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Sample records for macromolecules dna rna

  1. Resolution enhancement in Raman spectra of biological macromolecules by Fourier deconvolution: applications to single-stranded DNA and RNA viruses1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, George J.

    The application of a constrained, iterative Fourier deconvolution method to Raman spectra of viruses permits separation of overlapped vibrational bands assigned to viral protein and nucleic acid constituents. The intrinsically broad and extensively overlapped Raman lines, which cannot be resolved by instrumental methods, are sufficiently well separated in the deconvoluted spectra so that band areas may be measured with sufficient accuracy to allow conclusions about the secondary structures and hydrogen bonding interactions of viral molecular components. Deconvolution of Raman scattering in the region 1500-1750 cm -1 of filamentous bacteriophages resolves the contributions of(i)amide I modes ofalpha-helix and beta-strand conformations of the viral coat proteins, (ii) aromatic ring modes of tryptophan, tyrosine and phenylalanine side chains and (iii) purine ring modes of the coated DNA molecule. The results show that among six filamentous viruses the amount of alpha-helix in coat protein subunits decreases in the following order: Pfl (100%) > IKe (93%) > fd (92%) > Ifl (90%) > Pf3 (82%) > Xf (71%). In an application to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), the complex band in the 800-850 cm -1 region is deconvoluted to resolve contributions from the encapsidated RNA genome at 813 and 822 cm -1, which indicate at least two distinct nucleoside conformers and a contribution from the tyrosine rings of protein subunits at 831 cm -1. Integrated intensity measurements suggest that at least two-thirds of the nucleosides do not contain the usual C3'-endo ring pucker and anti orientation of the glycosidic bond normally associated with nucleoside residues of single-stranded RNA.

  2. Simultaneous RNA-DNA FISH.

    PubMed

    Lai, Lan-Tian; Meng, Zhenyu; Shao, Fangwei; Zhang, Li-Feng

    2016-01-01

    A highly useful tool for studying lncRNAs is simultaneous RNA-DNA FISH, which reveals the localization and quantitative information of RNA and DNA in cellular contexts. However, a simple combination of RNA FISH and DNA FISH often generates disappointing results because the fragile RNA signals are often damaged by the harsh conditions used in DNA FISH for denaturing the DNA. Here, we describe a robust and simple RNA-DNA FISH protocol, in which amino-labeled nucleic acid probes are used for RNA FISH. The method is suitable to detect single-RNA molecules simultaneously with DNA. PMID:26721488

  3. Triggering of RNA Interference with RNARNA, RNADNA, and DNARNA Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Control over cellular delivery of different functionalities and their synchronized activation is a challenging task. We report several RNA and RNA/DNA-based nanoparticles designed to conditionally activate the RNA interference in various human cells. These nanoparticles allow precise control over their formulation, stability in blood serum, and activation of multiple functionalities. Importantly, interferon and pro-inflammatory cytokine activation assays indicate the significantly lower responses for DNA nanoparticles compared to the RNA counterparts, suggesting greater potential of these molecules for therapeutic use. PMID:25521794

  4. Target Biological Structures: The Cell, Organelles, DNA and RNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Holst, Marcelis; Grant, Maxine P.; Aldrich-Wright, Janice

    Living organisms are self replicating molecular factories of staggering complexity [1]. As a result, we are often overwhelmed when trying to identify potential targets for therapeutics. Water, inorganic ions and a large array of relatively small organic molecules (e.g., sugars, vitamins and fatty acids) account for approximately 80% of living matter, with water being the most abundant. Macromolecules such as proteins, polysaccharides, ribonucleic acid (RNA) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) constitute the rest. The majority of potential therapeutic targets are found within the cell. Small molecules which are vital for cellular function are imported into the cell by a variety of mechanisms but unlike smaller molecules, macromolecules are assembled within the cell itself. Drugs are usually designed to target cellular macromolecules, as they perform very specific roles in the metabolic processes.

  5. Antibodies against DNA hydrolyze DNA and RNA.

    PubMed

    Krasnorutskii, M A; Buneva, V N; Nevinsky, G A

    2008-11-01

    In this work, rabbits were immunized with a high polymer DNA complexed with methylated BSA (mBSA) and by mBSA. It is shown that electrophoretically homogeneous preparations of polyclonal antibodies (Ab) from non-immunized rabbits and animals immunized by mBSA do not exhibit catalytic activity. Ab from the blood of rabbits immunized with the DNA-mBSA complex hydrolyzed poly(C) and different RNAs with efficiency exceeding that towards DNA by approximately 3-4 orders of magnitude. Affinity chromatography of the IgG on DNA cellulose separated the Ab into fractions hydrolyzing both RNA and DNA, and for the first time fractions that hydrolyze only RNA were found. Kinetic parameters that characterize the RNA and DNA hydrolysis by initial Ab preparations and their fractions obtained by separation on an affinity sorbent are compared. PMID:19120029

  6. Cationic Amphiphilic Macromolecule (CAM)-lipid Complexes for Efficient siRNA Gene Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Li; Nusblat, Leora M.; Tishbi, Nasim; Noble, Sarah C.; Pinson, Chaya M.; Mintzer, Evan; Roth, Charles M.; Uhrich, Kathryn E.

    2014-01-01

    The accumulated evidence has shown that lipids and polymers each have distinct advantages as carriers for siRNA delivery. Composite materials comprising both lipids and polymers may present improved properties that combine the advantage of each. Cationic amphiphilic macromolecules (CAMs) containing a hydrophobic alkylated mucic acid segment and a hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) tail were non-covalently complexed with two lipids.1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DOPE) and 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP), to serve as a siRNA delivery vehicle. By varying the weight ratio of CAM to lipid, cationic complexes with varying compositions were obtained in aqueous media and their properties evaluated. CAM-lipid complex sizes were relatively independent of composition, ranging from 100 to 200 nm, and zeta potentials varied from 10 to 30 mV. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed the spherical morphology of the complexes. The optimal N/P ratio was 50 as determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. The ability to achieve gene silencing was evaluated by anti-luciferase siRNA delivery to a U87-luciferase cell line. Several weight ratios of CAM-lipid complexes were found to have similar delivery efficiency compared to the gold standard, Lipofectamine. Isothermal titration calorimetry revealed that siRNA binds more tightly at pH = 7.4 than pH = 5 to CAM-lipid (1:10 w/w). Further intracellular trafficking studies monitored the siRNA escape from the endosomes at 24 h following transfection of cells. The findings in the paper indicate that CAM-lipid complexes can serve as a novel and efficient siRNA delivery vehicle. PMID:24727076

  7. Cationic amphiphilic macromolecule (CAM)-lipid complexes for efficient siRNA gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Gu, Li; Nusblat, Leora M; Tishbi, Nasim; Noble, Sarah C; Pinson, Chaya M; Mintzer, Evan; Roth, Charles M; Uhrich, Kathryn E

    2014-06-28

    The accumulated evidence has shown that lipids and polymers each have distinct advantages as carriers for siRNA delivery. Composite materials comprising both lipids and polymers may present improved properties that combine the advantage of each. Cationic amphiphilic macromolecules (CAMs) containing a hydrophobic alkylated mucic acid segment and a hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) tail were non-covalently complexed with two lipids, 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DOPE) and 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP), to serve as a siRNA delivery vehicle. By varying the weight ratio of CAM to lipid, cationic complexes with varying compositions were obtained in aqueous media and their properties evaluated. CAM-lipid complex sizes were relatively independent of composition, ranging from 100 to 200nm, and zeta potentials varied from 10 to 30mV. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed the spherical morphology of the complexes. The optimal N/P ratio was 50 as determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. The ability to achieve gene silencing was evaluated by anti-luciferase siRNA delivery to a U87-luciferase cell line. Several weight ratios of CAM-lipid complexes were found to have similar delivery efficiency compared to the gold standard, Lipofectamine. Isothermal titration calorimetry revealed that siRNA binds more tightly at pH=7.4 than pH=5 to CAM-lipid (1:10 w/w). Further intracellular trafficking studies monitored the siRNA escape from the endosomes at 24h following transfection of cells. The findings in the paper indicate that CAM-lipid complexes can serve as a novel and efficient siRNA delivery vehicle. PMID:24727076

  8. Quantum confinement in hydrogen bond of DNA and RNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos, C. S.; Drigo Filho, E.; Ricotta, R. M.

    2015-04-01

    The hydrogen bond is a fundamental ingredient to stabilize the DNA and RNA macromolecules. The main contribution of this work is to describe quantitatively this interaction as a consequence of the quantum confinement of the hydrogen. The results for the free and confined system are compared with experimental data. The formalism to compute the energy gap of the vibration motion used to identify the spectrum lines is the Variational Method allied to Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics.

  9. RNA-guided DNA assembly.

    PubMed

    Angeleska, Angela; Jonoska, Natasa; Saito, Masahico; Landweber, Laura F

    2007-10-21

    We propose molecular models for homologous DNA recombination events that are guided by either double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) or single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) templates. The models are applied to explain DNA rearrangements in some groups of ciliates, such as Stylonychia or Oxytricha, where extensive gene rearrangement occurs during differentiation of a somatic macronucleus from a germline micronucleus. We describe a model for RNA template guided DNA recombination, such that the template serves as a catalyst that remains unchanged after DNA recombination. This recombination can be seen as topological braiding of the DNA, with the template-guided alignment proceeding through DNA branch migration. We show that a virtual knot diagram can provide a physical representation of the DNA at the time of recombination. Schematically, the braiding process can be represented as a crossing in the virtual knot diagram. The homologous recombination corresponds to removal of the crossings in the knot diagram (called smoothing). We show that if all recombinations are performed at the same time (i.e., simultaneous smoothings of the crossings) then one of the resulting DNA molecules will always contain all of the gene segments in their correct, linear order, which produces the mature DNA sequence. PMID:17669433

  10. Linear and ring DNA macromolecules moderately and strongly confined in nanochannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cifra, Peter; Benkova, Zuzana; Bleha, Tomas

    2013-03-01

    Understanding the mechanism of DNA extension in nanochannels is necessary for interpretation of experiments in nanofluidic channel devices that are conducted recently not only with linear but also with ring chains. Except reviewing the situation with linear chains we analyze here the experimental results and simulations for the channel-induced extension (linearization) of ring chains. Results of simulations for confined rings indicate that similar transition between moderate and strong confinement as in the case of linear chains exists also for rings. Due to stronger self-avoidance in confined rings the transition and relative chain extension is shifted in comparison to linear DNA. We suggest that similar relation as used in experiments for the extension of linear chains may be used also for circular DNA. For linear DNA in channel relatively stable distinctive events due to chain backfolding, which complicate chain linearization experiments, are analyzed. The abundance of DNA chains folded at the chain ends and in the chain interior was analyzed as a function of the channel width. Z. Benkova, P.Cifra, Macromolecules 45, 2597-2608 (2012) P. Cifra, T.Bleha, Soft Matter 8, 9022-9028 (2012) We acknowledge the support from grant SRDA-0451-11, VEGA grants 2/0093/12 and 2/0079/12 and by the FCT postdoc (Z.B.) co-financed by the Europ. Soc. Found, grant number SFRH/BPD/63568/2009

  11. Hairpins under tension: RNA versus DNA

    PubMed Central

    Bercy, Mathilde; Bockelmann, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    We use optical tweezers to control the folding and unfolding of individual DNA and RNA hairpins by force. Four hairpin molecules are studied in comparison: two DNA and two RNA ones. We observe that the conformational dynamics is slower for the RNA hairpins than for their DNA counterparts. Our results indicate that structures made of RNA are dynamically more stable. This difference might contribute to the fact that DNA and RNA play fundamentally different biological roles in spite of chemical similarity. PMID:26323319

  12. RNautophagy/DNautophagy possesses selectivity for RNA/DNA substrates

    PubMed Central

    Hase, Katsunori; Fujiwara, Yuuki; Kikuchi, Hisae; Aizawa, Shu; Hakuno, Fumihiko; Takahashi, Shin-Ichiro; Wada, Keiji; Kabuta, Tomohiro

    2015-01-01

    Lysosomes can degrade various biological macromolecules, including nucleic acids, proteins and lipids. Recently, we identified novel nucleic acid-degradation systems termed RNautophagy/DNautophagy (abbreviated as RDA), in which RNA and DNA are directly taken up by lysosomes in an ATP-dependent manner and degraded. We also found that a lysosomal membrane protein, LAMP2C, the cytoplasmic region of which binds to RNA and DNA, functions, at least in part, as an RNA/DNA receptor in the process of RDA. However, it has been unclear whether RDA possesses selectivity for RNA/DNA substrates and the RNA/DNA sequences that are recognized by LAMP2C have not been determined. In the present study, we found that the cytosolic region of LAMP2C binds to poly-G/dG, but not to poly-A/dA, poly-C/dC, poly-dT or poly-U. Consistent with this binding activity, poly-G/dG was transported into isolated lysosomes via RDA, while poly-A/dA, poly-C/dC, poly-dT and poly-U were not. GGGGGG or d(GGGG) sequences are essential for the interaction between poly-G/dG and LAMP2C. In addition to poly-G/dG, G/dG-rich sequences, such as a repeated GGGGCC sequence, interacted with the cytosolic region of LAMP2C. Our findings indicate that RDA does possess selectivity for RNA/DNA substrates and that at least some consecutive G/dG sequence(s) can mediate RDA. PMID:26038313

  13. Ribonucleotide triggered DNA damage and RNA-DNA damage responses

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Bret D; Williams, R Scott

    2014-01-01

    Research indicates that the transient contamination of DNA with ribonucleotides exceeds all other known types of DNA damage combined. The consequences of ribose incorporation into DNA, and the identity of protein factors operating in this RNA-DNA realm to protect genomic integrity from RNA-triggered events are emerging. Left unrepaired, the presence of ribonucleotides in genomic DNA impacts cellular proliferation and is associated with chromosome instability, gross chromosomal rearrangements, mutagenesis, and production of previously unrecognized forms of ribonucleotide-triggered DNA damage. Here, we highlight recent findings on the nature and structure of DNA damage arising from ribonucleotides in DNA, and the identification of cellular factors acting in an RNA-DNA damage response (RDDR) to counter RNA-triggered DNA damage. PMID:25692233

  14. Antisense recognition of the HER-2 mRNA: effects of phosphorothioate substitution and polyamines on DNA.RNA, RNA.RNA, and DNA.DNA duplex stability.

    PubMed

    Venkiteswaran, Sripriya; Vijayanathan, Veena; Shirahata, Akira; Thomas, Thresia; Thomas, T J

    2005-01-11

    The HER-2 gene is overexpressed in a subset of breast, ovarian, lung, and pancreatic cancers. Antisense oligonucleotides suppress gene expression depending on the stability of the DNA.RNA hybrids formed at the target site. Polyamines, the cellular cations that interact with DNA and RNA, may influence hybrid stability in the cell. Therefore, we studied the ability of natural polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) and a series of their structural analogues to stabilize DNA.RNA and RNA.RNA duplexes using melting temperature (T(m)) measurements and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. Phosphodiester (PO) and phosphorothioate (PS) oligonucleotides (ODNs) (15 nucleotides, 5'-CTCCATGGTGCTCAC-3') targeted to the initiation codon region of the HER-2 mRNA, and complementary RNA and DNA ODNs, were used in this study. The relative order of thermal stability was as follows: RNA.RNA > PO-DNA.RNA > PO-DNA.PO-DNA > PS-DNA.RNA > PS-DNA.PO-DNA > PS-DNA.PS-DNA. The ability of polyamines to stabilize the duplexes improved with the cationicity of the polyamine, with hexamines being more effective than pentamines, which in turn were more effective than tetramines and triamines. However, chemical structural effects were clearly evident with isovalent homologues of spermidine and spermine. CD spectra showed B and A conformations, respectively, for the DNA and RNA helices. DNA.RNA hybrids adopted an intermediate structure between the B and A forms. These data help us to understand the role of endogenous polyamines in DNA.RNA hybrid stabilization, and provide information for designing novel polyamines to facilitate the use of antisense ODNs for controlling HER-2 gene expression. PMID:15628872

  15. Targets of RNA-directed DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Matzke, Marjori; Kanno, Tatsuo; Huettel, Bruno; Daxinger, Lucia; Matzke, Antonius J M

    2007-10-01

    RNA-directed DNA methylation contributes substantially to epigenetic regulation of the plant genome. Methylation is guided to homologous DNA target sequences by 24 nt 'heterochromatic' small RNAs produced by nucleolar-localized components of the RNAi machinery and a plant-specific RNA polymerase, Pol IV. Plants contain unusually large and diverse populations of small RNAs, many of which originate from transposons and repeats. These sequences are frequent targets of methylation, and they are able to bring plant genes in their vicinity under small RNA-mediated control. RNA-directed DNA methylation can be removed by enzymatic demethylation, providing plants with a versatile system that facilitates epigenetic plasticity. In addition to subduing transposons, RNA-directed DNA methylation has roles in plant development and, perhaps, stress responses. PMID:17702644

  16. Initiator RNA in Discontinuous Polyoma DNA Synthesis*

    PubMed Central

    Reichard, Peter; Eliasson, Rolf; Söderman, Gunilla

    1974-01-01

    During replication of polyoma DNA in isolated nuclei, RNA was found attached to the 5′ ends of growing progeny strands. This RNA starts with either ATP or GTP and can be labeled at its 5′ end with 32P from β-labeled nucleotides. Digestion of progeny strands with pancreatic DNase released 32P-labeled RNA that, on gel electrophoresis, gave a distinct peak in the position expected for a decanucleotide. We believe that this short RNA is involved in the initiation of the discontinuous synthesis of DNA and propose the name “initiator RNA” for it. The covalent linkage of initiator RNA to 5′ ends of growing DNA chains was substantiated by the finding that 32P was transferred to ribonucleotides by alkaline hydrolysis of purified initiator RNA obtained by DNase digestion of polyoma progeny strands synthesized from [α-32P]dTTP. While initiator RNA was quite homogeneous in size, it had no unique base sequence since digestion with pancreatic RNase of initiator RNA labeled at its 5′ end with 32P released a variety of different [32P]oligonucleotides. The switch from RNA to DNA synthesis during strand elongation may thus depend on the size of initiator RNA rather than on a specific base sequence. PMID:4373733

  17. Nuclear Overhauser effect in specifically deuterated macromolecules: NMR assay for unusual base pairing in transfer RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, V; Redfield, A G; Johnston, P D; Tropp, J

    1980-01-01

    We demonstrate a fairly general method for identification of NMR absorption lines of macromolecues extracted from microorganisms, based on nuclear Overhauser effects (NOE). Several NOE in tRNA are observable between resolved imino proton resonances and ring carbon resonances that are either C(2) protons of adenine or C(8) protons of adenine or guanine. Yeast tRNAPhe was deuterated at the purine C(8) positins by heating in 2H2O and also biosynthetically. NOE between imino protons and adenine C(2) protons of standard A . U base pairs would not be affected by such a label, but some other NOE that might be otherwise similar, such as those of reverse Hoogsteen base pairs, should disappear. Six NOE were shown to be from standard A . U pairs by their nondisappearance. Four NOE from methyl resonances to aromatic proton resonances did disappear. The results disagree with previous assignments based on ring-current theories of imino proton NMR shifts. PMID:7003592

  18. A DNA enzyme that cleaves RNA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breaker, R. R.; Joyce, G. F.; Hoyce, G. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several types of RNA enzymes (ribozymes) have been identified in biological systems and generated in the laboratory. Considering the variety of known RNA enzymes and the similarity of DNA and RNA, it is reasonable to imagine that DNA might be able to function as an enzyme as well. No such DNA enzyme has been found in nature, however. We set out to identify a metal-dependent DNA enzyme using in vitro selection methodology. RESULTS: Beginning with a population of 10(14) DNAs containing 50 random nucleotides, we carried out five successive rounds of selective amplification, enriching for individuals that best promote the Pb(2+)-dependent cleavage of a target ribonucleoside 3'-O-P bond embedded within an otherwise all-DNA sequence. By the fifth round, the population as a whole carried out this reaction at a rate of 0.2 min-1. Based on the sequence of 20 individuals isolated from this population, we designed a simplified version of the catalytic domain that operates in an intermolecular context with a turnover rate of 1 min-1. This rate is about 10(5)-fold increased compared to the uncatalyzed reaction. CONCLUSIONS: Using in vitro selection techniques, we obtained a DNA enzyme that catalyzes the Pb(2+)-dependent cleavage of an RNA phosphoester in a reaction that proceeds with rapid turnover. The catalytic rate compares favorably to that of known RNA enzymes. We expect that other examples of DNA enzymes will soon be forthcoming.

  19. Absolute cross section for low-energy-electron damage to condensed macromolecules: A case study of DNA

    PubMed Central

    Rezaee, Mohammad; Cloutier, Pierre; Bass, Andrew D.; Michaud, Marc; Hunting, Darel J.; Sanche, Lon

    2013-01-01

    Cross sections (CSs) for the interaction of low-energy electrons (LEE) with condensed macromolecules are essential parameters for accurate modeling of radiation-induced molecular decomposition and chemical synthesis. Electron irradiation of dry nanometer-scale macromolecular solid films has often been employed to measure CSs and other quantitative parameters for LEE interactions. Since such films have thicknesses comparable with electron thermalization distances, energy deposition varies throughout the film. Moreover, charge accumulation occurring inside the films shields a proportion of the macromolecules from electron irradiation. Such effects complicate the quantitative comparison of the CSs obtained in films of different thicknesses and limit the applicability of such measurements. Here, we develop a simple mathematical model, termed the molecular survival model, that employs a CS for a particular damage process together with an attenuation length related to the total CS, to investigate how a measured CS might be expected to vary with experimental conditions. As a case study, we measure the absolute CS for the formation of DNA strand breaks (SBs) by electron irradiation at 10 and 100 eV of lyophilized plasmid DNA films with thicknesses between 10 and 30 nm. The measurements are shown to depend strongly on the thickness and charging condition of the nanometer-scale films. Such behaviors are in accord with the model and support its validity. Via this analysis, the CS obtained for SB damage is nearly independent of film thickness and charging effects. In principle, this model can be adapted to provide absolute CSs for electron-induced damage or reactions occurring in other molecular solids across a wider range of experimental conditions. PMID:23030950

  20. Strategies for RNA-Guided DNA Recombination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angeleska, Angela; Jonoska, Nataa; Saito, Masahico; Landweber, Laura F.

    We present a model for homologous DNA recombination events guided by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) templates, and apply this model to DNA rearrangements in some groups of ciliates, such as Stylonychia or Oxytricha. In these organisms, differentiation of a somatic macronucleus from a germline micronucleus involves extensive gene rearrangement, which can be modeled as topological braiding of the DNA, with the template-guided alignment proceeding through DNA branch migration. We show that a graph structure, which we refer to as an assembly graph, containing only 1- and 4-valent vertices can provide a physical representation of the DNA at the time of recombination. With this representation, 4-valent vertices correspond to the alignment of the recombination sites, and we model the actual recombination event as smoothing of these vertices.

  1. Interaction of Sulforaphane with DNA and RNA

    PubMed Central

    Abassi Joozdani, Farzaneh; Yari, Faramarz; Abassi Joozdani, Parvaneh; Nafisi, Shohreh

    2015-01-01

    Sulforaphane (SFN) is an isothiocyanate found in cruciferous vegetables with anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-cancer activities. However, the antioxidant and anticancer mechanism of sulforaphane is not well understood. In the present research, we reported binding modes, binding constants and stability of SFNDNA and -RNA complexes by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and UVVisible spectroscopic methods. Spectroscopic evidence showed DNA intercalation with some degree of groove binding. SFN binds minor and major grooves of DNA and backbone phosphate (PO2), while RNA binding is through G, U, A bases with some degree of SFNphosphate (PO2) interaction. Overall binding constants were estimated to be K(SFNDNA)=3.01 ( 0.035)104 M-1 and K(SFNRNA)= 6.63 (0.042)103 M-1. At high SFN concentration (SFN/RNA = 1/1), DNA conformation changed from B to A occurred, while RNA remained in A-family structure. PMID:26030290

  2. Free-energy calculations for semi-flexible macromolecules: Applications to DNA knotting and looping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovan, Stefan M.; Scharein, Robert G.; Hanke, Andreas; Levene, Stephen D.

    2014-11-01

    We present a method to obtain numerically accurate values of configurational free energies of semiflexible macromolecular systems, based on the technique of thermodynamic integration combined with normal-mode analysis of a reference system subject to harmonic constraints. Compared with previous free-energy calculations that depend on a reference state, our approach introduces two innovations, namely, the use of internal coordinates to constrain the reference states and the ability to freely select these reference states. As a consequence, it is possible to explore systems that undergo substantially larger fluctuations than those considered in previous calculations, including semiflexible biopolymers having arbitrary ratios of contour length L to persistence length P. To validate the method, high accuracy is demonstrated for free energies of prime DNA knots with L/P = 20 and L/P = 40, corresponding to DNA lengths of 3000 and 6000 base pairs, respectively. We then apply the method to study the free-energy landscape for a model of a synaptic nucleoprotein complex containing a pair of looped domains, revealing a bifurcation in the location of optimal synapse (crossover) sites. This transition is relevant to target-site selection by DNA-binding proteins that occupy multiple DNA sites separated by large linear distances along the genome, a problem that arises naturally in gene regulation, DNA recombination, and the action of type-II topoisomerases.

  3. Free-energy calculations for semi-flexible macromolecules: Applications to DNA knotting and looping

    SciTech Connect

    Giovan, Stefan M.; Scharein, Robert G.; Hanke, Andreas; Levene, Stephen D.

    2014-11-07

    We present a method to obtain numerically accurate values of configurational free energies of semiflexible macromolecular systems, based on the technique of thermodynamic integration combined with normal-mode analysis of a reference system subject to harmonic constraints. Compared with previous free-energy calculations that depend on a reference state, our approach introduces two innovations, namely, the use of internal coordinates to constrain the reference states and the ability to freely select these reference states. As a consequence, it is possible to explore systems that undergo substantially larger fluctuations than those considered in previous calculations, including semiflexible biopolymers having arbitrary ratios of contour length L to persistence length P. To validate the method, high accuracy is demonstrated for free energies of prime DNA knots with L/P = 20 and L/P = 40, corresponding to DNA lengths of 3000 and 6000 base pairs, respectively. We then apply the method to study the free-energy landscape for a model of a synaptic nucleoprotein complex containing a pair of looped domains, revealing a bifurcation in the location of optimal synapse (crossover) sites. This transition is relevant to target-site selection by DNA-binding proteins that occupy multiple DNA sites separated by large linear distances along the genome, a problem that arises naturally in gene regulation, DNA recombination, and the action of type-II topoisomerases.

  4. RNA-directed DNA methylation in plants.

    PubMed

    Movahedi, Ali; Sun, Weibu; Zhang, Jiaxin; Wu, Xiaolong; Mousavi, Mohaddesseh; Mohammadi, Kourosh; Yin, Tongming; Zhuge, Qiang

    2015-11-01

    In plants, many small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) direct de novo methylation by DNA methyltransferase. DNA methylation typically occurs by RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM), which directs transcriptional gene silencing of transposons and endogenous transgenes. RdDM is driven by non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) produced by DNA-dependent RNA polymerases IV and V (PolIV and PolV). The production of siRNAs is initiated by PolIV and ncRNAs produced by PolIV are precursors of 24-nucleotide siRNAs. In contrast, ncRNAs produced by PolV are involved in scaffolding RNAs. In this review, we summarize recent studies of RdDM. In particular, we focus on the mechanisms involved in chromatin remodeling by PolIV and PolV. PMID:26183954

  5. Observation of Single-Protein and DNA Macromolecule Collisions on Ultramicroelectrodes.

    PubMed

    Dick, Jeffrey E; Renault, Christophe; Bard, Allen J

    2015-07-01

    Single-molecule detection is the ultimate sensitivity in analytical chemistry and has been largely unavailable in electrochemical analysis. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of detecting electrochemically inactive single biomacromolecules, such as enzymes, antibodies, and DNA, by blocking a solution redox reaction when molecules adsorb and block electrode sites. By oxidizing a large concentration of potassium ferrocyanide on an ultramicroelectrode (UME, radius ?150 nm), time-resolved, discrete adsorption events of antibodies, enzymes, DNA, and polystyrene nanospheres can be differentiated from the background by their "footprint". Further, by assuming that the mass transport of proteins to the electrode surface is controlled mainly by diffusion, a size estimate using the Stokes-Einstein relationship shows good agreement of electrochemical data with known protein sizes. PMID:26108405

  6. The RNA Splicing Response to DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Shkreta, Lulzim; Chabot, Benoit

    2015-01-01

    The number of factors known to participate in the DNA damage response (DDR) has expanded considerably in recent years to include splicing and alternative splicing factors. While the binding of splicing proteins and ribonucleoprotein complexes to nascent transcripts prevents genomic instability by deterring the formation of RNA/DNA duplexes, splicing factors are also recruited to, or removed from, sites of DNA damage. The first steps of the DDR promote the post-translational modification of splicing factors to affect their localization and activity, while more downstream DDR events alter their expression. Although descriptions of molecular mechanisms remain limited, an emerging trend is that DNA damage disrupts the coupling of constitutive and alternative splicing with the transcription of genes involved in DNA repair, cell-cycle control and apoptosis. A better understanding of how changes in splice site selection are integrated into the DDR may provide new avenues to combat cancer and delay aging. PMID:26529031

  7. Isothermal amplified detection of DNA and RNA.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lei; Zhou, Jie; Zheng, Yue; Gamson, Adam S; Roembke, Benjamin T; Nakayama, Shizuka; Sintim, Herman O

    2014-05-01

    This review highlights various methods that can be used for a sensitive detection of nucleic acids without using thermal cycling procedures, as is done in PCR or LCR. Topics included are nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA), strand displacement amplification (SDA), loop-mediated amplification (LAMP), Invader assay, rolling circle amplification (RCA), signal mediated amplification of RNA technology (SMART), helicase-dependent amplification (HDA), recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA), nicking endonuclease signal amplification (NESA) and nicking endonuclease assisted nanoparticle activation (NENNA), exonuclease-aided target recycling, Junction or Y-probes, split DNAZyme and deoxyribozyme amplification strategies, template-directed chemical reactions that lead to amplified signals, non-covalent DNA catalytic reactions, hybridization chain reactions (HCR) and detection via the self-assembly of DNA probes to give supramolecular structures. The majority of these isothermal amplification methods can detect DNA or RNA in complex biological matrices and have great potential for use at point-of-care. PMID:24643211

  8. Studies of the dynamics of biological macromolecules using Au nanoparticle-DNA artificial molecules.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qian; Smith, Jessica M; Rasool, Haider I; Zettl, Alex; Alivisatos, A Paul

    2014-01-01

    The recent development of graphene liquid cells, a nanoscale version of liquid bubble wrap, is a breakthrough for in situ liquid phase electron microscopy (EM). Using ultrathin graphene sheets as the liquid sample container, graphene liquid cells have allowed the unprecedented atomic resolution observation of solution phase growth and dynamics of nanocrystals. Here we explore the potential of this technique to probe nanoscale structure and dynamics of biomolecules in situ, using artificial Au nanoparticle-DNA artificial molecules as model systems. The interactions of electrons with both the artificial molecules and the liquid environment have been demonstrated and discussed, revealing both the opportunities and challenges of using graphene liquid cell EM as a new method of bio-imaging. PMID:25430862

  9. Statistical mechanical treatment of the structural hydration of biological macromolecules: Results for [ital B]-DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Hummer, G. ); Soumpasis, D.M. )

    1994-12-01

    We constructed an efficient and accurate computational tool based on the potentials-of-mean-force approach for computing the detailed hydrophilic hydration of complex molecular structures in aqueous environments. Using the pair and triplet correlation functions database previously obtained from computer simulations of the simple point charge model of water, we computed the detailed structural organization of water around two [ital B]-DNA molecules with sequences d(AATT)[sub 3][center dot]d(AATT)[sub 3] and d(CCGG)[sub 3][center dot]d(CCGG)[sub 3], and canonical structure. [[ital A], T, C, and G denote adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine, respectively, and d(...) denotes the deoxyribose in the sugar-phosphate backbone.] The results obtained are in agreement with the experimental observations. A[center dot]T base-pair stretches are found to support the marked minor-groove spines of hydration'' observed in x-ray crystal structures. The hydrophilic hydration of the minor groove of the molecule d(CCGG)[sub 3][center dot]d(CCGG)[sub 3] exhibits a double ribbon of high water density, which is also in agreement with x-ray crystallography observations of C[center dot]G base-pair regions. The major grooves, on the other hand, do not show a comparably strong localization of water molecules. The quantitative results are compared with a computer simulation study of Forester [ital et] [ital al]. [Mol. Phys. 72, 643 (1991)]. We find good agreement for the hydration of the -NH[sub 2] groups, the cylindrically averaged water density distributions, and the overall hydration number. The agreement is less satisfactory for the phosphate groups. However, by refining the treatment of the anionic oxygens on the phosphate groups, almost full quantitative agreement is achieved.

  10. Statistical mechanical treatment of the structural hydration of biological macromolecules: Results for B-DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hummer, Gerhard; Soumpasis, Dikeos Mario

    1994-12-01

    We constructed an efficient and accurate computational tool based on the potentials-of-mean-force approach for computing the detailed hydrophilic hydration of complex molecular structures in aqueous environments. Using the pair and triplet correlation functions database previously obtained from computer simulations of the simple point charge model of water, we computed the detailed structural organization of water around two B-DNA molecules with sequences d(AATT)3.d(AATT)3 and d(CCGG)3.d(CCGG)3, and canonical structure. [A, T, C, and G denote adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine, respectively, and d(...) denotes the deoxyribose in the sugar-phosphate backbone.] The results obtained are in agreement with the experimental observations. A.T base-pair stretches are found to support the marked minor-groove ``spines of hydration'' observed in x-ray crystal structures. The hydrophilic hydration of the minor groove of the molecule d(CCGG)3.d(CCGG)3 exhibits a double ribbon of high water density, which is also in agreement with x-ray crystallography observations of C.G base-pair regions. The major grooves, on the other hand, do not show a comparably strong localization of water molecules. The quantitative results are compared with a computer simulation study of Forester et al. [Mol. Phys. 72, 643 (1991)]. We find good agreement for the hydration of the -NH2 groups, the cylindrically averaged water density distributions, and the overall hydration number. The agreement is less satisfactory for the phosphate groups. However, by refining the treatment of the anionic oxygens on the phosphate groups, almost full quantitative agreement is achieved.

  11. Splint ligation of RNA with T4 DNA ligase

    PubMed Central

    Kershaw, Christopher J.; OKeefe, Raymond T.

    2014-01-01

    Splint ligation of RNA, whereby specific RNA molecules are ligated together, can be carried out using T4 DNA ligase and a bridging DNA oligonucleotide complementary to the RNAs. This method takes advantage of the property of T4 DNA ligase to join RNA molecules when they are in an RNA:DNA hybrid. Splint ligation is a useful tool for the introduction of modified nucleotides into RNA molecules, insertion of a radiolabel into a specific position within an RNA and for the assembly of smaller synthetic RNAs into longer RNA molecules. Such modifications enable a wide range of experiments to be carried out with the modified RNA including structural studies, co-immunoprecipitations, and the ability to map sites of RNA:RNA and RNA:protein interactions. PMID:23065567

  12. Splint ligation of RNA with T4 DNA ligase.

    PubMed

    Kershaw, Christopher J; O'Keefe, Raymond T

    2012-01-01

    Splint ligation of RNA, whereby specific RNA molecules are ligated together, can be carried out using T4 DNA ligase and a bridging DNA oligonucleotide complementary to the RNAs. This method takes advantage of the property of T4 DNA ligase to join RNA molecules when they are in an RNA:DNA hybrid. Splint ligation is a useful tool for the introduction of modified nucleotides into RNA molecules, insertion of a radiolabel into a specific position within an RNA and for the assembly of smaller synthetic RNAs into longer RNA molecules. Such modifications enable a wide range of experiments to be carried out with the modified RNA including structural studies, co-immunoprecipitations, and the ability to map sites of RNA:RNA and RNA:protein interactions. PMID:23065567

  13. Plasmodesmata: intercellular tunnels facilitating transport of macromolecules in plants.

    PubMed

    Kragler, Friedrich

    2013-04-01

    In plants, intercellular structures named plasmodesmata (PD) form a continuous cytoplasmic network between neighboring cells. PD pores provide channels for intercellular symplasmic (cell-to-cell) transport throughout most tissues of the plant body. Cell-defining proteins, such as transcription factors, and regulatory non-coding sequences, such as short interfering RNA, micro RNA, protein-encoding messenger RNAs, viroids, and viral RNA/DNA genomes move via PD channels to adjacent cells. PD-mediated intercellular transport of macromolecules is a regulated process depending on the tissue, developmental stage, and nature of the transported macromolecule. In this review, PD channels and their similarity to tunneling nanotubes present in animals are highlighted. In addition, homeodomain protein movement and cellular components regulating transport are discussed. PMID:23370600

  14. Conformational selection and induced fit for RNA polymerase and RNA/DNA hybrid backtracked recognition

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jian; Ye, Wei; Yang, Jingxu; Chen, Hai-Feng

    2015-01-01

    RNA polymerase catalyzes transcription with a high fidelity. If DNA/RNA mismatch or DNA damage occurs downstream, a backtracked RNA polymerase can proofread this situation. However, the backtracked mechanism is still poorly understood. Here we have performed multiple explicit-solvent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on bound and apo DNA/RNA hybrid to study backtracked recognition. MD simulations at room temperature suggest that specific electrostatic interactions play key roles in the backtracked recognition between the polymerase and DNA/RNA hybrid. Kinetics analysis at high temperature shows that bound and apo DNA/RNA hybrid unfold via a two-state process. Both kinetics and free energy landscape analyses indicate that bound DNA/RNA hybrid folds in the order of DNA/RNA contracting, the tertiary folding and polymerase binding. The predicted Φ-values suggest that C7, G9, dC12, dC15, and dT16 are key bases for the backtracked recognition of DNA/RNA hybrid. The average RMSD values between the bound structures and the corresponding apo ones and Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) P-test analyses indicate that the recognition between DNA/RNA hybrid and polymerase might follow an induced fit mechanism for DNA/RNA hybrid and conformation selection for polymerase. Furthermore, this method could be used to relative studies of specific recognition between nucleic acid and protein. PMID:26594643

  15. DNA and RNA quadruplex-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Brzda, Vclav; Hronkov, Lucia; Liao, Jack C C; Fojta, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Four-stranded DNA structures were structurally characterized in vitro by NMR, X-ray and Circular Dichroism spectroscopy in detail. Among the different types of quadruplexes (i-Motifs, minor groove quadruplexes, G-quadruplexes, etc.), the best described are G-quadruplexes which are featured by Hoogsteen base-paring. Sequences with the potential to form quadruplexes are widely present in genome of all organisms. They are found often in repetitive sequences such as telomeric ones, and also in promoter regions and 5' non-coding sequences. Recently, many proteins with binding affinity to G-quadruplexes have been identified. One of the initially portrayed G-rich regions, the human telomeric sequence (TTAGGG)n, is recognized by many proteins which can modulate telomerase activity. Sequences with the potential to form G-quadruplexes are often located in promoter regions of various oncogenes. The NHE III1 region of the c-MYC promoter has been shown to interact with nucleolin protein as well as other G-quadruplex-binding proteins. A number of G-rich sequences are also present in promoter region of estrogen receptor alpha. In addition to DNA quadruplexes, RNA quadruplexes, which are critical in translational regulation, have also been predicted and observed. For example, the RNA quadruplex formation in telomere-repeat-containing RNA is involved in interaction with TRF2 (telomere repeat binding factor 2) and plays key role in telomere regulation. All these fundamental examples suggest the importance of quadruplex structures in cell processes and their understanding may provide better insight into aging and disease development. PMID:25268620

  16. DNA and RNA Quadruplex-Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Brzda, Vclav; Hronkov, Lucia; Liao, Jack C. C.; Fojta, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Four-stranded DNA structures were structurally characterized in vitro by NMR, X-ray and Circular Dichroism spectroscopy in detail. Among the different types of quadruplexes (i-Motifs, minor groove quadruplexes, G-quadruplexes, etc.), the best described are G-quadruplexes which are featured by Hoogsteen base-paring. Sequences with the potential to form quadruplexes are widely present in genome of all organisms. They are found often in repetitive sequences such as telomeric ones, and also in promoter regions and 5' non-coding sequences. Recently, many proteins with binding affinity to G-quadruplexes have been identified. One of the initially portrayed G-rich regions, the human telomeric sequence (TTAGGG)n, is recognized by many proteins which can modulate telomerase activity. Sequences with the potential to form G-quadruplexes are often located in promoter regions of various oncogenes. The NHE III1 region of the c-MYC promoter has been shown to interact with nucleolin protein as well as other G-quadruplex-binding proteins. A number of G-rich sequences are also present in promoter region of estrogen receptor alpha. In addition to DNA quadruplexes, RNA quadruplexes, which are critical in translational regulation, have also been predicted and observed. For example, the RNA quadruplex formation in telomere-repeat-containing RNA is involved in interaction with TRF2 (telomere repeat binding factor 2) and plays key role in telomere regulation. All these fundamental examples suggest the importance of quadruplex structures in cell processes and their understanding may provide better insight into aging and disease development. PMID:25268620

  17. Method for rapid base sequencing in DNA and RNA

    SciTech Connect

    Jett, J.H.; Keller, R.A.; Martin, J.C.; Moyzis, R.K.; Ratliff, R.L.; Shera, E.B.; Stewart, C.C.

    1990-10-07

    This patent describes a method for DNA and RNA base sequencing. It comprises isolating a single fragment of DNA or RNA; introducing the single fragment into a moving sample stream; sequentially cleaving the end base from the DNA or RNA fragment with exonuclease to form a train of the bases; and detecting the bases in the train in sequential passage through a detector which detects single molecules.

  18. Archived formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) blocks: A valuable underexploited resource for extraction of DNA, RNA, and protein.

    PubMed

    Kokkat, Theresa J; Patel, Miral S; McGarvey, Diane; LiVolsi, Virginia A; Baloch, Zubair W

    2013-04-01

    Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) material presents a readily available resource in the study of various biomarkers. There has been interest in whether the storage period has significant effect on the extracted macromolecules. Thus, in this study, we investigated if the storage period had an effect on the quantity/quality of the extracted nucleic acids and proteins. We systematically examined the quality/quantity of genomic DNA, total RNA, and total protein in the FFPE blocks of malignant tumors of lung, thyroid, and salivary gland that had been stored over several years. We show that there is no significant difference between macromolecules extracted from blocks stored over 11-12 years, 5-7 years, or 1-2 years in comparison to the current year blocks. PMID:24845430

  19. DOMMINO 2.0: integrating structurally resolved protein-, RNA-, and DNA-mediated macromolecular interactions

    PubMed Central

    Kuang, Xingyan; Dhroso, Andi; Han, Jing Ginger; Shyu, Chi-Ren; Korkin, Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    Macromolecular interactions are formed between proteins, DNA and RNA molecules. Being a principle building block in macromolecular assemblies and pathways, the interactions underlie most of cellular functions. Malfunctioning of macromolecular interactions is also linked to a number of diseases. Structural knowledge of the macromolecular interaction allows one to understand the interaction’s mechanism, determine its functional implications and characterize the effects of genetic variations, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms, on the interaction. Unfortunately, until now the interactions mediated by different types of macromolecules, e.g. protein–protein interactions or protein–DNA interactions, are collected into individual and unrelated structural databases. This presents a significant obstacle in the analysis of macromolecular interactions. For instance, the homogeneous structural interaction databases prevent scientists from studying structural interactions of different types but occurring in the same macromolecular complex. Here, we introduce DOMMINO 2.0, a structural Database Of Macro-Molecular INteractiOns. Compared to DOMMINO 1.0, a comprehensive database on protein-protein interactions, DOMMINO 2.0 includes the interactions between all three basic types of macromolecules extracted from PDB files. DOMMINO 2.0 is automatically updated on a weekly basis. It currently includes ∼1 040 000 interactions between two polypeptide subunits (e.g. domains, peptides, termini and interdomain linkers), ∼43 000 RNA-mediated interactions, and ∼12 000 DNA-mediated interactions. All protein structures in the database are annotated using SCOP and SUPERFAMILY family annotation. As a result, protein-mediated interactions involving protein domains, interdomain linkers, C- and N- termini, and peptides are identified. Our database provides an intuitive web interface, allowing one to investigate interactions at three different resolution levels: whole subunit network, binary interaction and interaction interface. Database URL: http://dommino.org PMID:26827237

  20. DOMMINO 2.0: integrating structurally resolved protein-, RNA-, and DNA-mediated macromolecular interactions.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Xingyan; Dhroso, Andi; Han, Jing Ginger; Shyu, Chi-Ren; Korkin, Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    Macromolecular interactions are formed between proteins, DNA and RNA molecules. Being a principle building block in macromolecular assemblies and pathways, the interactions underlie most of cellular functions. Malfunctioning of macromolecular interactions is also linked to a number of diseases. Structural knowledge of the macromolecular interaction allows one to understand the interaction's mechanism, determine its functional implications and characterize the effects of genetic variations, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms, on the interaction. Unfortunately, until now the interactions mediated by different types of macromolecules, e.g. protein-protein interactions or protein-DNA interactions, are collected into individual and unrelated structural databases. This presents a significant obstacle in the analysis of macromolecular interactions. For instance, the homogeneous structural interaction databases prevent scientists from studying structural interactions of different types but occurring in the same macromolecular complex. Here, we introduce DOMMINO 2.0, a structural Database Of Macro-Molecular INteractiOns. Compared to DOMMINO 1.0, a comprehensive database on protein-protein interactions, DOMMINO 2.0 includes the interactions between all three basic types of macromolecules extracted from PDB files. DOMMINO 2.0 is automatically updated on a weekly basis. It currently includes ?1 040 000 interactions between two polypeptide subunits (e.g. domains, peptides, termini and interdomain linkers), ?43 000 RNA-mediated interactions, and ?12 000 DNA-mediated interactions. All protein structures in the database are annotated using SCOP and SUPERFAMILY family annotation. As a result, protein-mediated interactions involving protein domains, interdomain linkers, C- and N- termini, and peptides are identified. Our database provides an intuitive web interface, allowing one to investigate interactions at three different resolution levels: whole subunit network, binary interaction and interaction interface.Database URL: http://dommino.org. PMID:26827237

  1. Trivalent lanthanide ions do not cleave RNA in DNA-RNA hybrids

    SciTech Connect

    Kolasa, K.A.; Morrow, J.R.; Sharma, A.P. )

    1993-09-15

    Lanthanide(III) complexes rapidly catalyze cleavage of single-stranded RNA. RNA cleavage by lanthanide complexes is, however, dependent on RNA structure. A DNA-RNA hybrid formed by annealing a complementary oligodeoxynucleotide to t-RNA[sup phe] is found to be inert to cleavage by a europium(III) hexadentate Schiff base complex and by Eu(CO[sub 2]CH[sub 3])[sub 3]. Because DNA-RNA hybrids are important structures in antisense oligonucleotide strategies, these results may influence the design of antisense oligonucleotides with attached metal complex cleaving agents.

  2. Spatial and temporal variations in bacterial macromolecule labeling with (methyl-/sup 3/H)thymidine in a hypertrophic lake

    SciTech Connect

    Robarts, R.D.; Wicks, R.J.; Sephton, L.M.

    1986-12-01

    The incorporation of (methyl-/sup 3/H)thymidine into three macromolecular fractions, designated as DNA, RNA, and protein, by bacteria from Hartbeespoort Dam, South Africa, was measured over 1 year by acid-base hydrolysis procedures. Samples were collected at 10 m, which was at least 5 m beneath the euphotic zone. On four occasions, samples were concurrently collected at the surface. Approximately 80% of the label was incorporated into bacterial DNA in surface samples. At 10 m, total incorporation of label into bacterial macromolecules was correlated to bacterial utilization of glucose. The labeling of DNA, which ranged between 0 and 78% of total macromolecule incorporation, was inversely related to glucose uptake, total thymidine incorporation, and euphotic zone algal production. With decreased DNA labeling, increasing proportions of label were found in the RNA fraction and proteins. Enzymatic digestion followed by chromatographic separation of macromolecule fragments indicated that DNA and proteins were labeled while RNA was not. The RNA fraction may represent labeled lipids or other macromolecules or both. The data demonstrated a close coupling between phytoplankton production and heterotrophic bacterial activity in this hypertrophic lake but also confirmed the need for the routine extraction and purification of DNA during (methyl-/sup 3/H)thymidine studies of aquatic bacterial production.

  3. RNA-Linked Nascent DNA Fragments in Escherichia coli*

    PubMed Central

    Sugino, Akio; Hirose, Susumu; Okazaki, Reiji

    1972-01-01

    Nucleic acid that is extracted from E. coli labeled by a brief pulse of [3H]dT and depatured by treatment with heat, formamide, or formaldehyde bands in a region with a density higher than that of single-stranded E. coli DNA in a Cs2SO4 equilibrium density gradient. If treated with alkali or RNase, it then exhibits the density of single-stranded DNA. These results suggest the presence of a short strand of RNA covalently linked to the nascent DNA. Evidence for the presence of covalently linked RNA-DNA molecules is also obtained by pulse labeling with [3H]U. Analyses of nascent nucleic acids from cells pulse labeled for various times, and of the molecules with different sizes, support the hypothesis that the short DNA fragments are formed by extension of even shorter RNA chains, which are synthesized on the parental DNA strands and are removed before ligation of the DNA fragments. The synthesis of the RNA segment of the RNA-DNA molecule is much less sensitive to rifampicin than is the synthesis of bulk RNA. Images PMID:4558661

  4. Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 21 Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database (Web, free access)   The Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database and NASA Archive for Protein Crystal Growth Data (BMCD) contains the conditions reported for the crystallization of proteins and nucleic acids used in X-ray structure determinations and archives the results of microgravity macromolecule crystallization studies.

  5. Method for rapid base sequencing in DNA and RNA

    DOEpatents

    Jett, J.H.; Keller, R.A.; Martin, J.C.; Moyzis, R.K.; Ratliff, R.L.; Shera, E.B.; Stewart, C.C.

    1990-10-09

    A method is provided for the rapid base sequencing of DNA or RNA fragments wherein a single fragment of DNA or RNA is provided with identifiable bases and suspended in a moving flow stream. An exonuclease sequentially cleaves individual bases from the end of the suspended fragment. The moving flow stream maintains the cleaved bases in an orderly train for subsequent detection and identification. In a particular embodiment, individual bases forming the DNA or RNA fragments are individually tagged with a characteristic fluorescent dye. The train of bases is then excited to fluorescence with an output spectrum characteristic of the individual bases. Accordingly, the base sequence of the original DNA or RNA fragment can be reconstructed. 2 figs.

  6. Method for rapid base sequencing in DNA and RNA

    DOEpatents

    Jett, J.H.; Keller, R.A.; Martin, J.C.; Moyzis, R.K.; Ratliff, R.L.; Shera, E.B.; Stewart, C.C.

    1987-10-07

    A method is provided for the rapid base sequencing of DNA or RNA fragments wherein a single fragment of DNA or RNA is provided with identifiable bases and suspended in a moving flow stream. An exonuclease sequentially cleaves individual bases from the end of the suspended fragment. The moving flow stream maintains the cleaved bases in an orderly train for subsequent detection and identification. In a particular embodiment, individual bases forming the DNA or RNA fragments are individually tagged with a characteristic fluorescent dye. The train of bases is then excited to fluorescence with an output spectrum characteristic of the individual bases. Accordingly, the base sequence of the original DNA or RNA fragment can be reconstructed. 2 figs.

  7. Method for rapid base sequencing in DNA and RNA

    DOEpatents

    Jett, James H.; Keller, Richard A.; Martin, John C.; Moyzis, Robert K.; Ratliff, Robert L.; Shera, E. Brooks; Stewart, Carleton C.

    1990-01-01

    A method is provided for the rapid base sequencing of DNA or RNA fragments wherein a single fragment of DNA or RNA is provided with identifiable bases and suspended in a moving flow stream. An exonuclease sequentially cleaves individual bases from the end of the suspended fragment. The moving flow stream maintains the cleaved bases in an orderly train for subsequent detection and identification. In a particular embodiment, individual bases forming the DNA or RNA fragments are individually tagged with a characteristic fluorescent dye. The train of bases is then excited to fluorescence with an output spectrum characteristic of the individual bases. Accordingly, the base sequence of the original DNA or RNA fragment can be reconstructed.

  8. Modulation of biological processes by mineral fiber adsorption of macromolecules in vitro.

    PubMed

    Chang, M J; Joseph, L B; Stephens, R E; Hart, R W

    1990-01-01

    Three classes of macromolecules (i.e., DNA, RNA, and protein) were shown to be adsorbed to asbestiform minerals. The cytotoxicity exerted by the fibers on a normal human fibroblast cell line, which may be an indicator of the carcinogenic potential of mineral fibers, correlated positively with the degree of macromolecular adsorption of the fiber, namely: chrysotile greater than amosite greater than glass fiber. Asbestiform fibers also induce an alteration in in vitro DNA hydrolysis by bovine pancreatic deoxyribonuclease. This phenomenon suggests that adsorption by asbestiform minerals may modulate biological processes by inducing a conformational change in biological macromolecules as a result of coulombic interaction between the surface charge of the fiber and the hydrophilic groups on the macromolecule. PMID:1700100

  9. Activation of the DNA Damage Response by RNA Viruses.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Ellis L; Hollingworth, Robert; Grand, Roger J

    2016-01-01

    RNA viruses are a genetically diverse group of pathogens that are responsible for some of the most prevalent and lethal human diseases. Numerous viruses introduce DNA damage and genetic instability in host cells during their lifecycles and some species also manipulate components of the DNA damage response (DDR), a complex and sophisticated series of cellular pathways that have evolved to detect and repair DNA lesions. Activation and manipulation of the DDR by DNA viruses has been extensively studied. It is apparent, however, that many RNA viruses can also induce significant DNA damage, even in cases where viral replication takes place exclusively in the cytoplasm. DNA damage can contribute to the pathogenesis of RNA viruses through the triggering of apoptosis, stimulation of inflammatory immune responses and the introduction of deleterious mutations that can increase the risk of tumorigenesis. In addition, activation of DDR pathways can contribute positively to replication of viral RNA genomes. Elucidation of the interactions between RNA viruses and the DDR has provided important insights into modulation of host cell functions by these pathogens. This review summarises the current literature regarding activation and manipulation of the DDR by several medically important RNA viruses. PMID:26751489

  10. Diversity of Endonuclease V: From DNA Repair to RNA Editing.

    PubMed

    Kuraoka, Isao

    2015-01-01

    Deamination of adenine occurs in DNA, RNA, and their precursors via a hydrolytic reaction and a nitrosative reaction. The generated deaminated products are potentially mutagenic because of their structural similarity to natural bases, which in turn leads to erroneous nucleotide pairing and subsequent disruption of cellular metabolism. Incorporation of deaminated precursors into the nucleic acid strand occurs during nucleotide synthesis by DNA and RNA polymerases or base modification by DNA- and/or RNA-editing enzymes during cellular functions. In such cases, removal of deaminated products from DNA and RNA by a nuclease might be required depending on the cellular function. One such enzyme, endonuclease V, recognizes deoxyinosine and cleaves 3' end of the damaged base in double-stranded DNA through an alternative excision repair mechanism in Escherichia coli, whereas in Homo sapiens, it recognizes and cleaves inosine in single-stranded RNA. However, to explore the role of endonuclease V in vivo, a detailed analysis of cell biology is required. Based on recent reports and developments on endonuclease V, we discuss the potential functions of endonuclease V in DNA repair and RNA metabolism. PMID:26404388

  11. Diversity of Endonuclease V: From DNA Repair to RNA Editing

    PubMed Central

    Kuraoka, Isao

    2015-01-01

    Deamination of adenine occurs in DNA, RNA, and their precursors via a hydrolytic reaction and a nitrosative reaction. The generated deaminated products are potentially mutagenic because of their structural similarity to natural bases, which in turn leads to erroneous nucleotide pairing and subsequent disruption of cellular metabolism. Incorporation of deaminated precursors into the nucleic acid strand occurs during nucleotide synthesis by DNA and RNA polymerases or base modification by DNA- and/or RNA-editing enzymes during cellular functions. In such cases, removal of deaminated products from DNA and RNA by a nuclease might be required depending on the cellular function. One such enzyme, endonuclease V, recognizes deoxyinosine and cleaves 3' end of the damaged base in double-stranded DNA through an alternative excision repair mechanism in Escherichia coli, whereas in Homo sapiens, it recognizes and cleaves inosine in single-stranded RNA. However, to explore the role of endonuclease V in vivo, a detailed analysis of cell biology is required. Based on recent reports and developments on endonuclease V, we discuss the potential functions of endonuclease V in DNA repair and RNA metabolism. PMID:26404388

  12. Quantification of DNA and RNA with absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, S R

    2001-05-01

    Reliable quantitation of nanogram and microgram amounts of DNA and RNA in solution is essential to researchers in cell and molecular biology. In addition to the traditional absorbance measurements at 260 nm, two more sensitive fluorescence techniques-Hoescht 33258 dye binding, ethidium bromide binding are described. These three procedures cover a range from 5 to 10 ng/ml DNA to 50 mg/ml DNA. PMID:18228286

  13. Quantum-mechanical predictions of DNA and RNA ionization by energetic proton beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galassi, M. E.; Champion, C.; Weck, P. F.; Rivarola, R. D.; Fojn, O.; Hanssen, J.

    2012-04-01

    Among the numerous constituents of eukaryotic cells, the DNA macromolecule is considered as the most important critical target for radiation-induced damages. However, up to now ion-induced collisions on DNA components remain scarcely approached and theoretical support is still lacking for describing the main ionizing processes. In this context, we here report a theoretical description of the proton-induced ionization of the DNA and RNA bases as well as the sugar-phosphate backbone. Two different quantum-mechanical models are proposed: the first one based on a continuum distorted wave-eikonal initial state treatment and the second perturbative one developed within the first Born approximation with correct boundary conditions (CB1). Besides, the molecular structure information of the biological targets studied here was determined by ab initio calculations with the Gaussian 09 software at the restricted Hartree-Fock level of theory with geometry optimization. Doubly, singly differential and total ionization cross sections also provided by the two models were compared for a large range of incident and ejection energies and a very good agreement was observed for all the configurations investigated. Finally, in comparison with the rare experiment, we have noted a large underestimation of the total ionization cross sections of uracil impacted by 80 keV protons, whereas a very good agreement was shown with the recently reported ionization cross sections for protons on adenine, at both the differential and the total scale.

  14. Single-molecule observations of RNA-RNA kissing interactions in a DNA nanostructure.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Yosuke; Endo, Masayuki; Suzuki, Yuki; Hidaka, Kumi; Durand, Guillaume; Dausse, Eric; Toulm, Jean-Jacques; Sugiyama, Hiroshi

    2015-12-15

    RNA molecules uniquely form a complex through specific hairpin loops, called a kissing complex. The kissing complex is widely investigated and used for the construction of RNA nanostructures. Molecular switches have also been created by combining a kissing loop and a ligand-binding aptamer to control the interactions of RNA molecules. In this study, we incorporated two kinds of RNA molecules into a DNA origami structure and used atomic force microscopy to observe their ligand-responsive interactions at the single-molecule level. We used a designed RNA aptamer called GTPswitch, which has a guanosine triphosphate (GTP) responsive domain and can bind to the target RNA hairpin named Aptakiss in the presence of GTP. We observed shape changes of the DNA/RNA strands in the DNA origami, which are induced by the GTPswitch, into two different shapes in the absence and presence of GTP, respectively. We also found that the switching function in the nanospace could be improved by using a cover strand over the kissing loop of the GTPswitch or by deleting one base from this kissing loop. These newly designed ligand-responsive aptamers can be used for the controlled assembly of the various DNA and RNA nanostructures. PMID:26438892

  15. Nucleic Acid Engineering: RNA Following the Trail of DNA.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyejin; Park, Yongkuk; Kim, Jieun; Jeong, Jaepil; Han, Sangwoo; Lee, Jae Sung; Lee, Jong Bum

    2016-02-01

    The self-assembly feature of the naturally occurring biopolymer, DNA, has fascinated researchers in the fields of materials science and bioengineering. With the improved understanding of the chemical and structural nature of DNA, DNA-based constructs have been designed and fabricated from two-dimensional arbitrary shapes to reconfigurable three-dimensional nanodevices. Although DNA has been used successfully as a building block in a finely organized and controlled manner, its applications need to be explored. Hence, with the myriad of biological functions, RNA has recently attracted considerable attention to further the application of nucleic acid-based structures. This Review categorizes different approaches of engineering nucleic acid-based structures and introduces the concepts, principles, and applications of each technique, focusing on how DNA engineering is applied as a guide to RNA engineering. PMID:26735596

  16. RNA-mediated epigenetic regulation of DNA copy number.

    PubMed

    Nowacki, Mariusz; Haye, Joanna E; Fang, Wenwen; Vijayan, Vikram; Landweber, Laura F

    2010-12-21

    Increasing evidence suggests that parentally supplied RNA plays crucial roles during eukaryotic development. This epigenetic contribution may regulate gene expression from the earliest stages. Although present in a variety of eukaryotes, maternally inherited characters are especially prominent in ciliated protozoa, in which parental noncoding RNA molecules instruct whole-genome reorganization. This includes removal of nearly all noncoding DNA and sorting the remaining fragments, producing extremely gene-rich somatic genomes. Chromosome fragmentation and extensive replication produce variable DNA copy numbers in the somatic genome. Understanding the forces that drive and regulate copy number change is fundamental. We show that RNA molecules present in parental cells during sexual reproduction can regulate chromosome copy number in the developing nucleus of the ciliate Oxytricha. Experimentally induced changes in RNA abundance can both increase and decrease the levels of corresponding DNA molecules in progeny, demonstrating epigenetic inheritance of chromosome copy number. These results suggest that maternal RNA, in addition to controlling gene expression or DNA processing, can also program DNA amplification levels. PMID:21078984

  17. Relaxed specificity of prokaryotic DNA methyltransferases results in DNA site-specific modification of RNA/DNA heteroduplexes.

    PubMed

    Wons, Ewa; Mruk, Iwona; Kaczorowski, Tadeusz

    2015-11-01

    RNA/DNA hybrid duplexes regularly occur in nature, for example in transcriptional R loops. Their susceptibility to modification by DNA-specific or RNA-specific enzymes is, thus, a biologically relevant question, which, in addition, has possible biotechnological implications. In this study, we investigated the activity of four isospecific DNA methyltransferases (M.EcoVIII, M.LlaCI, M.HindIII, M.BstZ1II) toward an RNA/DNA duplex carrying one 5'-AAGCUU-3'/3'-TTCGAA-5' target sequence. The analyzed enzymes belong to the β-group of adenine N6-methyltransferases and recognize the palindromic DNA sequence 5'-AAGCTT-3'/3'-TTCGAA-5'. Under standard conditions, none of these isospecific enzymes could detectibly methylate the RNA/DNA duplex. However, the addition of agents that generally relax specificity, such as dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and glycerol, resulted in substantial methylation of the RNA/DNA duplex by M.EcoVIII and M.LlaCI. Only the DNA strand of the RNA/DNA duplex was methylated. The same was not observed for M.HindIII or M.BstZ1II. This is, to our knowledge, the first report that demonstrates such activity by prokaryotic DNA methyltransferases. Possible applications of these findings in a laboratory practice are also discussed. PMID:25787880

  18. Yeast Helicase Pif1 Unwinds RNA:DNA Hybrids with Higher Processivity than DNA:DNA Duplexes.

    PubMed

    Chib, Shubeena; Byrd, Alicia K; Raney, Kevin D

    2016-03-11

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pif1, an SF1B helicase, has been implicated in both mitochondrial and nuclear functions. Here we have characterized the preference of Pif1 for RNA:DNA heteroduplexes in vitro by investigating several kinetic parameters associated with unwinding. We show that the preferential unwinding of RNA:DNA hybrids is due to neither specific binding nor differences in the rate of strand separation. Instead, Pif1 is capable of unwinding RNA:DNA heteroduplexes with moderately greater processivity compared with its duplex DNA:DNA counterparts. This higher processivity of Pif1 is attributed to slower dissociation from RNA:DNA hybrids. Biologically, this preferential role of the helicase may contribute to its functions at both telomeric and nontelomeric sites. PMID:26733194

  19. Action of DNA Polymerase I of Escherichia coli with DNA-RNA Hybrids as Templates

    PubMed Central

    Karkas, John D.; Stavrianopoulos, Jannis G.; Chargaff, Erwin

    1972-01-01

    Experiments indicating the ability of the ribo strand of a DNA-RNA template to guide polydeoxynucleotide synthesis by highly purified DNA polymerase I of E. coli (EC 2.7.7.7) are presented. With poly(rA)poly(dT) as template, poly(dT) is formed with a high efficiency, but almost no poly(dA). The specific activity of the enzyme, when tested with this template under suitable conditions, is eight times greater than that found for the poly(dA-dT) template. Single-stranded DNA fractions, with no template activity for DNA polymerase, are converted to efficient templates after their transcription by RNA polymerase. A concerted polymerization reaction, in which the action of DNA polymerase is dependent on that of RNA polymerase, can also be demonstrated with synthetic polydeoxynucleotides and single-stranded fractions of denatured DNA as templates. PMID:4621833

  20. DNA homologies of ribosomal RNA genes of Neurospora species

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, D.K.; Mimiko, R.; Dutta, S.K.

    1980-01-01

    Ribosomal RNA genes (rDNAs) of Neurospora crassa contain DNA sequences which code for 17S, 5.8S, and 26S rRNAs, in addition to internal and external spacers. As has been reported for many eukaryotes, the DNA sequences which code for 17S, 5.8S, and 26S rRNAs in Neurospora species are probably conserved while the internal and external spacer regions are probably variable sequences. Extensive electron microscopic studies of 45S precursor rRNA of several cold and warm blooded animals confirm that spacer regions vary extensively from species to species. It was desirable to know whether such differences in rDNA sequences exist between Neurospora species. Any such difference should be detectable using standard procedures for DNA homology studies rDNA sequences were isolated from N. crassa mycelial cells using the procedure described previously. The purified rDNA was /sup 3/H-labeled (by nick translation) and reassociated with total DNA isolated from the heterothallic species N. crassa and from three homothalliospecies: N. dodgei, N. lineolata, and N. africana. In addition, /sup 32/P-labeled total DNA of N. crassa was reannealed with unlabeled bulk DNA from N. crassa, N. dodgei, and N. lineolata.

  1. RNADNA differences in human mitochondria restore ancestral form of 16S ribosomal RNA

    PubMed Central

    Bar-Yaacov, Dan; Avital, Gal; Levin, Liron; Richards, Allison L.; Hachen, Naomi; Rebolledo Jaramillo, Boris; Nekrutenko, Anton; Zarivach, Raz; Mishmar, Dan

    2013-01-01

    RNA transcripts are generally identical to the underlying DNA sequences. Nevertheless, RNADNA differences (RDDs) were found in the nuclear human genome and in plants and animals but not in human mitochondria. Here, by deep sequencing of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and RNA, we identified three RDD sites at mtDNA positions 295 (C-to-U), 13710 (A-to-U, A-to-G), and 2617 (A-to-U, A-to-G). Position 2617, within the 16S rRNA, harbored the most prevalent RDDs (>30% A-to-U and ?15% A-to-G of the reads in all tested samples). The 2617 RDDs appeared already at the precursor polycistrone mitochondrial transcript. By using traditional Sanger sequencing, we identified the A-to-U RDD in six different cell lines and representative primates (Gorilla gorilla, Pongo pigmaeus, and Macaca mulatta), suggesting conservation of the mechanism generating such RDD. Phylogenetic analysis of more than 1700 vertebrate mtDNA sequences supported a thymine as the primate ancestral allele at position 2617, suggesting that the 2617 RDD recapitulates the ancestral 16S rRNA. Modeling U or G (the RDDs) at position 2617 stabilized the large ribosomal subunit structure in contrast to destabilization by an A (the pre-RDDs). Hence, these mitochondrial RDDs are likely functional. PMID:23913925

  2. RNA-DNA differences in human mitochondria restore ancestral form of 16S ribosomal RNA.

    PubMed

    Bar-Yaacov, Dan; Avital, Gal; Levin, Liron; Richards, Allison L; Hachen, Naomi; Rebolledo Jaramillo, Boris; Nekrutenko, Anton; Zarivach, Raz; Mishmar, Dan

    2013-11-01

    RNA transcripts are generally identical to the underlying DNA sequences. Nevertheless, RNA-DNA differences (RDDs) were found in the nuclear human genome and in plants and animals but not in human mitochondria. Here, by deep sequencing of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and RNA, we identified three RDD sites at mtDNA positions 295 (C-to-U), 13710 (A-to-U, A-to-G), and 2617 (A-to-U, A-to-G). Position 2617, within the 16S rRNA, harbored the most prevalent RDDs (>30% A-to-U and ?15% A-to-G of the reads in all tested samples). The 2617 RDDs appeared already at the precursor polycistrone mitochondrial transcript. By using traditional Sanger sequencing, we identified the A-to-U RDD in six different cell lines and representative primates (Gorilla gorilla, Pongo pigmaeus, and Macaca mulatta), suggesting conservation of the mechanism generating such RDD. Phylogenetic analysis of more than 1700 vertebrate mtDNA sequences supported a thymine as the primate ancestral allele at position 2617, suggesting that the 2617 RDD recapitulates the ancestral 16S rRNA. Modeling U or G (the RDDs) at position 2617 stabilized the large ribosomal subunit structure in contrast to destabilization by an A (the pre-RDDs). Hence, these mitochondrial RDDs are likely functional. PMID:23913925

  3. The ribosomal RNA genes of Drosophila mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Clary, D O; Wolstenholme, D R

    1985-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of a segment of the mtDNA molecule of Drosophila yakuba which contains the A+T-rich region and the small and large rRNA genes separated by the tRNAval gene has been determined. The 5' end of the small rRNA gene was located by S1 protection analysis. In contrast to mammalian mtDNA, a tRNA gene was not found at the 5' end of the D. yakuba small rRNA gene. The small and large rRNA genes are 20.7% and 16.7% G+C and contain only 789 and 1326 nucleotides. The 5' regions of the small rRNA gene (371 nucleotides) and of the large rRNA gene (643 nucleotides) are extremely low in G+C (14.6% and 9.5%, respectively) and convincing sequence homologies between these regions and the corresponding regions of mouse mt-rRNA genes were found only for a few short segments. Nevertheless, the entire lengths of both of the D. yakuba mt-rRNA genes can be folded into secondary structures which are remarkably similar to secondary structures proposed for the rRNAs of mouse mtDNA. The replication origin-containing, A+T-rich region (1077 nucleotides; 92.8% A+T), which lies between the tRNAile gene and the small rRNA gene, lacks open reading frames greater than 123 nucleotides. Images PMID:2989784

  4. Fluorogenic Labeling of 5-Formylpyrimidine Nucleotides in DNA and RNA.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Biswajit; Seikowski, Jan; Hbartner, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    5-Formylcytosine (5fC) and 5-formyluracil (5fU) are natural nucleobase modifications that are generated by oxidative modification of 5-methylcytosine and thymine (or 5-methyluracil). Herein, we describe chemoselective labeling of 5-formylpyrimidine nucleotides in DNA and RNA by fluorogenic aldol-type condensation reactions with 2,3,3-trimethylindole derivatives. Mild and specific reaction conditions were developed for 5fU and 5fC to produce hemicyanine-like chromophores with distinct photophysical properties. Residue-specific detection was established by fluorescence readout as well as primer-extension assays. The reactions were optimized on DNA oligonucleotides and were equally suitable for the modification of 5fU- and 5fC-modified RNA. This direct labeling approach of 5-formylpyrimidines is expected to help in elucidating the occurrence, enzymatic transformations, and functional roles of these epigenetic/epitranscriptomic nucleobase modifications in DNA and RNA. PMID:26679556

  5. Effects of DNA replication on mRNA noise

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Joseph R.; Cole, John A.; Fei, Jingyi; Ha, Taekjip; Luthey-Schulten, Zaida A.

    2015-01-01

    There are several sources of fluctuations in gene expression. Here we study the effects of time-dependent DNA replication, itself a tightly controlled process, on noise in mRNA levels. Stochastic simulations of constitutive and regulated gene expression are used to analyze the time-averaged mean and variation in each case. The simulations demonstrate that to capture mRNA distributions correctly, chromosome replication must be realistically modeled. Slow relaxation of mRNA from the low copy number steady state before gene replication to the high steady state after replication is set by the transcript’s half-life and contributes significantly to the shape of the mRNA distribution. Consequently both the intrinsic kinetics and the gene location play an important role in accounting for the mRNA average and variance. Exact analytic expressions for moments of the mRNA distributions that depend on the DNA copy number, gene location, cell doubling time, and the rates of transcription and degradation are derived for the case of constitutive expression and subsequently extended to provide approximate corrections for regulated expression and RNA polymerase variability. Comparisons of the simulated models and analytical expressions to experimentally measured mRNA distributions show that they better capture the physics of the system than previous theories. PMID:26669443

  6. ESI-MS Investigation of an Equilibrium between a Bimolecular Quadruplex DNA and a Duplex DNA/RNA Hybrid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birrento, Monica L.; Bryan, Tracy M.; Samosorn, Siritron; Beck, Jennifer L.

    2015-07-01

    Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) conditions were optimized for simultaneous observation of a bimolecular qDNA and a Watson-Crick base-paired duplex DNA/RNA hybrid. The DNA sequence used was telomeric DNA, and the RNA contained the template for telomerase-mediated telomeric DNA synthesis. Addition of RNA to the quadruplex DNA (qDNA) resulted in formation of the duplex DNA/RNA hybrid. Melting profiles obtained using circular dichroism spectroscopy confirmed that the DNA/RNA hybrid exhibited greater thermal stability than the bimolecular qDNA in solution. Binding of a 13-substituted berberine ( 1) derivative to the bimolecular qDNA stabilized its structure as evidenced by an increase in its stability in the mass spectrometer, and an increase in its circular dichroism (CD) melting temperature of 10C. The DNA/RNA hybrid did not bind the ligand extensively and its thermal stability was unchanged in the presence of ( 1). The qDNA-ligand complex resisted unfolding in the presence of excess RNA, limiting the formation of the DNA/RNA hybrid. Previously, it has been proposed that DNA secondary structures, such as qDNA, may be involved in the telomerase mechanism. DNA/RNA hybrid structures occur at the active site of telomerase. The results presented in the current work show that if telomeric DNA was folded into a qDNA structure, it is possible for a DNA/RNA hybrid to form as is required during template alignment. The discrimination of ligand ( 1) for binding to the bimolecular qDNA over the DNA/RNA hybrid positions it as a useful compound for probing the role(s), if any, of antiparallel qDNA in the telomerase mechanism.

  7. ESI-MS Investigation of an Equilibrium between a Bimolecular Quadruplex DNA and a Duplex DNA/RNA Hybrid.

    PubMed

    Birrento, Monica L; Bryan, Tracy M; Samosorn, Siritron; Beck, Jennifer L

    2015-07-01

    Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) conditions were optimized for simultaneous observation of a bimolecular qDNA and a Watson-Crick base-paired duplex DNA/RNA hybrid. The DNA sequence used was telomeric DNA, and the RNA contained the template for telomerase-mediated telomeric DNA synthesis. Addition of RNA to the quadruplex DNA (qDNA) resulted in formation of the duplex DNA/RNA hybrid. Melting profiles obtained using circular dichroism spectroscopy confirmed that the DNA/RNA hybrid exhibited greater thermal stability than the bimolecular qDNA in solution. Binding of a 13-substituted berberine (1) derivative to the bimolecular qDNA stabilized its structure as evidenced by an increase in its stability in the mass spectrometer, and an increase in its circular dichroism (CD) melting temperature of 10C. The DNA/RNA hybrid did not bind the ligand extensively and its thermal stability was unchanged in the presence of (1). The qDNA-ligand complex resisted unfolding in the presence of excess RNA, limiting the formation of the DNA/RNA hybrid. Previously, it has been proposed that DNA secondary structures, such as qDNA, may be involved in the telomerase mechanism. DNA/RNA hybrid structures occur at the active site of telomerase. The results presented in the current work show that if telomeric DNA was folded into a qDNA structure, it is possible for a DNA/RNA hybrid to form as is required during template alignment. The discrimination of ligand (1) for binding to the bimolecular qDNA over the DNA/RNA hybrid positions it as a useful compound for probing the role(s), if any, of antiparallel qDNA in the telomerase mechanism. PMID:25906017

  8. Molecular-Sized DNA or RNA Sequencing Machine

    Cancer.gov

    Current high-throughput DNA sequencing methods suffer from several limitations. Many methods require multiple fluid handling steps, fixing of molecules on beads or a 2D surface, and provide very short read-lengths. Researchers at the National Cancer Institute's Gene Regulation and Chromosome Biology Laboratory offer a potential DNA or RNA sequencing device that drastically simplifies the process by combining all elements for sequence detection in a single molecule.

  9. siRNA-directed DNA Methylation in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Meng; Yu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    DNA cytosine methylationis an important epigenetic process that is correlated with transgene silencing, transposon suppression, and gene imprinting. In plants, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) can trigger DNA methylation at loci containing their homolog sequences through a process called RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM). In canonical RdDM, 24 nucleotide (nt) siRNAs (ra-siRNAs) will be loaded into their effector protein called ARGONAUTE 4 (AGO4) and subsequently targeted to RdDM loci through base-pairing with the non-coding transcripts produced by DNA-directed RNA Polymerase V. Then, the AGO4-ra-siRNA will recruit the DNA methyltransferase to catalyze de novo DNA methylation. Recent studies also identified non-canonical RdDM pathways that involve microRNAs or 21 nt siRNAs. These RdDM pathways are biologically important since they control responses biotic and abiotic stresses, maintain genome stability and regulate development. Here, we summarize recent pro-gresses of mechanisms governing canonical and non-canonical RdDM pathways. PMID:25937811

  10. Simultaneous recovery of DNA and RNA from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue and application in epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen-Yi; Sheehy, Timothy M; Moore, Lee E; Hsing, Ann W; Purdue, Mark P

    2010-04-01

    Analysis of DNA, RNA, and protein extracted from tissue specimens in epidemiologic studies is useful for assessing etiologic heterogeneity, mechanisms of carcinogenesis, and biomarkers for prognosis and prediction of treatment responses. Fresh-frozen tissue samples may provide optimal quality nucleic acids, but pose multiple logistical considerations, including rapid access to tissues before histopathologic examination and specialized equipment for freezing, transport, and storage; in addition, morphology is often compromised. In contrast, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples, including enormous archives of existing specimens, represent a valuable source of retrospective biological material for epidemiologic research, although presenting different limitations compared with frozen samples. Recent efforts have made progress toward enhancing the utility of FFPE specimens for molecular analyses, including DNA studies, and increasingly for RNA and other macromolecules. Here, we report the method that we used to simultaneously recover DNA and RNA from FFPE tissue specimens with appreciable quantity and quality and discuss briefly the application of tumor markers in epidemiologic studies. PMID:20332269

  11. Simultaneous recovery of DNA and RNA from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue and application in epidemiologic studies.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Huang WY; Sheehy TM; Moore LE; Hsing AW; Purdue MP

    2010-04-01

    Analysis of DNA, RNA, and protein extracted from tissue specimens in epidemiologic studies is useful for assessing etiologic heterogeneity, mechanisms of carcinogenesis, and biomarkers for prognosis and prediction of treatment responses. Fresh-frozen tissue samples may provide optimal quality nucleic acids, but pose multiple logistical considerations, including rapid access to tissues before histopathologic examination and specialized equipment for freezing, transport, and storage; in addition, morphology is often compromised. In contrast, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples, including enormous archives of existing specimens, represent a valuable source of retrospective biological material for epidemiologic research, although presenting different limitations compared with frozen samples. Recent efforts have made progress toward enhancing the utility of FFPE specimens for molecular analyses, including DNA studies, and increasingly for RNA and other macromolecules. Here, we report the method that we used to simultaneously recover DNA and RNA from FFPE tissue specimens with appreciable quantity and quality and discuss briefly the application of tumor markers in epidemiologic studies.

  12. Protein Localization with Flexible DNA or RNA

    PubMed Central

    Bernhardsson, Sebastian; Mitarai, Namiko; Sneppen, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Localization of activity is ubiquitous in life, and also within sub-cellular compartments. Localization provides potential advantages as different proteins involved in the same cellular process may supplement each other on a fast timescale. It might also prevent proteins from being active in other regions of the cell. However localization is at odds with the spreading of unbound molecules by diffusion. We model the cost and gain for specific enzyme activity using localization strategies based on binding to sites of intermediate specificity. While such bindings in themselves decrease the activity of the protein on its target site, they may increase protein activity if stochastic motion allows the acting protein to touch both the intermediate binding site and the specific site simultaneously. We discuss this strategy in view of recent suggestions on long non-coding RNA as a facilitator of localized activity of chromatin modifiers. PMID:22347995

  13. DNA?RNA: What Do Students Think the Arrow Means?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, L. Kate; Fisk, J. Nick; Newman, Dina L.

    2014-01-01

    The central dogma of molecular biology, a model that has remained intact for decades, describes the transfer of genetic information from DNA to protein though an RNA intermediate. While recent work has illustrated many exceptions to the central dogma, it is still a common model used to describe and study the relationship between genes and protein…

  14. DNA?RNA: What Do Students Think the Arrow Means?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, L. Kate; Fisk, J. Nick; Newman, Dina L.

    2014-01-01

    The central dogma of molecular biology, a model that has remained intact for decades, describes the transfer of genetic information from DNA to protein though an RNA intermediate. While recent work has illustrated many exceptions to the central dogma, it is still a common model used to describe and study the relationship between genes and protein

  15. Effect of Growth Rate and Starvation-Survival on Cellular DNA, RNA, and Protein of a Psychrophilic Marine Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Moyer, Craig L.; Morita, Richard Y.

    1989-01-01

    DNA, RNA, and protein concentrations from starved ANT-300 cell populations grown at different growth rates fluctuated corresponding to the three stages of starvation-survival on total and viable cell bases. During stage 1 of starvation-survival, two to three peaks in the concentration levels for all three macromolecules were characteristic. During stage 2, DNA per total cell dropped to between 4.2 and 8.3% of the original amount for all of the cell populations examined, and it stabilized throughout stage 3. The decrease in DNA per cell was also observed in electron micrographs of cellular DNA in unstarved compared with starved cells. The fluctuations of RNA and protein per total cell concentrations observed during stage 2 coincided in all cases, except for the cells from dilution rate (D) = 0.015 h?1. This ANT-300 cell population showed a decrease in RNA per total cell to only 29.2% and an increase in protein to 129.7% of the original amount after 98 days of starvation. During stage 3, DNA, RNA, and protein concentrations per total cell also stabilized to continuous levels. Cells from the faster-growth-rate cell populations of D = 0.170 h?1 and batch culture had elevated protein per total cell concentrations, which remained primarily residual during the starvation period. Starved cells from D = 0.015 h?1 had estimated nucleoid and cell volumes of 0.018 and 0.05 ?m3, respectively, yielding a nucleoid volume/cell volume ratio of 0.40. We consider these data to indicate that slow-growth-rate cells are better adapted for starvation-survival than their faster-growth-rate counterparts. Images PMID:16348037

  16. DNA/RNA Detection Using DNA-Templated Few-Atom Silver Nanoclusters

    PubMed Central

    Obliosca, Judy M.; Liu, Cong; Batson, Robert Austin; Babin, Mark C.; Werner, James H.; Yeh, Hsin-Chih

    2013-01-01

    DNA-templated few-atom silver nanoclusters (DNA/Ag NCs) are a new class of organic/inorganic composite nanomaterials whose fluorescence emission can be tuned throughout the visible and near-IR range by simply programming the template sequences. Compared to organic dyes, DNA/Ag NCs can be brighter and more photostable. Compared to quantum dots, DNA/Ag NCs are smaller, less prone to blinking on long timescales, and do not have a toxic core. The preparation of DNA/Ag NCs is simple and there is no need to remove excess precursors as these precursors are non-fluorescent. Our recent discovery of the fluorogenic and color switching properties of DNA/Ag NCs have led to the invention of new molecular probes, termed NanoCluster Beacons (NCBs), for DNA detection, with the capability to differentiate single-nucleotide polymorphisms by emission colors. NCBs are inexpensive, easy to prepare, and compatible with commercial DNA synthesizers. Many other groups have also explored and taken advantage of the environment sensitivities of DNA/Ag NCs in creating new tools for DNA/RNA detection and single-nucleotide polymorphism identification. In this review, we summarize the recent trends in the use of DNA/Ag NCs for developing DNA/RNA sensors. PMID:25586126

  17. Roles of RNA-Binding Proteins in DNA Damage Response.

    PubMed

    Kai, Mihoko

    2016-01-01

    Living cells experience DNA damage as a result of replication errors and oxidative metabolism, exposure to environmental agents (e.g., ultraviolet light, ionizing radiation (IR)), and radiation therapies and chemotherapies for cancer treatments. Accumulation of DNA damage can lead to multiple diseases such as neurodegenerative disorders, cancers, immune deficiencies, infertility, and also aging. Cells have evolved elaborate mechanisms to deal with DNA damage. Networks of DNA damage response (DDR) pathways are coordinated to detect and repair DNA damage, regulate cell cycle and transcription, and determine the cell fate. Upstream factors of DNA damage checkpoints and repair, "sensor" proteins, detect DNA damage and send the signals to downstream factors in order to maintain genomic integrity. Unexpectedly, we have discovered that an RNA-processing factor is involved in DNA repair processes. We have identified a gene that contributes to glioblastoma multiforme (GBM)'s treatment resistance and recurrence. This gene, RBM14, is known to function in transcription and RNA splicing. RBM14 is also required for maintaining the stem-like state of GBM spheres, and it controls the DNA-PK-dependent non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway by interacting with KU80. RBM14 is a RNA-binding protein (RBP) with low complexity domains, called intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs), and it also physically interacts with PARP1. Furthermore, RBM14 is recruited to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in a poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR)-dependent manner (unpublished data). DNA-dependent PARP1 (poly-(ADP) ribose polymerase 1) makes key contributions in the DNA damage response (DDR) network. RBM14 therefore plays an important role in a PARP-dependent DSB repair process. Most recently, it was shown that the other RBPs with intrinsically disordered domains are recruited to DNA damage sites in a PAR-dependent manner, and that these RBPs form liquid compartments (also known as "liquid-demixing"). Among the PAR-associated IDPs are FUS/TLS (fused in sarcoma/translocated in sarcoma), EWS (Ewing sarcoma), TARF15 (TATA box-binding protein-associated factor 68 kDa) (also called FET proteins), a number of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs), and RBM14. Importantly, various point mutations within the FET genes have been implicated in pathological protein aggregation in neurodegenerative diseases, specifically with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and frontotemporal lobe degeneration (FTLD). The FET proteins also frequently exhibit gene translocation in human cancers, and emerging evidence shows their physical interactions with DDR proteins and thus implies their involvement in the maintenance of genome stability. PMID:26927092

  18. Base opening in RNA and DNA duplexes: Implication for RNA stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y. Z.; Mohan, V.; Griffey, R. H.

    2000-05-01

    The energetics of a low-energy single base opening in several RNA duplex crystal structures has been calculated and compared to DNA duplexes. Base opening in RNA appears to have an overall preference towards the major groove, similar to results previously reported for B-DNA. Movement of each of the adenine, uracil, and cytosine bases into the minor groove is blocked by a high-energy barrier due to severe close contact with neighboring bases. Guanine bases are able to open towards both grooves because of the unique orientation of the base that avoids steric clash along the opening pathway. RNA bases are found to have a substantially smaller major groove opening extent than that of their B-DNA counterparts. A comparison with base opening behavior of A-DNA duplexes suggests that this difference results from helix constraint associated with A-form backbone conformation. The reduced opening extent correlates with the RNA duplex stability and is consistent with observed slower imino proton exchange rates in RNA duplexes.

  19. A Superfamily of DNA Transposons Targeting Multicopy Small RNA Genes

    PubMed Central

    Kojima, Kenji K.; Jurka, Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    Target-specific integration of transposable elements for multicopy genes, such as ribosomal RNA and small nuclear RNA (snRNA) genes, is of great interest because of the relatively harmless nature, stable inheritance and possible application for targeted gene delivery of target-specific transposable elements. To date, such strict target specificity has been observed only among non-LTR retrotransposons. We here report a new superfamily of sequence-specific DNA transposons, designated Dada. Dada encodes a DDE-type transposase that shows a distant similarity to transposases encoded by eukaryotic MuDR, hAT, P and Kolobok transposons, as well as the prokaryotic IS256 insertion element. Dada generates 6–7 bp target site duplications upon insertion. One family of Dada DNA transposons targets a specific site inside the U6 snRNA genes and are found in various fish species, water flea, oyster and polycheate worm. Other target sequences of the Dada transposons are U1 snRNA genes and different tRNA genes. The targets are well conserved in multicopy genes, indicating that copy number and sequence conservation are the primary constraints on the target choice of Dada transposons. Dada also opens a new frontier for target-specific gene delivery application. PMID:23874566

  20. FUS-regulated RNA metabolism and DNA damage repair

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yueqin; Liu, Songyan; ztrk, Arzu; Hicks, Geoffrey G

    2014-01-01

    Cytoplasmic inclusion of RNA binding protein FUS/TLS in neurons and glial cells is a characteristic pathology of a subgroup of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Dysregulation of RNA metabolism caused by FUS cytoplasmic inclusion emerges to be a key event in FUS-associated ALS/FTD pathogenesis. Our recent discovery of a FUS autoregulatory mechanism and its dysregulation in ALS-FUS mutants demonstrated that dysregulated alternative splicing can directly exacerbate the pathological FUS accumulation. We show here that FUS targets RNA for pre-mRNA alternative splicing and for the processing of long intron-containing transcripts, and that these targets are enriched for genes in neurogenesis and gene expression regulation. We also identify that FUS RNA targets are enriched for genes in the DNA damage response pathway. Together, the data support a model in which dysregulated RNA metabolism and DNA damage repair together may render neurons more vulnerable and accelerate neurodegeneration in ALS and FTD. PMID:25083344

  1. A superfamily of DNA transposons targeting multicopy small RNA genes.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Kenji K; Jurka, Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    Target-specific integration of transposable elements for multicopy genes, such as ribosomal RNA and small nuclear RNA (snRNA) genes, is of great interest because of the relatively harmless nature, stable inheritance and possible application for targeted gene delivery of target-specific transposable elements. To date, such strict target specificity has been observed only among non-LTR retrotransposons. We here report a new superfamily of sequence-specific DNA transposons, designated Dada. Dada encodes a DDE-type transposase that shows a distant similarity to transposases encoded by eukaryotic MuDR, hAT, P and Kolobok transposons, as well as the prokaryotic IS256 insertion element. Dada generates 6-7 bp target site duplications upon insertion. One family of Dada DNA transposons targets a specific site inside the U6 snRNA genes and are found in various fish species, water flea, oyster and polycheate worm. Other target sequences of the Dada transposons are U1 snRNA genes and different tRNA genes. The targets are well conserved in multicopy genes, indicating that copy number and sequence conservation are the primary constraints on the target choice of Dada transposons. Dada also opens a new frontier for target-specific gene delivery application. PMID:23874566

  2. Dicer-independent RNA-directed DNA methylation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dong-Lei; Zhang, Guiping; Tang, Kai; Li, Jingwen; Yang, Lan; Huang, Huan; Zhang, Heng; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2016-01-01

    RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) is an important de novo DNA methylation pathway in plants. Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) generated by Dicers from RNA polymerase IV (Pol IV) transcripts are thought to guide sequence-specific DNA methylation. To gain insight into the mechanism of RdDM, we performed whole-genome bisulfite sequencing of a collection of Arabidopsis mutants, including plants deficient in Pol IV (nrpd1) or Dicer (dcl1/2/3/4) activity. Unexpectedly, of the RdDM target loci that required Pol IV and/or Pol V, only 16% were fully dependent on Dicer activity. DNA methylation was partly or completely independent of Dicer activity at the remaining Pol IV- and/or Pol V-dependent loci, despite the loss of 24-nt siRNAs. Instead, DNA methylation levels correlated with the accumulation of Pol IV-dependent 25-50 nt RNAs at most loci in Dicer mutant plants. Our results suggest that RdDM in plants is largely guided by a previously unappreciated class of Dicer-independent non-coding RNAs, and that siRNAs are required to maintain DNA methylation at only a subset of loci. PMID:26642813

  3. Single-Molecule Electrical Random Resequencing of DNA and RNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohshiro, Takahito; Matsubara, Kazuki; Tsutsui, Makusu; Furuhashi, Masayuki; Taniguchi, Masateru; Kawai, Tomoji

    2012-07-01

    Two paradigm shifts in DNA sequencing technologies--from bulk to single molecules and from optical to electrical detection--are expected to realize label-free, low-cost DNA sequencing that does not require PCR amplification. It will lead to development of high-throughput third-generation sequencing technologies for personalized medicine. Although nanopore devices have been proposed as third-generation DNA-sequencing devices, a significant milestone in these technologies has been attained by demonstrating a novel technique for resequencing DNA using electrical signals. Here we report single-molecule electrical resequencing of DNA and RNA using a hybrid method of identifying single-base molecules via tunneling currents and random sequencing. Our method reads sequences of nine types of DNA oligomers. The complete sequence of 5'-UGAGGUA-3' from the let-7 microRNA family was also identified by creating a composite of overlapping fragment sequences, which was randomly determined using tunneling current conducted by single-base molecules as they passed between a pair of nanoelectrodes.

  4. Polyacid macromolecule primers

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi.

    1989-12-26

    Hydrophilic polyacids are described, such as macromolecules of polyitaconic acid and polyacrylic acid, where such macromolecules have molecular weights >50,000 as primers between a polymeric top coating, such as polyurethane, and an oxidized aluminum or aluminum alloy. A near monolayer of primer is used in polymeric adhesive/oxidized aluminum adhered joint systems in 0.05% primer concentration to give superior results in standard peel tests. 2 figs.

  5. Polyacid macromolecule primers

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi (Mastic Beach, NY)

    1989-01-01

    Hydrophylic polyacids, such as macromolecules of polyitaconic acid and polyacrylic acid, where such macromolecules have molecular weights >50,000 as primers between a polymeric top coating, such as polyurethane, and an oxidized aluminum or aluminum alloy. A near monolayer of primer is used in polymeric adhesive/oxidized aluminum adhered joint systems in 0.05% primer concentration to give superior results in standard peel tests.

  6. Complementarity of RNA Produced by Enzymic Transcription of Native and Denatured B. subtilis DNA*

    PubMed Central

    Cassuto, Era; Stein, Marshall; Chargaff, Erwin

    1970-01-01

    This paper describes the preparation and some of the properties of the RNA specimens synthesized with the aid of the RNA polymerase of E. coli by transcription of the following DNA templates: (a) undenatured B. subtilis DNA (yielding N-RNA); (b) separated strand fractions L and H isolated by chromatography of the denatured DNA on methylated albumin (yielding L-RNA and H-RNA, respectively). The study of the hybridization behavior of the various RNA products showed that N-RNA, though able to form hybrids with either strand, hybridized with H-DNA to twice as great an extent as with L-DNA. The transcripts of the separated L and H fractions exhibited complete specificity with respect to complexing: L-RNA hybridized only with L-DNA, H-RNA only with H-DNA. PMID:4991519

  7. A DNA enzyme with Mg(2+)-Dependent RNA Phosphoesterase Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breaker, Ronald R.; Joyce, Gerald F.

    1995-01-01

    Previously we demonstrated that DNA can act as an enzyme in the Pb(2+)-dependent cleavage of an RNA phosphoester. This is a facile reaction, with an uncatalyzed rate for a typical RNA phosphoester of approx. 10(exp -4)/ min in the presence of 1 mM Pb(OAc)2 at pH 7.0 and 23 C. The Mg(2+) - dependent reaction is more difficult, with an uncatalyzed rate of approx. 10(exp -7)/ min under comparable conditions. Mg(2+) - dependent cleavage has special relevance to biology because it is compatible with intracellular conditions. Using in vitro selection, we sought to develop a family of phosphoester-cleaving DNA enzymes that operate in the presence of various divalent metals, focusing particularly on the Mg(2+) - dependent reaction. Results: We generated a population of greater than 10(exp 13) DNAs containing 40 random nucleotides and carried out repeated rounds of selective amplification, enriching for molecules that cleave a target RNA phosphoester in the presence of 1 mM Mg(2+), Mn(2+), Zn(2+) or Pb(2+). Examination of individual clones from the Mg(2+) lineage after the sixth round revealed a catalytic motif comprised of a three-stem junction.This motif was partially randomized and subjected to seven additional rounds of selective amplification, yielding catalysts with a rate of 0.01/ min. The optimized DNA catalyst was divided into separate substrate and enzyme domains and shown to have a similar level of activity under multiple turnover conditions. Conclusions: We have generated a Mg(2+) - dependent DNA enzyme that cleaves a target RNA phosphoester with a catalytic rate approx. 10(exp 5) - fold greater than that of the uncatalyzed reaction. This activity is compatible with intracellular conditions, raising the possibility that DNA enzymes might be made to operate in vivo.

  8. Small RNA-mediated DNA (cytosine-5) methyltransferase 1 inhibition leads to aberrant DNA methylation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guoqiang; Estève, Pierre-Olivier; Chin, Hang Gyeong; Terragni, Jolyon; Dai, Nan; Corrêa, Ivan R.; Pradhan, Sriharsa

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian cells contain copious amounts of RNA including both coding and noncoding RNA (ncRNA). Generally the ncRNAs function to regulate gene expression at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level. Among ncRNA, the long ncRNA and small ncRNA can affect histone modification, DNA methylation targeting and gene silencing. Here we show that endogenous DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) co-purifies with inhibitory ncRNAs. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) bind directly to DNMT1 with high affinity. The binding of miRNAs, such as miR-155-5p, leads to inhibition of DNMT1 enzyme activity. Exogenous miR-155-5p in cells induces aberrant DNA methylation of the genome, resulting in hypomethylation of low to moderately methylated regions. And small shift of hypermethylation of previously hypomethylated region was also observed. Furthermore, hypomethylation led to activation of genes. Based on these observations, overexpression of miR-155-5p resulted in aberrant DNA methylation by inhibiting DNMT1 activity, resulting in altered gene expression. PMID:25990724

  9. RNA-DNA interactions and DNA methylation in post-transcriptional gene silencing.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, L; Hamilton, A J; Voinnet, O; Thomas, C L; Maule, A J; Baulcombe, D C

    1999-01-01

    Post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) is a homology-dependent process that reduces cytoplasmic RNA levels. In several experimental systems, there is also an association of PTGS with methylation of DNA. To investigate this association, we used plants carrying a transgene encoding the green fluorescent protein (GFP). Gene silencing was induced using potato virus X RNA vectors carrying parts of the coding sequence or the promoter of the GFP transgene. In each instance, homology-based, RNA-directed methylation was associated with silencing. When the GFP-transcribed region was targeted, PTGS affected both transgene and viral RNA levels. When methylation was targeted to a promoter region, transgene RNA levels were reduced; however, viral RNA levels were unaffected. For comparison, we induced PTGS of the gene encoding the endogenous ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase (Rubisco) small subunit (rbcS) by inoculation with potato virus X-rbcS. In this example, no methylation of the rbcS DNA was associated with the reduction in rbcS transcript levels, and viral RNA levels were unaffected. Finally, we investigated DNA methylation by using GFP-transformed plants in which PTGS was induced by localized introduction of a T-DNA carrying GFP sequences. In these plants, there was methylation of a GFP transgene associated with systemic spread of a gene-silencing signal from the infiltrated part of the plant. This transgene methylation was not affected when systemic PTGS was blocked by suppressors of silencing encoded by potato virus Y and cucumber mosaic virus. Combined, these data support an epigenetic model of PTGS in which transgene methylation is associated with an RNA-DNA interaction that ensures that PTGS is maintained. PMID:10590159

  10. Spectroscopic studies of chimeric DNA-RNA and RNA 29-base intramolecular triple helices.

    PubMed Central

    Liquier, J; Taillandier, E; Klinck, R; Guittet, E; Gouyette, C; Huynh-Dinh, T

    1995-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), UV absorption and exchangeable proton NMR spectroscopies have been used to study the formation and stability of two intramolecular pH-dependent triple helices composed by a chimeric 29mer DNA-RNA (DNA double strand and RNA third strand) or by the analogous 29mer RNA. In both cases decrease of pH induces formation of a triple helical structure containing either rU*dA.dT and rC+*dG.dC or rU*rA.rU and rC+*rG.rC triplets. FTIR spectroscopy shows that exclusively N-type sugars are present in the triple helix formed by the 29mer RNA while both N- and S-type sugars are detected in the case of the chimeric 29mer DNA-RNA triple helix. Triple helix formation with the third strand RNA and the duplex as DNA appears to be associated with the conversion of the duplex part from a B-form secondary structure to one which contains partly A-form sugars. Thermal denaturation experiments followed by UV spectroscopy show that a major stabilization occurs upon formation of the triple helices. Monophasic melting curves indicate a simultaneous disruption of the Hoogsteen and Watson-Crick hydrogen bonds in the intramolecular triplexes when the temperature is increased. This is in agreement with imino proton NMR spectra recorded as a function of temperature. Comparison with experiments concerning intermolecular triplexes of identical base and sugar composition shows the important role played by the two tetrameric loops in the stabilization of the intramolecular triple helices studied. PMID:7540286

  11. DNA and RNA synthesis by postpubertal undescended testis in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, M.; Nonomura, N.; Namiki, M.; Okuyama, A.; Koh, E.; Kondoh, N.; Fujioka, H.; Nishimune, Y.; Matsumoto, K.; Matsuda, M.

    1989-01-01

    To study the spermatogenic potential of postpubertal undescended testis, the /sup 3/H-thymidine and /sup 14/C-uridine incorporations into normally descended and inguinal undescended testes were examined. The results suggest that DNA synthesis by the inguinal undescended testis is remarkably inhibited but, on the contrary, RNA synthesis is not. The cell-proliferative ability of postpubertal undescended testis may be impaired in spite of the retention of cell viability in the testis.

  12. Did the Pre-RNA World Rest Upon DNA Molecules?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lazcano, Antonio; Dworkin, Jason P.; Miller, Stanley L.

    2004-01-01

    The isolation of a DNA sequence that catalyzes the ligation of oligodeoxynucleotides via the formation of 3' - 5' phosphodiester linkage significance in selection experiments has been reported. Ball recently used this to discuss the possibility that natural DNA molecules may have formed in the primitive Earth leading to the origin of life. As noted by Ferris and Usher, if metabolic pathways evolved backwards, it could be argued that the biosynthesis of 2-deoxyribose from ribose suggests that RNA came from DNA. As summarized elsewhere, there are several properties of deoxyribose which could be interpreted to support the possibility that DNA-like molecules arose prior to the RNA world. For example, 2-deoxyribose is slightly more soluble than ribose (which may have been an advantage in a drying pool scenario), may have been more reactive under possible prebiotic conditions (it forms a nucleoside approx. 150 times faster than ribose with the alternative base urazole at 25 C), while it decomposes in solution (approximately 2.6 times more slowly than ribose at 100 C). Other advantages of DNA over RNA are that it has one fewer chiral center, has a greater stability at the 8.2 pH value of the current oceans, and does not has the 2'5' and 3'5' ambiguity in polymerizations. Yet, there is strong molecular biological and biochemical evidence that RNA was featured in the biology well before the last common ancestor. The presence of sugar acids, including both ribo- and deoxysugar acids, in the 4.6 Ga old Murchison meteorite suggest that both may have been available in the primitive Earth, derived from the accretion of extraterrestrial sources and/or from endogenous processes involving formaldehyde and its derivatives. However, the abiotic synthesis of deoxyribose, ribose, and other sugars from glyceraldehyde and acetaldehyde under alkaline conditions is inefficient and unespecific. Although sugars are labile compounds, the role of cyanamide or borate minerals in the stabilization of the cyclic forms of ribose and other pentoses has recently been demonstrated. Nonetheless, the assumption either RNA or DNA was the first genetic material needs to be supplemented by laboratory models demonstrating that the prebiotic synthesis of activated beta-D-(deoxy)ribonucleotides and their polymers was feasible. As of today such evidence is lacking, and there is no convincing synthesis of any nucleotide, since all model experiments produce complex mixtures of products in which there is no preferential synthesis of chiral D-nucleotides. This strongly suggests that both DNA and RNA may have been preceded by pairing structures much simpler than extant nucleic acids. It is doubtful that DNA molecules, or indeed other (de0xy)ribofuranoid oligonucleotides formed the basis of these as yet undescribed pre-RNA worlds.

  13. RNA mapping on Drosophila mitochondrial DNA: precursors and template strands.

    PubMed Central

    Berthier, F; Renaud, M; Alziari, S; Durand, R

    1986-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is closely related to the mammalian and amphibian mtDNA except for gene organization. In Drosophila, genes are distributed in clusters alternatively coded on each strand. Besides the eleven major foreseeable transcripts previously described (MERTEN and PARDUE, 1981, J. Mol. Biol., 153, 1-21), we have characterized two poly A+ transcripts, one major and one minor which could correspond respectively to the ND3 and ND6 reading frames, and 27 poly A+ minor transcripts (0.2 to greater than 3.2 kb) which are distributed along the mtDNA except in the rRNAs, ND 1 and A+ T rich regions. The mapping and length of 25 of these transcripts strongly suggest a precursor role. They would be processed at the level of tRNA or tRNA-like sequences. Most of them are transcribed from the template strand of each gene cluster and their distribution is in agreement with the hypothesis of several transcription origins and terminations located near the extremities of each gene cluster. Quantitatively our results show a large variation in each presumptive mature transcript compared to the other, even in a given gene cluster, suggesting a specific degradation of some of the mature transcripts. Images PMID:3086843

  14. Spectrofluorometric determination of DNA and RNA with berberine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Guo-Quan; Zong, Zhi-Xin; Song, Yu-Min

    1999-08-01

    On binding to nucleic acids, the dye berberine increases its fluorescence quantum efficiency by a factor of 25-30. Based on this, an easy, rapid and accurate method for the determination of nucleic acids was developed. Berberine is very like ethidium bromide (EB), but it is non-poisonous. Determination can be made at any pH between 4 and 10, where the native structure of DNA and RNA is not disrupted. The maximum emission is near 520 nm for excitation at 355 or 450 nm. This method has good sensitivity (0.01 μg ml -1 of ctDNA), high selectivity and a wide linear range (0.05-14.0 μg ml -1 of ctDNA).

  15. The RNA World: Life Before DNA and Protein

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joyce, Gerald F.

    1993-01-01

    All of the life that is known, all organisms that exist on Earth today or are known to have existed on Earth in the past, are of the same life form: a life form based on DNA and protein. It does not necessarily have to be that way. Why not have two competing life forms on this planet? Why not have biology as we know it and some other biology that occupies its own distinct niche? Yet that is not how evolution has played out. From microbes living on the surface of antarctic ice to tube worms lying near the deep-sea hydrothermal vents, all known organisms on this planet are of the same biology. Looking at the single known biology on Earth, it is clear that this biology could not have simply sprung forth from the primordial soup. The biological system that is the basis for all known. life is far too complicated to have arisen spontaneously. This brings us to the notion that something else something simpler, must have preceded life based on DNA and protein. One suggestion that has gained considerable acceptance over the past decade is that DNA and protein-based life was preceded by RNA-based life in a period referred to as the 'RNA world'. Even an RNA-based life form would have been fairly complicated - not as complicated as our own DNA- and protein-based life form - but far too complicated, according to prevailing scientific thinking, to have arisen spontaneously from the primordial soup. Thus, it has been argued that something else must have preceded RNA-based life, or even that there was a succession of life forms leading from the primordial soup to RNA-based life. The experimental evidence to support this conjecture is not strong because, after all, the origin of life was a historical event that left no direct physical record. However, based on indirect evidence in both the geological record and the phylogenetic record of evolutionary history on earth, it is possible to reconstruct a rough picture of what life was like before DNA and protein.

  16. Crystallization of Macromolecules

    PubMed Central

    Friedmann, David; Messick, Troy; Marmorstein, Ronen

    2014-01-01

    X-ray crystallography has evolved into a very powerful tool to determine the three-dimensional structure of macromolecules and macromolecular complexes. The major bottleneck in structure determination by X-ray crystallography is the preparation of suitable crystalline samples. This unit outlines steps for the crystallization of a macromolecule, starting with a purified, homogeneous sample. The first protocols describe preparation of the macromolecular sample (i.e., proteins, nucleic acids, and macromolecular complexes). The preparation and assessment of crystallization trials is then described, along with a protocol for confirming whether the crystals obtained are composed of macromolecule as opposed to a crystallization reagent . Next, the optimization of crystallization conditions is presented. Finally, protocols that facilitate the growth of larger crystals through seeding are described. PMID:22045560

  17. DNA damage-induced inhibition of rRNA synthesis by DNA-PK and PARP-1

    PubMed Central

    Calkins, Anne S.; Iglehart, J. Dirk; Lazaro, Jean-Bernard

    2013-01-01

    RNA synthesis and DNA replication cease after DNA damage. We studied RNA synthesis using an in situ run-on assay and found ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis was inhibited 24 h after UV light, gamma radiation or DNA cross-linking by cisplatin in human cells. Cisplatin led to accumulation of cells in S phase. Inhibition of the DNA repair proteins DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) or poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) prevented the DNA damage-induced block of rRNA synthesis. However, DNA-PK and PARP-1 inhibition did not prevent the cisplatin-induced arrest of cell cycle in S phase, nor did it induce de novo BrdU incorporation. Loss of DNA-PK function prevented activation of PARP-1 and its recruitment to chromatin in damaged cells, suggesting regulation of PARP-1 by DNA-PK within a pathway of DNA repair. From these results, we propose a sequential activation of DNA-PK and PARP-1 in cells arrested in S phase by DNA damage causes the interruption of rRNA synthesis after DNA damage. PMID:23775790

  18. Intergenic transcripts originating from a subclass of ribosomal DNA repeats silence ribosomal RNA genes in trans.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Raffaella; Schmitz, Kerstin-Maike; Sandoval, Juan; Grummt, Ingrid

    2010-01-01

    Epigenetic silencing of a fraction of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) requires association of the nucleolar chromatin-remodelling complex NoRC to 150-250 nucleotide RNAs (pRNA) that originate from an RNA polymerase I promoter located in the intergenic spacer separating rDNA repeats. Here, we show that NoRC-associated pRNA is transcribed from a sub-fraction of hypomethylated rRNA genes during mid S phase, acting in trans to inherit DNA methylation and transcriptional repression of late-replicating silent rDNA copies. The results reveal variability between individual rDNA clusters with distinct functional consequences. PMID:20010804

  19. Macromolecules in Flatland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Ashok

    This thesis is on statistical mechanics of semiflexible polymers, and diffusion and fluid mechanics in lipid membranes. In chapter two the worm-like chain model of DNA under an applied force in two dimensions is solved analytically in terms of an expansion in Mathieu functions. An analytical expression for the force-extension relation for long polymers is computed in terms of Mathieu characteristic functions. The nematic order parameter and average extension of the polymer stretched by a strong nematic field are also derived. In chapter three the force-extension relations for short semiflexible polymers or long polymers under large forces are calculated analytically using the generating functional formalism of field theory. It is shown that boundary conditions like axis-clamping affect the force extension curves. This formalism is also applied to a charged polymer under the influence of an electric field, and analytical formulae for the force-extension relation are obtained. In chapter four the results of an experiment on the collapse of actin molecule into racquet-like structures due to the depletion interaction are reported, and the strength of the attractive interaction between actin filaments is measured. In chapter five a theoretical model of polymer diffusion in supported membranes is constructed. The velocity fields of inclusions in lipid membranes are analyzed and it is found that inclusions create domains of entrained lipids of a characteristic size. The diffusion constant of a self-avoiding polymer in the membrane is calculated and it is shown that by altering the hydrodynamic length scale which sets the size of the entrained domains, the diffusive properties of the polymer changes in character from uncorrelated Rouse-like behavior to a solid disk-like behavior. The implications for the diffusion of macromolecules in plasma membranes are discussed. In chapter six the drift of a moving object in a lipid membrane is studied. The drift is a measure of the quantity of fluid dragged by the object. It is found that the drift is related to the characteristic length-scale of the entrained domains in the lipid, and increases as this length-scale is increased. The implications for proteins in a membrane are discussed.

  20. DNA ? RNA: What Do Students Think the Arrow Means?

    PubMed Central

    Fisk, J. Nick; Newman, Dina L.

    2014-01-01

    The central dogma of molecular biology, a model that has remained intact for decades, describes the transfer of genetic information from DNA to protein though an RNA intermediate. While recent work has illustrated many exceptions to the central dogma, it is still a common model used to describe and study the relationship between genes and protein products. We investigated understanding of central dogma concepts and found that students are not primed to think about information when presented with the canonical figure of the central dogma. We also uncovered conceptual errors in student interpretation of the meaning of the transcription arrow in the central dogma representation; 36% of students (n = 128; all undergraduate levels) described transcription as a chemical conversion of DNA into RNA or suggested that RNA existed before the process of transcription began. Interviews confirm that students with weak conceptual understanding of information flow find inappropriate meaning in the canonical representation of central dogma. Therefore, we suggest that use of this representation during instruction can be counterproductive unless educators are explicit about the underlying meaning. PMID:26086664

  1. Functional Hallmarks of a Catalytic DNA that Makes Lariat RNA.

    PubMed

    Javadi-Zarnaghi, Fatemeh; Höbartner, Claudia

    2016-03-01

    Catalytic DNAs, also known as deoxyribozymes, are of practical value for the synthesis of structurally or topologically complex RNAs, but little is known about the molecular details of DNA catalysis. We have investigated a deoxyribozyme that catalyzes the formation of a specific intramolecular 2',5'-phosphodiester bond to produce lariat RNA, which is an important biological intermediate in eukaryotic mRNA splicing. The results of combinatorial mutation interference analysis (CoMA) allowed us to shrink the catalytic core to 70 % of its original length and revealed that the essential part of the deoxyribozyme sequence contained more than 50 % guanosines. Nucleotide analogue interference mapping (dNAIM) and dimethyl sulfate interference (DMSi) experiments provided atomic details of individual guanosine functional groups. Additional spectroscopic experiments and structural probing data identified conformational changes upon metal-ion binding and catalysis. Overall, this comprehensive analysis of the DNA-catalyzed reaction has provided specific insights into the synthesis of 2',5'-branched RNA, and suggested the general features of deoxyribozymes that catalyze nucleic acid ligation reactions. PMID:26525606

  2. Analysis of macromolecules, ligands and macromolecule-ligand complexes

    DOEpatents

    Von Dreele, Robert B. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2008-12-23

    A method for determining atomic level structures of macromolecule-ligand complexes through high-resolution powder diffraction analysis and a method for providing suitable microcrystalline powder for diffraction analysis are provided. In one embodiment, powder diffraction data is collected from samples of polycrystalline macromolecule and macromolecule-ligand complex and the refined structure of the macromolecule is used as an approximate model for a combined Rietveld and stereochemical restraint refinement of the macromolecule-ligand complex. A difference Fourier map is calculated and the ligand position and points of interaction between the atoms of the macromolecule and the atoms of the ligand can be deduced and visualized. A suitable polycrystalline sample of macromolecule-ligand complex can be produced by physically agitating a mixture of lyophilized macromolecule, ligand and a solvent.

  3. Assessing long-distance RNA sequence connectivity via RNA-templated DNA–DNA ligation

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Christian K; Olson, Sara; Graveley, Brenton R; Zamore, Phillip D; Moore, Melissa J

    2015-01-01

    Many RNAs, including pre-mRNAs and long non-coding RNAs, can be thousands of nucleotides long and undergo complex post-transcriptional processing. Multiple sites of alternative splicing within a single gene exponentially increase the number of possible spliced isoforms, with most human genes currently estimated to express at least ten. To understand the mechanisms underlying these complex isoform expression patterns, methods are needed that faithfully maintain long-range exon connectivity information in individual RNA molecules. In this study, we describe SeqZip, a methodology that uses RNA-templated DNA–DNA ligation to retain and compress connectivity between distant sequences within single RNA molecules. Using this assay, we test proposed coordination between distant sites of alternative exon utilization in mouse Fn1, and we characterize the extraordinary exon diversity of Drosophila melanogaster Dscam1. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03700.001 PMID:25866926

  4. A Course on Macromolecules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horta, Arturo

    1985-01-01

    Describes a senior-level course that: (1) focuses on the structure and reactions of macromolecules; (2) treats industrial polymers in a unified way; and (3) uses analysis of conformation and conformational statistics as a unifying approach. Also discusses course topics, including polysaccharides, proteins, nucleic acids, and others. (JN)

  5. RNA-DNA hybrid formation at the human mitochondrial heavy-strand origin ceases at replication start sites: an implication for RNA-DNA hybrids serving as primers.

    PubMed Central

    Xu, B; Clayton, D A

    1996-01-01

    Critical elements of a mammalian mitochondrial DNA heavy-strand replication origin include a promoter and three downstream conserved sequence blocks (CSBIII, CSBII and CSBI). We found recently that a stable and persistent RNA-DNA hybrid forms during in vitro transcription at Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondrial origins; hybrid formation was dependent on the conserved CSBII element. We report here that during in vitro transcription with human mitochondrial RNA polymerase, stable and persistent RNA-DNA hybrid formation is also evident at the human mitochondrial heavy-strand origin. As predicted, hybrid formation was dependent on the GC-rich CSBII element. The human RNA-DNA hybrids terminate within or downstream of CSBI at locations implicated in initiation of mitochondrial DNA replication. Interestingly, efficient hybrid formation in the human system is influenced by sequence 5' to the RNA-DNA hybrid, including the CSBIII element. These results suggest that the RNA-DNA hybrids formed during transcription across the mitochondrial DNA heavy-strand origin provide RNA primers for initiation of mitochondrial DNA replication. Images PMID:8670814

  6. Structural analysis of hepatitis C RNA genome using DNA microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Martell, Mara; Briones, Carlos; de Vicente, Arnzazu; Piron, Mara; Esteban, Juan I.; Esteban, Rafael; Guardia, Jaime; Gmez, Jordi

    2004-01-01

    Many studies have tried to identify specific nucleotide sequences in the quasispecies of hepatitis C virus (HCV) that determine resistance or sensitivity to interferon (IFN) therapy, unfortunately without conclusive results. Although viral proteins represent the most evident phenotype of the virus, genomic RNA sequences determine secondary and tertiary structures which are also part of the viral phenotype and can be involved in important biological roles. In this work, a method of RNA structure analysis has been developed based on the hybridization of labelled HCV transcripts to microarrays of complementary DNA oligonucleotides. Hybridizations were carried out at non-denaturing conditions, using appropriate temperature and buffer composition to allow binding to the immobilized probes of the RNA transcript without disturbing its secondary/tertiary structural motifs. Oligonucleotides printed onto the microarray covered the entire 5? non-coding region (5?NCR), the first three-quarters of the core region, the E2NS2 junction and the first 400 nt of the NS3 region. We document the use of this methodology to analyse the structural degree of a large region of HCV genomic RNA in two genotypes associated with different responses to IFN treatment. The results reported here show different structural degree along the genome regions analysed, and differential hybridization patterns for distinct genotypes in NS2 and NS3 HCV regions. PMID:15247323

  7. The Presence of Humic Substances and DNA in RNA Extracts Affects Hybridization Results

    PubMed Central

    Alm, Elizabeth Wheeler; Zheng, Dandan; Raskin, Lutgarde

    2000-01-01

    RNA extracts obtained from environmental samples are frequently contaminated with coextracted humic substances and DNA. It was demonstrated that the response in rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probe hybridizations decreased as the concentrations of humic substances and DNA in RNA extracts increased. The decrease in hybridization signal in the presence of humic substances appeared to be due to saturation of the hybridization membrane with humic substances, resulting in a lower amount of target rRNA bound to the membrane. The decrease in hybridization response in the presence of low amounts of DNA may be the result of reduced rRNA target accessibility. The presence of high amounts of DNA in RNA extracts resulted in membrane saturation. Consistent with the observations for DNA contamination, the addition of poly(A) to RNA extracts, a common practice used to prepare RNA dilutions for membrane blotting, also reduced hybridization signals, likely because of reduced target accessibility and membrane saturation effects. PMID:11010915

  8. The existence of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine and 5-formylcytosine in both DNA and RNA in mammals.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao-Ying; Xiong, Jun; Qi, Bao-Ling; Feng, Yu-Qi; Yuan, Bi-Feng

    2015-12-24

    We developed a novel strategy by oxidation-derivatization combined mass spectrometry analysis for the determination of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine and 5-formylcytosine in both DNA and RNA. We reported the presence of 5-formylcytosine in RNA of mammals and found that ascorbic acid and hydroquinone can increase the oxidation of 5-methylcytosine to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in DNA and RNA. PMID:26562407

  9. Aprataxin resolves adenylated RNA-DNA junctions to maintain genome integrity

    PubMed Central

    Tumbale, Percy; Williams, Jessica S.; Schellenberg, Matthew J.; Kunkel, Thomas A.; Williams, R. Scott

    2014-01-01

    Faithful maintenance and propagation of eukaryotic genomes is ensured by three-step DNA ligation reactions employed by ATP-dependent DNA ligases1,2. Paradoxically, when DNA ligases encounter nicked DNA structures with abnormal DNA termini, DNA ligase catalytic activity can generate and/or exacerbate DNA damage through abortive ligation that produces chemically adducted, toxic 5′-adenylated (5′-AMP) DNA lesions3–6 (Fig. 1a). Aprataxin (Aptx) reverses DNA-adenylation but the context for deadenylation repair is unclear. Here we examine the importance of Aptx to RNaseH2-dependent excision repair (RER) of a lesion that is very frequently introduced into DNA, a ribonucleotide. We show that ligases generate adenylated 5′-ends containing a ribose characteristic of RNaseH2 incision. Aptx efficiently repairs adenylated RNA-DNA, and acting in an RNA-DNA damage response (RDDR), promotes cellular survival and prevents S-phase checkpoint activation in budding yeast undergoing RER. Structure-function studies of human Aptx/RNA-DNA/AMP/Zn complexes define a mechanism for detecting and reversing adenylation at RNA-DNA junctions. This involves A-form RNA-binding, proper protein folding and conformational changes, all of which are impacted by heritable APTX mutations in Ataxia with Oculomotor Apraxia 1 (AOA1). Together, these results suggest that accumulation of adenylated RNA-DNA may contribute to neurological disease. PMID:24362567

  10. Double-Stranded RNA Is Detected by Immunofluorescence Analysis in RNA and DNA Virus Infections, Including Those by Negative-Stranded RNA Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Son, Kyung-No; Liang, Zhiguo

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Early biochemical studies of viral replication suggested that most viruses produce double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), which is essential for the induction of the host immune response. However, it was reported in 2006 that dsRNA could be detected by immunofluorescence antibody staining in double-stranded DNA and positive-strand RNA virus infections but not in negative-strand RNA virus infections. Other reports in the literature seemed to support these observations. This suggested that negative-strand RNA viruses produce little, if any, dsRNA or that more efficient viral countermeasures to mask dsRNA are mounted. Because of our interest in the use of dsRNA antibodies for virus discovery, particularly in pathological specimens, we wanted to determine how universal immunostaining for dsRNA might be in animal virus infections. We have detected the in situ formation of dsRNA in cells infected with vesicular stomatitis virus, measles virus, influenza A virus, and Nyamanini virus, which represent viruses from different negative-strand RNA virus families. dsRNA was also detected in cells infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, an ambisense RNA virus, and minute virus of mice (MVM), a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) parvovirus, but not hepatitis B virus. Although dsRNA staining was primarily observed in the cytoplasm, it was also seen in the nucleus of cells infected with influenza A virus, Nyamanini virus, and MVM. Thus, it is likely that most animal virus infections produce dsRNA species that can be detected by immunofluorescence staining. The apoptosis induced in several uninfected cell lines failed to upregulate dsRNA formation. IMPORTANCE An effective antiviral host immune response depends on recognition of viral invasion and an intact innate immune system as a first line of defense. Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is a viral product essential for the induction of innate immunity, leading to the production of type I interferons (IFNs) and the activation of hundreds of IFN-stimulated genes. The present study demonstrates that infections, including those by ssDNA viruses and positive- and negative-strand RNA viruses, produce dsRNAs detectable by standard immunofluorescence staining. While dsRNA staining was primarily observed in the cytoplasm, nuclear staining was also present in some RNA and DNA virus infections. The nucleus is unlikely to have pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) receptors for dsRNA because of the presence of host dsRNA molecules. Thus, it is likely that most animal virus infections produce dsRNA species detectable by immunofluorescence staining, which may prove useful in viral discovery as well. PMID:26136565

  11. Catalytic metal ions and enzymatic processing of DNA and RNA.

    PubMed

    Palermo, Giulia; Cavalli, Andrea; Klein, Michael L; Alfonso-Prieto, Mercedes; Dal Peraro, Matteo; De Vivo, Marco

    2015-02-17

    CONSPECTUS: Two-metal-ion-dependent nucleases cleave the phosphodiester bonds of nucleic acids via the two-metal-ion (2M) mechanism. Several high-resolution X-ray structures portraying the two-metal-aided catalytic site, together with mutagenesis and kinetics studies, have demonstrated a functional role of the ions for catalysis in numerous metallonucleases. Overall, the experimental data confirm the general mechanistic hypothesis for 2M-aided phosphoryl transfer originally reported by Steitz and Steitz ( Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1993 , 90 ( 14 ), 6498 - 6502 ). This seminal paper proposed that one metal ion favors the formation of the nucleophile, while the nearby second metal ion facilitates leaving group departure during RNA hydrolysis. Both metals were suggested to stabilize the enzymatic transition state. Nevertheless, static X-ray structures alone cannot exhaustively unravel how the two ions execute their functional role along the enzymatic reaction during processing of DNA or RNA strands when moving from reactants to products, passing through metastable intermediates and high-energy transition states. In this Account, we discuss the role of multiscale molecular simulations in further disclosing mechanistic insights of 2M-aided catalysis for two prototypical enzymatic targets for drug discovery, namely, ribonuclease H (RNase H) and type II topoisomerase (topoII). In both examples, first-principles molecular simulations, integrated with structural data, emphasize a cooperative motion of the bimetal motif during catalysis. The coordinated motion of both ions is crucial for maintaining a flexible metal-centered structural architecture exquisitely tailored to accommodate the DNA or RNA sugar-phosphate backbone during phosphodiester bond cleavage. Furthermore, our analysis of RNase H and the N-terminal domain (PAN) of influenza polymerase shows that classical molecular dynamics simulations coupled with enhanced sampling techniques have contributed to describe the modulatory effect of metal ion concentration and metal uptake on the 2M mechanism and efficiency. These aspects all point to the emerging and intriguing role of additional adjacent ions potentially involved in the modulation of phosphoryl transfer reactions and enzymatic turnover in 2M-catalysis, as recently observed experimentally in polymerase ? and homing endonuclease I-DmoI. These computational results, integrated with experimental findings, describe and reinforce the nascent concept of a functional and cooperative dynamics of the catalytic metal ions during the 2M-dependent enzymatic processing of DNA and RNA. Encouraged by the insights provided by computational approaches, we foresee further experiments that will feature the functional and joint dynamics of the catalytic metal ions for nucleic acid processing. This could impact the de novo design of artificial metallonucleases and the rational design of potent metal-chelating inhibitors of pharmaceutically relevant enzymes. PMID:25590654

  12. Integrated RNA and DNA sequencing improves mutation detection in low purity tumors

    PubMed Central

    Wilkerson, Matthew D.; Cabanski, Christopher R.; Sun, Wei; Hoadley, Katherine A.; Walter, Vonn; Mose, Lisle E.; Troester, Melissa A.; Hammerman, Peter S.; Parker, Joel S.; Perou, Charles M.; Hayes, D. Neil

    2014-01-01

    Identifying somatic mutations is critical for cancer genome characterization and for prioritizing patient treatment. DNA whole exome sequencing (DNA-WES) is currently the most popular technology; however, this yields low sensitivity in low purity tumors. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) covers the expressed exome with depth proportional to expression. We hypothesized that integrating DNA-WES and RNA-seq would enable superior mutation detection versus DNA-WES alone. We developed a first-of-its-kind method, called UNCeqR, that detects somatic mutations by integrating patient-matched RNA-seq and DNA-WES. In simulation, the integrated DNA and RNA model outperformed the DNA-WES only model. Validation by patient-matched whole genome sequencing demonstrated superior performance of the integrated model over DNA-WES only models, including a published method and published mutation profiles. Genome-wide mutational analysis of breast and lung cancer cohorts (n = 871) revealed remarkable tumor genomics properties. Low purity tumors experienced the largest gains in mutation detection by integrating RNA-seq and DNA-WES. RNA provided greater mutation signal than DNA in expressed mutations. Compared to earlier studies on this cohort, UNCeqR increased mutation rates of driver and therapeutically targeted genes (e.g. PIK3CA, ERBB2 and FGFR2). In summary, integrating RNA-seq with DNA-WES increases mutation detection performance, especially for low purity tumors. PMID:24970867

  13. Structural Basis for Telomerase Catalytic Subunit TERT Binding to RNA Template and Telomeric DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, M.; Gillis, A; Futahashi, M; Fujiwara, H; Skordalakes, E

    2010-01-01

    Telomerase is a specialized DNA polymerase that extends the 3{prime} ends of eukaryotic linear chromosomes, a process required for genomic stability and cell viability. Here we present the crystal structure of the active Tribolium castaneum telomerase catalytic subunit, TERT, bound to an RNA-DNA hairpin designed to resemble the putative RNA-templating region and telomeric DNA. The RNA-DNA hybrid adopts a helical structure, docked in the interior cavity of the TERT ring. Contacts between the RNA template and motifs 2 and B{prime} position the solvent-accessible RNA bases close to the enzyme active site for nucleotide binding and selectivity. Nucleic acid binding induces rigid TERT conformational changes to form a tight catalytic complex. Overall, TERT-RNA template and TERT-telomeric DNA associations are remarkably similar to those observed for retroviral reverse transcriptases, suggesting common mechanistic aspects of DNA replication between the two families of enzymes.

  14. Association of the Adenovirus DNA-Binding Protein with RNA Both in vitro and in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleghon, Vaughn G.; Klessig, Daniel F.

    1986-12-01

    The multifunctional DNA-binding protein (DBP) encoded by human adenovirus binds RNA. The association of purified DBP with RNA in vitro was demonstrated by using either a gel filtration or a filter binding assay. This association is sensitive to ionic strength and exhibits no apparent sequence specificity. DBP also interacts with RNA in vivo; it can be crosslinked to polyadenylylated RNA by UV-irradiation of intact cells during the late phase of adenovirus infections. The 46-kDa carboxyl-terminal domain of DBP binds RNA in vitro and was found to be associated with polyadenylylated RNA in vivo. This is the same domain that interacts with DNA. However, the differences in sensitivity of DBP to trypsin when bound to RNA versus DNA suggest that RNA and DNA either bind at different sites within this domain or induce different conformational changes within the protein.

  15. RNA-ligase-dependent biases in miRNA representation in deep-sequenced small RNA cDNA libraries

    PubMed Central

    Hafner, Markus; Renwick, Neil; Brown, Miguel; Mihailovi?, Aleksandra; Holoch, Daniel; Lin, Carolina; Pena, John T.G.; Nusbaum, Jeffrey D.; Morozov, Pavel; Ludwig, Janos; Ojo, Tolulope; Luo, Shujun; Schroth, Gary; Tuschl, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Sequencing of small RNA cDNA libraries is an important tool for the discovery of new RNAs and the analysis of their mutational status as well as expression changes across samples. It requires multiple enzyme-catalyzed steps, including sequential oligonucleotide adapter ligations to the 3? and 5? ends of the small RNAs, reverse transcription (RT), and PCR. We assessed biases in representation of miRNAs relative to their input concentration, using a pool of 770 synthetic miRNAs and 45 calibrator oligoribonucleotides, and tested the influence of Rnl1 and two variants of Rnl2, Rnl2(1249) and Rnl2(1249)K227Q, for 3?-adapter ligation. The use of the Rnl2 variants for adapter ligations yielded substantially fewer side products compared with Rnl1; however, the benefits of using Rnl2 remained largely obscured by additional biases in the 5?-adapter ligation step; RT and PCR steps did not have a significant impact on read frequencies. Intramolecular secondary structures of miRNA and/or miRNA/3?-adapter products contributed to these biases, which were highly reproducible under defined experimental conditions. We used the synthetic miRNA cocktail to derive correction factors for approximation of the absolute levels of individual miRNAs in biological samples. Finally, we evaluated the influence of 5?-terminal 5-nt barcode extensions for a set of 20 barcoded 3? adapters and observed similar biases in miRNA read distribution, thereby enabling cost-saving multiplex analysis for large-scale miRNA profiling. PMID:21775473

  16. Long-Range Charge Transport in Adenine-Stacked RNA:DNA Hybrids.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuanhui; Artés, Juan M; Hihath, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    An extremely important biological component, RNA:DNA can also be used to design nanoscale structures such as molecular wires. The conductance of single adenine-stacked RNA:DNA hybrids is rapidly and reproducibly measured using the break junction approach. The conductance decreases slightly over a large range of molecular lengths, suggesting that RNA:DNA can be used as an oligonucleotide wire. PMID:26596516

  17. Templated Formation of Discrete RNA and DNA:RNA Hybrid G-Quadruplexes and Their Interactions with Targeting Ligands.

    PubMed

    Bonnat, Laureen; Dejeu, Jérôme; Bonnet, Hugues; Génnaro, Béatrice; Jarjayes, Olivier; Thomas, Fabrice; Lavergne, Thomas; Defrancq, Eric

    2016-02-01

    G-rich RNA and DNA oligonucleotides derived from the human telomeric sequence were assembled onto addressable cyclopeptide platforms through oxime ligations and copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAc) reactions. The resulting conjugates were able to fold into highly stable RNA and DNA:RNA hybrid G-quadruplex (G4) architectures as demonstrated by UV, circular dichroism (CD), and NMR spectroscopic analysis. Whereas rationally designed parallel RNA and DNA:RNA hybrid G4 topologies could be obtained, we could not force the formation of an antiparallel RNA G4 structure, thus supporting the idea that this topology is strongly disfavored. The binding affinities of four representative G4 ligands toward the discrete RNA and DNA:RNA hybrid G4 topologies were compared to the one obtained with the corresponding DNA G4 structure. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) binding analysis suggests that the accessibility to G4 recognition elements is different among the three structures and supports the idea that G4 ligands might be shaped to achieve structure selectivity in a biological context. PMID:26808196

  18. Role of the CCA Bulge of Prohead RNA of Bacteriophage 29 in DNA Packaging

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wei; Morais, Marc C.; Anderson, Dwight L.; Jardine, Paul J.; Grimes, Shelley

    2011-01-01

    Summary The oligomeric ring of prohead RNA (pRNA) is an essential component of the ATP-driven DNA packaging motor of bacteriophage 29. The A-helix of pRNA binds the DNA translocating ATPase gp16 (gene product 16) and the CCA bulge in this helix is essential for DNA packaging in vitro. Mutation of the bulge by base substitution or deletion showed that the size of the bulge, rather than its sequence, is primary in DNA packaging activity. Proheads reconstituted with CCA bulge mutant pRNAs bound the packaging ATPase gp16 and the packaging substrate DNA-gp3, although DNA translocation was not detected with several mutants. Prohead/bulge-mutant pRNA complexes with low packaging activity had a higher rate of ATP hydrolysis per base pair of DNA packaged than proheads with wild-type pRNA. CryoEM-3D reconstruction of proheads reconstituted with a CCA deletion pRNA showed that the protruding pRNA spokes of the motor occupy a different position relative to the head when compared to particles with wild-type pRNA. Therefore, the CCA bulge seems to dictate the orientation of the pRNA spokes. The conformational changes observed for this mutant pRNA may affect gp16 conformation and/or subsequent ATPase-DNA interaction and, consequently, explain the decreased packaging activity observed for CCA mutants. PMID:18778713

  19. The structure, function and evolution of proteins that bind DNA and RNA

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, William H.; Ortlund, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    Proteins that bind both DNA and RNA epitomize the ability to perform multiple functions by a single gene product. Such DNA- and RNA-binding proteins (DRBPs) regulate many cellular processes, including transcription, translation, gene silencing, microRNA biogenesis and telomere maintenance. Proteins that bind RNA were typically considered as functionally distinct from proteins that bind DNA and studied independently. This practice is becoming outdated, in part due to the discovery of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) that target DNA-binding proteins. DRBPs have unique functional characteristics that stem from their specific structural attributes; these have evolved early in evolution and are widely conserved. PMID:25269475

  20. Modeling and time-dependent dynamics of processes of stimulated depolymerization, auto-repairing, degradation and radiation curing of DNA macromolecules and biopolymers at separated and combined actions of ionizing irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vysotskii, Vladimir I.; Pinchuk, Anatoliy O.; Kornilova, Alla A.; Samoylenko, Igor I.

    2001-12-01

    The time-dependent dynamics of the formation, relaxation and auto-repairing of double breaks of DNA macromolecules at the combined radiation action and non-radiation processes of degradation (e.g. by free radicals) were considered. The auto-repairing of DNA double breaks is connected with the peculiarities of long-range interaction of nucleotide charges, atoms and molecules in the intracellular milieu. The properties of intracellular liquid and the characteristics of force interaction between the end-pairs of nucleotides in the area of DNA break in response to radiation are changed. Each kind of radiation is characterized by a certain effectiveness of the double DNA break formation but simultaneously one creates the conditions for their liquidation. On the basis of the analysis and correlation of these processes the time-dependent theory for DNA degradation was created, including hormesis phenomenon, radiation antagonism, the validity of anomaly influence of low and large doses at sharp and chronic radiation and other effects. The qualitative and quantitative correspondences of the theory and experimental results of radiation biology were obtained.

  1. A PCR-based approach to assess genomic DNA contamination in RNA: Application to rat RNA samples.

    PubMed

    Padhi, Bhaja K; Singh, Manjeet; Huang, Nicholas; Pelletier, Guillaume

    2016-02-01

    Genomic DNA (gDNA) contamination of RNA samples can lead to inaccurate measurement of gene expression by reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). We describe an easily adoptable PCR-based method where gDNA contamination in RNA samples is assessed by comparing the amplification of intronic and exonic sequences from a housekeeping gene. Although this alternative assay was developed for rat RNA samples, it could be easily adapted to other species. As a proof of concept, we assessed the effects of detectable gDNA contamination levels on the expression of a few genes that illustrate the importance of RNA quality in acquiring reliable data. PMID:26545322

  2. The non-coding B2 RNA binds to the DNA cleft and active site region of RNA polymerase II

    PubMed Central

    Ponicsan, Steven L.; Houel, Stephane; Old, William M.; Ahn, Natalie G.; Goodrich, James A.; Kugel, Jennifer F.

    2013-01-01

    The B2 family of short interspersed elements is transcribed into non-coding RNA by RNA polymerase III. The ~180 nt B2 RNA has been shown to potently repress mRNA transcription by binding tightly to RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and assembling with it into complexes on promoter DNA, where it keeps the polymerase from properly engaging the promoter DNA. Mammalian Pol II is a ~500 kD complex that contains 12 different protein subunits, providing many possible surfaces for interaction with B2 RNA. We found that the carboxy-terminal domain of the largest Pol II subunit was not required for B2 RNA to bind Pol II and repress transcription in vitro. To identify the surface on Pol II to which the minimal functional region of B2 RNA binds, we coupled multi-step affinity purification, reversible formaldehyde crosslinking, peptide sequencing by mass spectrometry, and analysis of peptide enrichment. The Pol II peptides most highly recovered after crosslinking to B2 RNA mapped to the DNA binding cleft and active site region of Pol II. These studies determine the location of a defined nucleic acid binding site on a large, native, multi-subunit complex and provide insight into the mechanism of transcriptional repression by B2 RNA. PMID:23416138

  3. Nucleic acid (DNA, RNA) quantification and RNA/DNA ratio determination in marine sediments: comparison of spectrophotometric, fluorometric, and HighPerformance liquid chromatography methods and estimation of detrital DNA

    PubMed

    Dell'Anno; Fabiano; Duineveld; Kok; Danovaro

    1998-09-01

    In this study, we compared three methods for extraction and quantification of RNA and DNA from marine sediments: (i) a spectrophotometric method using the diphenylamine assay; (ii) a fluorometric method utilizing selective fluorochromes (thiazole orange for total nucleic acids and Hoechst 33258 for DNA); and (iii) a high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) method which uses a specific column to separate RNA and DNA and UV absorption of the nucleic acids for quantification. Sediment samples were collected in the oligotrophic Cretan Sea (eastern Mediterranean, from 40 to 1,540 m in depth) and compared to the distribution and composition of the benthic microbial assemblages (i.e., bacteria and microprotozoa). DNA concentrations measured spectrophotometrically and by HPLC were not significantly different, while fluorometric yields were significantly lower. Such differences appear mainly due to fact that the stain-DNA complex is strongly dependent on the DNA composition and structure. RNA concentrations determined by the three methods displayed some differences; fluorometric and spectrophotometric methods obtain RNA concentration by difference and therefore may be biased by DNA estimates. By contrast, the HPLC method provides independent assessments of RNA and DNA concentrations. We tentatively estimated the contribution of the detrital DNA to the total DNA pools in two ways. The two calculations provided quite similar results indicating that the majority of the DNA pool in the deep-sea sediments was detrital. Microbial RNA generally accounted for almost the entire sedimentary RNA pools below 100-m depth. RNA concentrations were found to decrease along the Cretan shelf and slope. The RNA/DNA ratio calculated by using fluorometric DNA concentrations was significantly correlated with values of sediment community oxygen consumption only below 100-m depth (dominated by the microbial biomass). These data suggest that the RNA/DNA ratio, based on fluorometric estimates of DNA, can be used as an indicator of benthic metabolic activity, but only when metazoan contribution to the microbial DNA is negligible. PMID:9726866

  4. Programmed self-assembly of DNA/RNA for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pengfei

    Three self-assembly strategies were utilized for assembly of novel functional DNA/RNA nanostructures. RNA-DNA hybrid origami method was developed to fabricate nano-objects (ribbon, rectangle, and triangle) with precisely controlled geometry. Unlike conventional DNA origami which use long DNA single strand as scaffold, a long RNA single strand was used instead, which was folded by short DNA single strands (staples) into prescribed objects through sequence specific hybridization between RNA and DNA. Single stranded tiles (SST) and RNA-DNA hybrid origami were utilized to fabricate a variety of barcode-like nanostructures with unique patterns by expanding a plain rectangle via introducing spacers (10-bp dsDNA segment) between parallel duplexes. Finally, complex 2D array and 3D polyhedrons with multiple patterns within one structure were assembled from simple DNA motifs. Two demonstrations of biomedical applications of DNA nanotechnology were presented. Firstly, lambda-DNA was used as template to direct the fabrication of multi-component magnetic nanoparticle chains. Nuclear magnetic relaxation (NMR) characterization showed superb magnetic relaxativity of the nanoparticle chains which have large potential to be utilized as MRI contrast agents. Secondly, DNA nanotechnology was introduced into the conformational study of a routinely used catalytic DNAzyme, the RNA-cleaving 10-23 DNAzyme. The relative angle between two flanking duplexes of the catalytic core was determined (94.8), which shall be able to provide a clue to further understanding of the cleaving mechanism of this DNAzyme from a conformational perspective.

  5. Cytoplasmic RNA sequences complementary to cloned chick delta-crystallin cDNA show size heterogeneity.

    PubMed Central

    Bower, D J; Errington, L H; Wainwright, N R; Sime, C; Morris, S; Clayton, R M

    1982-01-01

    Double-stranded complementary DNA (cDNA) sequences were prepared from day-old chick lens total polysomal RNA and inserted into the unique PstI restriction site of the plasmid pBR322. Colonies containing sequences complementary to abundant lens poly(A)-containing RNA sequences were identified by using lens 32P-labelled cDNA. Some of these clones have been characterized as containing delta-crystallin mRNA coding sequences by genomic DNA blot hybridization and RNA blot hybridizations. Hybridization of labelled DNA from such clones to RNA blots detected four size classes of delta-crystallin RNA sequences, although Southern blots indicated that there are probably only two delta-crystallin genes. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 4. PMID:6282266

  6. Fluorometric quantification of RNA and DNA in solutions containing both nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Morozkin, Evgeniy S; Laktionov, Pavel P; Rykova, Elena Y; Vlassov, Valentin V

    2003-11-01

    A fluorescence-based method for quantitative determination of RNA and DNA in probes containing both nucleic acids has been developed. The total concentration of nucleic acids is determined using SYBR Green II dye under conditions providing independent binding of the fluorophore with DNA and RNA. The concentration of DNA is specifically measured using the Hoechst 33258 dye and the RNA concentration is calculated from these data. The procedure allows for accurate determination of DNA concentration in the range 10-1000 ng/ml in the presence of 200-fold excess of RNA and determination of RNA concentrations in the range 10-1000 ng/ml in the presence of large excess of DNA. An absence of the treatment of mixed samples with RNase-free DNase I provides rapid, reproducible, and accurate RNA quantification. PMID:14705779

  7. Nanoparticles with Raman Spectroscopic Fingerprints for DNA and RNA Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, YunWei Charles; Jin, Rongchao; Mirkin, Chad A.

    2002-08-01

    Multiplexed detection of oligonucleotide targets has been performed with gold nanoparticle probes labeled with oligonucleotides and Raman-active dyes. The gold nanoparticles facilitate the formation of a silver coating that acts as a surface-enhanced Raman scattering promoter for the dye-labeled particles that have been captured by target molecules and an underlying chip in microarray format. The strategy provides the high-sensitivity and high-selectivity attributes of gray-scale scanometric detection but adds multiplexing and ratioing capabilities because a very large number of probes can be designed based on the concept of using a Raman tag as a narrow-band spectroscopic fingerprint. Six dissimilar DNA targets with six Raman-labeled nanoparticle probes were distinguished, as well as two RNA targets with single nucleotide polymorphisms. The current unoptimized detection limit of this method is 20 femtomolar.

  8. Decoding DNA, RNA and peptides with quantum tunnelling.

    PubMed

    Di Ventra, Massimiliano; Taniguchi, Masateru

    2016-02-01

    Drugs and treatments could be precisely tailored to an individual patient by extracting their cellular- and molecular-level information. For this approach to be feasible on a global scale, however, information on complete genomes (DNA), transcriptomes (RNA) and proteomes (all proteins) needs to be obtained quickly and at low cost. Quantum mechanical phenomena could potentially be of value here, because the biological information needs to be decoded at an atomic level and quantum tunnelling has recently been shown to be able to differentiate single nucleobases and amino acids in short sequences. Here, we review the different approaches to using quantum tunnelling for sequencing, highlighting the theoretical background to the method and the experimental capabilities demonstrated to date. We also explore the potential advantages of the approach and the technical challenges that must be addressed to deliver practical quantum sequencing devices. PMID:26839257

  9. Decoding DNA, RNA and peptides with quantum tunnelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Ventra, Massimiliano; Taniguchi, Masateru

    2016-02-01

    Drugs and treatments could be precisely tailored to an individual patient by extracting their cellular- and molecular-level information. For this approach to be feasible on a global scale, however, information on complete genomes (DNA), transcriptomes (RNA) and proteomes (all proteins) needs to be obtained quickly and at low cost. Quantum mechanical phenomena could potentially be of value here, because the biological information needs to be decoded at an atomic level and quantum tunnelling has recently been shown to be able to differentiate single nucleobases and amino acids in short sequences. Here, we review the different approaches to using quantum tunnelling for sequencing, highlighting the theoretical background to the method and the experimental capabilities demonstrated to date. We also explore the potential advantages of the approach and the technical challenges that must be addressed to deliver practical quantum sequencing devices.

  10. The Expanding View of RNA and DNA Function

    PubMed Central

    Breaker, Ronald R.; Joyce, Gerald F.

    2014-01-01

    Summary RNA and DNA are simple linear polymers consisting of only four major types of subunits, and yet these molecules carry out a remarkable diversity of functions in cells and in the laboratory. Each newly-discovered function of natural or engineered nucleic acids enforces the view that prior assessments of nucleic acid function were far too narrow and that many more exciting findings are yet to come. This Perspective highlights just a few of the numerous discoveries over the past 20 years pertaining to nucleic acid function, focusing on those that have been of particular interest to chemical biologists. History suggests that there will continue to be many opportunities to engage chemical biologists in the discovery, creation, and manipulation of nucleic acid function in the years to come. PMID:25237854

  11. DNA interrogation by the CRISPR RNA-guided endonuclease Cas9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sternberg, Samuel H.; Redding, Sy; Jinek, Martin; Greene, Eric C.; Doudna, Jennifer A.

    2014-03-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated enzyme Cas9 is an RNA-guided endonuclease that uses RNA-DNA base-pairing to target foreign DNA in bacteria. Cas9-guide RNA complexes are also effective genome engineering agents in animals and plants. Here we use single-molecule and bulk biochemical experiments to determine how Cas9-RNA interrogates DNA to find specific cleavage sites. We show that both binding and cleavage of DNA by Cas9-RNA require recognition of a short trinucleotide protospacer adjacent motif (PAM). Non-target DNA binding affinity scales with PAM density, and sequences fully complementary to the guide RNA but lacking a nearby PAM are ignored by Cas9-RNA. Competition assays provide evidence that DNA strand separation and RNA-DNA heteroduplex formation initiate at the PAM and proceed directionally towards the distal end of the target sequence. Furthermore, PAM interactions trigger Cas9 catalytic activity. These results reveal how Cas9 uses PAM recognition to quickly identify potential target sites while scanning large DNA molecules, and to regulate scission of double-stranded DNA.

  12. New Perspectives on DNA and RNA Triplexes As Effectors of Biological Activity.

    PubMed

    Bacolla, Albino; Wang, Guliang; Vasquez, Karen M

    2015-12-01

    Since the first description of the canonical B-form DNA double helix, it has been suggested that alternative DNA, DNA-RNA, and RNA structures exist and act as functional genomic elements. Indeed, over the past few years it has become clear that, in addition to serving as a repository for genetic information, genomic DNA elicits biological responses by adopting conformations that differ from the canonical right-handed double helix, and by interacting with RNA molecules to form complex secondary structures. This review focuses on recent advances on three-stranded (triplex) nucleic acids, with an emphasis on DNA-RNA and RNA-RNA interactions. Emerging work reveals that triplex interactions between noncoding RNAs and duplex DNA serve as platforms for delivering site-specific epigenetic marks critical for the regulation of gene expression. Additionally, an increasing body of genetic and structural studies demonstrates that triplex RNA-RNA interactions are essential for performing catalytic and regulatory functions in cellular nucleoprotein complexes, including spliceosomes and telomerases, and for enabling protein recoding during programmed ribosomal frameshifting. Thus, evidence is mounting that DNA and RNA triplex interactions are implemented to perform a range of diverse biological activities in the cell, some of which will be discussed in this review. PMID:26700634

  13. Extraction and fractionation of RNA and DNA from single cells using selective lysing and isotachophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shintaku, Hirofumi; Santiago, Juan G.

    2015-03-01

    Single cell analyses of RNA and DNA are crucial to understanding the heterogeneity of cell populations. The numbers of approaches to single cells analyses are expanding, but sequence specific measurements of nucleic acids have been mostly limited to studies of either DNA or RNA, and not both. This remains a challenge as RNA and DNA have very similar physical and biochemical properties, and cross-contamination with each other can introduce false positive results. We present an electrokinetic technique which creates the opportunity to fractionate and deliver cytoplasmic RNA and genomic DNA to independent downstream analyses. Our technique uses an on-chip system that enables selective lysing of cytoplasmic membrane, extraction of RNA (away from genomic DNA and nucleus), focusing, absolute quantification of cytoplasmic RNA mass. The absolute RNA mass quantification is performed using fluorescence observation without enzymatic amplification in < 5 min. The cell nucleus is left intact and the relative genomic DNA amount in the nucleus can be measured. We demonstrate the technique using single mouse B lymphocyte cells, for which we extracted an average of 14.1 pg total cytoplasmic RNA per cell. We also demonstrate correlation analysis between the absolute amount of cytoplasmic RNA and relative amount of genomic DNA, showing heterogeneity associated with cell cycle.

  14. Genome-Wide Profiling of Yeast DNA:RNA Hybrid Prone Sites with DRIP-Chip

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Phoebe Y. T.; Luo, Zongli; Hamza, Akil; Kobor, Michael S.; Stirling, Peter C.; Hieter, Philip

    2014-01-01

    DNA:RNA hybrid formation is emerging as a significant cause of genome instability in biological systems ranging from bacteria to mammals. Here we describe the genome-wide distribution of DNA:RNA hybrid prone loci in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by DNA:RNA immunoprecipitation (DRIP) followed by hybridization on tiling microarray. These profiles show that DNA:RNA hybrids preferentially accumulated at rDNA, Ty1 and Ty2 transposons, telomeric repeat regions and a subset of open reading frames (ORFs). The latter are generally highly transcribed and have high GC content. Interestingly, significant DNA:RNA hybrid enrichment was also detected at genes associated with antisense transcripts. The expression of antisense-associated genes was also significantly altered upon overexpression of RNase H, which degrades the RNA in hybrids. Finally, we uncover mutant-specific differences in the DRIP profiles of a Sen1 helicase mutant, RNase H deletion mutant and Hpr1 THO complex mutant compared to wild type, suggesting different roles for these proteins in DNA:RNA hybrid biology. Our profiles of DNA:RNA hybrid prone loci provide a resource for understanding the properties of hybrid-forming regions in vivo, extend our knowledge of hybrid-mitigating enzymes, and contribute to models of antisense-mediated gene regulation. A summary of this paper was presented at the 26th International Conference on Yeast Genetics and Molecular Biology, August 2013. PMID:24743342

  15. The Roads to and from the RNA World

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dworkin, Jason P.; Lazcano, Antonio; Miller, Stanley L.

    2003-01-01

    The historical existence of the RNA world, in which early life used RNA for both genetic information and catalytic ability, is widely accepted. However, there has been little discussion of whether protein synthesis arose before DNA or what preceded the RNA world (i.e. the pre-RNA world). We outline arguments of what route life may have taken out of the RNA world: whether DNA or protein followed. The metabolic arguments favor the possibility that RNA genomes preceded the use of DNA as the informational macromolecule. However, the opposite can also be argued based on the enhanced stability, reactivity, and solubility of 2-deoxyribose as compared to ribose. The possibility that DNA may have come before RNA is discussed, although it is a less parsimonious explanation than DNA following RNA.

  16. Preparation of cDNA libraries for high-throughput RNA sequencing analysis of RNA 5' ends.

    PubMed

    Vvedenskaya, Irina O; Goldman, Seth R; Nickels, Bryce E

    2015-01-01

    We provide a detailed protocol for preparing cDNA libraries suitable for high-throughput sequencing that are derived specifically from the 5' ends of RNA (5' specific RNA-seq). The protocol describes how cDNA libraries for 5' specific RNA-seq can be tailored to analyze specific classes of RNAs based upon the phosphorylation status of the 5' end. Thus, the analysis of cDNA libraries generated by these methods provides information regarding both the sequence and phosphorylation status of the 5' ends of RNAs. 5' specific RNA-seq can be used to analyze transcription initiation and posttranscriptional processing of RNAs with single base pair resolution on a genome-wide level. PMID:25665566

  17. RNA-primed complementary-sense DNA synthesis of the geminivirus African cassava mosaic virus.

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, K; Lucy, A; Stanley, J

    1992-01-01

    The plant DNA virus African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) is believed to replicate by a rolling circle mechanism. To investigate complementary-sense DNA (lagging strand) synthesis, we have analysed the heterogenous form of complementary-sense DNA (H3 DNA) from infected Nicotiana benthamiana by two-dimensional agarose gel electrophoresis and blot hybridisation. The presence of an RNA moeity is demonstrated by comparison of results for nucleic acids resolved on neutral/alkaline and neutral/formamide gels, suggesting that complementary-sense DNA synthesis on the virus-sense single-stranded DNA template is preceded by the synthesis of an RNA primer. Hybridisation with probes to specific parts of ACMV DNA A genome indicates that synthesis of the putative RNA primer initiates between nucleotides 2581-221, a region that includes intergenic sequences that have been implicated in geminivirus DNA replication and the control of gene expression. Images PMID:1475192

  18. Simultaneous isolation of high-quality DNA, RNA, miRNA and proteins from tissues for genomic applications

    PubMed Central

    Pea-Llopis, Samuel; Brugarolas, James

    2014-01-01

    Genomic technologies have revolutionized our understanding of complex Mendelian diseases and cancer. Solid tumors present several challenges for genomic analyses, such as tumor heterogeneity and tumor contamination with surrounding stroma and infiltrating lymphocytes. We developed a protocol to (i) select tissues of high cellular purity on the basis of histological analyses of immediately flanking sections and (ii) simultaneously extract genomic DNA (gDNA), messenger RNA (mRNA), noncoding RNA (ncRNA; enriched in microRNA (miRNA)) and protein from the same tissues. After tissue selection, about 1216 extractions of DNA/RNA/protein can be obtained per day. Compared with other similar approaches, this fast and reliable methodology allowed us to identify mutations in tumors with remarkable sensitivity and to perform integrative analyses of whole-genome and exome data sets, DNA copy numbers (by single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays), gene expression data (by transcriptome profiling and quantitative PCR (qPCR)) and protein levels (by western blotting and immunohistochemical analysis) from the same samples. Although we focused on renal cell carcinoma, this protocol may be adapted with minor changes to any human or animal tissue to obtain high-quality and high-yield nucleic acids and proteins. PMID:24136348

  19. Molecular structure of r/GCG/d/TATACGC/ - A DNA-RNA hybrid helix joined to double helical DNA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, A. H.-J.; Fujii, S.; Rich, A.; Van Boom, J. H.; Van Der Marel, G. A.; Van Boeckel, S. A. A.

    1982-01-01

    The molecule r(GCG)d(TATACGC) is self-complementary and forms two DNA-RNA hybrid segments surrounding a central region of double helical DNA; its molecular structure has been solved by X-ray analysis. All three parts of the molecule adopt a conformation which is close to that seen in the 11-fold RNA double helix. The conformation of the ribonucleotides is partly determined by water molecules bridging between the ribose O2' hydroxyl group and cytosine O2. The hybrid-DNA duplex junction contains no structural discontinuities. However, the central DNA TATA sequence has some structural irregularities.

  20. On-chip separation and analysis of RNA and DNA from single cells.

    PubMed

    Shintaku, Hirofumi; Nishikii, Hidekazu; Marshall, Lewis A; Kotera, Hidetoshi; Santiago, Juan G

    2014-02-18

    The simultaneous analysis of RNA and DNA of single cells remains a challenge as these species have very similar physical and biochemical properties and can cross-contaminate each other. Presented is an on-chip system that enables selective lysing of single living cells, extraction, focusing, and absolute quantification of cytoplasmic RNA mass and its physical separation from DNA in the nucleus using electrical lysing and isotachophoresis (ITP). This absolute quantitation is performed without enzymatic amplification in less than 5 min. The nucleus is preserved, and its DNA fluorescence signal can be measured independently. We demonstrate the technique using single mouse lymphocyte cells, for which we extracted an average of 14.1 pg of total RNA per cell. We also demonstrate correlation analysis between the absolute amount of RNA and relative amount of DNA, showing heterogeneity associated with cell cycles. The technique is compatible with fractionation of DNA and RNA and with downstream assays of each. PMID:24499009

  1. The ATM Kinase Induces MicroRNA Biogenesis in the DNA Damage Response

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xinna; Wan, Guohui; Berger, Franklin G.; He, Xiaoming; Lu, Xiongbin

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The DNA damage response involves a complex network of processes that detect and repair DNA damage. Here we show that miRNA biogenesis is globally induced upon DNA damage in an ATM-dependent manner. About one fourth of miRNAs are significantly up-regulated after DNA damage, while loss of ATM abolishes their induction. KSRP (KH-type splicing regulatory protein) is a key player that translates DNA damage signaling to miRNA biogenesis. The ATM kinase directly binds to and phosphorylates KSRP, leading to enhanced interaction between KSRP and pri-miRNAs and increased KSRP activity in miRNA processing. Mutations of the ATM phosphorylation sites of KSRP impaired its activity in regulating miRNAs. These findings reveal a mechanism by which DNA damage signaling is linked to miRNA biogenesis. PMID:21329876

  2. A comprehensive comparative review of sequence-based predictors of DNA- and RNA-binding residues.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jing; Friedrich, Stefanie; Kurgan, Lukasz

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the pressing need to characterize protein-DNA and protein-RNA interactions on large scale, we review a comprehensive set of 30 computational methods for high-throughput prediction of RNA- or DNA-binding residues from protein sequences. We summarize these predictors from several significant perspectives including their design, outputs and availability. We perform empirical assessment of methods that offer web servers using a new benchmark data set characterized by a more complete annotation that includes binding residues transferred from the same or similar proteins. We show that predictors of DNA-binding (RNA-binding) residues offer relatively strong predictive performance but they are unable to properly separate DNA- from RNA-binding residues. We design and empirically assess several types of consensuses and demonstrate that machine learning (ML)-based approaches provide improved predictive performance when compared with the individual predictors of DNA-binding residues or RNA-binding residues. We also formulate and execute first-of-its-kind study that targets combined prediction of DNA- and RNA-binding residues. We design and test three types of consensuses for this prediction and conclude that this novel approach that relies on ML design provides better predictive quality than individual predictors when tested on prediction of DNA- and RNA-binding residues individually. It also substantially improves discrimination between these two types of nucleic acids. Our results suggest that development of a new generation of predictors would benefit from using training data sets that combine both RNA- and DNA-binding proteins, designing new inputs that specifically target either DNA- or RNA-binding residues and pursuing combined prediction of DNA- and RNA-binding residues. PMID:25935161

  3. A comparison of RNA with DNA in template-directed synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zielinski, M.; Kozlov, I. A.; Orgel, L. E.; Bada, J. L. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Nonenzymatic template-directed copying of RNA sequences rich in cytidylic acid using nucleoside 5'-(2-methylimidazol-1-yl phosphates) as substrates is substantially more efficient than the copying of corresponding DNA sequences. However, many sequences cannot be copied, and the prospect of replication in this system is remote, even for RNA. Surprisingly, wobble-pairing leads to much more efficient incorporation of G opposite U on RNA templates than of G opposite T on DNA templates.

  4. Interaction of noncoding RNA with the rDNA promoter mediates recruitment of DNMT3b and silencing of rRNA genes

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, Kerstin-Maike; Mayer, Christine; Postepska, Anna; Grummt, Ingrid

    2010-01-01

    Noncoding RNAs are important components of regulatory networks controlling the epigenetic state of chromatin. We analyzed the role of pRNA (promoter-associated RNA), a noncoding RNA that is complementary to the rDNA promoter, in mediating de novo CpG methylation of rRNA genes (rDNA). We show that pRNA interacts with the target site of the transcription factor TTF-I, forming a DNA:RNA triplex that is specifically recognized by the DNA methyltransferase DNMT3b. The results reveal a compelling new mechanism of RNA-dependent DNA methylation, suggesting that recruitment of DNMT3b by DNA:RNA triplexes may be a common and generally used pathway in epigenetic regulation. PMID:20952535

  5. Structure and assembly of the essential RNA ring component of a viral DNA packaging motor

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Fang; Lu, Changrui; Zhao, Wei; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Anderson, Dwight L.; Jardine, Paul J.; Grimes, Shelley; Ke, Ailong

    2011-07-25

    Prohead RNA (pRNA) is an essential component in the assembly and operation of the powerful bacteriophage {psi}29 DNA packaging motor. The pRNA forms a multimeric ring via intermolecular base-pairing interactions between protomers that serves to guide the assembly of the ring ATPase that drives DNA packaging. Here we report the quaternary structure of this rare multimeric RNA at 3.5 {angstrom} resolution, crystallized as tetrameric rings. Strong quaternary interactions and the inherent flexibility helped rationalize how free pRNA is able to adopt multiple oligomerization states in solution. These characteristics also allowed excellent fitting of the crystallographic pRNA protomers into previous prohead/pRNA cryo-EM reconstructions, supporting the presence of a pentameric, but not hexameric, pRNA ring in the context of the DNA packaging motor. The pentameric pRNA ring anchors itself directly to the phage prohead by interacting specifically with the fivefold symmetric capsid structures that surround the head-tail connector portal. From these contacts, five RNA superhelices project from the pRNA ring, where they serve as scaffolds for binding and assembly of the ring ATPase, and possibly mediate communication between motor components. Construction of structure-based designer pRNAs with little sequence similarity to the wild-type pRNA were shown to fully support the packaging of {psi}29 DNA.

  6. Modified method for combined DNA and RNA isolation from peanut and other oil seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Isolation of good quality RNA and DNA from seeds is difficult due to high levels of polysaccharides, polyphenols, and lipids that can degrade or co-precipitate with nucleic acids. Standard RNA extraction methods utilizing guanidinium-phenol-chloroform extraction has not shown to be successful. RNA...

  7. Low-intensity red and infrared lasers affect mRNA expression of DNA nucleotide excision repair in skin and muscle tissue.

    PubMed

    Sergio, Luiz Philippe S; Campos, Vera Maria A; Vicentini, Solange C; Mencalha, Andre Luiz; de Paoli, Flavia; Fonseca, Adenilson S

    2016-04-01

    Lasers emit light beams with specific characteristics, in which wavelength, frequency, power, fluence, and emission mode properties determine the photophysical, photochemical, and photobiological responses. Low-intensity lasers could induce free radical generation in biological tissues and cause alterations in macromolecules, such as DNA. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate excision repair cross-complementing group 1 (ERCC1) and excision repair cross-complementing group 2 (ERCC2) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in biological tissues exposed to low-intensity lasers. Wistar rat (n = 28, 4 for each group) skin and muscle were exposed to low-intensity red (660 nm) and near-infrared (880 nm) lasers at different fluences (25, 50, and 100 J/cm(2)), and samples of these tissues were withdrawn for RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis, and gene expression evaluation by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Laser exposure was in continuous wave and power of 100 mW. Data show that ERCC1 and ERCC2 mRNA expressions decrease in skin (p < 0.001) exposed to near-infrared laser, but increase in muscle tissue (p < 0.001). ERCC1 mRNA expression does not alter (p > 0.05), but ERCC2 mRNA expression decreases in skin (p < 0.001) and increases in muscle tissue (p < 0.001) exposed to red laser. Our results show that ERCC1 and ERCC2 mRNA expression is differently altered in skin and muscle tissue exposed to low-intensity lasers depending on wavelengths and fluences used in therapeutic protocols. PMID:26796702

  8. Nuclear (DNA, RNA, histone and non-histone protein) and nucleolar changes during growth and senescence of may apple leaves.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, P K; Pappelis, A J; Lee, S C; BeMiller, J N; Karagiannis, C S

    1996-12-20

    Quantitative interference microscopy was used to determine changes in nuclear and nucleolar indices (dry mass and cross-sectional area) in upper and lower epidermal cells and adjacent leaf-margin hair cells of the May apple (Podophyllum peltatum L.) leaves over a 42-day period (after leaves emerged above the ground litter). These indices decreased in a highly correlated manner. A ploidy variation may exist between epidermal cells and leaf-margin hair cells. Using the leaf-margin hair cells model, six nuclear macromolecule indices (total nucleic acid, DNA, RNA, total nuclear protein, histone and non-histone protein), nuclear volume, nucleolar volume and perinucleolar volume (measured using quantitative epifluorescence-phase contrast microscopy) all declined with age (42-day study) in a highly correlated manner. The degeneration of the nucleus and nucleolus in the three leaf locations studied followed the patterns observed for programmed cellular senescence and death (necrosis) in epidermal cells of onion leaf bases (stored tissue; leaf bases did not contain chlorophyll) and human epithelial cells (buccal; cervical). We conclude that the epidermal cells and leaf-margin hair cells from green leaves of the May Apple are ideal for the study of programmed cell senescence and death in plants, especially for the partitioning of this process into the study of: the point-of-no-return (solubilization of the karyoskeleton and loss of non-histone proteins and RNA associated with the karyoskeleton from the nucleus); nuclear pycnosis (loss of nuclear dry mass and volume and loss of nuclear internal support structure); chromatin condensation, margination along the inner nuclear envelope; and DNA-histone degeneration; degeneration of the nucleolus and loss of the perinucleolar zone of exclusion. The characterization of chlorenchyma cells during the 42-day period should now be undertaken (leaf senescence as indicated by the beginning of yellowing about 35 days after emergence) to determine whether these cells with functional chloroplasts undergo nuclear changes like those lacking functional chloroplasts. PMID:9080390

  9. Ocular delivery of macromolecules

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yoo-Chun; Chiang, Bryce; Wu, Xianggen; Prausnitz, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    Biopharmaceuticals are making increasing impact on medicine, including treatment of indications in the eye. Macromolecular drugs are typically given by physician-administered invasive delivery methods, because non--invasive ocular delivery methods, such as eye drops, and systemic delivery, have low bioavailability and/or poor ocular targeting. There is a need to improve delivery of biopharmaceuticals to enable less-invasive delivery routes, less-frequent dosing through controlled-release drug delivery and improved drug targeting within the eye to increase efficacy and reduce side effects. This review discusses the barriers to drug delivery via various ophthalmic routes of administration in the context of macromolecule delivery and discusses efforts to develop controlled-release systems for delivery of biopharmaceuticals to the eye. The growing number of macromolecular therapies in the eye needs improved drug delivery methods that increase drug efficacy, safety and patient compliance. PMID:24998941

  10. Tracking fungal community responses to maize plants by DNA- and RNA-based pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Kuramae, Eiko E; Verbruggen, Erik; Hillekens, Remy; de Hollander, Mattias; Röling, Wilfred F M; van der Heijden, Marcel G A; Kowalchuk, George A

    2013-01-01

    We assessed soil fungal diversity and community structure at two sampling times (t1 = 47 days and t2 = 104 days of plant age) in pots associated with four maize cultivars, including two genetically modified (GM) cultivars by high-throughput pyrosequencing of the 18S rRNA gene using DNA and RNA templates. We detected no significant differences in soil fungal diversity and community structure associated with different plant cultivars. However, DNA-based analyses yielded lower fungal OTU richness as compared to RNA-based analyses. Clear differences in fungal community structure were also observed in relation to sampling time and the nucleic acid pool targeted (DNA versus RNA). The most abundant soil fungi, as recovered by DNA-based methods, did not necessary represent the most "active" fungi (as recovered via RNA). Interestingly, RNA-derived community compositions at t1 were highly similar to DNA-derived communities at t2, based on presence/absence measures of OTUs. We recovered large proportions of fungal sequences belonging to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Basidiomycota, especially at the RNA level, suggesting that these important and potentially beneficial fungi are not affected by the plant cultivars nor by GM traits (Bt toxin production). Our results suggest that even though DNA- and RNA-derived soil fungal communities can be very different at a given time, RNA composition may have a predictive power of fungal community development through time. PMID:23875012

  11. Tracking Fungal Community Responses to Maize Plants by DNA- and RNA-Based Pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    Kuramae, Eiko E.; Verbruggen, Erik; Hillekens, Remy; de Hollander, Mattias; Röling, Wilfred F. M.; van der Heijden, Marcel G. A.; Kowalchuk, George A.

    2013-01-01

    We assessed soil fungal diversity and community structure at two sampling times (t1 = 47 days and t2 = 104 days of plant age) in pots associated with four maize cultivars, including two genetically modified (GM) cultivars by high-throughput pyrosequencing of the 18S rRNA gene using DNA and RNA templates. We detected no significant differences in soil fungal diversity and community structure associated with different plant cultivars. However, DNA-based analyses yielded lower fungal OTU richness as compared to RNA-based analyses. Clear differences in fungal community structure were also observed in relation to sampling time and the nucleic acid pool targeted (DNA versus RNA). The most abundant soil fungi, as recovered by DNA-based methods, did not necessary represent the most “active” fungi (as recovered via RNA). Interestingly, RNA-derived community compositions at t1 were highly similar to DNA-derived communities at t2, based on presence/absence measures of OTUs. We recovered large proportions of fungal sequences belonging to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Basidiomycota, especially at the RNA level, suggesting that these important and potentially beneficial fungi are not affected by the plant cultivars nor by GM traits (Bt toxin production). Our results suggest that even though DNA- and RNA-derived soil fungal communities can be very different at a given time, RNA composition may have a predictive power of fungal community development through time. PMID:23875012

  12. An archaeal CRISPR type III-B system exhibiting distinctive RNA targeting features and mediating dual RNA and DNA interference

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Wenfang; Feng, Mingxia; Feng, Xu; Liang, Yun Xiang; She, Qunxin

    2015-01-01

    CRISPR-Cas systems provide a small RNA-based mechanism to defend against invasive genetic elements in archaea and bacteria. To investigate the in vivo mechanism of RNA interference by two type III-B systems (Cmr-α and Cmr-β) in Sulfolobus islandicus, a genetic assay was developed using plasmids carrying an artificial mini-CRISPR (AC) locus with a single spacer. After pAC plasmids were introduced into different strains, Northern analyses confirmed that mature crRNAs were produced from the plasmid-borne CRISPR loci, which then guided gene silencing to target gene expression. Spacer mutagenesis identified a trinucleotide sequence in the 3′-region of crRNA that was crucial for RNA interference. Studying mutants lacking Cmr-α or Cmr-β system showed that each Cmr complex exhibited RNA interference. Strikingly, these analyses further revealed that the two Cmr systems displayed distinctive interference features. Whereas Cmr-β complexes targeted transcripts and could be recycled in RNA cleavage, Cmr-α complexes probably targeted nascent RNA transcripts and remained associated with the substrate. Moreover, Cmr-β exhibited much stronger RNA cleavage activity than Cmr-α. Since we previously showed that S. islandicus Cmr-α mediated transcription-dependent DNA interference, the Cmr-α constitutes the first CRISPR system exhibiting dual targeting of RNA and DNA. PMID:25505143

  13. Comparison of the Prognostic Utility of the Diverse Molecular Data among lncRNA, DNA Methylation, microRNA, and mRNA across Five Human Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Li; Fengji, Liang; Changning, Liu; Liangcai, Zhang; Yinghui, Li; Yu, Li; Shanguang, Chen; Jianghui, Xiong

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Advances in high-throughput technologies have generated diverse informative molecular markers for cancer outcome prediction. Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) and DNA methylation as new classes of promising markers are emerging as key molecules in human cancers; however, the prognostic utility of such diverse molecular data remains to be explored. Materials and Methods We proposed a computational pipeline (IDFO) to predict patient survival by identifying prognosis-related biomarkers using multi-type molecular data (mRNA, microRNA, DNA methylation, and lncRNA) from 3198 samples of five cancer types. We assessed the predictive performance of both single molecular data and integrated multi-type molecular data in patient survival stratification, and compared their relative importance in each type of cancer, respectively. Survival analysis using multivariate Cox regression was performed to investigate the impact of the IDFO-identified markers and traditional variables on clinical outcome. Results Using the IDFO approach, we obtained good predictive performance of the molecular datasets (bootstrap accuracy: 0.71–0.97) in five cancer types. Impressively, lncRNA was identified as the best prognostic predictor in the validated cohorts of four cancer types, followed by DNA methylation, mRNA, and then microRNA. We found the incorporating of multi-type molecular data showed similar predictive power to single-type molecular data, but with the exception of the lncRNA + DNA methylation combinations in two cancers. Survival analysis of proportional hazard models confirmed a high robustness for lncRNA and DNA methylation as prognosis factors independent of traditional clinical variables. Conclusion Our study provides insight into systematically understanding the prognostic performance of diverse molecular data in both single and aggregate patterns, which may have specific reference to subsequent related studies. PMID:26606135

  14. Transcriptional regulation mechanism mediated by miRNA-DNA•DNA triplex structure stabilized by Argonaute.

    PubMed

    Toscano-Garibay, Julia D; Aquino-Jarquin, Guillermo

    2014-11-01

    Transcription regulation depends on interactions between repressor or activator proteins with promoter sequences, while post-transcriptional regulation typically relies on microRNA (miRNA) interaction with sequences in 5' and 3'-Untranslated regions (UTRs) of messenger RNA (mRNA). However, several pieces of evidence suggest that miRNA:Argonaute (AGO) complexes may also suppress transcription through RNA interference (RNAi) components and epigenetic mechanisms. However, recent observations suggest that miRNA-induced transcriptional silencing could be exerted by an unknown mechanism independent of chromatin modifiers. The RNA-DNA•DNA triplex structure has emerged as an important RNA tertiary motif in which successive non-canonical base pairs form between a DNA-DNA duplex and a third strand. Frequently, promoters have Purine (PU)-rich tracts, and some Triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) targeting these regulatory regions have been shown to inhibit transcription selectively. Here, we summarize observations suggesting that miRNAs exert regulation over promoter regions through miRNA-DNA•DNA triplex structure formation stabilized by AGO proteins which represents a plausible model of RNA-mediated Transcriptional gene silencing (TGS). PMID:25086339

  15. Mycobacterium smegmatis Lhr Is a DNA-dependent ATPase and a 3?-to-5? DNA Translocase and Helicase That Prefers to Unwind 3?-Tailed RNA:DNA Hybrids*

    PubMed Central

    Ordonez, Heather; Shuman, Stewart

    2013-01-01

    We are interested in the distinctive roster of helicases of Mycobacterium, a genus of the phylum Actinobacteria that includes the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis and its avirulent relative Mycobacterium smegmatis. Here, we identify and characterize M. smegmatis Lhr as the exemplar of a novel clade of superfamily II helicases, by virtue of its biochemical specificities and signature domain organization. Lhr is a 1507-amino acid monomeric nucleic acid-dependent ATPase that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to drive unidirectional 3?-to-5? translocation along single strand DNA and to unwind duplexes en route. The ATPase is more active in the presence of calcium than magnesium. ATP hydrolysis is triggered by either single strand DNA or single strand RNA, yet the apparent affinity for a DNA activator is 11-fold higher than for an RNA strand of identical size and nucleobase sequence. Lhr is 8-fold better at unwinding an RNA:DNA hybrid than it is at displacing a DNA:DNA duplex of identical nucleobase sequence. The truncated derivative Lhr-(1856) is an autonomous ATPase, 3?-to-5? translocase, and RNA:DNA helicase. Lhr-(1856) is 100-fold better RNA:DNA helicase than DNA:DNA helicase. Lhr homologs are found in bacteria representing eight different phyla, being especially prevalent in Actinobacteria (including M. tuberculosis) and Proteobacteria (including Escherichia coli). PMID:23549043

  16. DNA, RNA, and Protein Extraction: The Past and The Present

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Siun Chee; Yiap, Beow Chin

    2009-01-01

    Extraction of DNA, RNA, and protein is the basic method used in molecular biology. These biomolecules can be isolated from any biological material for subsequent downstream processes, analytical, or preparative purposes. In the past, the process of extraction and purification of nucleic acids used to be complicated, time-consuming, labor-intensive, and limited in terms of overall throughput. Currently, there are many specialized methods that can be used to extract pure biomolecules, such as solution-based and column-based protocols. Manual method has certainly come a long way over time with various commercial offerings which included complete kits containing most of the components needed to isolate nucleic acid, but most of them require repeated centrifugation steps, followed by removal of supernatants depending on the type of specimen and additional mechanical treatment. Automated systems designed for medium-to-large laboratories have grown in demand over recent years. It is an alternative to labor-intensive manual methods. The technology should allow a high throughput of samples; the yield, purity, reproducibility, and scalability of the biomolecules as well as the speed, accuracy, and reliability of the assay should be maximal, while minimizing the risk of cross-contamination. PMID:20011662

  17. Sequence-specific RNA Photocleavage by Single-stranded DNA in Presence of Riboflavin

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yongyun; Chen, Gangyi; Yuan, Yi; Li, Na; Dong, Juan; Huang, Xin; Cui, Xin; Tang, Zhuo

    2015-01-01

    Constant efforts have been made to develop new method to realize sequence-specific RNA degradation, which could cause inhibition of the expression of targeted gene. Herein, by using an unmodified short DNA oligonucleotide for sequence recognition and endogenic small molecue, vitamin B2 (riboflavin) as photosensitizer, we report a simple strategy to realize the sequence-specific photocleavage of targeted RNA. The DNA strand is complimentary to the target sequence to form DNA/RNA duplex containing a G•U wobble in the middle. The cleavage reaction goes through oxidative elimination mechanism at the nucleoside downstream of U of the G•U wobble in duplex to obtain unnatural RNA terminal, and the whole process is under tight control by using light as switch, which means the cleavage could be carried out according to specific spatial and temporal requirements. The biocompatibility of this method makes the DNA strand in combination with riboflavin a promising molecular tool for RNA manipulation. PMID:26461456

  18. Sequence-specific RNA Photocleavage by Single-stranded DNA in Presence of Riboflavin.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yongyun; Chen, Gangyi; Yuan, Yi; Li, Na; Dong, Juan; Huang, Xin; Cui, Xin; Tang, Zhuo

    2015-01-01

    Constant efforts have been made to develop new method to realize sequence-specific RNA degradation, which could cause inhibition of the expression of targeted gene. Herein, by using an unmodified short DNA oligonucleotide for sequence recognition and endogenic small molecue, vitamin B2 (riboflavin) as photosensitizer, we report a simple strategy to realize the sequence-specific photocleavage of targeted RNA. The DNA strand is complimentary to the target sequence to form DNA/RNA duplex containing a GU wobble in the middle. The cleavage reaction goes through oxidative elimination mechanism at the nucleoside downstream of U of the GU wobble in duplex to obtain unnatural RNA terminal, and the whole process is under tight control by using light as switch, which means the cleavage could be carried out according to specific spatial and temporal requirements. The biocompatibility of this method makes the DNA strand in combination with riboflavin a promising molecular tool for RNA manipulation. PMID:26461456

  19. Sequence-specific RNA Photocleavage by Single-stranded DNA in Presence of Riboflavin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yongyun; Chen, Gangyi; Yuan, Yi; Li, Na; Dong, Juan; Huang, Xin; Cui, Xin; Tang, Zhuo

    2015-10-01

    Constant efforts have been made to develop new method to realize sequence-specific RNA degradation, which could cause inhibition of the expression of targeted gene. Herein, by using an unmodified short DNA oligonucleotide for sequence recognition and endogenic small molecue, vitamin B2 (riboflavin) as photosensitizer, we report a simple strategy to realize the sequence-specific photocleavage of targeted RNA. The DNA strand is complimentary to the target sequence to form DNA/RNA duplex containing a G•U wobble in the middle. The cleavage reaction goes through oxidative elimination mechanism at the nucleoside downstream of U of the G•U wobble in duplex to obtain unnatural RNA terminal, and the whole process is under tight control by using light as switch, which means the cleavage could be carried out according to specific spatial and temporal requirements. The biocompatibility of this method makes the DNA strand in combination with riboflavin a promising molecular tool for RNA manipulation.

  20. Correlated measurements of DNA, RNA, and protein in individual cells by flow cytometry

    SciTech Connect

    Crissman, H.A.; Darzynkiewicz, Z.; Tobey, R.A.; Steinkamp, J.A.

    1985-06-14

    A cytochemical method was developed to differentially stain cellular DNA, RNA, and proteins with fluorochromes Hoechst 33342, pyronin Y, and fluorescein isothiocyanate, respectively. The fluorescence intensities, reflecting the DNA, RNA, and protein content of individual cells, were measured in a flow cytometer after sequential excitation by three lasers tuned to different excitation wavelengths. The method offers rapid analysis of changes in the cellular content of RNA and protein as well as in the RNA-protein, RNA-DNA, and protein-DNA ratios in relation to cell cycle position for large cell populations. An analysis of cycling cell populations (exponentially growing CHO cultures) and noncycling CHO cells arrested in the G1 phase by growth in isoleucine-free medium demonstrated the potential of the technique. 18 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  1. Travel depth, a new shape descriptor for macromolecules: application to ligand binding.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Ryan G; Sharp, Kim A

    2006-09-22

    Depth is a term frequently applied to the shape and surface of macromolecules, describing for example the grooves in DNA, the shape of an enzyme active site, or the binding site for a small molecule in a protein. Yet depth is a difficult property to define rigorously in a macromolecule, and few computational tools exist to quantify this notion, to visualize it, or analyze the results. We present our notion of travel depth, simply put the physical distance a solvent molecule would have to travel from a surface point to a suitably defined reference surface. To define the reference surface, we use the limiting form of the molecular surface with increasing probe size: the convex hull. We then present a fast, robust approximation algorithm to compute travel depth to every surface point. The travel depth is useful because it works for pockets of any size and complexity. It also works for two interesting special cases. First, it works on the grooves in DNA, which are unbounded in one direction. Second, it works on the case of tunnels, that is pockets that have no "bottom", but go through the entire macromolecule. Our algorithm makes it straightforward to quantify discussions of depth when analyzing structures. High-throughput analysis of macromolecule depth is also enabled by our algorithm. This is demonstrated by analyzing a database of protein-small molecule binding pockets, and the distribution of bound magnesium ions in RNA structures. These analyses show significant, but subtle effects of depth on ligand binding localization and strength. PMID:16934837

  2. Structural Aspects of the Antiparallel and Parallel Duplexes Formed by DNA, 2-O-Methyl RNA and RNA Oligonucleotides

    PubMed Central

    Szabat, Marta; Pedzinski, Tomasz; Czapik, Tomasz; Kierzek, Elzbieta; Kierzek, Ryszard

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of the nature of oligonucleotides on the abilities to form antiparallel and parallel duplexes. Base pairing of homopurine DNA, 2-O-MeRNA and RNA oligonucleotides with respective homopyrimidine DNA, 2-O-MeRNA and RNA as well as chimeric oligonucleotides containing LNA resulted in the formation of 18 various duplexes. UV melting, circular dichroism and fluorescence studies revealed the influence of nucleotide composition on duplex structure and thermal stability depending on the buffer pH value. Most duplexes simultaneously adopted both orientations. However, at pH 5.0, parallel duplexes were more favorable. Moreover, the presence of LNA nucleotides within a homopyrimidine strand favored the formation of parallel duplexes. PMID:26579720

  3. Single Molecule Photobleaching (SMPB) Technology for Counting of RNA, DNA, Protein and Other Molecules in Nanoparticles and Biological Complexes by TIRF Instrumentation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hui; Guo, Peixuan

    2014-01-01

    Direct counting of biomolecules within biological complexes or nanomachines is demanding. Single molecule counting using optical microscopy is challenging due to the diffraction limit. The Single Molecule Photobleaching (SMPB) technology for direct counting developed by our team (Shu et al, EMBO J, 2007, 26:527; Zhang et al, RNA, 2007, 13:1793) offers a simple and straightforward method to determine the stoichiometry of molecules or subunits within biocomplexes or nanomachines at nanometer scales. Stoichiometry is determined by real-time observation of the number of descending steps resulted from the photobleaching of individual fluorophore. This technology has now been used extensively for single molecule counting of protein, RNA, and other macromolecules in a variety of complexes or nanostructures. Here, we elucidate the SMPB technology, using the counting of RNA molecules within a bacteriophage phi29 DNA-packaging biomotor as an example. The method described here can be applied to the single molecule counting of other molecules in other systems. The construction of a concise, simple and economical single molecule total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscope combining prism-type and objective-type TIRF is described. The imaging system contains a deep-cooled sensitive EMCCD camera with single fluorophore detection sensitivity, a laser combiner for simultaneous dual-color excitation, and a Dual-View™ imager to split the multiple outcome signals to different detector channels based on their wavelengths. Methodology of the single molecule photobleaching assay used to elucidate the stoichiometry of RNA on phi29 DNA packaging motor and the mechanism of protein/RNA interaction are described. Different methods for single fluorophore labeling of RNA molecules are reviewed. The process of statistical modeling to reveal the true copy number of the biomolecules based on binomial distribution is also described. PMID:24440482

  4. Determination of DNA and RNA Methylation in Circulating Tumor Cells by Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei; Qi, Chu-Bo; Lv, Song-Wei; Xie, Min; Feng, Yu-Qi; Huang, Wei-Hua; Yuan, Bi-Feng

    2016-01-19

    DNA methylation (5-methylcytosine, 5-mC) is the best characterized epigenetic mark that has regulatory roles in diverse biological processes. Recent investigation of RNA modifications also raises the possible functions of RNA adenine and cytosine methylations on gene regulation in the form of "RNA epigenetics." Previous studies demonstrated global DNA hypomethylation in tumor tissues compared to healthy controls. However, DNA and RNA methylation in circulating tumor cells (CTCs) that are derived from tumors are still a mystery due to the lack of proper analytical methods. In this respect, here we established an effective CTCs capture system conjugated with a combined strategy of sample preparation for the captured CTCs lysis, nucleic acids digestion, and nucleosides extraction in one tube. The resulting nucleosides were then further analyzed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). With the developed method, we are able to detect DNA and RNA methylation (5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine, 5-methylcytidine, and N(6)-methyladenosine) in a single cell. We then further successfully determined DNA and RNA methylation in CTCs from lung cancer patients. Our results demonstrated, for the first time, a significant decrease of DNA methylation (5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine) and increase of RNA adenine and cytosine methylations (N(6)-methyladenosine and 5-methylcytidine) in CTCs compared with whole blood cells. The discovery of DNA hypomethylation and RNA hypermethylation in CTCs in the current study together with previous reports of global DNA hypomethylation in tumor tissues suggest that nucleic acid modifications play important roles in the formation and development of cancer cells. This work constitutes the first step for the investigation of DNA and RNA methylation in CTCs, which may facilitate uncovering the metastasis mechanism of cancers in the future. PMID:26707930

  5. Positive supercoiling of DNA greatly diminishes mRNA synthesis in yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Gartenberg, M R; Wang, J C

    1992-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells harboring a GAL1 promoter-linked beta-galactosidase gene, the simultaneous expression of Escherichia coli DNA topoisomerase I and inactivation of yeast DNA topoisomerases I and II reduces the cellular level of beta-galactosidase to an undetectable level. Analysis of intracellular mRNA level and the density of RNA polymerase along DNA indicates that this reduction is due to the suppression of transcription and that both plasmid-borne and chromosomally located genes are affected. These results are interpreted in terms of inhibition of transcription in vivo due to positive supercoiling of the DNA template: preferential removal of transcription-generated negative supercoils by E. coli DNA topoisomerase I in the absence of both yeast DNA topoisomerases I and II results in the accumulation of positive supercoils in intracellular DNA. In normal prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells, accumulation of positive supercoils is presumably avoided through the balanced actions of DNA topoisomerases. Images PMID:1333610

  6. Preparation of fluorinated RNA nucleotide analogs potentially stable to enzymatic hydrolysis in RNA and DNA polymerase assays

    PubMed Central

    Shakhmin, Anton; Jones, John-Paul; Bychinskaya, Inessa; Zibinsky, Mikhail; Oertell, Keriann; Goodman, Myron F.; Prakash, G.K. Surya

    2015-01-01

    Analogs of ribonucleotides (RNA) stable to enzymatic hydrolysis were prepared and characterized. Computational investigations revealed that this class of compounds with a modified triphosphate exhibits the correct polarity and minimal steric effects compared to the natural molecule. Non-hydrolysable properties as well as the ability of the modified nucleotide to be recognized by enzymes were probed by performing single-turnover gap filling assays with T7 RNA polymerase and DNA polymerase ?. PMID:26279588

  7. Comparison of different methods for DNA-free RNA isolation from SK-N-MC neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background RNA quality and quantity are important factors for ensuring the accuracy of gene expression analysis and other RNA-based downstream applications. Extraction of high quality nucleic acids is difficult from neuronal cells and brain tissues as they are particularly rich in lipids. In addition, most common RNA extraction methods are phenol-based, resulting in RNA that may be incompatible with downstream applications such as gene expression. Findings In this work, a comparative analysis of the RNA quality obtained from SK-N-MC cells was performed using six commonly used RNA isolation kits: two phenol-based kits and four non-phenol based kits. The non-phenol based kits tested AxyPrep Multisource Total RNA Miniprep, RNeasy Mini, EasySpin and Ilustra RNAspin Mini RNA Isolation, all performed well and resulted in the isolation of high quality RNA, as evaluated by A260/A280. The RNA extracted with AxyPrep Multisource Total RNA Miniprep, RNeasy Mini and EasySpin provided the highest RNA yields. In particular, the RNA isolated by AxyPrep Multisource Total RNA Miniprep Kit did not show any detectable genomic DNA contamination even without previous DNase treatment or after RNA direct PCR amplification using universal 18S primers. Conclusions The RNA extracted from SK-N-MC cells with AxyPrep Multisource Total RNA Miniprep Kit was superior with respect to the RNA quality and concentration. This kit does not use aggressive organic solvents and RNA free of genomic DNA was isolated without the need for DNase treatment. PMID:21211020

  8. Natural variation in DNA methylation in ribosomal RNA genes of Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Hye Ryun; Richards, Eric J

    2008-01-01

    Background DNA methylation is an important biochemical mark that silences repetitive sequences, such as transposons, and reinforces epigenetic gene expression states. An important class of repetitive genes under epigenetic control in eukaryotic genomes encodes ribosomal RNA (rRNA) transcripts. The ribosomal genes coding for the 45S rRNA precursor of the three largest eukaryotic ribosomal RNAs (18S, 5.8S, and 2528S) are found in nucleolus organizer regions (NORs), comprised of hundreds to thousands of repeats, only some of which are expressed in any given cell. An epigenetic switch, mediated by DNA methylation and histone modification, turns rRNA genes on and off. However, little is known about the mechanisms that specify and maintain the patterns of NOR DNA methylation. Results Here, we explored the extent of naturally-occurring variation in NOR DNA methylation among accessions of the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana. DNA methylation in coding regions of rRNA genes was positively correlated with copy number of 45S rRNA gene and DNA methylation in the intergenic spacer regions. We investigated the inheritance of NOR DNA methylation patterns in natural accessions with hypomethylated NORs in inter-strain crosses and defined three different categories of inheritance in F1 hybrids. In addition, subsequent analysis of F2 segregation for NOR DNA methylation patterns uncovered different patterns of inheritance. We also revealed that NOR DNA methylation in the Arabidopsis accession Bor-4 is influenced by the vim1-1 (variant in methylation 1-1) mutation, but the primary effect is specified by the NORs themselves. Conclusion Our results indicate that the NORs themselves are the most significant determinants of natural variation in NOR DNA methylation. However, the inheritance of NOR DNA methylation suggests the operation of a diverse set of mechanisms, including inheritance of parental methylation patterns, reconfiguration of parental NOR DNA methylation, and the involvement of trans-acting modifiers. PMID:18783613

  9. Configurational diffusion of coal macromolecules

    SciTech Connect

    Guin, J.A.; Curtis, C.W.; Tarrer, A.R.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this project is to investigate the phenomenon of hindered diffusion of coal macromolecules in idealized porous media. Tasks towards this objective include: Construct a diffusion cell with ideal pore structure for determination of diffusion coefficients, prepare and characterize ideal porous membranes, perform model compound experiments to calibrate and test diffusion apparatus and methodology, prepare and characterize coal macromolecules, and analyze data to evaluate the diffusional behavior of coal macromolecules. This report describes work on the hindered diffusion of tetraphenylporphine and asphaltene. 18 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Legume genomics: understanding biology through DNA and RNA sequencing

    PubMed Central

    O'Rourke, Jamie A.; Bolon, Yung-Tsi; Bucciarelli, Bruna; Vance, Carroll P.

    2014-01-01

    Background The legume family (Leguminosae) consists of approx. 17 000 species. A few of these species, including, but not limited to, Phaseolus vulgaris, Cicer arietinum and Cajanus cajan, are important dietary components, providing protein for approx. 300 million people worldwide. Additional species, including soybean (Glycine max) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa), are important crops utilized mainly in animal feed. In addition, legumes are important contributors to biological nitrogen, forming symbiotic relationships with rhizobia to fix atmospheric N2 and providing up to 30 % of available nitrogen for the next season of crops. The application of high-throughput genomic technologies including genome sequencing projects, genome re-sequencing (DNA-seq) and transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) by the legume research community has provided major insights into genome evolution, genomic architecture and domestication. Scope and Conclusions This review presents an overview of the current state of legume genomics and explores the role that next-generation sequencing technologies play in advancing legume genomics. The adoption of next-generation sequencing and implementation of associated bioinformatic tools has allowed researchers to turn each species of interest into their own model organism. To illustrate the power of next-generation sequencing, an in-depth overview of the transcriptomes of both soybean and white lupin (Lupinus albus) is provided. The soybean transcriptome focuses on analysing seed development in two near-isogenic lines, examining the role of transporters, oil biosynthesis and nitrogen utilization. The white lupin transcriptome analysis examines how phosphate deficiency alters gene expression patterns, inducing the formation of cluster roots. Such studies illustrate the power of next-generation sequencing and bioinformatic analyses in elucidating the gene networks underlying biological processes. PMID:24769535

  11. A Simple RNA-DNA Scaffold Templates the Assembly of Monofunctional Virus-Like Particles.

    PubMed

    Garmann, Rees F; Sportsman, Richard; Beren, Christian; Manoharan, Vinothan N; Knobler, Charles M; Gelbart, William M

    2015-06-24

    Using the components of a particularly well-studied plant virus, cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV), we demonstrate the synthesis of virus-like particles (VLPs) with one end of the packaged RNA extending out of the capsid and into the surrounding solution. This construct breaks the otherwise perfect symmetry of the capsid and provides a straightforward route for monofunctionalizing VLPs using the principles of DNA nanotechnology. It also allows physical manipulation of the packaged RNA, a previously inaccessible part of the viral architecture. Our synthesis does not involve covalent chemistry of any kind; rather, we trigger capsid assembly on a scaffold of viral RNA that is hybridized at one end to a complementary DNA strand. Interaction of CCMV capsid protein with this RNA-DNA template leads to selective packaging of the RNA portion into a well-formed capsid but leaves the hybridized portion poking out of the capsid through a small hole. We show that the nucleic acid protruding from the capsid is capable of binding free DNA strands and DNA-functionalized colloidal particles. Separately, we show that the RNA-DNA scaffold can be used to nucleate virus formation on a DNA-functionalized surface. We believe this self-assembly strategy can be adapted to viruses other than CCMV. PMID:26043403

  12. Evaluation of commercial kits for extraction of DNA and RNA from Clostridium difficile.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, Devon; Weese, J Scott

    2012-12-01

    Commercial nucleic acid extraction kits are a cost effective, efficient and convenient way to isolate DNA and RNA from bacteria. Despite the increasing importance of the gastrointestinal pathogen, Clostridium difficile, and the increased use of nucleic acids in its identification, characterization, and investigation of virulence factors, no standardized or recommended methods for nucleic acid isolation exist. Here, we sought to evaluate 4 commercial DNA extraction kits and 3 commercial RNA extraction kits assessing cost, labor intensity, purity, quantity and quality of nucleic acid preparations. The DNA extraction kits produced a range of concentrations (20.9-546 ng/ml) and A(260/280) ratios (1.92-2.11). All kits were suitable for DNA extraction with the exception of the Roche MagNA pure LC DNA isolation kit III which produced DNA of high yield but with substantial shearing, but that did not affect downstream PCR amplifications. For RNA extraction, the Qiagen RNeasy mini kit stood out producing preparations of consistently higher concentrations and higher RNA integrity numbers (RIN). The Roche MagNA pure LC RNA isolation kit produced preparations that could not be properly assigned RINs due to a failure to remove small RNAs which were interpreted as degradation. Good DNA and RNA yield are critical but methods are often overlooked. This study highlights the potential for critical variation between established commercial systems and the need for assessment of any extraction methods that are used. PMID:23128271

  13. DNA as Tunable Adaptor for siRNA Polyplex Stabilization and Functionalization.

    PubMed

    Heissig, Philipp; Klein, Philipp M; Hadwiger, Philipp; Wagner, Ernst

    2016-01-01

    siRNA and microRNA are promising therapeutic agents, which are engaged in a natural mechanism called RNA interference that modulates gene expression posttranscriptionally. For intracellular delivery of such nucleic acid triggers, we use sequence-defined cationic polymers manufactured through solid phase chemistry. They consist of an oligoethanamino amide core for siRNA complexation and optional domains for nanoparticle shielding and cell targeting. Due to the small size of siRNA, electrostatic complexes with polycations are less stable, and consequently intracellular delivery is less efficient. Here we use DNA oligomers as adaptors to increase size and charge of cargo siRNA, resulting in increased polyplex stability, which in turn boosts transfection efficiency. Extending a single siRNA with a 181-nucleotide DNA adaptor is sufficient to provide maximum gene silencing aided by cationic polymers. Interestingly, this simple strategy was far more effective than merging defined numbers (4-10) of siRNA units into one DNA scaffolded construct. For DNA attachment, the 3' end of the siRNA passenger strand was beneficial over the 5' end. The impact of the attachment site however was resolved by introducing bioreducible disulfides at the connection point. We also show that DNA adaptors provide the opportunity to readily link additional functional domains to siRNA. Exemplified by the covalent conjugation of the endosomolytic influenza peptide INF-7 to siRNA via a DNA backbone strand and complexing this construct with a targeting polymer, we could form a highly functional polyethylene glycol-shielded polyplex to downregulate a luciferase gene in folate receptor-positive cells. PMID:26928236

  14. Rapid Method for Coextraction of DNA and RNA from Natural Environments for Analysis of Ribosomal DNA- and rRNA-Based Microbial Community Composition

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Robert I.; Whiteley, Andrew S.; O'Donnell, Anthony G.; Bailey, Mark J.

    2000-01-01

    A rapid protocol for the extraction of total nucleic acids from environmental samples is described. The method facilitates concomitant assessment of microbial 16S rRNA diversity by PCR and reverse transcription-PCR amplification from a single extraction. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis microbial community analysis differentiated the active component (rRNA derived) from the total bacterial diversity (ribosomal DNA derived) down the horizons of an established grassland soil. PMID:11097934

  15. Rapid method for coextraction of DNA and RNA from natural environments for analysis of ribosomal DNA- and rRNA-based microbial community composition.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, R I; Whiteley, A S; O'Donnell, A G; Bailey, M J

    2000-12-01

    A rapid protocol for the extraction of total nucleic acids from environmental samples is described. The method facilitates concomitant assessment of microbial 16S rRNA diversity by PCR and reverse transcription-PCR amplification from a single extraction. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis microbial community analysis differentiated the active component (rRNA derived) from the total bacterial diversity (ribosomal DNA derived) down the horizons of an established grassland soil. PMID:11097934

  16. A new family of polymerases related to superfamily A DNA polymerases and T7-like DNA-dependent RNA polymerases.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Lakshminarayan M; Abhiman, Saraswathi; Aravind, L

    2008-01-01

    Using sequence profile methods and structural comparisons we characterize a previously unknown family of nucleic acid polymerases in a group of mobile elements from genomes of diverse bacteria, an algal plastid and certain DNA viruses, including the recently reported Sputnik virus. Using contextual information from domain architectures and gene-neighborhoods we present evidence that they are likely to possess both primase and DNA polymerase activity, comparable to the previously reported prim-pol proteins. These newly identified polymerases help in defining the minimal functional core of superfamily A DNA polymerases and related RNA polymerases. Thus, they provide a framework to understand the emergence of both DNA and RNA polymerization activity in this class of enzymes. They also provide evidence that enigmatic DNA viruses, such as Sputnik, might have emerged from mobile elements coding these polymerases. PMID:18834537

  17. Molecular Underpinnings of Aprataxin RNA/DNA Deadenylase Function and Dysfunction in Neurological Disease

    PubMed Central

    Williams, R. Scott

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic DNA ligases seal DNA breaks in the final step of DNA replication and repair transactions via a three-step reaction mechanism that can abort if DNA ligases encounter modified DNA termini, such as the products and repair intermediates of DNA oxidation, alkylation, or the aberrant incorporation of ribonucleotides into genomic DNA. Such abortive DNA ligation reactions create 5’–adenylated nucleic acid termini in the context of DNA and RNA-DNA substrates in DNA base excision repair (BER), double strand break repair (DSBR) and ribonucleotide excision repair (RER). Aprataxin (APTX), a protein altered in the heritable neurological disorder Ataxia with Oculomotor Apraxia 1 (AOA1), acts as a DNA ligase “proofreader” to directly reverse AMP-modified nucleic acid termini in DNA- and RNA-DNA damage responses. Herein, we survey APTX function and the emerging cell biological, structural and biochemical data that has established a molecular foundation for understanding the APTX mediated deadenylation reaction, and is providing insights into the molecular bases of APTX deficiency in AOA1. PMID:25637650

  18. Factor-independent transcription pausing caused by recognition of the RNADNA hybrid sequence

    PubMed Central

    Bochkareva, Aleksandra; Yuzenkova, Yulia; Tadigotla, Vasisht R; Zenkin, Nikolay

    2012-01-01

    Pausing of transcription is an important step of regulation of gene expression in bacteria and eukaryotes. Here we uncover a factor-independent mechanism of transcription pausing, which is determined by the ability of the elongating RNA polymerase to recognize the sequence of the RNADNA hybrid. We show that, independently of thermodynamic stability of the elongation complex, RNA polymerase directly senses' the shape and/or identity of base pairs of the RNADNA hybrid. Recognition of the RNADNA hybrid sequence delays translocation by RNA polymerase, and thus slows down the nucleotide addition cycle through in pathway' mechanism. We show that this phenomenon is conserved among bacterial and eukaryotic RNA polymerases, and is involved in regulatory pauses, such as a pause regulating the production of virulence factors in some bacteria and a pause regulating transcription/replication of HIV-1. The results indicate that recognition of RNADNA hybrid sequence by multi-subunit RNA polymerases is involved in transcription regulation and may determine the overall rate of transcription elongation. PMID:22124324

  19. Recognition of Chelerythrine to Human Telomeric DNA and RNA G-quadruplexes

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Li-Ping; Hagihara, Masaki; Nakatani, Kazuhiko; Jiang, Zhi-Hong

    2014-01-01

    A study on binding of antitumor chelerythrine to human telomeric DNA/RNA G-quadruplexes was performed by using DNA polymerase stop assay, UV-melting, ESI-TOF-MS, UV-Vis absorption spectrophotometry and fluorescent triazole orange displacement assay. Chelerythrine selectively binds to and stabilizes the K+-form hybrid-type human telomeric DNA G-quadruplex of biological significance, compared with the Na+-form antiparallel-type DNA G-quadruplex. ESI-TOF-MS study showed that chelerythrine possesses a binding strength for DNA G-quadruplex comparable to that of TMPyP4 tetrachloride. Both 1:1 and 2:1 stoichiometries were observed for chelerythrine's binding with DNA and RNA G-quadruplexes. The binding strength of chelerythrine with RNA G-quadruplex is stronger than that with DNA G-quadruplex. Fluorescent triazole orange displacement assay revealed that chelerythrine interacts with human telomeric RNA/DNA G-quadruplexes by the mode of end- stacking. The relative binding strength of chelerythrine for human telomeric RNA and DNA G-quadruplexes obtained from ESI-TOF-MS experiments are respectively 6.0- and 2.5-fold tighter than that with human telomeric double-stranded hairpin DNA. The binding selectivity of chelerythrine for the biologically significant K+-form human telomeric DNA G-quadruplex over the Na+-form analogue, and binding specificity for human telomeric RNA G-quadruplex established it as a promising candidate in the structure-based design and development of G-quadruplex specific ligands. PMID:25341562

  20. Recognition of Chelerythrine to Human Telomeric DNA and RNA G-quadruplexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Li-Ping; Hagihara, Masaki; Nakatani, Kazuhiko; Jiang, Zhi-Hong

    2014-10-01

    A study on binding of antitumor chelerythrine to human telomeric DNA/RNA G-quadruplexes was performed by using DNA polymerase stop assay, UV-melting, ESI-TOF-MS, UV-Vis absorption spectrophotometry and fluorescent triazole orange displacement assay. Chelerythrine selectively binds to and stabilizes the K+-form hybrid-type human telomeric DNA G-quadruplex of biological significance, compared with the Na+-form antiparallel-type DNA G-quadruplex. ESI-TOF-MS study showed that chelerythrine possesses a binding strength for DNA G-quadruplex comparable to that of TMPyP4 tetrachloride. Both 1:1 and 2:1 stoichiometries were observed for chelerythrine's binding with DNA and RNA G-quadruplexes. The binding strength of chelerythrine with RNA G-quadruplex is stronger than that with DNA G-quadruplex. Fluorescent triazole orange displacement assay revealed that chelerythrine interacts with human telomeric RNA/DNA G-quadruplexes by the mode of end- stacking. The relative binding strength of chelerythrine for human telomeric RNA and DNA G-quadruplexes obtained from ESI-TOF-MS experiments are respectively 6.0- and 2.5-fold tighter than that with human telomeric double-stranded hairpin DNA. The binding selectivity of chelerythrine for the biologically significant K+-form human telomeric DNA G-quadruplex over the Na+-form analogue, and binding specificity for human telomeric RNA G-quadruplex established it as a promising candidate in the structure-based design and development of G-quadruplex specific ligands.

  1. On the path to genetic novelties: insights from programmed DNA elimination and RNA splicing.

    PubMed

    Catania, Francesco; Schmitz, Jrgen

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how genetic novelties arise is a central goal of evolutionary biology. To this end, programmed DNA elimination and RNA splicing deserve special consideration. While programmed DNA elimination reshapes genomes by eliminating chromatin during organismal development, RNA splicing rearranges genetic messages by removing intronic regions during transcription. Small RNAs help to mediate this class of sequence reorganization, which is not error-free. It is this imperfection that makes programmed DNA elimination and RNA splicing excellent candidates for generating evolutionary novelties. Leveraging a number of these two processes' mechanistic and evolutionary properties, which have been uncovered over the past years, we present recently proposed models and empirical evidence for how splicing can shape the structure of protein-coding genes in eukaryotes. We also chronicle a number of intriguing similarities between the processes of programmed DNA elimination and RNA splicing, and highlight the role that the variation in the population-genetic environment may play in shaping their target sequences. PMID:26140477

  2. SPERM RNA AMPLIFICATION FOR GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING BY DNA MICROARRAY TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sperm RNA Amplification for Gene Expression Profiling by DNA Microarray Technology
    Hongzu Ren, Kary E. Thompson, Judith E. Schmid and David J. Dix, Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triang...

  3. Computational model for predicting experimental RNA and DNA nearest-neighbor free energy rankings.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Charles A; Bloomingdale, Richard J; Ponnusamy, Vikram E; Tillinghast, Conor A; Znosko, Brent M; Lewis, Michael

    2011-07-28

    Hydrogen-bonding, intrastrand base-stacking, and interstrand base-stacking energies were calculated for RNA and DNA dimers at the MP2(full)/6-311G** level of theory. Standard A-form RNA and B-form DNA geometries from average fiber diffraction data were employed for all base monomer and dimer geometries, and all dimer binding energies were obtained via single-point calculations. The effects of water solvation were considered using the PCM model. The resulting dimer binding energies were used to calculate the 10 unique RNA and 10 unique DNA computational nearest-neighbor energies, and the ranking of these computational nearest neighbor energies are in excellent agreement with the ranking of the experimental nearest-neighbor free energies. These results dispel the notion that average fiber diffraction geometries are insufficient for calculating RNA and DNA stacking energies. PMID:21619071

  4. A Computational Model for Predicting Experimental RNA and DNA Nearest-Neighbor Free Energy Rankings

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Charles A.; Bloomingdale, Richard J.; Ponnusamy, Vikram E.; Tillinghast, Conor A.; Znosko, Brent M.; Lewis, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen-bonding, intra-strand base-stacking, and inter-strand base-stacking energies were calculated for RNA and DNA dimers at the MP2(full)/6-311G** level of theory. Standard A-form RNA and B-form DNA geometries from average fiber diffraction data were employed for all base monomer and dimer geometries, and all dimer binding energies were obtained via single-point calculations. The effects of water solvation were considered using the PCM model. The resulting dimer binding energies were used to calculate the 10 unique RNA and 10 unique DNA computational nearest-neighbor energies, and the ranking of these computational nearest neighbor energies are in excellent agreement with the ranking of the experimental nearest neighbor free energies. These results dispel the notion that average fiber diffraction geometries are insufficient for calculating RNA and DNA stacking energies. PMID:21619071

  5. DNA and RNA Synthesis in Animal Cells in Culture--Methods for Use in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godsell, P. M.; Balls, M.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the experimental procedures used for detecting DNA and RNA synthesis in xenopus cells by autoradiography. The method described is suitable for senior high school laboratory classes or biology projects, if supervised by a teacher qualified to handle radioisotopes. (JR)

  6. Beyond RNA and DNA: In-Situ Sequencing of Informational Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, C. E.; Ruvkun, G.; Zuber, M. T.

    2012-10-01

    Semiconductor sequencing and nascent nanopore sequencing enable in situ sequencing of RNA, DNA, and non-standard informational polymers. This can help bring high sensitivity and specificity to the search for life on Mars, Enceladus, and Europa.

  7. RNA-activated DNA cleavage by the Type III-B CRISPR-Cas effector complex.

    PubMed

    Estrella, Michael A; Kuo, Fang-Ting; Bailey, Scott

    2016-02-15

    The CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat) system is an RNA-guided immune system that protects prokaryotes from invading genetic elements. This system represents an inheritable and adaptable immune system that is mediated by multisubunit effector complexes. In the Type III-B system, the Cmr effector complex has been found to cleave ssRNA in vitro. However, in vivo, it has been implicated in transcription-dependent DNA targeting. We show here that the Cmr complex from Thermotoga maritima can cleave an ssRNA target that is complementary to the CRISPR RNA. We also show that binding of a complementary ssRNA target activates an ssDNA-specific nuclease activity in the histidine-aspartate (HD) domain of the Cmr2 subunit of the complex. These data suggest a mechanism for transcription-coupled DNA targeting by the Cmr complex and provide a unifying mechanism for all Type III systems. PMID:26848046

  8. Contact Kinetics in Fractal Macromolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolgushev, Maxim; Gurin, Thomas; Blumen, Alexander; Bnichou, Olivier; Voituriez, Raphal

    2015-11-01

    We consider the kinetics of first contact between two monomers of the same macromolecule. Relying on a fractal description of the macromolecule, we develop an analytical method to compute the mean first contact time for various molecular sizes. In our theoretical description, the non-Markovian feature of monomer motion, arising from the interactions with the other monomers, is captured by accounting for the nonequilibrium conformations of the macromolecule at the very instant of first contact. This analysis reveals a simple scaling relation for the mean first contact time between two monomers, which involves only their equilibrium distance and the spectral dimension of the macromolecule, independently of its microscopic details. Our theoretical predictions are in excellent agreement with numerical stochastic simulations.

  9. CRISPR RNA binding and DNA target recognition by purified Cascade complexes from Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Beloglazova, Natalia; Kuznedelov, Konstantin; Flick, Robert; Datsenko, Kirill A.; Brown, Greg; Popovic, Ana; Lemak, Sofia; Semenova, Ekaterina; Severinov, Konstantin; Yakunin, Alexander F.

    2015-01-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) and their associated Cas proteins comprise a prokaryotic RNA-guided adaptive immune system that interferes with mobile genetic elements, such as plasmids and phages. The type I-E CRISPR interference complex Cascade from Escherichia coli is composed of five different Cas proteins and a 61-nt-long guide RNA (crRNA). crRNAs contain a unique 32-nt spacer flanked by a repeat-derived 5? handle (8 nt) and a 3? handle (21 nt). The spacer part of crRNA directs Cascade to DNA targets. Here, we show that the E. coli Cascade can be expressed and purified from cells lacking crRNAs and loaded in vitro with synthetic crRNAs, which direct it to targets complementary to crRNA spacer. The deletion of even one nucleotide from the crRNA 5? handle disrupted its binding to Cascade and target DNA recognition. In contrast, crRNA variants with just a single nucleotide downstream of the spacer part bound Cascade and the resulting ribonucleotide complex containing a 41-nt-long crRNA specifically recognized DNA targets. Thus, the E. coli Cascade-crRNA system exhibits significant flexibility suggesting that this complex can be engineered for applications in genome editing and opening the way for incorporation of site-specific labels in crRNA. PMID:25488810

  10. Oligonucleotide microarray analysis of aminoallyl-labeled cDNA targets from linear RNA amplification.

    PubMed

    Kaposi-Novak, Pal; Lee, Ju-Seog; Mikaelyan, Arsen; Patel, Vyomesh; Thorgeirsson, Snorri S

    2004-10-01

    Single-stranded long oligonucleotide-based (50- to 70-mer) microarrays offer several advantages over conventional cDNA microarrays. These include the easy preparation of the probes, low cost of array production, and low cross-contamination during probe handling. However, the application of oligonucleotide microarrays for the analysis of global gene expression with small amounts of total RNA using the conventional oligo(dT)-T7 promoter-based amplification is hampered by the single-stranded nature (sense strand) of oligonucleotide probes in microarrays. In this report, we describe modified RNA amplification methods generating antisense-labeled cDNA targets and a successful application for oligonucleotide microarray gene expression analysis. In the first round, mRNA was amplified linearly with oligo(dT)24T7-primed reverse transcription and in vitro transcription by T7 RNA polymerase. In the second round, random 9-mer T3 primers and T3 RNA polymerase were used to generate sense-strand amplified RNA (aRNA). Fluorescently labeled cDNA targets were generated from the aRNA and hybridized to the oligonucleotide microarrays. Our data show that the amplification provides highly reproducible results, as evidenced by a significant correlation between the amplified and nonamplified samples. We also demonstrate that amplification of RNA derived from laser-microdissected tumor samples reproduced the gene expression profiles that were obtained from total RNA isolated from the same samples. PMID:15517970

  11. Method for rapid base sequencing in DNA and RNA with two base labeling

    DOEpatents

    Jett, J.H.; Keller, R.A.; Martin, J.C.; Posner, R.G.; Marrone, B.L.; Hammond, M.L.; Simpson, D.J.

    1995-04-11

    A method is described for rapid-base sequencing in DNA and RNA with two-base labeling and employing fluorescent detection of single molecules at two wavelengths. Bases modified to accept fluorescent labels are used to replicate a single DNA or RNA strand to be sequenced. The bases are then sequentially cleaved from the replicated strand, excited with a chosen spectrum of electromagnetic radiation, and the fluorescence from individual, tagged bases detected in the order of cleavage from the strand. 4 figures.

  12. Method for rapid base sequencing in DNA and RNA with two base labeling

    DOEpatents

    Jett, James H.; Keller, Richard A.; Martin, John C.; Posner, Richard G.; Marrone, Babetta L.; Hammond, Mark L.; Simpson, Daniel J.

    1995-01-01

    Method for rapid-base sequencing in DNA and RNA with two-base labeling and employing fluorescent detection of single molecules at two wavelengths. Bases modified to accept fluorescent labels are used to replicate a single DNA or RNA strand to be sequenced. The bases are then sequentially cleaved from the replicated strand, excited with a chosen spectrum of electromagnetic radiation, and the fluorescence from individual, tagged bases detected in the order of cleavage from the strand.

  13. Role for RNA:DNA hybrids in origin-independent replication priming in a eukaryotic system.

    PubMed

    Stuckey, Ruth; García-Rodríguez, Néstor; Aguilera, Andrés; Wellinger, Ralf Erik

    2015-05-01

    DNA replication initiates at defined replication origins along eukaryotic chromosomes, ensuring complete genome duplication within a single S-phase. A key feature of replication origins is their ability to control the onset of DNA synthesis mediated by DNA polymerase-α and its intrinsic RNA primase activity. Here, we describe a novel origin-independent replication process that is mediated by transcription. RNA polymerase I transcription constraints lead to persistent RNA:DNA hybrids (R-loops) that prime replication in the ribosomal DNA locus. Our results suggest that eukaryotic genomes have developed tools to prevent R-loop-mediated replication events that potentially contribute to copy number variation, particularly relevant to carcinogenesis. PMID:25902524

  14. Role for RNA:DNA hybrids in origin-independent replication priming in a eukaryotic system

    PubMed Central

    Stuckey, Ruth; Garca-Rodrguez, Nstor; Aguilera, Andrs; Wellinger, Ralf Erik

    2015-01-01

    DNA replication initiates at defined replication origins along eukaryotic chromosomes, ensuring complete genome duplication within a single S-phase. A key feature of replication origins is their ability to control the onset of DNA synthesis mediated by DNA polymerase-? and its intrinsic RNA primase activity. Here, we describe a novel origin-independent replication process that is mediated by transcription. RNA polymerase I transcription constraints lead to persistent RNA:DNA hybrids (R-loops) that prime replication in the ribosomal DNA locus. Our results suggest that eukaryotic genomes have developed tools to prevent R-loopmediated replication events that potentially contribute to copy number variation, particularly relevant to carcinogenesis. PMID:25902524

  15. ADAR Proteins: Double-stranded RNA and Z-DNA Binding Domains

    PubMed Central

    Barraud, Pierre; Allain, Frédéric H.-T

    2012-01-01

    Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) catalyze adenosine to inosine editing within double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) substrates. Inosine is read as a guanine by most cellular processes and therefore these changes create codons for a different amino acid, stop codons or even a new splice-site allowing protein diversity generated from a single gene. We are reviewing here the current structural and molecular knowledge on RNA editing by the ADAR family of protein. We focus especially on two types of nucleic acid binding domains present in ADARs, namely the double-stranded RNA and Z-DNA binding domains. PMID:21728134

  16. New Perspectives on DNA and RNA Triplexes As Effectors of Biological Activity

    PubMed Central

    Bacolla, Albino; Wang, Guliang; Vasquez, Karen M.

    2015-01-01

    Since the first description of the canonical B-form DNA double helix, it has been suggested that alternative DNA, DNA–RNA, and RNA structures exist and act as functional genomic elements. Indeed, over the past few years it has become clear that, in addition to serving as a repository for genetic information, genomic DNA elicits biological responses by adopting conformations that differ from the canonical right-handed double helix, and by interacting with RNA molecules to form complex secondary structures. This review focuses on recent advances on three-stranded (triplex) nucleic acids, with an emphasis on DNA–RNA and RNA–RNA interactions. Emerging work reveals that triplex interactions between noncoding RNAs and duplex DNA serve as platforms for delivering site-specific epigenetic marks critical for the regulation of gene expression. Additionally, an increasing body of genetic and structural studies demonstrates that triplex RNA–RNA interactions are essential for performing catalytic and regulatory functions in cellular nucleoprotein complexes, including spliceosomes and telomerases, and for enabling protein recoding during programmed ribosomal frameshifting. Thus, evidence is mounting that DNA and RNA triplex interactions are implemented to perform a range of diverse biological activities in the cell, some of which will be discussed in this review. PMID:26700634

  17. Novel application of Phi29 DNA polymerase: RNA detection and analysis in vitro and in situ by target RNA-primed RCA

    PubMed Central

    Lagunavicius, Arunas; Merkiene, Egle; Kiveryte, Zivile; Savaneviciute, Agne; Zimbaite-Ruskuliene, Vilma; Radzvilavicius, Tomas; Janulaitis, Arvydas

    2009-01-01

    We present a novel Phi29 DNA polymerase application in RCA-based target RNA detection and analysis. The 3′→5′ RNase activity of Phi29 DNA polymerase converts target RNA into a primer and the polymerase uses this newly generated primer for RCA initiation. Therefore, using target RNA-primed RCA, padlock probes may be targeted to inner RNA sequences and their peculiarities can be analyzed directly. We demonstrate that the exoribonucleolytic activity of Phi29 DNA polymerase can be successfully applied in vitro and in situ. These findings expand the potential for detection and analysis of RNA sequences distanced from 3′-end. PMID:19244362

  18. MicroRNA expression profiling and DNA methylation signature for deregulated microRNA in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, Juan; Daz-Lagares, Angel; Salgado, Roco; Servitje, Octavio; Climent, Fina; Ortiz-Romero, Pablo L; Prez-Ferriols, Amparo; Garcia-Muret, Maria P; Estrach, Teresa; Garcia, Mar; Nonell, Lara; Esteller, Manel; Pujol, Ramon M; Espinet, Blanca; Gallardo, Fernando

    2015-04-01

    MicroRNAs usually regulate gene expression negatively, and aberrant expression has been involved in the development of several types of cancers. Microarray profiling of microRNA expression was performed to define a microRNA signature in a series of mycosis fungoides tumor stage (MFt, n=21) and CD30+ primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma (CD30+ cALCL, n=11) samples in comparison with inflammatory dermatoses (ID, n=5). Supervised clustering confirmed a distinctive microRNA profile for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) with respect to ID. A 40 microRNA signature was found in MFt including upregulated onco-microRNAs (miR-146a, miR-142-3p/5p, miR-21, miR-181a/b, and miR-155) and downregulated tumor-suppressor microRNAs (miR-200ab/429 cluster, miR-10b, miR-193b, miR-141/200c, and miR-23b/27b). Regarding CD30+ cALCL, 39 differentially expressed microRNAs were identified. Particularly, overexpression of miR-155, miR-21, or miR-142-3p/5p and downregulation of the miR-141/200c clusters were observed. DNA methylation in microRNA gene promoters, as expression regulatory mechanism for deregulated microRNAs, was analyzed using Infinium 450K array and approximately one-third of the differentially expressed microRNAs showed significant DNA methylation differences. Two different microRNA methylation signatures for MFt and CD30+ cALCL were found. Correlation analysis showed an inverse relationship for microRNA promoter methylation and microRNA expression. These results reveal a subgroup-specific epigenetically regulated microRNA signatures for MFt and CD30+ cALCL patients. PMID:25405321

  19. ORGAN-SPECIFIC ESTROGEN-INDUCED RNA SYNTHESIS RESOLVED BY DNA-RNA HYBRIDIZATION IN THE DOMESTIC FOWL*

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, William E.; Schjeide, O. A.; Gorbman, Aubrey

    1969-01-01

    In the domestic fowl and other oviparous vertebrates, estrogens induce hepatic synthesis of yolk proteins. The oviduct also increases in size and produces ovalbumin when estrogens are administered. DNA-RNA hybridization assays indicate that within 105 minutes following treatment with estrone the liver of immature pullets contains most, if not all, of the liver RNA species that are present in the livers of the laying hen. Because of limitations of the nucleic acid hybridization technique, which remain to be clearly defined, it is not known whether the hepatic RNA populations in estrone-treated pullets and laying hens are completely homologous or differ in some important way. The results indicate that the genomic response in the avian liver to exogenous estrone is normal (relative to the laying hen) and further suggest that the hepatic response to estrogen is primarily pertinent to vitellinogenesis. DNA-RNA hybridization assays on total RNA also indicate that estrogen-induced RNA species in the liver are not homologous to estrogen-evoked RNA species of the oviduct. Therefore, in these two target organs estrogen-evoked RNA synthesis appears to be in part organ-specific. These data indicate that the specificity of hormone action can be explained in part on the basis of induced synthesis of specific RNA molecules. Whether these alterations in transcription are due to indirect hormonal action or are the result of a primary action of estrogens or estrogen-binding site complexes on the genome and/or its repressors remains a basic question. PMID:5253646

  20. Using a commercial DNA extraction kit to obtain RNA from mature rice kernels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Few RNA extraction protocols or commercial kits work well with the starchy endosperm of cereal grains. Standard RNA extraction protocols are time consuming, use large amounts of expensive chemicals, and leave behind hazardous wastes. However, there are numerous commercial DNA extraction kits that ...

  1. Stimulation of DNA-Dependent RNA Synthesis by a Protein Associated with Ribosomes

    PubMed Central

    Mahadik, S. P.; Srinivasan, P. R.

    1971-01-01

    A protein factor partially purified from ribosomes of Escherichia coli RCrel cells starved for an amino acid markedly stimulates DNA-dependent RNA synthesis by core and whole RNA polymerase. This protein factor appears to differ from the sigma factor and the M factor. The properties of this new factor and its mechanism of action have been explored. PMID:4331564

  2. Unzipping of A-Form DNA-RNA, A-Form DNA-PNA, and B-Form DNA-DNA in the ?-Hemolysin Nanopore.

    PubMed

    Perera, Rukshan T; Fleming, Aaron M; Peterson, Amberlyn M; Heemstra, Jennifer M; Burrows, Cynthia J; White, Henry S

    2016-01-19

    Unzipping of double-stranded nucleic acids by an electric field applied across a wild-type ?-hemolysin (?HL) nanopore provides structural information about different duplex forms. In this work, comparative studies on A-form DNA-RNA duplexes and B-form DNA-DNA duplexes with a single-stranded tail identified significant differences in the blockage current and the unzipping duration between the two helical forms. We observed that the B-form duplex blocks the channel 1.9 0.2pA more and unzips ?15-fold more slowly than an A-form duplex at 120mV. We developed a model to describe the dependence of duplex unzipping on structure. We demonstrate that the wider A-form duplex (d= 2.4nm) is unable to enter the vestibule opening of ?HL on the cis side, leading to unzipping outside of the nanopore with higher residual current and faster unzipping times. In contrast, the smaller B-form duplexes (d= 2.0nm) enter the vestibule of ?HL, resulting in decreased current blockages and slower unzipping. We investigated the effects of varying the length of the single-stranded overhang, and studied A-form DNA-PNA duplexes to provide additional support for the proposed model. This study identifies key differences between A- and B-form duplex unzipping that will be important in the design of future probe-based methods for detecting DNA or RNA. PMID:26789754

  3. Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends for RNA Transcript Sequencing in Staphylococcus.

    PubMed

    Miller, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) is a technique that was developed to swiftly and efficiently amplify full-length RNA molecules in which the terminal ends have not been characterized. Current usage of this procedure has been more focused on sequencing and characterizing RNA 5' and 3' untranslated regions. Herein is described an adapted RACE protocol to amplify bacterial RNA transcripts. PMID:26187203

  4. A deeply conserved, noncanonical miRNA hosted by ribosomal DNA.

    PubMed

    Chak, Li-Ling; Mohammed, Jaaved; Lai, Eric C; Tucker-Kellogg, Greg; Okamura, Katsutomo

    2015-03-01

    Advances in small RNA sequencing technologies and comparative genomics have fueled comprehensive microRNA (miRNA) gene annotations in humans and model organisms. Although new miRNAs continue to be discovered in recent years, these have universally been lowly expressed, recently evolved, and of debatable endogenous activity, leading to the general assumption that virtually all biologically important miRNAs have been identified. Here, we analyzed small RNAs that emanate from the highly repetitive rDNA arrays of Drosophila. In addition to endo-siRNAs derived from sense and antisense strands of the pre-rRNA sequence, we unexpectedly identified a novel, deeply conserved, noncanonical miRNA. Although this miRNA is widely expressed, this miRNA was not identified by previous studies due to bioinformatics filters removing such repetitive sequences. Deep-sequencing data provide clear evidence for specific processing with precisely defined 5' and 3' ends. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the mature miRNA species is incorporated in the effector complexes and has detectable trans regulatory activity. Processing of this miRNA requires Dicer-1, whereas the Drosha-Pasha complex is dispensable. The miRNA hairpin sequence is located in the internal transcribed spacer 1 region of rDNA and is highly conserved among Dipteran species that were separated from their common ancestor ? 100 million years ago. Our results suggest that biologically active miRNA genes may remain unidentified even in well-studied organisms. PMID:25605965

  5. Modified mRNA as an alternative to plasmid DNA (pDNA) for transcript replacement and vaccination therapy

    PubMed Central

    Youn, Hyewon; Chung, June-Key

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Current gene therapy involves replacement of defective gene by delivery of healthy genetic material to precede normal function. Virus-mediated gene delivery is the most successful and efficient method for gene therapy, but it has been challenged due to serious safety concerns. Conversely, gene delivery using plasmid DNA (pDNA) is considered safer, but its transfection efficiency is much lower than virus-mediated gene transfer. Recently, mRNA has been suggested as an alternative option to avoid undesired insertion of delivered DNA sequences with higher transfection efficiency and stability. Area covered: In this review, we summarize the currently available strategies of mRNA modification to increase the therapeutic efficacy; we also highlight the recent improvements of mRNA delivery for in vivo applications of gene therapy. Expert opinion: The use of mRNA-based gene transfer could indeed be a promising new strategy for gene therapy. Notable advantages include no risk of integration into the genomic DNA, adjustable gene expression and easier modulation of the immune system. By reducing or utilizing the immunogenic properties, mRNA offers a promising tool for gene/or transcript replacement. PMID:26125492

  6. SINE transcription by RNA polymerase III is suppressed by histone methylation but not by DNA methylation

    PubMed Central

    Varshney, Dhaval; Vavrova-Anderson, Jana; Oler, Andrew J.; Cowling, Victoria H.; Cairns, Bradley R.; White, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs), such as Alu, spread by retrotransposition, which requires their transcripts to be copied into DNA and then inserted into new chromosomal sites. This can lead to genetic damage through insertional mutagenesis and chromosomal rearrangements between non-allelic SINEs at distinct loci. SINE DNA is heavily methylated and this was thought to suppress its accessibility and transcription, thereby protecting against retrotransposition. Here we provide several lines of evidence that methylated SINE DNA is occupied by RNA polymerase III, including the use of high-throughput bisulphite sequencing of ChIP DNA. We find that loss of DNA methylation has little effect on accessibility of SINEs to transcription machinery or their expression in vivo. In contrast, a histone methyltransferase inhibitor selectively promotes SINE expression and occupancy by RNA polymerase III. The data suggest that methylation of histones rather than DNA plays a dominant role in suppressing SINE transcription. PMID:25798578

  7. The chemical structure of DNA sequence signals for RNA transcription

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, D. G.; Dayhoff, M. O.

    1982-01-01

    The proposed recognition sites for RNA transcription for E. coli NRA polymerase, bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase, and eukaryotic RNA polymerase Pol II are evaluated in the light of the requirements for efficient recognition. It is shown that although there is good experimental evidence that specific nucleic acid sequence patterns are involved in transcriptional regulation in bacteria and bacterial viruses, among the sequences now available, only in the case of the promoters recognized by bacteriophage T7 polymerase does it seem likely that the pattern is sufficient. It is concluded that the eukaryotic pattern that is investigated is not restrictive enough to serve as a recognition site.

  8. From face to interface recognition: a differential geometric approach to distinguish DNA from RNA binding surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Shazman, Shula; Elber, Gershon; Mandel-Gutfreund, Yael

    2011-01-01

    Protein nucleic acid interactions play a critical role in all steps of the gene expression pathway. Nucleic acid (NA) binding proteins interact with their partners, DNA or RNA, via distinct regions on their surface that are characterized by an ensemble of chemical, physical and geometrical properties. In this study, we introduce a novel methodology based on differential geometry, commonly used in face recognition, to characterize and predict NA binding surfaces on proteins. Applying the method on experimentally solved three-dimensional structures of proteins we successfully classify double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) from single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) binding proteins, with 83% accuracy. We show that the method is insensitive to conformational changes that occur upon binding and can be applicable for de novo protein-function prediction. Remarkably, when concentrating on the zinc finger motif, we distinguish successfully between RNA and DNA binding interfaces possessing the same binding motif even within the same protein, as demonstrated for the RNA polymerase transcription-factor, TFIIIA. In conclusion, we present a novel methodology to characterize protein surfaces, which can accurately tell apart dsDNA from an ssRNA binding interfaces. The strength of our method in recognizing fine-tuned differences on NA binding interfaces make it applicable for many other molecular recognition problems, with potential implications for drug design. PMID:21693557

  9. Bacterial RNA:DNA hybrids are activators of the NLRP3 inflammasome.

    PubMed

    Kailasan Vanaja, Sivapriya; Rathinam, Vijay A K; Atianand, Maninjay K; Kalantari, Parisa; Skehan, Brian; Fitzgerald, Katherine A; Leong, John M

    2014-05-27

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is an extracellular pathogen that causes hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. The proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1?, has been linked to hemolytic uremic syndrome. Here we identify the nucleotide-binding domain and leucine rich repeat containing family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome as an essential mediator of EHEC-induced IL-1?. Whereas EHEC-specific virulence factors were dispensable for NLRP3 activation, bacterial nucleic acids such as RNA:DNA hybrids and RNA gained cytosolic access and mediated inflammasome-dependent responses. Consistent with a direct role for RNA:DNA hybrids in inflammasome activation, delivery of synthetic EHEC RNA:DNA hybrids into the cytosol triggered NLRP3-dependent responses, and introduction of RNase H, which degrades such hybrids, into infected cells specifically inhibited inflammasome activation. Notably, an E. coli rnhA mutant, which is incapable of producing RNase H and thus harbors increased levels of RNA:DNA hybrid, induced elevated levels of NLRP3-dependent caspase-1 activation and IL-1? maturation. Collectively, these findings identify RNA:DNA hybrids of bacterial origin as a unique microbial trigger of the NLRP3 inflammasome. PMID:24828532

  10. Evaluation of commercial kits for dual extraction of DNA and RNA from human body fluids.

    PubMed

    Schweighardt, Andrew J; Tate, Courtney M; Scott, Kristina A; Harper, Kathryn A; Robertson, James M

    2015-01-01

    STR typing of DNA evidence can identify the donor with a high power of discrimination but cannot identify the tissue origin of a body-fluid stain. Using RNA to attribute a crime scene stain to a particular tissue may aid in reconstruction efforts. With blood from 10 donors, four DNA and RNA coextraction kits were evaluated by measuring yields and STR and mRNA profiles. T tests indicated some significant differences in kit performance. The Zymo Research ZR-Duet(™) kit performed best based on average DNA (41.4 ng) and mRNA (4.07 ng) yields and was the only kit to provide complete DNA/RNA profiles for all samples. The consistency of this kit was challenged by data from additional blood and saliva donors. Further testing is advised before a superior kit is unequivocally chosen. Stand-alone DNA or RNA purification generally offers higher yield, but coextraction may still allow successful STR profiling and tissue source identification. PMID:25284026

  11. Effect of salts, solvents and buffer on miRNA detection using DNA silver nanocluster (DNA/AgNCs) probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Pratik; Cho, Seok Keun; Waaben Thulstrup, Peter; Bhang, Yong-Joo; Ahn, Jong Cheol; Choi, Suk Won; Rørvig-Lund, Andreas; Yang, Seong Wook

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small regulatory RNAs (size ˜21 nt to ˜25 nt) which regulate a variety of important cellular events in plants, animals and single cell eukaryotes. Especially because of their use in diagnostics of human diseases, efforts have been directed towards the invention of a rapid, simple and sequence selective detection method for miRNAs. Recently, we reported an innovative method for the determination of miRNA levels using the red fluorescent properties of DNA/silver nanoclusters (DNA/AgNCs). Our method is based on monitoring the emission drop of a DNA/AgNCs probe in the presence of its specific target miRNA. Accordingly, the accuracy and efficiency of the method relies on the sensitivity of hybridization between the probe and target. To gain specific and robust hybridization between probe and target, we investigated a range of diverse salts, organic solvents, and buffer to optimize target sensing conditions. Under the newly adjusted conditions, the target sensitivity and the formation of emissive DNA/AgNCs probes were significantly improved. Also, fortification of the Tris-acetate buffer with inorganic salts or organic solvents improved the sensitivity of the DNA/AgNC probes. On the basis of these optimizations, the versatility of the DNA/AgNCs-based miRNA detection method can be expanded.

  12. The telomerase essential N-terminal domain promotes DNA synthesis by stabilizing short RNA-DNA hybrids.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Benjamin M; Parks, Joseph W; Stone, Michael D

    2015-06-23

    Telomerase is an enzyme that adds repetitive DNA sequences to the ends of chromosomes and consists of two main subunits: the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) protein and an associated telomerase RNA (TER). The telomerase essential N-terminal (TEN) domain is a conserved region of TERT proposed to mediate DNA substrate interactions. Here, we have employed single molecule telomerase binding assays to investigate the function of the TEN domain. Our results reveal telomeric DNA substrates bound to telomerase exhibit a dynamic equilibrium between two states: a docked conformation and an alternative conformation. The relative stabilities of the docked and alternative states correlate with the number of basepairs that can be formed between the DNA substrate and the RNA template, with more basepairing favoring the docked state. The docked state is further buttressed by the TEN domain and mutations within the TEN domain substantially alter the DNA substrate structural equilibrium. We propose a model in which the TEN domain stabilizes short RNA-DNA duplexes in the active site of the enzyme, promoting the docked state to augment telomerase processivity. PMID:25940626

  13. Immunological regulation of spontaneous antibodies to DNA and RNA

    PubMed Central

    Roubinian, J. R.; Papoian, R.; Pillarisetty, R.; Sawada, S.; Talal, N.

    1977-01-01

    NZB/NZW F1 (B/W) mice were subjected to sham surgery or neonatal thymectomy and/or splenectomy and studied for immunoglobulin class of antibodies to double stranded DNA and polyadenylic acid (Poly A) at 1 and 2 months of age. These antibodies occur spontaneously during the course of autoimmune disease in B/W mice. The serum from sham-operated female mice bound DNA predominantly in the 7S fraction, whereas serum from sham-operated male mice bound DNA primarily in the 19S fraction. Antibodies to Poly A were exclusively 19S in both sexes. Thymectomy of male B/W mice caused an increase in 7S and 19S antibodies to DNA at the ages studied, while it increased 19S antibodies to DNA in female mice only at 1 month of age. Thymectomy increased the 19S antibodies to Poly A in both sexes. Splenectomy had similar effects in males and females. It reduced both the 19S and 7S responses to DNA and the 19S response to Poly A at 1 month. By the second post-operative month, both 7S anti-DNA and 19S anti-Poly A antibody responses had recovered. Combined thymectomy and splenectomy of male B/W mice produced a disproportionate increase in 7S antibodies to DNA, while the procedures resulted in a decline in 7S and 19S antibodies to DNA in female B/W mice. These results suggest that the newborn (B/W) thymus and spleen contain regulatory cells exerting different controlling influences on spontaneous antibodies to DNA and Poly A. Moreover, they suggest that the male thymus exerts a suppressor influence while the female thymus exerts primarily a helper effect. PMID:908585

  14. Recombinant DNA clones constructed from immunoglobulin kappa light chain messenger RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Wall, R; Gilmore-Hebert, M; Higuchi, R; Komaromy, M; Paddock, G; Strommer, J; Salser, W

    1978-01-01

    Recombinant DNA clones have been generated from mouse myeloma MOPC 21 immunoglobulin kappa light chain mRNA. Complementary DNA (cDNA) synthesized on kappa light chain mRNA by reverse transcriptase was made double stranded and inserted into the bacterial plasmid vector, pMB9. Approximately 70 tetracycline-resistant transformed colonies containing kappa light chain mRNA sequences were identified by colony hybridization. Five of these recombinant clones were selected and characterized. Three clones contain both kappa light chain constant and variable region sequences. Two of these three recombinant clones have been shown to include all of the kappa light chain constant and variable region coding sequences. Another of the five selected recombinant clones contain kappa light chain constant region sequences. The remaining characterized clone appears to be derived from sequences at the 5'-end of kappa light chain mRNA, possibly extending to the terminal cap structure. Images PMID:100767

  15. Synthetic Polymer Hybridization with DNA and RNA Directs Nanoparticle Loading, Silencing Delivery, and Aptamer Function

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhun; Xia, Xin; Bong, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    We report herein discrete triplex hybridization of DNA and RNA with polyacrylates. Length-monodisperse triazine-derivatized polymers were prepared on gram-scale by reversible addition–fragmentation chain-transfer polymerization. Despite stereoregio backbone heterogeneity, the triazine polymers bind T/U-rich DNA or RNA with nanomolar affinity upon mixing in a 1:1 ratio, as judged by thermal melts, circular dichroism, gel-shift assays, and fluorescence quenching. We call these polyacrylates “bifacial polymer nucleic acids” (bPoNAs). Nucleic acid hybridization with bPoNA enables DNA loading onto polymer nanoparticles, siRNA silencing delivery, and can further serve as an allosteric trigger of RNA aptamer function. Thus, bPoNAs can serve as tools for both non-covalent bioconjugation and structure–function nucleation. It is anticipated that bPoNAs will have utility in both bio- and nanotechnology. PMID:26138550

  16. Diversity of HIV-1 RNA and DNA in breast milk from HIV-1-infected mothers.

    PubMed

    Becquart, Pierre; Courgnaud, Valerie; Willumsen, Juana; Van de Perre, Philippe

    2007-07-01

    We compared human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA and DNA populations in the different fractions of breast milk (lactoserum, lipid layer, cell pellet) and between right and left breasts in four HIV-1-infected mothers by analyzing the hypervariable env C2-V5 region. Phylogenetic analyses of the viral quasispecies revealed that RNA populations and DNA populations were clearly distinct and that viral RNA sequences were similar in lipid layer and lactoserum in the milk of 3 out of 4 mothers. Comparison of viral DNA between milk from right and left breast showed a differential distribution of variants in three mothers. In contrast, RNA variants detected from milk of the two breasts were mixed in 3 out of 4 mothers. This study suggests that each mammary gland is subjected to microenvironmental pressure that may differ from the contralateral breast. PMID:17335864

  17. Domains rearranged methyltransferase3 controls DNA methylation and regulates RNA polymerase V transcript abundance in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Xuehua; Hale, Christopher J; Nguyen, Minh; Ausin, Israel; Groth, Martin; Hetzel, Jonathan; Vashisht, Ajay A; Henderson, Ian R; Wohlschlegel, James A; Jacobsen, Steven E

    2015-01-20

    DNA methylation is a mechanism of epigenetic gene regulation and genome defense conserved in many eukaryotic organisms. In Arabidopsis, the DNA methyltransferase domains rearranged methylase 2 (DRM2) controls RNA-directed DNA methylation in a pathway that also involves the plant-specific RNA Polymerase V (Pol V). Additionally, the Arabidopsis genome encodes an evolutionarily conserved but catalytically inactive DNA methyltransferase, DRM3. Here, we show that DRM3 has moderate effects on global DNA methylation and small RNA abundance and that DRM3 physically interacts with Pol V. In Arabidopsis drm3 mutants, we observe a lower level of Pol V-dependent noncoding RNA transcripts even though Pol V chromatin occupancy is increased at many sites in the genome. These findings suggest that DRM3 acts to promote Pol V transcriptional elongation or assist in the stabilization of Pol V transcripts. This work sheds further light on the mechanism by which long noncoding RNAs facilitate RNA-directed DNA methylation. PMID:25561521

  18. Quantitative PCR methods for RNA and DNA in marine sediments: maximizing yield while overcoming inhibition.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Karen G; Macgregor, Barbara J; Teske, Andreas

    2010-04-01

    For accurate quantification of DNA and RNA from environmental samples, yield loss during nucleic acid purification has to be minimized. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) and reverse transcription (RT)-qPCR require a trade-off between maximizing yield and removing inhibitors. We compared DNA and RNA yield and suitability for quantitative SYBR Green PCR and RT-PCR using the UltraClean and PowerSoil extraction kits and a bead-beating protocol with phenol/chloroform extraction steps. Purification methods included silica-column-based procedures from the MoBio kits, RNeasy MinElute, WizardPlus miniprep columns, and an acrylamide gel extraction. DNA and RNA purification with WizardPlus and RNeasy, respectively, led to significant losses of nucleic acids and archaeal 16S rRNA or 16S rRNA gene, as measured with RiboGreen or PicoGreen, and RT-qPCR or qPCR. Extraction and purification of DNA with the MoBio DNA UltraClean and DNA PowerSoil kits also decreased the yields slightly, relative to gel purification, in all sediments, except those from the deep sea in the Gulf of Mexico. Organic matter in humic-rich sediments may bind to these silica columns, reducing their nucleic acid-loading capacity. Purification with gel extraction cleans up organic-rich sediment samples sufficiently for quantitative analysis while avoiding the yield loss associated with commonly used silica columns. PMID:20059545

  19. Development of multiplex PCR for simultaneous detection of six swine DNA and RNA viruses.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xin-Gang; Chen, Guang-Da; Huang, Yong; Ding, Li; Li, Zhao-Cai; Chang, Ching-Dong; Wang, Chi-Young; Tong, De-Wen; Liu, Hung-Jen

    2012-07-01

    Uniplex and multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and PCR protocols were developed and evaluated subsequently for its effectiveness in detecting simultaneously single and mixed infections in swine. Specific primers for three DNA viruses and three RNA viruses, including classical swine fever virus (CSFV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), porcine pseudorabies virus (PRV) and porcine parvovirus (PPV) were used for testing procedure. A single nucleic acid extraction protocol was adopted for the simultaneous extraction of both RNA and DNA viruses. The multiplex PCR consisted with two-step procedure which included reverse transcription of RNA virus and multiplex PCR of viral cDNA and DNA. The multiplex PCR assay was shown to be sensitive detecting at least 450pg of viral genomic DNA or RNA from a mixture of six viruses in a reaction. The assay was also highly specific in detecting one or more of the same viruses in various combinations in specimens. Thirty clinical samples and aborted fetuses collected from 4- to 12-week-old piglets were detected among 39 samples tested by both uniplex and multiplex PCR, showing highly identification. Because of the sensitivity and specificity, the multiplex PCR is a useful approach for clinical diagnosis of mixed infections of DNA and RNA viruses in swine. PMID:22575688

  20. DOMAINS REARRANGED METHYLTRANSFERASE3 controls DNA methylation and regulates RNA polymerase V transcript abundance in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Xuehua; Hale, Christopher J.; Nguyen, Minh; Ausin, Israel; Groth, Martin; Hetzel, Jonathan; Vashisht, Ajay A.; Henderson, Ian R.; Wohlschlegel, James A.; Jacobsen, Steven E.

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation is a mechanism of epigenetic gene regulation and genome defense conserved in many eukaryotic organisms. In Arabidopsis, the DNA methyltransferase DOMAINS REARRANGED METHYLASE 2 (DRM2) controls RNA-directed DNA methylation in a pathway that also involves the plant-specific RNA Polymerase V (Pol V). Additionally, the Arabidopsis genome encodes an evolutionarily conserved but catalytically inactive DNA methyltransferase, DRM3. Here, we show that DRM3 has moderate effects on global DNA methylation and small RNA abundance and that DRM3 physically interacts with Pol V. In Arabidopsis drm3 mutants, we observe a lower level of Pol V-dependent noncoding RNA transcripts even though Pol V chromatin occupancy is increased at many sites in the genome. These findings suggest that DRM3 acts to promote Pol V transcriptional elongation or assist in the stabilization of Pol V transcripts. This work sheds further light on the mechanism by which long noncoding RNAs facilitate RNA-directed DNA methylation. PMID:25561521

  1. Structural Basis of Transcription Initiation: An RNA Polymerase Holoenzyme-DNA Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Katsuhiko S.; Masuda, Shoko; Campbell, Elizabeth A.; Muzzin, Oriana; Darst, Seth A.

    2002-05-01

    The crystal structure of Thermus aquaticus RNA polymerase holoenzyme (?2??'??A) complexed with a fork-junction promoter DNA fragment has been determined by fitting high-resolution x-ray structures of individual components into a 6.5-angstrom resolution map. The DNA lies across one face of the holoenzyme, completely outside the RNA polymerase active site channel. All sequence-specific contacts with core promoter elements are mediated by the ? subunit. A universally conserved tryptophan is ideally positioned to stack on the exposed face of the base pair at the upstream edge of the transcription bubble. Universally conserved basic residues of the ? subunit provide critical contacts with the DNA phosphate backbone and play a role in directing the melted DNA template strand into the RNA polymerase active site. The structure explains how holoenzyme recognizes promoters containing variably spaced -10 and -35 elements and provides the basis for models of the closed and open promoter complexes.

  2. Selective in vitro transcription by purified yeast RNA polymerase II on cloned 2 micron DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Ballario, P; Buongiorno-Nardelli, M; Carnevali, F; Di Mauro, E; Pedone, F

    1981-01-01

    The in vitro transcription properties of purified yeast RNA polymerase II have been analyzed on prokaryotic plasmids (pBR322 and pBR313) and chimaeric plasmids bearing yeast 2 micron sequences (BTYP 1, BTYH 2 and BTYH 3). Conditions for selective transcription of the 2 micron DNA sequences in chimaeric plasmids have been determined. pBR322 and pBR313 are not transcribed by the purified RNA polymerase II when not bearing eukaryotic inserts. We show that the agarose gel electrophoretic analysis of ternary transcription complexes allows the localization of nascent RNA chains. The RNA produced has been visualized by electron microscopy (nascent RNA hybridization loops) and by gel electrophoretic analysis. All the observed properties are shared by RNA polymerase II purified by a conventional method (1) and by a rapid alternative procedure described herein. The peculiar properties of a partially purified form of RNA polymerase II are reported. Images PMID:7029462

  3. Organocatalytic Removal of Formaldehyde Adducts from RNA and DNA Bases

    PubMed Central

    Karmakar, Saswata; Harcourt, Emily M.; Hewings, David S.; Lovejoy, Alexander F.; Kurtz, David M.; Ehrenschwender, Thomas; Barandun, Luzi J.; Roost, Caroline; Alizadeh, Ash A.; Kool, Eric T.

    2015-01-01

    Formaldehyde is universally employed to fix tissue specimens, where it forms hemiaminal and aminal adducts with biomolecules, hindering the ability to retrieve molecular information. Common methods for removing these adducts involve extended heating, which can cause extensive degradation of nucleic acids, particularly RNA. Here we show that water-soluble bifunctional catalysts (anthranilates and phosphanilates) speed the reversal of formaldehyde adducts of mononucleotides over standard buffers. Studies with formaldehyde-treated RNA oligonucleotides show that the catalysts enhance adduct removal, restoring unmodified RNA at 37 C even when extensively modified, and avoiding high temperatures that promote RNA degradation. Experiments with formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cell samples show that the catalysis is compatible with common RNA extraction protocols, with detectable RNA yields increased by 1.52.4 fold using a catalyst under optimized conditions, and by 725 fold compared to a commercial kit. Such catalytic strategies show promise for general use in reversing formaldehyde adducts in clinical specimens. PMID:26291948

  4. Organocatalytic removal of formaldehyde adducts from RNA and DNA bases.

    PubMed

    Karmakar, Saswata; Harcourt, Emily M; Hewings, David S; Scherer, Florian; Lovejoy, Alexander F; Kurtz, David M; Ehrenschwender, Thomas; Barandun, Luzi J; Roost, Caroline; Alizadeh, Ash A; Kool, Eric T

    2015-09-01

    Formaldehyde is universally used to fix tissue specimens, where it forms hemiaminal and aminal adducts with biomolecules, hindering the ability to retrieve molecular information. Common methods for removing these adducts involve extended heating, which can cause extensive degradation of nucleic acids, particularly RNA. Here, we show that water-soluble bifunctional catalysts (anthranilates and phosphanilates) speed the reversal of formaldehyde adducts of mononucleotides over standard buffers. Studies with formaldehyde-treated RNA oligonucleotides show that the catalysts enhance adduct removal, restoring unmodified RNA at 37?C even when extensively modified, while avoiding the high temperatures that promote RNA degradation. Experiments with formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cell samples show that the catalysis is compatible with common RNA extraction protocols, with detectable RNA yields increased by 1.5-2.4-fold using a catalyst under optimized conditions and by 7-25-fold compared with a commercial kit. Such catalytic strategies show promise for general use in reversing formaldehyde adducts in clinical specimens. PMID:26291948

  5. Organocatalytic removal of formaldehyde adducts from RNA and DNA bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmakar, Saswata; Harcourt, Emily M.; Hewings, David S.; Lovejoy, Alexander F.; Kurtz, David M.; Ehrenschwender, Thomas; Barandun, Luzi J.; Roost, Caroline; Alizadeh, Ash A.; Kool, Eric T.

    2015-09-01

    Formaldehyde is universally used to fix tissue specimens, where it forms hemiaminal and aminal adducts with biomolecules, hindering the ability to retrieve molecular information. Common methods for removing these adducts involve extended heating, which can cause extensive degradation of nucleic acids, particularly RNA. Here, we show that water-soluble bifunctional catalysts (anthranilates and phosphanilates) speed the reversal of formaldehyde adducts of mononucleotides over standard buffers. Studies with formaldehyde-treated RNA oligonucleotides show that the catalysts enhance adduct removal, restoring unmodified RNA at 37 °C even when extensively modified, while avoiding the high temperatures that promote RNA degradation. Experiments with formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cell samples show that the catalysis is compatible with common RNA extraction protocols, with detectable RNA yields increased by 1.5-2.4-fold using a catalyst under optimized conditions and by 7-25-fold compared with a commercial kit. Such catalytic strategies show promise for general use in reversing formaldehyde adducts in clinical specimens.

  6. RNA-Dependent DNA Polymerase Activity of RNA Tumor Viruses I. Directing Influence of DNA in the Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Hurwitz, Jerard; Leis, Jonathan P.

    1972-01-01

    The template requirements and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) products of the DNA polymerases isolated from Rauscher leukemia and avian myeloblastosis viruses have been examined. All DNA preparations or synthetic polydeoxynucleotides which are active as primers possess a duplex structure containing single-stranded regions with a 3?-hydroxyl terminus. Native DNA and fully single-stranded DNA are inactive; moreover, their activity is not enhanced by sonic oscillation or treatment with micrococcal nuclease, Neurospora nuclease, or low levels of deoxyribonuclease I. Poor DNA templates are activated by treatment with exonuclease III, large amounts of deoxyribonuclease I, or an endonuclease isolated from Rauscher viral preparations. In reactions primed with deoxyadenylate-deoxythymidylate copolymer, the product formed is covalently attached to primer strands, indicating that no new strands are initiated. DNA polymerase products formed with exonuclease III- or deoxyribonuclase I-treated DNA are duplex structures. Short single-stranded regions are completely filled in, whereas long single-stranded regions are only partly repaired. DNA preparations containing extensive single-stranded regions are poorly utilized as templates. PMID:4333538

  7. The effect of as long-term Mars simulation on a microbial permafrost soil community and macromolecules such as DNA, polypeptides and cell wall components.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finster, K.; Hansen, A.; Liengaard, L.; Kristoffersen, T.; Mikkelsen, K.; Merrison, J.; Lomstein, B.

    Ten freeze-dried and homogenized samples of a 2300 years old Spitsbergen permafrost soil containing a complex microbial community were aseptically transferred to inert glass tubes and subjected to a 30 days Martian simulation experiment. During this period the samples received an UV dose equivalent to 80 Martian Sol. Data loggers in 4 out the ten samples monitored the temperature 0-2 mm below the surface of the sample. After removal from the simulation chamber, the samples were sliced in 1.5 to 6 mm thick horizons (H1, 0-1.5 mm; H2, 1.5-3 mm; H3, 3-6 mm; H4, 6-9 mm; H5, 9-15 mm; H6, 15-21 mm; H7, 21-27 mm and H8, 27-33 mm), resulting in 10 subsamples from each soil horizon. The subsamples from each horizon were pooled and used for the following investigations: 1. Determination of the bacterial number after staining with SYBR-gold, 2. Determination of the number of dead and living bacteria using the BacLight kit, 3. Determination of the total amount of extractable DNA, 4. Determination of the number of culturable aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, 5. Determination of the concentration of the total hydrolysable amino acids and D and L enantiomers, 6. Determination of the muramic acid contentration. The results of the experiments will be presented and discussed in our communication

  8. MicroRNA-induced cascaded and catalytic self-assembly of DNA nanostructures for enzyme-free and sensitive fluorescence detection of microRNA from tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xue; Zhou, Wenjiao; Chai, Yaqin; Yuan, Ruo; Xiang, Yun

    2016-02-11

    The presence of target microRNA triggers cascaded and catalytic self-assembly of two DNA motifs into DNA nanostructures, which serves as a remarkable signal amplification means for the highly sensitive monitoring of the target microRNA and the detection of low numbers of tumor cells. PMID:26739755

  9. 16S rRNA Gene Sequence Analysis of Drinking Water Using RNA and DNA Extracts as Targets for Clone Library Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    The bacterial composition of chlorinated drinking water was analyzed using 16S rRNA gene clone libraries derived from DNA extracts of 12 samples and compared to clone libraries previously generated using RNA extracts from the same samples. Phylogenetic analysis of 761 DNA-based ...

  10. DNA and RNA analysis of blood and muscle from bodies with variable postmortem intervals.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Jakob; Lesnikova, Iana; Funder, Anette Mariane Daa; Banner, Jytte

    2014-09-01

    The breakdown of DNA and RNA in decomposing human tissue represents a major obstacle for postmortem forensic molecular analysis. This study investigated the feasibility of performing PCR-based molecular analysis of blood and muscle tissue from 45 autopsy cases with defined postmortem intervals ranging from one to more than 14 days. It was not possible to collect blood from 38 % of the autopsy cases due to severe coagulation and hemolysis, whereas muscle tissue was available for all cases. PCR-amplifiable DNA could be extracted from 96 % of the frozen muscle specimens and from 93 % of the formalin fixed and paraffin embedded (FFPE) muscle specimens. A quality assessment of muscle-derived DNA showed increased fragmentation with advancing body decomposition and generally more fragmentation in DNA from FFPE tissue than in DNA from frozen tissue. It was possible to amplify 1,000 basepair (bp) DNA fragments from all samples with postmortem intervals below 3 days whereas 400-600 bp long fragments typically could be amplified from the most decomposed muscle specimens. RNA was less stable than DNA in postmortem muscle tissue, yet selected mRNA molecules could be detected by reverse-transcriptase PCR in all samples up to 3 days after death. We conclude that analysis of DNA from bodies with a wide postmortem interval range is usually possible whereas the consistency of RNA analyses decreases considerably 3 days postmortem. We showed that muscle tissue is a highly usable source of DNA and RNA for postmortem forensic molecular analysis as well as for retrospective research projects based on archived FFPE specimens. PMID:24913557

  11. Lipid-mediated DNA and siRNA Transfection Efficiency Depends on Peptide Headgroup

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-Xiang; LaManna, Caroline M.; Kohman, Richie E.; McIntosh, Thomas J.; Han, Xue; Grinstaff, Mark W.

    2013-01-01

    A series of amphiphiles with differing cationic tri- and di- peptide headgroups, designed and synthesized based on lysine (K), ornithine (O), arginine (R), and glycine (G), have been characterized and evaluated for DNA and siRNA delivery. DNA-lipoplexes formed from the tri- and di- lipopeptides possessed lipid:nucleic acid charge ratios of 7:1 to 10:1, diameters of ~200 nm to 375 nm, zeta potentials of 23 mV to 41 mV, melting temperatures of 12 C to 46 C, and lamellar repeat periods of 6 nm to 8 nm. These lipid-DNA complexes formed supramolecular structures in which DNA is entrapped at the surface between multilamellar liposomal vesicles. Compared to their DNA counterparts, siRNA-lipoplexes formed slightly larger complexes (348 nm to 424 nm) and required higher charge ratios to form stable structures. Additionally, it was observed that lipids with multivalent, tripeptide headgroups (i.e., KGG, OGG, and RGG) were successful at transfecting DNA in vitro, whereas DNA transfection with the dipeptide lipids proved ineffective. Cellular uptake of DNA was more effective with the KGG compared to the KG lipopeptide. In siRNA knockdown experiments, both tri- and di- peptide lipids (i.e., RGG, GGG, KG, OG, RG, GG) showed some efficacy, but total cellular uptake of siRNA complexes was not indicative of knockdown outcomes and suggested that the intracellular fate of lipoplexes may be a factor. Overall, this lipopeptide study expands the library of efficient DNA transfection vectors available for use, introduces new vectors for siRNA delivery, and begins to address the structure-activity relationships which influence delivery and transfection efficacy. PMID:24391676

  12. Lipid-mediated DNA and siRNA Transfection Efficiency Depends on Peptide Headgroup.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Xiang; Lamanna, Caroline M; Kohman, Richie E; McIntosh, Thomas J; Han, Xue; Grinstaff, Mark W

    2013-05-01

    A series of amphiphiles with differing cationic tri- and di- peptide headgroups, designed and synthesized based on lysine (K), ornithine (O), arginine (R), and glycine (G), have been characterized and evaluated for DNA and siRNA delivery. DNA-lipoplexes formed from the tri- and di- lipopeptides possessed lipid:nucleic acid charge ratios of 7:1 to 10:1, diameters of ~200 nm to 375 nm, zeta potentials of 23 mV to 41 mV, melting temperatures of 12 C to 46 C, and lamellar repeat periods of 6 nm to 8 nm. These lipid-DNA complexes formed supramolecular structures in which DNA is entrapped at the surface between multilamellar liposomal vesicles. Compared to their DNA counterparts, siRNA-lipoplexes formed slightly larger complexes (348 nm to 424 nm) and required higher charge ratios to form stable structures. Additionally, it was observed that lipids with multivalent, tripeptide headgroups (i.e., KGG, OGG, and RGG) were successful at transfecting DNA in vitro, whereas DNA transfection with the dipeptide lipids proved ineffective. Cellular uptake of DNA was more effective with the KGG compared to the KG lipopeptide. In siRNA knockdown experiments, both tri- and di- peptide lipids (i.e., RGG, GGG, KG, OG, RG, GG) showed some efficacy, but total cellular uptake of siRNA complexes was not indicative of knockdown outcomes and suggested that the intracellular fate of lipoplexes may be a factor. Overall, this lipopeptide study expands the library of efficient DNA transfection vectors available for use, introduces new vectors for siRNA delivery, and begins to address the structure-activity relationships which influence delivery and transfection efficacy. PMID:24391676

  13. Microbial rRNA: rDNA gene ratios may be unexpectedly low due to extracellular DNA preservation in soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We tested a method of estimating the activity of detectable individual bacterial and archaeal OTUs within a community by calculating ratios of absolute 16S rRNA to rDNA copy numbers. We investigated phylogenetically coherent patterns of activity among soil prokaryotes in non-growing soil communitie...

  14. The use of carrier RNA to enhance DNA extraction from microfluidic-based silica monoliths.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Kirsty J; Thain, Lauren; Docker, Peter T; Dyer, Charlotte E; Greenman, John; Greenway, Gillian M; Haswell, Stephen J

    2009-10-12

    DNA extraction was carried out on silica-based monoliths within a microfluidic device. Solid-phase DNA extraction methodology was applied in which the DNA binds to silica in the presence of a chaotropic salt, such as guanidine hydrochloride, and is eluted in a low ionic strength solution, such as water. The addition of poly-A carrier RNA to the chaotropic salt solution resulted in a marked increase in the effective amount of DNA that could be recovered (25ng) compared to the absence of RNA (5ng) using the silica-based monolith. These findings confirm that techniques utilising nucleic acid carrier molecules can enhance DNA extraction methodologies in microfluidic applications. PMID:19786185

  15. Inhibition of RNA Polymerase II Transcription in Human Cells by Synthetic DNA-Binding Ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickinson, Liliane A.; Gulizia, Richard J.; Trauger, John W.; Baird, Eldon E.; Mosier, Donald E.; Gottesfeld, Joel M.; Dervan, Peter B.

    1998-10-01

    Sequence-specific DNA-binding small molecules that can permeate human cells potentially could regulate transcription of specific genes. Multiple cellular DNA-binding transcription factors are required by HIV type 1 for RNA synthesis. Two pyrrole--imidazole polyamides were designed to bind DNA sequences immediately adjacent to binding sites for the transcription factors Ets-1, lymphoid-enhancer binding factor 1, and TATA-box binding protein. These synthetic ligands specifically inhibit DNA-binding of each transcription factor and HIV type 1 transcription in cell-free assays. When used in combination, the polyamides inhibit virus replication by >99% in isolated human peripheral blood lymphocytes, with no detectable cell toxicity. The ability of small molecules to target predetermined DNA sequences located with RNA polymerase II promoters suggests a general approach for regulation of gene expression, as well as a mechanism for the inhibition of viral replication.

  16. Determination of the sequence homology between the four RNA species of cucumber mosaic virus by hybridization analysis with complementary DNA

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Allan R.; Symons, Robert H.

    1977-01-01

    The method of Taylor etal., (11) has been used to transcribe complementary DNA probes from the four major RNA species of cucumber mosaic virus (RNAs 1 - 4 in order of decreasing molecular weight). Analysis of the kinetics of hybridization of these probes in homologous and heterologous complementary DNA-RNA hybridization reactions has shown that the sequence of the smallest RNA (RNA 4), which contains the coat protein gene, is present within RNA 3. RNAs 1 and 2 are unique RNA molecules while each has a region of approximately 300 nucleotides in common with RNA 4. Images PMID:593886

  17. Multiple repeated units in Drosophila melanogaster ribosomal DNA spacer stimulate rRNA precursor transcription.

    PubMed Central

    Grimaldi, G; Di Nocera, P P

    1988-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster ribosomal DNA (rDNA) transcriptional units are separated by nontranscribed spacer (NTS) segments consisting of tandemly arranged repeats 95, 330, and 240 base pairs long. NTS sequences stimulate transcription from the rRNA precursor (pre-rRNA) promoter. Primer extension analysis of RNA from cells cotransfected with plasmids carrying NTS sequences of various lengths shows that the activity of the pre-rRNA promoter is directly correlated with the number of 240-base-pair repeats; NTS sequences upstream of these units also stimulate pre-rRNA transcription. The NTS effect might depend upon transcription from duplicated promoters present within the 240- and 330-base-pair repeats. The strength of the pre-RNA promoter correlates in each construct with the level of spacer transcription. The action of spacer sequences, although able to take place over a large distance, is not independent of orientation: stimulation of pre-rRNA transcription is abolished in plasmids carrying inverted NTS segments. Removal of a putative transcription termination site located upstream of the pre-rRNA promoter has no effect on pre-rRNA initiation nor does it substantially alter spacer enhancement. Images PMID:2840664

  18. cDNA cloning of Korean human norovirus and nucleotidylylation of VPg by norovirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Min, Byung Sup; Han, Kang Rok; Lee, Jung Ihn; Yang, Jai Myung

    2012-08-01

    Norovirus, a member of the Caliciviridae family, is a major causative agent of gastroenteritis worldwide. The cDNA of the entire genome of human norovirus (HuNV) was cloned using the RNA extracted from the stool sample of a Korean patient. The RNA genome consists of 7,559 nucleotides, carries 3 open reading frames (ORFs), 5 and 3 noncoding regions, and a poly(A) tail at the 3 end. Phylogenic analysis of the nucleotide sequence indicated that it belongs to GII.4, the most dominant genogroup. To analyze RNA synthesis and nucleotidylylation of VPg by RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), recombinant RdRp and VPg were expressed in Escherichia coli as His-tagged forms. The HuNV RdRp exhibited template and divalent cation-dependent RNA synthesis in vitro. The HuNV RdRp nucleotidylylated HuNV VPg but not murine norovirus (MNV) VPg, whereas MNV RdRp nucleotidylylated both MNV and HuNV VPg more efficiently than HuNV RdRp. PMID:22923111

  19. Simultaneous DNA and RNA Mapping of Somatic Mitochondrial Mutations across Diverse Human Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, James B.; Alaei-Mahabadi, Babak; Sabarinathan, Radhakrishnan; Samuelsson, Tore; Gorodkin, Jan; Gustafsson, Claes M.; Larsson, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Somatic mutations in the nuclear genome are required for tumor formation, but the functional consequences of somatic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations are less understood. Here we identify somatic mtDNA mutations across 527 tumors and 14 cancer types, using an approach that takes advantage of evidence from both genomic and transcriptomic sequencing. We find that there is selective pressure against deleterious coding mutations, supporting that functional mitochondria are required in tumor cells, and also observe a strong mutational strand bias, compatible with endogenous replication-coupled errors as the major source of mutations. Interestingly, while allelic ratios in general were consistent in RNA compared to DNA, some mutations in tRNAs displayed strong allelic imbalances caused by accumulation of unprocessed tRNA precursors. The effect was explained by altered secondary structure, demonstrating that correct tRNA folding is a major determinant for processing of polycistronic mitochondrial transcripts. Additionally, the data suggest that tRNA clusters are preferably processed in the 3? to 5? direction. Our study gives insights into mtDNA function in cancer and answers questions regarding mitochondrial tRNA biogenesis that are difficult to address in controlled experimental systems. PMID:26125550

  20. UvrD facilitates DNA repair by pulling RNA polymerase backwards.

    PubMed

    Epshtein, Vitaly; Kamarthapu, Venu; McGary, Katelyn; Svetlov, Vladimir; Ueberheide, Beatrix; Proshkin, Sergey; Mironov, Alexander; Nudler, Evgeny

    2014-01-16

    UvrD helicase is required for nucleotide excision repair, although its role in this process is not well defined. Here we show that Escherichia coli UvrD binds RNA polymerase during transcription elongation and, using its helicase/translocase activity, forces RNA polymerase to slide backward along DNA. By inducing backtracking, UvrD exposes DNA lesions shielded by blocked RNA polymerase, allowing nucleotide excision repair enzymes to gain access to sites of damage. Our results establish UvrD as a bona fide transcription elongation factor that contributes to genomic integrity by resolving conflicts between transcription and DNA repair complexes. Furthermore, we show that the elongation factor NusA cooperates with UvrD in coupling transcription to DNA repair by promoting backtracking and recruiting nucleotide excision repair enzymes to exposed lesions. Because backtracking is a shared feature of all cellular RNA polymerases, we propose that this mechanism enables RNA polymerases to function as global DNA damage scanners in bacteria and eukaryotes. PMID:24402227

  1. Simultaneous detection of RNA and DNA targets based on multiplex isothermal amplification.

    PubMed

    Dobnik, David; Morisset, Dany; Lenar?i?, Rok; Ravnikar, Maja

    2014-04-01

    The detection of pathogenic microorganisms present in food, feed, plant, and other samples is important for providing safe food as well as for preventing the spread of microbes. The genome of pathogens is made of DNA or RNA, therefore a multiplex diagnostics tool would ideally be able to amplify and detect both RNA and DNA targets in parallel. With this goal we have developed an isothermal nucleic acid sequence based amplification [NASBA] implemented microarray analysis (NAIMA) procedure, suitable for the simultaneous multiplex amplification of RNA and DNA targets, coupled with the detection on ArrayTubes. The method is demonstrated to be very sensitive and specific for the detection of two economically important quarantine plant pathogens of potato, the potato spindle tuber viroid (RNA target) and Ralstonia solanacearum (DNA target). Because of its isothermal amplification and simple detection equipment, the method is also applicable for on-site analyses. NAIMA can be used in any domain where there is the need to detect RNA and DNA targets simultaneously. PMID:24625323

  2. Interaction of antitumor drug Sn(CH 3) 2Cl 2 with DNA and RNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nafisi, Shohreh; Sobhanmanesh, Amir; Esm-Hosseini, Majid; Alimoghaddam, Kamran; Tajmir-Riahi, Heidar Ali

    2005-08-01

    Sn(CH 3) 2Cl 2 exerts its antitumor activity in a specific way. Unlike anticancer cis-Pt(NH 3) 2Cl 2 drug which binds strongly to the nitrogen atoms of DNA bases, Sn(CH 3) 2Cl 2 shows no major affinity towards base binding. Thus, the mechanism of action by which tinorganometallic compounds exert antitumor activity would be different from that of the cisplatin drug. The aim of this study was to examine the binding of Sn(CH 3) 2Cl 2 with calf thymus DNA and yeast RNA in aqueous solutions at pH 7.1-6.6 with constant concentrations of DNA and RNA and various molar ratios of Sn(CH 3) 2Cl 2/DNA (phosphate) and Sn(CH 3) 2Cl 2/RNA of 1/40, 1/20, 1/10, 1/5. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and UV-visible difference spectroscopic methods were used to determine the Sn(CH 3) 2Cl 2 binding mode, binding constant, sequence selectivity and structural variations of Sn(CH 3) 2Cl 2/DNA and Sn(CH 3) 2Cl 2/RNA complexes in aqueous solution. Sn(CH 3) 2Cl 2 hydrolyzes in water to give Sn(CH 3) 2(OH) 2 and [Sn(CH 3) 2(OH)(H 2O) n] + species. Spectroscopic evidence showed that interaction occurred mainly through (CH 3) 2Sn(IV) hydroxide and polynucleotide backbone phosphate group with overall binding constant of K(Sn(CH 3) 2Cl 2-DNA)=1.4710 5 M -1 and K(Sn(CH 3) 2Cl 2-RNA)=7.3310 5 M -1. Sn(CH 3) 2Cl 2 induced no biopolymer conformational changes with DNA remaining in the B-family structure and RNA in A-conformation upon drug complexation.

  3. Parametric resonance in DNA.

    PubMed

    Lacitignola, Deborah; Saccomandi, Giuseppe

    2014-03-01

    We consider a simple mesoscopic model of DNA in which the binding of the RNA polymerase enzyme molecule to the promoter sequence of the DNA is included through a substrate energy term modeling the enzymatic interaction with the DNA strands. We focus on the differential system for solitary waves and derive conditions--in terms of the model parameters--for the occurrence of the parametric resonance phenomenon. We find that what truly matters for parametric resonance is not the ratio between the strength of the stacking and the inter-strand forces but the ratio between the substrate and the inter-strands. On the basis of these results, the standard objection that longitudinal motion is negligible because of the second order seems to fail, suggesting that all the studies involving the longitudinal degree of freedom in DNA should be reconsidered when the interaction of the RNA polymerase with the DNA macromolecule is not neglected. PMID:24510728

  4. Affinity Purification of DNA and RNA from Environmental Samples with Peptide Nucleic Acid Clamps

    PubMed Central

    Chandler, Darrell P.; Stults, Jennie R.; Cebula, Sharon; Schuck, Beatrice L.; Weaver, Derek W.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Egholm, Michael; Brockman, Fred J.

    2000-01-01

    Bispeptide nucleic acids (bis-PNAs; PNA clamps), PNA oligomers, and DNA oligonucleotides were evaluated as affinity purification reagents for subfemtomolar 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and rRNA targets in soil, sediment, and industrial air filter nucleic acid extracts. Under low-salt hybridization conditions (10 mM NaPO4, 5 mM disodium EDTA, and 0.025% sodium dodecyl sulfate [SDS]) a PNA clamp recovered significantly more target DNA than either PNA or DNA oligomers. The efficacy of PNA clamps and oligomers was generally enhanced in the presence of excess nontarget DNA and in a low-salt extraction-hybridization buffer. Under high-salt conditions (200 mM NaPO4, 100 mM disodium EDTA, and 0.5% SDS), however, capture efficiencies with the DNA oligomer were significantly greater than with the PNA clamp and PNA oligomer. Recovery and detection efficiencies for target DNA concentrations of ?100 pg were generally >20% but depended upon the specific probe, solution background, and salt condition. The DNA probe had a lower absolute detection limit of 100 fg of target (830 zM [1 zM = 10?21 M]) in high-salt buffer. In the absence of exogenous DNA (e.g., soil background), neither the bis-PNA nor the PNA oligomer achieved the same absolute detection limit even under a more favorable low-salt hybridization condition. In the presence of a soil background, however, both PNA probes provided more sensitive absolute purification and detection (830 zM) than the DNA oligomer. In varied environmental samples, the rank order for capture probe performance in high-salt buffer was DNA > PNA > clamp. Recovery of 16S rRNA from environmental samples mirrored quantitative results for DNA target recovery, with the DNA oligomer generating more positive results than either the bis-PNA or PNA oligomer, but PNA probes provided a greater incidence of detection from environmental samples that also contained a higher concentration of nontarget DNA and RNA. Significant interactions between probe type and environmental sample indicate that the most efficacious capture system depends upon the particular sample type (and background nucleic acid concentration), target (DNA or RNA), and detection objective. PMID:10919804

  5. A cDNA clone from Zea mays endosperm sucrose synthetase mRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Geiser, M; Dring, H P; Wstemeyer, J; Behrens, U; Tillmann, E; Starlinger, P

    1980-01-01

    A cDNA clone for maize endosperm sucrose synthetase of 62o nucleotide pairs length was obtained by cloning double stranded DNA obtained from the total maize endosperm poly(A) RNA in pBR322, and identifying the appropriate clone by hybrid-promoter translation. In Southern blotting to genomic BamHI-digested DNA, a single band only of approximately 20 Kb lights up, indicating that the sucrose synthetase gene is unique, or that closely linked copies are located on this DNA fragment. Images PMID:6258164

  6. Dendrons, Dendrimers and Dendrigrafts: Structure Controlled Macromolecules According to Dendritic Rules and Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomalia, Donald A.

    1997-03-01

    The complexity of matter has advanced to its present state along two distinct pathways, namely; (a) natural molecular evolution and (b) synthetic (man-made) molecular evolution. Complexity by the natural route has evolved during the past 13-14 billion years to exquisite shapes and dimensions, including complex organisms and life itself. On the other hand the synthetic (man-made) path is barely 200 years old, still in its infancy and largely the subject of classical/contemporary organic chemistry. Evolution according to the natural process has followed a hierarchical pattern directed by size and mass. A seminal event required for the success of this evolutionary pathway involved strategies for covalently combining small molecules (i.e., amino acids or nucleic acids) to produce structure controlled biotic macromolecules such as proteins, DNA and RNA. These strategies included: (a) information directed template polymerizations, (b) self-replication, (c) genealogically directed synthesis and mathematically driven amplification rules. Many of these strategies have been adapted to synthesize structure controlled abiotic macromolecules such as dendrons, dendrimers and dendrigrafts. These macromolecular architectures offer unique nanoscopic shapes and surfaces upon which to perform reactions with either sub-nanoscopic reagents (i.e., classical organic types) or nanoscopic reagents (e.g., DNA, IgG antibodies, etc.). New nanoscopic chemistry and combining rules evolving from these synthetic efforts will be reviewed.

  7. RNA/DNA ratio and LPL and MyoD mRNA expressions in muscle of Oreochromis niloticus fed with elevated levels of palm oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayisi, Christian Larbi; Zhao, Jinliang

    2016-02-01

    Palm oil is of great potential as one of the sustainable alternatives to fish oil (FO) in aquafeeds. In this present study, five isonitrogenous diets (32% crude protein) with elevated palm oil levels of 0%, 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% were used during an 8-week feeding trial to evaluate its effects on RNA/DNA ratio and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and MyoD mRNA expressions in muscle of Oreochromis niloticus. The results showed that RNA, DNA content as well as ratio of RNA to DNA were significantly affected ( P < 0.05), in each case the highest was recorded in fish group subjected to 6% palm oil level. There was a strong positive correlation between nucleic acid concentration (RNA concentration and RNA: DNA ratio) and specific growth rate (SGR), protein efficiency ratio (PER), while a negative correlation existed between nucleic acid concentration (RNA concentration and RNA: DNA ratio) and feed conversion ratio (FCR). The mRNA expressions of LPL and MyoD in muscle were not significantly affected by the different palm oil levels, although the highest expression was observed in fish fed with 6% palm oil level. There also existed a strong positive correlation between the mRNA expression of LPL, MyoD and SGR, PER, while their correlation with FCR was negative. In conclusion, elevated palm oil affected the RNA, DNA concentration as well as RNA/DNA ratio significantly, although the mRNA expression of LPL and MyoD were not affected significantly by elevated palm oil levels.

  8. An mRNA and DNA co-isolation method for forensic casework samples.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Michelle; Juusola, Jane; Ballantyne, Jack

    2004-12-15

    RNA analysis is expected to play an increasingly important role in the area of biomolecular forensic analysis. For example, mRNA expression analysis performed on a total RNA sample isolated from a biological stain may be used to identify the nature of the tissue(s) comprising the stain. Many of the physiological stains encountered at crime scenes involve heterogeneous mixtures of different body fluids (e.g., semen and saliva, semen and vaginal secretions). Separate sampling of these mixed stains from different "geographical" locations of the stains to isolate DNA and RNA could result in a misleading estimate of the ratio of the body fluids present and, in extreme cases, even fail to detect one of the contributors. Thus, a prerequisite for the use of mRNA expression profiling in routine forensic analysis is the ability to co-extract DNA and RNA from the same stain. This article describes an optimized method that was specifically developed to co-extract mRNA and DNA from the same physiological stain and that appears to be sufficiently sensitive and robust for routine forensic use. PMID:15556568

  9. Human papilloma virus, DNA methylation and microRNA expression in cervical cancer (Review)

    PubMed Central

    JIMNEZ-WENCES, HILDA; PERALTA-ZARAGOZA, OSCAR; FERNNDEZ-TILAPA, GLORIA

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is a complex disease caused by genetic and epigenetic abnormalities that affect gene expression. The progression from precursor lesions to invasive cervical cancer is influenced by persistent human papilloma virus (HPV) infection, which induces changes in the host genome and epigenome. Epigenetic alterations, such as aberrant miRNA expression and changes in DNA methylation status, favor the expression of oncogenes and the silencing of tumor-suppressor genes. Given that some miRNA genes can be regulated through epigenetic mechanisms, it has been proposed that alterations in the methylation status of miRNA promoters could be the driving mechanism behind their aberrant expression in cervical cancer. For these reasons, we assessed the relationship among HPV infection, cellular DNA methylation and miRNA expression. We conclude that alterations in the methylation status of protein-coding genes and various miRNA genes are influenced by HPV infection, the viral genotype, the physical state of the viral DNA, and viral oncogenic risk. Furthermore, HPV induces deregulation of miRNA expression, particularly at loci near fragile sites. This deregulation occurs through the E6 and E7 proteins, which target miRNA transcription factors such as p53. PMID:24737381

  10. Archaeal DnaG contains a conserved N-terminal RNA-binding domain and enables tailing of rRNA by the exosome

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Linlin; Klug, Gabriele; Evguenieva-Hackenberg, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The archaeal exosome is a phosphorolytic 3?5? exoribonuclease complex. In a reverse reaction it synthesizes A-rich RNA tails. Its RNA-binding cap comprises the eukaryotic orthologs Rrp4 and Csl4, and an archaea-specific subunit annotated as DnaG. In Sulfolobus solfataricus DnaG and Rrp4 but not Csl4 show preference for poly(rA). Archaeal DnaG contains N- and C-terminal domains (NTD and CTD) of unknown function flanking a TOPRIM domain. We found that the NT and TOPRIM domains have comparable, high conservation in all archaea, while the CTD conservation correlates with the presence of exosome. We show that the NTD is a novel RNA-binding domain with poly(rA)-preference cooperating with the TOPRIM domain in binding of RNA. Consistently, a fusion protein containing full-length Csl4 and NTD of DnaG led to enhanced degradation of A-rich RNA by the exosome. We also found that DnaG strongly binds native and in vitro transcribed rRNA and enables its polynucleotidylation by the exosome. Furthermore, rRNA-derived transcripts with heteropolymeric tails were degraded faster by the exosome than their non-tailed variants. Based on our data, we propose that archaeal DnaG is an RNA-binding protein, which, in the context of the exosome, is involved in targeting of stable RNA for degradation. PMID:25326320

  11. Effect of seven days of spaceflight on hindlimb muscle protein, RNA and DNA in adult rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffen, J. M.; Musacchia, X. J.

    1985-01-01

    Effects of seven days of spaceflight on skeletal muscle (soleus, gastrocnemius, EDL) content of protein, RNA and DNA were determined in adult rats. Whereas total protein contents were reduced in parallel with muscle weights, myofibrillar protein appeared to be more affected. There were no significant changes in absolute DNA contents, but a significant (P less than 0.05) increase in DNA concentration (microgram/milligram) in soleus muscles from flight rats. Absolute RNA contents were significantly (P less than 0.025) decreased in the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles of flight rats, with RNA concentrations reduced 15-30 percent. These results agree with previous ground-based observations on the suspended rat with unloaded hindlimbs and support continued use of this model.

  12. RNA:DNA hybrids are a novel molecular pattern sensed by TLR9

    PubMed Central

    Rigby, Rachel E; Webb, Lauren M; Mackenzie, Karen J; Li, Yue; Leitch, Andrea; Reijns, Martin A M; Lundie, Rachel J; Revuelta, Ailsa; Davidson, Donald J; Diebold, Sandra; Modis, Yorgo; MacDonald, Andrew S; Jackson, Andrew P

    2014-01-01

    The sensing of nucleic acids by receptors of the innate immune system is a key component of antimicrobial immunity. RNA:DNA hybrids, as essential intracellular replication intermediates generated during infection, could therefore represent a class of previously uncharacterised pathogen-associated molecular patterns sensed by pattern recognition receptors. Here we establish that RNA:DNA hybrids containing viral-derived sequences efficiently induce pro-inflammatory cytokine and antiviral type I interferon production in dendritic cells. We demonstrate that MyD88-dependent signalling is essential for this cytokine response and identify TLR9 as a specific sensor of RNA:DNA hybrids. Hybrids therefore represent a novel molecular pattern sensed by the innate immune system and so could play an important role in host response to viruses and the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease. PMID:24514026

  13. The Chemical Synthesis of DNA/RNA: Our Gift to Science

    PubMed Central

    Caruthers, Marvin H.

    2013-01-01

    It is a great privilege to contribute to the Reflections essays. In my particular case, this essay has allowed me to weave some of my major scientific contributions into a tapestry held together by what I have learned from three colleagues (Robert Letsinger, Gobind Khorana, and George Rathmann) who molded my career at every important junction. To these individuals, I remain eternally grateful, as they always led by example and showed many of us how to break new ground in both science and biotechnology. Relative to my scientific career, I have focused primarily on two related areas. The first is methodologies we developed for chemically synthesizing DNA and RNA. Synthetic DNA and RNA continue to be an essential research tool for biologists, biochemists, and molecular biologists. The second is developing new approaches for solving important biological problems using synthetic DNA, RNA, and their analogs. PMID:23223445

  14. Abnormal rapid non-linear RNA production induced by T7 RNA polymerase in the absence of an exogenous DNA template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakimoto, Y.; Fujinuma, A.; Fujita, S.; Kikuchi, Y.; Umekage, S.

    2015-02-01

    Although recombinant T7 RNA polymerase is commonly used for in vitro RNA synthesis, several reports have pointed out that T7 RNA polymerase can also induce RNA-directed RNA polymerization or replication. In addition, here we show a new aberrant transcription when using T7 RNA polymerase. This polymerization was observed in the presence of both ribonucleotides and a purchasable T7 RNA polymerase, Thermo T7 RNA polymerase, as well as in the absence of an exogenous DNA template. This cryptic RNA production was detectable after several hours of incubation and was inhibited by adding DNase I. These findings suggested that some contaminated DNA along with the Thermo stable T7 RNA polymerase could be used as template DNA. However, to our surprise, RNA production showed a rapid non-linear increase. This finding strongly indicated that a self-replication cycle emerged from the RNA-directed polymerization or replication by T7 RNA polymerase, triggering the abnormal explosive increase.

  15. RNA-Cleaving DNA Enzymes with Altered Regio- or Enantioselectivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ordoukhanian, Phillip; Joyce, Gerald F.

    2002-01-01

    In vitro evolution methods were used to obtain DNA enzymes that cleave either a 2',5' - phosphodiester following a wibonucleotide or a 3',5' -phosphodiester following an L-ribonucleotide. Both enzymes can operate in an intermolecular reaction format with multiple turnover. The DNA enzyme that cleaves a 2',5' -phosphodiester exhibits a k(sub cat) of approx. 0.01/ min and catalytic efficiency, k(sub cat)/k(sub m) of approx. 10(exp 5)/ M min. The enzyme that cleaves an L-ribonudeotide is about 10-fold slower and has a catalytic efficiency of approx. 4 x 10(exp 5)/ M min. Both enzymes require a divalent metal cation for their activity and have optimal catalytic rate at pH 7-8 and 35-50 C. In a comparison of each enzyme s activity with either its corresponding substrate that contains an unnatural ribonudeotide or a substrate that instead contains a standard ribonucleotide, the 2',5' -phosphodiester-deaving DNA enzyme exhibited a regioselectivity of 6000- fold, while the L-ribonucleotide-cleaving DNA enzyme exhibited an enantioselectivity of 50-fold. These molecules demonstrate how in vitro evolution can be used to obtain regio- and enantioselective catalysts that exhibit specificities for nonnatural analogues of biological compounds.

  16. Macromolecules in Undergraduate Physical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattice, Wayne L.

    1981-01-01

    Suggests the topic of macromolecules and synthetic polymers be included in undergraduate courses. Two macromolecular systems (polyethylene in a state unperturbated by long-range interactions and a polypeptide undergoing a helix-coil transition) are described which are suitable for inclusion in the statistical mechanics section of physical

  17. Macromolecules in Undergraduate Physical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattice, Wayne L.

    1981-01-01

    Suggests the topic of macromolecules and synthetic polymers be included in undergraduate courses. Two macromolecular systems (polyethylene in a state unperturbated by long-range interactions and a polypeptide undergoing a helix-coil transition) are described which are suitable for inclusion in the statistical mechanics section of physical…

  18. Ion binding to biological macromolecules

    PubMed Central

    Petukh, Marharyta; Alexov, Emil

    2015-01-01

    Biological macromolecules carry out their functions in water and in the presence of ions. The ions can bind to the macromolecules either specifically or non-specifically, or can simply to be a part of the water phase providing physiological gradient across various membranes. This review outlines the differences between specific and non-specific ion binding in terms of the function and stability of the corresponding macromolecules. Furthermore, the experimental techniques to identify ion positions and computational methods to predict ion binding are reviewed and their advantages compared. It is indicated that specifically bound ions are relatively easier to be revealed while non-specifically associated ions are difficult to predict. In addition, the binding and the residential time of non-specifically bound ions are very much sensitive to the environmental factors in the cells, specifically to the local pH and ion concentration. Since these characteristics differ among the cellular compartments, the non-specific ion binding must be investigated with respect to the sub-cellular localization of the corresponding macromolecule. PMID:25774076

  19. The cutting edges in DNA repair, licensing, and fidelity: DNA and RNA repair nucleases sculpt DNA to measure twice, cut once

    PubMed Central

    Lafrance-Vanasse, Julien

    2014-01-01

    To avoid genome instability, DNA repair nucleases must precisely target the correct damaged substrate before they are licensed to incise. Damage identification is a challenge for all DNA damage response proteins, but especially for nucleases that cut the DNA and necessarily create a cleaved DNA repair intermediate, likely more toxic than the initial damage. How do these enzymes achieve exquisite specificity without specific sequence recognition or, in some cases, without a non-canonical DNA nucleotide? Combined structural, biochemical, and biological analyses of repair nucleases are revealing their molecular tools for damage verification and safeguarding against inadvertent incision. Surprisingly, these enzymes also often act on RNA, which deserves more attention. Here, we review protein-DNA structures for nucleases involved in replication, base excision repair, mismatch repair, double strand break repair (DSBR), and telomere maintenance: apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1), Endonuclease IV (Nfo), tyrosyl DNA phosphodiesterase (TDP2), UV Damage endonuclease (UVDE), very short patch repair endonuclease (Vsr), Endonuclease V (Nfi), Flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1), exonuclease 1 (Exo1), RNase T and Meiotic recombination 11 (Mre11). DNA and RNA structure-sensing nucleases are essential to life with roles in DNA replication, repair, and transcription. Increasingly these enzymes are employed as advanced tools for synthetic biology and as targets for cancer prognosis and interventions. Currently their structural biology is most fully illuminated for DNA repair, which is also essential to life. How DNA repair enzymes maintain genome fidelity is one of the DNA double helix secrets missed by Watson-Crick, that is only now being illuminated though structural biology and mutational analyses. Structures reveal motifs for repair nucleases and mechanisms whereby these enzymes follow the old carpenter adage: measure twice, cut once. Furthermore, to measure twice these nucleases act as molecular level transformers that typically reshape the DNA and sometimes themselves to achieve extraordinary specificity and efficiency. PMID:24754999

  20. The cutting edges in DNA repair, licensing, and fidelity: DNA and RNA repair nucleases sculpt DNA to measure twice, cut once.

    PubMed

    Tsutakawa, Susan E; Lafrance-Vanasse, Julien; Tainer, John A

    2014-07-01

    To avoid genome instability, DNA repair nucleases must precisely target the correct damaged substrate before they are licensed to incise. Damage identification is a challenge for all DNA damage response proteins, but especially for nucleases that cut the DNA and necessarily create a cleaved DNA repair intermediate, likely more toxic than the initial damage. How do these enzymes achieve exquisite specificity without specific sequence recognition or, in some cases, without a non-canonical DNA nucleotide? Combined structural, biochemical, and biological analyses of repair nucleases are revealing their molecular tools for damage verification and safeguarding against inadvertent incision. Surprisingly, these enzymes also often act on RNA, which deserves more attention. Here, we review protein-DNA structures for nucleases involved in replication, base excision repair, mismatch repair, double strand break repair (DSBR), and telomere maintenance: apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1), Endonuclease IV (Nfo), tyrosyl DNA phosphodiesterase (TDP2), UV Damage endonuclease (UVDE), very short patch repair endonuclease (Vsr), Endonuclease V (Nfi), Flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1), exonuclease 1 (Exo1), RNase T and Meiotic recombination 11 (Mre11). DNA and RNA structure-sensing nucleases are essential to life with roles in DNA replication, repair, and transcription. Increasingly these enzymes are employed as advanced tools for synthetic biology and as targets for cancer prognosis and interventions. Currently their structural biology is most fully illuminated for DNA repair, which is also essential to life. How DNA repair enzymes maintain genome fidelity is one of the DNA double helix secrets missed by James Watson and Francis Crick, that is only now being illuminated though structural biology and mutational analyses. Structures reveal motifs for repair nucleases and mechanisms whereby these enzymes follow the old carpenter adage: measure twice, cut once. Furthermore, to measure twice these nucleases act as molecular level transformers that typically reshape the DNA and sometimes themselves to achieve extraordinary specificity and efficiency. PMID:24754999

  1. The distinctive cellular responses to DNA strand breaks caused by a DNA topoisomerase I poison in conjunction with DNA replication and RNA transcription.

    PubMed

    Sakasai, Ryo; Iwabuchi, Kuniyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Camptothecin (CPT) inhibits DNA topoisomerase I (Top1) through a non-catalytic mechanism that stabilizes the Top1-DNA cleavage complex (Top1cc) and blocks the DNA re-ligation step, resulting in the accumulation in the genome of DNA single-strand breaks (SSBs), which are converted to secondary strand breaks when they collide with the DNA replication and RNA transcription machinery. DNA strand breaks mediated by replication, which have one DNA end, are distinct in repair from the DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) that have two ends and are caused by ionizing radiation and other agents. In contrast to two-ended DSBs, such one-ended DSBs are preferentially repaired through the homologous recombination pathway. Conversely, the repair of one-ended DSBs by the non-homologous end-joining pathway is harmful for cells and leads to cell death. The choice of repair pathway has a crucial impact on cell fate and influences the efficacy of anticancer drugs such as CPT derivatives. In addition to replication-mediated one-ended DSBs, transcription also generates DNA strand breaks upon collision with the Top1cc. Some reports suggest that transcription-mediated DNA strand breaks correlate with neurodegenerative diseases. However, the details of the repair mechanisms of, and cellular responses to, transcription-mediated DNA strand breaks still remain unclear. In this review, combining our recent results and those of previous reports, we introduce and discuss the responses to CPT-induced DNA damage mediated by DNA replication and RNA transcription. PMID:26616758

  2. Optimization of enzymatic reaction conditions for generating representative pools of cDNA from small RNA

    PubMed Central

    Munafó, Daniela B.; Robb, G. Brett

    2010-01-01

    Small regulatory RNA repertoires in biological samples are heterogeneous mixtures that may include species arising from varied biosynthetic pathways and modification events. Small RNA profiling and discovery approaches ought to capture molecules in a way that is representative of expression level. It follows that the effects of RNA modifications on representation should be minimized. The collection of high-quality, representative data, therefore, will be highly dependent on bias-free sample manipulation in advance of quantification. We examined the impact of 2′-O-methylation of the 3′-terminal nucleotide of small RNA on key enzymatic reactions of standard front-end manipulation schemes. Here we report that this common modification negatively influences the representation of these small RNA species. Deficits occurred at multiple steps as determined by gel analysis of synthetic input RNA and by quantification and sequencing of derived cDNA pools. We describe methods to minimize the effects of 2′-O-methyl modification of small RNA 3′-termini using T4 RNA ligase 2 truncated, and other optimized reaction conditions, demonstrating their use by quantifying representation of miRNAs and piRNAs in cDNA pools prepared from biological samples. PMID:20921270

  3. High-quality RNA preparation from Rhodosporidium toruloides and cDNA library construction therewith.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Tan, Haidong; Zhou, Yongjin; Lin, Xinping; Zhang, Sufang

    2011-02-01

    Oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides is an excellent microbial lipid producer. Therefore, it is important to develop molecular biology tools to understand the basic mechanism for lipid accumulation and further manipulate the microorganism. High-quality RNA extraction from R. toruloides is particularly challenging due to high level of polysaccharides, lipids, and other secondary metabolites. To obtain an optimal protocol for RNA extraction from R. toruloides, four methods were evaluated. Large difference in RNA yield and quality among these protocols was found. The optimum method was modified RNAiso procedure, where RNA was isolated using liquid nitrogen-RNAiso method with salt precipitation and the addition of ?-mercaptoethanol. This method consistently recovered RNA in good quality with high yield. Around 297 ?g total RNA per gram of cells was obtained with an average purity measured as A???/A??? of 2.09. A titer of 10? cfu/ml could be harvested to construct a full-length cDNA library with the RNA sample in this quality. Electrophoresis gel analysis indicated the fragments ranged from 200 bp to 4.0 kb, with the average size of 1000 bp. Randomly picked clones showed the recombination efficiency at 80%. These results showed that RNA of R. toruloides was successfully extracted for the first time using the modified RNAiso method, and the cDNA library was appropriate for screening the genes related to lipid accumulation. PMID:20721646

  4. Not just "a clever way to detect whether DNA really made RNA": Theinvention of DNA-RNA hybridization and its outcome.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Susie

    2015-10-01

    The invention of DNA-RNA hybridization in 1960 by Ben Hall and Sol Spiegelman had a powerful impact on the theory and discourse of molecular biology. Yet, despite its importance, the story of this invention has barely been told. Hybridization allowed biologists to bridge the theoretical realm and the material world of organisms, to correlate a hypothetical concept of biological information transfer with a mechanism capable of making an RNA copy of DNA. During the early 1960s, Spiegelman and coworkers employed hybridization to investigate the origin of RNAs found in cells. They operationally defined messenger RNA and elucidated several aspects of genome organization. For Spiegelman, this was the culmination of his longstanding interest in the mechanism of enzyme/protein synthesis; for Hall, it was the beginning of a successful career in genetics. Other scientists immediately recognized the power of the technique and introduced improvements. In 1965, Gillespie and Spiegelman combined several modifications and described a procedure for hybridization that became standard. Since the 1970s, it has become an essential tool in biology and in biotechnology, and a core component in molecular techniques such as DNA microarrays. Notwithstanding its current success, the inventors' names have disappeared from the literature. This curiosity is discussed. PMID:26209888

  5. Rolling circle amplification detection of RNA and DNA

    DOEpatents

    Christian, Allen T.; Pattee, Melissa S.; Attix, Cristina M.; Tucker, James D.

    2004-08-31

    Rolling circle amplification (RCA) has been useful for detecting point mutations in isolated nucleic acids, but its application in cytological preparations has been problematic. By pretreating cells with a combination of restriction enzymes and exonucleases, we demonstrate RCA in solution and in situ to detect gene copy number and single base mutations. It can also detect and quantify transcribed RNA in individual cells, making it a versatile tool for cell-based assays.

  6. Profiles of piRNA abundances at emerging or established piRNA loci are determined by local DNA sequences

    PubMed Central

    de Vanssay, Augustin; Bougé, Anne-Laure; Boivin, Antoine; Hermant, Catherine; Teysset, Laure; Delmarre, Valérie; Ronsseray, Stéphane; Antoniewski, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) ensure transposable element silencing in Drosophila, thereby preserving genome integrity across generations. Primary piRNAs arise from the processing of long RNA transcripts produced in the germ line by a limited number of telomeric and pericentromeric loci. Primary piRNAs bound to the Argonaute protein Aubergine then drive the production of secondary piRNAs through the “ping-pong” amplification mechanism that involves an interplay with piRNAs bound to the Argonaute protein Argonaute-3. We recently discovered that clusters of P-element-derived transgenes produce piRNAs and mediate silencing of homologous target transgenes in the female germ line. We also demonstrated that some clusters are able to convert other homologous inactive transgene clusters into piRNA-producing loci, which then transmit their acquired silencing capacity over generations. This paramutation phenomenon is mediated by maternal inheritance of piRNAs homologous to the transgenes. Here we further mined our piRNA sequencing data sets generated from various strains carrying transgenes with partial sequence homology at distinct genomic sites. This analysis revealed that same sequences in different genomic contexts generate highly similar profiles of piRNA abundances. The strong tendency of piRNAs for bearing a U at their 5′ end has long been recognized. Our observations support the notion that, in addition, the relative frequencies of Drosophila piRNAs are locally determined by the DNA sequence of piRNA loci. PMID:23880829

  7. Profiles of piRNA abundances at emerging or established piRNA loci are determined by local DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    de Vanssay, Augustin; Boug, Anne-Laure; Boivin, Antoine; Hermant, Catherine; Teysset, Laure; Delmarre, Valrie; Ronsseray, Stphane; Antoniewski, Christophe

    2013-08-01

    Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) ensure transposable element silencing in Drosophila, thereby preserving genome integrity across generations. Primary piRNAs arise from the processing of long RNA transcripts produced in the germ line by a limited number of telomeric and pericentromeric loci. Primary piRNAs bound to the Argonaute protein Aubergine then drive the production of secondary piRNAs through the "ping-pong" amplification mechanism that involves an interplay with piRNAs bound to the Argonaute protein Argonaute-3. We recently discovered that clusters of P-element-derived transgenes produce piRNAs and mediate silencing of homologous target transgenes in the female germ line. We also demonstrated that some clusters are able to convert other homologous inactive transgene clusters into piRNA-producing loci, which then transmit their acquired silencing capacity over generations. This paramutation phenomenon is mediated by maternal inheritance of piRNAs homologous to the transgenes. Here we further mined our piRNA sequencing data sets generated from various strains carrying transgenes with partial sequence homology at distinct genomic sites. This analysis revealed that same sequences in different genomic contexts generate highly similar profiles of piRNA abundances. The strong tendency of piRNAs for bearing a U at their 5' end has long been recognized. Our observations support the notion that, in addition, the relative frequencies of Drosophila piRNAs are locally determined by the DNA sequence of piRNA loci. PMID:23880829

  8. Effects of long DNA folding and small RNA stemloop in thermophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Yusuke T.; Tlusty, Tsvi; Libchaber, Albert

    2012-01-01

    In thermophoresis, with the fluid at rest, suspensions move along a gradient of temperature. In an aqueous solution, a PEG polymer suspension is depleted from the hot region and builds a concentration gradient. In this gradient, DNA polymers of different sizes can be separated. In this work the effect of the polymer structure for genomic DNA and small RNA is studied. For genome-size DNA, individual single T4 DNA is visualized and tracked in a PEG solution under a temperature gradient built by infrared laser focusing. We find that T4 DNA follows steps of depletion, ring-like localization, and accumulation patterns as the PEG volume fraction is increased. Furthermore, a coilglobule transition for DNA is observed for a large enough PEG volume fraction. This drastically affects the localization position of T4 DNA. In a similar experiment, with small RNA such as ribozymes we find that the stemloop folding of such polymers has important consequences. The RNA polymers having a long and rigid stem accumulate, whereas a polymer with stem length less than 4 base pairs shows depletion. Such measurements emphasize the crucial contribution of the double-stranded parts of RNA for thermal separation and selection under a temperature gradient. Because huge temperature gradients are present around hydrothermal vents in the deep ocean seafloor, this process might be relevant, at the origin of life, in an RNA world hypothesis. Ribozymes could be selected from a pool of random sequences depending on the length of their stems. PMID:23071341

  9. Experimental approaches for measuring pKa's in RNA and DNA.

    PubMed

    Thaplyal, Pallavi; Bevilacqua, Philip C

    2014-01-01

    RNA and DNA carry out diverse functions in biology including catalysis, splicing, gene regulation, and storage of genetic information. Interest has grown in understanding how nucleic acids perform such sophisticated functions given their limited molecular repertoire. RNA can fold into diverse shapes that often perturb pKa values and allow it to ionize appreciably under biological conditions, thereby extending its molecular diversity. The goal of this chapter is to enable experimental measurement of pKa's in RNA and DNA. A number of experimental methods for measuring pKa values in RNA and DNA have been developed over the last 10 years, including RNA cleavage kinetics; UV-, fluorescence-, and NMR-detected pH titrations; and Raman crystallography. We begin with general considerations for choosing a pKa assay and then describe experimental conditions, advantages, and disadvantages for these assays. Potential pitfalls in measuring a pKa are provided including the presence of apparent pKa's due to a kinetic pKa or coupled acid- and alkali-promoted RNA unfolding, as well as degradation of RNA, precipitation of metal hydroxides and poor baselines. Use of multiple data fitting procedures and the study of appropriate mutants are described as ways to avoid some of these pitfalls. Application of these experimental methods to RNA and DNA will increase the number of available nucleic acid pKa values in the literature, which should deepen insight into biology and provide benchmarks for pKa calculations. Future directions for measuring pKa's in nucleic acids are discussed. PMID:25432750

  10. Genome-wide evolutionary analysis of the noncoding RNA genes and noncoding DNA of Paramecium tetraurelia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chun-Long; Zhou, Hui; Liao, Jian-You; Qu, Liang-Hu; Amar, Laurence

    2009-01-01

    The compact genome of the unicellular eukaryote Paramecium tetraurelia contains noncoding DNA (ncDNA) distributed into >39,000 intergenic sequences and >90,000 introns of 390 base pairs (bp) and 25 bp on average, respectively. Here we analyzed the molecular features of the ncRNA genes, introns, and intergenic sequences of this genome. We mainly used computational programs and comparative genomics possible because the P. tetraurelia genome had formed throughout whole-genome duplications (WGDs). We characterized 417 5S rRNA, snRNA, snoRNA, SRP RNA, and tRNA putative genes, 415 of which map within intergenic sequences, and two, within introns. The evolution of these ncRNA genes appears to have mainly involved purifying selection and gene deletion. We then compared the introns that interrupt the protein-coding gene duplicates arisen from the recent WGD and identified a population of a few thousands of introns having evolved under most stringent constraints (>95% of identity). We also showed that low nucleotide substitution levels characterize the 50 and 80115 base pairs flanking, respectively, the stop and start codons of the protein-coding genes. Lower substitution levels mark the base pairs flanking the highly transcribed genes, or the start codons of the genes of the sets with a high number of WGD-related sequences. Finally, adjacent to protein-coding genes, we characterized 32 DNA motifs able to encode stable and evolutionary conserved RNA secondary structures and defining putative expression controlling elements. Fourteen DNA motifs with similar properties map distant from protein-coding genes and may encode regulatory ncRNAs. PMID:19218550

  11. Early Growth of Wheat Embryonic Axes and the Synthesis of RNA and DNA 1

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Ketaki; Marsh, Loren; Marcus, Abraham

    1983-01-01

    The requirement for the synthesis of RNA and DNA in early germination of wheat (Triticum aestivum var Newana) embryonic axes has been studied by incubating embryos in the presence of appropriate inhibitors and monitoring both embryo growth and the rates of specific metabolic processes. Experiments with 5-fluorouridine showed that both rRNA and DNA synthesis could be curtailed by 60 to 70% without affecting embryo growth to 24 hours. Similarly, the presence of mitomycin C and methotrexate inhibited DNA synthesis 70%, with only a small effect on growth. Experiments with a range of concentrations of cordycepin and α-amanitin indicated that mRNA synthesis could be curtailed by 30 to 40% within the first 8 hours of germination with only a small effect on embryo growth. Thus, at least the initial phases of seed embryo germination are not closely linked to the synthesis of mRNA, rRNA, or DNA. Maximal sensitivity of embryo growth was obtained with cycloheximide and 2-(4-methyl-2,6-dinitroanilino)-N-methyl propionamide, supporting the idea that protein synthesis is the macromolecular process most closely linked to early germination. PMID:16663013

  12. Fluorescent Labeling of Plasmid DNA and mRNA: Gains and Losses of Current Labeling Strategies.

    PubMed

    Rombouts, K; Braeckmans, K; Remaut, K

    2016-02-17

    Live-cell imaging has provided the life sciences with insights into the cell biology and dynamics. Fluorescent labeling of target molecules proves to be indispensable in this regard. In this Review, we focus on the current fluorescent labeling strategies for nucleic acids, and in particular mRNA (mRNA) and plasmid DNA (pDNA), which are of interest to a broad range of scientific fields. By giving a background of the available techniques and an evaluation of the pros and cons, we try to supply scientists with all the information needed to come to an informed choice of nucleic acid labeling strategy aimed at their particular needs. PMID:26670733

  13. The Cold Shock Domain of YB-1 Segregates RNA from DNA by Non-Bonded Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Kljashtorny, Vladislav; Nikonov, Stanislav; Ovchinnikov, Lev; Lyabin, Dmitry; Vodovar, Nicolas; Curmi, Patrick; Manivet, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    The human YB-1 protein plays multiple cellular roles, of which many are dictated by its binding to RNA and DNA through its Cold Shock Domain (CSD). Using molecular dynamics simulation approaches validated by experimental assays, the YB1 CSD was found to interact with nucleic acids in a sequence-dependent manner and with a higher affinity for RNA than DNA. The binding properties of the YB1 CSD were close to those observed for the related bacterial Cold Shock Proteins (CSP), albeit some differences in sequence specificity. The results provide insights in the molecular mechanisms whereby YB-1 interacts with nucleic acids. PMID:26147853

  14. Using Amino-Labeled Nucleotide Probes for Simultaneous Single Molecule RNA-DNA FISH

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jun; Shao, Fangwei; Zhang, Li-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Using amino-labeled oligonucleotide probes, we established a simple, robust and low-noise method for simultaneous detection of RNA and DNA by fluorescence in situ hybridization, a highly useful tool to study the large pool of long non-coding RNAs being identified in the current research. With probes either chemically or biologically synthesized, we demonstrate that the method can be applied to study a wide range of RNA and DNA targets at the single-cell and single-molecule level in cellular contexts. PMID:25226542

  15. Crystal Structure of Cas9 in Complex with Guide RNA and Target DNA

    PubMed Central

    Nishimasu, Hiroshi; Ran, F. Ann; Hsu, Patrick D.; Konermann, Silvana; Shehata, Soraya; Dohmae, Naoshi; Ishitani, Ryuichiro; Zhang, Feng; Nureki, Osamu

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The CRISPR-associated endonuclease Cas9 can be targeted to specific genomic loci by single guide RNAs (sgRNAs). Here, we report the crystal structure of Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 in complex with sgRNA and its target DNA, at 2.5 resolution. The structure revealed a bilobed architecture composed of target recognition and nuclease lobes, accommodating the sgRNA:DNA heteroduplex in a positively-charged groove at their interface. Whereas the recognition lobe is essential for binding sgRNA and DNA, the nuclease lobe contains the HNH and RuvC nuclease domains, which are properly positioned for cleavage of the complementary and non-complementary strands of the target DNA, respectively. The nuclease lobe also contains a carboxyl-terminal domain responsible for the interaction with the protospacer adjacent motif (PAM). This high-resolution structure and accompanying functional analyses have revealed the molecular mechanism of RNA-guided DNA targeting by Cas9, thus paving the way for the rational design of new, versatile genome-editing technologies. PMID:24529477

  16. Characterization of Natronobacterium magadii phage phi Ch1, a unique archaeal phage containing DNA and RNA.

    PubMed

    Witte, A; Baranyi, U; Klein, R; Sulzner, M; Luo, C; Wanner, G; Krger, D H; Lubitz, W

    1997-02-01

    A novel archaeal bacteriophage, phi Ch1, was isolated from a haloalkalophilic archaeon Natronobacterium magadii upon spontaneous lysis. The phage-cured strain N. magadii(L13) was used to demonstrate infectivity of phage phi Ch1. The turbid-plaque morphology and the fact that N. magadii cells isolated from plaques were able to produce phage indicated that phi Ch1 is a temperate phage. The phage morphology resembles other members of Myoviridae-infecting Halobacterium species. In solution below 2M NaCl, the phage lost its morphological stability and infectivity. One- and two-dimensional SDS-PAGE of phage particles revealed at least four major and five minor proteins with molecular masses ranging from 15 to 80 kDa and acidic isoelectric points. Southern blot analysis of chromosomal DNA of a lysogenic N. magadii strain showed that phi Ch1 exists as a chromosomally integrated prophage. The phage particles contain both double-stranded, linear DNA (approx. 55 kbp) as well as several RNA species (80-700 nucleotides). Hybridization of labelled RNA fragments to total DNA from N. magadii and phi Ch1 showed that the virion-associated RNA is host encoded. Part of the phage DNA population is modified and restriction analysis revealed evidence for adenine methylation. Phage phi Ch1 is the first virus described for the genus natronobacterium, and the first phage containing DNA and RNA in mature phage particles. PMID:9044293

  17. INFLUENCE OF MACROMOLECULES ON CHEMICAL TRANSPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Macromolecules in the pore fluid influence the mobility of hydrophobic compounds through soils. his study evaluated the significance of macromolecules in facilitating chemical transport under laboratory conditions. Partition coefficients between 14C-labeled hexachlorobenzene and ...

  18. Regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell autophagy by DNA nanotube-conjugated mTOR siRNA.

    PubMed

    You, Zaichun; Qian, Hang; Wang, Changzheng; He, Binfeng; Yan, Jiawei; Mao, Chengde; Wang, Guansong

    2015-10-01

    The efficient delivery of short interfering RNA (siRNA) is an enormous challenge in the field of gene therapy. Herein, we report a delivery nanosystem based on programmed DNA self-assembly mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) siRNA-loaded DNA nanotubes (DNA-NTs). We demonstrate that these siRNA-DNA-NTs can be effectively transfected into pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) via endocytosis; and that the loaded mTOR siRNA can induce obvious autophagy and inhibit cell growth under both normal and hypoxic conditions. Moreover, we found that mTOR siRNA can control the autophagy and proliferation of PASMCs under hypoxic condition, suggesting a potential therapeutic application for mTOR siRNA in diseases involving abnormal autophagy in PASMCs. PMID:26210180

  19. INVOLVED IN DE NOVO 2-containing complex involved in RNA-directed DNA methylation in Arabidopsis

    SciTech Connect

    Ausin, Israel; Greenberg, Maxim V.C.; Simanshu, Dhirendra K.; Hale, Christopher J.; Vashisht, Ajay A.; Simon, Stacey A.; Lee, Tzuu-fen; Feng, Suhua; Espaola, Sophia D.; Meyers, Blake C.; Wohlschlegel, James A.; Patel, Dinshaw J.; Jacobsen, Steven E.

    2012-10-23

    At least three pathways control maintenance of DNA cytosine methylation in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, the RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) pathway is solely responsible for establishment of this silencing mark. We previously described INVOLVED IN DE NOVO 2 (IDN2) as being an RNA-binding RdDM component that is required for DNA methylation establishment. In this study, we describe the discovery of two partially redundant proteins that are paralogous to IDN2 and that form a stable complex with IDN2 in vivo. Null mutations in both genes, termed IDN2-LIKE 1 and IDN2-LIKE 2 (IDNL1 and IDNL2), result in a phenotype that mirrors, but does not further enhance, the idn2 mutant phenotype. Genetic analysis suggests that this complex acts in a step in the downstream portion of the RdDM pathway. We also have performed structural analysis showing that the IDN2 XS domain adopts an RNA recognition motif (RRM) fold. Finally, genome-wide DNA methylation and expression analysis confirms the placement of the IDN proteins in an RdDM pathway that affects DNA methylation and transcriptional control at many sites in the genome. Results from this study identify and describe two unique components of the RdDM machinery, adding to our understanding of DNA methylation control in the Arabidopsis genome.

  20. Comparison of DNA and RNA quantification methods suitable for parameter estimation in metabolic modeling of microorganisms.

    PubMed

    De Mey, Marjan; Lequeux, Gaspard; Maertens, Jo; De Maeseneire, Sofie; Soetaert, Wim; Vandamme, Erick

    2006-06-15

    Recent developments in cellular and molecular biology require the accurate quantification of DNA and RNA in large numbers of samples at a sensitivity that enables determination on small quantities. In this study, five current methods for nucleic acid quantification were compared: (i) UV absorbance spectroscopy at 260 nm, (ii) colorimetric reaction with orcinol reagent, (iii) colorimetric reaction based on diphenylamine, (iv) fluorescence detection with Hoechst 33258 reagent, and (v) fluorescence detection with thiazole orange reagent. Genomic DNA of three different microbial species (with widely different G+C content) was used, as were two different types of yeast RNA and a mixture of equal quantities of DNA and RNA. We can conclude that for nucleic acid quantification, a standard curve with DNA of the microbial strain under study is the best reference. Fluorescence detection with Hoechst 33258 reagent is a sensitive and precise method for DNA quantification if the G+C content is less than 50%. In addition, this method allows quantification of very low levels of DNA (nanogram scale). Moreover, the samples can be crude cell extracts. Also, UV absorbance at 260 nm and fluorescence detection with thiazole orange reagent are sensitive methods for nucleic acid detection, but only if purified nucleic acids need to be measured. PMID:16545766

  1. Barcoded cDNA library preparation for small RNA profiling by next-generation sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Hafner, Markus; Renwick, Neil; Farazi, Thalia A.; Mihailovi, Aleksandra; Pena, John T.G.; Tuschl, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The characterization of post-transcriptional gene regulation by small regulatory (2030 nt) RNAs, particularly miRNAs and piRNAs, has become a major focus of research in recent years. A prerequisite for characterizing small RNAs is their identification and quantification across different developmental stages, and in normal and disease tissues, as well as model cell lines. Here we present a step-by-step protocol for generating barcoded small RNA cDNA libraries compatible with Illumina HiSeq sequencing, thereby facilitating miRNA and other small RNA profiling of large sample collections. PMID:22885844

  2. mRNA and DNA selection via protein multimerization: YB-1 as a case study

    PubMed Central

    Kretov, Dmitry A.; Curmi, Patrick A.; Hamon, Loic; Abrakhi, Sanae; Desforges, Bénédicte; Ovchinnikov, Lev P.; Pastré, David

    2015-01-01

    Translation is tightly regulated in cells for keeping adequate protein levels, this task being notably accomplished by dedicated mRNA-binding proteins recognizing a specific set of mRNAs to repress or facilitate their translation. To select specific mRNAs, mRNA-binding proteins can strongly bind to specific mRNA sequences/structures. However, many mRNA-binding proteins rather display a weak specificity to short and redundant sequences. Here we examined an alternative mechanism by which mRNA-binding proteins could inhibit the translation of specific mRNAs, using YB-1, a major translation regulator, as a case study. Based on a cooperative binding, YB-1 forms stable homo-multimers on some mRNAs while avoiding other mRNAs. Via such inhomogeneous distribution, YB-1 can selectively inhibit translation of mRNAs on which it has formed stable multimers. This novel mechanistic view on mRNA selection may be shared by other proteins considering the elevated occurrence of multimerization among mRNA-binding proteins. Interestingly, we also demonstrate how, by using the same mechanism, YB-1 can form multimers on specific DNA structures, which could provide novel insights into YB-1 nuclear functions in DNA repair and multi-drug resistance. PMID:26271991

  3. Labile Catalytic Packaging of DNA/siRNA: Control of Gold Nanoparticles “out” of DNA/siRNA Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Alex M.; Taratula, Oleh; Wei, Dongguang; Yen, Hsin-I; Thomas, Thresia; Thomas, T. J.; Minko, Tamara; He, Huixin

    2010-01-01

    A novel approach was developed to efficiently package and deliver nucleic acids with low generation polypropylenimine (PPI) dendrimers by using Au nanoparticles as a “labile catalytic” packaging agent. The Au nanoparticles (Au NPs) helped low generation dendrimers to package nucleic acids into discrete nanoparticles but are not included in the final DNA/siRNA complexes. Therefore it becomes possible to eliminate the potential toxic problems associated with Au NPs by selectively removing the Au NPs from the resulting nucleic acid complexes before their delivery to targeted cells. This is a new concept in using inorganic engineered nanoparticles in nucleic acid packaging and delivery applications. Furthermore, compared to the siRNA nanostructures (mainly randomly aggregated nanofibers) fabricated by low generation dendrimer alone (Generation 3), the siRNA nanoparticles packaged using this novel approach (by Au NPs modified with G3 PPI) can be internalized by cancer cells and the delivered siRNAs can efficiently silence their target mRNA. The efficiency of mRNA silencing by this novel approach is even superior to higher generation dendrimers (Generation 5). PMID:20521827

  4. Translational Complementarity of RNA Transcripts of Native and Denatured B. subtilis DNA*

    PubMed Central

    Cassuto, Era; Chargaff, Erwin

    1970-01-01

    Previous evidence has suggested that the L and H fractions into which denatured DNA of B. subtilis can be separated by chromatography are complementary to each other with regard to base compositon, nucleotide sequence, and template properties, and that they may be regarded as families of fragments of the respective DNA strands. The present study tests the proposition that these fractions should also exhibit features of translational complementarity with respect to the DNA-dependent or the RNA-dependent incorporation of amino acids into ribosomes. This has been shown to be the case with the use of two pairs of amino acids: (1) lysine and phenylalanine; (2) proline and glycine. PMID:4987628

  5. Charity begins at home: non-coding RNA contributes to DNA repair

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Dipanjan; Choi, Young Eun; Brault, Marie Eve

    2014-01-01

    During the past decade, evolutionarily conserved non-coding (nc) RNAs, specifically microRNAs (miRNA), have been characterized as regulators of almost every cellular process and signalling pathway. There is now emerging evidence that this new class of regulators also impinges on the DNA damage response (DDR). Both miRNAs and other small ncRNAs are induced at DNA breaks and mediate the repair process. These intriguing observations raise the possibility that crosstalk between ncRNAs and the DDR might provide a means of efficient and accurate DNA repair and facilitate the maintenance of genomic stability. PMID:23385724

  6. Microfluidic Mixing: A General Method for Encapsulating Macromolecules in Lipid Nanoparticle Systems.

    PubMed

    Leung, Alex K K; Tam, Yuen Yi C; Chen, Sam; Hafez, Ismail M; Cullis, Pieter R

    2015-07-16

    Previous work has shown that lipid nanoparticles (LNP) composed of an ionizable cationic lipid, a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) lipid, distearoylphosphatidylcholine (DSPC), cholesterol, and small interfering RNA (siRNA) can be efficiently manufactured employing microfluidic mixing techniques. Cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and molecular simulation studies indicate that these LNP systems exhibit a nanostructured core with periodic aqueous compartments containing siRNA. Here we examine first how the lipid composition influences the structural properties of LNP-siRNA systems produced by microfluidic mixing and, second, whether the microfluidic mixing technique can be extended to macromolecules larger than siRNA. It is shown that LNP-siRNA systems can exhibit progressively more bilayer structure as the proportion of bilayer DSPC lipid is increased, suggesting that the core of LNP-siRNA systems can exhibit a continuum of nanostructures depending on the proportions and structural preferences of component lipids. Second, it is shown that the microfluidic mixing technique can also be extended to encapsulation of much larger negatively charged polymers such mRNA (1.7 kb) or plasmid DNA (6 kb). Finally, as a demonstration of the generality of the microfluidic mixing encapsulation process, it is also demonstrated that negatively charged gold nanoparticles (5 nm diameter) can also be efficiently encapsulated in LNP containing cationic lipids. Interestingly, the nanostructure of these gold-containing LNP reveals a "currant bun" morphology as visualized by cryo-TEM. This structure is fully consistent with LNP-siRNA structure predicted by molecular modeling. PMID:26087393

  7. Molecular approaches for forensic cell type identification: On mRNA, miRNA, DNA methylation and microbial markers.

    PubMed

    Sijen, Titia

    2015-09-01

    Human biological traces have the potential to present strong evidence for placing a suspect at a crime scene. In cases, the activity that led to deposition of an individual's cellular material is increasingly disputed, for which the identification of cell types could be crucial. This review aims to give an overview of the possibilities of the employment of mRNA, miRNA, DNA methylation and microbial markers for tissue identification in a forensic context. The biological background that renders these markers tissue-specificity is considered, as this can affect data interpretation. Furthermore, the forensic relevance of inferring certain cell types is discussed, as are the various methodologies that can be applied. Forensic stains can carry minute amounts of cell material that may be degraded or polluted and most likely cell material of multiple sources will be present. The interpretational challenges that are imposed by this compromised state will be discussed as well. PMID:25488609

  8. Downstream DNA Tension Regulates the Stability of the T7 RNA Polymerase Initiation Complex

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, Gary M.; Kalafut, Bennett S.; Visscher, Koen

    2011-01-01

    Gene transcription by the enzyme RNA polymerase is tightly regulated. In many cases, such as in the lac operon in Escherichia coli, this regulation is achieved through the action of protein factors on DNA. Because DNA is an elastic polymer, its response to enzymatic processing can lead to mechanical perturbations (e.g., linear stretching and supercoiling) that can affect the operation of other DNA processing complexes acting elsewhere on the same substrate molecule. Using an optical-tweezers assay, we measured the binding kinetics between single molecules of bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase and DNA, as a function of tension. We found that increasing DNA tension under conditions that favor formation of the open complex results in destabilization of the preinitiation complex. Furthermore, with zero ribonucleotides present, when the closed complex is favored, we find reduced tension sensitivity, implying that it is predominantly the open complex that is sensitive. This result strongly supports the scrunching model for T7 transcription initiation, as the applied tension acts against the movement of the DNA into the scrunched state, and introduces linear DNA tension as a potential regulatory quantity for transcription initiation. PMID:21320448

  9. Non-Coding RNA: Sequence-Specific Guide for Chromatin Modification and DNA Damage Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Francia, Sofia

    2015-01-01

    Chromatin conformation shapes the environment in which our genome is transcribed into RNA. Transcription is a source of DNA damage, thus it often occurs concomitantly to DNA damage signaling. Growing amounts of evidence suggest that different types of RNAs can, independently from their protein-coding properties, directly affect chromatin conformation, transcription and splicing, as well as promote the activation of the DNA damage response (DDR) and DNA repair. Therefore, transcription paradoxically functions to both threaten and safeguard genome integrity. On the other hand, DNA damage signaling is known to modulate chromatin to suppress transcription of the surrounding genetic unit. It is thus intriguing to understand how transcription can modulate DDR signaling while, in turn, DDR signaling represses transcription of chromatin around the DNA lesion. An unexpected player in this field is the RNA interference (RNAi) machinery, which play roles in transcription, splicing and chromatin modulation in several organisms. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) and several protein factors involved in the RNAi pathway are well known master regulators of chromatin while only recent reports show their involvement in DDR. Here, we discuss the experimental evidence supporting the idea that ncRNAs act at the genomic loci from which they are transcribed to modulate chromatin, DDR signaling and DNA repair. PMID:26617633

  10. DNA-dependent protein kinase specifically represses promoter-directed transcription initiation by RNA polymerase I.

    PubMed Central

    Labhart, P

    1995-01-01

    DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) is a nuclear enzyme that phosphorylates several transcription factors, but its cellular function has not been elucidated. Here I show that DNA-PK strongly inhibits promoter-directed transcription initiation by Xenopus RNA polymerase I in vitro. The repression is due to protein phosphorylation, since it is relieved by 6-dimethylaminopurine, an inhibitor of protein kinases. DNA-PK inhibits transcription from both linear and circular templates, but the repression is more efficient on linear templates. DNA-PK has no effect on promoter-directed transcription by RNA polymerases II and III. Partial fractionation of the in vitro transcription system shows that a protein fraction containing transcription factor Rib1, the Xenopus equivalent of human SL1, mediates the repression of transcription by DNA-PK. The present data suggest a role for DNA-PK in down-regulating ribosomal gene transcription. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7708751

  11. De novo reconstruction of plant RNA and DNA virus genomes from viral siRNAs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In antiviral defense, plants produce massive quantities of 21-24 nucleotide siRNAs. Here we demonstrate that the complete genomes of DNA and RNA viruses and viroids can be reconstructed by deep sequencing and de novo assembly of viral/viroid siRNAs from experimentally- and naturally-infected plants....

  12. In vitro selection of optimal DNA substrates for T4 RNA ligase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harada, Kazuo; Orgel, Leslie E.

    1993-01-01

    We have used in vitro selection techniques to characterize DNA sequences that are ligated efficiently by T4 RNA ligase. We find that the ensemble of selected sequences ligated about 10 times as efficiently as the random mixture of sequences used as the input for selection. Surprisingly, the majority of the selected sequences approximated a well-defined consensus sequence.

  13. High-throughput prediction of RNA, DNA and protein binding regions mediated by intrinsic disorder

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Zhenling; Kurgan, Lukasz

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins and regions (IDPs and IDRs) lack stable 3D structure under physiological conditions in-vitro, are common in eukaryotes, and facilitate interactions with RNA, DNA and proteins. Current methods for prediction of IDPs and IDRs do not provide insights into their functions, except for a handful of methods that address predictions of protein-binding regions. We report first-of-its-kind computational method DisoRDPbind for high-throughput prediction of RNA, DNA and protein binding residues located in IDRs from protein sequences. DisoRDPbind is implemented using a runtime-efficient multi-layered design that utilizes information extracted from physiochemical properties of amino acids, sequence complexity, putative secondary structure and disorder and sequence alignment. Empirical tests demonstrate that it provides accurate predictions that are competitive with other predictors of disorder-mediated protein binding regions and complementary to the methods that predict RNA- and DNA-binding residues annotated based on crystal structures. Application in Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster proteomes reveals that RNA- and DNA-binding proteins predicted by DisoRDPbind complement and overlap with the corresponding known binding proteins collected from several sources. Also, the number of the putative protein-binding regions predicted with DisoRDPbind correlates with the promiscuity of proteins in the corresponding proteinprotein interaction networks. Webserver: http://biomine.ece.ualberta.ca/DisoRDPbind/ PMID:26109352

  14. High-throughput prediction of RNA, DNA and protein binding regions mediated by intrinsic disorder.

    PubMed

    Peng, Zhenling; Kurgan, Lukasz

    2015-10-15

    Intrinsically disordered proteins and regions (IDPs and IDRs) lack stable 3D structure under physiological conditions in-vitro, are common in eukaryotes, and facilitate interactions with RNA, DNA and proteins. Current methods for prediction of IDPs and IDRs do not provide insights into their functions, except for a handful of methods that address predictions of protein-binding regions. We report first-of-its-kind computational method DisoRDPbind for high-throughput prediction of RNA, DNA and protein binding residues located in IDRs from protein sequences. DisoRDPbind is implemented using a runtime-efficient multi-layered design that utilizes information extracted from physiochemical properties of amino acids, sequence complexity, putative secondary structure and disorder and sequence alignment. Empirical tests demonstrate that it provides accurate predictions that are competitive with other predictors of disorder-mediated protein binding regions and complementary to the methods that predict RNA- and DNA-binding residues annotated based on crystal structures. Application in Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster proteomes reveals that RNA- and DNA-binding proteins predicted by DisoRDPbind complement and overlap with the corresponding known binding proteins collected from several sources. Also, the number of the putative protein-binding regions predicted with DisoRDPbind correlates with the promiscuity of proteins in the corresponding protein-protein interaction networks. Webserver: http://biomine.ece.ualberta.ca/DisoRDPbind/. PMID:26109352

  15. Pericentromeric satellite repeat expansions through RNA-derived DNA intermediates in cancer.

    PubMed

    Bersani, Francesca; Lee, Eunjung; Kharchenko, Peter V; Xu, Andrew W; Liu, Mingzhu; Xega, Kristina; MacKenzie, Olivia C; Brannigan, Brian W; Wittner, Ben S; Jung, Hyunchul; Ramaswamy, Sridhar; Park, Peter J; Maheswaran, Shyamala; Ting, David T; Haber, Daniel A

    2015-12-01

    Aberrant transcription of the pericentromeric human satellite II (HSATII) repeat is present in a wide variety of epithelial cancers. In deriving experimental systems to study its deregulation, we observed that HSATII expression is induced in colon cancer cells cultured as xenografts or under nonadherent conditions in vitro, but it is rapidly lost in standard 2D cultures. Unexpectedly, physiological induction of endogenous HSATII RNA, as well as introduction of synthetic HSATII transcripts, generated cDNA intermediates in the form of DNA/RNA hybrids. Single molecule sequencing of tumor xenografts showed that HSATII RNA-derived DNA (rdDNA) molecules are stably incorporated within pericentromeric loci. Suppression of RT activity using small molecule inhibitors reduced HSATII copy gain. Analysis of whole-genome sequencing data revealed that HSATII copy number gain is a common feature in primary human colon tumors and is associated with a lower overall survival. Together, our observations suggest that cancer-associated derepression of specific repetitive sequences can promote their RNA-driven genomic expansion, with potential implications on pericentromeric architecture. PMID:26575630

  16. Endogenous Small RNA Mediates Meiotic Silencing of a Novel DNA Transposon

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yizhou; Smith, Kristina M.; Taylor, John W.; Freitag, Michael; Stajich, Jason E.

    2015-01-01

    Genome defense likely evolved to curtail the spread of transposable elements and invading viruses. A combination of effective defense mechanisms has been shown to limit colonization of the Neurospora crassa genome by transposable elements. A novel DNA transposon named Sly1-1 was discovered in the genome of the most widely used laboratory “wild-type” strain FGSC 2489 (OR74A). Meiotic silencing by unpaired DNA, also simply called meiotic silencing, prevents the expression of regions of the genome that are unpaired during karyogamy. This mechanism is posttranscriptional and is proposed to involve the production of small RNA, so-called masiRNAs, by proteins homologous to those involved in RNA interference−silencing pathways in animals, fungi, and plants. Here, we demonstrate production of small RNAs when Sly1-1 was unpaired in a cross between two wild-type strains. These small RNAs are dependent on SAD-1, an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase necessary for meiotic silencing. We present the first case of endogenously produced masiRNA from a novel N. crassa DNA transposable element. PMID:26109355

  17. Endogenous Small RNA Mediates Meiotic Silencing of a Novel DNA Transposon.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yizhou; Smith, Kristina M; Taylor, John W; Freitag, Michael; Stajich, Jason E

    2015-10-01

    Genome defense likely evolved to curtail the spread of transposable elements and invading viruses. A combination of effective defense mechanisms has been shown to limit colonization of the Neurospora crassa genome by transposable elements. A novel DNA transposon named Sly1-1 was discovered in the genome of the most widely used laboratory "wild-type" strain FGSC 2489 (OR74A). Meiotic silencing by unpaired DNA, also simply called meiotic silencing, prevents the expression of regions of the genome that are unpaired during karyogamy. This mechanism is posttranscriptional and is proposed to involve the production of small RNA, so-called masiRNAs, by proteins homologous to those involved in RNA interference-silencing pathways in animals, fungi, and plants. Here, we demonstrate production of small RNAs when Sly1-1 was unpaired in a cross between two wild-type strains. These small RNAs are dependent on SAD-1, an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase necessary for meiotic silencing. We present the first case of endogenously produced masiRNA from a novel N. crassa DNA transposable element. PMID:26109355

  18. Heat shock protein-mediated cell penetration and cytosolic delivery of macromolecules by a telomerase-derived peptide vaccine.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seoung-Ae; Kim, Bo-Ram; Kim, Bu-Kyung; Kim, Dong-Won; Shon, Won-Jun; Lee, Na-Rae; Inn, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Bum-Joon

    2013-10-01

    A reverse-transcriptase-subunit of telomerase (hTERT) derived peptide, GV1001, has been developed as a vaccine against various cancers. Here, we report an unexpected function of GV1001 as a cell-penetrating peptide (CPP). GV1001 was delivered into a variety of cells including various cancer cell lines and primary blood cells. Moreover, the delivered GV1001 was predominantly located in the cytoplasm of the cells, while a significantly higher proportion of TAT peptide was localized in the nucleus. Macromolecules such as proteins, DNA and siRNA, which were linked to GV1001 by direct covalent conjugation or non-covalent complexation through poly-lysine, were successfully delivered into cells, indicating that GV1001 can be used as a carrier for macromolecules. Expression of the delivered DNA, and lowered expression of the target gene by the delivered siRNA, suggest the potential therapeutic use of GV1001. Pull-down analysis identified Heat Shock Protein 90 (HSP90) and 70 (HSP70) as GV1001 interacting proteins. Treatment of Anti-HSP90 and HSP70 antibodies lowered the internalization of GV1001, indicating that the interaction is critical for the efficient internalization of GV1001. Collectively, the results of this study suggest the pharmaceutical potential of GV1001, already proven safe in clinical trials, as a carrier for the delivery of macromolecular therapeutics into cells, in addition to its own anti-cancer activity. PMID:23827187

  19. Flexibility of nucleic acids: From DNA to RNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Bao; Xi, Zhang; Lei, Jin; Zhi-Jie, Tan

    2016-01-01

    The structural flexibility of nucleic acids plays a key role in many fundamental life processes, such as gene replication and expression, DNA-protein recognition, and gene regulation. To obtain a thorough understanding of nucleic acid flexibility, extensive studies have been performed using various experimental methods and theoretical models. In this review, we will introduce the progress that has been made in understanding the flexibility of nucleic acids including DNAs and RNAs, and will emphasize the experimental findings and the effects of salt, temperature, and sequence. Finally, we will discuss the major unanswered questions in understanding the flexibility of nucleic acids. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2011CB933600), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11175132, 11575128, and 11374234), and the Program for New Century Excellent Talents, China (Grant No. NCET 08-0408).

  20. Short Hairpin RNA Suppression of Thymidylate Synthase Produces DNA Mismatches and Results in Excellent Radiosensitization

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, Sheryl A.; Cooper, Kristin S.; Mannava, Sudha; Nikiforov, Mikhail A.; Shewach, Donna S.

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: To determine the effect of short hairpin ribonucleic acid (shRNA)-mediated suppression of thymidylate synthase (TS) on cytotoxicity and radiosensitization and the mechanism by which these events occur. Methods and Materials: shRNA suppression of TS was compared with 5-fluoro-2 Prime -deoxyuridine (FdUrd) inactivation of TS with or without ionizing radiation in HCT116 and HT29 colon cancer cells. Cytotoxicity and radiosensitization were measured by clonogenic assay. Cell cycle effects were measured by flow cytometry. The effects of FdUrd or shRNA suppression of TS on dNTP deoxynucleotide triphosphate imbalances and consequent nucleotide misincorporations into deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) were analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography and as pSP189 plasmid mutations, respectively. Results: TS shRNA produced profound ({>=}90%) and prolonged ({>=}8 days) suppression of TS in HCT116 and HT29 cells, whereas FdUrd increased TS expression. TS shRNA also produced more specific and prolonged effects on dNTPs deoxynucleotide triphosphates compared with FdUrd. TS shRNA suppression allowed accumulation of cells in S-phase, although its effects were not as long-lasting as those of FdUrd. Both treatments resulted in phosphorylation of Chk1. TS shRNA alone was less cytotoxic than FdUrd but was equally effective as FdUrd in eliciting radiosensitization (radiation enhancement ratio: TS shRNA, 1.5-1.7; FdUrd, 1.4-1.6). TS shRNA and FdUrd produced a similar increase in the number and type of pSP189 mutations. Conclusions: TS shRNA produced less cytotoxicity than FdUrd but was equally effective at radiosensitizing tumor cells. Thus, the inhibitory effect of FdUrd on TS alone is sufficient to elicit radiosensitization with FdUrd, but it only partially explains FdUrd-mediated cytotoxicity and cell cycle inhibition. The increase in DNA mismatches after TS shRNA or FdUrd supports a causal and sufficient role for the depletion of dTTP thymidine triphosphate and consequent DNA mismatches underlying radiosensitization. Importantly, shRNA suppression of TS avoids FP-mediated TS elevation and its negative prognostic role. These studies support the further exploration of TS suppression as a novel radiosensitizing strategy.

  1. Regulating infidelity: RNA-mediated recruitment of AID to DNA during class switch recombination.

    PubMed

    DiMenna, Lauren J; Chaudhuri, Jayanta

    2016-03-01

    The mechanism by which the DNA deaminase activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is specifically recruited to repetitive switch region DNA during class switch recombination is still poorly understood. Work over the past decade has revealed a strong link between transcription and RNA polymerase-associated factors in AID recruitment, yet none of these processes satisfactorily explain how AID specificity is affected. Here, we review a recent finding wherein AID is guided to switch regions not by a protein factor but by an RNA moiety, and especially one associated with a noncoding RNA that has been long thought of as being inert. This work explains the long-standing requirement of splicing of noncoding transcripts during class switching, and has implications in both B cell-mediated immunity as well as the underlying pathological syndromes associated with the recombination reaction. PMID:26799454

  2. Inhibition of Hepatitis B virus cccDNA replication by siRNA

    SciTech Connect

    Li Guiqiu; Gu Hongxi . E-mail: hxgu2432@163.com; Li Di; Xu Weizhen

    2007-04-06

    The development of an effective therapy for Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is still a challenge. Progress in RNA interference (RNAi) has shed slight on developing a new anti-HBV strategy. Here, we present a series of experiments showing a significant reduction in HBV transcripts and replication intermediates in HepG2.2.15 cells by vector-based siRNA targeted nuclear localization signal (NLS) region. More importantly, we showed that siRNA1 markedly inhibited HBV covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) replication. Our results indicated that HBV NLS may serve as a novel RNAi target to combat HBV infection, which can enhance anti-HBV efficacy and overcome the drawbacks of current therapies.

  3. Individual basepair stability of DNA and RNA studied by NMR-detected solvent exchange.

    PubMed

    Steinert, Hannah S; Rinnenthal, Jrg; Schwalbe, Harald

    2012-06-01

    In this study, we have optimized NMR methodology to determine the thermodynamic parameters of basepair opening in DNA and RNA duplexes by characterizing the temperature dependence of imino proton exchange rates of individual basepairs. Contributions of the nuclear Overhauser effect to exchange rates measured with inversion recovery experiments are quantified, and the influence of intrinsic and external catalysis exchange mechanisms on the imino proton exchange rates is analyzed. Basepairs in DNA and RNA have an approximately equal stability, and the enthalpy and entropy values of their basepair dissociation are correlated linearly. Furthermore, the compensation temperature, T(c), which is derived from the slope of the correlation, coincides with the melting temperature, and duplex unfolding occurs at that temperature where all basepairs are equally thermodynamically stable. The impact of protium-deuterium exchange of the imino hydrogen on the free energy of RNA basepair opening is investigated, and it is found that two AU basepairs show distinct fractionation factors. PMID:22713572

  4. Comparative Dynamics and Sequence Dependence of DNA and RNA Binding to Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Landry, Markita P.; Vuković, Lela; Kruss, Sebastian; Bisker, Gili; Landry, Alexandra M.; Islam, Shahrin; Jain, Rishabh; Schulten, Klaus; Strano, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Noncovalent polymer-single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) conjugates have gained recent interest due to their prevalent use as electrochemical and optical sensors, SWCNT-based therapeutics, and for SWCNT separation. However, little is known about the effects of polymer-SWCNT molecular interactions on functional properties of these conjugates. In this work, we show that SWCNT complexed with related polynucleotide polymers (DNA, RNA) have dramatically different fluorescence stability. Surprisingly, we find a difference of nearly 2500-fold in fluorescence emission between the most fluorescently stable DNA-SWCNT complex, C30 DNA-SWCNT, compared to the least fluorescently stable complex, (AT)7A-(GU)7G DNA-RNA hybrid-SWCNT. We further reveal the existence of three regimes in which SWCNT fluorescence varies nonmonotonically with SWCNT concentration. We utilize molecular dynamics simulations to elucidate the conformation and atomic details of SWCNT-corona phase interactions. Our results show that variations in polynucleotide sequence or sugar backbone can lead to large changes in the conformational stability of the polymer SWCNT corona and the SWCNT optical response. Finally, we demonstrate the effect of the coronae on the response of a recently developed dopamine nanosensor, based on (GT)15 DNA- and (GU)15 RNA-SWCNT complexes. Our results clarify several features of the sequence dependence of corona phases produced by polynucleotides adsorbed to single walled carbon nanotubes, and the implications for molecular recognition in such phases. PMID:26005509

  5. Inheritance of silent rDNA chromatin is mediated by PARP1 via noncoding RNA.

    PubMed

    Guetg, Claudio; Scheifele, Fabian; Rosenthal, Florian; Hottiger, Michael O; Santoro, Raffaella

    2012-03-30

    Faithful propagation of specific chromatin states requires re-establishment of epigenetic marks after every cell division. How the original epigenetic signature is inherited after disruption during DNA replication is still poorly understood. Here, we show that the poly(ADP-ribose)-polymerase-1 (PARP1/ARTD1) is implicated in the maintenance of silent rDNA chromatin during cell division. We demonstrate that PARP1 associates with TIP5, a subunit of the NoRC complex, via the noncoding pRNA and binds to silent rRNA genes after their replication in mid-late S phase. PARP1 represses rRNA transcription and is implicated in the formation of silent rDNA chromatin. Silent rDNA chromatin is a specific substrate for ADP-ribosylation and the enzymatic activity of PARP1 is necessary to establish rDNA silencing. The data unravel a function of PARP1 and ADP-ribosylation that serves to allow for the inheritance of silent chromatin structures, shedding light on how epigenetic marks are transmitted during each cell cycle. PMID:22405650

  6. A protein complex required for polymerase V transcripts and RNA-directed DNA methylation in plants

    PubMed Central

    Law, Julie A.; Ausin, Israel; Johnson, Lianna M.; Vashisht, Ajay A.; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Wohlschlegel, James A.; Jacobsen, Steven E.

    2010-01-01

    Summary DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification associated with gene silencing. In Arabidopsis, DNA methylation is established by DOMAINS REARRANGED METHYLTRANSFERASE 2 (DRM2), which is targeted by small interfering RNAs through a pathway termed RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM)[1, 2]. Recently, RdDM was shown to require intergenic noncoding (IGN) transcripts that are dependent on the Pol V polymerase. These transcripts are proposed to function as scaffolds for the recruitment of downstream RdDM proteins, including DRM2, to loci that produce both siRNAs and IGN transcripts[3]. However, the mechanism(s) through which Pol V is targeted to specific genomic loci remains largely unknown. Through affinity purification of two known RdDM components, DEFECTIVE IN RNA-DIRECTED DNA METHYLATION 1 (DRD1)[4] and DEFECTIVE IN MERISTEM SILENCING 3 (DMS3)[5, 6], we found that they copurify with each other and with a novel protein, RNA-DIRECTED DNA METHYLATION 1 (RDM1), forming a complex we term DDR. We also found that DRD1 copurified with Pol V subunits and that, RDM1, like DRD1[3] and DMS3[7], is required for the production of Pol V-dependent transcripts. These results suggest that the DDR complex acts in RdDM at a step upstream of the recruitment or activation of Pol V. PMID:20409711

  7. Ultrasensitive Detection of RNA and DNA Viruses Simultaneously Using Duplex UNDP-PCR Assay

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zengguo; Zhang, Xiujuan; Zhao, Xiaomin; Du, Qian; Chang, Lingling; Tong, Dewen

    2015-01-01

    Mixed infection of multiple viruses is common in modern intensive pig rearing. However, there are no methods available to detect DNA and RNA viruses in the same reaction system in preclinical level. In this study, we aimed to develop a duplex ultrasensitive nanoparticle DNA probe-based PCR assay (duplex UNDP-PCR) that was able to simultaneously detect DNA and RNA viruses in the same reaction system. PCV2 and TGEV are selected as representatives of the two different types of viruses. PCV2 DNA and TGEV RNA were simultaneously released from the serum sample by boiling with lysis buffer, then magnetic beads and gold nanoparticles coated with single and/or duplex specific probes for TGEV and PCV2 were added to form a sandwich-like complex with nucleic acids released from viruses. After magnetic separation, DNA barcodes specific for PCV2 and TGEV were eluted using DTT and characterized by specific PCR assay for specific DNA barcodes subsequently. The duplex UNDP-PCR showed similar sensitivity as that of single UNDP-PCR and was able to detect 20 copies each of PCV2 and TGEV in the serum, showing approximately 250-fold more sensitivity than conventional duplex PCR/RT-PCR assays. No cross-reaction was observed with other viruses. The positive detection rate of single MMPs- and duplex MMPs-based duplex UNDP-PCR was identical, with 29.6% for PCV2, 9.3% for TGEV and 3.7% for PCV2 and TGEV mixed infection. This duplex UNDP-PCR assay could detect TGEV (RNA virus) and PCV2 (DNA virus) from large-scale serum samples simultaneously without the need for DNA/RNA extraction, purification and reverse transcription of RNA, and showed a significantly increased positive detection rate for PCV2 (29%) and TGEV (11.7%) preclinical infection than conventional duplex PCR/RT-PCR. Therefore, the established duplex UNDP-PCR is a rapid and economical detection method, exhibiting high sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility. PMID:26544710

  8. Conformational influence of the ribose 2'-hydroxyl group: crystal structures of DNA-RNA chimeric duplexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egli, M.; Usman, N.; Rich, A.

    1993-01-01

    We have crystallized three double-helical DNA-RNA chimeric duplexes and determined their structures by X-ray crystallography at resolutions between 2 and 2.25 A. The two self-complementary duplexes [r(G)d(CGTATACGC)]2 and [d(GCGT)r(A)d(TACGC)]2, as well as the Okazaki fragment d(GGGTATACGC).r(GCG)d(TATACCC), were found to adopt A-type conformations. The crystal structures are non-isomorphous, and the crystallographic environments for the three chimeras are different. A number of intramolecular interactions of the ribose 2'-hydroxyl groups contribute to the stabilization of the A-conformation. Hydrogen bonds between 2'-hydroxyls and 5'-oxygens or phosphate oxygens, in addition to the previously observed hydrogen bonds to 1'-oxygens of adjacent riboses and deoxyriboses, are observed in the DNA-RNA chimeric duplexes. The crystalline chimeric duplexes do not show a transition between the DNA A- and B-conformations. CD spectra suggest that the Okazaki fragment assumes an A-conformation in solution as well. In this molecule the three RNA residues may therefore lock the complete decamer in the A-conformation. Crystals of an all-DNA strand with the same sequence as the self-complementary chimeras show a morphology which is different from those of the chimera crystals. Moreover, the oligonucleotide does not match any of the sequence characteristics of DNAs usually adopting the A-conformation in the crystalline state (e.g., octamers with short alternating stretches of purines and pyrimidines). In DNA-RNA chimeric duplexes, it is therefore possible that a single RNA residue can drive the conformational equilibrium toward the A-conformation.

  9. PfAlbas constitute a new eukaryotic DNA/RNA-binding protein family in malaria parasites

    PubMed Central

    Chne, Arnaud; Vembar, Shruthi S.; Rivire, Loc; Lopez-Rubio, Jos Juan; Claes, Aurelie; Siegel, T. Nicolai; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Scheidig-Benatar, Christine; Hernandez-Rivas, Rosaura; Scherf, Artur

    2012-01-01

    In Plasmodium falciparum, perinuclear subtelomeric chromatin conveys monoallelic expression of virulence genes. However, proteins that directly bind to chromosome ends are poorly described. Here we identify a novel DNA/RNA-binding protein family that bears homology to the archaeal protein Alba (Acetylation lowers binding affinity). We isolated three of the four PfAlba paralogs as part of a molecular complex that is associated with the P. falciparum-specific TARE6 (Telomere-Associated Repetitive Elements 6) subtelomeric region and showed in electromobility shift assays (EMSAs) that the PfAlbas bind to TARE6 repeats. In early blood stages, the PfAlba proteins were enriched at the nuclear periphery and partially co-localized with PfSir2, a TARE6-associated histone deacetylase linked to the process of antigenic variation. The nuclear location changed at the onset of parasite proliferation (trophozoite-schizont), where the PfAlba proteins were also detectable in the cytoplasm in a punctate pattern. Using single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) probes in EMSAs, we found that PfAlbas bind to ssRNA, albeit with different binding preferences. We demonstrate for the first time in eukaryotes that Alba-like proteins bind to both DNA and RNA and that their intracellular location is developmentally regulated. Discovery of the PfAlbas may provide a link between the previously described subtelomeric non-coding RNA and the regulation of antigenic variation. PMID:22167473

  10. RNA-directed DNA methylation and plant development require an IWR1-type transcription factor

    PubMed Central

    Kanno, Tatsuo; Bucher, Etienne; Daxinger, Lucia; Huettel, Bruno; Kreil, David P; Breinig, Frank; Lind, Marc; Schmitt, Manfred J; Simon, Stacey A; Gurazada, Sai Guna Ranjan; Meyers, Blake C; Lorkovic, Zdravko J; Matzke, Antonius J M; Matzke, Marjori

    2010-01-01

    RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) in plants requires two RNA polymerase (Pol) II-related RNA polymerases, namely Pol IV and Pol V. A genetic screen designed to reveal factors that are important for RdDM in a developmental context in Arabidopsis identified DEFECTIVE IN MERISTEM SILENCING 4 (DMS4). Unlike other mutants defective in RdDM, dms4 mutants have a pleiotropic developmental phenotype. The DMS4 protein is similar to yeast IWR1 (interacts with RNA polymerase II), a conserved putative transcription factor that interacts with Pol II subunits. The DMS4 complementary DNA partly complements the K1 killer toxin hypersensitivity of a yeast iwr1 mutant, suggesting some functional conservation. In the transgenic system studied, mutations in DMS4 directly or indirectly affect Pol IV-dependent secondary short interfering RNAs, Pol V-mediated RdDM, Pol V-dependent synthesis of intergenic non-coding RNA and expression of many Pol II-driven genes. These data suggest that DMS4 might be a regulatory factor for several RNA polymerases, thus explaining its diverse roles in the plant. PMID:20010803

  11. Fluorescent DNA-Protected Silver Nanoclusters for Ligand-HIV RNA Interaction Assay.

    PubMed

    Qi, Liang; Huo, Yuan; Wang, Huan; Zhang, Jing; Dang, Fu-Quan; Zhang, Zhi-Qi

    2015-11-01

    Studying ligand-biomacromolecule interactions provides opportunities for creating new compounds that can efficiently regulate specific biological processes. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules have become attractive drug targets since the discovery of their roles in modulating gene expression, while only a limited number of studies have investigated interactions between ligands and functional RNA molecules, especially those based on nanotechnology. DNA-protected silver nanoclusters (AgNCs) were used to investigate ligand-RNA interactions for the first time in this study. The anthracycline anticancer drug mitoxantrone (MTX) was found to quench the fluorescence of AgNCs. After adding human immunodeficiency virus trans-activation responsive region (TAR) RNA or Rev-response element (RRE) RNA to AgNCs-MTX mixtures, the fluorescence of the AgNCs recovered due to interactions between MTX with RNAs. The binding constants and number of binding sites of MTX to TAR and RRE RNA were determined through theoretical calculations. MTX-RNA interactions were further confirmed in fluorescence polarization and mass spectrometry experiments. The mechanism of MTX-based fluorescence quenching of the AgNCs was also explored. This study provides a new strategy for ligand-RNA binding interaction assay. PMID:26447651

  12. Endogenous promoters can direct the transcription of hepatitis delta virus RNA from a recircularized cDNA template.

    PubMed

    Macnaughton, T B; Beard, M R; Chao, M; Gowans, E J; Lai, M M

    1993-10-01

    Transcription and replication of hepatitis delta virus (HDV) RNA is thought to be performed by host RNA polymerase II. The mechanism which enables polymerase II to use RNA as a template is unclear. However, since extensive intramolecular complementarity allows HDV RNA to form a rod-shaped structure, it is possible that the mostly double-stranded HDV RNA may resemble double-stranded DNA in structure, and can thus be used by RNA polymerase II as a template. To investigate this possibility, we examined whether the cDNA counterpart of HDV RNA contains a promoter and thus can drive the transcription and replication of HDV RNA. Circularized monomers of HDV cDNA, when transfected into various cell lines, were found to generate both monomeric and dimeric forms of HDV RNA and hepatitis delta antigen at levels comparable to those generated with HDV cDNA multimers under the control of a SV40 late promoter, suggesting that HDV cDNA contains endogenous promoters. Using chloramphenicol acetyltransferase and human growth hormone as reporter genes, the specific promoter activity for the synthesis of antigenomic HDV RNA was localized to a 29-nucleotide region (nucleotides 1650-1679), although an additional 224-nucleotide upstream region was also necessary for maximum activity. Similarly, promoter activity for the synthesis of genomic RNA was localized to a 160-nucleotide region around position 1679 that overlapped with the antigenomic promoter region. Since these regions are in a highly conserved double-stranded region of HDV RNA, they may represent RNA promoters recognized by RNA polymerase II. This result also suggests a convenient method, using circularized monomer HDV cDNA, to study HDV RNA replication. PMID:8372436

  13. Thermodynamic examination of 1- to 5-nt purine bulge loops in RNA and DNA constructs.

    PubMed

    Strom, Shane; Shiskova, Evgenia; Hahm, Yaeeun; Grover, Neena

    2015-07-01

    Bulge loops are common features of RNA structures that are involved in the formation of RNA tertiary structures and are often sites for interactions with proteins and ions. Minimal thermodynamic data currently exist on the bulge size and sequence effects. Using thermal denaturation methods, thermodynamic properties of 1- to 5-nt adenine and guanine bulge loop constructs were examined in 10 mM MgCl(2) or 1 M KCl. The [Formula: see text] loop parameters for 1- to 5-nt purine bulge loops in RNA constructs were between 3.07 and 5.31 kcal/mol in 1 M KCl buffer. In 10 mM magnesium ions, the ??G values relative to 1 M KCl were 0.47-2.06 kcal/mol more favorable for the RNA bulge loops. The [Formula: see text] loop parameters for 1- to 5-nt purine bulge loops in DNA constructs were between 4.54 and 5.89 kcal/mol. Only 4- and 5-nt guanine constructs showed significant change in stability for the DNA constructs in magnesium ions. A linear correlation is seen between the size of the bulge loop and its stability. New prediction models are proposed for 1- to 5-nt purine bulge loops in RNA and DNA in 1 M KCl. We show that a significant stabilization is seen for small bulge loops in RNA in the presence of magnesium ions. A prediction model is also proposed for 1- to 5-nt purine bulge loop RNA constructs in 10 mM magnesium chloride. PMID:26022248

  14. DNA and RNA sequencing by nanoscale reading through programmable electrophoresis and nanoelectrode-gated tunneling and dielectric detection

    DOEpatents

    Lee, James W.; Thundat, Thomas G.

    2005-06-14

    An apparatus and method for performing nucleic acid (DNA and/or RNA) sequencing on a single molecule. The genetic sequence information is obtained by probing through a DNA or RNA molecule base by base at nanometer scale as though looking through a strip of movie film. This DNA sequencing nanotechnology has the theoretical capability of performing DNA sequencing at a maximal rate of about 1,000,000 bases per second. This enhanced performance is made possible by a series of innovations including: novel applications of a fine-tuned nanometer gap for passage of a single DNA or RNA molecule; thin layer microfluidics for sample loading and delivery; and programmable electric fields for precise control of DNA or RNA movement. Detection methods include nanoelectrode-gated tunneling current measurements, dielectric molecular characterization, and atomic force microscopy/electrostatic force microscopy (AFM/EFM) probing for nanoscale reading of the nucleic acid sequences.

  15. Mutually exclusive binding of telomerase RNA and DNA by Ku alters telomerase recruitment model.

    PubMed

    Pfingsten, Jennifer S; Goodrich, Karen J; Taabazuing, Cornelius; Ouenzar, Faissal; Chartrand, Pascal; Cech, Thomas R

    2012-03-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Ku heterodimer contributes to telomere maintenance as a component of telomeric chromatin and as an accessory subunit of telomerase. How Ku binding to double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and to telomerase RNA (TLC1) promotes Ku's telomeric functions is incompletely understood. We demonstrate that deletions designed to constrict the DNA-binding ring of Ku80 disrupt nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ), telomeric gene silencing, and telomere length maintenance, suggesting that these functions require Ku's DNA end-binding activity. Contrary to the current model, a mutant Ku with low affinity for dsDNA also loses affinity for TLC1 both invitro and invivo. Competition experiments reveal that wild-type Ku binds dsDNA and TLC1 mutually exclusively. Cells expressing the mutant Ku are deficient in nuclear accumulation of TLC1, as expected from the RNA-binding defect. These findings force reconsideration of the mechanisms by which Ku assists in recruiting telomerase to natural telomeres and broken chromosome ends. PAPERCLIP: PMID:22365814

  16. Mutually Exclusive Binding of Telomerase RNA and DNA by Ku Alters Telomerase Recruitment Model

    PubMed Central

    Pfingsten, Jennifer S.; Goodrich, Karen J.; Taabazuing, Cornelius; Ouenzar, Faissal; Chartrand, Pascal; Cech, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Ku heterodimer contributes to telomere maintenance as a component of telomeric chromatin and as an accessory subunit of telomerase. How Ku binding to double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and to telomerase RNA (TLC1) promotes its telomeric functions is incompletely understood. We demonstrate that deletions designed to constrict the DNA-binding ring of Ku80 disrupt non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ), telomeric gene silencing and telomere length maintenance, suggesting that these functions require Ku's DNA end-binding activity. Contrary to the current model, a mutant Ku with low affinity for dsDNA also loses affinity for TLC1 both in vitro and in vivo. Competition experiments reveal that wild-type Ku binds dsDNA and TLC1 mutually exclusively. Cells expressing the mutant Ku are deficient in nuclear accumulation of TLC1, as expected from the RNA-binding defect. These findings force reconsideration of the mechanisms by which Ku assists in recruiting telomerase to natural telomeres and broken chromosome ends. PMID:22365814

  17. SRA- and SET-domain-containing proteins link RNA polymerase V occupancy to DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Lianna M; Du, Jiamu; Hale, Christopher J; Bischof, Sylvain; Feng, Suhua; Chodavarapu, Ramakrishna K; Zhong, Xuehua; Marson, Giuseppe; Pellegrini, Matteo; Segal, David J; Patel, Dinshaw J; Jacobsen, Steven E

    2014-03-01

    RNA-directed DNA methylation in Arabidopsis thaliana depends on the upstream synthesis of 24-nucleotide small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) by RNA POLYMERASE IV (Pol IV) and downstream synthesis of non-coding transcripts by Pol V. Pol V transcripts are thought to interact with siRNAs which then recruit DOMAINS REARRANGED METHYLTRANSFERASE 2 (DRM2) to methylate DNA. The SU(VAR)3-9 homologues SUVH2 and SUVH9 act in this downstream step but the mechanism of their action is unknown. Here we show that genome-wide Pol V association with chromatin redundantly requires SUVH2 and SUVH9. Although SUVH2 and SUVH9 resemble histone methyltransferases, a crystal structure reveals that SUVH9 lacks a peptide-substrate binding cleft and lacks a properly formed S-adenosyl methionine (SAM)-binding pocket necessary for normal catalysis, consistent with a lack of methyltransferase activity for these proteins. SUVH2 and SUVH9 both contain SRA (SET- and RING-ASSOCIATED) domains capable of binding methylated DNA, suggesting that they function to recruit Pol V through DNA methylation. Consistent with this model, mutation of DNA METHYLTRANSFERASE 1 (MET1) causes loss of DNA methylation, a nearly complete loss of Pol V at its normal locations, and redistribution of Pol V to sites that become hypermethylated. Furthermore, tethering SUVH2 with a zinc finger to an unmethylated site is sufficient to recruit Pol V and establish DNA methylation and gene silencing. These results indicate that Pol V is recruited to DNA methylation through the methyl-DNA binding SUVH2 and SUVH9 proteins, and our mechanistic findings suggest a means for selectively targeting regions of plant genomes for epigenetic silencing. PMID:24463519

  18. SRA/SET domain-containing proteins link RNA polymerase V occupancy to DNA methylation

    PubMed Central

    Hale, Christopher J.; Bischof, Sylvain; Feng, Suhua; Chodavarapu, Ramakrishna K.; Zhong, Xuehua; Marson, Giuseppe; Pellegrini, Matteo; Segal, David J.; Patel, Dinshaw J.; Jacobsen, Steven E.

    2014-01-01

    RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) in Arabidopsis thaliana depends on the upstream synthesis of 24-nucleotide small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) by RNA POLYMERASE IV (Pol IV)1,2 and downstream synthesis of non-coding transcripts by Pol V. Pol V transcripts are thought to interact with siRNAs which then recruit DOMAINS REARRANGED METHYLTRANSFERASE 2 (DRM2) to methylate DNA3-7. The SU(VAR)3-9 homologs SUVH2 and SUVH9 act in this downstream step but the mechanism of their action is unknown8,9. Here we show that genome-wide Pol V association with chromatin redundantly requires, SUVH2 and SUVH9. Although SUVH2 and SUVH9 resemble histone methyltransferases a crystal structure reveals that SUVH9 lacks a peptide-substrate binding cleft and lacks a properly formed S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) binding pocket necessary for normal catalysis, consistent with a lack of methyltransferase activity for these proteins8. SUVH2 and SUVH9 both contain SET- and RING-ASSOCIATED (SRA) domains capable of binding methylated DNA8, suggesting that they function to recruit Pol V through DNA methylation. Consistent with this model, mutation of DNA METHYLTRANSFERASE 1 (MET1) causes loss of DNA methylation, a nearly complete loss of Pol V at its normal locations, and redistribution of Pol V to sites that become hypermethylated. Furthermore, tethering SUVH2 with a zinc finger to an unmethylated site is sufficient to recruit Pol V and establish DNA methylation and gene silencing. These results suggest that Pol V is recruited to DNA methylation through the methyl-DNA binding SUVH2 and SUVH9 proteins, and our mechanistic findings suggest a means for selectively targeting regions of plant genomes for epigenetic silencing. PMID:24463519

  19. Crystal structure of RNase H3-substrate complex reveals parallel evolution of RNA/DNA hybrid recognition.

    PubMed

    Figiel, Małgorzata; Nowotny, Marcin

    2014-08-01

    RNases H participate in the replication and maintenance of genomic DNA. RNase H1 cleaves the RNA strand of RNA/DNA hybrids, and RNase H2 in addition hydrolyzes the RNA residue of RNA-DNA junctions. RNase H3 is structurally closely related to RNases H2, but its biochemical properties are similar to type 1 enzymes. Its unique N-terminal substrate-binding domain (N-domain) is related to TATA-binding protein. Here, we report the first crystal structure of RNase H3 in complex with its RNA/DNA substrate. Just like RNases H1, type 3 enzyme recognizes the 2'-OH groups of the RNA strand and detects the DNA strand by binding a phosphate group and inducing B-form conformation. Moreover, the N-domain recognizes RNA and DNA in a manner that is highly similar to the hybrid-binding domain of RNases H1. Our structure demonstrates a remarkable example of parallel evolution of the elements used in the specific recognition of RNA and DNA. PMID:25016521

  20. Stacking interactions in RNA and DNA: Roll-slide energy hyperspace for ten unique dinucleotide steps.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sanchita; Kailasam, Senthilkumar; Bansal, Manju; Bhattacharyya, Dhananjay

    2015-03-01

    Understanding dinucleotide sequence directed structures of nuleic acids and their variability from experimental observation remained ineffective due to unavailability of statistically meaningful data. We have attempted to understand this from energy scan along twist, roll, and slide degrees of freedom which are mostly dependent on dinucleotide sequence using ab initio density functional theory. We have carried out stacking energy analysis in these dinucleotide parameter phase space for all ten unique dinucleotide steps in DNA and RNA using DFT-D by ωB97X-D/6-31G(2d,2p), which appears to satisfactorily explain conformational preferences for AU/AU step in our recent study. We show that values of roll, slide, and twist of most of the dinucleotide sequences in crystal structures fall in the low energy region. The minimum energy regions with large twist values are associated with the roll and slide values of B-DNA, whereas, smaller twist values correspond to higher stability to RNA and A-DNA like conformations. Incorporation of solvent effect by CPCM method could explain the preference shown by some sequences to occur in B-DNA or A-DNA conformations. Conformational preference of BII sub-state in B-DNA is preferentially displayed mainly by pyrimidine-purine steps and partly by purine-purine steps. The purine-pyrimidine steps show largest effect of 5-methyl group of thymine in stacking energy and the introduction of solvent reduces this effect significantly. These predicted structures and variabilities can explain the effect of sequence on DNA and RNA functionality. PMID:25257334

  1. PATTERNS OF RNA SYNTHESIS IN T5-INFECTED CELLS I. AS STUDIED BY THE TECHNIQUE OF DNA-RNA HYBRIDIZATION-COMPETITION*

    PubMed Central

    Moyer, Richard W.; Buchanan, John M.

    1969-01-01

    The RNA-labeling patterns obtained after T5 infection of Escherichia coli F agree with the patterns of protein labeling published by McCorquodale and Buchanan.1 Three distinct classes of RNA formed sequentially during the period of viral development can be recognized by the DNA-RNA hybridization-competition technique. Class I RNA is formed within 5 minutes after the beginning of viral metabolism and corresponds to the RNA synthesized in response to infection with the 8 per cent segment of T5 DNA. Protein synthesis directed by this 8 per cent segment is required in some capacity for the cessation of class I synthesis and the beginning of the synthesis of class II at 4 to 5 min after infection. Class III RNA synthesis begins between 9 and 12 minutes. Its appearance is prevented when chloramphenicol is added immediately after complete expression of class I functions. PMID:4916923

  2. Excavation of a buried treasure--DNA, mRNA, miRNA and protein analysis in formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissues.

    PubMed

    Klopfleisch, R; Weiss, A T A; Gruber, A D

    2011-06-01

    Fresh or frozen tissue samples will always be the best tissue source for the analysis of nucleic acids and proteins from tissues. However, their long-term storage is expensive and laborious. Much interest has therefore been focused on the question whether the almost infinite resources of formalin fixed and paraffin embedded tissue samples in the archives of pathology and histology departments can be used for research on biomarkers and molecular mechanisms of disease. In recent years the methods and protocols for the extraction of DNA, mRNA, miRNA and proteins from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue samples have improved enormously. Especially, the possibilities of analysing DNA and miRNA in FFPE have reached a level that allows their application as a first line approach in the search for biomarkers. In contrast, many questions remain in terms of quantification of mRNA and protein expression levels in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue samples. This review gives an overview on current potentials and limitations of the quantification of DNA, miRNA, mRNA and the proteome in FFPE tissue samples. The chemical events during formalin fixation and paraffin embedding and alternatives to formalin fixation are described. In addition, methods and general problems of DNA, miRNA, mRNA and protein extraction and the current knowledge on the feasibility and accuracy of quantitative gene expression analysis in FFPE tissues is summarized. PMID:21472693

  3. 16S rRNA Gene Sequence Analysis of Drinking Water Using RNA and DNA Extracts as Targets for Clone Library Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the bacterial composition of chlorinated drinking water using 16S rRNA gene clone libraries derived from RNA and DNA extracted from twelve water samples collected in three different months (June, August, and September of 2007). Phylogenetic analysis of 1234 and 1117 ...

  4. 16S rRNA Gene Sequence Analysis of Drinking Water Using RNA and DNA Extracts as Targets for Clone Library Development - Poster

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the bacterial composition of chlorinated drinking water using 16S rRNA gene clone libraries derived from RNA and DNA extracted from twelve water samples collected in three different months (June, August, and September of 2007). Phylogenetic analysis of 1234 and 1117 ...

  5. HIV RNA and proviral HIV DNA can be detected in semen after 6 months of antiretroviral therapy although HIV RNA is undetectable in blood.

    PubMed

    Du, Peiwei; Liu, An; Jiao, Yanmei; Liu, Cuie; Jiang, Taiyi; Zhu, Weijun; Zhu, Yunxia; Wu, Hao; Sun, Lijun

    2016-03-01

    The risk of sexual transmission of HIV is strongly correlated with amounts of genital HIV RNA. Few studies have reported amounts of HIV RNA and HIV DNA in semen in HIV-infected Chinese patients undergoing antiviral treatment (ART). In this observational study, the amounts of HIV RNA and HIV DNA in semen were assessed after six months of ART in HIV-infected Chinese individuals, when HIV RNA was undetectable in blood . This study included 19 HIV-infected Chinese men undergoing ART for six months. Amounts of HIV in paired semen and blood samples were assessed using real-time PCR. The C2-V5 region of the HIV envelope (env) genes was cloned and sequenced and genotype and co-receptor usage predicted based on the sequence. It was found that HIV RNA was undetectable in the plasma of most patients (17/19), whereas HIV RNA could be detected in the semen of most patients (16/19). HIV DNA could be detected in both semen and blood. Genetic diversity of HIV between the seminal and blood compartments was identified. Thus, amounts of HIV RNA and HIV DNA remain high in semen of HIV-infected Chinese patients after six months of ART treatment, even when HIV RNA was undetectable in blood. PMID:26833915

  6. Recognition of DNA/RNA bulges by antimicrobial and antitumor metallohelices.

    PubMed

    Malina, Jaroslav; Scott, Peter; Brabec, Viktor

    2015-09-01

    Bulged structures have been identified in nucleic acids and have been shown to be linked to biomolecular processes involved in numerous diseases. Thus, chemical agents with affinity for bulged nucleic acids are of general biological significance. Herein, the mechanism of specific recognition and stabilization of bulged DNA and RNA by helical bimetallic species was established through detailed molecular biophysics and biochemistry assays. These agents, known as 'flexicates', are potential mimetics of ?-helical peptides in cancer treatment, exhibiting antimicrobial and antitumor effects. The flexicates have positive impacts on the thermal stability of DNA duplexes containing bulges, which means that the flexicates interact with the duplexes containing bulges, and that these interactions stabilize the secondary structures of these duplexes. Notably, the stabilising effect of the flexicates increases with the size of the bulge, the maximal stabilization is observed for the duplexes containing a bulge composed of at least three bases. The flexicates bind most preferentially to the bulges composed of pyrimidines flanked on both sides also by pyrimidines. It is suggested that it is so because these bulges exhibit greatest conformational variability in comparison with other combinations of bases in the bulge loop and bases flanking the bulge. Finally, the results indicate that there is only one dominant binding site for the flexicates on the DNA and RNA bulges and that the flexicates bind directly to the bulge or in its close proximity. It is also shown that the flexicates effectively bind to RNA duplexes containing the bulged region of HIV-1 TAR RNA. PMID:26212708

  7. Liposome-polyethylenimine complexes for enhanced DNA and siRNA delivery.

    PubMed

    Schfer, Jens; Hbel, Sabrina; Bakowsky, Udo; Aigner, Achim

    2010-09-01

    The efficient delivery of nucleic acids into cells is critical for successful gene therapy or gene knockdown. Polyethylenimines (PEIs) are positively charged polymers which complex and deliver DNA for gene transfection or small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) for the induction of RNA interference (RNAi), and mediate their endosomal release. Likewise, various liposomes act as transfection reagents, with some lipids showing increased endocytosis and influencing endosomal escape. This study combines the favourable properties of PEI and lipid systems for DNA and siRNA delivery. Various lipids and lipid combinations, which cover a broad range of physicochemical properties and form optimal liposomes, are assessed. By addition of the liposomes to pre-formed polyplexes, based on the low molecular weight PEI F25-LMW, we establish liposome-PEI complexes (lipopolyplexes) and characterise them in comparison to their 'parent' polyplexes and liposomes regarding size, shape and zeta-potential. Furthermore, while the lipidation of polyplexes generally decreases their toxicity, our studies on DNA transfection and siRNA-mediated knockdown also establish certain lipopolyplexes based on rigid, negatively charged lipids as particularly efficient vehicles for nucleic acid delivery, further improving DNA transfection. The analysis of their mechanism and kinetics of cellular uptake confirms that the biological properties of lipopolyplexes are mainly determined by the liposome shell. We conclude that certain lipopolyplexes show improved biological properties over PEI complexes, thus representing potentially attractive non-viral vectors for gene therapy and RNAi. PMID:20561681

  8. Selectivity of polyamines on the stability of RNA-DNA hybrids containing phosphodiester and phosphorothioate oligodeoxyribonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Antony, T; Thomas, T; Shirahata, A; Thomas, T J

    1999-08-17

    RNA-DNA hybrid stabilization is an important factor in the efficacy of oligonucleotide-based antisense gene therapy. We studied the ability of natural polyamines, putrescine, spermidine, and spermine, and a series of their structural analogues to stabilize RNA-DNA hybrids using melting temperature (Tm) measurements, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, and the ethidium bromide (EB) displacement assay. Phosphodiester (PO) and phosphorothioate (PS) oligodeoxyribonucleotides (ODNs) (21-mer) targeted to the initiation codon region of c-myc mRNA and the corresponding complementary RNA oligomer were used for this study. In the absence of polyamines, the Tm values of RNA-PODNA and RNA-PSDNA helices were 41 +/- 1 and 35 +/- 1 degrees C, respectively, in 10 mM sodium cacodylate buffer. In the presence of a hexamine analogue of spermine at a concentration of 25 microM, the hybrids were stabilized with Tm values of 80 and 78 degrees C, for RNA-PODNA and RNA-PSDNA, respectively. The d(Tm)/d(log[polyamine]) values, representing the concentration-dependent stabilization of hybrid helices by polyamines, increased from 10 to 24 for both the RNA-PODNA and RNA-PSDNA helices. Bisethyl substitution of the primary amino groups of the polyamines reduced the hybrid stabilizing potential of the polyamines. Among the homologues of spermidine [H2N(CH2)3NH(CH2)nNH2, where n = 2-8; n = 4 for spermidine] and spermine [H)N(CH2)3NH(CH2)nNH(CH2)3NH2, where n = 2-8; n = 4 for spermine], spermidine and spermine were the most effective agents for stabilizing the hybrid helices. At a physiologically compatible concentration of 150 mM NaCl, the hybrid helix formed from PODNA was more stable than that formed from PSDNA in the presence of polyamines. CD spectroscopic studies showed that the hybrids were stabilized in a conformation close to A-DNA in the presence of polyamines. The relative binding affinity of the polyamine homologues for the hybrid helices, as measured by the EB displacement assay, followed the same order in which they stabilized the hybrids. These results are important in the antisense context and in the general context of polyamine-nucleic acid interactions, and suggest that pentamine and hexamine analogues of spermine might be useful in improving the efficacy of therapeutic ODNs. PMID:10451373

  9. Site-specific DICER and DROSHA RNA products control the DNA damage response

    PubMed Central

    Francia, Sofia; Michelini, Flavia; Saxena, Alka; Tang, Dave; de Hoon, Michiel; Anelli, Viviana; Mione, Marina; Carninci, Piero; d’Adda di Fagagna, Fabrizio

    2012-01-01

    Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are involved in an increasing number of cellular events1. Some ncRNAs are processed by DICER and DROSHA ribonucleases to give rise to small double-stranded RNAs involved in RNA interference (RNAi)2. The DNA-damage response (DDR) is a signaling pathway that originates from the DNA lesion and arrests cell proliferation3. So far, DICER or DROSHA RNA products have not been reported to control DDR activation. Here we show that DICER and DROSHA, but not downstream elements of the RNAi pathway, are necessary to activate DDR upon oncogene-induced genotoxic stress and exogenous DNA damage, as studied also by DDR foci formation in mammalian cells and zebrafish and by checkpoint assays. DDR foci are sensitive to RNase A treatment, and DICER- and DROSHA-dependent RNA products are required to restore DDR foci in treated cells. Through RNA deep sequencing and studies of DDR activation at an inducible unique DNA double-strand break (DSB), we demonstrate that DDR foci formation requires site-specific DICER- and DROSHA-dependent small RNAs, named DDRNAs, which act in a MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN) complex-dependent manner. Chemically synthesized or in vitro-generated by DICER cleavage, DDRNAs are sufficient to restore DDR in RNase A-treated cells, also in the absence of other cellular RNAs. Our results describe an unanticipated direct role of a novel class of ncRNAs in the control of DDR activation at sites of DNA damage. PMID:22722852

  10. DNA-dependent RNA polymerase detects hidden giant viruses in published databanks.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vikas; Colson, Philippe; Giorgi, Roch; Pontarotti, Pierre; Raoult, Didier

    2014-07-01

    Environmental metagenomic studies show that there is a "dark matter," composed of sequences not linked to any known organism, as determined mainly using ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences, which therefore ignore giant viruses. DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RNAP) genes are universal in microbes and conserved in giant viruses and may replace rDNA for identifying microbes. We found while reconstructing RNAP subunit 2 (RNAP2) phylogeny that a giant virus sequenced together with the genome of a large eukaryote, Hydra magnipapillata, has been overlooked. To explore the dark matter, we used viral RNAP2 and reconstructed putative ancestral RNAP2, which were significantly superior in detecting distant clades than current sequences, and we revealed two additional unknown mimiviruses, misclassified as an euryarchaeote and an oomycete plant pathogen, and detected unknown putative viral clades. We suggest using RNAP systematically to decipher the black matter and identify giant viruses. PMID:24929085

  11. DNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase Detects Hidden Giant Viruses in Published Databanks

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vikas; Colson, Philippe; Giorgi, Roch; Pontarotti, Pierre; Raoult, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Environmental metagenomic studies show that there is a “dark matter,” composed of sequences not linked to any known organism, as determined mainly using ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences, which therefore ignore giant viruses. DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RNAP) genes are universal in microbes and conserved in giant viruses and may replace rDNA for identifying microbes. We found while reconstructing RNAP subunit 2 (RNAP2) phylogeny that a giant virus sequenced together with the genome of a large eukaryote, Hydra magnipapillata, has been overlooked. To explore the dark matter, we used viral RNAP2 and reconstructed putative ancestral RNAP2, which were significantly superior in detecting distant clades than current sequences, and we revealed two additional unknown mimiviruses, misclassified as an euryarchaeote and an oomycete plant pathogen, and detected unknown putative viral clades. We suggest using RNAP systematically to decipher the black matter and identify giant viruses. PMID:24929085

  12. MicroRNA-376a Sensitizes Cells Following DNA Damage by Downregulating MEPE Expression

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Jipo; Luo, Wei; Yu, Fang; Gao, Ning

    2013-01-01

    Abstract MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous molecules that post-transcriptionally regulate target gene expression and play an important role in many developmental processes. Matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE) is related to bone metabolism. We recently reported that MEPE protects cells from DNA damage-induced killing. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether miRNAs targeting MEPE play an important role in DNA damage response. We report in this study that miR-376a directly targets MEPE, and overexpression of miR-376a reduces the G2 arrest of the cells and sensitizes the cells to DNA damage-induced killing. These results indicate an association of MEPE gene inactivation with decreased survival after DNA damage and also provide useful information for miRNA-based drug development: a new target for sensitizing human tumor cells to radiotherapy or chemotherapy. PMID:23570370

  13. xUBF, an RNA polymerase I transcription factor, binds crossover DNA with low sequence specificity.

    PubMed Central

    Hu, C H; McStay, B; Jeong, S W; Reeder, R H

    1994-01-01

    Xenopus UBF (xUBF) is a transcription factor for RNA polymerase I which contains multiple DNA-binding motifs. These include a short basic region adjacent to a dimer motif plus five high-mobility-group (HMG) boxes. All of these DNA-binding motifs exhibit low sequence specificity, whether assayed singly or together. In contrast, the HMG boxes recognize DNA structure that is formed when two double helices are crossed over each other. HMG box 1, in particular, requires association of two double helices before it will bind and, either by itself or in the context of the intact protein, will loop DNA and organize it into higher-order structures. We discuss how this mode of binding affects the function of xUBF as a transcription factor. Images PMID:8164649

  14. Discovery of DNA Viruses in Wild-Caught Mosquitoes Using Small RNA High throughput Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Maijuan; Huang, Yong; Gong, Zhengda; Zhuang, Lu; Li, Cun; Yang, Hong; Tong, Yigang; Liu, Wei; Cao, Wuchun

    2011-01-01

    Background Mosquito-borne infectious diseases pose a severe threat to public health in many areas of the world. Current methods for pathogen detection and surveillance are usually dependent on prior knowledge of the etiologic agents involved. Hence, efficient approaches are required for screening wild mosquito populations to detect known and unknown pathogens. Methodology/principal findings In this study, we explored the use of Next Generation Sequencing to identify viral agents in wild-caught mosquitoes. We extracted total RNA from different mosquito species from South China. Small 1830 bp length RNA molecules were purified, reverse-transcribed into cDNA and sequenced using Illumina GAIIx instrumentation. Bioinformatic analyses to identify putative viral agents were conducted and the results confirmed by PCR. We identified a non-enveloped single-stranded DNA densovirus in the wild-caught Culex pipiens molestus mosquitoes. The majority of the viral transcripts (.>80% of the region) were covered by the small viral RNAs, with a few peaks of very high coverage obtained. The +/? strand sequence ratio of the small RNAs was approximately 7?1, indicating that the molecules were mainly derived from the viral RNA transcripts. The small viral RNAs overlapped, enabling contig assembly of the viral genome sequence. We identified some small RNAs in the reverse repeat regions of the viral 5?- and 3? -untranslated regions where no transcripts were expected. Conclusions/significance Our results demonstrate for the first time that high throughput sequencing of small RNA is feasible for identifying viral agents in wild-caught mosquitoes. Our results show that it is possible to detect DNA viruses by sequencing the small RNAs obtained from insects, although the underlying mechanism of small viral RNA biogenesis is unclear. Our data and those of other researchers show that high throughput small RNA sequencing can be used for pathogen surveillance in wild mosquito vectors. PMID:21949749

  15. Blind Predictions of DNA and RNA Tweezers Experiments with Force and Torque

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Fang-Chieh; Lipfert, Jan; Das, Rhiju

    2014-01-01

    Single-molecule tweezers measurements of double-stranded nucleic acids (dsDNA and dsRNA) provide unprecedented opportunities to dissect how these fundamental molecules respond to forces and torques analogous to those applied by topoisomerases, viral capsids, and other biological partners. However, tweezers data are still most commonly interpreted post facto in the framework of simple analytical models. Testing falsifiable predictions of state-of-the-art nucleic acid models would be more illuminating but has not been performed. Here we describe a blind challenge in which numerical predictions of nucleic acid mechanical properties were compared to experimental data obtained recently for dsRNA under applied force and torque. The predictions were enabled by the HelixMC package, first presented in this paper. HelixMC advances crystallography-derived base-pair level models (BPLMs) to simulate kilobase-length dsDNAs and dsRNAs under external forces and torques, including their global linking numbers. These calculations recovered the experimental bending persistence length of dsRNA within the error of the simulations and accurately predicted that dsRNA's spring-like conformation would give a two-fold decrease of stretch modulus relative to dsDNA. Further blind predictions of helix torsional properties, however, exposed inaccuracies in current BPLM theory, including three-fold discrepancies in torsional persistence length at the high force limit and the incorrect sign of dsRNA link-extension (twist-stretch) coupling. Beyond these experiments, HelixMC predicted that nucleosome-excluding poly(A)/poly(T) is at least two-fold stiffer than random-sequence dsDNA in bending, stretching, and torsional behaviors; Z-DNA to be at least three-fold stiffer than random-sequence dsDNA, with a near-zero link-extension coupling; and non-negligible effects from base pair step correlations. We propose that experimentally testing these predictions should be powerful next steps for understanding the flexibility of dsDNA and dsRNA in sequence contexts and under mechanical stresses relevant to their biology. PMID:25102226

  16. Intronic Non-CG DNA hydroxymethylation and alternative mRNA splicing in honey bees

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous whole-genome shotgun bisulfite sequencing experiments showed that DNA cytosine methylation in the honey bee (Apis mellifera) is almost exclusively at CG dinucleotides in exons. However, the most commonly used method, bisulfite sequencing, cannot distinguish 5-methylcytosine from 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, an oxidized form of 5-methylcytosine that is catalyzed by the TET family of dioxygenases. Furthermore, some analysis software programs under-represent non-CG DNA methylation and hydryoxymethylation for a variety of reasons. Therefore, we used an unbiased analysis of bisulfite sequencing data combined with molecular and bioinformatics approaches to distinguish 5-methylcytosine from 5-hydroxymethylcytosine. By doing this, we have performed the first whole genome analyses of DNA modifications at non-CG sites in honey bees and correlated the effects of these DNA modifications on gene expression and alternative mRNA splicing. Results We confirmed, using unbiased analyses of whole-genome shotgun bisulfite sequencing (BS-seq) data, with both new data and published data, the previous finding that CG DNA methylation is enriched in exons in honey bees. However, we also found evidence that cytosine methylation and hydroxymethylation at non-CG sites is enriched in introns. Using antibodies against 5-hydroxmethylcytosine, we confirmed that DNA hydroxymethylation at non-CG sites is enriched in introns. Additionally, using a new technique, Pvu-seq (which employs the enzyme PvuRts1l to digest DNA at 5-hydroxymethylcytosine sites followed by next-generation DNA sequencing), we further confirmed that hydroxymethylation is enriched in introns at non-CG sites. Conclusions Cytosine hydroxymethylation at non-CG sites might have more functional significance than previously appreciated, and in honey bees these modifications might be related to the regulation of alternative mRNA splicing by defining the locations of the introns. PMID:24079845

  17. Catalytic Activity of a Binary Informational Macromolecule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reader, John S.; Joyce, Gerald F.

    2003-01-01

    RNA molecules are thought to have played a prominent role in the early history of life on Earth based on their ability both to encode genetic information and to exhibit catalytic function. The modern genetic alphabet relies on two sets of complementary base pairs to store genetic information. However, due to the chemical instability of cytosine, which readily deaminates to uracil, a primitive genetic system composed of the bases A, U, G and C may have been difficult to establish. It has been suggested that the first genetic material instead contained only a single base-pairing unie'. Here we show that binary informational macromolecules, containing only two different nucleotide subunits, can act as catalysts. In vitro evolution was used to obtain ligase ribozymes composed of only 2,6-diaminopurine and uracil nucleotides, which catalyze the template-directed joining of two RNA molecules, one bearing a 5'-triphosphate and the other a 3'-hydroxyl. The active conformation of the fastest isolated ribozyme had a catalytic rate that was about 36,000-fold faster than the uncatalyzed rate of reaction. This ribozyme is specific for the formation of biologically relevant 3',5'-phosphodiester linkages.

  18. Strategy for Systematic Assembly of Large RNA and DNA Genomes: Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus Model

    PubMed Central

    Yount, Boyd; Curtis, Kristopher M.; Baric, Ralph S.

    2000-01-01

    A systematic method was developed to assemble functional full-length genomes of large RNA and DNA viruses. Coronaviruses contain the largest single-stranded positive-polarity RNA genome in nature. The ?30-kb genome, coupled with regions of genomic instability, has hindered the development of a full-length infectious cDNA construct. We have assembled a full-length infectious construct of transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), an important pathogen in swine. Using a novel approach, six adjoining cDNA subclones that span the entire TGEV genome were isolated. Each clone was engineered with unique flanking interconnecting junctions which determine a precise systematic assembly with only the adjacent cDNA subclones, resulting in an intact TGEV cDNA construct of ?28.5 kb in length. Transcripts derived from the full-length TGEV construct were infectious, and progeny virions were serially passaged in permissive host cells. Viral antigen production and subgenomic mRNA synthesis were evident during infection and throughout passage. Plaque-purified virus derived from the infectious construct replicated efficiently and displayed similar plaque morphology in permissive host cells. Host range phenotypes of the molecularly cloned and wild-type viruses were similar in cells of swine and feline origin. The recombinant viruses were sequenced across the unique interconnecting junctions, conclusively demonstrating the marker mutations and restriction sites that were engineered into the component clones. Full-length infectious constructs of TGEV will permit the precise genetic modification of the coronavirus genome. The method that we have designed to generate an infectious cDNA construct of TGEV could theoretically be used to precisely reconstruct microbial or eukaryotic genomes approaching several million base pairs in length. PMID:11044104

  19. Cloning and physical mapping of DNA complementary to potato leafroll virus RNA

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, O.P.

    1987-01-01

    Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) was aphid-transmitted from potato (Solanum tuberosum cultivar Russett Burbank) to ground cherry (Physalis floridana), where it was maintained by serial aphid transmission. Serological and plant differential tests indicated that the isolate was not contaminated with beet western yellows virus. Purified PLRV RNA was poly(A)-tailed in vitro and used as a template for reverse transcriptase, primed with oligo(dT). Alkaline gel electrophoresis of /sup 32/P-labeled first-strand complementary DNA (cDNA) indicated a major size range of 0.1 to 3.5 kilobases (kb). A small percentage of transcripts corresponded to full length PLRV RNA. Following RNase H and DNA polymerase I-mediated second strand synthesis, double-stranded cDNA was cloned into the Pst I site of the plasmid pUC9 using oligo (dC)-oligo(dG) tailing methodology. Escherichia coli JM109 transformants were screened with first-strand /sup 32/P-cDNA in colony hybridization experiments to confirm that recombinants contained PLRV-specific sequences.

  20. Structural Basis for DNA-Hairpin Promoter Recognition by the Bacteriophage N4 Virion RNA Polymerase

    SciTech Connect

    Gleghorn, M.; Davydova, E; Rothman-Denes, L; Murakami, K

    2008-01-01

    Coliphage N4 virion-encapsidated RNA polymerase (vRNAP) is a member of the phage T7-like single-subunit RNA polymerase (RNAP) family. Its central domain (mini-vRNAP) contains all RNAP functions of the full-length vRNAP, which recognizes a 5 to 7 base pair stem and 3 nucleotide loop hairpin DNA promoter. Here, we report the X-ray crystal structures of mini-vRNAP bound to promoters. Mini-vRNAP uses four structural motifs to recognize DNA sequences at the hairpin loop and stem and to unwind DNA. Despite their low sequence similarity, three out of four motifs are shared with T7 RNAP that recognizes a double-stranded DNA promoter. The binary complex structure and results of engineered disulfide linkage experiments reveal that the plug and motif B loop, which block the access of template DNA to the active site in the apo-form mini-vRNAP, undergo a large-scale conformational change upon promoter binding, explaining the restricted promoter specificity that is critical for N4 phage early transcription.

  1. Inhibition of hepatitis B virus replication with linear DNA sequences expressing antiviral micro-RNA shuttles

    SciTech Connect

    Chattopadhyay, Saket; Ely, Abdullah; Bloom, Kristie; Weinberg, Marc S.; Arbuthnot, Patrick

    2009-11-20

    RNA interference (RNAi) may be harnessed to inhibit viral gene expression and this approach is being developed to counter chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). Compared to synthetic RNAi activators, DNA expression cassettes that generate silencing sequences have advantages of sustained efficacy and ease of propagation in plasmid DNA (pDNA). However, the large size of pDNAs and inclusion of sequences conferring antibiotic resistance and immunostimulation limit delivery efficiency and safety. To develop use of alternative DNA templates that may be applied for therapeutic gene silencing, we assessed the usefulness of PCR-generated linear expression cassettes that produce anti-HBV micro-RNA (miR) shuttles. We found that silencing of HBV markers of replication was efficient (>75%) in cell culture and in vivo. miR shuttles were processed to form anti-HBV guide strands and there was no evidence of induction of the interferon response. Modification of terminal sequences to include flanking human adenoviral type-5 inverted terminal repeats was easily achieved and did not compromise silencing efficacy. These linear DNA sequences should have utility in the development of gene silencing applications where modifications of terminal elements with elimination of potentially harmful and non-essential sequences are required.

  2. Crystal structure of RNase H3–substrate complex reveals parallel evolution of RNA/DNA hybrid recognition

    PubMed Central

    Figiel, Małgorzata; Nowotny, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    RNases H participate in the replication and maintenance of genomic DNA. RNase H1 cleaves the RNA strand of RNA/DNA hybrids, and RNase H2 in addition hydrolyzes the RNA residue of RNA–DNA junctions. RNase H3 is structurally closely related to RNases H2, but its biochemical properties are similar to type 1 enzymes. Its unique N-terminal substrate-binding domain (N-domain) is related to TATA-binding protein. Here, we report the first crystal structure of RNase H3 in complex with its RNA/DNA substrate. Just like RNases H1, type 3 enzyme recognizes the 2′-OH groups of the RNA strand and detects the DNA strand by binding a phosphate group and inducing B-form conformation. Moreover, the N-domain recognizes RNA and DNA in a manner that is highly similar to the hybrid-binding domain of RNases H1. Our structure demonstrates a remarkable example of parallel evolution of the elements used in the specific recognition of RNA and DNA. PMID:25016521

  3. An improved method for RNA isolation and cDNA library construction from immature seeds of Jatropha curcas L

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background RNA quality and quantity is sometimes unsuitable for cDNA library construction, from plant seeds rich in oil, polysaccharides and other secondary metabolites. Seeds of jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) are rich in fatty acids/lipids, storage proteins, polysaccharides, and a number of other secondary metabolites that could either bind and/or co-precipitate with RNA, making it unsuitable for downstream applications. Existing RNA isolation methods and commercial kits often fail to deliver high-quality total RNA from immature jatropha seeds for poly(A)+ RNA purification and cDNA synthesis. Findings A protocol has been developed for isolating good quality total RNA from immature jatropha seeds, whereby a combination of the CTAB based RNA extraction method and a silica column of a commercial plant RNA extraction kit is used. The extraction time was reduced from two days to about 3 hours and the RNA was suitable for poly(A)+ RNA purification, cDNA synthesis, cDNA library construction, RT-PCR, and Northern hybridization. Based on sequence information from selected clones and amplified PCR product, the cDNA library seems to be a good source of full-length jatropha genes. The method was equally effective for isolating RNA from mustard and rice seeds. Conclusions This is a simple CTAB + silica column method to extract high quality RNA from oil rich immature jatropha seeds that is suitable for several downstream applications. This method takes less time for RNA extraction and is equally effective for other tissues where the quality and quantity of RNA is highly interfered by the presence of fatty acids, polysaccharides and polyphenols. PMID:20444276

  4. Campylobacter species identification based on polymorphism of DNA encoding rRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Moureau, P; Derclaye, I; Gregoire, D; Janssen, M; Cornelis, G R

    1989-01-01

    Total DNA from five Campylobacter species was digested with a mixture of XhoI and BglII restriction endonucleases and analyzed by Southern hybridization by using a probe complementary to the DNA coding for the 16S rRNA. Each of the Campylobacter species, including C. jejuni, C. coli, C. laridis, C. fetus, and C. upsaliensis, displayed a characteristic pattern. Although some bands may be common to different species, the simplicity of the hybridization pattern enabled us to discriminate among the different species of Campylobacter. Images PMID:2570080

  5. The content of DNA and RNA in microparticles released by Jurkat and HL-60 cells undergoing in vitro apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Reich, Charles F.; Pisetsky, David S.

    2009-03-10

    Microparticles are small membrane-bound vesicles that are released from apoptotic cells during blebbing. These particles contain DNA and RNA and display important functional activities, including immune system activation. Furthermore, nucleic acids inside the particle can be analyzed as biomarkers in a variety of disease states. To elucidate the nature of microparticle nucleic acids, DNA and RNA released in microparticles from the Jurkat T and HL-60 promyelocytic cell lines undergoing apoptosis in vitro were studied. Microparticles were isolated from culture media by differential centrifugation and characterized by flow cytometry and molecular approaches. In these particles, DNA showed laddering by gel electrophoresis and was present in a form that allowed direct binding by a monoclonal anti-DNA antibody, suggesting antigen accessibility even without fixation. Analysis of RNA by gel electrophoresis showed intact 18s and 28s ribosomal RNA bands, although lower molecular bands consistent with 28s ribosomal RNA degradation products were also present. Particles also contained messenger RNA as shown by RT-PCR amplification of sequences for {beta}-actin and GAPDH. In addition, gel electrophoresis showed the presence of low molecular weight RNA in the size range of microRNA. Together, these results indicate that microparticles from apoptotic Jurkat and HL-60 cells contain diverse nucleic acid species, indicating translocation of both nuclear and cytoplasmic DNA and RNA as particle release occurs during death.

  6. Bacterial and archaeal communities in long-term contaminated surface and subsurface soil evaluated through coextracted RNA and DNA.

    PubMed

    Mikkonen, Anu; Santalahti, Minna; Lappi, Kaisa; Pulkkinen, Anni-Mari; Montonen, Leone; Suominen, Leena

    2014-10-01

    Soil RNA and DNA were coextracted along a contamination gradient at a landfarming field with aged crude oil contamination to investigate pollution-dependent differences in 16S rRNA and rRNA gene pools. Microbial biomass correlated with nucleic acid yields as well as bacterial community change, indicating that the same factors controlled community size and structure. In surface soil, bacterial community evenness, estimated through length heterogeneity PCR (LH-PCR) fingerprinting, appeared higher for RNA-based than for DNA-based communities. The RNA-based community profiles resembled the DNA-based communities of soil with a lower contamination level. Cloning-based identification of bacterial hydrocarbon-degrading taxa in the RNA pool, representing the viable community with high protein synthesis potential, indicated that decontamination processes still continue. Analyses of archaea revealed that only Thaumarchaeota were present in the aerobic samples, whereas more diverse communities were found in the compacted subsurface soil with more crude oil. For subsurface bacteria, hydrocarbon concentration explained neither the community structure nor the difference between RNA-based and DNA-based communities. However, rRNA of bacterial taxa associated with syntrophic and sulphate-reducing alkane degradation was detected. Although the same prokaryotic taxa were identified in DNA and RNA, comparison of the two nucleic acid pools can aid in the assessment of past and future restoration success. PMID:24986450

  7. Heat shock induces a loss of rRNA-encoding DNA repeats in Brassica nigra.

    PubMed Central

    Waters, E R; Schaal, B A

    1996-01-01

    Stress-induced mutations may play an important role in the evolution of plants. Plants do not sequester a germ line, and thus any stress-induced mutations could be passed on to future generations. We report a study of the effects of heat shock on genomic components of Brassica nigra Brassicaceae. Plants were submitted to heat stress, and the copy number of two nuclear-encoded single-copy genes, rRNA-encoding DNA (rDNA) and a chloroplast DNA gene, was determined and compared to a nonstressed control group. We determined whether genomic changes were inherited by examining copy number in the selfed progeny of control and heat-treated individuals. No effects of heat shock on copy number of the single-copy nuclear genes or on chloroplast DNA are found. However, heat shock did cause a statistically significant reduction in rDNA copies inherited by the F1 generation. In addition, we propose a DNA damage-reppair hypothesis to explain the reduction in rDNA caused by heat shock. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8643652

  8. Transcription-coupled Hypernegative Supercoiling of Plasmid DNA by T7 RNA Polymerase in Escherichia coli Topoisomerase I Deficient Strains

    PubMed Central

    Samul, Rebecca; Leng, Fenfei

    2007-01-01

    Summary Transcription by RNA polymerase can stimulate negative DNA supercoiling in Escherichia coli topA strains. This phenomenon has been explained by a twin-supercoiled-domain model of transcription in which positive DNA supercoils are generated in front of a translocating RNA polymerase and negative supercoils behind it. However, since a specific system is lacking to study the factors governing this biologically important process, the parameters regulating transcription-coupled DNA supercoiling (TCDS) in Escherichia coli still remain elusive. In this paper, we describe our efforts to study TCDS in Escherichia coli using a newly developed system. This system consists of a topA strain, VS111(DE3) or DM800(DE3), in which a ?DE3 prophage containing a T7 RNA polymerase gene under control of the lacUV5 promoter has been integrated into the cell chromosome, along with a set of plasmids producing RNA transcripts of various lengths by T7 RNA polymerase. Using this system, we found that transcription by T7 RNA polymerase strikingly induced formation of hypernegatively supercoiled plasmid DNA. We also discovered, for the first time, that TCDS was dependent on the length of RNA transcripts in vivo, precisely predicted by the twin-supercoiled-domain model of transcription. Furthermore, our results demonstrated that hypernegative supercoiling of plasmid DNA by T7 RNA polymerase did not require anchoring of DNA to the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane. These results indicate that a transcribing RNA polymerase alone is sufficient to cause change of local DNA superhelicity, which can have a powerful impact on the conformation and function of critical DNA sequence elements, such as promoters and DNA replication origins. PMID:17980389

  9. HYPOXIA-INDUCED GROWTH LIMITATION OF JUVENILE FISHES IN AN ESTUARINE NURSERY: ASSESSMENT OF SMALL-SCALE TEMPORAL DYNAMICS USING RNA:DNA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ratio of RNA to DNA (RNA:DNA) in white muscle tissue of juvenile summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) and weakfish (Cynoscion regalis) was used as a proxy for recent growth rate in an estuarine nursery. Variability in RNA:DNA was examined relative to temporal changes in te...

  10. RNA binding to APOBEC3G induces the disassembly of functional deaminase complexes by displacing single-stranded DNA substrates

    PubMed Central

    Polevoda, Bogdan; McDougall, William M.; Tun, Bradley N.; Cheung, Michael; Salter, Jason D.; Friedman, Alan E.; Smith, Harold C.

    2015-01-01

    APOBEC3G (A3G) DNA deaminase activity requires a holoenzyme complex whose assembly on nascent viral reverse transcripts initiates with A3G dimers binding to ssDNA followed by formation of higher-order A3G homo oligomers. Catalytic activity is inhibited when A3G binds to RNA. Our prior studies suggested that RNA inhibited A3G binding to ssDNA. In this report, near equilibrium binding and gel shift analyses showed that A3G assembly and disassembly on ssDNA was an ordered process involving A3G dimers and multimers thereof. Although, fluorescence anisotropy showed that A3G had similar nanomolar affinity for RNA and ssDNA, RNA stochastically dissociated A3G dimers and higher-order oligomers from ssDNA, suggesting a different modality for RNA binding. Mass spectrometry mapping of A3G peptides cross-linked to nucleic acid suggested ssDNA only bound to three peptides, amino acids (aa) 181194 in the N-terminus and aa 314320 and 345374 in the C-terminus that were part of a continuous exposed surface. RNA bound to these peptides and uniquely associated with three additional peptides in the N- terminus, aa 1529, 4152 and 8399, that formed a continuous surface area adjacent to the ssDNA binding surface. The data predict a mechanistic model of RNA inhibition of ssDNA binding to A3G in which competitive and allosteric interactions determine RNA-bound versus ssDNA-bound conformational states. PMID:26424853

  11. Multifunctional Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Diagnostics, Therapy and Macromolecule Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Swee Kuan; Padmanabhan, Parasuraman; Selvan, Subramanian Tamil

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, multifunctional nanoparticles (NPs) consisting of either metal (e.g. Au), or magnetic NP (e.g. iron oxide) with other fluorescent components such as quantum dots (QDs) or organic dyes have been emerging as versatile candidate systems for cancer diagnosis, therapy, and macromolecule delivery such as micro ribonucleic acid (microRNA). This review intends to highlight the recent advances in the synthesis and application of multifunctional NPs (mainly iron oxide) in theranostics, an area used to combine therapeutics and diagnostics. The recent applications of NPs in miRNA delivery are also reviewed. PMID:24396508

  12. Photoregulation of biologically active macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Erlanger, B F

    1976-01-01

    A broad view is given of photoregulated processes as they occur in algae, fungi, halophilic bacteria, higher plants, invertebrates, and higher animals. Emphasis is on the following: the organs, tissues, and organelles that participate; the nature of the photoreceptor pigments; the light-induced structural changes that occur in the photopigments; and the way in which the photochemical events are believed to be translated into the physiological response. An attempt is made to show that there exist common biochemical attributes in all systems. In particular, they depend upon the ability of a low-molecular-weight to regulate a biologically active macromolecule, which may or may not be incorporated into a membrane. This is a common type of biochemical regulation and is, for example, the basis of allosterism. The additional refinement in photosensitive systems is the ability of light to alter the stereochemistry of the low-molecular-weight effector molecule and thus to modify its effect on the macromolecule. Model photosensitive systems are examined that incorporate control mechanisms that function in natural systems. For example, there are systems in which enzymes, normally insensitive to light, are made subject to photoregulation. In others, membrane permeability is rendered photoresponsive. A comparison of the model systems was processes found in nature permits the formulation of an hypothesis to explain how naturally occurring photoresponsive systems might have evolved. PMID:822780

  13. Configurational diffusion of coal macromolecules

    SciTech Connect

    Guin, J.A.; Curtis, C.W.; Tarrer, A.R.; Kim, S.; Hwang, D.; Chen, C.C.; Chiou, Z.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of our research was to obtain fundamental information regarding the functional dependence of the diffusion coefficient of coal molecules on the ratio of molecule to pore diameter. That is, the objective of our study was to examine the effect of molecule size and configuration on hindered diffusion of coal macromolecules through as porous medium. To best accomplish this task, we circumvented the complexities of an actual porous catalyst by using a well defined porous matrix with uniform capillaric pores, i.e., a track-etched membrane. In this way, useful information was obtained regarding the relationship of molecular size and configuration on the diffusion rate of coal derived macromolecules through a pore structure with known geometry. Similar studies were performed using a pellet formed of porous alumina, to provide a link between the idealized membranes and the actual complex pore structure of real catalyst extrudates. The fundamental information from our study will be useful toward the tailoring of catalysts to minimize diffusional influences and thereby increase coal conversion and selectivity for desirable products. (VC)

  14. Microwave-assisted phosphitylation of DNA and RNA nucleosides and their analogs.

    PubMed

    Efthymiou, Tim; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayanan

    2015-01-01

    Microwave-assisted chemical phosphitylation of novel nucleoside analogs containing a ribulose sugar unit was successful with yields ranging from 50% to 79% using 2-cyanoethyl-N,N-diisopropyl chlorophosphoramidite as the phosphitylating reagent. The resultant phosphoramidite products remained intact, with no signs of degradation over extended reaction times (up to 60 min) at an elevated temperature (65C). When the same microwave-mediated phosphitylating protocols were applied to canonical DNA and RNA nucleoside monomers as substrates, using either 2-cyanoethyl-N,N,-diisopropyl chlorophosphoramidite or 2-cyanoethyl-N,N,N',N'-tetraisopropyl phosphane with an activator, 40% to 90% yields of DNA and RNA phosphoramidites were obtained within 10 to 15 min. These results demonstrate that microwave-assisted phosphitylation is an efficient alternative to standard phosphitylating conditions that can be expanded and refined to include a variety of substrates. 2015 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:25754891

  15. RNA polymerase II subunits 2, 3, and 11 form a core subassembly with DNA binding activity.

    PubMed

    Kimura, M; Ishiguro, A; Ishihama, A

    1997-10-10

    RNA polymerase II purified from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe consists of 10 species of subunit polypeptide. We introduced a histidine cluster tag sequence into the chromosomal rpb1 and rpb3 genes, which encode subunit 1 (Rpb1) and subunit 3 (Rpb3), respectively, and purified the RNA polymerase by Ni2+ affinity chromatography. After stepwise dissociation of the Rpb1- and Rpb3-tagged RNA polymerases fixed on Ni2+-resin by increasing concentrations of urea or guanidium hydrochloride, Rpb2-Rpb3-Rpb11 or Rpb2-Rpb3-Rpb11-Rpb10 complexes were obtained. Since the complex consisting of Rpb2, Rpb3, and Rpb11 cannot be dissociated even after treatment with 6 M urea buffer, we propose that this complex represents a core subassembly of the RNA polymerase II, analogous to the alpha2beta complex in the assembly of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase. Both the Rpb2-Rpb3-Rpb11 complex and the free Rpb1 protein showed DNA binding activity, although the affinity was weaker compared with the intact RNA polymerase. PMID:9325316

  16. Isolation and characterization of homologous TRBP cDNA for RNA interference in Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lishi; Li, Xiaolan; Huang, Jianhua; Zhou, Falin; Su, Tianfeng; Jiang, Shigui

    2013-02-01

    The transactivation response RNA-binding protein (TRBP) interacts with Dicer and binds to double-stranded RNA as a critical component of the RNA-induced silencing complex, which is a key complex in the RNA interference pathway. The full-length cDNA of TRBP from the tiger prawn, Penaeus monodon, (PmTRBP; 1548 bp long with a 1029 bp coding region) was isolated. The encoded polypeptide of 343 amino acids had a predicted molecular mass of 36.8 kDa. Sequence homology and phylogenetic analysis indicated that PmTRBP was evolutionarily closest to TRBP1 from Litopenaeus vannamei, with the three double-stranded RNA-binding motifs that were typical of the TRBP family. Tissue expression profile analysis by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction showed that PmTRBP1 was constitutively expressed in all the examined tissues, with a predominant expression in the lymphatic organs and with the weakest expression in the ovaries. Significantly upregulated PmTRBP1 expression was elicited by systemic injections of Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio vulnificus, and white spot syndrome virus, thereby revealing its pathogen inducibility. Furthermore, exogenous viral nucleoside analogs (high-molecular-weight poly(I:C) dsRNAs as well as R484 single-stranded RNA) were remarkably induced PmTRBP1 transcription at 48 h and 9 h post-injection, respectively, which suggested that PmTRBP1 might function in tiger prawn antibacterial and antiviral response. PMID:23207479

  17. Novel Assays for Measurement of Total Cell-Associated HIV-1 DNA and RNA.

    PubMed

    Hong, Feiyu; Aga, Evgenia; Cillo, Anthony R; Yates, Aarika L; Besson, Guillaume; Fyne, Elizabeth; Koontz, Dianna L; Jennings, Cheryl; Zheng, Lu; Mellors, John W

    2016-04-01

    Although a number of PCR-based quantitative assays for measuring HIV-1 persistence during suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART) have been reported, a simple, sensitive, reproducible method is needed for application to large clinical trials. We developed novel quantitative PCR assays for cell-associated (CA) HIV-1 DNA and RNA, targeting a highly conserved region in HIV-1pol, with sensitivities of 3 to 5 copies/1 million cells. We evaluated the performance characteristics of the assays using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 5 viremic patients and 20 patients receiving effective ART. Total and resting CD4(+)T cells were isolated from a subset of patients and tested for comparison with PBMCs. The estimated standard deviations including interassay variability and intra-assay variability of the assays were modest, i.e., 0.15 and 0.10 log10copies/10(6)PBMCs, respectively, for CA HIV-1 DNA and 0.40 and 0.19 log10copies/10(6)PBMCs for CA HIV-1 RNA. Testing of longitudinally obtained PBMC samples showed little variation for either viremic patients (median fold differences of 0.80 and 0.88 for CA HIV-1 DNA and RNA, respectively) or virologically suppressed patients (median fold differences of 1.14 and 0.97, respectively). CA HIV-1 DNA and RNA levels were strongly correlated (r= 0.77 to 1;P= 0.0001 to 0.037) for assays performed using PBMCs from different sources (phlebotomy versus leukapheresis) or using total or resting CD4(+)T cells purified by either bead selection or flow cytometric sorting. Their sensitivity, reproducibility, and broad applicability to small numbers of mononuclear cells make these assays useful for observational and interventional studies that examine longitudinal changes in the numbers of HIV-1-infected cells and their levels of transcription. PMID:26763968

  18. RNA:DNA ratio and other nucleic acid derived indices in marine ecology.

    PubMed

    Chcharo, Maria A; Chcharo, Luis

    2008-08-01

    Some of most used indicators in marine ecology are nucleic acid-derived indices. They can be divided by target levels in three groups: 1) at the organism level as ecophysiologic indicators, indicators such as RNA:DNA ratios, DNA:dry weight and RNA:protein, 2) at the population level, indicators such as growth rate, starvation incidence or fisheries impact indicators, and 3) at the community level, indicators such as trophic interactions, exergy indices and prey identification. The nucleic acids derived indices, especially RNA:DNA ratio, have been applied with success as indicators of nutritional condition, well been and growth in marine organisms. They are also useful as indicators of natural or anthropogenic impacts in marine population and communities, such as upwelling or dredge fisheries, respectively. They can help in understanding important issues of marine ecology such as trophic interactions in marine environment, fish and invertebrate recruitment failure and biodiversity changes, without laborious work of counting, measuring and identification of small marine organisms. Besides the objective of integrate nucleic acid derived indices across levels of organization, the paper will also include a general characterization of most used nucleic acid derived indices in marine ecology and also advantages and limitations of them. We can conclude that using indicators, such RNA:DNA ratios and other nucleic acids derived indices concomitantly with organism and ecosystems measures of responses to climate change (distribution, abundance, activity, metabolic rate, survival) will allow for the development of more rigorous and realistic predictions of the effects of anthropogenic climate change on marine systems. PMID:19325815

  19. Comparative modeling of DNA and RNA polymerases from Moniliophthora perniciosa mitochondrial plasmid

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Bruno S; Taranto, Alex G; Góes-Neto, Aristóteles; Duarte, Angelo A

    2009-01-01

    Background The filamentous fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa (Stahel) Aime & Phillips-Mora is a hemibiotrophic Basidiomycota that causes witches' broom disease of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.). This disease has resulted in a severe decrease in Brazilian cocoa production, which changed the position of Brazil in the market from the second largest cocoa exporter to a cocoa importer. Fungal mitochondrial plasmids are usually invertrons encoding DNA and RNA polymerases. Plasmid insertions into host mitochondrial genomes are probably associated with modifications in host generation time, which can be involved in fungal aging. This association suggests activity of polymerases, and these can be used as new targets for drugs against mitochondrial activity of fungi, more specifically against witches' broom disease. Sequencing and modeling: DNA and RNA polymerases of M. perniciosa mitochondrial plasmid were completely sequenced and their models were carried out by Comparative Homology approach. The sequences of DNA and RNA polymerase showed 25% of identity to 1XHX and 1ARO (pdb code) using BLASTp, which were used as templates. The models were constructed using Swiss PDB-Viewer and refined with a set of Molecular Mechanics (MM) and Molecular Dynamics (MD) in water carried out with AMBER 8.0, both working under the ff99 force fields, respectively. Ramachandran plots were generated by Procheck 3.0 and exhibited models with 97% and 98% for DNA and RNA polymerases, respectively. MD simulations in water showed models with thermodynamic stability after 2000 ps and 300 K of simulation. Conclusion This work contributes to the development of new alternatives for controlling the fungal agent of witches' broom disease. PMID:19744344

  20. RNA:DNA Ratio and Other Nucleic Acid Derived Indices in Marine Ecology

    PubMed Central

    Chcharo, Maria Alexandra; Chcharo, Luis

    2008-01-01

    Some of most used indicators in marine ecology are nucleic acid-derived indices. They can be divided by target levels in three groups: 1) at the organism level as ecophysiologic indicators, indicators such as RNA:DNA ratios, DNA:dry weight and RNA:protein, 2) at the population level, indicators such as growth rate, starvation incidence or fisheries impact indicators, and 3) at the community level, indicators such as trophic interactions, exergy indices and prey identification. The nucleic acids derived indices, especially RNA:DNA ratio, have been applied with success as indicators of nutritional condition, well been and growth in marine organisms. They are also useful as indicators of natural or anthropogenic impacts in marine population and communities, such as upwelling or dredge fisheries, respectively. They can help in understanding important issues of marine ecology such as trophic interactions in marine environment, fish and invertebrate recruitment failure and biodiversity changes, without laborious work of counting, measuring and identification of small marine organisms. Besides the objective of integrate nucleic acid derived indices across levels of organization, the paper will also include a general characterization of most used nucleic acid derived indices in marine ecology and also advantages and limitations of them. We can conclude that using indicators, such RNA:DNA ratios and other nucleic acids derived indices concomitantly with organism and ecosystems measures of responses to climate change (distribution, abundance, activity, metabolic rate, survival) will allow for the development of more rigorous and realistic predictions of the effects of anthropogenic climate change on marine systems. PMID:19325815

  1. RNA/DNA ratio as biomarkers for periphyton and macroinvertebrate growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mewes, Daniela; Winkelmann, Carola

    2015-04-01

    A biocenosis is a complex assembly of organisms driven and shaped by numerous processes and interactions. Yet, in order to describe the biocenosis of a stream often only state variables, such as algal biomass or invertebrate diversity and abundance, are measured. But these variables fail to provide much needed information on those driving processes. Because processes such as growth of periphyton and invertebrates can hardly be measured directly in the field, the use of biomarkers is a promising approach to quantify biological rates under natural conditions. Periphyton represents the main food source for invertebrate grazers and periphyton growth rate rather than standing stocks alone allows the estimation of the availability of this resource. A linear relationship of RNA/DNA ratios and growth rate has previously been established for single species cultures of algae and bacteria but not for naturally occurring freshwater periphyton assemblages. In this study it could be shown that linear relationships of RNA/DNA ratios and growth rate are also valid for naturally occurring freshwater periphyton assemblages and can be used as biomarkers for periphyton growth rate. Moreover, recent results indicate that the RNA/DNA ratio might also be used as biomarker for invertebrates, because high-quality food was observed to increase the RNA/DNA ratios of the freshwater amphipod Dikerogammarus villosus. These are very promising results with regard to the usefulness and applicability of biomarkers ecosystem analysis in running waters. Additional biomarkers allowing the analysis of further processes and interactions within the food web such as PLFAs (phospholipid-fatty acids), neutral lipids and PUFAs (polyunsaturated fatty acids) are to be tested for their applicability in stream ecosystems.

  2. Microbial rRNA:rDNA gene ratios may be unexpectedly low due to extracellular DNA preservation in soils.

    PubMed

    Dlott, Glade; Maul, Jude E; Buyer, Jeffrey; Yarwood, Stephanie

    2015-08-01

    We tested a method of estimating the activity of detectable individual bacterial and archaeal OTUs within a community by calculating ratios of absolute 16S rRNA to rDNA copy numbers. We investigated phylogenetically coherent patterns of activity among soil prokaryotes in non-growing soil communities. 'Activity ratios' were calculated for bacteria and archaea in soil sampled from a tropical rainforest and temperate agricultural field and incubated for one year at two levels of moisture availability and with and without carbon additions. Prior to calculating activity ratios, we corrected the relative abundances of OTUs to account for multiple copies of the 16S gene per genome. Although necessary to ensure accurate activity ratios, this correction did not change our interpretation of differences in microbial community composition across treatments. Activity ratios in this study were lower than those previously published (0.0003-210, logarithmic mean=0.24), suggesting significant extracellular DNA preservation. After controlling for the influence of individual incubation jars, significant differences in activity ratios between all members of each phylum were observed. Planctomycetes and Firmicutes had the highest activity ratios and Crenarchaeota had the lowest activity overall. Our results suggest that greater caution should be taken in interpreting soil microbial community data derived from extracted DNA. Indirect extraction methods may be useful in ensuring that microbes identified from extracellular DNA are not erroneously interpreted as components of an active microbial community. PMID:26055315

  3. Ion distributions around left- and right-handed DNA and RNA duplexes: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Feng; Roland, Christopher; Sagui, Celeste

    2014-01-01

    The ion atmosphere around nucleic acids is an integral part of their solvated structure. However, detailed aspects of the ionic distribution are difficult to probe experimentally, and comparative studies for different structures of the same sequence are almost non-existent. Here, we have used large-scale molecular dynamics simulations to perform a comparative study of the ion distribution around (5′-CGCGCGCGCGCG-3′)2 dodecamers in solution in B-DNA, A-RNA, Z-DNA and Z-RNA forms. The CG sequence is very sensitive to ionic strength and it allows the comparison with the rare but important left-handed forms. The ions investigated include Na+, K+ and Mg2 +, with various concentrations of their chloride salts. Our results quantitatively describe the characteristics of the ionic distributions for different structures at varying ionic strengths, tracing these differences to nucleic acid structure and ion type. Several binding pockets with rather long ion residence times are described, both for the monovalent ions and for the hexahydrated Mg[(H2O)6]2+ ion. The conformations of these binding pockets include direct binding through desolvated ion bridges in the GpC steps in B-DNA and A-RNA; direct binding to backbone oxygens; binding of Mg[(H2O)6]2+ to distant phosphates, resulting in acute bending of A-RNA; tight ‘ion traps’ in Z-RNA between C-O2 and the C-O2′ atoms in GpC steps; and others. PMID:25428372

  4. Use of chimeric DNA-RNA primers in quantitative PCR for detection of Ehrlichia canis and Babesia canis.

    PubMed

    Peleg, Ofer; Baneth, Gad; Eyal, Osnat; Inbar, Jacob; Harrus, Shimon

    2009-10-01

    To overcome the problem of nonspecific by-products in quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays, we constructed DNA-RNA chimeric primers and evaluated their use in the detection and quantification of the Ehrlichia canis 16S rRNA, Babesia canis Hsp70, and canine beta-actin genes. Several RNA bases were incorporated into specific positions in the DNA primers, while no RNA stretches were allowed. qPCR reactions were carried out without preamplification steps. This resulted in decreased formation of undesirable by-products and a 10-fold increase in assay sensitivity. PMID:19633128

  5. Use of Chimeric DNA-RNA Primers in Quantitative PCR for Detection of Ehrlichia canis and Babesia canis?

    PubMed Central

    Peleg, Ofer; Baneth, Gad; Eyal, Osnat; Inbar, Jacob; Harrus, Shimon

    2009-01-01

    To overcome the problem of nonspecific by-products in quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays, we constructed DNA-RNA chimeric primers and evaluated their use in the detection and quantification of the Ehrlichia canis 16S rRNA, Babesia canis Hsp70, and canine ?-actin genes. Several RNA bases were incorporated into specific positions in the DNA primers, while no RNA stretches were allowed. qPCR reactions were carried out without preamplification steps. This resulted in decreased formation of undesirable by-products and a 10-fold increase in assay sensitivity. PMID:19633128

  6. Protein, RNA, and DNA synthesis in cultures of skin fibroblasts from healthy subjects and patients with rheumatic diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Abakumova, O.Y.; Kutsenko, N.G.; Panasyuk, A.F.

    1985-07-01

    To study the mechanism of the lasting disturbance of fibroblast function, protein, RNA and DNA synthesis was investigated in skin fibroblasts from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic scleroderma (SS). The labeled precursors used to analyze synthesis of protein, RNA, and DNA were /sup 14/C-protein hydrolysate, (/sup 14/C)uridine, and (/sup 14/C) thymidine. Stimulation was determined by measuring incorporation of (/sup 14/C)proline into fibroblast proteins. During analysis of stability of fast-labeled RNA tests were carried out to discover whether all measurable radioactivity belonged to RNA molecules.

  7. Heterogeneity of rat tropoelastin mRNA revealed by cDNA cloning

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R.A.; Deak, S.B.; Stolle, C.A.; Boyd, C.D. )

    1990-10-01

    A {lambda}gt11 library constructed from poly(A{plus}) RNA isolated from aortic tissue of neonatal rats was screened for rat tropoelastin cDNAs. The first, screen, utilizing a human tropoelastin cDNA clone, provided rat tropoelastin cDNAs spanning 2.3 kb of carboxy-terminal coding sequence and extended into the 3{prime}-untranslated region. A subsequent screen using a 5{prime} rat tropoelastin cDNA clone yielded clones extending into the amino-terminal signal sequence coding region. Sequence analysis of these clones has provided the complete derived amino acid sequence of rat tropoelastin and allowed alignment and comparison with published bovine cDNA sequence. While the overall structure of rat tropoelastin is similar to bovine sequence, numerous substitutions, deletions, and insertions demonstrated considerable heterogeneity between species. In particular, the pentapeptide repeat VPGVG, characteristic of all tropoelastins analyzed to date, is replaced in rat tropoelastin by a repeating pentapeptide, IPGVG. The hexapeptide repeat VGVAPG, the bovine elastin receptor binding peptide, is not encoded by rat tropoelastin cDNAs. Variations in coding sequence between rat tropoelastin CDNA clones were also found which may represent mRNA heterogeneity produced by alternative splicing of the rat tropoelastin pre-mRNA.

  8. Age-Dependent Accumulation of 8-Oxoguanine in the DNA and RNA in Various Rat Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Ben; Gan, Wei; Shi, Fei; Hu, Guo-Xin; Chen, Lian-Guo; Hayakawa, Hiroshi; Sekiguchi, Mutsuo

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between the oxidative damage of nucleic acids and aging of animals was investigated by analyzing the nucleic acids derived from various tissue specimens of naturally aged Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. For this purpose, we established an accurate and sensitive isotope-diluted LC-MS/MS method to determine the levels of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2?-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dGsn) in DNA and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine (8-oxo-Gsn) in RNA. An age-dependent increase in oxidative DNA and RNA damage was observed in the various organs examined, including the brain, liver, kidneys, and testes. Similar increases in the 8-oxo-dGsn and 8-oxo-Gsn contents were observed in three parts of the brain, the hippocampus, cerebral cortex, and cerebellum, among which, the values for the hippocampus were always the highest. When the oxidized guanosine metabolites were quantified with urine, a similar age-dependent increase was observed for both 8-oxo-dGsn and 8-oxo-Gsn. However, unlike the results of nucleic acid samples derived from the tissues, the amount of 8-oxo-Gsn was significantly higher compared to that of 8-oxo-dGsn, probably reflecting the fact that RNA degradation occurs more frequently than DNA degradation. Our finding indicates that the amount of urinary 8-oxo-Gsn could be considered as a biomarker for the sensitive measurement of oxidative stress and aging. PMID:23738036

  9. Chick kidney ferredoxin: complementary DNA cloning and vitamin D effects on mRNA levels.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, R D; Henry, H L

    1996-08-01

    Vertebrate ferredoxin is non-heme iron-sulfur protein found in steroideogenic tissues that serves as an electron shuttle in mitochondrial mixed function oxidase systems such as the 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1 alpha-hydroxylase. A 2530-bp chick kidney ferredoxin cDNA was cloned, and the association between ferredoxin mRNA levels and the regulation of 1 alpha-hydroxylase activity by vitamin D status was examined. The cDNA sequence indicates that the chick kidney mitochondrial mixed function oxidases use the same ferredoxin as do those in the chick testis and that the chick ferredoxin shares greater than 92% amino acid homology with mammalian ferredoxins. Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA indicates that there is a single copy of the ferredoxin gene present in the chick genome. Three species of mRNA, 1.8, 3.5 and 5.5 kb, were identified by Northern analysis. Slot blot analysis of poly A+ RNA from kidneys of vitamin D-deficient or replete chicks indicates a 40% induction of ferredoxin message levels in the vitamin D-deficient chick kidney. This suggests that gene regulation of ferredoxin may be part of the mechanism of regulation for 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1 alpha-hydroxylase activity in the chick kidney. PMID:8840510

  10. Construction of sized eukaryotic cDNA libraries using low input of total environmental metatranscriptomic RNA

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Construction of high quality cDNA libraries from the usually low amounts of eukaryotic mRNA extracted from environmental samples is essential in functional metatranscriptomics for the selection of functional, full-length genes encoding proteins of interest. Many of the inserts in libraries constructed by standard methods are represented by truncated cDNAs due to premature stoppage of reverse transcriptase activity and preferential cloning of short cDNAs. Results We report here a simple and cost effective technique for preparation of sized eukaryotic cDNA libraries from as low as three microgram of total soil RNA dominated by ribosomal and bacterial RNA. cDNAs synthesized by a template switching approach were size-fractionated by two dimensional agarose gel electrophoresis prior to PCR amplification and cloning. Effective size selection was demonstrated by PCR amplification of conserved gene families specific of each size class. Libraries of more than one million independent inserts whose sizes ranged between one and four kb were thus produced. Up to 80% of the insert sequences were homologous to eukaryotic gene sequences present in public databases. Conclusions A simple and cost effective technique has been developed to construct sized eukaryotic cDNA libraries from environmental samples. This technique will facilitate expression cloning of environmental eukaryotic genes and contribute to a better understanding of basic biological and/or ecological processes carried out by eukaryotic microbial communities. PMID:25183040

  11. Non-canonical DNA transcription enzymes and the conservation of two-barrel RNA polymerases

    PubMed Central

    Ruprich-Robert, Gwenaël; Thuriaux, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    DNA transcription depends on multimeric RNA polymerases that are exceptionally conserved in all cellular organisms, with an active site region of >500 amino acids mainly harboured by their Rpb1 and Rpb2 subunits. Together with the distantly related eukaryotic RNA-dependent polymerases involved in gene silencing, they form a monophyletic family of ribonucleotide polymerases with a similarly organized active site region based on two double-Ψ barrels. Recent viral and phage genome sequencing have added a surprising variety of putative nucleotide polymerases to this protein family. These proteins have highly divergent subunit composition and amino acid sequences, but always contain eight invariant amino acids forming a universally conserved catalytic site shared by all members of the two-barrel protein family. Moreover, the highly conserved ‘funnel’ and ‘switch 2’ components of the active site region are shared by all putative DNA-dependent RNA polymerases and may thus determine their capacity to transcribe double-stranded DNA templates. PMID:20360047

  12. Effects of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate on the incorporation of labelled precursors into RNA, DNA and protein in epidermis, dermis and subcutis from precancerous mouse skin with reference to enhanced tumorigenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Bhisey, R.A.; Ramchandani, A.G.; Sirsat, S.M.

    1984-02-01

    The effects of a single application of 1.8 nmol 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) on precursor incorporation into RNA, DNA and protein in the epidermis, dermis and subcutis from 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA) injected precancerous mouse skin were studied at various time points between 3 and 96 h. In the precancerous tissues, the rates of incorporation of (/sup 3/H)uridine into RNA did not alter appreciably from those in the control tissues; while the rates of (/sup 3/H)methylthymidine incorporation into DNA were elevated with peaks appearing between 6 and 12 h, at 24 h and at 72 h in epidermis, dermis and subcutis. The rate of incorporation of (/sup 14/C)leucine into protein was markedly elevated in all the three tissues which showed 3-4 sharp peaks. The maximum stimulation ranged between 14 and 20 times that of the control. A single application of TPA to the precancerous mouse skin induced early stimulation of precursor incorporation into all the three macromolecules in epidermis, dermis and subcutis. The increased stimulation was maintained for 36-72 h. The patterns of incorporation of (/sup 3/H)methylthymidine into DNA gave rise to 2-3 peaks of elevated uptake in each tissue up to 36-48 h. A lowered rate of DNA synthesis between 48 and 60 h was followed by a peak at 72 h. In each group, epidermal mitotic activity correlated well with spurts of precursor incorporation into cellular DNA. The observations indicate that TPA recruits more cells into the DNA synthetic phase and accelerates selective growth of preneoplastic cells during tumor progression.

  13. [RNA, unlike DNA, binds to aurintricarboxylic acid via covalent bonds: molecular-biological and spectroscopic evidence].

    PubMed

    Martynenko, E I; Negrebetskaia, E N; Stepaniugin, A V; Samo?lenko, S A; Govorun, D N

    2002-01-01

    A selective interaction of ATA with RNA, unlike DNA, when isolating nucleic acids from plant materials was established. The data concerning the binding strength of highly purified RNAATA and DNAATA preparations to nitrocellulose and nylon filters under conditions of high ionic strength are presented. The interrelation of ATA RNA-tropism and absence of adsorption capability of chemical modified RNAATA the backbone was observed. Using IR spectroscopy under the procedure of multi-broken complete light reflection, a formation of ATA and RNA complex was fixed via phosphoric-ether bond (P-O-C), which was absent in the case of DNAATA. The obtained data raise the problem of RNAATA application in molecular biology experiments. PMID:12924021

  14. Activation of different split functionalities on re-association of RNA-DNA hybrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afonin, Kirill A.; Viard, Mathias; Martins, Angelica N.; Lockett, Stephen J.; Maciag, Anna E.; Freed, Eric O.; Heldman, Eliahu; Jaeger, Luc; Blumenthal, Robert; Shapiro, Bruce A.

    2013-04-01

    Split-protein systems, an approach that relies on fragmentation of proteins with their further conditional re-association to form functional complexes, are increasingly used for various biomedical applications. This approach offers tight control of protein functions and improved detection sensitivity. Here we report a similar technique based on a pair of RNA-DNA hybrids that can be used generally for triggering different split functionalities. Individually, each hybrid is inactive but when two cognate hybrids re-associate, different functionalities are triggered inside mammalian cells. As a proof of concept, this work mainly focuses on the activation of RNA interference. However, the release of other functionalities (such as resonance energy transfer and RNA aptamer) is also shown. Furthermore, in vivo studies demonstrate a significant uptake of the hybrids by tumours together with specific gene silencing. This split-functionality approach presents a new route in the development of `smart' nucleic acid-based nanoparticles and switches for various biomedical applications.

  15. Inhibiting DNA Methylation Causes an Interferon Response in Cancer via dsRNA Including Endogenous Retroviruses.

    PubMed

    Chiappinelli, Katherine B; Strissel, Pamela L; Desrichard, Alexis; Li, Huili; Henke, Christine; Akman, Benjamin; Hein, Alexander; Rote, Neal S; Cope, Leslie M; Snyder, Alexandra; Makarov, Vladimir; Buhu, Sadna; Slamon, Dennis J; Wolchok, Jedd D; Pardoll, Drew M; Beckmann, Matthias W; Zahnow, Cynthia A; Mergoub, Taha; Chan, Timothy A; Baylin, Stephen B; Strick, Reiner

    2015-08-27

    We show that DNA methyltransferase inhibitors (DNMTis) upregulate immune signaling in cancer through the viral defense pathway. In ovarian cancer (OC), DNMTis trigger cytosolic sensing of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) causing a type I interferon response and apoptosis. Knocking down dsRNA sensors TLR3 and MAVS reduces this response 2-fold and blocking interferon beta or its receptor abrogates it. Upregulation of hypermethylated endogenous retrovirus (ERV) genes accompanies the response and ERV overexpression activates the response. Basal levels of ERV and viral defense gene expression significantly correlate in primary OC and the latter signature separates primary samples for multiple tumor types from The Cancer Genome Atlas into low versus high expression groups. In melanoma patients treated with an immune checkpoint therapy, high viral defense signature expression in tumors significantly associates with durable clinical response and DNMTi treatment sensitizes to anti-CTLA4 therapy in a pre-clinical melanoma model. PMID:26317466

  16. RNA exosome regulates AID DNA mutator activity in the B cell genome

    PubMed Central

    Pefanis, Evangelos; Basu, Uttiya

    2015-01-01

    The immunoglobulin diversification processes of somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination critically rely on transcription coupled targeting of AID to Ig loci in activated B lymphocytes. AID catalyzes deamination of cytidine deoxynucleotides on exposed single stranded DNA. In addition to driving immunoglobulin diversity, promiscuous targeting of AID mutagenic activity poses a deleterious threat to genomic stability. Recent genome-wide studies have uncovered pervasive AID activity throughout the B cell genome. It is increasingly apparent that AID activity is frequently targeted to genomic loci undergoing early transcription termination where RNA exosome promotes the resolution of stalled transcription complexes via co-transcriptional RNA degradation mechanisms. Here we review aspects and consequences of eukaryotic transcription that lead to early termination, RNA exosome recruitment, and ultimately targeting of AID mutagenic activity. PMID:26073986

  17. Human Mitochondrial RNA Polymerase: Evaluation of the Single-Nucleotide-Addition Cycle on Synthetic RNA/DNA Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Smidansky, Eric D.; Arnold, Jamie J.; Reynolds, Shelley L.; Cameron, Craig E.

    2013-01-01

    The human mitochondrial RNA polymerase (h-mtRNAP) serves as both the transcriptase for expression and the primase for replication of mitochondrial DNA. As such, the enzyme is of fundamental importance to cellular energy metabolism, and defects in its function may be related to human disease states. Here we describe in vitro analysis of the h-mtRNAP kinetic mechanism for single, correct nucleotide incorporation. This was made possible by the development of efficient methods for expression and purification of h-mtRNAP using a bacterial system and by utilization of assays that rely on simple, synthetic RNA/DNA scaffolds without the need for mitochondrial transcription accessory proteins. We find that h-mtRNAP accomplishes single-nucleotide incorporation by using the same core steps, including conformational change steps before and after chemistry, that are prototypical for most types of nucleic acid polymerases. The polymerase binds to scaffolds via a two-step mechanism consisting of a fast initial-encounter step followed by a much slower isomerization that leads to catalytic competence. A substantial solvent deuterium kinetic isotope effect was observed for the forward reaction, but none was detectable for the reverse reaction, suggesting that chemistry is at least partially rate-limiting in the forward direction but not in the reverse. h-mtRNAP appears to exercise much more stringent surveillance over base than over sugar in determining the correctness of a nucleotide. The utility of developing the robust in vitro assays described here and of establishing a baseline of kinetic performance for the wild-type enzyme is that biological questions concerning h-mtRNAP may now begin to be addressed. PMID:21548588

  18. SYBR Green-activated sorting of Arabidopsis pollen nuclei based on different DNA/RNA content.

    PubMed

    Schoft, Vera K; Chumak, Nina; Bindics, Jnos; Slusarz, Lucyna; Twell, David; Khler, Claudia; Tamaru, Hisashi

    2015-03-01

    Key message: Purification of pollen nuclei. Germ cell epigenetics is a critical topic in plants and animals. The male gametophyte (pollen) of flowering plants is an attractive model to study genetic and epigenetic reprogramming during sexual reproduction, being composed of only two sperm cells contained within, its companion, vegetative cell. Here, we describe a simple and efficient method to purify SYBR Green-stained sperm and vegetative cell nuclei of Arabidopsis thaliana pollen using fluorescence-activated cell sorting to analyze chromatin and RNA profiles. The method obviates generating transgenic lines expressing cell-type-specific fluorescence reporters and facilitates functional genomic analysis of various mutant lines and accessions. We evaluate the purity and quality of the sorted pollen nuclei and analyze the technique's molecular basis. Our results show that both DNA and RNA contents contribute to SYBR Green-activated nucleus sorting and RNA content differences impact on the separation of sperm and vegetative cell nuclei. We demonstrate the power of the approach by sorting wild-type and polyploid mutant sperm and vegetative cell nuclei from mitotic and meiotic mutants, which is not feasible using cell-type-specific transgenic reporters. Our approach should be applicable to pollen nuclei of crop plants and possibly to cell/nucleus types and cell cycle phases of different species containing substantially different amounts of DNA and/or RNA. PMID:25676347

  19. H19 lncRNA alters DNA methylation genome wide by regulating S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jichun; Yang, Lihua; Zhong, Tianyu; Mueller, Martin; Men, Yi; Zhang, Na; Xie, Juanke; Giang, Karolyn; Chung, Hunter; Sun, Xueguang; Lu, Lingeng; Carmichael, Gordon G; Taylor, Hugh S; Huang, Yingqun

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation is essential for mammalian development and physiology. Here we report that the developmentally regulated H19 lncRNA binds to and inhibits S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (SAHH), the only mammalian enzyme capable of hydrolysing S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH). SAH is a potent feedback inhibitor of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM)-dependent methyltransferases that methylate diverse cellular components, including DNA, RNA, proteins, lipids and neurotransmitters. We show that H19 knockdown activates SAHH, leading to increased DNMT3B-mediated methylation of an lncRNA-encoding gene Nctc1 within the Igf2-H19-Nctc1 locus. Genome-wide methylation profiling reveals methylation changes at numerous gene loci consistent with SAHH modulation by H19. Our results uncover an unanticipated regulatory circuit involving broad epigenetic alterations by a single abundantly expressed lncRNA that may underlie gene methylation dynamics of development and diseases and suggest that this mode of regulation may extend to other cellular components. PMID:26687445

  20. Effective plasmid DNA and small interfering RNA delivery to diseased human brain microvascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Slanina, H; Schmutzler, M; Christodoulides, M; Kim, K S; Schubert-Unkmeir, A

    2012-01-01

    Expression of exogenous DNA or small interfering RNA (siRNA) in vitro is significantly affected by the particular delivery system utilized. In this study, we evaluated the transfection efficiency of plasmid DNA and siRNA into human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) and meningioma cells, which constitute the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier, a target of meningitis-causing pathogens. Chemical transfection methods and various lipofection reagents including Lipofectamin, FuGene, or jetPRIME, as well as physical transfection methods and electroporation techniques were applied. To monitor the transfection efficiencies, HBMEC and meningioma cells were transfected with the reporter plasmid pTagGFP2-actin vector, and efficiency of transfection was estimated by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. We established protocols based on electroporation using Cell Line Nucleofector Kit V with the Amaxa Nucleofector II system from Lonza and the Neon Transfection system from Invitrogen resulting in up to 41 and 82% green fluorescent protein-positive HBMEC, respectively. Optimal transfection solutions, pulse programs and length were evaluated. We furthermore demonstrated that lipofection is an efficient method to transfect meningioma cells with a transfection efficiency of about 81%. Finally, we applied the successful electroporation protocols to deliver synthetic siRNA to HBMEC and analyzed the role of the actin-binding protein cortactin in Neisseria meningitidis pathogenesis. PMID:23036990

  1. RNA Polymerase III Detects Cytosolic DNA and Induces Type-I Interferons Through the RIG-I Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Yu-Hsin; MacMillan, John B.; Chen, Zhijian J.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Type-I interferons (IFNs) are important for antiviral and autoimmune responses. Retinoic acid-induced gene I (RIG-I) and mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) proteins mediate IFN production in response to cytosolic double-stranded RNA or single-stranded RNA containing 5?-triphosphate (5?-ppp). Cytosolic B-form double-stranded DNA, such as poly(dA-dT)poly(dA-dT) [poly(dA-dT)], can also induce IFN-?, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Here we show that the cytosolic poly(dA-dT) DNA is converted into 5?-ppp RNA to induce IFN-? through the RIG-I pathway. Biochemical purification led to the identification of DNA-dependent RNA polymerase III (Pol-III) as the enzyme responsible for synthesizing 5?-ppp RNA from the poly(dA-dT) template. Inhibition of RNA Pol-III prevents IFN-? induction by transfection of DNA or infection with DNA viruses. Furthermore, Pol-III inhibition abrogates IFN-? induction by the intracellular bacterium Legionella pneumophila and promotes the bacterial growth. These results suggest that RNA Pol-III is a cytosolic DNA sensor involved in innate immune responses. PMID:19631370

  2. Interplay of Structure, Hydration and Thermal Stability in Formacetal Modified Oligonucleotides: RNA May Tolerate Nonionic Modifications Better than DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Kolarovic, A.; Schweizer, E; Greene, E; Gironda, M; Pallan, P; Egli, M; Rozners, E

    2009-01-01

    DNA and RNA oligonucleotides having formacetal internucleoside linkages between uridine and adenosine nucleosides have been prepared and studied using UV thermal melting, osmotic stress, and X-ray crystallography. Formacetal modifications have remarkably different effects on double helical RNA and DNAethe formacetal stabilizes the RNA helix by +0.7 C but destabilizes the DNA helix by -1.6 C per modification. The apparently hydrophobic formacetal has little effect on hydration of RNA but decreases the hydration of DNA, which suggests that at least part of the difference in thermal stability may be related to differences in hydration. A crystal structure of modified DNA shows that two isolated formacetal linkages fit almost perfectly in an A-type helix (decamer). Taken together, the data suggest that RNA may tolerate nonionic backbone modifications better than DNA. Overall, formacetal appears to be an excellent mimic of phosphate linkage in RNA and an interesting modification for potential applications in fundamental studies and RNA-based gene control strategies, such as RNA interference.

  3. CTCF-promoted RNA polymerase II pausing links DNA methylation to splicing.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Sanjeev; Kavak, Ersen; Gregory, Melissa; Imashimizu, Masahiko; Shutinoski, Bojan; Kashlev, Mikhail; Oberdoerffer, Philipp; Sandberg, Rickard; Oberdoerffer, Shalini

    2011-11-01

    Alternative splicing of pre-messenger RNA is a key feature of transcriptome expansion in eukaryotic cells, yet its regulation is poorly understood. Spliceosome assembly occurs co-transcriptionally, raising the possibility that DNA structure may directly influence alternative splicing. Supporting such an association, recent reports have identified distinct histone methylation patterns, elevated nucleosome occupancy and enriched DNA methylation at exons relative to introns. Moreover, the rate of transcription elongation has been linked to alternative splicing. Here we provide the first evidence that a DNA-binding protein, CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF), can promote inclusion of weak upstream exons by mediating local RNA polymerase II pausing both in a mammalian model system for alternative splicing, CD45, and genome-wide. We further show that CTCF binding to CD45 exon 5 is inhibited by DNA methylation, leading to reciprocal effects on exon 5 inclusion. These findings provide a mechanistic basis for developmental regulation of splicing outcome through heritable epigenetic marks. PMID:21964334

  4. Changes in 16s RNA Gene Microbial Community Profiling by Concentration of Prokaryotic DNA.

    PubMed

    Glassing, Angela; Dowd, Scot E; Galandiuk, Susan; Davis, Brian; Jorden, Jeffrey R; Chiodini, Rodrick J

    2015-12-01

    Microbial metagenomics are hindered in clinical tissue samples as a result of the large relative amount of human DNA in relation to microbial DNA acting as competitive inhibitors of downstream applications. We evaluated the LOOXSTER Enrichment Kit to separate eukaryotic and prokaryotic DNA in submucosal intestinal tissue samples having a low microbial biomass and to determine the effects of enrichment on 16s rRNA microbiota sequencing. The enrichment kit reduced the amount of human DNA in the samples 40-70% resulting in a 3.5-fold increase in the number of 16s bacterial gene sequences detected on the Illumina MiSeq platform. This increase was accompanied by the detection of 41 additional bacterial genera and 94 tentative species. The additional bacterial taxa detected accounted for as much as 25% of the total bacterial population that significantly altered the relative prevalence and composition of the intestinal microbiota. The ability to reduce the competitive inhibition created by human DNA and the concentration of bacterial DNA may allow metagenomics to be performed on complex tissues containing a low bacterial biomass. PMID:26569458

  5. DNA's Liaison with RNA Polymerase Physical Consequences of a Twisted Relationship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulic, Igor; Nelson, Phil

    2006-03-01

    RNA polymerase is the molecular motor that performs the fundamental process of transcription. Besides being the key- protagonist of gene regulation it is one of the most powerful nano-mechanical force generators known inside the cell. The fact that polymerase strictly tracks only one of DNA's strands together with DNA's helical geometry induces a force-to-torque transmission, with several important biological consequences like the ``twin supercoil domain'' effect and remote torsional interaction of genes. In the first part of the talk we theoretically explore the mechanisms of non-equilibrium transport of twist generated by a moving polymerase. We show that these equations are intrinsically non-linear in the crowded cellular environment and lead to peculiar effects like self-confinement of torsional strain by generation of alternative DNA structures like cruciforms. We demonstrate how the asymmetric conformational properties of DNA lead to a ``torsional diode'' effect, i.e. a rectification of polymerase-generated twist currents of different signs. In the second part we explore the possibility of exploiting the polymerase as a powerful workhorse for nanomechanical devices. We propose simple and easy to assemble arrangements of DNA templates interconnected by strand-hybridization that when transcribed by the polymerase linearly contract by tenfold. We show that the typical forces generated by such ``DNA stress fibers'' are in the piconewton range. We discuss their kinetics of contraction and relaxation and draw parallels to natural muscle fiber design.

  6. Coupling of replication type histone mRNA levels to DNA synthesis requires the stem-loop sequence at the 3' end of the mRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Levine, B J; Chodchoy, N; Marzluff, W F; Skoultchi, A I

    1987-01-01

    The role of the 3' end of mRNA in coupling between the level of histone mRNAs and DNA synthesis was examined. We introduced modified mouse histone H3 genes into mouse fibroblasts and studied the regulation of several different H3 mRNAs that are not terminated with a normal histone 3' end. In two cases, the stem-loop sequences were deleted from the mRNAs and replaced either by 3' sequences flanking the H3 gene or by globin 3' untranslated region sequences including the polyadenylylation signal. In the former case, approximately equal to 50% of the modified mRNA was polyadenylylated, whereas in the latter case all of the mRNA had a polyadenylylated terminus. In contrast to the normal histone mRNAs, these mRNAs, including the nonadenylylated form, were stable when DNA synthesis was inhibited with several drugs. The levels of two other histone mRNAs, each containing the stem-loop sequences as an internal part of the mRNA, also were stable when DNA synthesis was inhibited. These results indicate that the posttranscriptional coupling of histone mRNA levels to DNA synthesis requires the presence of the stem-loop sequences at the 3' end of the mRNA. Images PMID:2888112

  7. DNA fingerprinting of Campylobacter fetus using cloned constructs of ribosomal RNA and surface array protein genes.

    PubMed

    Denes, A S; Lutze-Wallace, C L; Cormier, M L; Garcia, M M

    1997-02-01

    DNA fragments coding for the ribosomal RNA and the surface array proteins of Campylobacter fetus have been cloned from a genomic library constructed in Escherichia coli. They were used in the molecular characterization of C. fetus (subsp. fetus; subsp. venerealis) strains by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method. Ribotyping results showed that all strains of the two subspecies can be classified under one ribogroup implying very close relatedness. The sapA gene DNA marker, however, discriminated all the strains regardless of the subspecies when chromosomal DNA was restricted with HindIII, HaeIII, XbaI or EcoRV. These results illustrate that the sapA probe is potentially useful in fingerprinting C. fetus strains and in determining the relationships of strains for epidemiological purposes. PMID:9057261

  8. DNA/RNA chimera templates improve the emission intensity and target the accessibility of silver nanocluster-based sensors for human microRNA detection.

    PubMed

    Shah, Pratik; Choi, Suk Won; Kim, Ho-jin; Cho, Seok Keun; Thulstrup, Peter Waaben; Bjerrum, Morten Jannik; Bhang, Yong-Joo; Ahn, Jong Cheol; Yang, Seong Wook

    2015-05-21

    In recent years microRNAs (miRNAs) have been established as important biomarkers in a variety of diseases including cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, aging, Alzheimer's disease, asthma, autoimmune disease and liver diseases. As a consequence, a variety of monitoring methods for miRNAs have been developed, including a fast and simple method for miRNA detection by exploitation of the unique photoluminescence of DNA-templated silver nanoclusters (DNA/AgNCs). To increase the versatility of the AgNC-based method, we have adopted DNA/RNA chimera templates for AgNC-based probes, allowing response from several human miRNAs which are hardly detectable with DNA-based probes. Here, we demonstrate in detail the power of DNA/RNA chimera/AgNC probes in detecting two human miRNAs, let-7a and miR-200c. The DNA/RNA chimera-based probes are highly efficient to determine the level of miRNAs in several human cell lines. PMID:25759134

  9. An Undergraduate Investigation into the 10-23 DNA Enzyme that Cleaves RNA: DNA Can Cut It in the Biochemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn-Charlebois, Amber; Burns, Jamie; Chapelliquen, Stephanie; Sanmartino, Holly

    2011-01-01

    A low-cost biochemistry experiment is described that demonstrates current techniques in the use of catalytic DNA molecules and introduces a nonradioactive, nonfluorescent, inexpensive, fast, and safe method for monitoring these nucleic acid reactions. The laboratory involves the exploration of the 10-23 DNA enzyme as it cleaves a specific RNA

  10. Exploring the recovery and detection of messenger RNA and DNA from enhanced fingermarks in blood.

    PubMed

    Fox, A; Gittos, M; Harbison, S A; Fleming, R; Wivell, R

    2014-05-01

    Often in the examination of bloodstained fingermarks discussion occurs around whether to prioritise the fingerprint evidence or focus on the biological evidence. Collecting a sample for genetic profiling may result in the loss of ridge detail that could have been used for fingerprint comparison. Fingermark enhancement and recovery methods along with sample collection methods could also compromise downstream genetic analysis. Previous forensic casework has highlighted circumstances where, after enhancement had been performed, it would have been extremely valuable to both identify the body fluid and generate a DNA profile from the same sample. We enhanced depletion series of fingermarks made in blood, using single treatments consisting of aqueous amido black, methanol-based amido black, acid yellow and leucocrystal violet, and exposure to long wave UV light. We then extracted the DNA and RNA for profiling, to assess the recovery and detection of genetic material from the enhanced fingermarks. We have shown that genetic profiling of bloodstained fingermarks can be successful after chemical enhancement; however it may still be necessary to prioritise evidence types in certain circumstances. From our results it appears that even with visible bloodstained fingermarks, leucocrystal violet can reduce the effectiveness of subsequent messenger RNA profiling. Aqueous amido black and acid yellow also have adverse effects on messenger RNA profiling of depleted fingermarks with low levels of cellular material. These results help with forensic decision-making by expanding knowledge of the extent of the detrimental effects of blood-enhancement reagents on both DNA profiling and body fluid identification using messenger RNA profiling. PMID:24796948

  11. Retrotransposon Ty1 integration targets specifically positioned asymmetric nucleosomal DNA segments in tRNA hotspots

    PubMed Central

    Mularoni, Loris; Zhou, Yulian; Bowen, Tyson; Gangadharan, Sunil; Wheelan, Sarah J.; Boeke, Jef D.

    2012-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome contains about 35 copies of dispersed retrotransposons called Ty1 elements. Ty1 elements target regions upstream of tRNA genes and other Pol III-transcribed genes when retrotransposing to new sites. We used deep sequencing of Ty1-flanking sequence amplicons to characterize Ty1 integration. Surprisingly, some insertions were found in mitochondrial DNA sequences, presumably reflecting insertion into mitochondrial DNA segments that had migrated to the nucleus. The overwhelming majority of insertions were associated with the 5′ regions of Pol III transcribed genes; alignment of Ty1 insertion sites revealed a strong sequence motif centered on but extending beyond the target site duplication. A strong sequence-independent preference for nucleosomal integration sites was observed, in distinction to the preferences of the Hermes DNA transposon engineered to jump in yeast and the Tf1 retrotransposon of Schizosaccharomyces pombe, both of which prefer nucleosome free regions. Remarkably, an exquisitely specific relationship between Ty1 integration and nucleosomal position was revealed by alignment of hotspot Ty1 insertion position regions to peak nucleosome positions, geographically implicating nucleosomal DNA segments at specific positions on the nucleosome lateral surface as targets, near the “bottom” of the nucleosome. The specificity is observed in the three tRNA 5′-proximal nucleosomes, with insertion frequency dropping off sharply 5′ of the tRNA gene. The sites are disposed asymmetrically on the nucleosome relative to its dyad axis, ruling out several simple molecular models for Ty1 targeting, and instead suggesting association with a dynamic or directional process such as nucleosome remodeling associated with these regions. PMID:22219510

  12. [Use of aerosol A-300 amd GF/F (GF/C) filters for purifying fragments of DNA, plasmid DNA, and RNA].

    PubMed

    Gribanov, P G; Shcherbakov, A V; Perevozchikova, N A; Gusev, A A

    1996-06-01

    Aerosil A-300 and GF/F (GF/C) filters were used for purifying plasmid DNA and intact RNA as well as for the recovery of DNA fractionated on agarose gels. In the presence of guanidinium thiocyanate Aerosil A-300 and GF/F (GF/C) filters selectively bind nucleic acids, while proteins, agarose polysaccharides and salts are washed off. Nucleic acids desorbed from the Aerosil and filters are available immediately as substrates: DNA for restriction analysis, ligation and sequencing; RNA--for RT-PCR. PMID:9011244

  13. A mammalian microRNA cluster controls DNA methylation and telomere recombination via Rbl2-dependent regulation of DNA methyltransferases

    PubMed Central

    Benetti, Roberta; Gonzalo, Susana; Jaco, Isabel; Muñoz, Purificación; Gonzalez, Susana; Schoeftner, Stefan; Murchison, Elizabeth; Andl, Thomas; Chen, Taiping; Klatt, Peter; Li, En; Serrano, Manuel; Millar, Sarah; Hannon, Gregory; Blasco, Maria A

    2010-01-01

    Dicer initiates RNA interference by generating small RNAs involved in various silencing pathways. Dicer participates in centromeric silencing, but its role in the epigenetic regulation of other chromatin domains has not been explored. Here we show that Dicer1 deficiency in Mus musculus leads to decreased DNA methylation, concomitant with increased telomere recombination and telomere elongation. These DNA-methylation defects correlate with decreased expression of Dnmt1, Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b DNA methyltransferases (Dnmts), and methylation levels can be recovered by their overexpression. We identify the retinoblastoma-like 2 protein (Rbl2) as responsible for decreased Dnmt expression in Dicer1-null cells, suggesting the existence of Dicer-dependent small RNAs that target Rbl2. We identify the miR-290 cluster as being downregulated in Dicer1-deficient cells and show that it silences Rbl2, thereby controlling Dnmt expression. These results identify a pathway by which miR-290 directly regulates Rbl2-dependent Dnmt expression, indirectly affecting telomere-length homeostasis. PMID:18311151

  14. The Relative Reactivity of Deoxyribose and Ribose: Did DNA Come Before RNA?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dworkin, Jason P.; Miller, Stanley L.

    1995-01-01

    If it is assumed that there was a precursor to the ribose-phosphate backbone of RNA in the preRNA world (such as peptide nucleic acid), then the entry of various sugars into the genetic material may be related to the stability and non-enzymatic reactivity of the aldose. The rate of decomposition of 2-deoxyribose has been determined to be 1/3 that of ribose. In addition we have measured the amount of free aldehyde by H-1 and C-13 NMR and find that it has approximately 0.15% free aldehyde compared to 0.05% for ribose at 25 C. This suggests that deoxyribose would be significantly more reactive with early bases in the absence of enzymes. This is confirmed by urazole and deoxyribose reacting to form the deoxynucleoside 45 times faster as 25 C than urazole reacts with ribose to form the Ribonucleoside. Urazole is a potential precursor of uracil and is a plausible prebiotic compound which reacts with aldoses to form nucleosides. Thus the non-enzymatic reactivity of deoxyribose would favor its early use over ribose until enzymes could change the relative reactivities. Most of the reasons that RNA is presumed to have come before DNA are extrapolations back from contemporary metabolism (e.g. the abundance of ribose based coenzymes, the biosynthesis of histidine, deoxyribonucleotides are synthesized from ribonucleotides, etc.). It is very difficult to reconstruct biochemical pathways much before the last common ancestor, and it is even more difficult to do more than guess at the biochemistry of very early self-replicating systems. Thus we believe that these reasons are not compelling and that the non-enzymatic chemistry may be more important than enzymatic pathways for constructing the earliest of biochemical pathways. While the RNA world has been discussed at great length, there has not been an exploration of the transition out of the RNA world. We have constructed many possible schemes of genetic takeover events from preRNA to modern DNA, RNA, protein system which could generate the RNA metabolic fossils we see today.

  15. Sensing of Double-Stranded DNA/RNA Secondary Structures by Water Soluble Homochiral Perylene Bisimide Dyes.

    PubMed

    Gershberg, Jana; Radi? Stojkovi?, Marijana; kugor, Marko; Tomi?, Sanja; Rehm, Thomas H; Rehm, Stefanie; Saha-Mller, Chantu R; Piantanida, Ivo; Wrthner, Frank

    2015-05-18

    A broad series of homochiral perylene bisimide (PBI) dyes were synthesized that are appended with amino acids and cationic side chains at the imide positions. Self-assembly behavior of these ionic PBIs has been studied in aqueous media by UV/Vis spectroscopy, revealing formation of excitonically coupled H-type aggregates. The interactions of these ionic PBIs with different ds-DNA and ds-RNA have been explored by thermal denaturation, fluorimetric titration and circular dichroism (CD) experiments. These PBIs strongly stabilized ds-DNA/RNA against thermal denaturation as revealed by high melting temperatures of the formed PBI/polynucleotide complexes. Fluorimetric titrations showed that these PBIs bind to ds-DNA/RNA with high binding constants depending on the number of the positive charges in the side chains. Thus, spermine-containing PBIs with six positive charges each showed higher binding constants (logKs =9.2-9.8) than their dioxa analogues (logKs =6.5-7.9) having two positive charges each. Induced circular dichroism (ICD) of PBI assemblies created within DNA/RNA grooves was observed. These ICD profiles are strongly dependent on the steric demand of the chiral substituents of the amino acid units and the secondary structure of the DNA or RNA. The observed ICD effects can be explained by non-covalent binding of excitonically coupled PBI dimer aggregates into the minor groove of DNA and major groove of RNA which is further supported by molecular modeling studies. PMID:25900531

  16. Human cytomegalovirus UL84 interacts with an RNA stem-loop sequence found within the RNA/DNA hybrid region of oriLyt.

    PubMed

    Colletti, Kelly S; Smallenburg, Kate E; Xu, Yiyang; Pari, Gregory S

    2007-07-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) lytic DNA replication is initiated at the complex cis-acting oriLyt region, which spans nearly 3 kb. DNA synthesis requires six core proteins together with UL84 and IE2. Previously, two essential regions were identified within oriLyt. Essential region I (nucleotides [nt] 92209 to 92573) can be replaced with the constitutively active simian virus 40 promoter, which in turn eliminates the requirement for IE2 in the origin-dependent transient-replication assay. Essential region II (nt 92979 to 93513) contains two elements of interest: an RNA/DNA hybrid domain and an inverted repeat sequence capable of forming a stem-loop structure. Our studies now reveal for the first time that UL84 interacts with a stem-loop RNA oligonucleotide in vitro, and although UL84 interacted with other nucleic acid substrates, a specific interaction occurred only with the RNA stem-loop. Increasing concentrations of purified UL84 produced a remarkable downward-staircase pattern, which is not due to a nuclease activity but is dependent upon the presence of secondary structures, suggesting that UL84 modifies the conformation of the RNA substrate. Cross-linking experiments show that UL84 possibly changes the conformation of the RNA substrate. The addition of purified IE2 to the in vitro binding reaction did not affect binding to the stem-loop structure. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays performed using infected cells and purified virus show that UL84 is bound to oriLyt in a region adjacent to the RNA/DNA hybrid and the stem-loop structure. These results solidify UL84 as the potential initiator of HCMV DNA replication through a unique interaction with a conserved RNA stem-loop structure within oriLyt. PMID:17459920

  17. Mechanism of CRISPR-RNA guided recognition of DNA targets in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    van Erp, Paul B.G.; Jackson, Ryan N.; Carter, Joshua; Golden, Sarah M.; Bailey, Scott; Wiedenheft, Blake

    2015-01-01

    In bacteria and archaea, short fragments of foreign DNA are integrated into Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat (CRISPR) loci, providing a molecular memory of previous encounters with foreign genetic elements. In Escherichia coli, short CRISPR-derived RNAs are incorporated into a multi-subunit surveillance complex called Cascade (CRISPR-associated complex for antiviral defense). Recent structures of Cascade capture snapshots of this seahorse-shaped RNA-guided surveillance complex before and after binding to a DNA target. Here we determine a 3.2 Å x-ray crystal structure of Cascade in a new crystal form that provides insight into the mechanism of double-stranded DNA binding. Molecular dynamic simulations performed using available structures reveal functional roles for residues in the tail, backbone and belly subunits of Cascade that are critical for binding double-stranded DNA. Structural comparisons are used to make functional predictions and these predictions are tested in vivo and in vitro. Collectively, the results in this study reveal underlying mechanisms involved in target-induced conformational changes and highlight residues important in DNA binding and protospacer adjacent motif recognition. PMID:26243775

  18. Mechanism and Function of Oxidative Reversal of DNA and RNA Methylation

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Li; Song, Chun-Xiao; He, Chuan; Zhang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    The importance of eukaryotic DNA methylation [5-methylcytosine (5mC)] in transcriptional regulation and development was first suggested almost 40 years ago. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the dynamic nature of this epigenetic mark was not understood until recently, following the discovery that the TET proteins, a family of AlkB-like Fe(II)/α-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases, can oxidize 5mC to generate 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5fC), and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC). Since then, several mechanisms that are responsible for processing oxidized 5mC derivatives to achieve DNA demethylation have emerged. Our biochemical understanding of the DNA demethylation process has prompted new investigations into the biological functions of DNA demethylation. Characterization of two additional AlkB family proteins, FTO and ALKBH5, showed that they possess demethylase activity toward N6-methyladenosine (m6A) in RNA, indicating that members of this subfamily of dioxygenases have a general function in demethylating nucleic acids. In this review, we discuss recent advances in this emerging field, focusing on the mechanism and function of TET-mediated DNA demethylation. PMID:24905787

  19. Mutations affecting RNA polymerase I-stimulated exchange and rDNA recombination in yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Y.H.; Keil, R.L. )

    1991-01-01

    HOT1 is a cis-acting recombination-stimulatory sequence isolated from the rDNA repeat unit of yeast. The ability of HOT1 to stimulate mitotic exchange appears to depend on its ability to promote high levels of RNA polymerase I transcription. A qualitative colony color sectoring assay was developed to screen for trans-acting mutations that alter the activity of HOT1. Both hypo-recombination and hyper-recombination mutants were isolated. Genetic analysis of seven HOT1 recombination mutants (hrm) that decrease HOT1 activity shows that they behave as recessive nuclear mutations and belong to five linkage groups. Three of these mutations, hrm1, hrm2, and hrm3, also decrease rDNA exchange but do not alter recombination in the absence of HOT1. Another mutation, hrm4, decreases HOT1-stimulated recombination but does not affect rDNA recombination or exchange in the absence of HOT1. Two new alleles of RAD52 were also isolated using this screen. With regard to HOT1 activity, rad52 is epistatic to all four hrm mutations indicating that the products of the HRM genes and of RAD52 mediate steps in the same recombination pathway. Finding mutations that decrease both the activity of HOT1 and exchange in the rDNA supports the hypothesis that HOT1 plays a role in rDNA recombination.

  20. Combined histochemical staining, RNA amplification, regional, and single cell cDNA analysis within the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Ginsberg, Stephen D; Che, Shaoli

    2004-08-01

    The use of five histochemical stains (cresyl violet, thionin, hematoxylin & eosin, silver stain, and acridine orange) was evaluated in combination with an expression profiling paradigm that included regional and single cell analyses within the hippocampus of post-mortem human brains and adult mice. Adjacent serial sections of human and mouse hippocampus were labeled by histochemistry or neurofilament immunocytochemistry. These tissue sections were used as starting material for regional and single cell microdissection followed by a newly developed RNA amplification procedure (terminal continuation (TC) RNA amplification) and subsequent hybridization to custom-designed cDNA arrays. Results indicated equivalent levels of global hybridization signal intensity and relative expression levels for individual genes for hippocampi stained by cresyl violet, thionin, and hematoxylin & eosin, and neurofilament immunocytochemistry. Moreover, no significant differences existed between the Nissl stains and neurofilament immunocytochemistry for individual CA1 neurons obtained via laser capture microdissection. In contrast, a marked decrement was observed in adjacent hippocampal sections stained for silver stain and acridine orange, both at the level of the regional dissection and at the CA1 neuron population level. Observations made on the cDNA array platform were validated by real-time qPCR using primers directed against beta-actin and glyceraldehyde-3 phosphate dehydrogenase. Thus, this report demonstrated the utility of using specific Nissl stains, but not stains that bind RNA species directly, in both human and mouse brain tissues at the regional and cellular level for state-of-the-art molecular fingerprinting studies. PMID:15107803

  1. Micelle-like Nanoparticles as Carriers for DNA and siRNA

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Gemma; Pan, Jiayi; Torchilin, Vladimir P.

    2015-01-01

    Gene therapy represents a potential efficient approach of disease prevention and therapy. However, due to their poor in vivo stability, gene molecules need to be associated with delivery systems to overcome extracellular and intracellular barriers and allow access to the site of action. Cationic polymeric nanoparticles are popular carriers for small interfering RNA (siRNA) and DNA-based therapeutics for which efficient and safe delivery are important factors that need to be optimized. Micelle-like nanoparticles (MNP) (half micelles, half polymeric nanoparticles) can overcome some of the disadvantages of such cationic carriers by unifying in one single carrier the best of both delivery systems. In this review, we will discuss how the unique properties of MNP including self-assembly, condensation and protection of nucleic acids, improved cell association and gene transfection, and low toxicity may contribute to the successful application of siRNA- and DNA-based therapeutics into the clinic. Recent developments of MNP involving the addition of stimulus-sensitive functions to respond specifically to pathological or externally applied triggers (e.g., temperature, pH or enzymatic catalysis, light, or magnetic fields) will be discussed. Finally, we will overview the use of MNP as two-in-one carriers for the simultaneous delivery of different agents (small molecules, imaging agents) and nucleic acid combinations. PMID:25557580

  2. Major degradable polycations as carriers for DNA and siRNA.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammad Ariful; Park, Tae-Eun; Singh, Bijay; Maharjan, Sushila; Firdous, Jannatul; Cho, Myung-Haing; Kang, Sang-Kee; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Choi, Yun-Jaie; Cho, Chong-Su

    2014-11-10

    Non-viral gene delivery systems are one of the most potential alternatives to viral vectors because of their less immunogenicity, less toxicity and easy productivity in spite of their low capacity of gene transfection using DNA or silencing using siRNA compared to that of viral vectors. Among non-viral systems, the polycationic derivatives are the most popular gene carriers since they can effectively condense nucleic acids to transfer into the cells, especially the polyethylenimine (PEI) which has been used as a golden standard polymer owing to its high buffering ability for endosomal escape of gene to be expressed. However, PEI has severe problems for its toxicity due to the high positive charge density and non-degradability although the toxicity of PEI depends on its molecular weight (MW) and structure. Therefore, a considerable attention has been paid on synthesis of degradable PEI derivatives using low MW one because low MW PEI is much less toxic than high MW PEI. Other degradable polycationic gene carriers such as polyamidoamines (PAA) and cyclodextrin (CD)-based polycations are also in a significant interest because of their high transfection efficiency with low toxicity. This review in detail explains the recent developments on these three major degradable polycations as promising carriers for deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and small interfering RNA (siRNA). PMID:24942341

  3. DNA and RNA interference mechanisms by CRISPR-Cas surveillance complexes.

    PubMed

    Plagens, Andr; Richter, Hagen; Charpentier, Emmanuelle; Randau, Lennart

    2015-05-01

    The CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-Cas (CRISPR-associated) adaptive immune systems use small guide RNAs, the CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs), to mark foreign genetic material, e.g. viral nucleic acids, for degradation. Archaea and bacteria encode a large variety of Cas proteins that bind crRNA molecules and build active ribonucleoprotein surveillance complexes. The evolution of CRISPR-Cas systems has resulted in a diversification of cas genes and a classification of the systems into three types and additional subtypes characterized by distinct surveillance and interfering complexes. Recent crystallographic and biochemical advances have revealed detailed insights into the assembly and DNA/RNA targeting mechanisms of the various complexes. Here, we review our knowledge on the molecular mechanism involved in the DNA and RNA interference stages of type I (Cascade: CRISPR-associated complex for antiviral defense), type II (Cas9) and type III (Csm, Cmr) CRISPR-Cas systems. We further highlight recently reported structural and mechanistic themes shared among these systems. PMID:25934119

  4. In situ cDNA:mRNA hybridization: development of a technique to measure mRNA levels in individual cells.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, J N; Gee, C E; Roberts, J L

    1986-01-01

    In this article we have described our protocol for in situ cDNA:mRNA hybridization and a variety of methodological considerations we have entertained to optimize the procedure. It should be stressed that each different system will have its own special characteristics and require optimization to obtain maximal and reproducible signals. We believe that by following a methodological logic as outlined here, researchers should be able to establish the in situ cDNA:mRNA hybridization protocol with their probes and tissue systems. PMID:3754926

  5. Pros and cons of pDNA and mRNA transfection to study mRNA translation in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Andreev, Dmitry E; Terenin, Ilya M; Dmitriev, Sergey E; Shatsky, Ivan N

    2016-03-01

    Protein synthesis in eukaryotes is subject to stringent control. The misregulation of translation of certain mRNAs is often a hallmark of many diseases, including malignancies and autoimmune disorders. To understand why and how it happens, it is important to investigate the translational control of specific mRNAs. In this case, one could use reporter mRNAs in order to identify cis-acting elements responsible for regulation. Here we overview plasmid DNA (pDNA) and mRNA transfections, their pitfalls and limitations, as well as some emerging applications for mRNA transfection. PMID:26680098

  6. Hydration effects on the duplex stability of phosphoramidate DNA-RNA oligomers.

    PubMed

    Barsky, D; Colvin, M E; Zon, G; Gryaznov, S M

    1997-02-15

    Recent studies on uniformly modified oligonucleotides containing 3'-NHP(O)(O-)O-5'internucleoside linkages (3'amidate) and alternatively modified oligonucleotides containing 3'-O(O-)(O)PNH-5'internucleoside linkages (5'amidate) have shown that 3'amidate duplexes, formed with DNA or RNA complementary strands, are more stable in water than those of the corresponding phosphodiesters. In contrast, 5'amidates do not form duplexes at all. There is no steric reason that the 5'amidate duplex should not form. We demonstrate that these differences arise from differential solvation of the sugar-phosphate backbones. By molecular dynamics calculations on models of 10mer single-stranded DNA and double-stranded DNA-RNA molecules, both with and without the phosphoramidate backbone modifications, we show that the single-stranded 3'amidate and 5'amidate backbones are equally well solvated, but the 5'amidate backbone is not adequately solvated in an A-form duplex. These results are supported by quantum chemical free energy of solvation calculations which show that the 3'amidate backbone is favored relative to the 5'amidate backbone. PMID:9016634

  7. Hydration effects on the duplex stability of phosphoramidate DNA-RNA oligomers.

    PubMed Central

    Barsky, D; Colvin, M E; Zon, G; Gryaznov, S M

    1997-01-01

    Recent studies on uniformly modified oligonucleotides containing 3'-NHP(O)(O-)O-5'internucleoside linkages (3'amidate) and alternatively modified oligonucleotides containing 3'-O(O-)(O)PNH-5'internucleoside linkages (5'amidate) have shown that 3'amidate duplexes, formed with DNA or RNA complementary strands, are more stable in water than those of the corresponding phosphodiesters. In contrast, 5'amidates do not form duplexes at all. There is no steric reason that the 5'amidate duplex should not form. We demonstrate that these differences arise from differential solvation of the sugar-phosphate backbones. By molecular dynamics calculations on models of 10mer single-stranded DNA and double-stranded DNA-RNA molecules, both with and without the phosphoramidate backbone modifications, we show that the single-stranded 3'amidate and 5'amidate backbones are equally well solvated, but the 5'amidate backbone is not adequately solvated in an A-form duplex. These results are supported by quantum chemical free energy of solvation calculations which show that the 3'amidate backbone is favored relative to the 5'amidate backbone. PMID:9016634

  8. Understanding the similarity in thermophoresis between single- and double-stranded DNA or RNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichl, Maren; Herzog, Mario; Greiss, Ferdinand; Wolff, Manuel; Braun, Dieter

    2015-06-01

    Thermophoresis is the movement of molecules in a temperature gradient. For aqueous solutions its microscopic basis is debated. Understanding thermophoresis for this case is, however, important since it proved very useful to detect the binding affinity of biomolecules and since thermophoresis could have played an important role in early molecular evolution. Here we discuss why the thermophoresis of single- and double-stranded oligonucleotides - DNA and RNA - is surprisingly similar. This finding is understood by comparing the spherical capacitor model for single-stranded species with the case of a rod-shaped model for double-stranded oligonucleotides. The approach describes thermophoresis of DNA and RNA with fitted effective charges consistent with electrophoresis measurements and explains the similarity between single- and double-stranded species. We could not confirm the sign change for the thermophoresis of single- versus double-stranded DNA in crowded solutions containing polyethylene glycol [Y. T. Maeda, T. Tlusty, and A. Libchaber, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109, 17972 (2012), 10.1073/pnas.1215764109], but find a salt-independent offset while the Debye length dependence still satisfies the capacitor model. Overall, the analysis documents the continuous progress in the microscopic understanding of thermophoresis.

  9. DNA/RNA transverse current sequencing: intrinsic structural noise from neighboring bases

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Jose R.; Skachkov, Dmitry; Massey, Steven E.; Kalitsov, Alan; Velev, Julian P.

    2015-01-01

    Nanopore DNA sequencing via transverse current has emerged as a promising candidate for third-generation sequencing technology. It produces long read lengths which could alleviate problems with assembly errors inherent in current technologies. However, the high error rates of nanopore sequencing have to be addressed. A very important source of the error is the intrinsic noise in the current arising from carrier dispersion along the chain of the molecule, i.e., from the influence of neighboring bases. In this work we perform calculations of the transverse current within an effective multi-orbital tight-binding model derived from first-principles calculations of the DNA/RNA molecules, to study the effect of this structural noise on the error rates in DNA/RNA sequencing via transverse current in nanopores. We demonstrate that a statistical technique, utilizing not only the currents through the nucleotides but also the correlations in the currents, can in principle reduce the error rate below any desired precision. PMID:26150827

  10. The Arabidopsis RNA-directed DNA methylation argonautes functionally diverge based on their expression and interaction with target loci.

    PubMed

    Havecker, Ericka R; Wallbridge, Laura M; Hardcastle, Thomas J; Bush, Maxwell S; Kelly, Krystyna A; Dunn, Ruth M; Schwach, Frank; Doonan, John H; Baulcombe, David C

    2010-02-01

    Argonaute (AGO) effectors of RNA silencing bind small RNA (sRNA) molecules and mediate mRNA cleavage, translational repression, or epigenetic DNA modification. In many organisms, these targeting mechanisms are devolved to different products of AGO multigene families. To investigate the basis of AGO functional diversification, we characterized three closely related Arabidopsis thaliana AGOs (AGO4, AGO6, and AGO9) implicated in RNA-directed DNA methylation. All three AGOs bound 5' adenosine 24-nucleotide sRNAs, but each exhibited different preferences for sRNAs from different heterochromatin-associated loci. This difference was reduced when AGO6 and AGO9 were expressed from the AGO4 promoter, indicating that the functional diversification was partially due to differential expression of the corresponding genes. However, the AGO4-directed pattern of sRNA accumulation and DNA methylation was not fully recapitulated with AGO6 or AGO9 expressed from the AGO4 promoter. Here, we show that sRNA length and 5' nucleotide do not account for the observed functional diversification of these AGOs. Instead, the selectivity of sRNA binding is determined by the coincident expression of the AGO and sRNA-generating loci, and epigenetic modification is influenced by interactions between the AGO protein and the different target loci. These findings highlight the importance of tissue specificity and AGO-associated proteins in influencing epigenetic modifications. PMID:20173091

  11. Selective staining by 4', 6-diamidine-2-phenylindole of nanogram quantities of DNA in the presence of RNA on gels.

    PubMed

    Kapu?ci?ski, J; Yanagi, K

    1979-08-10

    4', 6-Diamidine-2-phenylindole.2HCl (DAPI) forms fluorescent complexes with double-stranded (ds) DNA but not with ds RNA as shown by fluorescence titration. The widely used dye ethidium bromide (EB) forms fluorescent complexes with both types of nucleic acids. Also, in contrast to EB, DAPI forms much weaker fluorescent complexes with single-stranded DNA than with ds DNA. These observations were utilized to develop staining procedures for the selective visualization of ds DNA on gels. The use of DAPI in addition to EB for staining makes possible the localization of ds DNA and other species of nucleic acids on a single gel. PMID:493114

  12. Structural and biochemical analyses of DNA and RNA binding by a bifunctional homing endonuclease and group I intron splicing factor

    PubMed Central

    Bolduc, Jill M.; Spiegel, P. Clint; Chatterjee, Piyali; Brady, Kristina L.; Downing, Maureen E.; Caprara, Mark G.; Waring, Richard B.; Stoddard, Barry L.

    2003-01-01

    We determined the crystal structure of a bifunctional group I intron splicing factor and homing endonuclease, termed the I-AniI maturase, in complex with its DNA target at 2.6 resolution. The structure demonstrates the remarkable structural conservation of the ?-sheet DNA-binding motif between highly divergent enzyme subfamilies. DNA recognition by I-AniI was further studied using nucleoside deletion and DMS modification interference analyses. Correlation of these results with the crystal structure provides information on the relative importance of individual nucleotide contacts for DNA recognition. Alignment and modeling of two homologous maturases reveals conserved basic surface residues, distant from the DNA-binding surface, that might be involved in RNA binding. A point mutation that introduces a single negative charge in this region uncouples the maturase and endonuclease functions of the protein, inhibiting RNA binding and splicing while maintaining DNA binding and cleavage. PMID:14633971

  13. Why does TNA cross-pair more strongly with RNA than with DNA? An answer from X-ray analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Pallan, P.S.; Wilds, C.J.; Wawrzak, Z.; Krishnamurthy, R.; Eschenmoser, A.; Egli, M.

    2010-03-08

    L-{alpha}-threofuranosyl (3' {yields} 2') nucleic acid (TNA) residues adopt a C4'-exo pucker when incorporated into an A- (left) or a B-form DNA duplex (right). The resulting intranucleotide P {hor_ellipsis} P distance in TNA is very similar to that in RNA (represented by a C3'-endo puckered adenosine residue; green). The structural data explain earlier observations that TNA hydridizes more stably with RNA than with DNA and that RNA constitutes the better template for ligating TNA fragments.

  14. Metal chelate affinity precipitation of RNA and purification of plasmid DNA.

    PubMed

    Balan, Sindhu; Murphy, Jason; Galaev, Igor; Kumar, Ashok; Fox, George E; Mattiasson, Bo; Willson, Richard C

    2003-07-01

    The affinity of metal chelates for amino acids, such as histidine, is widely used in purifying proteins, most notably through six-histidine 'tails'. We have found that metal affinity interactions can also be applied to separation of single-stranded nucleic acids through interactions involving exposed purines. Here we describe a metal affinity precipitation method to resolve RNA from linear and plasmid DNA. A copper-charged copolymer of N-isopropyl acrylamide (NIPAM) and vinyl imidazole (VI) is used to purify plasmid from an alkaline lysate of E. coli. The NIPAM units confer reversible solubility on the copolymer while the imidazole chelates metal ions in a manner accessible to interaction with soluble ligands. RNA was separated from the plasmid by precipitation along with the polymer in the presence of 800 mM NaCl. Bound RNA could be recovered by elution with imidazole and separated from copolymer by a second precipitation step. RNA binding showed a strong dependence on temperature and on the type of buffer used. PMID:12889823

  15. Metal chelate affinity precipitation of RNA and purification of plasmid DNA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balan, Sindhu; Murphy, Jason; Galaev, Igor; Kumar, Ashok; Fox, George E.; Mattiasson, Bo; Willson, Richard C.

    2003-01-01

    The affinity of metal chelates for amino acids, such as histidine, is widely used in purifying proteins, most notably through six-histidine 'tails'. We have found that metal affinity interactions can also be applied to separation of single-stranded nucleic acids through interactions involving exposed purines. Here we describe a metal affinity precipitation method to resolve RNA from linear and plasmid DNA. A copper-charged copolymer of N-isopropyl acrylamide (NIPAM) and vinyl imidazole (VI) is used to purify plasmid from an alkaline lysate of E. coli. The NIPAM units confer reversible solubility on the copolymer while the imidazole chelates metal ions in a manner accessible to interaction with soluble ligands. RNA was separated from the plasmid by precipitation along with the polymer in the presence of 800 mM NaCl. Bound RNA could be recovered by elution with imidazole and separated from copolymer by a second precipitation step. RNA binding showed a strong dependence on temperature and on the type of buffer used.

  16. Non-nucleosomal packaging of a tandemly repeated DNA sequence at termini of extrachromosomal DNA coding for rRNA in Tetrahymena.

    PubMed Central

    Blackburn, E H; Chiou, S S

    1981-01-01

    A tandemly repeated DNA hexanucleotide sequence, 5'C-C-C-C-A-A3', that occurs at the termini of extrachromosomal DNA molecules coding for rRNA (rDNA) in Tetrahymena macronuclei was examined to determine whether it is packaged as nucleosomes. This repeated DNA sequence comprises the terminal few hundred base pairs at each end of the linear rDNA molecules. Digestion of macronuclei with micrococcal nuclease showed that this DNA sequence is protected from digestion but is left, following digestion, as a single but broad size class of DNA fragments several hundred base pairs long, under conditions in which bulk macronuclear DNA and rDNA were digested to fragments that were multiples of approximately 200 base pairs in length. The repeated C-C-C-C-A-A was found protected as fragments longer than the bulk macronuclear DNA digestion products at all times during digestion. Together with putative associated protein(s), this protected DNA was soluble after lysis of micrococcal nuclease-digested macronuclei at low salt concentrations but was insoluble in 0.075--0.2 M KCl, regardless of the extend of digestion. The size and solubility properties of the repeated C-C-C-C-A-A DNA nucleoprotein complex after micrococcal nuclease digestion of macronuclei are clearly distinguishable from those of nucleosomes, and it is inferred that this DNA sequence in macronuclei is packaged in chromatin by proteins other than histones. Images PMID:6941283

  17. LNA units present in the (2'-OMe)-RNA strand stabilize parallel duplexes (2'-OMe)-RNA/[All-R(P)-PS]-DNA and parallel triplexes (2'-OMe)-RNA/[All-R(P)-PS]-DNA/RNA. An improved tool for the inhibition of reverse transcription.

    PubMed

    Maciaszek, Anna; Krakowiak, Agnieszka; Janicka, Magdalena; Tomaszewska-Antczak, Agnieszka; Sobczak, Milena; Miko?ajczyk, Barbara; Guga, Piotr

    2015-02-28

    Homopurine phosphorothioate analogs of DNA, possessing all phosphorus atoms of RP configuration ([All-RP-PS]-DNA), when interact with appropriate complementary RNA or (2'-OMe)-RNA templates, form parallel triplexes or parallel duplexes of very high thermodynamic stability. The present results show that T-LNA or 5-Me-C-LNA units introduced into the parallel Hoogsteen-paired (2'-OMe)-RNA strands (up to four units in the oligomers of 9 or 12 nt in length) stabilize these parallel complexes. At neutral pH, dodecameric parallel duplexes have Tm values of 62-68 C, which are by 4-10 C higher than Tm for the reference duplex (with no LNA units present), while for the corresponding triplexes, Tm values exceeded 85 C. For nonameric parallel duplexes, melting temperatures of 38-62 C were found and (2'-OMe)-RNA oligomers containing 5-Me-C-LNA units stabilized the complexes more efficiently than the T-LNA containing congeners. In both series the stability of the parallel complexes increased with an increasing number of LNA units present. The same trend was observed in experiments of reverse transcription RNA?DNA (using AMV RT reverse transcriptase) where the formation of parallel triplexes (consisting of an RNA template, [All-RP-PS]-DNA nonamer and Hoogsteen-paired (2'-OMe)-RNA strands containing the LNA units) led to the efficient inhibition of the process. Under the best conditions checked (four 5-Me-C-LNA units, three-fold excess over the RNA template) the inhibition was 94% effective, compared to 71% inhibition observed in the reference system with the Hoogsteen-paired (2'-OMe)-RNA strand carrying no LNA units. This kind of complexation may "arrest" harmful RNA oligomers (e.g., viral RNA or mRNA of unwanted proteins) and, beneficially, exclude them from enzymatic processes, otherwise leading to viral or genetic diseases. PMID:25564351

  18. tRNA-derived microRNA modulates proliferation and the DNA damage response and is down-regulated in B cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Maute, Roy L; Schneider, Christof; Sumazin, Pavel; Holmes, Antony; Califano, Andrea; Basso, Katia; Dalla-Favera, Riccardo

    2013-01-22

    Sequencing studies from several model systems have suggested that diverse and abundant small RNAs may be derived from tRNA, but the function of these molecules remains undefined. Here, we demonstrate that one such tRNA-derived fragment, cloned from human mature B cells and designated CU1276, in fact possesses the functional characteristics of a microRNA, including a DICER1-dependent biogenesis, physical association with Argonaute proteins, and the ability to repress mRNA transcripts in a sequence-specific manner. Expression of CU1276 is abundant in normal germinal center B cells but absent in germinal center-derived lymphomas, suggesting a role in the pathogenesis of this disease. Furthermore, CU1276 represses endogenous RPA1, an essential gene involved in many aspects of DNA dynamics, and consequently, expression of this tRNA-derived microRNA in a lymphoma cell line suppresses proliferation and modulates the molecular response to DNA damage. These results establish that functionally active microRNAs can be derived from tRNA, thus defining a class of genetic entities with potentially important biological roles. PMID:23297232

  19. Nonenzymatic synthesis of RNA and DNA oligomers on hexitol nucleic acid templates: the importance of the A structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozlov, I. A.; Politis, P. K.; Van Aerschot, A.; Busson, R.; Herdewijn, P.; Orgel, L. E.; Bada, J. L. (Principal Investigator); Dolan, M. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Hexitol nucleic acid (HNA) is an analogue of DNA containing the standard nucleoside bases, but with a phosphorylated 1,5-anhydrohexitol backbone. HNA oligomers form duplexes having the nucleic acid A structure with complementary DNA or RNA oligomers. The HNA decacytidylate oligomer is an efficient template for the oligomerization of the 5'-phosphoroimidazolides of guanosine or deoxyguanosine. Comparison of the oligomerization efficiencies on HNA, RNA, and DNA decacytidylate templates under various conditions suggests strongly that only nucleic acid double helices with the A structure support efficient template-directed synthesis when 5'-phosphoroimidazolides of nucleosides are used as substrates.

  20. Submillimeter wave spectroscopy of biological macromolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Globus, Tatiana

    2005-03-01

    The recently emergence of submillimeter-wave or terahertz (THz) spectroscopy of biological molecules has demonstrated the capability to detect low-frequency internal molecular vibrations involving the weakest hydrogen bonds of the DNA base pairs and/or non-bonded interactions. These multiple bonds, although having only 5% of the strength of covalent bonds, stabilize the structure of bio-polymers, by holding the two strands of the DNA double helix together, or polypeptides together in different secondary structure conformations. There will be a review of THz-frequency transmission (absorption) results for biological materials obtained from Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy during the last few years^1,2. Multiple resonances, due to low frequency vibrational modes within biological macromolecules, have been unambiguously demonstrated in qualitative agreement with theoretical prediction, thereby confirming the fundamental physical nature of observed resonance features. The discovery of resonance character of interaction between THz radiation and biological materials opens many possible applications for THz spectroscopy technique in biological sensing and biomedicine using multiple resonances as distinctive spectral fingerprints. However, many issues still require investigation. Kinetics of interactions with radiation at THz has not been studied and vibrational lifetimes have not been measured directly as a function of frequency. The strength of resonant modes of bio-molecules in aqueous environment and strong dependence of spectra on molecular orientation need explanation. Vibrational modes have not been assigned to specific motions within molecules. THz spectroscopy of bio-polymers makes it only in first steps. 1. T. Globus, D. Woolard, M. Bykhovskaia, B. Gelmont, L. Werbos, A. Samuels. International Journal of High Speed Electronics and Systems (IJHSES), 13, No. 4, 903-936 (2003). 2. T. Globus, T. Khromova, D. Woolard and B. Gelmont. Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 5268-2, 10-18 (2004)

  1. 24-Hour Rhythms of DNA Methylation and Their Relation with Rhythms of RNA Expression in the Human Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Andrew S. P.; Srivastava, Gyan P.; Yu, Lei; Chibnik, Lori B.; Xu, Jishu; Buchman, Aron S.; Schneider, Julie A.; Myers, Amanda J.; Bennett, David A.; De Jager, Philip L.

    2014-01-01

    Circadian rhythms modulate the biology of many human tissues, including brain tissues, and are driven by a near 24-hour transcriptional feedback loop. These rhythms are paralleled by 24-hour rhythms of large portions of the transcriptome. The role of dynamic DNA methylation in influencing these rhythms is uncertain. While recent work in Neurospora suggests that dynamic site-specific circadian rhythms of DNA methylation may play a role in modulating the fungal molecular clock, such rhythms and their relationship to RNA expression have not, to our knowledge, been elucidated in mammalian tissues, including human brain tissues. We hypothesized that 24-hour rhythms of DNA methylation exist in the human brain, and play a role in driving 24-hour rhythms of RNA expression. We analyzed DNA methylation levels in post-mortem human dorsolateral prefrontal cortex samples from 738 subjects. We assessed for 24-hour rhythmicity of 420,132 DNA methylation sites throughout the genome by considering methylation levels as a function of clock time of death and parameterizing these data using cosine functions. We determined global statistical significance by permutation. We then related rhythms of DNA methylation with rhythms of RNA expression determined by RNA sequencing. We found evidence of significant 24-hour rhythmicity of DNA methylation. Regions near transcription start sites were enriched for high-amplitude rhythmic DNA methylation sites, which were in turn time locked to 24-hour rhythms of RNA expression of nearby genes, with the nadir of methylation preceding peak transcript expression by 13 hours. Weak ante-mortem rest-activity rhythms were associated with lower amplitude DNA methylation rhythms as were older age and the presence of Alzheimer's disease. These findings support the hypothesis that 24-hour rhythms of DNA methylation, particularly near transcription start sites, may play a role in driving 24-hour rhythms of gene expression in the human dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and may be affected by age and Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25375876

  2. Generating a long DNA fragment of the target ncRNA for quantitative polymerase chain reaction by combining ncRNA-oligos hybridization and oligos ligation.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Zhen; Zhou, Zheng; Wang, Dan; Wang, Zitian; Yang, Huali; Luo, Jianjun; Chen, Run-Sheng

    2016-01-10

    The poor reproducibility of the reverse transcription combined with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) results in an unacceptable reliability of publications based on these data. We established a novel method, in which two short complementary DNA oligos were hybridized with target ncRNA molecules and linked by DNA ligase to obtain a long DNA strand (HL-DNA) replacing cDNA for qPCR detection (HL-qPCR). A series of diluted samples prepared from the same total RNA resource were measured by HL-qPCR and RT-qPCR respectively to acquire their relative concentration of RNU4-1, AK026510 and SNORA73B. For every tested sample, the relative concentration of RNU4-1, AK026510 and SNORA73B obtained by HL-qPCR instead of RT-qPCR is closer to its corresponding true value without significant difference, demonstrating that HL-qPCR exhibits higher accuracy compared with RT-qPCR. With three independent repeats, no significant difference was observed among AK026510/RNU4-1 values of four samples diluted from the same RNA resource, by employing HL-qPCR but not RT-qPCR. It strongly suggests that the good reproducibility of HL-qPCR results from the stable efficiency of HL-DNA production regardless of the concentration and individual features of ncRNA. The novel HL-qPCR could be applied for the regular relative ncRNA concentration detection in the future. PMID:26593981

  3. Recent developments in primer design for DNA polymorphism and mRNA profiling in higher plants

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaohan; Scheffler, Brian E; Weston, Leslie A

    2006-01-01

    Primer design is a critical step in the application of PCR-based technologies in gene expression and genetic diversity analysis. As more plant genomes have been sequenced in recent years, the emphasis of primer design strategy has shifted to genome-wide and high-throughput direction. This paper summarizes recent advances in primer design for profiling of DNA polymorphism and mRNA in higher plants, as well as new primer systems developed for animals that can be adapted for plants. PMID:16509990

  4. Dynamics of intramolecular recognition: Base-pairing in DNA/RNA near and far from equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bundschuh, R.; Gerland, U.

    2006-03-01

    The physics of the base-pairing interaction in DNA and RNA molecules plays a fundamental role in biology. Past experimental and theoretical research has led to a fairly complete and quantitative understanding of the equilibrium properties such as the different phases, the melting behavior, and the response to slow stretching. The non-equilibrium behavior is even richer than might be expected on the basis of thermodynamics. However, the non-equilibrium behavior is also far less understood. Here, we review different theoretical approaches to the study of base-pairing thermodynamics and kinetics, and illustrate the rich phenomenology with several examples that use these approaches.

  5. DUPLEX: A molecular mechanics program in torsion angle space for computing structures of DNA and RNA

    SciTech Connect

    Hingerty, B.E.

    1992-07-01

    DUPLEX produces energy minimized structures of DNA and RNA of any base sequence for single and double strands. The smallest subunits are deoxydinucleoside monophosphates, and up to 12 residues, single or double stranded can be treated. In addition, it can incorporate NMR derived interproton distances an constraints in the minimizations. Both upper and lower bounds for these distances can be specified. The program has been designed to run on a UNICOS Cray supercomputer, but should run, albeit slowly, on a laboratory computer such as a VAX or a workstation.

  6. Simplified Identification of mRNA or DNA in Whole Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Almeida, Eduardo; Kadambi, Geeta

    2007-01-01

    A recently invented method of detecting a selected messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) or deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequence offers two important advantages over prior such methods: it is simpler and can be implemented by means of compact equipment. The simplification and miniaturization achieved by this invention are such that this method is suitable for use outside laboratories, in field settings in which space and power supplies may be limited. The present method is based partly on hybridization of nucleic acid, which is a powerful technique for detection of specific complementary nucleic acid sequences and is increasingly being used for detection of changes in gene expression in microarrays containing thousands of gene probes.

  7. DNA damage triggers SAF-A and RNA biogenesis factors exclusion from chromatin coupled to R-loops removal

    PubMed Central

    Britton, Sbastien; Dernoncourt, Emma; Delteil, Christine; Froment, Carine; Schiltz, Odile; Salles, Bernard; Frit, Philippe; Calsou, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    We previously identified the heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein SAF-A/hnRNP U as a substrate for DNA-PK, a protein kinase involved in DNA damage response (DDR). Using laser micro-irradiation in human cells, we report here that SAF-A exhibits a two-phase dynamics at sites of DNA damage, with a rapid and transient recruitment followed by a prolonged exclusion. SAF-A recruitment corresponds to its binding to Poly(ADP-ribose) while its exclusion is dependent on the activity of ATM, ATR and DNA-PK and reflects the dissociation from chromatin of SAF-A associated with ongoing transcription. Having established that SAF-A RNA-binding domain recapitulates SAF-A dynamics, we show that this domain is part of a complex comprising several mRNA biogenesis proteins of which at least two, FUS/TLS and TAFII68/TAF15, exhibit similar biphasic dynamics at sites of damage. Using an original reporter for live imaging of DNA:RNA hybrids (R-loops), we show a transient transcription-dependent accumulation of R-loops at sites of DNA damage that is prolonged upon inhibition of RNA biogenesis factors exclusion. We propose that a new component of the DDR is an active anti-R-loop mechanism operating at damaged transcribed sites which includes the exclusion of mRNA biogenesis factors such as SAF-A, FUS and TAF15. PMID:25030905

  8. In-vitro nanodiagnostic platform through nanoparticles and DNA-RNA nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ki; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2015-04-01

    Nanocomposites containing nanoparticles or nanostructured domains exhibit an even higher degree of material complexity that leads to an extremely high variability of nanostructured materials. This review introduces analytical concepts and techniques for nanomaterials and derives recommendations for a qualified selection of characterization techniques for specific types of samples, and focuses the characterization of nanoparticles and their agglomerates or aggregates. In addition, DNA nanotechnology and the more recent newcomer RNA nanotechnology have achieved almost an advanced status among nanotechnology researchers¸ therefore, the core features, potential, and significant challenges of DNA nanotechnology are also highlighted as a new discipline. Moreover, nanobiochips made by nanomaterials are rapidly emerging as a new paradigm in the area of large-scale biochemical analysis. The use of nanoscale components enables higher precision in diagnostics while considerably reducing the cost of the platform that leads this review to explore the use of nanoparticles, nanomaterials, and other bionanotechnologies for its application to nanodiagnostics in-vitro. PMID:25761622

  9. Structural mimicry in transcription regulation of human RNA polymerase II by the DNA helicase RECQL5

    PubMed Central

    Kassube, Susanne A.; Jinek, Martin; Fang, Jie; Tsutakawa, Susan; Nogales, Eva

    2013-01-01

    RECQL5 is a member of the highly conserved RecQ family of DNA helicases involved in DNA repair. RECQL5 interacts with RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and inhibits transcription of protein–coding genes by an unknown mechanism. We show that RECQL5 contacts the Rpb1 jaw domain of Pol II at a site that overlaps with the binding site for the transcription elongation factor TFIIS. Our cryo–electron microscopy structure of elongating Pol II arrested in complex with RECQL5 shows that the RECQL5 helicase domain is positioned to sterically block elongation. The crystal structure of the RECQL5 KIX domain reveals similarities with TFIIS, and binding of RECQL5 to Pol II interferes with the ability of TFIIS to promote transcriptional read–through in vitro. Together, our findings reveal a dual mode of transcriptional repression by RECQL5 that includes structural mimicry of the Pol II–TFIIS interaction. PMID:23748380

  10. Delivery of DNA and siRNA by novel gemini-like amphiphilic peptides.

    PubMed

    Damen, Mark; Aarbiou, Jamil; van Dongen, Stijn F M; Buijs-Offerman, Ruvalic M; Spijkers, Patricia P; van den Heuvel, Maaike; Kvashnina, Kristina; Nolte, Roeland J M; Scholte, Bob J; Feiters, Martin C

    2010-07-01

    We report the design, synthesis, and characterization of a novel type of cationic lipopeptide, gemini-like amphiphilic peptides or 'geminoids'. As an example, the SPKR peptide, inspired by biological nucleic acid binding motifs, was appended with unsaturated (oleoyl/oleyl) alkyl tails. The compound shows remarkable DNA and siRNA delivery, without lysogenic helper lipid, in a variety of cells, with a moderate cytotoxic effect. It aggregates to nanoparticles that combine with DNA to lipoplexes, which undergo a change from lamellar to the more lysogenic hexagonal packing upon lowering the pH. The versatility of the chemical approach allowed us to study peptides related to SPKR, and to establish that the Pro and at least one of the cationic (Lys, Arg) residues are essential for the biological activity. PMID:20381554

  11. A novel approach on fluid dispensing for a DNA/RNA extraction chip package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Ling; Premachandran, C. S.; Chew, Michelle; Yao, Qiang; Xu, Diao; Pinjala, D.

    2008-02-01

    Micro fluidic package with integrated reservoirs has been developed for DNA /RNA extraction application. A membrane based pump which consists of a reservoir to store reagents and a pin valve to control the fluid is developed to dispense the reagents into the chip. A programmable external actuator is fabricated to dispense the fluid from the membrane pump into the DNA chip. An elastic and high elongation thin rubber membrane is used to seal the membrane pump and at the same time prevent actuator from mixing with different reagents in the micro fluidic package. Break displacement during actuation of membrane pump sealing material is studied with different ratios of PDMS and other types of rubber materials. The fluid flow from the reservoir to the chip is controlled by a pin valve which is activated during the external actuation. A CFD simulation is performed to study the pumping action dusting the external actuation and is validated with experimental results.

  12. Systematic Functional Comparative Analysis of Four Single-Stranded DNA-Binding Proteins and Their Affection on Viral RNA Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jinlei; Zhang, Xun; Song, Haiyan; Lv, Jianxin; Gao, Jimin; Wang, Yuepeng; Chen, Litian; Wang, Yue

    2013-01-01

    The accumulation of single-stranded DNA-binding (SSB) proteins is essential for organisms and has various applications. However, no study has simultaneously and systematically compared the characteristics of SSB proteins. In addition, SSB proteins may bind RNA and play an unknown biological role in RNA metabolism. Here, we expressed a novel species of SSB protein derived from Thermococcus kodakarensis KOD1 (KOD), as well as SSB proteins from Thermus thermophilus (TTH), Escherichia coli, and Sulfolobus Solfataricus P2 (SSOB), abbreviated kod, tth, bl21, and ssob, respectively. These SSB proteins could bind ssDNA and viral RNA. bl21 resisted heat treatment for more than 9 h, Ssob and kod could withstand 95°C for 10 h and retain its ssDNA- and RNA-binding ability. Four SSB proteins promoted the specificity of the DNA polymerase in PCR-based 5- and 9-kb genome fragment amplification. kod also increased the amplification of a 13-kb PCR product, and SSB protein–bound RNA resisted Benzonase digestion. The SSB proteins could also enter the host cell bound to RNA, which resulted in modulation of viral RNA metabolism, particularly ssob and bl21. PMID:23365690

  13. Impacts of Pretranscriptional DNA Methylation, Transcriptional Transcription Factor, and Posttranscriptional microRNA Regulations on Protein Evolutionary Rate

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Trees-Juen; Chiang, Tai-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Gene expression is largely regulated by DNA methylation, transcription factor (TF), and microRNA (miRNA) before, during, and after transcription, respectively. Although the evolutionary effects of TF/miRNA regulations have been widely studied, evolutionary analysis of simultaneously accounting for DNA methylation, TF, and miRNA regulations and whether promoter methylation and gene body (coding regions) methylation have different effects on the rate of gene evolution remain uninvestigated. Here, we compared humanmacaque and humanmouse protein evolutionary rates against experimentally determined single base-resolution DNA methylation data, revealing that promoter methylation level is positively correlated with protein evolutionary rates but negatively correlated with TF/miRNA regulations, whereas the opposite was observed for gene body methylation level. Our results showed that the relative importance of these regulatory factors in determining the rate of mammalian protein evolution is as follows: Promoter methylation ? miRNA regulation > gene body methylation > TF regulation, and further indicated that promoter methylation and miRNA regulation have a significant dependent effect on protein evolutionary rates. Although the mechanisms underlying cooperation between DNA methylation and TFs/miRNAs in gene regulation remain unclear, our study helps to not only illuminate the impact of these regulatory factors on mammalian protein evolution but also their intricate interaction within gene regulatory networks. PMID:24923326

  14. Rigidity of Glasses and Macromolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorpe, M. F.

    1998-03-01

    The simple yet powerful ideas of percolation theory have found their way into many different areas of research. In this talk we show how RIGIDITY PERCOLATION can be studied at a similar level of sophistication, using a powerful new program THE PEBBLE GAME (D. J. Jacobs and M. F. Thorpe, Phys. Rev. E) 53, 3682 (1996). that uses an integer algorithm. This program can analyse the rigidity of two and three dimensional networks containing more than one million bars and joints. We find the total number of floppy modes, and find the critical behavior as the network goes from floppy to rigid as more bars are added. We discuss the relevance of this work to network glasses, and how it relates to experiments that involve the mechanical properties like hardness and elasticity of covalent glassy networks like Ge_xAs_ySe_1-x-y and dicuss recent experiments that suggest that the rigidity transition may be first order (Xingwei Feng, W. J.Bresser and P. Boolchand, Phys. Rev. Lett 78), 4422 (1997).. This approach is also useful in macromolecules and proteins, where detailed information about the rigid domain structure can be obtained.

  15. Ionic mixed interactions in macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Ciferri, Alberto

    2010-09-24

    Purely ionic interactions in natural and synthetic macromolecules involve the mutual interaction of fixed charges and their interaction with mobile ions. Such charge-dependent interactions lead to well-documented effects, including chain expansion of polyelectrolytes, globularization of polyampholytes, distributions of mobile ions according to charge screening, or ion condensation models. A variety of structural features, functions, and applications of these systems is amplified by the superimposition of charge-independent effects associated with the occurrence of less polar or hydrophobic groups, special salts, surfactants, or complementary protein assemblies. For instance, ionic and hydrophobic attractive interactions stabilize pearls (or rings)-on-a-string conformations, possibly a model for the formation of the chromatin assembly. The attractive interactions due to hydrophobic fatty acid groups attached to polysaccharides promote the formation of vesicles that entrap and slowly release water-soluble drugs. Intra- and intermolecular associations based on ion-pairing mixed interactions also control the formation of host-guest compounds, protein conformation, and the assembly of layered polyelectrolytes. Metallo-supramolecular polymers and networks are formed due to the coordination of multivalent cations with bi- and trifunctional organic ligands. The association of lithium salts to polymers in the absence of water allows the formation of highly efficient energy sources. It also allows the identification of the ionic species that control charge-independent contributions to Hofmeister effects. This critical review presents a synthetic classification of systems displaying ionic mixed interactions, and a discussion of underlying molecular mechanisms. PMID:20725919

  16. Intestinal barriers to water-soluble macromolecules

    PubMed Central

    Lecce, James G.

    1979-01-01

    Neonates of some species of mammals absorb water-soluble macromolecules from the lumen of the gut to the circulation. This is a means for providing the neonate with passive immunological protection. The accepted model for absorption of macromolecules, particularly immunoglobulin G (IgG), has at least three phases: adherence of the macromolecule to the brush border on enterocytes; internalization of the macromolecule within the enterocytes; and egress of the macromolecule into the lamina propria. With regard to the absorption of IgG, adherence is thought to be a specific reaction of ligand (IgG) with a plasmalemma binding site. Pinocytosis is activated and internalization follows. Egress into the lamina propria occurs at the basal-lateral membrane by a process of reverse pinocytosis. Unbound (unprotected) macromolecules that are internalized in the pinocytosic fluid are shunted off to lysosomes and either digested or stored therein. Neonatal rodents fit this model for macromolecular absorption. However, in another group of neonates (e.g., pig, cow, horse), nonselected absorption takes place, in that IgG and other macromolecules are transported from the gut lumen to the blood. In a third group of neonates, (e.g., human, guinea pig) absorption of IgG is either of low order or nonexistent. Since neonatal mammals possess a mechanism for absorbing macromolecules, there is the potential for internalizing toxic macromolecules if the toxin is presented to the neonate's enterocytes in competitive amounts. Adults retain remnants of the neonatal absorptive mechanism. ImagesFIGURE 1.FIGURE 2. PMID:396158

  17. Advancing forensic RNA typing: On non-target secretions, a nasal mucosa marker, a differential co-extraction protocol and the sensitivity of DNA and RNA profiling.

    PubMed

    van den Berge, Margreet; Bhoelai, Bryan; Harteveld, Joyce; Matai, Anuska; Sijen, Titia

    2016-01-01

    The forensic identification of human body fluids and tissues by means of messenger RNA (mRNA) profiling is a long studied methodology that is increasingly applied to casework samples. Previously, we have described an mRNA multiplex system that targets blood, saliva, semen, menstrual secretion, vaginal mucosa and skin (Lindenbergh et al. and van den Berge et al.) [1-2]. In this study we consider various topics to improve this mRNA profiling system or its use and adapt the method accordingly. Bodily secretions that may be encountered at a crime scene whilst not targeted by the multiplex-id est nasal mucosa, sweat, tears, faeces and urine-were examined for false positive signals. The results prompted us to identify a nasal mucosa marker that allows the discrimination of nasal mucosa from saliva or vaginal mucosa and nosebleed blood from peripheral blood. An updated version of the multiplex was prepared to which the nasal mucosa marker was added and in which markers for semen, vaginal mucosa and blood were replaced. Lactobacillus markers were regarded unsuitable as replacement for vaginal mucosa mRNA markers because of background signals on penile swabs that appeared devoid of female DNA. Furthermore, we provide approaches to deal with highly unbalanced mixtures. First, a differential extraction protocol was incorporated into a co-extraction protocol to allow DNA and RNA analysis of separated non-sperm and sperm fractions. In a second approach, besides the standard multiplex, a customized multiplex is used which excludes markers for prevailing cell types. This allows the use of lower cDNA inputs for the prevailing cell types and higher inputs for cell types that appear masked. Additionally, we assessed the relation between the percentage of alleles or markers detected in DNA or RNA profiles when decreasing sample amounts are analysed. While blood, saliva, semen and menstrual secretion show the trend that DNA profiling is more sensitive than RNA profiling, the reverse is seen for skin and variable results occur for vaginal and nasal mucosa. Lastly, we show that replicates are useful for interpretation of RNA data, as variations can be found even for true technical replicates. Increased numbers of replicates (over four) do, however, not cancel out the impact of this variation on data interpretation. Overall, the results of this study further forensic RNA profiling. PMID:26590860

  18. RNA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darnell, James E., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Ribonucleic acid (RNA) converts genetic information into protein and usually must be processed to serve its function. RNA types, chemical structure, protein synthesis, translation, manufacture, and processing are discussed. Concludes that the first genes might have been spliced RNA and that humans might be closer than bacteria to primitive

  19. Cloning and characterization of DNA complementary to the canine distemper virus mRNA encoding matrix, phosphoprotein, and nucleocapsid protein

    SciTech Connect

    Rozenblatt, S.; Eizenberg, O.; Englund, G.; Bellini, W.J.

    1985-02-01

    Double-stranded cDNA synthesized from total polyadenylate-containing mRNA, extracted from monkey kidney cells infected with canine distemper virus (CDV), has been cloned into the PstI site of Escherichia coli plasmid pBR322. Clones containing canine distemper virus DNA were identified by hybridization to a canine distemper virus-specific, /sup 32/P-labeled cDNA. Four specific clones containing different classes of sequences have been identified. The cloned plasmids contain inserts of 800 (clone 44-80), 960 (clone 74-16), 1700 (clone 364), and 950 (clone 40-9) base pairs. The sizes of the mRNA species complementary to these inserts are 1500, 1850, 1850 and 2500 nucleotides, respectively, as determined by the Northern technique. Three of the cloned DNA fragments were further identified as the reverse transcripts of the mRNA coding for the matrix, phosphoprotein, and nucleocapsid protein of CDV.

  20. A third recognition element in bacterial promoters: DNA binding by the alpha subunit of RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Ross, W; Gosink, K K; Salomon, J; Igarashi, K; Zou, C; Ishihama, A; Severinov, K; Gourse, R L

    1993-11-26

    A DNA sequence rich in (A+T), located upstream of the -10, -35 region of the Escherichia coli ribosomal RNA promoter rrnB P1 and called the UP element, stimulates transcription by a factor of 30 in vivo, as well as in vitro in the absence of protein factors other than RNA polymerase (RNAP). When fused to other promoters, such as lacUV5, the UP element also stimulates transcription, indicating that it is a separate promoter module. Mutations in the carboxyl-terminal region of the alpha subunit of RNAP prevent stimulation of these promoters by the UP element although the mutant enzymes are effective in transcribing the "core" promoters (those lacking the UP element). Protection of UP element DNA by the mutant RNAPs is severely reduced in footprinting experiments, suggesting that the selective decrease in transcription might result from defective interactions between alpha and the UP element. Purified alpha binds specifically to the UP element, confirming that alpha acts directly in promoter recognition. Transcription of three other promoters was also reduced by the COOH-terminal alpha mutations. These results suggest that UP elements comprise a third promoter recognition region (in addition to the -10, -35 recognition hexamers, which interact with the sigma subunit) and may account for the presence of (A+T)-rich DNA upstream of many prokaryotic promoters. Since the same alpha mutations also block activation by some transcription factors, mechanisms of promoter stimulation by upstream DNA elements and positive control by certain transcription factors may be related. PMID:8248780

  1. RNA-directed DNA methylation enforces boundaries between heterochromatin and euchromatin in the maize genome.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Gent, Jonathan I; Zynda, Greg; Song, Jawon; Makarevitch, Irina; Hirsch, Cory D; Hirsch, Candice N; Dawe, R Kelly; Madzima, Thelma F; McGinnis, Karen M; Lisch, Damon; Schmitz, Robert J; Vaughn, Matthew W; Springer, Nathan M

    2015-11-24

    The maize genome is relatively large (∼ 2.3 Gb) and has a complex organization of interspersed genes and transposable elements, which necessitates frequent boundaries between different types of chromatin. The examination of maize genes and conserved noncoding sequences revealed that many of these are flanked by regions of elevated asymmetric CHH (where H is A, C, or T) methylation (termed mCHH islands). These mCHH islands are quite short (∼ 100 bp), are enriched near active genes, and often occur at the edge of the transposon that is located nearest to genes. The analysis of DNA methylation in other sequence contexts and several chromatin modifications revealed that mCHH islands mark the transition from heterochromatin-associated modifications to euchromatin-associated modifications. The presence of an mCHH island is fairly consistent in several distinct tissues that were surveyed but shows some variation among different haplotypes. The presence of insertion/deletions in promoters often influences the presence and position of an mCHH island. The mCHH islands are dependent upon RNA-directed DNA methylation activities and are lost in mop1 and mop3 mutants, but the nearby genes rarely exhibit altered expression levels. Instead, loss of an mCHH island is often accompanied by additional loss of DNA methylation in CG and CHG contexts associated with heterochromatin in nearby transposons. This suggests that mCHH islands and RNA-directed DNA methylation near maize genes may act to preserve the silencing of transposons from activity of nearby genes. PMID:26553984

  2. Differential utility of the Bacteroidales DNA and RNA markers in the tiered approach for microbial source tracking in subtropical seawater.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rulong; Cheng, Ken H F; Wong, Klaine; Cheng, Samuel C S; Lau, Stanley C K

    2015-07-01

    Source tracking of fecal pollution is an emerging component in water quality monitoring. It may be implemented in a tiered approach involving Escherichia coli and/or Enterococcus spp. as the standard fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and the 16S rRNA gene markers of Bacteroidales as source identifiers. The relative population dynamics of the source identifiers and the FIB may strongly influence the implementation of such approach. Currently, the relative performance of DNA and RNA as detection targets of Bacteroidales markers in the tiered approach is not known. We compared the decay of the DNA and RNA of the total (AllBac) and ruminant specific (CF128) Bacteroidales markers with those of the FIB in seawater spiked with cattle feces. Four treatments of light and oxygen availability simulating the subtropical seawater of Hong Kong were tested. All Bacteroidales markers decayed significantly slower than the FIB in all treatments. Nonetheless, the concentrations of the DNA and RNA markers and E. coli correlated significantly in normoxic seawater independent of light availability, and in hypoxic seawater only under light. In hypoxic seawater without light, the concentrations of RNA but not DNA markers correlated with that of E. coli. Generally, the correlations between Enterococcus spp. and Bacteroidales were insignificant. These results suggest that either DNA or RNA markers may complement E. coli in the tiered approach for normoxic or hypoxic seawater under light. When light is absent, either DNA or RNA markers may serve for normoxic seawater, but only the RNA markers are suitable for hypoxic seawater. PMID:25652655

  3. Chimeric DNA-RNA hammerhead ribozyme targeting transforming growth factor-beta 1 mRNA inhibits neointima formation in rat carotid artery after balloon injury.

    PubMed

    Ando, Hideyuki; Fukuda, Noboru; Kotani, Motoko; Yokoyama, Shin ichiro; Kunimoto, Satoshi; Matsumoto, Koichi; Saito, Satoshi; Kanmatsuse, Katsuo; Mugishima, Hideo

    2004-01-12

    We designed and synthesized a chimeric DNA-RNA hammerhead ribozyme targeting transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta 1 mRNA and found that this ribozyme effectively and specifically inhibited growth of vascular smooth muscle cells. We examined the effects of the chimeric DNA-RNA hammerhead ribozyme targeting TGF-beta 1 mRNA on neointima formation and investigated the underlying mechanism to develop a possible gene therapy for coronary artery restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. Expression of mRNAs encoding TGF-beta 1, p27kip1, and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in carotid artery increased after balloon injury. Fluorescein-isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled ribozyme was taken up into the midlayer smooth muscle of the injured carotid artery. Both 2 and 5 mg of ribozyme reduced neointima formation by 65% compared to that of controls. Ribozyme markedly decreased expression of TGF-beta 1 mRNA and protein in injured vessel. Mismatch ribozyme had no effect on expression of TGF-beta 1 mRNA protein in injured vessel. Ribozyme markedly decreased expression of fibronectin, p27kip1, and CTGF mRNAs in injured vessel, whereas a mismatch ribozyme had no effect on these mRNAs. These findings indicate that the chimeric DNA-RNA hammerhead ribozyme targeting TGF-beta 1 mRNA inhibits neointima formation in rat carotid artery after balloon injury with suppression of TGF-beta 1 and inhibition of extracellular matrix and CTGF. In conclusion, the hammerhead ribozyme against TGF-beta 1 may have promise as a therapy for coronary artery restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. PMID:14729108

  4. Differentiation of ruminal and human Streptococcus bovis strains by DNA homology and 16s rRNA probes.

    PubMed

    Nelms, L F; Odelson, D A; Whitehead, T R; Hespell, R B

    1995-11-01

    Streptococcus bovis is commonly present in the rumen, but strains of S. bovis have also occasionally been isolated from human blood or fecal samples. Studies were undertaken with 16s rRNA gene sequences and DNA hybridizations to define the genetic relationships between these two groups of strains. Ruminal strains were found to yield genomic DNA restriction endonuclease digest patterns different from human strains when either the 16s rRNA gene amplified from ruminal S. bovis strain JB1 or a conserved universal 23s rRNA fragment was used as probes. A DNA probe based on the V1 region of the 16s rRNA of S. bovis JB1 was found to hybridize to DNAs of other ruminal S. bovis strains (K27FF4, 21-09-6C, five new ruminal isolates, and weak hybridization was found with DNAs from S. bovis 33317 (type strain), S. equinus 9812, and six other ruminal isolates. No hybridization occurred with strains representing different major human biotypes/homology groups (43143, 43144, 27960, V1387). All ruminal S. bovis strains had a guanosine plus cytosine DNA content of 37.4-38.8 mol% and, based on DNA-DNA genomic hybridizations, could be separated into two homology groups, one of which included S. equinus 9812 and S. bovis 33317. Both ruminal groups had less than 38% DNA homology to the human strains, indicating ruminal strains are clearly two separate species distinct from the human strains. PMID:7580800

  5. Genome-Wide Distribution of RNA-DNA Hybrids Identifies RNase H Targets in tRNA Genes, Retrotransposons and Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    El Hage, Aziz; Webb, Shaun; Kerr, Alastair; Tollervey, David

    2014-01-01

    During transcription, the nascent RNA can invade the DNA template, forming extended RNA-DNA duplexes (R-loops). Here we employ ChIP-seq in strains expressing or lacking RNase H to map targets of RNase H activity throughout the budding yeast genome. In wild-type strains, R-loops were readily detected over the 35S rDNA region, transcribed by Pol I, and over the 5S rDNA, transcribed by Pol III. In strains lacking RNase H activity, R-loops were elevated over other Pol III genes, notably tRNAs, SCR1 and U6 snRNA, and were also associated with the cDNAs of endogenous TY1 retrotransposons, which showed increased rates of mobility to the 5′-flanking regions of tRNA genes. Unexpectedly, R-loops were also associated with mitochondrial genes in the absence of RNase H1, but not of RNase H2. Finally, R-loops were detected on actively transcribed protein-coding genes in the wild-type, particularly over the second exon of spliced ribosomal protein genes. PMID:25357144

  6. The proofreading domain of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I and other DNA and/or RNA exonuclease domains.

    PubMed

    Moser, M J; Holley, W R; Chatterjee, A; Mian, I S

    1997-12-15

    Prior sequence analysis studies have suggested that bacterial ribonuclease (RNase) Ds comprise a complete domain that is found also in Homo sapiens polymyositis-scleroderma overlap syndrome 100 kDa autoantigen and Werner syndrome protein. This RNase D 3'-->5' exoribonuclease domain was predicted to have a structure and mechanism of action similar to the 3'-->5' exodeoxyibonuclease (proofreading) domain of DNA polymerases. Here, hidden Markov model (HMM) and phylogenetic studies have been used to identify and characterise other sequences that may possess this exonuclease domain. Results indicate that it is also present in the RNase T family; Borrelia burgdorferi P93 protein, an immunodominant antigen in Lyme disease; bacteriophage T4 dexA and Escherichia coli exonuclease I, processive 3'-->5' exodeoxyribonucleases that degrade single-stranded DNA; Bacillus subtilis dinG, a probable helicase involved in DNA repair and possibly replication, and peptide synthase 1; Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pab1p-dependent poly(A) nuclease PAN2 subunit, required for shortening mRNA poly(A) tails; Caenorhabditis elegans and Mus musculus CAF1, transcription factor CCR4-associated factor 1; Xenopus laevis XPMC2, prevention of mitotic catastrophe in fission yeast; Drosophila melanogaster egalitarian, oocyte specification and axis determination, and exuperantia, establishment of oocyte polarity; H.sapiens HEM45, expressed in tumour cell lines and uterus and regulated by oestrogen; and 31 open reading frames including one in Methanococcus jannaschii . Examination of a multiple sequence alignment and two three-dimensional structures of proofreading domains has allowed definition of the core sequence, structural and functional elements of this exonuclease domain. PMID:9396823

  7. Dynamic separation of macromolecules under temperature gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Yusuke; Buguin, Axel; Libchaber, Albert

    2011-03-01

    Thermophoresis is a motion of suspensions in a fluid that are subjected to a temperature gradient. Although its effect is widely studied in case of single solute in water, little is known about how the mixture of different solutes is affected. We heated water with an infrared laser by ?Tmax = 5C and ? T = 0.25C/um to induce thermophoresis of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and DNA. PEG is depleted from the hot region and results in a stationary gradient of its high volume fraction ? . Under this high concentration of PEG, DNA of small concentration is submitted to thermophoresis and osmotic pressure difference. The DNA shows regime of depletion, ring-like localization and accumulation as the volume fraction of PEG increases. As the osmotic force depends on the size of trapped solutes, DNA of different size accumulates at different regions. Depending whether the DNA size is below or above 5kbp a different scaling of position versus DNA size is observed. Thermal separation is a general phenomenon. It applies also to RNA and microbeads. YTM is supported by JSPS fellowship and M.Josee-H.Kravis fellowship from the Rockefeller University.

  8. RNA/DNA co-analysis from human skin and contact traces--results of a sixth collaborative EDNAP exercise.

    PubMed

    Haas, C; Hanson, E; Banemann, R; Bento, A M; Berti, A; Carracedo, Á; Courts, C; De Cock, G; Drobnic, K; Fleming, R; Franchi, C; Gomes, I; Hadzic, G; Harbison, S A; Hjort, B; Hollard, C; Hoff-Olsen, P; Keyser, C; Kondili, A; Maroñas, O; McCallum, N; Miniati, P; Morling, N; Niederstätter, H; Noël, F; Parson, W; Porto, M J; Roeder, A D; Sauer, E; Schneider, P M; Shanthan, G; Sijen, T; Syndercombe Court, D; Turanská, M; van den Berge, M; Vennemann, M; Vidaki, A; Zatkalíková, L; Ballantyne, J

    2015-05-01

    The European DNA profiling group (EDNAP) organized a sixth collaborative exercise on RNA/DNA co-analysis for body fluid/tissue identification and STR profiling. The task was to identify skin samples/contact traces using specific RNA biomarkers and test three housekeeping genes for their suitability as reference genes. Eight stains, a skin RNA dilution series and, optionally, bona fide or mock casework samples of human or non-human origin were analyzed by 22 participating laboratories using RNA extraction or RNA/DNA co-extraction methods. Two sets of previously described skin-specific markers were used: skin1 pentaplex (LCE1C, LCE1D, LCE2D, IL1F7 and CCL27) and skin2 triplex (LOR, KRT9 and CDSN) in conjunction with a housekeeping gene, HKG, triplex (B2M, UBC and UCE). The laboratories used different chemistries and instrumentation. All laboratories were able to successfully isolate and detect mRNA in contact traces (e.g., human skin, palm-, hand- and fingerprints, clothing, car interiors, computer accessories and electronic devices). The simultaneous extraction of RNA and DNA provides an opportunity for positive identification of the tissue source of origin by mRNA profiling as well as a simultaneous identification of the body fluid donor by STR profiling. The skin markers LCE1C and LOR and the housekeeping gene marker B2M were detected in the majority of contact traces. Detection of the other markers was inconsistent, possibly due to the low amounts and/or poor quality of the genetic material present in shed skin cells. The results of this and the previous collaborative RNA exercises support RNA profiling as a reliable body fluid/tissue identification method that can easily be combined with current STR typing technology. PMID:25600397

  9. Obtaining reliable information from minute amounts of RNA using cDNA microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Limei; Wang, Jing; Baggerly, Keith; Wang, Hua; Fuller, Gregory N; Hamilton, Stanley R; Coombes, Kevin R; Zhang, Wei

    2002-01-01

    Background High density cDNA microarray technology provides a powerful tool to survey the activity of thousands of genes in normal and diseased cells, which helps us both to understand the molecular basis of the disease and to identify potential targets for therapeutic intervention. The promise of this technology has been hampered by the large amount of biological material required for the experiments (more than 50 ?g of total RNA per array). We have modified an amplification procedure that requires only 1 ?g of total RNA. Analyses of the results showed that most genes that were detected as expressed or differentially expressed using the regular protocol were also detected using the amplification protocol. In addition, many genes that were undetected or weakly detected using the regular protocol were clearly detected using the amplification protocol. We have carried out a series of confirmation studies by northern blotting, western blotting, and immunohistochemistry assays. Results Our results showed that most of the new information revealed by the amplification protocol represents real gene activity in the cells. Conclusion We have confirmed a powerful and consistent cDNA microarray procedure that can be used to study minute amounts of biological tissue. PMID:12086591

  10. Integrative DNA, RNA, and Protein Evidence Connects TREML4 to Coronary Artery Calcification

    PubMed Central

    Sen, ShurjoK.; Boelte, KimberlyC.; Barb, JenniferJ.; Joehanes, Roby; Zhao, XiaoQing; Cheng, Qi; Adams, Lila; Teer, JamieK.; Accame, DavidS.; Chowdhury, Soma; Singh, LarryN.; Kavousi, Maryam; Peyser, PatriciaA.; Quigley, Laura; Priel, DebraLong; Lau, Karen; Kuhns, DouglasB.; Yoshimura, Teizo; Johnson, AndrewD.; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Chen, MarcusY.; Arai, AndrewE.; Green, EricD.; Mullikin, JamesC.; Kolodgie, FrankD.; ODonnell, ChristopherJ.; Virmani, Renu; Munson, PeterJ.; McVicar, DanielW.; Biesecker, LeslieG.

    2014-01-01

    Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is a heritable and definitive morphologic marker of atherosclerosis that strongly predicts risk for future cardiovascular events. To search for genes involved in CAC, we used an integrative transcriptomic, genomic, and protein expression strategy by using next-generation DNA sequencing in the discovery phase with follow-up studies using traditional molecular biology and histopathology techniques. RNA sequencing of peripheral blood from a discovery set of CAC cases and controls was used to identify dysregulated genes, which were validated by ClinSeq and Framingham Heart Study data. Only a single gene, TREML4, was upregulated in CAC cases in both studies. Further examination showed that rs2803496 was a TREML4 cis-eQTL and that the minor allele at this locus conferred up to a 6.5-fold increased relative risk of CAC. We characterized human TREML4 and demonstrated by immunohistochemical techniques that it is localized in macrophages surrounding the necrotic core of coronary plaques complicated by calcification (but not in arteries with less advanced disease). Finally, we determined by von Kossa staining that TREML4 colocalizes with areas of microcalcification within coronary plaques. Overall, we present integrative RNA, DNA, and protein evidence implicating TREML4 in coronary artery calcification. Our findings connect multimodal genomics data with a commonly used clinical marker of cardiovascular disease. PMID:24975946

  11. Liquid crystal ordering of DNA and RNA oligomers with partially overlapping sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanchetta, G.; Nakata, M.; Buscaglia, M.; Clark, N. A.; Bellini, T.

    2008-12-01

    We have recently shown that solutions of very short double-stranded B-DNA and A-RNA, down to six base pairs in length, can self-organize into chiral nematic and columnar liquid crystal (LC) phases. These observations were made on fully complementary sequences forming duplexes with blunt ends, where the LC ordering is due to base stacking forces promoting end-to-end aggregation of duplexes into living-polymer-type structures. Here we report LC formation in solutions of DNA and RNA 14mers forming double helices having single-stranded dangling ends that are 'sticky', i.e., mutually complementary with similar ends on other duplexes. This finding widens the conditions for spontaneous long range ordering in oligomeric nucleic acids, thus strengthening the notion that nucleic acids have remarkable self-assembly capability. Quantitative analysis of the phase diagram enables the extraction, within a nearest-neighbor interaction approximation, of the free energy associated with the pairing and stacking of nucleobases.

  12. Electron impact total cross sections for components of DNA and RNA molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinodkumar, Minaxi; Limbachiya, Chetan; Barot, Mayuri; Barot, Avani; Swadia, Mohit

    2013-09-01

    Biomolecules, in particular DNA/RNA components are prone to high energy radiation damage which can occur due to primary, secondary or reactive processes. We report electron impact total cross sections (QT) , total elastic cross sections (Qel) and total inelastic cross sections (Qinel) for components of DNA and RNA molecules from threshold to 2000 eV. These components include Uracil (C4H4N2O2) , Thymine (C5H6N2O2) , Cytosine (C4H5N3O),Adenine(C5H5N5) , Guanine (C5H5N5O) and Phosphoric acid (H3PO4) . We have employed Spherical Complex Optical Potential (SCOP) formalism to calculate the total elastic cross sections, total inelastic cross sections and total cross sections. CGL thanks UGC (F.No.40-429/2011 (SR)) and MVK thanks DST, New Delhi for Major Research Project Grant No: SR/S2/LOP-26/2008.

  13. Degradable Polymer-Coated Gold Nanoparticles for Co-Delivery of DNA and siRNA

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Corey J.; Tzeng, Stephany Y.; Green, Jordan J.

    2014-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles have utility for in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo imaging applications as well as for serving as a scaffold for therapeutic delivery and theranostic applications. Starting with gold nanoparticles as a core, layer-by-layer degradable polymer coatings enable co-delivery of both DNA and short interfering RNA simultaneously. To engineer release kinetics, polymers which degrade through two different mechanisms can be utilized to construct hybrid inorganic/polymeric particles. During fabrication of the nanoparticles, the zeta potential reverses upon the addition of each oppositely charged polyelectrolyte layer and the final nanoparticle size reaches approximately 200 nm in diameter. When the hybrid gold/polymer/nucleic acid nanoparticles are added to human primary brain cancer cells in vitro, they are internalizable by cells and reach the cytoplasm and nucleus as visualized by transmission electron microscopy and observed through exogenous gene expression. This nanoparticle delivery leads to both exogenous DNA expression and siRNA-mediated knockdown, with the knockdown efficacy superior to that of Lipofectamine 2000, a commercially available transfection reagent. These gold/polymer/nucleic acid hybrid nanoparticles are an enabling theranostic platform technology capable of delivering combinations of genetic therapies to human cells. PMID:25246314

  14. Automatic on-chip RNA-DNA hybridization assay with integrated phase change microvalves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Xuan; Jiang, Hai; Wang, Junsheng; Chen, Shu; Cao, Honghe; Li, Dongqing

    2012-07-01

    An RNA-DNA hybridization assay microfluidic chip integrated with electrothermally actuated phase change microvalves for detecting pathogenic bacteria is presented in this paper. In order to realize the sequential loading and washing processes required in such an assay, gravity-based pressure-driven flow and phase-change microvalves were used in the microfluidic chip. Paraffin wax was used as the phase change material in the valves and thin film heaters were used to electrothermally actuate microvalves. Light absorption measured by a photodetector to determine the concentrations of the samples. The automatic control of the complete assay was implemented by a self-coded LabVIEW program. To examine the performance of this chip, Salmonella was used as a sample pathogen. Significantly, reduction in reagent/sample consumption (up to 20 folds) was achieved by this on-chip assay, compared with using the commercial test kit following the same protocol in conventional labs. The experimental results show that the quantitative detection can be obtained in approximately 26 min, and the detection limit is as low as 103 CFU ml-1. This RNA-DNA hybridization assay microfluidic chip shows an excellent potential in the development of a portable device for point-of-testing applications.

  15. Role of the central cations in the mechanical unfolding of DNA and RNA G-quadruplexes

    PubMed Central

    Bergues-Pupo, Ana Elisa; Arias-Gonzalez, J. Ricardo; Morón, María Carmen; Fiasconaro, Alessandro; Falo, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Cations are known to mediate diverse interactions in nucleic acids duplexes but they are critical in the arrangement of four-stranded structures. Here, we use all-atom molecular dynamics simulations with explicit solvent to analyse the mechanical unfolding of representative intramolecular G-quadruplex structures: a parallel, a hybrid and an antiparallel DNA and a parallel RNA, in the presence of stabilising cations. We confirm the stability of these conformations in the presence of \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$\\rm {K}^+$\\end{document} central ions and observe distortions from the tetrad topology in their absence. Force-induced unfolding dynamics is then investigated. We show that the unfolding events in the force-extension curves are concomitant to the loss of coordination between the central ions and the guanines of the G-quadruplex. We found lower ruptures forces for the parallel configuration with respect to the antiparallel one, while the behaviour of the force pattern of the parallel RNA appears similar to the parallel DNA. We anticipate that our results will be essential to interpret the fine structure rupture profiles in stretching assays at high resolution and will shed light on the mechanochemical activity of G-quadruplex-binding machinery. PMID:26170233

  16. DNA/RNA binding and anticancer/antimicrobial activities of polymer-copper(II) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshmipraba, Jagadeesan; Arunachalam, Sankaralingam; Riyasdeen, Anvarbatcha; Dhivya, Rajakumar; Vignesh, Sivanandham; Akbarsha, Mohammad Abdulkader; James, Rathinam Arthur

    2013-05-01

    Water soluble polymer-copper(II) complexes with various degrees of coordination in the polymer chain were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, UV-visible and EPR spectra. The DNA/RNA binding behavior of these polymer-copper(II) complexes was examined by UV-visible absorption, emission and circular dichroism spectroscopic methods, and cyclic voltammetry techniques. The binding of the polymer-copper(II) complexes with DNA/RNA was mainly through intercalation but some amount of electrostatic interaction was also observed. This binding capacity increased with the degree of coordination of the complexes. The polymer-copper(II) complex having the highest degree of coordination was subjected to analysis of cytotoxic and antimicrobial properties. The cytotoxicity study indicated that the polymer-copper(II) complexes affected the viability of MCF-7 mammary carcinoma cells, and the cells responded to the treatment with mostly through apoptosis although a few cells succumbed to necrosis. The antimicrobial screening showed activity against some human pathogens.

  17. Three-dimensional Nanowire Structures for Ultra-Fast Separation of DNA, Protein and RNA Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Rahong, Sakon; Yasui, Takao; Yanagida, Takeshi; Nagashima, Kazuki; Kanai, Masaki; Meng, Gang; He, Yong; Zhuge, Fuwei; Kaji, Noritada; Kawai, Tomoji; Baba, Yoshinobu

    2015-01-01

    Separation and analysis of biomolecules represent crucial processes for biological and biomedical engineering development; however, separation resolution and speed for biomolecules analysis still require improvements. To achieve separation and analysis of biomolecules in a short time, the use of highly-ordered nanostructures fabricated by top-down or bottom-up approaches have been proposed. Here, we reported on the use of three-dimensional (3D) nanowire structures embedded in microchannels fabricated by a bottom-up approach for ultrafast separation of small biomolecules, such as DNA, protein, and RNA molecules. The 3D nanowire structures could analyze a mixture of DNA molecules (50–1000 bp) within 50 s, a mixture of protein molecules (20–340 kDa) within 5 s, and a mixture of RNA molecules (100–1000 bases) within 25 s. And, we could observe the electrophoretic mobility difference of biomolecules as a function of molecular size in the 3D nanowire structures. Since the present methodology allows users to control the pore size of sieving materials by varying the number of cycles for nanowire growth, the 3D nanowire structures have a good potential for use as alternatives for other sieving materials. PMID:26073192

  18. Identification of active denitrifiers in rice paddy soil by DNA- and RNA-based analyses.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Megumi; Ishii, Satoshi; Fujii, Daichi; Otsuka, Shigeto; Senoo, Keishi

    2012-01-01

    Denitrification occurs markedly in rice paddy fields; however, few microbes that are actively involved in denitrification in these environments have been identified. In this study, we used a laboratory soil microcosm system in which denitrification activity was enhanced. DNA and RNA were extracted from soil at six time points after enhancing denitrification activity, and quantitative PCR and clone library analyses were performed targeting the 16S rRNA gene and denitrification functional genes (nirS, nirK and nosZ) to clarify which microbes are actively involved in denitrification in rice paddy soil. Based on the quantitative PCR results, transcription levels of the functional genes agreed with the denitrification activity, although gene abundance did not change at the DNA level. Diverse denitrifiers were detected in clone library analysis, but comparative analysis suggested that only some of the putative denitrifiers, especially those belonging to the orders Neisseriales, Rhodocyclales and Burkholderiales, were actively involved in denitrification in rice paddy soil. PMID:22972387

  19. Developmentally regulated transcription of mammalian telomeres by DNA-dependent RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed

    Schoeftner, Stefan; Blasco, Maria A

    2008-02-01

    Mammalian telomeres consist of non-coding TTAGGG repeats that are bound by the multi-protein complex 'shelterin', thus protecting chromosome ends from DNA repair mechanisms and degradation. Mammalian telomeric chromatin is enriched for the constitutive heterochromatin marks H3K9me3, H4K20me3 and HP1 (refs 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). Similar to pericentric heterochromatin, telomeric heterochromatin is thought to be fundamental for the maintenance of chromosomal integrity. Here, we report that telomeric repeats are transcribed by DNA-dependent RNA polymerase II, which, in turn, interacts with the TRF1 shelterin protein. Telomeric RNAs (TelRNAs) contain UUAGGG repeats, are polyadenylated and are transcribed from the telomeric C-rich strand. Transcription of mammalian telomeres is regulated by several mechanisms, including developmental status, telomere length, cellular stress, tumour stage and chromatin structure. Using RNA-flourescent in situ hybridization (FISH), we show that TelRNAs are novel structural components of telomeric chromatin. Importantly, we provide evidence that TelRNAs block the activity of telomerase in vitro, suggesting that TelRNAs may regulate telomerase activity at chromosome ends. Our results indicate that TelRNAs are novel components of mammalian telomeres, which are anticipated to be fundamental for understanding telomere biology and telomere-related diseases, such as cancer and ageing. PMID:18157120

  20. A novel microRNA assay with optical detection and enzyme-free DNA circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Yuhui; Zhou, Xiaoming

    2014-09-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) participate in the significant processes of life course, can be used as quantificational biomarkers for cellular level researches and related diseases. Conventional methods of miRNAs' quantitative detection are obsessed with low sensitivity, time and labour consuming. Otherwise, the emerging miRNAs detection approaches are mostly exposed to the expensive equipment demands and the professional operation, remains at the stage of laboratory and concept demonstration phase. Herein, we designed a novel miRNAs detection platform that based on enzyme-free DNA circuits and electrochemical luminescence (ECL). MicroRNA21 was chosen as the ideal analyte of this platform. The whole process consists of enzyme-free DNA circuits and ECL signal giving-out steps, achieves advantages of operating in constant temperature condition, without the participation of the enzyme, preferable sensitivity and specificity. Through this approach, the sensitivity achieved at 10pM. It is indicated that this miRNAs detection platform possesses potentials to be an innovation of miRNA detection technologies in routine tests. Benefits of the high penetration of ECL in well-equipped medical establishment, this approach could greatly lessen the obstacles in process of popularization and possess excellent prospects of practical application.

  1. ICR noncoding RNA expression controls imprinting and DNA replication at the Dlk1-Dio3 domain.

    PubMed

    Kota, Satya K; Llres, David; Bouschet, Tristan; Hirasawa, Ryutaro; Marchand, Alice; Begon-Pescia, Christina; Sanli, Ildem; Arnaud, Philippe; Journot, Laurent; Girardot, Michael; Feil, Robert

    2014-10-13

    Imprinted genes play essential roles in development, and their allelic expression is mediated by imprinting control regions (ICRs). The Dlk1-Dio3 locus is among the few imprinted domains controlled by a paternally methylated ICR. The unmethylated maternal copy activates imprinted expression early in development through an unknown mechanism. We find that in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and in blastocysts, this function is linked to maternal, bidirectional expression of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) from the ICR. Disruption of ICR ncRNA expression in ESCs affected gene expression in cis, led to acquisition of aberrant histone and DNA methylation, delayed replication timing along the domain on the maternal chromosome, and changed its subnuclear localization. The epigenetic alterations persisted during differentiation and affected the neurogenic potential of the stem cells. Our data indicate that monoallelic expression at an ICR of enhancer RNA-like ncRNAs controls imprinted gene expression, epigenetic maintenance processes, and DNA replication in embryonic cells. PMID:25263792

  2. Calorimetry of Nanophases of Macromolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wunderlich, Bernhard

    2007-06-01

    The thermodynamic description of polymeric systems is summarized based on 50 years of gathering experimental information with adiabatic, differential-scanning, and temperature-modulated calorimetry. This experience has led to a description of macro- to micro- to nano-phases with macromolecules able to traverse the phase boundaries and decouple at the surfaces, resulting in different thermodynamic properties for the separated parts of the molecule. A typical thermodynamic characterization of semicystalline polymers is that of a globally metastable system with locally reversible processes. Unique phenomena in polymers include the ability of semicrystalline polymers to undergo cold crystallization and molecular nucleation, possess thermally generated point defects and rigid-amorphous fractions, and have amorphous to mesophasic to crystalline macroconformations with glass, ordering, and disordering transitions in all three structures. To describe such multifaceted systems, special combinations of equilibrium, and irreversible thermodynamics as well as statistical and quantum mechanics are necessary. Only then is it possible to handle violations of phase rules, changes of properties when approaching nanophase dimensions, local reversibility, and enthalpy relaxation. The enthalpy relaxation in polymers originates in the cooperativeness of conformational motion and the interferences of processes of different time scales. The experiments to identify the effects of the different molecular motions from typical vibrational time scales of picoseconds to cooperative, large-amplitude rearrangements of up to megaseconds span heating rates of thousands of Ks-1 with superfast chip calorimeters to many hours for slow, quasi-isothermal analysis by temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC). Selected examples of this far-reaching thermal characterization will be presented.

  3. Recognition and detection of 8-oxo-rG in RNA using the DNA/OMeRNA chimera probes containing fluorescent adenosine-diazaphenoxazine analog.

    PubMed

    Koga, Yohei; Taniguchi, Yosuke; Kikukawa, Yoshiya; Sasaki, Shigeki

    2016-03-15

    Recent studies indicate that oxidative damage to RNA results in dysfunction of translation and eventual pathogenesis. A representative oxidized base in RNA is 8-hydroxyguanosine (8-oxo-rG), however, unlike its DNA counterpart (8-oxo-dG), its role in pathogenesis has not attracted much attention until recently. The 2'-deoxyadenosine derivative with a diazaphenoxazine skeleton at the 6-amino group (Adap) was shown to be selective for 8-oxo-dG in DNA. In this study, the 2'-O-methoxy derivative of Adap (2'-OMeAdap) was designed as a selective molecule for 8-oxo-rG in RNA. 8-Oxo-rG in the homopurine RNA was selectively recognized by the ODN probe incorporating Adap. In contrast, although it was not possible by the Adap-containing ODN prove due to the instability of the corresponding duplex, 8-oxo-rG in homopyrimidine RNA was selectively detected by the 2'-OMeRNA probe incorporating 2'-OMeAdap. PMID:26872394

  4. Relationships between 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer DNA and genomic DNA similarities in the taxonomy of phototrophic bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamura, K.; Hisada, T.; Takata, K.; Hiraishi, A.

    2013-04-01

    Rapid and accurate identification of microbial species is essential task in microbiology and biotechnology. In prokaryotic systematics, genomic DNA-DNA hybridization is the ultimate tool to determine genetic relationships among bacterial strains at the species level. However, a practical problem in this assay is that the experimental procedure is laborious and time-consuming. In recent years, information on the 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region has been used to classify bacterial strains at the species and intraspecies levels. It is unclear how much information on the ITS region can reflect the genome that contain it. In this study, therefore, we evaluate the quantitative relationship between ITS DNA and entire genomic DNA similarities. For this, we determined ITS sequences of several species of anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria belonging to the order Rhizobiales, and compared with DNA-DNA relatedness among these species. There was a high correlation between the two genetic markers. Based on the regression analysis of this relationship, 70% DNA-DNA relatedness corresponded to 92% ITS sequence similarity. This suggests the usefulness of the ITS sequence similarity as a criterion for determining the genospecies of the phototrophic bacteria. To avoid the effects of polymorphism bias of ITS on similarities, PCR products from all loci of ITS were used directly as genetic probes for comparison. The results of ITS DNA-DNA hybridization coincided well with those of genomic DNA-DNA relatedness. These collective data indicate that the whole ITS DNA-DNA similarity can be used as an alternative to genomic DNA-DNA similarity.

  5. Rapid colorimetric assays to qualitatively distinguish RNA and DNA in biomolecular samples.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Jennifer; Mura, Cameron

    2013-01-01

    Biochemical experimentation generally requires accurate knowledge, at an early stage, of the nucleic acid, protein, and other biomolecular components in potentially heterogeneous specimens. Nucleic acids can be detected via several established approaches, including analytical methods that are spectrophotometric (e.g., A(260)), fluorometric (e.g., binding of fluorescent dyes), or colorimetric (nucleoside-specific chromogenic chemical reactions).(1) Though it cannot readily distinguish RNA from DNA, the A(260)/A(280) ratio is commonly employed, as it offers a simple and rapid(2) assessment of the relative content of nucleic acid, which absorbs predominantly near 260 nm and protein, which absorbs primarily near 280 nm. Ratios < 0.8 are taken as indicative of 'pure' protein specimens, while pure nucleic acid (NA) is characterized by ratios > 1.5(3). However, there are scenarios in which the protein/NA content cannot be as clearly or reliably inferred from simple uv-vis spectrophotometric measurements. For instance, (i) samples may contain one or more proteins which are relatively devoid of the aromatic amino acids responsible for absorption at ≈280 nm (Trp, Tyr, Phe), as is the case with some small RNA-binding proteins, and (ii) samples can exhibit intermediate A(260)/A(280) ratios (~0.8 < ~1.5), where the protein/NA content is far less clear and may even reflect some high-affinity association between the protein and NA components. For such scenarios, we describe herein a suite of colorimetric assays to rapidly distinguish RNA, DNA, and reducing sugars in a potentially mixed sample of biomolecules. The methods rely on the differential sensitivity of pentoses and other carbohydrates to Benedict's, Bial's (orcinol), and Dische's (diphenylamine) reagents; the streamlined protocols can be completed in a matter of minutes, without any additional steps of having to isolate the components. The assays can be performed in parallel to differentiate between RNA and DNA, as well as indicate the presence of free reducing sugars such as glucose, fructose, and ribose (Figure 1). PMID:23407542

  6. Analysis of intermolecular base pair formation of prohead RNA of the phage phi29 DNA packaging motor using NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Aya; Jardine, Paul J; Anderson, Dwight L; Grimes, Shelley; Matsuo, Hiroshi

    2008-02-01

    The bacteriophage 29 DNA packaging motor that assembles on the precursor capsid (prohead) contains an essential 174-nt structural RNA (pRNA) that forms multimers. To determine the structural features of the CE- and D-loops believed to be involved in multimerization of pRNA, 35- and 19-nt RNA molecules containing the CE-loop or the D-loop, respectively, were produced and shown to form a heterodimer in a Mg2+-dependent manner, similar to that with full-length pRNA. It has been hypothesized that four intermolecular base pairs are formed between pRNA molecules. Our NMR study of the heterodimer, for the first time, proved directly the existence of two intermolecular Watson-Crick G-C base pairs. The two potential intermolecular A-U base pairs were not observed. In addition, flexibility of the D-loop was found to be important since a Watson-Crick base pair introduced at the base of the D-loop disrupted the formation of the intermolecular G-C hydrogen bonds, and therefore affected heterodimerization. Introduction of this mutation into the biologically active 120-nt pRNA (U80C mutant) resulted in no detectable dimerization at ambient temperature as shown by native gel and sedimentation velocity analyses. Interestingly, this pRNA bound to prohead and packaged DNA as well as the wild-type 120-nt pRNA. PMID:18084020

  7. A dsRNA-binding protein of a complex invertebrate DNA virus suppresses the Drosophila RNAi response

    PubMed Central

    Bronkhorst, Alfred W.; van Cleef, Koen W.R.; Venselaar, Hanka; van Rij, Ronald P.

    2014-01-01

    Invertebrate RNA viruses are targets of the host RNA interference (RNAi) pathway, which limits virus infection by degrading viral RNA substrates. Several insect RNA viruses encode suppressor proteins to counteract this antiviral response. We recently demonstrated that the dsDNA virus Invertebrate iridescent virus 6 (IIV-6) induces an RNAi response in Drosophila. Here, we show that RNAi is suppressed in IIV-6-infected cells and we mapped RNAi suppressor activity to the viral protein 340R. Using biochemical assays, we reveal that 340R binds long dsRNA and prevents Dicer-2-mediated processing of long dsRNA into small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). We demonstrate that 340R additionally binds siRNAs and inhibits siRNA loading into the RNA-induced silencing complex. Finally, we show that 340R is able to rescue a Flock House virus replicon that lacks its viral suppressor of RNAi. Together, our findings indicate that, in analogy to RNA viruses, DNA viruses antagonize the antiviral RNAi response. PMID:25274730

  8. Species specificity of human RPA in simian virus 40 DNA replication lies in T-antigen-dependent RNA primer synthesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, M; Park, J S; Ishiai, M; Hurwitz, J; Lee, S H

    2000-12-01

    Replication protein A (RPA) is a three-subunit protein complex with multiple functions in DNA replication. Previous study indicated that human RPA (h-RPA) could not be replaced by Schizosaccharomyces pombe RPA (sp-RPA) in simian virus 40 (SV40) replication, suggesting that h-RPA may have a specific function in SV40 DNA replication. To understand the specificity of h-RPA in replication, we prepared heterologous RPAs containing the mixture of human and S.pombe subunits and compared these preparations for various enzymatic activities. Heterologous RPAs containing two human subunits supported SV40 DNA replication, whereas those containing only one human subunit poorly supported DNA replication, suggesting that RPA complex requires at least two human subunits to support its function in SV40 DNA replication. All heterologous RPAs effectively supported single-stranded (ss)DNA binding activity and an elongation of a primed DNA template catalyzed by DNA polymerase (pol) alpha and delta. A strong correlation between SV40 DNA replication activity and large tumor antigen (T-ag)-dependent RNA primer synthesis by pol alpha-primase complex was observed among the heterologous RPAs. Furthermore, T-ag showed a strong interaction with 70- and 34-kDa subunits from human, but poorly interacted with their S.pombe counterparts, indicating that the specificity of h-RPA is due to its role in RNA primer synthesis. In the SV40 replication reaction, the addition of increasing amounts of sp-RPA in the presence of fixed amount of h-RPA significantly reduced overall DNA synthesis, but increased the size of lagging strand, supporting a specific role for h-RPA in RNA primer synthesis. Together, these results suggest that the specificity of h-RPA in SV40 replication lies in T-ag-dependent RNA primer synthesis. PMID:11095685

  9. Structure and specificity of the RNA-guided endonuclease Cas9 during DNA interrogation, target binding and cleavage.

    PubMed

    Josephs, Eric A; Kocak, D Dewran; Fitzgibbon, Christopher J; McMenemy, Joshua; Gersbach, Charles A; Marszalek, Piotr E

    2015-10-15

    CRISPR-associated endonuclease Cas9 cuts DNA at variable target sites designated by a Cas9-bound RNA molecule. Cas9's ability to be directed by single 'guide RNA' molecules to target nearly any sequence has been recently exploited for a number of emerging biological and medical applications. Therefore, understanding the nature of Cas9's off-target activity is of paramount importance for its practical use. Using atomic force microscopy (AFM), we directly resolve individual Cas9 and nuclease-inactive dCas9 proteins as they bind along engineered DNA substrates. High-resolution imaging allows us to determine their relative propensities to bind with different guide RNA variants to targeted or off-target sequences. Mapping the structural properties of Cas9 and dCas9 to their respective binding sites reveals a progressive conformational transformation at DNA sites with increasing sequence similarity to its target. With kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations, these results provide evidence of a 'conformational gating' mechanism driven by the interactions between the guide RNA and the 14th-17th nucleotide region of the targeted DNA, the stabilities of which we find correlate significantly with reported off-target cleavage rates. KMC simulations also reveal potential methodologies to engineer guide RNA sequences with improved specificity by considering the invasion of guide RNAs into targeted DNA duplex. PMID:26384421

  10. Development of a Novel Self-Enclosed Sample Preparation Device for DNA/RNA Isolation in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Ye; Mehta, Satish K.; Pensinger, Stuart J.; Pickering, Karen D.

    2011-01-01

    Modern biology techniques present potentials for a wide range of molecular, cellular, and biochemistry applications in space, including detection of infectious pathogens and environmental contaminations, monitoring of drug-resistant microbial and dangerous mutations, identification of new phenotypes of microbial and new life species. However, one of the major technological blockades in enabling these technologies in space is a lack of devices for sample preparation in the space environment. To overcome such an obstacle, we constructed a prototype of a DNA/RNA isolation device based on our novel designs documented in the NASA New Technology Reporting System (MSC-24811-1/3-1). This device is self-enclosed and pipette free, purposely designed for use in the absence of gravity. Our design can also be modified easily for preparing samples in space for other applications, such as flowcytometry, immunostaining, cell separation, sample purification and separation according to its size and charges, sample chemical labeling, and sample purification. The prototype of our DNA/RNA isolation device was tested for efficiencies of DNA and RNA isolation from various cell types for PCR analysis. The purity and integrity of purified DNA and RNA were determined as well. Results showed that our developed DNA/RNA isolation device offers similar efficiency and quality in comparison to the samples prepared using the standard protocol in the laboratory.

  11. Explaining the striking difference in twist-stretch coupling between DNA and RNA: A comparative molecular dynamics analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liebl, Korbinian; Drsata, Tomas; Lankas, Filip; Lipfert, Jan; Zacharias, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Double stranded helical DNA and RNA are flexible molecules that can undergo global conformational fluctuations. Their bending, twisting and stretching deformabilities are of similar magnitude. However, recent single-molecule experiments revealed a striking qualitative difference indicating an opposite sign for the twist-stretch couplings of dsDNA and dsRNA [Lipfert et al. 2014. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111, 15408] that is not explained by existing models. Employing unconstrained Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations we are able to reproduce the qualitatively different twist-stretch coupling for dsDNA and dsRNA in semi-quantitative agreement with experiment. Similar results are also found in simulations that include an external torque to induce over- or unwinding of DNA and RNA. Detailed analysis of the helical deformations coupled to twist indicate that the interplay of helical rise, base pair inclination and displacement from the helix axis upon twist changes are responsible for the different twist-stretch correlations. Overwinding of RNA results in more compact conformations with a narrower major groove and consequently reduced helical extension. Overwinding of DNA decreases the size of the minor groove and the resulting positive base pair inclination leads to a slender and more extended helical structure. PMID:26464435

  12. Explaining the striking difference in twist-stretch coupling between DNA and RNA: A comparative molecular dynamics analysis.

    PubMed

    Liebl, Korbinian; Drsata, Tomas; Lankas, Filip; Lipfert, Jan; Zacharias, Martin

    2015-12-01

    Double stranded helical DNA and RNA are flexible molecules that can undergo global conformational fluctuations. Their bending, twisting and stretching deformabilities are of similar magnitude. However, recent single-molecule experiments revealed a striking qualitative difference indicating an opposite sign for the twist-stretch couplings of dsDNA and dsRNA [Lipfert et al. 2014. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111, 15408] that is not explained by existing models. Employing unconstrained Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations we are able to reproduce the qualitatively different twist-stretch coupling for dsDNA and dsRNA in semi-quantitative agreement with experiment. Similar results are also found in simulations that include an external torque to induce over- or unwinding of DNA and RNA. Detailed analysis of the helical deformations coupled to twist indicate that the interplay of helical rise, base pair inclination and displacement from the helix axis upon twist changes are responsible for the different twist-stretch correlations. Overwinding of RNA results in more compact conformations with a narrower major groove and consequently reduced helical extension. Overwinding of DNA decreases the size of the minor groove and the resulting positive base pair inclination leads to a slender and more extended helical structure. PMID:26464435

  13. Structure and specificity of the RNA-guided endonuclease Cas9 during DNA interrogation, target binding and cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Josephs, Eric A.; Kocak, D. Dewran; Fitzgibbon, Christopher J.; McMenemy, Joshua; Gersbach, Charles A.; Marszalek, Piotr E.

    2015-01-01

    CRISPR-associated endonuclease Cas9 cuts DNA at variable target sites designated by a Cas9-bound RNA molecule. Cas9's ability to be directed by single guide RNA molecules to target nearly any sequence has been recently exploited for a number of emerging biological and medical applications. Therefore, understanding the nature of Cas9's off-target activity is of paramount importance for its practical use. Using atomic force microscopy (AFM), we directly resolve individual Cas9 and nuclease-inactive dCas9 proteins as they bind along engineered DNA substrates. High-resolution imaging allows us to determine their relative propensities to bind with different guide RNA variants to targeted or off-target sequences. Mapping the structural properties of Cas9 and dCas9 to their respective binding sites reveals a progressive conformational transformation at DNA sites with increasing sequence similarity to its target. With kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations, these results provide evidence of a conformational gating mechanism driven by the interactions between the guide RNA and the 14th17th nucleotide region of the targeted DNA, the stabilities of which we find correlate significantly with reported off-target cleavage rates. KMC simulations also reveal potential methodologies to engineer guide RNA sequences with improved specificity by considering the invasion of guide RNAs into targeted DNA duplex. PMID:26384421

  14. Short Communication An efficient method for simultaneous extraction of high-quality RNA and DNA from various plant tissues.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, R R; Viana, A J C; Reátegui, A C E; Vincentz, M G A

    2015-01-01

    Determination of gene expression is an important tool to study biological processes and relies on the quality of the extracted RNA. Changes in gene expression profiles may be directly related to mutations in regulatory DNA sequences or alterations in DNA cytosine methylation, which is an epigenetic mark. Correlation of gene expression with DNA sequence or epigenetic mark polymorphism is often desirable; for this, a robust protocol to isolate high-quality RNA and DNA simultaneously from the same sample is required. Although commercial kits and protocols are available, they are mainly optimized for animal tissues and, in general, restricted to RNA or DNA extraction, not both. In the present study, we describe an efficient and accessible method to extract both RNA and DNA simultaneously from the same sample of various plant tissues, using small amounts of starting material. The protocol was efficient in the extraction of high-quality nucleic acids from several Arabidopsis thaliana tissues (e.g., leaf, inflorescence stem, flower, fruit, cotyledon, seedlings, root, and embryo) and from other tissues of non-model plants, such as Avicennia schaueriana (Acanthaceae), Theobroma cacao (Malvaceae), Paspalum notatum (Poaceae), and Sorghum bicolor (Poaceae). The obtained nucleic acids were used as templates for downstream analyses, such as mRNA sequencing, quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction, bisulfite treatment, and others; the results were comparable to those obtained with commercial kits. We believe that this protocol could be applied to a broad range of plant species, help avoid technical and sampling biases, and facilitate several RNA- and DNA-dependent analyses. PMID:26782533

  15. Activation of different split functionalities upon re-association of RNA-DNA hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Afonin, Kirill A.; Viard, Mathias; Martins, Angelica N.; Lockett, Stephen J.; Maciag, Anna E.; Freed, Eric O.; Heldman, Eliahu; Jaeger, Luc; Blumenthal, Robert; Shapiro, Bruce A.

    2013-01-01

    Split-protein systems, an approach that relies on fragmentation of proteins with their further conditional re-association to form functional complexes, are increasingly used for various biomedical applications. This approach offers tight control of the protein functions and improved detection sensitivity. Here we show a similar technique based on a pair of RNA-DNA hybrids that can be generally used for triggering different split functionalities. Individually, each hybrid is inactive but when two cognate hybrids re-associate, different functionalities are triggered inside mammalian cells. As a proof of concept this work is mainly focused on activation of RNA interference; however the release of other functionalities (resonance energy transfer and RNA aptamer) is also shown. Furthermore, in vivo studies demonstrate a significant uptake of the hybrids by tumors together with specific gene silencing. This split-functionality approach presents a new route in the development of “smart” nucleic acids based nanoparticles and switches for various biomedical applications. PMID:23542902

  16. Regulated Formation of lncRNA-DNA Hybrids Enables Faster Transcriptional Induction and Environmental Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Cloutier, Sara C; Wang, Siwen; Ma, Wai Kit; Al Husini, Nadra; Dhoondia, Zuzer; Ansari, Athar; Pascuzzi, Pete E; Tran, Elizabeth J

    2016-02-01

    Long non-coding (lnc)RNAs, once thought to merely represent noise from imprecise transcription initiation, have now emerged as major regulatory entities in all eukaryotes. In contrast to the rapidly expanding identification of individual lncRNAs, mechanistic characterization has lagged behind. Here we provide evidence that the GAL lncRNAs in the budding yeast S. cerevisiae promote transcriptional induction in trans by formation of lncRNA-DNA hybrids or R-loops. The evolutionarily conserved RNA helicase Dbp2 regulates formation of these R-loops as genomic deletion or nuclear depletion results in accumulation of these structures across the GAL cluster gene promoters and coding regions. Enhanced transcriptional induction is manifested by lncRNA-dependent displacement of the Cyc8 co-repressor and subsequent gene looping, suggesting that these lncRNAs promote induction by altering chromatin architecture. Moreover, the GAL lncRNAs confer a competitive fitness advantage to yeast cells because expression of these non-coding molecules correlates with faster adaptation in response to an environmental switch. PMID:26833086

  17. Imaging mRNA Expression in Live Cells via PNA·DNA Strand Displacement-Activated Probes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhenghui; Zhang, Ke; Wooley, Karen L.; Taylor, John-Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Probes for monitoring mRNA expression in vivo are of great interest for the study of biological and biomedical problems, but progress has been hampered by poor signal to noise and effective means for delivering the probes into live cells. Herein we report a PNA·DNA strand displacement-activated fluorescent probe that can image the expression of iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase) mRNA, a marker of inflammation. The probe consists of a fluorescein labeled antisense PNA annealed to a shorter DABCYLplus-labeled DNA which quenches the fluorescence, but when the quencher strand is displaced by the target mRNA the fluorescence is restored. DNA was used for the quencher strand to facilitate electrostatic binding of the otherwise netural PNA strand to a cationic shell crosslinked knedel-like (cSCK) nanoparticle which can deliver the PNA·DNA duplex probe into cells with less toxicity and greater efficiency than other transfection agents. RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cells transfected with the iNOS PNA·DNA probe via the cSCK showed a 16 to 54-fold increase in average fluorescence per cell upon iNOS stimulation. The increase was 4 to 7-fold higher than that for a non-complementary probe, thereby validating the ability of a PNA·DNA strand displacement-activated probe to image mRNA expression in vivo. PMID:23056921

  18. The Origins of the RNA World

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Michael P; Joyce, Gerald F

    2012-01-01

    The general notion of an RNA World is that, in the early development of life on the Earth, genetic continuity was assured by the replication of RNA and genetically encoded proteins were not involved as catalysts. There is now strong evidence indicating that an RNA World did indeed exist before DNA- and protein-based life. However, arguments regarding whether life on Earth began with RNA are more tenuous. It might be imagined that all of the components of RNA were available in some prebiotic pool, and that these components assembled into replicating, evolving polynucleotides without the prior existence of any evolved macromolecules. A thorough consideration of this RNA-first view of the origin of life must reconcile concerns regarding the intractable mixtures that are obtained in experiments designed to simulate the chemistry of the primitive Earth. Perhaps these concerns will eventually be resolved, and recent experimental findings provide some reason for optimism. However, the problem of the origin of the RNA World is far from being solved, and it is fruitful to consider the alternative possibility that RNA was preceded by some other replicating, evolving molecule, just as DNA and proteins were preceded by RNA. PMID:20739415

  19. Concordance between RNA-sequencing data and DNA microarray data in transcriptome analysis of proliferative and quiescent fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Trost, Brett; Moir, Catherine A.; Gillespie, Zoe E.; Kusalik, Anthony; Mitchell, Jennifer A.; Eskiw, Christopher H.

    2015-01-01

    DNA microarrays and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) are major technologies for performing high-throughput analysis of transcript abundance. Recently, concerns have been raised regarding the concordance of data derived from the two techniques. Using cDNA libraries derived from normal human foreskin fibroblasts, we measured changes in transcript abundance as cells transitioned from proliferative growth to quiescence using both DNA microarrays and RNA-seq. The internal reproducibility of the RNA-seq data was greater than that of the microarray data. Correlations between the RNA-seq data and the individual microarrays were low, but correlations between the RNA-seq values and the geometric mean of the microarray values were moderate. The two technologies had good agreement when considering probes with the largest (both positive and negative) fold change (FC) values. An independent technique, quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR), was used to measure the FC of 76 genes between proliferative and quiescent samples, and a higher correlation was observed between the qRT-PCR data and the RNA-seq data than between the qRT-PCR data and the microarray data. PMID:26473061

  20. Proteolytic Degradation of Topoisomerase II (Top2) Enables the Processing of Top2DNA and Top2RNA Covalent Complexes by Tyrosyl-DNA-Phosphodiesterase 2 (TDP2)* ?

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Rui; Schellenberg, Matthew J.; Huang, Shar-yin N.; Abdelmalak, Monica; Marchand, Christophe; Nitiss, Karin C.; Nitiss, John L.; Williams, R. Scott; Pommier, Yves

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic type II topoisomerases (Top2? and Top2?) are homodimeric enzymes; they are essential for altering DNA topology by the formation of normally transient double strand DNA cleavage. Anticancer drugs (etoposide, doxorubicin, and mitoxantrone) and also Top2 oxidation and DNA helical alterations cause potentially irreversible Top2DNA cleavage complexes (Top2cc), leading to Top2-linked DNA breaks. Top2cc are the therapeutic mechanism for killing cancer cells. Yet Top2cc can also generate recombination, translocations, and apoptosis in normal cells. The Top2 protein-DNA covalent complexes are excised (in part) by tyrosyl-DNA-phosphodiesterase 2 (TDP2/TTRAP/EAP2/VPg unlinkase). In this study, we show that irreversible Top2cc induced in suicidal substrates are not processed by TDP2 unless they first undergo proteolytic processing or denaturation. We also demonstrate that TDP2 is most efficient when the DNA attached to the tyrosyl is in a single-stranded configuration and that TDP2 can efficiently remove a tyrosine linked to a single misincorporated ribonucleotide or to polyribonucleotides, which expands the TDP2 catalytic profile with RNA substrates. The 1.6-? resolution crystal structure of TDP2 bound to a substrate bearing a 5?-ribonucleotide defines a mechanism through which RNA can be accommodated in the TDP2 active site, albeit in a strained conformation. PMID:24808172

  1. Mechanism of RNA polymerase II bypass of oxidative cyclopurine DNA lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Walmacq, Celine; Wang, Lanfeng; Chong, Jenny; Scibelli, Kathleen; Lubkowska, Lucyna; Gnatt, Averell; Brooks, Philip J.; Wang, Dong; Kashlev, Mikhail

    2015-01-20

    In human cells, the oxidative DNA lesion 8,5'-cyclo-2'-deoxyadenosine (CydA) induces prolonged stalling of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) followed by transcriptional bypass, generating both error-free and mutant transcripts with AMP misincorporated immediately downstream from the lesion. Here, we present biochemical and crystallographic evidence for the mechanism of CydA recognition. Pol II stalling results from impaired loading of the template base (5') next to CydA into the active site, leading to preferential AMP misincorporation. Such predominant AMP insertion, which also occurs at an abasic site, is unaffected by the identity of the 5´-templating base, indicating that it derives from nontemplated synthesis according to an A rule known for DNA polymerases and recently identified for Pol II bypass of pyrimidine dimers. Subsequent to AMP misincorporation, Pol II encounters a major translocation block that is slowly overcome. The translocation block combined with the poor extension of the dA.rA mispair reduce transcriptional mutagenesis. Moreover, increasing the active-site flexibility by mutation in the trigger loop, which increases the ability of Pol II to accommodate the bulky lesion, and addition of transacting factor TFIIF facilitate CydA bypass. Thus, blocking lesion entry to the active site, trans-lesion A rule synthesis, and translocation block are common features of transcription across different bulky DNA lesions.

  2. Mechanism of RNA polymerase II bypass of oxidative cyclopurine DNA lesions

    PubMed Central

    Walmacq, Celine; Wang, Lanfeng; Chong, Jenny; Scibelli, Kathleen; Lubkowska, Lucyna; Gnatt, Averell; Brooks, Philip J.; Wang, Dong; Kashlev, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    In human cells, the oxidative DNA lesion 8,5′-cyclo-2'-deoxyadenosine (CydA) induces prolonged stalling of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) followed by transcriptional bypass, generating both error-free and mutant transcripts with AMP misincorporated immediately downstream from the lesion. Here, we present biochemical and crystallographic evidence for the mechanism of CydA recognition. Pol II stalling results from impaired loading of the template base (5′) next to CydA into the active site, leading to preferential AMP misincorporation. Such predominant AMP insertion, which also occurs at an abasic site, is unaffected by the identity of the 5′-templating base, indicating that it derives from nontemplated synthesis according to an A rule known for DNA polymerases and recently identified for Pol II bypass of pyrimidine dimers. Subsequent to AMP misincorporation, Pol II encounters a major translocation block that is slowly overcome. Thus, the translocation block combined with the poor extension of the dA.rA mispair reduce transcriptional mutagenesis. Moreover, increasing the active-site flexibility by mutation in the trigger loop, which increases the ability of Pol II to accommodate the bulky lesion, and addition of transacting factor TFIIF facilitate CydA bypass. Thus, blocking lesion entry to the active site, translesion A rule synthesis, and translocation block are common features of transcription across different bulky DNA lesions. PMID:25605892

  3. Mechanism of RNA polymerase II bypass of oxidative cyclopurine DNA lesions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Walmacq, Celine; Wang, Lanfeng; Chong, Jenny; Scibelli, Kathleen; Lubkowska, Lucyna; Gnatt, Averell; Brooks, Philip J.; Wang, Dong; Kashlev, Mikhail

    2015-01-20

    In human cells, the oxidative DNA lesion 8,5'-cyclo-2'-deoxyadenosine (CydA) induces prolonged stalling of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) followed by transcriptional bypass, generating both error-free and mutant transcripts with AMP misincorporated immediately downstream from the lesion. Here, we present biochemical and crystallographic evidence for the mechanism of CydA recognition. Pol II stalling results from impaired loading of the template base (5') next to CydA into the active site, leading to preferential AMP misincorporation. Such predominant AMP insertion, which also occurs at an abasic site, is unaffected by the identity of the 5´-templating base, indicating that it derives from nontemplated synthesismore » according to an A rule known for DNA polymerases and recently identified for Pol II bypass of pyrimidine dimers. Subsequent to AMP misincorporation, Pol II encounters a major translocation block that is slowly overcome. The translocation block combined with the poor extension of the dA.rA mispair reduce transcriptional mutagenesis. Moreover, increasing the active-site flexibility by mutation in the trigger loop, which increases the ability of Pol II to accommodate the bulky lesion, and addition of transacting factor TFIIF facilitate CydA bypass. Thus, blocking lesion entry to the active site, trans-lesion A rule synthesis, and translocation block are common features of transcription across different bulky DNA lesions.« less

  4. Repressor activity of the RpoS/σS-dependent RNA polymerase requires DNA binding

    PubMed Central

    Lévi-Meyrueis, Corinne; Monteil, Véronique; Sismeiro, Odile; Dillies, Marie-Agnès; Kolb, Annie; Monot, Marc; Dupuy, Bruno; Duarte, Sara Serradas; Jagla, Bernd; Coppée, Jean-Yves; Beraud, Mélanie; Norel, Françoise

    2015-01-01

    The RpoS/σS sigma subunit of RNA polymerase (RNAP) activates transcription of stationary phase genes in many Gram-negative bacteria and controls adaptive functions, including stress resistance, biofilm formation and virulence. In this study, we address an important but poorly understood aspect of σS-dependent control, that of a repressor. Negative regulation by σS has been proposed to result largely from competition between σS and other σ factors for binding to a limited amount of core RNAP (E). To assess whether σS binding to E alone results in significant downregulation of gene expression by other σ factors, we characterized an rpoS mutant of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium producing a σS protein proficient for EσS complex formation but deficient in promoter DNA binding. Genome expression profiling and physiological assays revealed that this mutant was defective for negative regulation, indicating that gene repression by σS requires its binding to DNA. Although the mechanisms of repression by σS are likely specific to individual genes and environmental conditions, the study of transcription downregulation of the succinate dehydrogenase operon suggests that σ competition at the promoter DNA level plays an important role in gene repression by EσS. PMID:25578965

  5. Double-stranded DNA translocase activity of transcription factor TFIIH and the mechanism of RNA polymerase II open complex formation

    PubMed Central

    Fishburn, James; Tomko, Eric; Galburt, Eric; Hahn, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Formation of the RNA polymerase II (Pol II) open complex (OC) requires DNA unwinding mediated by the transcription factor TFIIH helicase-related subunit XPB/Ssl2. Because XPB/Ssl2 binds DNA downstream from the location of DNA unwinding, it cannot function using a conventional helicase mechanism. Here we show that yeast TFIIH contains an Ssl2-dependent double-stranded DNA translocase activity. Ssl2 tracks along one DNA strand in the 5? ? 3? direction, implying it uses the nontemplate promoter strand to reel downstream DNA into the Pol II cleft, creating torsional strain and leading to DNA unwinding. Analysis of the Ssl2 and DNA-dependent ATPase activity of TFIIH suggests that Ssl2 has a processivity of approximately one DNA turn, consistent with the length of DNA unwound during transcription initiation. Our results can explain why maintaining the OC requires continuous ATP hydrolysis and the function of TFIIH in promoter escape. Our results also suggest that XPB/Ssl2 uses this translocase mechanism during DNA repair rather than physically wedging open damaged DNA. PMID:25775526

  6. Double-stranded DNA translocase activity of transcription factor TFIIH and the mechanism of RNA polymerase II open complex formation.

    PubMed

    Fishburn, James; Tomko, Eric; Galburt, Eric; Hahn, Steven

    2015-03-31

    Formation of the RNA polymerase II (Pol II) open complex (OC) requires DNA unwinding mediated by the transcription factor TFIIH helicase-related subunit XPB/Ssl2. Because XPB/Ssl2 binds DNA downstream from the location of DNA unwinding, it cannot function using a conventional helicase mechanism. Here we show that yeast TFIIH contains an Ssl2-dependent double-stranded DNA translocase activity. Ssl2 tracks along one DNA strand in the 5' ? 3' direction, implying it uses the nontemplate promoter strand to reel downstream DNA into the Pol II cleft, creating torsional strain and leading to DNA unwinding. Analysis of the Ssl2 and DNA-dependent ATPase activity of TFIIH suggests that Ssl2 has a processivity of approximately one DNA turn, consistent with the length of DNA unwound during transcription initiation. Our results can explain why maintaining the OC requires continuous ATP hydrolysis and the function of TFIIH in promoter escape. Our results also suggest that XPB/Ssl2 uses this translocase mechanism during DNA repair rather than physically wedging open damaged DNA. PMID:25775526

  7. Identification of a BRCA1-mRNA Splicing Complex Required for Efficient DNA Repair and Maintenance of Genomic Stability

    PubMed Central

    Savage, KienanI.; Gorski, JuliaJ.; Barros, ElianaM.; Irwin, GarethW.; Manti, Lorenzo; Powell, AlexanderJ.; Pellagatti, Andrea; Lukashchuk, Natalia; McCance, DennisJ.; McCluggage, W.Glenn; Schettino, Giuseppe; Salto-Tellez, Manuel; Boultwood, Jacqueline; Richard, DerekJ.; McDade, SimonS.; Harkin, D.Paul

    2014-01-01

    Summary Mutations within BRCA1 predispose carriers to a high risk of breast and ovarian cancers. BRCA1 functions to maintain genomic stability through the assembly of multiple protein complexes involved in DNA repair, cell-cycle arrest, and transcriptional regulation. Here, we report the identification of a DNA damage-induced BRCA1 protein complex containing BCLAF1 and other key components of the mRNA-splicing machinery. In response to DNA damage, this complex regulates pre-mRNA splicing of a number of genes involved in DNA damage signaling and repair, thereby promoting the stability of these transcripts/proteins. Further, we show that abrogation of this complex results in sensitivity to DNA damage, defective DNA repair, and genomic instability. Interestingly, mutations in a number of proteins found within this complex have been identified in numerous cancer types. These data suggest that regulation of splicing by the BRCA1-mRNA splicing complex plays an important role in the cellular response to DNA damage. PMID:24746700

  8. Crystal Structure of a CRISPR RNA-guided Surveillance Complex Bound to a ss