Dynamics of macroscopic tunneling in elongated Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dekel, G.; Farberovich, V.; Fleurov, V.; Soffer, A.
2010-06-01
We investigate macroscopic tunneling from an elongated quasi-one-dimensional trap, forming a “cigar-shaped” Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). Using a recently developed formalism we get the leading analytical approximation for the right-hand side of the potential wall, i.e., outside the trap, and a formalism based on Wigner functions, for the left side of the potential wall, i.e., inside the BEC. We then present accomplished results of numerical calculations, which show a “blip” in the particle density traveling with an asymptotic shock velocity, as resulted from previous works on a dotlike trap but with significant differences from the latter. Inside the BEC a pattern of a traveling dispersive shock wave is revealed. In the attractive case, we find trains of bright solitons frozen near the boundary.
Dynamics of macroscopic tunneling in elongated Bose-Einstein condensates
Dekel, G.; Farberovich, V.; Fleurov, V.; Soffer, A.
2010-06-15
We investigate macroscopic tunneling from an elongated quasi-one-dimensional trap, forming a 'cigar-shaped' Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). Using a recently developed formalism we get the leading analytical approximation for the right-hand side of the potential wall, i.e., outside the trap, and a formalism based on Wigner functions, for the left side of the potential wall, i.e., inside the BEC. We then present accomplished results of numerical calculations, which show a 'blip' in the particle density traveling with an asymptotic shock velocity, as resulted from previous works on a dotlike trap but with significant differences from the latter. Inside the BEC a pattern of a traveling dispersive shock wave is revealed. In the attractive case, we find trains of bright solitons frozen near the boundary.
Macroscopic entanglement between a Bose Einstein condensate and a superconducting loop.
Singh, Mandip
2009-02-16
We theoretically study macroscopic entanglement between a magnetically trapped Bose-Einstein condensate and a superconducting loop. We treat the superconducting loop in a quantum superposition of two different flux states coupling with the magnetic trap to generate macroscopic entanglement. The scheme also provides a platform to investigate interferometry with an entangled Bose Einstein condensate and to explore physics at the quantum-classical interface. PMID:19219163
Bose-Einstein-condensate interferometer with macroscopic arm separation
Garcia, O.; Deissler, B.; Hughes, K. J.; Reeves, J. M.; Sackett, C. A.
2006-09-15
A Michelson interferometer using Bose-Einstein condensates is demonstrated with coherence times of up to 44 ms and arm separations up to 180 {mu}m. This arm separation is larger than that observed for any previous atom interferometer. The device uses atoms weakly confined in a magnetic guide and the atomic motion is controlled using Bragg interactions with an off-resonant standing-wave laser beam.
El-Sherbini, Th.M.
2005-03-17
This article gives a brief review of Bose-Einstein condensation. It is an exotic quantum phenomenon that was observed in dilute atomic gases for the first time in 1995. It exhibits a new state of matter in which a group of atoms behaves as a single particle. Experiments on this form of matter are relevant to many different areas of physics- from atomic clocks and quantum computing to super fluidity, superconductivity and quantum phase transition.
Macroscopic Excitations in Confined Bose-Einstein Condensates, Searching for Quantum Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zamora-Zamora, R.; Adame-Arana, O.; Romero-Rochin, V.
2015-07-01
We present a survey of macroscopic excitations of harmonically confined Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC), described by Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equation, in search of routes to develop quantum turbulence. These excitations can all be created by phase-imprinting techniques on an otherwise equilibrium BEC. We analyze two crossed vortices, two parallel anti-vortices, a vortex ring, a vortex with topological charge , and a tangle of four vortices. Since GP equation is time-reversal invariant, we are careful to distinguish time intervals in which this symmetry is preserved and those in which rounding errors play a role. We find that the system tends to reach stationary states that may be widely classified as having either an array of vortices with collective excitations at different length scales or an agitated state composed mainly of Bogoliubov phonons.
Origin of macroscopic single-particle quantum behavior in Bose-Einstein-condensed systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mayers, J.
2008-09-01
It is shown that any Bose-Einstein-condensed fluid in its ground state will exhibit macroscopic single-particle quantum behavior (MSPQB). That is, (1) the many-particle wave function Ψ(r1,…,rn) factors into a single-particle product ∏nη(rn) ; (2) the function η(r) extends over macroscopic length scales and obeys the usual quantum equations for particle flux in a single-particle system; and (3) η(r) obeys a nonlinear single-particle Schrödinger equation. The latter equation reduces to the Gross-Pitaevskii equation when interactions are weak and determines the density distribution of the fluid and the time development of this distribution. The arguments used rely only on elementary concepts of probability theory and many-particle wave mechanics and are valid even in strongly interacting fluids such as superfluid He4 . It is shown that Bose-Einstein condensation implies that the N -particle wave function Ψ is delocalized. That is, if one considers a single-particle coordinate r , then for all values that occur of the other N-1 coordinates, Ψ is a nonzero function of r over a region of space proportional to V , where V is the total volume within which the fluid is contained. MSPQB is a consequence of this delocalization and the absence of long-range correlations between particle positions in fluids. The results are accurate provided that only averages over regions of space containing many particles are considered. For averages over volumes of space containing NΩ particles, inaccuracies due to quantum fluctuations are ˜1/NΩ .
Macroscopic quantum many-body tunneling of attractive Bose-Einstein condensate in anharmonic trap
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haldar, Sudip Kumar; Debnath, Pankaj Kumar; Chakrabarti, Barnali
2013-09-01
We study the stability of attractive atomic Bose-Einstein condensate and the macroscopic quantum many-body tunneling (MQT) in the anharmonic trap. We utilize correlated two-body basis function which keeps all possible two-body correlations. The anharmonic parameter ( λ) is slowly tuned from harmonic to anharmonic. For each choice of λ the many-body equation is solved adiabatically. The use of the van der Waals interaction gives realistic picture which substantially differs from the mean-field results. For weak anharmonicity, we observe that the attractive condensate gains stability with larger number of bosons compared to that in the pure harmonic trap. The transition from resonances to bound states with weak anharmonicity also differs significantly from the earlier study of [N. Moiseyev, L.D. Carr, B.A. Malomed, Y.B. Band, J. Phys. B 37, L193 (2004)]. We also study the tunneling of the metastable condensate very close to the critical number N cr of collapse and observe that near collapse the MQT is the dominant decay mechanism compared to the two-body and three-body loss rate. We also observe the power law behavior in MQT near the critical point. The results for pure harmonic trap are in agreement with mean-field results. However, we fail to retrieve the power law behavior in anharmonic trap although MQT is still the dominant decay mechanism.
Macroscopic quantum tunneling of a Bose-Einstein condensate through double Gaussian barriers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maeda, Kenji; Urban, Gregor; Weidemüller, Matthias; Carr, Lincoln D.
2015-05-01
Macroscopic quantum tunneling is one of the great manifestations of quantum physics, not only showing passage through a potential barrier but also emerging in a many-body wave function. We study a quasi-1D Bose-Einstein condensate of Lithium, confined by two Gaussian barriers, and show that in an experimentally realistic potential tens of thousands of atoms tunnel on time scales of 10 to 100 ms. Using a combination of variational and WKB approximations based on the Gross-Pitaevskii or nonlinear Schrödinger equation, we show that many unusual tunneling features appear due to the nonlinearity, including the number of trapped atoms exhibiting non-exponential decay, severe distortion of the barriers by the mean field, and even formation of a triple barrier in certain regimes. In the first 10ms, nonlinear many-body effects make the tunneling rates significantly larger than background loss rates, from 10 to 70 Hz. Thus we conclude that macroscopic quantum tunneling can be observed on experimental time scales. Funded by NSF, AFOSR, the Alexander von Humboldt foundation, and the Heidelberg Center for Quantum Dynamics.
Approaching Bose-Einstein Condensation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ferrari, Loris
2011-01-01
Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) is discussed at the level of an advanced course of statistical thermodynamics, clarifying some formal and physical aspects that are usually not covered by the standard pedagogical literature. The non-conventional approach adopted starts by showing that the continuum limit, in certain cases, cancels out the crucial…
Generalized Bose-Einstein Condensation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mullin, William J.; Sakhel, Asaad R.
2012-02-01
Generalized Bose-Einstein condensation (GBEC) involves condensates appearing simultaneously in multiple states. We review examples of the three types in an ideal Bose gas with different geometries. In Type I there is a discrete number of quantum states each having macroscopic occupation; Type II has condensation into a continuous band of states, with each state having macroscopic occupation; in Type III each state is microscopically occupied while the entire condensate band is macroscopically occupied. We begin by discussing Type I or "normal" BEC into a single state for an isotropic harmonic oscillator potential. Other geometries and external potentials are then considered: the "channel" potential (harmonic in one dimension and hard-wall in the other), which displays Type II, the "cigar trap" (anisotropic harmonic potential), and the "Casimir prism" (an elongated box), the latter two having Type III condensations. General box geometries are considered in an appendix. We particularly focus on the cigar trap, which Van Druten and Ketterle first showed had a two-step condensation: a GBEC into a band of states at a temperature T c and another "one-dimensional" transition at a lower temperature T 1 into the ground state. In a thermodynamic limit in which the ratio of the dimensions of the anisotropic harmonic trap is kept fixed, T 1 merges with the upper transition, which then becomes a normal BEC. However, in the thermodynamic limit of Beau and Zagrebnov, in which the ratio of the boundary lengths increases exponentially, T 1 becomes fixed at the temperature of a true Type I phase transition. The effects of interactions on GBEC are discussed and we show that there is evidence that Type III condensation may have been observed in the cigar trap.
Schrodinger Leopards in Bose-Einstein Condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carr, Lincoln D.; Dounas-Frazer, Dimitri R.
2008-03-01
We present the complex quantum dynamics of vortices in Bose-Einstein condensates in a double well via exact diagonalization of a discretized Hamiltonian. When the barrier is high, vortices evolve into macroscopic superposition (NOON) states of a vortex in either well -- a Schrodinger cat with spots. Such Schrodinger leopard states are more robust than previously proposed NOON states, which only use two single particle modes of the double well potential.
Bose-Einstein condensation in microgravity.
van Zoest, T; Gaaloul, N; Singh, Y; Ahlers, H; Herr, W; Seidel, S T; Ertmer, W; Rasel, E; Eckart, M; Kajari, E; Arnold, S; Nandi, G; Schleich, W P; Walser, R; Vogel, A; Sengstock, K; Bongs, K; Lewoczko-Adamczyk, W; Schiemangk, M; Schuldt, T; Peters, A; Könemann, T; Müntinga, H; Lämmerzahl, C; Dittus, H; Steinmetz, T; Hänsch, T W; Reichel, J
2010-06-18
Albert Einstein's insight that it is impossible to distinguish a local experiment in a "freely falling elevator" from one in free space led to the development of the theory of general relativity. The wave nature of matter manifests itself in a striking way in Bose-Einstein condensates, where millions of atoms lose their identity and can be described by a single macroscopic wave function. We combine these two topics and report the preparation and observation of a Bose-Einstein condensate during free fall in a 146-meter-tall evacuated drop tower. During the expansion over 1 second, the atoms form a giant coherent matter wave that is delocalized on a millimeter scale, which represents a promising source for matter-wave interferometry to test the universality of free fall with quantum matter. PMID:20558713
Bose-Einstein condensation at constant temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Erhard, M.; Schmaljohann, H.; Kronjäger, J.; Bongs, K.; Sengstock, K.
2004-09-01
We present an experimental approach to Bose-Einstein condensation by increasing the particle number of the system at almost constant temperature. In particular, the emergence of a new condensate is observed in multicomponent F=1 spinor condensates of Rb87 . Furthermore, we develop a simple rate-equation model for multicomponent Bose-Einstein condensate thermodynamics at finite temperature which well reproduces the measured effects.
Bose-Einstein Condensation in Extended Microgravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scharringhausen, Marco; Quantus Team; Rasel, Ernst Maria
2012-07-01
The setup and the envisaged experiment timeline of the QUANTUS-III experiment onboard a sounding rocket to be started in the near future are presented. The major intention of QUANTUS-III is the stable generation of a number of Bose-Einstein condensates as a source for atom interferometry during several minutes of microgravity onboard the sounding rocket. Later missions aim at the realization of atom interferoemeters as precursor satellite missions. These condesates will be generated serially, allowing a large number of repeatable tests. Within such Bose-Einstein condensates, millions of atoms lose their identity and can be described by a single macroscopic wave function. During the expansion over several seconds, the atoms form a giant coherent matter wave that is delocalized on a millimeter scale, which represents a promising source for matter-wave interferometry to test the universality of free fall with quantum matter. Cold quantum gases and, in particular, Bose-Einstein condensates represent a new state of matter which is nowadays established in many laboratories. They offer unique insights into a broad range of fundamental physics as well as prospects for novel quantum sensors. Microgravity will substantially extend the science of quantum gases towards nowadays inaccessible regimes at lowest temperatures, to macroscopic dimensions, and to unequalled durations of unperturbed evolution of these distinguished quantum objects. Right now, the QUANTUS-III experiment is in the development phase, taking heritage from QUANTUS-I and QUANTUS-II. Major components of the engineering model are available. Boundary conditions of the rocket, requirements of the experiment and interface considerations are presented. This include laser stabilization, vacuum technology and magnetic shielding. The planned trajectory of the rocket will have an apogee of 200 - 300 km and a total microgravity time of 4 - 7 minutes, both depending on the total experiment mass.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raghavan, S.; Smerzi, A.; Fantoni, S.; Shenoy, S. R.
1999-01-01
We discuss the coherent atomic oscillations between two weakly coupled Bose-Einstein condensates. The weak link is provided by a laser barrier in a (possibly asymmetric) double-well trap or by Raman coupling between two condensates in different hyperfine levels. The boson Josephson junction (BJJ) dynamics is described by the two-mode nonlinear Gross-Pitaevskii equation that is solved analytically in terms of elliptic functions. The BJJ, being a neutral, isolated system, allows the investigations of dynamical regimes for the phase difference across the junction and for the population imbalance that are not accessible with superconductor Josephson junctions (SJJ's). These include oscillations with either or both of the following properties: (i) the time-averaged value of the phase is equal to π (π-phase oscillations); (ii) the average population imbalance is nonzero, in states with macroscopic quantum self-trapping. The (nonsinusoidal) generalization of the SJJ ac and plasma oscillations and the Shapiro resonance can also be observed. We predict the collapse of experimental data (corresponding to different trap geometries and the total number of condensate atoms) onto a single universal curve for the inverse period of oscillations. Analogies with Josephson oscillations between two weakly coupled reservoirs of 3He-B and the internal Josephson effect in 3He-A are also discussed.
Recent developments in Bose-Einstein condensation
Kalman, G.
1997-09-22
This paper contains viewgraphs on developments on Bose-Einstein condensation. Some topics covered are: strongly coupled coulomb systems; standard response functions of the first and second kind; dynamical mean field theory; quasi localized charge approximation; and the main equations.
Diquark Bose-Einstein condensation
Nawa, K.; Nakano, E.; Yabu, H.
2006-08-01
Bose-Einstein condensation of composite diquarks in quark matter (the color superconductor phase) is discussed using the quasichemical equilibrium theory at a relatively low-density region near the deconfinement phase transition, where dynamical quark-pair fluctuations are assumed to be described as bosonic degrees of freedom (diquarks). A general formulation is given for the diquark formation and particle-antiparticle pair-creation processes in the relativistic framework, and some interesting properties are shown, which are characteristic for the relativistic many-body system. Behaviors of transition temperature and phase diagram of the quark-diquark matter are generally presented in model parameter space, and their asymptotic behaviors are also discussed. As an application to the color superconductivity, the transition temperatures and the quark and diquark density profiles are calculated in case with constituent/current quarks, where the diquark is in the bound/resonant state. We obtained T{sub C}{approx}60-80 MeV for constituent quarks and T{sub C}{approx}130 MeV for current quarks at a moderate density ({rho}{sub b}{approx}3{rho}{sub 0}). The method is also developed to include interdiquark interactions into the quasichemical equilibrium theory within a mean-field approximation, and it is found that a possible repulsive diquark-diquark interaction lowers the transition temperature by {approx}50%.
Evidence of Bose-Einstein Condensation in solid helium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chan, Moses H. W.
2005-03-01
The onset of superfluidity in liquid He-4 below 2.176K is associated with Bose-Einstein condensation where He-4 atoms condensed into a single momentum state and acquire quantum mechanical coherence over macroscopic length scales. Bose- Einstein condensation of alkali atoms in the vapor phase was achieved in 1995 and there is strong evidence for superfluidity in these systems. Perhaps counter to intuition, superfluid-like behavior is thought possible even in solid helium. Recent high Q torsional oscillator measurements found evidence of superflow in solid helium confined in porous media (1) and in bulk solid helium (2), indicating Bose-Einstein condensation very likely occurs in all three phases of matter. (1) E. Kim and M. H. W. Chan, Nature 427, 225 (2004) (2) E. Kim and M. H. W. Chan, Science 305, 1941 (2004).
Bose-Einstein condensation. Twenty years after
Bagnato, V. S.; Frantzeskakis, D. J.; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Malomed, B. A.; Mihalache, D.
2015-02-23
The aim of this introductory article is two-fold. First, we aim to offer a general introduction to the theme of Bose-Einstein condensates, and briefly discuss the evolution of a number of relevant research directions during the last two decades. Second, we introduce and present the articles that appear in this Special Volume of Romanian Reports in Physics celebrating the conclusion of the second decade since the experimental creation of Bose-Einstein condensation in ultracold gases of alkali-metal atoms.
Quantum metrology with Bose-Einstein condensates
Boixo, Sergio; Datta, Animesh; Davis, Matthew J.; Flammia, Steven T.; Shaji, Anil; Tacla, Alexandre B.; Caves, Carlton M.
2009-04-13
We show how a generalized quantum metrology protocol can be implemented in a two-mode Bose-Einstein condensate of n atoms, achieving a sensitivity that scales better than 1/n and approaches 1/n{sup 3/2} for appropriate design of the condensate.
Soliton resonance in bose-einstein condensate
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zak, Michail; Kulikov, I.
2002-01-01
A new phenomenon in nonlinear dispersive systems, including a Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC), has been described. It is based upon a resonance between an externally induced soliton and 'eigen-solitons' of the homogeneous cubic Schrodinger equation. There have been shown that a moving source of positive /negative potential induces bright /dark solitons in an attractive / repulsive Bose condensate.
Beyond Spontaneously Broken Symmetry in Bose-Einstein Condensates
Mullin, W. J.; Laloee, F.
2010-04-16
Spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB) for Bose-Einstein condensates cannot treat phase off-diagonal effects, and thus cannot explain Bell inequality violations. We describe another situation that is beyond a SSB treatment: an experiment where particles from two (possibly macroscopic) condensate sources are used for conjugate measurements of the relative phase and populations. Off-diagonal phase effects are characterized by a 'quantum angle' and observed via 'population oscillations', signaling quantum interference of macroscopically distinct states.
Axions: Bose Einstein condensate or classical field?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davidson, Sacha
2015-05-01
The axion is a motivated dark matter candidate, so it would be interesting to find features in Large Scale Structures specific to axion dark matter. Such features were proposed for a Bose Einstein condensate of axions, leading to confusion in the literature (to which I contributed) about whether axions condense due to their gravitational interactions. This note argues that the Bose Einstein condensation of axions is a red herring: the axion dark matter produced by the misalignment mechanism is already a classical field, which has the distinctive features attributed to the axion condensate (BE condensates are described as classical fields). This note also estimates that the rate at which axion particles condense to the field, or the field evaporates to particles, is negligible.
Bose-Einstein condensation of 84Sr.
Martinez de Escobar, Y N; Mickelson, P G; Yan, M; DeSalvo, B J; Nagel, S B; Killian, T C
2009-11-13
We report Bose-Einstein condensation of (84)Sr in an optical dipole trap. Efficient laser cooling on the narrow intercombination line and an ideal s-wave scattering length allow the creation of large condensates (N(0) approximately 3 x 10(5)) even though the natural abundance of this isotope is only 0.6%. Condensation is heralded by the emergence of a low-velocity component in time-of-flight images. PMID:20365965
Mechanocaloric and thermomechanical effects in Bose-Einstein-condensed systems
Marques, G.C.; Bagnato, V.S.; Muniz, S.R.; Spehler, D.
2004-05-01
In this paper we extend previous hydrodynamic equations, governing the motion of Bose-Einstein-condensed fluids, to include temperature effects. This allows us to analyze some differences between a normal fluid and a Bose-Einstein-condensed one. We show that, in close analogy with superfluid {sup 4}He, a Bose-Einstein-condensed fluid exhibits the mechanocaloric and thermomechanical effects. In our approach we can explain both effects without using the hypothesis that the Bose-Einstein-condensed fluid has zero entropy. Such ideas could be investigated in existing experiments.
Interferometry with Bose-Einstein condensates in microgravity.
Müntinga, H; Ahlers, H; Krutzik, M; Wenzlawski, A; Arnold, S; Becker, D; Bongs, K; Dittus, H; Duncker, H; Gaaloul, N; Gherasim, C; Giese, E; Grzeschik, C; Hänsch, T W; Hellmig, O; Herr, W; Herrmann, S; Kajari, E; Kleinert, S; Lämmerzahl, C; Lewoczko-Adamczyk, W; Malcolm, J; Meyer, N; Nolte, R; Peters, A; Popp, M; Reichel, J; Roura, A; Rudolph, J; Schiemangk, M; Schneider, M; Seidel, S T; Sengstock, K; Tamma, V; Valenzuela, T; Vogel, A; Walser, R; Wendrich, T; Windpassinger, P; Zeller, W; van Zoest, T; Ertmer, W; Schleich, W P; Rasel, E M
2013-03-01
Atom interferometers covering macroscopic domains of space-time are a spectacular manifestation of the wave nature of matter. Because of their unique coherence properties, Bose-Einstein condensates are ideal sources for an atom interferometer in extended free fall. In this Letter we report on the realization of an asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer operated with a Bose-Einstein condensate in microgravity. The resulting interference pattern is similar to the one in the far field of a double slit and shows a linear scaling with the time the wave packets expand. We employ delta-kick cooling in order to enhance the signal and extend our atom interferometer. Our experiments demonstrate the high potential of interferometers operated with quantum gases for probing the fundamental concepts of quantum mechanics and general relativity. PMID:23496709
Interferometry with Bose-Einstein Condensates in Microgravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Müntinga, H.; Ahlers, H.; Krutzik, M.; Wenzlawski, A.; Arnold, S.; Becker, D.; Bongs, K.; Dittus, H.; Duncker, H.; Gaaloul, N.; Gherasim, C.; Giese, E.; Grzeschik, C.; Hänsch, T. W.; Hellmig, O.; Herr, W.; Herrmann, S.; Kajari, E.; Kleinert, S.; Lämmerzahl, C.; Lewoczko-Adamczyk, W.; Malcolm, J.; Meyer, N.; Nolte, R.; Peters, A.; Popp, M.; Reichel, J.; Roura, A.; Rudolph, J.; Schiemangk, M.; Schneider, M.; Seidel, S. T.; Sengstock, K.; Tamma, V.; Valenzuela, T.; Vogel, A.; Walser, R.; Wendrich, T.; Windpassinger, P.; Zeller, W.; van Zoest, T.; Ertmer, W.; Schleich, W. P.; Rasel, E. M.
2013-03-01
Atom interferometers covering macroscopic domains of space-time are a spectacular manifestation of the wave nature of matter. Because of their unique coherence properties, Bose-Einstein condensates are ideal sources for an atom interferometer in extended free fall. In this Letter we report on the realization of an asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer operated with a Bose-Einstein condensate in microgravity. The resulting interference pattern is similar to the one in the far field of a double slit and shows a linear scaling with the time the wave packets expand. We employ delta-kick cooling in order to enhance the signal and extend our atom interferometer. Our experiments demonstrate the high potential of interferometers operated with quantum gases for probing the fundamental concepts of quantum mechanics and general relativity.
Bose-Einstein Condensation of Yb atoms
Takasu, Y.; Maki, K.; Komori, K.; Takano, T.; Honda, K.; Kumakura, M.; Yabuzaki, T.; Takahashi, Y.
2005-05-05
We could recently achieve the Bose Einstein condensation (BEC) of Yb atoms. Yb differs from most of the elements that have previously been condensed, because it is a two-electron atom with the singlet S ground state. Furthermore the Bosonic isotopes of Yb, like 174Yb which we succeeded to condensate, has no nuclear spin, so that the ground state is completely spin-less state and hence insensitive to magnetic fields. Thus a new type of atom could join the group of atoms for BEC studies. We would like to report how we could achieve the BEC of Yb atoms.
Bose-Einstein Condensation of Strontium
Stellmer, Simon; Huang Bo; Grimm, Rudolf; Tey, Meng Khoon; Schreck, Florian
2009-11-13
We report on the attainment of Bose-Einstein condensation with ultracold strontium atoms. We use the {sup 84}Sr isotope, which has a low natural abundance but offers excellent scattering properties for evaporative cooling. Accumulation in a metastable state using a magnetic-trap, narrowline cooling, and straightforward evaporative cooling in an optical trap lead to pure condensates containing 1.5x10{sup 5} atoms. This puts {sup 84}Sr in a prime position for future experiments on quantum-degenerate gases involving atomic two-electron systems.
Topological objects in two-component Bose-Einstein condensates
Cho, Y. M.; Khim, Hyojoong; Zhang, Pengming
2005-12-15
We study the topological objects in two-component Bose-Einstein condensates. We compare two competing theories of two-component Bose-Einstein condensates, the popular Gross-Pitaevskii theory, and the recently proposed gauge theory of two-component Bose-Einstein condensate which has an induced vorticity interaction. We show that two theories produce very similar topological objects, in spite of the obvious differences in dynamics. Furthermore we show that the gauge theory of two-component Bose-Einstein condensates, with the U(1) gauge symmetry, is remarkably similar to the Skyrme theory. Just like the Skyrme theory this theory admits the non-Abelian vortex, the helical vortex, and the vorticity knot. We construct the lightest knot solution in two-component Bose-Einstein condensates numerically, and discuss how the knot can be constructed in the spin-(1/2) condensate of {sup 87}Rb atoms.
Nonlinear interferometry with Bose-Einstein condensates
Tacla, Alexandre B.; Boixo, Sergio; Datta, Animesh; Shaji, Anil; Caves, Carlton M.
2010-11-15
We analyze a proposed experiment [Boixo et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 040403 (2008)] for achieving sensitivity scaling better than 1/N in a nonlinear Ramsey interferometer that uses a two-mode Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) of N atoms. We present numerical simulations that confirm the analytical predictions for the effect of the spreading of the BEC ground-state wave function on the ideal 1/N{sup 3/2} scaling. Numerical integration of the coupled, time-dependent, two-mode Gross-Pitaevskii equations allows us to study the several simplifying assumptions made in the initial analytic study of the proposal and to explore when they can be justified. In particular, we find that the two modes share the same spatial wave function for a length of time that is sufficient to run the metrology scheme.
Rotating trapped Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fetter, A. L.
2008-01-01
Trapped Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) differ considerably from the standard textbook example of a uniform Bose gas. In an isotropic harmonic potential V( r) = ½ Mω2 r 2, the single-particle ground state introduces a new intrinsic scale of length [the ground-state size d = √ ℏ/( Mω)] and energy [the ground-state energy E 0 = frac{3} {2} ℏω]. When the trap rotates at a low angular velocity, the behavior of a single vortex illustrates the crucial role of discrete quantized vorticity. For more rapid rotation, the condensate contains a vortex array. The resulting centrifugal forces expand the condensate radially and shrink it axially; thus, the condensate becomes effectively two dimensional. If the external rotation speed approaches the frequency of the radial harmonic confining potential, the condensate enters the "lowest-Landau-level" regime, and a simple description again becomes possible. Eventually, the system is predicted to make a quantum phase transition to a highly correlated state analogous to the fractional quantum Hall states of electrons in a strong magnetic field.
Nonequilibrium Bose-Einstein condensation of hot magnons
Vannucchi, Fabio Stucchi; Vasconcellos, Aurea Rosas; Luzzi, Roberto
2010-10-01
We present an analysis of the emergence of a nonequilibrium Bose-Einstein-type condensation of magnons in radio-frequency pumped magnetic thin films, which has recently been experimentally observed. A complete description of all the nonequilibrium processes involved is given. It is demonstrated that the phenomenon is another example of the emergence of Bose-Einstein-type condensation in nonequilibrium many-boson systems embedded in a thermal bath, a phenomenon evidenced decades ago by the renowned late Herbert Froehlich.
Bose-Einstein-condensate heating by atomic losses
Dziarmaga, Jacek; Sacha, Krzysztof
2003-10-01
Atomic Bose-Einstein condensate is heated by atomic losses. The losses act as a heat reservoir for the condensate. The condensate is approaching a state of thermal equilibrium with a thermal depletion ranging from 1% for a uniform three-dimensional (3D) condensate to around 13% for a quasi-1D condensate in a harmonic trap.
BOOK REVIEW: Bose-Einstein Condensation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jaksch, D.
2003-09-01
L Pitaevskii and S Stringari Oxford: Oxford University Press (2003) £55.50 (hardback), ISBN 0-19-850719-4 The Gross--Pitaevskii equation, named after one of the authors of the book, and its large number of applications for describing the properties of Bose--Einstein condensation (BEC) in trapped weakly interacting atomic gases, is the main topic of this book. In total the monograph comprises 18 chapters and is divided into two parts. Part I introduces the notion of BEC and superfluidity in general terms. The most important properties of the ideal and the weakly interacting Bose gas are described and the effects of nonuniformity due to an external potential at zero temperature are studied. The first part is then concluded with a summary of the properties of superfluid ^{4}He. In Part II the authors describe the theoretical aspects of BEC in harmonically trapped weakly interacting atomic gases. A short and rather rudimentary chapter on collisions and trapping of atomic gases which seems to be included for completeness only is followed by a detailed analysis of the ground state,\
Control of a Bose-Einstein condensate by dissipation: Nonlinear Zeno effect
Shchesnovich, V. S.; Konotop, V. V.
2010-05-15
We show that controlled dissipation can be used as a tool for exploring fundamental phenomena and managing mesoscopic systems of cold atoms and Bose-Einstein condensates. Even the simplest boson-Josephson junction, that is, a Bose-Einstein condensate in a double-well trap, subjected to removal of atoms from one of the two potential minima allows one to observe such phenomena as the suppression of losses and the nonlinear Zeno effect. In such a system the controlled dissipation can be used to create desired macroscopic states and implement controlled switching among different quantum regimes.
Vortex formation in a fast rotating Bose-Einstein condensate
Ghosh, Tarun Kanti
2004-04-01
We study rotational motion of an interacting atomic Bose-Einstein condensate confined in a quadratic-plus-quartic potential. We calculate the lowest energy surface mode frequency and show that a symmetric trapped (harmonic and quartic) Bose-Einstein condensate breaks the rotational symmetry of the Hamiltonian when rotational frequency is greater than one-half of the lowest energy surface mode frequency. We argue that the formation of a vortex is not possible in a noninteracting as well as in an attractive Bose-Einstein condensate confined in a harmonic trap due to the absence of the spontaneous shape deformation, but it can occur which leads to the vortex formation if we add an additional quartic potential. Moreover, the spontaneous shape deformation and consequently the formation of a vortex in an attractive system depends on the strengths of the two-body interaction and the quartic potential.
Space-time curvature signatures in Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matos, Tonatiuh; Gomez, Eduardo
2015-05-01
We derive a generalized Gross-Pitaevski (GP) equation for a Bose Einstein Condensate (BEC) immersed in a weak gravitational field starting from the covariant Complex Klein-Gordon field in a curved space-time. We compare it with the traditional GP equation where the gravitational field is added by hand as an external potential. We show that there is a small difference of order gz/c2 between them that could be measured in the future using Bose-Einstein Condensates. This represents the next order correction to the Newtonian gravity in a curved space-time.
Bose-Einstein Condensation: A Platform for Quantum Simulation Experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamamoto, Yoshihisa; Takahashi, Yoshiro
Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of dilute atomic gases and dense exciton-polaritons provides unique experimental platforms for the simulation of quantum many-body systems in various trap and lattice structures. Atomic BEC is suitable for exploration of the thermal equilibrium and steady state properties of isolated many-body systems, while exciton-polariton BEC is suitable for study of the nonequilibrium and transient properties of open dissipative many-body systems. In this chapter, we will review the fundamental properties of these distinct Bose-Einstein condensates to provide a basis for later discussions of various quantum simulation experiments using cold atoms and exciton-polaritons.
Quantum and thermal fluctuations of trapped Bose-Einstein condensates
Kruglov, V.I.; Collett, M.J.; Olsen, M.K.
2005-09-15
We quantize a semiclassical system defined by the Hamiltonian obtained from the asymptotic self-similar solution of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation for a trapped Bose-Einstein condensate with a linear gain term. On the basis of a Schroedinger equation derived in a space of ellipsoidal parameters, we analytically calculate the quantum mechanical and thermal variance in the ellipsoidal parameters for Bose-Einstein condensates in various shapes of trap. We show that, except for temperatures close to zero, dimensionless dispersions do not depend on the frequencies of the trap and they have the same dependence on dimensionless temperatures.
Impurities in Bose-Einstein Condensates: From Polaron to Soliton.
Shadkhoo, Shahriar; Bruinsma, Robijn
2015-09-25
We propose that impurities in a Bose-Einstein condensate which is coupled to a transversely laser-pumped multimode cavity form an experimentally accessible and analytically tractable model system for the study of impurities solvated in correlated liquids and the breakdown of linear-response theory [corrected]. As the strength of the coupling constant between the impurity and the Bose-Einstein condensate is increased, which is possible through Feshbach resonance methods, the impurity passes from a large to a small polaron state, and then to an impurity-soliton state. This last transition marks the breakdown of linear-response theory. PMID:26451565
Bose-Einstein condensation mechanism in economic system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Jianping
2015-06-01
This paper starts from modifying the kinetic exchange model and ends with making a parallel between economic crisis and the Bose-Einstein condensation. By introducing a parameter δ, we incorporate the time influence into the Bose-Einstein statistics. And δ is found to represent the technology level in an economy. δ's growth in time enlarges the rich and poor gap and induces economic crisis in free market despite the fact that average living standard is raised. Then we find the “δ-Te-Entropy” dilemma which features a strong implication of the second law of thermodynamics. The dilemma means when an economy is isolated the entropy grows and synergetically Te and δ grow inducing the Bose-Einstein condensation, i.e., economic crisis while for open economy the dilemma breaks. Then we raise the question: What would happen if the world economy as a whole became isolated with ultimately omnibearing globalization?
Long Time Convergence of the Bose-Einstein Condensation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Xuguang
2016-02-01
We study long time behavior of the Bose-Einstein condensation of measure-valued solutions F_t of the space homogeneous and velocity isotropic Boltzmann equation for Bose-Einstein particles at low temperature. We prove that if F_0≥ 0 is a non-singular Borel measure on R_{≥ 0} satisfying a very low temperature condition and that the ratio F_0([0,\\varepsilon ])/\\varepsilon ^{α } is sufficiently large for all \\varepsilon in (0, R] for some constants 0<α <1, R>0, then there exists a solution F_t of the equation on [0,+∞) with the initial datum F_0 such that F_t({0}) converges to the expected Bose-Einstein condensation as t→ +∞. We also show that such initial data F_0 exist extensively.
Quantum Phase Diffusion of a Bose-Einstein Condensate
Lewenstein, M.; You, L.
1996-10-01
We discuss the quantum properties of the Bose-Einstein condensate of a dilute gas of atoms in a trap. We show that the phase of the condensate undergoes quantum diffusion which can be detected in far off-resonant light scattering experiments. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}
Symmetry and inert states of spin Bose-Einstein condensates
Yip, S.-K.
2007-02-15
We construct the list of all possible inert states of spin Bose-Einstein condensates for S{<=}4. In doing so, we also obtain their symmetry properties. These results are applied to classify line defects of spin condensates in zero magnetic field.
Theoretical studies of Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Das, Kunal Kashyap
This thesis is a theoretical study of Bose-Einstein Condensation (BEC) in harmonically-trapped, weakly-interacting dilute gases. The motivation for this study is the experimental realization of BEC in trapped alkali gases since 1995. The weak inter-particle interactions and diluteness of the gases allow for a fairly accurate mean-field treatment and justifies a discrete quasi-particle description as we use in this work. This thesis considers three specific topics in the rapidly growing field of BEC theory: (i) interference effects in BEC, (ii) interaction-induced energy shifts and damping of excitations of condensates and (iii) the properties of highly anisotropic condensates. The results are summarized here: i. We show that if two multiply occupied boson modes are in eigenstates of the Hermitian relative phase operator, then the visibility of fringes formed by the interference between the modes is necessarily less than unity. For large total occupation numbers the visibility V ≤ pi/4. States with definite relative phase and unit visibility do exist. They are related to coherent states and are not orthogonal (not eigenstates of a Hermitian phase operator). This visibility limitation may make it possible to investigate experimentally the physical role of the relative phase eigenstates in interference measurements on BEC. ii. We evaluate analytically the asymptotic energy shifts of the high energy Bogoliubov quasi-particle modes. In spherical geometry, those modes display a 1/ n dependence on their number of radial nodes n but only a weak dependence on their angular momenta l. We obtain similar results for cylindrical geometry. We derive an implicit equation for the widths or decay rates gamma of the modes from an assumption of exponential decay. We use the equation to do a detailed numerical study of the trends in the behavior of the widths as a function of temperature, energy, particle number and scattering lengths. In particular, we find that widths due to
Particle Correlations in Bose-Einstein Condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Zhang
The impact of interparticle correlations on the behavior of Bose-Einstein Condensates (BECs) is discussed using two approaches. In the first approach, the wavefunction of a BEC is encoded in the N-particle sector of an extended "catalytic state". Going to a time-dependent interaction picture, we can organize the effective Hamiltonian by powers of N -1/2 . Requiring the terms of order N 1/2 to vanish, we get the Gross-Pitaevskii Equation. Going to the next order, N0, we obtain the number-conserving Bogoliubov approximation. Our approach allows one to stay in the Schrodinger picture and to apply many techniques from quantum optics. Moreover, it is easier to track different orders in the Hamiltonian and to generalize to the multi-component case. In the second approach, I consider a state of N = l x n bosons that is derived by symmetrizing the n-fold tensor product of an arbitrary l-boson state. Particularly, we are interested in the pure state case for l = 2, which we call the Pair-Correlated State (PCS). I show that PCS reproduces the number-conserving Bogoliubov approximation; moreover, it also works in the strong interaction regime where the Bogoliubov approximation fails. For the two-site Bose-Hubbard model, I find numerically that the error (measured by trace distance of the two-particle RDMs) of PCS is less than two percent over the entire parameter space, thus making PCS a bridge between the super uid and Mott insulating phases. Amazingly, the error of PCS does not increase, in the time-dependent case, as the system evolves for longer times. I derive both time-dependent and -independent equations for the ground state and the time evolution of the PCS ansatz. The time complexity of simulating PCS does not depend on N and is linear in the number of orbitals in use. Compared to other methods, e.g, the Jastrow wavefunction, the Gutzwiller wavefunction, and the multi-configurational time-dependent Hartree method, our approach does not require quantum Monte Carlo nor
Observation of Vortex Phase Singularities in Bose-Einstein Condensates
Inouye, S.; Gupta, S.; Rosenband, T.; Chikkatur, A. P.; Goerlitz, A.; Gustavson, T. L.; Leanhardt, A. E.; Pritchard, D. E.; Ketterle, W.
2001-08-20
We have observed phase singularities due to vortex excitation in Bose-Einstein condensates. Vortices were created by moving a laser beam through a condensate. They were observed as dislocations in the interference fringes formed by the stirred condensate and a second unperturbed condensate. The velocity dependence for vortex excitation and the time scale for re-establishing a uniform phase across the condensate were determined.
Bose-Einstein condensates: BECs from the fridge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Friedrich, Bretislav
2009-10-01
Large ensembles of atoms can be buffer-gas loaded into a magnetic trap and further evaporatively cooled all the way down to quantum degeneracy. The approach has now been shown to provide an alternative - and potentially general - route to Bose-Einstein condensation.
Feshbach resonance and growth of a Bose-Einstein condensate
Yuce, C.; Kilic, A.
2006-09-15
The Gross-Pitaevskii gain equation is used to model atom laser and Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) fed by the surrounding thermal cloud. It is shown that the number of atoms continuously injected into BEC from the reservoir can be controlled by applying the external magnetic field via Feshbach resonance.
Bose-Einstein condensates from scalar field dark matter
Urena-Lopez, L. Arturo
2010-12-07
We review the properties of astrophysical and cosmological relevance that may arise from the bosonic nature of scalar field dark matter models. The key property is the formation of Bose-Einstein condensates, but we also consider the presence of non-empty excited states that may be relevant for the description of scalar field galaxy halos and the properties of rotation curves.
Entanglement Properties in Two-Component Bose-Einstein Condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Di-You
2016-05-01
We investigate entanglement inseparability and bipartite entanglement of in two-component Bose-Einstein condensate in the presence of the nonlinear interatomic interaction, interspecies interaction. Entanglement inseparability and bipartite entanglement have the similar properties. More entanglement can be generated by adjusting the nonlinear interatomic interaction and control the time interval of the entanglement by adjusting interspecies interaction.
Bose-Einstein Condensation of {sup 84}Sr
Martinez de Escobar, Y. N.; Mickelson, P. G.; Yan, M.; DeSalvo, B. J.; Nagel, S. B.; Killian, T. C.
2009-11-13
We report Bose-Einstein condensation of {sup 84}Sr in an optical dipole trap. Efficient laser cooling on the narrow intercombination line and an ideal s-wave scattering length allow the creation of large condensates (N{sub 0}approx3x10{sup 5}) even though the natural abundance of this isotope is only 0.6%. Condensation is heralded by the emergence of a low-velocity component in time-of-flight images.
Thermal spin fluctuations in spinor Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Melé-Messeguer, M.; Juliá-Díaz, B.; Polls, A.; Santos, L.
2013-03-01
We study the thermal activation of spin fluctuations in dynamically stable spinor Bose-Einstein condensates. We analyze the specific cases of a nondipolar spin-1 condensate in the state m=0, where thermal activation results from spin-changing collisions, and of a chromium condensate in the maximally stretched state m=-3, where thermal spin fluctuations are due to dipole-induced spin relaxation. In both cases, we show that the low energy associated to the spinor physics may be employed for thermometry purposes down to extremely low temperatures, typically impossible to measure in Bose-Einstein condensates with the usual thermometric techniques. Moreover, the peculiar dependence of the system's entropy with the applied Zeeman energy opens a possible route for adiabatic cooling.
On the nature of Bose-Einstein condensation enhanced by localization
Jaeck, Thomas; Pule, Joseph V.; Zagrebnov, Valentin A.
2010-10-15
In a previous paper we established that for the perfect Bose gas and the mean-field Bose gas with an external random or weak potential, whenever there is generalized Bose-Einstein condensation in the eigenstates of the single particle Hamiltonian, there is also generalized condensation in the kinetic-energy states. In these cases Bose-Einstein condensation is produced or enhanced by the external potential. In the present paper we establish a criterion for the absence of condensation in single kinetic-energy states and prove that this criterion is satisfied for a class of random potentials and weak potentials. This means that the condensate is spread over an infinite number of states with low kinetic-energy without any of them being macroscopically occupied.
Controlling chaos in the Bose-Einstein condensate
Cong Fuzhong Wang Zhixia; Hua Hongtu; Pang Shichun; Tong Shouyu
2012-03-15
The spatial structure of the Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) is investigated and spatially chaotic distributions of the condensates are revealed. By means of changing the s-wave scattering length with a Feshbach resonance, the chaotic behavior can be well controlled to enter into periodicity. Numerical simulation shows that there are different periodic orbits according to different s-wave scattering lengths only if the Lyapunov exponent of the system is negative.
Bose-Einstein condensation of {sup 86}Sr
Stellmer, Simon; Grimm, Rudolf; Tey, Meng Khoon; Schreck, Florian
2010-10-15
We report on the attainment of Bose-Einstein condensation of {sup 86}Sr. This isotope has a scattering length of about +800a{sub 0} and thus suffers from fast three-body losses. To avoid detrimental atom loss, evaporative cooling is performed at low densities around 3x10{sup 12} cm{sup -3} in a large volume optical dipole trap. We obtain almost pure condensates of 5x10{sup 3} atoms.
Entanglement entropy and mutual information in Bose-Einstein condensates
Ding Wenxin; Yang Kun
2009-07-15
In this paper we study the entanglement properties of free nonrelativistic Bose gases. At zero temperature, we calculate the bipartite block entanglement entropy of the system and find that it diverges logarithmically with the particle number in the subsystem. For finite temperatures, we study the mutual information between the two blocks. We first analytically study an infinite-range hopping model, then numerically study a set of long-range hopping models in one dimension that exhibit Bose-Einstein condensation. In both cases we find that a Bose-Einstein condensate, if present, makes a divergent contribution to the mutual information which is proportional to the logarithm of the number of particles in the condensate in the subsystem. The prefactor of the logarithmic divergent term is model dependent.
Electronic pumping of quasiequilibrium Bose-Einstein-condensed magnons.
Bender, Scott A; Duine, Rembert A; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav
2012-06-15
We theoretically investigate spin transfer between a system of quasiequilibrated Bose-Einstein-condensed magnons in an insulator in direct contact with a conductor. While charge transfer is prohibited across the interface, spin transport arises from the exchange coupling between insulator and conductor spins. In a normal insulator phase, spin transport is governed solely by the presence of thermal and spin-diffusive gradients; the presence of Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC), meanwhile, gives rise to a temperature-independent condensate spin current. Depending on the thermodynamic bias of the system, spin may flow in either direction across the interface, engendering the possibility of a dynamical phase transition of magnons. We discuss the experimental feasibility of observing a BEC steady state (fomented by a spin Seebeck effect), which is contrasted to the more familiar spin-transfer-induced classical instabilities. PMID:23004301
Bose-Einstein condensates and scalar fields; exploring the similitudes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castellanos, E.; Macías, A.; Núñez, D.
2014-01-01
We analyze the the remarkable analogy between the classical Klein-Gordon equation for a test scalar field in a flat and also in a curved background, and the Gross-Pitaevskii equation for a Bose-Einstein condensate trapped by an external potential. We stress here that the solution associated with the Klein-Gordon equation (KG) in a flat space time has the same mathematical structure, under certain circumstances, to those obtained for the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, that is, a static soliton solution. Additionally, Thomas-Fermi approximation is applied to the 3-dimensional version of this equation, in order to calculate some thermodynamical properties of the system in curved a space-time back ground. Finally, we stress the fact that a gravitational background provides, in some cases, a kind of confining potential for the scalar field, allowing us to remarks even more the possible connection between scalar fields and the phenomenon of Bose-Einstein condensation.
Scalar field as a Bose-Einstein condensate?
Castellanos, Elías; Escamilla-Rivera, Celia; Macías, Alfredo; Núñez, Darío E-mail: cescamilla@mctp.mx E-mail: nunez@nucleares.unam.mx
2014-11-01
We discuss the analogy between a classical scalar field with a self-interacting potential, in a curved spacetime described by a quasi-bounded state, and a trapped Bose-Einstein condensate. In this context, we compare the Klein-Gordon equation with the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. Moreover, the introduction of a curved background spacetime endows, in a natural way, an equivalence to the Gross-Pitaevskii equation with an explicit confinement potential. The curvature also induces a position dependent self-interaction parameter. We exploit this analogy by means of the Thomas-Fermi approximation, commonly used to describe the Bose-Einstein condensate, in order to analyze the quasi bound scalar field distribution surrounding a black hole.
Kinetic Evolution and Bose-Einstein Condensation in the Glasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liao, Jinfeng
2013-10-01
We study the evolution of a dense system of gluons, such as those produced in the early stages (the Glasma) of ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. We describe the approach to thermal equilibrium using the small angle approximation for gluon scattering in a Boltzmann equation that includes the effects of Bose statistics. Simple power counting arguments indicate that the gluon system as in the Glasma is over-occupied and driven towards the formation of a Bose-Einstein condensate. We derive and solve the transport equation for initial conditions that correspond to the overpopulated Glasma and present numerical evidence that such over-populated systems reach the onset of Bose-Einstein condensation in a finite time. The approach to condensation is characterized by a scaling behavior that we briefly analyze. Finally we analyze the effects of the inelastic, number changing, processes on the dynamical formation of the Bose-Einstein condensate by analytically deriving the 2 <--> 3 kernel under the collinear and small angle approximations and numerically solving it. References: J. Blaizot, J. Liao and L. McLerran, arXiv:1305.2119; X. Huang and J. Liao, arXiv:1303.7214; J. Blaizot, F. Gelis, J. Liao, L. McLerran and R. Venugopalan, arXiv:1107.5296. I thank the RIKEN BNL Research Center for partial support.
Shock Waves in a Bose-Einstein Condensate
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kulikov, Igor; Zak, Michail
2005-01-01
A paper presents a theoretical study of shock waves in a trapped Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). The mathematical model of the BEC in this study is a nonlinear Schroedinger equation (NLSE) in which (1) the role of the wave function of a single particle in the traditional Schroedinger equation is played by a space- and time-dependent complex order parameter (x,t) proportional to the square root of the density of atoms and (2) the atoms engage in a repulsive interaction characterized by a potential proportional to | (x,t)|2. Equations that describe macroscopic perturbations of the BEC at zero temperature are derived from the NLSE and simplifying assumptions are made, leading to equations for the propagation of sound waves and the transformation of sound waves into shock waves. Equations for the speeds of shock waves and the relationships between jumps of velocity and density across shock fronts are derived. Similarities and differences between this theory and the classical theory of sound waves and shocks in ordinary gases are noted. The present theory is illustrated by solving the equations for the example of a shock wave propagating in a cigar-shaped BEC.
Symbiotic solitons in heteronuclear multicomponent Bose-Einstein condensates
Perez-Garcia, Victor M.; Beitia, Juan Belmonte
2005-09-15
We show that bright solitons exist in quasi-one-dimensional heteronuclear multicomponent Bose-Einstein condensates with repulsive self-interaction and attractive interspecies interaction. They are remarkably robust to perturbations of initial data and collisions and can be generated by the mechanism of modulational instability. Some possibilities for control and the behavior of the system in fully three-dimensional scenarios are also discussed.
Magnons as a Bose-Einstein Condensate in Nanocrystalline Gadolinium
Kaul, S. N.; Mathew, S. P.
2011-06-17
The recent observation [S. P. Mathew et al., J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 200, 072047 (2010)] of the anomalous softening of spin-wave modes at low temperatures in nanocrystalline gadolinium is interpreted as a Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of magnons. A self-consistent calculation, based on the BEC picture, is shown to closely reproduce the observed temperature variations of magnetization and specific heat at constant magnetic fields.
Spin-Mixing Interferometry with Bose-Einstein Condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gabbrielli, Marco; Pezzè, Luca; Smerzi, Augusto
2015-10-01
Unstable spinor Bose-Einstein condensates are ideal candidates to create nonlinear three-mode interferometers. Our analysis goes beyond the standard SU(1,1) parametric approach and therefore provides the regime of parameters where sub-shot-noise sensitivities can be reached with respect to the input total average number of particles. Decoherence due to particle losses and finite detection efficiency are also considered.
Spin-Mixing Interferometry with Bose-Einstein Condensates.
Gabbrielli, Marco; Pezzè, Luca; Smerzi, Augusto
2015-10-16
Unstable spinor Bose-Einstein condensates are ideal candidates to create nonlinear three-mode interferometers. Our analysis goes beyond the standard SU(1,1) parametric approach and therefore provides the regime of parameters where sub-shot-noise sensitivities can be reached with respect to the input total average number of particles. Decoherence due to particle losses and finite detection efficiency are also considered. PMID:26550872
Inhibition of Coherence in Trapped Bose-Einstein Condensates
Imamoglu, A.; Lewenstein, M.
1997-03-01
We analyze the dependence of the collapse and revival of many-atom coherence of a trapped Bose-Einstein condensate on the trap potential, dimensionality of the gas, and atom number fluctuations. We show that in a class of experimentally relevant systems the collapse time vanishes in the limit of a large number of atoms, implying that the trapped Bose gas cannot sustain a well-defined quantum phase. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
Anisotropic Solitons in Dipolar Bose-Einstein Condensates
Tikhonenkov, I.; Vardi, A.; Malomed, B. A.
2008-03-07
Starting with a Gaussian variational ansatz, we predict anisotropic bright solitons in quasi-2D Bose-Einstein condensates consisting of atoms with dipole moments polarized perpendicular to the confinement direction. Unlike isotropic solitons predicted for the moments aligned with the confinement axis [Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 200404 (2005)], no sign reversal of the dipole-dipole interaction is necessary to support the solitons. Direct 3D simulations confirm their stability.
Stable Hopf solitons in rotating Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bidasyuk, Y. M.; Chumachenko, A. V.; Prikhodko, O. O.; Vilchinskii, S. I.; Weyrauch, M.; Yakimenko, A. I.
2015-11-01
We reveal that Hopf solitons can be stabilized in rotating atomic Bose-Einstein condensates. The Hopfion is a matter-wave vortex complex which carries two independent winding numbers. Such a topological solitonic structure results from a superfluid flow of atoms simultaneously quantized in poloidal and toroidal directions. In the framework of a dissipative mean-field model we observe different unstable evolution scenarios of the Hopfions. We demonstrate energetic and dynamical stability of the Hopf solitons under experimentally feasible conditions.
Fidelity Decay in Trapped Bose-Einstein Condensates
Manfredi, G.; Hervieux, P.-A.
2008-02-08
The quantum coherence of a Bose-Einstein condensate is studied using the concept of quantum fidelity (Loschmidt echo). The condensate is confined in an elongated anharmonic trap and subjected to a small random potential such as that created by a laser speckle. Numerical experiments show that the quantum fidelity stays constant until a critical time, after which it drops abruptly over a single trap oscillation period. The critical time depends logarithmically on the number of condensed atoms and on the perturbation amplitude. This behavior may be observable by measuring the interference fringes of two condensates evolving in slightly different potentials.
Large atom number Bose-Einstein condensate machines
Streed, Erik W.; Chikkatur, Ananth P.; Gustavson, Todd L.; Boyd, Micah; Torii, Yoshio; Schneble, Dominik; Campbell, Gretchen K.; Pritchard, David E.; Ketterle, Wolfgang
2006-02-15
We describe experimental setups for producing large Bose-Einstein condensates of {sup 23}Na and {sup 87}Rb. In both, a high-flux thermal atomic beam is decelerated by a Zeeman slower and is then captured and cooled in a magneto-optical trap. The atoms are then transferred into a cloverleaf-style Ioffe-Pritchard magnetic trap and cooled to quantum degeneracy with radio-frequency-induced forced evaporation. Typical condensates contain 20x10{sup 6} atoms. We discuss the similarities and differences between the techniques used for producing large {sup 87}Rb and {sup 23}Na condensates in the context of nearly identical setups.
Behaviour of Rotating Bose Einstein Condensates Under Shrinking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhai, Hui; Zhou, Qi
2005-01-01
When the repulsive interaction strength between atoms decreases, the size of a rotating Bose-Einstein condensate will consequently shrink. We find that the rotational frequency will increase during the shrinking of condensate, which is a quantum mechanical analogy to ballet dancing. Compared to a non-rotating condensate, the size of a rotating BEC will eventually be saturated at a finite value when the interaction strength is gradually reduced. We also calculate the vortex dynamics induced by the atomic current, and discuss the difference of vortex dynamics in this case and that observed in a recent experiment carried out by the JILA group [Phys. Rev. Lett. 90 (2003) 170405].
Controlling quasiparticle excitations in a trapped Bose-Einstein condensate
Woo, S.J.; Choi, S.; Bigelow, N.P.
2005-08-15
We describe an approach to quantum control of the quasiparticle excitations in a trapped Bose-Einstein condensate based on adiabatic and diabatic changes in the trap anisotropy. We describe our approach in the context of the Landau-Zener transition at the avoided crossings in the quasiparticle excitation spectrum. We find also that there can be population oscillation between different modes at the specific aspect ratios of the trapping potential at which the mode energies are almost degenerate. These effects may have implications in the expansion of an excited condensate as well as the dynamics of a moving condensate in an atomic waveguide with a varying width.
1 and 2 Dimensional Bose Einstein Condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vogels, Johnny; Gorlitz, Axel; Raman, Chandra; Gustavson, Todd; Drndic, Marija; Leanhardt, Aaron; Abo-Shaeer, Jamil; Loew, Robert; Ketterle, Wolfgang
2001-05-01
We have created condensates in which the zero point motion exceeds the mean field enegy in either 2 (1D-condensate) or 1 dimension (2D-condensate). We describe the optical traps and magnetic traps being used, their limitations, and the regimes that are accessible. Some of our 1D condensates should have limited coherence properties (quasi-condensates).
Winding up superfluid in a torus via Bose Einstein condensation
Das, Arnab; Sabbatini, Jacopo; Zurek, Wojciech H
2010-12-16
We simulate Bose-Einstein condensation at finite temperature in a ring employing stochastic Gross-Pitaevskii equation and show that cooling through the critical point can generate topologically stable quantized circulation of the newborn condensate around the ring. The resulting winding numbers exhibiting Gaussian distribution with dispersion following scaling behavior predicted by the Kibble-Zurek mechanism (KZM). This opens up possibilities for direct experimental study of the underlying phase transition and the basic principles of KZM extended to account for such circulations. We discuss the effect of inhomogeneity on the above phenomenon by considering the effect of tilting of the ring in the gravitational field.
Observation of Faraday Waves in a Bose-Einstein Condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Engels, Peter; Atherton, Collin; Hoefer, Mark
2007-06-01
Faraday waves in a cigar-shaped Bose-Einstein condensate are created. It is shown that periodically modulating the transverse confinement, and thus the nonlinear interactions in the BEC, excites small amplitude longitudinal oscillations through a parametric resonance. It is also demonstrated that even without the presence of a continuous drive, an initial transverse breathing mode excitation of the condensate leads to spontaneous pattern formation in the longitudinal direction. Finally, the effects of strongly driving the transverse breathing mode with large amplitude are investigated. In this case, impact-oscillator behavior and intriguing nonlinear dynamics, including the gradual emergence of multiple longitudinal modes, are observed.
Observation of Faraday Waves in a Bose-Einstein Condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Engels, P.; Atherton, C.; Hoefer, M. A.
2007-03-01
Faraday waves in a cigar-shaped Bose-Einstein condensate are created. It is shown that periodically modulating the transverse confinement, and thus the nonlinear interactions in the BEC, excites small amplitude longitudinal oscillations through a parametric resonance. It is also demonstrated that even without the presence of a continuous drive, an initial transverse breathing mode excitation of the condensate leads to spontaneous pattern formation in the longitudinal direction. Finally, the effects of strongly driving the transverse breathing mode with large amplitude are investigated. In this case, impact-oscillator behavior and intriguing nonlinear dynamics, including the gradual emergence of multiple longitudinal modes, are observed.
Parametric-squeezing amplification of Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jäger, Georg; Berrada, Tarik; Schmiedmayer, Jörg; Schumm, Thorsten; Hohenester, Ulrich
2015-11-01
We theoretically investigate the creation of squeezed states of a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) trapped in a magnetic double-well potential. The number or phase squeezed states are created by modulating the tunnel coupling between the two wells periodically with twice the Josephson frequency, i.e., through parametric amplification. Simulations are performed with the multiconfigurational time-dependent Hartree method for bosons. We employ optimal control theory to bring the condensate to a complete halt at a final time, thus creating a highly squeezed state (squeezing factor of 0.12, ξS2=-18 dB) suitable for atom interferometry.
Superfluidity and Critical Velocities in Nonequilibrium Bose-Einstein Condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wouters, Michiel; Carusotto, Iacopo
2010-07-01
We theoretically study the superfluidity properties of a nonequilibrium Bose-Einstein condensate of exciton polaritons in a semiconductor microcavity under incoherent pumping. The dynamics of the condensate is described at mean-field level in terms of a generalized Gross-Pitaevskii equation. The drag force on a small moving object and the onset of fringes in the density profile are shown to have a sharp threshold as a function of the velocity; a generalized Landau criterion is developed to explain this behavior in terms of the dispersion of elementary excitations. Metastability of supercurrents in multiply-connected geometries is shown to persist up to higher flow speeds.
Superfluidity and Critical Velocities in Nonequilibrium Bose-Einstein Condensates
Wouters, Michiel; Carusotto, Iacopo
2010-07-09
We theoretically study the superfluidity properties of a nonequilibrium Bose-Einstein condensate of exciton polaritons in a semiconductor microcavity under incoherent pumping. The dynamics of the condensate is described at mean-field level in terms of a generalized Gross-Pitaevskii equation. The drag force on a small moving object and the onset of fringes in the density profile are shown to have a sharp threshold as a function of the velocity; a generalized Landau criterion is developed to explain this behavior in terms of the dispersion of elementary excitations. Metastability of supercurrents in multiply-connected geometries is shown to persist up to higher flow speeds.
Nonlinear effects in interference of bose-einstein condensates
Liu; Wu; Niu
2000-03-13
Nonlinear effects in the interference of Bose-Einstein condensates are studied using exact solutions of the one-dimensional nonlinear Schrodinger equation, which is applicable when the lateral motion is confined or negligible. With the inverse scattering method, the interference pattern is studied as a scattering problem with the linear Schrodinger equation, whose potential is profiled by the initial density distribution of the condensates. Our theory not only provides an analytical framework for quantitative predictions for the one-dimensional case, it also gives an intuitive understanding of some mysterious features of the interference patterns observed in experiments and numerical simulations. PMID:11018868
Large magnetic storage ring for Bose-Einstein condensates
Arnold, A. S.; Garvie, C. S.; Riis, E.
2006-04-15
Cold atomic clouds and Bose-Einstein condensates have been stored in a 10 cm diameter vertically oriented magnetic ring. An azimuthal magnetic field enables low-loss propagation of atomic clouds over a total distance of 2 m, with a heating rate of less than 50 nK/s. The vertical geometry was used to split an atomic cloud into two counter-rotating clouds which were recombined after one revolution. The system will be ideal for studying condensate collisions and ultimately Sagnac interferometry.
Avoiding infrared catastrophes in trapped Bose-Einstein condensates
Kevrekidis, P.G.; Theocharis, G.; Frantzeskakis, D.J.; Trombettoni, A.
2004-08-01
This paper is concerned with the long-wavelength instabilities (infrared catastrophes) occurring in Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs). We examine the modulational instability in 'cigar-shaped' (one-dimensional) attractive BECs and the transverse instability of dark solitons in 'pancake' (two-dimensional) repulsive BECs. We suggest mechanisms, and give explicit estimates, on how to engineer the trapping conditions of the condensate to avoid such instabilities: the main result being that a tight enough trapping potential suppresses the instabilities present in the homogeneous limit. We compare the obtained estimates with numerical results and we highlight the relevant regimes of dynamical behavior.
A Ring with a Spin: Superfluidity in a toroidal Bose-Einstein condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramanathan, Anand Krishnan
2011-12-01
Superfluidity is a remarkable phenomenon. Superfluidity was initially characterized by flow without friction, first seen in liquid helium in 1938, and has been studied extensively since. Superfluidity is believed to be related to, but not identical to Bose-Einstein condensation, a statistical mechanical phenomena predicted by Albert Einstein in 1924 based on the statistics of Satyendra Nath Bose, where bosonic atoms make a phase transition to form a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), a gas which has macroscopic occupation of a single quantum state. Developments in laser cooling of neutral atoms and the subsequent realization of Bose-Einstein condensates in ultracold gases have opened a new window into the study of superfluidity and its relation to Bose-Einstein condensation. In our atomic sodium BEC experiment, we studied superfluidity and dissipationless flow in an all-optical toroidal trap, constructed using the combination of a horizontal "sheet"-like beam and vertical "ring"-like beam, which, like a circuit loop, allows flow around the ring. On inducing a single quantum of circulation in the condensate, the smoothness and uniformity of the toroidal BEC enabled the sustaining of a persistent current lasting 40 seconds, limited by the lifetime of the BEC due to background gas pressure. This success set the stage for further experiments studying superfluidity. In a first set of experiments, we studied the stability of the persistent current by inserting a barrier in the flow path of the ring. The superflow stopped abruptly at a barrier strength such that the local flow velocity at the barrier exceeded a critical velocity, which supported decay via the creation of a vortex-antivortex pair. Our precise control in inducing and arresting superflow in the BEC is a first step toward studying other aspects of superfluidity, such as the effect of temperature and dimensionality. This thesis discusses these experiments and also details partial-transfer absorption imaging, an
Fragmentation of Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mueller, Erich J.; Ho, Tin-Lun; Ueda, Masahito; Baym, Gordon
2006-09-01
We present the theory of bosonic systems with multiple condensates, providing a unified description of various model systems that are found in the literature. We discuss how degeneracies, interactions, and symmetries conspire to give rise to this unusual behavior. We show that as degeneracies multiply, so do the varieties of fragmentation, eventually leading to strongly correlated states with no trace of condensation.
Coherence and Squeezing of Bose-Einstein Condensates in Double Wells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yi, Xiao-jie
2016-05-01
We investigate coherence and squeezing of a two-mode Bose-Einstein condensate trapped in a double-well potential. By analytically deriving the form of coherence and numerically calculating the squeezing parameter, we show that the coherence and the squeezing may be controlled by adjusting some parameters of the two-mode Bose-Einstein condensate.
Dirac Monopoles in a Bose-Einstein Condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hall, David
2014-05-01
Over eighty years ago, Dirac established a theory of magnetic monopoles consistent with both classical electrodynamics and quantum mechanics. I will discuss Dirac's theory and a recent realization of its essential features, including a monopole, in the context of the synthetic electric and magnetic fields supported by a spinor Bose-Einstein condensate. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under grants nos. PHY-0855475 and PHY-1205822, by the Academy of Finland through its Centres of Excellence Program (grant no. 251748) and grants nos. 135794, 272806 and 141015.
Observation of Solitonic Vortices in Bose-Einstein Condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Donadello, Simone; Serafini, Simone; Tylutki, Marek; Pitaevskii, Lev P.; Dalfovo, Franco; Lamporesi, Giacomo; Ferrari, Gabriele
2014-08-01
We observe solitonic vortices in an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) after free expansion. Clear signatures of the nature of such defects are the twisted planar density depletion around the vortex line, observed in absorption images, and the double dislocation in the interference pattern obtained through homodyne techniques. Both methods allow us to determine the sign of the quantized circulation. Experimental observations agree with numerical simulations. These solitonic vortices are the decay product of phase defects of the BEC order parameter spontaneously created after a rapid quench across the BEC transition in a cigar-shaped harmonic trap and are shown to have a very long lifetime.
Analytic vortex dynamics in an annular Bose-Einstein condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toikka, L. A.; Suominen, K.-A.
2016-05-01
We consider analytically the dynamics of an arbitrary number and configuration of vortices in an annular Bose-Einstein condensate obtaining expressions for the free energy and vortex precession rates to logarithmic accuracy. We also obtain lower bounds for the lifetime of a single vortex in the annulus. Our results enable a closed-form analytic treatment of vortex-vortex interactions in the annulus that is exact in the incompressible limit. The incompressible hydrodynamics that is developed here paves the way for more general analytical treatments of vortex dynamics in non-simply-connected geometries.
Rapidly rotating Bose-Einstein condensates in homogeneous traps
Correggi, M.; Rindler-Daller, T.; Yngvason, J.
2007-10-15
We extend the results of a previous paper on the Gross-Pitaevskii description of rotating Bose-Einstein condensates in two-dimensional traps to confining potentials of the form V(r)=r{sup s}, 2
Coherent Ratchets in Driven Bose-Einstein Condensates
Creffield, C. E.; Sols, F.
2009-11-13
We study the response of a Bose-Einstein condensate to an unbiased periodic driving potential. By controlling the space and time symmetries of the driving we show how a directed current can be induced, producing a coherent quantum ratchet. Weak driving induces a regular behavior, and space and time symmetries must both be broken to produce a current. For strong driving, the behavior becomes chaotic and the resulting effective irreversibility means that it is unnecessary to explicitly break time symmetry. Spatial asymmetry alone is then sufficient to produce the ratchet effect, even in the absence of interactions, and although the system remains completely coherent.
Quantum Mass Acquisition in Spinor Bose-Einstein Condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Phuc, Nguyen Thanh; Kawaguchi, Yuki; Ueda, Masahito
2014-12-01
Quantum mass acquisition, in which a massless (quasi)particle becomes massive due to quantum corrections, is predicted to occur in several subfields of physics. However, its experimental observation remains elusive since the emergent energy gap is too small. We show that a spinor Bose-Einstein condensate is an excellent candidate for the observation of such a peculiar phenomenon as the energy gap turns out to be 2 orders of magnitude larger than the zero-point energy. This extraordinarily large energy gap is a consequence of the dynamical instability. The propagation velocity of the resultant massive excitation mode is found to be decreased by the quantum corrections as opposed to phonons.
Kicked Bose-Einstein Condensates: in Search of Exponential Instability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Monteiro, T. S.; Rancon, A.; Ruostekoski, J.
Bose-Einstein condensates subject to short pulses ("kicks") from standing waves of light represent a nonlinear analogue of the well-known chaos paradigm, the quantum kicked rotor. We review briefly our current understanding of dynamical or exponential instability in weakly kicked BECs. Previous studies of the onset of dynamical instability associated it with some form of classical chaos. We show it is due to parametric instability: resonant driving of certain collective modes. We map the zones of instability and calculate the Liapunov exponents.
Early stage of superradiance from Bose-Einstein condensates
Buchmann, L. F.; Lambropoulos, P.; Nikolopoulos, G. M.; Zobay, O.
2010-08-15
We investigate the dynamics of matter and optical waves at the early stage of superradiant Rayleigh scattering from Bose-Einstein condensates. Our analysis is within a spatially dependent quantum model which is capable of providing analytic solutions for the operators of interest. The predictions of the present model are compared to the predictions of a closely related mean-field model, and we provide a procedure that allows one to calculate quantum expectation values by averaging over semiclassical solutions. The coherence properties of the outgoing scattered light are also analyzed, and it is shown that the corresponding correlation functions may provide detailed information about the internal dynamics of the system.
Dispersive Bottleneck Delaying Thermalization of Turbulent Bose-Einstein Condensates
Krstulovic, Giorgio; Brachet, Marc
2011-03-18
A new mechanism of thermalization involving a direct energy cascade is obtained in the truncated Gross-Pitaevskii dynamics. A long transient with partial thermalization at small scales is observed before the system reaches equilibrium. Vortices are found to disappear as a prelude to final thermalization. A bottleneck that produces spontaneous effective self-truncation and delays thermalization is characterized when large dispersive effects are present at the truncation wave number. Order of magnitude estimates indicate that self-truncation takes place in turbulent Bose-Einstein condensates. This effect should also be present in classical hydrodynamics and models of turbulence.
Collisions of Dark Solitons in Elongated Bose-Einstein Condensates
Stellmer, S.; Becker, C.; Soltan-Panahi, P.; Richter, E.-M.; Doerscher, S.; Baumert, M.; Kronjaeger, J.; Sengstock, K.; Bongs, K.
2008-09-19
We present experimental data showing the head-on collision of dark solitons generated in an elongated Bose-Einstein condensate. No discernable interaction can be recorded, in full agreement with the fundamental theoretical concepts of solitons as mutually transparent quasiparticles. Our soliton generation technique allows for the creation of solitons with different depths; hence, they can be distinguished and their trajectories be followed. Simulations of the 1D-Gross-Pitaevskii equation have been performed to compare the experiment with a mean-field description.
Bose-Einstein Condensation of Dark Matter Axions
Sikivie, P.; Yang, Q.
2009-09-11
We show that cold dark matter axions thermalize and form a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). We obtain the axion state in a homogeneous and isotropic universe, and derive the equations governing small axion perturbations. Because they form a BEC, axions differ from ordinary cold dark matter in the nonlinear regime of structure formation and upon entering the horizon. Axion BEC provides a mechanism for the production of net overall rotation in dark matter halos, and for the alignment of cosmic microwave anisotropy multipoles.
Geometrical Pumping with a Bose-Einstein Condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, H.-I.; Schemmer, M.; Aycock, L. M.; Genkina, D.; Sugawa, S.; Spielman, I. B.
2016-05-01
We realized a quantum geometric "charge" pump for a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) in the lowest Bloch band of a novel bipartite magnetic lattice. Topological charge pumps in filled bands yield quantized pumping set by the global—topological—properties of the bands. In contrast, our geometric charge pump for a BEC occupying just a single crystal momentum state exhibits nonquantized charge pumping set by local—geometrical—properties of the band structure. Like topological charge pumps, for each pump cycle we observed an overall displacement (here, not quantized) and a temporal modulation of the atomic wave packet's position in each unit cell, i.e., the polarization.
Geometrical Pumping with a Bose-Einstein Condensate.
Lu, H-I; Schemmer, M; Aycock, L M; Genkina, D; Sugawa, S; Spielman, I B
2016-05-20
We realized a quantum geometric "charge" pump for a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) in the lowest Bloch band of a novel bipartite magnetic lattice. Topological charge pumps in filled bands yield quantized pumping set by the global-topological-properties of the bands. In contrast, our geometric charge pump for a BEC occupying just a single crystal momentum state exhibits nonquantized charge pumping set by local-geometrical-properties of the band structure. Like topological charge pumps, for each pump cycle we observed an overall displacement (here, not quantized) and a temporal modulation of the atomic wave packet's position in each unit cell, i.e., the polarization. PMID:27258857
Bose-Einstein condensation in binary mixture of Bose gases
Tran Huu Phat; Le Viet Hoa; Nguyen Tuan Anh Nguyen Van Long
2009-10-15
The Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) in a binary mixture of Bose gases is studied by means of the Cornwall-Jackiw-Tomboulis (CJT) effective action approach. The equations of state (EoS) and various scenarios of phase transitions of the system are considered in detail, in particular, the numerical computations are carried out for symmetry restoration (SR), symmetry nonrestoration (SNR) and inverse symmetry breaking (ISB) for getting an insight into their physical nature. It is shown that due to the cross interaction between distinct components of mixture there occur two interesting phenomena: the high temperature BEC and the inverse BEC, which could be tested in experiments.
Observation of solitonic vortices in Bose-Einstein condensates.
Donadello, Simone; Serafini, Simone; Tylutki, Marek; Pitaevskii, Lev P; Dalfovo, Franco; Lamporesi, Giacomo; Ferrari, Gabriele
2014-08-01
We observe solitonic vortices in an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) after free expansion. Clear signatures of the nature of such defects are the twisted planar density depletion around the vortex line, observed in absorption images, and the double dislocation in the interference pattern obtained through homodyne techniques. Both methods allow us to determine the sign of the quantized circulation. Experimental observations agree with numerical simulations. These solitonic vortices are the decay product of phase defects of the BEC order parameter spontaneously created after a rapid quench across the BEC transition in a cigar-shaped harmonic trap and are shown to have a very long lifetime. PMID:25148333
A Raman waveplate for spinor Bose-Einstein condensates.
Schultz, Justin T; Hansen, Azure; Bigelow, Nicholas P
2014-07-15
We demonstrate a waveplate for a pseudo-spin-1/2 Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) using a two-photon Raman interaction. The angle of the waveplate is set by the relative phase of the optical fields, and the retardance is controlled by the pulse area. The waveplate allows us to image maps of the Stokes parameters of a BEC and thereby measure its relative ground-state phase. We demonstrate the waveplate by measuring the Stokes parameters of a coreless vortex. PMID:25121704
Cooling of a Bose-Einstein Condensate by Spin Distillation.
Naylor, B; Maréchal, E; Huckans, J; Gorceix, O; Pedri, P; Vernac, L; Laburthe-Tolra, B
2015-12-11
We propose and experimentally demonstrate a new cooling mechanism leading to purification of a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). Our scheme starts with a BEC polarized in the lowest energy spin state. Spin excited states are thermally populated by lowering the single particle energy gap set by the magnetic field. Then, these spin-excited thermal components are filtered out, which leads to an increase of the BEC fraction. We experimentally demonstrate such cooling for a spin 3 ^{52}Cr dipolar BEC. Our scheme should be applicable to Na or Rb, with the perspective to reach temperatures below 1 nK. PMID:26705630
Non-equilibrium dynamics in driven Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Lei; Clark, Logan W.; Ha, Li-Chung; Chin, Cheng
2016-05-01
We report recent progress on the study of non-equilibrium dynamics in Bose-Einstein condensates using the shaken optical lattice or optically controlled Feshbach resonances. In the shaken lattice at sufficient shaking amplitude we observe a quantum phase transition from ordinary condensates to pseudo-spinor 1/2 condensates containing discrete domains with effective ferromagnetic interactions. We study the temporal and spatial Kibble-Zurek scaling laws for the dependence of this domain structure on the quench rate across the transition. Furthermore, we observe long-range density correlations within the ferromagnetic condensate. With optically controlled Feshbach resonances we demonstrate control of the interaction strength between atoms at timescales as short as ten nanoseconds and length scales smaller than the condensate. We find that making interactions attractive within only one region of the gas induces localized collapse of the condensate.
Analogue gravitational phenomena in Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Finazzi, Stefano
2012-08-01
Analogue gravity is based on the simple observation that perturbations propagating in several physical systems can be described by a quantum field theory in a curved spacetime. While phenomena like Hawking radiation are hardly detectable in astrophysical black holes, these effects may be experimentally tested in analogue systems. In this Thesis, focusing on Bose-Einstein condensates, we present our recent results about analogue models of gravity from three main perspectives: as laboratory tests of quantum field theory in curved spacetime, for the techniques that they provide to address various issues in general relativity, and as toy models of quantum gravity. The robustness of Hawking-like particle creation is investigated in flows with a single black hole horizon. Furthermore, we find that condensates with two (white and black) horizons develop a dynamical instability known in general relativity as black hole laser effect. Using techniques borrowed from analogue gravity, we also show that warp drives, which are general relativistic spacetimes allowing faster-than-light travel, are unstable. Finally, the cosmological constant issue is investigated from an analogue gravity perspective and relativistic Bose-Einstein condensates are proposed as new analogue systems with novel interesting properties.
Dynamics of vortex dipoles in anisotropic Bose-Einstein condensates
Goodman, Roy H.; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Carretero-González, R.
2015-04-14
We study the motion of a vortex dipole in a Bose-Einstein condensate confined to an anisotropic trap. We focus on a system of ODEs describing the vortices' motion, which is in turn a reduced model of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation describing the condensate's motion. Using a sequence of canonical changes of variables, we reduce the dimension and simplify the equations of motion. In this study, we uncover two interesting regimes. Near a family of periodic orbits known as guiding centers, we find that the dynamics is essentially that of a pendulum coupled to a linear oscillator, leading to stochastic reversals inmore » the overall direction of rotation of the dipole. Near the separatrix orbit in the isotropic system, we find other families of periodic, quasi-periodic, and chaotic trajectories. In a neighborhood of the guiding center orbits, we derive an explicit iterated map that simplifies the problem further. Numerical calculations are used to illustrate the phenomena discovered through the analysis. Using the results from the reduced system, we are able to construct complex periodic orbits in the original, PDE, mean-field model for Bose-Einstein condensates, which corroborates the phenomenology observed in the reduced dynamical equations.« less
Dynamics of vortex dipoles in anisotropic Bose-Einstein condensates
Goodman, Roy H.; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Carretero-González, R.
2015-04-14
We study the motion of a vortex dipole in a Bose-Einstein condensate confined to an anisotropic trap. We focus on a system of ODEs describing the vortices' motion, which is in turn a reduced model of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation describing the condensate's motion. Using a sequence of canonical changes of variables, we reduce the dimension and simplify the equations of motion. In this study, we uncover two interesting regimes. Near a family of periodic orbits known as guiding centers, we find that the dynamics is essentially that of a pendulum coupled to a linear oscillator, leading to stochastic reversals in the overall direction of rotation of the dipole. Near the separatrix orbit in the isotropic system, we find other families of periodic, quasi-periodic, and chaotic trajectories. In a neighborhood of the guiding center orbits, we derive an explicit iterated map that simplifies the problem further. Numerical calculations are used to illustrate the phenomena discovered through the analysis. Using the results from the reduced system, we are able to construct complex periodic orbits in the original, PDE, mean-field model for Bose-Einstein condensates, which corroborates the phenomenology observed in the reduced dynamical equations.
Dissipative transport of a Bose-Einstein condensate
Dries, D.; Pollack, S. E.; Hitchcock, J. M.; Hulet, R. G.
2010-09-15
We investigate the effects of impurities, either correlated disorder or a single Gaussian defect, on the collective dipole motion of a Bose-Einstein condensate of {sup 7}Li in an optical trap. We find that this motion is damped at a rate dependent on the impurity strength, condensate center-of-mass velocity, and interatomic interactions. Damping in the Thomas-Fermi regime depends universally on the disordered potential strength scaled to the condensate chemical potential and the condensate velocity scaled to the speed of sound. The damping rate is comparatively small in the weakly interacting regime, and, in this case, is accompanied by strong condensate fragmentation. In situ and time-of-flight images of the atomic cloud provide evidence that this fragmentation is driven by dark soliton formation.
Rotational fluxons of Bose-Einstein condensates in coplanar double-ring traps
Brand, J.; Haigh, T. J.; Zuelicke, U.
2009-07-15
Rotational analogs to magnetic fluxons in conventional Josephson junctions are predicted to emerge in the ground state of rotating tunnel-coupled annular Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs). Such topological condensate-phase structures can be manipulated by external potentials. We determine conditions for observing macroscopic quantum tunneling of a fluxon. Rotational fluxons in double-ring BECs can be created, manipulated, and controlled by external potentials in different ways than is possible in the solid-state system, thus rendering them a promising candidate system for studying and utilizing quantum properties of collective many-particle degrees of freedom.
Thermalization of gluons with Bose-Einstein condensation.
Xu, Zhe; Zhou, Kai; Zhuang, Pengfei; Greiner, Carsten
2015-05-01
We study the thermalization of gluons far from thermal equilibrium in relativistic kinetic theory. The initial distribution of gluons is assumed to resemble that in the early stage of ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions. Only elastic scatterings in static, nonexpanding gluonic matter are considered. At first we show that the occurrence of condensation in the limit of vanishing particle mass requires a general constraint for the scattering matrix element. Then the thermalization of gluons with Bose-Einstein condensation is demonstrated in a transport calculation. We see a continuously increasing overpopulation of low energy gluons, followed by a decrease to the equilibrium distribution, when the condensation occurs. The times of the completion of the gluon condensation and of the entropy production are calculated. These times scale inversely with the energy density. PMID:26000996
Internal Josephson oscillations for distinct momenta Bose-Einstein condensates
Lim, Lih-King; Troppenz, T.; Morais Smith, C.
2011-11-15
The internal Josephson oscillations between an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) and a molecular one are studied for atoms in a square optical lattice subjected to a staggered gauge field. The system is described by a Bose-Hubbard model with complex and anisotropic hopping parameters that are different for each species, i.e., atoms and molecules. When the flux per plaquette for each species is small, the system oscillates between two conventional zero-momentum condensates. However, there is a regime of parameters in which Josephson oscillations between a vortex-carrying atomic condensate (finite momentum BEC) and a conventional zero-momentum molecular condensate may be realized. The experimental observation of the oscillations between these qualitatively distinct BEC's is possible with state-of-the-art Ramsey interference techniques.
Atom Interferometry on Sounding Rockets with Bose-Einstein Condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seidel, Stephan T.; Becker, Dennis; Lachmann, Maike D.; Herr, Waldemar; Rasel, Ernst M.; Quantus Collaboration
2016-05-01
One of the fundamental postulates of our description of nature is the universality of free fall, stating that the force exerted upon an object due to gravity is independent of its constitution. A precise test of this assumption is the comparison of the free fall of two ultra-cold clouds of different atomic species via atom interferometry. Since the sensitivity of the measurement is proportional to the square of the propagation time in the interferometer, it can be increased by performing the experiments in microgravity. In order to fully utilize the potential of the experiments the usage of a Bose-Einstein-Condensate as the initial state is necessary, because it is characterized by a small initial size and a low expansion velocity. As a step towards the transfer of such a system into space three sounding rocket missions with atom interferometers are currently being prepared. The launch of the first mission, aimed at the first demonstration of a Bose-Einstein-Condensate in space and an atom interferometer based on it is planned for 2016 from ESRANGE, Sweden. It will be followed by two more missions that extend the scientific goals to the creation of degenerate mixtures and dual-species atom interferometry. This research is funded by the German Space Agency DLR under Grant Number DLR 50 1131-37.
Resistive flow in a weakly interacting Bose-Einstein condensate.
Jendrzejewski, F; Eckel, S; Murray, N; Lanier, C; Edwards, M; Lobb, C J; Campbell, G K
2014-07-25
We report the direct observation of resistive flow through a weak link in a weakly interacting atomic Bose-Einstein condensate. Two weak links separate our ring-shaped superfluid atomtronic circuit into two distinct regions, a source and a drain. Motion of these weak links allows for creation of controlled flow between the source and the drain. At a critical value of the weak link velocity, we observe a transition from superfluid flow to superfluid plus resistive flow. Working in the hydrodynamic limit, we observe a conductivity that is 4 orders of magnitude larger than previously reported conductivities for a Bose-Einstein condensate with a tunnel junction. Good agreement with zero-temperature Gross-Pitaevskii simulations and a phenomenological model based on phase slips indicate that the creation of excitations plays an important role in the resulting conductivity. Our measurements of resistive flow elucidate the microscopic origin of the dissipation and pave the way for more complex atomtronic devices. PMID:25105631
Static interfacial properties of Bose-Einstein-condensate mixtures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Indekeu, Joseph O.; Lin, Chang-You; Van Thu, Nguyen; Van Schaeybroeck, Bert; Phat, Tran Huu
2015-03-01
The interfacial profiles and interfacial tensions of phase-separated binary mixtures of Bose-Einstein condensates are studied theoretically. The two condensates are characterized by their respective healing lengths ξ1 and ξ2 and by the interspecies repulsive interaction K . An exact solution to the Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equations is obtained for the special case ξ2/ξ1=1 /2 and K =3 /2 . Furthermore, applying a double-parabola approximation (DPA) to the energy density featured in GP theory allows us to define a DPA model, which is much simpler to handle than GP theory but nevertheless still captures the main physics. In particular, a compact analytic expression for the interfacial tension is derived that is useful for all ξ1,ξ2 , and K . An application to wetting phenomena is presented for condensates adsorbed at an optical wall. The wetting phase boundary obtained within the DPA model nearly coincides with the exact one in GP theory.
Kinetic approach to a relativistic Bose-Einstein condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meistrenko, Alex; van Hees, Hendrik; Zhou, Kai; Greiner, Carsten
2016-03-01
We apply a Boltzmann approach to the kinetic regime of a relativistic Bose-Einstein condensate of scalar bosons by decomposing the one-particle distribution function in a condensate part and a nonzero momentum part of excited modes, leading to a coupled set of evolution equations which are then solved efficiently with an adaptive higher order Runge-Kutta scheme. We compare our results to the partonic cascade Monte Carlo simulation BAMPS for a critical but far from equilibrium case of massless bosons. Motivated by the color glass condensate initial conditions in QCD with a strongly overpopulated initial glasma state, we also discuss the time evolution starting from an overpopulated initial distribution function of massive scalar bosons. In this system a self-similar evolution of the particle cascade with a nonrelativistic turbulent scaling in the infrared sector is observed as well as a relativistic exponent for the direct energy cascade, confirming a weak wave turbulence in the ultraviolet region.
Atom interferometry with a weakly interacting Bose-Einstein condensate.
Fattori, M; D'Errico, C; Roati, G; Zaccanti, M; Jona-Lasinio, M; Modugno, M; Inguscio, M; Modugno, G
2008-02-29
We demonstrate the operation of an atom interferometer based on a weakly interacting Bose-Einstein condensate. We strongly reduce the interaction induced decoherence that usually limits interferometers based on trapped condensates by tuning the s-wave scattering length almost to zero via a magnetic Feshbach resonance. We employ a 39K condensate trapped in an optical lattice, where Bloch oscillations are forced by gravity. The fine-tuning of the scattering length down to 0.1 a_(0) and the micrometric sizes of the atomic sample make our system a very promising candidate for measuring forces with high spatial resolution. Our technique can be in principle extended to other measurement schemes opening new possibilities in the field of trapped atom interferometry. PMID:18352607
Scanning Cryogenic Magnetometry with a Bose-Einstein Condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lev, Benjamin; Straquadine, Joshua; Yang, Fan
2016-05-01
Microscopy techniques co-opted from nonlinear optics and high energy physics have complemented solid-state probes in elucidating exotic order manifest in condensed matter systems. We present a novel scanning magnetometer which adds the techniques of ultracold atomic physics to the condensed matter toolbox. Our device, the Scanning Quantum CRyogenic Atom Microscope (SQCRAMscope) uses a one-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate of 87 Rb to image magnetic and electric fields near surfaces between room and cryogenic temperatures, and allows for rapid sample changes while retaining UHV compatibility for atomic experiments. We present our characterization of the spatial resolution and magnetic field sensitivity of the device, and discuss the advantages and applications of this magnetometry technique. In particular, we will discuss our plans for performing local transport measurements in technologically relevant materials such as Fe-based superconductors and topological insulators.
Atom Interferometry with a Weakly Interacting Bose-Einstein Condensate
Fattori, M.; D'Errico, C.; Roati, G.; Inguscio, M.; Modugno, G.; Zaccanti, M.; Jona-Lasinio, M.; Modugno, M.
2008-02-29
We demonstrate the operation of an atom interferometer based on a weakly interacting Bose-Einstein condensate. We strongly reduce the interaction induced decoherence that usually limits interferometers based on trapped condensates by tuning the s-wave scattering length almost to zero via a magnetic Feshbach resonance. We employ a {sup 39}K condensate trapped in an optical lattice, where Bloch oscillations are forced by gravity. The fine-tuning of the scattering length down to 0.1 a{sub 0} and the micrometric sizes of the atomic sample make our system a very promising candidate for measuring forces with high spatial resolution. Our technique can be in principle extended to other measurement schemes opening new possibilities in the field of trapped atom interferometry.
Moving impurity in an inhomogenous Bose-Einstein condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mathew, Ranchu; Tiesinga, Eite
2016-05-01
We study the dynamics of a non-uniform Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) under the influence of a moving weak point-like impurity. When the condensate density varies slowly compared to its healing length the critical velocity of the impurity, beyond which the condensate becomes unstable, can be calculated using the Local Density Approximation (LDA). This critical velocity corresponds to the smallest local sound speed. The LDA breaks down when the length scale of density variations is of the order of the healing length. We have calculated corrections to the critical velocity in this regime as an asymptotic expansion in the size of the BEC. We also discuss the experimental implications of our calculations by studying the stability of the atomic analogue of a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID). The atom-SQUID consists of a BEC in a ring trap with rotating barrier. The impurity corresponds to imperfections in the ring trap.
Bose-Einstein condensation of alkaline earth atoms: ;{40}Ca.
Kraft, Sebastian; Vogt, Felix; Appel, Oliver; Riehle, Fritz; Sterr, Uwe
2009-09-25
We have achieved Bose-Einstein condensation of ;{40}Ca, the first for an alkaline earth element. The influence of elastic and inelastic collisions associated with the large ground-state s-wave scattering length of ;{40}Ca was measured. From these findings, an optimized loading and cooling scheme was developed that allowed us to condense about 2 x 10;{4} atoms after laser cooling in a two-stage magneto-optical trap and subsequent forced evaporation in a crossed dipole trap within less than 3 s. The condensation of an alkaline earth element opens novel opportunities for precision measurements on the narrow intercombination lines as well as investigations of molecular states at the ;{1}S-;{3}P asymptotes. PMID:19905493
Nonlinear waves in coherently coupled Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Congy, T.; Kamchatnov, A. M.; Pavloff, N.
2016-04-01
We consider a quasi-one-dimensional two-component Bose-Einstein condensate subject to a coherent coupling between its components, such as realized in spin-orbit coupled condensates. We study how nonlinearity modifies the dynamics of the elementary excitations. The spectrum has two branches, which are affected in different ways. The upper branch experiences a modulational instability, which is stabilized by a long-wave-short-wave resonance with the lower branch. The lower branch is stable. In the limit of weak nonlinearity and small dispersion it is described by a Korteweg-de Vries equation or by the Gardner equation, depending on the value of the parameters of the system.
Momentum-space engineering of gaseous Bose-Einstein condensates
Edwards, Mark; Benton, Brandon; Heward, Jeffrey; Clark, Charles W.
2010-12-15
We show how the momentum distribution of gaseous Bose-Einstein condensates can be shaped by applying a sequence of standing-wave laser pulses. We present a theory, whose validity was demonstrated in an earlier experiment [L. Deng et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 5407 (1999)], of the effect of a two-pulse sequence on the condensate wavefunction in momentum space. We generalize the previous result to the case of N pulses of arbitrary intensity separated by arbitrary intervals and show how these parameters can be engineered to produce a desired final momentum distribution. We find that several momentum distributions, important in atom-interferometry applications, can be engineered with high fidelity with two or three pulses.
Nonlocal Quantum Effects with Bose-Einstein Condensates
Laloee, F.; Mullin, W. J.
2007-10-12
We study theoretically the properties of two Bose-Einstein condensates in different spin states, represented by a double Fock state. Individual measurements of the spins of the particles are performed in transverse directions, giving access to the relative phase of the condensates. Initially, this phase is completely undefined, and the first measurements provide random results. But a fixed value of this phase rapidly emerges under the effect of the successive quantum measurements, giving rise to a quasiclassical situation where all spins have parallel transverse orientations. If the number of measurements reaches its maximum (the number of particles), quantum effects show up again, giving rise to violations of Bell type inequalities. The violation of Bell-Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequalities with an arbitrarily large number of spins may be comparable (or even equal) to that obtained with two spins.
Winding up superfluid in a torus via Bose Einstein condensation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Das, Arnab; Sabbatini, Jacopo; Zurek, Wojciech H.
2012-04-01
Phase transitions are usually treated as equilibrium phenomena, which yields telltale universality classes with scaling behavior of relaxation time and healing length. However, in second-order phase transitions relaxation time diverges near the critical point (``critical slowing down''). Therefore, every such transition traversed at a finite rate is a non-equilibrium process. Kibble-Zurek mechanism (KZM) captures this basic physics, predicting sizes of domains - fragments of broken symmetry - and the density of topological defects, long-lived relics of symmetry breaking that can survive long after the transition. To test KZM we simulate Bose-Einstein condensation in a ring using stochastic Gross-Pitaevskii equation and show that BEC formation can spontaneously generate quantized circulation of the newborn condensate. The magnitude of the resulting winding numbers and the time-lag of BEC density growth - both experimentally measurable - follow scalings predicted by KZM. Our results may also facilitate measuring the dynamical critical exponent for the BEC transition.
Dynamics of F=2 Spinor Bose-Einstein Condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmaljohann, H.; Erhard, M.; Kronjäger, J.; Kottke, M.; van Staa, S.; Cacciapuoti, L.; Arlt, J. J.; Bongs, K.; Sengstock, K.
2004-01-01
We experimentally investigate and analyze the rich dynamics in F=2 spinor Bose-Einstein condensates of 87Rb. An interplay between mean-field driven spin dynamics and hyperfine-changing losses in addition to interactions with the thermal component is observed. In particular, we measure conversion rates in the range of 10-12 cm3 s-1 for spin-changing collisions within the F=2 manifold and spin-dependent loss rates in the range of 10-13 cm3 s-1 for hyperfine-changing collisions. We observe polar behavior in the F=2 ground state of 87Rb, while we find the F=1 ground state to be ferromagnetic. We further see a magnetization for condensates prepared with nonzero total spin.
Emergence of classical rotation in superfluid Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
White, Angela; Hennessy, Tara; Busch, Thomas
2016-03-01
Phase transitions can modify quantum behavior on mesoscopic scales and give access to new and unusual quantum dynamics. Here we investigate the superfluid properties of a rotating two-component Bose-Einstein condensate as a function of changes in the interaction energy and in particular through the phase transition from miscibility to immiscibility. We show that the breaking of one of the hallmarks of superfluid flow, namely, the quantization condition on circulation, is continuous throughout an azimuthal phase-separation process and displays intriguing flow dynamics. We find that the resulting currents are stable for long times and possess a boundary between the two condensate components that exhibits classical solid-body rotation, despite the quantum nature of superfluid flow. To support this coexistence of classical and quantum behavior the system develops a unique velocity flow profile, which includes unusual radial flow in regions near the boundary.
Scanning Cryogenic Magnetometry with a 1D Bose Einstein Condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Straquadine, Joshua; Yang, Fan; Lev, Benjamin
We present a novel scanning probe magnetometer suitable for cryogenic studies, in which the probe is a Bose-Einstein condensate of 87Rb. The system is designed for rapid sample changes and operation between 35 K and room temperature while remaining compatible with the UHV requirements of ultracold atom experiments. We demonstrate a spatial resolution (FWHM) of 2.6 μm and a repeatability of 1.9 +/- 1.0 nT. We also show that the system is operating close to the fundamental measurement limits set by photon shot noise and atom shot noise. Our scanning quantum cryogenic atom microscope is suitable for fundamental studies of transport and magnetism in condensed matter systems such as high-temperature superconductors and topological insulators. We discuss the advantages and applications of this magnetometry technique.
Bose-Einstein condensation in liquid 4He under pressure
Glyde, Henry R; Omar Diallo, Souleymane; Azuah, Richard T; Kirichek, Oleg; Taylor, Jon W.
2011-01-01
We present neutron scattering measurements of Bose-Einstein condensation, the atomic momen- tum distribution and Final State effects in liquid 4He under pressure. The condensate fraction at low temperature is found to decrease from n0 = 7.25 0.75% at SVP (p 0) to n0 = 3.2 0.75% at pressure p = 24 bar. This indicates an n0 = 3.0% in the liquid at the liquid/solid co-existence line (p = 25.3 bar). The atomic momentum distribution n(k) has high occupation of low k states and differs significantly from a Gaussian (e.g. a classical n(k)). Both n(k) and the Final state function broaden with increasing pressure, reflecting the increased localization of the 4He in space under increased pressure.
Proposal for the creation and optical detection of spin cat states in Bose-Einstein condensates.
Lau, Hon Wai; Dutton, Zachary; Wang, Tian; Simon, Christoph
2014-08-29
We propose a method to create "spin cat states," i.e., macroscopic superpositions of coherent spin states, in Bose-Einstein condensates using the Kerr nonlinearity due to atomic collisions. Based on a detailed study of atom loss, we conclude that cat sizes of hundreds of atoms should be realistic. The existence of the spin cat states can be demonstrated by optical readout. Our analysis also includes the effects of higher-order nonlinearities, atom number fluctuations, and limited readout efficiency. PMID:25215963
Brugarino, Tommaso; Sciacca, Michele
2010-09-15
In this paper, we investigate the integrability of an inhomogeneous nonlinear Schroedinger equation, which has several applications in many branches of physics, as in Bose-Einstein condensates and fiber optics. The main issue deals with Painleve property (PP) and Liouville integrability for a nonlinear Schroedinger-type equation. Solutions of the integrable equation are obtained by means of the Darboux transformation. Finally, some applications on fiber optics and Bose-Einstein condensates are proposed (including Bose-Einstein condensates in three-dimensional in cylindrical symmetry).
D-brane solitons and boojums in field theory and Bose-Einstein condensates.
Kasamatsu, Kenichi; Takeuchi, Hiromitsu; Nitta, Muneto
2013-10-01
In certain field theoretical models, composite solitons consisting of a domain wall and vortex lines attached to the wall have been referred to as 'D-brane solitons'. We show that similar composite solitons can be realized in phase-separated two-component Bose-Einstein condensates. We discuss the similarities and differences between topological solitons in the Abelian-Higgs model and those in two-component Bose-Einstein condensates. On the basis of the formulation of gauge theory, we introduce the 'boojum charge' to characterize the D-brane soliton in Bose-Einstein condensates. PMID:24025586
Neural networks using two-component Bose-Einstein condensates
Byrnes, Tim; Koyama, Shinsuke; Yan, Kai; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa
2013-01-01
The authors previously considered a method of solving optimization problems by using a system of interconnected network of two component Bose-Einstein condensates (Byrnes, Yan, Yamamoto New J. Phys. 13, 113025 (2011)). The use of bosonic particles gives a reduced time proportional to the number of bosons N for solving Ising model Hamiltonians by taking advantage of enhanced bosonic cooling rates. Here we consider the same system in terms of neural networks. We find that up to the accelerated cooling of the bosons the previously proposed system is equivalent to a stochastic continuous Hopfield network. This makes it clear that the BEC network is a physical realization of a simulated annealing algorithm, with an additional speedup due to bosonic enhancement. We discuss the BEC network in terms of neural network tasks such as learning and pattern recognition and find that the latter process may be accelerated by a factor of N. PMID:23989391
The Gross-Pitaevskii equation and Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rogel-Salazar, J.
2013-03-01
The Gross-Pitaevskii equation (GPE) is discussed at the level of an advanced course on statistical physics. In the standard literature the GPE is usually obtained in the framework of the second quantization formalism, which in many cases goes beyond the material covered in many advanced undergraduate courses. In this paper, we motivate the derivation of the GPE in relationship to concepts from statistical physics, highlighting a number of applications from the dynamics of a Bose-Einstein condensate to the excitations of the gas cloud. This paper may be helpful for encouraging the discussion of modern developments in a statistical mechanics course, and can also be of use in other contexts such as mathematical physics and modelling. The paper is suitable for undergraduate and graduate students, as well as for general physicists.
Dynamics of nonautonomous rogue waves in Bose-Einstein condensate
Zhao, Li-Chen
2013-02-15
We study rogue waves of Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) analytically in a time-dependent harmonic trap with a complex potential. Properties of the nonautonomous rogue waves are investigated analytically. It is reported that there are possibilities to 'catch' rogue waves through manipulating nonlinear interaction properly. The results provide many possibilities to manipulate rogue waves experimentally in a BEC system. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer One more generalized rogue wave solutions are presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Present one possible way to catch a rouge wave. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Properties of rogue waves are investigated analytically for the first time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Provide many possibilities to manipulate rogue waves in BEC.
Bell correlations in a Bose-Einstein condensate.
Schmied, Roman; Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Allard, Baptiste; Fadel, Matteo; Scarani, Valerio; Treutlein, Philipp; Sangouard, Nicolas
2016-04-22
Characterizing many-body systems through the quantum correlations between their constituent particles is a major goal of quantum physics. Although entanglement is routinely observed in many systems, we report here the detection of stronger correlations--Bell correlations--between the spins of about 480 atoms in a Bose-Einstein condensate. We derive a Bell correlation witness from a many-particle Bell inequality involving only one- and two-body correlation functions. Our measurement on a spin-squeezed state exceeds the threshold for Bell correlations by 3.8 standard deviations. Our work shows that the strongest possible nonclassical correlations are experimentally accessible in many-body systems and that they can be revealed by collective measurements. PMID:27102479
Formation of molecules in an expanding Bose-Einstein condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yurovsky, Vladimir; Ben-Reuven, Abraham
2004-05-01
A mean field theory [1] is extended to an inhomogeneous case of expanding hybrid atom-molecule Bose-Einstein condensates. This theory is applied to the recent MPI experiments [2] on ^87Rb demonstrating the formation of ultracold molecules due to Feshbach resonance. The subsequent dissociation of the molecules is treated using a non-mean-field parametric approximation [3]. The latter method is also used in determining optimal conditions for the formation of molecular BEC. [1] V. A. Yurovsky, A. Ben-Reuven, P. S. Julienne and C. J. Williams, Phys. Rev. A 60, R765 (1999); Phys. Rev. A 62, 043605 (2000). [2] S. Dürr, T. Volz, A. Marte, and G. Rempe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 020406 (2004). [3] V. A. Yurovsky and A. Ben-Reuven, Phys. Rev. A 67, 043611 (2003).
Bell correlations in a Bose-Einstein condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmied, Roman; Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Allard, Baptiste; Fadel, Matteo; Scarani, Valerio; Treutlein, Philipp; Sangouard, Nicolas
2016-04-01
Characterizing many-body systems through the quantum correlations between their constituent particles is a major goal of quantum physics. Although entanglement is routinely observed in many systems, we report here the detection of stronger correlations—Bell correlations—between the spins of about 480 atoms in a Bose-Einstein condensate. We derive a Bell correlation witness from a many-particle Bell inequality involving only one- and two-body correlation functions. Our measurement on a spin-squeezed state exceeds the threshold for Bell correlations by 3.8 standard deviations. Our work shows that the strongest possible nonclassical correlations are experimentally accessible in many-body systems and that they can be revealed by collective measurements.
Matter-wave recombiners for trapped Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berrada, T.; van Frank, S.; Bücker, R.; Schumm, T.; Schaff, J.-F.; Schmiedmayer, J.; Julía-Díaz, B.; Polls, A.
2016-06-01
Interferometry with trapped atomic Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) requires the development of techniques to recombine the two paths of the interferometer and map the accumulated phase difference to a measurable atom number difference. We have implemented and compared two recombining procedures in a double-well-based BEC interferometer. The first procedure utilizes the bosonic Josephson effect and controlled tunneling of atoms through the potential barrier, similar to laser light in an optical fiber coupler. The second one relies on the interference of the reflected and transmitted parts of the BEC wave function when impinging on the potential barrier, analogous to light impinging on a half-silvered mirror. Both schemes were implemented successfully, yielding an interferometric contrast of ˜20 % and 42% respectively. Building efficient matter-wave recombiners represents an important step towards the coherent manipulation of external quantum superposition states of BECs.
Quantum turbulence in trapped atomic Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsatsos, Marios C.; Tavares, Pedro E. S.; Cidrim, André; Fritsch, Amilson R.; Caracanhas, Mônica A.; dos Santos, F. Ednilson A.; Barenghi, Carlo F.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.
2016-03-01
Turbulence, the complicated fluid behavior of nonlinear and statistical nature, arises in many physical systems across various disciplines, from tiny laboratory scales to geophysical and astrophysical ones. The notion of turbulence in the quantum world was conceived long ago by Onsager and Feynman, but the occurrence of turbulence in ultracold gases has been studied in the laboratory only very recently. Albeit new as a field, it already offers new paths and perspectives on the problem of turbulence. Herein we review the general properties of quantum gases at ultralow temperatures paying particular attention to vortices, their dynamics and turbulent behavior. We review the recent advances both from theory and experiment. We highlight, moreover, the difficulties of identifying and characterizing turbulence in gaseous Bose-Einstein condensates compared to ordinary turbulence and turbulence in superfluid liquid helium and spotlight future possible directions.
Knot Solitons in Spinor Bose-Einstein Condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hall, David; Ray, Michael; Tiurev, Konstantin; Ruokokoski, Emmi; Gheorghe, Andrei Horia; Möttönen, Mikko
2016-05-01
Knots are familiar entities that appear at a captivating nexus of art, technology, mathematics and science. Following a lengthy period of theoretical investigation and development, they have recently attracted great experimental interest in classical contexts ranging from knotted DNA and nanostructures to vortex knots in fluids. We demonstrate here the controlled creation and detection of knot solitons in the quantum-mechanical order parameter of a spinor Bose-Einstein condensate. Images of the superfluid reveal the circular shape of the soliton core and its associated linked rings. Our observations of the knot soliton establish an experimental foundation for future studies of their stability, dynamics and applications within quantum systems. Supported in part by NSF Grant PHY-1205822.
Stabilization of ring dark solitons in Bose-Einstein condensates
Wang, Wenlong; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Carretero-González, R.; Frantzeskakis, D. J.; Kaper, Tasso J.; Ma, Manjun
2015-09-14
Earlier work has shown that ring dark solitons in two-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensates are generically unstable. In this work, we propose a way of stabilizing the ring dark soliton via a radial Gaussian external potential. We investigate the existence and stability of the ring dark soliton upon variations of the chemical potential and also of the strength of the radial potential. Numerical results show that the ring dark soliton can be stabilized in a suitable interval of external potential strengths and chemical potentials. Furthermore, we also explore different proposed particle pictures considering the ring as a moving particle and find, where appropriate, results in very good qualitative and also reasonable quantitative agreement with the numerical findings.
Stabilization of ring dark solitons in Bose-Einstein condensates
Wang, Wenlong; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Carretero-González, R.; Frantzeskakis, D. J.; Kaper, Tasso J.; Ma, Manjun
2015-09-14
Earlier work has shown that ring dark solitons in two-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensates are generically unstable. In this work, we propose a way of stabilizing the ring dark soliton via a radial Gaussian external potential. We investigate the existence and stability of the ring dark soliton upon variations of the chemical potential and also of the strength of the radial potential. Numerical results show that the ring dark soliton can be stabilized in a suitable interval of external potential strengths and chemical potentials. Furthermore, we also explore different proposed particle pictures considering the ring as a moving particle and find, wheremore » appropriate, results in very good qualitative and also reasonable quantitative agreement with the numerical findings.« less
Bose-Einstein Condensates with Large Number of Vortices
Ho, Tin-Lun
2001-08-06
We show that as the number of vortices in a three dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate increases, the system reaches a ''quantum Hall'' regime where the density profile is a Gaussian in the xy plane and an inverted parabolic profile along z . The angular momentum of the system increases as the vortex lattice shrinks. However, Coriolis force prevents the unit cell of the vortex lattice from shrinking beyond a minimum size. Although the recent MIT experiment is not exactly in the quantum Hall regime, it is close enough for the present results to be used as a guide. The quantum Hall regime can be easily reached by moderate changes of the current experimental parameters.
Internal Josephson effects in spinor dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates
Yasunaga, Masashi; Tsubota, Makoto
2010-02-15
We theoretically study the internal Josephson effect, which is driven by spin-exchange interactions and magnetic dipole-dipole interactions, in a three-level system for spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensates, obtaining novel spin dynamics. We introduce single spatial mode approximations into the Gross-Pitaevskii equations and derive the Josephson-type equations, which are analogous to tunneling currents through three junctions between three superconductors. From an analogy with two interacting nonrigid pendulums, we identify unique varied oscillational modes, called the 0-{pi}, 0-running, running-running, 2n{pi} and running-2{pi}, single nonrigid pendulum, and two rigid pendulums phase modes. These Josephson modes in the three states are expected to be found in real atomic Bose gas systems.
Spatial structure of a collisionally inhomogeneous Bose-Einstein condensate
Li, Fei; Zhang, Dongxia; Rong, Shiguang; Xu, Ying
2013-11-15
The spatial structure of a collisionally inhomogeneous Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) in an optical lattice is studied. A spatially dependent current with an explicit analytic expression is found in the case with a spatially dependent BEC phase. The oscillating amplitude of the current can be adjusted by a Feshbach resonance, and the intensity of the current depends heavily on the initial and boundary conditions. Increasing the oscillating amplitude of the current can force the system to pass from a single-periodic spatial structure into a very complex state. But in the case with a constant phase, the spatially dependent current disappears and the Melnikov chaotic criterion is obtained via a perturbative analysis in the presence of a weak optical lattice potential. Numerical simulations show that a strong optical lattice potential can lead BEC atoms to a state with a chaotic spatial distribution via a quasiperiodic route.
Optical Devices for Cold Atoms and Bose-Einstein Condensates
Gaaloul, Naceur; Jaouadi, Amine; Telmini, Mourad; Pruvost, Laurence; Charron, Eric
2007-09-19
The manipulation of cold atoms with optical fields is a very promising technique for a variety of applications ranging from laser cooling and trapping to coherent atom transport and matter wave interferometry. Optical fields have also been proposed as interesting tools for quantum information processing with cold atoms. In this paper, we present a theoretical study of the dynamics of a cold {sup 87}Rb atomic cloud falling in the gravity field in the presence of two crossing dipole guides. The cloud is either deflected or split between the two branches of this guide. We explore the possibilities of optimization of this device and present preliminary results obtained in the case of zero-temperature dilute Bose-Einstein condensates.
Optimal control of Bose-Einstein condensates in three dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mennemann, J.-F.; Matthes, D.; Weishäupl, R.-M.; Langen, T.
2015-11-01
Ultracold gases promise many applications in quantum metrology, simulation and computation. In this context, optimal control theory (OCT) provides a versatile framework for the efficient preparation of complex quantum states. However, due to the high computational cost, OCT of ultracold gases has so far mostly been applied to one-dimensional (1D) problems. Here, we realize computationally efficient OCT of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation to manipulate Bose-Einstein condensates in all three spatial dimensions. We study various realistic experimental applications where 1D simulations can only be applied approximately or not at all. Moreover, we provide a stringent mathematical footing for our scheme and carefully study the creation of elementary excitations and their minimization using multiple control parameters. The results are directly applicable to recent experiments and might thus be of immediate use in the ongoing effort to employ the properties of the quantum world for technological applications.
Quantum filaments in dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wächtler, F.; Santos, L.
2016-06-01
Collapse in dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates may be arrested by quantum fluctuations. Due to the anisotropy of the dipole-dipole interactions, the dipole-driven collapse induced by soft excitations is compensated by the repulsive Lee-Huang-Yang contribution resulting from quantum fluctuations of hard excitations, in a similar mechanism as that recently proposed for Bose-Bose mixtures. The arrested collapse results in self-bound filamentlike droplets, providing an explanation for the intriguing results of recent dysprosium experiments. Arrested instability and droplet formation are general features directly linked to the nature of the dipole-dipole interactions, and should hence play an important role in all future experiments with strongly dipolar gases.
Cosmological constant: a lesson from Bose-Einstein condensates.
Finazzi, Stefano; Liberati, Stefano; Sindoni, Lorenzo
2012-02-17
The cosmological constant is one of the most pressing problems in modern physics. We address this issue from an emergent gravity standpoint, by using an analogue gravity model. Indeed, the dynamics of the emergent metric in a Bose-Einstein condensate can be described by a Poisson-like equation with a vacuum source term reminiscent of a cosmological constant. The direct computation of this term shows that in emergent gravity scenarios this constant may be naturally much smaller than the naive ground-state energy of the emergent effective field theory. This suggests that a proper computation of the cosmological constant would require a detailed understanding about how Einstein equations emerge from the full microscopic quantum theory. In this light, the cosmological constant appears as a decisive test bench for any quantum or emergent gravity scenario. PMID:22401190
Quantum mass acquisition in spinor Bose-Einstein condensates.
Phuc, Nguyen Thanh; Kawaguchi, Yuki; Ueda, Masahito
2014-12-01
Quantum mass acquisition, in which a massless (quasi)particle becomes massive due to quantum corrections, is predicted to occur in several subfields of physics. However, its experimental observation remains elusive since the emergent energy gap is too small. We show that a spinor Bose-Einstein condensate is an excellent candidate for the observation of such a peculiar phenomenon as the energy gap turns out to be 2 orders of magnitude larger than the zero-point energy. This extraordinarily large energy gap is a consequence of the dynamical instability. The propagation velocity of the resultant massive excitation mode is found to be decreased by the quantum corrections as opposed to phonons. PMID:25526104
Rydberg Electrons in a Bose-Einstein Condensate.
Wang, Jia; Gacesa, Marko; Côté, R
2015-06-19
We investigate a hybrid system composed of ultracold Rydberg atoms immersed in an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). The coupling between Rydberg electrons and BEC atoms leads to excitations of phonons, the exchange of which induces a Yukawa interaction between Rydberg atoms. Because of the small electron mass, the effective charge associated with this quasiparticle-mediated interaction can be large. Its range, equal to the BEC healing length, is tunable using Feshbach resonances to adjust the scattering length between BEC atoms. We find that for small healing lengths, the distortion of the BEC can "image" the Rydberg electron wave function, while for large healing lengths the induced attractive Yukawa potentials between Rydberg atoms are strong enough to bind them. PMID:26196974
Analysis of a Bose-Einstein Condensate Double-Well Atom Interferometer
Faust, Douglas K.; Reinhardt, William P.
2010-12-10
Motivated by an open theoretical question in Bose-Einstein condensate atom interferometry, we introduce a novel computational method to describe the condensate order parameter in the presence of a central barrier. We are able to follow the full dynamics of the system during the raising of a barrier, from a single macroscopically occupied ground state to a state where imaging shows a split density and, finally, to the observation of a phase-controlled interference pattern. We are able to discriminate between a mean-field and a two-mode state via the Penrose-Onsager criterion. By simulating the first such experiment, where in spite of the observed splitting of the condensate density there is never more than a single macroscopically occupied state, we provide a definitive interpretation of these systems as a novel many-body form of Young's double-slit experiment.
Analysis of a Bose-Einstein condensate double-well atom interferometer.
Faust, Douglas K; Reinhardt, William P
2010-12-10
Motivated by an open theoretical question in Bose-Einstein condensate atom interferometry, we introduce a novel computational method to describe the condensate order parameter in the presence of a central barrier. We are able to follow the full dynamics of the system during the raising of a barrier, from a single macroscopically occupied ground state to a state where imaging shows a split density and, finally, to the observation of a phase-controlled interference pattern. We are able to discriminate between a mean-field and a two-mode state via the Penrose-Onsager criterion. By simulating the first such experiment, where in spite of the observed splitting of the condensate density there is never more than a single macroscopically occupied state, we provide a definitive interpretation of these systems as a novel many-body form of Young's double-slit experiment. PMID:21231513
The effect of adiabaticity on strongly quenched Bose Einstein Condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ling, Hong; Kain, Ben
2015-05-01
We study the properties of a Bose-Einstein condensate following a deep quench to a large scattering length during which the condensate fraction nc changes with time. We construct a closed set of equations that highlight the role of the adiabaticity or equivalently, dnc/dt, the rate change of nc, which is to induce an (imaginary) effective interaction between quasiparticles. We show analytically that such a system supports a steady state characterized by a constant condensate density and a steady but periodically changing momentum distribution, whose time average is described exactly by the generalized Gibbs ensemble. We discuss how the nc -induced effective interaction, which cannot be ignored on the grounds of the adiabatic approximation for modes near the gapless Goldstone mode, can significantly affect condensate populations and Tan's contact for a Bose gas that has undergone a deep quench. In particular, we find that even when the Bose gas is quenched to unitarity, nc(t) does not completely deplete, approaching, instead, to a steady state with a finite condensate fraction. ITAMP, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics; KITP, University of Santa Barbara.
Steady-state entanglement of a Bose-Einstein condensate and a nanomechanical resonator
Asjad, Muhammad; Saif, Farhan
2011-09-15
We analyze the steady-state entanglement between Bose-Einstein condensate trapped inside an optical cavity with a moving end mirror (nanomechanical resonator) driven by a single mode laser. The quantized laser field mediates the interaction between the Bose-Einstein condensate and nanomechanical resonator. In particular, we study the influence of temperature on the entanglement of the coupled system, and note that the steady-state entanglement is fragile with respect to temperature.
Self-amplified gamma-ray laser on positronium atoms from a Bose-Einstein condensate.
Avetissian, H K; Avetissian, A K; Mkrtchian, G F
2014-07-11
A scheme of an intense coherent gamma-ray source based on the spontaneous radiation of positronium atoms in a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) due to two-photon collective annihilation decay is investigated analytically arising from the second quantized formalism. It is shown that because of the intrinsic instability of annihilation decay of BEC, the spontaneously emitted entangled photon pairs are amplified, leading to an exponential buildup of a macroscopic population into end-fire modes at a certain shape of the elongated condensate. The considered scheme may also be applied to a BEC of atoms or quasiparticles as a laser mechanism with double coherence to create entangled photonic beams with a macroscopic number of photons. PMID:25062185
Squeezing and entanglement in a Bose-Einstein condensate.
Estève, J; Gross, C; Weller, A; Giovanazzi, S; Oberthaler, M K
2008-10-30
Entanglement, a key feature of quantum mechanics, is a resource that allows the improvement of precision measurements beyond the conventional bound attainable by classical means. This results in the standard quantum limit, which is reached in today's best available sensors of various quantities such as time and position. Many of these sensors are interferometers in which the standard quantum limit can be overcome by using quantum-entangled states (in particular spin squeezed states) at the two input ports. Bose-Einstein condensates of ultracold atoms are considered good candidates to provide such states involving a large number of particles. Here we demonstrate spin squeezed states suitable for atomic interferometry by splitting a condensate into a few parts using a lattice potential. Site-resolved detection of the atoms allows the measurement of the atom number difference and relative phase, which are conjugate variables. The observed fluctuations imply entanglement between the particles, a resource that would allow a precision gain of 3.8 dB over the standard quantum limit for interferometric measurements. PMID:18830245
Atomic interactions in precision interferometry using Bose-Einstein condensates
Jamison, Alan O.; Gupta, Subhadeep; Kutz, J. Nathan
2011-10-15
We present theoretical tools for predicting and reducing the effects of atomic interactions in Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) interferometry experiments. To address mean-field shifts during free propagation, we derive a robust scaling solution that reduces the three-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation to a set of three simple differential equations valid for any interaction strength. To model the other common components of a BEC interferometer--condensate splitting, manipulation, and recombination--we generalize the slowly varying envelope reduction, providing both analytic handles and dramatically improved simulations. Applying these tools to a BEC interferometer to measure the fine structure constant, {alpha}[S. Gupta, K. Dieckmann, Z. Hadzibabic, and D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 140401 (2002)], we find agreement with the results of the original experiment and demonstrate that atomic interactions do not preclude measurement to better than part-per-billion accuracy, even for atomic species with relatively large scattering lengths. These tools help make BEC interferometry a viable choice for a broad class of precision measurements.
Interferometry with independently prepared Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wasak, T.; Szańkowski, P.; Chwedeńczuk, J.
2015-04-01
Whenever the value of an unknown parameter θ is extracted from a series of experiments, the result is inevitably burdened by the uncertainty Δ θ . If the system that is the subject of measurement consists of unentangled particles, this uncertainty is bounded by the shot-noise limit. To overcome this limitation, it is necessary to use a properly entangled state, which is usually prepared in a dedicated procedure. We show that quantum correlations arising from the indistinguishability of bosons are a sufficient resource for the sub-shot-noise interferometry. To this end, we consider an interferometer, which operates on two independently prepared Bose-Einstein condensates with fluctuating numbers of particles. We calculate the sensitivity obtained from the measurement of the number of atoms and compare it with the ultimate achievable bound. Our main conclusion is that even in the presence of major atom number fluctuations, an interferometer operating on two independently prepared condensates can give very high precision. These observations indicate a new possibility for an interferometer operating below the shot-noise limit.
Winding up superfluid in a torus via Bose Einstein condensation
Das, Arnab; Sabbatini, Jacopo; Zurek, Wojciech H.
2012-01-01
Phase transitions are usually treated as equilibrium phenomena, which yields telltale universality classes with scaling behavior of relaxation time and healing length. However, in second-order phase transitions relaxation time diverges near the critical point (“critical slowing down”). Therefore, every such transition traversed at a finite rate is a non-equilibrium process. Kibble-Zurek mechanism (KZM) captures this basic physics, predicting sizes of domains – fragments of broken symmetry – and the density of topological defects, long-lived relics of symmetry breaking that can survive long after the transition. To test KZM we simulate Bose-Einstein condensation in a ring using stochastic Gross-Pitaevskii equation and show that BEC formation can spontaneously generate quantized circulation of the newborn condensate. The magnitude of the resulting winding numbers and the time-lag of BEC density growth – both experimentally measurable – follow scalings predicted by KZM. Our results may also facilitate measuring the dynamical critical exponent for the BEC transition. PMID:22500209
Bose-Einstein condensate in a rapidly rotating nonsymmetric trap
Fetter, Alexander L.
2010-03-15
A rapidly rotating Bose-Einstein condensate in a symmetric two-dimensional harmonic trap can be described with the lowest Landau-level set of single-particle states. The condensate wave function {psi}(x,y) is a Gaussian {proportional_to}exp(-r{sup 2}/2), multiplied by an analytic function f(z) of the complex variable z=x+iy. The criterion for a quantum phase transition to a non-superfluid correlated many-body state is usually expressed in terms of the ratio of the number of particles to the number of vortices. Here a similar description applies to a rapidly rotating nonsymmetric two-dimensional trap with arbitrary quadratic anisotropy ({omega}{sub x}{sup 2}<{omega}{sub y}{sup 2}). The corresponding condensate wave function {psi}(x,y) is a complex anisotropic Gaussian with a phase proportional to xy, multiplied by an analytic function f(z), where z=x+i{beta}{sub -}y is a stretched complex variable and 0{<=}{beta}{sub -{<=}}1 is a real parameter that depends on the trap anisotropy and the rotation frequency. Both in the mean-field Thomas-Fermi approximation and in the mean-field lowest Landau level approximation with many visible vortices, an anisotropic parabolic density profile minimizes the energy. An elongated condensate grows along the soft trap direction yet ultimately shrinks along the tight trap direction. The criterion for the quantum phase transition to a correlated state is generalized (1) in terms of N/L{sub z}, which suggests that a nonsymmetric trap should make it easier to observe this transition, or (2) in terms of a 'fragmented' correlated state, which suggests that a nonsymmetric trap should make it harder to observe this transition. An alternative scenario involves a crossover to a quasi one-dimensional condensate without visible vortices, as suggested by Aftalion et al., Phys. Rev. A 79, 011603(R) (2009).
Number-conserving master equation theory for a dilute Bose-Einstein condensate
Schelle, Alexej; Wellens, Thomas; Buchleitner, Andreas; Delande, Dominique
2011-01-15
We describe the transition of N weakly interacting atoms into a Bose-Einstein condensate within a number-conserving quantum master equation theory. Based on the separation of time scales for condensate formation and noncondensate thermalization, we derive a master equation for the condensate subsystem in the presence of the noncondensate environment under the inclusion of all two-body interaction processes. We numerically monitor the condensate particle number distribution during condensate formation, and derive a condition under which the unique equilibrium steady state of a dilute, weakly interacting Bose-Einstein condensate is given by a Gibbs-Boltzmann thermal state of N noninteracting atoms.
Countersuperflow in Binary Bose-Einstein Condensates with Rabi Coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takeuchi, Hiromitsu; Usui, Ayaka
2014-05-01
Countersuperflow instability, dynamic instability of counterflow of miscible superfluids, was observed recently for the first time by Hamner et al.. In the experiment, a countersuperflow of miscible two-component Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) was realized in a quasi-one-dimensional trap by applying a magnetic gradient, which leads to a force in opposite directions for each component. A countersuperflow becomes dynamically unstable if the relative velocity between two superfluids exceeds a critical value and the instability causes characteristic density patterns forming solitons in quasi-one-dimensional systems. Very recently, Hamner et al. performed the experiment in a similar situation where a two-component BEC is subject to inhomogeneous Rabi oscillations between two pseudospin components under a magnetic gradient. Motivated by the experiment, we investigated stability of countersuperflow with internal Josephson coupling, namely, Rabi coupling. We reveal the stability phase diagram of countersuperflow with Rabi coupling. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Numbers 25887042, 26870500 and the MEXT KAKENHI (No. 22103003).
Bose-Einstein condensation in low dimensional layered structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salas, Patricia; Solis, M. A.
2008-03-01
Bose-Einstein condensation critical temperature, among other thermodynamic properties are reported for an ideal boson gas inside layered structures created by trapping potential of the Kronig-Penney type. We start with a big box where we introduce the Kronig-Penney potential in three directions to get a honey comb of cubes of side a size and walls of variable penetrability (P=mV0ab/^2), with bosons instead of bees. We are able to reduce the dimensions of the cubes to simulate bosons inside quantum dots. The critical temperature, starting from that of an ideal boson gas inside the big box, decreases as the small cube wall impenetrability increases arriving to a tiny but different from zero when the penetrability is zero (P-->∞). We also calculate the internal energy and the specific heat, and compare them to the ones obtained for the case of the same Kronig-Penney potential in one direction (simulating layers), and two directions (nanotubes).
Rapidly rotating Bose-Einstein condensates in strongly anharmonic traps
Correggi, M.; Rindler-Daller, T.; Yngvason, J.
2007-04-15
We study a rotating Bose-Einstein condensate in a strongly anharmonic trap (flat trap with a finite radius) in the framework of two-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii theory. We write the coupling constant for the interactions between the gas atoms as 1/{epsilon}{sup 2} and we are interested in the limit {epsilon}{yields}0 (Thomas-Fermi limit) with the angular velocity {omega} depending on {epsilon}. We derive rigorously the leading asymptotics of the ground state energy and the density profile when {omega} tends to infinity as a power of 1/{epsilon}. If {omega}({epsilon})={omega}{sub 0}/{epsilon} a ''hole'' (i.e., a region where the density becomes exponentially small as 1/{epsilon}{yields}{infinity}) develops for {omega}{sub 0} above a certain critical value. If {omega}({epsilon})>>1/{epsilon} the hole essentially exhausts the container and a ''giant vortex'' develops with the density concentrated in a thin layer at the boundary. While we do not analyze the detailed vortex structure we prove that rotational symmetry is broken in the ground state for const vertical bar log {epsilon} vertical bar <{omega}({epsilon}) < or approx. const/{epsilon}.
Exact analytical soliton solutions in dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andreev, Pavel A.; Kuz'menkov, Leonid S.
2014-09-01
By applying the full potentials of the electric dipole interaction and the magnetic dipole interaction, and making corrections, we generalise the existing theory of dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) with aligned dipoles, achieving a correct description of the dipole-dipole interactions. We show that the corrected theory is different for the electric and magnetic dipoles of BECs and can be presented in a local (non-integral) form. We apply our model to recapture fundamental results for linear and nonlinear waves in dipolar BECs. The bright, dark and grey solitons are well-known soliton solutions of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation for the attractive and repulsive BECs. We consider solitons in the dipolar BECs of the fully polarised particles, including both the magnetised and electrically polarised BECs. We show that these two kinds of dipolar BECs show different behavior in their collective excitations. This is related to the fact that the electric and the magnetic fields of the BECs satisfy different pairs of the Maxwell equations. Thus we consider the magnetic and electric dipolar BECs independently. We obtain the exact analytical solutions for the bright, dark, and grey solitons in the magnetised (electrically polarised) BECs when they propagate parallel and perpendicular to an external magnetic (or electric) field. Comparison of the spectrum of the linear collective excitations for the two kinds of the dipolar BECs is presented as well.
Quantum analogues of classical wakes in Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stagg, George; Parker, Nick; Barenghi, Carlo
2014-11-01
We show that an elliptical obstacle moving through a Bose-Einstein condensate generates wakes of quantum vortices which resemble those of classical viscous flow past a cylinder or sphere. Initial steady symmetric wakes, similar to those observed in classical flow at low Reynolds number, lose their symmetry and form clusters of like-signed vortices, in analogy to the classical Bénard-von Kármán vortex street. The key ingredient to produce classical-like wakes is that vortices are generated at a sufficiently high rate that they undergo strong interactions with their neighbours (rather than being swept away). The role of ellipticity is to facilitate the interaction of the vortices and to reduce the critical velocity for vortex nucleation. Our findings, demonstrated numerically in both two and three dimensions, confirm the intuition that a sufficiently large number of quanta of circulation reproduce classical physics. The effects which we describe (dependence of the critical velocity and cluster size on the obstacle's size, velocity and ellipticity) are also relevant to the motion of objects (such as vibrating wires, grids and forks) in superfluid helium, as the obstacle's ellipticity plays a role which is analogous to rough boundaries.
Subsonic and Supersonic Effects in Bose-Einstein Condensate
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zak, Michail
2003-01-01
A paper presents a theoretical investigation of subsonic and supersonic effects in a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). The BEC is represented by a time-dependent, nonlinear Schroedinger equation that includes terms for an external confining potential term and a weak interatomic repulsive potential proportional to the number density of atoms. From this model are derived Madelung equations, which relate the quantum phase with the number density, and which are used to represent excitations propagating through the BEC. These equations are shown to be analogous to the classical equations of flow of an inviscid, compressible fluid characterized by a speed of sound (g/Po)1/2, where g is the coefficient of the repulsive potential and Po is the unperturbed mass density of the BEC. The equations are used to study the effects of a region of perturbation moving through the BEC. The excitations created by a perturbation moving at subsonic speed are found to be described by a Laplace equation and to propagate at infinite speed. For a supersonically moving perturbation, the excitations are found to be described by a wave equation and to propagate at finite speed inside a Mach cone.
Manipulating localized matter waves in multicomponent Bose-Einstein condensates.
Manikandan, K; Muruganandam, P; Senthilvelan, M; Lakshmanan, M
2016-03-01
We analyze vector localized solutions of two-component Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) with variable nonlinearity parameters and external trap potentials through a similarity transformation technique which transforms the two coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations into a pair of coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations with constant coefficients under a specific integrability condition. In this analysis we consider three different types of external trap potentials: a time-independent trap, a time-dependent monotonic trap, and a time-dependent periodic trap. We point out the existence of different interesting localized structures; namely, rogue waves, dark- and bright-soliton rogue waves, and rogue-wave breatherlike structures for the above three cases of trap potentials. We show how the vector localized density profiles in a constant background get deformed when we tune the strength of the trap parameter. Furthermore, we investigate the nature of the trajectories of the nonautonomous rogue waves. We also construct the dark-dark rogue wave solution for the repulsive-repulsive interaction of two-component BECs and analyze the associated characteristics for the three different kinds of traps. We then deduce single-, two-, and three-composite rogue waves for three-component BECs and discuss the correlated characteristics when we tune the strength of the trap parameter for different trap potentials. PMID:27078349
Symmetry breaking and singularity structure in Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Commeford, K. A.; Garcia-March, M. A.; Ferrando, A.; Carr, Lincoln D.
2012-08-01
We determine the trajectories of vortex singularities that arise after a single vortex is broken by a discretely symmetric impulse in the context of Bose-Einstein condensates in a harmonic trap. The dynamics of these singularities are analyzed to determine the form of the imprinted motion. We find that the symmetry-breaking process introduces two effective forces: a repulsive harmonic force that causes the daughter trajectories to be ejected from the parent singularity and a Magnus force that introduces a torque about the axis of symmetry. For the analytical noninteracting case we find that the parent singularity is reconstructed from the daughter singularities after one period of the trapping frequency. The interactions between singularities in the weakly interacting system do not allow the parent vortex to be reconstructed. Analytic trajectories were compared to the actual minima of the wave function, showing less than 0.5% error for an impulse strength of v=0.00005. We show that these solutions are valid within the impulse regime for various impulse strengths using numerical integration of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. We also show that the actual duration of the symmetry-breaking potential does not significantly change the dynamics of the system as long as the strength is below v=0.0005.
Manipulating localized matter waves in multicomponent Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manikandan, K.; Muruganandam, P.; Senthilvelan, M.; Lakshmanan, M.
2016-03-01
We analyze vector localized solutions of two-component Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) with variable nonlinearity parameters and external trap potentials through a similarity transformation technique which transforms the two coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations into a pair of coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations with constant coefficients under a specific integrability condition. In this analysis we consider three different types of external trap potentials: a time-independent trap, a time-dependent monotonic trap, and a time-dependent periodic trap. We point out the existence of different interesting localized structures; namely, rogue waves, dark- and bright-soliton rogue waves, and rogue-wave breatherlike structures for the above three cases of trap potentials. We show how the vector localized density profiles in a constant background get deformed when we tune the strength of the trap parameter. Furthermore, we investigate the nature of the trajectories of the nonautonomous rogue waves. We also construct the dark-dark rogue wave solution for the repulsive-repulsive interaction of two-component BECs and analyze the associated characteristics for the three different kinds of traps. We then deduce single-, two-, and three-composite rogue waves for three-component BECs and discuss the correlated characteristics when we tune the strength of the trap parameter for different trap potentials.
Early stage of Superradiance from Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buchmann, Lukas
2011-05-01
We investigate the dynamics of matter and optical waves at the early stage of superradiant Rayleigh scattering from Bose-Einstein condensates, an instance of four-wave-mixing of matter and optical waves. Our analysis is within a spatially dependent model which treats the matter-waves as well as the optical end-fire modes quantum mechanically and is capable of providing analytic solutions for the operators of interest. In particular, we study the statistical properties of the outgoing scattered light which provide insight into the rich internal dynamics of the system at this early stage. Furthermore, we investigate coherence properties of pairs of counter propagating atomic sidemodes produced during the process. It is shown that these clouds exhibit long-range spatial coherence and strong nonclassical density cross-correlations due to entanglement between the clouds. These findings make this scheme a promising candidate for the production of highly directional nonclassically correlated atomic pulses. Our prediction of number difference squeezing between the clouds was observed in another instance of a four-wave mixing process using metastable helium. Work performed at IESL-FORTH in Crete, Greece
Tunable bistability in hybrid Bose-Einstein condensate optomechanics.
Yasir, Kashif Ammar; Liu, Wu-Ming
2015-01-01
Cavity-optomechanics, a rapidly developing area of research, has made a remarkable progress. A stunning manifestation of optomechanical phenomena is in exploiting the mechanical effects of light to couple the optical degree of freedom with mechanical degree of freedom. In this report, we investigate the controlled bistable dynamics of such hybrid optomechanical system composed of cigar-shaped Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) trapped inside high-finesse optical cavity with one moving-end mirror and is driven by a single mode optical field. The numerical results provide evidence for controlled optical bistability in optomechanics using transverse optical field which directly interacts with atoms causing the coupling of transverse field with momentum side modes, exited by intra-cavity field. This technique of transverse field coupling is also used to control bistable dynamics of both moving-end mirror and BEC. The report provides an understanding of temporal dynamics of moving-end mirror and BEC with respect to transverse field. Moreover, dependence of effective potential of the system on transverse field has also been discussed. To observe this phenomena in laboratory, we have suggested a certain set of experimental parameters. These findings provide a platform to investigate the tunable behavior of novel phenomenon like electromagnetically induced transparency and entanglement in hybrid systems. PMID:26035206
Recent experiments with ring Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eckel, S.; Kumar, A.; Anderson, N. W.; Campbell, G. K.
2016-05-01
Here, we present three recent results of our experiments with ring-shaped 23 Na Bose-Einstein condensates. First, we present results of the effect of temperature on the decay of persistent currents in the presence of a local, stationary perturbation, or weak link. When the weak link rotates, it can drive transitions between quantized persistent current states in the ring, that form hysteresis loops whose size depends strongly on temperature. We find that our data does not fit with a simple model of thermal activation. Second, we present a new method to measure the quantized persistent current state of the ring in a minimally-destructive way. This technique uses phonons as probes of the background flow through the Doppler effect. Finally, we present a set of experiments designed to reproduce the horizon problem in the early universe. Supersonic expansion of the ring creates causally-disconnected regions of BEC whose phase evolves at different rates. When the expansion stops and these regions are allowed to recombine, they form topological excitations. These excitations can be predicted using a simple theory that shows excellent agreement with the data.
Confinement and precession of vortex pairs in coherently coupled Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tylutki, Marek; Pitaevskii, Lev P.; Recati, Alessio; Stringari, Sandro
2016-04-01
The dynamic behavior of vortex pairs in two-component coherently (Rabi) coupled Bose-Einstein condensates is investigated in the presence of harmonic trapping. We discuss the role of the surface tension associated with the domain wall connecting two vortices in condensates of atoms occupying different spin states and its effect on the precession of the vortex pair. The results, based on the numerical solution of the Gross-Pitaevskii equations, are compared with the predictions of an analytical macroscopic model and are discussed as a function of the size of the pair, the Rabi coupling, and the intercomponent interaction. We show that the increase of the Rabi coupling results in the disintegration of the domain wall into smaller pieces, connecting vortices of newly created vortex pairs. The resulting scenario is the analog of quark confinement and string breaking in quantum chromodynamics.
Beliaev theory of spinor Bose-Einstein condensates
Phuc, Nguyen Thanh; Kawaguchi, Yuki; Ueda, Masahito
2013-01-15
By generalizing the Green's function approach developed by Beliaev [S.T. Beliaev, Sov. Phys. JETP 7 (1958) 299; S.T. Beliaev, Sov. Phys. JETP 7 (1958) 289], we study effects of quantum fluctuations on the energy spectra of spin-1 spinor Bose-Einstein condensates, in particular, of a {sup 87}Rb condensate in the presence of an external magnetic field. We find that due to quantum fluctuations, the effective mass of magnons, which characterizes the quadratic dispersion relation of spin-wave excitations, increases compared with its mean-field value. The enhancement factor turns out to be the same for two distinct quantum phases: the ferromagnetic and polar phases, and it is a function of only the gas parameter. The lifetime of magnons in a spin-1 {sup 87}Rb spinor condensate is shown to be much longer than that of phonons due to the difference in their dispersion relations. We propose a scheme to measure the effective mass of magnons in a spinor Bose gas by utilizing the effect of magnons' nonlinear dispersion relation on the time evolution of the distribution of transverse magnetization. This type of measurement can be applied, for example, to precision magnetometry. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Second-order energy spectra for a spin-1 {sup 87}Rb spinor BEC under a quadratic Zeeman effect are found. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effective mass of magnons increases due to quantum fluctuations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enhancement factor is the same for two quantum phases and also independent of external parameters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lifetime of magnons in a spin-1 {sup 87}Rb spinor BEC is much longer than that of phonons. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experimental scheme to measure the effective mass of magnons is proposed.
Nonlinear Dynamics of Bose-Einstein Condensates with Long-Range Interactions
Wunner, G.; Cartarius, H.; Fabcic, T.; Koeberle, P.; Main, J.; Schwidder, T.
2008-11-13
The motto of this paper is: Let's face Bose-Einstein condensation through nonlinear dynamics. We do this by choosing variational forms of the condensate wave functions (of given symmetry classes), which convert the Bose-Einstein condensates via the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation into Hamiltonian systems that can be studied using the methods of nonlinear dynamics. We consider in particular cold quantum gases where long-range interactions between the neutral atoms are present, in addition to the conventional short-range contact interaction, viz. gravity-like interactions, and dipole-dipole interactions. The results obtained serve as a useful guide in the search for nonlinear dynamics effects in numerically exact quantum calculations for Bose-Einstein condensates. A main result is the prediction of the existence of stable islands as well as chaotic regions for excited states of dipolar condensates, which could be checked experimentally.
Direct evaporative cooling of 39K atoms to Bose-Einstein condensation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Landini, M.; Roy, S.; Roati, G.; Simoni, A.; Inguscio, M.; Modugno, G.; Fattori, M.
2012-09-01
We report the realization of a Bose-Einstein condensate of 39K atoms without the aid of an additional atomic coolant. Our route to Bose-Einstein condensation comprises sub-Doppler laser cooling of large atomic clouds with more than 1010 atoms and evaporative cooling in an optical dipole trap where the collisional cross section can be increased using magnetic Feshbach resonances. Large condensates with almost 106 atoms can be produced in less than 15 s. Our achievements eliminate the need for sympathetic cooling with Rb atoms, which was the usual route implemented until now due to the unfavorable collisional property of 39K. Our findings simplify the experimental setup for producing Bose-Einstein condensates of 39K atoms with tunable interactions, which have a wide variety of promising applications, including atom interferometry to studies on the interplay of disorder and interactions in quantum gases.
Properties of spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yongping; Mossman, Maren Elizabeth; Busch, Thomas; Engels, Peter; Zhang, Chuanwei
2016-06-01
The experimental and theoretical research of spin-orbit-coupled ultracold atomic gases has advanced and expanded rapidly in recent years. Here, we review some of the progress that either was pioneered by our own work, has helped to lay the foundation, or has developed new and relevant techniques. After examining the experimental accessibility of all relevant spin-orbit coupling parameters, we discuss the fundamental properties and general applications of spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) over a wide range of physical situations. For the harmonically trapped case, we show that the ground state phase transition is a Dicke-type process and that spin-orbit-coupled BECs provide a unique platform to simulate and study the Dicke model and Dicke phase transitions. For a homogeneous BEC, we discuss the collective excitations, which have been observed experimentally using Bragg spectroscopy. They feature a roton-like minimum, the softening of which provides a potential mechanism to understand the ground state phase transition. On the other hand, if the collective dynamics are excited by a sudden quenching of the spin-orbit coupling parameters, we show that the resulting collective dynamics can be related to the famous Zitterbewegung in the relativistic realm. Finally, we discuss the case of a BEC loaded into a periodic optical potential. Here, the spin-orbit coupling generates isolated flat bands within the lowest Bloch bands whereas the nonlinearity of the system leads to dynamical instabilities of these Bloch waves. The experimental verification of this instability illustrates the lack of Galilean invariance in the system.
Spin-orbit coupled Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jimenez-Garcia, Karina
2011-05-01
Ultracold atoms are quantum systems under precise experimental control, ideal for realizing and characterizing novel artificial gauge fields. Our latest experiments with 87Rb Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) have demonstrated and explored Abelian, both scalar and matrix valued, light-induced gauge potentials. We optically dressed our BECs with a pair of far detuned Raman lasers. The resulting dressed states are spin and momentum superpositions, and we adiabatically load the atoms into the lowest energy of these dressed states. The nature of the dressed states is experimentally tunable via the strength of the laser coupling and the detuning from Raman resonance, thereby introducing gauge fields into the Hamiltonian. I will discuss Spin-Orbit (SO) coupling, the interaction between a quantum particle's spin and its momentum. We experimentally realized SO coupling with equal contributions of Rashba and Dresselhaus coupling, which modified the interaction between the dressed spin states and resulted in a phase transition from a spatially spin- mixed state to a phase-separated state as a function of laser power. The location of this transition is in agreement with our calculations. Finally I conclude by focusing on our most recent progress on artificial gauge fields. This work was performed in collaboration with Y.-J. Lin, R. A. Williams, L. J. LeBlanc, M. Beeler, W. D. Phillips, J. V. Porto and I. B. Spielman. This work was supported by ONR; ARO with funds both from the DARPA OLE program and the Atomtronics MURI; the NSF through the Physics Frontier Center at JQI; and CONACYT.
Engineering dark solitary waves in ring-trap Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gallucci, D.; Proukakis, N. P.
2016-02-01
We demonstrate the feasibility of generation of quasi-stable counter-propagating solitonic structures in an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate confined in a realistic toroidal geometry, and identify optimal parameter regimes for their experimental observation. Using density engineering we numerically identify distinct regimes of motion of the emerging macroscopic excitations, including both solitonic motion along the azimuthal ring direction, such that structures remain visible after multiple collisions even in the presence of thermal fluctuations, and snaking instabilities leading to the decay of the excitations into vortical structures. Our analysis, which considers both mean field effects and fluctuations, is based on the ring trap geometry of Murray et al (2013 Phys. Rev. A 88 053615).
Observation of grand-canonical number statistics in a photon Bose-Einstein condensate.
Schmitt, Julian; Damm, Tobias; Dung, David; Vewinger, Frank; Klaers, Jan; Weitz, Martin
2014-01-24
We report measurements of particle number correlations and fluctuations of a photon Bose-Einstein condensate in a dye microcavity using a Hanbury Brown-Twiss experiment. The photon gas is coupled to a reservoir of molecular excitations, which serve as both heat bath and particle reservoir to realize grand-canonical conditions. For large reservoirs, we observe strong number fluctuations of the order of the total particle number extending deep into the condensed phase. Our results demonstrate that Bose-Einstein condensation under grand-canonical ensemble conditions does not imply second-order coherence. PMID:24484122
Ultraslow, stopped, and compressed light in Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dutton, Zachary John
We present theoretical analysis and experimental results of methods to achieve and use ultraslow light (USL), stopped light, and compressed light in sodium Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs). We present applications of these methods to study and harness both the coherent and superfluid properties of BECs. A description of the propagation of probe and coupling laser fields in three-level Λ configuration atoms is presented in a semiclassical description. This formalism is used to derive how electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) and USL arise. We present novel theoretical results on the effect a fourth level, and effects of nonlinearities associated with a strong probe. Experimental demonstration of ultraslow light is presented. A description which includes atomic motion in Bose-condensed samples of alkali atoms is developed in a mean field description and coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations are derived. A numerical code which solves these equations is presented. An analytic and numerical analysis reveal the limits on ultraslow light and compressed light imposed by the external atomic dynamics. We then show that using USL and switching the coupling field off allows storage of the coherent probe pulse information (amplitude and phase) in the atomic fields. Switching the coupling beam back on writes the coherent information back onto the probe field. Experimental demonstration is presented. We present experimental data and theoretical analysis showing how stopping light in a BEC creates an atom laser with the highest reported phase space density flux to date. Alternatively, reviving the probe pulse after significant BEC dynamics can be used to process the information before it is written back onto the probe. Possible applications to quantum processing are discussed. We then present results on a light "roadblock", whereby blocking part of the coupling field spatially compresses probe pulses to sizes on the order of the condensate healing length. The compressed
Hidden vortices in a Bose-Einstein condensate in a rotating double-well potential
Wen Linghua; Xiong Hongwei; Wu Biao
2010-11-15
We study vortex formation in a Bose-Einstein condensate in a rotating double-well potential. In addition to the ordinary quantized vortices and elusive ghost vortices, 'hidden' vortices are found distributed along the central barrier. These hidden vortices are invisible like ghost vortices but carry angular momentum. Moreover, their core size is not given by the healing length, but is strongly influenced by the external potential. We find that the Feynman rule can be well satisfied only after including the hidden vortices. There is no critical rotation frequency for the formation of hidden vortices while there is one for the formation of ordinary visible vortices. Hidden vortices can be revealed in the free expansion of Bose-Einstein condensates. In addition, the hidden vortices in a Bose-Einstein condensate can appear in other external potentials, such as a rotating anisotropic toroidal trap.
Chaotic synchronization in Bose-Einstein condensate of moving optical lattices via linear coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Zhi-Ying; Feng, Xiu-Qin; Yao, Zhi-Hai; Jia, Hong-Yang
2015-11-01
A systematic study of the chaotic synchronization of Bose-Einstein condensed body is performed using linear coupling method based on Lyapunov stability theory, Sylvester’s criterion, and Gerschgorin disc theorem. The chaotic synchronization of Bose-Einstein condensed body in moving optical lattices is realized by linear coupling. The relationship between the synchronization time and coupling coefficient is obtained. Both the single-variable coupling and double-variable coupling are effective. The results of numerical calculation prove that the chaotic synchronization of double-variable coupling is faster than that of single-variable coupling and small coupling coefficient can achieve the chaotic synchronization. Weak noise has little influence on synchronization effect, so the linear coupling technology is suitable for the chaotic synchronization of Bose-Einstein condensate. Project supported by the Industrial Technology Research and Development Special Project of Jilin Province, China (Grant No. 2013C46) and the Natural Science Foundation of Jilin Province, China (Grant No. 20101510).
Clark, Kevin B
2010-03-01
Fringe quantum biology theories often adopt the concept of Bose-Einstein condensation when explaining how consciousness, emotion, perception, learning, and reasoning emerge from operations of intact animal nervous systems and other computational media. However, controversial empirical evidence and mathematical formalism concerning decoherence rates of bioprocesses keep these frameworks from satisfactorily accounting for the physical nature of cognitive-like events. This study, inspired by the discovery that preferential attachment rules computed by complex technological networks obey Bose-Einstein statistics, is the first rigorous attempt to examine whether analogues of Bose-Einstein condensation precipitate learned decision making in live biological systems as bioenergetics optimization predicts. By exploiting the ciliate Spirostomum ambiguum's capacity to learn and store behavioral strategies advertising mating availability into heuristics of topologically invariant computational networks, three distinct phases of strategy use were found to map onto statistical distributions described by Bose-Einstein, Fermi-Dirac, and classical Maxwell-Boltzmann behavior. Ciliates that sensitized or habituated signaling patterns to emit brief periods of either deceptive 'harder-to-get' or altruistic 'easier-to-get' serial escape reactions began testing condensed on initially perceived fittest 'courting' solutions. When these ciliates switched from their first strategy choices, Bose-Einstein condensation of strategy use abruptly dissipated into a Maxwell-Boltzmann computational phase no longer dominated by a single fittest strategy. Recursive trial-and-error strategy searches annealed strategy use back into a condensed phase consistent with performance optimization. 'Social' decisions performed by ciliates showing no nonassociative learning were largely governed by Fermi-Dirac statistics, resulting in degenerate distributions of strategy choices. These findings corroborate
Occupation Statistics of a Bose-Einstein Condensate for a Driven Landau-Zener Crossing
Smith-Mannschott, Katrina; Chuchem, Maya; Cohen, Doron; Hiller, Moritz; Kottos, Tsampikos
2009-06-12
We consider an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate loaded in a biased double-well trap with tunneling rate K and interatomic interaction U. The Bose-Einstein condensate is prepared such that all N atoms are in the left well. We drive the system by sweeping the potential difference E between the two wells. Depending on the interaction u=NU/K and the sweep rate E, we distinguish three dynamical regimes: adiabatic, diabatic, and sudden and consider the occupation statistics of the final state. The analysis goes beyond mean-field theory and is complemented by a semiclassical picture.
Engineered potentials in ultracold Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campbell, Daniel L.
Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) are a recent addition to the portfolio of quantum materials some of which have profound commercial and military applications e.g., superconductors, superfluids and light emitting diodes. BECs exist in the lowest motional modes of a trap and have the lowest temperatures achieved by mankind. With full control over the shape of the trap the experimentalist may explore an extremely diverse set of Hamiltonians which may be altered mid-experiment. These properties are particularly suited for realizing novel quantum systems. This thesis explores interaction-driven domain formation and the subsequent domain coarsening for two immiscible BEC components. Because quantum coherences associated with interactions in BECs can be derived from low energy scattering theory we compare our experimental results to both a careful simulation (performed by Brandon Anderson) and an analytical prediction. This result very carefully explores the question of how a metastable system relaxes at the extreme limit of low temperature. We also explore spin-orbit coupling (SOC) of a BEC which links the linear and discrete momentum transferable by two counterpropagating ''Raman'' lasers that resonantly couple the ground electronic states of our BECs. SOC is used similarly in condensed matter systems to describe coupling between charge carrier spin and crystal momentum and is a necessary component of the quantum spin Hall effect and topological insulators. SOC links the linear and discrete momentum transferable by two counterpropagating ''Raman'' lasers and a subset of the ground electronic states of our BEC. The phases of an effective 2-spin component spin-orbit coupling (SOC) in a spin-1 BEC are described in Lin et al. (2011). We measure the phase transition between two phases of a spin-1 BEC with SOC which cannot be mimicked by a spin-1/2 system. The order parameter that describes transitions between these two phases is insensitive to magnetic field fluctuations. I
Structure of vortex shedding past potential barriers moving in a Bose-Einstein condensate
Mironov, V. A.; Smirnov, A. I. Smirnov, L. A.
2010-05-15
The problem of excitation of a homogeneous Bose-Einstein condensate by axially symmetric potential barriers moving with respect to the condensate with both supersonic and subsonic velocities is considered in terms of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. The specific features of the structure of the vortex shedding past the barriers are analyzed for both regimes of motion.
Bogoliubov theory of a Bose-Einstein condensate in the particle representation
Dziarmaga, Jacek; Sacha, Krzysztof
2003-03-01
In the number-conserving Bogoliubov theory of the Bose-Einstein condensate, the Bogoliubov transformation between quasiparticles and particles is nonlinear. We invert this nonlinear transformation and give a general expression for eigenstates of the Bogoliubov Hamiltonian in particle representation. The particle representation unveils the structure of a condensate multiparticle wave function. We give several examples to illustrate a general formalism.
On the occurrence and detectability of Bose-Einstein condensation in helium white dwarfs
Benvenuto, O.G.; Vito, M.A. De E-mail: adevito@fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar
2011-02-01
It has been recently proposed that helium white dwarfs may provide promising conditions for the occurrence of the Bose-Einstein condensation. The argument supporting this expectation is that in some conditions attained in the core of these objects, the typical De Broglie wavelength associated with helium nuclei is of the order of the mean distance between neighboring nuclei. In these conditions the system should depart from classical behavior showing quantum effects. As helium nuclei are bosons, they are expected to condense. In order to explore the possibility of detecting the Bose-Einstein condensation in the evolution of helium white dwarfs we have computed a set of models for a variety of stellar masses and values of the condensation temperature. We do not perform a detailed treatment of the condensation process but mimic it by suppressing the nuclei contribution to the equation of state by applying an adequate function. As the cooling of white dwarfs depends on average properties of the whole stellar interior, this procedure should be suitable for exploring the departure of the cooling process from that predicted by the standard treatment. We find that the Bose-Einstein condensation has noticeable, but not dramatic effects on the cooling process only for the most massive white dwarfs compatible with a helium dominated interior ( ≈ 0.50M{sub s}un) and very low luminosities (say, Log(L/L{sub s}un) < −4.0). These facts lead us to conclude that it seems extremely difficult to find observable signals of the Bose-Einstein condensation. Recently, it has been suggested that the population of helium white dwarfs detected in the globular cluster NGC 6397 is a good candidate for detecting signals of the Bose-Einstein condensation. We find that these stars have masses too low and are too bright to have an already condensed interior.
Cosmological perturbations during the Bose-Einstein condensation of dark matter
Freitas, R.C.; Gonçalves, S.V.B. E-mail: sergio.vitorino@pq.cnpq.br
2013-04-01
In the present work, we analyze the evolution of the scalar and tensorial perturbations and the quantities relevant for the physical description of the Universe, as the density contrast of the scalar perturbations and the gravitational waves energy density during the Bose-Einstein condensation of dark matter. The behavior of these parameters during the Bose-Einstein phase transition of dark matter is analyzed in details. To study the cosmological dynamics and evolution of scalar and tensorial perturbations in a Universe with and without cosmological constant we use both analytical and numerical methods. The Bose-Einstein phase transition modifies the evolution of gravitational waves of cosmological origin, as well as the process of large-scale structure formation.
Quantum Entanglement and Spin Squeezing of Two Species Bose-Einstein Condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Song-Song
2016-09-01
We investigate quantum entanglement and spin squeezing of two species Bose-Einstein condensates. By the rotating-wave approximation, we obtain the effective Hamiltonian and the wave function of the system. It's shown that more entanglement and squeezing may be achieved by increasing the population difference of particles.
Stability of Bose-Einstein condensates in two-dimensional optical lattices
Chen Zhu; Wu Biao
2010-04-15
Both Landau instability and dynamical instability of Bose-Einstein condensates in moving two-dimensional optical lattices are investigated numerically and analytically. Phase diagrams for both instabilities are obtained numerically for different system parameters. These phase diagrams show that the Landau instability does not depend on direction for weak lattices while the dynamic instability is direction dependent. These features are explained analytically.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smyrnakis, J.; Magiropoulos, M.; Kavoulakis, G. M.; Jackson, A. D.
2013-01-01
We derive solitary-wave solutions within the mean-field approximation in quasi-one-dimensional binary mixtures of Bose-Einstein condensates under periodic boundary conditions, for the case of an effective repulsive interatomic interaction. The particular gray-bright solutions that give the global energy minima are determined. Their characteristics and the associated dispersion relation are derived.
Nonlinear Floquet solutions of two periodically driven Bose-Einstein condensates
Xie Qiongtao
2007-10-15
We investigate the effect of an external periodic driving on the self-trapping transitions of two weakly coupled Bose-Einstein condensates in a double-well potential. Exact nonlinear Floquet solutions are obtained when the driving parameters satisfy certain conditions. These solutions can give an analytic demonstration of the ac control of self-trapping transitions.
Comment on ``Feshbach resonance and growth of a Bose-Einstein condensate''
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Lei; Jiang, Ren-Jie; Pei, Yu-Hua; Zhang, Jie-Fang
2007-03-01
Our analytical solution shows that the number of atoms continuously injected into Bose-Einstein condensate from the reservoir depends on the linear gain/loss coefficient, and cannot be controlled by applying the external magnetic field via Feshbach resonance reported by Yuce and Kilic [Phys. Rev. A 74, 033609 (2006)].
Comment on 'Feshbach resonance and growth of a Bose-Einstein condensate'
Wu, Lei; Jiang, Ren-Jie; Pei, Yu-hua; Zhang, Jie-Fang
2007-03-15
Our analytical solution shows that the number of atoms continuously injected into Bose-Einstein condensate from the reservoir depends on the linear gain/loss coefficient, and cannot be controlled by applying the external magnetic field via Feshbach resonance reported by Yuce and Kilic [Phys. Rev. A 74, 033609 (2006)].
Bogoliubov space of a Bose-Einstein condensate and quantum spacetime fluctuations
Rivas, J. I.; Camacho, A.; Goeklue, E.
2012-08-24
We analyze the role that metric fluctuations could have on the features of a Bose-Einstein condensate. Particularly, the Bogoliubov space associated to it is considered and it will be shown that the pressure and the speed of sound of the ground state define an expression allowing us to determine the average size of these fluctuations.
Bose-Einstein condensation in the presence of artificial spin-orbit interaction
Yip, S.-K.
2011-04-15
Bose-Einstein condensation in the presence of a synthetic spin-orbit interaction is considered, focusing on the case where a Dirac or Rashba potential is generated via a tripod scheme. We found that the ground states can be either plane-wave states or superpositions of them, each characterized by their unique density distributions.
Landau-Zener tunneling of Bose-Einstein condensates in an optical lattice
Konotop, V.V.; Kevrekidis, P.G.; Salerno, M.
2005-08-15
A theory of the nonsymmetric Landau-Zener tunneling of Bose-Einstein condensates in deep optical lattices is presented. It is shown that periodic exchange of matter between the bands is described by a set of linearly coupled nonlinear Schroedinger equations. The key role of the modulational instability in rendering the interband transitions irreversible is highlighted.
Detecting Bose-Einstein condensation of exciton-polaritons via electron transport
Chen, Y.-N.; Lambert, Neill; Nori, Franco
2009-12-15
We examine the Bose-Einstein condensation of exciton-polaritons in a semiconductor microcavity via an electrical current. We propose that by embedding a quantum dot p-i-n junction inside the cavity, the tunneling current through the device can reveal features of condensation due to a one-to-one correspondence of the photons to the condensate polaritons. Such a device can also be used to observe the phase interference of the order parameters from two condensates.
Interaction effects on number fluctuations in a Bose-Einstein condensate of light.
van der Wurff, E C I; de Leeuw, A-W; Duine, R A; Stoof, H T C
2014-09-26
We investigate the effect of interactions on condensate-number fluctuations in Bose-Einstein condensates. For a contact interaction we variationally obtain the equilibrium probability distribution for the number of particles in the condensate. To facilitate comparison with experiment, we also calculate the zero-time delay autocorrelation function g((2))(0) for different strengths of the interaction. Finally, we focus on the case of a condensate of photons and find good agreement with recent experiments. PMID:25302898
Photon antibunching upon scattering by an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate
Ilichev, L. V. Chapovsky, P. L.
2010-05-15
Antibunching of photodetections from different modes is shown to arise when two quantized light modes are scattered by an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate. This effect appears because of the uncertainty in the position of the condensate wave function relative to the optical lattice formed by the light beams. It is shown how the information contained in the history of photodetections leads to a spatial localization of the condensate wave function.
Matter-Wave Interferometry with Phase Fluctuating Bose-Einstein Condensates
Jo, G.-B.; Choi, J.-H.; Christensen, C. A.; Lee, Y.-R.; Pasquini, T. A.; Ketterle, W.; Pritchard, D. E.
2007-12-14
Elongated Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) exhibit strong spatial phase fluctuations even well below the BEC transition temperature. We demonstrate that atom interferometers using such condensates are robust against phase fluctuations; i.e., the relative phase of the split condensate is reproducible despite axial phase fluctuations. However, larger phase fluctuations limit the coherence time, especially in the presence of some asymmetries in the two wells of the interferometer.
Matter-wave interferometry with phase fluctuating Bose-Einstein condensates.
Jo, G-B; Choi, J-H; Christensen, C A; Lee, Y-R; Pasquini, T A; Ketterle, W; Pritchard, D E
2007-12-14
Elongated Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) exhibit strong spatial phase fluctuations even well below the BEC transition temperature. We demonstrate that atom interferometers using such condensates are robust against phase fluctuations; i.e., the relative phase of the split condensate is reproducible despite axial phase fluctuations. However, larger phase fluctuations limit the coherence time, especially in the presence of some asymmetries in the two wells of the interferometer. PMID:18233429
Bose-Einstein Condensation in Semiconductors: The Key Role of Dark Excitons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Combescot, Monique; Betbeder-Matibet, Odile; Combescot, Roland
2007-10-01
Bose-Einstein condensation in semiconductors is controlled by the nonelementary-boson nature of excitons. Pauli exclusion between the fermionic components of composite excitons produces dramatic exchange couplings between bright and dark states. In microcavities, where bright excitons and photons form polaritons, they force the condensate to be linearly polarized, as observed. In bulk, they also force linear polarization, but of dark states, due to interband Coulomb scatterings. To evidence this dark condensate, indirect processes are thus needed.
Stability of a Bose-Einstein condensate revisited for composite bosons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Combescot, M.; Snoke, D. W.
2008-10-01
It is known that elementary bosons condense in a unique state, not so much because this state has the lowest free-particle energy but because it costs a macroscopic amount of energy to put the particles into different states which can then interact through quantum particle exchanges. Since individual exchanges between the two fermions of a composite boson are ignored when composite particles are replaced by elementary bosons, it is of importance to reconsider the exchange-energy argument for the stability of the Bose-Einstein condensate in the case of composite bosons. We do this here in the light of the new many-body theory which allows us to take exactly into account all possible exchanges between the fermionic components of the composite bosons. We confirm that the condensate of composite bosons occupies a single state, this state being moreover pure: a coherent superposition of states close in energy is shown to be less favorable for both elementary and composite bosons.
Controlling chaos in a Bose-Einstein condensate loaded into a moving optical lattice potential
Wang Zhixia Zhang Xihe; Shen Ke
2008-11-15
The spatial structure of a Bose-Einstein condensate loaded into an optical lattice potential is investigated, and spatially chaotic distributions of the condensates are revealed. By means of changing of the s-wave scattering length with a Feshbach resonance, the chaotic behavior can be well controlled to enter into periodicity. Numerical simulation shows that there are different periodic orbits according to different s-wave scattering lengths only if the maximal Lyapunov exponent of the system is negative.
Javanainen, Juha
2010-05-15
We study theoretically an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate in a double-well trap, both quantum-mechanically and classically, under conditions such that in the classical model an unstable equilibrium dissolves into large-scale oscillations of the atoms between the potential wells. Quantum mechanics alone does not exhibit such nonlinear dynamics, but measurements of the atom numbers in the potential wells may nevertheless cause the condensate to behave essentially classically.
Capillary instability in a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate
Sasaki, Kazuki; Suzuki, Naoya; Saito, Hiroki
2011-05-15
Capillary instability and the resulting dynamics in an immiscible two-component Bose-Einstein condensate are investigated using the mean-field and Bogoliubov analyses. A long, cylindrical condensate surrounded by the other component is dynamically unstable against breakup into droplets due to the interfacial tension arising from the quantum pressure and interactions. A heteronuclear system confined in a cigar-shaped trap is proposed for realizing this phenomenon experimentally.
One-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensation of photons in a microtube
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kruchkov, Alex J.
2016-04-01
This paper introduces a quasiequilibrium one-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensation of photons trapped in a microtube. Light modes with a cutoff frequency (a photon's "mass") interact through different processes of absorption, emission, and scattering on molecules and atoms. In this paper we study the conditions for the one-dimensional condensation of light and the role of photon-photon interactions in the system. The technique in use is the Matsubara Green's functions formalism modified for the quasiequilibrium system under study.
Kelvin-Tkachenko waves of few-vortex arrays in trapped Bose-Einstein condensates
Simula, T. P.; Machida, K.
2010-12-15
We have calculated the low-lying elementary excitations of three-dimensional few-vortex arrays in trapped Bose-Einstein condensates. The number of different Kelvin-Tkachenko vortex wave branches found matches the number of vortices in the condensate. The lowest odd-parity modes exhibit superfluid gyroscopic vortex motion. Experimentally, these modes could be excited and observed individually or in connection with the formation and decay of quantum turbulence.
Fano Blockade by a Bose-Einstein Condensate in an Optical Lattice
Vicencio, Rodrigo A.; Brand, Joachim; Flach, Sergej
2007-05-04
We study the transport of atoms across a localized Bose-Einstein condensate in a one-dimensional optical lattice. For atoms scattering off the condensate, we predict total reflection as well as full transmission for certain parameter values on the basis of an exactly solvable model. The findings of analytical and numerical calculations are interpreted by a tunable Fano-like resonance and may lead to interesting applications for blocking and filtering atom beams.
Spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensates in a one-dimensional optical lattice.
Hamner, C; Zhang, Yongping; Khamehchi, M A; Davis, Matthew J; Engels, P
2015-02-20
We investigate a spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensate loaded into a translating optical lattice. We experimentally demonstrate the lack of Galilean invariance in the spin-orbit-coupled system, which leads to anisotropic behavior of the condensate depending on the direction of translation of the lattice. The anisotropy is theoretically understood by an effective dispersion relation. We experimentally confirm this theoretical picture by probing the dynamical instability of the system. PMID:25763940
Field effects on the vortex states in spin-orbit coupled Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Liang-Liang; Liu, Yong-Kai; Feng, Shiping; Yang, Shi-Jie
2016-06-01
Multi-quantum vortices can be created in the ground state of rotating Bose-Einstein condensates with spin-orbit couplings. We investigate the effects of external fields, either a longitudinal field or a transverse field, on the vortex states. We reveal that both fields can effectively reduce the number of vortices. In the latter case we further find that the condensate density packets are pushed away in the horizontal direction and the vortices finally disappear to form a plane wave phase.
Squeezing and Entanglement of Density Oscillations in a Bose-Einstein Condensate.
Wade, Andrew C J; Sherson, Jacob F; Mølmer, Klaus
2015-08-01
The dispersive interaction of atoms and a far-detuned light field allows nondestructive imaging of the density oscillations in Bose-Einstein condensates. Starting from a ground state condensate, we investigate how the measurement backaction leads to squeezing and entanglement of the quantized density oscillations. We show that properly timed, stroboscopic imaging and feedback can be used to selectively address specific eigenmodes and avoid excitation of nontargeted modes of the system. PMID:26296103
Magnon Kinetics and Bose-Einstein Condensation Studied in Phase Space
Demidov, V. E.; Dzyapko, O.; Buchmeier, M.; Demokritov, S. O.; Stockhoff, T.; Schmitz, G.; Melkov, G. A.
2008-12-19
Using a novel technique providing simultaneous resolution with respect to the wave vector and frequency of magnons, we observed the formation of a Bose-Einstein condensate documented by the narrowing of the magnon distribution in phase space. Based on the measured width of the distribution we determined the effective correlation length of the condensate, which appears to be anisotropic, reflecting the anisotropy of the magnon dispersion spectrum.
Quantum phase-space picture of Bose-Einstein condensates in a double well
Mahmud, Khan W.; Perry, Heidi; Reinhardt, William P.
2005-02-01
We present a quantum phase-space model of the Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) in a double-well potential. In a quantum two-mode approximation we examine the eigenvectors and eigenvalues and find that the energy correlation diagram indicates a transition from a delocalized to a fragmented regime. Phase-space information is extracted from the stationary quantum states using the Husimi distribution function. We show that the mean-field phase-space characteristics of a nonrigid physical pendulum arises from the exact quantum states, and that only 4-8 particles per well are needed to reach the semiclassical limit. For a driven double-well BEC, we show that the classical chaotic dynamics is manifest in the dynamics of the quantum states. Phase-space analogy also suggests that a {pi} phase-displaced wave packet put on the unstable fixed point on a separatrix bifurcates to create a superposition of two pendulum rotor states--a macroscopic superposition state of BEC. We show that the choice of initial barrier height and ramping, following a {pi} phase imprinting on the condensate, can be used to generate controlled entangled number states with tunable extremity and sharpness.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trombettoni, A.; Smerzi, A.; Sodano, P.
2005-02-01
We investigate the possibility that Bose Einstein condensates, loaded on a 2D optical lattice, undergo—at finite temperature—a Berezinskii Kosterlitz Thouless transition. We show that—in an experimentally attainable range of parameters—a planar lattice of Bose Einstein condensates is described by the XY model at finite temperature. We demonstrate that the interference pattern of the expanding condensates provides the experimental signature of the Berezinskii Kosterlitz Thouless transition by showing that, near the critical temperature, the \\skew3\\vec{k}=0 component of the momentum distribution and the central peak of the atomic density profile sharply decrease. The finite-temperature transition for a 3D optical lattice is also discussed in this paper, and analogies with superconducting Josephson junction networks are stressed throughout the text.
Bose-Einstein Condensate Coupled to a Nanomechanical Resonator on an Atom Chip
Treutlein, Philipp; Hunger, David; Camerer, Stephan; Haensch, Theodor W.; Reichel, Jakob
2007-10-05
We theoretically study the coupling of Bose-Einstein condensed atoms to the mechanical oscillations of a nanoscale cantilever with a magnetic tip. This is an experimentally viable hybrid quantum system which allows one to explore the interface of quantum optics and condensed matter physics. We propose an experiment where easily detectable atomic spin flips are induced by the cantilever motion. This can be used to probe thermal oscillations of the cantilever with the atoms. At low cantilever temperatures, as realized in recent experiments, the backaction of the atoms onto the cantilever is significant and the system represents a mechanical analog of cavity quantum electrodynamics. With high but realistic cantilever quality factors, the strong coupling regime can be reached, either with single atoms or collectively with Bose-Einstein condensates. We discuss an implementation on an atom chip.
Two-fluid model of a Bose-Einstein condensate in the cavity optomechanical regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goldbaum, Dan; Zhang, Keye; Meystre, Pierre
2010-03-01
We analyze an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate trapped in a high-Q optical cavity driven by a feeble optical field. The dynamics of the resulting collective density excitation of the condensate are formally analogous to the central model system of cavity optomechanics: a radiation pressure driven mechanical oscillator [Brennecke et al., Science 322, 235 (2008)]. However, although BEC-based optomechanical systems have several desirable properties, one must also take into account the effect of atom-atom interactions. We treat these interactions via a two-fluid model that retains the intuitive appeal of the non-interacting two-mode description. We find that the Bogoliubov excitation spectrum of this system comprises a gapped upper branch and a lower branch that can include an unstable excitation mode. [4pt] D. S. Goldbaum, K. Zhang and P. Meystre, Two-fluid model of a Bose-Einstein condensate in the cavity optomechanical regime, arXiv:0911.3234.
In-plane electrical transport across cavity-quantum well system in Bose-Einstein condensate phase
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, Ming; MacDonald, Allan
Cavity polaritons are coupled states of quantum well excitons and vertical cavity photons which can undergo Bose-Einstein condensation under appropriate circumstances. The macroscopic condensate state can be described by two coupled order parameters - the coherent exciton field and the coherent photon field. When the dominant process for electron transfer between conduction and valence bands is by scattering off the photon condensate, electrical bias voltages can be used to control the condensate. We study the in-plane transport properties of electrical current through the cavity-quantum well system, and show how the coherent photon fields respond to the current flow. The possibility of tailoring light via electrical current and vice versa simultaneously might lead to interesting new applications.
All-optical cooling of K39 to Bose-Einstein condensation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salomon, G.; Fouché, L.; Lepoutre, S.; Aspect, A.; Bourdel, T.
2014-09-01
We report the all-optical production of Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) of K39 atoms. We directly load 3×107 atoms in a large volume optical dipole trap from gray molasses on the D1 transition. We then apply a small magnetic quadrupole field to polarize the sample before transferring the atoms in a tightly confining optical trap. Evaporative cooling is finally performed close to a Feshbach resonance to enhance the scattering length. Our setup allows one to cross the BEC threshold with 3×105 atoms every 7 s. As an illustration of the interest of the tunability of the interactions we study the expansion of Bose-Einstein condensates in the one-dimensional to three-dimensional crossover.
Magnetic dipolar interaction in a Bose-Einstein condensate atomic interferometer.
Fattori, M; Roati, G; Deissler, B; D'Errico, C; Zaccanti, M; Jona-Lasinio, M; Santos, L; Inguscio, M; Modugno, G
2008-11-01
We study the role played by the magnetic dipole interaction in the decoherence of a lattice-based interferometer that employs an alkali Bose-Einstein condensate with a tunable scattering length. The different behavior we observe for two different orientations of the dipoles gives us evidence of the anisotropic character of the interaction. The experiment is correctly reproduced by a model we develop only if the long-range interaction between different lattice sites is taken into account. Our model indicates that dipolar interaction can be compensated by a proper choice of the scattering length and that the magnetic dipole interaction should not represent an obstacle for atom interferometry with Bose-Einstein condensates with a tunable interaction. PMID:19113248
Developing density functional theory for Bose-Einstein condensates. The case of chemical bonding
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Putz, Mihai V.
2015-01-01
Since the nowadays growing interest in Bose-Einstein condensates due to the expanded experimental evidence on various atomic systems within optical lattices in weak and strong coupling regimes, the connection with Density Functional Theory is firstly advanced within the mean field framework at three levels of comprehension: the many-body normalization condition, Thomas-Fermi limit, and the chemical hardness closure with the inter-bosonic strength and universal Hohenberg-Kohn functional. As an application the traditional Heitler-London quantum mechanical description of the chemical bonding for homopolar atomic systems is reloaded within the non-linear Schrödinger (Gross-Pitaevsky) Hamiltonian; the results show that a two-fold energetic solution is registered either for bonding and antibonding states, with the bosonic contribution being driven by the square of the order parameter for the Bose-Einstein condensate density in free (gas) motion, while the associate wave functions remain as in classical molecular orbital model.
Spin-momentum coupled Bose-Einstein condensates with lattice band pseudospins
Khamehchi, M. A.; Qu, Chunlei; Mossman, M. E.; Zhang, Chuanwei; Engels, P.
2016-01-01
The quantum emulation of spin-momentum coupling, a crucial ingredient for the emergence of topological phases, is currently drawing considerable interest. In previous quantum gas experiments, typically two atomic hyperfine states were chosen as pseudospins. Here, we report the observation of a spin-momentum coupling achieved by loading a Bose-Einstein condensate into periodically driven optical lattices. The s and p bands of a static lattice, which act as pseudospins, are coupled through an additional moving lattice that induces a momentum-dependent coupling between the two pseudospins, resulting in s–p hybrid Floquet-Bloch bands. We investigate the band structures by measuring the quasimomentum of the Bose-Einstein condensate for different velocities and strengths of the moving lattice, and compare our measurements to theoretical predictions. The realization of spin-momentum coupling with lattice bands as pseudospins paves the way for engineering novel quantum matter using hybrid orbital bands. PMID:26924575
Droplet formation in a Bose-Einstein condensate with strong dipole-dipole interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xi, Kui-Tian; Saito, Hiroki
2016-01-01
Motivated by the recent experiment [H. Kadau et al., arXiv:1508.05007], we study roton instability and droplet formation in a Bose-Einstein condensate of 164Dy atoms with strong magnetic dipole-dipole interaction. We numerically solve the cubic-quintic Gross-Pitaevskii equation with dipole-dipole interaction, and show that the three-body interaction plays a significant role in the formation of droplet patterns. We numerically demonstrate the formation of droplet patterns and crystalline structures, decay of droplets, and hysteresis behavior, which are in good agreement with the experiment. Our numerical simulations provide the first prediction on the values of the three-body interaction in a 164Dy Bose-Einstein condensate. We also predict that the droplets remain stable during the time-of-flight expansion. From our results, further experiments investigating the three-body interaction in dipolar quantum gases are required.
Magnetic Dipolar Interaction in a Bose-Einstein Condensate Atomic Interferometer
Fattori, M.; Roati, G.; D'Errico, C.; Inguscio, M.; Modugno, G.; Deissler, B.; Zaccanti, M.; Jona-Lasinio, M.; Santos, L.
2008-11-07
We study the role played by the magnetic dipole interaction in the decoherence of a lattice-based interferometer that employs an alkali Bose-Einstein condensate with a tunable scattering length. The different behavior we observe for two different orientations of the dipoles gives us evidence of the anisotropic character of the interaction. The experiment is correctly reproduced by a model we develop only if the long-range interaction between different lattice sites is taken into account. Our model indicates that dipolar interaction can be compensated by a proper choice of the scattering length and that the magnetic dipole interaction should not represent an obstacle for atom interferometry with Bose-Einstein condensates with a tunable interaction.
Developing density functional theory for Bose-Einstein condensates. The case of chemical bonding
Putz, Mihai V.
2015-01-22
Since the nowadays growing interest in Bose-Einstein condensates due to the expanded experimental evidence on various atomic systems within optical lattices in weak and strong coupling regimes, the connection with Density Functional Theory is firstly advanced within the mean field framework at three levels of comprehension: the many-body normalization condition, Thomas-Fermi limit, and the chemical hardness closure with the inter-bosonic strength and universal Hohenberg-Kohn functional. As an application the traditional Heitler-London quantum mechanical description of the chemical bonding for homopolar atomic systems is reloaded within the non-linear Schrödinger (Gross-Pitaevsky) Hamiltonian; the results show that a two-fold energetic solution is registered either for bonding and antibonding states, with the bosonic contribution being driven by the square of the order parameter for the Bose-Einstein condensate density in free (gas) motion, while the associate wave functions remain as in classical molecular orbital model.
Excitations of One-Dimensional Bose-Einstein Condensates in a Random Potential
Gurarie, V.; Refael, G.; Chalker, J. T.
2008-10-24
We examine bosons hopping on a one-dimensional lattice in the presence of a random potential at zero temperature. Bogoliubov excitations of the Bose-Einstein condensate formed under such conditions are localized, with the localization length diverging at low frequency as l({omega}){approx}1/{omega}{sup {alpha}}. We show that the well-known result {alpha}=2 applies only for sufficiently weak random potential. As the random potential is increased beyond a certain strength, {alpha} starts decreasing. At a critical strength of the potential, when the system of bosons is at the transition from a superfluid to an insulator, {alpha}=1. This result is relevant for understanding the behavior of the atomic Bose-Einstein condensates in the presence of random potential, and of the disordered Josephson junction arrays.
An efficient numerical method for computing dynamics of spin F = 2 Bose-Einstein condensates
Wang Hanquan
2011-07-01
In this paper, we extend the efficient time-splitting Fourier pseudospectral method to solve the generalized Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equations, which model the dynamics of spin F = 2 Bose-Einstein condensates at extremely low temperature. Using the time-splitting technique, we split the generalized GP equations into one linear part and two nonlinear parts: the linear part is solved with the Fourier pseudospectral method; one of nonlinear parts is solved analytically while the other one is reformulated into a matrix formulation and solved by diagonalization. We show that the method keeps well the conservation laws related to generalized GP equations in 1D and 2D. We also show that the method is of second-order in time and spectrally accurate in space through a one-dimensional numerical test. We apply the method to investigate the dynamics of spin F = 2 Bose-Einstein condensates confined in a uniform/nonuniform magnetic field.
Amplification of matter rogue waves and breathers in quasi-two-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manikandan, K.; Senthilvelan, M.; Kraenkel, R. A.
2016-02-01
We construct rogue wave and breather solutions of a quasi-two-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation with a time-dependent interatomic interaction and external trap. We show that the trapping potential and an arbitrary functional parameter that present in the similarity transformation should satisfy a constraint for the considered equation to be integrable and yield the desired solutions. We consider two different forms of functional parameters and investigate how the density of the rogue wave and breather profiles vary with respect to these functional parameters. We also construct vector localized solutions of a two coupled quasi-two-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate system. We then investigate how the vector localized density profiles modify in the constant density background with respect to the functional parameters. Our results may help to manipulate matter rogue waves experimentally in the two-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate systems.
Bose-Einstein condensation of the classical axion field in cosmology?
Davidson, Sacha; Elmer, Martin E-mail: m.elmer@ipnl.in2p3.fr
2013-12-01
The axion is a motivated cold dark matter candidate, which it would be interesting to distinguish from weakly interacting massive particles. Sikivie has suggested that axions could behave differently during non-linear galaxy evolution, if they form a Bose-Einstein condensate, and argues that ''gravitational thermalisation'' drives them to a Bose-Einstein condensate during the radiation dominated era. Using classical equations of motion during linear structure formation, we explore whether the gravitational interactions of axions can generate enough entropy. At linear order in G{sub N}, we interpret that the principle activities of gravity are to expand the Universe and grow density fluctuations. To quantify the rate of entropy creation we use the anisotropic stress to estimate a short dissipation scale for axions which does not confirm previous estimates of their gravitational thermalisation rate.
Spin-momentum coupled Bose-Einstein condensates with lattice band pseudospins.
Khamehchi, M A; Qu, Chunlei; Mossman, M E; Zhang, Chuanwei; Engels, P
2016-01-01
The quantum emulation of spin-momentum coupling, a crucial ingredient for the emergence of topological phases, is currently drawing considerable interest. In previous quantum gas experiments, typically two atomic hyperfine states were chosen as pseudospins. Here, we report the observation of a spin-momentum coupling achieved by loading a Bose-Einstein condensate into periodically driven optical lattices. The s and p bands of a static lattice, which act as pseudospins, are coupled through an additional moving lattice that induces a momentum-dependent coupling between the two pseudospins, resulting in s-p hybrid Floquet-Bloch bands. We investigate the band structures by measuring the quasimomentum of the Bose-Einstein condensate for different velocities and strengths of the moving lattice, and compare our measurements to theoretical predictions. The realization of spin-momentum coupling with lattice bands as pseudospins paves the way for engineering novel quantum matter using hybrid orbital bands. PMID:26924575
Entropy density of an adiabatic relativistic Bose-Einstein condensate star
Khaidir, Ahmad Firdaus; Kassim, Hasan Abu; Yusof, Norhasliza
2015-04-24
Inspired by recent works, we investigate how the thermodynamics parameters (entropy, temperature, number density, energy density, etc) of Bose-Einstein Condensate star scale with the structure of the star. Below the critical temperature in which the condensation starts to occur, we study how the entropy behaves with varying temperature till it reaches its own stability against gravitational collapse and singularity. Compared to photon gases (pressure is described by radiation) where the chemical potential, μ is zero, entropy of photon gases obeys the Stefan-Boltzmann Law for a small values of T while forming a spiral structure for a large values of T due to general relativity. The entropy density of Bose-Einstein Condensate is obtained following the similar sequence but limited under critical temperature condition. We adopt the scalar field equation of state in Thomas-Fermi limit to study the characteristics of relativistic Bose-Einstein condensate under varying temperature and entropy. Finally, we obtain the entropy density proportional to (σT{sup 3}-3T) which obeys the Stefan-Boltzmann Law in ultra-relativistic condition.
Quantum Switching at a Mean-Field Instability of a Bose-Einstein Condensate in an Optical Lattice
Shchesnovich, V. S.; Konotop, V. V.
2009-02-06
It is shown that bifurcation of the mean-field dynamics of a Bose-Einstein condensate can be related to the quantum phase transition of the original many-body system. As an example we explore the intraband tunneling in the two-dimensional optical lattice. Such a system allows for easy control by the lattice depth as well as for macroscopic visualization of the phase transition. The system manifests switching between two self-trapping states or from a self-trapping state to a superposition of the macroscopically populated self-trapping states with a steplike variation of the control parameter about the bifurcation point. We have also observed the magnification of the microscopic difference between the even and odd number of atoms to a macroscopically distinguishable dynamics of the system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Strong, Scott A.; Carr, Lincoln D.
2010-03-01
The self-induced dynamics of a vortex defect in a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) are well modeled by phenomenological hydrodynamics. At the macroscopic scale, vortex defects are thought to be precursory to turbulent fluid dynamics. However, at the microscopic scale, the vortex defects take on additional structure since some of their important features become quantized. While the study of vortex-tubes is most applicable for these phenomenon, nontrivial dynamics also manifests from idealized line vortices and are expressed by a concise asymptotic expansion consistent with the Euler equations relating the local dynamics of the defect to nonlinear Scrödinger (NLS) evolution. This local induction approximation (LIA) states that a bent line-vortex generates a local velocity field with an asymmetry in the binormal direction. Binormal flows correspond to NLS, which is a completely integrable nonlinear PDE admitting soliton solutions whose amplitude and phase controls the line-vortex curvature and torsion, respectively. Our recent work, generalizing LIA, indicates that higher order expansions offer no new dynamics in the case of a line-vortex, which is in contrast to existing results relating the dynamics of slender vortex tubes to a hierarchy of integrable dynamics. We also discuss the applicability of these expansions to BEC vortex dynamics.
Analysis and calibration of absorptive images of Bose-Einstein condensate at nonzero temperatures
Szczepkowski, J.; Gartman, R.; Zawada, M.; Witkowski, M.; Tracewski, L.; Gawlik, W.
2009-05-15
We describe the method allowing quantitative interpretation of absorptive images of mixtures of Bose-Einstein condensate and thermal atoms which reduces possible systematic errors associated with evaluation of the contribution of each fraction and eliminates arbitrariness of most of the previous approaches. By using known temperature dependence of the BEC fraction, the analysis allows precise calibration of the fitting results. The developed method is verified in two different measurements and compares well with theoretical calculations and with measurements performed by another group.
Application of the Feshbach-resonance management to a tightly confined Bose-Einstein condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Filatrella, G.; Malomed, B. A.; Salasnich, L.
2009-04-01
We study suppression of the collapse and stabilization of matter-wave solitons by means of time-periodic modulation of the effective nonlinearity, using the nonpolynomial Schrödinger equation for Bose-Einstein condensate trapped in a tight cigar-shaped potential. By means of systematic simulations, a stability region is identified in the plane of the modulation amplitude and frequency. In the low-frequency regime, solitons feature chaotic evolution, although they remain robust objects.
Stability of excited states of a Bose-Einstein condensate in an anharmonic trap
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zezyulin, Dmitry A.; Alfimov, Georgy L.; Konotop, Vladimir V.; Pérez-García, Víctor M.
2008-07-01
We analyze the stability of nonground nonlinear states of a Bose-Einstein condensate in the mean-field limit in effectively one-dimensional (“cigar-shape”) traps for various types of confining potentials. We find that nonlinear states become, in general, more stable when switching from a harmonic potential to an anharmonic one. We discuss the relation between this fact and the specifics of the harmonic potential which has an equidistant spectrum.
Controlling chaos in the Bose-Einstein condensate system of a double lattice
Wang Zhixia Ni Zhengguo; Cong Fuzhong; Liu Xueshen; Chen Lei
2011-02-15
We study the chaotic dynamics in the Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) system of a double lattice. Chaotic space-time evolution is investigated for the particle number density in a BEC. By changing of the s-wave scattering length with a Feshbach resonance, the chaotic behavior can be well controlled to enter into periodicity. Numerical calculation shows that there is periodic orbit according to the s-wave scattering length only if the maximal Lyapunov exponent of the system is negative.
Static properties of Bose-Einstein condensate mixtures in semi-infinite space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thu, Nguyen Van
2016-08-01
Using double-parabola approximation (DPA) applied to Gross-Pitaevskii theory, the interfacial tension of Bose-Einstein condensate mixtures in semi-infinite system is obtained and shows that it is not vanishing at demix state K = 1, its value exactly coincides to wall tension of second component. A new kind of wetting phase transition (Antonov transition) is also considered within DPA and phase transition is first-order. Antonov line is thoroughly proved, too.
Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Entanglement Strategies in Two-Well Bose-Einstein Condensates
He, Q. Y.; Vaughan, T. G.; Reid, M. D.; Drummond, P. D.; Gross, C.; Oberthaler, M.
2011-03-25
Criteria suitable for measuring entanglement between two different potential wells in a Bose-Einstein condensation are evaluated. We show how to generate the required entanglement, utilizing either an adiabatic two-mode or a dynamic four-mode interaction strategy, with techniques that take advantage of s-wave scattering interactions to provide the nonlinear coupling. The dynamic entanglement method results in an entanglement signature with spatially separated detectors, as in the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox.
Sonic analog of gravitational black holes in bose-einstein condensates
Garay; Anglin; Cirac; Zoller
2000-11-27
It is shown that, in dilute-gas Bose-Einstein condensates, there exist both dynamically stable and unstable configurations which, in the hydrodynamic limit, exhibit a behavior resembling that of gravitational black holes. The dynamical instabilities involve creation of quasiparticle pairs in positive and negative energy states, as in the well-known suggested mechanism for black-hole evaporation. We propose a scheme to generate a stable sonic black hole in a ring trap. PMID:11082617
Ferrofluidity in a Two-Component Dipolar Bose-Einstein Condensate
Saito, Hiroki; Kawaguchi, Yuki; Ueda, Masahito
2009-06-12
It is shown that the interface in a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) with a dipole-dipole interaction spontaneously develops patterns similar to those formed in a ferrofluid. Hexagonal, labyrinthine, solitonlike structures, and hysteretic behavior are numerically demonstrated. Superflow is found to circulate around the hexagonal pattern at rest, offering evidence of supersolidity. The system sustains persistent current with a vortex line pinned by the hexagonal pattern. These phenomena may be realized using a {sup 52}Cr BEC.
Benard-von Karman Vortex Street in a Bose-Einstein Condensate
Sasaki, Kazuki; Suzuki, Naoya; Saito, Hiroki
2010-04-16
Vortex shedding from an obstacle potential moving in a Bose-Einstein condensate is investigated. Long-lived alternately aligned vortex pairs are found to form in the wake, which is similar to the Benard-von Karman vortex street in classical viscous fluids. Various patterns of vortex shedding are systematically studied and the drag force on the obstacle is calculated. It is shown that the phenomenon can be observed in a trapped system.
Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model of qq Bose-Einstein condensation and a pseudogap phase
Castorina, P.; Zappala, D.; Nardulli, G.
2005-10-01
We show the existence of a pseudogap phase in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model of quark interactions. In the pseudogap phase chiral symmetry is restored but qq pseudoscalar mesons still exist and they are massive. Such a behavior is intermediate between a BCS superconductor and a Bose-Einstein Condensate. We suggest the relevance of this phenomenon for an understanding of recent lattice QCD and experimental data.
Phase-Diffusion Dynamics in Weakly Coupled Bose-Einstein Condensates
Boukobza, Erez; Vardi, Amichay; Chuchem, Maya; Cohen, Doron
2009-05-08
We study the phase sensitivity of collisional phase diffusion between weakly coupled Bose-Einstein condensates, using a semiclassical picture of the two-mode Bose-Hubbard model. When weak coupling is allowed, zero relative phase locking is attained in the Josephson-Fock transition regime, whereas a {pi} relative phase is only locked in Rabi-Josephson point. Our analytic semiclassical estimates agree well with the numerical results.
Vortex Polygons and Their Stabilities in Bose-Einstein Condensates and Field Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kobayashi, Michikazu; Nitta, Muneto
2014-04-01
We study vortex polygons and their stabilities in miscible two-component Bose-Einstein condensates, and find that vortex polygons are stable for the total circulation Q≤5, metastable for Q=6, and unstable for Q≥7. As a related model in high-energy physics, we also study the vortex polygon of the baby-Skyrme model with an anti-ferromagnetic potential term, and compare both results.
Nucleation and growth of vortices in a rotating Bose-Einstein condensate.
Vorov, O K; Isacker, P Van; Hussein, M S; Bartschat, K
2005-12-01
An analytic solution of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation for a rotating Bose-Einstein condensate of trapped atoms describes the onset of vorticity when the rotational speed is increased, starting with the entry of the first vortex and followed by the formation of growing symmetric Wigner molecules. It explains the staircase of angular momentum jumps and the behavior of the bosonic occupancies observed in numerical studies. The similarity of this behavior and mesoscopic superconductors is discussed. PMID:16384283
Interacting bosons in an optical lattice: Bose-Einstein condensates and Mott insulator
Fialko, O.; Moseley, Ch.; Ziegler, K.
2007-05-15
A dense Bose gas with hard-core interaction is considered in an optical lattice. We study the phase diagram in terms of a special mean-field theory that describes a Bose-Einstein condensate and a Mott insulator with a single particle per lattice site for zero as well as for nonzero temperatures. We calculate the densities, the excitation spectrum, and the static structure factor for each of these phases.
Pulsating Instability of a Bose-Einstein Condensate in an Optical Lattice
Shrestha, Uttam; Kostrun, Marijan; Javanainen, Juha
2008-08-15
We find numerically that in the limit of weak atom-atom interactions a Bose-Einstein condensate in an optical lattice may develop a pulsating dynamical instability in which the atoms nearly periodically form a peak in the occupation numbers of the lattice sites, and then return to the unstable initial state. Multiple peaks behaving similarly are also found. Simple arguments show that the pulsating instability is a remnant of integrability, and give a handle on the relevant physical scales.
Non-zero momentum Bose-Einstein condensation of orbital atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, W. Vincent
2009-03-01
Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) is often associated with zero momentum to which a macroscopic fraction of bosons condense. Here we propose a new class of meta-stable quantum states where bosons condense at non-zero momenta, defying the paradigm. This becomes possible when bosonic atoms are confined in the p-orbital Bloch bands of an optical lattice rather than the usual s-orbital. A recent experiment at Mainz confirmed the discovery of such an exotic BEC with alkali-metal atoms in a 3D cubic lattice with anisotropic optical potentials. Non-zero momentum suggests crystalline order. Our theoretical studies further found that such non-zero momentum BECs are also naturally orbital ordered superfluids due to the fascinating, less studied center-of-mass p-wave symmetry (e.g., a vortex-like px+ipy condensate). Varying with the geometry from standard optical lattices to double-well lattices, the interesting orderings include staggered orbital currents, stripes of angular momenta, and modulated super-current density wave. Different than a phase of coexisting orders such as supersolidity, this new class of states is characterized by a single order parameter. Work done in collaboration with J. Moore, S. Das Sarma, V. M. Stojanovic, C. Wu, and E. Zhao. [4pt] References:[0pt] [1] W. V. Liu, C. Wu, Phys. Rev. A 74, 013607 (2006). [0pt] [2] C. Wu, W. V. Liu, J. Moore, S. Das Sarma, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 190406 (2006). [0pt] [3] V. M. Stojanovic, C. Wu, W. V. Liu, S. Das Sarma, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 125301 (2008). [0pt] [4] E. Zhao and W. V. Liu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 160403 (2008).
Huhtamaeki, J. A. M.; Virtanen, S. M. M.; Moettoenen, M.; Ankerhold, J.
2007-09-15
We investigate theoretically the tunneling of a dilute Bose-Einstein condensate through a potential barrier. This scenario is closely related to recent experimental studies of condensates trapped in one-dimensional optical lattices. We derive analytical results for the tunneling rate of the condensate with emphasis on the effects of atom-atom interactions. Furthermore, we consider the effect of fluctuating barrier height to the tunneling rate. We have computed the tunneling rate as a function of the characteristic frequency of the noise. The result is seen to be closely related to the excitation spectrum of the condensate. These observations should be experimentally verifiable.
Purity oscillations in Bose-Einstein condensates with balanced gain and loss
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dast, Dennis; Haag, Daniel; Cartarius, Holger; Wunner, Günter
2016-03-01
In this work we present a generic feature of PT -symmetric Bose-Einstein condensates by studying the many-particle description of a two-mode condensate with balanced gain and loss. This is achieved using a master equation in Lindblad form whose mean-field limit is a PT -symmetric Gross-Pitaevskii equation. It is shown that the purity of the condensate periodically drops to small values but then is nearly completely restored. This has a direct impact on the average contrast in interference experiments which cannot be covered by the mean-field approximation, in which a completely pure condensate is assumed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berman, Oleg L.; Kezerashvili, Roman Ya.; Kolmakov, German V.; Pomirchi, Leonid M.
2015-06-01
The Bose-stimulated self-organization of a quasi-two-dimensional nonequilibrium Bose-Einstein condensate in an in-plane potential is proposed. We obtained the solution of the nonlinear, driven-dissipative Gross-Pitaevskii equation for a Bose-Einstein condensate trapped in an external asymmetric parabolic potential within the method of the spectral expansion. We found that, in sharp contrast to previous observations, the condensate can spontaneously acquire a solitonlike shape for spatially homogeneous pumping. This condensate soliton performs oscillatory motion in a parabolic trap and, also, can spontaneously rotate. Stability of the condensate soliton in the spatially asymmetric trap is analyzed. In addition to the nonlinear dynamics of nonequilibrium Bose-Einstein condensates of ultracold atoms, our findings can be applied to the condensates of quantum well excitons and cavity polaritons in semiconductor heterostructure, and to the condensates of photons.
Berman, Oleg L; Kezerashvili, Roman Ya; Kolmakov, German V; Pomirchi, Leonid M
2015-06-01
The Bose-stimulated self-organization of a quasi-two-dimensional nonequilibrium Bose-Einstein condensate in an in-plane potential is proposed. We obtained the solution of the nonlinear, driven-dissipative Gross-Pitaevskii equation for a Bose-Einstein condensate trapped in an external asymmetric parabolic potential within the method of the spectral expansion. We found that, in sharp contrast to previous observations, the condensate can spontaneously acquire a solitonlike shape for spatially homogeneous pumping. This condensate soliton performs oscillatory motion in a parabolic trap and, also, can spontaneously rotate. Stability of the condensate soliton in the spatially asymmetric trap is analyzed. In addition to the nonlinear dynamics of nonequilibrium Bose-Einstein condensates of ultracold atoms, our findings can be applied to the condensates of quantum well excitons and cavity polaritons in semiconductor heterostructure, and to the condensates of photons. PMID:26172766
Bose-Einstein condensation in traps: A quantum Monte Carlo study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dubois, Jonathan L.
We evaluate the zero temperature properties and Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of hard sphere bosons in a harmonic trap using Quantum Monte Carlo methods. The chief purpose of this work is to go beyond the dilute limit, to test the limits of the Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equation and related mean field approximations and to explore the role of interactions in determining the zero temperature properties of the trapped Bose gas. The density is increased by adjusting both the number of trapped bosons, N, and the s-wave scattering length, a, to study systems from the highly dilute region corresponding to early experiments in trapped BEC [5, 6] up to liquid 4He densities and beyond. Rather than relying on the perturbative Bogoliubov approximation (which assumes a large condensate fraction) to describe the condensate, we use the one-body density matrix (OBDM) formulation of BEC so that the properties of the condensate for systems with arbitrarily large interactions may be studied. In this formulation of BEC, condensate properties are obtained by diagonalizing the OBDM and obtaining the corresponding single particle "natural orbitals" and their occupation numbers for the system. The condensate wave function and condensate fraction are then obtained from the single particle orbital(s) with macroscopic occupation ( N0 >> 1). Within this framework, we calculate the effects of interactions and increased density on the ground state energy, the density profile, the momentum distribution, the condensate fraction and condensate "wave-function" and several other properties. We find that at low Boson density, na3 < 10-5 , where n = N/V and a is the hard core diameter, the GP theory of the condensate describes the whole system within 1%. At na3 ≈ 10-3 corrections are 3% to the GP energy but 30% to the Bogoliubov prediction of the condensate depletion. Mean field theory fails at na3 ≳ 10-2. At high density, na 3 ≳ 0.1, the condensate is localized at the edges of the trap and, in
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grond, Julian; Schmiedmayer, Jörg; Hohenester, Ulrich
2010-01-01
We apply optimal control theory to the dynamic splitting process of a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). Number squeezing of two spatially separated BECs is important for interferometry applications and inhibits phase diffusion due to the nonlinear atom-atom interactions. We show how optimal number squeezing can be obtained on time scales much shorter compared to adiabatic splitting. The non-adiabatic time evolution of the condensates is controlled via the trap geometry, thus making our control schemes directly applicable to experiments. We find that the optimal solution for the trap is oscillatory, where a counterintuitive shaking during the ramp produces highly squeezed states. The underlying process can be identified as a parametric amplification.
Gamma-ray laser based on the collective decay of positronium atoms in a Bose-Einstein condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Avetissian, H. K.; Avetissian, A. K.; Mkrtchian, G. F.
2015-08-01
We consider, in general, the collective two-photon annihilation decay of positronium atoms arising from the second quantized formalism. It is shown that two-photon annihilation of positronium atoms in a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) is unstable. Due to the BEC coherence, an absolute instability in such system takes place, i.e., the number of photons created as a result of positronium decay grows in every point within a BEC. The latter leads to an exponential buildup of a macroscopic population into the certain modes. Cooperative effects start for densities much smaller than the Dicke limit of spontaneous super radiation. For laserlike action, i.e., for directional radiation, we consider the BEC with elongated shape when the spontaneously emitted entangled and oppositely directed photon pairs are amplified, leading to an exponential buildup of a macroscopic population into the end-fire modes. We also consider the roles of confinement and interaction among positronium atoms in the amplification process.
Stable fractional vortices in the cyclic states of Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huhtamäki, J. A. M.; Simula, T. P.; Kobayashi, M.; Machida, K.
2009-11-01
We propose methods to create fractional vortices in the cyclic state of an F=2 spinor Bose-Einstein condensate by manipulating its internal spin structure using pulsed microwave and laser fields. The stability of such vortices is studied as a function of the rotation frequency of the confining harmonic trap both in pancake- and cigar-shaped condensates. We find a range of parameters for which the so-called (1)/(3) vortex state is energetically favorable. Such fractional vortices could be created in condensates of R87b atoms using current experimental techniques facilitating probing of topological defects with non-Abelian statistics.
Removal of excitations of Bose-Einstein condensates by space- and time-modulated potentials
Staliunas, Kestutis
2011-07-15
We propose that periodically in space- and time-modulated potentials (dynamic lattices) can efficiently remove the excited (the high-energy and large momentum) components of the trapped Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) and, consequently, can result in efficient cleaning of the BECs. We prove the idea by numerically solving the mean-field models (the Schroedinger equation for noninteracting condensates and the Gross-Pitaevskii equation for interacting condensates of repulsive atoms), and we evaluate parameters and conditions for the efficient removal of excitations.
Efficient production of large {sup 39}K Bose-Einstein condensates
Campbell, Robert L. D.; Smith, Robert P.; Tammuz, Naaman; Beattie, Scott; Moulder, Stuart; Hadzibabic, Zoran
2010-12-15
We describe an experimental setup and the cooling procedure for producing {sup 39}K Bose-Einstein condensates of over 4x10{sup 5} atoms. Condensation is achieved via a combination of sympathetic cooling with {sup 87}Rb in a quadrupole-Ioffe-configuration (QUIC) magnetic trap and direct evaporation in a large-volume crossed optical dipole trap, where we exploit the broad Feshbach resonance at 402 G to tune the {sup 39}K interactions from weak and attractive to strong and repulsive. In the same apparatus we create quasipure {sup 87}Rb condensates of over 8x10{sup 5} atoms.
Spin-singlet Bose-Einstein condensation of two-electron atoms.
Takasu, Yosuke; Maki, Kenichi; Komori, Kaduki; Takano, Tetsushi; Honda, Kazuhito; Kumakura, Mitsutaka; Yabuzaki, Tsutomu; Takahashi, Yoshiro
2003-07-25
We report the observation of a Bose-Einstein condensation of ytterbium atoms by evaporative cooling in a novel crossed optical trap. Unlike the previously observed condensates, a ytterbium condensate is a two-electron system in a singlet state and has distinct features such as the extremely narrow intercombination transitions which are ideal for future optical frequency standard and the insensitivity to external magnetic field which is important for precision coherent atom optics, and the existence of the novel metastable triplet states generated by optical excitation from the singlet state. PMID:12906649
Dissipative Dynamics of a Corotating Vortex Pair in a Bose-Einstein Condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kwon, Woo Jin; Moon, Geol; Seo, Sang Won; Kim, Minseok; Lee, Moosong; Han, Jeong Ho; Shin, Yong-Il
2015-05-01
We report on the long-time evolution of a corotating vortex pair in a highly oblate Bose-Einstein Condensate at finite temperature. We generate a doubly charged vortex in a condensate by a phase imprinting method using a magnetic quadrupole field and measure the temporal evolution of the inter-vortex distance between corotating vortices. We find that the vortex separation monotonically increases over the hold time and its increasing rate is almost linearly proportional to the temperature of the system. We discuss the thermal damping on the vortex motion in a condensate.
Quantum threshold for optomechanical self-structuring in a Bose-Einstein condensate.
Robb, G R M; Tesio, E; Oppo, G-L; Firth, W J; Ackemann, T; Bonifacio, R
2015-05-01
Theoretical analysis of the optomechanics of degenerate bosonic atoms with a single feedback mirror shows that self-structuring occurs only above an input threshold that is quantum mechanical in origin. This threshold also implies a lower limit to the size (period) of patterns that can be produced in a condensate for a given pump intensity. These thresholds are interpreted as due to the quantum rigidity of Bose-Einstein condensates, which has no classical counterpart. Above the threshold, the condensate self-organizes into an ordered supersolid state with a spatial period self-selected by optical diffraction. PMID:25978236
Excitation of two spatially separated Bose-Einstein condensates of magnons
Dzyapko, O.; Demidov, V. E.; Buchmeier, M.; Demokritov, S. O.; Stockhoff, T.; Schmitz, G.; Melkov, G. A.
2009-08-01
We have studied experimentally the spatial properties and the dynamics of magnon Bose-Einstein condensates created in ferromagnetic films by a parametric pumping with different spatial configurations. Using the specific character of dynamic fields produced by pumping resonators of different shapes, we were able to realize the regime, in which two spatially separated condensates of magnons are formed. Our experiments show that while the separation between the condensates is determined by the size of the resonator, their spatial width can be changed by varying the power of the pumping signal.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gerving, C. S.; Hoang, T. M.; Land, B. J.; Anquez, M.; Hamley, C. D.; Chapman, M. S.
2012-11-01
A pendulum prepared perfectly inverted and motionless is a prototype of unstable equilibrium and corresponds to an unstable hyperbolic fixed point in the dynamical phase space. Here, we measure the non-equilibrium dynamics of a spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate initialized as a minimum uncertainty spin-nematic state to a hyperbolic fixed point of the phase space. Quantum fluctuations lead to non-linear spin evolution along a separatrix and non-Gaussian probability distributions that are measured to be in good agreement with exact quantum calculations up to 0.25s. At longer times, atomic loss due to the finite lifetime of the condensate leads to larger spin oscillation amplitudes, as orbits depart from the separatrix. This demonstrates how decoherence of a many-body system can result in apparent coherent behaviour. This experiment provides new avenues for studying macroscopic spin systems in the quantum limit and for investigations of important topics in non-equilibrium quantum dynamics.
Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen argument and Bell inequalities for Bose-Einstein spin condensates
Laloee, F.; Mullin, W. J.
2008-02-15
We discuss the properties of two Bose-Einstein condensates in different spin states, represented quantum mechanically by a double Fock state. Individual measurements of the spins of the particles are performed in transverse directions (perpendicular to the spin quantization axis), giving access to the relative phase of the two macroscopically occupied states. Before the first spin measurement, the phase is completely undetermined; after a few measurements, a more and more precise knowledge of its value emerges under the effect of the quantum measurement process. This naturally leads to the usual notion of a quasiclassical phase (Anderson phase) and to an interesting transposition of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen argument to macroscopic physical quantities. The purpose of this paper is to discuss this transposition, as well as situations where the notion of a quasiclassical phase is no longer sufficient to account for the quantum results, and where significant violations of Bell-type inequalities are predicted. Quantum mechanically, the problem can be treated exactly: the probability for all sequences of results can be expressed in the form of a double integral, depending on all parameters that define the experiment (number of particles, number and angles of measurements). We discuss the differences between this case and the usual two-spin case. We discuss the effect of the many parameters that the experimenters can adjust for their measurements, starting with a discussion of the effect of the angles of measurement (the 'settings'), and then envisaging various choices of the functions that are used to obtain violation of Bell-Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequalities. We then discuss how the 'sample bias loophole' (often also called 'efficiency loophole') can be closed in this case, by introducing a preliminary sequence of measurements to localize the particles into 'measurement boxes'. We finally show that the same nonlocal effects can be observed with distinguishable
Finite temperature effects in Bose-Einstein condensed dark matter halos
Harko, Tiberiu; Madarassy, Enikö J.M. E-mail: eniko.madarassy@physics.uu.se
2012-01-01
Once the critical temperature of a cosmological boson gas is less than the critical temperature, a Bose-Einstein Condensation process can always take place during the cosmic history of the universe. Zero temperature condensed dark matter can be described as a non-relativistic, Newtonian gravitational condensate, whose density and pressure are related by a barotropic equation of state, with barotropic index equal to one. In the present paper we analyze the effects of the finite dark matter temperature on the properties of the dark matter halos. We formulate the basic equations describing the finite temperature condensate, representing a generalized Gross-Pitaevskii equation that takes into account the presence of the thermal cloud. The static condensate and thermal cloud in thermodynamic equilibrium is analyzed in detail, by using the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov and Thomas-Fermi approximations. The condensed dark matter and thermal cloud density and mass profiles at finite temperatures are explicitly obtained. Our results show that when the temperature of the condensate and of the thermal cloud are much smaller than the critical Bose-Einstein transition temperature, the zero temperature density and mass profiles give an excellent description of the dark matter halos. However, finite temperature effects may play an important role in the early stages of the cosmological evolution of the dark matter condensates.
Reaching the hydrodynamic regime in a Bose-Einstein condensate by suppression of avalanches
Stam, K. M. R. van der; Meppelink, R.; Vogels, J. M.; Straten, P. van der
2007-03-15
We report the realization of a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) in the hydrodynamic regime. The hydrodynamic regime is reached by evaporative cooling at a relatively low density suppressing the effect of avalanches. With the suppression of avalanches a BEC containing more than 10{sup 8} atoms is produced. The collisional opacity can be tuned from the collisionless regime to a collisional opacity of more than 2 by compressing the trap after condensation. In the collisional opaque regime a significant heating of the cloud at time scales shorter than half of the radial trap period is measured, which is a direct proof that the BEC is hydrodynamic.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pu, Zhengguo; Zhang, Jun; Yi, Su; Wang, Dajun; Zhang, Wenxian
2016-05-01
We theoretically investigate four types of dynamical instability, in particular the periodic and oscillatory type IO, in an antiferromagnetic spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate in a nonzero magnetic field, by employing the coupled-mode theory and numerical method. This is in sharp contrast to the dynamical stability of the same system in zero field. Remarkably, a pattern transition from a periodic dynamical instability IO to a uniform one IIIO occurs at a critical magnetic field. All four types of dynamical instability and the pattern transition are ready to be detected in 23Na condensates within the availability of the current experimental techniques.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, W. X.; Wang, D. L.; He, Z. M.; Wang, F. J.; Ding, J. W.
2008-06-01
We present a family of soliton solutions of the quasi-one-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensates with time-dependent scattering length, by developing multiple-scale method combined with truncated Painlevé expansion. Then, by numerical calculating the solutions, it is shown that there exhibit two types of dark solitons-black soliton (the zero minimum amplitude at its center) and gray soliton (the minimum density does not drop to zero) in a repulsive condensate. Furthermore, we propose experimental protocols to realize the exchange between black and gray solitons by varying the scattering length via the Feshbach resonance in currently experimental conditions.
Adiabatic geometric phase for a Bose-Einstein condensate coupled to a cavity
Li Shengchang; Fu Libin; Liu Jie
2011-11-15
We investigate the geometric phase in a model of a Bose-Einstein condensate coupled to an optical cavity in which both the condensate and the cavity are described with coherent states. When the argument of the atom-cavity coupling term varies in time slowly from zero to 2{pi}, we calculate the geometric phase accumulated by the ground state and obtain its analytic expression in explicit form. We find that the adiabatic geometric phase jumps from zero to nontrivial {pi} at a critical value that corresponds to the normal-superradiant phase-transition point. The magneticlike flux interpretation of the geometric phase is also discussed.
Creation of a vortex in a Bose-Einstein condensate by superradiant scattering
Tasgin, M. E.; Muestecaplioglu, Oe. E.; You, L.
2011-12-15
The creation of a topological vortex by a superradiant scattering of a Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beam off an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) is theoretically investigated. It is shown that scattered superradiant radiation can be either in a Gaussian mode without angular momentum or in a LG mode with angular momentum. The conditions leading to these two qualitatively distinct regimes of superradiance are determined in terms of the width for the pump laser and the condensate size for the limiting cases where the recoil energy is both much smaller and larger than the atomic interaction energy.
Stability of a dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate in a one-dimensional lattice
Mueller, S.; Billy, J.; Henn, E. A. L.; Kadau, H.; Griesmaier, A.; Pfau, T.; Jona-Lasinio, M.; Santos, L.
2011-11-15
We show that in contrast with contact interacting gases, an optical lattice changes drastically the stability properties of a dipolar condensate, inducing a crossover from dipolar destabilization to dipolar stabilization for increasing lattice depths. Performing stability measurements on a {sup 52}Cr Bose-Einstein condensate in an interaction-dominated regime, repulsive dipolar interaction balances negative scattering lengths down to -17 Bohr radii. Our findings are in excellent agreement with mean-field calculations, revealing the important destabilizing role played by intersite dipolar interactions in deep lattices.
Realization of a Sonic Black Hole Analog in a Bose-Einstein Condensate
Lahav, Oren; Itah, Amir; Blumkin, Alex; Gordon, Carmit; Rinott, Shahar; Zayats, Alona; Steinhauer, Jeff
2010-12-10
We have created an analog of a black hole in a Bose-Einstein condensate. In this sonic black hole, sound waves, rather than light waves, cannot escape the event horizon. A steplike potential accelerates the flow of the condensate to velocities which cross and exceed the speed of sound by an order of magnitude. The Landau critical velocity is therefore surpassed. The point where the flow velocity equals the speed of sound is the sonic event horizon. The effective gravity is determined from the profiles of the velocity and speed of sound. A simulation finds negative energy excitations, by means of Bragg spectroscopy.
Role of quantum statistics in the photoassociation of Bose-Einstein condensates
Olsen, M. K.; Plimak, L. I.
2003-09-01
We show that the photoassociation of an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate to form condensed molecules is a chemical process which not only does not obey the Arrhenius rules for chemical reactions, but that it can also depend on the quantum statistics of the reactants. Comparing the predictions of a truncated Wigner representation for different initial quantum states, we find that, even when the quantum prediction for an initial coherent state is close to the Gross-Pitaevskii prediction, other quantum states may result in very different dynamics.
One-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensation of photons in a microtube
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kruchkov, Alex
This study introduces a quasiequilibrium one-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensation of photons trapped in a microscopical waveguide. Light modes with a cut-off frequency (''photon's mass'') interact through different processes of absorption, re-emition, and scattering on molecules of dye. In this work I consider conditions for the one-dimensional condensation of light and the role of photon-photon interactions in the system. The computational technique in use is the Matsubara's Green's functions formalism modified for the quasiequilibrium system under study.
Quantum Enhancement of Higher-Order Phononlike Excitations of a Bose-Einstein Condensate
Rowen, E. E.; Bar-Gill, N.; Davidson, N.
2008-07-04
In a Bose-Einstein condensate, the excitation of a Bogoliubov phonon with low momentum (e.g., by a two-photon Bragg process) is strongly suppressed due to destructive interference between two indistinguishable excitation pathways. Here we show that scattering of this sound excitation into a double-momentum mode is strongly enhanced due to constructive interference. This enhancement yields an inherent amplification of second-order sound excitations of the condensate, as we confirm experimentally. We further show that due to parity considerations, this effect is extended to higher-order excitations.
Noncollinear drag force in Bose-Einstein condensates with Weyl spin-orbit coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liao, Renyuan; Fialko, Oleksandr; Brand, Joachim; Zülicke, Ulrich
2016-02-01
We consider the motion of a pointlike impurity through a three-dimensional two-component Bose-Einstein condensate subject to Weyl spin-orbit coupling. Using linear-response theory, we calculate the drag force felt by the impurity and the associated anisotropic critical velocity from the spectrum of elementary excitations. The drag force is shown to be generally not collinear with the velocity of the impurity. This unusual behavior is a consequence of condensation into a finite-momentum state due to the spin-orbit coupling.
Vortex Formation by Merging of Multiple Trapped Bose-Einstein Condensates
Scherer, David R.; Weiler, Chad N.; Neely, Tyler W.; Anderson, Brian P.
2007-03-16
We report observations of vortex formation by merging and interfering multiple {sup 87}Rb Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) in a confining potential. In this experiment, a single harmonic potential well is partitioned into three sections by a barrier, enabling the simultaneous formation of three independent, uncorrelated BECs. The BECs may either automatically merge together during their growth, or for high-energy barriers, the BECs can be merged together by barrier removal after their formation. Either process may instigate vortex formation in the resulting BEC, depending on the initially indeterminate relative phases of the condensates and the merging rate.
Spatial Landau-Zener-Stueckelberg interference in spinor Bose-Einstein condensates
Zhang, J.-N.; Sun, C.-P.; Yi, S.; Nori, Franco
2011-03-15
We investigate the Stueckelberg oscillations of a spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate subject to a spatially inhomogeneous transverse magnetic field and a periodic longitudinal field. We show that the time-domain Stueckelberg oscillations result in modulations in the density profiles of all spin components due to the spatial inhomogeneity of the transverse field. This phenomenon represents the Landau-Zener-Stueckelberg interference in the space domain. Since the magnetic dipole-dipole interaction between spin-1 atoms induces an inhomogeneous effective magnetic field, interference fringes also appear if a dipolar spinor condensate is driven periodically. We also point out some potential applications of this spatial Landau-Zener-Stuekelberg interference.
Disorder-Induced Order in Two-Component Bose-Einstein Condensates
Niederberger, A.; Schulte, T.; Wehr, J.; Lewenstein, M.; Sanchez-Palencia, L.; Sacha, K.
2008-01-25
We propose and analyze a general mechanism of disorder-induced order in two-component Bose-Einstein condensates, analogous to corresponding effects established for XY spin models. We show that a random Raman coupling induces a relative phase of {pi}/2 between the two BECs and that the effect is robust. We demonstrate it in one, two, and three dimensions at T=0 and present evidence that it persists at small T>0. Applications to phase control in ultracold spinor condensates are discussed.
Quasi-polaritons in Bose-Einstein condensates induced by Casimir-Polder interaction with graphene.
Terças, H; Ribeiro, S; Mendonça, J T
2015-06-01
We consider the mechanical coupling between a two-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate and a graphene sheet via the vacuum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field which are at the origin of the so-called Casimir-Polder potential. By deriving a self-consistent set of equations governing the dynamics of the condensate and the flexural (out-of-plane) modes of the graphene, we can show the formation of a new type of purely acoustic quasi-particle excitation, a quasi-polariton resulting from the coherent superposition of quanta of flexural and Bogoliubov modes. PMID:25966318
A Kinetic Approach to Bose-Einstein Condensates: Self-Phase Modulation and Bogoliubov Oscillations
Mendonca, J.T.; Bingham, R.; Shukla, P.K.
2005-11-01
A kinetic approach to Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) is proposed based on the Wigner-Moyal equation (WME). In the semiclassical limit, the WME reduces to the particle-number conservation equation. Two examples of applications are (i) a self-phase modulation of a BE condensate beam, where we show that part of the beam is decelerated and eventually stops as a result of the gradient of the effective self-potential, and (ii) the derivation of a kinetic dispersion relation for sound waves in BECs, including collisionless Landau damping.
Zhang, J. M.; Cui, S.; Jing, H.; Zhou, D. L.; Liu, W. M.
2009-10-15
We propose to probe the quantum ground state of a spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate with the transmission spectra of an optical cavity. By choosing a circularly polarized cavity mode with an appropriate frequency, we can realize coupling between the cavity mode and the magnetization of the condensate. The cavity transmission spectra then contain information of the magnetization statistics of the condensate and thus can be used to distinguish the ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic quantum ground states. This technique may also be useful for continuous observation of the spin dynamics of a spinor Bose-Einstein condensate.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Accardi, Luigi; Fidaleo, Francesco
2016-04-01
In the setting of the principle of local equilibrium which asserts that the temperature is a function of energy levels of the system, we exhibit plenty of steady states describing condensation of free bosons which are not in thermal equilibrium. The surprising facts are that the condensation can occur both in dimension less than 3 in configuration space, and even in excited energy levels. The investigation relative to nonequilibrium suggests a new approach to the condensation which allows a unified analysis involving also condensation of q-particles, -1 ≤ q ≤ 1, where q = ±1 corresponds to the Bose/Fermi alternative. For such q-particles, it is shown that condensation can occur only if 0 Bose-Einstein condensation. In this more general approach, completely new and unexpected states exhibiting condensation phenomena naturally occur even in the usual situation of equilibrium thermodynamics involving bosons. The new approach proposed in the present paper for the situation of second quantisation of free particles, is based on the theory of distributions, which might hopefully be extended to more general cases.
Impurity Crystal in a Bose-Einstein Condensate
Roberts, David C.; Rica, Sergio
2009-01-16
We investigate the behavior of impurity fields immersed in a larger condensate field in various dimensions. We discuss the localization of a single impurity field within a condensate and note the effects of surface energy. We derive the functional form of the attractive condensate-mediated interaction between two impurities. Generalizing the analysis to N impurity fields, we show that within various parameter regimes a crystal of impurity fields can form spontaneously in the condensate. Finally, the system of condensate and crystallized impurity structure is shown to have nonclassical rotational inertia, which is characteristic of superfluidity; i.e., the system can be seen to exhibit supersolid behavior.
Quench dynamics of a Bose-Einstein condensate under synthetic spin-orbit coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deng, Tian-Shu; Zhang, Wei; Yi, Wei; Guo, Guang-Can
2016-05-01
We study the quench dynamics of a Bose-Einstein condensate under a Raman-assisted synthetic spin-orbit coupling. To model the dynamical process, we adopt a self-consistent Bogoliubov approach, which is equivalent to applying the time-dependent Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations. We investigate the dynamics of the condensate fraction as well as the momentum distribution of the Bose gas following a sudden change of system parameters. Typically, the system evolves into a steady state in the long-time limit, which features an oscillating momentum distribution and a stationary condensate fraction. We investigate how different quench parameters such as the inter- and intraspecies interactions and the spin-orbit-coupling parameters affect the condensate fraction in the steady state. Furthermore, we find that the time average of the oscillatory momentum distribution in the long-time limit can be described by a generalized Gibbs ensemble with two branches of momentum-dependent Gibbs temperatures. Our study is relevant to the experimental investigation of dynamical processes in a spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensate.
Evolution of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a rapidly expanding circular box
Theodorakis, Stavros; Constantinou, Yiannis
2007-09-15
We examine the evolution of the ground state of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a two-dimensional circular box, the wall of which is initially at rest and then recedes with large and constant speed. The final state of the condensate depends on the rapidity of the expansion of the box. If the number of atoms in the condensate is small compared to the dimensionless speed of the wall, then the condensate becomes a mixture of excitations and follows the expansion of the box, leaving empty though an increasingly larger region between the condensate boundary and the wall. If, on the other hand, the number of atoms is large compared to the dimensionless speed of the wall, then the condensate is always in the ground state and spreads uniformly in all of the expanding box, the condensate boundary always coinciding with the receding wall. Approximate analytic expressions are found for the evolving wave function.
I.I. Rabi Prize Lecture: Bose-Einstein condensates - matter with laser-like properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ketterle, Wolfgang
1997-04-01
Several studies of Bose-Einstein condensation in a dilute gas of sodium atoms have been performed. Bose-condensates were produced by evaporative cooling in a tightly-confining magnetic "cloverleaf" trap and observed either by absorption imaging or non-destructive phase contrast imaging. We have observed the formation of a Bose condensate and low-lying collective excitations. An rf output coupler allowed the controlled extraction of multiple pulses of atoms from a trapped Bose condensate. Two condensates were produced by evaporative cooling in a double-well potential. When the condensates were released and overlapped, high contrast interference was observed proving the coherence of the condensates. The controlled extraction of coherent atoms is a rudimentary realization of an atom laser.
Constraints on Bose-Einstein-condensed axion dark matter from the Hi nearby galaxy survey data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Ming-Hua; Li, Zhi-Bing
2014-05-01
One of the leading candidates for dark matter is the axion or axionlike particle in the form of a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). In this paper, we present an analysis of 17 high-resolution galactic rotation curves from the Hi nearby galaxy survey (THINGS) data [F. Walter et al., Astron. J. 136, 2563 (2008)] in the context of the axionic Bose-Einstein condensed dark matter model. Assuming a repulsive two-body interaction, we solve the nonrelativistic Gross-Pitaevskii equation for N gravitationally trapped bosons in the Thomas-Fermi approximation. We obtain the maximum possible radius R and the mass profile M(r) of a dilute axionic Bose-Einstein condensed gas cloud. A standard least- χ2 method is employed to find the best-fit values of the total mass M of the axion BEC and its radius R. The local mass density of BEC axion dark matter is ρa ≃0.02 GeV /cm3, which agrees with that presented by Beck [C. Beck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 231801 (2013)]. The axion mass ma we obtain depends not only on the best-fit value of R, but also on the s-wave scattering length a (ma∝a1/3). The transition temperature Ta of an axion BEC on galactic scales is also estimated. Comparing the calculated Ta with the ambient temperature of galaxies and galaxy clusters implies that a ˜10-3 fm. The corresponding axion mass is ma≃0.58 meV. We compare our results with others.
Cavity Exciton-Polaritons, Bose Einstein Condensation and Spin Dynamics
Malpuech, Guillaume; Solnyshkov, Dmitry; Shelykh, Ivan
2009-10-07
An introduction giving elementary properties of cavity exciton-polariton will be given. The condition of occurrence of the polariton lasing effect and of the polariton Bose Eintein condensation will be discussed. The impact of the structural disorder on the superfluid behavior of polariton condensates will be analysed. The spin properties of polariton condensates will be discussed. I will show how the anisotropy of the polariton-polariton interaction leads to the suppression of zeeman splitting for polariton condensates (spin Meissner effects). I will show how the combined impact of disorder and spin Meissner effect can lead to the formation of a new condense phase. I will show how these phenomena can allow for the realization of a polaritonic Datta Das spin transistor.
The first experiments with Bose-Einstein condensation of rubidium-87
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ensher, Jason Remington
1999-10-01
Bose-Einstein Condensation (BEC) is the macroscopic occupation of the ground-state of a system of bosons that occurs when the extent of the wavefunctions of the particles is comparable to the interparticle spacing. Although predicted by Albert Einstein in 1924) BEC in a dilute system was observed only recently in an atomic vapor of 87Rb by our group in 1995. This thesis describes the first experiments to explore the properties of this new state of matter. In early experiments, we studied how interparticle interactions modify the ground-state wavefunction and mean energy. We observed phonon-like collective excitations of the condensate. We studied modes of different angular momenta and energies. Our observations of how the characteristics of the modes depend on interactions quantitatively supported the mean- field picture of the dilute BEC. Shortly thereafter, we developed thermometry and calorimetry to study the ground-state fraction and mean energy of the Bose gas as a function of temperature. The BEC transition temperature and the temperature dependence of the ground-state fraction are in good agreement with predictions for an ideal Bose gas. However, the measured mean energy is larger than that of the ideal gas below the transition. We observe a distinct change in the energy-temperature curve near the transition, which indicates a sharp feature in the specific heat. In an effort to produce larger condensates we constructed a double-MOT apparatus that became the third-generation machine at JILA to observe and study BEC. The new apparatus produces condensates five times more quickly than the original experiment, increasing the number of atoms in the condensate from several thousand to 1-2 million atoms. Using the improved apparatus, we studied the TOP (time-averaged orbiting potential) magnetic trap. An important, new observation is that the trap symmetry is affected by the sag due to gravity, an effect which can be exploited to create very harmonic, spherical
Chaos control of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a moving optical lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Zhiying; Feng, Xiuqin; Yao, Zhihai
2016-07-01
Chaos control of a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) loaded into a moving optical lattice with attractive interaction is investigated on the basis of Lyapunov stability theory. Three methods are designed to control chaos in BEC. As a controller, a bias constant, periodic force, or wavelet function feedback is added to the BEC system. Numerical simulations reveal that chaotic behavior can be well controlled to achieve periodicity by regulating control parameters. Different periodic orbits are available for different control parameters only if the maximal Lyapunov exponent of the system is negative. The abundant effect of chaotic control is also demonstrated numerically. Chaos control can be realized effectively by using our proposed control strategies.
Anomalous switching of optical bistability in a Bose-Einstein condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Shuai; Al-Amri, M.; Zubairy, M. Suhail
2013-03-01
The nonlinear dynamics of the photon number in an optical cavity filled with a cigar-shaped Bose-Einstein condensate is investigated. We find that the way of adding the field is crucial to the switching close to the critical transition point. If the pump field is changed abruptly, the system may jump from one branch to the other even if the pump field intensity has not reached the critical transition point yet. This behavior is similar to the anomalous switching in the dispersive optical bistability.
Vortex formation of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a rotating deep optical lattice
Kato, Akira; Nakano, Yuki; Kasamatsu, Kenichi; Matsui, Tetsuo
2011-11-15
We study the dynamics of vortex nucleation and lattice formation in a Bose-Einstein condensate in a rotating square optical lattice by numerical simulations of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. Different dynamical regimes of vortex nucleation are found, depending on the depth and period of the optical lattice. We make an extensive comparison with the experiments by R. A. Williams et al.[Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 050404 (2010)], especially focusing on the issues of the critical rotation frequency for the first vortex nucleation and the vortex number as a function of rotation frequency.
Stickney, James A.; Zozulya, Alex A.; Anderson, Dana Z.
2007-06-15
Atom interferometers using Bose-Einstein condensate that is confined in a waveguide and manipulated by optical pulses have been limited by their short coherence times. We present a theoretical model that offers a physically simple explanation for the loss of contrast and propose the method for increasing the fringe contrast by recombining the atoms at a different time. A simple, quantitatively accurate, analytical expression for the optimized recombination time is presented and used to place limits on the physical parameters for which the contrast may be recovered.
Scott, R G; Judd, T E; Fromhold, T M
2008-03-14
We show that the decay of a soliton into vortices provides a mechanism for measuring the initial phase difference between two merging Bose-Einstein condensates. At very low temperatures, the mechanism is resonant, operating only when the clouds start in antiphase. But at higher temperatures, phase fluctuations trigger vortex production over a wide range of initial relative phase, as observed in recent experiments at MIT. Choosing the merge time to maximize the number of vortices created makes the interferometer highly sensitive to spatially varying phase patterns and hence atomic movement. PMID:18352165
Scott, R. G.; Judd, T. E.; Fromhold, T. M.
2008-03-14
We show that the decay of a soliton into vortices provides a mechanism for measuring the initial phase difference between two merging Bose-Einstein condensates. At very low temperatures, the mechanism is resonant, operating only when the clouds start in antiphase. But at higher temperatures, phase fluctuations trigger vortex production over a wide range of initial relative phase, as observed in recent experiments at MIT. Choosing the merge time to maximize the number of vortices created makes the interferometer highly sensitive to spatially varying phase patterns and hence atomic movement.
Dark-dark solitons and modulational instability in miscible two-component Bose-Einstein condensates
Hoefer, M. A.; Chang, J. J.; Hamner, C.; Engels, P.
2011-10-15
We investigate the dynamics of two miscible superfluids experiencing fast counterflow in a narrow channel. The superfluids are formed by two distinguishable components of a trapped dilute-gas Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). The onset of counterflow-induced modulational instability throughout the cloud is observed and shown to lead to the proliferation of dark-dark vector solitons. These solitons do not exist in single-component systems, exhibit intriguing beating dynamics, and can experience a transverse instability leading to vortex line structures. Experimental results and multidimensional numerical simulations are presented.
Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Correlations via Dissociation of a Molecular Bose-Einstein Condensate
Kheruntsyan, K.V.; Drummond, P.D.; Olsen, M.K.
2005-10-07
Recent experimental measurements of atomic intensity correlations through atom shot noise suggest that atomic quadrature phase correlations may soon be measured with a similar precision. We propose a test of local realism with mesoscopic numbers of massive particles based on such measurements. Using dissociation of a Bose-Einstein condensate of diatomic molecules into bosonic atoms, we demonstrate that strongly entangled atomic beams may be produced which possess Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) correlations in field quadratures in direct analogy to the position and momentum correlations originally considered by EPR.
Generating ring dark solitons in an evolving Bose-Einstein condensate
Yang Shijie; Wu Quansheng; Zhang Shengnan; Feng Shiping; Guo Wenan; Wen Yuchuan; Yu Yue
2007-12-15
The successive dynamical evolution of a Bose-Einstein condensate confined in a cylindrical well is numerically studied in the framework of the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation. Interference in the nonlinear matter wave leads to concentric density rings. The phase distribution exhibits a discontinuous sequence of plateaulike belts. Abrupt jumps in the phase between adjacent belts imply large radial superfluid velocity at the borderline. This, however, does not mean large particle current because the corresponding superfluid density is nearly zero. The density zeros along with the large gradient are identified as ring dark solitons, which have a brief lifetime before evolving into other soliton states.
All-optical transistor based on a cavity optomechanical system with a Bose-Einstein condensate
Chen, Bin; Jiang, Cheng; Li, Jin-Jin; Zhu, Ka-Di
2011-11-15
We propose a scheme of an all-optical transistor based on a coupled Bose-Einstein condensate cavity system. The calculated results show that, in such an optomechanical system, the transmission of the probe beam is strongly dependent on the optical pump power. Therefore, the optical pump field can serve as a ''gate'' field of the transistor, effectively controlling the propagation of the probe field (the ''signal'' field). The scheme proposed here may have potential applications in optical communication and quantum information processing.
Tojo, Satoshi; Taguchi, Yoshihisa; Masuyama, Yuta; Hayashi, Taro; Hirano, Takuya; Saito, Hiroki
2010-09-15
We investigate controlled phase separation of a binary Bose-Einstein condensate in the proximity of a mixed-spin-channel Feshbach resonance in the |F=1,m{sub F}=+1> and |F=2,m{sub F}=-1> states of {sup 87}Rb at a magnetic field of 9.10 G. Phase separation occurs on the lower-magnetic-field side of the Feshbach resonance while the two components overlap on the higher-magnetic-field side. The Feshbach resonance curve of the scattering length is obtained from the shape of the atomic cloud by comparison with the numerical analysis of coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations.
Quantum Kibble-Zurek Mechanism in a Spin-1 Bose-Einstein Condensate.
Anquez, M; Robbins, B A; Bharath, H M; Boguslawski, M; Hoang, T M; Chapman, M S
2016-04-15
The dynamics of a quantum phase transition are explored using slow quenches from the polar to the broken-axisymmetry phases in a small spin-1 ferromagnetic Bose-Einstein condensate. Measurements of the evolution of the spin populations reveal a power-law scaling of the temporal onset of excitations versus quench speed as predicted from quantum extensions of the Kibble-Zurek mechanism. The satisfactory agreement of the measured scaling exponent with the analytical theory and numerical simulations provides experimental confirmation of the quantum Kibble-Zurek model. PMID:27127974
Baryon-number conservation in Bose-Einstein condensate black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kühnel, Florian; Sandstad, Marit
2015-12-01
Primordial black holes are studied in the Bose-Einstein condensate description of space-time. The question of baryon-number conservation is investigated with emphasis on the possible formation of bound states of the system's remaining captured baryons. This leads to distinct predictions both for the formation time, which for the naively natural assumptions is shown to lie between 10-12 s and 1012 s after the big bang, and for the remnant's mass, yielding approximately 3 ×1023 kg in the same scheme. The consequences for astrophysically formed black holes are also considered.
Manipulation of collective quantum states in Bose-Einstein condensates by continuous imaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wade, Andrew C. J.; Sherson, Jacob F.; Mølmer, Klaus
2016-02-01
We develop a Gaussian state treatment that allows a transparent quantum description of the continuous, nondestructive imaging of and feedback on a Bose-Einstein condensate. We have previously demonstrated [A. C. J. Wade et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 060401 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.060401] that the measurement backaction of stroboscopic imaging leads to selective squeezing and entanglement of quantized density oscillations. Here, we investigate how the squeezing and entanglement are affected by the finite spatial resolution and geometry of the probe laser beam and of the detector and how they can be optimized.
Solitary waves of Bose-Einstein-condensed atoms confined in finite rings
Smyrnakis, J.; Magiropoulos, M.; Kavoulakis, G. M.; Jackson, A. D.
2010-08-15
Motivated by recent progress in trapping Bose-Einstein-condensed atoms in toroidal potentials, we examine solitary-wave solutions of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation subject to periodic boundary conditions. When the circumference of the ring is much larger than the size of the wave, the density profile is well approximated by that of an infinite ring; however, the density and the velocity of propagation cannot vanish simultaneously. When the size of the ring becomes comparable to the size of the wave, the density variation becomes sinusoidal and the velocity of propagation saturates to a constant value.
Bose-Einstein Condensation in a Dilute Gas; the First 70 Years and Some Recent Experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cornell, E. A.; Wieman, C. E.
Bose-Einstein condensation, or BEC, has a long and rich history dating from the early 1920s. In this article we will trace briefly over this history and some of the developments in physics that made possible our successful pursuit of BEC in a gas. We will then discuss what was involved in this quest. In this discussion we will go beyond the usual technical description to try and address certain questions that we now hear frequently, but are not covered in our past research papers. These are questions along the lines of ``How did you get the idea and decide to pursue it? Did you know it was going to work? How long did it take you and why?'' We will review some of our favorites from among the experiments we have carried out with BEC. There will then be a brief encore on why we are optimistic that BEC can be created with nearly any species of magnetically trappable atom. Throughout this article we will try to explain what makes BEC in a dilute gas so interesting, unique, and experimentally challenging.
Excitations from a Bose-Einstein Condensate of Magnons in Coupled Spin Ladders
Garlea, Vasile O; Zheludev, Andrey I; Masuda, T.; Manaka, H.; Regnault, L.-P.; Ressouche, E.; Grenier, B.; Chung, J.-H.; Qiu, Y.; Habicht, Klaus; Kiefer, K.; Boehm, Martin
2007-01-01
The weakly coupled quasi-one-dimensional spin ladder compound CH32HHNH3CuCl3 is studied by neutron scattering in magnetic fields exceeding the critical field of Bose-Einstein condensation of magnons. Commensurate long-range order and the associated Goldstone mode are detected and found to be similar to those in reference to spin-dimer materials. However, for the upper two massive magnon branches, the observed behavior is totally different, culminating in a drastic collapse of excitation bandwidth beyond the transition point.
Nonlinear resonant tunneling of Bose-Einstein condensates in tilted optical lattices
Rapedius, K.; Elsen, C.; Korsch, H. J.; Witthaut, D.; Wimberger, S.
2010-12-15
We study the tunneling decay of a Bose-Einstein condensate from tilted optical lattices within the mean-field approximation. We introduce a method to calculate ground and excited resonance eigenstates of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, based on a grid relaxation procedure with complex absorbing potentials. This algorithm works efficiently in a wide range of parameters where established methods fail. It allows us to study the effects of the nonlinearity in detail in the regime of resonant tunneling, where the decay rate is enhanced by resonant coupling to excited unstable states.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schulte, T.; Drenkelforth, S.; Kruse, J.; Ertmer, W.; Arlt, J.; Sacha, K.; Zakrzewski, J.; Lewenstein, M.
2005-10-01
We investigate, both experimentally and theoretically, possible routes towards Anderson-like localization of Bose-Einstein condensates in disordered potentials. The dependence of this quantum interference effect on the nonlinear interactions and the shape of the disorder potential is investigated. Experiments with an optical lattice and a superimposed disordered potential reveal the lack of Anderson localization. A theoretical analysis shows that this absence is due to the large length scale of the disorder potential as well as its screening by the nonlinear interactions. Further analysis shows that incommensurable superlattices should allow for the observation of the crossover from the nonlinear screening regime to the Anderson localized case within realistic experimental parameters.
Collective oscillations in trapped Bose-Einstein-condensed gases in the presence of weak disorder
Falco, G. M.; Pelster, A.; Graham, R.
2007-07-15
The influence of a weak random potential on the collective modes of a trapped interacting Bose-Einstein condensate at zero temperature is calculated in the limit when the correlation length of the disorder is smaller than the healing length of the superfluid. The problem is solved in the Thomas-Fermi limit by generalizing the superfluid hydrodynamic equations to allow for the presence of weak disorder. We find that the disorder-induced frequency shifts of the low-energy excitations can be of the same order of magnitude as the beyond mean-field corrections in the normal interaction recently observed experimentally.
Jain, Piyush; Cinti, Fabio; Boninsegni, Massimo
2011-07-01
Low-temperature properties of harmonically confined two-dimensional assemblies of dipolar bosons are systematically investigated by Monte Carlo simulations. Calculations carried out for different numbers of particles and strengths of the confining potential yield evidence of a quantum phase transition from a superfluid to a crystal-like phase, consistently with what is observed in the homogeneous system. It is found that the crystal phase nucleates in the center of the trap, as the density increases. Bose-Einstein condensation vanishes at T=0 upon entering the crystalline phase, concurrently with the disappearance of the superfluid response.
Low Energy Excitations of a Bose-Einstein Condensate: A Time-Dependent Variational Analysis
Perez-Garcia, V.M.; Michinel, H.; Cirac, J.; Lewenstein, M.; Zoller, P.
1996-12-01
We solve the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation by a variational ansatz to calculate the excitation spectrum of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a trap. The trial wave function is a Gaussian which allows an essentially analytical treatment of the problem. Our results reproduce numerical calculations over the whole range from small to large particle numbers, and agree exactly with the Stringari results in the strong interaction limit. Excellent agreement is obtained with the recent JILA experiment and predictions for the negative scattering length case are also made. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}
Dynamics of bubbles in a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sasaki, Kazuki; Suzuki, Naoya; Saito, Hiroki
2011-03-01
The dynamics of a phase-separated two-component Bose-Einstein condensate are investigated, in which a bubble of one component moves through the other component. Numerical simulations of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation reveal a variety of dynamics associated with the creation of quantized vortices. In two dimensions, a circular bubble deforms into an ellipse and splits into fragments with vortices, which undergo the Magnus effect. The Bénard-von Kármán vortex street is also generated. In three dimensions, a spherical bubble deforms into toruses with vortex rings. When two rings are formed, they exhibit leapfrogging dynamics.
Dynamics of bubbles in a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate
Sasaki, Kazuki; Suzuki, Naoya; Saito, Hiroki
2011-03-15
The dynamics of a phase-separated two-component Bose-Einstein condensate are investigated, in which a bubble of one component moves through the other component. Numerical simulations of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation reveal a variety of dynamics associated with the creation of quantized vortices. In two dimensions, a circular bubble deforms into an ellipse and splits into fragments with vortices, which undergo the Magnus effect. The Benard-von Karman vortex street is also generated. In three dimensions, a spherical bubble deforms into toruses with vortex rings. When two rings are formed, they exhibit leapfrogging dynamics.
Full-time dynamics of modulational instability in spinor Bose-Einstein condensates
Doktorov, Evgeny V.; Rothos, Vassilis M.; Kivshar, Yuri S.
2007-07-15
We describe the full-time dynamics of modulational instability in F=1 spinor Bose-Einstein condensates for the case of the integrable three-component model associated with the matrix nonlinear Schroedinger equation. We obtain an exact homoclinic solution of this model by employing the dressing method which we generalize to the case of the higher-rank projectors. This homoclinic solution describes the development of modulational instability beyond the linear regime, and we show that the modulational instability demonstrates the reversal property when the growth of the modulated amplitude is changed by its exponential decay.
Attraction-induced dynamical stability of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a nonlinear lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dasgupta, Raka; Venkatesh, B. Prasanna; Watanabe, Gentaro
2016-06-01
We study multiple-period Bloch states of a Bose-Einstein condensate with spatially periodic interatomic interaction. Solving the Gross-Pitaevskii equation for the continuum model, and also using a simplified discrete version of it, we investigate the energy-band structures and the corresponding stability properties. We observe an "attraction-induced dynamical stability" mechanism caused by the localization of the density distribution in the attractive domains of the system and the isolation of these higher-density regions. This makes the superfluid stable near the zone boundary and also enhances the stability of higher-periodic states if the nonlinear interaction strength is sufficiently high.
Collective Excitations of Bose-Einstein Condensates In Isotropic and Slightly Anisotropic Traps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barentine, Andrew; Lobser, Dan; Lewandowski, Heather; Cornell, Eric
2014-05-01
Boltzmann proved that the monopole mode of a thermal gas in an isotropic, harmonic and 3D trap is undamped. Bose-Einstein Condensates (BECs) are not classical gases and their weakly interacting nature causes damping at finite temperature in a 3D monopole mode. The large parameter space of the TOP (Time-averaged Orbiting Potential) trap allows for precise control of the trap geometry. Exciting a monopole mode in a BEC as well as its canonical thermal cloud in the hydrodynamic regime will allow us to investigate damping effects in isotropic and slightly anisotropic traps. Funding : NSF,NIST,ONR
Interaction of half-quantized vortices in two-component Bose-Einstein condensates
Eto, Minoru; Kasamatsu, Kenichi; Nitta, Muneto; Takeuchi, Hiromitsu; Tsubota, Makoto
2011-06-15
We study the asymptotic interaction between two half-quantized vortices in two-component Bose-Einstein condensates. When two vortices in different components are placed at distance 2R, the leading order of the force between them is found to be (lnR/{xi}-1/2)/R{sup 3}, in contrast to 1/R between vortices placed in the same component. We derive it analytically using the Abrikosov ansatz and the profile functions of the vortices, confirmed numerically with the Gross-Pitaevskii model. We also find that the short-range cutoff of the intervortex potential linearly depends on the healing length.
Axion Bose-Einstein Condensation: a model beyond Cold Dark Matter
Yang, Q.
2010-08-30
Cold dark matter axions form a Bose-Einstein condensate if the axions thermalize. Recently, it was found [1] that they do thermalize when the photon temperature reaches T{approx}100 eV(f/10{sup 12} GeV){sup 1/2} and that they continue to do so thereafter. We discuss the differences between axion BEC and CDM in the linear regime and the non-linear regime of evolution of density perturbations. We find that axion BEC provides a mechanism for the production of net overall rotation in dark matter halos, and for the alignment of cosmic microwave anisotropy multi-poles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Wei-Dong; Zhang, Yunbo; Liang, J.-Q.
2003-06-01
The energy-band structure and energy splitting due to quantum tunneling in two weakly linked Bose-Einstein condensates were calculated by using the instanton method. The intrinsic coherent properties of Bose-Josephson junction (BJJ) were investigated in terms of energy splitting. For EC/EJ≪1, the energy splitting is small and the system is globally phase coherent. In the opposite limit, EC/EJ≫1, the energy splitting is large and the system becomes phase dissipated. Our results suggest that one should investigate the coherence phenomena of BJJ in proper condition such as EC/EJ˜1.
Chaotic Josephson effects in two-coupled Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fang, Jianshu; Hai, Wenhua; Chong, Guishu; Xie, Qiongtao
2005-04-01
We discuss the chaotic Josephson effects in two weakly coupled Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs). The boson Josephson junction (BJJ) dynamics in BECs is governed by the two-mode Gross-Pitaevskii equation. We obtained a perturbed chaotic solution of the BJJ equation by using the direct perturbation technique. Theoretical analysis reveals that the stable oscillating orbits are embedded in the Melnikov chaotic attractors. The corresponding numerical results show that the Poincaré sections in the equivalent phase space (φ,φ˙) sensitively depends on the system parameter and initial conditions. Therefore, we can control the transitions between chaos and order by adjusting these parameters and conditions.
Fractional-charge vortex in a spinor Bose-Einstein condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gautam, Sandeep; Adhikari, S. K.
2016-01-01
We classify all possible fractional charge vortices of charge less than unity in spin-1 and spin-2 polar and cyclic Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) with zero magnetization. Statics and dynamics of these vortices in quasi-two-dimensional spinor BECs are studied employing an accurate numerical solution and a Lagrange variational approximation. The results for density and collective-mode oscillation are illustrated using the fractional-charge BEC vortex of 23Na and 87Rb atoms with realistic interaction and trapping potential parameters.
Dynamical generation of phase-squeezed states in two-component Bose-Einstein condensates
Jin, G. R.; An, Y.; Yan, T.; Lu, Z. S.
2010-12-15
As an ''input'' state of a linear (Mach-Zehnder or Ramsey) interferometer, the phase-squeezed state proposed by Berry and Wiseman exhibits the best sensitivity approaching to the Heisenberg limit [Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5098 (2000)]. Similar with the Berry and Wiseman's state, we find that two kinds of phase-squeezed states can be generated dynamically with atomic Bose-Einstein condensates confined in a symmetric double-well potential, which shows squeezing along spin operator S{sub y} and antisqueezing along S{sub z}, leading to subshot-noise phase estimation.
Effect of scattering lengths on the dynamics of a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate
Csire, Gabor; Apagyi, Barnabas
2010-12-15
We examine the effect of the intra- and interspecies scattering lengths on the dynamics of a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate, particularly focusing on the existence and stability of solitonic excitations. For each type of possible soliton pairs, stability ranges are presented in tabulated form. We also compare the numerically established stability of bright-bright, bright-dark, and dark-dark solitons with our analytical prediction and with that of Painleve analysis of the dynamical equation. We demonstrate that tuning the interspecies scattering length away from the predicted value (keeping the intraspecies coupling fixed) breaks the stability of the soliton pairs.
Observation of Spontaneous Coherence in Bose-Einstein Condensate of Magnons
Demidov, V. E.; Dzyapko, O.; Demokritov, S. O.; Melkov, G. A.; Slavin, A. N.
2008-02-01
The room-temperature dynamics of a magnon gas driven by short microwave pumping pulses is studied. An overpopulation of the lowest energy level of the system following the pumping is observed. Using the sensitivity of the Brillouin light scattering technique to the coherence degree of the scattering magnons we demonstrate the spontaneous emergence of coherence of the magnons at the lowest level, if their density exceeds a critical value. This finding is clear proof of the quantum nature of the observed phenomenon and direct evidence of Bose-Einstein condensation of magnons at room temperature.
Cooperative ring exchange and quantum melting of vortex lattices in atomic Bose-Einstein condensates
Ghosh, Tarun Kanti; Baskaran, G.
2004-02-01
Cooperative ring exchange is suggested as a mechanism of quantum melting of vortex lattices in a rapidly rotating quasi-two-dimensional atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). Using an approach pioneered by Kivelson et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 873 (1986)] for the fractional quantized Hall effect, we calculate the condition for quantum melting instability by considering large-correlated ring exchanges in a two-dimensional Wigner crystal of vortices in a strong 'pseudomagnetic field' generated by the background superfluid Bose particles. BEC may be profitably used to address issues of quantum melting of a pristine Wigner solid devoid of complications of real solids.
Detection scheme for acoustic quantum radiation in Bose-Einstein condensates.
Schützhold, Ralf
2006-11-10
Based on doubly detuned Raman transitions between (meta)stable atomic or molecular states and recently developed atom counting techniques, a detection scheme for sound waves in dilute Bose-Einstein condensates is proposed whose accuracy might reach down to the level of a few or even single phonons. This scheme could open up a new range of applications including the experimental observation of quantum radiation phenomena such as the Hawking effect in sonic black-hole analogues or the acoustic analogue of cosmological particle creation. PMID:17155600
Dynamics of a Cold Trapped Ion in a Bose-Einstein Condensate
Schmid, Stefan; Haerter, Arne; Denschlag, Johannes Hecker
2010-09-24
We investigate the interaction of a laser-cooled trapped ion (Ba{sup +} or Rb{sup +}) with an optically confined {sup 87}Rb Bose-Einstein condensate. The system features interesting dynamics of the ion and the atom cloud as determined by their collisions and their motion in their respective traps. Elastic as well as inelastic processes are observed and their respective cross sections are determined. We demonstrate that a single ion can be used to probe the density profile of an ultracold atom cloud.
Schulte, T.; Drenkelforth, S.; Kruse, J.; Ertmer, W.; Arlt, J.; Sacha, K.; Zakrzewski, J.; Lewenstein, M.
2005-10-21
We investigate, both experimentally and theoretically, possible routes towards Anderson-like localization of Bose-Einstein condensates in disordered potentials. The dependence of this quantum interference effect on the nonlinear interactions and the shape of the disorder potential is investigated. Experiments with an optical lattice and a superimposed disordered potential reveal the lack of Anderson localization. A theoretical analysis shows that this absence is due to the large length scale of the disorder potential as well as its screening by the nonlinear interactions. Further analysis shows that incommensurable superlattices should allow for the observation of the crossover from the nonlinear screening regime to the Anderson localized case within realistic experimental parameters.
Simple method for generating Bose-Einstein condensates in a weak hybrid trap
Zaiser, M.; Hartwig, J.; Schlippert, D.; Velte, U.; Winter, N.; Lebedev, V.; Ertmer, W.; Rasel, E. M.
2011-03-15
We report on a simple trapping scheme for the generation of Bose-Einstein condensates of {sup 87}Rb atoms. This scheme employs a near-infrared single-beam optical dipole trap combined with a weak magnetic quadrupole field as used for magneto-optical trapping to enhance the confinement in axial direction. Efficient forced evaporative cooling to the phase transition is achieved in this weak hybrid trap via reduction of the laser intensity of the optical dipole trap at constant magnetic field gradient.
Creation and Detection of Skyrmions in a Bose-Einstein Condensate
Leslie, L. S.; Deutsch, B. M.; Hansen, A.; Wright, K. C.; Bigelow, N. P.
2009-12-18
We present the first experimental realization and characterization of two-dimensional Skyrmions and half-Skyrmions in a spin-2 Bose-Einstein condensate. The continuous rotation of the local spin of the Skyrmion through an angle of pi (and half-Skyrmion through an angle of pi/2) across the cloud is confirmed by the spatial distribution of the three spin states as parametrized by the bending angle of the l vector. The winding number w=(0,1,2) of the internal spin states comprising the Skyrmions is confirmed through matter-wave interference.
Gluon transport equation with effective mass and dynamical onset of Bose-Einstein condensation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blaizot, Jean-Paul; Jiang, Yin; Liao, Jinfeng
2016-05-01
We study the transport equation describing a dense system of gluons, in the small scattering angle approximation, taking into account medium-generated effective masses of the gluons. We focus on the case of overpopulated systems that are driven to Bose-Einstein condensation on their way to thermalization. The presence of a mass modifies the dispersion relation of the gluon, as compared to the massless case, but it is shown that this does not change qualitatively the scaling behavior in the vicinity of the onset.
Bose-Einstein condensation of {alpha} particles and Airy structure in nuclear rainbow scattering
Ohkubo, S.; Hirabayashi, Y.
2004-10-01
It is shown that the dilute density distribution of {alpha} particles in nuclei can be observed in the Airy structure in nuclear rainbow scattering. We have analyzed {alpha}+{sup 12}C rainbow scattering to the 0{sub 2}{sup +} (7.65 MeV) state of {sup 12}C in a coupled-channel method with the precise wave functions for {sup 12}C. It is found that the enhanced Airy oscillations in the experimental angular distributions for the 0{sub 2}{sup +} state is caused by the dilute density distribution of this state in agreement for the idea of Bose-Einstein condensation of the three alpha particles.
Superfluidity of a nonequilibrium Bose-Einstein condensate of polaritons
Wouters, Michiel; Savona, Vincenzo
2010-02-01
We study theoretically superfluidity in a driven-dissipative Bose gas out of thermal equilibrium, and discuss the relation with conventional superfluids. We show how the superfluid behavior is characterized by a dramatic increase in the lifetime of a quantized vortex and point out the influence of the spatial geometry of the condensate. We apply our study to a condensate of polaritons in a semiconductor microcavity, whose properties can be directly inferred from optical spectroscopy. We propose three different experimental schemes to measure the vorticity of the polariton condensate.
Ning Boyuan; Zhuang Jun; Zhang Wenxian; You, J. Q.
2011-07-15
We study the enhancement of spin coherence with periodic, concatenated, or Uhrig dynamical decoupling N-pulse sequences in a spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate, where the intrinsic dynamical instability in such a ferromagnetically interacting condensate causes spin decoherence and eventually leads to a multiple spatial-domain structure or a spin texture. Our results show that all three sequences successfully enhance the spin coherence by pushing the wave vector of the most unstable mode in the condensate to a larger value. Among the three sequences with the same number of pulses, the concatenated one shows the best performance in preserving the spin coherence. More interestingly, we find that all three sequences exactly follow the same enhancement law, k{sub -}T{sup 1/2}=c, with k{sub -} the wave vector of the most unstable mode, T the sequence period, and c a sequence-dependent constant. Such a law between k{sub -} and T is also derived analytically for an attractive scalar Bose-Einstein condensate subjected to a periodic dynamical decoupling sequence.
Vortices in Spontaneous Bose-Einstein Condensates of Exciton-Polaritons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deveaud-Plédran, Benoit; Lagoudakis, Konstantinos G.
One of the most striking quantum effects in an interacting Bose gas at low temperature is superfluidity. First observed in liquid 4He, this phenomenon has been intensively studied in a variety of systems for its remarkable features such as the persistence of superflows and the proliferation of quantized vortices. The achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute atomic gases provided the opportunity to observe and study superfluidity in an extremely clean and well-controlled environment. In the solid state, Bose-Einstein condensation of exciton polaritons now allows to plan for the observation of similar phenomenology. Polaritons are interacting light-matter quasiparticles that occur naturally in semiconductor microcavities in the strong coupling regime and constitute an interesting example of composite bosons. Here, we report the observation of spontaneous formation of pinned quantized vortices in the Bose-condensed phase of a polariton fluid. Theoretical insight into the possible origin of such vortices is presented in terms of a generalized Gross-Pitaevskii equation. In the second part of the chapter, we provide the clear observation of half vortices, special to spinor condensates. We then go no, in the last part of this chapter, to study the dynamics of spontaneously created vortices. We show that their path is determined by the disorder landscape towards their final stable position.
Growth dynamics of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a dimple trap without cooling
Garrett, Michael C.; Davis, Matthew J.; Ratnapala, Adrian; Ooijen, Eikbert D. van; Vale, Christopher J.; Weegink, Kristian; Schnelle, Sebastian K.; Vainio, Otto; Heckenberg, Norman R.; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina
2011-01-15
We study the formation of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a cigar-shaped three-dimensional harmonic trap, induced by the controlled addition of an attractive ''dimple'' potential along the weak axis. In this manner we are able to induce condensation without cooling due to a localized increase in the phase-space density. We perform a quantitative analysis of the thermodynamic transformation in both the sudden and adiabatic regimes for a range of dimple widths and depths. We find good agreement with equilibrium calculations based on self-consistent semiclassical Hartree-Fock theory describing the condensate and thermal cloud. We observe that there is an optimal dimple depth that results in a maximum in the condensate fraction. We also study the nonequilibrium dynamics of condensate formation in the sudden turn-on regime, finding good agreement for the observed time dependence of the condensate fraction with calculations based on quantum kinetic theory.
Dynamics of Spin-Orbit Coupled Bose-Einstein Condensates in a Random Potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mardonov, Sh.; Modugno, M.; Sherman, E. Ya.
2015-10-01
Disorder plays a crucial role in spin dynamics in solids and condensed matter systems. We demonstrate that for a spin-orbit coupled Bose-Einstein condensate in a random potential two mechanisms of spin evolution that can be characterized as "precessional" and "anomalous" are at work simultaneously. The precessional mechanism, typical for solids, is due to the condensate displacement. The unconventional anomalous mechanism is due to the spin-dependent velocity producing the distribution of the condensate spin polarization. The condensate expansion is accompanied by a random displacement and fragmentation, where it becomes sparse, as clearly revealed in the spin dynamics. Thus, different stages of the evolution can be characterized by looking at the condensate spin.
Dynamics of Spin-Orbit Coupled Bose-Einstein Condensates in a Random Potential.
Mardonov, Sh; Modugno, M; Sherman, E Ya
2015-10-30
Disorder plays a crucial role in spin dynamics in solids and condensed matter systems. We demonstrate that for a spin-orbit coupled Bose-Einstein condensate in a random potential two mechanisms of spin evolution that can be characterized as "precessional" and "anomalous" are at work simultaneously. The precessional mechanism, typical for solids, is due to the condensate displacement. The unconventional anomalous mechanism is due to the spin-dependent velocity producing the distribution of the condensate spin polarization. The condensate expansion is accompanied by a random displacement and fragmentation, where it becomes sparse, as clearly revealed in the spin dynamics. Thus, different stages of the evolution can be characterized by looking at the condensate spin. PMID:26565441
Vortex excitation in a stirred toroidal Bose-Einstein condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yakimenko, A. I.; Isaieva, K. O.; Vilchinskii, S. I.; Ostrovskaya, E. A.
2015-02-01
Motivated by a recent experiment [K. C. Wright et al., Phys. Rev. A 88, 063633 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevA.88.063633], we investigate the microscopic mechanism for excitation of vortices and formation of a persistent current in an annular BEC stirred by a narrow blue-detuned optical beam. In the framework of a two-dimensional mean-field model, we study the dissipative dynamics of the condensate with parameters that reflect realistic experimental conditions. Vortex-antivortex pairs appear near the center of the stirrer in the bulk of the condensate for slow motion of the stirring beam. When the barrier angular velocity is above some critical value, an outer edge surface mode develops and breaks into the vortices entering the condensate annulus. We determine the conditions for creation of vortex excitations in the stirred toroidal condensate and compare our results with experimental observations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kocharovsky, V. V.; Kocharovsky, Vl. V.; Tarasov, S. V.
2016-01-01
The analytical theory of Bose-Einstein condensation of an ideal gas in mesoscopic systems has been briefly reviewed in application to traps with arbitrary shapes and dimension. This theory describes the phases of the classical gas and the formed Bose-Einstein condensate, as well as the entire vicinity of the phase transition point. The statistics and thermodynamics of Bose-Einstein condensation have been studied in detail, including their self-similar structure in the critical region, transition to the thermodynamic limit, effect of boundary conditions on the properties of a system, and nonequivalence of the description of Bose-Einstein condensation in different statistical ensembles. The complete classification of universality classes of Bose-Einstein condensation has been given.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Leeuw, A.-W.; Stoof, H. T. C.; Duine, R. A.
2013-09-01
We consider Bose-Einstein condensation of photons in an optical cavity filled with dye molecules that are excited by laser light. By using the Schwinger-Keldysh formalism we derive a Langevin field equation that describes the dynamics of the photon gas and, in particular, its equilibrium properties and relaxation towards equilibrium. Furthermore we show that the finite lifetime effects of the photons are captured in a single dimensionless damping parameter that depends on the power of the external laser pumping the dye. Finally, as applications of our theory we determine spectral functions and collective modes of the photon gas in both the normal and the Bose-Einstein condensed phases.
Bose-Einstein Condensation and Bose Glasses in an S = 1 Organo-metallic quantum magnet
Zapf, Vivien
2012-06-01
I will speak about Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) in quantum magnets, in particular the compound NiCl2-4SC(NH2)2. Here a magnetic field-induced quantum phase transition to XY antiferromagnetism can be mapped onto BEC of the spins. The tuning parameter for BEC transition is the magnetic field rather than the temperature. Some interesting phenomena arise, for example the fact that the mass of the bosons that condense can be strongly renormalized by quantum fluctuations. I will discuss the utility of this mapping for both understanding the nature of the quantum magnetism and testing the thermodynamic limit of Bose-Einstein Condensation. Furthermore we can dope the system in a clean and controlled way to create the long sought-after Bose Glass transition, which is the bosonic analogy of Anderson localization. I will present experiments and simulations showing evidence for a new scaling exponent, which finally makes contact between theory and experiments. Thus we take a small step towards the difficult problem of understanding the effect of disorder on bosonic wave functions.
Bose-Einstein condensation in dark power-law laser traps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jaouadi, A.; Gaaloul, N.; Viaris de Lesegno, B.; Telmini, M.; Pruvost, L.; Charron, E.
2010-08-01
We investigate theoretically an original route to achieve Bose-Einstein condensation using dark power-law laser traps. We propose to create such traps with two crossing blue-detuned Laguerre-Gaussian optical beams. Controlling their azimuthal order ℓ allows for the exploration of a multitude of power-law trapping situations in one, two, and three dimensions, ranging from the usual harmonic trap to an almost square-well potential, in which a quasihomogeneous Bose gas can be formed. The usual cigar-shaped and disk-shaped Bose-Einstein condensates obtained in a 1D or 2D harmonic trap take the generic form of a “finger” or of a “hockey puck” in such Laguerre-Gaussian traps. In addition, for a fixed atom number, higher transition temperatures are obtained in such configurations when compared with a harmonic trap of the same volume. This effect, which results in a substantial acceleration of the condensation dynamics, requires a better but still reasonable focusing of the Laguerre-Gaussian beams.
Bose-Einstein condensation in dark power-law laser traps
Jaouadi, A.; Gaaloul, N.; Viaris de Lesegno, B.; Pruvost, L.; Telmini, M.; Charron, E.
2010-08-15
We investigate theoretically an original route to achieve Bose-Einstein condensation using dark power-law laser traps. We propose to create such traps with two crossing blue-detuned Laguerre-Gaussian optical beams. Controlling their azimuthal order l allows for the exploration of a multitude of power-law trapping situations in one, two, and three dimensions, ranging from the usual harmonic trap to an almost square-well potential, in which a quasihomogeneous Bose gas can be formed. The usual cigar-shaped and disk-shaped Bose-Einstein condensates obtained in a 1D or 2D harmonic trap take the generic form of a 'finger' or of a 'hockey puck' in such Laguerre-Gaussian traps. In addition, for a fixed atom number, higher transition temperatures are obtained in such configurations when compared with a harmonic trap of the same volume. This effect, which results in a substantial acceleration of the condensation dynamics, requires a better but still reasonable focusing of the Laguerre-Gaussian beams.
Coherence and antibunching in a trapped interacting Bose-Einstein condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Shengjun; John, Sajeev
2011-07-01
We present a model for the equilibrium quantum statistics of a condensate of repulsively interacting bosons in a two-dimensional trap. Particle correlations in the ground state are treated exactly, whereas interactions with excited particles are treated in a generalized Bogoliubov mean-field theory. This leads to a fundamental physical picture for the condensation of interacting bosons through an anharmonic oscillator ground state coupled to excited Bogoliubov quasiparticles in which the quantum number statistics of condensate particles emerges self-consistently. Below the Bose-Einstein condensation temperature, our model exhibits a crossover from particle bunching to Poissonian statistics and finally antibunching as the temperature is lowered or as the trapping area is decreased. When applied to Bose condensation of long-lived dressed excitons in a photonic band gap material, our model suggests that this system may serve as a novel tunable source for nonclassical states of light.
Bouncing motion and penetration dynamics in multicomponent Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eto, Yujiro; Takahashi, Masahiro; Nabeta, Keita; Okada, Ryotaro; Kunimi, Masaya; Saito, Hiroki; Hirano, Takuya
2016-03-01
We investigate the dynamic properties of bouncing and penetration in colliding binary and ternary Bose-Einstein condensates comprised of different Zeeman or hyperfine states of 87Rb. Through the application of magnetic field gradient pulses, two- or three-component condensates in an optical trap are spatially separated and then made to collide. The subsequent evolutions are classified into two categories: repeated bouncing motion and mutual penetration after damped bounces. We experimentally observed mutual penetration for immiscible condensates, bouncing between miscible condensates, and domain formation for miscible condensates. From numerical simulations of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, we find that the penetration time can be tuned by slightly changing the atomic interaction strengths.
Observation of Vortex Nucleation in a Rotating Two-Dimensional Lattice of Bose-Einstein Condensates
Williams, R. A.; Al-Assam, S.; Foot, C. J.
2010-02-05
We report the observation of vortex nucleation in a rotating optical lattice. A {sup 87}Rb Bose-Einstein condensate was loaded into a static two-dimensional lattice and the rotation frequency of the lattice was then increased from zero. We studied how vortex nucleation depended on optical lattice depth and rotation frequency. For deep lattices above the chemical potential of the condensate we observed a linear dependence of the number of vortices created with the rotation frequency, even below the thermodynamic critical frequency required for vortex nucleation. At these lattice depths the system formed an array of Josephson-coupled condensates. The effective magnetic field produced by rotation introduced characteristic relative phases between neighboring condensates, such that vortices were observed upon ramping down the lattice depth and recombining the condensates.
Vortices in a toroidal Bose-Einstein condensate with a rotating weak link
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yakimenko, A. I.; Bidasyuk, Y. M.; Weyrauch, M.; Kuriatnikov, Y. I.; Vilchinskii, S. I.
2015-03-01
Motivated by a recent experiment [K. C. Wright et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 025302 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.025302], we investigate deterministic discontinuous jumps between quantized circulation states in a toroidally trapped Bose-Einstein condensate. These phase slips are induced by vortex excitations created by a rotating weak link. We analyze the influence of a localized condensate density depletion and atomic superflows, governed by the rotating barrier, on the energetic and dynamical stability of the vortices in the ring-shaped condensate. We simulate in a three-dimensional dissipative mean-field model the dynamics of the condensate using parameters similar to the experimental conditions. Moreover, we consider the dynamics of the stirred condensate far beyond the experimentally explored region and reveal surprising manifestations of complex vortex dynamics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martin, A. D.; Blakie, P. B.
2012-11-01
We study theoretically Bose-Einstein condensates with polarized dipolar interactions in anisotropic traps. We map the parameter space by varying the trap frequencies and dipolar interaction strengths and find an irregular-shaped region of parameter space in which density-oscillating condensate states occur, with maximum density away from the trap center. These density-oscillating states may be biconcave (red-blood-cell-shaped), or have two or four peaks. For all trap frequencies, the condensate becomes unstable to collapse for sufficiently large dipole interaction strength. The collapse coincides with the softening of an elementary excitation. When the condensate mode is density oscillating, the character of the softening excitation is related to the structure of the condensate. We classify these excitations by linear and angular characteristics. We also find excited solutions to the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, which are always unstable.
Excitations and Bose-Einstein condensation in liquid 4He
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sakhel, A. R.; Glyde, H. R.
2004-10-01
We present a model of the dynamic structure factor S(Q,ω) of He4 that reproduces the basic features of the temperature dependence of S(Q,ω) as observed in inelastic-neutron scattering measurements. Wave vectors Q beyond the roton ( Q>2.0Å-1 ) are considered. The model is able to reproduce the decrease in the intensity of the single excitation (phonon-roton) peak in S(Q,ω) with an increase of temperature (T) in the range 0.6⩽T⩽2.1K . All vertices and interactions are assumed temperature independent, and only the condensate fraction n0(T) changes with T . Also, it reproduces a second peak observed at higher energy ( ω ) which represents the single excitation intensity lying in the two excitation band. The model is based on the formulation of S(Q,ω) of Gavoret and Nozières. In this formulation, the dynamic susceptibility, χ , is separated into a singular part involving the condensate and a regular part involving states above the condensate χ=χS+χR' . The weight of the phonon-roton peak in χS is proportional to n0(T) and the phonon-roton peak disappears completely from χ in the normal phase where n0(T)=0 . Using sum rule arguments, the condensate fraction can be estimated from the data giving values in good agreement with accurate measurements at SVP and with Monte Carlo calculations.
Calorimetry of a Bose-Einstein-condensed photon gas.
Damm, Tobias; Schmitt, Julian; Liang, Qi; Dung, David; Vewinger, Frank; Weitz, Martin; Klaers, Jan
2016-01-01
Phase transitions, as the condensation of a gas to a liquid, are often revealed by a discontinuous behaviour of thermodynamic quantities. For liquid helium, for example, a divergence of the specific heat signals the transition from the normal fluid to the superfluid state. Apart from liquid helium, determining the specific heat of a Bose gas has proven to be a challenging task, for example, for ultracold atomic Bose gases. Here we examine the thermodynamic behaviour of a trapped two-dimensional photon gas, a system that allows us to spectroscopically determine the specific heat and the entropy of a nearly ideal Bose gas from the classical high temperature to the Bose-condensed quantum regime. The critical behaviour at the phase transition is clearly revealed by a cusp singularity of the specific heat. Regarded as a test of quantum statistical mechanics, our results demonstrate a quantitative agreement with its predictions at the microscopic level. PMID:27090978
Calorimetry of a Bose-Einstein-condensed photon gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Damm, Tobias; Schmitt, Julian; Liang, Qi; Dung, David; Vewinger, Frank; Weitz, Martin; Klaers, Jan
2016-04-01
Phase transitions, as the condensation of a gas to a liquid, are often revealed by a discontinuous behaviour of thermodynamic quantities. For liquid helium, for example, a divergence of the specific heat signals the transition from the normal fluid to the superfluid state. Apart from liquid helium, determining the specific heat of a Bose gas has proven to be a challenging task, for example, for ultracold atomic Bose gases. Here we examine the thermodynamic behaviour of a trapped two-dimensional photon gas, a system that allows us to spectroscopically determine the specific heat and the entropy of a nearly ideal Bose gas from the classical high temperature to the Bose-condensed quantum regime. The critical behaviour at the phase transition is clearly revealed by a cusp singularity of the specific heat. Regarded as a test of quantum statistical mechanics, our results demonstrate a quantitative agreement with its predictions at the microscopic level.
Small Amplitude Solitons in Bose Einstein Condensates with External Perturbation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Feng-Jiao; Yan, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Deng-Long
2008-01-01
By developing a small amplitude soliton approximation method, we study analytically weak nonlinear excitations in cigar-shaped condensates with repulsive interatomic interaction under consideration of external perturbation potential. It is shown that matter wave solitons may exist and travel over a long distance without attenuation and change in shape by properly adjusting the strength of interatomic interaction to compensate for the effect of external perturbation potential.
Soliton oscillations in collisionally inhomogeneous attractive Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Niarchou, P.; Theocharis, G.; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Schmelcher, P.; Frantzeskakis, D. J.
2007-08-01
We investigate bright matter-wave solitons in the presence of a spatially varying nonlinearity. It is demonstrated that a translation mode is excited due to the spatial inhomogeneity and its frequency is derived analytically and also studied numerically. Both cases of purely one-dimensional and “cigar-shaped” condensates are studied by means of different mean-field models, and the oscillation frequencies of the pertinent solitons are found and compared with the results obtained by the linear stability analysis. Numerical results are shown to be in very good agreement with the corresponding analytical predictions.
Nonlinear dynamics of a cigar-shaped Bose-Einstein condensate in an optical cavity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, J. M.; Cui, F. C.; Zhou, D. L.; Liu, W. M.
2009-03-01
We investigate the nonlinear dynamics of a combined system which is composed of a cigar-shaped Bose-Einstein condensate and an optical cavity with the two sides coupled dispersively. This system is characterized by the cavity-induced nonlinearity; after integrating out the fast degree of freedom of the cavity mode, the potential felt by the condensate depends on the condensate itself. Adopting a discrete-mode approximation for the condensate, we map out the steady configurations of the system. It is found that due to the nonlinearity of the system, the nonlinear levels of the system may fold up in some parameter regimes. That will lead to the breakdown of adiabatic evolution of the system. Analysis of the dynamical stability of the steady states indicates that the same level structure also results in optical bistability.
Collapse dynamics of a {sup 176}Yb-{sup 174}Yb Bose-Einstein condensate
Chaudhary, G. K.; Ramakumar, R.
2010-06-15
In this paper, we present a theoretical study of a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate composed of ytterbium (Yb) isotopes in a three-dimensional anisotropic harmonic potential. The condensate consists of a mixture of {sup 176}Yb atoms which have a negative s-wave scattering length and {sup 174}Yb atoms having a positive s-wave scattering length. We study the ground-state as well as dynamic properties of this two-component condensate. Due to the attractive interactions between {sup 176}Yb atoms, the condensate of {sup 176}Yb undergoes a collapse when the particle number exceeds a critical value. The critical number and the collapse dynamics are modified due to the presence of {sup 174}Yb atoms. We use coupled two-component Gross-Pitaevskii equations to study the collapse dynamics. The theoretical results obtained are in reasonable agreement with the experimental results of Fukuhara et al. [Phys. Rev. A 79, 021601(R) (2009)].
Rotation of a Bose-Einstein condensate held under a toroidal trap
Aftalion, Amandine; Mason, Peter
2010-02-15
The aim of this paper is to perform a numerical and analytical study of a rotating Bose-Einstein condensate placed in a harmonic plus Gaussian trap, following the experiments of Bretin et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 5 (2004)]. The rotational frequency {Omega} has to stay below the trapping frequency {omega} of the harmonic potential and we find that the condensate has an annular shape containing a triangular vortex lattice. As {Omega} approaches {omega}, the width of the condensate and the circulation inside the central hole get large. We are able to provide analytical estimates of the size of the condensate and the circulation both in the lowest Landau level limit and in the Thomas-Fermi limit, providing an analysis that is consistent with experiment.
Stability of nonstationary states of spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensates
Maekelae, H.; Lundh, E.; Johansson, M.; Zelan, M.
2011-10-15
The stability of nonstationary states of homogeneous spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensates is studied by performing Bogoliubov analysis in a frame of reference where the state is stationary. In particular, the effect of an external magnetic field is examined. It is found that a nonzero magnetic field introduces instability in a {sup 23}Na condensate. The wavelengths of this instability can be controlled by tuning the strength of the magnetic field. In a {sup 87}Rb condensate this instability is present already at zero magnetic field. Furthermore, an analytical bound for the size of a stable condensate is found, and a condition for the validity of the single-mode approximation is presented. Realization of the system in a toroidal trap is discussed, and the full time development is simulated.
Vortex structures of rotating spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensates
Zhou Xiangfa; Zhou Jing; Wu Congjun
2011-12-15
We consider the quasi-two-dimensional two-component Bose-Einstein condensates with Rashba spin-orbit (SO) coupling in a rotating trap. The rotation angular velocity couples to the mechanical angular momentum, which contains a noncanonical part arising from SO coupling. The effects of an external Zeeman term favoring spin polarization along the radial direction is also considered, which has the same form as the noncanonical part of the mechanical angular momentum. The rotating condensate exhibits a variety of rich structures by varying the strengths of the trapping potential and interaction. With a strong trapping potential, the condensate exhibits a half-quantum vortex-lattice configuration. Such a configuration is driven to the normal one by introducing the external radial Zeeman field. In the case of a weak trap potential, the condensate exhibits a multidomain pattern of plane-wave states under the external radial Zeeman field.
Impurities as a quantum thermometer for a Bose-Einstein condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sabín, Carlos; White, Angela; Hackermuller, Lucia; Fuentes, Ivette
2014-09-01
We introduce a primary thermometer which measures the temperature of a Bose-Einstein Condensate in the sub-nK regime. We show, using quantum Fisher information, that the precision of our technique improves the state-of-the-art in thermometry in the sub-nK regime. The temperature of the condensate is mapped onto the quantum phase of an atomic dot that interacts with the system for short times. We show that the highest precision is achieved when the phase is dynamical rather than geometric and when it is detected through Ramsey interferometry. Standard techniques to determine the temperature of a condensate involve an indirect estimation through mean particle velocities made after releasing the condensate. In contrast to these destructive measurements, our method involves a negligible disturbance of the system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ishino, S.; Tsubota, M.; Takeuchi, H.
2013-05-01
We theoretically study the instability of vortices in pancake-shaped trapped binary Bose-Einstein condensates. We consider that a quantized vortex is at the center of each condensate and two condensates rotate in the opposite directions. The total circulation is zero in BECs having the overlapped vortices because there is relative rotation, which is the rotation of one component in relation to the rotation of the other, but no total rotation, which is the sum of the rotation in both components. We think that the zero-quantum vortices are unstable because this system is locally countersuperflow, two counterpropagating miscible superflows. In a uniform system, the countersuperflow is unstable when the relative velocity between the two condensates exceeds a critical value. We investigate the dynamics of the zero-quantum vortices by numerically solving the Gross-Pitaevskii equations. To understand the results of the numerical calculations, we apply the countersuperflow instability to our present system.
Bose-Einstein condensation of magnons pumped by the bulk spin Seebeck effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav; Bender, Scott A.; Duine, Rembert A.; Flebus, Benedetta
2016-03-01
We propose inducing Bose-Einstein condensation of magnons in a magnetic insulator by a heat flow oriented toward its boundary. At a critical heat flux, the oversaturated thermal gas of magnons accumulated at the boundary precipitates the condensate, which then grows gradually as the thermal bias is dialed up further. The thermal magnons thus pumped by the magnonic bulk (spin) Seebeck effect must generally overcome both the local Gilbert damping associated with the coherent magnetic dynamics as well as the radiative spin-wave losses toward the magnetic bulk, in order to achieve the threshold of condensation. We quantitatively estimate the requisite bias in the case of the ferrimagnetic yttrium iron garnet, discuss different physical regimes of condensation, and contrast it with the competing (so-called Doppler-shift) bulk instability.
Impurities as a quantum thermometer for a Bose-Einstein condensate
Sabín, Carlos; White, Angela; Hackermuller, Lucia; Fuentes, Ivette
2014-01-01
We introduce a primary thermometer which measures the temperature of a Bose-Einstein Condensate in the sub-nK regime. We show, using quantum Fisher information, that the precision of our technique improves the state-of-the-art in thermometry in the sub-nK regime. The temperature of the condensate is mapped onto the quantum phase of an atomic dot that interacts with the system for short times. We show that the highest precision is achieved when the phase is dynamical rather than geometric and when it is detected through Ramsey interferometry. Standard techniques to determine the temperature of a condensate involve an indirect estimation through mean particle velocities made after releasing the condensate. In contrast to these destructive measurements, our method involves a negligible disturbance of the system. PMID:25241663
Long-lived periodic revivals of coherence in an interacting Bose-Einstein condensate
Egorov, M.; Ivannikov, V.; Opanchuk, B.; Drummond, P.; Hall, B. V.; Sidorov, A. I.; Anderson, R. P.
2011-08-15
We observe the coherence of an interacting two-component Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) surviving for seconds in a trapped Ramsey interferometer. Mean-field-driven collective oscillations of two components lead to periodic dephasing and rephasing of condensate wave functions with a slow decay of the interference fringe visibility. We apply spin echo synchronous with the self-rephasing of the condensate to reduce the influence of state-dependent atom losses, significantly enhancing the visibility up to 0.75 at the evolution time of 1.5 s. Mean-field theory consistently predicts higher visibility than experimentally observed values. We quantify the effects of classical and quantum noise and infer a coherence time of 2.8 s for a trapped condensate of 5.5x10{sup 4} interacting atoms.
Phase-Imprinting of Bose-Einstein Condensates with Rydberg Impurities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mukherjee, Rick; Ates, Cenap; Li, Weibin; Wüster, Sebastian
2015-07-01
We show how the phase profile of Bose-Einstein condensates can be engineered through its interaction with localized Rydberg excitations. The interaction is made controllable and long range by off-resonantly coupling the condensate to another Rydberg state with laser light. Our technique allows the mapping of entanglement generated in systems of few strongly interacting Rydberg atoms onto much larger atom clouds in hybrid setups. As an example we discuss the creation of a spatial mesoscopic superposition state from a bright soliton. Additionally, the phase imprinted onto the condensate using the Rydberg excitations is a diagnostic tool for the latter. For example, a condensate time-of-flight image would permit reconstructing the pattern of an embedded Rydberg crystal.
Impurities as a quantum thermometer for a Bose-Einstein Condensate.
Sabín, Carlos; White, Angela; Hackermuller, Lucia; Fuentes, Ivette
2014-01-01
We introduce a primary thermometer which measures the temperature of a Bose-Einstein Condensate in the sub-nK regime. We show, using quantum Fisher information, that the precision of our technique improves the state-of-the-art in thermometry in the sub-nK regime. The temperature of the condensate is mapped onto the quantum phase of an atomic dot that interacts with the system for short times. We show that the highest precision is achieved when the phase is dynamical rather than geometric and when it is detected through Ramsey interferometry. Standard techniques to determine the temperature of a condensate involve an indirect estimation through mean particle velocities made after releasing the condensate. In contrast to these destructive measurements, our method involves a negligible disturbance of the system. PMID:25241663
Phase-Imprinting of Bose-Einstein Condensates with Rydberg Impurities.
Mukherjee, Rick; Ates, Cenap; Li, Weibin; Wüster, Sebastian
2015-07-24
We show how the phase profile of Bose-Einstein condensates can be engineered through its interaction with localized Rydberg excitations. The interaction is made controllable and long range by off-resonantly coupling the condensate to another Rydberg state with laser light. Our technique allows the mapping of entanglement generated in systems of few strongly interacting Rydberg atoms onto much larger atom clouds in hybrid setups. As an example we discuss the creation of a spatial mesoscopic superposition state from a bright soliton. Additionally, the phase imprinted onto the condensate using the Rydberg excitations is a diagnostic tool for the latter. For example, a condensate time-of-flight image would permit reconstructing the pattern of an embedded Rydberg crystal. PMID:26252669
QUANTUS: Applications of Bose-Einstein condensates in microgravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Müntinga, Hauke; van Zoest, T.; Ahlers, H.; Seidel, S. T.; Herr, W.; Rudolph, J.; Gaaloul, N.; Singh, Y.; Schulze, T. A.; Rode, C.; Schkolnik, V.; Ertmer, W.; Rasel, E.; Müntinga, H.; Künemann, T.; Resch, A.; Herrmann, S.; Lümmerzahl, C.; Dittus, H.; Vogel, A.; Wenzlawski, A.; Sengstock, K.; Meyer, N.; Bongs, K.; Krutzik, M.; Lewoczko-Adamczyk, W.; Schiemangk, M.; Peters, A.; Eckart, M.; Kajari, E.; Arnold, S.; Nandi, G.; Walser, R.; Schleich, W. P.; Steinmetz, T.; Hünsch, T. W.; Reichel, J.
We report on the current status of the QUANTUS free fall BEC experiment at the ZARM drop tower in Bremen. After the first realization of a BEC in microgravity in 2007, we were able to observe conden-sates after an unprecedented time of free evolution. The extremely shallow traps possible in microgravity and resulting ultralow temperatures of a few nK allow for further studies ranging from coherence properties of condensates to inertial sensors based on matter waves. In our talk we will focus on the implementation of a matter wave interferometer into our appa-ratus, which aims to extend measurements to unprecedented interrogation times and sensitivi-ties. This leads the way to high precision measurements of gravitational forces and eventually a quantum test of Einstein's weak equivalence principle. Phenomena like decoherence, quantum reflection and Anderson localization can also be examined with our apparatus. These goals are worked on in close cooperation with QUEST and the projects PRIMUS and LASUS. The QUANTUS project is a collaboration of U Hamburg, U Ulm, HU Berlin, MPQ Munich, ZARM at U Bremen and LU Hannover. It is supported by the German Space Agency DLR with funds provided by the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi) under grant numbers 50WM0835 -50WM0839.
Dwarf spheroidal galaxies and Bose-Einstein condensate dark matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Diez-Tejedor, Alberto; Gonzalez-Morales, Alma X.; Profumo, Stefano
2014-08-01
We constrain the parameters of a self-interacting massive dark matter scalar particle in a condensate using the kinematics of the eight brightest dwarf spheroidal satellites of the Milky Way. For the case of a repulsive self-interaction, the condensate develops a mass density profile with a characteristic scale radius that is closely related to the fundamental parameters of the theory. We find that the velocity dispersion of dwarf spheroidal galaxies suggests a scale radius of the order of 1 kpc, in tension with previous results found using the rotational curve of low-surface-brightness and dwarf galaxies. The new value is however favored marginally by the constraints coming from the number of relativistic species at big bang nucleosynthesis. We discuss the implications of our findings for the particle dark matter model and argue that while a single classical coherent state can correctly describe the dark matter in dwarf spheroidal galaxies, it cannot play, in general, a relevant role for the description of dark matter in bigger objects.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Posso Trujillo, Katerine; Rasel, Ernst M.; Gaaloul, Naceur; Quantus Team
Preparation of Bose Einstein condensates in realistc trapping potentials for precision atom interferometry Theoretical studies of the ground state and the dynamical properties of Bose Einstein condensates (BECs) are typically realized by considering the ensemble as being initiaally trapped by a harmonic potential. Dramatic discrepancies were found by comparing numerical results of the long-time expansion of BECs after being released from the harmonic trap, and measurements of the free evolution and delta-kick cooling (DKC) of a 87Rb BEC on large timescales of up to 2 s in micro-gravity (micro-g) environment such as those performed in the QUANTUS project from our group. The modification in the dynamics of a 87Rb BEC with the application of DKC by using experimentally implemented trapping geometries and the effect of gravity have been studied. Three different configurations have been considered: atom chip-based potential, dipole trap and the time-averaged orbiting potential. Such discrepancies may be crucial in high precision atom interferometry experiments in micro-g and zero-g platforms in which the implementation of DKC is mandatory to achieve the long-expansion times required
Dai Chaoqing; Wang Dengshan; Wang Liangliang; Zhang Jiefang; Liu, W.M.
2011-09-15
We investigate exact nonlinear matter wave functions with odd and even parities in the framework of quasi-two-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) with spatially modulated cubic-quintic nonlinearities and harmonic potential. The existence condition for these exact solutions requires that the minimum energy eigenvalue of the corresponding linear Schroedinger equation with harmonic potential is the cutoff value of the chemical potential {lambda}. The competition between two-body and three-body interactions influences the energy of the localized state. For attractive two-body and three-body interactions, the larger the matter wave order number n, the larger the energy of the corresponding localized state. A linear stability analysis and direct simulations with initial white noise demonstrate that, for the same state (fixed n), increasing the number of atoms can add stability. A quasi-stable ground-state matter wave is also found for repulsive two-body and three-body interactions. We also discuss the experimental realization of these results in future experiments. These results are of particular significance to matter wave management in higher-dimensional BECs. - Highlights: > 2D Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) with spatially modulated cubic-quintic nonlinearities and the harmonic potential are discussed. > 2D exact quantized nonlinear matter wave functions with the odd and even parities are obtained. > The 2D ground-state matter wave with attractive two-body and repulsive three-body interactions is stable. > Experimental realization of our results in future experiments is proposed.
Spin and field squeezing in a spin-orbit coupled Bose-Einstein condensate
Huang, Yixiao; Hu, Zheng-Da
2015-01-01
Recently, strong spin-orbit coupling with equal Rashba and Dresselhaus strength has been realized in neutral atomic Bose-Einstein condensates via a pair of Raman lasers. In this report, we investigate spin and field squeezing of the ground state in spin-orbit coupled Bose-Einstein condensate. By mapping the spin-orbit coupled BEC to the well-known quantum Dicke model, the Dicke type quantum phase transition is presented with the order parameters quantified by the spin polarization and occupation number of harmonic trap mode. This Dicke type quantum phase transition may be captured by the spin and field squeezing arising from the spin-orbit coupling. We further consider the effect of a finite detuning on the ground state and show the spin polarization and the quasi-momentum exhibit a step jump at zero detuning. Meanwhile, we also find that the presence of the detuning enhances the occupation number of harmonic trap mode, while it suppresses the spin and the field squeezing. PMID:25620051
Spin and field squeezing in a spin-orbit coupled Bose-Einstein condensate.
Huang, Yixiao; Hu, Zheng-Da
2015-01-01
Recently, strong spin-orbit coupling with equal Rashba and Dresselhaus strength has been realized in neutral atomic Bose-Einstein condensates via a pair of Raman lasers. In this report, we investigate spin and field squeezing of the ground state in spin-orbit coupled Bose-Einstein condensate. By mapping the spin-orbit coupled BEC to the well-known quantum Dicke model, the Dicke type quantum phase transition is presented with the order parameters quantified by the spin polarization and occupation number of harmonic trap mode. This Dicke type quantum phase transition may be captured by the spin and field squeezing arising from the spin-orbit coupling. We further consider the effect of a finite detuning on the ground state and show the spin polarization and the quasi-momentum exhibit a step jump at zero detuning. Meanwhile, we also find that the presence of the detuning enhances the occupation number of harmonic trap mode, while it suppresses the spin and the field squeezing. PMID:25620051
BCS condensate as a special case of the Bose-Einstein condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Batle, J.; Casas, M.; Fortes, M.; Solís, M. A.; de Llano, M.; Salazar, A.; Valladares, A. A.; Rojo, O.
2001-03-01
Rather general separable interfermionic interactions with sufficient attraction to bind fermions into (bosonic) Cooper pairs (CPs) give [1], in 2D or 3D, a center-of-mass-momentum(CMM)-dependent CP binding energy that is quadratic for any coupling strictly only in the limit of zero Fermi energy, i.e., when the Fermi sea disappears and one is in vacuum. Otherwise, this "dispersion relation" is linear to good approximation---and perfectly so in weak to moderate coupling. Moreover, the CPs break up beyond a certain CMM which vanishes in the zero coupling limit. As a result, the condensate of BCS theory (which generally neglects nonzero CMM CPs) appears to be a special case of the Bose-Einstein condensate of a boson-fermion binary mixture. Chemical and thermal equilibrium in the mixture gives rise [2] to a boson number which is strongly coupling- and temperature-dependent, and generally leads to transition temperatures substantially greater than those predicted by BCS theory. [1] S.K. Adhikari et al., Physica C (in press) and Phys. Rev. B 62 (2000) 8671; M. Casas et al., Physica C 295 (1998) 93; M. Casas et al., Phys. Letters A 245 (1998) 55. [2] M. Casas et al., http://xxx.lanl.gov/abs/cond-mat/0003499.
Black hole lasers in Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Finazzi, S.; Parentani, R.
2010-09-01
We consider elongated condensates that cross twice the speed of sound. In the absence of periodic boundary conditions, the phonon spectrum possesses a discrete and finite set of complex frequency modes that induce a laser effect. This effect constitutes a dynamical instability and is due to the fact that the supersonic region acts as a resonant cavity. We numerically compute the complex frequencies and density-density correlation function. We obtain patterns with very specific signatures. In terms of the gravitational analogy, the flows we consider correspond to a pair of black hole and white hole horizons, and the laser effect can be conceived as self-amplified Hawking radiation. This is verified by comparing the outgoing flux at early time with the standard black hole radiation.
Bose-Einstein condensates of bosonic Thomson atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schneider, Tobias; Blümel, Reinhold
1999-10-01
A system of charged particles in a harmonic trap is a realization of Thomson's raisin cake model. Therefore, we call it a Thomson atom. Bosonic, fermionic and mixed Thomson atoms exist. In this paper we focus on bosonic Thomson atoms in isotropic traps. Approximating the exact ground state by a condensate we investigate ground-state properties at temperature T = 0 using the Hartree-Fock theory for bosons. In order to assess the quality of our mean-field approach we compare the Hartree-Fock results for bosonic Thomson helium with an exact diagonalization. In contrast to the weakly interacting Bose gas (alkali vapours) mean-field calculations are reliable in the limit of large particle density. The Wigner regime (low particle density) is discussed.
Mixtures of ultracold gases: Fermi sea and Bose-Einstein condensate of lithium isotopes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schreck, F.
2003-03-01
This thesis presents studies of quantum degenerate atomic gases of fermionic ^6Li and bosonic ^7Li. Degeneracy is reached by evaporative cooling of ^7Li in a strongly confining magnetic trap. Since at low temperatures direct evaporative cooling is not possible for a polarized fermionic gas, ^6Li is sympathetically cooled by thermal contact with ^7Li. In a first series of experiments both isotopes are trapped in their low-field seeking higher hyperfine states. A Fermi degeneracy of T/T_F=0.25(5) is achieved for 10^5 fermions. For more than 300 atoms, the ^7Li condensate collapses, due to the attractive interatomic interaction in this state. This limits the degeneracy reached for both species. To overcome this limit, in a second series of experiments ^7Li and ^6Li atoms are transferred to their low field seeking lower hyperfine states, where the boson-boson interaction is repulsive but weak. The inter-isotope collisions are used to thermalize the mixture. A ^7Li Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) of 10^4 atoms immersed in a Fermi sea is produced. The BEC is quasi-one-dimensional and the thermal fraction can be negligible. The measured degeneracies are T/T_C=T/T_F=0.2(1). The temperature is measured using the bosonic thermal fraction, which vanishes at the lowest temperatures, limiting our measurement sensitivity. In a third series of experiments, the bosons are transferred into an optical trap and their internal state is changed to |F=1,m_F=1rangle, the lowest energy state. A Feshbach resonance is detected and used to produce a BEC with tunable atomic interactions. When the effective interaction between atoms is tuned to be small and attractive, we observe the formation of a matter-wave bright soliton. Propagation of the soliton without spreading over a macroscopic distance of 1.1 mm is observed. Mélanges de gaz ultrafroids: mer de Fermi et condensat de Bose-Einstein des isotopes du lithium Cette thèse décrit l'étude des gaz de fermions ^6Li et de bosons ^7Li dans le
Resonant Hawking radiation in Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sols, Fernando; Zapata, Ivar; Albert, Mathias; Parentani, Renaud
2012-02-01
We study double-barrier interfaces separating regions of asymptotically subsonic and supersonic flow of Bose-condensed atoms [1]. These setups contain at least one black hole sonic horizon from which the analogue of Hawking radiation should be generated and emitted against the flow in the subsonic region. Multiple coherent scattering by the double-barrier structure strongly modulates the transmission probability of phonons, rendering it very sensitive to their frequency. As a result, resonant tunneling occurs with high probability within a few narrow frequency intervals. This gives rise to highly non-thermal spectra with sharp peaks. We find that these peaks are mostly associated with decaying resonances and only occasionally with dynamical instabilities. Even at achievable non-zero temperatures, the radiation peaks can be dominated by spontaneous emission, i.e. enhanced zero-point fluctuations, and not, as is often the case in analogue models, by stimulated emission.[4pt] [1] I. Zapata, M. Albert, R. Parentani, F. Sols, New J. Phys. 13, 063048 (2011).
Mean-field regime of trapped dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates in one and two dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cai, Yongyong; Rosenkranz, Matthias; Lei, Zhen; Bao, Weizhu
2010-10-01
We derive rigorous one- and two-dimensional mean-field equations for cigar- and pancake-shaped dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates with arbitrary polarization angle. We show how the dipolar interaction modifies the contact interaction of the strongly confined atoms. In addition, our equations introduce a nonlocal potential, which is anisotropic for pancake-shaped condensates. We propose to observe this anisotropy via measurement of the condensate aspect ratio. We also derive analytically approximate density profiles from our equations. Both the numerical solutions of our reduced mean-field equations and the analytical density profiles agree well with numerical solutions of the full Gross-Pitaevskii equation while being more efficient to compute.
Phase dynamics after connection of two separate Bose-Einstein condensates
Zapata, I.; Sols, F.; Leggett, A.J.
2003-02-01
We study the dynamics of the relative phase following the connection of the two independently formed Bose-Einstein condensates. Dissipation is assumed to be due to the creation of quasiparticles induced by a fluctuating condensate particle number. The coherence between different values of the phase, which is characteristic of the initial Fock state, is quickly lost after the net exchange of a few atoms has taken place. This process effectively measures the phase and marks the onset of a semiclassical regime in which the system undergoes Bloch oscillations around the initial particle number. These fast oscillations excite quasiparticles within each condensate and the system relaxes at a longer time scale until it displays low-energy, damped, Josephson plasma oscillations, eventually coming to a halt when the equilibrium configuration is finally reached.
Full counting statistics of the interference contrast from independent Bose-Einstein condensates
Rath, Steffen Patrick; Zwerger, Wilhelm
2010-11-15
We show that the visibility in interference experiments with Bose-Einstein condensates is directly related to the condensate fraction. The probability distribution of the contrast over many runs of an interference experiment thus gives the full counting statistics of the condensed atom number. For two-dimensional Bose gases, we discuss the universal behavior of the probability distribution in the superfluid regime and provide analytical expressions for the distributions for both homogeneous and harmonically trapped samples. They are non-Gaussian and unimodal with a variance that is directly related to the superfluid density. In general, the visibility is a self-averaging observable only in the presence of long-range phase coherence. Close to the transition temperature, the visibility distribution reflects the universal order-parameter distribution in the vicinity of the critical point.
Dynamics and Interaction of Vortex Lines in an Elongated Bose-Einstein Condensate.
Serafini, S; Barbiero, M; Debortoli, M; Donadello, S; Larcher, F; Dalfovo, F; Lamporesi, G; Ferrari, G
2015-10-23
We study the real-time dynamics of vortices in a large elongated Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) of sodium atoms using a stroboscopic technique. Vortices are produced via the Kibble-Zurek mechanism in a quench across the BEC transition and they slowly precess keeping their orientation perpendicular to the long axis of the trap as expected for solitonic vortices in a highly anisotropic condensate. Good agreement with theoretical predictions is found for the precession period as a function of the orbit amplitude and the number of condensed atoms. In configurations with two or more vortices, we see signatures of vortex-vortex interaction in the shape and visibility of the orbits. In addition, when more than two vortices are present, their decay is faster than the thermal decay observed for one or two vortices. The possible role of vortex reconnection processes is discussed. PMID:26551093
Multistability in an optomechanical system with a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate
Dong Ying; Ye Jinwu; Pu Han
2011-03-15
We investigate a system consisting of a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate interacting dispersively with a Fabry-Perot optical cavity where the two components of the condensate are resonantly coupled to each other by another classical field. The key feature of this system is that the atomic motional degrees of freedom and the internal pseudospin degrees of freedom are coupled to the cavity field simultaneously, hence an effective spin-orbital coupling within the condensate is induced by the cavity. The interplay among the atomic center-of-mass motion, the atomic collective spin, and the cavity field leads to a strong nonlinearity, resulting in multistable behavior in both matter wave and light wave at the few-photon level.
Optimized evaporative cooling for sodium Bose-Einstein condensation against three-body loss
Shobu, Takahiko; Yamaoka, Hironobu; Imai, Hiromitsu; Morinaga, Atsuo; Yamashita, Makoto
2011-09-15
We report on a highly efficient evaporative cooling optimized experimentally. We successfully created sodium Bose-Einstein condensates with 6.4x10{sup 7} atoms starting from 6.6x10{sup 9} thermal atoms trapped in a magnetic trap by employing a fast linear sweep of radio frequency at the final stage of evaporative cooling so as to overcome the serious three-body losses. The experimental results such as the cooling trajectory and the condensate growth quantitatively agree with the numerical simulations of evaporative cooling on the basis of the kinetic theory of a Bose gas carefully taking into account our specific experimental conditions. We further discuss theoretically a possibility of producing large condensates, more than 10{sup 8} sodium atoms, by simply increasing the number of initial thermal trapped atoms and the corresponding optimization of evaporative cooling.
Fock-state dynamics in Raman photoassociation of Bose-Einstein condensates
Olsen, M.K.; Bradley, A.S.; Cavalcanti, S.B.
2004-09-01
By stochastic modeling of the process of Raman photoassociation of Bose-Einstein condensates, we show that, the farther the initial quantum state is from a coherent state, the farther the one-dimensional predictions are from those of the commonly used zero-dimensional approach. We compare the dynamics of condensates, initially in different quantum states, finding that, even when the quantum prediction for an initial coherent state is relatively close to the Gross-Pitaevskii prediction, an initial Fock state gives qualitatively different predictions. We also show that this difference is not present in a single-mode type of model, but that the quantum statistics assume a more important role as the dimensionality of the model is increased. This contrasting behavior in different dimensions, well known with critical phenomena in statistical mechanics, makes itself plainly visible here in a mesoscopic system and is a strong demonstration of the need to consider physically realistic models of interacting condensates.
Countersuperflow instability in miscible two-component Bose-Einstein condensates
Ishino, Shungo; Tsubota, Makoto; Takeuchi, Hiromitsu
2011-06-15
We study theoretically the instability of countersuperflow, i.e., two counterpropagating miscible superflows, in uniform two-component Bose-Einstein condensates. Countersuperflow instability causes mutual friction between the superfluids, causing a momentum exchange between the two condensates, when the relative velocity of the counterflow exceeds a critical value. The momentum exchange leads to nucleation of vortex rings from characteristic density patterns due to the nonlinear development of the instability. Expansion of the vortex rings drastically accelerates the momentum exchange, leading to a highly nonlinear regime caused by intervortex interaction and vortex reconnection between the rings. For a sufficiently large interaction between the two components, rapid expansion of the vortex rings causes isotropic turbulence and the global relative motion of the two condensates relaxes. The maximum vortex line density in the turbulence is proportional to the square of the relative velocity.
Collisional Dynamics of Half-Quantum Vortices in a Spinor Bose-Einstein Condensate.
Seo, Sang Won; Kwon, Woo Jin; Kang, Seji; Shin, Y
2016-05-01
We present an experimental study on the interaction and dynamics of half-quantum vortices (HQVs) in an antiferromagnetic spinor Bose-Einstein condensate. By exploiting the orbit motion of a vortex dipole in a trapped condensate, we perform a collision experiment of two HQV pairs, and observe that the scattering motions of the HQVs is consistent with the short-range vortex interaction that arises from nonsingular magnetized vortex cores. We also investigate the relaxation dynamics of turbulent condensates containing many HQVs, and demonstrate that spin wave excitations are generated by the collisional motions of the HQVs. The short-range vortex interaction and the HQV-magnon coupling represent two characteristics of the HQV dynamics in the spinor superfluid. PMID:27203331
Collisional Dynamics of Half-Quantum Vortices in a Spinor Bose-Einstein Condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seo, Sang Won; Kwon, Woo Jin; Kang, Seji; Shin, Y.
2016-05-01
We present an experimental study on the interaction and dynamics of half-quantum vortices (HQVs) in an antiferromagnetic spinor Bose-Einstein condensate. By exploiting the orbit motion of a vortex dipole in a trapped condensate, we perform a collision experiment of two HQV pairs, and observe that the scattering motions of the HQVs is consistent with the short-range vortex interaction that arises from nonsingular magnetized vortex cores. We also investigate the relaxation dynamics of turbulent condensates containing many HQVs, and demonstrate that spin wave excitations are generated by the collisional motions of the HQVs. The short-range vortex interaction and the HQV-magnon coupling represent two characteristics of the HQV dynamics in the spinor superfluid.
Vortex structures of rotating Bose-Einstein condensates in an anisotropic harmonic potential
Matveenko, S. I.
2010-09-15
We found an analytical solution for the vortex structure in a rapidly rotating trapped Bose-Einstein condensate in the lowest Landau level approximation. This solution is exact in the limit of a large number of vortices and is obtained for the case of a condensate in a anisotropic harmonic potential. The solution describes as limiting cases both a triangle vortex lattice in the symmetric potential trap and a quasi-one-dimensional structure of vortex rows in an asymmetric case, when the rotation frequency is very close to the lower trapping potential frequency. The shape of the density profile is found to be close to the Thomas-Fermi inverted paraboloid form, except in the vicinity of edges of a condensate cloud.
Dual-species Bose-Einstein condensate of {sup 87}Rb and {sup 133}Cs
McCarron, D. J.; Cho, H. W.; Jenkin, D. L.; Koeppinger, M. P.; Cornish, S. L.
2011-07-15
We report the formation of a dual-species Bose-Einstein condensate of {sup 87}Rb and {sup 133}Cs in the same trapping potential. Our method exploits the efficient sympathetic cooling of {sup 133}Cs via elastic collisions with {sup 87}Rb, initially in a magnetic quadrupole trap and subsequently in a levitated optical trap. The two condensates each contain up to 2x10{sup 4} atoms and exhibit a striking phase separation, revealing the mixture to be immiscible due to strong repulsive interspecies interactions. Sacrificing all the {sup 87}Rb during the cooling, we create single-species {sup 133}Cs condensates of up to 6x10{sup 4} atoms.
Spin-orbit angular momentum coupling in a spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Li; Pu, Han; Zhang, Yunbo
2016-01-01
We propose a simple model with spin and orbit angular momentum coupling in a spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate, where three internal atomic states are Raman coupled by a pair of copropagating Laguerre-Gaussian beams. The resulting Raman transition imposes a transfer of orbital angular momentum between photons and the condensate in a spin-dependent way. Focusing on a regime where the single-particle ground state is nearly threefold degenerate, we show that the weak interatomic interaction in the condensate produces a rich phase diagram, and that a many-body Rabi oscillation between two quantum phases can be induced by a sudden quench of the quadratic Zeeman shift. We carried out our calculations using both a variational method and a full numerical method, and found excellent agreement.
Bose-Einstein Condensation of Alkaline Earth Atoms: {sup 40}Ca
Kraft, Sebastian; Vogt, Felix; Appel, Oliver; Riehle, Fritz; Sterr, Uwe
2009-09-25
We have achieved Bose-Einstein condensation of {sup 40}Ca, the first for an alkaline earth element. The influence of elastic and inelastic collisions associated with the large ground-state s-wave scattering length of {sup 40}Ca was measured. From these findings, an optimized loading and cooling scheme was developed that allowed us to condense about 2x10{sup 4} atoms after laser cooling in a two-stage magneto-optical trap and subsequent forced evaporation in a crossed dipole trap within less than 3 s. The condensation of an alkaline earth element opens novel opportunities for precision measurements on the narrow intercombination lines as well as investigations of molecular states at the {sup 1}S-{sup 3}P asymptotes.
Critical velocity for vortex shedding in a Bose-Einstein condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kwon, Woo Jin; Moon, Geol; Seo, Sang Won; Shin, Y.
2015-05-01
We present measurements of the critical velocity for vortex shedding in a highly oblate Bose-Einstein condensate with a moving repulsive Gaussian laser beam. As a function of the barrier height V0, the critical velocity vc shows a dip structure having a minimum at V0≈μ , where μ is the chemical potential of the condensate. At fixed V0≈7 μ , we observe that the ratio of vc to the speed of sound cs monotonically increases for decreasing σ /ξ , where σ is the beam width and ξ is the condensate healing length. We explain our results with the density reduction effect of the soft boundary of the Gaussian obstacle, based on the local Landau criterion for superfluidity. The measured value of vc/cs with our stiffest obstacle is about 0.4, which is in good agreement with theoretical predictions for a two-dimensional superflow past a circular cylinder.
Dark matter as a Bose-Einstein Condensate: the relativistic non-minimally coupled case
Bettoni, Dario; Colombo, Mattia; Liberati, Stefano E-mail: mattia.colombo@studenti.unitn.it
2014-02-01
Bose-Einstein Condensates have been recently proposed as dark matter candidates. In order to characterize the phenomenology associated to such models, we extend previous investigations by studying the general case of a relativistic BEC on a curved background including a non-minimal coupling to curvature. In particular, we discuss the possibility of a two phase cosmological evolution: a cold dark matter-like phase at the large scales/early times and a condensed phase inside dark matter halos. During the first phase dark matter is described by a minimally coupled weakly self-interacting scalar field, while in the second one dark matter condensates and, we shall argue, develops as a consequence the non-minimal coupling. Finally, we discuss how such non-minimal coupling could provide a new mechanism to address cold dark matter paradigm issues at galactic scales.
Mean-field predictions for a dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate with 164Dy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zajec, Damir; Wunner, Günter
2015-11-01
Dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates are systems well suited for the investigation of effects caused by the nonlocal and anisotropic dipole-dipole interaction. In this paper we are interested in properties which are directly connected to the realization of a condensate with 164Dy , such as stability and phase diagrams. Additionally, we study the expansion of dipolar condensates and find signatures of the dipole-dipole interaction in terms of structured states and a deviation of the well-known inversion of the aspect ratio of the cloud during a time of flight. Our analysis is based on the extended Gross-Pitaevskii equation, which we solve numerically exactly on a grid by means of an imaginary- and real-time evolution.
Formulation for the zero mode of a Bose-Einstein condensate beyond the Bogoliubov approximation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakamura, Y.; Takahashi, J.; Yamanaka, Y.
2014-01-01
The unperturbed Hamiltonian for the Bose-Einstein condensate, which includes not only the first and second powers of the zero mode operators but also the higher ones, is proposed to determine a unique and stationary vacuum at zero temperature. From the standpoint of quantum field theory, it is done in a consistent manner that the canonical commutation relation of the field operator is kept. In this formulation, the condensate phase does not diffuse and is robust against the quantum fluctuation of the zero mode. The standard deviation for the phase operator depends on the condensed atom number with the exponent of -1/3, which is universal for both homogeneous and inhomogeneous systems.
Half-Quantum Vortices in an Antiferromagnetic Spinor Bose-Einstein Condensate.
Seo, Sang Won; Kang, Seji; Kwon, Woo Jin; Shin, Yong-il
2015-07-01
We report on the observation of half-quantum vortices (HQVs) in the easy-plane polar phase of an antiferromagnetic spinor Bose-Einstein condensate. Using in situ magnetization-sensitive imaging, we observe that pairs of HQVs with opposite core magnetization are generated when singly charged quantum vortices are injected into the condensate. The dynamics of HQV pair formation is characterized by measuring the temporal evolutions of the pair separation distance and the core magnetization, which reveals the short-range nature of the repulsive interactions between the HQVs. We find that spin fluctuations arising from thermal population of transverse magnon excitations do not significantly affect the HQV pair formation dynamics. Our results demonstrate the instability of a singly charged vortex in the antiferromagnetic spinor condensate. PMID:26182102
Decoherence effects in Bose-Einstein condensate interferometry I. General theory
Dalton, B.J.
2011-03-15
Research Highlights: > Theory of dephasing, decoherence effects for Bose-Einstein condensate interferometry. > Applies to single component, two mode condensate in double potential well. > Phase space theory using Wigner, positive P representations for condensate, non-condensate fields. > Stochastic condensate, non-condensate field equations and properties of noise fields derived. > Based on mean field theory with condensate modes given by generalised Gross-Pitaevskii equations. - Abstract: The present paper outlines a basic theoretical treatment of decoherence and dephasing effects in interferometry based on single component Bose-Einstein condensates in double potential wells, where two condensate modes may be involved. Results for both two mode condensates and the simpler single mode condensate case are presented. The approach involves a hybrid phase space distribution functional method where the condensate modes are described via a truncated Wigner representation, whilst the basically unoccupied non-condensate modes are described via a positive P representation. The Hamiltonian for the system is described in terms of quantum field operators for the condensate and non-condensate modes. The functional Fokker-Planck equation for the double phase space distribution functional is derived. Equivalent Ito stochastic equations for the condensate and non-condensate fields that replace the field operators are obtained, and stochastic averages of products of these fields give the quantum correlation functions that can be used to interpret interferometry experiments. The stochastic field equations are the sum of a deterministic term obtained from the drift vector in the functional Fokker-Planck equation, and a noise field whose stochastic properties are determined from the diffusion matrix in the functional Fokker-Planck equation. The stochastic properties of the noise field terms are similar to those for Gaussian-Markov processes in that the stochastic averages of odd
Dynamical spin-density waves in a spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yan; Qu, Chunlei; Zhang, Yongsheng; Zhang, Chuanwei
2015-07-01
Synthetic spin-orbit (SO) coupling, an important ingredient for quantum simulation of many exotic condensed matter physics, has recently attracted considerable attention. The static and dynamic properties of a SO-coupled Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) have been extensively studied in both theory and experiment. Here we numerically investigate the generation and propagation of a dynamical spin-density wave (SDW) in a SO-coupled BEC using a fast moving Gaussian-shaped barrier. We find that the SDW wavelength is sensitive to the barrier's velocity while varies slightly with the barrier's peak potential or width. We qualitatively explain the generation of SDW by considering a rectangular barrier in a one-dimensional system. Our results may motivate future experimental and theoretical investigations of rich dynamics in the SO-coupled BEC induced by a moving barrier.
Band structures of a dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate in one-dimensional lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Yuanyao; Lee, Ray-Kuang; Kao, Yee-Mou; Jiang, Tsin-Fu
2008-08-01
We derive the effective Gross-Pitaevskii equation for a cigar-shaped dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate in one-dimensional lattices and investigate the band structures numerically. Due to the anisotropic and the long-ranged dipole-dipole interaction in addition to the known contact interaction, we elucidate the possibility of modifying the band structures by changing the alignment of the dipoles with the axial direction. With the considerations of the transverse parts and the practical physical parameters of a cigar-shaped trap, we show the possibility to stabilize an attractive condensate simply by adjusting the orientation angle of dipoles. Some interesting Bloch waves at several particle current densities are identified for possible experimental observations.
Dynamically stable multiply quantized vortices in dilute Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huhtamäki, J. A. M.; Möttönen, M.; Virtanen, S. M. M.
2006-12-01
Multiquantum vortices in dilute atomic Bose-Einstein condensates confined in long cigar-shaped traps are known to be both energetically and dynamically unstable. They tend to split into single-quantum vortices even in the ultralow temperature limit with vanishingly weak dissipation, which has also been confirmed in the recent experiments [Y. Shin , Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 160406 (2004)] utilizing the so-called topological phase engineering method to create multiquantum vortices. We study the stability properties of multiquantum vortices in different trap geometries by solving the Bogoliubov excitation spectra for such states. We find that there are regions in the trap asymmetry and condensate interaction strength plane in which the splitting instability of multiquantum vortices is suppressed, and hence they are dynamically stable. For example, the doubly quantized vortex can be made dynamically stable even in spherical traps within a wide range of interaction strength values. We expect that this suppression of vortex-splitting instability can be experimentally verified.
Linearly aligned superradiant Bose-Einstein condensates diffracted by a single short laser pulse
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Inano, Ichiro; Nakamura, Keisuke; Morinaga, Atsuo
2013-04-01
Multiorder bidirectional superradiant Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) were generated in a straight line by an irradiation of a single unidirectional short laser pulse along the long axis of a cigar-shaped sodium BEC in a magnetic trap. The probabilities of the diffracted BECs as a function of the laser intensity were well explained by the square of the Bessel functions and it was estimated that the intensity of the end-fire beam was 25% of the laser intensity. The backward diffractions disappeared at pulse duration longer than 5 μs because of energy conservation. The probability for the +first-order diffraction grew exponentially with pulse duration when the backward diffractions disappeared. We observed the linearly aligned diffracted BECs along the propagation direction of the laser beam, regardless of the aspect ratio of the condensates. This fact indicates that the end-fire beam is triggered by the small backreflection from the vacuum window.
Faraday waves in Bose-Einstein condensates with engineering three-body interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdullaev, F. Kh; Gammal, A.; Tomio, Lauro
2016-01-01
We consider Bose-Einstein condensates with two- and three-body interactions periodically varying in time. Two models of time-dependent three-body interactions, with quadratic and quartic dependence on the two-body atomic scattering length a s , are studied. It is shown that parametric instabilities in the condensate lead to the generation of Faraday waves (FWs), with wavelengths depending on the background scattering length, as well as on the frequency and amplitude of the modulations of a s . From an experimental perspective, this opens a new possibility to tune the period of Faraday patterns by varying not only the frequency of modulations and background scattering length, but also the amplitude of the modulations. The latter effect can be used to estimate the parameters of three-body interactions from the FW experimental results. Theoretical predictions are confirmed by numerical simulations of the corresponding extended Gross-Pitaevskii equation.
Optimization of evaporative cooling towards a large number of Bose-Einstein-condensed atoms
Yamashita, Makoto; Mukai, Tetsuya; Mukai, Takaaki; Koashi, Masato; Mitsunaga, Masaharu; Imoto, Nobuyuki
2003-02-01
We study the optimization of evaporative cooling in trapped bosonic atoms on the basis of quantum kinetic theory of a Bose gas. The optimized cooling trajectory for {sup 87}Rb atoms indicates that the acceleration of evaporative cooling around the transition point of Bose-Einstein condensation is very effective against loss of trapped atoms caused by three-body recombination. The number of condensed atoms is largely enhanced by the optimization, more than two orders of magnitude in our present calculation using relevant experimental parameters, as compared with the typical value given by the conventional evaporative cooling where the frequency of radio-frequency magnetic field is swept exponentially. In addition to this optimized cooling, it is also shown that highly efficient evaporative cooling can be achieved by an initial exponential and then a rapid linear sweep of frequency.
Spontaneously axisymmetry-breaking phase in a binary mixture of spinor Bose-Einstein condensates
Xu, Z. F.; Lue, R.; You, L.; Mei, J. W.
2010-11-15
We study the ground-state phases for a mixture of two atomic spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensates in the presence of a weak magnetic (B) field. The ground state is found to contain a broken-axisymmetry (BA) phase due to competitions among intraspecies and interspecies spin-exchange interactions and the linear Zeeman shifts. This is in contrast to the case of a single-species spin-1 condensate, where the axisymmetry breaking results from competitions among the linear and quadratic Zeeman shifts and the intraspecies ferromagnetic interaction. All other remaining ground-state phases for the mixture are found to preserve axisymmetry. We further elaborate on the ground-state phase diagram and calculate the Bogoliubov excitation spectra of the phases. For the BA phase, there exist three Goldstone modes that attempt to restore the broken U(1) and SO(2) symmetries.
Impurity driven diffusion and destruction of solitons in quasi-1D Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aycock, Lauren; Hurst, Hilary; Lu, Hsin-I.; Genkina, Dina; Spielman, Ian
2016-05-01
Current experimental research on solitons focuses on their collisions with each other and how dimensionality influences their stability and decay. Here, we investigate the effect of evenly distributed impurity atoms on soliton dynamics. We launch lone, long-lived solitons in highly elongated 87 Rb Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) by phase imprinting and observe oscillations stable over many seconds. We compare these long-lived solitons to those launched in BECs containing a few percent of impurity-the same atomic species in a different Zeeman sublevel-controllably introduced just before evaporation to degeneracy. These impurities - evenly distributed throughout the condensate - dramatically decrease the soliton lifetime and enhance Brownian-like diffusion in the soliton's trajectory.
Time-orbiting potential trap for Bose-Einstein condensate interferometry
Reeves, J. M.; Garcia, O.; Deissler, B.; Baranowski, K. L.; Hughes, K. J.; Sackett, C. A.
2005-11-15
We describe an atom trap for Bose-Einstein condensates of {sup 87}Rb to be used in atom interferometry experiments. The trap is based on a time-orbiting potential waveguide. It supports the atoms against gravity while providing weak confinement to minimize interaction effects. We observe harmonic oscillation frequencies ({omega}{sub x},{omega}{sub y},{omega}{sub z}) as low as 2{pi}x(6.0,1.2,3.3) Hz. Up to 2x10{sup 4} condensate atoms have been loaded into the trap, at estimated temperatures as low as 850 pK. We anticipate that interferometer measurement times of 1 s or more should be achievable in this device.
Multiple dark-bright solitons in atomic Bose-Einstein condensates
Yan, D.; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Chang, J. J.; Hamner, C.; Engels, P.; Achilleos, V.; Frantzeskakis, D. J.; Carretero-Gonzalez, R.; Schmelcher, P.
2011-11-15
Motivated by recent experimental results, we present a systematic theoretical analysis of dark-bright-soliton interactions and multiple-dark-bright-soliton complexes in atomic two-component Bose-Einstein condensates. We study analytically the interactions between two dark-bright solitons in a homogeneous condensate and then extend our considerations to the presence of the trap. We illustrate the existence of robust stationary dark-bright-soliton ''molecules,'' composed of two or more solitons, which are formed due to the competition of the interaction forces between the dark- and bright-soliton components and the trap force. Our analysis is based on an effective equation of motion, derived for the distance between two dark-bright solitons. This equation provides equilibrium positions and characteristic oscillation frequencies of the solitons, which are found to be in good agreement with the eigenfrequencies of the anomalous modes of the system.
Spin-dependent inelastic collisions in spin-2 Bose-Einstein condensates
Tojo, Satoshi; Hayashi, Taro; Tanabe, Tatsuyoshi; Hirano, Takuya; Kawaguchi, Yuki; Saito, Hiroki; Ueda, Masahito
2009-10-15
We studied spin-dependent two-body inelastic collisions in F=2 {sup 87}Rb Bose-Einstein condensates both experimentally and theoretically. The {sup 87}Rb condensates were confined in an optical trap and selectively prepared in various spin states in the F=2 manifold at a magnetic field of 3.0 G. The measured atom loss rates depend on the spin states of colliding atoms. We measured two fundamental loss coefficients for two-body inelastic collisions with total spins of 0 and 2. The loss coefficients determine the loss rates of all the spin pairs. The experimental results for mixtures of all spin combinations are in good agreement with numerical solutions of the Gross-Pitaevskii equations that include the effect of a magnetic field gradient.
Bose-Einstein condensation in large time-averaged optical ring potentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bell, Thomas A.; Glidden, Jake A. P.; Humbert, Leif; Bromley, Michael W. J.; Haine, Simon A.; Davis, Matthew J.; Neely, Tyler W.; Baker, Mark A.; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina
2016-03-01
Interferometric measurements with matter waves are established techniques for sensitive gravimetry, rotation sensing, and measurement of surface interactions, but compact interferometers will require techniques based on trapped geometries. In a step towards the realisation of matter wave interferometers in toroidal geometries, we produce a large, smooth ring trap for Bose-Einstein condensates using rapidly scanned time-averaged dipole potentials. The trap potential is smoothed by using the atom distribution as input to an optical intensity correction algorithm. Smooth rings with a diameter up to 300 μm are demonstrated. We experimentally observe and simulate the dispersion of condensed atoms in the resulting potential, with good agreement serving as an indication of trap smoothness. Under time of flight expansion we observe low energy excitations in the ring, which serves to constrain the lower frequency limit of the scanned potential technique. The resulting ring potential will have applications as a waveguide for atom interferometry and studies of superfluidity.
Reversal of spin dynamics in an antiferromagnetic F = 1 spinor Bose-Einstein condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schwettmann, Arne; Summy, Gil; Pechkis, Hyewon; Wrubel, Jonathan; Barnett, Ryan; Wilson, Ryan; Tiesinga, Eite; Lett, Paul
2014-05-01
The antiferromagnetic F = 1 sodium spinor Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) exhibits coherent population oscillations of the magnetic sublevels that are internally driven by spin-exchange collisions. Here, we experimentally demonstrate reversals of the collisional dynamics. The reversals are controlled with microwave pulses. We observe nearly complete reversals even after a significant amount of population oscillation has already occurred. In addition, and somewhat surprisingly, we can generate partial reversals in the cold, non-condensed normal gas. We explain our results with numerical calculations based on the truncated Wigner approximation and an analytical theory based on the Bogoliubov approximation. In the future, this type of microwave control of collisional dynamics will allow us to implement matter-wave analogs of devices known from quantum optics with photons, such as a phase-sensitive matter-wave amplifier.
On the third critical speed for rotating Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Correggi, M.; Dimonte, D.
2016-07-01
We study a two-dimensional rotating Bose-Einstein condensate confined by an anharmonic trap in the framework of the Gross-Pitaevskii theory. We consider a rapid rotation regime close to the transition to a giant vortex state. It was proven in Correggi et al. [J. Math. Phys. 53, 095203 (2012)] that such a transition occurs when the angular velocity is of order ɛ-4, with ɛ-2 denoting the coefficient of the nonlinear term in the Gross-Pitaevskii functional and ɛ ≪ 1 (Thomas-Fermi regime). In this paper, we identify a finite value Ωc such that if Ω = Ω0/ɛ4 with Ω0 > Ωc, the condensate is in the giant vortex phase. Under the same condition, we prove a refined energy asymptotics and an estimate of the winding number of any Gross-Pitaevskii minimizer.
Vortex dynamics near the surface of a Bose-Einstein condensate
Khawaja, U. Al
2005-06-15
The center-of-mass dynamics of a vortex in the surface region of a Bose-Einstein condensate is investigated both analytically using a variational calculation and numerically by solving the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation. We find, in agreement with previous works, that away from the Thomas-Fermi surface, the vortex moves parallel to the surface of the condensate with a constant velocity. We obtain an expression for this velocity in terms of the distance of the vortex core from the Thomas-Fermi surface that fits accurately with the numerical results. We find also that, coupled to its motion parallel to the surface, the vortex oscillates along the direction normal to the surface around a minimum point of an effective potential.
Bose-Einstein condensation and spin mixtures of optically trapped metastable helium
Partridge, G. B.; Jaskula, J.-C.; Bonneau, M.; Boiron, D.; Westbrook, C. I.
2010-05-15
We report the realization of a Bose-Einstein condensate of metastable helium-4 atoms ({sup 4}He*) in an all-optical potential. Up to 10{sup 5} spin-polarized {sup 4}He* atoms are condensed in an optical dipole trap formed from a single, focused, vertically propagating far-off-resonance laser beam. The vertical trap geometry is chosen to best match the resolution characteristics of a delay-line anode microchannel plate detector capable of registering single He* atoms. We also confirm the instability of certain spin-state combinations of {sup 4}He* to two-body inelastic processes, which necessarily affects the scope of future experiments using optically trapped spin mixtures. In order to better quantify this constraint, we measure spin-state-resolved two-body inelastic loss rate coefficients in the optical trap.
Bose-Einstein condensation of {sup 88}Sr through sympathetic cooling with {sup 87}Sr
Mickelson, P. G.; Martinez de Escobar, Y. N.; Yan, M.; DeSalvo, B. J.; Killian, T. C.
2010-05-15
We report Bose-Einstein condensation of {sup 88}Sr, which has a small, negative s-wave scattering length (a{sub 88}=-2a{sub 0}). We overcome the poor evaporative cooling characteristics of this isotope by sympathetic cooling with {sup 87}Sr atoms. {sup 87}Sr is effective in this role despite the fact that it is a fermion because of the large ground-state degeneracy arising from a nuclear spin of I=9/2, which reduces the impact of Pauli blocking of collisions. We observe a limited number of atoms in the condensate (N{sub max{approx_equal}}10{sup 4}) that is consistent with the value of a{sub 88} and the optical dipole trap parameters.
Doppler spectroscopy of an ytterbium Bose-Einstein condensate on the clock transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dareau, A.; Scholl, M.; Beaufils, Q.; Döring, D.; Beugnon, J.; Gerbier, F.
2015-02-01
We describe Doppler spectroscopy of Bose-Einstein condensates of ytterbium atoms using a narrow optical transition. We address the optical clock transition around 578 nm between the 1S0 and the 3P0 states with a laser system locked on a high-finesse cavity. We show how the absolute frequency of the cavity modes can be determined within a few tens of kilohertz using high-resolution spectroscopy on molecular iodine. We show that optical spectra reflect the velocity distribution of expanding condensates in free fall or after release inside an optical waveguide. We demonstrate subkilohertz spectral linewidths, with long-term drifts of the resonance frequency well below 1 kHz/h. These results open the way to high-resolution spectroscopy of many-body systems.
Onsager vortex formation in Bose-Einstein condensates in two-dimensional power-law traps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Groszek, Andrew J.; Simula, Tapio P.; Paganin, David M.; Helmerson, Kristian
2016-04-01
We study computationally dynamics of quantized vortices in two-dimensional superfluid Bose-Einstein condensates confined in highly oblate power-law traps. We have found that the formation of large-scale Onsager vortex clusters prevalent in steep-walled traps is suppressed in condensates confined by harmonic potentials. However, the shape of the trapping potential does not appear to adversely affect the evaporative heating efficiency of the vortex gas. Instead, the suppression of Onsager vortex formation in harmonic traps can be understood in terms of the energy of the vortex configurations. Furthermore, we find that the vortex-antivortex pair annihilation that underpins the vortex evaporative heating mechanism requires the interaction of at least three vortices. We conclude that experimental observation of Onsager vortices should be the most apparent in flat or inverted-bottom traps.
Dark soliton decay due to trap anharmonicity in atomic Bose-Einstein condensates
Parker, N. G.; Proukakis, N. P.; Adams, C. S.
2010-03-15
A number of recent experiments with nearly pure atomic Bose-Einstein condensates have confirmed the predicted dark soliton oscillations when under harmonic trapping. However, a dark soliton propagating in an inhomogeneous condensate has also been predicted to be unstable to the emission of sound waves. Although harmonic trapping supports an equilibrium between the coexisting soliton and sound, we show that the ensuing dynamics are sensitive to trap anharmonicities. Such anharmonicities can break the soliton-sound equilibrium and lead to the net decay of the soliton on a considerably shorter time scale than other dissipation mechanisms. Thus, we propose that small realistic modifications to existing experimental setups could enable the experimental observation of this decay channel.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Qiang
2016-02-01
Motivated by recent experiments carried out by Spielman's group at NIST, we study the vortex formation in a rotating Bose-Einstein condensate in synthetic magnetic field confined in a harmonic potential combined with an optical lattice. We obtain numerical solutions of the two-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation and compare the vortex formation by synthetic magnetic field method with those by rotating frame method. We conclude that a large angular momentum indeed can be created in the presence of the optical lattice. However, it is still more difficult to rotate the condensate by the synthetic magnetic field than by the rotating frame even if the optical lattice is added, and the chemical potential and energy remain almost unchanged by increasing rotational frequency.
Quantum Multimode Model of Elastic Scattering from Bose-Einstein Condensates
Zin, P.; Chwedenczuk, J.; Trippenbach, M.; Veitia, A.; Rzazewski, K.
2005-05-27
Mean field approximation treats only coherent aspects of the evolution of a Bose-Einstein condensate. However, in many experiments some atoms scatter out of the condensate. We study a semianalytic model of two counterpropagating atomic Gaussian wave packets incorporating the dynamics of incoherent scattering processes. Within the model we can treat processes of the elastic collision of atoms into the initially empty modes, and observe how, with growing occupation, the bosonic enhancement is slowly kicking in. A condition for the bosonic enhancement effect is found in terms of relevant parameters. Scattered atoms form a squeezed state. Not only are we able to calculate the dynamics of mode occupation, but also the full statistics of scattered atoms.
Vortices in a rotating Bose-Einstein condensate under extreme elongation
Sanchez-Lotero, P.; Palacios, J.J.
2005-10-15
We investigate a nonaxisymmetric rotating Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) in the limit of rotation frequency for which the BEC transforms into a quasi-one-dimensional system. We compute the vortex lattice wave function by minimizing the Gross-Pitaevskii energy functional in the lowest Landau level approximation for different confinement potentials. The condensate typically presents a changing number of vortex rows as a function of the interaction strength or rotation-confinement ratio. More specifically, the vortex lattices can be classified into two classes according to their symmetry with respect to the longitudinal axis. These two classes correspond to different local minima of the energy functional and evolve independently as a function of the various parameters.
Kottke, M.; Schulte, T.; Hellweg, D.; Drenkelforth, S.; Ertmer, W.; Arlt, J. J.; Cacciapuoti, L.
2005-11-15
We measure the frequency of the low m=0 quadrupolar excitation mode of weakly interacting Bose-Einstein condensates in the transition region from the three-dimensional (3D) to the 1D mean-field regime. Various effects shifting the frequency of the mode are discussed. In particular we take the dynamic coupling of the condensate with the thermal component at finite temperature into account using a time-dependent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov treatment developed by Giorgini [Phys. Rev. A, 61, 063615 (2000)]. We show that the frequency rises in the transition from 3D to 1D, in good agreement with the theoretical prediction of Menotti and Stringari [Phys. Rev. A 66, 043610 (2002)].
Coherent magnon optics in a ferromagnetic spinor Bose-Einstein condensate.
Marti, G Edward; MacRae, Andrew; Olf, Ryan; Lourette, Sean; Fang, Fang; Stamper-Kurn, Dan M
2014-10-10
We measure the dispersion relation, gap, and magnetic moment of a magnon in the ferromagnetic F = 1 spinor Bose-Einstein condensate of (87)Rb. From the dispersion relation we measure an average effective mass 1.033(2)(stat)(10)(sys) times the atomic mass, as determined by interfering standing and running coherent magnon waves within the dense and trapped condensed gas. The measured mass is higher than theoretical predictions of mean-field and beyond-mean-field Beliaev theory for a bulk spinor Bose gas with s-wave contact interactions. We observe a magnon energy gap of h × 2.5(1)(stat)(2)(sys) Hz, which is consistent with the predicted effect of magnetic dipole-dipole interactions. These dipolar interactions may also account for the high magnon mass. The effective magnetic moment of -1.04(2)(stat)(8)(sys) times the atomic magnetic moment is consistent with mean-field theory. PMID:25375719
Spontaneous creation of Kibble-Zurek solitons in a Bose-Einstein condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferrari, Gabriele
2014-05-01
The Kibble-Zurek mechanism (KZM) describes the spontaneous formation of defects in systems that cross a second-order phase transition at a finite rate. The mechanism was first proposed in the context of cosmology to explain how, during the expansion of the early Universe, the rapid cooling below a critical temperature induced a cosmological phase transition resulting in the creation of domain structures. In fact, the KZM is ubiquitous in nature and regards both classical and quantum phase transitions. Experimental evidences have been observed in superfluid 3He, in superconducting films and rings and in ion chains. Bose-Einstein condensation in trapped dilute gases has been considered as an ideal platform for the KZM as the system is extremely clean, controllable and particularly suitable for the investigation of effects arising from the spatial inhomogeneities induced by the confinement. Quantized vortices produced in a pancake-shaped condensate by a fast quench across the transition temperature have been already observed, but their limited statistics prevented a test of the KZM scaling. The KZM has been studied across the quantum superfluid to Mott insulator transition with atomic gases trapped in optical lattices. Here we report on the observation of solitons resulting from phase defects of the order parameter, spontaneously created in an elongated Bose-Einstein condensate of sodium atoms. We show that the number of solitons in the final condensate grows according to a power-law as a function of the rate at which the transition is crossed, consistent with the expectations of the KZM, and provide the first indication of the KZM scaling with the sonic horizon. We support our observations by comparing the estimated speed of the transition front in the gas to the speed of the sonic causal horizon, showing that solitons are produced in a regime of inhomogeneous Kibble-Zurek mechanism. We will address the role of vortex-solitons in our measurements.
Spontaneous creation of Kibble-Zurek solitons in a Bose-Einstein condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferrari, Gabriele
2014-03-01
The Kibble-Zurek mechanism (KZM) describes the spontaneous formation of defects in systems that cross a second-order phase transition at a finite rate. The mechanism was first proposed in the context of cosmology to explain how, during the expansion of the early Universe, the rapid cooling below a critical temperature induced a cosmological phase transition resulting in the creation of domain structures. In fact, the KZM is ubiquitous in nature and regards both classical and quantum phase transitions. Experimental evidences have been observed in superfluid 3He, in superconducting films and rings and in ion chains. Bose-Einstein condensation in trapped dilute gases has been considered as an ideal platform for the KZM as the system is extremely clean, controllable and particularly suitable for the investigation of effects arising from the spatial inhomogeneities induced by the confinement. Quantized vortices produced in a pancake-shaped condensate by a fast quench across the transition temperature have been already observed, but their limited statistics prevented a test of the KZM scaling. The KZM has been studied across the quantum superfluid to Mott insulator transition with atomic gases trapped in optical lattices. Here we report on the observation of solitons resulting from phase defects of the order parameter, spontaneously created in an elongated Bose-Einstein condensate of sodium atoms. We show that the number of solitons in the final condensate grows according to a power-law as a function of the rate at which the transition is crossed, consistent with the expectations of the KZM, and provide the first indication of the KZM scaling with the sonic horizon. We support our observations by comparing the estimated speed of the transition front in the gas to the speed of the sonic causal horizon, showing that solitons are produced in a regime of inhomogeneous Kibble-Zurek mechanism.
Rayleigh surface wave interaction with the 2D exciton Bose-Einstein condensate
Boev, M. V.; Kovalev, V. M.
2015-06-15
We describe the interaction of a Rayleigh surface acoustic wave (SAW) traveling on the semiconductor substrate with the excitonic gas in a double quantum well located on the substrate surface. We study the SAW attenuation and its velocity renormalization due to the coupling to excitons. Both the deformation potential and piezoelectric mechanisms of the SAW-exciton interaction are considered. We focus on the frequency and excitonic density dependences of the SAW absorption coefficient and velocity renormalization at temperatures both above and well below the critical temperature of Bose-Einstein condensation of the excitonic gas. We demonstrate that the SAW attenuation and velocity renormalization are strongly different below and above the critical temperature.
Bose-Einstein condensation on a manifold with non-negative Ricci curvature
Akant, Levent Ertuğrul, Emine Tapramaz, Ferzan Turgut, O. Teoman
2015-01-15
The Bose-Einstein condensation for an ideal Bose gas and for a dilute weakly interacting Bose gas in a manifold with non-negative Ricci curvature is investigated using the heat kernel and eigenvalue estimates of the Laplace operator. The main focus is on the nonrelativistic gas. However, special relativistic ideal gas is also discussed. The thermodynamic limit of the heat kernel and eigenvalue estimates is taken and the results are used to derive bounds for the depletion coefficient. In the case of a weakly interacting gas, Bogoliubov approximation is employed. The ground state is analyzed using heat kernel methods and finite size effects on the ground state energy are proposed. The justification of the c-number substitution on a manifold is given.
Self-trapping of a dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate in a double well
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adhikari, S. K.
2014-04-01
We study the Josephson oscillation and self-trapping dynamics of a cigar-shaped dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate of 52Cr atoms polarized along the symmetry axis of an axially symmetric double-well potential using the numerical solution of a mean-field model, for dominating repulsive contact interaction (large positive scattering length a) over an anisotropic dipolar interaction. Josephson-type oscillation emerges for small and very large numbers of atoms, whereas self-trapping is noted for an intermediate number of atoms. The dipolar interaction pushes the system away from self-trapping towards Josephson oscillation. We consider a simple two-mode description for a qualitative understanding of the dynamics.
Dark solitons in cigar-shaped Bose-Einstein condensates in double-well potentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Middelkamp, S.; Theocharis, G.; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Frantzeskakis, D. J.; Schmelcher, P.
2010-05-01
We study the statics and dynamics of dark solitons in a cigar-shaped Bose-Einstein condensate confined in a double-well potential. Using a mean-field model with a noncubic nonlinearity, appropriate to describe the dimensionality crossover regime from one- to three-dimensional, we obtain branches of solutions in the form of single and multiple dark soliton states, and study their bifurcations and stability. It is demonstrated that there exist dark soliton states which do not have a linear counterpart and we highlight the role of anomalous modes in the excitation spectra. Particularly, we show that anomalous mode eigenfrequencies are closely connected to the characteristic soliton frequencies as found from the solitons’ equations of motion, and how anomalous modes are related to the emergence of instabilities. We also analyze in detail the role of the height of the barrier in the double-well setting, which may lead to instabilities or decouple multiple dark soliton states.
NMR quadrupolar system described as Bose-Einstein-condensate-like system
Auccaise, R.; Oliveira, I. S.; Sarthour, R. S.; Teles, J.; Bonagamba, T. J.; Azevedo, E. R. de
2009-04-14
This paper presents a description of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of quadrupolar systems using the Holstein-Primakoff (HP) formalism and its analogy with a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) system. Two nuclear spin systems constituted of quadrupolar nuclei I=3/2 ({sup 23}Na) and I=7/2 ({sup 133}Cs) in lyotropic liquid crystals were used for experimental demonstrations. Specifically, we derived the conditions necessary for accomplishing the analogy, executed the proper experiments, and compared with quantum mechanical prediction for a Bose system. The NMR description in the HP representation could be applied in the future as a workbench for BEC-like systems, where the statistical properties may be obtained using the intermediate statistic, first established by Gentile. The description can be applied for any quadrupolar systems, including new developed solid-state NMR GaAS nanodevices.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sob'yanin, Denis Nikolaevich
2012-06-01
A principle of hierarchical entropy maximization is proposed for generalized superstatistical systems, which are characterized by the existence of three levels of dynamics. If a generalized superstatistical system comprises a set of superstatistical subsystems, each made up of a set of cells, then the Boltzmann-Gibbs-Shannon entropy should be maximized first for each cell, second for each subsystem, and finally for the whole system. Hierarchical entropy maximization naturally reflects the sufficient time-scale separation between different dynamical levels and allows one to find the distribution of both the intensive parameter and the control parameter for the corresponding superstatistics. The hierarchical maximum entropy principle is applied to fluctuations of the photon Bose-Einstein condensate in a dye microcavity. This principle provides an alternative to the master equation approach recently applied to this problem. The possibility of constructing generalized superstatistics based on a statistics different from the Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics is pointed out.
Domain wall model in the galactic Bose-Einstein condensate halo
Souza, J.C.C. de; Pires, M.O.C. E-mail: marcelo.pires@ufabc.edu.br
2013-05-01
We assume that the galactic dark matter halo, considered composed of an axionlike particles Bose-Einstein condensate [1], can present topological defects, namely domain walls, arising as the dark soliton solution for the Gross-Pitaevskii equation in a self-graviting potential. We investigate the influence that such substructures would have in the gravitational interactions within a galaxy. We find that, for the simple domain wall model proposed, the effects are too small to be identified, either by means of a local measurement of the gradient of the gravitational field or by analysing galaxy rotation curves. In the first case, the gradient of the gravitational field in the vicinity of the domain wall would be 10{sup −31} (m/s{sup 2})/m. In the second case, the ratio of the tangential velocity correction of a star due to the presence of the domain wall to the velocity in the spherical symmetric case would be 10{sup −8}.
Vector solitons in nearly one-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensates
Salasnich, Luca; Malomed, Boris A.
2006-11-15
We derive a system of nonpolynomial Schroedinger equations for one-dimensional wave functions of two components in a binary self-attractive Bose-Einstein condensate loaded in a cigar-shaped trap. The system is obtained by means of the variational approximation, starting from the coupled three-dimensional (3D) Gross-Pitaevskii equations and assuming, as usual, the factorization of 3D wave functions. The system can be obtained in a tractable form under a natural condition of symmetry between the two species. A family of vector (two-component) soliton solutions is constructed. Collisions between orthogonal solitons (ones belonging to the different components) are investigated by means of simulations. The collisions are essentially inelastic. They result in strong excitation of intrinsic vibrations in the solitons, and create a small orthogonal component ('shadow') in each colliding soliton. The collision may initiate collapse, which depends on the mass and velocities of the solitons.
Quantum Enhancement of the Index of Refraction in a Bose-Einstein Condensate.
Bons, P C; de Haas, R; de Jong, D; Groot, A; van der Straten, P
2016-04-29
We study the index of refraction of an ultracold bosonic gas in the dilute regime. Using phase-contrast imaging with light detuned from resonance by several tens of linewidths, we image a single cloud of ultracold atoms for 100 consecutive shots, which enables the study of the scattering rate as a function of temperature and density using only a single cloud. We observe that the scattering rate is increased below the critical temperature for Bose-Einstein condensation by a factor of 3 compared to the single-atom scattering rate. We show that current atom-light interaction models to second order of the density show a similar increase, where the magnitude of the effect depends on the model that is used to calculate the pair-correlation function. This confirms that the effect of quantum statistics on the index of refraction is dominant in this regime. PMID:27176521
Posazhennikova, Anna; Trujillo-Martinez, Mauricio; Kroha, Johann
2016-06-01
A Bose gas in a double-well potential, exhibiting a true Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) amplitude and initially performing Josephson oscillations, is a prototype of an isolated, nonequilibrium many-body system. We investigate the quasiparticle (QP) creation and thermalization dynamics of this system by solving the time-dependent Keldysh-Bogoliubov equations. We find avalanchelike QP creation due to a parametric resonance between BEC and QP oscillations, followed by slow, exponential relaxation to a thermal state at an elevated temperature, controlled by the initial excitation energy of the oscillating BEC above its ground state. The crossover between the two regimes occurs because of an effective decoupling of the QP and BEC oscillations. This dynamics is analogous to elementary particle creation in models of the early universe. The thermalization in our setup occurs because the BEC acts as a grand canonical reservoir for the quasiparticle system. PMID:27314725
Remote Entanglement between a Single Atom and a Bose-Einstein Condensate
Lettner, M.; Muecke, M.; Riedl, S.; Vo, C.; Hahn, C.; Baur, S.; Bochmann, J.; Ritter, S.; Duerr, S.; Rempe, G.
2011-05-27
Entanglement between stationary systems at remote locations is a key resource for quantum networks. We report on the experimental generation of remote entanglement between a single atom inside an optical cavity and a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). To produce this, a single photon is created in the atom-cavity system, thereby generating atom-photon entanglement. The photon is transported to the BEC and converted into a collective excitation in the BEC, thus establishing matter-matter entanglement. After a variable delay, this entanglement is converted into photon-photon entanglement. The matter-matter entanglement lifetime of 100 {mu}s exceeds the photon duration by 2 orders of magnitude. The total fidelity of all concatenated operations is 95%. This hybrid system opens up promising perspectives in the field of quantum information.
Holographic power-law traps for the efficient production of Bose-Einstein condensates
Bruce, Graham D.; Bromley, Sarah L.; Smirne, Giuseppe; Torralbo-Campo, Lara; Cassettari, Donatella
2011-11-15
We use a phase-only spatial light modulator to generate light distributions in which the intensity decays as a power law from a central maximum with order ranging from 2 (parabolic) to 0.5. We suggest that a sequence of these can be used as a time-dependent optical dipole trap for all-optical production of Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) in two stages: efficient evaporative cooling in a trap with adjustable strength and depth, followed by an adiabatic transformation of the trap order to cross the BEC transition in a reversible way. Realistic experimental parameters are used to verify the capability of this approach in producing larger BECs than by evaporative cooling alone.
Scalable Bose-Einstein-condensate Sagnac interferometer in a linear trap
Burke, J. H. T.; Sackett, C. A.
2009-12-15
We demonstrate a two-dimensional atom interferometer in a harmonic magnetic waveguide using a Bose-Einstein condensate. Such an interferometer could measure rotation using the Sagnac effect. Compared to free space interferometers, larger interactions times and enclosed areas can in principle be achieved, since the atoms are not in free fall. In this implementation, we induce the atoms to oscillate along one direction by displacing the trap center. We then split and recombine the atoms along an orthogonal direction using an off-resonant optical standing wave. We enclose a maximum effective area of 0.1 mm{sup 2} limited by fluctuations in the initial velocity and by the coherence time of the interferometer. We argue that this arrangement is scalable to enclose larger areas by increasing the coherence time and then making repeated loops.
Quasiparticle Properties of a Mobile Impurity in a Bose-Einstein Condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Christensen, Rasmus Søgaard; Levinsen, Jesper; Bruun, Georg M.
2015-10-01
We develop a systematic perturbation theory for the quasiparticle properties of a single impurity immersed in a Bose-Einstein condensate. Analytical results are derived for the impurity energy, effective mass, and residue to third order in the impurity-boson scattering length. The energy is shown to depend logarithmically on the scattering length to third order, whereas the residue and the effective mass are given by analytical power series. When the boson-boson scattering length equals the boson-impurity scattering length, the energy has the same structure as that of a weakly interacting Bose gas, including terms of the Lee-Huang-Yang and fourth order logarithmic form. Our results, which cannot be obtained within the canonical Fröhlich model of an impurity interacting with phonons, provide valuable benchmarks for many-body theories and for experiments.
Vortices of a rotating two-component dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate in an optical lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Lin-Xue; Dong, Biao; Chen, Guang-Ping; Han, Wei; Zhang, Shou-Gang; Shi, Yu-Ren; Zhang, Xiao-Fei
2016-01-01
We consider a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate, which consists of both dipolar and scalar bosonic atoms, in a confinement that is composed of a harmonic oscillator and an underlying optical lattice set rotation. When the dipoles are polarized along the symmetry axis of the harmonic potential, the ground-state density distributions of such a system are investigated as a function of the relative strength between the dipolar and contact interactions, and of the rotation frequency. Our results show that the number of vortices and its related vortex structures of such a system depend strongly on such system parameters. The special two-component system considered here opens up alternate ways for exploring the rich physics of dipolar quantum gases.
Quantum Enhancement of the Index of Refraction in a Bose-Einstein Condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bons, P. C.; de Haas, R.; de Jong, D.; Groot, A.; van der Straten, P.
2016-04-01
We study the index of refraction of an ultracold bosonic gas in the dilute regime. Using phase-contrast imaging with light detuned from resonance by several tens of linewidths, we image a single cloud of ultracold atoms for 100 consecutive shots, which enables the study of the scattering rate as a function of temperature and density using only a single cloud. We observe that the scattering rate is increased below the critical temperature for Bose-Einstein condensation by a factor of 3 compared to the single-atom scattering rate. We show that current atom-light interaction models to second order of the density show a similar increase, where the magnitude of the effect depends on the model that is used to calculate the pair-correlation function. This confirms that the effect of quantum statistics on the index of refraction is dominant in this regime.
Shock waves in quasi one-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salasnich, Luca
2016-03-01
We study analytically and numerically the generation of shock waves in a quasi-one-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) made of dilute and ultracold alkali-metal atoms. For the BEC we use an equation of state based on a 1D nonpolynomial Schrödinger equation (1D NPSE), which takes into account density modulations in the transverse direction and generalizes the familiar 1D Gross-Pitaevskii equation (1D GPE). Comparing 1D NPSE with 1D GPE we find quantitative differences in the dynamics of shock waves regarding the velocity of propagation, the time of formation of the shock, and the wavelength of after-shock dispersive ripples.
Three-Body Losses in Trapped Bose-Einstein Condensed Gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Yeong E.; Zubarev, Alexander L.
2004-05-01
A time-dependent Kohn-Sham (KS)-like equation for N bosons in a trap [1] is generalized for the case of inelastic collisions [2]. We derive adiabatic equations which are used to calculate the nonlinear dynamics of the Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) and non-mean field corrections due to the three-body recombination. We find that the calculated corrections are about 13 times larger for 3D trapped dilute bose gases and about 7 times larger for 1D trapped weakly interacting bose gases when compared with the corresponding corrections for the ground state energy and for the collective frequencies. The comparising of the our numerical calculations with corresponding experimental data will be discussed. [1] Y.E. Kim and A.L. Zubarev, Phys. Rev. A67, 015602 (2003). [2] Y.E. Kim and A.L. Zubarev, Phys. Rev. A (in print); cond-mat/0305089.
Impurity in a Bose-Einstein Condensate and the Efimov Effect.
Levinsen, Jesper; Parish, Meera M; Bruun, Georg M
2015-09-18
We investigate the zero-temperature properties of an impurity particle interacting with a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), using a variational wave function that includes up to two Bogoliubov excitations of the BEC. This allows one to capture three-body Efimov physics, as well as to recover the first nontrivial terms in the weak-coupling expansion. We show that the energy and quasiparticle residue of the dressed impurity (polaron) are significantly lowered by three-body correlations, even for weak interactions where there is no Efimov trimer state in a vacuum. For increasing attraction between the impurity and the BEC, we observe a smooth crossover from atom to Efimov trimer, with a superposition of states near the Efimov resonance. We furthermore demonstrate that three-body loss does not prohibit the experimental observation of these effects. Our results thus suggest a route to realizing Efimov physics in a stable quantum many-body system for the first time. PMID:26430999
Quantum entangled ground states of two spinor Bose-Einstein condensates
Xu, Z. F.; Lue, R.; You, L.
2011-12-15
We revisit in detail the non-mean-field ground-state phase diagram for a binary mixture of spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensates including quantum fluctuations. The noncommuting terms in the spin-dependent Hamiltonian under the single-spatial-mode approximation make it difficult to obtain exact eigenstates. Utilizing spin-z-component conservation and total spin angular momentum conservation, we numerically derive information on the building blocks and evaluate the von Neumann entropy to quantify the ground states. The mean-field phase boundaries are found to remain largely intact, yet the ground states show fragmented and entangled behaviors within large parameter spaces of interspecies spin-exchange and singlet-pairing interactions.
Chaotic behavior of three interacting vortices in a confined Bose-Einstein condensate.
Kyriakopoulos, Nikos; Koukouloyannis, Vassilis; Skokos, Charalampos; Kevrekidis, Panayotis G
2014-06-01
Motivated by recent experimental works, we investigate a system of vortex dynamics in an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), consisting of three vortices, two of which have the same charge. These vortices are modeled as a system of point particles which possesses a Hamiltonian structure. This tripole system constitutes a prototypical model of vortices in BECs exhibiting chaos. By using the angular momentum integral of motion, we reduce the study of the system to the investigation of a two degree of freedom Hamiltonian model and acquire quantitative results about its chaotic behavior. Our investigation tool is the construction of scan maps by using the Smaller ALignment Index as a chaos indicator. Applying this approach to a large number of initial conditions, we manage to accurately and efficiently measure the extent of chaos in the model and its dependence on physically important parameters like the energy and the angular momentum of the system. PMID:24985464
Localization-delocalization transition in spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensate.
Li, Chunyan; Ye, Fangwei; Kartashov, Yaroslav V; Konotop, Vladimir V; Chen, Xianfeng
2016-01-01
We address the impact of the spin-orbit (SO) coupling on the localization-delocalization-transition (LDT) in a spin-orbit coupled Bose-Einstein condensate in a bichromatic potential. We find that SO coupling significantly alters the threshold depth of the one of sublattices above which the lowest eigenstates transform from delocalizated into localized. For some moderate coupling strengths the threshold is strongly reduced, which is explained by the SO coupling-induced band flattening in one of the sub-lattices. We explain why simultaneous Rabi and SO coupling are necessary ingredients for LDT threshold cancellation and show that strong SO coupling drives the system into the state where its evolution becomes similar to the evolution of a one-component system. We also find that defocusing nonlinearity can lead to localization of the states which are delocalized in the linear limit. PMID:27531120
Nonlinear localized modes in dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates in two-dimensional optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rojas-Rojas, Santiago; Naether, Uta; Delgado, Aldo; Vicencio, Rodrigo A.
2016-09-01
We analyze the existence and properties of discrete localized excitations in a Bose-Einstein condensate loaded into a periodic two-dimensional optical lattice, when a dipolar interaction between atoms is present. The dependence of the Number of Atoms (Norm) on the energy of solutions is studied, along with their stability. Two important features of the system are shown, namely, the absence of the Norm threshold required for localized solutions to exist in finite 2D systems, and the existence of regions in the parameter space where two fundamental solutions are simultaneously unstable. This feature enables mobility of localized solutions, which is an uncommon feature in 2D discrete nonlinear systems. With attractive dipolar interaction, a non-trivial behavior of the Norm dependence is obtained, which is well described by an analytical model.
Inflationary Quasiparticle Creation and Thermalization Dynamics in Coupled Bose-Einstein Condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Posazhennikova, Anna; Trujillo-Martinez, Mauricio; Kroha, Johann
2016-06-01
A Bose gas in a double-well potential, exhibiting a true Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) amplitude and initially performing Josephson oscillations, is a prototype of an isolated, nonequilibrium many-body system. We investigate the quasiparticle (QP) creation and thermalization dynamics of this system by solving the time-dependent Keldysh-Bogoliubov equations. We find avalanchelike QP creation due to a parametric resonance between BEC and QP oscillations, followed by slow, exponential relaxation to a thermal state at an elevated temperature, controlled by the initial excitation energy of the oscillating BEC above its ground state. The crossover between the two regimes occurs because of an effective decoupling of the QP and BEC oscillations. This dynamics is analogous to elementary particle creation in models of the early universe. The thermalization in our setup occurs because the BEC acts as a grand canonical reservoir for the quasiparticle system.
Anisotropy in s-wave Bose-Einstein condensate collisions and its relationship to superradiance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deuar, P.; Jaskula, J.-C.; Bonneau, M.; Krachmalnicoff, V.; Boiron, D.; Westbrook, C. I.; Kheruntsyan, K. V.
2014-09-01
We report the experimental realization of a single-species atomic four-wave mixing process with Bose-Einstein-condensate collisions for which the angular distribution of scattered atom pairs is not isotropic, despite the collisions being in the s-wave regime. Theoretical analysis indicates that this anomalous behavior can be explained by the anisotropic nature of the gain in the medium. There are two competing anisotropic processes: classical trajectory deflections due to the mean-field potential and Bose-enhanced scattering which bears similarity to superradiance. We analyze the relative importance of these processes in the dynamical buildup of the anisotropic density distribution of scattered atoms and compare the Bose enhancement effects to those in optically pumped superradiance.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yun-Po; Tian, Bo; Wang, Yu-Feng; Huang, Zhi-Ruo; Sun, Ya; Cai, Hui-Ping
2015-06-01
We investigate solitons in optical waveguides and Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) governed by a (3+1)-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii system, which describes the propagation of electromagnetic waves in the optical waveguides and ground-state wave functions of the BECs. We use the symbolic computation and Hirota method to derive analytic bright one- and two-soliton solutions under certain conditions. Soliton amplitude/width amplification and the influence of time-modulated dispersion on the bright-soliton shape are studied via graphic analysis. Through the analysis of bright solitons in optical waveguides and BECs, we find that both the amplitude and the width of bright solitons can become larger during propagation with certain choices of time-modulated dispersion, and that the shape of the bright soliton can also be affected by the time-modulated dispersion; when the time-modulated dispersion is different, we can obtain bright parabolic-like and periodic-type solitons.
Chaotic behavior of three interacting vortices in a confined Bose-Einstein condensate
Kyriakopoulos, Nikos; Koukouloyannis, Vassilis; Skokos, Charalampos; Kevrekidis, Panayotis G.
2014-06-01
Motivated by recent experimental works, we investigate a system of vortex dynamics in an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), consisting of three vortices, two of which have the same charge. These vortices are modeled as a system of point particles which possesses a Hamiltonian structure. This tripole system constitutes a prototypical model of vortices in BECs exhibiting chaos. By using the angular momentum integral of motion, we reduce the study of the system to the investigation of a two degree of freedom Hamiltonian model and acquire quantitative results about its chaotic behavior. Our investigation tool is the construction of scan maps by using the Smaller ALignment Index as a chaos indicator. Applying this approach to a large number of initial conditions, we manage to accurately and efficiently measure the extent of chaos in the model and its dependence on physically important parameters like the energy and the angular momentum of the system.
Motion of a heavy impurity through a Bose-Einstein condensate
Astrakharchik, G.E.; Pitaevskii, L.P.
2004-07-01
We study the motion of a pointlike impurity in a Bose-Einstein condensate at T=0. By solving the Guinier-Preston (GP) equation in a perturbative manner we calculate the induced mass of the impurity and the drag force on the impurity in three-, two-, and one-dimensional (1D) cases. The relationship between the induced mass and the normal mass of fluid is found, and coincides with the result of the Bogoliubov theory. The drag force appears for the supersonic motion of the impurity. In 1D the drag force is investigated also on the basis of the exact Lieb-Liniger theory, using the dynamic form factor, which has been evaluated by the Haldane method of the calculation of correlation functions. In this theory the force appears for an arbitrarily small velocity of the impurity. The possibility of measuring the form factor in existing experiments is noted.
Midgley, S. L. W.; Wuester, S.; Olsen, M. K.; Davis, M. J.; Kheruntsyan, K. V.
2009-05-15
We describe a pairing mean-field theory related to the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov approach, and apply it to the dynamics of dissociation of a molecular Bose-Einstein condensate into correlated bosonic atom pairs. We also perform the same simulation using two stochastic phase-space techniques for quantum dynamics - the positive-P representation method and the truncated Wigner method. By comparing the results of our calculations we are able to assess the relative strengths of these theoretical techniques in describing molecular dissociation in one spatial dimension. An important aspect of our analysis is the inclusion of atom-atom interactions, which can be problematic for the positive-P method. We find that the truncated Wigner method mostly agrees with the positive-P simulations, but can be simulated for significantly longer times. The pairing mean-field theory results diverge from the quantum dynamical methods after relatively short times.
OCTBEC—A Matlab toolbox for optimal quantum control of Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hohenester, Ulrich
2014-01-01
OCTBEC is a Matlab toolbox designed for optimal quantum control, within the framework of optimal control theory (OCT), of Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC). The systems we have in mind are ultracold atoms in confined geometries, where the dynamics takes place in one or two spatial dimensions, and the confinement potential can be controlled by some external parameters. Typical experimental realizations are atom chips, where the currents running through the wires produce magnetic fields that allow to trap and manipulate nearby atoms. The toolbox provides a variety of Matlab classes for simulations based on the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, the multi-configurational Hartree method for bosons, and on generic few-mode models, as well as optimization problems. These classes can be easily combined, which has the advantage that one can adapt the simulation programs flexibly for various applications.
Spontaneous formation of bright solitons in self-localized impurities in Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boudjemâa, Abdelâali
2016-04-01
We study the formation of bright solitons in the impurity component of Bose-Einstein condensate-impurity mixture by using the time-dependent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory. While we assume the boson-boson and impurity-boson interactions to be effectively repulsive, their character can be changed spontaneously from repulsive to attractive in the presence of strong anomalous correlations. In such a regime the impurity component becomes a system of effectively attractive atoms leading automatically to the generation of bright solitons. We find that this soliton decays at higher temperatures due to the dissipation induced by the impurity-host and host-host interactions. We show that after a sudden increase of the impurity-boson strength a train of bright solitons is produced and this can be interpreted in terms of the modulational instability of the time-dependent impurity wave function.
Bose-Einstein condensation of triplons in Ba3Cr2O8
Jaime, Marcelo; Kohama, Y; Aczel, A; Ninios, K; Chan, H; Balicas, L; Dabkowska, H; Like, G
2009-01-01
By performing heat capacity, magnetocaloric effect, torque magnetometry and force magnetometry measurements up to 33 T, we have mapped out the T-H phase diagram of the S = 1/2 spin dimer compound Ba{sub 3}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 8}. We found evidence for field-induced magnetic order between H{sub cl} = 12.52(2) T and H{sub c2} = 23.65(5) T, with the maximum transition temperature T{sub c} {approx} 2.7 K at H {approx} 18 T. The lower transition can likely be described by Bose-Einstein condensation of triplons theory, and this is consistent with the absence of any magnetization plateaus in our magnetic torque and force measurements. In contrast, the nature of the upper phase transition appears to be quite different as our measurements suggest that this transition is actually first order.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Das, Priyam; Khan, Ayan; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.
2016-05-01
We study the dispersion mechanism (Lieb-mode excitation) of both single and two-component Bose-Einstein condensates, subject to an external trap in a mean-field approach, where the second quantized Lieb-mode is realized as grey soliton. Through the coupling between the centre of mass motion (Kohn mode) and the soliton's momenta arising from the kinematic chirp, induced by time modulated trap, we realize the exotic negative mass regime of the solitonic excitation. We show that the expulsive parabolic trap significantly modifies the energy-momentum dispersion in the low momenta regime, where these modes can be clearly identified, opening up the possibility to observe the Lieb-mode excitation. In case of two-component, we demonstrate the controlled formation of a bound state, in presence of an expulsive harmonic trap, through the shape compatibility of grey and bright solitons. Possible application of such a bound state to information storage and retrieval is pointed out.
Parametric amplification of matter waves in dipolar spinor Bose-Einstein condensates
Deuretzbacher, F.; Gebreyesus, G.; Santos, L.; Topic, O.; Scherer, M.; Luecke, B.; Ertmer, W.; Klempt, C.; Arlt, J.
2010-11-15
Spin-changing collisions may lead under proper conditions to the parametric amplification of matter waves in spinor Bose-Einstein condensates. Magnetic dipole-dipole interactions, although typically very weak in alkali-metal atoms, are shown to play a very relevant role in the amplification process. We show that these interactions may lead to a strong dependence of the amplification dynamics on the angle between the trap axis and the magnetic-field orientation. We analyze as well the important role played by magnetic-field gradients, which also modify strongly the amplification process. Magnetic-field gradients, hence, must be carefully controlled in future experiments, in order to observe clearly the effects of the dipolar interactions in the amplification dynamics.
Li, Wei-Dong; Liang, J.-Q.; Zhang, Yunbo
2003-06-01
The energy-band structure and energy splitting due to quantum tunneling in two weakly linked Bose-Einstein condensates were calculated by using the instanton method. The intrinsic coherent properties of Bose-Josephson junction (BJJ) were investigated in terms of energy splitting. For E{sub C}/E{sub J}<<1, the energy splitting is small and the system is globally phase coherent. In the opposite limit, E{sub C}/E{sub J}>>1, the energy splitting is large and the system becomes phase dissipated. Our results suggest that one should investigate the coherence phenomena of BJJ in proper condition such as E{sub C}/E{sub J}{approx}1.
Bose-Einstein condensates on tilted lattices: Coherent, chaotic, and subdiffusive dynamics
Kolovsky, Andrey R.; Gomez, Edgar A.; Korsch, Hans Juergen
2010-02-15
The dynamics of a (quasi-) one-dimensional interacting atomic Bose-Einstein condensate in a tilted optical lattice is studied in a discrete mean-field approximation, i.e., in terms of the discrete nonlinear Schroedinger equation. If the static field is varied, the system shows a plethora of dynamical phenomena. In the strong field limit, we demonstrate the existence of (almost) nonspreading states which remain localized on the lattice region populated initially and show coherent Bloch oscillations with fractional revivals in the momentum space (so-called quantum carpets). With decreasing field, the dynamics becomes irregular, however, still confined in configuration space. For even weaker fields, we find subdiffusive dynamics with a wave-packet width growing as t{sup 1/4}.
Localization-delocalization transition in spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensate
Li, Chunyan; Ye, Fangwei; Kartashov, Yaroslav V.; Konotop, Vladimir V.; Chen, Xianfeng
2016-01-01
We address the impact of the spin-orbit (SO) coupling on the localization-delocalization-transition (LDT) in a spin-orbit coupled Bose-Einstein condensate in a bichromatic potential. We find that SO coupling significantly alters the threshold depth of the one of sublattices above which the lowest eigenstates transform from delocalizated into localized. For some moderate coupling strengths the threshold is strongly reduced, which is explained by the SO coupling-induced band flattening in one of the sub-lattices. We explain why simultaneous Rabi and SO coupling are necessary ingredients for LDT threshold cancellation and show that strong SO coupling drives the system into the state where its evolution becomes similar to the evolution of a one-component system. We also find that defocusing nonlinearity can lead to localization of the states which are delocalized in the linear limit. PMID:27531120
Dynamical tunneling of a Bose-Einstein condensate in periodically driven systems.
Shrestha, R K; Ni, J; Lam, W K; Summy, G S; Wimberger, S
2013-09-01
We report measurements of dynamical tunneling rates of a Bose-Einstein condensate across a barrier in classical phase space. The atoms are initially prepared in quantum states that extend over a classically regular island region. We focus on the specific system of quantum accelerator modes of the kicked rotor in the presence of gravity. Our experimental data is supported by numerical simulations taking into account imperfections mainly from spontaneous emission. Furthermore, we predict experimentally accessible parameter ranges over which direct tunneling could be readily observed if spontaneous emission was further suppressed. Altogether, we provide a proof-of-principle for the experimental accessibility of dynamical tunneling rates in periodically driven systems. PMID:24125389
Bose-Einstein Condensation of Magnons in Cs{sub 2}CuCl{sub 4}
Radu, T.; Wilhelm, H.; Luehmann, T.; Steglich, F.; Yushankhai, V.; Kovrizhin, D.; Coldea, R.; Tylczynski, Z.
2005-09-16
We report on results of specific heat measurements on single crystals of the frustrated quasi-2D spin-1/2 antiferromagnet Cs{sub 2}CuCl{sub 4} (T{sub N}=0.595 K) in external magnetic fields B<12 T and for temperatures T>30 mK. Decreasing B from high fields leads to the closure of the field-induced gap in the magnon spectrum at a critical field B{sub c}{approx_equal}8.51 T and a magnetic phase transition is clearly seen below B{sub c}. In the vicinity of B{sub c}, the phase transition boundary is well described by the power law T{sub c}(B){proportional_to}(B{sub c}-B){sup 1/{phi}}, with the measured critical exponent {phi}{approx_equal}1.5. These findings are interpreted as a Bose-Einstein condensation of magnons.
Zhou Lu; Zhang Keye; Zhang Weiping; Pu Han; Zhao Xingdong
2011-10-15
We study an ultracold atom-cavity coupling system, which had been implemented in an experiment to display weak light nonlinearity [S. Gupta, K. L. Moore, K. W. Murch, and D. M. Stamper-Kurn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 213601 (2007)]. The model is described by a noninteracting Bose-Einstein condensate contained in a Fabry-Perot optical resonator, in which two incommensurate standing-wave modes are excited and thus form a quasiperiodic optical lattice potential for the atoms. Special emphasis is paid to the variation of the atomic wave function induced by the cavity light field. We show that bistability between the atomic localized and extended states can be generated under appropriate conditions.
Itin, A. P.
2007-08-15
We discuss the dynamics of approximate adiabatic invariants in several nonlinear models being related to the physics of Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs). We show that the nonadiabatic dynamics in Feshbach resonance passage, nonlinear Landau-Zener (NLZ) tunneling, and BEC tunneling oscillations in a double well can be considered within a unifying approach based on the theory of separatrix crossings. The separatrix crossing theory was applied previously to some problems of classical mechanics, plasma physics, and hydrodynamics, but has not been used in the rapidly growing BEC-related field yet. We derive explicit formulas for the change in the action in several models. Extensive numerical calculations support the theory and demonstrate its universal character. We also discovered a nonlinear phenomenon in the NLZ model which we propose to call separated adiabatic tunneling.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bai, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Mei; Xiong, Jun; Yang, Guo-Jian; Deng, Fu-Guo
2015-11-01
We investigate the formation of discrete breathers (DBs) and the dynamics of the mixture of two-species Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) in open boundary optical lattices using the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equations. The results show that the coupling of intra- and interspecies interaction can lead to the existence of pure single-species DBs and symbiotic DBs (i.e., two-species DBs). Furthermore, we find that there is a selective distillation phenomenon in the dynamics of the mixture of two-species BECs. One can selectively distil one species from the mixture of two-species BECs and can even control dominant species fraction by adjusting the intra- and interspecies interaction in optical lattices. Our selective distillation mechanism may find potential application in quantum information storage and quantum information processing based on multi-species atoms.
Bai, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Mei; Xiong, Jun; Yang, Guo-Jian; Deng, Fu-Guo
2015-01-01
We investigate the formation of discrete breathers (DBs) and the dynamics of the mixture of two-species Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) in open boundary optical lattices using the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equations. The results show that the coupling of intra- and interspecies interaction can lead to the existence of pure single-species DBs and symbiotic DBs (i.e., two-species DBs). Furthermore, we find that there is a selective distillation phenomenon in the dynamics of the mixture of two-species BECs. One can selectively distil one species from the mixture of two-species BECs and can even control dominant species fraction by adjusting the intra- and interspecies interaction in optical lattices. Our selective distillation mechanism may find potential application in quantum information storage and quantum information processing based on multi-species atoms. PMID:26597592
Quantum random walk of a Bose-Einstein condensate in momentum space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Summy, Gil; Wimberger, Sandro
2016-02-01
Each step in a quantum random walk is typically understood to have two basic components: a "coin toss" which produces a random superposition of two states, and a displacement which moves each component of the superposition by different amounts. Here we suggest the realization of a walk in momentum space with a spinor Bose-Einstein condensate subject to a quantum ratchet realized with a pulsed, off-resonant optical lattice. By an appropriate choice of the lattice detuning, we show how the atomic momentum can be entangled with the internal spin states of the atoms. For the coin toss, we propose to use a microwave pulse to mix these internal states. We present experimental results showing an optimized quantum ratchet, and through a series of simulations, demonstrate how our proposal gives extraordinary control of the quantum walk. This should allow for the investigation of possible biases, and classical-to-quantum dynamics in the presence of natural and engineered noise.
Quasiparticle Properties of a Mobile Impurity in a Bose-Einstein Condensate.
Christensen, Rasmus Søgaard; Levinsen, Jesper; Bruun, Georg M
2015-10-16
We develop a systematic perturbation theory for the quasiparticle properties of a single impurity immersed in a Bose-Einstein condensate. Analytical results are derived for the impurity energy, effective mass, and residue to third order in the impurity-boson scattering length. The energy is shown to depend logarithmically on the scattering length to third order, whereas the residue and the effective mass are given by analytical power series. When the boson-boson scattering length equals the boson-impurity scattering length, the energy has the same structure as that of a weakly interacting Bose gas, including terms of the Lee-Huang-Yang and fourth order logarithmic form. Our results, which cannot be obtained within the canonical Fröhlich model of an impurity interacting with phonons, provide valuable benchmarks for many-body theories and for experiments. PMID:26550852
Bai, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Mei; Xiong, Jun; Yang, Guo-Jian; Deng, Fu-Guo
2015-01-01
We investigate the formation of discrete breathers (DBs) and the dynamics of the mixture of two-species Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) in open boundary optical lattices using the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equations. The results show that the coupling of intra- and interspecies interaction can lead to the existence of pure single-species DBs and symbiotic DBs (i.e., two-species DBs). Furthermore, we find that there is a selective distillation phenomenon in the dynamics of the mixture of two-species BECs. One can selectively distil one species from the mixture of two-species BECs and can even control dominant species fraction by adjusting the intra- and interspecies interaction in optical lattices. Our selective distillation mechanism may find potential application in quantum information storage and quantum information processing based on multi-species atoms. PMID:26597592
Phase Separation and Pattern Formation in a Binary Bose-Einstein Condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sabbatini, Jacopo; Zurek, Wojciech H.; Davis, Matthew J.
2011-12-01
The miscibility-immiscibility phase transition in binary Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) can be controlled by a coupling between the two components. Here we propose a new scheme that uses coupling-induced pattern formation to test the Kibble-Zurek mechanism (KZM) of topological-defect formation in a quantum phase transition. For a binary BEC in a ring trap we find that the number of domains forming the pattern scales as a function of the coupling quench rate with an exponent as predicted by the KZM. For a binary BEC in an elongated harmonic trap we find a different scaling law due to the transition being spatially inhomogeneous. We perform a “quantum simulation” of the harmonically trapped system in a ring trap to verify the scaling exponent.
Phase Separation and Pattern Formation in a Binary Bose-Einstein Condensate
Sabbatini, Jacopo; Davis, Matthew J.; Zurek, Wojciech H.
2011-12-02
The miscibility-immiscibility phase transition in binary Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) can be controlled by a coupling between the two components. Here we propose a new scheme that uses coupling-induced pattern formation to test the Kibble-Zurek mechanism (KZM) of topological-defect formation in a quantum phase transition. For a binary BEC in a ring trap we find that the number of domains forming the pattern scales as a function of the coupling quench rate with an exponent as predicted by the KZM. For a binary BEC in an elongated harmonic trap we find a different scaling law due to the transition being spatially inhomogeneous. We perform a ''quantum simulation'' of the harmonically trapped system in a ring trap to verify the scaling exponent.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Samson, E. C.; Wilson, K. E.; Newman, Z. L.; Anderson, B. P.
2016-02-01
We experimentally and numerically demonstrate deterministic creation and manipulation of a pair of oppositely charged singly quantized vortices in a highly oblate Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). Two identical blue-detuned, focused Gaussian laser beams that pierce the BEC serve as repulsive obstacles for the superfluid atomic gas; by controlling the positions of the beams within the plane of the BEC, superfluid flow is deterministically established around each beam such that two vortices of opposite circulation are generated by the motion of the beams, with each vortex pinned to the in situ position of a laser beam. We study the vortex creation process, and show that the vortices can be moved about within the BEC by translating the positions of the laser beams. This technique can serve as a building block in future experimental techniques to create, on-demand, deterministic arrangements of few or many vortices within a BEC for precise studies of vortex dynamics and vortex interactions.
Stability and Chaos of Two Coupled Bose-Einstein Condensates with Three-Body Interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Ya; Hai, Wen-Hua
2005-11-01
We study the dynamics of two Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) tunnel-coupled by a double-well potential. A real three-body interaction term is considered and a two-mode approximation is used to derive two coupled equations, which describe the relative population and relative phase. By solving the equations and analyzing the stability of the system, we find the stable stationary solutions for a constant atomic scattering length. When a periodically time-varying scattering length is applied, Melnikov analysis and numerical calculation demonstrate the existence of chaotic behavior and the dependence of chaos on the three-body interaction parameters. The project supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 10275023 and the Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics of China under Grant No. T152504
Harmonic Analysis on Inhomogeneous Amenable Networks and the Bose-Einstein Condensation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fidaleo, Francesco
2015-08-01
We study in detail relevant spectral properties of the adjacency matrix of inhomogeneous amenable networks, and in particular those arising by negligible additive perturbations of periodic lattices. The obtained results are deeply connected to the systematic investigation of the Bose-Einstein condensation for the so called Pure Hopping model describing the thermodynamics of Cooper pairs in arrays of Josephson junctions. After a careful investigation of the infinite volume limits of the finite volume adjacency matrix corresponding to the (opposite of the) Hamiltonian of the system, the main results can be summarised as follows. First, the appearance of the Hidden Spectrum for the Integrated Density of the States in the region close to the bottom of the Hamiltonian, implies that the critical density is always finite. Second, we show that the Bose-Einstein condensation can appear if and only if the adjacency matrix is transient, and not just when the critical density is finite. We can then exhibit examples of networks for which condensation effects can appear in a natural way, even if the critical density is infinite and vice-versa, that is when the critical density is finite but the system does not admit any locally normal state exhibiting condensation. Contrarily to the known homogeneous examples, we also exhibit networks whose geometrical dimension is less than 3, for which the condensation takes place. Due to inhomogeneity, the spatial distribution of the condensate described by the shape of the ground state wave-function (i.e. the Perron-Frobenius weight), is non homogeneous as well: the particles condensate even in the configuration space. Such a spatial distribution of the condensate is connected with the Perron-Frobenius dimension defined in a natural way. For systems for which the critical density is finite and the adjacency matrix is transient, we show that, if the Perron-Frobenius dimension is greater that the geometrical one, we can have condensation only
Kolomeitsev, E.E. |; Voskresensky, D.N.
1995-12-01
The properties of a pion gas that is formed in ultrarelativistic collisions of nuclei are studied in the Weinberg, model for {pi}{pi} interaction. The possible Bose-Einstein condensation of a dense n-gas is considered. The Green`s function and the spectrum of the overcondensate excitations are calculated. For a weak condensate, the results coincide with those obtained in the {lambda}{var_phi}{sup 4} model ({lambda} = const), while for a developed condensate there are significant differences. The properties of kaons are considered for temperatures below the critical temperature for Bose-Einstein pion condensation. It is shown that, in the presence of a condensate, the K-effective mass becomes substantially larger, while the K{sup +} effective mass becomes smaller. These features may manifest themselves in the observable momentum distributions of kaons. 16 refs., 4 figs.
Sabari, S; Jisha, Chandroth P; Porsezian, K; Brazhnyi, Valeriy A
2015-09-01
We study the stabilization properties of dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate by temporal modulation of short-range two-body interaction. Through both analytical and numerical methods, we analyze the mean-field Gross-Pitaevskii equation with short-range two-body and long-range, nonlocal, dipolar interaction terms. We derive the equation of motion and effective potential of the dipolar condensate by variational method. We show that there is an enhancement of the condensate stability due to the inclusion of dipolar interaction in addition to the two-body contact interaction. We also show that the stability of the dipolar condensate increases in the presence of time varying two-body contact interaction; the temporal modification of the contact interaction prevents the collapse of dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate. Finally we confirm the semi-analytical prediction through the direct numerical simulations of the governing equation. PMID:26465538
Numerical study of localized impurity in a Bose-Einstein condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akram, Javed; Pelster, Axel
2016-03-01
Motivated by recent experiments, we investigate a single 133 Cs impurity in the center of a trapped 87 Rb Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). Within a zero-temperature mean-field description we provide a one-dimensional physical intuitive model which involves two coupled differential equations for the condensate and the impurity wave function, which we solve numerically. With this we determine within the equilibrium phase diagram spanned by the intra- and interspecies coupling strength whether the impurity is localized at the trap center or expelled to the condensate border. In the former case we find that the impurity induces a bump or dip on the condensate for an attractive or a repulsive Rb-Cs interaction strength, respectively. Conversely, the condensate environment leads to an effective mass of the impurity which increases quadratically for small interspecies interaction strength. Afterwards, we investigate how the impurity imprint upon the condensate wave function evolves for two quench scenarios. At first we consider the case that the harmonic confinement is released. During the resulting time-of-flight expansion it turns out that the impurity-induced bump in the condensate wave function starts decaying marginally, whereas the dip decays with a characteristic time scale which decreases with increasing repulsive impurity-BEC interaction strength. Second, once the attractive or repulsive interspecies coupling constant is switched off, we find that white-shock waves or bisolitons emerge which both oscillate within the harmonic confinement with a characteristic frequency.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hall, David
2012-06-01
Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases, with its myriad ramifications in fields as diverse as atomic, condensed-matter, cosmological, fluid, quantum, and statistical physics, offers unique possibilities for the synthesis of research and pedagogy. The highly visual nature of the experiments can make Bose-Einstein condensates a particularly compelling teaching instrument, particularly for those encountering these topics for the first time. The associated technological challenges provide copious opportunities for development of fundamental research skills while retaining the intimate context of tabletop research. Our program at Amherst College pursues studies of multicomponent condensates, tunable ultracold collisions (i.e., Feshbach resonances), and topological defects (e.g., vortices). In this talk I will describe our experimental efforts in these three principal directions, taken singly and in combination, with a nod to the peculiarities and opportunities inherent to an essentially undergraduate research program.
Competing interactions in population-imbalanced two-component Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Galteland, Peder Notto; Sudbø, Asle
2016-08-01
We consider a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate with and without synthetic "spin-orbit" interactions in two dimensions. Density and phase fluctuations of the condensate are included, allowing us to study the impact of thermal fluctuations and density-density interactions on the physics originating with spin-orbit interactions. In the absence of spin-orbit interactions, we find that intercomponent density interactions deplete the minority condensate. The thermally driven phase transition is driven by coupled density and phase-fluctuations, but is nevertheless shown to be a phase-transition in the Kosterlitz-Thouless universality class with close to universal amplitude ratios irrespective of whether both the minority- and majority condensates exist in the ground state, or only one condensate exists. In the presence of spin-orbit interactions we observe three separate phases, depending on the strength of the spin-orbit coupling and intercomponent density-density interactions: a phase-modulated phase with uniform amplitudes for small intercomponent interactions, a completely imbalanced, effectively single-component condensate for intermediate spin-orbit coupling strength and sufficiently large intercomponent interactions, and a phase-modulated and amplitude-modulated phase for sufficiently large values of both the spin-orbit coupling and the intercomponent density-density interactions. The phase that is modulated by a single q -vector only is observed to transition into an isotropic liquid through a strong depinning transition with periodic boundary conditions, which weakens with open boundaries.
Bose-Einstein condensation of photons in an ideal atomic gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kruchkov, Alex; Slyusarenko, Yurii
2013-07-01
We study peculiarities of Bose-Einstein condensation of photons that are in thermodynamic equilibrium with atoms of noninteracting gases. General equations of the thermodynamic equilibrium of the system under study are obtained. We examine solutions of these equations in the case of high temperatures, when the atomic components of the system can be considered as nondegenerated ideal gases of atoms, and the photonic component can form a state with the Bose condensate. Transcendental equation for transition temperature and expression for the density of condensed photons in the considered system are derived. We also obtain analytical solutions of the equation for the critical temperature in a number of particular cases. The existence of two regimes of Bose condensation of photons, which differ significantly in nature of transition temperature dependence on the total density of photons pumped into the system, is revealed. In one case, this dependence is a traditional fractional-power law, and in another one it is the logarithmic law. Applying numerical methods, we determine boundaries of existence and implementation conditions for different regimes of condensation depending on the physical parameters of the system under study. We also show that for a large range of physical systems that are in equilibrium with photons (from ultracold gases of alkali metals to certain types of ideal plasma), the condensation of photons should occur according to the logarithmic regime.
Theory of combined photoassociation and Feshbach resonances in a Bose-Einstein condensate
Mackie, Matt; DeBrosse, Catherine
2010-04-15
We model combined photoassociation and Feshbach resonances in a Bose-Einstein condensate, where the shared dissociation continuum allows for quantum interference in losses from the condensate, as well as a dispersive-like shift of resonance. A seemingly oversimplified model is revisited, explaining it as based on the limit of weakly bound molecules, reinforcing it with a comparison to numerical experiments that explicitly include dissociation to noncondensate modes, comparing it against the unitarity limit on condensate losses, and lastly, checking its universal implications. In particular, for a resonant laser and an off-resonant magnetic field, these numerical experiments reveal a rate limit on condensate losses that is larger for smaller condensate densities, approaches the rate limit for magnetoassociation alone near the Feshbach resonance, and agrees best with the analytical model for low density. Comparing the analytical rate limit against the unitary limit, which is set by the size of the condensate, agreement is found only for a limited range of near-resonant magnetic fields. Finally, for a resonant magnetic field and an off-resonant laser, the analytical shift of the Feshbach resonance is found to depend on the size of the Feshbach molecule, signifying nonuniversal physics in a strongly interacting system.
Control of a Bose-Einstein condensate on a chip by external optical and magnetic potentials
Maluckov, A.; Petrovic, J.; Gligoric, G.; Hadzievski, Lj.; Lombardi, P.; Schaefer, F.; Cataliotti, F.S.
2012-09-15
In this paper we explore the possibilities of control of a Bose-Einstein condensate on an atom chip by the use of potentials generated by photonic and magnetic components. We show that the fields produced by both types of components can be modelled by a generic exponential potential and derive analytic expressions that allow for an easy assessment of their impact on a trapped condensate. Using dynamical numerical simulations we study the transport of the condensate between the control structures on a chip. We study in detail different regimes of the condensate behaviour in an evanescent light potential generated by a photonic structure in the vicinity of the condensate and in magnetic potentials generated by a wire or a coil. The calculations are based on the reported parameters of atom chip setups and available photonic and magnetic components. Finally, the model is verified by an experiment with a condensate on an atom chip and a coil. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Generic potential used to describe both the optical evanescent and magnetic fields. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An analytic closed form solution found for the impact of a generic potential on a BEC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BEC dynamics calculated for potential time sequences attainable in experiments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conditions for BEC transfer by an external field identified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Exponential-potential model validated by a BEC-on-chip experiment.
Dynamical thermalization and vortex formation in stirred two-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wright, T. M.; Ballagh, R. J.; Bradley, A. S.; Blakie, P. B.; Gardiner, C. W.
2008-12-01
We present a quantum-mechanical treatment of the mechanical stirring of Bose-Einstein condensates using classical field techniques. In our approach the condensate and excited modes are described using a Hamiltonian classical field method in which the atom number and (rotating frame) energy are strictly conserved. We simulate a T=0 quasi-two-dimensional condensate perturbed by a rotating anisotropic trapping potential. Vacuum fluctuations in the initial state provide an irreducible mechanism for breaking the initial symmetries of the condensate and seeding the subsequent dynamical instability. Highly turbulent motion develops and we quantify the emergence of a rotating thermal component that provides the dissipation necessary for the nucleation and motional damping of vortices in the condensate. Vortex lattice formation is not observed, rather the vortices assemble into a spatially disordered vortex liquid state. We discuss methods we have developed to identify the condensate in the presence of an irregular distribution of vortices, determine the thermodynamic parameters of the thermal component, and extract damping rates from the classical field trajectories.
Effects of interaction on thermodynamics of a repulsive Bose-Einstein condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhattacharyya, Satadal; Das, Tapan Kumar; Chakrabarti, Barnali
2013-11-01
We report the effects of interaction on thermodynamic properties of a repulsive Bose-Einstein condensate confined in a harmonic trap by using the correlated potential harmonics expansion method. This many-body technique permits the use of a realistic interactomic interaction, which gives rise to the effective long-range interaction of the condensate in terms of the s-wave scattering length. We have computed temperature (T) dependence of the chemical potential, specific heat, condensate fraction, entropy, pressure, and the average energy per particle of a system containing a large number (A) of 87Rb atoms in the Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics (JILA) trap. The repulsion among the interacting bosons results in a small but measurable drop of condensate fraction and critical temperature (Tc), compared to those of a noninteracting condensate. These are in agreement with the experiment. Although all thermodynamic quantities have a strong dependence on A and to a smaller extent on the interatomic interaction, our numerical calculation appears to show that a thermodynamic quantity per particle follows a universal behavior as a function of T/Tc. This shows the importance of Tc for all thermodynamic properties of the condensate. As expected, for T>Tc, these properties follow those of a trapped noncondensed Bose gas.
Kuetche, Victor K.; Bouetou, Thomas B.; Kofane, Timoleon C.; Moubissi, Alain B.; Porsezian, K.
2010-11-15
In this article, we investigate the structure and dynamics of miscellaneous mixtures of Bose-Einstein condensates confined within a time-independent anisotropic parabolic trap potential. In the zero-temperature mean-field approximation leading to coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations for the macroscopic wave functions of the condensates, we show that these equations can be mapped onto the higher-dimensional time-gated Manakov system up to a first-order of accuracy. Paying particular attention to two-species mixtures and looking forward deriving a panel of miscellaneous excitations to the above equations, we analyze the singularity structure of the system by means of Weiss et al.'s [J. Weiss, M. Tabor, and G. Carnevale, J. Math. Phys. 24, 522 (1983); 25, 13 (1984).] methodology and provide its general Lax representation. As a result, we unearth a typical spectrum of localized and periodic coherent patterns while depicting elastic and nonelastic interactions among such structures alongside the splitting and resonance phenomena occurring during their motion.
Bose--Einstein Condensation: Classical Chaos in the Thomas--Fermi Regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Griggs, David A.; Edwards, Mark A.
1998-05-01
We have studied the dynamical behavior of cold--atom Bose--Einstein condensates for condensates driven by oscillating the magnetic--trap potential. Approximate solutions of the time--dependent Gross--Pitaevskii equation were obtained by solving model equations appropriate to condensates in the Thomas--Fermi regime.(Y. Castin and R. Dum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77), 5315 (1996). The condensate was driven by sinusoidal perturbation of the radial magnetic--trap frequency for a range of driving amplitudes. Poincaré surfaces of section, i.e., plots of the velocity of the axial scale factor versus the value of the axial scale factor when the radial scale factor returns to its initial value, were used to identify chaotic condensate behavior. We found that, below a certain critical driving amplitude, surface--of--section plots consisted of limit points and limit cycles. Above this critical driving amplitude, the surface--of--section plots abruptly filled all of the axial phase space.
Radouani, A.
2003-10-01
We numerically solve the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation (GPE) that describes the evolution of an elongated dilute repulsive atomic Bose-Einstein condensate trapped in a one-dimensional (1D) nonharmonic potential. We find that the gray solitons, which are propagative solutions of the 1D GPE, traveling at an initial constant velocity, smaller than the speed of sound, oscillate through the trapped condensate, but that this oscillatory motion is accompanied by a spontaneous emission of small sound waves. By examining the gray soliton trajectory and its velocity in the trapped repulsive Bose-Einstein condensate, we show that the oscillatory motion is uniform and nondissipative except at the returning points of the gray soliton, where it exhibits a slight radiative acceleration (antidamping). Our numerical results are in good agreement with previous theoretical predictions, but show the need to take radiation emission into account.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Deng-Shan; Han, Wei; Shi, Yuren; Li, Zaidong; Liu, Wu-Ming
2016-07-01
The spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensates trapped in a standing light wave can be described by three coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations with a periodic potential. In this paper, nine families of stationary solutions without phase structures in the form of Jacobi elliptic functions are proposed, and their stabilities are analyzed by both linear stability analysis and dynamical evolutions. Taking the ferromagnetic 87Rb atoms and antiferromagnetic (polar) 23Na atoms as examples, we investigate the stability regions of the nine stationary solutions, which are given in term of elliptic modulus k. It is shown that for the same stationary solution the stability regions of condensates with antiferromagnetic (polar) spin-dependent interactions are larger than that of the condensates with ferromagnetic ones. The dn-dn-dn stationary solution is the most stable solution among the nine families of stationary solutions. Moreover, in the same standing light wave, the spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensates are more stable than the scalar Bose-Einstein condensate.
Dynamics of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a symmetric triple-well trap
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Viscondi, Thiago F.; Furuya, K.
2011-04-01
We present a complete analysis of the dynamics of a Bose-Einstein condensate trapped in a symmetric triple-well potential. Our classical analogue treatment, based on a time-dependent variational method using SU(3) coherent states, includes the parameter dependence analysis of the equilibrium points and their local stability, which is closely related to the condensate collective behaviour. We also consider the effects of off-site interactions, and how these 'cross-collisions' may become relevant for a large number of trapped bosons. Even in the presence of cross-collisional terms, the model still features an integrable sub-regime, known as the twin-condensate dynamics, which corresponds to invariant surfaces in the classical phase space. However, the quantum dynamics preserves the twin-condensate defining characteristics only partially, thus breaking the invariance of the associated quantum subspace. Moreover, the periodic geometry of the trapping potential allowed us to investigate the dynamics of finite angular momentum collective excitations, which can be suppressed by the emergence of chaos. Finally, using the generalized purity associated with the su(3) algebra, we were able to quantify the dynamical classicality of a quantum evolved system, as compared to the corresponding classical trajectory.