Salmo salar, Eriocheir sinensis, Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Danio rerio and Xenopus laevis respectively. The phylogenetic tree revealed that mn-KIFC1 is most related to E. Sinensis KIFC1 among the examined species. Tissue expression analysis showed the presence of mn-KIFC1 in the testis, hepatopancreas, gill, muscle and heart. In situ hybridization showed that the mn-KIFC1 mRNA was localized at the periphery of the nuclear membrane and in the proacrosomal vesicle in early and middle spermatids. In late spermatids and spermatozoa, mn-KIFC1 was expressed in the acrosome and in the spike. In situ hybridization also indicated that KIFC1 works together with lamellar complex (LCx) and acroframosome (AFS) to drive acrosome formation and cellular transformation. LCx and AFS have both been previously proved to have essential roles during spermiogenesis in M. nipponense. In conclusion, the expression of mn-kifc1 at specific stages of spermiogenesis suggests a role in cellular transformations in M. nipponense. PMID:22327780
The complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the Japanese snapping shrimp Alpheus japonicus Miers (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea) is presented here. A comparative analysis based on the currently available mitochondrial genomic data revealed many previously unknown characteristics of the mitochondrial genomes of caridean shrimps. The A. japonicus mitochondrial genome is 16487 bp long and contains the typical set of 37 metazoan genes. The gene arrangements in the mitochondrial genomes of four previously studied carideans (Macrobrachiumrosenbergii, M. nipponense, M. lanchesteri and Halocaridina rubra) were found to be identical to the pancrustacean ground pattern; thus, it was considered that gene rearrangements probably did not occur in the suborder Caridea. In the present study, a translocation of the trnE gene involving inversion was found in Alpheus mitochondrial genomes. This phenomenon has not been reported in any other crustacean mitochondrial genome that has been studied so far; however, the translocation of one transfer RNA gene (trnP or trnT) was reported in the mitochondrial genome of Exopalaemon carinicauda. When the ratios of the nonsynonymous and synonymous substitutions rates (Ka/Ks) for the 13 protein coding genes from two Alpheus species (A. japonicus and A. distinguendus) and three Macrobrachium species (M. rosenbergii, M. nipponense, M. lanchesteri) were calculated, the Ka/Ks values for all the protein coding genes in Alpheus and Macrobrachium mitochondrial genomes were found to be less than 1 (between 0.0048 and 0.2057), indicating that a strong purification selection had occurred. The phylogenetic tree that was constructed based on the mitochondrial protein coding genes in the genomes of nine related species indicated that Palaemonidae and Alpheidae formed a monophyly and shared a statistically significant relationship, (Palaemonidae+Alpheidae)+Atyidae, at the family level. PMID:22864833
Marine biological invasions have been regarded as one of the major causes of native biodiversity loss, with shipping and aquaculture being the leading contributors for the introductions of alien species in aquatic ecosystems. In the present study, five aquatic alien species (one mollusk, three crustaceans and one fish species) were detected during dives, shore searches and from the fisheries on the coast of the Delta do Parnaíba Environmental Protection Area, in the States of Piauí and Maranhão, Northeastern Brazil. The species were the bicolor purse-oyster Isognomon bicolor, the whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, the giant river prawn Macrobrachiumrosenbergii, the Indo-Pacific swimming crab Charybdis hellerii and, the muzzled blenny Omobranchus punctatus. Ballast water (I. bicolor, C. hellerii, and O. punctatus) and aquaculture activities (L. vannamei and M. rosenbergii) in adjacent areas are the most likely vectors of introduction. All exotic species found have potential impact risks to the environment because they are able to compete against native species for resources (food and habitat). Isognomon bicolor share the same habitat and food items with the native bivalve species of mussels and barnacles. Litopenaeus vannamei share the same habitat and food items with the native penaeids such as the pinkspot shrimp Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis, the Southern brown shrimp Farfantepenaeus subtilis, and the Southern white shrimp Litopenaeus schmitti, and in the past few years L. vannamei was responsible for a viral epidemics in the cultivation tanks that could be transmitted to native penaeid shrimps. Charybdis hellerii is also able to cause impacts on the local fisheries as the species can decrease the populations of native portunid crabs which are commercialized in the studied region. Macrobrachiumrosenbergii may be sharing natural resources with the Amazon River prawn Macrobrachium amazonicum. Omobranchus punctatus shares habit with the native redlip blenny Ophioblennius atlanticus and other fishes, such as the frillfin goby Bathigobius soporator Some immediate remedial measures to prevent further introductions from ballast water and shrimp farm ponds should be: (i) to prevent the release of ballast water by ship/vessels in the region; (ii) to reroute all effluent waters from shrimp rearing facilities through an underground or above-ground dry well; (iii) to install adequate sand and gravel filter which will allow passage of water but not livestock; (iv) outdoor shrimp pounds located on floodable land should be diked, and; (v) to promote environmental awareness of those directly involved with ballast water (crews of ship/vessels) and shrimp farms in the region. PMID:20737846
Loebmann, Daniel; Mai, Ana Cecília G; Lee, James T
This report is part of a three year research study on the constructive use of electric generating station waste heat in cooling water effluents for fish production. It describes procedures and methods for the commercial culture of the giant fresh water shrimp, Macrobrachiumrosenbergii, and the rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri, in the thermal discharge water of the Mercer Power Plant in Trenton, New Jersey. Discharge water from this plant was used in a preliminary assessment of the survival, growth, and food conversion ratio of these species. It was shown that acute or chronic exposure to power plant intake and discharge water; discharge with or without coal particles; and discharge with or without slurry overflow mix does not significantly affect metabolism, short-term survival, growth, or conversion efficiency of shrimp or trout.
A DNA vaccine encoding the envelope glycoprotein from a fish rhabdovirus, viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), has previously been shown to induce both early and long time protection against the virus in rainbow trout. Challenge experiments have revealed that the immunity established shortly after vaccination is cross-protective against heterologous fish rhabdoviruses. In this study, we show that the DNA vaccine
In 1999, disease outbreaks in juvenile Atlantic cod Gadus morhua that showed the classic signs of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER) were reported in Nova Scotia. Brain and retinal tissues from moribund cod showed diffuse degenerative vacuolative encephalopathy and degenerative histiocytic retinitis. The affected brain and retinal tissues were observed to be positive for nodaviral antigens by means of immunohistochemical
Stewart C. Johnson; Sandra A. Sperker; Cindy T. Leggiadro; David B. Groman; Steve G. Griffiths; Rachael J. Ritchie; Marcia D. Cook; Roland R. Cusack
Flock house virus (FHV) is a small icosahedral insect virus of the family Nodaviridae. Its genome consists of two messenger-sense RNA molecules, both of which are encapsidated in the same particle. RNA1 (3.1 kb) encodes proteins required for viral RNA replication; RNA2 (1.4 kb) encodes protein alpha (43 kDa), the precursor of the coat protein. When Spodoptera frugiperda cells were infected with a recombinant baculovirus containing a cDNA copy of RNA2, coat protein alpha assembled into viruslike precursor particles (provirions) that matured normally by autocatalytic cleavage of protein alpha into polypeptide chains beta (38 kDa) and gamma (5 kDa). The particles were morphologically indistinguishable from authentic FHV and contained RNA derived from the coat protein message. These results showed that RNA1 was required neither for virion assembly nor for maturation of provirions. Expression of mutants in which Asn-363 at the beta-gamma cleavage site of protein alpha was replaced by either aspartate, threonine, or alanine resulted in assembly of particles that were cleavage defective. For two of the mutants, unusual structural features were observed after preparation for electron microscopy. Particles containing Asp at position 363 were labile and showed a strong tendency to break into half-shells. Particles in which Asn-363 was replaced by Ala displayed a distinct hole in an otherwise complete shell. The third mutant, containing Thr at position 363, was indistinguishable in morphology from authentic FHV. Images
Schneemann, A; Dasgupta, R; Johnson, J E; Rueckert, R R
Betanodaviruses are causative agents of neurological disorders in several species of fish. We cloned and sequenced the RNA2 segment of two grouper viruses isolated from Epinephelus malabaricus (malabaricus grouper nervous necrosis virus, MGNNV) and Epinephelus lanceolatus (dragon grouper nervous necrosis virus, DGNNV). The sequences of the two RNAs were 99% identical and comparison with previously sequenced RNA2 segments of fish
Chan-Shing Lin; Ming-Wei Lu; Liang Tang; Wangta Liu; Chia-Ben Chao; Chun Ju Lin; Neel K. Krishna; John E. Johnson; Anette Schneemann
Flock house virus (FHV) is the best-characterized member of the Nodaviridae, a family of small, positive-strand RNA viruses. Unlike most RNA viruses, FHV encodes only a single polypeptide, protein A, that is required for RNA replication. Protein A contains a C-proximal RNA-dependent RNA polymerase domain and localizes via an N-terminal transmembrane domain to the outer mitochondrial membrane, where FHV RNA replication takes place in association with invaginations referred to as spherules. We demonstrate here that protein A self-interacts in vivo by using flow cytometric analysis of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), spectrofluorometric analysis of bioluminescence resonance energy transfer, and coimmunoprecipitation. Several nonoverlapping protein A sequences were able to independently direct protein-protein interaction, including an N-terminal region previously shown to be sufficient for localization to the outer mitochondrial membrane (D. J. Miller and P. Ahlquist, J. Virol. 76:9856-9867, 2000). Mutations in protein A that diminished FRET also diminished FHV RNA replication, a finding consistent with an important role for protein A self-interaction in FHV RNA synthesis. Thus, the results imply that FHV protein A functions as a multimer rather than as a monomer at one or more steps in RNA replication.
Gene discovery in the Malaysian giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachiumrosenbergii) has been limited to small scale data collection, despite great interest in various research fields related to the commercial significance of this species. Next generation sequencing technologies that have been developed recently and enabled whole transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq), have allowed generation of large scale functional genomics data sets in a shorter time than was previously possible. Using this technology, transcriptome sequencing of three tissue types: hepatopancreas, gill and muscle, has been undertaken to generate functional genomics data for M. rosenbergii at a massive scale. De novo assembly of 75-bp paired end Ilumina reads has generated 102,230 unigenes. Sequence homology search and in silico prediction have identified known and novel protein coding candidate genes (?24%), non-coding RNA, and repetitive elements in the transcriptome. Potential markers consisting of simple sequence repeats associated with known protein coding genes have been successfully identified. Using KEGG pathway enrichment, differentially expressed genes in different tissues were systematically represented. The functions of gill and hepatopancreas in the context of neuroactive regulation, metabolism, reproduction, environmental stress and disease responses are described and support relevant experimental studies conducted previously in M. rosenbergii and other crustaceans. This large scale gene discovery represents the most extensive transcriptome data for freshwater prawn. Comparison with model organisms has paved the path to address the possible conserved biological entities shared between vertebrates and crustaceans. The functional genomics resources generated from this study provide the basis for constructing hypotheses for future molecular research in the freshwater shrimp.
Oxidative stress stimulates production of hydrogen peroxide and organic hydroperoxides which are involved in lipid peroxidation and oxidative damage to protein. Glutathione peroxidase protects against oxidative stress. Quantitative data on glutathione peroxidase of crustaceans are very limited and so this study was performed to determine the assay condition of glutathione peroxidase in crustaceans. Particularly, some properties of hepatic selenium dependent
Healthy juveniles of M. malcolmsoniiwere exposed to 24.1 microg l(-1) of mercury (96 hr LC50: 145 microg l(-1) Hg) for a period of 21 days. The hepatopancreas and gills of the prawns were sampled on 8th, 15th and 22nd day of exposure. Accumulation and elimination of Hg, activity of glutathione S-transferase (GST), content of glutathione (GSH) and metallothionein (MT) level were studied. Mercury accumulation was found to be higher in the hepatopancreas (88.60 microg g(-1)) and lower in the gills (67.8 microg g(-1)). However, Hg elimination was found to be faster in the gills (62%) and slower in the hepatopancreas (58%). Therefore, the rate of Hg elimination did not match the rate of its uptake. The activity of GST was found to be higher in tissues of test prawns (5.94-9.13 nmol mg(-1) protein min(-1)) on all sampling days when compared with controls (3.454.23 nmol mg(-1) protein min(-1)). Similarly, the content of GSH was found to be higher in tissues of test prawns (0.80-1.43 micromol g(-1) protein) on all sampling days when compared with controls (0.55-1.00 micromol g(-1) protein). These results indicate the formation of glutathione conjugate in test prawns to eliminate Hg. The induction of MT level was also found to be higher in tissues of test prawns (57.50-75.76 nmol g(-1) protein) on all sampling days when compared with control (20.24-45.22 nmol g(-1) protein). This indicates the fact that sequestration of Hg has occurred for its easy elimination. Thus, induction of GST-GSH and MT ensured protection and adaptation of test prawns to thrive in Hg contaminated environment. PMID:23033656
Vitellogenesis, a key process in oviparous animals, is characterized by enhanced synthesis of the lipoprotein vitellogenin, which serves as the major yolk-protein precursor. In most oviparous animals, and specifically in crustaceans, vitellogenin is mainly synthesized in the hepatopancreas, secreted to the hemolymph, and taken up into the ovary by receptor-mediated endocytosis. In the present study, localization of the vitellogenin receptor and its interaction with vitellogenin were investigated in the freshwater prawn Macrobrachiumrosenbergii. The receptor was immuno-histochemically localized to the cell periphery and around yolk vesicles. A receptor blot assay revealed that the vitellogenin receptor interacts with most known vitellogenin subunits, the most prominent being the 79 kDa subunit. The receptor was, moreover, able to interact with trypsin-digested vitellogenin peptides. By combining a novel peptide-array approach with tandem mass spectrometry, eleven vitellogenin-derived peptides that interacted with the receptor were identified. A 3D model of vitellogenin indicated that four of the identified peptides are N-terminally localized. One of the peptides is homologous to the receptor-recognized site of vertebrate vitellogenin, and assumes a conserved ?-sheet structure. These findings suggest that this specific ?-sheet region in the vitellogenin N-terminal lipoprotein domain is the receptor-interacting site, with the rest of the protein serving to enhance affinity for the receptor. The conservation of the receptor recognition site in invertebrate and vertebrate vitellogenin might have vast implications for oviparous species reproduction, development, immunity, and pest management. PMID:23733483
In view of potential utilization of shrimp waste, shrimp chitin (SC) and shrimp chitin hydrolysate (SCH) were prepared from 3 kinds of shrimp species, namely: black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon, endeavour shrimp Metapenaeus endeavouri and giant freshwater shrimp Macrobrachiumrosenbergii. The effects of 5% SC and SCH (dry weight) on the state of water and on the denaturation of wanieso lizardfish Saurida wanieso myofibrillar protein (Mf) were evaluated based on changes in Mf Ca-ATPase activity and the amount of unfreezable water during frozen storage. Each effect was compared with those of Mf without additives (control) and Mf with glucose. The changes in Ca-ATPase activity of control and Mf with SC during frozen storage were exhibited biphasic pattern while those of SCH and glucose exhibited monophasic pattern. The amount of unfreezable water of Mf with SC was lower than that of control while those of Mf with SCH and glucose were higher than that of control. Present findings suggested that the preventive effect of SCH on freeze-induced denaturation of Mf is caused by the stabilizing the hydrated water molecule surrounding the Mf.
Real Property Systems Inc., (RPS) owns two parcels in the vicinity of Harney Lake, Oregon. One parcel is 120 acres in size, the other is 200 acres. A study concludes that the 200 acre parcel has the greater potential for geothermal development. RPS is interested in an aquaculture operation that produces fresh water prawns, (Macrobrachiumrosenbergii) for the market. To supply the heat necessary to maintain the ideal temperature of 82/sup 0/F desired for these prawns, a geothermal resource having a 150/sup 0/F temperature or higher, is needed. The best estimate is that 150/sup 0/F water can be found from a minimum 1090 feet depth to 2625 feet, with no absolute assurances that sufficient quantities of geothermal waters exist without drilling for the same. This study undertakes the preliminary determination of project economics so that a decision can be made whether or not to proceed with exploratory drilling. The study is based on 10 acres of ponds, with a peak requirement of 2500 gpm of 150/sup 0/F geothermal water.
Utilizing the warm well water for a geothermal greenhouse heating system is highly economically feasible. This is based on using the 88/sup 0/F water from Anderson Well No. 1 to heat greenhouses totaling approximately 10.6 acres. The additional investment of $640,000 above the cost for a conventional electric boiler system shows a rate of return of 48.3% on a 20 year life cycle analysis. The simple payback is 3 years. The 88/sup 0/F well water is not warm enough for prawn (Macrobrachiumrosenbergii) aquaculture, since water flow requirements are excessive to maintain the desired 80/sup 0/F pond temperature. However, the water is warm enough to maintain a 60/sup 0/F pond temperature for trout farming. Trout farming using the 88/sup 0/F well water directly is probably not economically feasible due to high electrical pumping cost (34,626 per year) for the seven 1/2 acre ponds that could be heated. Trout farming using the 75/sup 0/F effluent water from the 10.6 acre greenhouse to heat four 1/2 acre ponds may be economically feasible since the water booster pumping cost is low $1189 per year.
Shrimp of the family Atyidae are important members of nearly all tropical (and most temperate) fresh and brackish water ecosystems in the world. To date, a complete mitochondrial genome from this important crustacean group has not been reported. Here, we present the complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of the Hawaiian atyid Halocaridina rubra [Holthuis, L.B., 1963. On red coloured shrimps (Decapoda, Caridea) from tropical land-locked saltwater pools. Zool. Meded.16, 261-279.] (Crustacea: Decapoda: Atyidae). The genome is a circular molecule of 16,065 bp and encodes the 37 mitochondrial genes (13 protein-coding, 22 tRNAs, and two rRNAs) typically found in the metazoa. Gene order and orientation in the H. rubra mitochondrial genome is syntenic with most malacostracans that have been examined to date. Of special note is the absence of the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm stem from tRNA(Tyr) and the use of CCG as an initiation codon for cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI); these represent the first reported examples of such phenomena in the Malacostraca. Phylogenetic analyses utilizing complete mitochondrial sequences from other malacostracans place H. rubra as sister to Macrobrachiumrosenbergii, which also belongs to the Infraorder Caridea. However, the placement of this infraorder, as well as the Infraorder Dendrobrachiata, in the phylogeny of the Decapoda varied depending on outgroup selection. Data from additional mitochondrial genomes, such as basal decapods like the Stenopodidea, should contribute to a better overall understanding of decapod phylogenetics. PMID:17317038
Peroxinectin mRNA expression in the different types of haemocytes of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei was studied by in situ hybridisation using digoxigenin-UTP-labelled riboprobes and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Granular cells (GC) and a mixture of semi-granular cells (SGC) and hyaline cells (HC) were separated by 70% Percoll gradient centrifugation. Peroxinectin was synthesised in both GC and the mixture of SGC-HC. An in situ hybridisation assay indicated that peroxinectin mRNA expression occurred in GC and SGC, but not in HC. Peroxinectin transcript up-regulated significantly, whereas haemocyte count decreased significantly at 6, 12 and 24 h post Vibrio alginolyticus-injection with slower restoration as compared to that of saline-injected shrimp. The RT-PCR assay indicated that peroxinectin exists extensively in several species of decapod crustaceans including L. vannamei, freshwater prawn Macrobrachiumrosenbergii, common caridina Caridina pseudodenticulata, stone crab Thalamita crenata and mud crab Scylla serrata suggesting that this protein plays an important role in defence against pathogens. PMID:15683919
Intact, purified particles of the nodaviruses flock house virus and nodamura virus that were either transfected into cells that were resistant to infection or introduced into in vitro translation systems directed the synthesis of viral proteins. We infer that direct interaction of these nodavirus particles with cytoplasmic components mediated virion disassembly that resulted in release of the viral RNA.
The effect of the water-soluble fraction (WSF) of crude oil on lipid contents, lipid classes, FA, and PC molecular species\\u000a was studied in high-phospholipid (hepatopancreas) and low-phospholipid (egg) tissues of a freshwater crustacean. After a 21-d\\u000a exposure to a sublethal concentration of WSF, a significant decrease in shrimp total lipids was observed, although no alterations\\u000a could be detected in the
Sabrina Lavarías; Marcos S. Dreon; Ricardo J. Pollero; Horacio Heras
Complementary (c)DNA encoding glutathione peroxidase (GPx) messenger (m)RNA of the tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon was obtained from haemocytes by a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method. The 1321-bp cDNA contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 564bp, a 69-bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), and a 688-bp 3'-UTR containing a poly A tail and a conserved selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS) element. The molecular mass of the deduced amino acid (aa) sequence (188 aa) was 21.05kDa long with an estimated pI of 7.68. It contains a putative selenocysteine residue which is encoded by the unusual stop codon, (190)TGA(192), and forms the active site with residues Glu(75) and Trp(143). Comparison of amino acid sequences showed that tiger shrimp GPx is more closely related to vertebrate GPx1, in accordance with those in Litopenaeus vannamei and Macrobrachiumrosenbergii. GPx cDNA was synthesised in lymphoid organ, gills, heart, haemocytes, the hepatopancreas, muscles, and intestines. After injected with either Photobacterium damsela or white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), the respiratory bursts of shrimp significantly increased in order to kill the pathogen, and induced increases in the activities of superoxide dismutase and GPx, and regulation in the expression of cloned GPx mRNA to protect cells against damage from oxidation. The GPx expression significantly increased at stage D(0/1), and then gradually decreased until stage C suggesting that the cloned GPx might play a role in the molt regulation of shrimp. PMID:20399225
A prophenoloxidase (proPO) cDNA was cloned from the haemocytes of mud crab Scylla serrata using oligonucleotide primers and RT-PCR. Both 3'- and 5'-regions were isolated by rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE) method. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence revealed that the cDNA clone has a full length of 2663bp, with an open reading frame of 2019bp, a 124-bp 5'-untranslated region, and a 520-bp 3'-untranslated region containing a poly A signal. It encodes a protein of 673 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 77.5kDa and with an estimated pI of 5.96. It contains two putative tyrosinase copper-binding motifs with six histidine residues (copper A, 185, 189, 211, and copper B, 346, 350, 386). The proPO has thiol-ester-like motif (GCGWPQHM), which showed similar structural features of proPOs from other decapod crustaceans. It also contains five possible glycosylation sites, and a conserved C-terminal region common to all known proPOs. Sequence comparison showed that the proPO-deduced amino acid of mud crab S. serrata has an overall similarity of 78%, 57%, 56%, 51-55%, 54%, 53%, 52%, 52%, and 52% to that of Dungeness crab Cancer magister, American lobster Homarus americanus, European lobster Homarus gammarus, kuruma prawn Marsupenaeus japonicus, crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus, white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon, green tiger shrimp Penaeus semisulcatus, and giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachiumrosenbergii, respectively. The proPO was strongly expressed in haemocytes, but not in heart, eyestalk, gill, muscle, ovary, hepatopancreas, stomach, and intestine. The proPO transcript of mud crab S. serrata increased significantly in 12 and 24h post-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection, but returned to the original values in 72h post injection. PMID:16806468
The antiviral activity of furan-2-yl acetate (C6H6O3) extracted from Streptomyces VITSDK1 spp. was studied in cultured Sahul Indian Grouper Eye (SIGE) cells infected with fish nodavirus (FNV). The nodavirus infection in the SIGE cells was confirmed by reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and the antiviral activity of furan-2-yl acetate was assessed by cytopathic effect, as well as reduction in nodaviral
K. Suthindhiran; V. Sarath Babu; K. Kannabiran; V. P. Ishaq Ahmed; A. S. Sahul Hameed
The effect of NH4+ ions on (Na+,K+)-ATPase hydrolytic activity was examined in a gill microsomal fraction from M. olfersii. In the absence of NH4+ ions, K+ ions stimulated ATP hydrolysis, exhibiting cooperative kinetics (nH=0.8), to a maximal specific activity of V=556.1+/-22.2 nmol.min(-1).mg(-1) with K(0.5)=2.4+/-0.1 mmol.L(-1). No further stimulation by K+ ions was observed in the presence of 50 mmol.L(-1) NH4+ ions. ATP hydrolysis was also stimulated by NH4+ ions obeying Michaelian kinetics to a maximal specific activity of V=744.8+/-22.3 nmol.min(-1).mg(-1) and KM=8.4+/-0.2 mmol.L(-1). In the presence of 10 mmol.L(-1) K+ ions, ATP hydrolysis was synergistically stimulated by NH4+ ions to V=689.8+/-13.8 nmol.min(-1).mg(-1) and K(0.5)=6.6+/-0.1 mmol.L(-1), suggesting that NH4+ ions bind to different sites than K+ ions. PNPP hydrolysis was also stimulated cooperatively by K+ or NH4+ ions to maximal values of V= 235.5+/-11.8 nmol.min(-1).mg(-1) and V=234.8+/-7.0 nmol.min(-1).mg(-1), respectively. In contrast to ATP hydrolysis, K(+)-phosphatase activity was not synergistically stimulated by NH4+ and K+ ions. These data suggest that at high NH4+ ion concentrations, the (Na+, K+)-ATPase exposes a new site; the subsequent binding of NH4+ ions stimulates ATP hydrolysis to rates higher than those for K+ ions alone. This is the first demonstration that (Na+, K+)-ATPase activity in a freshwater shrimp gill is modulated by ammonium ions, independently of K+ ions, an effect that may constitute a fine-tuning mechanism of physiological relevance to osmoregulatory and excretory processes in palaemonid shrimps. PMID:14695689
Furriel, Rosa Prazeres Melo; Masui, Douglas Chodi; McNamara, John Campbell; Leone, Francisco Assis
We obtained a full-length cDNA clone for the Mx gene of barramundi (Lates calcarifer), using RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of RNA extracted from a barramundi brain cell line cBB. The Mx cDNA of 2.2kb contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 1875 nucleotides encoding a protein of 624 amino acids. The predicted barramundi Mx protein is 71.4 kDa and contains a tripartite guanosinetriphosphate (GTP)-binding motif at the amino terminal and a leucine zipper at the carboxyl terminal, characteristic of all known Mx proteins. Poly I:C-transfection induced the expression of Mx gene in cBB cells, and the induction level at 28 degrees C was higher than that at 20 degrees C. Moreover, Mx gene expression was also induced by viral infection, including fish nodavirus, birnavirus, and iridovirus. Among these, nodavirus was a stronger inducer than the other two viruses. Using an antiviral activity assay, we revealed that poly I:C-transfected cBB cells had antiviral activity against fish nodavirus and birnavirus, but not iridovirus. Furthermore, the replication of nodavirus and birnavirus could be restored after the expression of Mx gene was down-regulated by siRNA. Therefore, these results indicated that the expression of barramundi Mx gene was able to inhibit the proliferation of fish nodavirus and birnavirus. PMID:17097891
Insect BTI-TN-5B1-4 (Tn5) cells have been used extensively with recombinant baculoviruses to express foreign genes. When a recombinant baculovirus containing the hepatitis E virus capsid protein gene was used to infect Tn5 cells, unknown virus particles in addition to the anticipated hepatitis E virus-like particles were produced in the infected cells. The unknown virus particles were 35 nm in diameter and contained RNA that was highly homologous to full-length RNA1 (3,107 bp) and RNA2 (1,383 bp) genomic RNAs of flock house virus. Surprisingly, both RNAs seen in these induced nodavirus particles could be amplified from commercially available Tn5 cells without infection with or induction by a baculovirus. The nucleotide sequences from the purified nodavirus particles and the normal Tn5 cells were identical, demonstrating that the Tn5 cells themselves were latently infected with a nodavirus. However, the generation of nodavirus particles was significantly stimulated by infection with recombinant baculoviruses. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that this new nodavirus belongs to the genus Alphanodavirus in the family Nodaviridae. PMID:17686877
Li, Tian-Cheng; Scotti, Paul D; Miyamura, Tatsuo; Takeda, Naokazu
Sensory and ambulatory appendages were compared between epigeal and cave species of prawn and crayfish from Mexico. The cave prawn Macrobrachium villalobosi was compared with the epigeal M. totonacum. The cave crayfish Procambarus cavernicola and P. oaxacae reddelli were compared with the epigeal P. olmecorum. In both Macrobrachium and Procambarus the antennules and antennae of the cave species were longer
Important fish pathogenic viruses, including infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), Atlantic halibut nodavirus (AHNV) and infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV), were exposed to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation or ozonated seawater in a laboratory model system. Inactivation curves were obtained, and the occurrence of oxidants and ozonation by-products (OBP), including their removal by granular activated carbon (GAC) filtration, was studied. In ISAV,
H. Liltved; C. Vogelsang; I. Modahl; B. H. Dannevig
Reproduction of nodavirus disease was performed by experimental infection of sea bass eggs during fertilization or at larval stage 4 with 2 genetically distinguishable nodavirus strains (Sb1 and Sb2) isolated from sea bass collected along the Atlantic and Mediterranean French coast. The pathogenicity of the virus strains was assigned after detection of the virus by ELISA and immunohistochemistry (IHC). The Atlantic (Sb1) strain was more pathogenic than the Mediterranean (Sb2) strain during the fertilization step whilst both strains were pathogenic following experimental exposure of 4 d old larvae. Virus lesions developed in the brain 4 to 6 d following experimental exposure. Experimental ELISA proved very sensitive for detecting the nodavirus in Sb1 or Sb2 experimentally infected larvae, as well as in naturally infected sea bass larvae collected in French hatcheries or in barramundi larvae reared in the Pacific area. The development of an ELISA specific for the 2 nodavirus strains isolated from the sea bass should be useful for the detection of the virus, in addition to other techniques recommended by the Office International des Epizooties (OIE). PMID:11411641
Partial contents: Semi-intensive monoculture of the Tiger Shrimp; Shrimp culture and its improvement in Indonesia; The survival and growth of the postlarval Tiger Shrimp; Mass production of Macrobrachium post larvae in the brackishwater Aquaculture Develo...
Pariacoto virus (PaV) is a nodavirus that was recently isolated in Peru from the Southern armyworm, Spodoptera eridania. Virus particles are non enveloped and about 30 nm in diameter and have T3 icosahedral symmetry. The 3.0-Å crystal structure shows that about 35% of the genomic RNA is icosahedrally ordered, with the RNA forming a dodecahedral cage of 25-nucleotide (nt) duplexes
In order to obtain an in vitro system for studying the mechanism of persistent infection of fish nodavirus, a novel cell line (BB) was established from the brain tissue of a barramundi, Lates calcarifer, which had survived viral nervous necrosis disease. The cell line has been subcultured > 100 times. The persistence of fish nodavirus designated as barramundi brain nervous necrosis virus (BBNNV) in the BB cells was demonstrated by: (1) the detection of the infectious virus in the culture supernatants, (2) the detection of NNV nucleic acids extracted from the BB cells, (3) the positive result of immunochemical staining using an NNV-specific monoclonal antibody and (4) their resistance to infection by another fish nodavirus grouper NNV (GNNV). No temperature-sensitive mutants were detected in the culture supernatant of the BB cells. Neither truncated genome (RNA1 or RNA2) nor smaller coat protein was found in the purified BBNNV particles, suggesting that defective interfering particles were unlikely to be important in the NNV-persistent infection in the BB cells. The result of the neutralization test indicated that the 5 antigenic determinants, recognized by GNNV-specific neutralizing antibodies, also existed on the coat protein of BBNNV. The BB cell line is the first cell line reported to be persistently infected with NNV, and would be a useful model for understanding the mechanisms of NNV-persistent infection in vitro and in vivo. PMID:16060261
One hundred eighteen samples (21 species) of wild marine invertebrates were collected from western and southern coastal area of Korean Peninsula. Four of 78 (18 species) samples collected at Namhae (South) area were positive for nodavirus in nested PCR test. Of the 40 samples (5 species) collected at Hwanghae (West) areas, all samples were negative for nodavirus in both RT-PCR and nested PCR tests. Positive nested PCR results were obtained from the following species: Charybdis bimaculata Charybdid crab; Pandalus hypsinotus Southern humpback shrimp and Mytilus galloprovincialis Mediterranean mussel. Phylogenetic analysis based on the partial nucleotide sequence (177 bases) of the RNA2 coat protein gene showed that the four strains were highly homologous (100%) and closely related to that of the known betanodaviruses, redspotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV). These results indicate that nodavirus is present from wild marine invertebrates in the southern coastal areas of Korean Peninsula. These subclinically infected marine invertebrates may constitute an inoculum source for betanodavirus infection and cause mortality in cultured fishes in Korea. PMID:18076900
Gomez, Dennis K; Baeck, Gun Wook; Kim, Ji Hyung; Choresca, Casiano H; Park, Se Chang
Nodamura virus (NoV; family Nodaviridae) contains a bipartite positive-strand RNA genome that replicates via negative-strand intermediates. The specific structural and sequence determinants for initiation of nodavirus RNA replication have not yet been identified. For the related nodavirus Flock House virus (FHV) undefined sequences within the 3?-terminal 50 nucleotides (nt) of FHV RNA2 are essential for its replication. We previously showed that a conserved stem-loop structure (3?SL) is predicted to form near the 3? end of the RNA2 segments of seven nodaviruses, including NoV. We hypothesized that the 3?SL structure from NoV RNA2 is an essential cis-acting element for RNA replication. To determine whether the structure can actually form within RNA2, we analyzed the secondary structure of NoV RNA2 in vitro transcripts using nuclease mapping. The resulting nuclease maps were 86% consistent with the predicted 3?SL structure, suggesting that it can form in solution. We used a well-defined reverse genetic system for launch of NoV replication in yeast cells to test the function of the 3?SL in the viral life cycle. Deletion of the nucleotides that comprise the 3?SL from a NoV2-GFP chimeric replicon resulted in a severe defect in RNA2 replication. A minimal replicon containing the 5?-terminal 17 nt and the 3?-terminal 54 nt of RNA2 (including the predicted 3?SL) retained the ability to replicate in yeast, suggesting that this region is able to direct replication of a heterologous mRNA. These data suggest that the 3?SL plays an essential role in replication of NoV RNA2. The conservation of the predicted 3?SL suggests that this common motif may play a role in RNA replication for the other members of the Nodaviridae.
Rosskopf, John J.; Upton, John H.; Rodarte, Lizette; Romero, Tammy A.; Leung, Ming-Ying; Taufer, Michela; Johnson, Kyle L.
Betanodavirus has been detected in Asian seabass in India. Molecular characterization of the isolates on the basis of the full-length viral RNA2 sequence was performed. Subsequent phylogenetic analysis with sequences from members of the four species in the genus Betanodavirus revealed that the present isolates are closely related to members of the species Redspotted grouper nervous necrosis virus. The analysis also revealed that the RNA2 sequence was not responsible for acute symptoms in seabass. This is the first attempt to characterize Indian isolates of fish nodaviruses, and the result will be useful for devising specific control and health-management strategies for this virus. PMID:23224758
I examined the development and effectiveness of behavioral defenses of red-eyed tree frog hatchlings, Agalychnis callidryas, against predatory shrimp Macrobrachium americanum. Arboreal eggs of A. callidryas hatch early if attacked by egg predators and later if undisturbed, producing tadpoles that enter the water at different developmental stages. Older hatchlings survive better than young hatchlings with aquatic predators, including shrimp. Hatchlings
A taxonomic study of the species of fresh water shrimps and crabs collected from Península of Paria, Venezuela, is presented. The species found were: Macrobrachium carcinus, M. acanthurus, M. olfersi y M. crenulatum oí the family Palaemonidae; Atya scabra, Potimirim glabra y P. potimirim, oí the family Atyidae; Eudaniela (Garmani) garmani and Dilocarcinus dentatus, of the families Pseudothelphusidae and Trichodactylidae.
Six ponds of age 3 were selected 45 km north from Suzhou in the Tailake region, and research conducted on nitrogen and phosphorus cycling in P. vannanmei(Penaeus vannanme) ponds and M. nipponense(Macrobrachium nipponense) hatchery ponds under normal management. Two treatments each had three replications. The results confirmed that feed was the major path of nitrogen and phosphorus input, each accounted
Between 1990 and 1994, samples of three shellfish species (i.e. blue crab, Callinectes sapidus;crayfish, Procambarus acutis; and river shrimp, Macrobrachium ohionii) and 16 fish species and were collected at six sites along the lower Mississippi River by the Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality, Office of Water Resources in coordination with the US Environmental Protection Agency. The fish species included: bigmouth
Karen H. Watanabe; Frank W. Desimone; Arunthavarani Thiyagarajah; William R. Hartley; Albert E. Hindrichs
An ecological survey was carried out to determine the sediment concentrations of nutrients and heavy metals and bioaccumulation of heavy metals in fish and shrimp including tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus×O. nilotica), grey mullet (Mugil cephalus), gei wai shrimp (Metapenaeus ensis) and caridean shrimp (Macrobrachium nipponensis) in the traditional tidal shrimp ponds (gei wais) of Mai Po Nature Reserve, Hong Kong. The
A new cell line, Channa striatus kidney (CSK), derived from the kidney tissue of murrel, was established and characterized. The CSK cell line was maintained in Leibovitz's L-15 supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum and has been subcultured more than 140 times. This cell line was able to grow in a range of temperatures from 22 to 32°C with optimal growth at 28°C. The plating efficiency was very high (67.54%) and doubling time was approximately 29h. The kidney cell line was cryopreserved at different passage levels and revived successfully with 90-92% survival. Polymerase chain reaction amplification of mitochondrial 16S rRNA using primer specific to C. striatus confirmed the origin of this cell line from murrel. The cell line was further characterized by chromosome number, transfection and mycoplasma detection. A marine fish nodavirus was tested to determine the susceptibility of this new cell line. The CSK cell line was found to be susceptible to nodavirus and the infection was confirmed by cytopathic effect (CPE), reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunodot blot, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), virus replication efficiency and real time RT-PCR. The present study highlights the development and characterization of a new kidney cell line from an air breathing fish that could be used as an in vitro tools for propagation of fish viruses and gene expression studies. PMID:23558109
Abdul Majeed, S; Nambi, K S N; Taju, G; Sahul Hameed, A S
Environmental factors, including water parameters were correlated with assemblages of shell and finfish post-larvae and juveniles\\u000a in the 5 rivers of Sundarbans mangrove for 2 years, located in the south-west of Bangladesh. Fifteen species of shellfish\\u000a belonging to 6 families and 37 species of finfish belonging to 27 families were recorded. Four species of shrimp (Metapenaeus monoceros, M. brevicornis, Macrobrachium villosimanus
Sex ratios can influence mating behaviour, population dynamics and evolutionary trajectories; yet the causes of natural sex ratio variation are often uncertain. Although secondary (birth) sex ratios in guppies (Poecilia reticulata) are typically 1:1, we recorded female-biased tertiary (adult) sex ratios in about half of our 48 samples and male-biased sex ratios in none of them. This pattern implies that some populations experience male-biased mortality, perhaps owing to variation in predation or resource limitation. We assessed the effects of predation and/or inter-specific resource competition (intraguild predation) by measuring the local catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) of species (Rivulus killifish and Macrobrachium prawns) that may differentially prey on male guppies. We assessed the effects of resource levels by measuring canopy openness and algal biomass (chlorophyll a concentration). We found that guppy sex ratios were increasingly female-biased with increasing CPUE of Macrobrachium, and perhaps also Rivulus, and with decreasing canopy openness. We also found an interaction between predators and resource levels in that the effect of canopy openness was greatest when Macrobrachium CPUE was highest. Our study thus also reveals the value of simultaneously testing multiple environmental factors that may drive tertiary sex ratio variation. PMID:19132402
McKellar, Ann E; Turcotte, Martin M; Hendry, Andrew P
A betanodavirus associated with a massive mortality was isolated from larvae of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, maintained in fresh water at 30 degrees C. Histopathology revealed vacuolation of the nervous system, suggesting an infection by a betanodavirus. The virus was identified by indirect fluorescent antibody test in the SSN1 cell line and further characterized by sequencing of a PCR product. Sequencing of the T4 region of the coat protein gene indicated a phylogenetic clustering of this isolate within the red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus type. However, the tilapia isolate formed a unique branch distinct from other betanodavirus isolates. The disease was experimentally reproduced by bath infection of young tilapia at 30 degrees C. The reservoir of virus at the origin of the outbreak remains unidentified. To our knowledge, this is the first report of natural nodavirus infection in tilapia reared in fresh water. PMID:19500206
Bigarré, L; Cabon, J; Baud, M; Heimann, M; Body, A; Lieffrig, F; Castric, J
Protein B2 from Nodamura virus (NMV B2), a member of the Nodavirus family, acts as a suppressor of RNA interference (RNAi). The N-terminal domain of NMV B2, consisting of residues 1-79, recognizes double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). The 2.5 A crystal structure of the RNA-binding domain of NMV B2 shows a dimeric, helical bundle structure. The structure shows a conserved set of RNA-binding residues compared with flock house virus B2, despite limited sequence identity. The crystal packing places the RNA-binding residues along one face of symmetry-related molecules, suggesting a potential platform for recognition of dsRNA. PMID:19249868
A substantial amount of research has been done on fish viruses affecting species in aquaculture. This review will focus on the salmonid industry, as this is the most industrialised part of fish farming where vaccines are extensively used. In spite of the amount of research performed, both in commercial companies and in academic organisations, few viral vaccines are licensed. As of today, all fish virus vaccines for sale are based upon inactivated virus or recombinant proteins. No live attenuated or DNA vaccines are currently licensed, but one DNA vaccine against IHN is being tested in controlled field trials in Canada. Vaccines against infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) have been sold for many years in Norway and are now also available in Chile. Most of the research on these vaccines has been performed by pharmaceutical companies, and not much information is available as scientific publications. It has also been difficult to establish reproducible IPN challenge models suitable for vaccine testing and this probably explains the lack of scientific publications. Quite the reverse is the case for the fish rhabdoviruses viral hemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) and infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV). The challenge models are reproducible, and both inactivated virus and DNA vaccines offer excellent protection. Recombinant subunit vaccines have so far shown unsatisfactory effect. Little information has been published regarding vaccine development against pancreas disease (PD) and infectious salmon anaemia (ISA). PD and ISA vaccines have been tested at the laboratory scale with good results, and two commercial ISA vaccines are currently available in Canada. Regarding nodaviruses, a few publications have shown effect of recombinant subunit formulations. However, nodaviruses cause disease early in the lifecycle of marine fish, and injection of these formulations into fish of a few grams is so far difficult on a commercial scale. PMID:15962473
Biering, E; Villoing, S; Sommerset, I; Christie, K E
We studied the natural progression of viral nerve necrosis (VNN) in larvae of Asian seabass Lates calcarifer Bloch from 0 to 40 days post-hatch (dph). The hatchlings were reared in the vicinity of a confirmed nodavirus-affected older batch. Using light and electron microscopy (EM), we made a sequential analysis of histopathological manifestations in nerve tissue and other organs. There were no changes from the day of hatching until 4 dph. Larvae at 4 dph had viral particles in the intramuscular spaces underlying the skin, but the nerve cells of the brain were normal. The first signs of necrosis of the brain cells were observed at 6 dph. EM observations revealed characteristic membrane-bound viral particles measuring 30 nm in the cytoplasm of nerve cells of the brain, spinal cord and retina. Histological samples of fry examined when group mortalities reached 20 to 35% revealed highly vacuolated brains, empty nerve cell cytoplasm and viral particles in the intercellular spaces. Viral particles occurred extensively in the intramuscular spaces and the epidermal layers. These observations were corroborated by positive immunostaining of the virus-rich intramuscular spaces. EM studies also revealed progressive necrotic changes in the cells harboring the virus. Results emphasize the need to maintain hygiene in the hatchery environment and to develop strategies for prevention of disease spread among cohabiting seabass and other susceptible fish larvae. Intramuscular localization of the nodavirus in both preclinical healthy-looking and post-clinical moribund larvae suggests that virus neutralization strategies during larval development could be effective in controlling VNN-associated mortalities. PMID:17260831
Azad, I S; Shekhar, M S; Thirunavukkarasu, A R; Jithendran, K P
Gamma-cyhalothrin 15CS (GCH) contains only the active stereoisomer of the two isomers found in lambda-cyhalothrin 25EW (LCH). GCH (0.5×rate) provides equivalent overall insect control as LCH (1×rate). Both formulations showed high acute toxicity to zebra fish (Brachydanio rerio H.B.) and shrimp (Macrobrachium nippoensis de Haan). The 96-h LC50(zebra fish,GCH) is 1.93?g a.i\\/L and LC50(zebra fish,LCH) is 1.94?g a.i\\/L. LC50(shrimp,GCH) is
Wei Wang; D. J. Cai; Z. J. Shan; W. L. Chen; Nick Poletika; X. W. Gao
The effect of dieldrin on the heart and ventilatory activity in the shrimps Macrobranchium faustinum and Macrobrachium amazonicum was studied over 4 and 7 day exposure periods, respectively. In M. faustinum, ventilatory rate increased by 43% and heart rate by 14.4%. In M. amazonicum, the ventilatory and heart rates decreased by 21 and 6%, respectively. In M. amazonicum ventilatory reversal frequency, an index of respiratory stress, was 6.7 times higher than the control values. All the changes, except for M. amazonicum heart rate were significant at the 0.01 level of probability. PMID:2877786
The effects of dieldrin on the active (VaO2) and resting (VrO2) oxygen consumption rates of the shrimps Macrobrachium faustinum (De Sassure) and Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller) were studied during exposure for 4 days at 0.01 p.p.b. and 7 days at 0.0002 p.p.b., respectively. The VrO2 of M. faustinum increased significantly (P less than 0.01) by 48% but the VaO2 decreased by 13%. The VrO2 and VaO2 decreased by 43 and 70%, respectively, in M. amazonicum. Thus, in both species the aerobic metabolic scope for activity decreased. The increased resting metabolic rate of the indigenous M. faustinum is ascribed to energy consuming responses which allow compensation for the effects of the stressor. The stressor may be said to have moved this species into a metabolic "zone of compensation". The decreased resting metabolic rate of the pond-cultured M. amazonicum is ascribed to greater susceptibility, more extensive metabolic breakdown and failure of compensatory responses. This species might be said to have been forced by the stressor into a metabolic "zone of collapse". PMID:2877787
This study aimed at detecting possible patterns in the relationship between Anisosmotic Extracellular Regulation (AER) and Isosmotic Intracellular Regulation (IIR) in crustaceans and teleost fish from different habitats and evolutionary histories in fresh water (FW), thus different osmoregulatory capabilities, and degrees of euryhalinity. Crustaceans used were the hololimnetic FW Aegla schmitti, and Macrobrachium potiuna, the diadromous FW Macrobrachium acanthurus, the estuarine Palaemon pandaliformis and the marine Hepatus pudibundus; fishes used were the FW Corydoras ehrhardti, Mimagoniates microlepis, and Geophagus brasiliensis, and the marine-estuarine Diapterus auratus. The capacity for IIR was assessed in vitro following wet weight changes of isolated muscle slices incubated in anisosmotic saline (~50% change). M. potiuna was the crustacean with the highest capacity for IIR; the euryhaline perciforms G. brasiliensis and D. auratus displayed total capacity for IIR. It is proposed that a high capacity for IIR is required for invading a new habitat, but that it is later lost after a long time of evolution in a stable habitat, such as in the FW anomuran crab A. schmitti, and the Ostariophysian fishes C. ehrhardti and M. microlepis. More recent FW invaders such as the palaemonid shrimps (M. potiuna and M. acanthurus) and the cichlid G. brasiliensis are euryhaline and still display a high capacity for IIR. PMID:18325804
Freire, Carolina A; Amado, Enelise M; Souza, Luciana R; Veiga, Marcos P T; Vitule, Jean R S; Souza, Marta M; Prodocimo, Viviane
The gram-reaction-negative, motile, facultatively anaerobic, catalase-positive, oxidase-positive bacterial strain M3-4(T) was isolated from black sea sand and subjected to a taxonomic study. Cells of strain M3-4(T) have monotrichous flagella, grow optimally at 37°C and at pH 7-8 in the presence of 1-4% (w/v) NaCl and hydrolyze casein, starch and L: -tyrosine. According to phylogenetic analyses using 16S rRNA gene sequences, strain M3-4(T) belongs to the genus Photobacterium and is most closely related to Photobacterium rosenbergii LMG 22223(T) (97.4%) and P. gaetbulicola KCTC 22804(T) (96.6%). The DNA-DNA relatedness value between M3-4(T) and P. rosenbergii LMG 22223(T) was 21.5%. The DNA G+C mol% of strain M3-4(T) was 53.6. The major cellular fatty acid of strain M3-4(T) was a summed feature 3 consisting of C(16:1) ?7c and/or iso-C(15:0) 2-OH (35.0%), followed by C(16:0) (25.4%) and C(18:1)?7c (16.8%). These data suggest that strain M3-4(T) represents a novel species in genus Photobacterium, for which the name P. atrarenae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is M3-4(T) (= KCTC 23265(T) = NCAIM B 02414(T)). PMID:21861148
Kim, Byung-Chun; Poo, Haryoung; Kim, Mi Na; Lee, Kang Hyun; Lee, Jongtae; Rhee, Moon-Soo; Shin, Kee-Sun
Gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) and European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) were subjected to either experimental infection with Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida or Nodavirus after a period of 2 weeks of crowding in which fish were subjected to a 5-fold increase in density (10-50 kg/m(3)). Samples were obtained before the crowding period (0 h or control) and at 24h and 72 h after crowding from both groups of infected fish. The Complement haemolytic activity and the expression of the C3 gene were evaluated in blood and liver samples respectively. The bacteriolytic and lysozyme activities were also assessed. The results showed that Complement haemolytic activity was reduced at 72 h with both bacteria and virus in high density Gilthead seabream, and a similar increase was observed at low density. Bacteriolytic activity under both bacterial and viral challenges for both species was increased at 24h, under low density. At high density, the bacterial challenge did not induce significant changes. C3 mRNA abundance was substantially increased after pathogen treatments in low density groups at 24h but no significant changes were detected at high densities. These results support the idea of the suppressor effect of stressors on the immune system since a reduction of Complement activity under virus and high density, or lack of response in C3 expression under high density were observed. PMID:20951810
Mauri, I; Romero, A; Acerete, L; Mackenzie, S; Roher, N; Callol, A; Cano, I; Alvarez, M C; Tort, L
Two new cell lines, SIMH and SIGE, were derived from the heart of milkfish (Chanos chanos), a euryhaline teleost, and from the eye of grouper (Epinephelus coioides), respectively. These cell lines were maintained in Leibovitz's L-15 supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS). The SIMH cell line was subcultured more than 50 times over a period of 210 days and SIGE cell line has been subcultured 100 times over a period of 1 1/2 years. The SIMH cell line consists predominantly of fibroblastic-like cells. The SIGE cell line consists predominantly of epithelial cells. Both the cell lines were able to grow at temperatures between 25 and 32 degrees C with an optimum temperature of 28 degrees C. The growth rate of these cells increased as the proportion of FBS increased from 2% to 20% at 28 degrees C with optimum growth at the concentrations of 15% or 20% FBS. Seven marine fish viruses were tested to determine the susceptibility of these cell lines. The SIGE cell line was found to be susceptible to nodavirus, MABV NC-1 and Y6, and the infection was confirmed by cytopathic effect (CPE) and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. When these cells were transfected with pEGFP-N1 vector DNA, significant fluorescent signals were observed, suggesting that these cell lines can be a useful tool for transgenic and genetic manipulation studies. Further, these cell lines are characterized by immunocytochemistry using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CFLSM). PMID:17216384
Parameswaran, V; Ishaq Ahmed, V P; Shukla, Ravi; Bhonde, R R; Sahul Hameed, A S
A new cell line, Indian Catfish Fin, derived from the fin tissue of Indian walking catfish, Clarias batrachus, was established and characterized. The cell line grew well in Leibovitz's L-15 medium supplemented with 15% foetal bovine serum (FBS) and has been subcultured more than 110 times since its initiation in 2007. The cells were able to grow at a range of temperature from 28 to 37 °C with optimal growth at 28 °C. The cell line predominantly consists of fibroblast-like cells. The growth rate of fin cells increased as the FBS concentration increased from 2% to 20% at 28 °C with optimum growth at a concentration of 15% or 20% and poor growth at a concentration of 5%. The cells were found to be susceptible to fish nodavirus and IPNV-ab and infection was confirmed by cytopathic effect and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. PCR amplification of mitochondrial 12S rRNA using primers specific to C. batrachus confirmed the catfish origin of the cell line. The cell line was characterized further by immunocytochemistry, transfection efficiency with pEGFP-N1 and cell cycle analysis by fluorescent-activated cell sorting. PMID:21401643
Babu, V S; Nambi, K S N; Chandra, V; Ishaq Ahmed, V P; Bhonde, R; Sahul Hameed, A S
A continuous cell line was established from blastula stage embryos of sea bass (Lates calcarifer). The sea bass embryonic cells were maintained in Leibovitz's L-15 supplemented with 15% fetal bovine serum. The embryonic cell line was sub-cultured more than 70 passages over a period of 1.5 years and is designated as Sahul Indian sea bass embryonic (SISE) cell line. The cells were able to grow at temperatures between 25 and 32 degrees C with an optimum temperature of 28 degrees C. The growth rate of sea bass embryonic cells increased as the FBS proportion increased from 2 to 20% at 28 degrees C with optimum growth at the concentration of 15 or 20%. Polymerase chain reaction products were obtained from embryonic cells and blastula of sea bass with primer sets of microsatellite markers of sea bass. Four fish viruses were tested on this cell line to determine its susceptibility to these viruses and this cell line was found to be susceptible to IPNV VR-299 and nodavirus, and the infection was confirmed by cytopathic effect (CPE) and RT-PCR. Further, this cell line was characterized by immunocytochemistry using confocal-laser-scanning microscopy (CFLSM), transfection with pEGFP-N1, proliferate marker (BrdU). PMID:16919787
Parameswaran, V; Shukla, Ravi; Bhonde, Ramesh; Hameed, A S Sahul
A continuous cell line (KF-101) derived from the caudal fin of the koi carp Cyprinus carpio was established and characterized. The KF-101 cell line multiplied abundantly in Leibovitz's L-15 medium containing 10% foetal bovine serum at 25° C, and was subcultured for >90 passages over a period of 3 years. Immunocytochemistry revealed that the KF-101 cells contain keratin, junction proteins connexin-43 and occludin, and ectodermal stem-cell marker Pax-6, but not vimentin. Furthermore, the KF-101 cells reacted with anti-human DARPP-32 and anti-human GATA-4 antibodies, and the labelling was regulated according to the cell cycle. The labels of the DARPP-32 and GATA-4 antibodies in the KF-101 cells were the suggested phosphatase-1 inhibitor-1 and GATA-3, respectively. In addition, the KF-101 cells were susceptible to koi herpesvirus but were resistant to eel herpesvirus, iridovirus, grouper nodavirus and chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) virus. The results indicate that the KF-101 cells are suitable materials for investigating biological and virological development. PMID:23731143
With the purpose of knowing seasonal variations of Cd, Cr, Hg and Pb in a river basin with past and present mining activities, elemental concentrations were measured in six fish species and four crustacean species in Baluarte River, from some of the mining sites to the mouth of the river in the Pacific Ocean between May 2005 and March 2006. In fish, highest levels of Cd (0.06 ?g g ?¹ dry weight) and Cr (0.01 ?g g?¹) were detected during the dry season in Gobiesox fluviatilis and Agonostomus monticola, respectively; the highest levels of Hg (0.56 ?g g?¹) were detected during the dry season in Guavina guavina and Mugil curema. In relation to Pb, the highest level (1.65 ?g g?¹) was detected in A. monticola during the dry season. In crustaceans, highest levels of Cd (0.05 ?g g?¹) occurred in Macrobrachium occidentale during both seasons; highest concentration of Cr (0.09 ?g g?¹) was also detected in M. occidentale during the dry season. With respect to Hg, highest level (0.20 ?g g?¹) was detected during the rainy season in Macrobrachium americanum; for Pb, the highest concentration (2.4 ?g g?¹) corresponded to Macrobrachium digueti collected in the dry season. Considering average concentrations of trace metals in surficial sediments from all sites, Cd (p<0.025), Cr (p<0.10) and Hg (p<0.15) were significantly higher during the rainy season. Biota sediment accumulation factors above unity were detected mostly in the case of Hg in fish during both seasons. On the basis of the metal levels in fish and crustacean and the provisional tolerable weekly intake of studied elements, people can eat up to 13.99, 0.79 and 2.34 kg of fish in relation to Cd, Hg and Pb, respectively; regarding crustaceans, maximum amounts were 11.33, 2.49 and 2.68 kg of prawns relative to levels of Cd, Hg and Pb, respectively. PMID:21684575
Ruelas-Inzunza, J; Green-Ruiz, C; Zavala-Nevárez, M; Soto-Jiménez, M
To better comprehend physiological adaptation to dilute media and the molecular mechanisms underlying ammonia excretion in palaemonid shrimps, we characterized the (Na+,K+)-ATPase from Macrobrachium amazonicum gills, disclosing high- (K0.5=4.2±0.2 ?mol L?1; V=33.9±1.9 U mg?1) and low-affinity (K0.5=0.144±0.010 mmol L?1; V=232.9±15.3 U mg?1) ATP hydrolyzing sites. Stimulation by Na+ (K0.5=5.5±0.3 mmol L?1; V=275.1±15.1 U mg?1), Mg2+ (K0.5=0.79±0.06 mmol L?1; V=261.9±18.3 U mg?1), K+ (KM=0.88±0.04 mmol L?1; V=271.8±10.9 U mg?1) and NH4+
L. C. F. Santos; N. M. Belli; A. Augusto; D. C. Masui; F. A. Leone; J. C. McNamara; R. P. M. Furriel
A total of 117 species of freshwater decapod crustaceans are known from Brazil. Knowledge regarding the fauna of Decapoda from inland waters in the state of Bahia, northeast Brazil, is incipient. In spite of its wide territory and rich hydrographic net, only 13 species of limnetic decapods have been reported from that state. The objective of this contribution was to survey decapod crustaceans of some hydrographic basins in southeastern Bahia. The material described herein was obtained in samplings conducted between 1997 and 2005. Voucher specimens were deposited in the carcinological collections of the Museu de Zoologia, Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilhéus, Brazil, and Departamento de Oceanografia, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil. A total of 13 species was collected. The carideans were represented by the atyids Atya scabra (Leach, 1815) and Potimirim potimirim (Müller, 1881) and the palaemonids Macrobrachium acanthurus (Wiegmann, 1836), M. amazonicum (Heller, 1862), M. carcinus (Linnaeus, 1758), M. heterochirus (Wiegmann, 1836), M. jelskii (Miers, 1877), M. olfersi (Wiegmann, 1836), and Palaemon (Palaemon) pandaliformis (Stimpson, 1871). The brachyurans were represented by the portunids Callinectes bocourti A. Milne-Edwards, 1879 and C. sapidus Rathbun, 1895, the trichodactylid Trichodactylus fluviatilis Latreille, 1828 and the panopeid Panopeus rugosus A. Milne-Edwards, 1881. Macrobrachium heterochirus represents a new record from Bahia, and M. amazonicum is reported for the first time in southeast Bahia. The occurrence of two extreme different forms of T. fluviatilis was observed. Form A is characterized by the frontal margin of carapace bordered by conspicuous granules, the anterolateral margin provided with developed teeth plus granules, and the posterolateral margin provided with granulation similar to that found on the front. In form B the frontal margin is smooth or has an inconspicuous granulation; the anterolateral margin is usually provided with 1-3 notches, and teeth (1-2), if present, are small; and the posterolateral margin is smooth or slightly granulated. PMID:19419041
de Almeida, Alexandre Oliveira; Coelho, Petrônio Alves; Luz, Joaldo Rocha; dos Santos, José Tiago Almeida; Ferraz, Neyva Ribeiro
Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) processed from viral replication intermediates by RNase III-like enzyme Dicer guide sequence-specific antiviral silencing in fungi, plants, and invertebrates. In plants, virus-derived siRNAs (viRNAs) can target and silence cellular transcripts and, in some cases, are responsible for the induction of plant diseases. Currently it remains unclear whether viRNAs are also capable of modulating the expression of cellular genes in the animal kingdom, although animal virus-encoded microRNAs (miRNAs) are known to guide efficient silencing of host genes, thereby facilitating virus replication. In this report, we showed that viRNAs derived from a modified nodavirus triggered potent silencing of homologous cellular transcripts produced by the endogenous gene or transgene in the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans. Like that found in plants, virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) in C. elegans also involves RRF-1, a worm RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) that is known to produce single-stranded secondary siRNAs in a Dicer-independent manner. We further demonstrated that VIGS in C. elegans is inheritable, suggesting that VIGS has the potential to generate profound epigenetic consequences in future generations. Altogether, these findings, for the first time, confirmed that viRNAs have the potential to modulate host gene expression in the animal kingdom. Most importantly, the success in uncoupling the trigger and the target of the antiviral silencing would allow for the exploration of novel features of virus-host interactions mediated by viRNAs in the animal kingdom.
Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus belonging to the Birnaviridae family, is an economically important avian pathogen. The IBDV capsid is based on a single-shelled T=13 lattice, and the only structural subunits are VP2 trimers. During capsid assembly, VP2 is synthesized as a protein precursor, called pVP2, whose 71-residue C-terminal end is proteolytically processed. The conformational flexibility of pVP2 is due to an amphipathic alpha-helix located at its C-terminal end. VP3, the other IBDV major structural protein that accomplishes numerous roles during the viral cycle, acts as a scaffolding protein required for assembly control. Here we address the molecular mechanism that defines the multimeric state of the capsid protein as hexamers or pentamers. We used a combination of three-dimensional cryo-electron microscopy maps at or close to subnanometer resolution with atomic models. Our studies suggest that the key polypeptide element, the C-terminal amphipathic alpha-helix, which acts as a transient conformational switch, is bound to the flexible VP2 C-terminal end. In addition, capsid protein oligomerization is also controlled by the progressive trimming of its C-terminal domain. The coordination of these molecular events correlates viral capsid assembly with different conformations of the amphipathic alpha-helix in the precursor capsid, as a five-alpha-helix bundle at the pentamers or an open star-like conformation at the hexamers. These results, reminiscent of the assembly pathway of positive single-stranded RNA viruses, such as nodavirus and tetravirus, add new insights into the evolutionary relationships of dsRNA viruses. PMID:17442720
Luque, Daniel; Saugar, Irene; Rodríguez, José F; Verdaguer, Nuria; Garriga, Damiá; Martín, Carmen San; Velázquez-Muriel, Javier A; Trus, Benes L; Carrascosa, José L; Castón, José R
The CD83 cell surface marker is an important and intriguing component of immune system. It is considered the best marker for mature human dendritic cells, but it is also important for thymic development of T cells, and it also plays a role as a regulator of peripheral B-cell function and homeostasis. A CD83-like molecule was identified in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) by EST sequencing of a thymus cDNA library; the CD83 cDNA is composed of 816 bp and the mature CD83 peptide consists of 195 amino acids, with a putative signal peptide of 18 amino acids and two possible N-glycosylation sites. The comparison of sea bass CD83 sequence with its homologues in other fish species and mammals shows some differences, with two cysteine residues conserved from fish to mammals and a high variability both in the total number of cysteines and in mature CD83 sequence polypeptide length. Basal transcripts levels of CD83 mRNA are highest in liver, followed by thymus. The in vitro treatment of head kidney leukocytes with LPS resulted in a down-regulation on CD83 mRNA leves both after 4 and 24 h, whereas with poly I:C an up-regulation after 4h followed by a down-regulation at 24 h was observed. An in vivo infection of sea bass juveniles with nodavirus induced an increase of CD83 expression on head kidney leukocytes both after 6 and 24 h and a decrease after 72 h. On the other hand, an in vivo infection with Photobacterium damselae bacteria induced a decrease of CD83 transcript levels after 6 and 24 h and an increase after 72 h. These findings suggest in sea bass CD83 expression could be modulated by viral and bacterial immune response. PMID:22554578
Buonocore, Francesco; Randelli, Elisa; Tranfa, Paola; Scapigliati, Giuseppe
There are no known RNA viruses that infect Archaea. Filling this gap in our knowledge of viruses will enhance our understanding of the relationships between RNA viruses from the three domains of cellular life and, in particular, could shed light on the origin of the enormous diversity of RNA viruses infecting eukaryotes. We describe here the identification of novel RNA viral genome segments from high-temperature acidic hot springs in Yellowstone National Park in the United States. These hot springs harbor low-complexity cellular communities dominated by several species of hyperthermophilic Archaea. A viral metagenomics approach was taken to assemble segments of these RNA virus genomes from viral populations isolated directly from hot spring samples. Analysis of these RNA metagenomes demonstrated unique gene content that is not generally related to known RNA viruses of Bacteria and Eukarya. However, genes for RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), a hallmark of positive-strand RNA viruses, were identified in two contigs. One of these contigs is approximately 5,600 nucleotides in length and encodes a polyprotein that also contains a region homologous to the capsid protein of nodaviruses, tetraviruses, and birnaviruses. Phylogenetic analyses of the RdRps encoded in these contigs indicate that the putative archaeal viruses form a unique group that is distinct from the RdRps of RNA viruses of Eukarya and Bacteria. Collectively, our findings suggest the existence of novel positive-strand RNA viruses that probably replicate in hyperthermophilic archaeal hosts and are highly divergent from RNA viruses that infect eukaryotes and even more distant from known bacterial RNA viruses. These positive-strand RNA viruses might be direct ancestors of RNA viruses of eukaryotes.
Benjamin Bolduc; Daniel P. Shaughnessy; Yuri I. Wolf; Eugene V. Koonin; Francisco F. Roberto; Mark Young
There are no known RNA viruses that infect Archaea. Filling this gap in our knowledge of viruses will enhance our understanding of the relationships between RNA viruses from the three domains of cellular life and, in particular, could shed light on the origin of the enormous diversity of RNA viruses infecting eukaryotes. We describe here the identification of novel RNA viral genome segments from high-temperature acidic hot springs in Yellowstone National Park in the United States. These hot springs harbor low-complexity cellular communities dominated by several species of hyperthermophilic Archaea. A viral metagenomics approach was taken to assemble segments of these RNA virus genomes from viral populations isolated directly from hot spring samples. Analysis of these RNA metagenomes demonstrated unique gene content that is not generally related to known RNA viruses of Bacteria and Eukarya. However, genes for RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), a hallmark of positive-strand RNA viruses, were identified in two contigs. One of these contigs is approximately 5,600 nucleotides in length and encodes a polyprotein that also contains a region homologous to the capsid protein of nodaviruses, tetraviruses, and birnaviruses. Phylogenetic analyses of the RdRps encoded in these contigs indicate that the putative archaeal viruses form a unique group that is distinct from the RdRps of RNA viruses of Eukarya and Bacteria. Collectively, our findings suggest the existence of novel positive-strand RNA viruses that probably replicate in hyperthermophilic archaeal hosts and are highly divergent from RNA viruses that infect eukaryotes and even more distant from known bacterial RNA viruses. These positive-strand RNA viruses might be direct ancestors of RNA viruses of eukaryotes. PMID:22379100
Bolduc, Benjamin; Shaughnessy, Daniel P; Wolf, Yuri I; Koonin, Eugene V; Roberto, Francisco F; Young, Mark
The family Nodaviridae include the genera Alphanodavirus and the Betanodavirus which are non-enveloped, single stranded RNA viruses. Alphanodavirus include the insect viruses while betanodavirus include species that are responsible for causing disease outbreaks in hatchery-reared larvae and juveniles of a wide variety of marine and freshwater fish throughout the world and has impacted fish culture over the last decade. According to International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, the genus Betanodavirus comprises four recognized species viz barfin flounder nervous necrosis virus, red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV), striped jack nervous necrosis virus and tiger puffer nervous necrosis virus with the RGNNV being the most common. The viruses are distributed worldwide having been recorded in Southeast Asia, Mediterranean countries, United Kingdom, North America and Australia. The disease has been reported by different names such as viral nervous necrosis, fish encephalitis, viral encephalopathy and retinopathy by various investigators. The virus is composed of two segments designated RNA1 and RNA2 and sometimes possesses an additional segment designated RNA3. However, genome arrangement of the virus can vary from strain to strain. The virus is diagnosed by microscopy and other rapid and sensitive molecular methods as well as immunological assays. Several cell lines have been developed for the virus propagation and study of infection mechanism. Control of nodavirus infection is a serious issue in aquaculture industry since it is responsible for huge economic losses. In combination with other management practices, vaccination of fish would be a useful strategy to control the disease. PMID:23997435
Background The European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax), one of the most extensively cultured species in European aquaculture productions, is, along with the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), a prospective model species for the Perciformes which includes several other commercially important species. Massive mortalities may be caused by bacterial or viral infections in intensive aquaculture production. Revealing transcripts involved in immune response and studying their relative expression enhances the understanding of the immune response mechanism and consequently also the creation of vaccines. The analysis of expressed sequence tags (EST) is an efficient and easy approach for gene discovery, comparative genomics and for examining gene expression in specific tissues in a qualitative and quantitative way. Results Here we describe the construction, analysis and comparison of a total of ten cDNA libraries, six from different tissues infected with V. anguillarum (liver, spleen, head kidney, gill, peritoneal exudates and intestine) and four cDNA libraries from different tissues infected with Nodavirus (liver, spleen, head kidney and brain). In total 9605 sequences representing 3075 (32%) unique sequences (set of sequences obtained after clustering) were obtained and analysed. Among the sequences several immune-related proteins were identified for the first time in the order of Perciformes as well as in Teleostei. Conclusion The present study provides new information to the Gene Index of seabass. It gives a unigene set that will make a significant contribution to functional genomic studies and to studies of differential gene expression in relation to the immune system. In addition some of the potentially interesting genes identified by in silico analysis and confirmed by real-time PCR are putative biomarkers for bacterial and viral infections in fish.
ABSTRACT Replication of positive-sense RNA viruses is associated with the rearrangement of cellular membranes. Previous work on the infection of tissue culture cell lines with the betacoronaviruses mouse hepatitis virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) showed that they generate double-membrane vesicles (DMVs) and convoluted membranes as part of a reticular membrane network. Here we describe a detailed study of the membrane rearrangements induced by the avian gammacoronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) in a mammalian cell line but also in primary avian cells and in epithelial cells of ex vivo tracheal organ cultures. In all cell types, structures novel to IBV infection were identified that we have termed zippered endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and spherules. Zippered ER lacked luminal space, suggesting zippering of ER cisternae, while spherules appeared as uniform invaginations of zippered ER. Electron tomography showed that IBV-induced spherules are tethered to the zippered ER and that there is a channel connecting the interior of the spherule with the cytoplasm, a feature thought to be necessary for sites of RNA synthesis but not seen previously for membrane rearrangements induced by coronaviruses. We also identified DMVs in IBV-infected cells that were observed as single individual DMVs or were connected to the ER via their outer membrane but not to the zippered ER. Interestingly, IBV-induced spherules strongly resemble confirmed sites of RNA synthesis for alphaviruses, nodaviruses, and bromoviruses, which may indicate similar strategies of IBV and these diverse viruses for the assembly of RNA replication complexes. IMPORTANCE All positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses induce rearranged cellular membranes, providing a platform for viral replication complex assembly and protecting viral RNA from cellular defenses. We have studied the membrane rearrangements induced by an important poultry pathogen, the gammacoronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). Previous work studying closely related betacoronaviruses identified double-membrane vesicles (DMVs) and convoluted membranes (CMs) derived from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in infected cells. However, the role of DMVs and CMs in viral RNA synthesis remains unclear because these sealed vesicles lack a means of delivering viral RNA to the cytoplasm. Here, we characterized structures novel to IBV infection: zippered ER and small vesicles tethered to the zippered ER termed spherules. Significantly, spherules contain a channel connecting their interior to the cytoplasm and strongly resemble confirmed sites of RNA synthesis for other positive-sense RNA viruses, making them ideal candidates for the site of IBV RNA synthesis. PMID:24149513
Maier, Helena J; Hawes, Philippa C; Cottam, Eleanor M; Mantell, Judith; Verkade, Paul; Monaghan, Paul; Wileman, Tom; Britton, Paul
ABSTRACT Replication of positive-sense RNA viruses is associated with the rearrangement of cellular membranes. Previous work on the infection of tissue culture cell lines with the betacoronaviruses mouse hepatitis virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) showed that they generate double-membrane vesicles (DMVs) and convoluted membranes as part of a reticular membrane network. Here we describe a detailed study of the membrane rearrangements induced by the avian gammacoronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) in a mammalian cell line but also in primary avian cells and in epithelial cells of ex vivo tracheal organ cultures. In all cell types, structures novel to IBV infection were identified that we have termed zippered endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and spherules. Zippered ER lacked luminal space, suggesting zippering of ER cisternae, while spherules appeared as uniform invaginations of zippered ER. Electron tomography showed that IBV-induced spherules are tethered to the zippered ER and that there is a channel connecting the interior of the spherule with the cytoplasm, a feature thought to be necessary for sites of RNA synthesis but not seen previously for membrane rearrangements induced by coronaviruses. We also identified DMVs in IBV-infected cells that were observed as single individual DMVs or were connected to the ER via their outer membrane but not to the zippered ER. Interestingly, IBV-induced spherules strongly resemble confirmed sites of RNA synthesis for alphaviruses, nodaviruses, and bromoviruses, which may indicate similar strategies of IBV and these diverse viruses for the assembly of RNA replication complexes. IMPORTANCE All positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses induce rearranged cellular membranes, providing a platform for viral replication complex assembly and protecting viral RNA from cellular defenses. We have studied the membrane rearrangements induced by an important poultry pathogen, the gammacoronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). Previous work studying closely related betacoronaviruses identified double-membrane vesicles (DMVs) and convoluted membranes (CMs) derived from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in infected cells. However, the role of DMVs and CMs in viral RNA synthesis remains unclear because these sealed vesicles lack a means of delivering viral RNA to the cytoplasm. Here, we characterized structures novel to IBV infection: zippered ER and small vesicles tethered to the zippered ER termed spherules. Significantly, spherules contain a channel connecting their interior to the cytoplasm and strongly resemble confirmed sites of RNA synthesis for other positive-sense RNA viruses, making them ideal candidates for the site of IBV RNA synthesis.
Maier, Helena J.; Hawes, Philippa C.; Cottam, Eleanor M.; Mantell, Judith; Verkade, Paul; Monaghan, Paul; Wileman, Tom; Britton, Paul
Freshwater quality criteria for iron (Fe), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) were developed with particular reference to aquatic biota in Malaysia, and based on USEPA's guidelines. Acute toxicity tests were performed on eight different freshwater domestic species in Malaysia which were Macrobrachium lanchesteri (prawn), two fish: Poecilia reticulata and Rasbora sumatrana, Melanoides tuberculata (snail), Stenocypris major (ostracod), Chironomus javanus (midge larvae), Nais elinguis (annelid), and Duttaphrynus melanostictus (tadpole) to determine 96 h LC(50) values for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn. The final acute value (FAV) for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn were 74.5, 17.0, 165, and 304.9 ?g L(-1), respectively. Using an estimated acute-to-chronic ratio (ACR) of 8.3, the value for final chronic value (FCV) was derived. Based on FAV and FCV, a criterion maximum concentration (CMC) and a criterion continuous concentration (CCC) for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn that are 37.2, 8.5, 82.5, and 152.4 ?g?L(-1) and 9.0, 2.0, 19.9, and 36.7 ?g?L(-1), respectively, were derived. The results of this study provide useful data for deriving national or local water quality criteria for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn based on aquatic biota in Malaysia. Based on LC(50) values, this study indicated that N. elinguis, M. lanchesteri, N. elinguis, and R. sumatrana were the most sensitive to Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn, respectively. PMID:22919358
Shuhaimi-Othman, M; Nadzifah, Y; Nur-Amalina, R; Umirah, N S
This project investigated the feasibility of using sewage sludge to culture microalgae ( Chlorella-HKBU) and their subsequent usage as feeds for rearing different organisms. Part II of the project evaluated the results of applying the sludge-grown algae to feed Oreochromis mossambicus (fish), Macrobrachium hainenese (shrimp), and Moina macrocopa (cladocera). In general, the yields of the cultivated organisms were unsatisfactory when they were fed the sludge-grown algae directly. The body weights of O. mossambicus and M. macrocopa dropped 21% and 37%, respectively, although there was a slight increase (4.4%) in M. hainenese. However, when feeding the algal-fed cladocerans to fish and shrimp, the body weights of the fish and shrimp were increased 7% and 11% accordingly. Protein contents of the cultivated organisms were comparable to the control diet, although they contained a rather high amount of heavy metals. When comparing absolute heavy metal contents in the cultivated organisms, the following order was observed: alga > cladocera > shrimp, fish > sludge extracts. Bioelimination of heavy metals may account for the decreasing heavy metal concentrations in higher trophic organisms.
2,4-Dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) is known as an important chemical intermediate and an environmental endocrine disruptor. There is no paper dealing with the predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) of 2,4-DCP, mainly due to shortage of chronic and site-specific toxicity data. In the present study, toxicity data was obtained from the tests using six Chinese native aquatic species. The HC(5) (hazardous concentration for 5% of species) was derived based on the constructed species sensitivity distribution (SSD), which was compared with that derived from literature toxicity data of non-native species. For invertebrates, the survival no-observed effect concentrations (NOECs) were 0.05 and 1.00 mg L(-1) for Macrobrachium superbum and Corbicula fluminea, respectively. NOECs based on fishes' growth were 0.10, 0.20 and 0.40 mg L(-1) for Mylopharyngodon piceus, Plagiognathops microlepis and Erythroculter ilishaeformis, respectively. For aquatic plant Soirodela polyrhiza, NOEC based on concentration of chlorophyll was 1.00 mg L(-1). A final PNEC calculated using the SSD approach with a 50% certainty based on different taxa ranged between 0.008 and 0.045 mg L(-1). There is no significant difference between HC(5) derived from native and that from non-native taxa. PMID:21543105
The presence of DDT and derivatives in the food web of freshwater ecosystems of Rangsit agricultural area, Pathum Thani Province, Thailand were investigated from June 2004 to May 2007. By using gas chromatography (GC) with micro electron capture detector (? ECD), DDT and derivatives in water, sediment, and fifteen indicator species i.e., 2 producers; Eichhornia crassipes and plankton (phyto- and zoo- plankton), an herbivore; Trichogaster microlepis (3) 3 omnivores; Trichogaster trichopterus, Oreochromis niloticus, and Puntius gonionotus, 6 carnivores; Channa striatus, Oxyeleotris marmoratus, Macrognathus siamensis, Parambassis siamensis, Anabas testudineus, and Pristolepis fasciatus, and 3 detritivores; Macrobrachium lanchesteri, Pomacea sp., and Filopaludina mertensi were measured. Results show low concentration levels (part per billion) of DDT & derivatives in each food web compartment i.e. water, sediment, aquatic plant, plankton, fish, and invertebrates. Magnification patterns, i.e. bioconcentration, bioaccumulation, and biomagnification, based on habitat and foraging behavior of selected freshwater species indicates that DDT & derivatives can accumulate and be magnified through the food chain from the lowest up to the highest trophic level. Therefore, the presence of residues and the evidence of magnification patterns can be observed as ecological indicators for evaluating ecological health risk.
Siriwong, W.; Thirakhupt, K.; Sitticharoenchai, D.; Rohitrattana, J.; Thongkongowm, P.; Borjan, M.; Robson, M.
Mangrove forests and adjacent upland freshwater swamps are important components of subsistence-based economies of Pacific islands. Mangroves provide valuable firewood (Rhizophora apiculata) and mangrove crabs (Scylla serrata); intact freshwater swamps are often used for agroforestry (e.g., taro cultivation). While these two systems are connected hydrologically via groundwater and surface flows, little information is available on how they may be biogeochemically or ecologically linked. For example, mangrove leaf litter was once thought to be an important food source for resident and transient nekton and invertebrates, but this value may have been overestimated. Instead, nutrients or allochthonous material (e.g., phytoplankton, detritus) delivered via groundwater or surface water from upland freshwater swamps may play a larger role in mangrove food webs. Understanding the linkages between these two ecologically and culturally important ecosystems will help us to understand the potential impacts of hydrological alterations that occur when roads or bridges are constructed through them. We conducted a 15N tracer study in the Yela watershed on the island of Kosrae, Federated States of Micronesia. K15NO3 was continually added at trace levels for 4 weeks to the Yela River in an upland freshwater swamp adjacent to a mangrove forest. Nitrate and ammonium pools, major primary producers, macroinvertebrates, and fish were sampled from stations 5 m upstream (freshwater swamp) and 138, 188, 213, and 313 m downstream (mangrove) from the tracer addition. Samples were collected once a week prior to, during, and after the 15N addition for a total of 6 weeks. Preliminary results revealed no significant enrichment (< 1 ‰) in the 15N isotope composition of either resident shrimp (Macrobrachium sp.) or mudskipper fish (Periophthalmus sp.). However, the 15N signature of ammonium pools was enriched 10-60 ‰ by the end of the third week. These results suggest that the tracer was present in the mangrove but was either unavailable to higher organisms or was incorporated into organic matter not utilized by shrimp or mudskippers.
An ecological survey was carried out to determine the sediment concentrations of nutrients and heavy metals and bioaccumulation of heavy metals in fish and shrimp including tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus x O. nilotica), grey mullet (Mugil cephalus), gei wai shrimp (Metapenaeus ensis) and caridean shrimp (Macrobrachium nipponensis) in the traditional tidal shrimp ponds (gei wais) of Mai Po Nature Reserve, Hong Kong. The sediments collected from the landward sites contained higher nutrient contents, as well as zinc (Zn), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni) and cadmium (Cd) than those collected from the seaward sites, but vice versa for lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg). However, the concentrations of all metals were exceptionally high in the two sites located outside the reserve, suggesting that waters from Deep Bay might be the possible source of metal contamination affecting the reserve. All metals studied seemed to accumulate in the viscera of fish. Body size was the determining factor for the accumulation of heavy metals in caridean shrimp and gei wai shrimp but not fish. Concentrations of the metals studied in tissues of grey mullet and gei wai shrimp were found to be safe for human consumption. Concentrations of Cr in tilapia whole body (0.68-1.10 mg kg(-1) wet weight) were close to or over the guideline value of 1 mg kg(-1) set by the Food Adulteration (Metallic Contamination) Regulations of Hong Kong. Tilapia flesh and small caridean shrimp collected from gei wais were contaminated by Cr and Pb but still fit for human consumption. Caution is required if large caridean shrimp is to be consumed in large amounts continuously because the concentration of Pb exceeded the maximum permitted concentration (6 mg kg(-1)). The rather high Cr concentrations in tilapia whole body should not be overlooked as the fish will serve as a food source for migratory birds visiting the site. PMID:16528597
Between 1990 and 1994, samples of three shellfish species (i.e. blue crab, Callinectes sapidus;crayfish, Procambarus acutis; and river shrimp, Macrobrachium ohionii) and 16 fish species and were collected at six sites along the lower Mississippi River by the Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality, Office of Water Resources in coordination with the US Environmental Protection Agency. The fish species included: bigmouth buffalo (Ictiobus cyanellus); blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus); carp (Cyprinus carpio); channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus); cobia (Rachycentron canadum); flathead catfish (Pylodictis olivaris); freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens); largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides); long nose gar (Lepisosteus osseus); red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus); red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus); smallmouth buffalo (Ictiobus bubalus); spotted gar (Lepisosteus oculatus); striped bass (Morone saxatilis); white bass (Morone chrysops); and white crappie (Pomoxis annularis). Organic compound and heavy metal concentrations were measured in 161 composite fish tissue samples where each composite included three to 10 individual fish. Nineteen chemicals, found at measurable levels in sample tissues, were used in calculations of lifetime excess cancer and non-cancer risks due to fish consumption. We calculated: 574 chemical-specific cancer risks; 41 total cancer risks; and 697 margins of exposure based on a consumption rate of one 8-ounce meal per week (0.032 kg/day), a body weight of 70 kg and reported cancer potency factors and reference doses. We identified nine species of concern (blue catfish, carp, channel catfish, cobia, crayfish, flathead catfish, red drum, spotted gar and striped bass) based on total cancer risk greater than 10(-4) or margin of exposure greater than 1, and whether or not samples collected in subsequent years resulted in lower risks. The compounds primarily responsible for the elevated risks were aldrin, dieldrin, alpha-benzene hexachloride, gamma-benzene hexachloride, heptachlor epoxide, arsenic and mercury. PMID:12526903
Watanabe, Karen H; Desimone, Frank W; Thiyagarajah, Arunthavarani; Hartley, William R; Hindrichs, Albert E
To better comprehend physiological adaptation to dilute media and the molecular mechanisms underlying ammonia excretion in palaemonid shrimps, we characterized the (Na+,K+)-ATPase from Macrobrachium amazonicum gills, disclosing high- (K(0.5) = 4.2+/-0.2 micromol L(-1); V = 33.9+/-1.9 U mg(-1)) and low-affinity (K(0.5) = 0.144+/-0.010 mmol L(-1); V = 232.9+/-15.3 U mg(-1)) ATP hydrolyzing sites. Stimulation by Na+ (K(0.5) = 5.5+/-0.3 mmol L(-1); V = 275.1+/-15.1 U mg(-1)), Mg2+ (K(0.5) = 0.79+/-0.06 mmol L(-1); V = 261.9+/-18.3 U mg(-1)), K+ (K(M) = 0.88+/-0.04 mmol L(-1); V = 271.8+/-10.9 U mg(-1)) and NH4(+) (K(M) = 5.0+/-0.2 mmol L(-1); V = 385.9+/-15.8 U mg(-1)) obeys single saturation curves, activity being stimulated synergistically by NH4(+) and K+. There is a single K+ binding site, NH4(+) binding to a second, exclusive site, stimulating activity by 33%, modulating K+ affinity. (Na+,K+)-ATPase activity constitutes approximately 80% of total ATPase activity (K(Iouabain) = 147.5+/-8.9 micromol L(-1)); Na+-, K+-, Ca2+-, V- and F(o)F(1)-ATPases are also present. M. amazonicum microsomal fractions possess approximately 2-fold less (Na+,K+)-ATPase alpha-subunit than M. olfersi, consistent with a 2.6-fold lower specific activity. These differences in (Na+, K+)-ATPase stimulation by ATP and ions, and specific activities of other ATPases, suggest the presence of distinct biochemical adaptations to life in fresh water in these related species. PMID:17521934
Santos, L C F; Belli, N M; Augusto, A; Masui, D C; Leone, F A; McNamara, J C; Furriel, R P M
We investigate extra- and intracellular osmoregulatory capability in two species of hololimnetic Caridea and Anomura: Macrobrachium brasiliense, a palaemonid shrimp, and Aegla franca, an aeglid anomuran, both restricted to continental waters. We also appraise the sharing of physiological characteristics by the hololimnetic Decapoda, and their origins and role in the conquest of fresh water. Both species survive salinity exposure well. While overall hyperosmoregulatory capability is weak in A. franca and moderate in M. brasiliense, both species strongly hyporegulate hemolymph [Cl(-)] but not osmolality. Muscle total free amino acids (FAA) increase slowly but markedly in response to the rapid rise in hemolymph osmolality consequent to hyperosmotic challenge: 3.5-fold in A. franca and 1.9-fold in M. brasiliense. Glycine, taurine, arginine, alanine and proline constitute ?85% of muscle FAA pools in fresh water; taurine, arginine, alanine each contribute ?22% in A. franca, while glycine predominates (70%) in M. brasiliense. These FAA also show the greatest increases on salinity challenge. Muscle FAA titers correlate strongly (R = 0.82) with hemolymph osmolalities across the main decapod sub/infraorders, revealing that marine species with high hemolymph osmolalities achieve isosmoticity of the intra- and extracellular fluids partly through elevated intracellular FAA concentrations; freshwater species show low hemolymph osmolalities and exhibit reduced intracellular FAA titers, consistent with isosmoticity at a far lower external osmolality. Given the decapod phylogeny adopted here and their multiple, independent invasions of fresh water, particularly by the Caridea and Anomura, our findings suggest that homoplastic strategies underlie osmotic and ionic homeostasis in the extant freshwater Decapoda. PMID:20981550
de Faria, Samuel Coelho; Augusto, Alessandra Silva; McNamara, John Campbell
Decapod crustaceans occupy various aquatic habitats. In freshwater they are osmoregulators, while marine species are typically osmoconformers. Freshwater crustaceans are derived from marine ancestors. The hypothesis tested here was that osmoregulators, which can rely on salt transport by interface epithelia to prevent extracellular disturbance, would have a lower capacity of tissue water regulation when compared with osmoconformers. Four species of decapod crustaceans (the marine osmoconformer crab Hepatus pudibundus, and three osmoregulators of different habitats) have been exposed in vivo to a salinity challenge, for up to 24 hr. Osmoregulators were: the estuarine shrimp Palaemon pandaliformis, the diadromous freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium acanthurus, and the hololimnetic red crab Dilocarcinus pagei. H. pudibundus displayed hemolymph dilution already after 0.5 hr in 25 per thousand, reaching approximately 30% reduction in osmolality, but its muscle degree of hydration did not increase. To make the different in vivo salinity challenges directly comparable, the ratio between the maximum change in muscle hydration with respect to the control value measured for the species and the maximum change in hemolymph osmolality was calculated (x 1,000): H. pudibundus (25 per thousand, 8.1% kg H(2)O/mOsm x 10(3))>P. pandaliformis (2 per thousand, 9.2)>M. acanthurus (30 per thousand, 12.6)>P. pandaliformis (35 per thousand, 16.7)>D. pagei (7 per thousand, 60.4). Muscle slices submitted in vitro to a 30% osmotic challenge confirmed in vivo results. Thus, the estuarine/freshwater osmoregulators displayed a lower capacity to hold muscle tissue water than the marine osmoconformer, despite undergoing narrower variations in hemolymph osmolality. PMID:19844979
Foster, Clarice; Amado, Enelise M; Souza, Marta M; Freire, Carolina A
The study was performed using a silicon surface barrier alpha spectrometer at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India. Through the study, the observed (210)Po activity in water sample from different locations in the Domiasiat area ranges from 0.04 to 0.69 Bq/l. The daily and annual intake of (210)Po through water was also estimated and the mean value of 0.72 and 263.61 Bq, respectively, were observed. It is observed that the effective doses through water were higher than the World Health Organization recommended dose of 0.05 mSv/year. The total annual effective doses through terrestrial ingestion for all the locations was studied and the mean annual effective dose was observed to be 0.315 mSv, which, when compared to the worldwide and the Indian values, was observed to be slightly higher. The mean activity in soil is found to be 124.8 +/-5.7 Bq/kg and in meat the activity is 0.43 +/-0.05 Bq/kg. In fishes, an activity of 0.48 +/-0.07 Bq/kg in Garra lamta, 0.29 +/-0.02 Bq/kg in Neolissocheilus hexaganolepis, and 3.3 +/-0.1 Bq/kg in Macrobrachium sp. is observed. Activity concentration in plant samples was analyzed and the activity ranges from 0.020 +/-0.002 to 9.69 +/-0.35 Bq/kg. Committed effective dose by the adult population of the Domiasiat area through intake of (210)Po through these food items was also determined and compared with the Indian average value and the worldwide average value. PMID:19242810