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Sample records for macrolides

  1. Pharmacokinetics of macrolides in foals.

    PubMed

    Villarino, N; Martín-Jiménez, T

    2013-02-01

    Macrolides are used for treatment of pneumonia and extrapulmonary conditions caused by Rhodococcus equi. In foals, macrolides have an extraordinary capacity to accumulate in different lung tissue compartments. These drugs show unique pharmacokinetic features such as rapid and extensive distribution and long persistence in pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (PELF) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells from foals. This article reviews the pharmacokinetic characteristics of erythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, tulathromycin, telithromycin, gamithromycin, and tilmicosin in foals, with emphasis on PELF and BAL cell concentrations. PMID:23082900

  2. Pharmacokinetic drug interactions of macrolides.

    PubMed

    Periti, P; Mazzei, T; Mini, E; Novelli, A

    1992-08-01

    The macrolide antibiotics include natural members, prodrugs and semisynthetic derivatives. These drugs are indicated in a variety of infections and are often combined with other drug therapies, thus creating the potential for pharmacokinetic interactions. Macrolides can both inhibit drug metabolism in the liver by complex formation and inactivation of microsomal drug oxidising enzymes and also interfere with microorganisms of the enteric flora through their antibiotic effects. Over the past 20 years, a number of reports have incriminated macrolides as a potential source of clinically severe drug interactions. However, differences have been found between the various macrolides in this regard and not all macrolides are responsible for drug interactions. With the recent advent of many semisynthetic macrolide antibiotics it is now evident that they may be classified into 3 different groups in causing drug interactions. The first group (e.g. troleandomycin, erythromycins) are those prone to forming nitrosoalkanes and the consequent formation of inactive cytochrome P450-metabolite complexes. The second group (e.g. josamycin, flurithromycin, roxithromycin, clarithromycin, miocamycin and midecamycin) form complexes to a lesser extent and rarely produce drug interactions. The last group (e.g. spiramycin, rokitamycin, dirithromycin and azithromycin) do not inactivate cytochrome P450 and are unable to modify the pharmacokinetics of other compounds. It appears that 2 structural factors are important for a macrolide antibiotic to lead to the induction of cytochrome P450 and the formation in vivo or in vitro of an inhibitory cytochrome P450-iron-nitrosoalkane metabolite complex: the presence in the macrolide molecules of a non-hindered readily accessible N-dimethylamino group and the hydrophobic character of the drug. Troleandomycin ranks first as a potent inhibitor of microsomal liver enzymes, causing a significant decrease of the metabolism of methylprednisolone, theophylline

  3. Immunomodulatory effect of macrolides: At what cost?

    PubMed Central

    Kipourou, Maria; Manika, Katerina; Papavasileiou, Apostolos; Pitsiou, Georgia; Lada, Martha; Ntinapogias, Evangelos; Kioumis, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a 60-year old female patient, with a 10 year history of non-CF bronchiectasis and use of macrolides as maintenance immunomodulatory treatment, who was diagnosed with macrolide-resistant Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease. Macrolides' immunomodulatory effect is appealing for non- CF bronchiectasis patients, hiding a high risk for resistance emergence. PMID:27222784

  4. Macrolide resistance in Streptococcus species

    PubMed Central

    Ilakkiya, A.; Parveen, Shabana; Kumar, C. Naveen; Swathi, S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Streptococci are Gram-positive spherical bacteria (cocci) that characteristically form pairs and chains during growth. Some macrolide-resistant bacteria lack the proper receptor on the ribosome (through methylation of the rRNA). This may be under plasmid or chromosomal control. Aim and Objectives: The aim was to study the prevalence of macrolide resistance among the isolate and evaluate the degree of resistance by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method. And also to detect the phenotypic pattern of macrolide resistance. Materials and Methods: All age group attending general medicine OPD and pediatric OPD with symptoms of respiratory and pyogenic infections are included in the study. Various samples are collected with detailed case history and processed for macrolide resistance among beta hemolytic Streptococci MIC method and D-test. Results: According to our studies resistance pattern in Group A Streptococci by D-test, cMLS was 27.85%, iMLS was 13.92%, M-type was 55.69%, in GCS, cMLS was 17.6%, M-type was 82.35% In GGS, cMLS was 31.58%, iMLS was 10.53% and M-type was 57.89%. Conclusions: Therefore by this study, we would like to highlight the necessity to do antibiotic sensitivity testing for all isolates, and limit the usage of antibiotics, whenever necessary and select the appropriate antibiotics for resistant strains. PMID:26015727

  5. Increase in Pneumococcus Macrolide Resistance, United States

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, David J.

    2009-01-01

    During year 6 (2005–2006) of the Prospective Resistant Organism Tracking and Epidemiology for the Ketolide Telithromycin surveillance study, 6,747 Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates were collected at 119 centers. The susceptibility of these isolates to macrolides was compared with data from previous years. Macrolide resistance increased significantly in year 6 (35.3%) from the stable rate of ≈30% for the previous 3 years (p<0.0001). Macrolide resistance increased in all regions of the United States and for all patient age groups. Rates were highest in the south and for children 0–2 years of age. Lower-level efflux [mef(A)]–mediated macrolide resistance decreased in prevalence to ≈50%, and highly resistant [erm(B) + mef(A)] strains increased to 25%. Telithromycin and levofloxacin susceptibility rates were >99% and >98%, respectively, irrespective of genotype. Pneumococcal macrolide resistance in the United States showed its first significant increase since 2000. High-level macrolide resistance is also increasing. PMID:19751588

  6. Natural and acquired macrolide resistance in mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Doucet-Populaire, F; Buriánková, K; Weiser, J; Pernodet, J-L

    2002-12-01

    The genus Mycobacterium contains two of the most important human pathogens, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae, the etiologic agents of tuberculosis and leprosy, respectively. Other mycobacteria are mostly saprophytic organisms, living in soil and water, but some of them can cause opportunistic infections. The increasing incidence of tuberculosis as well as infections with non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in AIDS patients has renewed interest in molecular mechanisms of drug resistance in these pathogens. Mycobacteria show a high degree of intrinsic resistance to most common antibiotics. For instance, species from the M. tuberculosis complex (MTC) are intrinsically resistant to macrolides. Nevertheless, some semi-synthetic macrolides as the erythromycin derivatives clarithromycin, azithromycin and most recently the ketolides, are active against NTM, particularly Mycobacterium avium, and some of them are widely used for infection treatment. However, shortly after the introduction of these new drugs, resistant strains appeared due to mutations in the macrolide target, the ribosome. The mycobacterial cell wall with its specific composition and structure is considered to be a major factor in promoting the natural resistance of mycobacteria to various antibiotics. However, to explain the difference in macrolide sensitivity between the MTC and NTM, the synergistic contribution of a specific resistance mechanism might be required, in addition to possible differences in cell wall permeability. This mini-review summarizes the current knowledge on the natural and acquired macrolide resistance in mycobacteria, gives an overview of potential mechanisms implicated in the intrinsic resistance and brings recent data concerning a macrolide resistance determinant in the MTC. PMID:12570741

  7. Macrolide antibacterials. Drug interactions of clinical significance.

    PubMed

    von Rosensteil, N A; Adam, D

    1995-08-01

    Macrolide antibiotics can interact adversely with commonly used drugs, usually by altering metabolism due to complex formation and inhibition of cytochrome P-450 IIIA4 (CYP3A4) in the liver and enterocytes. In addition, pharmacokinetic drug interactions with macrolides can result from their antibiotic effect on microorganisms of the enteric flora, and through enhanced gastric emptying due to a motilin-like effect. Macrolides may be classified into 3 different groups according to their affinity for CYP3A4, and thus their propensity to cause pharmacokinetic drug interactions. Troleandomycin, erythromycin and its prodrugs decrease drug metabolism and may produce drug interactions (group 1). Others, including clarithromycin, flurithromycin, midecamycin, midecamycin acetate (miocamycin; ponsinomycin), josamycin and roxithromycin (group 2) rarely cause interactions. Azithromycin, dirithromycin, rikamycin and spiramycin (group 3) do not inactivate CYP3A4 and do not engender these adverse effects. Drug interactions with carbamazepine, cyclosporin, terfenadine, astemizole and theophylline represent the most frequently encountered interactions with macrolide antibiotics. If the combination of a macrolide and one of these compounds cannot be avoided, serum concentrations of concurrently administered drugs should be monitored and patients observed for signs of toxicity. Rare interactions and those of dubious clinical importance are those with alfentanil and sufentanil, antacids and cimetidine, oral anticoagulants, bromocriptine, clozapine, oral contraceptive steroids, digoxin, disopyramide, ergot alkaloids, felodipine, glibenclamide (glyburide), levodopa/carbidopa, lovastatin, methylprednisolone, phenazone (antipyrine), phenytoin, rifabutin and rifampicin (rifampin), triazolam and midazolam, valproic acid (sodium valproate) and zidovudine. PMID:7576262

  8. Recent advances in the field of 16-membered macrolide antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Cui, W; Ma, S

    2011-10-01

    The continuing emergence of bacterial resistance has provided an incentive for recent intensified research on macrolide antibiotics. Belonging to the macrolide family, 16-membered macrolides also experience a renewed interest in further exploration. The medicinal potential of 16-membered macrolides in search for new antibacterials stems from some advantages over 14-membered macrolides, such as gastrointestinal tolerability, structural flexibility, and lack of inducible resistance. Thus, compared with abundant articles on various 14-membered macrolide derivatives in the literature, this review will highlight some representative 16-membered macrolide antibiotics and their recently discovered analogs. Furthermore, the action and resistance mechanisms of 16-membered macrolide antibiotics will be elucidated as well to assist the drug design. PMID:21861810

  9. Macrolide-Resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae, United States.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiaotian; Lee, Stella; Selvarangan, Rangaraj; Qin, Xuan; Tang, Yi-Wei; Stiles, Jeffrey; Hong, Tao; Todd, Kathleen; Ratliff, Amy E; Crabb, Donna M; Xiao, Li; Atkinson, T Prescott; Waites, Ken B

    2015-08-01

    Macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MRMP) is highly prevalent in Asia and is now being reported from Europe. Few data on MRMP are available in the United States. Using genotypic and phenotypic methods, we detected high-level MRMP in 13.2% of 91 M. pneumoniae--positive specimens from 6 US locations. PMID:26196107

  10. In vitro subminimum inhibitory concentrations of macrolide antibiotics induce macrolide resistance in Mycoplasma pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Ou, G; Liu, Y; Tang, Y; You, X; Zeng, Y; Xiao, J; Chen, L; Yu, M; Wang, M; Zhu, C

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study aims to investigate the inducing effect of subminimum inhibitory concentrations of macrolide antibiotics on Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) resistance to drugs. Materials and Methods: One M. pneumoniae reference strain M129 (ATCC 29342) and 104 clinical isolates were incubated at 37C for 6-8 days. Genomic DNA of M. pneumoniae was extracted using TIANamp Bacteria DNA kit and amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: Ten sensitive isolates obtained from 104 M. pneumoniae clinical isolates were induced by subminimum inhibitory concentrations of macrolide antibiotics. Among them, three were found to possess mutations in L4 and L22 ribosomal proteins. Two cases carried simultaneously the C162A and A430G mutations of L4 and the T279C mutation of L22. In addition, one case had only the A209T mutation of L4. Conclusions: Repeated in vitro exposure to subminimum inhibitory concentrations of macrolide antibiotics could induce selective mutations in ribosomal genes of M. pneumoniae clinical isolates that cause resistance to macrolide antibiotics. Hippokratia 2015, 19 (1): 57-62. PMID:26435649

  11. Trichomycin B, a polyene macrolide from Streptomyces.

    PubMed

    Komori, T

    1990-07-01

    Two polyene macrolide, trichomycins A and B, were compared by physico-chemical and microbiological methods. The two antibiotics were found to have the same molecular formula, C58H84N2O18 (MW 1,096), by elemental analysis and FAB-MS. However, 1H and 13C NMR spectrometry studies indicated that the hydroxyl at C-5 of trichomycin A located on C-9 in trichomycin B. Trichomycin B possessed lower activities against fungi and yeasts than those of trichomycin A. PMID:2387771

  12. Macrolide Resistance in the Syphilis Spirochete, Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum: Can We Also Expect Macrolide-Resistant Yaws Strains?

    PubMed

    Šmajs, David; Paštěková, Lenka; Grillová, Linda

    2015-10-01

    Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum (TPA) causes over 10 million new cases of syphilis worldwide whereas T. pallidum ssp. pertenue (TPE), the causative agent of yaws, affects about 2.5 million people. Although penicillin remains the drug of choice in the treatment of syphilis, in penicillin-allergic patients, macrolides have been used in this indication since the 1950s. Failures of macrolides in syphilis treatment have been well documented in the literature and since 2000, there has been a dramatic increase in a number of clinical samples with macrolide-resistant TPA. Scarce data regarding the genetics of macrolide-resistant mutations in TPA suggest that although macrolide-resistance mutations have emerged independently several times, the increase in the proportion of TPA strains resistant to macrolides is mainly due to the spread of resistant strains, especially in developed countries. The emergence of macrolide resistance in TPA appears to require a two-step process including either A2058G or A2059G mutation in one copy of the 23S rRNA gene and a subsequent gene conversion unification of both rRNA genes. Given the enormous genetic similarity that was recently revealed between TPA and TPE strains, there is a low but reasonable risk of emergence and spread of macrolide-resistant yaws strains following azithromycin treatment. PMID:26217043

  13. Macrolide Antibiotics and the Risk of Cardiac Arrhythmias

    PubMed Central

    Schuller, Joseph L.

    2014-01-01

    Randomized, controlled trials have demonstrated that chronic therapy with macrolide antibiotics reduces the morbidity of patients with cystic fibrosis, non–cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and nontuberculous mycobacterial infections. Lower levels of evidence indicate that chronic macrolides are also effective in treating patients with panbronchiolitis, bronchiolitis obliterans, and rejection after lung transplant. Macrolides are known to cause torsade des pointes and other ventricular arrhythmias, and a recent observational study prompted the FDA to strengthen the Warnings and Precautions section of azithromycin drug labels. This summary describes the electrophysiological effects of macrolides, reviews literature indicating that the large majority of subjects experiencing cardiac arrhythmias from macrolides have coexisting risk factors and that the incidence of arrhythmias in absence of coexisting risk factors is very low, examines recently published studies describing the relative risk of arrhythmias from macrolides, and concludes that this risk has been overestimated and suggests an approach to patient evaluation that should reduce the relative risk and the incidence of arrhythmias to the point that chronic macrolides can be used safely in the majority of subjects for whom they are recommended. PMID:24707986

  14. The new macrolides. Azithromycin and clarithromycin.

    PubMed Central

    Kanatani, M S; Guglielmo, B J

    1994-01-01

    Clarithromycin and azithromycin are among the new generation of macrolides that have recently been approved for use. Compared with currently available antibiotics, these agents may be given less frequently and, in the case of azithromycin, for a shorter duration. In vitro data suggest an antimicrobial advantage of both clarithromycin and azithromycin against atypical mycobacterial and toxoplasmal species and possibly Haemophilus influenzae. The cost of both these agents is substantially higher than that of erythromycin and doxycycline, although the convenience of single-dose azithromycin is appealing compared with a 7-day course of doxycycline for chlamydial urethritis and cervicitis. These agents appear to offer advantages over erythromycin in the treatment of Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare. Additional data are needed to establish their role in other bacterial infections. PMID:8128699

  15. Pharmacokinetic interactions of the macrolide antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Ludden, T M

    1985-01-01

    The macrolide antibiotics erythromycin and triacetyloleandomycin (troleandomycin) are prescribed for many types of infections. As such they are often added to other preexisting drug therapy. Thus, there are frequent opportunities for the interaction of these antibiotics with other drugs. Both erythromycin and triacetyloleandomycin appear to have the potential to inhibit drug metabolism in the liver and also drug metabolism by micro-organisms in the gut, either through their antibiotic effect or through complex formation and inactivation of microsomal drug oxidising enzymes. Of the two agents, triacetyloleandomycin appears to be the more potent inhibitor of microsomal drug metabolism. Published studies indicate that triacetyloleandomycin can significantly decrease the metabolism of methylprednisolone, theophylline and carbamazepine. Its ability to cause ergotism in patients receiving ergot alkaloids and cholestatic jaundice in patients on oral contraceptives may also be related to its inhibitory effect on drug metabolism. Erythromycin appears to be a much weaker inhibitor of drug metabolism. There are numerous reports describing apparent interactions of erythromycin with theophylline and a lesser number of reports dealing with carbamazepine, warfarin methylprednisolone and digoxin. There are sufficient data to suggest that erythromycin can, in some individuals, inhibit the elimination of methylprednisolone, theophylline, carbamazepine and warfarin. The mean change in drug clearance is about 20 to 25% in most cases, with some patients having a much larger change than others. Like tetracycline, erythromycin also appears to have the potential for increasing the bioavailability of digoxin in patients who excrete high amounts of reduced digoxin metabolites, apparently through destruction of the gut flora that form these compounds. Concurrent administration of triacetyloleandomycin with drugs whose metabolism is known to be affected or that could potentially be affected

  16. Spectrophotometric Investigations of Macrolide Antibiotics: A Brief Review

    PubMed Central

    Keskar, Mrudul R; Jugade, Ravin M

    2015-01-01

    Macrolides, one of the most commonly used class of antibiotics, are a group of drugs produced by Streptomyces species. They belong to the polyketide class of natural products. Their activity is due to the presence of a large macrolide lactone ring with deoxy sugar moieties. They are protein synthesis inhibitors and broad-spectrum antibiotics, active against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Different analytical techniques have been reported for the determination of macrolides such as chromatographic methods, flow injection methods, spectrofluorometric methods, spectrophotometric methods, and capillary electrophoresis methods. Among these methods, spectrophotometric methods are sensitive and cost effective for the analysis of various antibiotics in pharmaceutical formulations as well as biological samples. This article reviews different spectrophotometric methods for the determination of macrolide antibiotics. PMID:26609215

  17. A platform for the discovery of new macrolide antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Seiple, Ian B; Zhang, Ziyang; Jakubec, Pavol; Langlois-Mercier, Audrey; Wright, Peter M; Hog, Daniel T; Yabu, Kazuo; Allu, Senkara Rao; Fukuzaki, Takehiro; Carlsen, Peter N; Kitamura, Yoshiaki; Zhou, Xiang; Condakes, Matthew L; Szczypiński, Filip T; Green, William D; Myers, Andrew G

    2016-05-19

    The chemical modification of structurally complex fermentation products, a process known as semisynthesis, has been an important tool in the discovery and manufacture of antibiotics for the treatment of various infectious diseases. However, many of the therapeutics obtained in this way are no longer effective, because bacterial resistance to these compounds has developed. Here we present a practical, fully synthetic route to macrolide antibiotics by the convergent assembly of simple chemical building blocks, enabling the synthesis of diverse structures not accessible by traditional semisynthetic approaches. More than 300 new macrolide antibiotic candidates, as well as the clinical candidate solithromycin, have been synthesized using our convergent approach. Evaluation of these compounds against a panel of pathogenic bacteria revealed that the majority of these structures had antibiotic activity, some efficacious against strains resistant to macrolides in current use. The chemistry we describe here provides a platform for the discovery of new macrolide antibiotics and may also serve as the basis for their manufacture. PMID:27193679

  18. A platform for the discovery of new macrolide antibiotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiple, Ian B.; Zhang, Ziyang; Jakubec, Pavol; Langlois-Mercier, Audrey; Wright, Peter M.; Hog, Daniel T.; Yabu, Kazuo; Allu, Senkara Rao; Fukuzaki, Takehiro; Carlsen, Peter N.; Kitamura, Yoshiaki; Zhou, Xiang; Condakes, Matthew L.; Szczypiński, Filip T.; Green, William D.; Myers, Andrew G.

    2016-05-01

    The chemical modification of structurally complex fermentation products, a process known as semisynthesis, has been an important tool in the discovery and manufacture of antibiotics for the treatment of various infectious diseases. However, many of the therapeutics obtained in this way are no longer effective, because bacterial resistance to these compounds has developed. Here we present a practical, fully synthetic route to macrolide antibiotics by the convergent assembly of simple chemical building blocks, enabling the synthesis of diverse structures not accessible by traditional semisynthetic approaches. More than 300 new macrolide antibiotic candidates, as well as the clinical candidate solithromycin, have been synthesized using our convergent approach. Evaluation of these compounds against a panel of pathogenic bacteria revealed that the majority of these structures had antibiotic activity, some efficacious against strains resistant to macrolides in current use. The chemistry we describe here provides a platform for the discovery of new macrolide antibiotics and may also serve as the basis for their manufacture.

  19. INVESTIGATING ENVIRONMENTAL SINKS OF MACROLIDE ANTIBIOTICS WITH ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Possible environmental sinks (wastewater effluents, biosolids, sediments) of macrolide antibiotics (i.e., azithromycin, roxithromycin and clarithromycin)are investigated using state-of-the-art analytical chemistry techniques.

  20. Clinical implications of the immunomodulatory effects of macrolides.

    PubMed

    Tamaoki, Jun; Kadota, Junichi; Takizawa, Hajime

    2004-11-01

    Macrolide antibiotics are known for their efficacy in treating acute airway infections, but just as importantly, they are also effective anti-inflammatory agents. Their anti-inflammatory properties have been studied most thoroughly in chronic inflammatory airway diseases, particularly diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB). Erythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, and roxithromycin inhibit chemotaxis and infiltration of neutrophils into the airway and, subsequently, decrease mucus secretion. Mucus formation, a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic airway inflammation, is directly inhibited by macrolides and suppressed by decreased inflammation in the airway. The mechanisms of action for the anti-inflammatory properties of the macrolides are still being investigated, but they are clearly multifactorial. Macrolides inhibit the production of many proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, perhaps by suppressing the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB or activator protein-1. Inhibition of cytokine production has been seen in vitro and also in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, which contains less IL-8 and fewer neutrophils after treatment with macrolides. Macrolides also inhibit formation of leukotriene B4, which attracts neutrophils, and inhibit the release of superoxide anion by neutrophils that may be present in the airway. An important aspect of inflammation is extravasation of neutrophils into the tissues. Macrolides block formation of adhesion molecules necessary for neutrophil migration. Together, these anti-inflammatory effects result in improved pulmonary functions and fewer airway infections. In patients with DPB, the anti-inflammatory effects lead to a significant increase in survival. Further work is needed to characterize the clinical benefits of macrolides in patients with other chronic inflammatory airway diseases. PMID:15586558

  1. Recent progress regarding the bioactivities, biosynthesis and synthesis of naturally occurring resorcinolic macrolides

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jing; Jiang, Cheng-shi; Zhang, Zai-long; Ma, Wen-quan; Guo, Yue-wei

    2014-01-01

    Macrolides, which comprise a family of lactones with different ring sizes, belong to the polyketide class of natural products. Resorcinolic macrolides, an important subgroup, possess interesting structures and exhibit a wide variety of bioactivities, such as anti-tumor, anti-bacteria, and anti-malaria activities, etc. This review summarizes progress in isolation, bioactivity studies, biosynthesis, and representative chemical syntheses of this group of macrolides in recent decades, encompassing 63 naturally occurring macrolides published in 120 articles. PMID:24464049

  2. Macrolide therapy for chronic rhinosinusitis: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pynnonen, Melissa A.; Venkatraman, Giri; Davis, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to systematically review patient reported outcomes of long term macrolide therapy, compared with any other treatment, for adults with chronic rhinosinusitis. Data Sources Embase and PubMed databases were searched in October, 2011. Review Methods A total of 1216 citations were screened initially by a single author, 23 full text manuscripts were evaluated by 2 authors using structured data abstraction forms to assess for inclusion criteria and study quality, and 3 studies were included in the final review. Results This review finds that there are 3 prospective clinical studies which evaluate the effect of macrolide therapy for chronic rhinosinusitis. Based on the limited data, there is limited scientific evidence to support the use of long term macrolide therapy for chronic rhinosinusitis. Conclusion Further clinical research is needed to determine whether there may be a subgroup effect based on the underlying inflammatory disease process. PMID:23314162

  3. Macrolides for Acute Wheezing Episodes in Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Blake, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    The National Asthma Education and Prevention Program's Expert Panel Report 3, Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma does not recommend antibiotics for the management of acute episodes of asthma exacerbation. Macrolides seem to have some potential effect beyond or in addition to their antibacterial effect. It has been reported that macrolides may potentially benefit patients with chronic inflammatory airway diseases due to their antibacterial, antiviral, and/or anti-inflammatory effects. This review presents recent data on use of azithromycin in prevention and management of acute exacerbation of respiratory symptoms in infants and young children. PMID:27458539

  4. Synthesis of a dimethylfuran-containing macrolide insect pheromone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grignard chemistry was utilized to construct a key trisubstituted furan intermediate (3,4-dimethyl-2-[5-(tetrahydroppyran-2-yloxy)pentyl]furan) from 2,3-dimethylbutenolide, prepared via a Reformatsky route. The carbon skeleton of the macrolide pheromone also requires construction of a propionic aci...

  5. Synthesis of a dimethylfuran-containing macrolide insect pheromone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The synthetic pathway to the furan-containing macrolide pheromone of Galerucella beetles was shortened from 13 steps in the original synthesis to 10 steps, and the overall yield was increased greater than six fold. A concise Reformatsky-based sequence of reactions was utilized to construct the key ...

  6. Macrolide-Resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae, United States1

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Stella; Selvarangan, Rangaraj; Qin, Xuan; Tang, Yi-Wei; Stiles, Jeffrey; Hong, Tao; Todd, Kathleen; Ratliff, Amy E.; Crabb, Donna M.; Xiao, Li; Atkinson, T. Prescott; Waites, Ken B.

    2015-01-01

    Macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MRMP) is highly prevalent in Asia and is now being reported from Europe. Few data on MRMP are available in the United States. Using genotypic and phenotypic methods, we detected high-level MRMP in 13.2% of 91 M. pneumoniae­–positive specimens from 6 US locations. PMID:26196107

  7. Improved Synthesis of a Dimethylfuran-Containing Macrolide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The synthetic pathway to the furan-containing macrolide pheromone of Galerucella beetles was shortened from 13 steps in the original synthesis to 10 steps, and the overall yield was increased greater than six fold. A concise Reformatsky-based sequence of reactions was utilized to construct the key ...

  8. Mycoplasma pneumoniae: Current Knowledge on Macrolide Resistance and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Pereyre, Sabine; Goret, Julien; Bébéar, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae causes community-acquired respiratory tract infections, particularly in school-aged children and young adults. These infections occur both endemically and epidemically worldwide. M. pneumoniae lacks cell wall and is subsequently resistant to beta-lactams and to all antimicrobials targeting the cell wall. This mycoplasma is intrinsically susceptible to macrolides and related antibiotics, to tetracyclines and to fluoroquinolones. Macrolides and related antibiotics are the first-line treatment of M. pneumoniae respiratory tract infections mainly because of their low MIC against the bacteria, their low toxicity and the absence of contraindication in young children. The newer macrolides are now the preferred agents with a 7-to-14 day course of oral clarithromycin or a 5-day course of oral azithromycin for treatment of community-acquired pneumonia due to M. pneumoniae, according to the different guidelines worldwide. However, macrolide resistance has been spreading for 15 years worldwide, with prevalence now ranging between 0 and 15% in Europe and the USA, approximately 30% in Israel and up to 90-100% in Asia. This resistance is associated with point mutations in the peptidyl-transferase loop of the 23S rRNA and leads to high-level resistance to macrolides. Macrolide resistance-associated mutations can be detected using several molecular methods applicable directly from respiratory specimens. Because this resistance has clinical outcomes such as longer duration of fever, cough and hospital stay, alternative antibiotic treatment can be required, including tetracyclines such as doxycycline and minocycline or fluoroquinolones, primarily levofloxacin, during 7-14 days, even though fluoroquinolones and tetracyclines are contraindicated in all children and in children < 8 year-old, respectively. Acquired resistance to tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones has never been reported in M. pneumoniae clinical isolates but reduced susceptibility was reported in in

  9. Mycoplasma pneumoniae: Current Knowledge on Macrolide Resistance and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Pereyre, Sabine; Goret, Julien; Bébéar, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae causes community-acquired respiratory tract infections, particularly in school-aged children and young adults. These infections occur both endemically and epidemically worldwide. M. pneumoniae lacks cell wall and is subsequently resistant to beta-lactams and to all antimicrobials targeting the cell wall. This mycoplasma is intrinsically susceptible to macrolides and related antibiotics, to tetracyclines and to fluoroquinolones. Macrolides and related antibiotics are the first-line treatment of M. pneumoniae respiratory tract infections mainly because of their low MIC against the bacteria, their low toxicity and the absence of contraindication in young children. The newer macrolides are now the preferred agents with a 7-to-14 day course of oral clarithromycin or a 5-day course of oral azithromycin for treatment of community-acquired pneumonia due to M. pneumoniae, according to the different guidelines worldwide. However, macrolide resistance has been spreading for 15 years worldwide, with prevalence now ranging between 0 and 15% in Europe and the USA, approximately 30% in Israel and up to 90–100% in Asia. This resistance is associated with point mutations in the peptidyl-transferase loop of the 23S rRNA and leads to high-level resistance to macrolides. Macrolide resistance-associated mutations can be detected using several molecular methods applicable directly from respiratory specimens. Because this resistance has clinical outcomes such as longer duration of fever, cough and hospital stay, alternative antibiotic treatment can be required, including tetracyclines such as doxycycline and minocycline or fluoroquinolones, primarily levofloxacin, during 7–14 days, even though fluoroquinolones and tetracyclines are contraindicated in all children and in children < 8 year-old, respectively. Acquired resistance to tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones has never been reported in M. pneumoniae clinical isolates but reduced susceptibility was reported

  10. Past, present and future of macrolide therapy for chronic rhinosinusitis in Japan.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Takeshi; Suzaki, Harumi

    2016-04-01

    In 1984, the effectiveness of low-dose, long-term erythromycin treatment (macrolide therapy) for diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB) was first reported in Japan. The 5-year survival rate for DPB improved from 62.9 to 91.4% after implementation of macrolide therapy. The usefulness of this treatment has since been demonstrated in patients with other chronic airway diseases, such as chronic bronchitis, cystic fibrosis, bronchiectasis, bronchial asthma, and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). The new 14-membered macrolides clarithromycin and roxithromycin and the 15-membered macrolide azithromycin are also effective for treating these inflammatory diseases. The mechanism of action of the 14- and 15-membered macrolides may involve anti-inflammatory rather than anti-bacterial activities. Macrolide therapy is now widely used for the treatment of CRS in Japan; it is particularly effective for treating neutrophil-associated CRS and is useful for suppressing mucus hypersecretion. However, macrolide therapy is not effective for eosinophil-predominant CRS, which is characterized by serum and tissue eosinophilia, high serum IgE levels, multiple polyposis, and bronchial asthma. Recent reports have described the clinical efficacy of macrolides in treating other inflammatory diseases and new biological activities (e.g., anti-viral). New macrolide derivatives exhibiting anti-inflammatory but not anti-bacterial activity thus have therapeutic potential as immunomodulatory drugs. The history, current state, and future perspectives of macrolide therapy for treating CRS in Japan will be discussed in this review. PMID:26441370

  11. Prevalence and molecular analysis of macrolide-resistant Moraxella catarrhalis clinical isolates in Japan, following emergence of the highly macrolide-resistant strain NSH1 in 2011.

    PubMed

    Kasai, Ayako; Ogihara, Shinji; Yamada, Kageto; Tanimichi, Yumiko; Nishiyama, Hiroyuki; Saito, Ryoichi

    2015-07-01

    Although Moraxella catarrhalis is known to be susceptible to macrolides, highly macrolide-resistant M. catarrhalis isolates have recently been reported in Japan and China. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of macrolide-resistant M. catarrhalis isolates in Tokyo and Chiba, Japan, and studied the mechanisms underlying their resistance. Specifically, we determined the susceptibility of 593 clinical isolates (collected between December 2011 and May 2014) to erythromycin, using the disk diffusion method. For isolates with erythromycin resistance, we identified the MICs of seven antimicrobial agents, including macrolides, and used PFGE to analyse the clonal spread. We also performed sequencing analysis to investigate macrolide-resistance targets. Thirteen isolates (2.2 %) were found to be resistant to erythromycin, showing a high MIC90 to erythromycin, clarithromycin, clindamycin and azithromycin. However, those isolates, in addition to 156 randomly selected erythromycin-susceptible strains, were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanate, cefixime and levofloxacin. The 13 highly macrolide-resistant isolates were classified into 10 clades and harboured three or four A2058T-mutated 23S rRNA alleles. Three highly macrolide-resistant isolates also exhibited mutations in ribosomal proteins L4 (V27A and R161C) and L22 (K68T). To the best of our knowledge, we have demonstrated for the first time that, whilst the prevalence of macrolide-resistant M. catarrhalis isolates is low in clinical settings in Japan, genetically diverse isolates with high-level macrolide resistance due to the acquisition of an A2058T mutation in the 23S rRNA have already spread. Our study therefore lays the basis for epidemiological studies of macrolide-resistant M. catarrhalis clinical isolates. PMID:25934551

  12. Part VII. Macrolides, azalides, ketolides, lincosamides, and streptogramins.

    PubMed

    Dang, Van; Nanda, Neha; Cooper, Travis W; Greenfield, Ronald A; Bronze, Michael S

    2007-03-01

    In this article we describe antimicrobials that are grouped by their similar mechanism of action, namely inhibition of protein synthesis at the bacterial 50S ribosomal subunit. Macrolides, azalides, and ketolides are primarily used to treat community acquired respiratory tract infections. A lincosamide antibiotic, clindamycin, is primarily used to treat anaerobic infections. A combination of streptogramins, quinupristin/dalfopristin, is used to treat infections due to multiple drug resistant Gram positive cocci. PMID:17432033

  13. Sequence selectivity of macrolide-induced translational attenuation

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Amber R.; Gohara, David W.; Yap, Mee-Ngan F.

    2014-01-01

    The prevailing “plug-in-the-bottle” model suggests that macrolide antibiotics inhibit translation by binding inside the ribosome tunnel and indiscriminately arresting the elongation of every nascent polypeptide after the synthesis of six to eight amino acids. To test this model, we performed a genome-wide analysis of translation in azithromycin-treated Staphylococcus aureus. In contrast to earlier predictions, we found that the macrolide does not preferentially induce ribosome stalling near the 5′ end of mRNAs, but rather acts at specific stalling sites that are scattered throughout the entire coding region. These sites are highly enriched in prolines and charged residues and are strikingly similar to other ligand-independent ribosome stalling motifs. Interestingly, the addition of structurally related macrolides had dramatically different effects on stalling efficiency. Our data suggest that ribosome stalling can occur at a surprisingly large number of low-complexity motifs in a fashion that depends only on a few arrest-inducing residues and the presence of a small molecule inducer. PMID:25313041

  14. Epigallocatechin gallate as a modulator of Campylobacter resistance to macrolide antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Kurinčič, Marija; Klančnik, Anja; Smole Možina, Sonja

    2012-11-01

    Comprehensive therapeutic use of macrolides in humans and animals is important in the selection of macrolide-resistant Campylobacter isolates. This study shows high co-resistance to erythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, dirithromycin and tylosin, with contributions from the 23S rRNA gene and drug efflux systems. The CmeABC efflux pump plays an important role in reduced macrolide susceptibility, accompanied by contributions from the CmeDEF efflux pump and potentially a third efflux pump. To improve clinical performance of licensed antibiotics and chemotherapeutic agents, it is important to understand the factors in Campylobacter that affect susceptibility to macrolide antibiotics. Using mutants that lack the functional genes coding for the CmeB and CmeF efflux pump proteins and the CmeR transcriptional repressor, we show that these efflux pumps are potential targets for the development of therapeutic strategies that use a combination of a macrolide with an efflux pump inhibitor (EPI) to restore macrolide efficacy. The natural phenolic compound epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) has good modulatory activity over the extrusion across the outer membrane of the macrolides tested, both in sensitive and resistant Campylobacter isolates. Comparing EGCG with known chemical EPIs, correlations in the effects on the particular macrolide antibiotics were seen. EGCG modifies Campylobacter multidrug efflux systems and thus could have an impact on restoring macrolide efficacy in resistant strains. PMID:22999765

  15. Total Synthesis of the Antimitotic Marine Macrolide (−)-Leiodermatolide**

    PubMed Central

    Paterson, Ian; Ng, Kenneth K-H; Williams, Simon; Millican, David C; Dalby, Stephen M

    2014-01-01

    Leiodermatolide is an antimitotic macrolide isolated from the marine sponge Leiodermatium sp. whose potentially novel tubulin-targeting mechanism of action makes it an exciting lead for anticancer drug discovery. In pursuit of a sustainable supply, we report a highly stereocontrolled total synthesis (3.2 % yield) based on a convergent sequence of palladium-mediated fragment assembly and macrolactonization. Boron-mediated aldol reactions were used to configure the three key fragments 2, 5, and 6 by employing the appropriate enantiomer of the lactate-derived ketone 7. PMID:24481746

  16. Structural and Functional Implications of the Interaction between Macrolide Antibiotics and Bile Acids

    PubMed Central

    Glanzer, Simon; Pulido, Sergio A; Tutz, Sarah; Wagner, Gabriel E; Kriechbaum, Manfred; Gubensäk, Nina; Trifunovic, Jovana; Dorn, Markus; Fabian, Walter M F; Novak, Predrag; Reidl, Joachim; Zangger, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Macrolide antibiotics, such as azithromycin and erythromycin, are in widespread use for the treatment of bacterial infections. Macrolides are taken up and excreted mainly by bile. Additionally, they have been implicated in biliary system diseases and to modify the excretion of other drugs through bile. Despite mounting evidence for the interplay between macrolide antibiotics and bile acids, the molecular details of this interaction remain unknown. Herein, we show by NMR measurements that macrolides directly bind to bile acid micelles. The topology of this interaction has been determined by solvent paramagnetic relaxation enhancements (solvent PREs). The macrolides were found to be bound close to the surface of the micelle. Increasing hydrophobicity of both the macrolide and the bile acid strengthen this interaction. Both bile acid and macrolide molecules show similar solvent PREs across their whole structures, indicating that there are no preferred orientations of them in the bile micelle aggregates. The binding to bile aggregates does not impede macrolide antibiotics from targeting bacteria. In fact, the toxicity of azithromycin towards enterotoxic E. coli (ETEC) is even slightly increased in the presence of bile, as was shown by effective concentration (EC50) values. PMID:25655041

  17. [Macrolide resistance in Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum in the Czech Republic and in other countries].

    PubMed

    Grillová, L; Mikalová, L; Zákoucká, H; Židlická, J; Šmajs, D

    2015-03-01

    Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum (TPA) is the causative agent of the sexually transmitted disease syphilis. In the Czech Republic, several hundred cases of syphilis are reported annually; e.g. in 2012, 696 syphilis cases were documented. In the last decades, an increasing prevalence of macrolide resistant TPA strains harboring A2058G or A2059G mutations in the 23S rRNA gene has been reported. Macrolides were used (and rarely are still being used) in the Czech Republic for the treatment of syphilis in patients allergic to penicillin. While 37% of TPA strains were resistant to macrolides between 2004 and 2010, this rate increased to 67% between 2011-2013. High prevalence of A2058G or A2059G mutations and increasing rates of macrolide resistant TPA strains have also been documented in other developed countries. Therefore, macrolides should not be used in the treatment of syphilis. PMID:25872989

  18. No detection of macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae from Swedish patients, 1996–2013

    PubMed Central

    Gullsby, Karolina; Bondeson, Kåre

    2016-01-01

    Background Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a common cause of respiratory infections which can cause life-threatening pneumonia and serious extrapulmonary manifestations. Since the year 2000, the emergence of macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae strains has increased with varying incidences across countries. In China more than 90% of the strains are resistant. M. pneumoniae diagnostics is mostly done with molecular methods, and in Sweden antibiotic resistance surveillance is not routinely performed. The prevalence of macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae has not previously been studied in Sweden. Material and methods A total of 563 M. pneumoniae–positive respiratory samples, collected from four counties in Sweden between 1996 and 2013, were screened for mutations associated with macrolide resistance using a duplex FRET real-time PCR method. The real-time PCR targets the 23S rRNA gene, and differentiation between wild-type and resistant strains was achieved with a melting curve analysis. Results Of the 563 samples included, 548 were analyzed for mutations associated with macrolide resistance. No mutations were found. The detection rate of macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae in this study was 0% [0.00–0.84%]. Conclusion No macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae has been detected in Sweden. However, the emergence and spread of macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae strains in many countries commands continuous epidemiological surveillance. PMID:27258207

  19. Multiplex PCR To Identify Macrolide Resistance Determinants in Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Simon; Desmolaize, Benoit; Jaju, Puneet; Wilhelm, Cornelia; Warrass, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    The bacterial pathogens Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida are major etiological agents in respiratory tract infections of cattle. Although these infections can generally be successfully treated with veterinary macrolide antibiotics, a few recent isolates have shown resistance to these drugs. Macrolide resistance in members of the family Pasteurellaceae is conferred by combinations of at least three genes: erm(42), which encodes a monomethyltransferase and confers a type I MLSB (macrolide, lincosamide, and streptogramin B) phenotype; msr(E), which encodes a macrolide efflux pump; and mph(E), which encodes a macrolide-inactivating phosphotransferase. Here, we describe a multiplex PCR assay that detects the presence of erm(42), msr(E), and mph(E) and differentiates between these genes. In addition, the assay distinguishes P. multocida from M. haemolytica by amplifying distinctive fragments of the 23S rRNA (rrl) genes. One rrl fragment acts as a general indicator of gammaproteobacterial species and confirms whether the PCR assay has functioned as intended on strains that are negative for erm(42), msr(E), and mph(E). The multiplex system has been tested on more than 40 selected isolates of P. multocida and M. haemolytica and correlated with MICs for the veterinary macrolides tulathromycin and tilmicosin, and the newer compounds gamithromycin and tildipirosin. The multiplex PCR system gives a rapid and robustly accurate determination of macrolide resistance genotypes and bacterial genus, matching results from microbiological methods and whole-genome sequencing. PMID:22564832

  20. Impact of Macrolide Therapy in Patients Hospitalized With Pseudomonas aeruginosa Community-Acquired Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Laserna, Elena; Sibila, Oriol; Fernandez, Juan Felipe; Maselli, Diego Jose; Mortensen, Eric M.; Anzueto, Antonio; Waterer, Grant

    2014-01-01

    Background: Several studies have described a clinical benefit of macrolides due to their immunomodulatory properties in various respiratory diseases. We aimed to assess the effect of macrolide therapy on mortality in patients hospitalized for Pseudomonas aeruginosa community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Methods: We performed a retrospective population-based study of > 150 hospitals in the US Veterans Health Administration. Patients were included if they had a diagnosis of CAP and P aeruginosa was identified as the causative pathogen. Patients with health-care-associated pneumonia and immunosuppression were excluded. Macrolide therapy was considered when administered within the first 48 h of admission. Univariate and multivariable analyses were performed using 30-day mortality as the dependent measure. Results: We included 402 patients with P aeruginosa CAP, of whom 171 (42.5%) received a macrolide during the first 48 h of admission. These patients were older and white. Macrolide use was not associated with lower 30-day mortality (hazard ratio, 1.14; 95% CI, 0.70-1.83; P = .5). In addition, patients treated with macrolides had no differences in ICU admission, use of mechanical ventilation, use of vasopressors, and length of stay (LOS) compared with patients not treated with macrolides. A subgroup analysis among patients with P aeruginosa CAP in the ICU showed no differences in baseline characteristics and outcomes. Conclusions: Macrolide therapy in the first 48 h of admission is not associated with decreased 30-day mortality, ICU admission, need for mechanical ventilation, and LOS in hospitalized patients with P aeruginosa CAP. Larger cohort studies should address the benefit of macrolides as immunomodulators in patients with P aeruginosa CAP. PMID:24458223

  1. Inhibition of Protein Synthesis on the Ribosome by Tildipirosin Compared with Other Veterinary Macrolides

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Niels Møller; Poehlsgaard, Jacob; Warrass, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    Tildipirosin is a 16-membered-ring macrolide developed to treat bacterial pathogens, including Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida, that cause respiratory tract infections in cattle and swine. Here we evaluated the efficacy of tildipirosin at inhibiting protein synthesis on the ribosome (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50], 0.23 ± 0.01 μM) and compared it with the established veterinary macrolides tylosin, tilmicosin, and tulathromycin. Mutation and methylation at key rRNA nucleotides revealed differences in the interactions of these macrolides within their common ribosomal binding site. PMID:22926570

  2. Mechanism of resistance to macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin antibiotics in Streptococcus thermophilus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resistance to macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin (MLS) group antibiotics in the dairy bacterium Streptococcus thermophilus (ST) is documented but the mechanism of resistance has not been elucidated. MIC values for erythromycin (Erm), azithromycin (Azm), tylosin (Tyl), spiramycin (Spm), pristinamyci...

  3. Cloacal Lactobacillus isolates from broilers show high prevalence of resistance towards macrolide and lincosamide antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Cauwerts, K; Pasmans, F; Devriese, L A; Martel, A; Haesebrouck, F; Decostere, A

    2006-04-01

    Eighty-seven Lactobacillus strains isolated from cloacal swabs of broiler chickens derived from 20 different farms in Belgium were identified to species level and tested for susceptibility to macrolide and lincosamide antibiotics. Five different Lactobacillus species were identified as being predominantly present in the cloacae of broilers: Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus salivarius subsp. salivarius, Lactobacillus amylovorus, Lactobacillus gallinarum and Lactobacillu sreuteri. Acquired resistance prevalence to macrolides and lincosamides was very high in the investigated lactobacilli: 89% of the strains were resistant to either or both lincosamide and macrolide class antibiotics. The vast majority of these resistant strains (96%) displayed constitutive resistance. More than one-half of the macrolide and/or lincosamide resistant strains carried an erm(B), erm(C), mef(A), lnu(A) gene or a combination of these genes. PMID:16595310

  4. Regional Differences in Prevalence of Macrolide Resistance among Pediatric Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infections in Hokkaido, Japan.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Nobuhisa; Koseki, Naoko; Kaiho, Miki; Kikuta, Hideaki; Togashi, Takehiro; Oba, Koji; Morita, Keisuke; Nagano, Naoko; Nakanishi, Masanori; Hazama, Kyosuke; Watanabe, Toru; Sasaki, Satoshi; Horino, Atsuko; Kenri, Tsuyoshi; Ariga, Tadashi

    2016-05-20

    Recently, macrolide-resistant (MR) Mycoplasma pneumonia appeared, and prevalence of macrolide resistance among M. pneumoniae infections varies by country. However, reports on regional differences in the prevalence of MR M. pneumonia within a country are scarce. In this study, 617 nasopharyngeal swab samples were collected from 617 pediatric patients, and DNA of M. pneumoniae was identified in 95 samples. In 51 of the 95 M. pneumonia positive samples, we detected the presence of mutation A2063G mutation (conferring macrolide resistance) in the 23S rRNA gene. The overall macrolide resistance rate was 53.7%, but there were regional differences: 0.0% in Muroran, 5.3% in Asahikawa, 55.3% in Sapporo, and 100.0% in Kushiro. Statistically significant pairwise differences in the prevalence of MR M. pneumoniae were observed among these cities except for the pair of Muroran and Asahikawa. After exclusion (in order to avoid the influence of macrolides) of patients who were prescribed macrolides before collection of nasopharyngeal swab samples, statistically significant differences persisted: 0.0% in Muroran, 5.6% in Asahikawa, 38.5% in Sapporo, and 100.0% in Kushiro. PMID:26166502

  5. Antimalarial Activity of the Myxobacterial Macrolide Chlorotonil A

    PubMed Central

    Gebru, Tamirat; Kalesse, Markus; Jansen, Rolf; Gerth, Klaus; Müller, Rolf; Mordmüller, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Myxobacteria are Gram-negative soil-dwelling bacteria belonging to the phylum Proteobacteria. They are a rich source of promising compounds for clinical application, such as epothilones for cancer therapy and several new antibiotics. In the course of a bioactivity screening program of secondary metabolites produced by Sorangium cellulosum strains, the macrolide chlorotonil A was found to exhibit promising antimalarial activity. Subsequently, we evaluated chlorotonil A against Plasmodium falciparum laboratory strains and clinical isolates from Gabon. Chlorotonil A was highly active, with a 50% inhibitory concentration between 4 and 32 nM; additionally, no correlations between the activities of chlorotonil A and artesunate (rho, 0.208) or chloroquine (rho, −0.046) were observed. Per os treatment of Plasmodium berghei-infected mice with four doses of as little as 36 mg of chlorotonil A per kg of body weight led to the suppression of parasitemia with no obvious signs of toxicity. Chlorotonil A acts against all stages of intraerythrocytic parasite development, including ring-stage parasites and stage IV to V gametocytes, and it requires only a very short exposure to the parasite to exert its antimalarial action. Conclusively, chlorotonil A has an exceptional and unprecedented profile of action and represents an urgently required novel antimalarial chemical scaffold. Therefore, we propose it as a lead structure for further development as an antimalarial chemotherapeutic. PMID:25114138

  6. Drug Resistance Mechanisms of Mycoplasma pneumoniae to Macrolide Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xijie; Jiang, Yue; Chen, Xiaogeng; Li, Jing; Shi, Dawei; Xin, Deli

    2014-01-01

    Throat swabs from children with suspected Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) infection were cultured for the presence of M. pneumoniae and its species specificity using the 16S rRNA gene. Seventy-six M. pneumoniae strains isolated from 580 swabs showed that 70 were erythromycin resistant with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) around 32–512 mg/L. Fifty M. pneumoniae strains (46 resistant, 4 sensitive) were tested for sensitivity to tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, and gentamicin. Tetracycline and ciprofloxacin had some effect, and gentamicin had an effect on the majority of M. pneumoniae strains. Domains II and V of the 23S rRNA gene and the ribosomal protein L4 and L22 genes, both of which are considered to be associated with macrolide resistance, were sequenced and the sequences were compared with the corresponding sequences in M129 registered with NCBI and the FH strain. The 70 resistant strains all showed a 2063 or 2064 site mutation in domain V of the 23S rRNA but no mutations in domain II. Site mutations of L4 or L22 can be observed in either resistant or sensitive strains, although it is not known whether this is associated with drug resistance. PMID:24592385

  7. Disposition of oral telithromycin in foals and in vitro activity of the drug against macrolide-susceptible and macrolide-resistant Rhodococcus equi isolates.

    PubMed

    Javsicas, L H; Giguère, S; Womble, Ariel Y

    2010-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the serum and pulmonary disposition of telithromycin in foals and to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of telithromycin against macrolide-susceptible and macrolide-resistant Rhodococcus equi isolates. A single dose of telithromycin (15 mg/kg of body weight) was administered to six healthy 6-10-week-old foals by the intragastric route. Activity of telithromycin was measured in serum, pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (PELF), and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells using a microbiological assay. The broth macrodilution method was used to determine the MIC of telithromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin and erythromycin against R. equi. Following intragastric administration, mean +/- SD time to peak serum telithromycin activity (T(max)) was 1.75 +/- 0.76 h, maximum serum activity (C(max)) was 1.43 +/- 0.37 microg/mL, and terminal half-life (t(1/2)) was 3.81 +/- 0.40 h. Telithromycin activity, 4 h postadministration was significantly higher in BAL cells (50.9 +/- 14.5 microg/mL) than in PELF (5.07 +/- 2.64 microg/mL), and plasma (0.84 +/- 0.25 microg/mL). The MIC(90) of telithromycin for macrolide-resistant R. equi isolates (8 microg/mL) was significantly higher than that of macrolide-susceptible isolates (0.25 microg/mL). The MIC of telithromycin for macrolide-resistant isolates (MIC(50)=4.0 microg/mL) was significantly lower than that of clarithromycin (MIC(50)=24.0 microg/mL), azithromycin (MIC(50)=256 microg/mL) and erythromycin (MIC(50)=24 microg/mL). PMID:20646201

  8. Role of extracellular calcium in in vitro uptake and intraphagocytic location of macrolides.

    PubMed Central

    Mtairag, E M; Abdelghaffar, H; Douhet, C; Labro, M T

    1995-01-01

    We compared the uptakes and intracellular locations of four 14-membered-ring macrolides (roxithromycin, dirithromycin, erythromycin, and erythromycylamine) in human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) in vitro. Intracellular location was assessed by cell fractionation and uptake kinetics in cytoplasts (granule-poor PMNs). Trapping of dirithromycin within PMN granules (up to 80% at 30 min) was significantly more marked than the intracellular trapping of the other drugs (erythromycylamine, 45% +/- 5.1%; erythromycin, 42% +/- 3.7%; roxithromycin, 35% +/- 3.0%). A new finding was that, in the absence of extracellular calcium, the uptakes of all of the macrolides by PMNs and cytoplasts were significantly impaired, by about 50% (PMN) and 90% (cytoplasts). Furthermore, inorganic Ca2+ channel blockers inhibited macrolide uptake in a concentration-dependent manner, with 50% inhibitory concentrations of 1.6 to 2.0 mM and 29 to 35 microM, respectively, for Ni2+ and La3+. The intracellular distributions of the drugs were unchanged in the presence of Ni2+ and La3+ and in Ca(2+)-free medium supplemented with ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid. The organic Ca2+ channel blocker nifedipine had no effect on macrolide uptake, whereas verapamil inhibited it in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. These data show the importance of extracellular Ca2+ in macrolide uptake by phagocytes and suggest a link with Ca2+ channels or a Ca2+ channel-operated mechanism. PMID:7486899

  9. Mechanisms of the Macrolide-Induced Inhibition of Superoxide Generation by Neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Nozoe, Kohji; Aida, Yoshitomi; Fukuda, Takao; Sanui, Terukazu; Nishimura, Fusanori

    2016-06-01

    The effect of macrolides on the superoxide (O2 (-)) production by neutrophils was studied. Resting neutrophils become primed by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP), and primed neutrophils generate O2 (-) in response to fMLP or adhesion, respectively. Both LPS-primed fMLP-stimulated O2 (-) generation by macrolide-treated neutrophils and adhesion-stimulated O2 (-) generation by macrolide-treated fMLP-primed neutrophils were inhibited. Macrolide inhibition of O2 (-) generation was dependent on serum or pH. Serum could be substituted by NaHCO3. The intensity of inhibition was azithromycin = roxithromycin > clarithromycin > erythromycin, in that order. Non-antimicrobial derivatives of erythromycin, that is, EM703 and EM900, inhibited O2 (-) generation at pH 7.4. NH4Cl abolished the activity of azithromycin (AZ) only when added to neutrophils with AZ but not after incubation with AZ, suggesting that NH4Cl prevented the influx of AZ. AZ did not affect the expression of alkaline phosphatase, CD11b, and cytochrome b558 in both resting and LPS-primed neutrophils. These results suggested that macrolides did not affect granule mobilization but inhibited O2 (-) generation selectively. PMID:26983705

  10. Induction of ribosome methylation in MLS-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae by macrolides and ketolides.

    PubMed

    Zhong, P; Cao, Z; Hammond, R; Chen, Y; Beyer, J; Shortridge, V D; Phan, L Y; Pratt, S; Capobianco, J; Reich, K A; Flamm, R K; Or, Y S; Katz, L

    1999-01-01

    One major mechanism for resistance to macrolide antibiotics in Streptococcus pneumoniae is MLS (macrolide, lincosamide, and streptogramin B) resistance, manifested when the 23S rRNA is methylated by the product of an erm gene. This modification results in the decreased binding of all known macrolide, lincosamide, and streptogramin B antibiotics to the ribosome. More than 30 ermAM-containing clinical isolates of S. pneumoniae were examined in our lab and showed high-level resistance (MIC > or =128 microg/ml) to erythromycin, azithromycin, tylosin, clindamycin, and ketolide (macrolides that lack the cladinose sugar) TE-802. We found that the new generation of ketolides A965 and A088 displayed variable activity against the same group of resistant S. pneumoniae strains. To understand the basis of variability of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of A965 and A088, we examined the effects of a series of macrolides and ketolides on the level of 23S rRNA methylation in five ermAM-containing resistant S. pneumoniae isolates. We show here that the basal levels of ribosomal methylation vary from strain to strain. The level of rRNA methylation can be strongly induced by erythromycin, azithromycin, and TE-802, resulting in high-level of resistance to these compounds. Ketolide A965 and A088, however, are weak inducers at sub-MIC drug concentrations, therefore showing variable activities in strains with differential methylation levels. PMID:10566867

  11. Aquatic toxicity of the macrolide antibiotic clarithromycin and its metabolites.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Michaela; Weiss, Klaus; Maletzki, Dirk; Schüssler, Walter; Schudoma, Dieter; Kopf, Willi; Kühnen, Ute

    2015-02-01

    The human macrolide antibiotic clarithromycin is widespread in surface waters. Our study shows that its major metabolite 14-hydroxy(R)-clarithromycin is found in surface waters in comparable amounts. This metabolite is known to be pharmacologically active. Additionally, clarithromycin is partly metabolised to N-desmethyl-clarithromycin, which has no antimicrobial activity. For clarithromycin, some ecotoxicological studies on aquatic organisms have been published. However, many of them are not conform with the scientific principles as given in the "Technical guidance for deriving environmental quality standards" (TGD-EQS), because numerous studies were poorly documented and the methods did not contain analytical measurements confirming that the exposure concentrations were in the range of ± 20% of the nominal concentrations. Ecotoxicological effects of clarithromycin and its two metabolites on the zebrafish Danio rerio (embryo test), the microcrustacean Daphnia magna, the aquatic monocotyledonous macrophyte Lemna minor, the freshwater green alga Desmodesmus subspicatus (Chlorophyta) and the cyanobacterium Anabaena flosaquae were investigated in compliance with the TGD-EQS. Environmental risk assessment was performed using ErC10 values of Anabaena, the species most sensitive to clarithromycin and 14-hydroxy(R)-clarithromycin in our testing. Based oncomparable toxicity and similar concentrations of clarithromycin and its active metabolite 14-hydroxy(R)-clarithromycin in surface waters, an additional multiplication factor of 2 to the assessment factor of 10 on the ErC10 of clarithromycin should be used. Consequently, a freshwater quality standard of 0.130 μg L(-1) is proposed for clarithromycin as the "lead substance". Taking this additional multiplication factor of 2 into account, single monitoring of clarithromycin may be sufficient, in order to reduce the number of substances listed for routine monitoring programs. PMID:25051235

  12. [Effects of mucolytic agents and macrolides in the treatment of COPD].

    PubMed

    Yamaya, Mutsuo

    2016-05-01

    Mucolytic agents and macrolides have been used in the treatment of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). These drugs improve symptoms, such as sputum, and quality of life in COPD patients and reduce the frequency of COPD exacerbation. Mucolytic agents have various biological effects, such as reduction of mucin production, improvement of goblet cell hyperplasia and mucociliary transport, reduction of airway inflammation, and anti-oxidant and anti-viral effects. Similarly, in addition to antimicrobial effects, macrolides have biological effects, including reduction of mucin production and airway inflammation induced by airway infection, improvement of mucociliary transport, and anti-bacterial and anti-viral effects. These biological effects may be associated with clinical benefits of mucolvtic agents and macrolides in the treatment of COPD patients. PMID:27254955

  13. Effect of subtherapeutic vs. therapeutic administration of macrolides on antimicrobial resistance in Mannheimia haemolytica and enterococci isolated from beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Zaheer, Rahat; Cook, Shaun R; Klima, Cassidy L; Stanford, Kim; Alexander, Trevor; Topp, Edward; Read, Ron R; McAllister, Tim A

    2013-01-01

    Macrolides are the first-line treatment against bovine respiratory disease (BRD), and are also used to treat infections in humans. The macrolide, tylosin phosphate, is often included in the diet of cattle as a preventative for liver abscesses in many regions of the world outside of Europe. This study investigated the effects of administering macrolides to beef cattle either systemically through a single subcutaneous injection (therapeutic) or continuously in-feed (subtherapeutic), on the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Mannheimia haemolytica and Enterococcus spp. isolated from the nasopharynx and faeces, respectively. Nasopharyngeal and faecal samples were collected weekly over 28 days from untreated beef steers and from steers injected once with tilmicosin or tulathromycin or continuously fed tylosin phosphate at dosages recommended by manufacturers. Tilmicosin and tulathromycin were effective in lowering (P < 0.05) the prevalence of M. haemolytica, whereas subtherapeutic tylosin had no effect. M. haemolytica isolated from control- and macrolide-treated animals were susceptible to macrolides as well as to other antibiotics. Major bacteria co-isolated with M. haemolytica from the nasopharynx included Pasteurella multocida, Staphylococcus spp., Acinetobacter spp., Escherichia coli and Bacillus spp. With the exception of M. haemolytica and P. multocida, erythromycin resistance was frequently found in other isolated species. Both methods of macrolide administration increased (P < 0.05) the proportion of erythromycin resistant enterococci within the population, which was comprised almost exclusively of Enterococcus hirae. Injectable macrolides impacted both respiratory and enteric microbes, whereas orally administered macrolides only influenced enteric bacteria. PMID:23750157

  14. Effect of subtherapeutic vs. therapeutic administration of macrolides on antimicrobial resistance in Mannheimia haemolytica and enterococci isolated from beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    Zaheer, Rahat; Cook, Shaun R.; Klima, Cassidy L.; Stanford, Kim; Alexander, Trevor; Topp, Edward; Read, Ron R.; McAllister, Tim A.

    2013-01-01

    Macrolides are the first-line treatment against bovine respiratory disease (BRD), and are also used to treat infections in humans. The macrolide, tylosin phosphate, is often included in the diet of cattle as a preventative for liver abscesses in many regions of the world outside of Europe. This study investigated the effects of administering macrolides to beef cattle either systemically through a single subcutaneous injection (therapeutic) or continuously in-feed (subtherapeutic), on the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Mannheimia haemolytica and Enterococcus spp. isolated from the nasopharynx and faeces, respectively. Nasopharyngeal and faecal samples were collected weekly over 28 days from untreated beef steers and from steers injected once with tilmicosin or tulathromycin or continuously fed tylosin phosphate at dosages recommended by manufacturers. Tilmicosin and tulathromycin were effective in lowering (P < 0.05) the prevalence of M. haemolytica, whereas subtherapeutic tylosin had no effect. M. haemolytica isolated from control- and macrolide-treated animals were susceptible to macrolides as well as to other antibiotics. Major bacteria co-isolated with M. haemolytica from the nasopharynx included Pasteurella multocida, Staphylococcus spp., Acinetobacter spp., Escherichia coli and Bacillus spp. With the exception of M. haemolytica and P. multocida, erythromycin resistance was frequently found in other isolated species. Both methods of macrolide administration increased (P < 0.05) the proportion of erythromycin resistant enterococci within the population, which was comprised almost exclusively of Enterococcus hirae. Injectable macrolides impacted both respiratory and enteric microbes, whereas orally administered macrolides only influenced enteric bacteria. PMID:23750157

  15. Isolation of High Level Macrolide Resistant Bordetella pertussis Without Transition Mutation at Domain V in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mirzaei, Bahman; Bameri, Zakaria; Babaei, Ryhane; Shahcheraghi, Fereshteh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bordetella pertussis, as a causative agent of whooping cough, due to the annual rise y of infection cases, failure of prophylaxis and treatment by macrolides, is considered as the new concern in the health care system. Objectives: The main objective of this study was the determination of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at domain V, as the main binding site for macrolides, following the identification of high level macrolides resistant B. pertussis. Materials and Methods: Following the identification of 11 recovered B. pertussis isolates, from a total of 1084 nasopharyngeal swabs, by using the biochemical and molecular methods, the activities of erythromycin, azithromycin and clarithromycin antibiotics against the recovered isolates were examined. Subsequently, A-G transition mutations in domain V were analyzed by molecular techniques, such as Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and sequencing. Results: After susceptibility testing, one strain was detected as a high level macrolide resistant B. pertussis (Erythromycin = 128 μg/mL, Clarithromycin > 256 μg/mL). After sequencing and PCR-RFLP methods, transition mutations in positions 2047 and 2058 of the mentioned domain were not observed. Conclusions: Although previous studies have shown that A-G transition mutations in 23 SrRNA gene (domain V) are the main reason for the occurrence of high level macrolides resistance in B. pertussis, however, the mentioned single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have not been detected in our resistant strain. This is the first report of high level macrolide resistant B. pertussis, without SNPs in domain V, in Iran. PMID:26396713

  16. Macrolide antibiotics and the risk of ventricular arrhythmia in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Trac, Mai H.; McArthur, Eric; Jandoc, Racquel; Dixon, Stephanie N.; Nash, Danielle M.; Hackam, Daniel G.; Garg, Amit X.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many respiratory tract infections are treated with macrolide antibiotics. Regulatory agencies warn that these antibiotics increase the risk of ventricular arrhythmia. We examined the 30-day risk of ventricular arrhythmia and all-cause mortality associated with macrolide antibiotics relative to nonmacrolide antibiotics. Methods: We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study involving older adults (age > 65 yr) with a new prescription for an oral macrolide antibiotic (azithromycin, clarithromycin or erythromycin) in Ontario from 2002 to 2013. Our primary outcome was a hospital encounter with ventricular arrhythmia within 30 days after a new prescription. Our secondary outcome was 30-day all-cause mortality. We matched patients 1:1 using propensity scores to patients prescribed nonmacrolide antibiotics (amoxicillin, cefuroxime or levofloxacin). We used conditional logistic regression to measure the association between macrolide exposure and outcomes, and repeated the analysis in 4 subgroups defined by the presence or absence of chronic kidney disease, congestive heart failure, coronary artery disease and concurrent use of a drug known to prolong the QT interval. Results: Compared with nonmacrolide antibiotics, macrolide antibiotics were not associated with a higher risk of ventricular arrhythmia (0.03% v. 0.03%; relative risk [RR] 1.06, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.83–1.36) and were associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality (0.62% v. 0.76%; RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.78–0.86). These associations were similar in all subgroups. Interpretation: Among older adults, macrolide antibiotics were not associated with a higher 30-day risk of ventricular arrhythmia than nonmacrolide antibiotics. These findings suggest that current warnings from the US Food and Drug Administration may be overstated. PMID:26903359

  17. Mutational and transcriptomic changes involved in the development of macrolide resistance in Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Hao, Haihong; Yuan, Zonghui; Shen, Zhangqi; Han, Jing; Sahin, Orhan; Liu, Peng; Zhang, Qijing

    2013-03-01

    Macrolide antibiotics are important for clinical treatment of infections caused by Campylobacter jejuni. Development of resistance to this class of antibiotics in Campylobacter is a complex process, and the dynamic molecular changes involved in this process remain poorly defined. Multiple lineages of macrolide-resistant mutants were selected by stepwise exposure of C. jejuni to escalating doses of erythromycin or tylosin. Mutations in target genes were determined by DNA sequencing, and the dynamic changes in the expression of antibiotic efflux transporters and the transcriptome of C. jejuni were examined by real-time reverse transcription-PCR, immunoblotting, and DNA microarray analysis. Multiple types of mutations in ribosomal proteins L4 and L22 occurred early during stepwise selection. On the contrary, the mutations in the 23S rRNA gene, mediating high resistance to macrolides, were observed only in the late-stage mutants. Upregulation of antibiotic efflux genes was observed in the intermediately resistant mutants, and the magnitude of upregulation declined with the occurrence of mutations in the 23S rRNA gene. DNA microarray analysis revealed the differential expression of 265 genes, most of which occurred in the intermediate mutant, including the upregulation of genes encoding ribosomal proteins and the downregulation of genes involved in energy metabolism and motility. These results indicate (i) that mutations in L4 and L22 along with temporal overexpression of antibiotic efflux genes precede and may facilitate the development of high-level macrolide resistance and (ii) that the development of macrolide resistance affects the pathways important for physiology and metabolism in C. jejuni, providing an explanation for the reduced fitness of macrolide-resistant Campylobacter. PMID:23274667

  18. YS-822A, a new polyene macrolide antibiotic. I. Production, isolation, characterization and biological properties.

    PubMed

    Itoh, A; Ido, J; Iwamoto, Y; Goshima, E; Miki, T; Hasuda, K; Hirota, H

    1990-08-01

    A new polyene macrolide antibiotic, YS-822A was isolated from the culture filtrate of a mutant strain H-8 of Streptoverticillium eurocidicum var. asterocidicus S-822. Whereas the original S-822 strain produced not only YS-822 substances but also teleocidin as by-product which is well-known as a strong carcinogenic promoter, the mutagenized H-8 strain produced the antibiotic with only a trace amount of teleocidin. Chemical and biological characterizations of the antibiotic revealed that YS-822A (molecular formula: C37H59NO14) is a new polyene macrolide with a wide antifungal spectrum and a low acute toxicity. PMID:2211361

  19. Differences between macrolide-resistant and -susceptible Streptococcus pyogenes: importance of clonal properties in addition to antibiotic consumption.

    PubMed

    Silva-Costa, C; Friães, A; Ramirez, M; Melo-Cristino, J

    2012-11-01

    A steady decline in macrolide resistance among Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococci [GAS]) in Portugal was reported during 1999 to 2006. This was accompanied by alterations in the prevalence of macrolide resistance phenotypes and in the clonal composition of the population. In order to test whether changes in the macrolide-resistant population reflected the same changing patterns of the overall population, we characterized both macrolide-susceptible and -resistant GAS associated with a diagnosis of tonsillo-pharyngitis recovered in the period from 2000 to 2005 in Portugal. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiling was the best predictor of emm type and the only typing method that could discriminate clones associated with macrolide resistance and susceptibility within each emm type. Six PFGE clusters were significantly associated with macrolide susceptibility: T3-emm3-ST406, T4-emm4-ST39, T1-emm1-ST28, T6-emm6-ST382, B3264-emm89-ST101/ST408, and T2-emm2-ST55. Four PFGE clusters were associated with macrolide resistance: T4-emm4-ST39, T28-emm28-ST52, T12-emm22-ST46, and T1-emm1-ST28. We found no evidence for frequent ongoing horizontal transfer of macrolide resistance determinants. The diversity of the macrolide-resistant population was lower than that of susceptible isolates. The differences found between the two populations suggest that the macrolide-resistant population of GAS has its own dynamics, independent of the behavior of the susceptible population. PMID:22908153

  20. Macrolide- and Rifampin-Resistant Rhodococcus equi on a Horse Breeding Farm, Kentucky, USA

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Alexandra J.; Sturgill, Tracy L.; Berghaus, Londa J.; Slovis, Nathan M.; Whitman, Jeremy L.; Levering, Court; Kuskie, Kyle R.; Cohen, Noah D.

    2013-01-01

    Macrolide and rifampin resistance developed on a horse breeding farm after widespread use was instituted for treatment of subclinical pulmonary lesions in foals. Resistance occurred in 6 (24%) of 25 pretreatment and 8 (62%) of 13 (62%) posttreatment isolates from affected foals. Drug-resistant isolates formed 2 distinct genotypic clusters. PMID:23347878

  1. Fate and Ecotoxicology of Veterinary Macrolide and Sulfonamide Antibiotics in Surface Water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antibiotics are carried from manured lands and production sites in runoff to surface waters. Our objectives were to assess the environmental fate and ecotoxicology of two macrolide antibiotics (tylosin and erythromycin) and sulfamethazine. Experiments were designed to simulate Midwestern farm pond c...

  2. The role of efflux pumps in macrolide resistance in Mycobacterium avium complex.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Liliana; Sampaio, Daniela; Couto, Isabel; Machado, Diana; Kern, Winfried V; Amaral, Leonard; Viveiros, Miguel

    2009-12-01

    Mycobacteriumavium complex (MAC) is clinically important since it can cause severe infections in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients and other immunocompromised individuals. Use of the macrolides clarithromycin and azithromycin has improved the outcome of MAC infections, but therapeutic failure is still a major problem. In this work, we studied efflux pump activity in MAC clinical strains and evaluated the contribution of active efflux to macrolide resistance. Eighteen clinical strains isolated from AIDS patients were evaluated for macrolide resistance in the presence and absence of the efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs) thioridazine, chlorpromazine and verapamil. The efflux activity of these strains was then assessed by a semi-automated fluorometric method that detects extrusion of ethidium bromide (EtBr), a known efflux pump substrate. Resistance to clarithromycin was significantly reduced in the presence of thioridazine, chlorpromazine and verapamil. The same EPIs were effective in decreasing the efflux of EtBr from MAC cells. Moreover, increased retention of [(14)C]-erythromycin in the presence of these EPIs further demonstrated that active efflux contributes to MAC resistance to macrolides. This study demonstrates that efflux pumps play an important role in MAC resistance to antibiotics. PMID:19740629

  3. Identification of macrolide-resistant clones of Streptococcus pyogenes in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Silva-Costa, C; Ramirez, M; Melo-Cristino, J

    2006-06-01

    Although the overall level of macrolide resistance (27%) has remained stable in Portugal, a rapid inversion in the dominant phenotypes has been noted, with a sharp decrease in the MLS(B) phenotype paralleled by an increase in the M phenotype. To gain further insight into these changes, 325 macrolide-resistant isolates were characterised using a combination of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The use of Cfr9I, an isoschizomer of SmaI, to digest M phenotype isolates that were refractory to SmaI digestion allowed direct comparison of MLS(B) and M isolates. The results from PFGE and MLST were highly concordant and identified eight major clones, accounting for 92% of the isolates, each of which was associated exclusively with a single macrolide resistance phenotype. Two major clones were found among MLS(B) isolates, characterised by sequence types (ST) 46 (T12/emm22) and ST52 (T28/emm28), whereas clones characterised by ST39 (T4/emm4) and ST28 (T1/emm1) dominated among M isolates. The clone defined by ST52 corresponded to a bacitracin-resistant clone circulating in Europe, and a novel variant expressing other surface antigens (T12/emm22) was detected. The presence of the four major clones has been reported previously in other European countries, suggesting Europe-wide dissemination of a few macrolide-resistant lineages. PMID:16700698

  4. Antimicrobial susceptibility and analysis of macrolide resistance genes in Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated in Hamadan

    PubMed Central

    Mosleh, Mohammad Najafi; Gharibi, Marzieh; Alikhani, Mohammad Yousef; Saidijam, Massoud; Vakhshiteh, Faezeh

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): Macrolide resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae pose an emerging problem globally. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of ermB and mefA genes (macrolide resistant genes) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method and to detect drug resistance patterns of S. pneumoniae isolated from clinical samples to macrolides and other antibiotic agents by E-test method. Materials and Methods: Fifty five isolates of S. pneumoniae were obtained from clinical samples with microbial tests. The antibiotic susceptibility of isolates for erythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin and vancomycin were determined by E-test method. Genotypic antibiotic resistance pattern was determined by PCR with primer designed for ermB and mefA genes. Results: The number of S. pneumoniae isolates resistance to erythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, ceftazidim, ciprofloxacin were 25.5%, 18.2%, 16.4%, 21.8% and 10.9%, respectively while no resistance to vancomycin was observed. The macrolide resistance genes of ermB and mefA were found in 10.9% and 18.2% of the isolates, respectively. Conclusion: The result of the current study suggests the necessity of evaluation the changes in MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) values as well as genetic mutations to estimate the prevalence of the resistance antimicrobial agents in S. pneumoniae. PMID:25422753

  5. Three dolabellanes and a macrolide from the sponge Dysidea sp. from Palau.

    PubMed

    Lu, Q; Faulkner, D J

    1998-09-01

    A specimen of Dysidea sp. from Palau contained three new dolabellane diterpenes 1-3 and an unstable 14-membered macrolide, arenolide (4), which showed modest cytotoxicity. From a chemotaxonomic viewpoint, these metabolites are so unusual that we discuss their possible origin. PMID:9748373

  6. Characterization of Renibacterium salmoninarum with reduced susceptibility to macrolide antibiotics by a standardized antibiotic susceptibility test.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Linda D; Nguyen, Oanh T; Deinhard, Rebecca K; White, Teresa M; Harrell, Lee W; Roberts, Marilyn C

    2008-08-01

    Three cohorts of juvenile and subadult Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha received multiple treatments with macrolide antibiotics for bacterial kidney disease (BKD) during rearing in a captive broodstock program. A total of 77 mortalities among the cohorts were screened for Renibacterium salmoninarum, the etiologic agent of BKD, by agar culture from kidney, and isolates from 7 fish were suitable for growth testing in the presence of macrolide antibiotics. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of erythromycin and azithromycin was determined by a modification of the standardized broth assay using defined medium. The American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) type strain 33209 exhibited a MIC of 0.008 microg m(-1) to either erythromycin or azithromycin. Isolates from 3 fish displayed MICs identical to the MICs for the ATCC type strain 33209. In contrast, isolates from 4 fish exhibited higher MICs, ranging between 0.125 and 0.250 microg ml(-1) for erythromycin and between 0.016 and 0.031 microg ml(-1) for azithromycin. Sequence analysis of the mutational hotspots for macrolide resistance in the 23S rDNA gene and the open reading frames of ribosomal proteins L4 and L22 found identical sequences among all isolates, indicating that the phenotype was not due to mutations associated with the drug-binding site of 23S rRNA. These results are the first report of R. salmoninarum with reduced susceptibility to macrolide antibiotics isolated from fish receiving multiple antibiotic treatments. PMID:18814542

  7. Macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae in adolescents with community-acquired pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although the prevalence of macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae isolates in Japanese pediatric patients has increased rapidly, there have been no reports concerning macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae infection in adolescents aged 16 to 19 years old. The purpose of this study was to clarify the prevalence and clinical characteristics of macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae in adolescent patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Methods A total of 99 cases with M. pneumoniae pneumonia confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and culture were analyzed. Forty-five cases were pediatric patients less than 16 years old, 26 cases were 16 to 19-year-old adolescent patients and 28 cases were adult patients. Primers for domain V of 23S rRNA were used and DNA sequences of the PCR products were compared with the sequence of an M. pneumoniae reference strain. Results Thirty of 45 pediatric patients (66%), 12 of 26 adolescent patients (46%) and seven of 28 adult patients (25%) with M. pneumoniae pneumonia were found to be infected with macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae (MR patients). Although the prevalence of resistant strains was similar in pediatric patients between 2008 and 2011, an increase in the prevalence of resistant strains was observed in adolescent patients. Among 30 pediatric MR patients, 26 had an A-to-G transition at position 2063 (A2063G) and four had an A-to-G transition at position 2064 (A2064G). In 12 adolescent MR patients, 10 showed an A2063G transition and two showed an A2064G transition, and in seven adult MR patients, six showed an A2063G transition and one showed an A2064G transition. Conclusions The prevalence of macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae is high among adolescent patients as well as pediatric patients less than 16-years old. To prevent outbreaks of M. pneumoniae infection, especially macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae, in closed populations including among families, in schools and in university students, physicians should pay

  8. Nasopharyngeal carriage and macrolide resistance in Indigenous children with bronchiectasis randomized to long-term azithromycin or placebo.

    PubMed

    Hare, K M; Grimwood, K; Chang, A B; Chatfield, M D; Valery, P C; Leach, A J; Smith-Vaughan, H C; Morris, P S; Byrnes, C A; Torzillo, P J; Cheng, A C

    2015-11-01

    Although long-term azithromycin decreases exacerbation frequency in bronchiectasis, increased macrolide resistance is concerning. We investigated macrolide resistance determinants in a secondary analysis of a multicenter randomized controlled trial. Indigenous Australian children living in remote regions and urban New Zealand Māori and Pacific Islander children with bronchiectasis were randomized to weekly azithromycin (30 mg/kg) or placebo for up to 24 months and followed post-intervention for up to 12 months. Nurses administered and recorded medications given and collected nasopharyngeal swabs 3-6 monthly for culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Nasopharyngeal carriage of Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis was significantly lower in azithromycin compared to placebo groups, while macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus carriage was significantly higher. Australian children, compared to New Zealand children, had higher carriage overall, significantly higher carriage of macrolide-resistant bacteria at baseline (16/38 versus 2/40 children) and during the intervention (69/152 versus 22/239 swabs), and lower mean adherence to study medication (63 % versus 92 %). Adherence ≥70 % (versus <70 %) in the Australian azithromycin group was associated with lower carriage of any pathogen [odds ratio (OR) 0.19, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.07-0.53] and fewer macrolide-resistant pathogens (OR 0.34, 95 % CI 0.14-0.81). Post-intervention (median 6 months), macrolide resistance in S. pneumoniae declined significantly in the azithromycin group, from 79 % (11/14) to 7 % (1/14) of positive swabs, but S. aureus strains remained 100 % macrolide resistant. Azithromycin treatment, the Australian remote setting, and adherence <70 % were significant independent determinants of macrolide resistance in children with bronchiectasis. Adherence to treatment may limit macrolide resistance by suppressing carriage. PMID

  9. Characterization of in vivo-acquired resistance to macrolides of Mycoplasma gallisepticum strains isolated from poultry

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The macrolide class of antibiotics, including tylosin and tilmicosin, is widely used in the veterinary field for prophylaxis and treatment of mycoplasmosis. In vitro susceptibility testing of 50 strains of M. gallisepticum isolated in Israel during the period 1997-2010 revealed that acquired resistance to tylosin as well as to tilmicosin was present in 50% of them. Moreover, 72% (13/18) of the strains isolated from clinical samples since 2006 showed acquired resistance to enrofloxacin, tylosin and tilmicosin. Molecular typing of the field isolates, performed by gene-target sequencing (GTS), detected 13 molecular types (I-XIII). Type II was the predominant type prior to 2006 whereas type X, first detected in 2008, is currently prevalent. All ten type X strains were resistant to both fluoroquinolones and macrolides, suggesting selective pressure leading to clonal dissemination of resistance. However, this was not a unique event since resistant strains with other GTS molecular types were also found. Concurrently, the molecular basis for macrolide resistance in M. gallisepticum was identified. Our results revealed a clear-cut correlation between single point mutations A2058G or A2059G in domain V of the gene encoding 23S rRNA (rrnA, MGA_01) and acquired macrolide resistance in M. gallisepticum. Indeed, all isolates with MIC ≥ 0.63 μg/mL to tylosin and with MIC ≥ 1.25 μg/mL to tilmicosin possess one of these mutations, suggesting an essential role in decreased susceptibility of M. gallisepticum to 16-membered macrolides. PMID:21810258

  10. A 5' Nuclease Genotyping Assay for Identification of Macrolide-Resistant Mycoplasma genitalium in Clinical Specimens.

    PubMed

    Kristiansen, Gitte Qvist; Lisby, Jan Gorm; Schønning, Kristian

    2016-06-01

    Rapid and sensitive detection of macrolide resistance in Mycoplasma genitalium is required for the guidance of adequate antimicrobial treatment. Previous studies have confirmed that single-base mutations at position 2058 or 2059 in domain V of the 23S rRNA gene of M. genitalium result in high-level macrolide resistance. Sequencing of PCR products remains the gold standard for the identification of mutations conferring resistance to macrolides but is laborious and time-consuming. The aim of the present study was to develop a 5' nuclease genotyping assay to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms in the 23S rRNA gene of Mycoplasma genitalium that are associated with macrolide resistance by combining PCR with hydrolysis probes and subsequent endpoint genotyping analysis. The 5' nuclease genotyping assay was used as a referral test to be used on M. genitalium-positive samples and was validated on 259 positive samples, of which 253 (97.7%) were successfully sequenced. With the newly developed assay, 237/259 (91.5%) investigated M. genitalium-positive samples were genotyped. The positive and the negative predictive values were 100% when evaluated on successfully genotyped samples. The newly developed assay discriminated macrolide-resistant M. genitalium in clinical specimens possessing A2058G, A2058C, A2058T, and A2059G mutations with a sensitivity of 94.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 90.7% to 98.2%) and a specificity of 92.7% (95% CI, 87.8% to 97.6%) when evaluated on successfully sequenced samples. The assay can correctly guide antimicrobial treatment of M. genitalium infections. PMID:27053672

  11. Drug Resistance Characteristics and Macrolide-Resistant Mechanisms of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Wenzhou City, China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dakang; Sun, Zheng; Luo, Xinhua; Liu, Shuangchun; Yu, Lianhua; Qu, Ying; Yang, Jinhong; Yu, Jian; Li, Xiangyang; Zhang, Jin

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) is a Gram-positive, alpha-hemolytic, facultative anaerobic member of the genus Streptococcus. The erythromycin-resistant methylase (erm) gene and macrolide efflux (mef) gene are the 2 main genes that can mediate SP. Transposon (Tn) also plays an important role in the collection and metastasis of the gene. In the present study we investigated the drug resistance characteristics and the macrolide-resistant mechanisms of SP in Wenzhou City, China. MATERIAL AND METHODS Sixty-eight strains of SP were isolated from sputum samples of hospitalized children in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University. These strains were analyzed using antimicrobial susceptibility tests to determine their drug resistance to 10 kinds of antibacterials. Macrolide-resistant phenotypes were identified using K-B method. PCR method was used to analyze the erm B gene, mef A gene, and int Tn gene. RESULTS Drug resistance rates of 68 strains of SP were 98.5%, 100.0%, 63.2%, 52.9%, 94.1%, 89.7%, 0.0%, 0.0%, 16.2%, and 14.7% for clindamycin, erythromycin, penicillin G, cefotaxime, tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, levofloxacin, vancomycin, chloramphenicol, and amoxicillin, respectively. Total detection rates of the erm B gene, mef A gene, and int Tn gene were 98.5%, 91.2%, and 100.0%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS SP shows significant multi-drug resistance in Wenzhou City, whereas there is no clinical value of macrolides antibiotics for SP. cMLSB mediated by erm B gene is the most predominant phenotype among macrolide-resistant SP. The int Tn gene may play an important role in horizontal transfer and clonal dissemination of SP drug resistance genes in Wenzhou City. PMID:27483416

  12. Macrolide-lincosamide-resistant phenotypes and genotypes of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine clinical mastitis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Wu, Cong-Ming; Lu, Li-Ming; Ren, Gao-Wa Na; Cao, Xing-Yuan; Shen, Jian-Zhong

    2008-07-27

    The present study aimed to determine the prevalence and mechanisms of macrolide-lincosamide (ML) resistance in 72 Staphylococcus aureus isolates from cows with clinical mastitis. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of ML antibiotics were determined by the broth microdilution technique, inducible ML resistance phenotype by the D test, and ML resistance genes by PCR assay. The isolates showed a high level of resistance to erythromycin (93.1%), azithromycin (93.1%), spiramycin (41.7%), tylosin (40.3%), tilmicosin (27.8%), and clindamycin (36.1%). Macrolide-lincosamide MIC(90) values were > or = 128 mg/L. Inducible ML resistance (iML) phenotype was detected in 52.8% (38/72) of isolates. In erythromycin-resistant (ER-R) strains, methylase genes ermB and ermC, efflux gene msrA/msrB, and inactivating enzyme genes lnuA and mphC were present alone or in various combinations, with ermB and ermC genes predominating. This is the first report of ML resistance genes ermB, mrsA/mrsB and mphC in S. aureus isolated from bovine mastitis. The occurrence of high levels of resistance to ML antibiotics among the S. aureus isolates, and the high rate of iML phenotype, indicate that appropriate alternative antibiotics should be prescribed for treating bovine mastitis caused by S. aureus. Furthermore, significant differences in the conformations of lactone rings of 16- and 14-membered macrolides could explain why some isolates with a constitutive ML resistance (cML) phenotype were sensitive to 16-membered macrolides alone. The different interaction of the 16-membered macrolides with the 50S ribosomal subunit is also presumably the reason why the susceptibility results of tilmcosin differed from those of tylosin and spiramycin. PMID:18272297

  13. Characterization of in vivo-acquired resistance to macrolides of Mycoplasma gallisepticum strains isolated from poultry.

    PubMed

    Gerchman, Irena; Levisohn, Sharon; Mikula, Inna; Manso-Silván, Lucía; Lysnyansky, Inna

    2011-01-01

    The macrolide class of antibiotics, including tylosin and tilmicosin, is widely used in the veterinary field for prophylaxis and treatment of mycoplasmosis. In vitro susceptibility testing of 50 strains of M. gallisepticum isolated in Israel during the period 1997-2010 revealed that acquired resistance to tylosin as well as to tilmicosin was present in 50% of them. Moreover, 72% (13/18) of the strains isolated from clinical samples since 2006 showed acquired resistance to enrofloxacin, tylosin and tilmicosin. Molecular typing of the field isolates, performed by gene-target sequencing (GTS), detected 13 molecular types (I-XIII). Type II was the predominant type prior to 2006 whereas type X, first detected in 2008, is currently prevalent. All ten type X strains were resistant to both fluoroquinolones and macrolides, suggesting selective pressure leading to clonal dissemination of resistance. However, this was not a unique event since resistant strains with other GTS molecular types were also found. Concurrently, the molecular basis for macrolide resistance in M. gallisepticum was identified. Our results revealed a clear-cut correlation between single point mutations A2058G or A2059G in domain V of the gene encoding 23S rRNA (rrnA, MGA_01) and acquired macrolide resistance in M. gallisepticum. Indeed, all isolates with MIC ≥ 0.63 μg/mL to tylosin and with MIC ≥ 1.25 μg/mL to tilmicosin possess one of these mutations, suggesting an essential role in decreased susceptibility of M. gallisepticum to 16-membered macrolides. PMID:21810258

  14. Drug Resistance Characteristics and Macrolide-Resistant Mechanisms of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Wenzhou City, China

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Dakang; Sun, Zheng; Luo, Xinhua; Liu, Shuangchun; Yu, Lianhua; Qu, Ying; Yang, Jinhong; Yu, Jian; Li, Xiangyang; Zhang, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) is a Gram-positive, alpha-hemolytic, facultative anaerobic member of the genus Streptococcus. The erythromycin-resistant methylase (erm) gene and macrolide efflux (mef) gene are the 2 main genes that can mediate SP. Transposon (Tn) also plays an important role in the collection and metastasis of the gene. In the present study we investigated the drug resistance characteristics and the macrolide-resistant mechanisms of SP in Wenzhou City, China. Material/Methods Sixty-eight strains of SP were isolated from sputum samples of hospitalized children in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University. These strains were analyzed using antimicrobial susceptibility tests to determine their drug resistance to 10 kinds of antibacterials. Macrolide-resistant phenotypes were identified using K-B method. PCR method was used to analyze the erm B gene, mef A gene, and int Tn gene. Results Drug resistance rates of 68 strains of SP were 98.5%, 100.0%, 63.2%, 52.9%, 94.1%, 89.7%, 0.0%, 0.0%, 16.2%, and 14.7% for clindamycin, erythromycin, penicillin G, cefotaxime, tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, levofloxacin, vancomycin, chloramphenicol, and amoxicillin, respectively. Total detection rates of the erm B gene, mef A gene, and int Tn gene were 98.5%, 91.2%, and 100.0%, respectively. Conclusions SP shows significant multi-drug resistance in Wenzhou City, whereas there is no clinical value of macrolides antibiotics for SP. cMLSB mediated by erm B gene is the most predominant phenotype among macrolide-resistant SP. The int Tn gene may play an important role in horizontal transfer and clonal dissemination of SP drug resistance genes in Wenzhou City. PMID:27483416

  15. Combinations of Macrolide Resistance Determinants in Field Isolates of Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida▿

    PubMed Central

    Desmolaize, Benoit; Rose, Simon; Wilhelm, Cornelia; Warrass, Ralf; Douthwaite, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Respiratory tract infections in cattle are commonly associated with the bacterial pathogens Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida. These infections can generally be successfully treated in the field with one of several groups of antibiotics, including macrolides. A few recent isolates of these species exhibit resistance to veterinary macrolides with phenotypes that fall into three distinct classes. The first class has type I macrolide, lincosamide, and streptogramin B antibiotic resistance and, consistent with this, the 23S rRNA nucleotide A2058 is monomethylated by the enzyme product of the erm(42) gene. The second class shows no lincosamide resistance and lacks erm(42) and concomitant 23S rRNA methylation. Sequencing of the genome of a representative strain from this class, P. multocida 3361, revealed macrolide efflux and phosphotransferase genes [respectively termed msr(E) and mph(E)] that are arranged in tandem and presumably expressed from the same promoter. The third class exhibits the most marked drug phenotype, with high resistance to all of the macrolides tested, and possesses all three resistance determinants. The combinations of erm(42), msr(E), and mph(E) are chromosomally encoded and intermingled with other exogenous genes, many of which appear to have been transferred from other members of the Pasteurellaceae. The presence of some of the exogenous genes explains recent reports of resistance to additional drug classes. We have expressed recombinant versions of the erm(42), msr(E), and mph(E) genes within an isogenic Escherichia coli background to assess their individually contributions to resistance. Our findings indicate what types of compounds might have driven the selection for these resistance determinants. PMID:21709086

  16. Quinolone and macrolide resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli: resistance mechanisms and trends in human isolates.

    PubMed Central

    Engberg, J.; Aarestrup, F. M.; Taylor, D. E.; Gerner-Smidt, P.; Nachamkin, I.

    2001-01-01

    The incidence of human Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli infections has increased markedly in many parts of the world in the last decade as has the number of quinolone-resistant and, to a lesser extent, macrolide-resistant Campylobacter strains causing infections. We review macrolide and quinolone resistance in Campylobacter and track resistance trends in human clinical isolates in relation to use of these agents in food animals. Susceptibility data suggest that erythromycin and other macrolides should remain the drugs of choice in most regions, with systematic surveillance and control measures maintained, but fluoroquinolones may now be of limited use in the empiric treatment of Campylobacter infections in many regions. PMID:11266291

  17. [Simultaneous determination of polyether antibiotics and macrolide anthelmintics in livestock products by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Mizuka; Kakimoto, Kensaku; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Obana, Hirotaka

    2011-01-01

    A method using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed for the simultaneous determination of polyether antibiotics and macrolide anthelmintics in livestock products. The polyether antibiotics and macrolide anthelmintics were extracted from livestock products with acetonitrile and cleaned up with dispersive solid-phase extractions and a silica gel column. The quantification limits of polyether antibiotics and macrolide anthelmintics were 0.00005-0.0005 µg/g. Except for narasin and lasalocid in bovine liver and milk, the recoveries were 70 to 117%. The relative standard deviations met the required guideline. The developed method was applied to six kinds of livestock products. PMID:22200746

  18. Mode of action of the protein, SP127, which enhances the activity of macrolide antibiotics against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, M; Nakao, Y

    1977-03-01

    Antibiotics, the activity of which enhanced against Pseudomonas aeruginosa by SP127, were restricted to the basic macrolide antibiotics such as erythromycin, maridomycin and oleandomycin, the neutral macrolide antibiotics such as lankamycin and lankacidin C, vancomycin and enramycin. Synergistic activity of SP127 with the above antibiotics was found against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and several strains of Escherichia coli, but not against Proteus vulgaris and macrolide-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. SP127 had extremely weak proteolytic but no lytic activity. From the isotopic experiments, the action of SP127 was partially attributed to the promotion of antibiotic penetration to cells of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:405356

  19. Advantages and drawbacks of long-term macrolide use in the treatment of non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Li-Chao

    2014-01-01

    Non-cystic fibrosis (non-CF) bronchiectasis is a respiratory disease characterized by persistent airway inflammation and dilation of bronchial wall driven by various causes. Patients with bronchiectasis suffer from excessive sputum production, recurrent exacerbations, and progressive airway destruction. Major therapy for bronchiectasis is focused on breaking the “vicious cycle” of mucus stasis, infection, inflammation, and airway destruction. Growing evidences have been shown that macrolides possess immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory functions beyond their antimicrobial effects. Macrolide antibiotics have been effectively used in the treatment of diffuse panbronchiolitis, CF and bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. Currently a number of clinical trials were performed to assess macrolide treatment in the management of non-CF bronchiectasis. The purpose of this paper is to review the efficacy and potential risks of these recent studies on the use of macrolides in non-CF bronchiectasis. PMID:25093082

  20. Macrolones Are a Novel Class of Macrolide Antibiotics Active against Key Resistant Respiratory Pathogens In Vitro and In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Čipčić Paljetak, Hana; Verbanac, Donatella; Padovan, Jasna; Dominis-Kramarić, Miroslava; Kelnerić, Željko; Perić, Mihaela; Banjanac, Mihailo; Ergović, Gabrijela; Simon, Nerrisa; Broskey, John; Holmes, David J; Eraković Haber, Vesna

    2016-09-01

    As we face an alarming increase in bacterial resistance to current antibacterial chemotherapeutics, expanding the available therapeutic arsenal in the fight against resistant bacterial pathogens causing respiratory tract infections is of high importance. The antibacterial potency of macrolones, a novel class of macrolide antibiotics, against key respiratory pathogens was evaluated in vitro and in vivo MIC values against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Haemophilus influenzae strains sensitive to macrolide antibiotics and with defined macrolide resistance mechanisms were determined. The propensity of macrolones to induce the expression of inducible erm genes was tested by the triple-disk method and incubation in the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of compounds. In vivo efficacy was assessed in a murine model of S. pneumoniae-induced pneumonia, and pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles in mice were determined. The in vitro antibacterial profiles of macrolones were superior to those of marketed macrolide antibiotics, including the ketolide telithromycin, and the compounds did not induce the expression of inducible erm genes. They acted as typical protein synthesis inhibitors in an Escherichia coli transcription/translation assay. Macrolones were characterized by low to moderate systemic clearance, a large volume of distribution, a long half-life, and low oral bioavailability. They were highly efficacious in a murine model of pneumonia after intraperitoneal application even against an S. pneumoniae strain with constitutive resistance to macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B antibiotics. Macrolones are the class of macrolide antibiotics with an outstanding antibacterial profile and reasonable PK parameters resulting in good in vivo efficacy. PMID:27353268

  1. [Determination of five macrolide antibiotic residues in royal jelly samples by using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Xie, Wen; Ding, Huiying; Xi, Junyang; Qian, Yan; Huang, Leifang

    2007-05-01

    The macrolides are lipophilic molecules having a central lactone ring bearing 12 to 20 atoms to which several amino and/or neutral sugars are bound. They are broad spectrum antibiotics active against Gram-positive bacteria and mycoplasmas, as well as some Gram-negative organisms and members of the chlamydia group. Macrolides are a group of antibacterial compounds that have been widely used in medical and veterinary practices. A method of high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was developed for the confirmation of five macrolide antibiotic residues (spiramycin, oleandomycin, tylosin, roxithromycin, josamycin) in royal jelly samples. Trichloroacetic acid solution was used to precipitate the protein in the sample. The upper layer solution was extracted with acetonitrile. Then it was cleaned up with a C18 column. The one precursor/two product ion transitions for each macrolide antibiotics were monitored. The results show that the working curves for five macrolide antibiotics were linear in the range of 0.002 - 0.05 mg/L by HPLC-MS/MS in selective ion monitoring model. The limits of quantitation of the antibiotics in royal jelly were all 20 microg/kg. The recoveries were between 73.0% -90.2% at three spiked levels (20, 100 and 200 microg/kg for each macrolide antibiotic), and the relative standard deviations were between 5.6% - 10.5%. PMID:17679440

  2. Macrolides and associated antibiotics based on similar mechanism of action like lincosamides in malaria.

    PubMed

    Gaillard, Tiphaine; Dormoi, Jérôme; Madamet, Marylin; Pradines, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Malaria, a parasite vector-borne disease, is one of the biggest health threats in tropical regions, despite the availability of malaria chemoprophylaxis. The emergence and rapid extension of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to various anti-malarial drugs has gradually limited the potential malaria therapeutics available to clinicians. In this context, macrolides and associated antibiotics based on similar mechanism of action like lincosamides constitute an interesting alternative in the treatment of malaria. These molecules, whose action spectrum is similar to that of tetracyclines, are typically administered to children and pregnant women. Recent studies have examined the effects of azithromycin and the lincosamide clindamycin, on isolates from different continents. Azithromycin and clindamycin are effective and well tolerated in the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in combination with quinine. This literature review assesses the roles of macrolides and lincosamides in the prophylaxis and treatment of malaria. PMID:26873741

  3. Determination of macrolide antibiotics in chicken tissues by liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salikin, Jamilah; Abdullah, Aminah

    2013-11-01

    A methodusingliquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry (LC-(ESI)MS) for the simultaneous determination of three macrolides (tylosin, spiramycin and tilmicosin) in poultry muscle has been developed. The drugs were extracted with EDTA McIlvaine buffer, filter through celite 545 and the extracts were cleaned up by SPE Oasis HLB cartridge. Separation was carried out in end-capped silica-based C18 column and mobile phases containing trifluoroacetic acid-acetonitrile with a binary gradient system at a flow rate 0.5 ml/min. Detection was performed by single mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization in the positive mode. Several parameters affecting the mass spectra were studied. Chicken samples from the market were analyzed to check the residue of macrolide antibiotics.

  4. Characterisation of in vitro-selected mutants of Ureaplasma parvum resistant to macrolides and related antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Pereyre, S; Métifiot, M; Cazanave, C; Renaudin, H; Charron, A; Bébéar, C; Bébéar, C M

    2007-02-01

    Resistant mutants of Ureaplasma parvum were selected by serial passages of a susceptible strain in subinhibitory concentrations of different macrolides and related antibiotics (erythromycin, azithromycin, josamycin, quinupristin, quinupristin/dalfopristin, pristinamycin and telithromycin). Mechanisms of resistance were characterised by sequencing portions of genes encoding 23S rRNA and ribosomal proteins L4 and L22. Mutants with significantly increased minimum inhibitory concentrations could be selected with all the selector antibiotics, except quinupristin and pristinamycin. Mutants harboured mutations in domain V of the 23S rRNA gene at nucleotides G2056, G2057 or A2058 (Escherichia coli numbering) and in conserved portions of ribosomal proteins L4 and L22. Most of the mutations were associated with complete loss of macrolide and ketolide activity, whereas streptogramin combinations were less affected. PMID:17196370

  5. Determination of macrolides in biological matrices by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection.

    PubMed

    Kees, F; Spangler, S; Wellenhofer, M

    1998-07-01

    A liquid chromatographic method for the determination of macrolide antibiotics is described using a cyanopropyl column which proved to be as efficient or superior to the normally used apolar reversed-phase columns. The recovery of the macrolides from water and plasma was 80-90%. Using 0.5 ml of plasma, 30 ng/ml of clarithromycin, 50 ng/ml of roxithromycin and 10 ng/ml of azithromycin could be determined with acceptable precision and accuracy. The method has been employed in pharmacokinetic studies in humans for the determination of roxithromycin, clarithromycin and azithromycin in plasma, serum and other biological matrices. The particular selectivity of the cyanopropyl phase may also allow the simultaneous determination of erythromycin and its prodrug esters. PMID:9691325

  6. Discovery of the butenyl-spinosyn insecticides: novel macrolides from the new bacterial strain Saccharopolyspora pogona.

    PubMed

    Lewer, Paul; Hahn, Donald R; Karr, Laura L; Duebelbeis, Dennis O; Gilbert, Jeffrey R; Crouse, Gary D; Worden, Thomas; Sparks, Thomas C; Edwards, Pat McKamey Rex; Graupner, Paul R

    2009-06-15

    A new bacterium, Saccharopolyspora pogona (NRRL30141) was discovered which produced a series of very potent insecticidal compounds structurally related to the 'classical' (i.e., C-21-ethyl) spinosyns. A series of fermentations gave sufficient extract to allow the isolation and characterization of a total of 31 new metabolites. The majority of these compounds contained a but-1-enyl group at C-21 of the macrolide in place of the ethyl group in the 'classical' spinosyn series, corresponding to an additional acetate group incorporated during their biosynthesis. Additionally a variety of other new functionality was seen including hydroxylations, several novel forosamine sugar replacements, and a novel 14-membered macrolide ring analog. PMID:19324553

  7. Potential Chemopreventive Activity of a New Macrolide Antibiotic from a Marine-Derived Micromonospora sp

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Skylar; Marler, Laura; Nam, Sang-Jip; Santarsiero, Bernard D.; Pezzuto, John M.; Murphy, Brian T.

    2013-01-01

    Agents capable of inducing phase II enzymes such as quinone reductase 1 (QR1) are known to have the potential of mediating cancer chemopreventive activity. As part of a program to discover novel phase II enzyme-inducing molecules, we identified a marine-derived actinomycete strain (CNJ-878) that exhibited activity with cultured Hepa 1c1c7 cells. Based on this activity, a new macrolide, juvenimicin C (1), as well as 5-O-α-l-rhamnosyltylactone (2), were isolated from the culture broth of a Micromonospora sp. Compound 1 enhanced QR1 enzyme activity and glutathione levels by two-fold with CD values of 10.1 and 27.7 μM, respectively. In addition, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase activities were elevated. This is the first reported member of the macrolide class of antibiotics found to mediate these responses. PMID:23552877

  8. Venturicidin C, A New 20-Membered Macrolide Produced by Streptomyces sp. TS-2-2

    PubMed Central

    Shaaban, Khaled A.; Singh, Shanteri; Elshahawi, Sherif I.; Wang, Xiachang; Ponomareva, Larissa V.; Sunkara, Manjula; Copley, Gregory C.; Hower, James C.; Morris, Andrew J.; Kharel, Madan K.; Thorson, Jon S.

    2013-01-01

    Venturicidin C (1), a new 20-membered macrolide along with the known venturicidins A (2) and B (3) were isolated from the crude extract of the Appalachian bacterial strain Streptomyces sp. TS-2-2. Additionally, nine other known compounds namely nocardamine, dehydroxynocardamine, desmethylenlnocardamine, ferrioxamine E (FOE), adenosine, riboflavin, cyclo(d)-trans-4-OH-Pro-(d)-Phe, cyclo(d)-Pro-(d)-Phe, and N-(2-phenylethyl)-acetamide were also isolated and identified. The structure of the new macrolide 1 was elucidated by the cumulative analyses of NMR and HR-MS spectrometry data. Complete NMR assignments for the known venturicidins A (2) and B (3) are also provided, for the first time, in this report. Venturicidins A-C did not inhibit the proliferation of A549 lung cancer cell lines but all displayed potent antifungal activity. PMID:24252813

  9. Interaction of macrolide antibiotics with intestinally expressed human and rat organic anion-transporting polypeptides.

    PubMed

    Lan, Tian; Rao, Anuradha; Haywood, Jamie; Davis, Charles B; Han, Chao; Garver, Eric; Dawson, Paul A

    2009-12-01

    The macrolide antibiotics azithromycin and clarithromycin are large molecular weight compounds that exhibit moderate to excellent oral bioavailability in preclinical species and humans. Previous concomitant dosing studies in rats using rifamycin SV, a general organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) inhibitor, suggested that the high oral absorption of azithromycin and clarithromycin may be caused by facilitative uptake by intestinal Oatps. In this study, we used OATP/Oatp-expressing cells to investigate the interaction of macrolides with rat Oatp1a5, human OATP1A2, and human/rat OATP2B1/Oatp2b1. These experiments showed that azithromycin and clarithromycin were potent inhibitors of rat Oatp1a5-mediated taurocholate uptake with apparent inhibitor constant (K(i)) values of 3.3 and 2.4 microM, respectively. The macrolides functioned as noncompetitive inhibitors but were not transport substrates for rat Oatp1a5, as assessed by direct uptake measurements of radiolabeled azithromycin and clarithromycin. cis-Inhibition and direct uptake studies further showed that azithromycin and clarithromycin were only very weak inhibitors and not substrates for human OATP1A2 and human/rat OATP2B1/Oatp2b1. In summary, these results indicate that the macrolides azithromycin and clarithromycin potently inhibit rat Oatp1a5 but do not significantly interact with OATP1A2 and OATP2B1/Oatp2b1. These intestinally expressed OATP/Oatp(s) are not responsible for the postulated facilitative uptake of azithromycin and clarithromycin, and alternative facilitative pathways must exist for their intestinal absorption. PMID:19741038

  10. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis: Macrolides- and Amoxicillin/Clavulanate-induced Acute Liver Injury.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Pili; Amelio, Justyna; Ballarín, Elena; Sabaté, Mònica; Vidal, Xavi; Rottenkolber, Marietta; Schmiedl, Sven; Laporte, Joan-Ramon; Ibáñez, Luisa

    2016-07-01

    Antibacterials are frequently associated with idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (DILI). The objective of this study was to estimate the risk of macrolides and amoxicillin/clavulanate (AMC) on DILI. We conducted a systematic review (SR) and meta-analysis (MA) with studies retrieved from PubMed, Cochrane Library Plus, Web of Knowledge, clinicaltrials.gov, Livertox and Toxline (1980-2014). We searched for macrolides, AMC and MeSH and synonym terms for DILI. We included all study designs except case reports/series, all population ages and studies with a placebo/non-user comparator. We summarized the evidence with a random-effects MA. Quality of the studies was appraised with a checklist developed for SR of adverse effects. Heterogeneity and publication bias were assessed with different exploratory tools. We finally included 10 (two randomized clinical trials, six case-control, one cohort and one case-population studies) and 9 (case-population excluded) articles in the SR and MA, respectively. The overall summary relative risk of DILI for macrolides was 2.85 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.81-4.47], p < 0.0001, I(2) = 57%. Three studies were perceived to be missing in the area of low statistical significance. Year of study and selected exposure window partly explained the variability between studies. For AMC, the risk of DILI was 9.38 (95% CI 0.65-135.41) p = 0.3, I2 = 95%. In conclusion, although spontaneous reports and case series have long established an association between macrolides and AMC with acute liver injury, these SR and MA have assessed the magnitude of this association. The low incidence of DILI and the therapeutic place of these antibiotics might tilt the balance in favour of their benefits. PMID:26707367

  11. Preparation and characterization of dehydration-rehydration vesicles loaded with aminoglycoside and macrolide antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Mugabe, Clement; Azghani, Ali O; Omri, Abdelwahab

    2006-01-13

    Enhanced activity of liposomes-encapsulated antibiotics against clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been documented with liposomes of low encapsulation efficiency. We sought to construct liposomes with high yield entrapment of aminoglycoside and macrolide antibiotics as well as favorable stability in storage and physiological conditions. Liposome-entrapped aminoglycosides (amikacin, gentamicin, tobramycin) and a macrolide (erythromycin) were prepared by a modified dehydration-rehydration vesicles (DRVs) method, and their particle size and entrapment efficiency were determined. We studied in vitro stability of these vesicles over a 48 h period at 4 and 37 degrees C in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and in plasma at 37 degrees C. The mean particle size of DRVs loaded with antibiotics varied from 163.37+/-38.44 to 259.83+/-11.80 nm with no significant difference in regard with the type of the antibiotics encapsulated. Encapsulation efficiency of DRVs loaded with amikacin, gentamicin, tobramycin, and erythromycin were 29.27+/-1.17, 33+/-0.76, 22.33+/-1.48 and 32.06+/-0.82% of initial amount of the drug, respectively. These vesicles were stable regardless of the experimental temperature. Indeed, the liposomes retained more than 75% of the initially encapsulated drugs for the study period of 48 h. DRVs incubated in plasma however, released more antibiotics than those incubated in PBS. In conclusion, using this modified DRV method, we obtained small sized vesicles with high yield entrapment for aminoglycoside and macrolide antibiotics. The technique may be utilized to overcome the low encapsulation efficiency associated with aminoglycoside and macrolide antibiotics. PMID:16289986

  12. Macrolides Inhibit Fusobacterium nucleatum-Induced MUC5AC Production in Human Airway Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nagaoka, Kentaro; Harada, Yosuke; Yamada, Koichi; Migiyama, Yohei; Morinaga, Yoshitomo; Hasegawa, Hiroo; Izumikawa, Koichi; Kakeya, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Masaharu; Kohno, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    Fusobacterium nucleatum is one of the most common anaerobic bacteria in periodontitis and is responsible for several extraoral infections, including respiratory tract diseases. In this study, we examined whether F. nucleatum induces mucin secretion in airway epithelial cells. We also examined the effects of macrolides on F. nucleatum-induced mucus production compared with the effects of other antibiotics that exert anti-anaerobic activities. The production of MUC5AC, the major core protein of mucin secreted from the airway surface epithelium, in bronchial epithelial cells after stimulation with culture supernatants (Sup) of F. nucleatum was analyzed by performing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and quantitative RT-PCR. The cell-signaling pathway of F. nucleatum Sup stimulation was also analyzed by Western blotting. For inhibition studies, cells were treated with azithromycin, clarithromycin, clindamycin (CLDM), and metronidazole (MTZ). The F. nucleatum Sup induced NCI-H292 cells to express MUC5AC at both the protein level and the mRNA level in both a time- and dose-dependent manner. Macrolides inhibited F. nucleatum Sup-induced MUC5AC production, while CLDM and MTZ were less effective. F. nucleatum Sup induced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), and this induction was suppressed by macrolides. F. nucleatum Sup-induced MUC5AC production was blocked by the ERK pathway inhibitor U0126. F. nucleatum is likely to contribute to excessive mucin production, which suggests that periodontitis may correlate with the pathogenesis of chronic respiratory tract infection. Macrolides seem to reduce this mucin production and might represent an additional means of therapeutic intervention for F. nucleatum respiratory tract infections other than CLDM and MTZ. PMID:23380724

  13. Separation analysis of macrolide antibiotics with good performance on a positively charged C18HCE column.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jie; Shen, Aijin; Yan, Jingyu; Jin, Gaowa; Yang, Bingcheng; Guo, Zhimou; Zhang, Feifang; Liang, Xinmiao

    2016-03-01

    The separation of basic macrolide antibiotics suffers from peak tailing and poor efficiency on traditional silica-based reversed-phase liquid chromatography columns. In this work, a C18HCE column with positively charged surface was applied to the separation of macrolides. Compared with an Acquity BEH C18 column, the C18HCE column exhibited superior performance in the aspect of peak shape and separation efficiency. The screening of mobile phase additives including formic acid, acetic acid and ammonium formate indicated that formic acid was preferable for providing symmetrical peak shapes. Moreover, the influence of formic acid content was investigated. Analysis speed and mass spectrometry compatibility were also taken into account when optimizing the separation conditions for liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The developed method was successfully utilized for the determination of macrolide residues in a honey sample. Azithromycin was chosen as the internal standard for the quantitation of spiramycin and tilmicosin, while roxithromycin was used for erythromycin, tylosin, clarithromycin, josamycin and acetylisovaleryltylosin. Good correlation coefficients (r(2) > 0.9938) for all macrolides were obtained. The intra-day and inter-day recoveries were 73.7-134.7% and 80.7-119.7% with relative standard deviations of 2.5-8.0% and 3.9-16.1%, respectively. Outstanding sensitivity with limits of quantitation (S/N ≥ 10) of 0.02-1 μg/kg and limits of detection (S/N ≥ 3) of 0.01-0.5 μg/kg were achieved. PMID:26782089

  14. Development, stability, and molecular mechanisms of macrolide resistance in Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Dave Bryson; Wang, Ying; Lin, Jun

    2008-11-01

    Previous studies of macrolide resistance in Campylobacter were primarily focused on strains from various origins or used in vitro systems. In this study, we conducted both in vitro and in vivo experiments to examine the development, stability, and genetic basis of macrolide resistance in Campylobacter jejuni using erythromycin-resistant (Ery(r)) mutants derived from the same parent strain. Chickens inoculated with low-level Ery(r) mutants (MIC = 32 or 64 microg/ml) at 15 days old did not shed highly Ery(r) mutants (MIC > 512 microg/ml) after prolonged exposure to a low dose of tylosin. The low-level Ery resistance was not stable in vitro or in vivo in the absence of macrolide selection pressure. However, high-level Ery resistance displayed remarkable stability in vitro and in vivo. Ribosomal sequence analysis of 69 selected Ery(r) mutants showed that specific point mutations (A2074G or A2074C) occurred in all highly Ery(r) mutants. No mutations in ribosomal protein L4 were observed in any of the in vitro-selected Ery(r) mutants. However, three specific mutations in L4, G74D, G57D, and G57V, were widely found among in vivo-selected Ery(r) mutants. Insertion of three amino acids, TSH, at position 98 in ribosomal protein L22 was observed only in mutants selected in vitro. Inactivation of the CmeABC efflux pump dramatically reduced Ery MICs in Ery(r) mutants. Together, these findings suggest that multiple factors contribute to the emergence of highly Ery(r) Campylobacter in chicken, reveal resistance level-dependent stability of macrolide resistance in C. jejuni, and indicate that C. jejuni utilizes complex and different mechanisms to develop Ery resistance in vitro and in vivo. PMID:18779354

  15. From SubPAR to PAR, into the CryoEM, and More Macrolides.

    PubMed

    2016-06-23

    Every month the editors of Cell Chemical Biology bring you highlights of the most recent chemical biology literature. Our June 2016 selection includes new efforts to map ADP-ribosylation sites and get a deeper view of their functional relevance, an illustration of why cryoEM should now be considered an important player in facilitating structure-based drug development and design, and a new way to synthesize a wide range of macrolide antibiotics. PMID:27341428

  16. Repair of membrane alterations induced in baby hamster kidney cells by polyene macrolide antibiotics.

    PubMed Central

    Malewicz, B; Jenkin, H M; Borowski, E

    1981-01-01

    We studied the correlation between chemical characteristics of 13 polyene macrolide antibiotics and the ability to repair the membrane permeability changes induced by polyenes in BHK-21 cells grown in shaker culture. It had been demonstrated that large-macrolide-ring polyenes with rigid molecules (heptaenes) induced specific membrane permeability pathways which were repaired by the eucaryotic cells under the proper conditions. The influence of environmental conditions on the repair process was examined. Aureofacin trimethylammonium methyl ester derivative was used as a selected representative of polyene macrolides inducing specific pathways. The factors influencing the repair process, monitored by measuring the ability of BHK-21 cells to control K+ membrane transport, were examined during and after cell contact with the antibiotic. We found that the repair process was dependent upon the temperature, the concentration of the antibiotic, time of its contact with cells, potassium concentration in the medium, and availability of an energy source. The repair process occurred in the presence of cycloheximide, which inhibited protein synthesis in BHK-21 cells. Results showed that the repair process plays an important role in mammalian cell recovery from the toxic effects of polyenes. PMID:7347559

  17. Fast-atom bombardment and tandem mass spectrometry of macrolide antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Cerny, R L; Macmillan, D K; Gross, M L; Mallams, A K; Pramanik, B N

    1994-03-01

    Molecular weights of macrolide antibiotics can be determined from either (M + H)(+) or (M + Met)(+), the latter desorbed from alkali metal salt-saturated matrices. The ion chemistry of macrolides, as determined by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), is different for ions produced as metallated than those formed as (M + H)(+) species. An explanation for these differences is the location of the charge. For protonated species, the charge is most likely situated on a functional group with high proton affinity, such as the dimethylamino group of the ammo sugar. The alkali metal ion, however, is bonded to the highly oxygenated aglycone. As a result, the collision-activated dissociation spectra of protonated macrolides are simple with readily identifiable fragment ions in both the high and low mass regions but no fragments in the middle mass range. In contrast, the cationized species give complex spectra with many abundant ions, most of which are located in the high mass range. The complementary nature of the fragmentation of these two species recommends the study of both by MS/MS when determining the structure or confirming the identity of these biomaterials. PMID:24222544

  18. Prevalence and Molecular Genetics of Macrolide Resistance among Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolates Collected in Finland in 2002

    PubMed Central

    Rantala, M.; Huikko, S.; Huovinen, P.; Jalava, J.

    2005-01-01

    The prevalence and mechanisms of macrolide resistance among 1,007 clinical pneumococcal isolates collected in Finland were investigated. Of these, 217 (21.5%) were resistant to erythromycin and 11% to clindamycin. Among the erythromycin-resistant isolates, mef(E) was present in 95 isolates (44%), mef(A) was present in 12 isolates (6%), and erm(B) was present in 90 isolates (41%). A double mechanism, mef(E) and erm(B), was detected in five isolates (2%). Ribosomal mutation was detected in 14 (6%) macrolide-resistant isolates in which no other determinant was found. Based on the telithromycin MICs, two groups of isolates were formed: 83.3% of the isolates belonged to a major group for which the telithromycin MIC range was ≤0.008 to 0.063 μg/ml, and 16.7% belonged to a minor group for which the telithromycin MIC range was 0.125 to 8 μg/ml. All except three isolates in the minor population carried a macrolide resistance gene. PMID:16189096

  19. Antibiotic susceptibility and molecular mechanisms of macrolide resistance in streptococci isolated from adult cystic fibrosis patients.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Christina S; Grinwis, Margot E; Sibley, Christopher D; Parkins, Michael D; Rabin, Harvey R; Surette, Michael G

    2015-11-01

    The cystic fibrosis (CF) airways are colonized by polymicrobial communities with high bacterial load and are influenced by frequent antibiotic exposures. This community includes diverse streptococci, some of which have been directly or indirectly associated with pulmonary exacerbations. As many streptococci are naturally competent, horizontal transfer of antibiotic-resistant determinants coupled with frequent and/or chronic antibiotic exposure may contribute to high resistance rates. In this study, we assessed antibiotic resistance in 413 streptococcal isolates from adult CF patients against nine antibiotics relevant in CF treatment. We observed very low rates of cephalosporin resistance [cefepime and ceftriaxone ( < 2%)], and higher rates of resistance to tetracycline (∼34%) and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (∼45%). The highest rate of antibiotic resistance was to the macrolides [azithromycin (56.4%) and erythromycin (51.6%)]. We also investigated the molecular mechanisms of macrolide resistance and found that only half of our macrolide-resistant streptococci isolates contained the mef (efflux pump) or erm (methylation of 23S ribosomal target site) genes. The majority of isolates were, however, found to have point mutations at position 2058 or 2059 of the 23S ribosomal subunit - a molecular mechanism of resistance not commonly reported in the non-pyogenic and non-pneumococcal streptococci, and unique in comparison with previous studies. The high rates of resistance observed here may result in poor outcomes where specific streptococci are contributing to CF airway disease and serve as a reservoir of resistance genes within the CF airway microbiome. PMID:26408040

  20. The enhancement of cardiac toxicity by concomitant administration of Berberine and macrolides.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Duo; Feng, Pan-Feng; Sun, Jia-Liang; Guo, Fengfeng; Zhang, Rui; Zhao, Xin; Li, Bao-Xin

    2015-08-30

    As is well-known, hERG plays an essential role in phase III repolarization of cardiac action potentials. Blocking of hERG channels can lead to LQTS. Inhibition of the metabolism of CYPs activities may elevate plasma levels, to further increase accumulation of drug on cardiac. The elevated serum levels may however elicit unexpected toxicities. Therefore, the inhibition tests of hERG and CYP are central to the preclinical studies because they may lead to severe cardiac toxicity. Berberine is widely used as an antibacterial agent and often combined with macrolides to treat gastropathy. Our objective was to assess cardiac toxicity during the combined use of Berberine with macrolides. (1) Azithromycin reduced hERG currents by accelerated channel inactivation. (2) The combination of Berberine with Azithromycin reduced hERG currents, producing an inhibitive effect stronger than use of a single drug alone, due to the high binding affinity for the onset of inactivation. (3) When cells were perfused concomitantly with Berberine and Clarithromycin, they showed a stronger inhibitive effect on hERG currents by decreasing the time constant for the onset of inactivation. (4) The combined administration of Berberine with Clarithromycin had a powerful inhibitive effect on CYP3A activities than use of a single drug alone. Collectively, these results demonstrated that concomitant use of Berberine with macrolides may require close monitoring because of potential drug toxicities, especially cardiac toxicity. PMID:25976224

  1. Multiplex Assay for Simultaneous Detection of Mycoplasma genitalium and Macrolide Resistance Using PlexZyme and PlexPrime Technology

    PubMed Central

    Tabrizi, Sepehr N.; Tan, Lit Y.; Walker, Samantha; Twin, Jimmy; Poljak, Marin; Bradshaw, Catriona S.; Fairley, Christopher K.; Bissessor, Melanie; Mokany, Elisa; Todd, Alison V.; Garland, Suzanne M.

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium is a cause of non-gonoccocal urethritis (NGU) in men and cervicitis and pelvic inflammatory disease in women. Recent international data also indicated that the first line treatment, 1 gram stat azithromycin therapy, for M. genitalium is becoming less effective, with the corresponding emergence of macrolide resistant strains. Increasing failure rates of azithromycin for M. genitalium has significant implications for the presumptive treatment of NGU and international clinical treatment guidelines. Assays able to predict macrolide resistance along with detection of M. genitalium will be useful to enable appropriate selection of antimicrobials to which the organism is susceptible and facilitate high levels of rapid cure. One such assay recently developed is the MG 23S assay, which employs novel PlexZyme™ and PlexPrime™ technology. It is a multiplex assay for detection of M. genitalium and 5 mutations associated with macrolide resistance. The assay was evaluated in 400 samples from 254 (186 males and 68 females) consecutively infected participants, undergoing tests of cure. Using the MG 23S assay, 83% (331/440) of samples were positive, with 56% of positives carrying a macrolide resistance mutation. Comparison of the MG 23S assay to a reference qPCR method for M. genitalium detection and high resolution melt analysis (HRMA) and sequencing for detection of macrolide resistance mutations, resulted in a sensitivity and specificity for M. genitalium detection and for macrolide resistance of 99.1/98.5% and 97.4/100%, respectively. The MG 23S assay provides a considerable advantage in clinical settings through combined diagnosis and detection of macrolide resistance. PMID:27271704

  2. Serotype and Genotype Replacement among Macrolide-Resistant Invasive Pneumococci in Adults: Mechanisms of Resistance and Association with Different Transposons▿

    PubMed Central

    Calatayud, Laura; Ardanuy, Carmen; Tubau, Fe; Rolo, Dora; Grau, Immaculada; Pallarés, Román; Martín, Rogelio; Liñares, Josefina

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze trends in adult invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) due to macrolide-resistant strains and to study the evolution of serotypes, genotypes, and macrolide-resistant determinants of strains collected in a prospective study between 1999 and 2007 in Barcelona, Spain. IPD due to macrolide-resistant strains of serotypes included in the 7-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV7) decreased from 2.16/100,000 (pre-PCV7 period, 1999 to 2001) to 0.80/100,000 (late-PCV7 period, 2005 to 2007) (P = 0.001), whereas IPD due to macrolide-resistant strains of non-PCV7 serotypes increased from 1.08/100,000 to 2.83/100,000 (P < 0.001). These changes were related to a fall of clones of PCV7 serotypes (ST81 [P < 0.05], ST90, ST315, and ST17) and an increase in new clones of serotypes 19A and 24F (ST230) and 33F (ST717) in the late-PCV7 period. The most common phenotype was MLSB (90.9%), related to the erm(B) gene. The frequent association between MLSB phenotype and tetracycline resistance [tet(M) gene], was related to transposons of the Tn916-family such as Tn6002 or Tn3872. In conclusion, overall adult IPD rates due to macrolide-resistant pneumococci stabilized between 1999 and 2007 in Barcelona. The decrease in macrolide-resistant PCV7 pneumococci was balanced by the increase in macrolide-resistant non-PCV7 pneumococci. PMID:20147647

  3. Multiplex Assay for Simultaneous Detection of Mycoplasma genitalium and Macrolide Resistance Using PlexZyme and PlexPrime Technology.

    PubMed

    Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Tan, Lit Y; Walker, Samantha; Twin, Jimmy; Poljak, Marin; Bradshaw, Catriona S; Fairley, Christopher K; Bissessor, Melanie; Mokany, Elisa; Todd, Alison V; Garland, Suzanne M

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium is a cause of non-gonoccocal urethritis (NGU) in men and cervicitis and pelvic inflammatory disease in women. Recent international data also indicated that the first line treatment, 1 gram stat azithromycin therapy, for M. genitalium is becoming less effective, with the corresponding emergence of macrolide resistant strains. Increasing failure rates of azithromycin for M. genitalium has significant implications for the presumptive treatment of NGU and international clinical treatment guidelines. Assays able to predict macrolide resistance along with detection of M. genitalium will be useful to enable appropriate selection of antimicrobials to which the organism is susceptible and facilitate high levels of rapid cure. One such assay recently developed is the MG 23S assay, which employs novel PlexZyme™ and PlexPrime™ technology. It is a multiplex assay for detection of M. genitalium and 5 mutations associated with macrolide resistance. The assay was evaluated in 400 samples from 254 (186 males and 68 females) consecutively infected participants, undergoing tests of cure. Using the MG 23S assay, 83% (331/440) of samples were positive, with 56% of positives carrying a macrolide resistance mutation. Comparison of the MG 23S assay to a reference qPCR method for M. genitalium detection and high resolution melt analysis (HRMA) and sequencing for detection of macrolide resistance mutations, resulted in a sensitivity and specificity for M. genitalium detection and for macrolide resistance of 99.1/98.5% and 97.4/100%, respectively. The MG 23S assay provides a considerable advantage in clinical settings through combined diagnosis and detection of macrolide resistance. PMID:27271704

  4. Fluoroquinolone and Macrolide Exposure Predict Clostridium difficile Infection with the Highly Fluoroquinolone- and Macrolide-Resistant Epidemic C. difficile Strain BI/NAP1/027

    PubMed Central

    Wieczorkiewicz, Jeffrey T.; Lopansri, Bert K.; Cheknis, Adam; Osmolski, James R.; Hecht, David W.; Gerding, Dale N.

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotics have been shown to influence the risk of infection with specific Clostridium difficile strains as well as the risk of C. difficile infection (CDI). We performed a retrospective case-control study of patients infected with the epidemic BI/NAP1/027 strain in a U.S. hospital following recognition of increased CDI severity and culture of stools positive by C. difficile toxin immunoassay. Between 2005 and 2007, 72% (103/143) of patients with first-episode CDIs were infected with the BI strain by restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) typing. Most patients received multiple antibiotics within 6 weeks of CDI onset (median of 3 antibiotic classes). By multivariate analysis, fluoroquinolone and macrolide exposure was more frequent among BI cases than among non-BI-infected controls (odds ratio [OR] for fluoroquinolones, 3.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3 to 7.5; (P < 0.001; OR for macrolides, 5.2; 95% CI, 1.1 to 24.0; P = 0.04)). In contrast, clindamycin use was less frequent among the BI cases than among the controls (OR, 0.1; 95% CI, 0.03 to 0.4; P = 0.001). High-level resistance to moxifloxacin and azithromycin was more frequent among BI strains (moxifloxacin, 49/102 [48%] BI versus 0/40 non-BI, P = 0.0001; azithromycin, 100/102 [98%] BI versus 22/40 [55%] non-BI, P = 0.0001). High-level resistance to clindamycin was more frequent among non-BI strains (22/40 [55%] non-BI versus 7/102 [7%] BI, P = 0.0001). Fluoroquinolone use, macrolide use, and C. difficile resistance to these antibiotic classes were associated with infection by the epidemic BI strain of C. difficile in a U.S. hospital during a time when CDI rates were increasing nationally due to the highly fluoroquinolone-resistant BI/NAP1/027 strain. PMID:26525793

  5. Macrolides sensitize EGFR-TKI-induced non-apoptotic cell death via blocking autophagy flux in pancreatic cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    MUKAI, SHUNTARO; MORIYA, SHOTA; HIRAMOTO, MASAKI; KAZAMA, HIROMI; KOKUBA, HIROKO; CHE, XIAO-FANG; YOKOYAMA, TOMOHISA; SAKAMOTO, SATOSHI; SUGAWARA, AKIHIRO; SUNAZUKA, TOSHIAKI; ŌMURA, SATOSHI; HANDA, HIROSHI; ITOI, TAKAO; MIYAZAWA, KEISUKE

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most difficult types of cancer to treat because of its high mortality rate due to chemotherapy resistance. We previously reported that combined treatment with gefitinib (GEF) and clarithromycin (CAM) results in enhanced cytotoxicity of GEF along with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress loading in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines. An epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) such as GEF induces autophagy in a pro-survival role, whereas CAM inhibits autophagy flux in various cell lines. Pronounced GEF-induced cytotoxicity therefore appears to depend on the efficacy of autophagy inhibition. In the present study, we compared the effect on autophagy inhibition among such macrolides as CAM, azithromycin (AZM), and EM900, a novel 12-membered non-antibiotic macrolide. We then assessed the enhanced GEF-induced cytotoxic effect on pancreatic cancer cell lines BxPC-3 and PANC-1. Autophagy flux analysis indicated that AZM is the most effective autophagy inhibitor of the three macrolides. CAM exhibits an inhibitory effect but less than AZM and EM900. Notably, the enhancing effect of GEF-induced cytotoxicity by combining macrolides correlated well with their efficient autophagy inhibition. However, this pronounced cytotoxicity was not due to upregulation of apoptosis induction, but was at least partially mediated through necroptosis. Our data suggest the possibility of using macrolides as ‘chemosensitizers’ for EGFR-TKI therapy in pancreatic cancer patients to enhance non-apoptotic tumor cell death induction. PMID:26718641

  6. Determination of five macrolide antibiotic residues in honey by LC-ESI-MS and LC-ESI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian

    2004-01-28

    Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry methods (LC-ESI-MS and LC-ESI-MS/MS) for the determination of five macrolide antibiotics including spiramycin, tilmicosin, oleandomycin, erythromycin, and tylosin in honey are presented. Macrolides were protonated to form singly and/or doubly charged pseudomolecular ions, depending on their chemical structures, in an electrospray positive ionization mode. Data acquisition under MS/MS was achieved by applying multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) of two or three fragment ion transitions to provide a high degree of sensitivity and specificity. The recoveries, that is, determined by LC-ESI-MS/MS, of the five macrolides at fortified levels of 6, 16, 40, and 80 microg/kg ranged from 75.5 to 135.7% in light honey and from 42.1 to 111.0% in dark honey. The ion ratios obtained under MS/MS were key criteria to confirm the identity of macrolides in incurred samples. LC-ESI-MS/MS method detection limits of the five macrolides were <0.1 microg/kg. PMID:14733491

  7. Acquired resistance to the 16-membered macrolides tylosin and tilmicosin by Mycoplasma bovis.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Uri; Amram, Eytan; Ayling, Roger D; Mikula, Inna; Gerchman, Irena; Harrus, Shimon; Teff, Dina; Yogev, David; Lysnyansky, Inna

    2014-01-31

    The molecular mechanism of acquired resistance to the 16-membered macrolides tylosin (Ty) and tilmicosin (Tm) was investigated in Mycoplasma bovis field isolates. Sequence analysis of domains II and V of the two 23S rRNA alleles and ribosomal proteins L4 and L22 was performed on 54 M. bovis isolates showing different minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC). The presence of any one of the point mutations G748A, C752T, A2058G, A2059G or A2059C (Escherichia coli numbering) in one or both alleles of the 23S rRNAs was correlated with decreased susceptibility to Ty (8-1024 μg/ml) and to Tm (32 to >256 μg/ml) in 27/27 and 27/31 M. bovis isolates, respectively. Although a single mutation in domain II or V could be sufficient to cause decreased susceptibility to Ty, our data imply that a combination of mutations in two domains is necessary to achieve higher MICs (≥ 128 μg/ml). The influence of a combination of mutations in two domains II and V on enhancement of resistance to Tm was less clear. In addition, the amino acid (aa) substitution L22-Q90H was found in 24/32 representative M. bovis isolates with different MICs, but no correlation with decreased susceptibility to Ty or Tm was identified. Multiple aa substitutions were also identified in the L4 protein, including at positions 185-186 (positions 64 and 65 in E. coli) which are adjacent to the macrolide-binding site. This is the first description of the molecular mechanism of acquired resistance to the 16-membered macrolides in M. bovis. PMID:24393633

  8. A Chronic Respiratory Pasteurella multocida Infection Is Well-Controlled by Long-Term Macrolide Therapy.

    PubMed

    Seki, Masafumi; Sakata, Tomomi; Toyokawa, Masahiro; Nishi, Isao; Tomono, Kazunori

    2016-01-01

    A 57-year-old woman with severe bronchiectasis frequently received antibiotics, including penicillin, for acute exacerbations due to Pasteurella multocida. Although the bacteria showed a decrease in antibiotic susceptibility, her symptoms and X-ray findings became stable, and severe exacerbations were not observed for the last few years after a low-dose erythromycin treatment was started. The development of a respiratory infection with Pasteurella multocida is relatively uncommon, but it can be controlled by immunomodulation which is associated with long-term macrolide therapy. PMID:26831030

  9. Macrolide Resistance Gene mreA of Streptococcus agalactiae Encodes a Flavokinase

    PubMed Central

    Clarebout, Gervais; Villers, Corinne; Leclercq, Roland

    2001-01-01

    The mreA gene from Streptococcus agalactiae COH31 γ/δ, resistant to macrolides and clindamycin by active efflux, has recently been cloned in Escherichia coli, where it was reported to confer macrolide resistance (J. Clancy, F. Dib-Hajj, J. W. Petitpas, and W. Yuan, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 41:2719–2723, 1997). Cumulative data suggested that the mreA gene was located on the chromosome of S. agalactiae COH31 γ/δ. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence of mreA revealed significant homology with several bifunctional flavokinases/(flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) synthetases, which convert riboflavin to flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and FMN to FAD, respectively. High-performance liquid chromatography experiments showed that the mreA gene product had a monofunctional flavokinase activity, similar to that of RibR from Bacillus subtilis. Sequences identical to those of the mreA gene and of a 121-bp upstream region containing a putative promoter were detected in strains of S. agalactiae UCN4, UCN5, and UCN6 susceptible to macrolides. mreA and its allele from S. agalactiae UCN4 were cloned on the shuttle vector pAT28. Both constructs were introduced into E. coli, where they conferred a similar two- to fourfold increase in the MICs of erythromycin, spiramycin, and clindamycin. The MICs of a variety of other molecules, including crystal violet, acriflavin, sodium dodecyl sulfate, and antibiotics, such as certain cephalosporins, chloramphenicol, doxycycline, nalidixic acid, novobiocin, and rifampin, were also increased. In contrast, resistance to these compounds was not detected when the constructs were introduced into E. faecalis JH2–2. In conclusion, the mreA gene was probably resident in S. agalactiae and may encode a metabolic function. We could not provide any evidence that it was responsible for macrolide resistance in S. agalactiae COH31 γ/δ; broad-spectrum resistance conferred by the gene in E. coli could involve multidrug efflux pumps by a mechanism

  10. CONFLEX/MM3 search/minimization study of the conformations of the macrolide antibiotic tylosin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Petko M.

    2002-03-01

    The conformations of the 16-membered macrolide antibiotic tylosin were studied with the MM3 force field. The CONFLEX conformational search procedure was used for finding low-energy conformations. The computed data are indicative for the existence of several conformations in equilibrium. The intramolecular hydrogen bonds play an important role for the preferred geometry of the macroring and the conformations of the side chains. The present results provide further insight into the most probable conformations of tylosin and compliment an earlier analysis based on NMR techniques.

  11. Recombineering reveals a diverse collection of ribosomal proteins L4 and L22 that confer resistance to macrolide antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Diner, Elie J; Hayes, Christopher S

    2009-02-20

    Mutations in ribosomal proteins L4 and L22 confer resistance to erythromycin and other macrolide antibiotics in a variety of bacteria. L4 and L22 have elongated loops whose tips converge in the peptide exit tunnel near the macrolide-binding site, and resistance mutations typically affect residues within these loops. Here, we used bacteriophage lambda Red-mediated recombination, or "recombineering," to uncover new L4 and L22 alleles that confer macrolide resistance in Escherichia coli. We randomized residues at the tips of the L4 and L22 loops using recombineered oligonucleotide libraries and selected the mutagenized cells for erythromycin-resistant mutants. These experiments led to the identification of 341 resistance mutations encoding 278 unique L4 and L22 proteins-the overwhelming majority of which are novel. Many resistance mutations were complex, involving multiple missense mutations, in-frame deletions, and insertions. Transfer of L4 and L22 mutations into wild-type cells by phage P1-mediated transduction demonstrated that each allele was sufficient to confer macrolide resistance. Although L4 and L22 mutants are typically resistant to most macrolides, selections carried out on different antibiotics revealed macrolide-specific resistance mutations. L22 Lys90Trp is one such allele that confers resistance to erythromycin but not to tylosin and spiramycin. Purified L22 Lys90Trp ribosomes show reduced erythromycin binding but have the same affinity for tylosin as wild-type ribosomes. Moreover, dimethyl sulfate methylation protection assays demonstrated that L22 Lys90Trp ribosomes bind tylosin more readily than erythromycin in vivo. This work underscores the exceptional functional plasticity of the L4 and L22 proteins and highlights the utility of Red-mediated recombination in targeted genetic selections. PMID:19150357

  12. Prophylactic Use of Macrolide Antibiotics for the Prevention of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Exacerbation: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Xuejiu; Wei, Chuanqi; Cui, Junchang; Wang, Rui; Liu, Youning

    2015-01-01

    Background Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPDs) can lead to high frequencies and rates of hospitalization and mortality. Macrolides are a class of antibiotics that possess both antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties. Since the occurrence of AECOPDs is associated with aggravation of airway inflammation and bacterial infections, prophylactic macrolide treatment may be an effective approach towards the prevention of AECOPDs. Methods We systemically searched the PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library databases to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated the effect of prophylactic macrolide therapy on the prevention of AECOPDs. The primary outcomes were the total number of patients with one or more exacerbations as well as the rate of exacerbations per patient per year. Results Nine RCTs comprising 1666 patients met the inclusion criteria. Pooled evidence showed macrolides could reduce the frequency of exacerbations in patients with COPD by both unweighted (RR = 0.70; 95% CI: 0.56–0.87; P < 0.01) and weighted approaches (RR = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.43–0.78, P < 0.01). Subgroup analysis showed only 6–12 months of erythromycin or azithromycin therapy could be effective. Moreover, among studies with 6–12 months of azithromycin therapy, both the daily dosing regimen and the intermittent regimen significantly reduced exacerbation rates. The overall number of hospitalizations and the all-cause rate of death were not significantly different between the treatment and control groups. A tendency for more adverse events was found in the treatment groups (OR = 1.55, 95%CI: 1.003–2.39, P = 0.049). Conclusions Our results suggest 6-12 months erythromycin or azithromycin therapy could effectively reduce the frequency of exacerbations in patients with COPD. However, Long-term treatment may bring increased adverse events and the emergence of macrolide-resistance. A recommendation for the prophylactic use of macrolide therapy

  13. The First Macrolide-Resistant Bordetella pertussis Strains Isolated From Iranian Patients

    PubMed Central

    Shahcheraghi, Fereshteh; Nakhost Lotfi, Masoumeh; Nikbin, Vajiheh Sadat; Shooraj, Fahimeh; Azizian, Reza; Parzadeh, Masoumeh; Allahyar Torkaman, Mohammad Reza; Zahraei, Seyed Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Whooping cough was considered as one of the major causes of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. Resistant isolates of Bordetella pertussis to macrolides in some countries have been recently reported. Objectives: Recent reports on macrolide-resistant B. pertussis isolates and lack of evidence for such resistance in clinical isolates of the Iranian patients led the authors of the current study to study antibiotic susceptibility of the collected isolates in the country. Susceptibility of the B. pertussis isolates to three antibiotics was studied. Relatedness of the strains recovered in this research was also examined. Materials and Methods: The antibacterial activities of erythromycin, azithromycin, and clarithromycin antibiotics against the recovered isolates of 779 nasopharyngeal swabs were examined using MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration) method. Relationship of the strains was characterized by Pulsed-field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Results: Among the specimens, 11 cases (1.4%) were culture-positive. Among these isolates, only two isolates had high MIC values for erythromycin and clarithromycin. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of the isolates revealed 6 PFGE profiles (A-F) among which three and two isolates had the same patterns in profiles A and B, respectively. Conclusions: Azithromycin can be a good drug of choice to treat patients infected by B. pertussis in Iran. Clonal relationship of the isolates showed that the same B. pertussis strains were isolated from different patients in Iran. PMID:25371806

  14. Multi-residue fluorescent microspheres immunochromatographic assay for simultaneous determination of macrolides in raw milk.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiangmei; Shen, Jianzhong; Wang, Qi; Gao, Shuxia; Pei, Xingyao; Jiang, Haiyang; Wen, Kai

    2015-12-01

    A rapid, reliable, sensitive, and quantitative multi-residue fluorescent microspheres immunochromatographic assay (FMCA) was developed for simultaneous detection of four macrolides in raw milk. The IC50 value of the optimized FMCA was 1.36, 1.22, 1.01, and 1.39 ng/mL for erythromycin (ERY), spiramycin (SPI), tilmicosin (TIM), and tylosin (TYL), respectively. The limits of detection (LODs) for the four macrolides was 0.13 ng/mL. The recoveries of ERY, SPI, TIM, and TYL from spiked raw milk ranged from 91.8-109.2, 89.6-114.4, 84.8-111.6, and 85.8-115.2%, respectively, with coefficients of variation (CVs) of 5.4-11.3, 7.9-15.7, 6.2-13.7, and 3.2-14.9%, respectively. The whole testing process was completed within 20 min. The antibody-mixed labeled method was successfully applied to the FMCA, which greatly simplified the operation steps and saved a lot of time. Compared with the immunogold chromatographic assay (IGCA), the FMCA is more sensitive and stable and has less antibody consumption. A parallel analysis in blind raw milk samples was conducted by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS); the results showed good correlation (r(2) = 0.99) between the two methods. Therefore, the developed multi-residue FMCA is reliable and can be easily applied to other antibiotics or other contaminants. PMID:26497839

  15. Dissociation between the induction of potassium efflux and cytostatic activity of polyene macrolides in mammalian cells.

    PubMed Central

    Malewicz, B; Jenkin, H M; Borowski, E

    1980-01-01

    The paper contains data on the induction of K+ efflux and viability of baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) cells after their treatment with macrolide antibiotics inducing specific pores in membrane. New water-soluble semisynthetic derivatives of amphotericin B and aureofacin (N-glycosyl and trimethylammonium methyl ester derivatives) as well as the parent compounds were used to compare the concentration of antibiotics inducing permeabilizing and cytostatic effects. We found that a two- to eight-times-higher concentration of polyene antibiotic was required to observe a cytostatic effect than for release of 50% of the cellular potassium (K50 concentration) from BHK-21 cells. These differences were larger for water-soluble derivatives than for the parent compounds. The amount of intracellular potassium in treated cells incubated under optimal growth conditions was higher than in cells which had been further washed with K+-free maintenance medium. The membrane permeability changes induced by low concentrations of specific polyenes were observed to be reversible. BHK-21 cells were able to repair polyene-induced membrane permeability within 3 to 12 h under optimal growth conditions, after cell treatment with K50 concentration of specific macrolide antibiotics. The repair phenomenon is postulated as an explanation for the dissociation observed between permeabilizing and cytostatic effect of specific polyenes in BHK-21 cells. PMID:7396461

  16. Hydrolysis of amphenicol and macrolide antibiotics: Chloramphenicol, florfenicol, spiramycin, and tylosin.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Shannon M; Ullman, Jeffrey L; Teel, Amy L; Watts, Richard J

    2015-09-01

    Antibiotics that enter the environment can present human and ecological health risks. An understanding of antibiotic hydrolysis rates is important for predicting their environmental persistence as biologically active contaminants. In this study, hydrolysis rates and Arrhenius constants were determined as a function of pH and temperature for two amphenicol (chloramphenicol and florfenicol) and two macrolide (spiramycin and tylosin) antibiotics. Antibiotic hydrolysis rates in pH 4-9 buffer solutions at 25°C, 50°C, and 60°C were quantified, and degradation products were characterized. All of the antibiotics tested remained stable and exhibited no observable hydrolysis under ambient conditions typical of aquatic ecosystems. Acid- and base-catalyzed hydrolysis occurred at elevated temperatures (50-60°C), and hydrolysis rates increased considerably below pH 5 and above pH 8. Hydrolysis rates also increased approximately 1.5- to 2.9-fold for each 10°C increase in temperature. Based on the degradation product masses found, the functional groups that underwent hydrolysis were alkyl fluoride, amide, and cyclic ester (lactone) moieties; some of the resultant degradation products may remain bioactive, but to a lesser extent than the parent compounds. The results of this research demonstrate that amphenicol and macrolide antibiotics persist in aquatic systems under ambient temperature and pH conditions typical of natural waters. Thus, these antibiotics may present a risk in aquatic ecosystems depending on the concentration present. PMID:25618189

  17. Reaction of some macrolide antibiotics with the ribosome. Labeling of the binding site components

    SciTech Connect

    Tejedor, F.; Ballesta, J.P.

    1986-11-18

    Radioactive carbomycin A, niddamycin, tylosin, and spiramycin, but not erythromycin, can be covalently bound to Escherichia coli ribosomes by incubation at 37 degrees C. The incorporation of radioactivity into the particles is inhibited by SH- and activated double bond containing compounds but not by amino groups, suggesting that the reactions may take place by addition to the double bond present in the reactive antibiotics. This thermic reaction must be different from the photoreaction described for some of these macrolides (Tejedor, F., and Ballesta, J. P. G. (1985) Biochemistry 24, 467-472) since tylosin, which is not photoincorporated, is thermically bound to ribosomes. Most of the radioactivity is incorporated into the ribosomal proteins. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of proteins labeled by carbomycin A, niddamycin, and tylosin indicates that about 40% of the radioactivity is bound to protein L27; the rest is distributed among several other proteins such as L8, L2, and S12, to differing extents depending on the drug used. These results indicate, in accordance with previous data, that protein L27 plays an important role in the macrolide binding site, confirming that these drugs bind near the peptidyl transferase center of the ribosome.

  18. Synergistic anti-Campylobacter jejuni activity of fluoroquinolone and macrolide antibiotics with phenolic compounds

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Euna; Jeon, Byeonghwa

    2015-01-01

    The increasing resistance of Campylobacter to clinically important antibiotics, such as fluoroquinolones and macrolides, is a serious public health problem. The objective of this study is to investigate synergistic anti-Campylobacter jejuni activity of fluoroquinolones and macrolides in combination with phenolic compounds. Synergistic antimicrobial activity was measured by performing a checkerboard assay with ciprofloxacin and erythromycin in the presence of 21 phenolic compounds. Membrane permeability changes in C. jejuni by phenolic compounds were determined by measuring the level of intracellular uptake of 1-N-phenylnaphthylamine (NPN). Antibiotic accumulation assays were performed to evaluate the level of ciprofloxacin accumulation in C. jejuni. Six phenolic compounds, including p-coumaric acid, sinapic acid, caffeic acid, vanillic acid, gallic acid, and taxifolin, significantly increased the susceptibility to ciprofloxacin and erythromycin in several human and poultry isolates. The synergistic antimicrobial effect was also observed in ciprofloxacin- and erythromycin-resistant C. jejuni strains. The phenolic compounds also substantially increased membrane permeability and antibiotic accumulation in C. jejuni. Interestingly, some phenolic compounds, such as gallic acid and taxifolin, significantly reduced the expression of the CmeABC multidrug efflux pump. Phenolic compounds increased the NPN accumulation in the cmeB mutant, indicating phenolic compounds may affect the membrane permeability. In this study, we successfully demonstrated that combinational treatment of C. jejuni with antibiotics and phenolic compounds synergistically inhibits C. jejuni by impacting both antimicrobial influx and efflux. PMID:26528273

  19. Differences in 23S ribosomal RNA mutations between wild-type and mutant macrolide-resistant Chlamydia trachomatis isolates

    PubMed Central

    JIANG, YONG; ZHU, HUI; YANG, LI-NA; LIU, YUAN-JUN; HOU, SHU-PING; QI, MAN-LI; LIU, QUAN-ZHONG

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the in vitro susceptibility of wild-type and mutant clinical isolates of Chlamydia (C.) trachomatis strains to erythromycin, azithromycin and josamycin, and to identify the resistance-conferring 23S ribosomal (r)RNA mutations in the isolates. The wild-type resistant isolates were defined as those with minimum inhibitory concentration values above the tissue concentration of the antibiotic in the urogenital system. Furthermore, all resistant C. trachomatis isolates were exposed to sub-inhibitory concentrations of macrolides, and 13 resistant mutants were selected following serial passages. Among the 8 wild-type isolates that were resistant to erythromycin, 3 isolates had a mutation at T2611C in the 23S rRNA gene while the others did not show any 23S rRNA mutations. The selected mutant isolates showed a 4- to 16-fold reduction in in vitro sensitivities. With regard to the mutant strains, the T2611C mutation was found in 10 isolates, A2057G mutation in 6 isolates, and A2059G mutation in 1 isolate. Thus, the macrolide-resistant isolates of the wild-type strain had different mutations from those selected by exposure to sub-inhibitory concentrations of macrolides. Also, since 23S rRNA mutations were not identified in certain isolates, it was considered that other molecular mechanisms may also be responsible for the macrolide resistance of C. trachomatis. PMID:26622462

  20. Mycoplasma genitalium Prevalence, Coinfection, and Macrolide Antibiotic Resistance Frequency in a Multicenter Clinical Study Cohort in the United States.

    PubMed

    Getman, Damon; Jiang, Alice; O'Donnell, Meghan; Cohen, Seth

    2016-09-01

    The prevalence rates of Mycoplasma genitalium infections and coinfections with other sexually transmitted organisms and the frequency of a macrolide antibiotic resistance phenotype were determined in urogenital specimens collected from female and male subjects enrolled in a multicenter clinical study in the United States. Specimens from 946 subjects seeking care from seven geographically diverse clinical sites were tested for M. genitalium and for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis Sequencing was used to assess macrolide antibiotic resistance among M. genitalium-positive subjects. M. genitalium prevalence rates were 16.1% for females and 17.2% for males. Significant risk factors for M. genitalium infections were black race, younger age, non-Hispanic ethnicity, and female symptomatic status. Female M. genitalium infections were significantly more prevalent than C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae infections, while the M. genitalium infection rate in males was significantly higher than the N. gonorrhoeae and T. vaginalis infection rates. The macrolide-resistant phenotype was found in 50.8% of females and 42% of males. These results show a high prevalence of M. genitalium single infections, a lower prevalence of coinfections with other sexually transmitted organisms, and high rates of macrolide antibiotic resistance in a diverse sample of subjects seeking care across a wide geographic area of the United States. PMID:27307460

  1. A CASE STUDY: CROP (LETTUCE, SPINACH, AND CARROTS) UPTAKE OF THREE MACROLIDE ANTIBIOTICS (AZITHROMYCIN, CLINDAMYCIN AND ROXITHROMYCIN) AND OTHER DRUGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    It has been shown that human-use macrolide antibiotics (azithromycin, clindamycin, and roxithromycin) are environmentally available in wastewaters, source waters, and biosolids. In order to better understand the fate of these compounds into food crops via root migration, we condu...

  2. Mycoplasma genitalium Prevalence, Coinfection, and Macrolide Antibiotic Resistance Frequency in a Multicenter Clinical Study Cohort in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Alice; O'Donnell, Meghan; Cohen, Seth

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence rates of Mycoplasma genitalium infections and coinfections with other sexually transmitted organisms and the frequency of a macrolide antibiotic resistance phenotype were determined in urogenital specimens collected from female and male subjects enrolled in a multicenter clinical study in the United States. Specimens from 946 subjects seeking care from seven geographically diverse clinical sites were tested for M. genitalium and for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis. Sequencing was used to assess macrolide antibiotic resistance among M. genitalium-positive subjects. M. genitalium prevalence rates were 16.1% for females and 17.2% for males. Significant risk factors for M. genitalium infections were black race, younger age, non-Hispanic ethnicity, and female symptomatic status. Female M. genitalium infections were significantly more prevalent than C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae infections, while the M. genitalium infection rate in males was significantly higher than the N. gonorrhoeae and T. vaginalis infection rates. The macrolide-resistant phenotype was found in 50.8% of females and 42% of males. These results show a high prevalence of M. genitalium single infections, a lower prevalence of coinfections with other sexually transmitted organisms, and high rates of macrolide antibiotic resistance in a diverse sample of subjects seeking care across a wide geographic area of the United States. PMID:27307460

  3. Molecular Ecology of Macrolide-Lincosamide-Streptogramin B Methylases in Waste Lagoons and Subsurface Waters Associated with Swine Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    RNA methylase genes are common antibiotic resistance determinants for multiple drugs of the macrolide, lincosamide, and streptogramin B (MLSB) families. We used molecular methods to investigate the diversity, distribution, and abundance of MLSB methylases in waste lagoons and groundwater wells at tw...

  4. 23S rRNA gene mutations contributing to macrolide resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Operon specific 23S rRNA mutations affecting minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of macrolides (erythromycin [ERY], azithromycin [AZM], tylosin [TYL]) and a lincosamide (clindamycin [CLI]) were examined in a collection of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli isolates. The three copies of the Campy...

  5. Macrolide-Peptide Conjugates as Probes of the Path of Travel of the Nascent Peptides through the Ribosome

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of research on the bacterial ribosome, the ribosomal exit tunnel is still poorly understood. Although it has been suggested that the exit tunnel is simply a convenient route of egress for the nascent chain, specific protein sequences serve to slow the rate of translation, suggesting some degree of interaction between the nascent peptide chain and the exit tunnel. To understand how the ribosome interacts with nascent peptide sequences, we synthesized and characterized a novel class of probe molecules. These peptide–macrolide (or “peptolide”) conjugates were designed to present unique peptide sequences to the exit tunnel. Biochemical and X-ray structural analyses of the interactions between these probes and the ribosome reveal interesting insights about the exit tunnel. Using translation inhibition and RNA structure probing assays, we find the exit tunnel has a relaxed preference for the directionality (N → C or C → N orientation) of the nascent peptides. Moreover, the X-ray crystal structure of one peptolide derived from a positively charged, reverse Nuclear Localization Sequence peptide, bound to the 70S bacterial ribosome, reveals that the macrolide ring of the peptolide binds in the same position as other macrolides. However, the peptide tail folds over the macrolide ring, oriented toward the peptidyl transferase center and interacting in a novel manner with 23S rRNA residue C2442 and His69 of ribosomal protein L4. These data suggest that these peptolides are viable probes for interrogating nascent peptide–exit tunnel interaction. PMID:25198768

  6. Macrolide Therapy in Adults and Children with Non-Cystic Fibrosis Bronchiectasis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yan; Gao, Yang; Lin, Zhi-ya; Lin, Zhi-min; Zhong, Nan-shan; Chen, Rong-chang

    2014-01-01

    Background A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of macrolide therapy in adults and children with bronchiectasis. Methods We searched the PUBMED, EMBASE, CENTRAL databases to identify relevant studies. Two reviewers evaluated the studies and extracted data independently. The primary outcome was the number of bronchiectasis exacerbations. Secondary outcomes included exacerbation-related admissions, quality of life (QoL), spirometry, 6-minute walk test (6MWT) and adverse events. Results Nine eligible trials with 559 participants were included. Six were conducted on adults, and the remaining on children. Macrolide therapy significantly reduced the number of patients experiencing one or more exacerbation in adults [risk ratio (RR) = 0.59; 95% CI, 0.40 to 0.86; P = 0.006; I2 = 65%] and children [RR = 0.86; 95% CI, 0.75–0.99; P = 0.04; I2 = 0%], but not the number of patients with admissions for exacerbation. Macrolide therapy was also associated with reduced frequency of exacerbations in adults (RR = 0.42; 95% CI, 0.29 to 0.61; P<0.001; I2 = 64%) and children (RR = 0.50; 95% CI, 0.35 to 0.71; P<0.001). Pooled analyses suggested that spirometry, including FEV1 and FVC, were significantly improved in adults but not in children. Macrolide therapy improved the QoL (WMD, −6.56; 95% CI, −11.99 to −1.12; P = 0.02; I2 = 86%) but no significant difference in 6MWT (WMD, 4.15; 95% CI, −11.83 to 20.13; P = 0.61; I2 = 31%) and the overall adverse events (RR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.82 to 1.13; P = 0.66; I2 = 0%) in adults. However, reports of diarrhea and abdominal discomforts were higher with macrolide therapy. Conclusions Macrolide maintenance therapy, both in adults and children, was effective and safe in reducing bronchiectasis exacerbations, but not the admissions for exacerbations. In addition, macrolide administration in adults was associated with improvement in Qo

  7. Macrolide antibiotics block autophagy flux and sensitize to bortezomib via endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated CHOP induction in myeloma cells

    PubMed Central

    MORIYA, SHOTA; CHE, XIAO-FANG; KOMATSU, SEIICHIRO; ABE, AKIHISA; KAWAGUCHI, TOMOHIRO; GOTOH, AKIHIKO; INAZU, MASATO; TOMODA, AKIO; MIYAZAWA, KEISUKE

    2013-01-01

    The specific 26S proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (BZ) potently induces autophagy, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and apoptosis in multiple myeloma (MM) cell lines (U266, IM-9 and RPMI8226). The macrolide antibiotics including concanamycin A, erythromycin (EM), clarithromycin (CAM) and azithromycin (AZM) all blocked autophagy flux, as assessed by intracellular accumulation of LC3B-II and p62. Combined treatment of BZ and CAM or AZM enhanced cytotoxicity in MM cell lines, although treatment with either CAM or AZM alone exhibited almost no cytotoxicity. This combination also substantially enhanced aggresome formation, intracellular ubiquitinated proteins and induced the proapoptotic transcription factor CHOP (CADD153). Expression levels of the proapoptotic genes transcriptionally regulated by CHOP (BIM, BAX, DR5 and TRB3) were all enhanced by combined treatment with BZ plus CAM, compared with treatment with each reagent alone. Like the MM cell lines, the CHOP+/+ murine embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cell line exhibited enhanced cytotoxicity and upregulation of CHOP and its transcriptional targets with a combination of BZ and one of the macrolides. In contrast, CHOP−/− MEF cells exhibited resistance against BZ and almost completely canceled enhanced cytotoxicity with a combination of BZ and a macrolide. These data suggest that ER stress-mediated CHOP induction is involved in pronounced cytotoxicity. Simultaneously targeting two major intracellular protein degradation systems such as the ubiquitin-proteasome system by BZ and the autophagy-lysosome system by a macrolide antibiotic enhances ER stress-mediated apoptosis in MM cells. This result suggests the therapeutic possibility of using a macrolide antibiotic with a proteasome inhibitor for MM therapy. PMID:23546223

  8. In vitro effects of four macrolides (roxithromycin, spiramycin, azithromycin (CP-62,993), and A-56268) on Toxoplasma gondii

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, H.R.; Pechere, J.C.

    1988-04-01

    The effect of four macrolides against intracellular Toxoplasma gondii was determined in three different in vitro systems. Unactivated murine peritoneal macrophages were infected with the virulent RH strain of T. gondii. The activity of the macrolides was first measured with (/sup 3/H)uracil, which is incorporated by the parasite but not the host cell. The 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) and 95% confidence limits were calculated at 54 (38 to 73), 140 (98 to 201), 147 (101 to 214), and 246 (187 to 325) micron for roxithromycin, azithromycin (CP-62,993), A-56268, and spiramycin, respectively. Inhibition of Toxoplasma growth was confirmed by microscopic examination of the infected macrophages after treatment with roxithromycin. Compared with untreated controls, roxithromycin concentrations near the IC50s decreased the number of infected cells, the number of tachyzoites per vacuole, and the number of cells containing rosettes (i.e., clusters of more than eight tachyzoites). After treatment with the four macrolides, tachyzoites were released from the macrophages and subcultured in HeLa cells, which are nonprofessional phagocytes, to assess the viability of the remaining parasites. This showed that the macrolides at concentrations corresponding to four times their 90% inhibitory concentrations (IC90s) had no significant killing effect. At 8 times the IC90, roxithromycin showed an incomplete killing effect, similar to that of the combination of pyrimethamine (0.41 microM)-sulfadiazine (99.42 microM). All macrolides tested showed inhibitory effects against intracellular T. gondii, but amounts of azithromycin and A-56268 corresponding to the IC90 appeared to be toxic against the host macrophages, which might have had nonspecific activity against Toxoplasma metabolism.

  9. Effect of Fluoroquinolones and Macrolides on Eradication and Resistance of Haemophilus influenzae in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Pettigrew, Melinda M; Tsuji, Brian T; Gent, Janneane F; Kong, Yong; Holden, Patricia N; Sethi, Sanjay; Murphy, Timothy F

    2016-07-01

    Little is known about the effect of antibiotics on eradication of carriage and development of resistance in Haemophilus influenzae in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Our goals were to assess antibiotic susceptibilities, prevalence of resistance genes, and development of resistance in H. influenzae and to evaluate the effect of macrolide and fluoroquinolone administration on H. influenzae eradication. Data were from a 15-year longitudinal study of COPD. Genome sequence data were used to determine genotype and identify resistance genes. MICs of antibiotics were determined by reference broth microdilution. Generalized linear mixed models were used to evaluate associations between antibiotic use and H. influenzae eradication. We examined 267 H. influenzae isolates from 77 individuals. All newly acquired H. influenzae isolates were susceptible to azithromycin. Five of 27 (19%) strains developed 4-fold increases in azithromycin MICs and reached or exceeded the susceptibility breakpoint (≤4 μg/ml) during exposure. H. influenzae isolates were uniformly susceptible to ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin (MIC90s of 0.015, 0.015, and 0.06, respectively); there were no mutations in quinolone resistance-determining regions. Fluoroquinolone administration was associated with increased H. influenzae eradication compared to macrolides (odds ratio [OR], 16.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.67 to 104.09). There was no difference in H. influenzae eradication when comparing macrolide administration to no antibiotic (OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 0.43 to 8.30). Fluoroquinolones are effective in eradicating H. influenzae in individuals with COPD. Macrolides are ineffective in eradicating H. influenzae, and their use in COPD patients may lead to decreased macrolide susceptibility and resistance. PMID:27139476

  10. Ultratrace analysis of nine macrolides, including tulathromycin A (Draxxin), in edible animal tissues with minicolumn liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Martos, Perry A; Lehotay, Steven J; Shurmer, Bryn

    2008-10-01

    The analysis of nine macrolides is presented, including tulathromycin A (Draxxin), in beef, poultry, and pork muscle with a simple multiresidue extraction and analysis method using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The sample preparation method involves extraction with acetonitrile and defatting with hexane followed by dilution of the extracts for analysis. Separation of the nine macrolides was performed using an Atlantis dC 18, 3 mum, 3.9 mm x 20 mm minicolumn (guard column). Detection was carried out with two multiple reaction monitoring experiments per macrolide. The method detection limits (MDLs) were based on three times standard deviation of eight repeat spikes at 3.0 ng/g of a mix of the nine macrolides in the various tissues. The MDLs and retention times for the macrolides were as follows: lincomycin, 0.19 ng/g (t R = 5.00 min); tulathromycin, 0.46 ng/g (t R = 5.63 min); spiramycin, 0.21 ng/g (t R = 6.06 min); pirlimycin, 0.10 ng/g (t R = 6.04 min); clindamycin, 0.16 ng/g (t R = 6.20 min); tilmicosin, 0.29 ng/g (t R = 6.38 min); erythromycin, 0.19 ng/g (t R = 6.62 min); tylosin, 0.10 ng/g (t R = 6.72 min); and josamycin, 0.09 ng/g (t R = 6.98 min). Precision at 25 ng/g (n = 4) ranged from 2.3 to 9.4% for the compounds from beef muscle. Of interest is the detection of incurred residues of tulathromycin A in edible calf tissue at 0.10-7 mug/g, which is presented here for the first time. PMID:18778062

  11. Identification and synthesis of macrolide pheromones of the grain beetle Oryzaephilus surinamensis and the frog Spinomantis aglavei.

    PubMed

    Hötling, Susann; Haberlag, Birte; Tamm, Matthias; Collatz, Jana; Mack, Patrick; Steidle, Johannes L M; Vences, Miguel; Schulz, Stefan

    2014-03-10

    Macrolide lactones, the so called cucujolides derived from unsaturated fatty acids, are aggregation pheromones of cucujid grain beetles. Thirty years ago, Oehlschlarger et al. showed that (3Z,6Z)-dodeca-3,6-dien-11-olide (4) and the respective 12-olide (7) attract the sawtoothed grain beetle Oryzaephilus surinamensis, whereas (5Z,8Z,13R)-tetradeca-5,8-dien-13-olide (5) increases the response synergistically. The frass of this beetle is attractive for its parasitoid Cephalonomia tarsalis, which potentially can be used for pest control. A GC/MS analysis of attractive frass showed the presence of 5, together with an unknown isomer. Cucujolide V was tentatively identified also in the femoral glands, pheromone-releasing structures, of the Madagascan mantelline frog Spinomantis aglavei. Therefore, a new route to synthesize doubly unsaturated macrolides allowing the flexible attachment of the side chain was developed. A straightforward method to obtain Z configured macrolides involves ring-closing alkyne metathesis (RCAM) followed by Lindlar-catalyzed hydrogenation. This methodology was extended to homoconjugated diene macrolides by using RCAM after introduction of one Z configured double bond in the precursor by Wittig reaction. A tungsten benzylidyne complex was used as the catalyst in the RCAM reaction, which afforded the products in high yield at room temperature. With the synthetic material at hand, the unknown isomer was identified as the new natural product (5Z,8Z,12R)-tetradeca-5,8-dien-12-olide, cucujolide X (8). Furthermore, the route also allowed the synthesis of cucujolide V in good yield. The natural products were identified by the synthesis of enantiomerically pure or enriched material and gas chromatography on chiral phases. The new macrolide (R)-8 proved to be biologically active, attracting female O. surinamensis, but no males. The synthetic material allowed the identification of (R)-5 in both the beetle and the frog. PMID:24523150

  12. Ecological approach of macrolide-lincosamides-streptogramin producing actinomyces from Cuban soils.

    PubMed

    González, I; Niebla, A; Lemus, M; González, L; Iznaga, I O; Pérez, M E; Vallin, C

    1999-09-01

    We report in this study the frequency of Streptomyces strains to produce macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin (MLS) antibiotics isolated from Cuban soils. The screening assay is based on the induction of MLS-resistance phenotype in a clinical isolated strain of Staphylococcus aureus S-18. Our results suggest that of 800 Streptomyces strains isolated from different soil samples, 6% were positives in the screening test used. The ferralitic red soil from Pinar del Río (north) provided the major percentage (3.6%) of MLS producing strains. The other soil samples tested belonging to Guira de Melena and Bauta in Havana, Matanzas City, Topes De Collantes (Villa Clara), and Soroa Mountains (Pinar del Rio) hill reached very low percentages. PMID:10530035

  13. In vitro susceptibility of Pythium insidiosum to macrolides and tetracycline antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Loreto, Erico Silva; Mario, Débora Alves Nunes; Denardi, Laura Bedin; Alves, Sydney Hartz; Santurio, Janio Morais

    2011-07-01

    We describe the in vitro activity of macrolides and tetracycline antibiotics against Pythium insidiosum. The MICs were determined according to CLSI procedures (visual MIC) and by a colorimetric method [3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT)]. The lowest geometric mean (GM) MIC (MICs in μg/ml) (0.39 and 0.7 by visual reading and colorimetric method, respectively) and MIC ranges (0.125 to 2.0) were obtained for minocycline, while the highest MICs were shown for erythromycin (GM of 7.58 and 12.25 by visual reading and colorimetric method, respectively, and MIC ranged from 2 to 32). This significant in vitro activity makes these classes of antibiotics good candidates for experimental treatment of pythiosis. PMID:21537028

  14. In Vitro Susceptibility of Pythium insidiosum to Macrolides and Tetracycline Antibiotics ▿

    PubMed Central

    Loreto, Érico Silva; Mario, Débora Alves Nunes; Denardi, Laura Bedin; Alves, Sydney Hartz; Santurio, Janio Morais

    2011-01-01

    We describe the in vitro activity of macrolides and tetracycline antibiotics against Pythium insidiosum. The MICs were determined according to CLSI procedures (visual MIC) and by a colorimetric method [3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT)]. The lowest geometric mean (GM) MIC (MICs in μg/ml) (0.39 and 0.7 by visual reading and colorimetric method, respectively) and MIC ranges (0.125 to 2.0) were obtained for minocycline, while the highest MICs were shown for erythromycin (GM of 7.58 and 12.25 by visual reading and colorimetric method, respectively, and MIC ranged from 2 to 32). This significant in vitro activity makes these classes of antibiotics good candidates for experimental treatment of pythiosis. PMID:21537028

  15. Three new 16-membered macrolide compounds from a genetically engineered strain S. avermitilis MHJ1011.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jun-Jie; Wan, Xu; Zhang, Shao-Yong; Huang, Jun; Zhang, Hui; Chen, An-Liang; Wang, Ji-Dong

    2016-07-15

    Three new 16-membered macrolide compounds, 13α-O-α-l-oleandrosyl milbemycin β3 (1), 13α-O-α-l-oleandrosyl-25-ethyl milbemycin β3 (2), 13α-O-α-l-oleandrosyl-25-isopropyl milbemycin β3 (3), were isolated from the genetically engineered strains Streptomyces avermitilis MHJ1011. Their structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR techniques as well as ESI-MS and comparison with data from the literature. Both compounds 1-3 displayed impressive acaricidal activity against larval mites with the IC50 values of 0.0327, 0.0276 and 0.0235mg/L, respectively, which are higher than those of 13α-hydroxy milbemycin β3 and 13α-hydroxy-25-ethyl milbemycin β3. PMID:27246617

  16. Merosesquiterpenoids and ten-membered macrolides from a soft coral-derived Lophiostoma sp. fungus.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Cai-Juan; Shao, Chang-Lun; Chen, Min; Niu, Zhi-Gang; Zhao, Dong-Lin; Wang, Chang-Yun

    2015-09-01

    One new merosesquiterpenoid, craterellin D (1), along with one known analog, craterellin A (2), and five known ten-membered macrolides, 3-7, were isolated from a soft coral-derived Lophiostoma sp. fungus. The absolute configuration of 1 was established based on biogenetic consideration with the co-isolated analog 2, whose configuration was determined by modified Mosher's method and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis using CuKα radiation. The absolute configuration of 3 was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis using CuKα radiation. Compounds 2 and 3 showed antibacterial activities against Bacillus cereus with a MIC value of 3.12 μM. PMID:26363884

  17. Macrolide resistance determinants in erythromycin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Gulay, Zeynep; Ozbek, Ozgen Alpay; Bicmen, Meral; Gur, Deniz

    2008-11-01

    To determine the major molecular mechanisms of macrolide resistance among Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates in Turkey, we examined a total of 151 isolates collected from different regions of Turkey. Overall, 40 (26.4%) isolates were resistant to erythromycin. The most common mechanism (38/40) was target site modification due to erm (B) genes. Only two isolates harbored the mef (A)/(E) efflux gene. A clonal spread of resistant strains could not be demonstrated by BOX-polymerase chain reaction. The results from this study have shown that the erm (B) gene is predominant in Turkish S. pneumoniae isolates, as in isolates from the rest of the world, and a clonal dissemination is not responsible for this resistance profile. PMID:19050364

  18. Visualizing the 16-membered ring macrolides tildipirosin and tilmicosin bound to their ribosomal site.

    PubMed

    Poehlsgaard, Jacob; Andersen, Niels M; Warrass, Ralf; Douthwaite, Stephen

    2012-08-17

    The veterinary antibiotic tildipirosin (20,23-dipiperidinyl-mycaminosyl-tylonolide, Zuprevo) was developed recently to treat bovine and swine respiratory tract infections caused by bacterial pathogens such as Pasteurella multocida. Tildipirosin is a derivative of the naturally occurring compound tylosin. Here, we define drug-target interactions by combining chemical footprinting with structure modeling and show that tildipirosin, tylosin, and an earlier tylosin derivative, tilmicosin (20-dimethylpiperidinyl-mycaminosyl-tylonolide, Micotil), bind to the same macrolide site within the large subunit of P. multocida and Escherichia coli ribosomes. The drugs nevertheless differ in how they occupy this site. Interactions of the two piperidine components, which are unique to tildipirosin, distinguish this drug from tylosin and tilmicosin. The 23-piperidine of tildipirosin contacts ribosomal residues on the tunnel wall while its 20-piperidine is oriented into the tunnel lumen and is positioned to interfere with the growing nascent peptide. PMID:22563863

  19. Epidemiology of Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infections in Japan and Therapeutic Strategies for Macrolide-Resistant M. pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Yamazaki, Tsutomu; Kenri, Tsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae pneumonia) is a major cause of community-acquired pneumonia worldwide. The surveillance of M. pneumoniae pneumonia is important for etiological and epidemiological studies of acute respiratory infections. In Japan, nation-wide surveillance of M. pneumoniae pneumonia has been conducted as a part of the National Epidemiological Surveillance of Infectious Diseases (NESID) program. This surveillance started in 1981, and significant increases in the numbers of M. pneumoniae pneumonia patients were noted in 1984, 1988, 2006, 2010, 2011, 2012, and 2015. The epidemics in 2011 and 2012 were particularly widespread and motivated researchers to conduct detailed epidemiological studies, including genotyping and drug resistance analyses of M. pneumoniae isolates. The genotyping studies based on the p1 gene sequence suggested that the p1 gene type 1 lineage has been dominant in Japan since 2003, including the epidemic period during 2011–2012. However, more detailed p1 typing analysis is required to determine whether the type 2 lineages become more relevant after the dominance of the type 1 lineage. There has been extensive research interest in implications of the p1 gene types on the epidemiology of M. pneumoniae infections. Serological characterizations of sera from patients have provided a glimpse into these associations, showing the presence of type specific antibody in the patient sera. Another important epidemiological issue of M. pneumoniae pneumonia is the emergence of macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae (MRMP). MRMPs were noted among clinical isolates in Japan after 2000. At present, the isolation rate of MRMPs from pediatric patients is estimated at 50–90% in Japan, depending on the specific location. In view of the situation, Japanese societies have issued guiding principles for treating M. pneumoniae pneumonia. In these guiding principles, macrolides are still recommended as the first-line drug, however, if

  20. Public health consequences of macrolide use in food animals: a deterministic risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Hurd, H Scott; Doores, Stephanie; Hayes, Dermot; Mathew, Alan; Maurer, John; Silley, Peter; Singer, Randall S; Jones, Ronald N

    2004-05-01

    The potential impact on human health from antibiotic-resistant bacteria selected by use of antibiotics in food animals has resulted in many reports and recommended actions. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration Center for Veterinary Medicine has issued Guidance Document 152, which advises veterinary drug sponsors of one potential process for conducting a qualitative risk assessment of drug use in food animals. Using this guideline, we developed a deterministic model to assess the risk from two macrolide antibiotics, tylosin and tilmicosin. The scope of modeling included all label claim uses of both macrolides in poultry, swine, and beef cattle. The Guidance Document was followed to define the hazard, which is illness (i) caused by foodborne bacteria with a resistance determinant, (ii) attributed to a specified animal-derived meat commodity, and (iii) treated with a human use drug of the same class. Risk was defined as the probability of this hazard combined with the consequence of treatment failure due to resistant Campylobacter spp. or Enterococcus faecium. A binomial event model was applied to estimate the annual risk for the U.S. general population. Parameters were derived from industry drug use surveys, scientific literature, medical guidelines, and government documents. This unique farm-to-patient risk assessment demonstrated that use of tylosin and tilmicosin in food animals presents a very low risk of human treatment failure, with an approximate annual probability of less than 1 in 10 million Campylobacter-derived and approximately 1 in 3 billion E. faecium-derived risk. PMID:15151237

  1. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Helcococcus kunzii and molecular analysis of macrolide and tetracycline resistance.

    PubMed

    Vergne, A; Guérin, F; Lienhard, R; Le Coustumier, A; Daurel, C; Isnard, C; Marty, N; Poyart, C; Cattoir, V

    2015-10-01

    Thanks to the recent advent of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) technology, Helcococcus kunzii is now easily identifiable and considered as an opportunistic pathogen. However, data about antimicrobial susceptibilities remain very limited. The aim of the study was, then, to assess its in vitro susceptibility to 18 antimicrobial agents and to investigate the genetic basis of macrolide and tetracycline resistance. Thirty-nine human clinical isolates of H. kunzii collected from 2008 to 2013 were studied, as well as the type strain ATCC 51366(T). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of penicillin G, amoxicillin, cefotaxime, imipenem, gentamicin, erythromycin, clindamycin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, tetracycline, tigecycline, vancomycin, teicoplanin, linezolid, daptomycin, cotrimoxazole and rifampin were determined by the microdilution method. Screening for macrolide [erm(A) including erm(TR), erm(B), erm(C), erm(F), erm(T), erm(X), msr(A) and mef(A)] and tetracycline [tet(L), tet(M) and tet(O)] resistance genes was performed, as well as the detection of mutations in 23S rRNA. Except for one strain resistant to cefotaxime, all strains were categorised as susceptible to β-lactams, glycopeptides, linezolid, daptomycin and tigecycline. Whereas ciprofloxacin and gentamicin exhibited limited activity, 95% of strains were categorised as susceptible to levofloxacin. Concerning erythromycin, a bimodal distribution was observed, with 29 'wild-type' strains (MICs from 0.25 to 2 mg/L) and 11 'resistant' strains (MICs ≥ 256 mg/L), including ten harbouring erm(TR). Two isolates exhibited acquired tetracycline resistance (MICs of 16 mg/L) by the production of tet(M). This large study on the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of H. kunzii suggests that β-lactams (especially penicillins) should be preferred for the treatment. PMID:26194694

  2. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Streptococcus pneumoniae resistant to macrolide in Casablanca, Morocco.

    PubMed

    Diawara, Idrissa; Zerouali, Khalid; Katfy, Khalid; Barguigua, Abouddihaj; Belabbes, Houria; Timinouni, Mohammed; Elmdaghri, Naima

    2016-06-01

    In Morocco, the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-13) was introduced in the national immunization program (NIP) in October 2010 and replaced by the PCV-10 in July 2012. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of erythromycin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (ERSP) and to analyze the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of these isolates in Casablanca, Morocco from January 2007 to December 2014. Isolates were obtained from the Microbiology Laboratory of Ibn Rochd University Hospital Centre of Casablanca. Serogrouping was done using Pneumotest Kit and serotyping by the Quellung capsular swelling. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern was determined by disk diffusion and Etest methods. A total of 655S. pneumoniae isolates were collected from 2007 to 2014 from pediatric and adult patients. Fifty-five percent of these isolates were from invasive pneumococcal diseases. Of the 655 isolates, 92 (14%) were ERSP. Globally, the proportion of ERSP from 2007 to 2010 (before vaccination) and from 2011 to 2014 (after vaccination) were 11.6% and 17.2% (p=0.04), respectively. Of the 92 ERSP, 89%, 4% and 7% displayed constitutive MLSB (resistance to macrolide, lincosamide and streptogramin B), inducible MLSB, and M phenotype (resistance to macrolide only), respectively. ERSP genotypic analysis showed that 90.2% carried the ermB gene, 6.5% the mefE gene, and 3.3% both the genes (ermB+mefE). The most prevalent ERSP serotypes were 6B, 19F and 23F before vaccination and 19F, 6B, 6A and 23F after vaccination. Erythromycin resistance among S. pneumoniae is relatively high in Casablanca. The contribution of PCVs to the reduction in antibiotic use is encouraging but this should be accompanied by a rational use of antibiotic. PMID:26961592

  3. Macrolides from a Marine-Derived Fungus, Penicillium meleagrinum var. viridiflavum, Showing Synergistic Effects with Fluconazole against Azole-Resistant Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Okabe, Miki; Sugita, Takashi; Kinoshita, Kaoru; Koyama, Kiyotaka

    2016-04-22

    Two new 13-membered macrolides (1, 7), along with known 13-membered macrolides PF1163A, B, D, H, and F (2-6), were isolated from a strain of a marine-derived fungus, Penicillium meleagrinum var. viridiflavum. The structures of 1 and 7 were elucidated from spectroscopic data (NMR, MS, IR). Compounds 1-7 showed synergistic effects with fluconazole against azole-resistant Candida albicans by a checkerboard assay. PMID:27014845

  4. The drug susceptibility profile and inducible resistance to macrolides of Mycobacterium abscessus and Mycobacterium massiliense in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Song Yee; Kim, Chang-Ki; Bae, Il Kwon; Jeong, Seok Hoon; Yim, Jae-Joon; Jung, Ji Ye; Park, Moo Suk; Kim, Young Sam; Kim, Se Kyu; Chang, Joon; Kang, Young Ae

    2015-02-01

    We conducted drug susceptibility testing (DST) against various antimicrobial agents, including new candidate drugs, and investigated the relationship between inducible resistance (IR) to macrolides and erm(41) gene in Mycobacterium abscessus complex. Sixty-two isolates of M. abscessus complex from 2 tertiary care hospitals in South Korea were tested against 10 antimicrobial agents. Thirty-five isolates were M. abscessus, and 27 were Mycobacterium massiliense. Amikacin, moxifloxacin, linezolid, clofazimine, and tigecycline were active against most isolates and cefoxitin and ciprofloxacin against moderate number of isolates. M. massiliense remained susceptible to macrolides; in contrast, M. abscessus became highly resistant on day 14 after incubation. DST pattern did not differ between clarithromycin and azithromycin. IR to clarithromycin was correlated with erm(41) genotype in M. abscessus. Variations in susceptibility to antimicrobial agents within species and the difference in DST patterns between M. abscessus and M. massiliense suggest that DST and identification of M. abscessus complex are significant before treatment. PMID:25467784

  5. PM100117 and PM100118, new antitumor macrolides produced by a marine Streptomyces caniferus GUA-06-05-006A.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Marta; Schleissner, Carmen; Fernández, Rogelio; Rodríguez, Pilar; Reyes, Fernando; Zuñiga, Paz; de la Calle, Fernando; Cuevas, Carmen

    2016-05-01

    Two new bioactive polyhydroxyl macrolide lactones PM100117 (1) and PM100118 (2) were isolated from the culture broth of the marine-derived Streptomyces caniferus GUA-06-05-006A. Their structures were elucidated by a combination of spectroscopic methods, mainly one-dimensional and 2D NMR and HRESI-MS. They consist of 36-membered macrolides with a side chain containing three deoxy sugars and a 1,4-naphthoquinone chromophore. Compounds 1 and 2 displayed potent cytotoxicity against three human tumor cell lines with GI50 values in the micromolar range, as well as slight antifungal activity against Candida albicans ATCC10231. In addition, both compounds alter the plasma membrane of tumor cells, inducing loss of membrane integrity and subsequent cell permeabilization leading to a fast and dramatic necrotic cell death. PMID:26648119

  6. Identification of a Grain Beetle Macrolide Pheromone and Its Synthesis by Ring-Closing Metathesis Using a Terminal Alkyne.

    PubMed

    Hötling, Susann; Bittner, Celine; Tamm, Matthias; Dähn, Sonja; Collatz, Jana; Steidle, Johannes L M; Schulz, Stefan

    2015-10-16

    A major C18-macrolide was found during analysis of the frass of the storage beetle Oryzaephilus surinamensis to be (9Z,12Z,15R)-octadeca-9,12-dien-15-olide (10, cucujolide XI). The synthesis used ring-closing alkyne metathesis as a key step. The highly active 2,4,6-trimethylbenzylidyne molybdenum complex [MesCMo{OC(CF3)2Me}3] (12) allowed the use of a terminal alkyne and afforded the product in excellent yield. Bioassays proved the activity of the R-enantiomer 10 in the aggregation of the beetle. Cucujolide XI is the first macrolide pheromone oxidized at the ω-4 position. PMID:26406161

  7. Synthesis and Structure–Activity Relationships of α-Amino-γ-lactone Ketolides: A Novel Class of Macrolide Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    An efficient synthesis of α-amino-γ-lactone ketolide (3) was developed, which provided a versatile intermediate for the incorporation of a variety of aryl and heteroaryl groups onto the C-21 position of clarithromycin via HBTU-mediated amidation. The biological data for this important new class of macrolides revealed significantly potent activity against erythromycin-susceptible strains as well as efflux-resistant and erythromycin MLSB-resistant strains of S. pneumoniae and S. pyogenes. In addition, ketolide 11o showed excellent in vitro antibacterial activity against H. influenzae strain as compared to telithromycin. These results indicate that C-21 substituted γ-lactone ketolides have potential as a next generation macrolide antibiotics. PMID:25313326

  8. Two Mutations associated with Macrolide Resistance in Treponema pallidum: Increasing Prevalence and Correlation with Molecular Strain Type in Seattle, Washington

    PubMed Central

    Grimes, Matthew; Sahi, Sharon K.; Godornes, B. Charmie; Tantalo, Lauren C.; Roberts, Neal; Bostick, David; Marra, Christina M.; Lukehart, Sheila A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Although azithromycin promised to be a safe and effective single dose oral treatment for early syphilis, azithromycin treatment failure has been documented and is associated with mutations in the 23S rDNA of corresponding Treponema pallidum strains. The prevalence of strains harboring these mutations varies throughout the US and the world. We examined T. pallidum strains circulating in Seattle, Washington, from 2001–2010 to determine the prevalence of two mutations associated with macrolide resistance, and to determine whether these mutations were associated with certain T. pallidum strain types. Methods Subjects were enrolled in a separate ongoing study of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) abnormalities in patients with syphilis. T. pallidum DNA purified from blood and T. pallidum strains isolated from blood or CSF were analyzed for two 23S rDNA mutations and for the molecular targets used in an enhanced molecular stain typing system. Results Nine molecular strain types of T. pallidum were identified in Seattle from 2001–2010. Both macrolide resistance mutations were identified in Seattle strains, and the prevalence of resistant T. pallidum exceeded 80% in 2005 and increased through 2010. Resistance mutations were associated with discrete molecular strain types of T. pallidum. Conclusions Macrolide resistant T. pallidum strains are highly prevalent in Seattle, and each mutation is associated with discrete strain types. Macrolides should not be considered for treatment of syphilis in regions where prevalence of the mutations is high. Combining the resistance mutations with molecular strain typing permits a finer analysis of the epidemiology of syphilis in a community. PMID:23191949

  9. Aplyronine A, a potent antitumour macrolide of marine origin, and the congeners aplyronines B-H: chemistry and biology.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Kiyoyuki; Ojika, Makoto; Kigoshi, Hideo; Suenaga, Kiyotake

    2009-01-01

    Aplyronines A-H are cytotoxic macrolides isolated from the sea hare Aplysia kurodai. Aplyronine A is the major constituent among the aplyronines, and this review concentrates on the results of chemical and biological research into this natural product. The isolation, determination of stereostructure and enantioselective total synthesis of the aplyronines are covered, together with discussion of their antitumour activity and structure-activity relationships, and the three-dimensional X-ray structure of the actin-aplyronine A complex. PMID:19374121

  10. Increased carriage of macrolide-resistant fecal E. coli following mass distribution of azithromycin for trachoma control

    PubMed Central

    Seidman, Jessica C; Coles, Christian L; Silbergeld, Ellen K; Levens, Joshua; Mkocha, Harran; Johnson, Lashaunda B; Muñoz, Beatriz; West, Sheila K

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mass drug treatment with azithromycin (MDA) is part of the WHO-endorsed ‘SAFE’ strategy for trachoma control in endemic communities. MDA has been associated with reduced trachoma prevalence and short-term reductions in other bacterial infections, but can also lead to increased circulation of macrolide-resistant bacteria. Methods: We prospectively monitored macrolide resistance in fecal E. coli collected from young children participating in the PRET+ Study in rural Tanzania. MDA was administered in four villages with >10% trachoma prevalence. Four nearby communities with lower trachoma prevalence served as controls. Rectal swabs were collected during cross-sectional surveys performed at baseline, 1, 3 and 6 months after MDA. Fecal E. coli isolates were screened for macrolide susceptibility using disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration methods. Cross-sectional and longitudinal differences in resistance prevalence by MDA exposure were compared using t-tests and logistic regression. Results: There was no difference in the proportion of individuals carrying azithromycin-resistant E. coli at baseline (0.21 vs 0.16, P > 0.05). Azithromycin resistance carriage prevalence remained stable over follow-up in non-MDA villages but increased sharply in MDA villages (0.61 at 1 month, 0.42 at 3 months and 0.31 at 6 months). MDA exposure was highly associated with azithromycin resistance carriage at 1 month post-MDA (OR 15.27, P < 0.001) and subsequent surveys. Younger age and recent diarrhoea were also associated with increased odds of resistance (P < 0.01). Conclusions: MDA resulted in significantly increased prevalence of macrolide resistance in E. coli. Although MDA is effective for trachoma elimination, it has costs; it is essential to monitor antimicrobial resistance following MDA. PMID:24659584

  11. Levantilides A and B, 20-Membered Macrolides from a Micromonospora Strain Isolated from the Mediterranean Deep Sea Sediment

    PubMed Central

    Gärtner, Andrea; Ohlendorf, Birgit; Schulz, Dirk; Zinecker, Heidi; Wiese, Jutta; Imhoff, Johannes F.

    2011-01-01

    Two new 20-membered macrolides, levantilide A and B, were isolated from the Micromonospora strain M71-A77. Strain M71-A77 was recovered from an Eastern Mediterranean deep-sea sediment sample and revealed to produce the levantilides under in situ salinity of 38.6‰. The chemical structures of the levantilides were elucidated on the basis of different one- and two- dimensional NMR experiments. Levantilide A exhibits a moderate antiproliferative activity against several tumor cell lines. PMID:21339949

  12. Occurrence and fate of macrolide antibiotics in wastewater treatment plants and in the Glatt Valley watershed, Switzerland.

    PubMed

    McArdell, Christa S; Molnar, Eva; Suter, Marc J F; Giger, Walter

    2003-12-15

    An analytical method was developed for determining macrolide antibiotics in treated wastewater effluents and in ambient water based on solid-phase extraction and LC/MS analysis as well as on LC/MS/MS for structural confirmation. In wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) macrolides are only partly eliminated and can therefore reach the aquatic environment. In treated effluents from three WWTPs in Switzerland, clarithromycin, roxithromycin, and erythromycin-H2O, the main degradation product of erythromycin, were found. The most abundant, clarithromycin, reflects the consumption pattern of macrolide antibiotics. Summer concentrations of clarithromycin varied between 57 and 330 ng/L in treated WWTP effluents. In the WWTP Kloten-Opfikon seasonal differences revealed a load two times higher in winter than in summer. The higher abundance of erythromycin-H2O in the effluent of WWTP Kloten-Opfikon can be explained by distinct consumption patterns due to the main international airport of Switzerland in the catchment area. In the Glatt River clarithromycin reached concentrations of up to 75 ng/L. Mass flux determinations in treated effluents and in river water in the Glatt Valley watershed showed that elimination of clarithromycin along the river stretch of 36 km is insignificant (<20%). Investigations in the Glatt River before and after the diversion of the largest WWTP revealed an observable decrease in clarithromycin loads. PMID:14717154

  13. Determination of five macrolide antibiotic residues in raw milk using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Leung, Daniel; Lenz, Steven P

    2006-04-19

    A confirmatory method using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry for determination of five macrolide antibiotics including spiramycin, tilmicosin, oleandomycin, erythromycin, and tylosin in raw milk is presented. Macrolides were extracted from raw milk by acetonitrile, and sample extracts were further cleaned up using solid-phase extraction cartridges. Data acquisition was achieved using multiple reaction monitoring, that is, two transitions, to provide a high degree of sensitivity and specificity. Matrix-matched standard calibration curves with the use of roxithromycin as an internal standard were utilized to achieve the best accuracy of the method. Both a conventional validation procedure and a designed experiment were applied to study the accuracy and precision of the method. The measurement uncertainty arising from accuracy and precision was estimated. The method accuracy, expressed as a percentage of overall recovery, was approximately 100%, and its intermediate precision was <10%. LC-ESI/MS/MS method detection limits (S/N > or = 3:1) of five macrolides were <0.3 microg/kg. PMID:16608203

  14. A quantitative method for residues of macrolide antibiotics in porcine kidney by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Leslie C; O'Byrne, Collin; Chan, Wayne

    2012-01-01

    An LC/MS/MS-based multiresidue quantitative method was developed for the macrolides erythromycin A, neospiramycin I, oleandomycin, spiramycin I, tilmicosin, and tylosin A in porcine kidney tissues. The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) had as part of its analytical scope an LC/UV method for quantification of residues of two macrolide antibiotics, tilmicosin and tylosin A, in the kidney, liver, and muscle of cattle, swine, and poultry. The method could not reliably detect concentrations below 10 microg/kg. To increase the scope of the CFIA's analytical capabilities, a sensitive multiresidue quantitative method for macrolide residues in food animal tissues was required. Porcine kidney samples were extracted with acetonitrile and alkaline buffer and cleaned-up using silica-based C18 SPE cartridges. Sample extracts were analyzed using LC/MS/MS with positive electrospray ionization. Fitness for purpose was verified in a single-laboratory validation study using a second analyst. The working analytical range was 5 to 50 microg/kg. LOD and LOQ were 0.5 to 0.6 microg/kg and 1.5 to 3.0 microg/kg, respectively. Limits of identification were 0.5 to 2.0 microg/kg. Relative intermediate precisions were 8 to 17%. Average absolute recoveries were 68 to 76%. PMID:22649946

  15. Antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular characterization of macrolide resistance of Mycoplasma bovis isolates from multiple provinces in China

    PubMed Central

    KONG, Ling-Cong; GAO, Duo; JIA, Bo-Yan; WANG, Zi; GAO, Yun-Hang; PEI, Zhi-Hua; LIU, Shu-Ming; XIN, Jiu-Qing; MA, Hong-Xia

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma bovis has spread widely throughout the world via animal movement and has become an important pathogen of bovine respiratory disease. However, the minimum inhibitory concentrations of antimicrobials for Mycoplasma bovis have not been studied in China. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Mycoplasma bovis isolated from young cattle with respiratory infection in China. Mycoplasma bovis was detected in 32/45 bovine respiratory infection outbreaks at beef farms in 8 provinces in China. The isolates were susceptible or had medium sensitivity to ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin and doxycycline, but were frequently resistant to macrolides (13/32, 41%). An A2058G (Escherichia coli Numbering) mutation located in the rrnA operon in domain V of 23S rRNA was observed in strains that were resistant to macrolides. This single mutations at the rrnA operon in domain V of 23S rRNA may play an important role in the resistance of Mycoplasma bovis strains to macrolides. PMID:26346744

  16. Antibiotic Selection Pressure and Macrolide Resistance in Nasopharyngeal Streptococcus pneumoniae: A Cluster-Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Skalet, Alison H.; Cevallos, Vicky; Ayele, Berhan; Gebre, Teshome; Zhou, Zhaoxia; Jorgensen, James H.; Zerihun, Mulat; Habte, Dereje; Assefa, Yared; Emerson, Paul M.; Gaynor, Bruce D.; Porco, Travis C.; Lietman, Thomas M.; Keenan, Jeremy D.

    2010-01-01

    Background It is widely thought that widespread antibiotic use selects for community antibiotic resistance, though this has been difficult to prove in the setting of a community-randomized clinical trial. In this study, we used a randomized clinical trial design to assess whether macrolide resistance was higher in communities treated with mass azithromycin for trachoma, compared to untreated control communities. Methods and Findings In a cluster-randomized trial for trachoma control in Ethiopia, 12 communities were randomized to receive mass azithromycin treatment of children aged 1–10 years at months 0, 3, 6, and 9. Twelve control communities were randomized to receive no antibiotic treatments until the conclusion of the study. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from randomly selected children in the treated group at baseline and month 12, and in the control group at month 12. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed on Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from the swabs using Etest strips. In the treated group, the mean prevalence of azithromycin resistance among all monitored children increased from 3.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.8%–8.9%) at baseline, to 46.9% (37.5%–57.5%) at month 12 (p = 0.003). In control communities, azithromycin resistance was 9.2% (95% CI 6.7%–13.3%) at month 12, significantly lower than the treated group (p<0.0001). Penicillin resistance was identified in 0.8% (95% CI 0%–4.2%) of isolates in the control group at 1 year, and in no isolates in the children-treated group at baseline or 1 year. Conclusions This cluster-randomized clinical trial demonstrated that compared to untreated control communities, nasopharyngeal pneumococcal resistance to macrolides was significantly higher in communities randomized to intensive azithromycin treatment. Mass azithromycin distributions were given more frequently than currently recommended by the World Health Organization's trachoma program. Azithromycin use in this setting did

  17. Epidemiology and Molecular Characterization of Macrolide-Resistant Streptococcus pyogenes in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chia-Ying; Lai, Jui-Fen; Huang, I-Wen; Chen, Pei-Chen; Wang, Hui-Ying; Shiau, Yih-Ru; Cheng, Ya-Wen; Hsieh, Li-Yun; Chang, Shan-Chwen

    2014-01-01

    Our multicenter nationwide surveillance data indicated that erythromycin (ERY) resistance among group A Streptococcus (GAS) isolates in Taiwan declined from 53.1% in 1998 and 2000 to 14.6% in 2002 and 2004 and 10.7% in 2006 to 2010 (P < 0.01). The present study aimed to assess the epidemiology of GAS in Taiwan and identify factors associated with ERY resistance. All 127 ERY-resistant (ERYr) isolates and 128 randomly selected ERY-susceptible (ERYs) isolates recovered from 1998 to 2010 were emm typed. ERYr isolates were also characterized by ERY resistance phenotype and mechanisms and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Multilocus sequence typing was performed on selected ERYr isolates. The predominant emm types in ERYr isolates were emm22 (n = 33, 26.0%), emm12 (n = 24, 18.9%), emm4 (n = 21, 16.5%), and emm106 (n = 15, 11.8%). In ERYs isolates, emm12 (n = 27, 21.9%), emm1 (n = 18, 14.1%), emm106 (n = 16, 12.5%), and emm11 (n = 9, 7.1%) predominated. The most common ERY resistance phenotype was the M phenotype (resistant to macrolides) (70.9%), with all but one isolate carrying mef(A), followed by the constitutive macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance (cMLSB) phenotype (26.8%), with isolates carrying erm(B) or erm(TR). ERYr isolates of the emm12-sequence type 36 (ST36) lineage with the cMLSB phenotype were mostly present before 2004, while those of the emm22-ST46 lineage with the M phenotype predominated in later years. Recovery from respiratory (throat swab) specimens was an independent factor associated with ERY resistance. emm1 and emm11 GAS isolates were significantly associated with ERYs, while emm22 was detected only in ERYr GAS. In addition, emm106 isolates were prevalent among the abscess/pus isolates, whereas emm12 isolates were strongly associated with a respiratory (throat) origin. In addition to identifying factors associated with ERY resistance in GAS, our study provides helpful information on the changing GAS epidemiology in Taiwan. PMID

  18. Functional characterization of CYP107W1 from Streptomyces avermitilis and biosynthesis of macrolide oligomycin A.

    PubMed

    Han, Songhee; Pham, Tan-Viet; Kim, Joo-Hwan; Lim, Young-Ran; Park, Hyoung-Goo; Cha, Gun-Su; Yun, Chul-Ho; Chun, Young-Jin; Kang, Lin-Woo; Kim, Donghak

    2015-06-01

    Streptomyces avermitilis contains 33 cytochrome P450 genes in its genome, many of which play important roles in the biosynthesis process of antimicrobial agents. Here, we characterized the biochemical function and structure of CYP107W1 from S. avermitilis, which is responsible for the 12-hydroxylation reaction of oligomycin C. CYP107W1 was expressed and purified from Escherichia coli. Purified proteins exhibited the typical CO-binding spectrum of P450. Interaction of oligomycin C and oligomycin A (12-hydroxylated oligomycin C) with purified CYP107W1 resulted in a type I binding with Kd values of 14.4 ± 0.7 μM and 2.0 ± 0.1 μM, respectively. LC-mass spectrometry analysis showed that CYP107W1 produced oligomycin A by regioselectively hydroxylating C12 of oligomycin C. Steady-state kinetic analysis yielded a kcat value of 0.2 min(-1) and a Km value of 18 μM. The crystal structure of CYP107W1 was determined at 2.1 Å resolution. The overall P450 folding conformations are well conserved, and the open access binding pocket for the large macrolide oligomycin C was observed above the distal side of heme. This study of CYP107W1 can help a better understanding of clinically important P450 enzymes as well as their optimization and engineering for synthesizing novel antibacterial agents and other pharmaceutically important compounds. PMID:25849761

  19. Macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance phenotypes in clinical staphylococcal isolates.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Emel Sesli; Gunes, Hayati; Kaya, Selcuk; Aridogan, Buket Cicioglu; Demirci, Mustafa

    2008-04-01

    The prevalence of macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLSB) resistance as well as the MLSB resistance phenotypes were investigated by the double-disk diffusion test among 532 clinical staphylococci isolates in a Turkish university hospital. The activity of other antimicrobials, including trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, telithromycin, quinupristin/dalfopristin, linezolid, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin and vancomycin, was also evaluated. Of 532 isolates, 38.5% were resistant to MLSB antibiotics; 63.9% of the resistant isolates exhibited a constitutive phenotype (cMLSB) whereas 36.1% expressed an inducible resistance phenotype (iMLSB). MLSB resistance was more prevalent among coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) strains. Oxacillin-resistant strains exhibited significantly higher MLSB resistance rates compared with oxacillin-susceptible strains (P<0.0001). The most frequently detected resistance phenotype among the total staphylococcal isolates was the constitutive type and this phenotype was more frequently encountered among oxacillin-resistant strains. With the exception of the fully active agents such as vancomycin, linezolid and quinupristin/dalfopristin, the most effective antibiotics were telithromycin and chloramphenicol among all isolates. Susceptibility rates to other antibiotics tested were higher among isolates without MLS(B) resistance than isolates with MLSB resistance. The detection of a considerable rate (43.5%) of iMLSB resistance among erythromycin-resistant/clindamycin-susceptible strains suggests that the true percentage of clindamycin resistance may be underestimated if testing for inducible resistance is not performed. PMID:18206352

  20. Role of ATP binding and hydrolysis in assembly of MacAB-TolC macrolide transporter.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shuo; Zgurskaya, Helen I

    2012-12-01

    MacB is a founding member of the Macrolide Exporter family of transporters belonging to the ATP-Binding Cassette superfamily. These proteins are broadly represented in genomes of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and are implicated in virulence and protection against antibiotics and peptide toxins. MacB transporter functions together with MacA, a periplasmic membrane fusion protein, which stimulates MacB ATPase. In Gram-negative bacteria, MacA is believed to couple ATP hydrolysis to transport of substrates across the outer membrane through a TolC-like channel. In this study, we report a real-time analysis of concurrent ATP hydrolysis and assembly of MacAB-TolC complex. MacB binds nucleotides with a low millimolar affinity and fast on- and off-rates. In contrast, MacA-MacB complex is formed with a nanomolar affinity, which further increases in the presence of ATP. Our results strongly suggest that association between MacA and MacB is stimulated by ATP binding to MacB but remains unchanged during ATP hydrolysis cycle. We also found that the large periplasmic loop of MacB plays the major role in coupling reactions separated in two different membranes. This loop is required for MacA-dependent stimulation of MacB ATPase and at the same time, contributes to recruitment of TolC into a trans-envelope complex. PMID:23057817

  1. Structural and Biochemical Studies of Actin in Complex with Synthetic Macrolide Tail Analogues

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, Jose H.; Petchprayoon, Chutima; Hoepker, Alexander C.; Moriarty, Nigel W.; Fink, Sarah J.; Cecere, Giuseppe; Paterson, Ian; Adams, Paul D.; Marriott, Gerard

    2014-07-22

    The actin filament-binding and filament-severing activities of the aplyronine, kabiramide, and reidispongiolide families of marine macrolides are located within the hydrophobic tail region of the molecule. Two synthetic tail analogues of aplyronine C (SF-01 and GC-04) are shown to bind to G-actin with dissociation constants of (285±33) and (132±13) nM, respectively. The crystal structures of actin complexes with GC-04, SF-01, and kabiramide C reveal a conserved mode of tail binding within the cleft that forms between subdomains (SD) 1 and 3. Our studies support the view that filament severing is brought about by specific binding of the tail region to the SD1/SD3 cleft on the upper protomer, which displaces loop-D from the lower protomer on the same half-filament. With previous studies showing that the GC-04 analogue can sever actin filaments, it is argued that the shorter complex lifetime of tail analogues with F-actin would make them more effective at severing filaments compared with plasma gelsolin. In conclusion, structure-based analyses are used to suggest more reactive or targetable forms of GC-04 and SF-01, which may serve to boost the capacity of the serum actin scavenging system, to generate antibody conjugates against tumor cell antigens, and to decrease sputum viscosity in children with cystic fibrosis.

  2. Structural and Biochemical Studies of Actin in Complex with Synthetic Macrolide Tail Analogues

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Pereira, Jose H.; Petchprayoon, Chutima; Hoepker, Alexander C.; Moriarty, Nigel W.; Fink, Sarah J.; Cecere, Giuseppe; Paterson, Ian; Adams, Paul D.; Marriott, Gerard

    2014-07-22

    The actin filament-binding and filament-severing activities of the aplyronine, kabiramide, and reidispongiolide families of marine macrolides are located within the hydrophobic tail region of the molecule. Two synthetic tail analogues of aplyronine C (SF-01 and GC-04) are shown to bind to G-actin with dissociation constants of (285±33) and (132±13) nM, respectively. The crystal structures of actin complexes with GC-04, SF-01, and kabiramide C reveal a conserved mode of tail binding within the cleft that forms between subdomains (SD) 1 and 3. Our studies support the view that filament severing is brought about by specific binding of the tail region tomore » the SD1/SD3 cleft on the upper protomer, which displaces loop-D from the lower protomer on the same half-filament. With previous studies showing that the GC-04 analogue can sever actin filaments, it is argued that the shorter complex lifetime of tail analogues with F-actin would make them more effective at severing filaments compared with plasma gelsolin. In conclusion, structure-based analyses are used to suggest more reactive or targetable forms of GC-04 and SF-01, which may serve to boost the capacity of the serum actin scavenging system, to generate antibody conjugates against tumor cell antigens, and to decrease sputum viscosity in children with cystic fibrosis.« less

  3. Structural Disorder in the Complex of Human Pregnane X Receptor and the Macrolide Antibiotic Rifampicin

    SciTech Connect

    Chrencik, Jill E.; Orans, Jillian; Moore, Linda B.; Xue, Yu; Peng, Li; Collins, Jon L.; Wisely, G. Bruce; Lambert, Millard H.; Kliewer, Steven A.; Redinbo, Matthew R.

    2010-07-13

    The human nuclear xenobiotic receptor, pregnane X receptor (PXR), detects a variety of structurally distinct endogenous and xenobiotic compounds and controls expression of genes central to drug and cholesterol metabolism. The macrolide antibiotic rifampicin, a front-line treatment for tuberculosis, is an established PXR agonist and, at 823 Da, is one of the largest known ligands for the receptor. We present the 2.8 {angstrom} crystal structure of the ligand-binding domain of human PXR in complex with rifampicin. We also use structural and mutagenesis data to examine the origins of the directed promiscuity exhibited by the PXRs across species. Three structurally flexible loops adjacent to the ligand-binding pocket of PXR are disordered in this crystal structure, including the 200-210 region that is part of a sequence insert novel to the promiscuous PXRs relative to other members of the nuclear receptor superfamily. The 4-methyl-1-piperazinyl ring of rifampicin, which would lie adjacent to the disordered protein regions, is also disordered and not observed in the structure. Taken together, our results indicate that one wall of the PXR ligand-binding cavity can remain flexible even when the receptor is in complex with an activating ligand. These observations highlight the key role that structural flexibility plays in PXR's promiscuous response to xenobiotics.

  4. Molecular epidemiology and genetic linkage of macrolide and aminoglycoside resistance in Staphylococcus intermedius of canine origin.

    PubMed

    Boerlin, P; Burnens, A P; Frey, J; Kuhnert, P; Nicolet, J

    2001-03-20

    A collection of 77 Staphylococcus intermedius isolates from dogs and cats in Switzerland was examined for resistance to erythromycin. Resistance profiles for 14 additional antibiotics were compared between erythromycin-resistant and susceptible isolates. A resistance prevalence of 27% for erythromycin was observed in the population under study. Complete correlation between resistance to erythromycin, and to spiramycin, streptomycin, and neomycin was observed. The erythromycin-resistant isolates all had a reduced susceptibility to clindamycin when compared to the erythromycin-susceptible isolates. Both constitutive and inducible resistance phenotypes were observed for clindamycin. Ribotyping showed that macrolide-aminoglycoside resistance was randomly distributed among unrelated strains. This suggests that this particular resistance profile is not related to a single bacterial clone but to the horizontal transfer of resistance gene clusters in S. intermedius populations. The erythromycin-resistant isolates were all carrying erm(B), but not erm(A), erm(C), or msr(A). The erm(B) gene was physically linked to Tn5405-like elements known as resistance determinants for streptomycin, streptothricin, neomycin and kanamycin. Analysis of the region flanking erm(B) showed the presence of two different groups of erm(B)-Tn5405-like elements in the S. intermedius population examined and of elements found in Gram-positive species other than staphylococci. This strongly suggests that erm(B) or the whole erm(B)-Tn5405-like elements in S. intermedius originate from other bacterial species, possibly from enterococci. PMID:11230937

  5. Study of Two Separate Types of Macrolide-Resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae Outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yingshuo; Ye, Qian; Yang, Dehua; Ni, Zhimin; Chen, Zhimin

    2016-07-01

    To study the complete natural process of a Mycoplasma pneumoniae outbreak in a semiclosed room such as a primary school room, we investigated two separate M. pneumoniae outbreaks involving 81 students in total in two primary schools in Hangzhou, China. M. pneumoniae isolates from pharyngeal swabs were detected by fluorescence quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR) and culture. The class in school M had 39 students, with 12 (30.8%) with positive M. pneumoniae detection results. The class from school J had 42 students, with 13 (31.0%) positive. The strains from two classes were confirmed to represent two clones (3/4/5/7/2 and 5/4/5/7/2) and to be macrolide resistant (A2063G) according to P1 and multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) genotyping, determination of MIC of antibiotics, and sequencing. Students with M. pneumoniae isolates detected were divided into three groups: those carrying the isolates, those with upper respiratory tract infection (URI), and those with pneumonia. Longitudinal sampling performed using pharyngeal swabs showed that the persistence of M. pneumoniae was longest in the group of students with pneumonia. M. pneumoniae causes pneumonia outbreaks in schools, and the incidence of pneumonia has a higher rate than that of URI. The persistence of M. pneumoniae, with a median duration of 79.50 days in the group of students with pneumonia, differs from that of the infection state. PMID:27161643

  6. Heat treatment effects on the antimicrobial activity of macrolide and lincosamide antibiotics in milk.

    PubMed

    Zorraquino, M A; Althaus, R L; Roca, M; Molina, M P

    2011-02-01

    Antibiotic residues in milk can cause serious problems for consumers and the dairy industry. Heat treatment of milk may diminish the antimicrobial activity of these antibiotic residues. This study analyzed the effect of milk processing (60 °C for 30 min, 120 °C for 20 min, and 140 °C for 10 s) on the antimicrobial activity of milk samples fortified with three concentrations of three macrolides (erythromycin: 20, 40 and 80 μg/liter; spiramycin: 100, 200, and 400 μg/liter; and tylosin: 500, 1,000, and 2,000 μg/liter) and one lincosamide (lincomycin: 1,000, 2,000, and 4,000 μg/liter). To measure the loss of antimicrobial activity, a bioassay based on the growth inhibition of Micrococcus luteus was done. The data were analyzed using a multiple linear regression model. The results indicate that treatment at 120 °C for 20 min produces inactivation percentages of 93% (erythromycin), 64% (spiramycin), 51% (tylosin), and 5% (lincomycin), while treatment at 140 °C for 10 s results in generally lower percentages (30% erythromycin, 35% spiramycin, 12% tylosin, and 5% lincomycin). The lowest loss or lowest reduction of antimicrobial activity (21% erythromycin and 13% spiramycin) was obtained by treatment at 60 °C for 30 min. PMID:21333154

  7. Assessing antibiotic sorption in soil: a literature review and new case studies on sulfonamides and macrolides

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The increased use of veterinary antibiotics in modern agriculture for therapeutic uses and growth promotion has raised concern regarding the environmental impacts of antibiotic residues in soil and water. The mobility and transport of antibiotics in the environment depends on their sorption behavior, which is typically predicted by extrapolating from an experimentally determined soil-water distribution coefficient (Kd). Accurate determination of Kd values is important in order to better predict the environmental fate of antibiotics. In this paper, we examine different analytical approaches in assessing Kd of two major classes of veterinary antibiotics (sulfonamides and macrolides) and compare the existing literature data with experimental data obtained in our laboratory. While environmental parameters such as soil pH and organic matter content are the most significant factors that affect the sorption of antibiotics in soil, it is important to consider the concentrations used, the analytical method employed, and the transformations that can occur when determining Kd values. Application of solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry can facilitate accurate determination of Kd at environmentally relevant concentrations. Because the bioavailability of antibiotics in soil depends on their sorption behavior, it is important to examine current practices in assessing their mobility in soil. PMID:24438473

  8. Structure and Function of the Macrolide Biosensor Protein, MphR(A), with and without Erythromycin

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Jianting; Sagar, Vatsala; Smolinsky, Adam; Bourke, Chase; LaRonde-LeBlanc, Nicole; Cropp, T. Ashton

    2009-09-02

    The regulatory protein MphR(A) has recently seen extensive use in synthetic biological applications, such as metabolite sensing and exogenous control of gene expression. This protein negatively regulates the expression of a macrolide 2{prime}-phosphotransferase I resistance gene (mphA) via binding to a 35-bp DNA operator upstream of the start codon and is de-repressed by the presence of erythromycin. Here, we present the refined crystal structure of the MphR(A) protein free of erythromycin and that of the MphR(A) protein with bound erythromycin at 2.00- and 1.76-{angstrom} resolutions, respectively. We also studied the DNA binding properties of the protein and identified mutants of MphR(A) that are defective in gene repression and ligand binding in a cell-based reporter assay. The combination of these two structures illustrates the molecular basis of erythromycin-induced gene expression and provides a framework for additional applied uses of this protein in the isolation and engineered biosynthesis of polyketide natural products.

  9. Characterization of an endophytic whorl-forming Streptomyces from Catharanthus roseus stems producing polyene macrolide antibiotic.

    PubMed

    Rakotoniriana, Erick Francisco; Chataigné, Gabrielle; Raoelison, Guy; Rabemanantsoa, Christian; Munaut, Françoise; El Jaziri, Mondher; Urveg-Ratsimamanga, Suzanne; Marchand-Brynaert, Jacqueline; Corbisier, Anne-Marie; Declerck, Stéphane; Quetin-Leclercq, Joëlle

    2012-05-01

    An endophytic whorl-forming Streptomyces sp. designated as TS3RO having antifungal activity against a large number of fungal pathogens, including Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Rhizoctonia solani, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Cryphonectria parasitica, Fusarium oxysporum, Pyrenophora tritici-repentis, Epidermophyton floccosum, and Trichophyton rubrum, was isolated from surface-sterilized Catharanthus roseus stems. Preliminary identification showed that Streptomyces cinnamoneus subsp. sparsus was its closest related species. However, strain TS3RO could readily be distinguished from this species using a combination of phenotypic properties, 16S rDNA sequence similarity, and phylogenetic analyses. Thus, the whorl-forming Streptomyces sp. strain TS3RO is likely a new subspecies within the Streptomyces cinnamoneus group. Direct bioautography on a thin-layer chromatography plate with Cladosporium cucumerinum was conducted throughout the purification steps for bioassay-guided isolation of the active antifungal compounds from the crude extract. Structural elucidation of the isolated bioactive compound was obtained via LC-MS spectrometry, UV-visible spectra, and nuclear magnetic resonance data. It revealed that fungichromin, a known methylpentaene macrolide antibiotic, was the main antifungal component of TS3RO strain, as shown by thin-layer chromatography bioautography. This is the first report of an endophytic whorl-forming Streptomyces isolated from the medically important plant Catharanthus roseus. PMID:22524528

  10. 23S rRNA mutation A2074C conferring high-level macrolide resistance and fitness cost in Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Hao, Haihong; Dai, Menghong; Wang, Yulian; Peng, Dapeng; Liu, Zhenli; Yuan, Zonghui

    2009-12-01

    To examine the development of macrolide resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and assess the fitness of the macrolide-resistant mutants, two macrolide-susceptible C. jejuni strains, American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 33291 and H1, from different geographic areas were exposed to tylosin in vitro. Multiple mutant strains were obtained from the selection. Most of the high-level macrolide-resistant strains derived from the selection exhibited the A2074C transversion in all three copies of 23S rRNA and displayed strong stability in the absence of antibiotic selection pressure. The competition experiments demonstrated that the strains containing the A2074C transversion imposed a fitness cost in competition mixtures. In addition, the fitness cost of the mutation was not ameliorated after approximately 500 generations of evolution under laboratory conditions. These findings indicate that the A2074C transversion in C. jejuni is not only correlated with stable and high-level macrolide resistance but also associated with a fitness cost. PMID:19857128

  11. Effects of macrolides on proinflammatory epitopes on endothelial cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Millrose, Michael; Kruse, Matthias; Flick, Burkhard; Stahlmann, Ralf

    2009-05-01

    An inflammatory reaction at the site of infusion is a common clinical problem that is observed after the intravenous application of antibiotics and other drugs. The pathomechanism of this infusion-related phlebitis is not fully understood. We analyzed the effects of the three macrolide antibiotics erythromycin, clarithromycin and azithromycin on human endothelial cells in vitro. As a positive control quinupristin/dalfopristin was studied. The cytotoxicity of all substances was analyzed by a modified MTT cytotoxicity assay with 3T3-fibroblasts and EA.hy 926 endothelial cells. Cells were incubated for 10 days with the antibiotics. After adding MTT the optical density was measured which correlates with cell death. Clarithromycin exhibited the strongest cytotoxic effect on EA.hy 926 cells (EC(50) 30 mg/L), followed by azithromycin (EC(50) 40 mg/L), a cytotoxic effect of erythromycin could only be observed at much higher concentrations (EC(50) 310 mg/L). The reaction of the endothelial cells was further analyzed in detail by means of flow cytometry. For these experiments the endothelial cell line EA.hy 926 as well as primary cells (HUVEC) were used. The antigens were stained with fluoresceinisothiocyanat- or phycoerythrin-conjugated monoclonal antibodies for the following surface antigens: CD34, E-selectin (CD62E), ICAM-1 (CD54) and VCAM-1 (CD106). Cells were incubated with the antibiotics at concentrations ranging from 100 to 800 mg/L (clarithromycin and azithromycin) and from 200 to 1,200 mg/L (erythromycin). These concentrations occur under therapeutic conditions at the site of infusion. Cells were incubated for 2 h and analysis was carried out after an additional culture period of 22 h without test compounds. A significantly enhanced expression of all four antigens was observed which was most pronounced at 800 mg/L (erythromycin), 600 mg/L (azithromycin) and 400 mg/L (clarithromycin). A concentration of 800 mg/L erythromycin medium caused an increase of the

  12. Different Dynamic Patterns of β-Lactams, Quinolones, Glycopeptides and Macrolides on Mouse Gut Microbial Diversity.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jia; M, Prabhakar; Wang, Shan; Liao, Shuo-Xi; Peng, Xin; He, Yan; Chen, Yi-Ran; Shen, Hua-Fang; Su, Jin; Chen, Ye; Jiang, Yun-Xia; Zhang, Guo-Xia; Zhou, Hong-Wei

    2015-01-01

    The adverse impact of antibiotics on the gut microbiota has attracted extensive interest, particularly due to the development of microbiome research techniques in recent years. However, a direct comparison of the dynamic effects of various types of antibiotics using the same animal model has not been available. In the present study, we selected six antibiotics from four categories with the broadest clinical usage, namely, β-lactams (Ceftriaxone Sodium, Cefoperazone/Sulbactam and meropenem), quinolones (ofloxacin), glycopeptides (vancomycin), and macrolides (azithromycin), to treat BALB/c mice. Stool samples were collected during and after the administration of antibiotics, and microbial diversity was analyzed through Illumina sequencing and bioinformatics analyses using QIIME. Both α and β diversity analyses showed that ceftriaxone sodium, cefoperazone/sulbactam, meropenem and vancomycin changed the gut microbiota dramatically by the second day of antibiotic administration whereas the influence of ofloxacin was trivial. Azithromycin clearly changed the gut microbiota but much less than vancomycin and the β-lactams. In general, the community changes induced by the three β-lactam antibiotics showed consistency in inhibiting Papillibacter, Prevotella and Alistipes while inducing massive growth of Clostridium. The low diversity and high Clostridium level might be an important cause of Clostridium difficile infection after usage of β-lactams. Vancomycin was unique in that it inhibited Firmicutes, mainly the genus Clostridium. On the other hand, it induced the growth of Escherichia and effect lasted for months afterward. Azithromycin and meropenem induced the growth of Enterococcus. These findings will be useful for understanding the potential adverse effects of antibiotics on the gut microbiome and ensuring their better usage. PMID:25970622

  13. Polyene macrolide biosynthesis in streptomycetes and related bacteria: recent advances from genome sequencing and experimental studies.

    PubMed

    Caffrey, Patrick; De Poire, Eimear; Sheehan, James; Sweeney, Paul

    2016-05-01

    The polyene macrolide group includes important antifungal drugs, to which resistance does not arise readily. Chemical and biological methods have been used in attempts to make polyene antibiotics with fewer toxic side effects. Genome sequencing of producer organisms is contributing to this endeavour, by providing access to new compounds and by enabling yield improvement for polyene analogues obtained by engineered biosynthesis. This recent work is also enhancing bioinformatic methods for deducing the structures of cryptic natural products from their biosynthetic enzymes. The stereostructure of candicidin D has recently been determined by NMR spectroscopy. Genes for the corresponding polyketide synthase have been uncovered in several different genomes. Analysis of this new information strengthens the view that protein sequence motifs can be used to predict double bond geometry in many polyketides.Chemical studies have shown that improved polyenes can be obtained by modifying the mycosamine sugar that is common to most of these compounds. Glycoengineered analogues might be produced by biosynthetic methods, but polyene glycosyltransferases show little tolerance for donors other than GDP-α-D-mycosamine. Genome sequencing has revealed extending glycosyltransferases that add a second sugar to the mycosamine of some polyenes. NppY of Pseudonocardia autotrophica uses UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine as donor whereas PegA from Actinoplanes caeruleus uses GDP-α-D-mannose. These two enzymes show 51 % sequence identity and are also closely related to mycosaminyltransferases. These findings will assist attempts to construct glycosyltransferases that transfer alternative UDP- or (d)TDP-linked sugars to polyene macrolactones. PMID:27023916

  14. Effect of macrolide usage on emergence of erythromycin-resistant Campylobacter isolates in chickens.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jun; Yan, Meiguan; Sahin, Orhan; Pereira, Sonia; Chang, Yun-Juan; Zhang, Qijing

    2007-05-01

    In this work we conducted both in vitro and in vivo experiments to examine the development and mechanisms of erythromycin (Ery) resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. In vitro plating revealed that both Campylobacter species had similar but low spontaneous mutation frequencies (3 x 10(-9) to <5.41 x 10(-10)) for Ery resistance. Chickens infected with C. jejuni or C. coli were subjected to single or multiple treatments with medicated water containing tylosin (0.53 g/liter), which transiently reduced the level of Campylobacter colonization but did not select for Ery-resistant (Ery(r)) mutants in the treated birds. However, when tylosin was given to the chickens in feed at a growth-promoting dose (0.05 g/kg feed), Ery(r) mutants emerged in the birds after prolonged exposure to the antibiotic. The vast majority of the in vitro- and in vivo-selected Campylobacter mutants with Ery MICs of 8 to 256 microg/ml lacked the known resistance-associated mutations in the 23S rRNA gene, while the highly resistant mutants (Ery MIC > 512 microg/ml) had the A2074G mutation in the 23S rRNA gene. Inactivation of CmeABC, a multidrug efflux pump, dramatically reduced the Ery MIC in all of the examined mutants regardless of the presence of the A2074G mutation. Together, these results reveal distinct features associated with Ery resistance development in Campylobacter, demonstrate the significant role of CmeABC in Ery resistance, and suggest that long-term use of a macrolide as a growth promoter selects for the emergence of Ery(r) Campylobacter in animal reservoirs. PMID:17353243

  15. Detection of macrolide and disinfectant resistance genes in clinical Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Staphylococcus aureus and Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are a major source of infections associated with indwelling medical devices. Many antiseptic agents are used in hygienic handwash to prevent nosocomial infections by Staphylococci. Our aim was to determine the antibiotic susceptibility and resistance to quaternary ammonium compound of 46 S. aureus strains and 71 CoNS. Methods S. aureus (n = 46) isolated from auricular infection and CoNS (n = 71), 22 of the strains isolated from dialysis fluids and 49 of the strains isolated from needles cultures were investigated. Erythromycin resistance genes (ermA, ermB, ermC, msrA and mef) were analysed by multiplex PCR and disinfectant-resistant genes (qacA, qacB, and qacC) were studied by PCR-RFLP. Results The frequency of erythromycin resistance genes in S. aureus was: ermA+ 7.7%, ermB+ 13.7%, ermC+ 6% and msrA+ 10.2%. In addition, the number of positive isolates in CoNS was respectively ermA+ (9.4%), ermB+ (11.1%), ermC+ (27.4%), and msrA+ (41%). The MIC analyses revealed that 88 isolates (74%) were resistant to quaternary ammonium compound-based disinfectant benzalkonium chloride (BC). 56% of the BC-resistant staphylococcus isolates have at least one of the three resistant disinfectants genes (qacA, qacB and qacC). Nine strains (7.7%) among the CoNS species and two S. aureus strains (2%) harboured the three-qac genes. In addition, the qacC were detected in 41 strains. Conclusions Multi-resistant strains towards macrolide and disinfectant were recorded. The investigation of antibiotics and antiseptic-resistant CoNS may provide crucial information on the control of nosocomial infections. PMID:22032892

  16. Clonal Spread of a Unique Strain of Macrolide-Resistant Mycoplasma Pneumoniae Within a Single Family in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Chironna, Maria; Loconsole, Daniela; De Robertis, Anna Lisa; Morea, Anna; Scalini, Egidio; Quarto, Michele; Tafuri, Silvio; Germinario, Cinzia; Manzionna, Mariano

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MR-MP) is an increasing problem worldwide. This study describes the clonal spread of a unique strain of MR-MP within a single family. On January 23, 2015, nasopharyngeal swabs and sputum samples were collected from the index case (a 9-year-old girl) in southern Italy. The patient had pneumonia and was initially treated with clarithromycin. MR-MP infection was suspected due to prolonged symptoms despite appropriate antibiotic therapy. Two further cases of pneumonia occurred in relatives (a 7-year-old cousin and the 36-year-old mother of the index case); therefore, respiratory samples were also collected from other family members. Sequence analysis identified mutations associated with resistance to macrolides. Both P1 major adhesion protein typing and multiple loci variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) typing were performed to assess the relatedness of the strains. The index case, the cousin, the mother, and another 4 family members (twin siblings of the index case, a 3-year-old cousin, and the grandmother) were positive for MR-MP. All strains harbored the mutation A2063G, had the same P1 subtype (1), and were MLVA (7/4/5/7/2) type Z. In addition, the index case's aunt (31 years of age and the probable source of infection) harbored an M pneumoniae strain with the same molecular profile; however, this strain was susceptible to macrolides. This cluster of MR-MP infection/carriage caused by a clonal strain suggests a high transmission rate within this family and highlights the need for increased awareness among clinicians regarding the circulation of MR-MP. Novel strategies for the treatment and prevention of M pneumoniae infections are required. PMID:26986172

  17. Clonal Spread of a Unique Strain of Macrolide-Resistant Mycoplasma Pneumoniae Within a Single Family in Italy.

    PubMed

    Chironna, Maria; Loconsole, Daniela; De Robertis, Anna Lisa; Morea, Anna; Scalini, Egidio; Quarto, Michele; Tafuri, Silvio; Germinario, Cinzia; Manzionna, Mariano

    2016-03-01

    Macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MR-MP) is an increasing problem worldwide. This study describes the clonal spread of a unique strain of MR-MP within a single family. On January 23, 2015, nasopharyngeal swabs and sputum samples were collected from the index case (a 9-year-old girl) in southern Italy. The patient had pneumonia and was initially treated with clarithromycin. MR-MP infection was suspected due to prolonged symptoms despite appropriate antibiotic therapy. Two further cases of pneumonia occurred in relatives (a 7-year-old cousin and the 36-year-old mother of the index case); therefore, respiratory samples were also collected from other family members. Sequence analysis identified mutations associated with resistance to macrolides. Both P1 major adhesion protein typing and multiple loci variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) typing were performed to assess the relatedness of the strains. The index case, the cousin, the mother, and another 4 family members (twin siblings of the index case, a 3-year-old cousin, and the grandmother) were positive for MR-MP. All strains harbored the mutation A2063G, had the same P1 subtype (1), and were MLVA (7/4/5/7/2) type Z. In addition, the index case's aunt (31 years of age and the probable source of infection) harbored an M pneumoniae strain with the same molecular profile; however, this strain was susceptible to macrolides. This cluster of MR-MP infection/carriage caused by a clonal strain suggests a high transmission rate within this family and highlights the need for increased awareness among clinicians regarding the circulation of MR-MP. Novel strategies for the treatment and prevention of M pneumoniae infections are required. PMID:26986172

  18. Emerging non-PCV13 serotypes of noninvasive Streptococcus pneumoniae with macrolide resistance genes in northern Japan

    PubMed Central

    Kawaguchiya, M.; Urushibara, N.; Aung, M.S.; Morimoto, S.; Ito, M.; Kudo, K.; Sumi, A.; Kobayashi, N.

    2015-01-01

    In Japan, the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced to the nation's routine immunization program in April 2013 and was replaced by the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in November 2013. Distribution of serotypes and macrolide resistance genotypes was investigated for a total of 1097 (975 children, 122 adults) and 960 (873 children, 87 adults) clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae from noninvasive infections in Hokkaido (northern main island of Japan) in the routine immunization periods for PCV7 and PCV13 (April–October 2013 and November 2013–November 2014, respectively). Serotype was determined by sequential multiplex PCR and additional genetic analyses. Macrolide resistance genes erm(B) and mef(A/E) were detected by multiplex PCR. Although the most prevalent serotypes in children were 23A and 6C in the PCV7 period, after replacement with PCV13, 19A became the most common, followed by 6C, 15A and 23A. Among adults, serotype 3 was consistently the most frequent throughout the study periods. Compared with values from the pre-PCV7 routine immunization period, PCV7 serotypes decreased from 48.3 to 3.3% in the PCV13 period among children, while the rates of non-PCV13 serotypes (particularly 15A, 23A, 11A, 10A and 35B) increased from 39.7 to 75.1% (p < 0.001). In the PCV13 period, erm(B), mef(A/E) and both of these genes were detected in 75.8, 31.6 and 11.3% of all isolates, respectively. Serotype 19A accounted for 76.9% of the isolates with both the macrolide resistance genes, and emerging non-PCV13 serotypes 15A, 15C and 23A mostly harboured erm(B). PMID:26909157

  19. Emerging non-PCV13 serotypes of noninvasive Streptococcus pneumoniae with macrolide resistance genes in northern Japan.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchiya, M; Urushibara, N; Aung, M S; Morimoto, S; Ito, M; Kudo, K; Sumi, A; Kobayashi, N

    2016-01-01

    In Japan, the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced to the nation's routine immunization program in April 2013 and was replaced by the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in November 2013. Distribution of serotypes and macrolide resistance genotypes was investigated for a total of 1097 (975 children, 122 adults) and 960 (873 children, 87 adults) clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae from noninvasive infections in Hokkaido (northern main island of Japan) in the routine immunization periods for PCV7 and PCV13 (April-October 2013 and November 2013-November 2014, respectively). Serotype was determined by sequential multiplex PCR and additional genetic analyses. Macrolide resistance genes erm(B) and mef(A/E) were detected by multiplex PCR. Although the most prevalent serotypes in children were 23A and 6C in the PCV7 period, after replacement with PCV13, 19A became the most common, followed by 6C, 15A and 23A. Among adults, serotype 3 was consistently the most frequent throughout the study periods. Compared with values from the pre-PCV7 routine immunization period, PCV7 serotypes decreased from 48.3 to 3.3% in the PCV13 period among children, while the rates of non-PCV13 serotypes (particularly 15A, 23A, 11A, 10A and 35B) increased from 39.7 to 75.1% (p < 0.001). In the PCV13 period, erm(B), mef(A/E) and both of these genes were detected in 75.8, 31.6 and 11.3% of all isolates, respectively. Serotype 19A accounted for 76.9% of the isolates with both the macrolide resistance genes, and emerging non-PCV13 serotypes 15A, 15C and 23A mostly harboured erm(B). PMID:26909157

  20. Time-to-Detection of Inducible Macrolide Resistance in Mycobacterium abscessus Subspecies and Its Association with the Erm(41) Sequevar

    PubMed Central

    Christianson, Sara; Grierson, William; Kein, Daniel; Tyler, Andrea D.; Wolfe, Joyce; Sharma, Meenu K.

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the erm(41) gene of M.abscessus group organisms are associated with differences in inducible macrolide resistance, with current recommendations being to hold rapidly growing isolates for up to 14 days in order to ensure that resistance which develops more slowly can be detected. This study aimed to determine the ideal incubation time for accurate identification of inducible macrolide resistance as well as to determine if there was an association between the time taken to detect inducible resistance in M.abscessus group organisms and their erm(41) sequevar. We amplified and sequenced the erm(41) genes of a total of 104 M.abscessus group isolates and determined their sequevars. The isolates were tested for phenotypic clarithromycin resistance at days 7, 10, 14 and 21, using Trek Diagnostics Sensititre RAPMYCO microbroth dilution plates. Associations between erm(41) gene sequevars and time to detection of resistance were evaluated using Fisher’s exact test in R. The samples included in this study fell into 14 sequevars, with the majority of samples falling into Sequevar02 (16), Sequevar06 (15), Sequevar08 (7) and Sequvar 15 (31), and several isolates that were in small clusters, or unique. The majority (82.7%) of samples exhibiting inducible macrolide resistance were interpreted as resistant by day 7. Two isolates in Sequevar02, which has a T28C mutation that is associated with sensitivity, showed intermediate resistance at day 14, though the majority (13) were sensitive at day 14. The majority of isolates with inducible macrolide resistance fell into Sequevars 06,08 and 15, none of which contain the T28C mutation. These sequevars were analyzed to determine if there was any correlation between sequevar and time to detection of resistance. None was found. Based on these findings, we recommend the addition of a day 7 read to the CLSI guidelines to improve turn-around-times for these isolates. It is also recommended that erm(41) gene sequencing be added to

  1. Inhibition of sulfur mustard-induced cytotoxicity and inflammation by the macrolide antibiotic roxithromycin in human respiratory epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiugong; Ray, Radharaman; Xiao, Yan; Barker, Peter E; Ray, Prabhati

    2007-01-01

    Background Sulfur mustard (SM) is a potent chemical vesicant warfare agent that remains a significant military and civilian threat. Inhalation of SM gas causes airway inflammation and injury. In recent years, there has been increasing evidence of the effectiveness of macrolide antibiotics in treating chronic airway inflammatory diseases. In this study, the anti-cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory effects of a representative macrolide antibiotic, roxithromycin, were tested in vitro using SM-exposed normal human small airway epithelial (SAE) cells and bronchial/tracheal epithelial (BTE) cells. Cell viability, expression of proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were examined, since these proinflammatory cytokines/mediators are import indicators of tissue inflammatory responses. We suggest that the influence of roxithromycin on SM-induced inflammatory reaction could play an important therapeutic role in the cytotoxicity exerted by this toxicant. Results MTS assay and Calcein AM/ethidium homodimer (EthD-1) fluorescence staining showed that roxithromycin decreased SM cytotoxicity in both SAE and BTE cells. Also, roxithromycin inhibited the SM-stimulated overproduction of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF at both the protein level and the mRNA level, as measured by either enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or real-time RT-PCR. In addition, roxithromycin inhibited the SM-induced overexpression of iNOS, as revealed by immunocytochemical analysis using quantum dots as the fluorophore. Conclusion The present study demonstrates that roxithromycin has inhibitory effects on the cytotoxicity and inflammation provoked by SM in human respiratory epithelial cells. The decreased cytotoxicity in roxithromycin-treated cells likely depends on the ability of the macrolide to down-regulate the production of proinflammatory cytokines and

  2. First Report of Macrolide Resistance Gene erm(T) Harbored by a Novel Small Plasmid from Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chang-Wen; Zhang, An-Yun; Yang, Chun-Mei; Pan, Yun; Guan, Zhong-Bin; Lei, Chang-Wei; Peng, Lin-Yao; Li, Qing-Zhou

    2015-01-01

    The macrolide resistance gene erm(T) was identified for the first time in a porcine Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae isolate from swine in China. The novel 3,749-bp small plasmid pER29, which carries erm(T), had a G+C content of 31% and four distinct open reading frames. The presence of pER29 increased by at least 128-fold the MICs of clindamycin and erythromycin for E. rhusiopathiae. The fitness cost of pER29 could be responsible for the low frequency of erm(T) in E. rhusiopathiae. PMID:25666150

  3. The New Macrolide-Lincosamide-Streptogramin B Resistance Gene erm(45) Is Located within a Genomic Island in Staphylococcus fleurettii

    PubMed Central

    Wipf, Juliette R. K.; Schwendener, Sybille; Nielsen, Jesper Boye; Westh, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Genome alignment of a macrolide, lincosamide, and streptogramin B (MLSB)-resistant Staphylococcus fleurettii strain with an MLSB-susceptible S. fleurettii strain revealed a novel 11,513-bp genomic island carrying the new erythromycin resistance methylase gene erm(45). This gene was shown to confer inducible MLSB resistance when cloned into Staphylococcus aureus. The erm(45)-containing island was integrated into the housekeeping gene guaA in S. fleurettii and was able to form a circular intermediate but was not transmissible to S. aureus. PMID:25779586

  4. Determination of Macrolide Antibiotics Using Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction Followed by Surface-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kuan-Yu; Yang, Thomas C.; Chang, Sarah Y.

    2012-06-01

    A novel method for the determination of macrolide antibiotics using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled to surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric detection was developed. Acetone and dichloromethane were used as the disperser solvent and extraction solvent, respectively. A mixture of extraction solvent and disperser solvent were rapidly injected into a 1.0 mL aqueous sample to form a cloudy solution. After the extraction, macrolide antibiotics were detected using surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SALDI/MS) with colloidal silver as the matrix. Under optimum conditions, the limits of detection (LODs) at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 were 2, 3, 3, and 2 nM for erythromycin (ERY), spiramycin (SPI), tilmicosin (TILM), and tylosin (TYL), respectively. This developed method was successfully applied to the determination of macrolide antibiotics in human urine samples.

  5. In Vitro Activity of the New Ketolide Telithromycin Compared with Those of Macrolides against Streptococcus pyogenes: Influences of Resistance Mechanisms and Methodological Factors

    PubMed Central

    Bemer-Melchior, Pascale; Juvin, Marie-Emmanuelle; Tassin, Sandrine; Bryskier, Andre; Schito, Gian Carlo; Drugeon, Henri-B.

    2000-01-01

    One hundred and seven clinical isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes, 80 susceptible to macrolides and 27 resistant to erythromycin A (MIC >0.5 μg/ml), were examined. The erythromycin A-lincomycin double-disk test assigned 7 resistant strains to the M-phenotype, 8 to the inducible macrolide, lincosamide, and streptogramin B resistance (iMLSB) phenotype, and 12 to the constitutive MLSB resistance (cMLSB) phenotype. MICs of erythromycin A, clarithromycin, azithromycin, roxithromycin, and clindamycin were determined by a broth microdilution method. MICs of telithromycin were determined by three different methods (broth microdilution, agar dilution, and E-test methods) in an ambient air atmosphere and in a 5 to 6% CO2 atmosphere. Erythromycin A resistance genes were investigated by PCR in the 27 erythromycin A-resistant isolates. MICs of erythromycin A and clindamycin showed six groups of resistant strains, groups A to F. iMLSB strains (A, B, and D groups) are characterized by two distinct patterns of resistance correlated with genotypic results. A- and B-group strains were moderately resistant to 14- and 15-membered ring macrolides and highly susceptible to telithromycin. All A- and B-group isolates harbored erm TR gene, D-group strains, highly resistant to macrolides and intermediately resistant to telithromycin (MICs, 1 to 16 μg/ml), were all characterized by having the ermB gene. All M-phenotype isolates (C group), resistant to 14- and 15-membered ring macrolides and susceptible to clindamycin and telithromycin, harbored the mefA gene. All cMLSB strains (E and F groups) with high level of resistance to macrolides, lincosamide, and telithromycin had the ermB gene. The effect of 5 to 6% CO2 was remarkable on resistant strains, by increasing MICs of telithromycin from 1 to 6 twofold dilutions against D-E- and F-group isolates. PMID:11036012

  6. Treponema pallidum pallidum Genotypes and Macrolide Resistance Status in Syphilitic Lesions among Patients at 2 Sexually Transmitted Infection Clinics in Lima, Peru.

    PubMed

    Flores, Juan Antonio; Vargas, Silver Keith; Leon, Segundo Ramos; Perez, Danny Giancarlo; Ramos, Lourdes Beatriz; Chow, Jeremy; Konda, Kelika Anne; Calvo, Gino Mauricio; Salvatierra, Hector J; Klaussner, Jeffrey D; Caceres, Carlos Fernando

    2016-07-01

    We report the circulating genotypes and the frequency of macrolide-resistance patterns among Treponema pallidum pallidum DNA isolated from syphilitic lesions from patients who attended 2 sexual health clinics in Lima, Peru. We implemented and used a molecular typing scheme to describe local T. pallidum pallidum strains. Among 14 specimens, subtype 14d/f was the most prevalent strain in 7 fully typed T. pallidum DNA specimens obtained from men who have sex with men and transgender women presenting with chancre-like lesions. No macrolide-resistance mutations were found in T. pallidum DNA from 10 lesions. PMID:27322050

  7. Contamination profiles and mass loadings of macrolide antibiotics and illicit drugs from a small urban wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Loganathan, Bommanna; Phillips, Malia; Mowery, Holly; Jones-Lepp, Tammy L

    2009-03-01

    Information is limited regarding sources, distribution, environmental behavior, and fate of prescribed and illicit drugs. Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents can be one of the sources of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCP) into streams, rivers and lakes. The objective of this study was to determine the contamination profiles and mass loadings of urobilin (a chemical marker of human waste), macrolide antibiotics (azithromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin), and two drugs of abuse (methamphetamine and ecstasy), from a small (<19 mega liters day(-1), equivalent to <5 million gallons per day) wastewater treatment plant in southwestern Kentucky. The concentrations of azithromycin, clarithromycin, methamphetamine and ecstasy in wastewater samples varied widely, ranging from non-detects to 300 ng L(-1). Among the macrolide antibiotics analyzed, azithromycin was consistently detected in influent and effluent samples. In general, influent samples contained relatively higher concentrations of the analytes than the effluents. Based on the daily flow rates and an average concentration of 17.5 ng L(-1) in the effluent, the estimated discharge of azithromycin was 200 mg day(-1) (range 63-400 mg day(-1)). Removal efficiency of the detected analytes from this WWTP were in the following order: urobilin>methamphetamine>azithromycin with percentages of removal of 99.9%, 54.5% and 47%, respectively, indicating that the azithromycin and methamphetamine are relatively more recalcitrant than others and have potential for entering receiving waters. PMID:19121838

  8. Illustration of a Common Framework for Relating Multiple Typing Methods by Application to Macrolide-Resistant Streptococcus pyogenes†

    PubMed Central

    Carriço, J. A.; Silva-Costa, C.; Melo-Cristino, J.; Pinto, F. R.; de Lencastre, H.; Almeida, J. S.; Ramirez, M.

    2006-01-01

    The studies that correlate the results obtained by different typing methodologies rely solely on qualitative comparisons of the groups defined by each methodology. We propose a framework of measures for the quantitative assessment of correspondences between different typing methods as a first step to the global mapping of type equivalences. A collection of 325 macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pyogenes isolates associated with pharyngitis cases in Portugal was used to benchmark the proposed measures. All isolates were characterized by macrolide resistance phenotyping, T serotyping, emm sequence typing, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), using SmaI or Cfr9I and SfiI. A subset of 41 isolates, representing each PFGE cluster, was also characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The application of Adjusted Rand and Wallace indices allowed the evaluation of the strength and the directionality of the correspondences between the various typing methods and showed that if PFGE or MLST data are available one can confidently predict the emm type (Wallace coefficients of 0.952 for both methods). In contrast, emm typing was a poor predictor of PFGE cluster or MLST sequence type (Wallace coefficients of 0.803 and 0.655, respectively). This was confirmed by the analysis of the larger data set available from http://spyogenes.mlst.net and underscores the necessity of performing PFGE or MLST to unambiguously define clones in S. pyogenes. PMID:16825375

  9. Timcodar (VX-853) Is a Non-FKBP12 Binding Macrolide Derivative That Inhibits PPARγ and Suppresses Adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hinds, Terry D; John, Kezia; McBeth, Lucien; Trabbic, Christopher J; Sanchez, Edwin R

    2016-01-01

    Nutrient overload and genetic factors have led to a worldwide epidemic of obesity that is the underlying cause of diabetes, atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular disease. In this study, we used macrolide drugs such as FK506, rapamycin, and macrolide derived, timcodar (VX-853), to determine their effects on lipid accumulation during adipogenesis. Rapamycin and FK506 bind to FK506-binding proteins (FKBPs), such as FKBP12, which causes suppression of the immune system and inhibition of mTOR. Rapamycin has been previously reported to inhibit the adipogenic process and lipid accumulation. However, rapamycin treatment in rodents caused immune suppression and glucose resistance, even though the mice lost weight. Here we show that timcodar (1 μM), a non-FKBP12-binding drug, significantly (p < 0.001) inhibited lipid accumulation during adipogenesis. A comparison of the same concentration of timcodar (1 μM) and rapamycin (1 μM) showed that both are inhibitors of lipid accumulation during adipogenesis. Importantly, timcodar potently (p < 0.01) suppressed transcriptional regulators of adipogenesis, PPARγ and C/EBPα, resulting in the inhibition of genes involved in lipid accumulation. These studies set the stage for timcodar as a possible antiobesity therapy, which is rapidly emerging as a pandemic. PMID:27190501

  10. Timcodar (VX-853) Is a Non-FKBP12 Binding Macrolide Derivative That Inhibits PPARγ and Suppresses Adipogenesis

    PubMed Central

    McBeth, Lucien; Sanchez, Edwin R.

    2016-01-01

    Nutrient overload and genetic factors have led to a worldwide epidemic of obesity that is the underlying cause of diabetes, atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular disease. In this study, we used macrolide drugs such as FK506, rapamycin, and macrolide derived, timcodar (VX-853), to determine their effects on lipid accumulation during adipogenesis. Rapamycin and FK506 bind to FK506-binding proteins (FKBPs), such as FKBP12, which causes suppression of the immune system and inhibition of mTOR. Rapamycin has been previously reported to inhibit the adipogenic process and lipid accumulation. However, rapamycin treatment in rodents caused immune suppression and glucose resistance, even though the mice lost weight. Here we show that timcodar (1 μM), a non-FKBP12-binding drug, significantly (p < 0.001) inhibited lipid accumulation during adipogenesis. A comparison of the same concentration of timcodar (1 μM) and rapamycin (1 μM) showed that both are inhibitors of lipid accumulation during adipogenesis. Importantly, timcodar potently (p < 0.01) suppressed transcriptional regulators of adipogenesis, PPARγ and C/EBPα, resulting in the inhibition of genes involved in lipid accumulation. These studies set the stage for timcodar as a possible antiobesity therapy, which is rapidly emerging as a pandemic. PMID:27190501

  11. Organization of the biosynthetic gene cluster for the polyketide antitumor macrolide, pladienolide, in Streptomyces platensis Mer-11107.

    PubMed

    Machida, Kazuhiro; Arisawa, Akira; Takeda, Susumu; Tsuchida, Toshio; Aritoku, Yasuhide; Yoshida, Masashi; Ikeda, Haruo

    2008-11-01

    Pladienolides are novel 12-membered macrolides produced by Streptomyces platensis Mer-11107. They show strong antitumor activity and are a potential lead in the search for novel antitumor agents. We sequenced the 65-kb region covering the biosynthetic gene cluster, and found four polyketide synthase genes (pldAI-pldAIV) composed of 11 modules, three genes involved in post-modifications (pldB-D), and a luxR-family regulatory gene (pldR). The thioesterase domain of pldAIV was more dissimilar to that of polyketide synthase systems synthesizing 12/14-membered macrolide polyketides than to that of systems synthesizing other cyclic polyketides. The pldB gene was identified as a 6-hydroxylase belonging to a cytochrome P450 of the CYP107 family. This was clarified by a disruption experiment on pldB, in which the disruptant produced 6-dehydroxy pladienolide B. Two genes located downstream of pldB, designated pldC and pldD, are thought to be a probable genes for 7-O-acetylase and 18, 19-epoxydase respectively. PMID:18997414

  12. Liquid chromatography-UV diode-array detection method for multi-residue determination of macrolide antibiotics in sheep's milk.

    PubMed

    García-Mayor, M A; Garcinuño, R M; Fernández-Hernando, P; Durand-Alegría, J S

    2006-07-28

    A rapid, simple and sensitive liquid chromatography-UV diode-array detection method was developed for the simultaneous determination of seven macrolides (erythromycin, oleandomycin, roxithromycin, josamycin, spiramycin, tylosin and ivermectin) in sheep's milk. The column, mobile phase, temperature and flow rate were optimised to provide the best resolution of these analytes. The extraction of the antibiotic residues involves the treatment of protein-free samples with a combination of concentrated sodium hydroxide and ethyl acetate. Necessary defatting is achieved by alkaline hydrolysis. The recovery of each antibiotic was between 55% and 77%, with relative standard deviations ranging from 1% to 6.5%. The limit of quantification was 72.4 microg/kg for ivermectin, 48.3 microg/kg for roxithromycin, and 24.1 microg/kg for erythromycin, oleandomycin, spiramycin, josamycin and tylosin. The procedure was successfully used in the multi-residue determination of these macrolides at levels below the maximum concentrations legally allowed in milk samples. PMID:16682049

  13. Determination of five macrolide antibiotic residues in eggs using liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Leung, Daniel; Butterworth, Fred

    2005-03-23

    A method using liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS) for the determination of trace levels of five macrolide antibiotics (spiramycin, tilmicosin, oleandomycin, erythromycin, and tylosin) in eggs is presented. Data acquisition under MS/MS was achieved by applying multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) of two or three fragment ion transitions to provide a high degree of sensitivity and specificity for both quantification and confirmation. Matrix-matched standard calibration curves were used to achieve the best accuracy of the method. A fully nested experimental design was used to study the measurement uncertainty arising from intermediate precision and trueness or proportional bias. The overall recoveries, that is, those determined by the nested experiments, of spiramycin, tilmicosin, oleandomycin, erythromycin, and tylosin at fortified levels of 60, 100, 200, and 300 microg/kg were 96.8, 98.2, 98.3, 98.8, and 95.4%, respectively. The LC/ESI-MS/MS method detection limits (S/N > or = 3:1) of five macrolides were <1.0 microg/kg. PMID:15769104

  14. Macrolide antibiotics removal using a circulating TiO2-coated paper photoreactor: parametric study and hydrodynamic flow characterization.

    PubMed

    Ounnar, Amel; Bouzaza, Abdelkrim; Favier, Lidia; Bentahar, Fatiha

    2016-01-01

    The present work investigates the photocatalytic degradation efficiency of biorecalcitrant macrolide antibiotics in a circulating tubular photoreactor. As target pollutants, spiramycin (SPM) and tylosin (TYL) were considered in this study. The photoreactor leads to the use of an immobilized titanium dioxide on non-woven paper under artificial UV-lamp irradiation. Maximum removal efficiency was achieved at the optimum conditions of natural pH, low pollutant concentration and a 0.35 L min(-1) flow rate. A Langmuir-Hinshelwood model was used to fit experimental results and the model constants were determined. Moreover, the total organic carbon analysis reveals that SPM and TYL mineralization is not complete. In addition, the study of the residence time distribution allowed us to investigate the flow regime of the reactor. Electrical energy consumption for photocatalytic degradation of macrolides using circulating TiO2-coated paper photoreactor was lower compared with some reported photoreactors used for the elimination of pharmaceutic compounds. A repetitive reuse of the immobilized catalyst was also studied in order to check its photoactivity performance. PMID:27232398

  15. Confirmatory method for macrolide residues in bovine tissues by micro-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Draisci, R; Palleschi, L; Ferretti, E; Achene, L; Cecilia, A

    2001-08-10

    A new confirmatory method for three macrolides (tylosin, tilmicosin and erythromycin) in bovine muscle, liver and kidney by micro-LC-MS-MS using an atmospheric pressure ionisation source and an ionspray interface has been developed. Roxithromycin was used as internal standard. The molecular related ions, [M+2H]2+, at m/z 435 for tilmicosin, and [M+H]+, at m/z 734 and 916 for erythromycin and tylosin, respectively, were the precursor ions for collision-induced-dissociation and two diagnostic product ions for each macrolide were identified for the unambiguous confirmation by selected reaction monitoring LC-MS-MS. Precision values (relative standard deviations) were all below 14.9%, whereas the overall accuracy (relative error) ranged from -17.7 to -9.8% for tylosin, from -17.5 to -10.7% for tilmicosin and from -19.6 to -13.7% for erythromycin, in all the investigated bovine tissues. The limits of quantification were 30 (muscle) or 40 (liver, kidney) microg kg(-1), 20 (muscle) or 150 (liver, kidney) microg kg(-1), 50 (muscle, liver) or 80 (kidney) microg kg(-1), 20 (muscle, liver) or 50 (kidney) microg kg(-1) for tylosin, tilmicosin, erytromycin and roxithromycin, respectively. PMID:11554423

  16. Characterization of a new erm-related macrolide resistance gene present in probiotic strains of Bacillus clausii.

    PubMed

    Bozdogan, Bülent; Galopin, Sébastien; Leclercq, Roland

    2004-01-01

    The mechanism of resistance to macrolides, lincosamides, and streptogramins B was studied in four Bacillus clausii strains that are mixed in a probiotic administered to humans for prevention of gastrointestinal side effects due to oral antibiotic chemotherapy and in three reference strains of B. clausii, DSM8716, ATCC 21536, and ATCC 21537. An 846-bp gene called erm(34), which is related to the erm genes conferring resistance to these antibiotics by ribosomal methylation, was cloned from total DNA of B. clausii DSM8716 into Escherichia coli. The deduced amino acid sequence presented 61% identity with that of Erm(D) from B. licheniformis, B. halodurans, and B. anthracis. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of total DNA digested by I-CeuI, followed by hybridization with an erm(34)-specific probe, indicated a chromosomal location of the gene in all B. clausii strains. Repeated attempts to transfer resistance to macrolides by conjugation from B. clausii strains to Enterococcus faecalis JH2-2, E. faecium HM1070, and B. subtilis UCN19 were unsuccessful. PMID:14711653

  17. Reduced persistence of the macrolide antibiotics erythromycin, clarithromycin and azithromycin in agricultural soil following several years of exposure in the field.

    PubMed

    Topp, Edward; Renaud, Justin; Sumarah, Mark; Sabourin, Lyne

    2016-08-15

    The macrolide antibiotics erythromycin, clarithromycin and azithromycin are very important in human and animal medicine, and can be entrained onto agricultural ground through application of sewage sludge or manures. In the present study, a series of replicated field plots were left untreated or received up to five annual spring applications of a mixture of three drugs to achieve a nominal concentration for each of 10 or 0.1mgkg(-1) soil; the latter an environmentally relevant concentration. Soil samples were incubated in the laboratory, and supplemented with antibiotics to establish the dissipation kinetics of erythromycin and clarithromycin using radioisotope methods, and azithromycin using HPLC-MS/MS. All three drugs were dissipated significantly more rapidly in soils with a history of field exposure to 10mgkg(-1) macrolides, and erythromycin and clarithromycin were also degraded more rapidly in field soil exposed to 0.1mgkg(-1) macrolides. Rapid mineralization of (14)C-labelled erythromycin and clarithromycin are consistent with biodegradation. Analysis of field soils revealed no carryover of parent compound from year to year. Azithromycin transformation products were detected consistent with removal of the desosamine and cladinose moieties. Overall, these results have revealed that following several years of exposure to macrolide antibiotics these are amenable to accelerated degradation. The potential accelerated degradation of these drugs in soils amended with manure and sewage sludge should be investigated as this phenomenon would attenuate environmental exposure and selection pressure for clinically relevant resistance. PMID:27096634

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of Streptomyces venezuelae ATCC 15439, Producer of the Methymycin/Pikromycin Family of Macrolide Antibiotics, Using PacBio Technology

    PubMed Central

    He, Jingxuan; Sundararajan, Anitha; Devitt, Nicholas P.; Schilkey, Faye D.; Ramaraj, Thiruvarangan

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the complete genome sequence of Streptomyces venezuelae ATCC 15439, a producer of the methymycin/pikromycin family of macrolide antibiotics and a model host for natural product studies, obtained exclusively using PacBio sequencing technology. The 9.03-Mbp genome harbors 8,775 genes and 11 polyketide and nonribosomal peptide natural product gene clusters. PMID:27151802

  19. Multicenter Study of the Mechanisms of Resistance and Clonal Relationships of Streptococcus agalactiae Isolates Resistant to Macrolides, Lincosamides, and Ketolides in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, J. J.; Andreu, A.

    2005-01-01

    Macrolide, lincosamide, and ketolide mechanisms of resistance and clonal relationships were characterized in a collection of 79 resistant group B streptococcus isolates obtained from neonates or pregnant women. The erm(B), erm(TR), and mef(A) genes were present in 62%, 30.4%, and 3.8% of the isolates, respectively. There was considerable clonal diversity among them. PMID:15917563

  20. Distribution of Genes Encoding Resistance to Macrolides Among Staphylococci Isolated From the Nasal Cavity of Hospital Employees in Khorramabad, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Goudarzi, Gholamreza; Tahmasbi, Farzad; Anbari, Khatereh; Ghafarzadeh, Masoumeh

    2016-01-01

    Background Epidemiological data on antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus strains isolated from nasal carriers in each region can be helpful to select appropriate drugs to eradicate carriage states, control nosocomial infections and also treat patients. Objectives The current study aimed to investigate the antibiotic resistance profile and the molecular prevalence of the ermA, ermB, ermC and msrA genes among Staphylococcus strains isolated from the anterior nares of hospital employees. Patients and Methods In this cross-sectional study, a total of 100 Staphylococcus isolates, 51 Staphylococcus aureus, 49 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) were isolated from the anterior nares of hospital employees in Khorramabad, Iran. Susceptibility pattern to macrolide antibiotics were determined using the disk diffusion method. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was applied to determine the major erythromycin-resistant genes (ermA, ermB, ermC and msrA). Results Fifty-three (53%) isolates were simultaneously resistant to erythromycin, azithromycin and clarithromycin (cross-resistance); while 8 (8%) isolates had variable macrolide susceptibility pattern. Among the S. aureus isolates, the difference in prevalence of resistance to erythromycin between males and females was significant (P = 0.011). The frequency of ermA, ermB, ermC, and msrA genes were 3%, 5%, 33% and 20%, respectively. It was also found that out of 53 isolates resistant to erythromycin, 44 (83%) isolates (eight S. aureus and thirty-six CoNS strains) carried at least one of the four tested genes. Eight (8%) isolates had intermediate phenotype to erythromycin, in which 4 (50%) isolates carried ermB or ermC genes. In addition, out of 39 erythromycin-susceptible isolates, 3 (7.7%) isolates were positive for ermB or ermC genes. Conclusions No entire association was found between genotype and phenotype methods to detect macrolides-resistant isolates. In addition, distribution of genetically erythromycin

  1. Bioactive 7-Oxabicyclic[6.3.0]lactam and 12-Membered Macrolides from a Gorgonian-Derived Cladosporium sp. Fungus

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Fei; Yang, Qin; Shao, Chang-Lun; Kong, Chui-Jian; Zheng, Juan-Juan; Liu, Yun-Feng; Wang, Chang-Yun

    2015-01-01

    One new bicyclic lactam, cladosporilactam A (1), and six known 12-membered macrolides (2–7) were isolated from a gorgonian-derived Cladosporium sp. fungus collected from the South China Sea. Their complete structural assignments were elucidated by comprehensive spectroscopic investigation. Quantum chemistry calculations were used in support of the structural determination of 1. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined by calculation of its optical rotation. Cladosporilactam A (1) was the first example of 7-oxabicyclic[6.3.0]lactam obtained from a natural source. Compound 1 exhibited promising cytotoxic activity against cervical cancer HeLa cell line with an IC50 value of 0.76 μM. PMID:26198234

  2. Bioactive 7-Oxabicyclic[6.3.0]lactam and 12-Membered Macrolides from a Gorgonian-Derived Cladosporium sp. Fungus.

    PubMed

    Cao, Fei; Yang, Qin; Shao, Chang-Lun; Kong, Chui-Jian; Zheng, Juan-Juan; Liu, Yun-Feng; Wang, Chang-Yun

    2015-07-01

    One new bicyclic lactam, cladosporilactam A (1), and six known 12-membered macrolides (2-7) were isolated from a gorgonian-derived Cladosporium sp. fungus collected from the South China Sea. Their complete structural assignments were elucidated by comprehensive spectroscopic investigation. Quantum chemistry calculations were used in support of the structural determination of 1. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined by calculation of its optical rotation. Cladosporilactam A (1) was the first example of 7-oxabicyclic[6.3.0]lactam obtained from a natural source. Compound 1 exhibited promising cytotoxic activity against cervical cancer HeLa cell line with an IC50 value of 0.76 μM. PMID:26198234

  3. Structure of cytochrome P450 PimD suggests epoxidation of the polyene macrolide pimaricin occurs via a hydroperoxoferric intermediate

    PubMed Central

    Kells, Petrea M.; Ouellet, Hugues; Santos-Aberturas, Javier; Aparicio, Jesus F.; Podust, Larissa M.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY We present the x-ray structure of PimD, both substrate-free and in complex with 4,5-desepoxypimaricin. PimD is a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase with native epoxidase activity that is critical in the biosynthesis of the polyene macrolide antibiotic pimaricin. Intervention in this secondary metabolic pathway could advance the development of drugs with improved pharmacologic properties. Epoxidation by P450 typically includes formation of a charge-transfer complex between an oxoferryl π-cation radical species (Compound I) and the olefin π-bond as the initial intermediate. Catalytic and structural evidence presented here suggest that epoxidation of 4,5-desepoxypimaricin proceeds via a hydroperoxoferric intermediate (Compound 0). The oxygen atom of Compound 0 distal to the heme iron may insert into the double bond of the substrate to make an epoxide ring. Stereoelectronic features of the putative transition state suggest substrate-assisted proton delivery. PMID:20797613

  4. Pharmacokinetic Drug Interactions of Antimicrobial Drugs: A Systematic Review on Oxazolidinones, Rifamycines, Macrolides, Fluoroquinolones, and Beta-Lactams

    PubMed Central

    Bolhuis, Mathieu S.; Panday, Prashant N.; Pranger, Arianna D.; Kosterink, Jos G. W.; Alffenaar, Jan-Willem C.

    2011-01-01

    Like any other drug, antimicrobial drugs are prone to pharmacokinetic drug interactions. These drug interactions are a major concern in clinical practice as they may have an effect on efficacy and toxicity. This article provides an overview of all published pharmacokinetic studies on drug interactions of the commonly prescribed antimicrobial drugs oxazolidinones, rifamycines, macrolides, fluoroquinolones, and beta-lactams, focusing on systematic research. We describe drug-food and drug-drug interaction studies in humans, affecting antimicrobial drugs as well as concomitantly administered drugs. Since knowledge about mechanisms is of paramount importance for adequate management of drug interactions, the most plausible underlying mechanism of the drug interaction is provided when available. This overview can be used in daily practice to support the management of pharmacokinetic drug interactions of antimicrobial drugs. PMID:24309312

  5. Macrolide Resistance in Treponema pallidum Correlates With 23S rDNA Mutations in Recently Isolated Clinical Strains

    PubMed Central

    Molini, Barbara J.; Tantalo, Lauren C.; Sahi, Sharon K.; Rodriguez, Veronica I.; Brandt, Stephanie L.; Fernandez, Mark C.; Godornes, Charmie B.; Marra, Christina M.; Lukehart, Sheila A.

    2016-01-01

    Background High rates of 23S rDNA mutations implicated in macrolide resistance have been identified in Treponema pallidum samples from syphilis patients in many countries. Nonetheless, some clinicians have been reluctant to abandon azithromycin as a treatment for syphilis, citing the lack of a causal association between these mutations and clinical evidence of drug resistance. Although azithromycin resistance has been demonstrated in vivo for the historical Street 14 strain, no recent T. pallidum isolates have been tested. We used the well-established rabbit model of syphilis to determine the in vivo efficacy of azithromycin against 23S rDNA mutant strains collected in 2004 to 2005 from patients with syphilis in Seattle, Wash. Methods Groups of 9 rabbits were each infected with a strain containing 23S rDNA mutation A2058G (strains UW074B, UW189B, UW391B) or A2059G (strains UW228B, UW254B, and UW330B), or with 1 wild type strain (Chicago, Bal 3, and Mexico A). After documentation of infection, 3 animals per strain were treated with azithromycin, 3 were treated with benzathine penicillin G, and 3 served as untreated control groups. Treatment efficacy was documented by darkfield microscopic evidence of T. pallidum, serological response, and rabbit infectivity test. Results Azithromycin uniformly failed to cure rabbits infected with strains harboring either 23S rDNA mutation, although benzathine penicillin G was effective. Infections caused by wild type strains were successfully treated by either azithromycin or benzathine penicillin G. Conclusions A macrolide resistant phenotype was demonstrated for all strains harboring a 23S rDNA mutation, demonstrating that either A2058G or A2059G mutation confers in vivo drug resistance. PMID:27513385

  6. Antianaerobic activity of the ketolide RU 64004 compared to activities of four macrolides, five beta-lactams, clindamycin, and metronidazole.

    PubMed

    Ednie, L M; Spangler, S K; Jacobs, M R; Appelbaum, P C

    1997-05-01

    Agar dilution methodology (with added Oxyrase in the case of the macrolide group to allow incubation without added CO2) was used to compare the activity of RU 64004, a new ketolide, with the activities of erythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin, clindamycin, amoxicillin with and without clavulanate, piperacillin with and without tazobactam, metronidazole, and imipenem against 379 anaerobes. Overall, RU 64004 yielded an MIC at which 50% of the isolates are inhibited (MIC50) of 1.0 microg/ml and an MIC90 of 16.0 microg/ml. In comparison, MIC50s and MIC90s of erythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, and roxithromycin were 2.0 to 8.0 and >64.0 microg/ml, respectively. MICs of macrolides, including RU 64004, were higher for Bacteroides ovatus, Fusobacterium varium, Fusobacterium mortiferum, and Clostridium difficile than for the other species. RU 64004 was more active against gram-positive rods and cocci, Prevotella and Porphyromonas spp., and fusobacteria other than F. mortiferum and F. varium than against the Bacteroides fragilis group. Overall MIC50s and MIC90s (in micrograms per milliliter), respectively, of other compounds were as follows: clindamycin, 1.0 and 16.0; amoxicillin, 4.0 and 64.0; amoxicillin-clavulanate, 0.5 and 4.0; piperacillin, 8.0 and >64.0; piperacillin-tazobactam, 1.0 and 16.0; metronidazole, 1.0 and 4.0; and imipenem, 0.25 and 1.0. PMID:9145865

  7. Observations on macrolide resistance and susceptibility testing performance in field isolates collected from clinical bovine respiratory disease cases.

    PubMed

    DeDonder, Keith D; Harhay, Dayna M; Apley, Michael D; Lubbers, Brian V; Clawson, Michael L; Schuller, Gennie; Harhay, Gregory P; White, Brad J; Larson, Robert L; Capik, Sarah F; Riviere, Jim E; Kalbfleisch, Ted; Tessman, Ronald K

    2016-08-30

    The objectives of this study were; first, to describe gamithromycin susceptibility of Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, and Histophilus somni isolated from cattle diagnosed with bovine respiratory disease (BRD) and previously treated with either gamithromycin for control of BRD (mass medication=MM) or sham-saline injected (control=CON); second, to describe the macrolide resistance genes present in genetically typed M. haemolytica isolates; third, use whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to correlate the phenotypic resistance and genetic determinants for resistance among M. haemolytica isolates. M. haemolytica (n=276), P. multocida (n=253), and H. somni (n=78) were isolated from feedlot cattle diagnosed with BRD. Gamithromycin susceptibility was determined by broth microdilution. Whole-genome sequencing was utilized to determine the presence/absence of macrolide resistance genes and to genetically type M. haemolytica. Generalized linear mixed models were built for analysis. There was not a significant difference between MM and CON groups in regards to the likelihood of culturing a resistant isolate of M. haemolytica or P. multocida. The likelihood of culturing a resistant isolate of M. haemolytica differed significantly by state of origin in this study. A single M. haemolytica genetic subtype was associated with an over whelming majority of the observed resistance. H. somni isolation counts were low and statistical models would not converge. Phenotypic resistance was predicted with high sensitivity and specificity by WGS. Additional studies to elucidate the relationships between phenotypic expression of resistance/genetic determinants for resistance and clinical response to antimicrobials are necessary to inform judicious use of antimicrobials in the context of relieving animal disease and suffering. PMID:27527782

  8. High Incidence of Macrolide and Tetracycline Resistance among Streptococcus Agalactiae Strains Isolated from Clinical Samples in Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    EMANEINI, Mohammad; MIRSALEHIAN, Akbar; BEIGVIERDI, Reza; FOOLADI, Abbas Ali Imani; ASADI, Fatemeh; JABALAMELI, Fereshteh; TAHERIKALANI, Morovat

    2014-01-01

    Background: Streptococcus agalactiae or Group B Streptococci (GBS) is an important bacterial pathogen that causes a wide range of infections including neonatal sepsis, meningitis, pneumonia and soft tissue or urinary tract infections. Material and methods: One hundred and fifteen isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae collected from urine specimens of patients attending a hospital in Tehran. All isolates were screened for their capsular types and genes encoding resistance to the macrolide and tetracycline antibiotics by PCR and multiplex PCR–based methods. Results: Most of isolates belonged to capsular types III (49%), V (19%), II (16%), and Ib (6%). Twelve isolates (10%) were nontypable. All isolates were susceptible to penicillin and Quinupristin-dalfopristin, but were resistant to clindamycin (35%), chloramphenicol (45%), erythromycin (35%), linezolid (1%) and tetracycline (96%). The most prevalent antimicrobial resistance gene was tetM found in 93% of the isolates followed by ermTR, ermB, and tetK, found in 23%, 16%, and 16% of isolates, respectively. The genes, tetL, tetO, ermA, ermC and mefA were not detected in any of the S. agalactiae isolates. Of the 110 tetracycline resistant S. agalactiae, 89 isolates harbored the tetM gene alone and eighteen isolates carried the tetM gene with the tetK gene. All erythromycin-resistant isolates exhibited cMLSB resistance phenotype, 22 isolates harbored the ermTR gene alone and five isolates carried the ermTR gene with the ermB gene. The rate of coexistence of genes encoding the erythromycin and tetracycline resistance determinants was 34%. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that S. agalactiae isolates obtained from urine samples showed a high rate of resistance to tetracycline, chloramphenicol and macrolide antibiotics and were commonly associated with the resistance genes temM, ermTR or ermB. PMID:25705271

  9. Macrolide-Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes in the Pediatric Population in Germany during 2000-2001

    PubMed Central

    Reinert, Ralf René; Lütticken, Rudolf; Bryskier, André; Al-Lahham, Adnan

    2003-01-01

    In a nationwide study in Germany covering 13 clinical microbiology laboratories, a total of 307 Streptococcus pyogenes (mainly pharyngitis) and 333 Streptococcus pneumoniae (respiratory tract infections) strains were collected from outpatients less than 16 years of age. The MICs of penicillin G, amoxicillin, cefotaxime, erythromycin A, clindamycin, levofloxacin, and telithromycin were determined by the microdilution method. In S. pyogenes isolates, resistance rates were as follows: penicillin, 0%; erythromycin A, 13.7%; and levofloxacin, 0%. Telithromycin showed good activity against S. pyogenes isolates (MIC90 = 0.25 μg/ml; MIC range, 0.016 to 16 μg/ml). Three strains were found to be telithromycin-resistant (MIC ≥ 4 μg/ml). Erythromycin-resistant strains were characterized for the underlying resistance genotype, with 40.5% having the efflux type mef(A), 38.1% having the erm(A), and 9.5% having the erm(B) genotypes. emm typing of macrolide-resistant S. pyogenes isolates showed emm types 4 (45.2%), 77 (26.2%), and 12 (11.9%) to be predominant. In S. pneumoniae, resistance rates were as follows: penicillin intermediate, 7.5%; penicillin resistant, 0%; erythromycin A, 17.4%; and levofloxacin, 0%. Telithromycin was highly active against pneumococcal isolates (MIC90 ≤ 0.016 μg/ml; range, 0.016 to 0.5 μg/ml). The overall resistance profile of streptococcal respiratory tract isolates is still favorable, but macrolide resistance is of growing concern in Germany. PMID:12543648

  10. Decreased Susceptibility to Macrolide-Lincosamide in Mycoplasma synoviae Is Associated with Mutations in 23S Ribosomal RNA.

    PubMed

    Lysnyansky, Inna; Gerchman, Irena; Flaminio, Barbara; Catania, Salvatore

    2015-12-01

    The mechanism responsible for acquired decreased susceptibility to macrolides (14-membered erythromycin [Ery], 16-membered tylosin [Ty] and tilmicosin [Tm]) and to lincosamides (lincomycin [Ln]) was investigated in Mycoplasma synoviae, a pathogen that causes respiratory infections and synovitis in chicken and turkey. Sequence analysis of domains II and V of the two 23S rRNA alleles and ribosomal proteins L4 and L22 was performed on 49 M. synoviae isolates, M. synoviae type strain WVU1853, and reference strain FMT showing minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) to Ty (≤ 0.015 to 2 μg/ml), Tm (0.03 to ≥ 8 μg/ml), and Ln (0.125 to 8 μg/ml); MICs to Ery ranged from 32 to ≥ 128 μg/ml. Our results showed that the nucleotide substitution G748A (Escherichia coli numbering) in domain II of one or both 23S rRNA alleles may account for a slight increase in MICs to Ty and Tm (up to 0.5 and 2 μg/ml, respectively). No correlation between the presence of G748A and decreased susceptibility to Ln was found. However, the presence of the point mutations A2058G or A2059G in domain V of one or both alleles of the 23S rRNAs was correlated with a more significant decrease in susceptibility to Ty (1-2 μg/ml), Tm (≥ 8 μg/ml), and Ln (≥ 8 μg/ml). All M. synoviae isolates tested had a G2057A transition in the 23S rRNAs consistent with previously described intrinsic resistance to Ery. Mutations G64E (one isolate) and Q90K/H (two isolates) were identified in the L4 and L22 proteins, respectively, but their impact on decreased susceptibility to macrolides and lincomycin was not clear. PMID:25734368

  11. Fluoroquinolone–macrolide combination therapy for chronic bacterial prostatitis: retrospective analysis of pathogen eradication rates, inflammatory findings and sexual dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Magri, Vittorio; Montanari, Emanuele; Škerk, Višnja; Markotić, Alemka; Marras, Emanuela; Restelli, Antonella; Naber, Kurt G; Perletti, Gianpaolo

    2011-01-01

    We previously demonstrated the safety and efficacy of fluoroquinolone–macrolide combination therapy in category II chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP). The aim of this study is to retrospectively compare the microbiological and clinical findings of two treatment schemes for CBP based on the combination of azithromycin (500 mg, thrice-weekly) with a once-daily 500- or 750-mg dose of ciprofloxacin (Cipro-500 or Cipro-750 cohort, respectively). Combined administration of azithromycin (1500 mg week−1) with ciprofloxacin at the rate of 750 mg day−1 for 4 weeks rather than at 500 mg day−1 for 6 weeks increased the eradication rates from 62.35% to 77.32% and the total bacteriological success from 71.76% to 85.57%. A significant decrease in pain and voiding signs/symptoms and a significant reduction in inflammatory leukocyte counts and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) were sustained throughout an 18-month follow-up period in both groups. Ejaculatory pain, haemospermia and premature ejaculation were significantly attenuated on microbiological eradication in both groups, but the latter subsided more promptly in the Cipro-750 cohort. In total, 59 Cipro-750 patients showed mild-to-severe erectile dysfunction (ED) at baseline, while 22 patients had no ED on microbiological eradication and throughout the follow-up period. In conclusion fluoroquinolone–macrolide therapy resulted in pathogen eradication and CBP symptom attenuation, including pain, voiding disturbances and sexual dysfunction. A once-daily 750-mg dose of ciprofloxacin for 4 weeks showed enhanced eradication rates and lower inflammatory white blood cell counts compared to the 500-mg dose for 6 weeks. Our results are open to further prospective validation. PMID:21765442

  12. Activities of a New Fluoroketolide, HMR 3787, and Its (Des)-Fluor Derivative RU 64399 Compared to Those of Telithromycin, Erythromycin A, Azithromycin, Clarithromycin, and Clindamycin against Macrolide-Susceptible or -Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and S. pyogenes

    PubMed Central

    Nagai, Kensuke; Davies, Todd A.; Ednie, Lois M.; Bryskier, Andre; Palavecino, Elizabeth; Jacobs, Michael R.; Appelbaum, Peter C.

    2001-01-01

    Activities of HMR 3787 and RU 64399 were compared to those of three macrolides, telithromycin, and clindamycin against 175 Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates and 121 Streptococcus pyogenes isolates. HMR3787 and telithromycin were the most active compounds tested against pneumococci. Telithromycin and RU 64399 were equally active against macrolide-susceptible (MICs, 0.008 to 0.06 μg/ml) and -resistant S. pyogenes isolates, but HMR 3787 had lower MICs for ermB strains. PMID:11600391

  13. Pilot survey of hen eggs consumed in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, for polyether ionophores, macrolides and lincosamides residues.

    PubMed

    Spisso, Bernardete Ferraz; Pereira, Mararlene Ulberg; Ferreira, Rosana Gomes; Monteiro, Mychelle Alves; da Costa, Rafaela Pinto; Cruz, Tatiana Ávila; da Nóbrega, Armi Wanderley

    2010-01-01

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method, which has recently been developed and validated, was used for the identification and quantification of polyether ionophore, macrolide and lincosamide residues in commercial eggs sold in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The method was applied to 100 samples and the results showed a high incidence of polyether ionophore residues (25%). Salinomycin was detected in 21% of samples, but only two non-compliant results (5.3 and 53 µg kg(-1)) were found if maximum limits (tolerances) established by European Union were adopted in Brazil and if a method decision limit (CCα) of 3.4 µg kg(-1) was considered. In 8% of analyzed samples, more than one studied coccidiostat was found. The lincosamide, lincomycin, and the macrolide, tylosin, were detected at trace levels in 4 and 1% of the samples, respectively. Lasalocid, clarithromycin and erythromycin were not found. PMID:24779620

  14. First Report of the 23S rRNA Gene A2058G Point Mutation Associated With Macrolide Resistance in Treponema pallidum From Syphilis Patients in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Noda, Angel A; Matos, Nelvis; Blanco, Orestes; Rodríguez, Islay; Stamm, Lola Virginia

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to assess the presence of macrolide-resistant Treponema pallidum subtypes in Havana, Cuba. Samples from 41 syphilis patients were tested for T. pallidum 23S rRNA gene mutations. Twenty-five patients (61%) harbored T. pallidum with the A2058G mutation, which was present in all 8 subtypes that were identified. The A2059G mutation was not detected. PMID:27100771

  15. Mutations in 23S rRNA and Ribosomal Protein L4 Account for Resistance in Pneumococcal Strains Selected In Vitro by Macrolide Passage

    PubMed Central

    Tait-Kamradt, A.; Davies, T.; Cronan, M.; Jacobs, M. R.; Appelbaum, P. C.; Sutcliffe, J.

    2000-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for macrolide resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae mutants, selected from susceptible strains by serial passage in azithromycin, were investigated. These mutants were resistant to 14- and 15-membered macrolides, but resistance could not be explained by any clinically relevant resistance determinant [mef(A), erm(A), erm(B), erm(C), erm(TR), msr(A), mph(A), mph(B), mph(C), ere(A), ere(B)]. An investigation into the sequences of 23S rRNAs in the mutant and parental strains revealed individual changes of C2611A, C2611G, A2058G, and A2059G (Escherichia coli numbering) in four mutants. Mutations at these residues in domain V of 23S rRNA have been noted to confer erythromycin resistance in other species. Not all four 23S rRNA alleles have to contain the mutation to confer resistance. Some of the mutations also confer coresistance to streptogramin B (C2611A, C2611G, and A2058G), 16-membered macrolides (all changes), and clindamycin (A2058G and A2059G). Interestingly, none of these mutations confer high-level resistance to telithromycin (HMR-3647). Further, two of the mutants which had no changes in their 23S rRNA sequences had changes in a highly conserved stretch of amino acids (63KPWRQKGTGRAR74) in ribosomal protein L4. One mutant contained a single amino acid change (G69C), while the other mutant had a 6-base insert, resulting in two amino acids (S and Q) being inserted between amino acids Q67 and K68. To our knowledge, this is the first description of mutations in 23S rRNA genes or ribosomal proteins in macrolide-resistant S. pneumoniae strains. PMID:10898684

  16. Rapid molecular detection of inducible macrolide resistance in Mycobacterium chelonae and M. abscessus strains: a replacement for 14-day susceptibility testing?

    PubMed

    Hanson, Kimberly E; Slechta, E Susan; Muir, Haleina; Barker, Adam P

    2014-05-01

    The erm(41) gene causes inducible macrolide resistance in Mycobacterium abscessus but not Mycobacterium chelonae. erm(41) sequencing of 285 M. abscessus and 45 M. chelonae isolates was compared to 14-day susceptibility; agreement percentages were 98.9% and 100%, respectively. Extended incubation may not be necessary for M. chelonae, and the erm(41) genotype is a useful adjunct for M. abscessus. PMID:24554745

  17. Molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction for the determination of ten macrolide drugs residues in animal muscles by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Song, Xuqin; Zhou, Tong; Liu, Qingying; Zhang, Meiyu; Meng, Chenying; Li, Jiufeng; He, Limin

    2016-10-01

    A simple and sensitive method based on molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was developed for the determination of the residues of ten macrolide drugs in swine, cattle and chicken muscles samples. The molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were synthesized using tylosin as a template and methacrylic acid as a functional monomer. Samples were extracted with sodium borate buffer solution and ethyl acetate, and purified by the MIP cartridge. The results showed that the cartridge exhibited good recognition performance for macrolides, and better purification effect than the traditional solid-phase extraction cartridges. Recoveries of analytes at three spiking levels 1, 5 and 20μgkg(-1) ranged from 60.7% to 100.3% with the relative standard deviations less than 14%. The limits of detection of the method were between 0.1 and 0.4μgkg(-1). The method is useful for the routine monitoring of the residues of macrolide drugs in animal muscles. PMID:27132837

  18. Syphilis epidemiology in 1994-2013, molecular epidemiological strain typing and determination of macrolide resistance in Treponema pallidum in 2013-2014 in Tuva Republic, Russia.

    PubMed

    Khairullin, Rafil; Vorobyev, Denis; Obukhov, Andrey; Kuular, Ural-Herel; Kubanova, Anna; Kubanov, Alexey; Unemo, Magnus

    2016-07-01

    The incidence of syphilis in the Tuva Republic (geographical centre of Asia), Russia has been exceedingly high historically. No detailed examinations and no molecular investigations of Treponema pallidum strains transmitted in the Tuva Republic, or in general, in Russia, were published internationally. We examined the syphilis epidemiology in 1994-2013, and the molecular epidemiology and macrolide resistance in T. pallidum strains in 2013-2014 in the Tuva Republic. Among 95 mainly primary or secondary syphilis patients, the arp, tpr, tp0548 and 23S rRNA genes in 85 polA gene-positive genital ulcer specimens were characterized. The syphilis incidence in Tuva Republic peaked in 1998 (1562), however declined to 177 in 2013. Among the 70 (82%) completely genotyped specimens, six molecular strain types were found. Strain type 14d/f accounted for 91%, but also 14c/f, 14d/g, 14b/f, 14i/f, 9d/f, and 4d/f were identified. Two (2.4%) specimens contained the 23S rRNA A2058G macrolide resistance mutation. This is the first internationally published typing study regarding T. pallidum in Russia, performed in the Tuva Republic with the highest syphilis incidence in Russia. The two molecular strain types 4d/f and 9d/f have previously been described only in Eastern and Northern China and for the first time, macrolide-resistant syphilis was described in Russia. PMID:27102715

  19. The prevalence of genotypes that determine resistance to macrolides, lincosamides, and streptogramins B compared with spiramycin susceptibility among erythromycin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis

    PubMed Central

    Juda, Marek; Chudzik-Rzad, Beata; Malm, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci, particularly Staphylococcus epidermidis, can be regarded as potential reservoirs of resistance genes for pathogenic strains, e.g., Staphylococcus aureus. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of different resistance phenotypes to macrolide, lincosamide, and streptogramins B (MLSB) antibiotics among erythromycin-resistant S. epidermidis, together with the evaluation of genes promoting the following different types of MLSB resistance:ermA, ermB, ermC,msrA, mphC, and linA/A’. Susceptibility to spiramycin was also examined. Among 75 erythromycin-resistantS. epidermidis isolates, the most frequent phenotypes were macrolides and streptogramins B (MSB) and constitutive MLSB (cMLSB). Moreover, all strains with the cMLSB phenotype and the majority of inducible MLSB (iMLSB) isolates were resistant to spiramycin, whereas strains with the MSB phenotype were sensitive to this antibiotic. The D-shape zone of inhibition around the clindamycin disc near the spiramycin disc was found for some spiramycin-resistant strains with the iMLSB phenotype, suggesting an induction of resistance to clindamycin by this 16-membered macrolide. The most frequently isolated gene was ermC, irrespective of the MLSB resistance phenotype, whereas the most often noted gene combination wasermC, mphC, linA/A’. The results obtained showed that the genes responsible for different mechanisms of MLSB resistance in S. epidermidis generally coexist, often without the phenotypic expression of each of them. PMID:27008373

  20. The prevalence of genotypes that determine resistance to macrolides, lincosamides, and streptogramins B compared with spiramycin susceptibility among erythromycin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    PubMed

    Juda, Marek; Chudzik-Rzad, Beata; Malm, Anna

    2016-03-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci, particularly Staphylococcus epidermidis, can be regarded as potential reservoirs of resistance genes for pathogenic strains, e.g., Staphylococcus aureus. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of different resistance phenotypes to macrolide, lincosamide, and streptogramins B (MLSB) antibiotics among erythromycin-resistant S. epidermidis, together with the evaluation of genes promoting the following different types of MLSB resistance:ermA, ermB, ermC,msrA, mphC, and linA/A'. Susceptibility to spiramycin was also examined. Among 75 erythromycin-resistantS. epidermidis isolates, the most frequent phenotypes were macrolides and streptogramins B (MSB) and constitutive MLSB (cMLSB). Moreover, all strains with the cMLSB phenotype and the majority of inducible MLSB (iMLSB) isolates were resistant to spiramycin, whereas strains with the MSB phenotype were sensitive to this antibiotic. The D-shape zone of inhibition around the clindamycin disc near the spiramycin disc was found for some spiramycin-resistant strains with the iMLSB phenotype, suggesting an induction of resistance to clindamycin by this 16-membered macrolide. The most frequently isolated gene was ermC, irrespective of the MLSB resistance phenotype, whereas the most often noted gene combination wasermC, mphC, linA/A'. The results obtained showed that the genes responsible for different mechanisms of MLSB resistance in S. epidermidis generally coexist, often without the phenotypic expression of each of them. PMID:27008373

  1. [Simultaneous determination of macrolide and lincosamide antibiotics in animal feeds by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Yan, Lijuan; Zhang, Feng; Fang, Enhua; Guo, Yanni; Zhou, Yu; Lin, Liyi; Chu, Xiaogang

    2010-11-01

    A method for the simultaneous determination of six macrolide antibiotics (oleandomycin, erythromycin, kitasamycin, josamycin, roxithromycin and tylosin) and two lincosamide antibiotics (lincomycin and clindamycin) in animal feeds by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospary ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS) was developed. The macrolide and lincosamide antibiotics were extracted from the feeds with methanol followed by enrichment and clean-up with an Oasis HLB cartridge. The UPLC separation was performed on a Waters Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column by a gradient elution using 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. The identification of eight drugs was carried out by positive electrospray ionization in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode, and the quantification analysis was performed by external standard method. The calibration curves showed good linearity in the range of 1-100 microg/L. The average recoveries of the eight drugs from the feeds spiked at 1, 10 and 100 microg/kg levels were between 68.6% and 95.2%, and the relative standard deviations (RSD) were between 4.9% and 11.8%. The limits of quantification (LOQ) of the drugs in the feeds were 1 microg/kg. The method is simple, rapid, sensitive and suitable for the simultaneous determination of macrolide and lincosamide antibiotics in animal feeds. PMID:21381419

  2. On the mechanism of action of 9-O-arylalkyloxime derivatives of 6-O-mycaminosyltylonolide, a new class of 16-membered macrolide antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Karahalios, Panagiotis; Kalpaxis, Dimitrios L; Fu, Hong; Katz, Leonard; Wilson, Daniel N; Dinos, George P

    2006-10-01

    New 16-membered 9-aryl-alkyl oxime derivatives of 5-O-mycaminosyl-tylonolid (OMT) have recently been prepared and were found to exhibit high activity against macrolide-resistant strains. In this study, we show that these compounds do not affect the binding of tRNAs to ribosomes in a cell-free system derived from Escherichia coli and that they cannot inhibit peptidyltransferase, peptidyl-tRNA translocation, or poly(U)-dependent poly(Phe) synthesis. However, they severely inhibit poly(A)-dependent poly(Lys) synthesis and compete with erythromycin or tylosin for binding to common or partially overlapping sites in the ribosome. According to footprinting analysis, the lactone ring of these compounds seems to occupy the classic binding site of macrolides that is located at the entrance of the exit tunnel, whereas the extending alkyl-aryl side chain seems to penetrate deeper in the tunnel, where it protects nucleoside A752 in domain II of 23S rRNA. In addition, this side chain causes an increased affinity for mutant ribosomes that may be responsible for their effectiveness against macrolide resistant strains. As revealed by detailed kinetic analysis, these compounds behave as slow-binding ligands interacting with functional ribosomal complexes through a one-step mechanism. This type of inhibitor has several attractive features and offers many chances in designing new potent drugs. PMID:16873579

  3. A New, Potent, and Placenta-Permeable Macrolide Antibiotic, Solithromycin, for the Prevention and Treatment of Bacterial Infections in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Keelan, Jeffrey A.; Payne, Matthew S.; Kemp, Matthew W.; Ireland, Demelza J.; Newnham, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine infection–inflammation is a major cause of early preterm birth and subsequent neonatal mortality and acute or long-term morbidity. Antibiotics can be administered in pregnancy to prevent preterm birth either prophylactically to women at high risk for preterm delivery, or to women with diagnosed intrauterine infection, prelabor rupture of membranes, or in suspected preterm labor. The therapeutic goals of each of these scenarios are different, with different pharmacological considerations, although effective antimicrobial therapy is an essential requirement. An ideal antibiotic for these clinical indications would be (a) one that is easily administered and orally bioactive, (b) has a favorable adverse effect profile (devoid of reproductive toxicity or teratogenicity), (c) is effective against the wide range of microorganisms known to be commonly associated with intra-amniotic infection, (d) provides effective antimicrobial protection within both the fetal and amniotic compartments after maternal delivery, (e) has anti-inflammatory properties, and (f) is effective against antibiotic-resistant microorganisms. Here, we review the evidence from clinical, animal, and ex vivo/in vitro studies that demonstrate that a new macrolide-derived antibiotic – solithromycin – has all of these properties and, hence, may be an ideal antibiotic for the treatment and prevention of intrauterine infection-­related pregnancy complications. While this evidence is extremely encouraging, it is still preliminary. A number of key studies need to be completed before solithromycin’s true potential for use in pregnancy can be ascertained. PMID:27066004

  4. Enhancing production of a 24-membered ring macrolide compound by a marine bacterium using response surface methodology*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hua; Wu, Mian-bin; Chen, Zheng-jie; Wang, Ming-lu; Lin, Jian-ping; Yang, Li-rong

    2013-01-01

    A 24-membered ring macrolide compound, macrolactin A has potential applications in pharmaceuticals for its anti-infectious and antiviral activity. In this study, macrolactin A was produced by a marine bacterium, which was identified as Bacillus subtilis by 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequence analysis. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI/MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy analyses were used to characterize this compound. To improve the production, response surface methodology (RSM) involving Box-Behnken design (BBD) was employed. Faeces bombycis, the main by-product in sericulture, was used as a nitrogen source in fermentation. The interactions between three significant factors, F. bombycis, soluble starch, and (NH4)2SO4 were investigated. A quadratic model was constructed to fit the production and the factors. Optimum medium composition was obtained by analysis of the model. When cultivated in the optimum medium, the production of macrolactin A was increased to 851 mg/L, 2.7 times as compared to the original. This study is also useful to find another way in utilizing F. bombycis. PMID:23549852

  5. Occurrence of sulfonamide-, tetracycline-, plasmid-mediated quinolone- and macrolide-resistance genes in livestock feedlots in Northern China.

    PubMed

    Mu, Quanhua; Li, Jin; Sun, Yingxue; Mao, Daqing; Wang, Qing; Luo, Yi

    2015-05-01

    Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in livestock feedlots deserve attention because they are prone to transfer to human pathogens and thus pose threats to human health. In this study, the occurrence of 21 ARGs, including tetracycline (tet)-, sulfonamide (sul)-, plasmid-mediated quinolone (PMQR)- and macrolide-resistance (erm) genes were investigated in feces and adjacent soils from chicken, swine, and cattle feedlots in Northern China. PMQR and sul ARGs were the most prevalent and account for over 90.0 % of the total ARGs in fecal samples. Specifically, PMQR genes were the most prevalent, accounting for 59.6 % of the total ARGs, followed by sul ARGs (34.2 %). The percentage of tet ARGs was 3.4 %, and erm ARGs accounted for only 1.9 %. Prevalence of PMQR and sul ARGs was also found in swine and cattle feces. The overall trend of ARG concentrations in feces of different feeding animals was chicken > swine > beef cattle in the studied area. In soils, sul ARGs had the highest concentration and account for 71.1 to 80.2 % of the total ARGs, which is possibly due to the widely distributed molecular carriers (i.e., class one integrons), facilitating sul ARG propagation. Overall, this study provides integrated profiles of various types of ARGs in livestock feedlots and thus provides a reference for the management of antibiotic use in livestock farming. PMID:25475616

  6. Multiresidue chromatographic method for the determination of macrolide residues in muscle by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection.

    PubMed

    Juhel-Gaugain, M; Anger, B; Laurentie, M

    1999-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for the simultaneous determination of tilmicosin, tylosin, spiramycin, and its major metabolite neospiramycin was developed that is suitable for porcine, bovine, and poultry muscles. Macrolide residues were extracted from muscle with acetonitrile, fat was removed by liquid-liquid extraction with isooctane, and the extract was then cleaned on Bond Elut C18 cartridges. The HPLC separation was performed on an Inertsil ODS3 C18 column (150 x 4 mm) with 0.05% trifluoroacetic acid-acetonitrile in a gradient mode. Two different chromatographic gradients were used for tilmicosin-tylosin and spiramycin-neospiramycin, and the detection wavelengths were 287 and 232 nm, respectively. The method was validated from 1/2 the maximum residue limit (MRL) to 4 times the MRL with pork muscle samples. Mean recoveries were 60, 63.5, 51, and 42% for tilmicosin, tylosin, spiramycin, and neospiramycin, respectively. The detection limits are 15 micrograms/kg for tilmicosin and tylosin, 30 micrograms/kg for spiramycin, and 25 micrograms/kg for neospiramycin. Linearity, precision, and accuracy of the method were also tested. PMID:10513006

  7. Chromatographic methods for determination of macrolide antibiotic residues in tissues and milk of food-producing animals.

    PubMed

    Moats, W A

    1985-01-01

    Tylosin, an antibiotic developed specifically for agricultural use, and erythromycin are the main macrolide antibiotics used in animal production. Two-dimensional thin layer chromatography has been used for detection of tylosin in poultry meat, eggs, and milk and for erythromycin in poultry meat. Detection limits reported are, for tylosin, 0.1 ppm in poultry meat, 0.05 ppm in egg, and 0.01 ppm in milk, and for erythromycin, 0.25 ppm in poultry meat. Liquid chromatography (LC) has also been used for determination of tylosin in milk, blood, and tissues of animals. Samples (milk, blood serum, or tissue homogenates in water or pH 2.2 buffer) were deproteinized with acetonitrile, tylosin was partitioned into methylene chloride, and the extracts were concentrated and dissolved in acetonitrile. Chromatography was done on a reverse phase end-capped C18 column using 0.002-0.005 M ammonium dihydrogen phosphate-acetonitrile-methanol (10 + 60 + 30-5 + 80 + 15). Solvent composition was varied with the type of sample analyzed. The method will detect 0.1 ppm tylosin in tissues and less in milk and blood serum. The LC method was more sensitive than microbiological assays for detection of tylosin in tissues of treated swine; recoveries of tylosin by the LC method were frequently several-fold higher. PMID:4055648

  8. The Novel Macrolide-Lincosamide-Streptogramin B Resistance Gene erm(44) Is Associated with a Prophage in Staphylococcus xylosus

    PubMed Central

    Wipf, Juliette R. K.; Schwendener, Sybille

    2014-01-01

    A novel erythromycin ribosome methylase gene, erm(44), that confers resistance to macrolide, lincosamide, and streptogramin B (MLSB) antibiotics was identified by whole-genome sequencing of the chromosome of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from bovine mastitis milk. The erm(44) gene is preceded by a regulatory sequence that encodes two leader peptides responsible for the inducible expression of the methylase gene, as demonstrated by cloning in Staphylococcus aureus. The erm(44) gene is located on a 53-kb putative prophage designated ΦJW4341-pro. The 56 predicted open reading frames of ΦJW4341-pro are structurally organized into the five functional modules found in members of the family Siphoviridae. ΦJW4341-pro is site-specifically integrated into the S. xylosus chromosome, where it is flanked by two perfect 19-bp direct repeats, and exhibits the ability to circularize. The presence of erm(44) in three additional S. xylosus strains suggests that this putative prophage has the potential to disseminate MLSB resistance. PMID:25092709

  9. A New, Potent, and Placenta-Permeable Macrolide Antibiotic, Solithromycin, for the Prevention and Treatment of Bacterial Infections in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Keelan, Jeffrey A; Payne, Matthew S; Kemp, Matthew W; Ireland, Demelza J; Newnham, John P

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine infection-inflammation is a major cause of early preterm birth and subsequent neonatal mortality and acute or long-term morbidity. Antibiotics can be administered in pregnancy to prevent preterm birth either prophylactically to women at high risk for preterm delivery, or to women with diagnosed intrauterine infection, prelabor rupture of membranes, or in suspected preterm labor. The therapeutic goals of each of these scenarios are different, with different pharmacological considerations, although effective antimicrobial therapy is an essential requirement. An ideal antibiotic for these clinical indications would be (a) one that is easily administered and orally bioactive, (b) has a favorable adverse effect profile (devoid of reproductive toxicity or teratogenicity), (c) is effective against the wide range of microorganisms known to be commonly associated with intra-amniotic infection, (d) provides effective antimicrobial protection within both the fetal and amniotic compartments after maternal delivery, (e) has anti-inflammatory properties, and (f) is effective against antibiotic-resistant microorganisms. Here, we review the evidence from clinical, animal, and ex vivo/in vitro studies that demonstrate that a new macrolide-derived antibiotic - solithromycin - has all of these properties and, hence, may be an ideal antibiotic for the treatment and prevention of intrauterine infection--related pregnancy complications. While this evidence is extremely encouraging, it is still preliminary. A number of key studies need to be completed before solithromycin's true potential for use in pregnancy can be ascertained. PMID:27066004

  10. Antistreptococcal Activity of Telithromycin Compared with Seven Other Drugs in Relation to Macrolide Resistance Mechanisms in Russia

    PubMed Central

    Kozlov, Roman S.; Bogdanovitch, Tatiana M.; Appelbaum, Peter C.; Ednie, Lois; Stratchounski, Leonid S.; Jacobs, Michael R.; Bozdogan, Bülent

    2002-01-01

    The susceptibilities of 468 recent Russian clinical Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates and 600 Streptococcus pyogenes isolates, from 14 centers in Russia, to telithromycin, erythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, clindamycin, levofloxacin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, and penicillin G were tested. Penicillin-nonsusceptible S. pneumoniae strains were rare except in Siberia, where their prevalence rate was 13.5%: most were penicillin intermediate, but for three strains (two from Smolensk and one from Novosibirsk) the MICs of penicillin G were 4 or 8 μg/ml. Overall, 2.5% of S. pneumoniae isolates were resistant to erythromycin. Efflux was the prevalent resistance mechanism (five strains; 41.7%), followed by ribosomal methylation encoded by constitutive erm(B), which was found in four isolates. Ribosomal mutation was the mechanism of macrolide resistance in three isolates; one erythromycin-resistant S. pneumoniae isolate had an A2059G mutation in 23S rRNA, and two isolates had substitution of GTG by TPS at positions 69 to 71 in ribosomal protein L4. All S. pyogenes isolates were susceptible to penicillin, and 11% were erythromycin resistant. Ribosomal methylation was the most common resistance mechanism for S. pyogenes (89.4%). These methylases were encoded by erm(A) [subclass erm(TR)] genes, and their expression was inducible in 96.6% of isolates. The rest of the erythromycin-resistant Russian S. pyogenes isolates (7.6%) had an efflux resistance mechanism. Telithromycin was active against 100% of pneumococci and 99.2% of S. pyogenes, and levofloxacin and quinupristin-dalfopristin were active against all isolates of both species. PMID:12183254

  11. Abundance and distribution of Macrolide-Lincosamide-Streptogramin resistance genes in an anaerobic-aerobic system treating spiramycin production wastewater.

    PubMed

    Liu, Miaomiao; Ding, Ran; Zhang, Yu; Gao, Yingxin; Tian, Zhe; Zhang, Tong; Yang, Min

    2014-10-15

    The behaviors of the Macrolide-Lincosamide-Streptogramin (MLS) resistance genes were investigated in an anaerobic-aerobic pilot-scale system treating spiramycin (SPM) production wastewater. After screening fifteen typical MLS resistance genes with different mechanisms using conventional PCR, eight detected genes were determined by quantitative PCR, together with three mobile elements. Aerobic sludge in the pilot system exhibited a total relative abundance of MLS resistance genes (per 16S rRNA gene) 2.5 logs higher than those in control samples collected from sewage and inosine wastewater treatment systems (P < 0.05), implying the presence of SPM could induce the production of MLS resistance genes. However, the total relative gene abundance in anaerobic sludge (4.3 × 10(-1)) was lower than that in aerobic sludge (3.7 × 10(0)) despite of the higher SPM level in anaerobic reactor, showing the advantage of anaerobic treatment in reducing the production of MLS resistance genes. The rRNA methylase genes (erm(B), erm(F), erm(X)) were the most abundant in the aerobic sludge (5.3 × 10(-1)-1.7 × 10(0)), followed by esterase gene ere(A) (1.3 × 10(-1)) and phosphorylase gene mph(B) (5.7 × 10(-2)). In anaerobic sludge, erm(B), erm(F), ere(A), and msr(D) were the major ones (1.2 × 10(-2)-3.2 × 10(-1)). These MLS resistance genes (except for msr(D)) were positively correlated with Class 1 integron (r(2) = 0.74-0.93, P < 0.05), implying the significance of horizontal transfer in their proliferation. PMID:24973730

  12. Occurrence and distribution of sulfonamides, tetracyclines, quinolones, macrolides, and nitrofurans in livestock manure and amended soils of Northern China.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jie; Wan, Weining; Mao, Daqing; Wang, Chong; Mu, Quanhua; Qin, Songyan; Luo, Yi

    2015-03-01

    A feasible and rapid analysis for the simultaneous determination of sulfonamides (SAs), tetracyclines (TCs), fluoroquinolones (FQs), macrolides (MACs) and nitrofurans (NFs) in livestock manure and soils was established by solid-phase extraction (SPE)-ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). A total of 32 manure and 17 amended soil samples from the Liaoning and Tianjin areas in Northern China were collected for analysis. The largest detected frequencies and concentrations in manure samples were those of TCs (3326.6 ± 12,302.6 μg/kg), followed by FQs (411.3 ± 1453.4 μg/kg), SAs (170.6 ± 1060.2 μg/kg), NFs (85.1 ± 158.1 μg/kg), and MACs (1.4 ± 4.8 μg/kg). In general, veterinary antibiotics (VAs) were detected with higher concentrations in swine and chicken manure than in cattle manure, reflecting the heavy usage of VAs in swine and chicken husbandry in the studied area. Furthermore, higher residues of antibiotics were found in piglet and fattening swine manure than in sow manure. In addition, TCs were the most frequently (100%) detected antibiotics in amended soil with higher concentrations (up to 10,967.1 μg/kg) than any other VAs. The attenuation of SAs was more obvious than TCs in amended soil after fertilization, which can most likely be attributed to the stronger sorption of TCs than SAs to soil organic matter through cation exchange. This study illustrated the prevalence of TCs detected in both animal manure and fertilized agricultural soils in Northern China, which may increase the risk to human health through the food chain. Thus, TCs should be given more attention in the management of veterinary usage in livestock husbandry. PMID:25318415

  13. Sequence and properties of pIM13, a macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance plasmid from Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Monod, M; Denoya, C; Dubnau, D

    1986-01-01

    We initiated a study of pIM13, a multicopy, macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLS) plasmid first isolated from a strain of Bacillus subtilis and described by Mahler and Halvorson (J. Gen. Microbiol. 120:259-263, 1980). The copy number of this plasmid was about 200 in B. subtilis and 30 in Staphylococcus aureus. The MLS resistance determinant of pIM13 was shown to be highly homologous to ermC, an inducible element on the S. aureus plasmid pE194. The product of the pIM13 determinant was similar in size to that of ermC and immunologically cross-reactive with it. The MLS resistance of pIM13 was expressed constitutively. The complete base sequence of pIM13 is presented. The plasmid consisted of 2,246 base pairs and contained two open reading frames that specified products identified in minicell extracts. One was a protein of 16,000 molecular weight, possibly required for replication. The second was the 29,000-molecular-weight MLS resistance methylase. The regulatory region responsible for ermC inducibility was missing from pIM13, explaining its constitutivity. The remainder of the pIM13 MLS determinant was nearly identical to ermC. The ends of the region of homology between pIM13 and pE194 were associated with hyphenated dyad symmetries. A segment partially homologous to one of these termini on pIM13 and also associated with a dyad was found in pUB110 near the end of a region of homology between that plasmid and pBC16. The entire sequence of pIM13 was highly homologous to that of pE5, an inducible MLS resistance plasmid from S. aureus that differs from pIM13 in copy control. Images PMID:3087948

  14. Molecular basis of resistance to macrolides, lincosamides and streptogramins in Staphylococcus hominis strains isolated from clinical specimens.

    PubMed

    Szczuka, Ewa; Makowska, Nicoletta; Bosacka, Karolina; Słotwińska, Anna; Kaznowski, Adam

    2016-03-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are the most frequently isolated bacteria from the blood and the predominant cause of nosocomial infections. Macrolides, lincosamides and streptogramin B (MLSB) antibiotics, especially erythromycin and clindamycin, are important therapeutic agents in the treatment of methicillin-resistant staphylococci infections. Among CoNS, Staphylococcus hominis represents the third most common organism. In spite of its clinical significance, very little is known about its mechanisms of resistance to antibiotics, especially MLSB. Fifty-five S. hominis isolates from the blood and the surgical wounds of hospitalized patients were studied. The erm(C) gene was predominant in erythromycin-resistant S. hominis isolates. The methylase genes, erm(A) and erm(B), were present in 15 and 25 % of clinical isolates, respectively. A combination of various erythromycin resistance methylase (erm) genes was detected in 15 % S. hominis isolates. The efflux gene msr(A) was detected in 18 % of isolates, alone in four isolates, and in different combinations in a further six. The lnu(A) gene, responsible for enzymatic inactivation of lincosamides was carried by 31 % of the isolates. No erythromycin resistance that could not be attributed to the genes erm(A), erm(B), erm(C) and msr(A) was detected. In S. hominis, 75 and 84 %, respectively, were erythromycin resistant and clindamycin susceptible. Among erythromycin-resistant S. hominis isolates, 68 % of these strains showed the inducible MLSB phenotype. Four isolates harbouring the msr(A) genes alone displayed the MSB phenotype. These studies indicated that resistance to MLSB in S. hominis is mostly based on the ribosomal target modification mechanism mediated by erm genes, mainly the erm(C), and enzymatic drug inactivation mediated by lnu(A). PMID:26253583

  15. Emergence of macrolide resistance gene mph(B) in Streptococcus uberis and cooperative effects with rdmC-like gene.

    PubMed

    Achard, Adeline; Guérin-Faublée, Véronique; Pichereau, Vianney; Villers, Corinne; Leclercq, Roland

    2008-08-01

    Streptococcus uberis UCN60 was resistant to spiramycin (MIC = 8 microg/ml) but susceptible to erythromycin (MIC = 0.06 microg/ml), azithromycin (MIC = 0.12 microg/ml), josamycin (MIC = 0.25 microg/ml), and tylosin (MIC = 0.5 microg/ml). A 2.5-kb HindIII fragment was cloned from S. uberis UCN60 DNA on plasmid pUC18 and introduced into Escherichia coli AG100A, where it conferred resistance to spiramycin by inactivation. The sequence analysis of the fragment showed the presence of an rdmC-like gene that putatively encoded a protein belonging to the alpha/beta hydrolase family and of the first 196 nucleotides of the mph(B) gene putatively encoding a phosphotransferase known to inactivate 14-, 15-, and 16-membered macrolides in E. coli. The entire mph(B) gene was then identified in S. uberis UCN60. The two genes were expressed alone or in combination in E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterococcus faecalis. Analysis of MICs revealed that rdmC-like alone did not confer resistance to erythromycin, tylosin, and josamycin in those three hosts. It conferred resistance to spiramycin in E. coli and E. faecalis but not in S. aureus. mph(B) conferred resistance in E. coli to erythromycin, tylosin, josamycin, and spiramycin but only low levels of resistance in E. faecalis and S. aureus to spiramycin (MIC = 8 microg/ml). The combination of mph(B) and rdmC-like genes resulted in a resistance to spiramycin and tylosin in the three hosts that significantly exceeded the mere addition of the resistance levels conferred by each resistance mechanism alone. PMID:18519724

  16. Fate and transport of tylosin-resistant bacteria and macrolide resistance genes in artificially drained agricultural fields receiving swine manure.

    PubMed

    Luby, Elizabeth M; Moorman, Thomas B; Soupir, Michelle L

    2016-04-15

    Application of manure from swine treated with antibiotics introduces antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes to soil with the potential for further movement in drainage water, which may contribute to the increase in antibiotic resistance in non-agricultural settings. We compared losses of antibiotic-resistant Enterococcus and macrolide-resistance (erm and msrA) genes in water draining from plots with or without swine manure application under chisel plow and no till conditions. Concentrations of ermB, ermC and ermF were all >10(9)copies g(-1) in manure from tylosin-treated swine, and application of this manure resulted in short-term increases in the abundance of these genes in soil. Abundances of ermB, ermC and ermF in manured soil returned to levels identified in non-manured control plots by the spring following manure application. Tillage practices yielded no significant differences (p>0.10) in enterococci or erm gene concentrations in drainage water and were therefore combined for further analysis. While enterococci and tylosin-resistant enterococci concentrations in drainage water showed no effects of manure application, ermB and ermF concentrations in drainage water from manured plots were significantly higher (p<0.01) than concentrations coming from non-manured plots. ErmB and ermF were detected in 78% and 44%, respectively, of water samples draining from plots receiving manure. Although ermC had the highest concentrations of the three genes in drainage water, there was no effect of manure application on ermC abundance. MsrA was not detected in manure, soil or water. This study is the first to report significant increases in abundance of resistance genes in waters draining from agricultural land due to manure application. PMID:26874610

  17. In vivo spread of macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLSB) resistance--a model study in chickens.

    PubMed

    Marosevic, D; Cervinkova, D; Vlkova, H; Videnska, P; Babak, V; Jaglic, Z

    2014-07-16

    The influence of specific and non-specific antibiotic pressure on in vivo spread of macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLSB) resistance was evaluated in this study. Chickens repeatedly inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis harbouring the plasmid pAMβ1 carrying the erm(B) gene were perorally treated for one week with tylosin, lincomycin (both specific antibiotic pressure) and chlortetracycline (non-specific antibiotic pressure). Antibiotic non-treated but E. faecalis inoculated chickens served as a control. To quantify the erm(B) gene and characterise intestinal microflora, faecal DNA was analysed by qPCR and 454-pyrosequencing. Under the pressure of antibiotics, a significant increase in erm(B) was observed by qPCR. However, at the final stage of the experiment, an increase in erm(B) was also observed in two out of five non-treated chickens. In chickens treated with tylosin and chlortetracycline, the increase in erm(B) was accompanied by an increase in enterococci. However, E. faecalis was at the limit of detection in all animals. This suggests that the erm(B) gene spread among the gut microbiota other than E. faecalis. Pyrosequencing results indicated that, depending on the particular antibiotic pressure, different bacteria could be responsible for the spread of MLSB resistance. Different species of MLSB-resistant enterococci and streptococci were isolated from cloacal swabs during and after the treatment. PFGE analysis of MLSB-resistant enterococci revealed four clones, all differing from the challenge strain. All of the MLSB-resistant isolates harboured a plasmid of the same size as pAMβ1. This study has shown that MLSB resistance may spread within the gut microbiota under specific and non-specific pressure and even in the absence of any antimicrobial pressure. Finally, depending on the particular antibiotic pressure, different bacterial species seems to be involved in the spread of MLSB resistance. PMID:24467930

  18. Pharmacokinetic and in vivo studies with azithromycin (CP-62,993), a new macrolide with an extended half-life and excellent tissue distribution.

    PubMed

    Girard, A E; Girard, D; English, A R; Gootz, T D; Cimochowski, C R; Faiella, J A; Haskell, S L; Retsema, J A

    1987-12-01

    Azithromycin (CP-62,993), a new acid-stable 15-membered-ring macrolide, was well absorbed following oral administration in mice, rats, dogs, and cynomolgus monkeys. This compound exhibited a uniformly long elimination half-life and was distributed exceptionally well into all tissues. This extravascular penetration of azithromycin was demonstrated by tissue/plasma area-under-the-curve ratios ranging from 13.6 to 137 compared with ratios for erythromycin of 3.1 to 11.6. The significance of these pharmacokinetic advantages of azithromycin over erythromycin was shown through efficacy in a series of animal infection models. Azithromycin was orally effective in treating middle ear infections induced in gerbils by transbulla challenges with amoxicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae or susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae; erythromycin failed and cefaclor was only marginally active against the H. influenzae challenge. Azithromycin was equivalent to cefaclor and erythromycin against Streptococcus pneumoniae. In mouse models, the new macrolide was 10-fold more potent than erythromycin and four other antibiotics against an anaerobic infection produced by Fusobacterium necrophorum. Similarly, azithromycin was effective against established tissue infections induced by Salmonella enteritidis (liver and spleen) and Staphylococcus aureus (thigh muscle); erythromycin failed against both infections. The oral and subcutaneous activities of azithromycin, erythromycin, and cefaclor were similar against acute systemic infections produced by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus viridans, or S. aureus, whereas azithromycin was more potent than erythromycin and cefaclor against the intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. The pharmacokinetic advantage of azithromycin over erythromycin in half-life was clearly demonstrated in prophylactic treatment of an acute mouse model of S. aureus infection. These properties of azithromycin strongly support the

  19. Comparative Treatment Failure Rates of Respiratory Fluoroquinolones or β-Lactam + Macrolide Versus β-Lactam Alone in the Treatment for Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Adult Outpatients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Meng-Tse Gabriel; Lee, Shih-Hao; Chang, Shy-Shin; Chan, Ya-Lan; Pang, Laura; Hsu, Sue-Ming; Lee, Chien-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract No comparative effectiveness study has been conducted for the following 3 antibiotics: respiratory fluoroquinolone, β-lactam, and β-lactam + advanced macrolide. To gain insights into the real-world clinical effectiveness of these antibiotics for community-acquired pneumonia in adult outpatients, our study investigated the treatment failure rates in 2 million representative participants from the National Health Informatics Project (NHIP) of Taiwan. A new-user cohort design was used to follow NHIP participants from January 2000 until December 2009. Treatment failure was defined by either one of the following events: a second antibiotic prescription, hospitalization due to CAP, an emergency department visit with a diagnosis of CAP, or 30-day nonaccident-related mortality. From 2006 to 2009, we identified 9256 newly diagnosed CAP outpatients, 1602 of whom were prescribed levofloxacin, 2100 were prescribed moxifloxacin, 5049 were prescribed β-lactam alone, and 505 were prescribed advanced macrolide + β-lactam. Compared with the β-lactam-based regimen, the propensity score-matched odds ratio for composite treatment failure was 0.81 (95% CI, 0.67–0.97) for moxifloxacin, 1.10 (95% CI, 0.90–1.35) for levofloxacin, and 0.95 (95% CI, 0.67–1.35) for macrolide +β-lactam. Moxifloxacin was associated with lower treatment failure rates compared with β-lactam alone, or levofloxacin in Taiwanese CAP outpatients. However, due to inherent limitations in our claims database, more randomized controlled trials are required before coming to a conclusion on which antibiotic is more effective for Taiwanese CAP outpatients. More population-based comparative effectiveness studies are also encouraged and should be considered as an integral piece of evidence in local CAP treatment guidelines. PMID:26426664

  20. Evaluation of Macrolide Resistance and Enhanced Molecular Typing of Treponema pallidum in Patients with Syphilis in Taiwan: a Prospective Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hsiu; Chang, Sui-Yuan; Lee, Nan-Yao; Huang, Wen-Chi; Wu, Bing-Ru; Yang, Chia-Jui; Liang, Shiou-Haur; Lee, Chen-Hsiang; Ko, Wen-Chien; Lin, Hsi-Hsun; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Liu, Wen-Chun; Su, Yi-Ching; Hsieh, Chia-Yin; Wu, Pei-Ying

    2012-01-01

    Studies of macrolide resistance mutations and molecular typing using the newly proposed enhanced typing system for Treponema pallidum isolates obtained from HIV-infected patients in the Asia-Pacific region are scarce. Between September 2009 and December 2011, we conducted a survey to detect T. pallidum using a PCR assay using clinical specimens from patients with syphilis at six major designated hospitals for HIV care in Taiwan. The T. pallidum strains were genotyped by following the enhanced molecular typing methodology, which analyzed the number of 60-bp repeats in the acidic repeat protein (arp) gene, T. pallidum repeat (tpr) polymorphism, and the sequence of base pairs 131 to 215 in the tp0548 open reading frame of T. pallidum. Detection of A2058G and A2059G point mutations in the T. pallidum 23S rRNA was performed with the use of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). During the 2-year study period, 211 clinical specimens were obtained from 136 patients with syphilis. T. pallidum DNA was isolated from 105 (49.8%) of the specimens, with swab specimens obtained from chancres having the highest yield rate (63.2%), followed by plasma (49.4%), serum (35.7%), and cerebrospinal fluid or vitreous fluid (18.2%) specimens. Among the 40 fully typed specimens, 11 subtypes of T. pallidum were identified. Subtype 14f/f (18 isolates) was the most common isolates, followed by 14f/c (3), 14b/c (3), and 14k/f (3). Among the isolates examined for macrolide resistance, none had the A2058G or A2059G mutation. In conclusion, we found that type 14 f/f was the most common T. pallidum strain in this multicenter study on syphilis in Taiwan and that none of the isolates exhibited 23S rRNA mutations causing resistance to macrolides. PMID:22518868

  1. Telithromycin- and Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in Taiwan with High Prevalence of Resistance to Macrolides and β-Lactams: SMART Program 2001 Data

    PubMed Central

    Hsueh, Po-Ren; Teng, Lee-Jene; Wu, Tsu-Lan; Yang, Dine; Huang, Wen-Kuei; Shyr, Jainn-Ming; Chuang, Yin-Ching; Wan, Jen-Hsien; Yan, Jing-Jou; Lu, Jang-Jih; Wu, Jiunn-Jong; Ko, Wen-Chien; Chang, Feng-Yee; Yang, Yi-Chueh; Lau, Yeu-Jun; Liu, Yung-Ching; Lee, Chun-Ming; Leu, Hsieh-Shong; Liu, Cheng-Yi; Luh, Kwen-Tay

    2003-01-01

    There is a high prevalence of β-lactam- and macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in Taiwan. To understand the in vitro susceptibilities of recent isolates of S. pneumoniae to fluoroquinolones and telithromycin (which is not available in Taiwan), the MICs of 23 antimicrobial agents for 936 clinical isolates of S. pneumoniae isolated from different parts of Taiwan from 2000 to 2001 were determined by the agar dilution method. Overall, 72% of isolates were not susceptible to penicillin (with 61% being intermediate and 11% being resistant) and 92% were resistant to erythromycin. Telithromycin MICs were ≥1 μg/ml for 16% of the isolates, and for 99% of these isolates the MICs of all macrolides tested were ≥256 μg/ml; all of these isolates had the constitutive macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B phenotype. Eighty-eight percent of the isolates were resistant to three or more classes of drugs. The ciprofloxacin MICs were ≥4 μg/ml for six (0.6%) isolates from five patients collected in 2000 and 2001, and the levofloxacin MICs were ≥8 μg/ml for five of these isolates. Seven isolates for which ciprofloxacin MICs were ≥4 μg/ml, including one isolate recovered in 1999, belonged to three serotypes (serotype 19F, five isolates; serotype 23A, one isolate; and serotype 23B, one isolate). The isolates from the six patients for which ciprofloxacin MICs were ≥4 μg/ml had different pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles and random amplified polymorphic DNA patterns, indicating that no clonal dissemination occurred over this time period. Despite the increased rate of fluoroquinolone use, the proportion of pneumococcal isolates for which ciprofloxacin MICs were elevated (≥4 μg/ml) remained low. However, the occurrence of telithromycin resistance is impressive and raises concerns for the future. PMID:12821460

  2. In vitro activity of beta-lactams, macrolides, telithromycin, and fluoroquinolones against clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae: correlation between drug resistance and genetic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Toshiyuki; Hashikita, Giichi; Takahashi, Shun; Itabashi, Akira; Yamazaki, Tsutomu; Maesaki, Shigefumi

    2005-10-01

    The in vitro activity of antimicrobial agents against Streptococcus pneumoniae was determined using 16 strains of penicillin-susceptible S. pneumoniae (PSSP) and 26 strains of penicillin intermediately resistant S. pneumoniae (PISP) + penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae (PRSP) in Japan. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of potent antibiotics, including eight beta-lactams (benzylpenicillin, ampicillin, cefotiam, cefepime, cefditoren, faropenem, panipenem, and biapenem), three macrolides (erythromycin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin), telithromycin, and three fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and gatifloxacin), were determined. Twenty-three strains exhibited genetic variations at pbp1a + pbp2x + pbp2b, which are genetic-PRSP (g-PRSP). g-PISP strains accounted for 62.5% (10/16) of the PSSP strains. The existence of an abnormal pbp gene conferred not only penicillin resistance but resistance to cephems; however, panipenem and biapenem had potent in vitro efficacy against alterations. Regarding the macrolide resistance mechanisms (mefA or ermB): 16 isolates had only mefA, 18 isolates had ermB, and 2 isolates had both mefA and ermB. There was no correlation between the existence of an abnormal pbp gene and the existence of the mefA gene or the ermB gene. PMID:16258826

  3. [Determination of 35 antibiotic residues of tetracyclines, sulfonamides, penicillins, macrolides and amphenicols in milk by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectromtery].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Zhao, Li; Yang, Hongmei; Pan, Hongyan; Shi, Hailiang; Qian, Cong; Zhang, Shan

    2015-09-01

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was established for the simultaneous determination of 35 antibiotic residues of tetracyclines, sulfonamides, penicillins, macrolides and amphenicols in milk. The samples were extracted with alkaline acetonitrile and McIlvaine buffer solution under ultrasonication. The separation of target compounds was performed on an Eclipse XDB-C, column (150 mm x 2.1 mm, 3.5 µm) with gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.25 mL/min, and with an injection volume of 10 µL. The identification and quantification of the compounds were completed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in multiple reaction monitoring ( MRM) mode. The limits of detection were all below 10.0 µg/kg. The average spiked recoveries of the method ranged from 70. 1% to 109. 9% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 2.89%-9.99%. After validation, the method was applied to the analysis of antibiotic residues in milk products in China. Fifty samples were screened under the well defined methodology, and the results showed that chloramphenicol, only in one sample, was monitored with the content of 0.48 µg/kg. A risk of contamination of milk with chloramphenicol has been determined to exist. Therefore this method is convenient, rapid, sensitive and reliable, and can be successfully applied to the simultaneous detection of the 35 antibiotic residues of tetracyclines, sulfonamides, penicillins, macrolides and amphenicols in milk. PMID:26753289

  4. MacA, a periplasmic membrane fusion protein of the macrolide transporter MacAB-TolC, binds lipopolysaccharide core specifically and with high affinity.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shuo; Zgurskaya, Helen I

    2013-11-01

    The Escherichia coli MacAB-TolC transporter has been implicated in efflux of macrolide antibiotics and secretion of enterotoxin STII. In this study, we found that purified MacA, a periplasmic membrane fusion protein, contains one tightly bound rough core lipopolysaccharide (R-LPS) molecule per MacA molecule. R-LPS was bound specifically to MacA protein with affinity exceeding that of polymyxin B. Sequence analyses showed that MacA contains two high-density clusters of positively charged amino acid residues located in the cytoplasmic N-terminal domain and the periplasmic C-terminal domain. Substitutions in the C-terminal cluster reducing the positive-charge density completely abolished binding of R-LPS. At the same time, these substitutions significantly reduced the functionality of MacA in the protection of E. coli against macrolides in vivo and in the in vitro MacB ATPase stimulation assays. Taken together, our results suggest that R-LPS or a similar glycolipid is a physiological substrate of MacAB-TolC. PMID:23974027

  5. Synergistic combination of direct plasma membrane damage and oxidative stress as a cause of antifungal activity of polyol macrolide antibiotic niphimycin.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Keiji; Yamaguchi, Takafumi; Doi, Takeshi; Usuki, Yoshinosuke; Taniguchi, Makoto; Tanaka, Toshio

    2002-01-01

    The polyol macrolide niphimycin (NM) exhibited fungicidal activity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells accompanying the leakage of cytoplasmic components including nucleotide-like materials in addition to K+ at 10 microM or above. Such a dynamic change in the plasma membrane was observed upon treatment of cells with H2O2 but not with the polyene macrolide antibiotic amphotericin B (AmB). The NM-induced cell death could be prevented by the exogenous addition of phosphatidylcholine (PC) whereas such a protective effect was only weakly observed with ergosterol, the molecular target of AmB. NM-treated cells were further characterized with a dramatic loss of glutathione even at a dose of 5 microM or less, representing NM-triggered metabolic conversion of the antioxidant molecule. NM-treatment indeed accelerated the cellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as H2O2 detectable with a specific fluorescent probe in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggested a synergistic combination of direct plasma membrane damage and oxidative stress as a cause of antifungal activity of NM against S. cerevisiae. PMID:16233293

  6. Trace analysis of trimethoprim and sulfonamide, macrolide, quinolone, and tetracycline antibiotics in chlorinated drinking water using liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ye, Z.; Weinberg, H.S.; Meyer, M.T.

    2007-01-01

    A multirun analytical method has been developed and validated for trace determination of 24 antibiotics including 7 sulfonamides, 3 macrolides, 7 quinolones, 6 tetracyclines, and trimethoprim in chlorine-disinfected drinking water using a single solid-phase extraction method coupled to liquid chromatography with positive electrospray tandem mass spectrometry detection. The analytes were extracted by a hydrophilic-lipophilic balanced resin and eluted with acidified methanol (0.1% formic acid), resulting in analyte recoveries generally above 90%. The limits of quantitation were mostly below 10 ng/L in drinking water. Since the concentrated sample matrix typically caused ion suppression during electrospray ionization, the method of standard addition was used for quantitation. Chlorine residuals in drinking water can react with some antibiotics, but ascorbic acid was found to be an effective chlorine quenching agent without affecting the analysis and stability of the antibiotics in water. A preliminary occurrence study using this method revealed the presence of some antibiotics in drinking waters, including sulfamethoxazole (3.0-3.4 ng/L), macrolides (1.4-4.9 ng/L), and quinolones (1.2-4.0 ng/L). ?? 2007 American Chemical Society.

  7. Interaction of anisole with 3α-hydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oic acid macrolides. Part 1. Comparative 1H NMR spectral investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lappalainen, Kari V.; Kolehmainen, Erkki T.; Šaman, David

    1995-08-01

    1H NMR spectral investigation on the interaction of anisole (methoxybenzene) with five different (varying by ring size and substitution) cyclic 3α-hydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oic acid macrolides were performed. For 3α-hydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oic acid (lithocholic acid) macrolides (from triolide to pentolide) no effect was observed. In contrast, for 7α-trifluoroacetyloxy (7α-TFA) substituted lithocholate triolide obtained from chenodeoxycholic acid and for 12α-trifluoroacetyloxy (12α-TFA) substituted lithocholate triolide obtained from deoxycholic acid, clear site specific effects were observed. In the case of the 7α-TFA derivative, the aromatic guest causes the strongest up-field shift on the angular methyl 19 at the A/B ring junction of the steroid unit, and in 12α-TFA isomer the strongest effect is directed at the angular methyl 18 located at the C/D ring junction of the steroid skeleton. These findings are discussed in terms of steric factors and the size and flexibility of the cavity of the host molecule. Molecular mechanics is used in modeling the structures of three triolides.

  8. Reconstitution of the Escherichia coli macrolide transporter: the periplasmic membrane fusion protein MacA stimulates the ATPase activity of MacB.

    PubMed

    Tikhonova, Elena B; Devroy, Vishakha K; Lau, Sze Yi; Zgurskaya, Helen I

    2007-02-01

    Periplasmic membrane fusion proteins (MFPs) are essential components of the type I protein secretion systems and drug efflux pumps in Gram-negative bacteria. Previous studies suggested that MFPs connect the inner and outer membrane components of the transport systems and by this means co-ordinate the transfer of substrates across the two membranes. In this study, we purified and reconstituted the macrolide transporter MacAB from Escherichia coli. Here, MacA is a periplasmic MFP and MacB is an ABC-type transporter. Similar to other MFP-dependent transporters from E. coli, the in vivo function of MacAB requires the outer membrane channel TolC. The purified MacB displayed a basal ATPase activity in detergent micelles. This activity conformed to Michaelis-Menten kinetics but was unresponsive to substrates or accessory proteins. Upon reconstitution into proteoliposomes, the ATPase activity of MacB was strictly dependent on MacA. The catalytic efficiency of MacAB ATPase was more than 45-fold higher than the activity of MacB alone. Both the N- and C-terminal regions of MacA were essential for this activity. MacA stimulated MacB ATPase only in phospholipid bilayers and did not need the presence of macrolides. Our results suggest that MacA is a functional subunit of the MacB transporter. PMID:17214741

  9. On-line coupling of solid-phase extraction to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of macrolide antibiotics in environmental water.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jie; Ren, Nanqi; Chen, Ligang; Ding, Lan

    2009-02-23

    An automated on-line solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS/MS) system was developed for the determination of macrolide antibiotics including erythromycin (ETM), roxithromycin (RTM), tylosin (TLS) and tilmicosin (TMC) in environmental water samples. A Capcell Pak MF Ph-1 column packed with restricted access material (RAM) was used as SPE column for the concentration of the analytes and clean-up of the sample. One milliliter water sample was injected into the conditioned SPE column and the matrix was washed out with 3 mL high purity water. By rotation of the switching valve, macrolides (MLs) were eluted in the back-flush mode and transferred to the analytical column by the chromatographic mobile phase. The matrix effect was evaluated by the directly injection LC-MS and on-line SPE-LC-MS methods. The limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) obtained are in the range of 2-6 and 7-20 ng L(-1), respectively, which means that the proposed method is suitable for trace analysis of MLs at low level concentration. The intra- and inter-day precisions are in the range of 2.9-7.2% and 3.3-8.9%, respectively. In the three fortified levels (20, 200 and 2000 ng L(-1)), recoveries of MLs ranging from 86.5% to 98.3% are obtained. PMID:19185123

  10. Draft Genome Sequences of the Two Unrelated Macrolide-Resistant Corynebacterium argentoratense Strains CNM 463/05 and CNM 601/08, Isolated from Patients in the University Hospital of León, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Soriano, Francisco; Acedo, Alberto; Hernandez, Marta; Tauch, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Corynebacterium argentoratense has been associated mainly with infections in the human respiratory tract. Genome sequencing of two unrelated clinical macrolide-resistant strains, CNM 463/05 and CNM 601/08, revealed the presence of the antibiotic resistance gene erm(X) allocated to a specific genomic region with 100% similarity to the widely distributed transposable element Tn5432. PMID:26159536