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1

Macular Pigment and Lutein Supplementation in Choroideremia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Choroideremia is an incurable X-linked retinal degeneration caused by mutations in the gene encoding Rab escort protein-1. A group of clinically defined and genotyped patients were studied to determine: (1) the degree of rod and cone dysfunction and structural abnormality in the central retina and the level of macular pigment; and (2) the response of macular pigment and foveal vision

Jacque L. Duncan; Tomas S. Aleman; Leigh M. Gardner; Elaine De Castro; Daniel A. Marks; Jessica M. Emmons; Michelle L. Bieber; Janet D. Steinberg; Jean Bennett; Edwin M. Stone; Ian M. MacDonald; Artur V. Cideciyan; Maureen G. Maguire; Samuel G. Jacobson

2002-01-01

2

Dietary Modification of Human Macular Pigment Density  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. The retinal carotenoids lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) that form the macular pigment (MP) may help to prevent neovascular age-related macular degeneration. The purpose of this study was to determine whether MP density in the retina could be raised by increasing dietary intake of L and Z from foods. Methods. Macular pigment was measured psychophysically for 13 subjects. Serum

Billy R. Hammond; Elizabeth J. Johnson; Robert M. Russell; Norman I. Krinsky; Kyungjin Yeum; Ross B. Edwards; D. Max Snodderly

3

Iris Color and Macular Pigment Optical Density  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was designed to assess the relationship between iris color and macular pigment optical density. Both melanin and carotenoids (responsible for iris color and macular pigment composition, respectively) appear to protect the retina through similar mechanisms and higher concentrations may reduce the incidence of retinal degenerations. To evaluate this relationship, 95 subjects were examined and the following variables

BILLY R. HAMMOND JR.; KENNETH FULD; MAX D. SNODDERLY

1996-01-01

4

Macular pigment Raman detector for clinical applications  

PubMed Central

Clinical studies of carotenoid macular pigments (MP) have been limited by the lack of noninvasive, objective instruments. We introduce a novel noninvasive optical instrument, an MP Raman detector, for assessment of the carotenoid status of the human retina in vivo. The instrument uses resonant excitation of carotenoid molecules in the visible wavelength range, and quantitatively measures the highly specific Raman signals that originate from the single- and double-bond stretch vibrations of the ?-conjugated carotenoid molecule’s carbon backbone. The instrument is a robust, compact device and suitable for routine measurements of MP concentrations in a clinical setting. We characterized and tested the instrument in clinical studies of human subjects to validate its function and to begin to establish its role as a possible screening test for macular pathologies. We also show that the MP Raman spectroscopy technology has potential as a novel, highly specific method for rapid screening of carotenoid antioxidant levels in large populations at risk for vision loss from age-related macular degeneration, the leading cause of blindness of the elderly in the developed world. PMID:14715066

Ermakov, Igor; Ermakova, Maia; Gellermann, Werner; Bernstein, Paul S.

2011-01-01

5

Lutein, Zeaxanthin, and the Macular Pigment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The predominant carotenoids of the macular pigment are lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin. The regular distribution pattern of these carotenoids within the human macula indicates that their deposition is actively controlled in this tissue. The chemical, structural, and optical characteristics of these carotenoids are described. Evidence for the presence of minor carotenoids in the retina is cited. Studies of the dietary

John T Landrum; Richard A Bone

2001-01-01

6

Sex Differences in Macular Pigment Optical Density  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex differences in macular pigment (MP) optical density (measured psychophysically) were examined. Concentrations of lutein and zeaxanthin (L and Z) (non-separated) and beta-carotene (BC) in the blood were determined using reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Dietary intake of L and Z, BC, fat, and iron were estimated by questionnaire. Males had 38% higher MP density than females (P < 0.001)

BILLY R. HAMMOND; JOANNE CURRAN-CELENTANO; STEPHEN JUDD; KENNETH FULD; NORMAN I. KRINSKY; BILLY R. WOOTEN; D. MAX SNODDERLY

1996-01-01

7

Macular pigment and its contribution to vision.  

PubMed

Three dietary carotenoids, lutein (L), zeaxanthin (Z) and meso-zeaxanthin (MZ) accumulate at the central retina (macula), where they are collectively referred to as macular pigment (MP). MP's pre-receptoral absorption of blue light and consequential attenuation of the effects of chromatic aberration and light scatter are important for optimal visual function. Furthermore, antioxidant activity of MP's constituent carotenoids and the same blue light-filtering properties underlie the rationale for its putative protective role for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Supplementation with L, Z and MZ augments MP and enhances visual performance in diseased and non-diseased eyes, and may reduce risk of AMD development and/or progression. PMID:23760061

Loskutova, Ekaterina; Nolan, John; Howard, Alan; Beatty, Stephen

2013-06-01

8

Macular Pigment and Its Contribution to Vision  

PubMed Central

Three dietary carotenoids, lutein (L), zeaxanthin (Z) and meso-zeaxanthin (MZ) accumulate at the central retina (macula), where they are collectively referred to as macular pigment (MP). MP’s pre-receptoral absorption of blue light and consequential attenuation of the effects of chromatic aberration and light scatter are important for optimal visual function. Furthermore, antioxidant activity of MP’s constituent carotenoids and the same blue light-filtering properties underlie the rationale for its putative protective role for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Supplementation with L, Z and MZ augments MP and enhances visual performance in diseased and non-diseased eyes, and may reduce risk of AMD development and/or progression. PMID:23760061

Loskutova, Ekaterina; Nolan, John; Howard, Alan; Beatty, Stephen

2013-01-01

9

Imaging system to assess objectively the optical density of the macular pigment in vivo  

E-print Network

Imaging system to assess objectively the optical density of the macular pigment in vivo Andrew O in combination with various hardware and software tools to assess objectively the macular pigment (MP) optical.52.006201 1. Introduction A. Overview of the Macular Pigment Investigation of the macular pigment (MP

Dainty, Chris

10

Macular pigment optical density in wet age-related macular degeneration among Indians  

PubMed Central

Purpose To estimate the value of macular pigment optical density (MPOD) in adult south Indian population with wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods A total of 33 patients with wet AMD and 29 age-matched controls >50 years of age underwent MPOD measurement with the macular densitometer. The patients were also tested for their dietary intake of carotenoids, smoking history, and lifetime UV exposure. Results The mean MPOD values in the Indian population with wet AMD was 0.23 (95% CI: 0.18–0.29) vs control was 0.43 (95% CI: 0.37–0.49), P<0.0001, at 0.5° eccentricity. Ex-smokers had a lower MPOD than non-smokers (0.16 (0.09–0.23) vs 0.28 (0.22–0.34), P=0.026) and the lowest level of carotenoids intake had 48% lower MPOD than the highest level (0.14 (0.08–0.21) vs 0.33 (0.24–0.43), P=0.012). There was no significant age-related decline or gender variation in MPOD. Conclusion This study establishes the MPOD in adult Indian population with wet AMD, with a lack of macular pigment in association with wet AMD. PMID:22627475

Raman, R; Biswas, S; Vaitheeswaran, K; Sharma, T

2012-01-01

11

Reflection-based imaging of macular pigment distributions in infants and children  

PubMed Central

Abstract. We have developed a reflection-based capability of the RetCam® platform, an FDA-cleared pediatric retinal-imaging instrument, for the purpose of measuring macular pigment levels as well as their spatial distributions in infants and children. Our modifications include narrow-band blue-wavelength excitation of the macular pigment absorption in combination with spectrally selective blue-wavelength readout of the reflection signals received by the instrument’s CCD detector array. Furthermore, an algorithm is developed that allows the computation of optical density maps for the macular pigment relative to peripheral retinal areas. This made it possible for the first time to directly measure macular pigment levels and their spatial features in the developing human retina. In contrast to adults, infants with measurable pigment levels had almost exclusively a narrow, circularly symmetric, pigment distribution. The described methodology holds promise for future investigations into the role of macular pigment in the developing human retina and the effect of dietary interventions in diseases resulting from a lack of normal carotenoid levels. PMID:24196405

Sharifzadeh, Mohsen; Bernstein, Paul S.; Gellermann, Werner

2013-01-01

12

Spinach Cultigen Variation for Tissue Carotenoid Concentrations Influences Human Serum Carotenoid Levels and Macular Pigment Optical Density Following a 12Week Dietary Intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing intakes of carotenoid-rich plant foods can increase serum carotenoid concentrations and macular pigment optical density (MPOD) in most, but not all, individuals. Research objectives for this study were to (1) characterize tissue lutein (L) and ?-carotene (BC) concentrations in carotenoid-rich spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) cultigens and (2) determine serum carotenoid and MPOD responses in human subjects consuming spinach cultigens

Dean A. Kopsell; David E. Kopsell; Adam J. Wenzel; Catherine Gerweck; Joanne Curran-Celentano

2006-01-01

13

A Practical Method for Measuring Macular Pigment Optical Density  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE. Increasing evidence indicates that the macular pigments (MP) protect the central retina and may retard macular disease. For that reason, a practical method for measuring MP that does not require elaborate optics and can be applied to diverse populations by operators with a modest amount of experience was developed and validated. METHODS. A small tabletop device based on light-emitting

Billy R. Wooten; Billy R. Hammond; Richard I. Land; D. Max Snodderly

1999-01-01

14

Measurement of macular pigment optical density in a healthy chinese population sample  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Macular pigment may protect against age-related macular degeneration (AMD) by its capability to absorb blue light and scavenge free radicals. Current information on human macular pigment density has been largely from studies on Caucasians populations. The purpose of this study was to assess macular ...

15

Interrelationships Between Maternal Carotenoid Status and Newborn Infant Macular Pigment Optical Density and Carotenoid Status  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Deposition of the macular pigment carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin in the human retina occurs early in life. In this study, we examined the interrelationships of maternal carotenoid status and newborn infant macular pigment levels and systemic carotenoid status. As a secondary measure, we also evaluated the effects of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) on carotenoid status in term newborn infants. Methods. We measured mother and infant skin carotenoids using resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS), serum carotenoids by HPLC, and mother breast milk carotenoids by HPLC. We measured infant macular pigment levels using noninvasive blue light reflectometry. Results. We enrolled 30 healthy term infants, their mothers, and 10 IUGR infants and their mothers. A subset of 16 infants was imaged for macular pigment optical density (MPOD). Infant serum zeaxanthin levels correlated with MPOD (r = 0.68, P = 0.007). Mother serum zeaxanthin levels correlated with infant MPOD (r = 0.59, P = 0.032). Infant and mother serum lutein did not correlate with MPOD. Mother–infant correlations were found for total serum carotenoids (r = 0.42, P = 0.020) and skin carotenoids (r = 0.48, P = 0.001). No difference was seen between IUGR infants and controls in total serum or skin carotenoids. Mothers of IUGR infants had lower total serum carotenoids (P = 0.019) and breast milk carotenoids than controls (P = 0.006). Conclusions. Our findings suggest that maternal zeaxanthin status may play a more important role than lutein status in macular pigment deposition in utero. Controlled trials are needed to determine whether maternal zeaxanthin prenatal supplementation can raise infant macular pigment levels and/or improve ocular function. PMID:23838770

Henriksen, Bradley S.; Chan, Gary; Hoffman, Robert O.; Sharifzadeh, Mohsen; Ermakov, Igor V.; Gellermann, Werner; Bernstein, Paul S.

2013-01-01

16

Central retinal thickness is positively correlated with macular pigment optical density  

E-print Network

Central retinal thickness is positively correlated with macular pigment optical density S pigment (MP) has been suggested to have a protective role in age-related macular degeneration by reducing was to investigate the relationship between central retinal thickness and macular pigment optical density in a group

17

Color Matching in Diabetes: Optical Density of the Crystalline Lens and Macular Pigments  

E-print Network

Color Matching in Diabetes: Optical Density of the Crystalline Lens and Macular Pigments Nigel lens and macular pigments in a group of patients with diabetes mellitus and compare the results. Wavelengths 420 and 515 nm were chosen, because they are absorbed equally by the macular pigment. To measure

Morland, Antony

18

Macular pigment density measured by autofluorescence spectrometry: comparison with reflectometry and heterochromatic flicker photometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a technique for estimating the density of the human macular pigment noninvasively that takes advantage of the autofluorescence of lipofuscin, which is normally present in the human retinal pigment epi- thelium. By measuring the intensity of fluorescence at 710 nm, where macular pigment has essentially zero absorption, and stimulating the fluorescence with two wavelengths, one well absorbed by

François C. Delori; Douglas G. Goger; Billy R. Hammond; D. Max Snodderly; Stephen A. Burns

2001-01-01

19

Blue-Light Reflectance Imaging of Macular Pigment in Infants and Children  

PubMed Central

Purpose. While the role of the macular pigment carotenoids in the prevention of age-related macular degeneration has been extensively studied in adults, comparatively little is known about the physiology and function of lutein and zeaxanthin in the developing eye. We therefore developed a protocol using a digital video fundus camera (RetCam) to measure macular pigment optical density (MPOD) and distributions in premature infants and in children. Methods. We used blue light reflectance to image the macular pigment in premature babies at the time of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) screening and in children aged under 7 years who were undergoing examinations under anesthesia for other reasons. We correlated the MPOD with skin carotenoid levels measured by resonance Raman spectroscopy, serum carotenoids measured by HPLC, and dietary carotenoid intake. Results. We enrolled 51 infants and children ranging from preterm to age 7 years. MPOD correlated significantly with age (r = 0.36; P = 0.0142), with serum lutein + zeaxanthin (r = 0.44; P = 0.0049) and with skin carotenoid levels (r = 0.42; P = 0.0106), but not with dietary lutein + zeaxanthin intake (r = 0.13; P = 0.50). All premature infants had undetectable macular pigment, and most had unusually low serum and skin carotenoid concentrations. Conclusions. Our most remarkable finding is the undetectable MPOD in premature infants. This may be due in part to foveal immaturity, but the very low levels of serum and skin carotenoids suggest that these infants are carotenoid insufficient as a consequence of low dietary intake and/or severe oxidative stress. The potential value of carotenoid supplementation in the prevention of ROP and other disorders of prematurity should be a fruitful direction for further investigation. PMID:23652486

Bernstein, Paul S.; Sharifzadeh, Mohsen; Liu, Aihua; Ermakov, Igor; Nelson, Kelly; Sheng, Xiaoming; Panish, Cynthia; Carlstrom, Bonnie; Hoffman, Robert O.; Gellermann, Werner

2013-01-01

20

A 12-Wk Egg Intervention Increases Serum Zeaxanthin and Macular Pigment Optical Density in Women1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two carotenoids found in egg yolk, lutein and zeaxanthin, accumulate in the macular retina where they may reduce photostress. Increases in serum lutein and zeaxanthin were observed in previous egg interventions, but no study mea- sured macular carotenoids. The objective of this project was to determine whether increased consumption of eggs would increase retinal lutein and zeaxanthin, or macular pigment.

Adam J. Wenzel; Catherine Gerweck; Damian Barbato; Robert J. Nicolosi; Garry J. Handelman; Joanne Curran-Celentano

21

Macular Pigment and Risk for Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Subjects from a Northern European Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE. Age and advanced disease in the fellow eye are the two most important risk factors for age-related macular degen- eration (AMD). In this study, the authors investigated the rela- tionship between these variables and the optical density of macular pigment (MP) in a group of subjects from a northern European population. METHODS. The optical density of MP was measured

Stephen Beatty; Ian J. Murray; David B. Henson; Dave Carden; Hui-Hiang Koh; Michael E. Boulton

2001-01-01

22

A One Year Study of the Macular Pigment: The Effect of 140 Days of a Lutein Supplement  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low density of macular pigment may represent a risk factor for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) by permitting greater blue light damage. This study was carried out to determine the effects on macular pigment optical density of dietary supplementation with lutein, one of the pigment constituents. Two subjects consumed lutein esters, equivalent to 30 mg of free lutein per day,

JOHN T LANDRUM; RICHARD A BONE; HILDA JOA; MARK D KILBURN; LINDA L MOORE; KATHLEEN E SPRAGUE

1997-01-01

23

Dietary intake and serum concentrations of lutein and zeaxanthin, but not macular pigment optical density, are related in spouses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lutein and zeaxanthin, 2 carotenoids obtained from the diet, accumulate in the central retina where they are collectively called macular pigment. Although dietary intake of these carotenoids is directly related to tissue concentration, several factors, such as body mass index, appear to indirectly affect macular pigment concentrations. Individuals who consume similar diets and share factors that affect macular pigment, such

Adam J. Wenzel; Joseph P. Sheehan; Joanne D. Burke; Mark G. Lefsrud; Joanne Curran-Celentano

2007-01-01

24

Association of age and macular pigment optical density using dual-wavelength autofluorescence imaging  

PubMed Central

Background Several lines of evidence suggest that macular pigment may play a protective role against age-related macular degeneration, but the influence of age on macular pigment density levels remains unclear. This study was designed to investigate the relationship between age and the normal distribution of macular pigment optical density (MPOD) values surrounding the fovea. Methods Consecutive healthy subjects with no evidence of ocular disease were enrolled in this study. After inclusion, MPOD values were measured at specific eccentricities (0.5, 1, and 2 degrees) from the foveal center using a dual-wavelength autofluorescence method employing a modified confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope. Whenever both eyes were eligible, one was randomly selected for analysis. The correlation between age and MPOD values was investigated using regression analysis. Results Thirty subjects (30 eyes) were included (mean age 48.6 ± 16.4 [range 23–77] years). Significant differences were found between MPOD values measured at 0.5, 1, and 2 degrees from the center of the fovea (0.49 ± 0.12 density units, 0.37 ± 0.11 density units, and 0.13 ± 0.05 density units, respectively, P < 0.05). Significant correlations between age and MPOD values at 0.5 and 1 degree were found (P ? 0.02). Values measured at 2 degrees did not correlate significantly with age (P = 0.06). Conclusion In healthy subjects, MPOD values were highest near the foveal center. These values appeared to increase during adulthood (peak at 45–50 years), followed by a gradual reduction after 60 years of age. PMID:23589675

Lima, Verônica Castro; Rosen, Richard B; Prata, Tiago Santos; Dorairaj, Syril; Spielberg, Leigh; Maia, Mauricio; Sallum, Juliana M

2013-01-01

25

The Value of Measurement of Macular Carotenoid Pigment Optical Densities and Distributions in Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Other Retinal Disorders  

PubMed Central

There is increasing recognition that the optical and antioxidant properties of the xanthophyll carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin play an important role in maintaining the health and function of the human macula. In this review article, we assess the value of non-invasive quantification of macular pigment levels and distributions to identify individuals potentially at risk for visual disability or catastrophic vision loss from age-related macular degeneration, and we consider the strengths and weaknesses of the diverse measurement methods currently available. PMID:19854211

Bernstein, Paul S.; Delori, François C.; Richer, Stuart; van Kuijk, Frederik J. M.; Wenzel, Adam J.

2009-01-01

26

Macular function and morphology in acute retinal pigment epithelitis  

PubMed Central

A 20-year-old man applied with vision loss in the left eye. Right eye examination was unremarkable. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in the left eye was 20/200. Fundus examination revealed a few yellow spots within a round-shaped macular lesion. Autofluorescence imaging showed hyperautofluorescence in the lesion. Central amplitudes in multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) were depressed. The patient reported a rhinopharyngitis 7–10 days before the visual loss. The patient was diagnosed as acute retinal pigment epithelitis. BCVA improved gradually up to 20/20 in 4 weeks. mfERG amplitudes returned to normal. A slight pigmentary distortion was the only residual fundus finding. PMID:25579361

Gundogan, Fatih C; Diner, Oktay; Tas, Ahmet; Ilhan, Abdullah; Yolcu, Umit

2014-01-01

27

Macular Pigment Optical Density Measured by Heterochromatic Modulation Photometry  

PubMed Central

Purpose To psychophysically determine macular pigment optical density (MPOD) employing the heterochromatic modulation photometry (HMP) paradigm by estimating 460 nm absorption at central and peripheral retinal locations. Methods For the HMP measurements, two lights (B: 460 nm and R: 660 nm) were presented in a test field and were modulated in counterphase at medium or high frequencies. The contrasts of the two lights were varied in tandem to determine flicker detection thresholds. Detection thresholds were measured for different R:B modulation ratios. The modulation ratio with minimal sensitivity (maximal threshold) is the point of equiluminance. Measurements were performed in 25 normal subjects (11 male, 14 female; age: 30±11 years, mean ± sd) using an eight channel LED stimulator with Maxwellian view optics. The results were compared with those from two published techniques – one based on heterochromatic flicker photometry (Macular Densitometer) and the other on fundus reflectometry (MPR). Results We were able to estimate MPOD with HMP using a modified theoretical model that was fitted to the HMP data. The resultant MPODHMP values correlated significantly with the MPODMPR values and with the MPODHFP values obtained at 0.25° and 0.5° retinal eccentricity. Conclusions HMP is a flicker-based method with measurements taken at a constant mean chromaticity and luminance. The data can be well fit by a model that allows all data points to contribute to the photometric equality estimate. Therefore, we think that HMP may be a useful method for MPOD measurements, in basic and clinical vision experiments. PMID:25354049

Huchzermeyer, Cord; Schlomberg, Juliane; Welge-Lüssen, Ulrich; Berendschot, Tos T. J. M.; Pokorny, Joel; Kremers, Jan

2014-01-01

28

Effect of 1-year lutein supplementation on macular pigment optical density and visual function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Although it is known that antioxidants including lutein can affect macular pigment optical density (MPOD) and visual function,\\u000a we still have much to learn about their effect. Our aim was to assess the 1-year changes in MPOD and visual function in response\\u000a to supplementation containing lutein.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We prospectively measured the MPOD level of those who received a supplement containing 6 mg

Yuzuru Sasamoto; Fumi Gomi; Miki Sawa; Motokazu Tsujikawa; Kohji Nishida

29

Measuring macular pigment optical density in vivo: a review of techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Macular pigment has been the focus of much attention in recent years, as a potential modifiable risk factor for age-related\\u000a macular degeneration. This interest has been heightened by the ability to measure macular pigment optical density (MPOD) in\\u000a vivo.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  A systematic literature search was undertaken to identify all available papers that have used in vivo MPOD techniques. The\\u000a papers were

Olivia Howells; Frank Eperjesi; Hannah Bartlett

2011-01-01

30

Staging of Macular Telangiectasia: Power-Doppler Optical Coherence Tomography and Macular Pigment Optical Density  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Two methods were used to study the stages of macular telangiectasia (MacTel): Power-Doppler optical coherence tomography (PD-OCT), which allows imaging of the retinal circulation in three dimensions, and macular pigment optical density (MPOD), which quantifies the distribution of macular carotenoids. Methods. Among 49 patients with MacTel identified, 12 eyes (6 patients) with MacTel and 7 age-matched control eyes (7 patients) were imaged with a custom-built Fourier-domain OCT instrument to acquire PD-OCT images. MPOD was measured using heterochromatic flicker photometry in 10 eyes (5 patients) with MacTel and compared with 44 age-matched control eyes (44 patients). Clinical staging of MacTel was based on best-corrected visual acuity, fundus biomicroscopy, fluorescein angiography, and OCT. Results. Stage 1 eyes (n = 2) had subtle punctate vascular signal confined to the inner portion of the outer plexiform layer (OPL) on PD-OCT. Stage 2 (n = 2) showed larger oblique vascular signal extending into deeper OPL. Stage 3 (n = 5) had disruption of outer retinal layers with abnormal vasculature extending into the outer nuclear layer. Stage 4 (n = 3) showed diffuse blurring of the retinal layers with vascular channels extending the full thickness of the retina. MPOD values in four eyes with stage 1 or 2 MacTel correlated well with age-matched controls. Six eyes with stage 3 or 4 MacTel had loss of MPOD especially at the fovea. Conclusions. PD-OCT shows penetration of the retinal capillaries into the deeper retinal layers in early stages of MacTel, with full thickness vascular proliferation in advanced disease. MPOD is commonly depleted but may appear normal in early stage MacTel. PMID:23716628

Chin, Eric K.; Kim, Dae Yu; Hunter, Allan A.; Pilli, Suman; Wilson, Machelle; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Werner, John S.; Park, Susanna S.

2013-01-01

31

Association of macular pigment optical density with risk factors for wet age-related macular degeneration in the Indian population  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate macular pigment optical density (MPOD) in patients with and without wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and to elucidate the association between MPOD and the risk factors for AMD in an Indian population. Methods Thirty-three subjects with wet AMD and 29 controls above 50 years old underwent MPOD measurement with the ‘Macular Densitometer'. The subjects were also tested for their smoking history, lifetime ultraviolet (UV) exposure, dietary intake of carotenoids, and body mass index (BMI). Results Smokers had a higher risk for AMD than the non-smokers (P=0.032) and a lower MPOD level than non-smokers (mean (95% CI)) (0.16 (0.09–0.23) vs 0.28 (0.22–0.34), adjusted P=0.026). Subjects with lowest UV exposure had higher MPOD than those with the highest (0.46 (0.38–0.54) vs 0.17 (0.01–0.33), P=0.01). MPOD was significantly lower among those with the lowest quartile of dietary intake of carotenoids (0.14 (0.08–0.21) vs 0.25 (0.13–0.36), P=0.012). Smoking, obesity, and UV index showed an inverse association with the MPOD. Low MPOD, smoking, and UV exposure had 5.11 (1.73–15.08), 3.54 (1.08–11.57), and 5.24 (1.06–25.96) odds for AMD, respectively, whereas higher dietary intake of carotenoids showed a protective effect for AMD. Conclusion We found an inverse association between wet AMD and MPOD. Among the established risk factors of wet AMD, we found an inverse association of smoking, UV index, and obesity with MPOD, whereas a positive association was found between dietary intake of carotenoids and MPOD. PMID:22562185

Raman, R; Biswas, S; Gupta, A; Kulothungan, V; Sharma, T

2012-01-01

32

Macular pigment response to a supplement containing meso-zeaxanthin, lutein and zeaxanthin  

PubMed Central

Background Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a disease with multiple risk factors, many of which appear to involve oxidative stress. Macular pigment, with its antioxidant and light-screening properties, is thought to be protective against AMD. A result has been the appearance of dietary supplements containing the macular carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin. More recently, a supplement has been marketed containing, in addition, the third major carotenoid of the macular pigment, meso-zeaxanthin. The purpose of the study was to determine the effectiveness of such a supplement in raising macular pigment density in human subjects. Methods A 120 day supplementation study was conducted in which 10 subjects were given gel-caps that provided 20 mg/day of predominantly meso-zeaxanthin, with smaller amounts of lutein and zeaxanthin. A second group of 9 subjects were given gel caps containing a placebo for the same 120 day period. Prior to and during the supplementation period, blood serum samples were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography for carotenoid content. Similarly, macular pigment optical density was measured by heterochromatic flicker photometry. Differences in response between the supplementation and placebo groups were tested for significance using a student's t-test. Results During supplementation with the carotenoids, blood samples revealed the presence of all three carotenoids. Macular pigment optical density, measured at 460 nm, rose at an average rate of 0.59 ± 0.79 milli-absorbance unit/day in the 10 supplemented subjects. This was significantly different from the placebo group (9 subjects) for whom the average rate was -0.17 ± 0.42 milli-absorbance units/day. Conclusion We have shown for the first time that meso-zeaxanthin is absorbed into the serum following ingestion. The data indicate that a supplement containing predominantly meso-zeaxanthin is generally effective at raising macular pigment density, and may turn out to be a useful addition to the defenses against AMD. PMID:17498306

Bone, Richard A; Landrum, John T; Cao, Yisi; Howard, Alan N; Alvarez-Calderon, Francesca

2007-01-01

33

The effects of supplementation with lutein and\\/or zeaxanthin on human macular pigment density and colour vision  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Both yellow-blue (YB) discrimination thresholds and macular pigment optical density (MPOD) measurements in the eye exhibit large variability in the normal population. Although it is well established that selective absorption of blue light by the macular pigment (MP) can significantly affect trichromatic colour matches, the extent to which the MP affects colour discrimination (CD) sensitivity remains controversial. Objective: In

Marisa Rodriguez-Carmona; Jessica Kvansakul; J Alister Harlow; Wolfgang Kopcke; Wolfgang Schalch; John L Barbur

2006-01-01

34

Dose-dependent response of serum lutein and macular pigment optical density to supplementation with lutein esters  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a study to determine the effect of different doses of a lutein supplement on serum lutein concentration and macular pigment optical density (MPOD). Lutein is one of the major components of human macular pigment. Eighty-seven subjects received daily doses of 5, 10, or 20mg of lutein, or a placebo, over a 140day period. Serum lutein concentration was determined

Richard A. Bone; John T. Landrum

2010-01-01

35

Macular pigment optical density spatial distribution measured in a subject with oculocutaneous albinism  

PubMed Central

Purpose Previous studies of macular pigment optical density (MPOD) distribution in individuals with oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) have primarily used objective measurement techniques including fundus reflectometry and autofluorescence. We report here on a subject with OCA and their corresponding MPOD distribution assessed through heterochromatic flicker photometry (HFP). Methods A subject with a history of OCA presented with an ocular history including strabismus surgery of the LE with persistent amblyopia and mild, latent nystagmus. Best corrected visual acuity was 20/25- RE and 20/40- LE. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and fundus photography were also obtained. Evaluation of MPOD spatial distribution up to 8 degrees eccentricity from the fovea was performed using HFP. Results SD-OCT indicated a persistence of multiple inner retinal layers within the foveal region in the RE and LE including symmetric foveal thickening consistent with foveal hypoplasia. Fundus photography showed mild retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) hypopigmentation and a poorly demarcated macula. OriginPro 9 was used to plot MPOD spatial distribution of the subject and a 33-subject sample. The OCA subject demonstrated a foveal MPOD of 0.10 with undetectable levels at 6 degrees eccentricity. The study sample showed a mean foveal MPOD of 0.34 and mean 6 degree eccentricity values of 0.03. Conclusions Consistent with previous macular pigment (MP) studies of OCA, overall MPOD is reduced in our subject. Mild phenotypic expression of OCA with high functional visual acuity may represent a Henle fiber layer amenable to additional MP deposition. Further study of MP supplementation in OCA patients is warranted. PMID:25323647

Putnam, Christopher M.; Bland, Pauline J.

2014-01-01

36

Lutein, zeaxanthin, macular pigment, and visual function in adult cystic fibrosis patients1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Pancreatic insufficiency in cystic fibrosis (CF), even with replacement pancreatic enzyme therapy, is often associated with decreased carotenoid absorption. Because the macular pigment of the retina is largely derived from 2 carotenoids, lutein and zeax- anthin, the decreased serum concentrations seen in CF may have consequences for ocular and retinal health Objectives: Our aims were to determine plasma carotenoid

Christine Schupp; Estibaliz Olano-Martin; Christina Gerth; Brian M Morrissey; Carroll E Cross; John S Werner

37

Macular pigment density and distribution: comparison of fundus autofluorescence with minimum motion photometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macular pigment (MP) distribution profiles were measured for 18 subjects using a Moreland anomaloscope modified for motion photometry. The total amount of MP within the central 7° was estimated from the distribution profile by numerical integration. Fundus autofluorescence images were obtained for eight of these subjects using a scanning laser ophthalmoscope. Peak optical density of MP increased with the total

Anthony G. Robson; Jack D. Moreland; Daniel Pauleikhoff; Tony Morrissey; Graham E. Holder; Fred W. Fitzke; Alan C Bird; Frederik J. G. M. van Kuijk

2003-01-01

38

Macular pigment optical density measurements: evaluation of a device using heterochromatic flicker photometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeAccurate assessment of the amount of macular pigment (MPOD) is necessary to investigate the role of carotenoids and their assumed protective functions. High repeatability and reliability are important to monitor patients in studies investigating the influence of diet and supplements on MPOD. We evaluated the Macuscope (Macuvision Europe Ltd., Lapworth, Solihull, UK), a recently introduced device for measuring MPOD using

R de Kinkelder; R L P van der Veen; F D Verbaak; D J Faber; T G van Leeuwen; T T J M Berendschot; TTJM Berendschot

2011-01-01

39

The Relationships between Macular Pigment Optical Density and Its Constituent Carotenoids in Diet and Serum  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE. Lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) are two dietary carote- noids that accumulate at the macula, where they are collec- tively known as macular pigment (MP). There is a biologically plausible rationale, with some supporting evidence, that MP may protect against age-related maculopathy (ARM). This study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between dietary intake of L and Z, serum

John M. Nolan; Jim Stack; Eamonn O'Connell; Stephen Beatty

2007-01-01

40

Macular Pigment Imaging in AREDS2 Participants: An Ancillary Study of AREDS2 Subjects Enrolled at the Moran Eye Center  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2) is a randomized, placebo-controlled study designed to determine whether supplementation with 10 mg of lutein and 2 mg of zeaxanthin per day can slow the rate of progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Although some biomarkers of response to carotenoid supplementation such as serum concentrations are part of the AREDS2 protocol, measurement of carotenoid concentrations in the eye and other tissues is not. In this approved ancillary study, macular pigment optical density (MPOD), macular pigment distributions, and skin carotenoid levels at enrollment and at each annual visit were measured to assess baseline carotenoid status and to monitor response to assigned interventions. Methods. All subjects enrolled at the Moran Eye Center had MPOD and macular pigment spatial distributions measured by dual-wavelength autofluorescence imaging and total skin carotenoids measured by resonance Raman spectroscopy. Results. Baseline MPOD in enrolled subjects was unusually high relative to an age-matched control group that did not consume carotenoid supplements regularly, consistent with the high rate of habitual lutein and zeaxanthin consumption in Utah AREDS2 subjects prior to enrollment. MPOD did not correlate with serum or skin carotenoid measurements. Conclusions. Useful information is provided through this ancillary study on the ocular carotenoid status of AREDS2 participants in the target tissue of lutein and zeaxanthin supplementation: The macula. When treatment assignments are unmasked at the conclusion of the study, unique tissue-based insights will be provided on the progression of AMD in response to long-term, high-dose carotenoid supplementation versus diet alone. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00345176.) PMID:22879423

Bernstein, Paul S.; Ahmed, Faisal; Liu, Aihua; Allman, Susan; Sheng, Xiaoming; Sharifzadeh, Mohsen; Ermakov, Igor; Gellermann, Werner

2012-01-01

41

Purpose. To evaluate the reliability and validity of a portable instrument for measuring macular pigment optical density.  

E-print Network

macular pigment optical density. Methods. The instrument is small, uses light emitting diodes as light easier than eccentric fixation. Subjects with healthy eyes used the instrument to measure their pigment density in a number of eye clinics. Results. The mean pigment density in 124 eyes in 124 indi- viduals

42

The Relationship between BCMO1 Gene Variants and Macular Pigment Optical Density in Persons with and without Age-Related Macular Degeneration  

PubMed Central

Background Recent evidence indicates that gene variants related to carotenoid metabolism play a role in the uptake of macular pigments lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z). Moreover, these pigments are proposed to reduce the risk for advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD). This study provides the initial examination of the relationship between the gene variants related to carotenoid metabolism, macular pigment optical density (MPOD) and their combined expression in healthy humans and patients with AMD. Participants and Methods Forty-four participants were enrolled from a general population and a private practice including 20 healthy participants and 24 patients with advanced (neovascular) AMD. Participants were genotyped for the three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) upstream from BCMO1, rs11645428, rs6420424 and rs6564851 that have been shown to either up or down regulate beta-carotene conversion efficiency in the plasma. MPOD was determined by heterochromatic flicker photometry. Results Healthy participants with the rs11645428 GG genotype, rs6420424 AA genotype and rs6564851 GG genotype all had on average significantly lower MPOD compared to those with the other genotypes (p<0.01 for all three comparisons). When combining BCMO1 genotypes reported to have “high” (rs11645428 AA/rs6420424 GG/rs6564851 TT) and “low” (rs11645428 GG/rs6420424 AA/rs6564851 GG) beta-carotene conversion efficiency, we demonstrate clear differences in MPOD values (p<0.01). In patients with AMD there were no significant differences in MPOD for any of the three BCMO1 gene variants. Conclusion In healthy participants MPOD levels can be related to high and low beta-carotene conversion BCMO1 genotypes. Such relationships were not found in patients with advanced neovascular AMD, indicative of additional processes influencing carotenoid uptake, possibly related to other AMD susceptibility genes. Our findings indicate that specific BCMO1 SNPs should be determined when assessing the effects of carotenoid supplementation on macular pigment and that their expression may be influenced by retinal disease. PMID:24586510

Feigl, Beatrix; Morris, C. Phillip; Voisey, Joanne; Kwan, Anthony; Zele, Andrew J.

2014-01-01

43

Lutein, zeaxanthin, macular pigment, and visual function in adult cystic fibrosis patients123  

PubMed Central

Background Pancreatic insufficiency in cystic fibrosis (CF), even with replacement pancreatic enzyme therapy, is often associated with decreased carotenoid absorption. Because the macular pigment of the retina is largely derived from 2 carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin, the decreased serum concentrations seen in CF may have consequences for ocular and retinal health Objectives Our aims were to determine plasma carotenoid concentrations, determine absorption and distribution of macular pigment, and assess retinal health and visual function in CF patients. Design In 10 adult CF patients (ages 21–47 y) and 10 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects, we measured macular pigment density in vivo, measured serum lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations, and comprehensively assessed visual performance (including contrast sensitivity, color discrimination, and retinal function) under conditions of daylight illumination. Results Serum lutein and zeaxanthin were significantly reduced (P< 0.005) in CF patients (x?± SD:87 ± 36.1 and 27 ± 15.8 nmol/L, respectively) compared with control subjects (190 ± 72.1 and 75 ± 23.6 nmol/L, respectively). Although macular pigment optical density was significantly lower (P < 0.0001) in the CF group (0.24 ± 0.11) than in the control group (0.53 ± 0.12), no significant differences in visual function were observed. Conclusions Adults with CF have dramatically low serum and macular concentrations of carotenoids (lutein and zeaxanthin), but their ocular status and visual function are surprisingly good. The clinical implications of low plasma concentrations of carotenoids in CF are yet to be clarified. PMID:15159235

Schupp, Christine; Olano-Martin, Estibaliz; Gerth, Christina; Morrissey, Brian M; Cross, Carroll E; Werner, John S

2008-01-01

44

The association between macular pigment optical density and CFH, ARMS2, C2\\/ BF, and C3 genotype  

Microsoft Academic Search

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of blindness in older people in developed countries, and risk for this condition may be classified as genetic or environmental, with an interaction between such factors predisposing to this disease. This study investigated the relationship between AMD risk genes, macular pigment optical density (MPOD), which may protect against AMD, and serum

Edward Loane; John M. Nolan; Gareth J. McKay; Stephen Beatty

45

Autofluorescence imaging of macular pigment: influence and correction of ocular media opacities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The healthy adult human retina contains in its macular region a high concentration of blue-light absorbing carotenoid compounds, known as macular pigment (MP). Consisting of the carotenoids lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin, the MP is thought to shield the vulnerable tissue layers in the retina from light-induced damage through its function as an optical attenuator and to protect the tissue cells within its immediate vicinity through its function as a potent antioxidant. Autofluorescence imaging (AFI) is emerging as a viable optical method for MP screening of large subject populations, for tracking of MP changes over time, and for monitoring MP uptake in response to dietary supplementation. To investigate the influence of ocular media opacities on AFI-based MP measurements, in particular, the influence of lens cataracts, we conducted a clinical trial with a large subject population (93 subjects) measured before and after cataract surgery. General AFI image contrast, retinal blood vessel contrast, and presurgery lens opacity scores [Lens Opacities Classification System III (LOCS III)] were investigated as potential predictors for image degradation. These clinical results show that lens cataracts can severely degrade the achievable pixel contrasts in the AFI images, which results in nominal MP optical density levels that are artifactually reduced. While LOCS III scores and blood vessel contrast are found to be only a weak predictor for this effect, a strong correlation exists between the reduction factor and the image contrast, which can be quantified via pixel intensity histogram parameters. Choosing the base width of the histogram, the presence or absence of ocular media opacities can be determined and, if needed, the nominal MP levels can be corrected with factors depending on the strength of the opacity.

Sharifzadeh, Mohsen; Obana, Akira; Gohto, Yuko; Seto, Takahiko; Gellermann, Werner

2014-09-01

46

Macular Pigment and Lutein Supplementation in ABCA4Associated Retinal Degenerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE. To determine macular pigment (MP) optical density (OD) in patients with ABCA4-associated retinal degenerations (ABCA4-RD) and the response of MP and vision to supplemen- tation with lutein. METHODS. Patients with Stargardt disease or cone-rod dys- trophy and known or suspected disease-causing mutations in the ABCA4 gene were included. All patients had foveal fixation. MPOD profiles were measured with heterochro-

Tomas S. Aleman; Artur V. Cideciyan; Elizabeth A. M. Windsor; Sharon B. Schwartz; Malgorzata Swider; John D. Chico; Alexander Sumaroka; Alexander Y. Pantelyat; Keith G. Duncan; Leigh M. Gardner; Jessica M. Emmons; Janet D. Steinberg; Edwin M. Stone; Samuel G. Jacobson

2007-01-01

47

Transplantation of fetal retinal pigment epithelium in age-related macular degeneration with subfoveal neovascularization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is caused by abnormal retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and may be complicated by choroidal neovascularization. The object of treatment would be to replace the diseased RPE with normal human RPE. • Method: Five patients with ARMD (preoperative visual acuity 0.08–0.2) underwent removal of subretinal fibrovascular membranes using pars plana vitrectomy techniques. Human fetal RPE (15–17

Peep V. Algvere; Lennart Berglin; Peter Gouras; Yaohua Sheng

1994-01-01

48

Macular pigment and melanin in age-related maculopathy in a general population  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE. It has been suggested that macular pigment (MP) and melanin may protect against age-related maculopathy (ARM). To check this, MP and melanin optical density were measured in a random population-based sample of subjects 55 years of age or older. METHODS. Spectral fundus reflectance of the fovea was mea- sured in one eye per subject in a 2.3° detection field

Tos T. J. M. Berendschot; Jacqueline J. M. Willemse-Assink; Mieke Bastiaanse; Jong de P. T. V. M; Dirk van Norren

2002-01-01

49

Macular pigment optical density measurement in autofluorescence imaging: comparison of one- and two-wavelength methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Measurement of macular pigment (MP) can be performed by analysis of autofluorescence (AF) images. These can be obtained by standard 488-nm argon-imaging alone (one wavelength, 1-?) or with additional digital subtraction of a second image at 514 nm (two wavelengths, 2-?). The analyses are easy to perform, and we present a comparison of both methods and investigate their reliability and repeatability.Methods  Inter-individual

M. Trieschmann; B. Heimes; H. W. Hense; D. Pauleikhoff

2006-01-01

50

Prevalence and Progression of Pigment Clumping Associated with Idiopathic Macular Telangiectasia Type 2 (IMT2)  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate pigment clumping in idiopathic macular telangiectasia type 2 (IMT2) for its incidence, development, and progression during the course of the disease. Methods Patients with a diagnosis of IMT2 and greater than 12 months of follow-up were reviewed retrospectively. Measurements of the area of pigment clumping were performed and correlated with visual acuity and findings on spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) and microperimetry (MP1). Results Fifty-three eyes in 27 patients with a mean follow-up of 42.5±14.2 months (range 12–79 months) were included. At study baseline, 16 eyes (30%) had evidence of pigment clumping without associated neovascular changes. During follow-up, 8/33 (24%) additional study eyes without prior pigment clumping developed it in stage 3 (Gass-Blodi classification) disease. Pigment clumping increased in overall area as a function of follow-up time. Pigment clumping was associated with increased intraretinal reflectivity on OCT and development of scotomas on microperimetry. Conclusions Pigment clumping commonly develops in stage 3 IMT2 disease, enlarges in area continuously over time, and is associated with declining visual function. Longitudinal measurements of the total area of pigment clumping may be helpful in following disease progression and may constitute a useful outcome measure for interventional clinical studies. PMID:23064429

Meleth, Annal D.; Toy, Brian C.; Nigam, Divya; Agrón, Elvira; Murphy, Robert P.; Chew, Emily Y.; Wong, Wai T.

2012-01-01

51

In vivo macular pigment measurements: a comparison of resonance Raman spectroscopy and heterochromatic flicker photometry  

PubMed Central

Aim To investigate whether two methods of measuring macular pigment—namely, heterochromatic flicker photometry (HFP) and resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS)—yield comparable data. Methods Macular pigment was measured using HFP and RRS in the right eye of 107 participants aged 20–79?years. Correlations between methods were sought and regression models generated. RRS was recorded as Raman counts and HFP as macular pigment optical density (MPOD). The average of the top three of five Raman counts was compared with MPOD obtained at 0.5° eccentricity, and an integrated measure (spatial profile; MPODsp) computed from four stimulus sizes on HFP. Results The coefficient of variation was 12.0% for MPODsp and 13.5% for Raman counts. MPODsp exhibited significant correlations with Raman counts (r?=?0.260, p?=?0.012), whereas MPOD at 0.5° did not correlate significantly (r?=?0.163, p?=?0.118). MPODsp was not significantly correlated with age (p?=?0.062), whereas MPOD at 0.5° was positively correlated (p?=?0.011). Raman counts showed a significant decrease with age (p?=?0.002) and were significantly lower when pupil size was smaller (p?=?0.015). Conclusions Despite a statistically significant correlation, the correlations were weak, with those in excess of 90% of the variance between MPODsp and Raman counts remaining unexplained, meriting further research. PMID:16825281

Hogg, R E; Anderson, R S; Stevenson, M R; Zlatkova, M B; Chakravarthy, U

2007-01-01

52

The Effect of Modified Eggs and an Egg-Yolk Based Beverage on Serum Lutein and Zeaxanthin Concentrations and Macular Pigment Optical Density: Results from a Randomized Trial  

PubMed Central

Increasing evidence suggests a beneficial effect of lutein and zeaxanthin on the progression of age-related macular degeneration. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of lutein or zeaxanthin enriched eggs or a lutein enriched egg-yolk based buttermilk beverage on serum lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations and macular pigment levels. Naturally enriched eggs were made by increasing the levels of the xanthophylls lutein and zeaxanthin in the feed given to laying hens. One hundred healthy volunteers were recruited and randomized into 5 groups for 90 days. Group one added one normal egg to their daily diet and group two received a lutein enriched egg-yolk based beverage. Group three added one lutein enriched egg and group four one zeaxanthin enriched egg to their diet. Group five was the control group and individuals in this group did not modify their daily diet. Serum lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations and macular pigment densities were obtained at baseline, day 45 and day 90. Macular pigment density was measured by heterochromatic flicker photometry. Serum lutein concentration in the lutein enriched egg and egg yolk-based beverage groups increased significantly (p<0.001, 76% and 77%). A strong increase in the serum zeaxanthin concentration was observed in individuals receiving zeaxanthin enriched eggs (P< 0.001, 430%). No changes were observed in macular pigment density in the various groups tested. The results indicate that daily consumption of lutein or zeaxanthin enriched egg yolks as well as an egg yolk-based beverage show increases in serum lutein and zeaxanthin levels that are comparable with a daily use of 5 mg supplements. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00527553 PMID:24675775

Kelly, Elton R.; Plat, Jogchum; Haenen, Guido R. M. M.; Kijlstra, Aize; Berendschot, Tos T. J. M.

2014-01-01

53

Macular pigment and its contribution to visual performance and experience  

PubMed Central

There is now a consensus, based on histological, biochemical and spectral absorption data, that the yellow colour observed at the macula lutea is a consequence of the selective accumulation of dietary xanthophylls in the central retina of the living eye. Scientific research continues to explore the function(s) of MP in the human retina, with two main hypotheses premised on its putative capacity to (1) protect the retina from (photo)-oxidative damage by means of its optical filtration and/or antioxidant properties, the so-called protective hypothesis and (2) influence the quality of visual performance by means of selective short wavelength light absorption prior to photoreceptor light capture, thereby attenuating the effects of chromatic aberration and light scatter, the so-called acuity and visibility hypotheses. The current epidemic of age-related macular degeneration has directed researchers to investigate the protective hypothesis of MP, while there has been a conspicuous lack of work designed to investigate the role of MP in visual performance. The aim of this review is to present and critically appraise the current literature germane to the contribution of MP, if any, to visual performance and experience.

Loughman, James; Davison, Peter A.; Nolan, John M.; Akkali, Mukunda C.; Beatty, Stephen

2010-01-01

54

The Heritability of the Ring-Like Distribution of Macular Pigment Assessed in a Twin Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose. It has been suggested that ring-like patterns of macular pigment, as measured with dual wavelength autofluorescence, are observed less frequently in subjects with age-related maculopathy. We explored relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors in macular pigment optical density (MPOD) distributions using a classic twin study. Methods. As part of a previous nutritional study, 322 healthy Caucasian female twins, aged 16 to 50 (mean 40) years, underwent measurement of MPOD optical density by two-wavelength fundus autofluorescence. In the present study, the right eye MPOD profile was assessed for the presence of a ring-like pattern by two graders independently, using common criteria, with a third grader arbitrating in cases of disagreement. Concordance was calculated as 2C/(2C + D), where C is the number of twin pairs concordant, and D the number discordant, for the ring-like pattern. Also, heritability was calculated using maximum-likelihood structural equation modeling. Results. Images and zygosity data were available for 314 twins (88 monozygotic [MZ] and 69 dizygotic [DZ] pairs). The overall prevalence of the ring pattern was 25.8%. Respective concordances for MZ and DZ twins were 0.75 and 0.22. Additive genetic factors were estimated to contribute to 84.0% of the total variance (95% confidence intervals, 63.7%–94.6%). Conclusions. Concordance for MZ twins was over three times that for DZ twins, with heritability estimated at 84%, indicating that genetic factors contribute to the development of the ring structure. Studies have suggested that ring-like patterns of macular pigment can affect risk for age-related maculopathy. In a classic twin study, we found that the presence of such a pattern was highly heritable. PMID:24609627

Tariq, Ambreen; Mahroo, Omar A.; Williams, Katie M.; Liew, S. H. Melissa; Beatty, Stephen; Gilbert, Clare E.; Van Kuijk, Frederik J.; Hammond, Christopher J.

2014-01-01

55

Relationships between macular pigment optical density and cognitive function in unimpaired and mildly cognitively impaired older adults.  

PubMed

Low carotenoid status (especially of the xanthophylls, lutein [L], and zeaxanthin [Z]) is common in older adults and has been associated with a number of degenerative diseases of the central nervous system ranging from retina (e.g., macular degeneration) to brain (e.g., Alzheimer's disease). In this study, we tested whether retinal measures of L + Z (macular pigment optical density [MPOD]), used as a surrogate for brain L + Z levels, were related to cognitive function when comparing healthy older adults with mildly cognitively impaired older adults. Twenty-four subjects with mild cognitive impairment were compared with 24 matched controls. Subjects were matched with respect to age, body mass index, ethnicity, sex, and smoking status. Degree of cognitive impairment and cognitive ability was determined via structured clinical interview. MPOD was measured psychophysically. In healthy older adults, MPOD was only related to visual-spatial and constructional abilities (p = 0.04). For subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), however, MPOD was broadly related to cognition including the composite score on the mini-mental state examination (p = 0.02), visual-spatial and constructional abilities (p = 0.04), language ability (p = 0.05), attention (p = 0.03), and the total scale on the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (p = 0.03). It is possible that L/Z status may be more strongly related to cognition when individuals are considered with established onset of cognitive decline. PMID:24508218

Renzi, Lisa M; Dengler, Melissa J; Puente, Antonio; Miller, L Stephen; Hammond, Billy R

2014-07-01

56

In vivo resonant Raman measurement of macular carotenoid pigments in the young and the aging human retina  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used resonant Raman scattering spectroscopy as a novel, noninvasive, in vivo optical technique to measure the concentration of the macular carotenoid pigments lutein and zeaxanthin in the living human retina of young and elderly adults. Using a backscattering geometry and resonant molecular excitation in the visible wavelength range, we measure the Raman signals originating from the single- and

Werner Gellermann; Igor V. Ermakov; Maia R. Ermakova; Robert W. McClane; Da-You Zhao; Paul S. Bernstein

2002-01-01

57

Size of the foveal blue scotoma related to the shape of the foveal pit but not to macular pigment.  

PubMed

When the eye is covered with a filter that transmits light below 480nm and a blue field is observed on a computer screen that is modulated in brightness at about 1Hz, the fovea is perceived as small irregular dark spot. It was proposed that the "foveal blue scotoma" results from the lack of S-cones in the foveal center. The foveal blue scotoma is highly variable among subjects. Possible factors responsible for the variability include differences in S-cone distribution, in foveal shape, and in macular pigment distribution. Nine young adult subjects were instructed to draw their foveal blue scotomas on a clear foil that was attached in front of the computer screen. The geometry of their foveal pit was measured in OCT images in two dimensions. Macular pigment distribution was measured in fundus camera images. Finally, blue scotomas were compared with Maxwell's spot which was visualized with a dichroic filter and is commonly assumed to reflect the macular pigment distribution. The diameters of the foveal blue scotomas varied from 15.8 to 76.4arcmin in the right eyes and 15.5 to 84.7arcmin in the left and were highly correlated in both eyes. It was found that the steeper the foveal slopes and the narrower the foveal pit, the larger the foveal blue scotoma. There was no correlation between foveal blue scotoma and macular pigment distribution or Maxwell's spot. The results are therefore in line with the assumption that the foveal blue scotoma is a consequence of the lack of S-cones in the foveal center. Unlike the foveal blue scotoma, Maxwell's spot is based on macular pigment as previously proposed. PMID:25449158

Chen, Yun; Lan, Weizhong; Schaeffel, Frank

2015-01-01

58

Macular pigment, photopigments, and melanin: distributions in young subjects determined by four-wavelength reflectometry  

PubMed Central

We have developed an objective procedure, using a modified retinal camera, to determine macular pigment (MP) optical density distributions in the human retina. Using two multi-band filters, reflectance maps of the retinas of young subjects (<25 years old) were obtained at 460, 528, 610 and 670 nm, without pupil dilation. The log-transformed maps were combined linearly to yield optical density maps of MP, cone and rod photopigments, and melanin. MP optical density and heterochromatic flicker photometry results for 22 subjects were in reasonable agreement. Cone photopigments, like MP, showed similar, well-defined peaks at the fovea, whereas rod photopigment showed a minimum. Melanin was more broadly distributed. PMID:17937965

Bone, Richard A.; Brener, Betty; Gibert, Jorge C.

2007-01-01

59

Retinal pigment epithelial tear after intravitreal aflibercept for neovascular age-related macular degeneration.  

PubMed

Two eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration and a suboptimal response to intravitreal ranibizumab and bevacizumab developed tears after being switched to intravitreal aflibercept, a drug with enhanced binding characteristics to vascular endothelial growth factor. Both eyes had sub-retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) choroidal neovascularization adherent to the back surface of the RPE in the fibrovascular RPE detachment that showed increased contracture of the fibrovascular tissue following the use of aflibercept. The driving force to develop the tears may be related to the recently described angiofibrotic switch, which is governed by the ration of connective tissue growth factor to vascular endothelial growth factor. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2015;46:87-90.]. PMID:25559517

Sato, Taku; Ooto, Sotaro; Suzuki, Mihoko; Spaide, Richard F

2015-01-01

60

The Relationship of Macular Pigment Optical Density to Serum Lutein in Retinitis Pigmentosa  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To determine whether macular pigment optical density (MPOD) is related to serum lutein or serum zeaxanthin in patients with retinitis pigmentosa. Methods. The authors measured MPOD with heterochromatic flicker photometry, serum lutein and serum zeaxanthin by high performance liquid chromatography, and central foveal retinal thickness by optical coherence tomography (OCT) in 176 patients (age range, 18–68 years) with typical forms of retinitis pigmentosa; 37 (21%) of these patients had cystoid macular edema (CME) by OCT. The authors performed multiple regression analysis with MPOD as the dependent variable and with loge serum lutein and loge serum zeaxanthin as independent variables adjusting for age, sex, iris color, central foveal retinal thickness, and, in some analyses, serum total cholesterol. Results. MPOD increased with increasing serum lutein (P = 0.0017) and decreased with increasing serum total cholesterol (P = 0.0025) but was unrelated to serum zeaxanthin. MPOD was higher in patients with brown irides than in patients with lighter irides (P = 0.014) and was nonmonotonically related to central foveal retinal thickness (P < 0.0001), being lower in eyes with more photoreceptor cell loss and in eyes with moderate to marked CME. Conclusions. MPOD is independently related to serum lutein, serum total cholesterol, iris color, and central foveal retinal thickness in patients with retinitis pigmentosa. PMID:19797209

Johnson, Elizabeth J.; Berson, Eliot L.

2010-01-01

61

Effects of Lutein and Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation on Macular Pigment Optical Density in a Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

We studied the macular pigment ocular density (MPOD) in patients with early age macular degeneration (AMD) before and 1 year after nutritional supplementation with lutein and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Forty-four patients with AMD were randomly divided into two groups that received placebo (n = 21) or a nutritional supplement (n = 23, 12 mg of lutein and 280 mg of DHA daily). Heterochromatic flicker photometry was used to determine the MPOD. At baseline, the MPOD in AMD patients with placebo was 0.286 ± 0.017 meanwhile in AMD patients with supplementation it was 0.291 ± 0.016. One year later, the mean MPOD had increased by 0.059 in the placebo group and by 0.162 in patients receiving lutein and DHA. This difference between groups was significant (p < 0.05). Lutein and DHA supplementation is effective in increasing the MPOD and may aid in prevention of age related macular degeneration. PMID:23434908

García-Layana, Alfredo; Recalde, Sergio; Alamán, Angel Salinas; Robredo, Patricia Fernández

2013-01-01

62

Dose-dependent response of serum lutein and macular pigment optical density to supplementation with lutein esters  

PubMed Central

We conducted a study to determine the effect of different doses of a lutein supplement on serum lutein concentration and macular pigment optical density (MPOD). Lutein is one of the major components of human macular pigment. Eighty seven subjects received daily doses of 5, 10, or 20 mg of lutein, or a placebo, over a 140 day period. Serum lutein concentration was determined by HPLC, and MPOD by heterochromatic flicker photometry (HFP). Serum lutein responded positively, except in the placebo group, reaching a plateau that, averaged for each dosage group, was linearly dependent on dose. Likewise MPOD, on average, increased at a rate that varied linearly with dose. For subjects deemed more proficient at HFP, approximately 29% of the variability in MPOD response could be attributed to a linear dependence on the fractional change in serum lutein concentration. We did not detect any significant influence of age on serum lutein uptake or MPOD response. PMID:20599660

Bone, Richard A.; Landrum, John T.

2010-01-01

63

Macular Pigment and Lutein Supplementation in ABCA4-associated Retinal Degenerations  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE To determine macular pigment (MP) optical density (OD) in patients with ABCA4-associated retinal degenerations (ABCA4-RD) and the response of MP and vision to supplementation with lutein. METHODS Stargardt disease or cone-rod dystrophy patients with foveal fixation and with known or suspected disease-causing mutations in the ABCA4 gene were included. MPOD profiles were measured with heterochromatic flicker photometry. Serum carotenoids, visual acuity, foveal sensitivity and retinal thickness were quantified. Changes in MPOD and central vision were determined in a subset of patients receiving oral supplementation with lutein for 6 months. RESULTS MPOD in patients ranged from normal to markedly abnormal. As a group, ABCA4-RD patients had reduced foveal MPOD and there was strong correlation with retinal thickness. Average foveal tissue concentration of MP, estimated by dividing MPOD by retinal thickness, was normal in patients whereas serum concentration of lutein and zeaxanthin was significantly lower than normal. After oral lutein supplementation for 6 months, 91% of the patients showed significant increases in serum lutein and 63% of the patient eyes showed a significant augmentation in MPOD. The retinal responders tended to be female, and have lower serum lutein and zeaxanthin, lower MPOD and greater retinal thickness at baseline. Responding eyes had significantly lower baseline MP concentration compared to non-responding eyes. Central vision was unchanged after the period of supplementation. CONCLUSIONS MP is strongly affected by the stage of ABCA4 disease leading to abnormal foveal architecture. MP could be augmented by supplemental lutein in some patients. There was no change in central vision after 6 months of lutein supplementation. Long-term influences on the natural history of this supplement on macular degenerations require further study. PMID:17325179

Aleman, Tomas S.; Cideciyan, Artur V.; Windsor, Elizabeth A. M.; Schwartz, Sharon B.; Swider, Malgorzata; Chico, John D.; Sumaroka, Alexander; Pantelyat, Alexander Y.; Duncan, Keith G.; Gardner, Leigh M.; Emmons, Jessica M.; Steinberg, Janet D.; Stone, Edwin M.; Jacobson, Samuel G.

2008-01-01

64

Macular pigment optical density measurements: evaluation of a device using heterochromatic flicker photometry  

PubMed Central

Purpose Accurate assessment of the amount of macular pigment (MPOD) is necessary to investigate the role of carotenoids and their assumed protective functions. High repeatability and reliability are important to monitor patients in studies investigating the influence of diet and supplements on MPOD. We evaluated the Macuscope (Macuvision Europe Ltd., Lapworth, Solihull, UK), a recently introduced device for measuring MPOD using the technique of heterochromatic flicker photometry (HFP). We determined agreement with another HFP device (QuantifEye; MPS 9000 series: Tinsley Precision Instruments Ltd., Croydon, Essex, UK) and a fundus reflectance method. Methods The right eyes of 23 healthy subjects (mean age 33.9±15.1 years) were measured. We determined agreement with QuantifEye and correlation with a fundus reflectance method. Repeatability of QuantifEye was assessed in 20 other healthy subjects (mean age 32.1±7.3 years). Repeatability was also compared with measurements by a fundus reflectance method in 10 subjects. Results We found low agreement between test and retest measurements with Macuscope. The average difference and the limits of agreement were ?0.041±0.32. We found high agreement between test and retest measurements of QuantifEye (?0.02±0.18) and the fundus reflectance method (?0.04±0.18). MPOD data obtained by Macuscope and QuantifEye showed poor agreement: ?0.017±0.44. For Macuscope and the fundus reflectance method, the correlation coefficient was r=0.05 (P=0.83). A significant correlation of r=0.87 (P<0.001) was found between QuantifEye and the fundus reflectance method. Conclusions Because repeatability of Macuscope measurements was low (ie, wide limits of agreement) and MPOD values correlated poorly with the fundus reflectance method, and agreed poorly with QuantifEye, the tested Macuscope protocol seems less suitable for studying MPOD. PMID:21057522

de Kinkelder, R; van der Veen, R L P; Verbaak, F D; Faber, D J; van Leeuwen, T G; Berendschot, T T J M

2011-01-01

65

Association between various types of obesity and macular pigment optical density  

PubMed Central

Purpose To elucidate the association between macular pigment optical density (MPOD) and various types of obesity in the South-Indian population. Patients and methods In total, 300 eyes of 161 healthy volunteers of South-Indian origin were studied. MPOD was measured psychophysically at 0.25°, 0.50°, 1.00°, and 1.75° eccentricities from fovea. Anthropometric measurements included waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and body mass index (BMI). Using the WHO Expert Consultation guidelines, obesity was defined based on BMI alone (BMI?23?kg/m2), based on WC alone (WC?90?cm for men and ?80?cm for women), and based on WHR alone (?0.90 for men and ?0.85 for women). Isolated generalized obesity was defined as increased BMI and normal WC. Isolated abdominal obesity was defined as increased WC and normal BMI. Combined obesity was defined as increased BMI and increased WC. Results Mean MPOD at all eccentricities was not significantly different between men and women. Mean MPOD values did not significantly differ in various types of obesity, when compared with the normal subjects. On subgroup analysis, in age group ?60 years, mean MPOD values were significantly higher in subjects with obesity based on BMI (0.61 vs0.41, P=0.036), obesity based on WHR (0.67 vs0.41, P=0.007), and isolated generalized obesity (0.66 vs0.41, P=0.045) in comparison with normal subjects at 0.25° eccentricity. Conclusion We found lack of an association between MPOD and obesity in the South-Indian population. A similar finding was also noted on age group- and gender-wise analyses. PMID:22222262

Gupta, A; Raman, R; Biswas, S; Rajan, R; Kulothungan, V; Sharma, T

2012-01-01

66

Macular Pigment Optical Density in the Elderly: Findings in a Large Biracial Midsouth Population Sample  

PubMed Central

Purpose To report the macular pigment optical density (MPOD) findings at 0.5° of eccentricity from the fovea in elderly subjects participating in ARMA, a study of aging and age-related maculopathy (ARM) ancillary to the Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC) Study. Methods MPOD was estimated with a heterochromatic flicker photometry (HFP) method in a large biracial population sample of normal 79.1 ± 3.2-year-old adults living in the Midsouth (n = 222; 52% female; 23% black, 34% users of lutein-containing supplements). Within a modified testing protocol, subjects identified the lowest and the highest target intensity at which the flicker sensation disappeared, and the exact middle of this “no-flicker zone” was interpolated by the examiner. Results An MPOD estimate was obtained successfully in 82% of the participants. The mean MPOD in our sample was 0.34 ± 0.21 (SD). The interocular correlation was high (Pearson’s r = 0.82). Compared with lutein supplement users, mean MPOD was 21% lower in nonusers (P = 0.013). MPOD was also 41% lower in blacks than in whites (P = 0.0002), even after adjustment for lutein supplement use. There were no differences in MPOD by gender, iris color, or history of smoking. Conclusions Older adults in the Midsouth appear to have average MPOD and interocular correlation comparable to those in previous studies. Lutein supplement use and white race correlated with higher MPOD. No evidence of an age-related decline in MPOD was seen in the sample. The HFP method for the measurement of MPOD is feasible in epidemiologic investigations of the elderly, the group at highest risk of ARM. PMID:17389471

Iannaccone, Alessandro; Mura, Marco; Gallaher, Kevin T.; Johnson, Elizabeth J.; Todd, William Andrew; Kenyon, Emily; Harris, Tarsha L.; Harris, Tamara; Satterfield, Suzanne; Johnson, Karen C.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.

2008-01-01

67

Phototoxic Action Spectrum on a Retinal Pigment Epithelium Model of Age-Related Macular Degeneration Exposed to Sunlight Normalized Conditions  

PubMed Central

Among the identified risk factors of age-related macular degeneration, sunlight is known to induce cumulative damage to the retina. A photosensitive derivative of the visual pigment, N-retinylidene-N-retinylethanolamine (A2E), may be involved in this phototoxicity. The high energy visible light between 380 nm and 500 nm (blue light) is incriminated. Our aim was to define the most toxic wavelengths in the blue-green range on an in vitro model of the disease. Primary cultures of porcine retinal pigment epithelium cells were incubated for 6 hours with different A2E concentrations and exposed for 18 hours to 10 nm illumination bands centered from 380 to 520 nm in 10 nm increments. Light irradiances were normalized with respect to the natural sunlight reaching the retina. Six hours after light exposure, cell viability, necrosis and apoptosis were assessed using the Apotox-Glo Triplex™ assay. Retinal pigment epithelium cells incubated with A2E displayed fluorescent bodies within the cytoplasm. Their absorption and emission spectra were similar to those of A2E. Exposure to 10 nm illumination bands induced a loss in cell viability with a dose dependence upon A2E concentrations. Irrespective of A2E concentration, the loss of cell viability was maximal for wavelengths from 415 to 455 nm. Cell viability decrease was correlated to an increase in cell apoptosis indicated by caspase-3/7 activities in the same spectral range. No light-elicited necrosis was measured as compared to control cells maintained in darkness. Our results defined the precise spectrum of light retinal toxicity in physiological irradiance conditions on an in vitro model of age-related macular degeneration. Surprisingly, a narrow bandwidth in blue light generated the greatest phototoxic risk to retinal pigment epithelium cells. This phototoxic spectrum may be advantageously valued in designing selective photoprotection ophthalmic filters, without disrupting essential visual and non-visual functions of the eye. PMID:24058402

Arnault, Emilie; Barrau, Coralie; Nanteau, Céline; Gondouin, Pauline; Bigot, Karine; Viénot, Françoise; Gutman, Emmanuel; Fontaine, Valérie; Villette, Thierry; Cohen-Tannoudji, Denis; Sahel, José-Alain; Picaud, Serge

2013-01-01

68

Progressive atrophy of retinal pigment epithelium after trypan-blue-assisted ILM peeling for macular hole surgery  

PubMed Central

We report a case of progressive atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) after trypan-blue-assisted peeling of internal limiting membrane (ILM) for macular hole surgery. A 68-year-old Caucasian female underwent a 20-g pars plana vitrectomy for a chronic stage-3 macular hole. The ILM was stained with 0.06% trypan blue (VisionBlue™, DORC Netherlands) for 2 min after fluid air exchange. Dye was reapplied for another 2 min due to poor staining. The ILM was completely removed around the macular hole with forceps. RPE atrophy was noticed at the edge of the hole 1 month after surgery. It progressively increased in intensity and enlarged over 2 years. Her final visual acuity was counting fingers, significantly worse compared to her presenting visual acuity of 20/200. Progressive atrophy of RPE in our patient was most likely due to the toxicity of trypan blue. Reapplication of the dye may increase the likelihood of toxicity. PMID:23619488

Jain, Sachin; Kishore, Kamal; Sharma, Yog Raj

2013-01-01

69

Genetic Determinants of Macular Pigments in Women of the Carotenoids in Age-Related Eye Disease Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To investigate genetic determinants of macular pigment optical density in women from the Carotenoids in Age-Related Eye Disease Study (CAREDS), an ancillary study of the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. Methods. 1585 of 2005 CAREDS participants had macular pigment optical density (MPOD) measured noninvasively using customized heterochromatic flicker photometry and blood samples genotyped for 440 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 26 candidate genes related to absorption, transport, binding, and cleavage of carotenoids directly, or via lipid transport. SNPs were individually tested for associations with MPOD using least-squares linear regression. Results. Twenty-one SNPs from 11 genes were associated with MPOD (P ? 0.05) after adjusting for dietary intake of lutein and zeaxanthin. This includes variants in or near genes related to zeaxanthin binding in the macula (GSTP1), carotenoid cleavage (BCMO1), cholesterol transport or uptake (SCARB1, ABCA1, ABCG5, and LIPC), long-chain omega-3 fatty acid status (ELOVL2, FADS1, and FADS2), and various maculopathies (ALDH3A2 and RPE65). The strongest association was for rs11645428 near BCMO1 (?A = 0.029, P = 2.2 × 10?4). Conditional modeling within genes and further adjustment for other predictors of MPOD, including waist circumference, diabetes, and dietary intake of fiber, resulted in 13 SNPs from 10 genes maintaining independent association with MPOD. Variation in these single gene polymorphisms accounted for 5% of the variability in MPOD (P = 3.5 × 10?11). Conclusions. Our results support that MPOD is a multi-factorial phenotype associated with variation in genes related to carotenoid transport, uptake, and metabolism, independent of known dietary and health influences on MPOD. PMID:23404124

Meyers, Kristin J.; Johnson, Elizabeth J.; Bernstein, Paul S.; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Engelman, Corinne D.; Karki, Chitra K.; Liu, Zhe; Igo, Robert P.; Truitt, Barbara; Klein, Michael L.; Snodderly, D. Max; Blodi, Barbara A.; Gehrs, Karen M.; Sarto, Gloria E.; Wallace, Robert B.; Robinson, Jennifer; LeBlanc, Erin S.; Hageman, Gregory; Tinker, Lesley; Mares, Julie A.

2013-01-01

70

Fruits and vegetables that are sources for lutein and zeaxanthin: the macular pigment in human eyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUNDIt has been suggested that eating green leafy vegetables, which are rich in lutein and zeaxanthin, may decrease the risk for age related macular degeneration. The goal of this study was to analyse various fruits and vegetables to establish which ones contain lutein and\\/or zeaxanthin and can serve as possible dietary supplements for these carotenoids.METHODSHomogenates of 33 fruits and vegetables,

Olaf Sommerburg; Jan E E Keunen; Alan C Bird; Frederik J G M van Kuijk

1998-01-01

71

Changes in macular pigment optical density and serum concentrations of its constituent carotenoids following supplemental lutein and zeaxanthin: The LUNA study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macular pigment (MP), consisting of lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z), is believed to protect the retina from photo-oxidative damage. The current study investigates, in terms of MP optical density (MPOD) and serum concentrations of its constituent carotenoids, response to supplemental L and Z, and co-antioxidants. An intervention (I) group, consisting of 108 subjects (mean [±SD] age: 71.5 [±7.1] years), of

Meike Trieschmann; Stephen Beatty; John M. Nolan; Hans Werner Hense; Britta Heimes; Ulrike Austermann; Manfred Fobker; Daniel Pauleikhoff

2007-01-01

72

Concordance of macular pigment measurements obtained using customized heterochromatic flicker photometry, dual-wavelength autofluorescence, and single-wavelength reflectance.  

PubMed

This study compares in vivo measurements of macular pigment (MP) obtained using customized heterochromatic flicker photometry (cHFP; Macular Metrics Densitometer(™)), dual-wavelength fundus autofluorescence (Heidelberg Spectralis(®) HRA + OCT MultiColor) and single-wavelength fundus reflectance (Zeiss Visucam(®) 200). MP was measured in one eye of 62 subjects on each device. Data from 49 subjects (79%) was suitable for analysis. Agreement between the Densitometer and Spectralis was investigated at various eccentricities using a variety of quantitative and graphical methods, including: Pearson correlation coefficient to measure degree of scatter (precision), accuracy coefficient, concordance correlation coefficient (ccc), paired t-test, scatter and Bland-Altman plots. The relationship between max MP from the Visucam and central MP from the Spectralis and Densitometer was investigated using regression methods. Agreement was strong between the Densitometer and Spectralis at all central eccentricities (e.g. at 0.25° eccentricity: accuracy = 0.97, precision = 0.90, ccc = 0.87). Regression analysis showed a very weak relationship between the Visucam and Densitometer (e.g. Visucam max on Densitometer central MP: R(2) = 0.008, p = 0.843). Regression analysis also demonstrated a weak relationship between MP measured by the Spectralis and Visucam (e.g. Visucam max on Spectralis central MP: R(2) = 0.047, p = 0.348). MP values obtained using the Heidelberg Spectralis are comparable to MP values obtained using the Densitometer. In contrast, MP values obtained using the Zeiss Visucam are not comparable with either the Densitometer or the Spectralis MP measuring devices. Taking cHFP as the current standard to which other MP measuring devices should be compared, the Spectralis is suitable for use in a clinical and research setting, whereas the Visucam is not. PMID:24007642

Dennison, Jessica L; Stack, Jim; Beatty, Stephen; Nolan, John M

2013-11-01

73

Plasma polymer coatings to aid retinal pigment epithelial growth for transplantation in the treatment of age related macular degeneration.  

PubMed

Subretinal transplantation of functioning retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells grown on a synthetic substrate is a potential treatment for age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a common cause of irreversible vision loss in developed countries. Plasma polymers give the opportunity to tailor the surface chemistry of the artificial substrate whilst maintaining the bulk properties. In this study, plasma polymers with different functionalities were investigated in terms of their effect on RPE attachment and growth. Plasma polymers of acrylic acid (AC), allyl amine (AM) and allyl alcohol (AL) were fabricated and characterised using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and water contact angle measurements. Octadiene (OD) hydrocarbon films and tissue culture polystyrene were used as controls. Wettability varied from hydrophobic OD to relatively hydrophilic AC. XPS demonstrated four very different surfaces with the expected functionalities. Attachment, proliferation and morphological examination of an RPE cell line and primary RPE cells were investigated. Both cell types grew on all surfaces, with the exception of OD, although the proliferation rate of primary cells was low. Good epithelial morphology was also demonstrated. Plasma polymerised films show potential as cell carrier surfaces for RPE cells in the treatment of AMD. PMID:22618272

Kearns, Victoria; Mistry, Anita; Mason, Sharon; Krishna, Yamini; Sheridan, Carl; Short, Robert; Williams, Rachel L

2012-08-01

74

In vivo imaging of retinal pigment epithelium cells in age related macular degeneration.  

PubMed

Morgan and colleagues demonstrated that the RPE cell mosaic can be resolved in the living human eye non-invasively by imaging the short-wavelength autofluorescence using an adaptive optics (AO) ophthalmoscope. This method, based on the assumption that all subjects have the same longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) correction, has proved difficult to use in diseased eyes, and in particular those affected by age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In this work, we improve Morgan's method by accounting for chromatic aberration variations by optimizing the confocal aperture axial and transverse placement through an automated iterative maximization of image intensity. The increase in image intensity after algorithmic aperture placement varied depending upon patient and aperture position prior to optimization but increases as large as a factor of 10 were observed. When using a confocal aperture of 3.4 Airy disks in diameter, images were obtained using retinal radiant exposures of less than 2.44 J/cm(2), which is ~22 times below the current ANSI maximum permissible exposure. RPE cell morphologies that were strikingly similar to those seen in postmortem histological studies were observed in AMD eyes, even in areas where the pattern of fluorescence appeared normal in commercial fundus autofluorescence (FAF) images. This new method can be used to study RPE morphology in AMD and other diseases, providing a powerful tool for understanding disease pathogenesis and progression, and offering a new means to assess the efficacy of treatments designed to restore RPE health. PMID:24298413

Rossi, Ethan A; Rangel-Fonseca, Piero; Parkins, Keith; Fischer, William; Latchney, Lisa R; Folwell, Margaret A; Williams, David R; Dubra, Alfredo; Chung, Mina M

2013-01-01

75

Low macular pigment optical density is associated with lower cognitive performance in a large, population-based sample of older adults.  

PubMed

Macular pigment (MP) is comprised of the carotenoids lutein (L), zeaxanthin (Z), and meso-zeaxanthin (MZ), which selectively accumulate at the macula (central retina) of the eye and are neuroprotective. These carotenoids are also present in the brain, and evidence suggests a close correlation between retinal and brain concentrations. We investigated the relationship between MP and cognitive function in 4453 adults aged ? 50 years as part of The Irish Longitudinal Study on Aging. Macular pigment optical density (MPOD) was determined using customized heterochromatic flicker photometry-a quick and noninvasive way of measuring the concentration of the pigment. Lower MPOD was associated with poorer performance on the mini-mental state examination (p = 0.026) and on the Montreal cognitive assessment (p = 0.016). Individuals with lower MPOD also had poorer prospective memory (p = 0.011), took longer time to complete a trail-making task (p = 0.003), and had slower and more variable reaction times on a choice reaction time task (p = 0.000 and 0.001). These associations were only slightly attenuated following adjustment for physical and mental health. There was no significant association between MPOD and verbal fluency, word recall, visual reasoning, or picture memory. Overall, the findings support the theory that xanthophyll carotenoids impact on cognitive function, underscoring the need for exploration of novel, noninvasive biomarkers for cognitive vulnerability and preventive strategies. PMID:23769396

Feeney, Joanne; Finucane, Ciarán; Savva, George M; Cronin, Hilary; Beatty, Stephen; Nolan, John M; Kenny, Rose Anne

2013-11-01

76

Macular telangiectasia type 2  

PubMed Central

Macular telangiectasia type 2 is a bilateral disease of unknown cause with characteristic alterations of the macular capillary network and neurosensory atrophy. Its prevalence may be underestimated and has recently been shown to be as high as 0.1% in persons 40 years and older. Biomicroscopy may show reduced retinal transparency, crystalline deposits, mildly ectatic capillaries, blunted venules, retinal pigment plaques, foveal atrophy, and neovascular complexes. Fluorescein angiography shows telangiectatic capillaries predominantly temporal to the foveola in the early phase and a diffuse hyperfluorescence in the late phase. High-resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) may reveal disruption of the photoreceptor inner segment–outer segment border, hyporeflective cavities at the level of the inner or outer retina, and atrophy of the retina in later stages. Macular telangiectasia type 2 shows a unique depletion of the macular pigment in the central retina and recent therapeutic trials showed that such depleted areas cannot re-accumulate lutein and zeaxanthin after oral supplementation. There have been various therapeutic approaches with limited or no efficacy. Recent clinical trials with compounds that block vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) have established the role of VEGF in the pathophysiology of the disease, but have not shown significant efficacy, at least for the nonneovascular disease stages. Recent progress in structure–function correlation may help to develop surrogate outcome measures for future clinical trials. In this review article, we summarize the current knowledge on macular telangiectasia type 2, including the epidemiology, the genetics, the clinical findings, the staging and the differential diagnosis of the disease. Findings using retinal imaging are discussed, including fluorescein angiography, OCT, adaptive optics imaging, confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, and fundus autofluorescence, as are the findings using visual function testing including visual acuity and fundus-controlled microperimetry. We provide an overview of the therapeutic approaches for both non-neovascular and neovascular disease stages and provide a perspective of future directions including animal models and potential therapeutic approaches. PMID:23219692

Issa, Peter Charbel; Gillies, Mark C.; Chew, Emily Y.; Bird, Alan C.; Heeren, Tjebo F.C.; Peto, Tunde; Holz, Frank G.; Scholl, Hendrik P.N.

2013-01-01

77

Retinal pigment epithelial changes after macular hole surgery with indocyanine green-assisted internal limiting membrane peeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: To report the results of macular hole surgery using indocyanine green to improve visualization and facilitate peeling of the internal limiting membrane.METHODS: A retrospective noncomparative review of a consecutive series of 22 patients (22 eyes) who underwent macular hole repair using indocyanine green to facilitate visualization of the internal limiting membrane was performed. One patient was excluded because of

Nicholas E Engelbrecht; Jiong Freeman; Paul Sternberg Jr; Thomas M Aaberg Sr; Thomas M Aaberg Jr; Daniel F Martin; Brian D Sippy

2002-01-01

78

Earlier therapeutic effects associated with high dose (2.0?mg) Ranibizumab for treatment of vascularized pigment epithelial detachments in age-related macular degeneration.  

PubMed

Summary statementIntravitreal high dose (2?mg) ranibizumab may lead to quicker resolution of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and associated retinal pigment epithelial detachment in eyes with exudative age-related macular degeneration, although it may possibly correlate with RPE tears in certain cases.PurposeThis prospective study compared the outcomes of 0.5 vs 2.0?mg intravitreal ranibizumab injections (RI) for treating vascularized pigment epithelial detachment (vPED) due to age-related macular degeneration.MethodsPatients with vPED were randomized to receive 2.0 vs 0.5?mg RI monthly for 12 months or for 4 months and then repeated on a pro-re nata basis. Optical coherence tomography, fundus photography, and fluorescein and indocyanine-green angiography were obtained at baseline and subsequent specific intervals. Outcome measures were best-corrected standardized visual acuities, central 1-mm thickness, surface area (SA), greatest linear diameter (GLD), heights (PED and CNV), and amount of subretinal fluid (SRF) and cystoid macular edema (CME).ResultsBoth groups yielded reductions of the central 1-mm thickness, PED and CNV SA and PED height and GLD, SRF, and CME. Vision improvement and reduction in SRF and PED height occurred earlier for eyes receiving the 2.0?mg dose. Cataract progression was similar but RPE tears developed more often with the 2.0?mg dose.ConclusionsThere were similar visual and anatomical outcomes at the end of the study; however, the higher dose yielded more rapid reductions and more complete resolution of the PED, although there was possible increased tendency for an RPE tear with the higher dose. PMID:25277305

Chan, C K; Abraham, P; Sarraf, D; Nuthi, A S D; Lin, S G; McCannel, C A

2015-01-01

79

Incidence of Retinal Pigment Epithelial Tears and Associated Risk Factors After Treatment of Age-Related Macular Degeneration with Intravitreal Anti-VEGF Injections§  

PubMed Central

Purpose : To study the incidence and risk factors for retinal pigment epithelium tears following intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injections. Methods : Retrospective longitudinal study. 4027 intravitreal anti-VEGF injections in 628 patients (676 eyes) for choroidal neovascularisation associated with age related macular degeneration in a period of 18 months were studied. Results : Seventeen patients (mean age 83.95±5.84) developed retinal pigment epithelium tears. The incidence rate was 0.4%. Fibrovascular pigment epithelium detachment (PED) was previously observed in all cases. In 88 % (15/17) of AMD patients that had a RPE tear, PED height was found to be less than 400 microns at presentation. In 5 of 7 patients with RPE tear grade <4, continuing of anti-VEGF treatment resulted to improvement of visual acuity. Conclusion : Critical risk factors for RPE tears are presence of PED as well as advanced age. Visual improvement appears to depend more on the extent and location of the RPE tear and less on the PED height. PMID:25674188

Empeslidis, Theodoros; Vardarinos, Athanasios; Konidaris, Vasileios; Ch'ng, Soon Wai; Kapoor, Bharat; Deane, James; Tsaousis, Konstantinos T

2014-01-01

80

Estimation of macular pigment optical density in the elderly: Test–retest variability and effect of optical blur in pseudophakic subjects  

PubMed Central

The reproducibility of macular pigment optical density (MPOD) estimates in the elderly was assessed in 40 subjects (age: 79.1 ± 3.5). Test–retest variability was good (Pearson’s r coefficient: 0.734), with an average coefficient of variation (CV) of 18.4% and an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.96. The effect of optical blur on MPOD estimates was investigated in 22 elderly pseudophakic subjects (age: 79.9 ± 3.6) by comparing the baseline MPOD, obtained with an optimal correction, with MPODs obtained with a ±1.00-diopter optical blur. This optical blur did not cause differences in the MPOD estimates, its accuracy, or test duration. PMID:17376502

Gallaher, Kevin T.; Mura, Marco; Todd, Wm. Andrew; Harris, Tarsha L.; Kenyon, Emily; Harris, Tamara; Johnson, Karen C.; Satterfield, Suzanne; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Iannaccone, Alessandro

2008-01-01

81

Ocular photodynamic therapy for serous macular detachment in the diffuse retinal pigment epitheliopathy variant of idiopathic central serous chorioretinopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeTo describe the anatomical and functional outcome of verteporfin ocular photodynamic therapy (PDT) in serous retinal detachment caused by the diffuse retinal pigment epitheliopathy form of chronic idiopathic central serous chorioretinopathy.

Christina Canakis; Charalampos Livir-Rallatos; Zafirakis Panayiotis; Gerasimos Livir-Rallatos; Efstratios Persidis; Mandi D. Conway; Gholam A. Peyman

2003-01-01

82

Spontaneous or secondary to intravitreal injections of anti-angiogenic agents retinal pigment epithelial tears in age-related macular degeneration  

PubMed Central

AIM To evaluate the visual function evolution of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) tears in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) according to type of occurrence [spontaneous or secondary to anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) injection] and the topographic location of the tear after a two-year follow-up period. METHODS A total of 15 eyes of 14 patients with RPE tears in exudative AMD were analyzed retrospectively at the University Eye Clinic of Trieste. Inclusion criteria were: patient age of 50 or older with AMD and RPE tears both spontaneous occurring or post anti-VEGF treatment. Screening included: careful medical history, complete ophthalmological examination, fluorescein angiography (FA), indocyanine green angiography (ICG), autofluorescence and infrared imaging and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Patients were evaluated every month for visual acuity (VA), fundus examination and OCT. Other data reported were: presence of PED, number of injections before the tear, location of the lesion. RESULTS Mean follow-up was 24wk (SD±4wk). A total of 15 eyes were studied for RPE tear. In 6 cases (40%), the RPE tears occurred within two years of anti-VEGF injections the others occurred spontaneously. In 13 cases (86.6%), the RPE tear was associated with pigment epithelial detachment (PED). In 7 cases (46.6%), the RPE tear occurred in the central area of the retina and involved the fovea. Two lesions were found in the parafoveal region, six in the extra-macular area. In all cases visual acuity decreased at the end of the follow-up period (P<0.01) independently of the type or the topographical location of the lesion. CONCLUSION RPE tear occurs in exudative AMD as a spontaneous complication or in relation to anti-VEGF injections. Visual acuity decreased significantly and gradually in the follow-up period in all cases. No correlation was found between visual loss and the type of onset or the topographic location of the tears. PMID:25161943

Leon, Pia E.; Saviano, Sandro; Zanei, Andrea; Pastore, Marco R.; Guaglione, Elvira; Mangogna, Alessandro; Tognetto, Daniele

2014-01-01

83

Changes in Retinal Pigment Epithelium Related to Cigarette Smoke: Possible Relevance to Smoking as a Risk Factor for Age-Related Macular Degeneration  

PubMed Central

Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of central vision loss in the elderly and smoking is a primary risk factor associated with the prevalence and incidence of AMD. To better understand the cellular and molecular bases for the association between smoking and AMD, we determined the effects of Benzo(a)Pyrene (B(a)P), a toxic element in cigarette smoke, on cultured retinal pigment epithelia (RPE) and we examined the RPE/choroid from mice exposed to chronic cigarette smoke. We measured: mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage, phagocytic activity, lysosomal enzymes, exosome markers and selected complement pathway components. In the presence of a non-cytotoxic dose of B(a)P, there was extensive mtDNA damage but no nuclear DNA damage. RPE phagocytic activity was not altered but there were increased lysosomal activity, exocytotic activity and complement pathway components. Retinas from mice exposed to cigarette smoke contained markers for mtDNA damage, exosomes and complement pathway components surrounding Bruch's membrane. Markers for these processes are found in drusen from AMD patients. Thus, smoking may cause damage to mtDNA and increased degradative processes in the RPE. These altered cell biological processes in the RPE may contribute to the formation of drusen in individuals who are cigarette smokers and underlie susceptibility to genetic mutations associated with AMD. PMID:19390692

Wang, Ai Ling; Lukas, Thomas J.; Yuan, Ming; Du, Nga; Handa, James T.; Neufeld, Arthur H.

2009-01-01

84

Effect of intravitreal aflibercept injection for age-related macular degeneration with a retinal pigment epithelial tear refractory to intravitreal ranibizumab injection  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of intravitreal aflibercept injection for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) with a retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) tear after intravitreal ranibizumab injection (IVR) which finally became resistant to additional IVR. Methods We reviewed the medical records of AMD patients with RPE tears after intravitreal ranibizumab injection who were treated with intravitreal aflibercept injection after acquisition of resistance to additional IVR. Results One eye from three patients, aged 66, 77, and 78 years, was evaluated. All cases started treatment with IVR for AMD. RPE tear developed 1, 4, and 3 months after the first IVR, respectively. Additional IVR was performed seven, seven, and nine times over 10, 19, and 21 months, respectively, but all cases finally became resistant to IVR. Intravitreal aflibercept injection was performed four times, six times, and once over 8, 9, and 6 months, respectively. At the last visit, all patients had complete resolution of subretinal and intraretinal fluid. Conclusion Continued intravitreal aflibercept injection may be beneficial to manage AMD with RPE tear which has become resistant to additional IVR. PMID:25028532

Fujii, Ayaka; Imai, Hisanori; Kanai, Michiko; Azumi, Atsushi

2014-01-01

85

Autophagy and Exosomes in the Aged Retinal Pigment Epithelium: Possible Relevance to Drusen Formation and Age-Related Macular Degeneration  

PubMed Central

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of loss of central vision in the elderly. The formation of drusen, an extracellular, amorphous deposit of material on Bruch's membrane in the macula of the retina, occurs early in the course of the disease. Although some of the molecular components of drusen are known, there is no understanding of the cell biology that leads to the formation of drusen. We have previously demonstrated increased mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage and decreased DNA repair enzyme capabilities in the rodent RPE/choroid with age. In this study, we found that drusen in AMD donor eyes contain markers for autophagy and exosomes. Furthermore, these markers are also found in the region of Bruch's membrane in old mice. By in vitro modeling increased mtDNA damage induced by rotenone, an inhibitor of mitochondrial complex I, in the RPE, we found that the phagocytic activity was not altered but that there were: 1) increased autophagic markers, 2) decreased lysosomal activity, 3) increased exocytotic activity and 4) release of chemoattractants. Exosomes released by the stressed RPE are coated with complement and can bind complement factor H, mutations of which are associated with AMD. We speculate that increased autophagy and the release of intracellular proteins via exosomes by the aged RPE may contribute to the formation of drusen. Molecular and cellular changes in the old RPE may underlie susceptibility to genetic mutations that are found in AMD patients and may be associated with the pathogenesis of AMD in the elderly. PMID:19129916

Wang, Ai Ling; Lukas, Thomas J.; Yuan, Ming; Du, Nga; Tso, Mark O.; Neufeld, Arthur H.

2009-01-01

86

Macular Pucker  

MedlinePLUS

... is a macular pucker? A macular pucker is scar tissue that has formed on the eye’s macula, ... retina. As the retina heals itself, the resulting scar tissue can cause a macular pucker. Rarely, a ...

87

Superoxide Dismutase1 Levels in North Indian Population with Age-Related Macular Degeneration  

PubMed Central

Aim. The aim of the study was to estimate the levels of superoxide dismutase1 (SOD1) in patients of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and examine the role of oxidative stress, smoking, hypertension, and other factors involved in the pathogenesis of AMD. Methods. 115 AMD patients and 61 healthy controls were recruited for this study. Serum SOD1 levels were determined by ELISA and were correlated to various risk factors. Logistic regression model of authenticity, by considering SOD1 as independent variable, has been developed along with ROC curve. Results. The SOD1 levels were significantly higher in AMD patients as compared to those of the controls. The difference was not significant for wet and dry AMD. However, the difference was significant between wet AMD subtypes. Nonsignificance of the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness of fit statistic (?2 = 10.516, df = 8, P = 0.231) indicates the appropriateness of logistic regression model to predict AMD. Conclusion. Oxidative stress in AMD patients may mount compensatory response resulting in increased levels of SOD1 in AMD patients. To predict the risk of AMD on the basis of SOD1, a logistic regression model shows authenticity of 78%, and area under the ROC curve (0.827, P = .0001) with less standard error of 0.033 coupled with 95% confidence interval of 0.762–0.891 further validates the model. PMID:24363822

Sharma, Neel K.; Gupta, Amod; Prabhakar, Sudesh; Sharma, Suresh K.; Singh, Ramandeep

2013-01-01

88

Inactivity of human ?,?-carotene-9',10'-dioxygenase (BCO2) underlies retinal accumulation of the human macular carotenoid pigment.  

PubMed

The macula of the primate retina uniquely concentrates high amounts of the xanthophyll carotenoids lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin, but the underlying biochemical mechanisms for this spatial- and species-specific localization have not been fully elucidated. For example, despite abundant retinal levels in mice and primates of a binding protein for zeaxanthin and meso-zeaxanthin, the pi isoform of glutathione S-transferase (GSTP1), only human and monkey retinas naturally contain detectable levels of these carotenoids. We therefore investigated whether or not differences in expression, localization, and activity between mouse and primate carotenoid metabolic enzymes could account for this species-specific difference in retinal accumulation. We focused on ?,?-carotene-9',10'-dioxygenase (BCO2, also known as BCDO2), the only known mammalian xanthophyll cleavage enzyme. RT-PCR, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) confirmed that BCO2 is expressed in both mouse and primate retinas. Cotransfection of expression plasmids of human or mouse BCO2 into Escherichia coli strains engineered to produce zeaxanthin demonstrated that only mouse BCO2 is an active zeaxanthin cleavage enzyme. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) binding studies showed that the binding affinities between human BCO2 and lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin are 10- to 40-fold weaker than those for mouse BCO2, implying that ineffective capture of carotenoids by human BCO2 prevents cleavage of xanthophyll carotenoids. Moreover, BCO2 knockout mice, unlike WT mice, accumulate zeaxanthin in their retinas. Our results provide a novel explanation for how primates uniquely concentrate xanthophyll carotenoids at high levels in retinal tissue. PMID:24982131

Li, Binxing; Vachali, Preejith P; Gorusupudi, Aruna; Shen, Zhengqing; Sharifzadeh, Hassan; Besch, Brian M; Nelson, Kelly; Horvath, Madeleine M; Frederick, Jeanne M; Baehr, Wolfgang; Bernstein, Paul S

2014-07-15

89

Inactivity of human ?,?-carotene-9?,10?-dioxygenase (BCO2) underlies retinal accumulation of the human macular carotenoid pigment  

PubMed Central

The macula of the primate retina uniquely concentrates high amounts of the xanthophyll carotenoids lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin, but the underlying biochemical mechanisms for this spatial- and species-specific localization have not been fully elucidated. For example, despite abundant retinal levels in mice and primates of a binding protein for zeaxanthin and meso-zeaxanthin, the pi isoform of glutathione S-transferase (GSTP1), only human and monkey retinas naturally contain detectable levels of these carotenoids. We therefore investigated whether or not differences in expression, localization, and activity between mouse and primate carotenoid metabolic enzymes could account for this species-specific difference in retinal accumulation. We focused on ?,?-carotene-9?,10?-dioxygenase (BCO2, also known as BCDO2), the only known mammalian xanthophyll cleavage enzyme. RT-PCR, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) confirmed that BCO2 is expressed in both mouse and primate retinas. Cotransfection of expression plasmids of human or mouse BCO2 into Escherichia coli strains engineered to produce zeaxanthin demonstrated that only mouse BCO2 is an active zeaxanthin cleavage enzyme. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) binding studies showed that the binding affinities between human BCO2 and lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin are 10- to 40-fold weaker than those for mouse BCO2, implying that ineffective capture of carotenoids by human BCO2 prevents cleavage of xanthophyll carotenoids. Moreover, BCO2 knockout mice, unlike WT mice, accumulate zeaxanthin in their retinas. Our results provide a novel explanation for how primates uniquely concentrate xanthophyll carotenoids at high levels in retinal tissue. PMID:24982131

Li, Binxing; Vachali, Preejith P.; Gorusupudi, Aruna; Shen, Zhengqing; Sharifzadeh, Hassan; Besch, Brian M.; Nelson, Kelly; Horvath, Madeleine M.; Frederick, Jeanne M.; Baehr, Wolfgang; Bernstein, Paul S.

2014-01-01

90

Concentration levels and congener profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls, pentachlorobenzene, and hexachlorobenzene in commercial pigments.  

PubMed

The concentration levels and congener profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pentachlorobenzene (PeCBz), and hexachlorobenzene (HxCBz) were assessed in commercially available organic pigments. Among the azo-type pigments tested, PCB-11, which is synthesized from 3,3'-dichlorobendizine, and PCB-52, which is synthesized from 2,2',5,5'-tetrachlorobendizine, were the major congeners detected. It is speculated that these were byproducts of chlorobendizine, which has a very similar structure. The total PCB concentrations in this type of pigment ranged from 0.0070 to 740 mg/kg. Among the phthalocyanine-type pigments, highly chlorinated PCBs, mainly composed of PCB-209, PeCBz, and HxCBz were detected. Their concentration levels ranged from 0.011 to 2.5 mg/kg, 0.0035 to 8.4 mg/kg, and 0.027 to 75 mg/kg, respectively. It is suggested that PeCBz and HxCBz were formed as byproducts and converted into PCBs at the time of synthesizing the phthalocyanine green. For the polycyclic-type pigments that were assessed, a distinctive PCB congener profile was detected that suggested an impact of their raw materials and the organic solvent used in the pigment synthesis. PCB pollution from PCB-11, PCB-52, and PCB-209 pigments is of particular concern; therefore, the monthly variations in atmospheric concentrations of these pollutants were measured in an urban area (Sapporo city) and an industrial area (Muroran city). The study detected a certain level of PCB-11, which is not included in PCB technical mixtures, and revealed continuing PCB pollution originating from pigments in the ambient air. PMID:23852585

Anezaki, Katsunori; Nakano, Takeshi

2014-01-01

91

Pigment content of cultured human melanocytes does not correlate with tyrosinase message level.  

PubMed

Tyrosinase is considered to be the rate-limiting enzyme for the biosynthesis of melanin in epidermal melanocytes, and thus tyrosinase activity is thought to be a major regulatory step in melanogenesis. To determine whether the rate of pigment production was controlled at the level of tyrosinase gene expression, we developed a culture system capable of generating large populations of pure human melanocytes and then measured both melanin content as determined spectrophotometrically by absorption at 475 nm and mRNA levels as detected by hybridization with cloned cDNA Pmel 34, encoding human tyrosinase. We examined the relationship between pigment content and tyrosinase mRNA levels among human melanoma and melanocyte lines with very different levels of basal pigmentation; between two clones of a single human melanoma line, one pigmented and one amelanotic; and sequentially in melanocytes before and after simulation with isobutylmethylxanthine to increase melanin content per cell. Using Northern blot analysis and in-situ hybridization we found no correlation between tyrosinase message levels and melanin content, suggesting that posttranscriptional regulation of tyrosinase and/or other events determine the rate of pigment synthesis in human melanocytes. PMID:1720016

Naeyaert, J M; Eller, M; Gordon, P R; Park, H Y; Gilchrest, B A

1991-10-01

92

Candidate gene study of macular response to supplemental lutein and zeaxanthin.  

PubMed

Supplementation with carotenoids is proposed to protect against age-related macular degeneration. There is, however, considerable variability in retinal macular pigment response, which may be due to underlying genetic variation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether genetic factors, which have been previously associated with cross-sectional macular pigment levels in the retina or serum lutein, also influence response to supplementation. To this end we conducted an association study in 310 subjects from the TwinsUK cohort between variants in 8 candidate genes and serum lutein and retinal macular pigment optical density (MPOD) levels before and after supplementation. Four variants were associated with MPOD response to supplementation (p < 0.05): rs11057841 (SCARB1), rs4926339 (RPE65), rs1929841 (ABCA1) and rs174534 (FADS1). We also confirmed previous associations between rs6564851 near BMCO1 (p < 0.001) and rs11057841 within SCARB1 (p = 0.01) and baseline measures of serum lutein; while the latter was also associated with MPOD response, none of the BMCO1 variants were. Finally, there was evidence for association between variants near RPE65 and ELOVL2 and changes in lutein concentration after supplementation. This study is the first to show association between genetic variants and response to carotenoids supplementation. Our findings suggest an important link between MP response and the biological processes of carotenoids transport and fatty acid metabolism. PMID:23891863

Yonova-Doing, Ekaterina; Hysi, Pirro G; Venturini, Cristina; Williams, Katie M; Nag, Abhishek; Beatty, Stephen; Liew, S H Melissa; Gilbert, Clare E; Hammond, Christopher J

2013-10-01

93

Candidate gene study of macular response to supplemental lutein and zeaxanthin?  

PubMed Central

Supplementation with carotenoids is proposed to protect against age-related macular degeneration. There is, however, considerable variability in retinal macular pigment response, which may be due to underlying genetic variation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether genetic factors, which have been previously associated with cross-sectional macular pigment levels in the retina or serum lutein, also influence response to supplementation. To this end we conducted an association study in 310 subjects from the TwinsUK cohort between variants in 8 candidate genes and serum lutein and retinal macular pigment optical density (MPOD) levels before and after supplementation. Four variants were associated with MPOD response to supplementation (p < 0.05): rs11057841 (SCARB1), rs4926339 (RPE65), rs1929841 (ABCA1) and rs174534 (FADS1). We also confirmed previous associations between rs6564851 near BMCO1 (p < 0.001) and rs11057841 within SCARB1 (p = 0.01) and baseline measures of serum lutein; while the latter was also associated with MPOD response, none of the BMCO1 variants were. Finally, there was evidence for association between variants near RPE65 and ELOVL2 and changes in lutein concentration after supplementation. This study is the first to show association between genetic variants and response to carotenoids supplementation. Our findings suggest an important link between MP response and the biological processes of carotenoids transport and fatty acid metabolism. PMID:23891863

Yonova-Doing, Ekaterina; Hysi, Pirro G.; Venturini, Cristina; Williams, Katie M.; Nag, Abhishek; Beatty, Stephen; Liew, S.H. Melissa; Gilbert, Clare E.; Hammond, Christopher J.

2013-01-01

94

Changes in localization and expression levels of Shroom2 and spectrin contribute to variation in amphibian egg pigmentation patterns  

PubMed Central

One contributing factor in the worldwide decline in amphibian populations is thought to be exposure of eggs to UV light. Enrichment of pigment in the animal hemisphere of eggs laid in the sunlight defends against UV damage, but little is known about the cell biological mechanisms controlling such polarized pigment patterns. Even less is known about how such mechanisms were modified during evolution to achieve the array of amphibian egg pigment patterns. Here, we show that ectopic expression of the ?-tubulin regulator, Shroom2, is sufficient to induce co-accumulation of pigment granules, spectrin, and dynactin in Xenopus blastomeres. Shroom2 and spectrin are enriched and co-localize specifically in the pigmented animal hemisphere of Xenopus eggs and blastulae. Moreover, Shroom2 mRNA is expressed maternally at high levels in Xenopus. By contrast to Xenopus, eggs and blastulae of Physalaemus pustulosus have very little surface pigmentation. Rather, we find that pigment is enriched in the perinuclear region of these embryos, where it co-localizes with spectrin. Moreover, maternal Shroom2 mRNA was barely detectable in Physaleamus, though zygotic levels were comparable to Xenopus. We therefore suggest that a Shroom2/spectrin/dynactin-based mechanism controls pigment localization in amphibian eggs, and that variation in maternal Shroom2 mRNA levels accounts in part for variation in amphibian egg pigment patterns during evolution. PMID:19554350

Lee, Chanjae; Le, Minh-Phuong; Cannatella, David; Wallingford, John B.

2010-01-01

95

The Heritability of Macular Response to Supplemental Lutein and Zeaxanthin: A Classic Twin Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Antioxidant supplements may reduce age-related macular degeneration (AMD) progression. The macular carotenoids are of particular interest because of their biochemical, optical, and anatomic properties. This classic twin study was designed to determine the heritability of macular pigment (MP) augmentation in response to supplemental lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z). Methods. A total of 322 healthy female twin volunteers, aged 16–50 years (mean 40 ± 8.7) was enrolled in a prospective, nonrandomized supplement study. Macular pigment optical density (MPOD) measurements using two techniques (2-wavelength fundus autofluorescence [AF] and heterochromatic flicker photometry [HFP]), and serum concentrations of L and Z, were recorded at baseline, and at 3 and 6 months following daily supplementation with 18 mg L and 2.4 mg Z for a study period of 6 months. Results. At baseline, mean MPOD was 0.44 density units (SD 0.21, range 0.04–1.25) using HFP, and 0.41 density units (SD 0.15) using AF. Serum L and Z levels were raised significantly from baseline following 3 months' supplementation (mean increase 223% and 633%, respectively, P < 0.0001 for both), with no MPOD increase. After 6 months' supplementation, a small increase in MPOD was seen (mean increase 0.025 ± 0.16, P = 0.02, using HFP). Subdivision of baseline MPOD into quartiles revealed that baseline levels made no difference to the treatment effect. Genetic factors explained 27% (95% confidence interval [CI] 7–45) of the variation in MPOD response. Distribution profiles of macular pigment did not change in response to supplementation. Conclusions. MPOD response to supplemental L and Z for a period of 6 months was small (an increase over baseline of 5.7% and 3.7%, measured using HFP and AF, respectively), and was moderately heritable. Further study is indicated to investigate the functional and clinical impact of supplementation with the macular carotenoids. PMID:22700713

Hammond, Christopher J.; Liew, S. H. Melissa; Van Kuijk, Frederik J.; Beatty, Stephen; Nolan, John M.; Spector, Tim D.; Gilbert, Clare E.

2012-01-01

96

Erratum: Iris Color and Macula Pigment Optical Density  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was designed to assess the relationship between iris color and macular pigment optical density. Both melanin and carotenoids (responsible for iris color and macular pigment composition, respectively) appear to protect the retina through similar mechanisms and higher concentrations may reduce the incidence of retimal degenerations. The evaluate this relationship, 95 subjects were examined and the following variables

KENNETH FULD; MAX D. SNODDERLY

1996-01-01

97

Genetic basis of continuous variation in the levels and modular inheritance of pigmentation in cichlid fishes  

PubMed Central

Variation in pigmentation type and levels is a hallmark of myriad evolutionary radiations, and biologists have long been fascinated by the factors that promote and maintain variation in coloration across populations. Here, we provide insights into the genetic basis of complex and continuous patterns of colour variation in cichlid fishes, which offer a vast diversity of pigmentation patterns that have evolved in response to both natural and sexual selection. Specifically, we crossed two divergent cichlid species to generate an F2 mapping population that exhibited extensive variation in pigmentation levels and patterns. Our experimental design is robust in that it combines traditional quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis with population genomics, which has allowed us to move efficiently from QTL interval to candidate gene. In total, we detected 41 QTL and 13 epistatic interactions that underlie melanocyte- and xanthophore-based coloration across the fins and flanks of these fishes. We also identified 2 QTL and 1 interaction for variation in the magnitude of integration among these colour traits. This finding in particular is notable as there are marked differences both within and between species with respect to the complexity of pigmentation patterns. While certain individuals are characterized by more uniform ‘integrated’ colour patterns, others exhibit many more degrees of freedom with respect to the distribution of colour ‘modules’ across the fins and flank. Our data reveal, for the first time, a genetic basis for this difference. Finally, we implicate pax3a as a mediator of continuous variation in the levels of xanthophore-based colour along the cichlid flank. PMID:25156298

Albertson, R. Craig; Powder, Kara E.; Hu, Yinan; Coyle, Kaitlin P.; Roberts, Reade B.; Parsons, Kevin J.

2014-01-01

98

Genetic basis of continuous variation in the levels and modular inheritance of pigmentation in cichlid fishes.  

PubMed

Variation in pigmentation type and levels is a hallmark of myriad evolutionary radiations, and biologists have long been fascinated by the factors that promote and maintain variation in coloration across populations. Here, we provide insights into the genetic basis of complex and continuous patterns of colour variation in cichlid fishes, which offer a vast diversity of pigmentation patterns that have evolved in response to both natural and sexual selection. Specifically, we crossed two divergent cichlid species to generate an F2 mapping population that exhibited extensive variation in pigmentation levels and patterns. Our experimental design is robust in that it combines traditional quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis with population genomics, which has allowed us to move efficiently from QTL interval to candidate gene. In total, we detected 41 QTL and 13 epistatic interactions that underlie melanocyte- and xanthophore-based coloration across the fins and flanks of these fishes. We also identified 2 QTL and 1 interaction for variation in the magnitude of integration among these colour traits. This finding in particular is notable as there are marked differences both within and between species with respect to the complexity of pigmentation patterns. While certain individuals are characterized by more uniform 'integrated' colour patterns, others exhibit many more degrees of freedom with respect to the distribution of colour 'modules' across the fins and flank. Our data reveal, for the first time, a genetic basis for this difference. Finally, we implicate pax3a as a mediator of continuous variation in the levels of xanthophore-based colour along the cichlid flank. PMID:25156298

Albertson, R Craig; Powder, Kara E; Hu, Yinan; Coyle, Kaitlin P; Roberts, Reade B; Parsons, Kevin J

2014-11-01

99

The Effect of L-Carnitine Treatment on Levels of Malondialdehyde and Glutathione in Patients with Age Related Macular Degeneration  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant properties of the L-carnitine (LC) in the treatment of patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Materials and Methods: This study involved 60 patients diagnosed with early AMD. The patients were divided into two groups. Group I was the study group that received LC supplementation for 3 months. Group II was the control group and did not consent to LC supplementation over the 3 months. At the end of the 3-month period, markers of lipid peroxidation, malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were measured in the two groups. Results: In the study group, the MDA level was significantly reduced, while the GSH level was significantly increased at the end of the 3-month period (P<0.001). Conclusion: Our results suggest that LC may protect against oxidative damage by decreasing the MDA level, a marker of lipid peroxidation, and increasing GSH.

Ates, Orhan; Alp, H. Hakan; Mumcu, Ugur; Azizi, Sedat; Cinici, Emine; Kiziltunc, Ahmet; Baykal, Orhan

2008-01-01

100

VITREAL LEVELS OF ERYTHROPOIETIN ARE INCREASED IN PATIENTS WITH RETINAL VEIN OCCLUSION AND CORRELATE WITH VITREAL VEGF AND THE EXTENT OF MACULAR EDEMA  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study compares vitreal levels of erythropoietin (EPO) in patients with retinal vein occlusion (RVO) with control subjects. In addition, it investigates different RVO disease parameters (time of vein occlusion, patient age, vitreal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels, and extent of central macular edema) for possible correlations with vitreal EPO levels. Methods Serum and vitreal EPO were measured from 6 patients with branch retinal vein occlusion, 6 patients with central retinal vein occlusion, and 12 control subjects (10 macular puckers and 2 macular holes). Results Serum EPO levels (9.8 ± 4.9 mU/mL) did not differ between the RVO and control groups and were significantly lower than vitreal EPO levels in all groups. Vitreal EPO was elevated both in branch RVO (91 ± 59 mU/mL) and central RVO (182 ± 70 mU/mL) compared with controls (35 ± 24 mU/mL). Increased vitreal EPO correlated with higher vitreal VEGF (r = 0.64, P = 0.0008) and more pronounced central macular edema (r = 0.66, P = 0.001). Conclusion The results from this study indicate that EPO is locally expressed in the retina and that it is upregulated together with VEGF in RVO eyes. Because of its role both in neuroprotection and angiogenesis, ocular EPO might represent an interesting target to investigate in patients with RVO, especially in light of the current anti-VEGF treatments. PMID:20664492

STAHL, ANDREAS; BUCHWALD, ARMIN; MARTIN, GOTTFRIED; JUNKER, BERND; CHEN, JING; HANSEN, LUTZ L.; AGOSTINI, HANSJURGEN T.; SMITH, LOIS E. H.; FELTGEN, NICOLAS

2014-01-01

101

Macular lutein and zeaxanthin are related to brain lutein and zeaxanthin in primates  

PubMed Central

Objectives Xanthophyll pigments lutein and zeaxanthin cross the blood-retina barrier to preferentially accumulate in the macular region of the neural retina. There they form macular pigment, protecting the retina from blue light damage and oxidative stress. Lutein and zeaxanthin also accumulate in brain tissue. The objective of the study was to evaluate the relationship between retinal and brain levels of these xanthophylls in non-human primates. Methods Study animals included rhesus monkeys reared on diets devoid of xanthophylls that were subsequently fed pure lutein or pure zeaxanthin (both at 3.9 ?mol/kg*d, n=6/group) and normal rhesus monkeys fed a stock diet (0.26 ?mol/kg*d lutein and 0.24 ?mol/kg*d zeaxanthin, n=5). Retina (4 mm macular punch, 4-8 mm annulus and periphery) and brain tissue (cerebellum, frontal cortex, occipital cortex and pons) from the same animals were analyzed by reverse phase HPLC. Results Lutein in the macula and annulus were significantly related to lutein levels in the cerebellum, occipital cortex and pons, both in bivariate analysis and after adjusting for age, sex and n–3 fatty acid status. In the frontal cortex the relationship was marginally significant. Macular zeaxanthin was significantly related to zeaxanthin in the cerebellum and frontal cortex, while the relationship was marginally significant in the occipital cortex and pons in a bivariate model. Discussion An integrated measure of total macular pigment optical density, which can be measured noninvasively, has the potential to be used as a biomarker to assess brain lutein and zeaxanthin status. PMID:22780947

Vishwanathan, Rohini; Neuringer, Martha; Snodderly, D. Max; Schalch, Wolfgang; Johnson, Elizabeth J.

2013-01-01

102

Macular lutein and zeaxanthin are related to brain lutein and zeaxanthin in primates  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The xanthophyll pigments lutein and zeaxanthin cross the blood-retina barrier to preferentially accumulate in the macular region of the neural retina. There they form macular pigment, protecting the retina from blue light damage and oxidative stress. Lutein and zeaxanthin also accumulate in brain t...

103

Correlation of Vitamin D Levels with Pigmentation in Vitiligo Patients Treated with NBUVB Therapy.  

PubMed

Cholecalciferol (vitamin D) might play a physiological role in photo-induced melanogenesis in human skin. We estimated the levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] before, during, and after Narrow Band Ultraviolet B (NBUVB) radiation in patients of vitiligo and their correlation with NBUVB induced pigmentation. Thirty patients of vitiligo and equal number of age and sex matched controls were recruited for the study. Vitiligo patients were treated with NBUVB thrice weekly for 12 weeks. [25(OH)D] levels and Vitiligo Area and Severity Index (VASI) were calculated at 0 (baseline), 6, and 12 weeks. Baseline [25(OH)D] levels were measured in controls. Significant reduction in VASI score was observed after 12 weeks of therapy. Comparison and correlation between mean improvement in VASI and [25(OH)D] levels at 12 weeks showed moderate correlation, and the results were statistically insignificant. Mean reduction in VASI and increase in [25(OH)D] levels after 12 weeks of NBUVB showed moderate correlation. Thus, vitamin D might play a significant role in photo-induced melanogenesis. However, there might be additional effects of the phototherapy on melanogenesis. The complete mechanism of NBUVB induced pigmentation in vitiligo needs to be elucidated. PMID:25006488

Sehrawat, Manu; Arora, Tarlok Chand; Chauhan, Amrita; Kar, Hemanta Kumar; Poonia, Amitabh; Jairath, Vijayeeta

2014-01-01

104

Correlation of Vitamin D Levels with Pigmentation in Vitiligo Patients Treated with NBUVB Therapy  

PubMed Central

Cholecalciferol (vitamin D) might play a physiological role in photo-induced melanogenesis in human skin. We estimated the levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] before, during, and after Narrow Band Ultraviolet B (NBUVB) radiation in patients of vitiligo and their correlation with NBUVB induced pigmentation. Thirty patients of vitiligo and equal number of age and sex matched controls were recruited for the study. Vitiligo patients were treated with NBUVB thrice weekly for 12 weeks. [25(OH)D] levels and Vitiligo Area and Severity Index (VASI) were calculated at 0 (baseline), 6, and 12 weeks. Baseline [25(OH)D] levels were measured in controls. Significant reduction in VASI score was observed after 12 weeks of therapy. Comparison and correlation between mean improvement in VASI and [25(OH)D] levels at 12 weeks showed moderate correlation, and the results were statistically insignificant. Mean reduction in VASI and increase in [25(OH)D] levels after 12 weeks of NBUVB showed moderate correlation. Thus, vitamin D might play a significant role in photo-induced melanogenesis. However, there might be additional effects of the phototherapy on melanogenesis. The complete mechanism of NBUVB induced pigmentation in vitiligo needs to be elucidated. PMID:25006488

Sehrawat, Manu; Arora, Tarlok Chand; Chauhan, Amrita; Kar, Hemanta Kumar; Poonia, Amitabh; Jairath, Vijayeeta

2014-01-01

105

Macular Degeneration  

MedlinePLUS

... macular degeneration (AMD), is a leading cause of vision loss in Americans 60 and older. It is a disease that destroys your sharp, central vision. You need central vision to see objects clearly ...

106

Effect of dietary zinc level on serum carotenoid levels, body and shank pigmentation of chickens after experimental infection with coccidia.  

PubMed

Two experiments were conducted to test the effects of a dietary zinc amino acid complex (Zn-AA) and an anticoccidial drug on Eimeria acervulina or Eimeria tenella infections. In each experiment, 288 day-old Three-Yellow-Chickens were used in a 2 x 3 factorial experimental design. Six groups were arranged randomly to receive three levels of Zn-AA (0, 40, or 80 mg/kg) alone or with salinomycin (60 mg/kg). Additionally an uninfected group was set as negative control. At the age of 21 days birds in Exp. 1 were inoculated with 3 x 10(4) sporulated E. acervulina oocysts, while birds in Exp. 2 were inoculated with 1.5 x 10(4) sporulated E. tenella oocysts. In Exp. 1, E. acervulina did not suppress growth performance significantly, but in groups without salinomycin it significantly reduced serum carotenoid levels on day 7 after inoculation and body and shank pigmentation on day 42. Salinomycin medication maintained serum carotenoids and visual colour of inoculated birds, but Zn-AA did not influence these parameters. In Exp. 2, growth performances of infected and uninfected chickens were similar. Infection decreased to only serum carotenoid levels on day 14 after infection, and colour scores on day 42 in the inoculated group without salinomycin and Zn-AA supplementation. The birds that received Zn-AA had significantly higher serum carotenoid levels and colour scores than those that did not. Although supplementation of Zn-AA cannot avoid coccidial damage of caecum, it prevents the reduction of serum carotenoids and pigmentation of Three-Yellow-Chicken infected with E. tenella, but not after infection with E. avervulina. The interactive effects between Zn-AA and salinomycin on growth performance and pigmentation were not significant. PMID:16736856

Zhao, Jian; Guo, Yuming; Suo, Xun; Yuan, Jianmin

2006-06-01

107

Relation Between the Incidence and Level of Pigment Cell Antibodies and Disease Activity in Vitiligo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with vitiligo often have antibodies to pigment cells. To examine whether is relation between the presence of such antibodies and disease activity, sera of 24 patients with vitiligo (10 with active and 14 with inactive disease) and 19 normal individual were tested for antibodies to pigment cell surface antigens using a live cell enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay. IgG pigment cell

Ronald Harning; Jian Cui; Jean-Claude Bystryn

1991-01-01

108

Acral PUVA--induced pigmented macules.  

PubMed

This report describes four patients with chronic psoriasiform dermatitis of the palms and soles who developed pigmented macular lesions after localized photochemotherapy (PUVA) to these areas. These lesions had varied histopathologic presentations including lentigines, atypical melanocytic proliferation and a junction nevus suggesting a wide clinico pathologic spectrum in the PUVA-induced pigmented macules. PMID:2080960

Cruz, A; Sánchez, J L

1990-10-01

109

Ageing and degeneration in the macular region: a clinico-pathological study.  

PubMed Central

Clinical and pathological examination was performed on 378 eyes from 216 patients aged 43 to 97 years. This series represented eyes in which the fundi were normal or showed various manifestations of senile macular degeneration. The eyes were divided into six groups according to the histological appearance of a linear deposit at the base of the retinal pigment cells. Groups I and II were considered to represent normal ageing, Groups III and IV the progressive development of senile macular degeneration and Groups V and VI the end-results. Group I showed no basal linear deposit. Thickening and hyalinization of Bruch's membrane was noted as early as the fifth decade. Group II showed patchy development of the basal linear deposit in relation to thickened or basophilic segments of Bruch's membrane, or over intercapillary hyalinization extending to the level of the outer surface of the choriocapillaris. Almost all eyes in these two groups retained a normal fundus appearance but visual acuity declined with age even in the absence of other causes. In Group III the basal deposit formed a thin continuous layer associated with moderate degeneration of the retinal pigment epithelium. More than half the eyes had developed a clinical disturbance of pigmentation and in most vision was reduced. Group IV was characterized by thickening of the deposit and more pronounced disturbance of the pigment epithelium. Clinically most eyes showed coarse pigmentary changes and vision was in the order of 6/24. 14-3 per cent of eyes in this group showed early neovascularization from the choroid. In Group V the pigment epithelium disappeared to produce circumscribed areas of depigmentation. The basal linear deposit could be traced throughout the depigmented area in most eyes. Thin fibrovascular sheets were found beneath the pigment epithelium in 41-7 per cent of eyes. Group VI represented disciform degeneration. The basal linear deposit could often be demonstrated as a disrupted hyalinized layer incorporated into the scar. Disciform degeneration was an alternative end-result to geographical atrophy. In each group the clinical and histological findings may be modified by the presence of drusen or by atrophy of the choroid. The basal linear deposit consisted of banded fibres embedded in granular material lying between the plasma infoldings and the basement membrane of the retinal pigment epithelium. This deposit seems to be a manifestation of gradual failure of the pigment epithelium and proved to be the most suitable criterion by which to study the natural history of senile macular degeneration. Images PMID:952802

Sarks, S H

1976-01-01

110

Multi-Level Communication of Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells via Tunneling Nanotubes  

PubMed Central

Background Tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) may offer a very specific and effective way of intercellular communication. Here we investigated TNTs in the human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell line ARPE-19. Morphology of TNTs was examined by immunostaining and scanning electron microscopy. To determine the function of TNTs between cells, we studied the TNT-dependent intercellular communication at different levels including electrical and calcium signalling, small molecular diffusion as well as mitochondrial re-localization. Further, intercellular organelles transfer was assayed by FACS analysis. Methodology and Principal Findings Microscopy showed that cultured ARPE-19 cells are frequently connected by TNTs, which are not attached to the substratum. The TNTs were straight connections between cells, had a typical diameter of 50 to 300 nm and a length of up to 120 µm. We observed de novo formation of TNTs by diverging from migrating cells after a short time of interaction. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed characteristic features of TNTs. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that TNTs between ARPE-19 cells contain F-actin but no microtubules. Depolymerisation of F-actin, induced by addition of latrunculin-B, led to disappearance of TNTs. Importantly, these TNTs could function as channels for the diffusion of small molecules such as Lucifer Yellow, but not for large molecules like Dextran Red. Further, organelle exchange between cells via TNTs was observed by microscopy. Using Ca2+ imaging we show the intercellular transmission of calcium signals through TNTs. Mechanical stimulation led to membrane depolarisation, which expand through TNT connections between ARPE-19 cells. We further demonstrate that TNTs can mediate electrical coupling between distant cells. Immunolabelling for Cx43 showed that this gap junction protein is interposed at one end of 44% of TNTs between ARPE-19 cells. Conclusions and Significance Our observations indicate that human RPE cell line ARPE-19 cells communicate by tunneling nanotubes and can support different types of intercellular traffic. PMID:22457742

Wittig, Dierk; Wang, Xiang; Walter, Cindy; Gerdes, Hans-Hermann; Funk, Richard H. W.; Roehlecke, Cora

2012-01-01

111

Pathophysiology of Macular Edema  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macular edema is defined as an accumulation of fluid in the outer plexiform layer and the inner nuclear layer as well as a swelling of Müller cells of the retina. It consists of a localized expansion of the retinal extracellular space (sometimes associated with the intracellular space) in the macular area. Macular edema is a common cause of a sudden

Stefan Scholl; Janna Kirchhof; Albert J. Augustin

2010-01-01

112

Macular lymphocytic arteritis: first clinical presentation with ulcers.  

PubMed

Macular lymphocytic arteritis describes a recently reported entity, clinically characterized by asymptomatic hyperpigmented macules on the lower limbs, without association of systemic diseases. Histopathologically it is characterized by a lymphocytic arteritis with a hyalinized fibrin ring. We report a new case presenting with ulceration, a finding not previously described. A 25-year-old Hispanic woman was evaluated for a 1-year history of a gradually progressive, asymptomatic eruption that begins at level of both knees and progressively affects both legs and feet. She also referred recently appeared ulcers on inner right ankle without previous traumatism. Physical examination revealed multiple fairly well-defined light brown and faint pink patches with petechiae on as well as retiform crusts and livedoid lesions on inner right ankle. Both types of lesions were biopsied showing lymphocytic arteritis with fibrinoid necrosis and thrombus. There were no relevant laboratory alterations. The clinical peculiarity of our case is the clinical image of the lesions mimicking a pigmented purpuric dermatosis and the presence of a non-traumatic ulcer which could be explained because chronic lymphocytic damage may cause ischemic damage. Ulceration in our case supports consideration of macular arteritis as a latent form of cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa. PMID:23384039

Llamas-Velasco, M; García-Martín, P; Sánchez-Pérez, J; Sotomayor, E; Fraga, J; García-Diez, A

2013-04-01

113

Fundus autofluorescence imaging in age-related macular degeneration.  

PubMed

Abstract Fundus autofluorescence (FAF) is a noninvasive imaging technology that provides information on the distribution of lipofuscin within the retinal pigment epithelial cells. Progressive accumulation of lipofuscin within retinal pigment epithelial cells is involved in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Fundus autofluorescence imaging using a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope is a useful technique to identify high-risk characteristics in patients with nonexudative AMD. It gives also some valuable knowledge and clues in differantial diagnosis of exudative age-related macular degeneration. This review comprises an introduction to fundus autofluorescence, a review of FAF imaging in AMD, and the recent classification of geographic atrophy (GA) and early AMD phenotypes by the Fundus Autofluorescence in Age-related Macular Degeneration Study. The association of phenotype and atrophy progression and choroidal neovascularization development are also summarized. PMID:23952079

Bat?o?lu, Figen; Demirel, Sibel; Ozmert, Emin

2015-01-01

114

Pigmented compositions  

SciTech Connect

Poly(arylene sulfide) compositions are pigmented with black carbonaceous pigments selected from at least one of finely divided bituminous coal, carbonized rice hulls, bone blacks, and micropulverized petroleum coke in an amount sufficient to provide the black pigmentation desired with little or no deleterious effect on the mechanical propertiers such as flexural and tensile strengths of the resin.

Blackwell Jr., J. P.

1984-10-09

115

Resonance Raman measurement of macular carotenoids in the living human eye  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing evidence that high levels of the macular xanthophyll carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin may be protective against visual loss from age-related macular degeneration. To study this protective effect further, it is important to measure macular carotenoid levels noninvasively in a wide variety of subjects. We have developed and validated resonance Raman spectroscopy as a sensitive and specific objective

Paul S. Bernstein; Da-You Zhao; Mohsen Sharifzadeh; Igor V. Ermakov; Werner Gellermann

2004-01-01

116

Plasma and macular responses to lutein supplement in subjects with and without age-related maculopathy: a pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a growing body of evidence which suggests that macular pigment (MP), which is entirely of dietary origin, protects against age-related maculopathy. We evaluated the effect of a daily 20 mg lutein ester (equivalent of 10 mg\\/day free lutein) supplement in patients with early age-related maculopathy (ARM), in terms of macular pigment optical density (MPOD) and plasma concentrations of

Hui-Hiang Koh; Ian J. Murray; Daniel Nolan; Dave Carden; Jim Feather; Stephen Beatty

2004-01-01

117

Functional annotation of the human retinal pigment epithelium transcriptome  

PubMed Central

Background To determine level, variability and functional annotation of gene expression of the human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), the key tissue involved in retinal diseases like age-related macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa. Macular RPE cells from six selected healthy human donor eyes (aged 63–78 years) were laser dissected and used for 22k microarray studies (Agilent technologies). Data were analyzed with Rosetta Resolver, the web tool DAVID and Ingenuity software. Results In total, we identified 19,746 array entries with significant expression in the RPE. Gene expression was analyzed according to expression levels, interindividual variability and functionality. A group of highly (n = 2,194) expressed RPE genes showed an overrepresentation of genes of the oxidative phosphorylation, ATP synthesis and ribosome pathways. In the group of moderately expressed genes (n = 8,776) genes of the phosphatidylinositol signaling system and aminosugars metabolism were overrepresented. As expected, the top 10 percent (n = 2,194) of genes with the highest interindividual differences in expression showed functional overrepresentation of the complement cascade, essential in inflammation in age-related macular degeneration, and other signaling pathways. Surprisingly, this same category also includes the genes involved in Bruch's membrane (BM) composition. Among the top 10 percent of genes with low interindividual differences, there was an overrepresentation of genes involved in local glycosaminoglycan turnover. Conclusion Our study expands current knowledge of the RPE transcriptome by assigning new genes, and adding data about expression level and interindividual variation. Functional annotation suggests that the RPE has high levels of protein synthesis, strong energy demands, and is exposed to high levels of oxidative stress and a variable degree of inflammation. Our data sheds new light on the molecular composition of BM, adjacent to the RPE, and is useful for candidate retinal disease gene identification or gene dose-dependent therapeutic studies. PMID:19379482

Booij, Judith C; van Soest, Simone; Swagemakers, Sigrid MA; Essing, Anke HW; Verkerk, Annemieke JMH; van der Spek, Peter J; Gorgels, Theo GMF; Bergen, Arthur AB

2009-01-01

118

Carotenoid accumulation in orange-pigmented Capsicum annuum fruit, regulated at multiple levels  

PubMed Central

The pericarp of Capsicum fruit is a rich dietary source of carotenoids. Accumulation of these compounds may be controlled, in part, by gene transcription of biosynthetic enzymes. The carotenoid composition in a number of orange-coloured C. annuum cultivars was determined using HPLC and compared with transcript abundances for four carotenogenic enzymes, Psy, LcyB, CrtZ-2, and Ccs determined by qRT-PCR. There were unique carotenoid profiles as well as distinct patterns of transcription of carotenogenic enzymes within the seven orange-coloured cultivars. In one cultivar, ‘Fogo’, carrying the mutant ccs-3 allele, transcripts were detected for this gene, but no CCS protein accumulated. The premature stop termination in ccs-3 prevented expression of the biosynthetic activity to synthesize the capsanthin and capsorubin forms of carotenoids. In two other orange-coloured cultivars, ‘Orange Grande’ and ‘Oriole’, both with wild-type versions of all four carotenogenic enzymes, no transcripts for Ccs were detected and no red pigments accumulated. Finally, in a third case, the orange-coloured cultivar, Canary, transcripts for all four of the wild-type carotenogenic enzymes were readily detected yet no CCS protein appeared to accumulate and no red carotenoids were synthesized. In the past, mutations in Psy and Ccs have been identified as the loci controlling colour in the fruit. Now there is evidence that a non-structural gene may control colour development in Capsicum. PMID:21948863

Rodriguez-Uribe, Laura; Guzman, Ivette; Rajapakse, Wathsala; Richins, Richard D.; O’Connell, Mary A.

2012-01-01

119

Dependence of Photosynthetic Capacity, Photosynthetic Pigment Allocation, and Carbon Storage on Nitrogen Levels in Foliage of Aspen Stands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The role of foliar nitrogen (N) in the seasonal dynamics and vertical canopy distribution of photosynthetic pigments, photosynthetic capacity, and carbon (C) storage was investigated in boreal broadleaved species. The study was conducted at two different aged stands (60 y and 15 y) in 1994 and 1996 in Saskatchewan, Canada as part of the Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS). Foliage in upper and lower strata was examined for aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) and its associated hazelnut shrub (Corylus americana Walt.). We determined that C accumulation, expressed as dry mass per unit leaf area (mg C cm (exp -2)), was linearly dependent on N content (approximately 0.3- 3.5 mg N cm (exp -2))(r (exp 2) = 0.93, n=383, P less than 0.001) when eleven foliage groups were defined according to species, site, and developmental stage. C assembly was greatest in the upper aspen strata of both sites (seasonal average, 40.1 plus or minus 0.6 mg C cm (exp -2)), intermediate in the lower aspen strata (32.7 plus or minus 0.6), and considerably lower, and similar, in the hazelnut shrub layers (23.7 plus or minus 0.6) and in expanding aspen leaves (23.8 plus or minus 0.5); the lowest C assembly per unit N occurred in the two youngest, emerging leaf groups (17.1 plus or minus 0.6). Other relationships among physiological and biochemical variables were typically non-linear and were confounded by inclusion of the three groups of young (i.e., emerging or expanding) leaves, unless these were separately identified. Net C uptake, measured as photosynthetic capacity (A (sub max), micromole CO2 m (exp -2) s (exp -1)), was greater in aspen throughout the season, and optimal in mid-summer at a C:N ratio of approximately 18 (approximately 2.3 %N). When young leaves were excluded and logarithms of both variables were used, A (sub max) was approximately linearly dependent on N (mg N cm (exp-2) (r (exp 2) = 0.85, n= 193, P less than 0.001), attributed to incorporation of N into photosynthetic complexes and enzymes. In mature leaves, differences in pigment content vs. N among canopy strata were accentuated when N was expressed per unit leaf area (Mg cm (exp -2)) . However, the simplest log-linear relationship between a pigment variable and N was obtained for a ratio describing the relative allocation of photosynthetic pigment to Chl a (Chl a/[Chl b + carotenoids], microgram cm (exp -2)/ microgram cm-2) vs. %N (r (exp 2) = 0.90, n=343, P less than 0.001). Attainment of comparable A (sub max) Chl a content and relative Chl a allocation per unit N (mg cm (exp -2)) was achieved at different foliar N levels per canopy group: the lowest N requirement was for hazelnut leaves in the lowest, shaded stratum at the older, closed canopy site; the highest N requirement was in aspen leaves of the upper-most stratum at the younger, more open canopy site. These results highlight the differences in physiological responses between young and fully expanded leaves and show that sustaining those foliar constituents and processes important to C balance may require higher foliar N levels in leaves of establishing vs. mature aspen stands. There may be implications for remote-sensing assessments made for carbon balance in springtime, or over a landscape mosaic comprised of different aged stands.

Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Sullivan, Joseph H.; Papagno, Andrea J.

2000-01-01

120

Blood expression levels of chemokine receptor CCR3 and chemokine CCL11 in age-related macular degeneration: a case–control study  

PubMed Central

Background Dysregulation of the CCR3/CCL11 pathway has been implicated in the pathogenesis of choroidal neovascularisation, a common feature of late age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of CCR3 and its ligand CCL11 in peripheral blood in patients with neovascular AMD. Methods Patients with neovascular AMD and healthy controls were included. Blood samples were obtained and prepared for flow cytometry to investigate the expression of CCR3. Levels of CCL11 were measured in plasma using Cytometric Bead Array. Differences between the groups were tested using Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann–Whitney U test. Results Patients (n?=?83) with neovascular AMD and healthy control persons (n?=?114) were included in the study. No significant difference in the expression of CCR3 was found on CD9+ granulocytes when comparing patients suffering from neovascular AMD with any of the control groups. We did not find any alteration in CCL11 levels in patients among the age matched groups. There was no correlation between expression of CCR3/CCL11 and clinical response to treatment with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Conclusion Our results do not suggest a systemic alteration of the CCR3/CCL11 receptor/ligand complex in patients with neovascular AMD. PMID:24575855

2014-01-01

121

A multidisciplinary study of the extracutaneous pigment system of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.). A possible relationship between kidney disease and dopa oxidase activity level.  

PubMed

Infectious diseases and breeding conditions can influence fish health status. Furthermore it is well known that human and animal health are strongly correlated. In lower vertebrates melano-macrophage centres, clusters of pigment-containing cells forming the extracutaneous pigment system, are widespread in the stroma of the haemopoietic tissue, mainly in kidney and spleen. In fishes, melano-macrophage centres play an important role in the immune response against antigenic stimulants and pathogens. Hence, they are employed as biomarker of fish health status. We have investigated this cell system in the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) following the enzyme activities involved in melanin biosynthesis. We have found a possible relationship between kidney disease of farmed fishes and dopa oxidase activity level, suggesting it as an indicator of kidney disease. Moreover variations of dopa oxidase activity in extracutaneous pigment system have been observed with respect to environmental temperature. At last, for the first time, using femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy (Femto-TA), we pointed out that pigment-containing cells of fish kidney tissue present melanin pigments. PMID:25449383

Arciuli, Marcella; Brunetti, Adalberto; Fiocco, Daniela; Zacchino, Valentina; Centoducati, Gerardo; Aloi, Antonio; Tommasi, Raffaele; Santeramo, Arcangela; De Nitto, Emanuele; Gallone, Anna

2015-01-01

122

The Impact of Macular Laser Photocoagulation on Contrast Sensitivity Function in Patients with Clinically Significant Macular Edema  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Contrast sensitivity is an important aspect of visual function and is even more important for ordinary daily tasks than visual acuity. Contrast sensitivity function may be deteriorated to a significant level in diabetic retinopathy, especially in diabetic macular edema. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of macular laser photocoagulation—as the standard treatment of clinically significant

Mohammad-Sadegh Farahvash; Amir-Hossein Mahmoudi; Mohammad-Mehdi Farahvash; Ali Tabatabaee; Mohammad Riazi; Shiva Mohammadzadeh; Houshang Faghihi; Mehdi Nilli-Ahmadabadi; Ahmad Mirshahi; Reza Karkhaneh; Zahra Aalami-Harandi; Ahmad Javadian; Ali Abdolahi; Alireza Lashey

2008-01-01

123

High Levels of Pigment Epithelium-derived Factor in Diabetes Impair Wound Healing through Suppression of Wnt Signaling.  

PubMed

Diabetic foot ulcer (DFU), caused by impaired wound healing, is a common vascular complication of diabetes. The present study revealed that plasma levels of pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) were elevated in Type 2 diabetic patients with DFU and in db/db mice. To test whether elevated PEDF levels contributes to skin wound healing delay in diabetes, endogenous PEDF was neutralized with an anti-PEDF antibody in db/db mice. Our results showed that neutralization of PEDF accelerated wound healing, increased angiogenesis in the wound skin, and improved functions and numbers of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in the diabetic mice. Further, PEDF deficient mice showed higher baseline blood flow in the skin, higher density of cutaneous micro-vessels, increased skin thickness, improved circulating numbers and functions of EPCs, and accelerated wound healing, compared to the Wt mice. Over-expression of PEDF suppressed the Wnt signaling pathway in the wound skin. Lithium chloride-induced Wnt signaling activation at downstream of the PEDF-interaction site attenuated the inhibitory effect of PEDF on EPCs and rescued the wound healing deficiency in diabetic mice. Taken together, these results suggest that elevated circulating PEDF levels contribute to impaired wound healing on the process of angiogenesis and vasculogenesis through inhibition of Wnt/?-catenin signaling. PMID:25368097

Qi, Weiwei; Yang, Chuan; Dai, Zhiyu; Che, Di; Feng, Juan; Mao, Yuling; Cheng, Rui; Wang, Zhongxiao; He, Xuemin; Zhou, Ti; Gu, Xiaoqiong; Yan, Li; Yang, Xia; Ma, Jian-Xing; Gao, Guoquan

2014-11-01

124

Age-related macular degeneration-associated variants at chromosome 10q26 do not significantly alter ARMS2 and HTRA1 transcript levels in the human retina  

PubMed Central

Purpose Multiple studies demonstrate a strong association between three variants at chromosome 10q26 – rs10490924, del443ins54, and rs11200638 – near the age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 (ARMS2) and high-temperature requirement factor A1 (HTRA1) genes with susceptibility to age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In different reports, the del443ins54 and rs11200638 variants are suggested to affect ARMS2 mRNA stability and/or HTRA1 mRNA expression, respectively. The goal of this study is to examine whether these AMD-associated variants alter expression levels of ARMS2 and HTRA1 in human retina samples. Methods Genomic DNA and total RNA were obtained from 35 human retinas (three young controls, average age=32 years; twenty aged controls, average age=72 years; and twelve AMD retinas, average age=77 years) using standard procedures. As ARMS2 exhibits higher expression in the human placenta, we also included eighteen placenta samples in our analysis. Four polymorphisms – rs2736911, rs10490924, del443ins54, and rs11200638 – were genotyped by PCR followed by sequencing. Expression of ARMS2, HTRA1 and three endogenous control genes (rRNA [rRNA], hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase 1 [HPRT1], and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase [GAPDH]) was measured by real-time quantitative RT–PCR using Taqman gene expression or SYBR Green assays. Results ARMS2 and HTRA1 mRNA levels did not show a significant difference in expression among the control (young and elderly) and AMD retinas. No association of del443ins54 and rs11200638 variants was detected with mRNA expression levels of ARMS2 or HTRA1 in the retina. Human placenta samples showed high variability in expression levels. Conclusions We did not find association between AMD susceptibility variants at 10q26 and steady-state expression levels of either ARMS2 or HTRA1 in the human retina. PMID:20664794

Kanda, Atsuhiro; Stambolian, Dwight; Chen, Wei; Curcio, Christine A.; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.

2010-01-01

125

Disruption of ceruloplasmin and hephaestin in mice causes retinal iron overload and retinal degeneration with features of age-related macular degeneration  

PubMed Central

Mechanisms of brain and retinal iron homeostasis have become subjects of increased interest after the discovery of elevated iron levels in brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease and retinas of patients with age-related macular degeneration. To determine whether the ferroxidase ceruloplasmin (Cp) and its homolog hephaestin (Heph) are important for retinal iron homeostasis, we studied retinas from mice deficient in Cp and/or Heph. In normal mice, Cp and Heph localize to Müller glia and retinal pigment epithelium, a blood–brain barrier. Mice deficient in both Cp and Heph, but not each individually, had a striking, age-dependent increase in retinal pigment epithelium and retinal iron. The iron storage protein ferritin was also increased in Cp–/–Heph–/Y retinas. After retinal iron levels had increased, Cp–/–Heph–/Y mice had age-dependent retinal pigment epithelium hypertrophy, hyperplasia and death, photoreceptor degeneration, and subretinal neovascularization, providing a model of some features of the human retinal diseases aceruloplasminemia and age-related macular degeneration. This pathology indicates that Cp and Heph are critical for CNS iron homeostasis and that loss of Cp and Heph in the mouse leads to age-dependent retinal neurodegeneration, providing a model that can be used to test the therapeutic efficacy of iron chelators and antiangiogenic agents. PMID:15365174

Hahn, Paul; Qian, Ying; Dentchev, Tzvete; Chen, Lin; Beard, John; Harris, Zena Leah; Dunaief, Joshua L.

2004-01-01

126

Delayed Macular Hole Closure  

PubMed Central

Purpose The presented case raises questions regarding the favorable scheduling of planned postoperative care and the ideal observation interval to decide for reoperations in macular hole surgery. Furthermore a discussion about the use of short- and long-acting gas tamponades in macular hole surgery is encouraged. Methods We present an interventional case report and a short review of the pertinent literature. Results We report a case of spontaneous delayed macular hole closure after vitreoretinal surgery had been performed initially without the expected success. A 73-year-old male Caucasian patient presented at our clinic with a stage 2 macular hole in his left eye. He underwent 23-gauge pars plana vitrectomy and internal limiting membrane peeling with a 20% C2F6-gas tamponade. Sixteen days after the procedure, an OCT scan revealed a persistent stage 2 macular hole, and the patient was scheduled for reoperation. Surprisingly, at the date of planned surgery, which was another 11 days later, the macular hole had resolved spontaneously without any further intervention. Conclusions So far no common opinion exists regarding the use of short- or long-acting gas in macular hole surgery. Our case of delayed macular hole closure after complete resorption of the gas tamponade raises questions about the need and duration of strict prone positioning after surgery. Furthermore short-acting gas might be as efficient as long-acting gas. We suggest to wait with a second intervention at least 4 weeks after the initial surgery, since a delayed macular hole closure is possible. PMID:24847257

Distelmaier, Peter; Meyer, Linda M.; Fischer, Marie T.; Philipp, Sebastian; Paquet, Patrick; Mammen, Antje; Haller, Katharina; Schönfeld, Carl-Ludwig

2014-01-01

127

Posttraumatic Giant Macular Hole  

PubMed Central

Introduction Large macular holes secondary to blunt trauma are sometimes seen in young patients within the spectrum of alterations produced by ocular trauma. Methods Observational case report. A 32-year-old woman who had received a blunt trauma (a blow from a fist) to her right eye 10 years previously had experienced a decrease in visual acuity ever since. Results Clinical photographs, fluorescein angiography and optic coherent tomography images revealed a very large macular hole of approximately 1,920 ?m in diameter. Conclusion This case is an uncommonly large variant of a macular hole secondary to blunt trauma in a young patient. PMID:21941507

Hernandez-Da Mota, Sergio E.

2011-01-01

128

FOOD LEVEL IN RELATION TO RATE OF DEVELOPMENT AND EYE PIGMENTATION IN DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beadle and Law (1938) have shown that the eye color hormones concerned in the differentiation of vermilion and cinmibar eye colors in Drosophila melanogaster are effective when administered with larval food. In attempting to develop a standardized method of feeding these hormones quantitatively, it became evident that information was needed on the relation between food-level and rate of development (see

G. W. BEADLE; EDWARD L TATUM; C. W. CLANCY

129

Changes in localization and expression levels of Shroom2 and spectrin contribute to variation in amphibian egg pigmentation patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

One contributing factor in the worldwide decline in amphibian populations is thought to be the exposure of eggs to UV light.\\u000a Enrichment of pigment in the animal hemisphere of eggs laid in the sunlight defends against UV damage, but little is known\\u000a about the cell biological mechanisms controlling such polarized pigment patterns. Even less is known about how such mechanisms

Chanjae Lee; Minh-Phuong Le; David Cannatella; John B. Wallingford

2009-01-01

130

X-82 to Treat Age-related Macular Degeneration  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD); Macular Degeneration; Exudative Age-related Macular Degeneration; AMD; Macular Degeneration, Age-related, 10; Eye Diseases; Retinal Degeneration; Retinal Diseases

2015-01-21

131

Serum pigment epithelium-derived factor levels are independently correlated with the presence of coronary artery disease  

PubMed Central

Background Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) has been proved to be closely correlated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components that are all risk factors of cardiovascular disease and may play a protective role against vascular injury and atherosclerosis. The present study was designed to investigate the relationship between serum PEDF and coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods A total of 312 consecutive in-patients (including 228 with CAD and 197 with MetS) who underwent coronary angiography were enrolled. Serum PEDF was measured by sandwich enzyme immunoassay and used to carry out multivariate stepwise regression analysis to assess correlation with patient demographic and clinical parameters. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors independently correlated with CAD. Results Patients with MetS had significantly higher levels of serum PEDF than non-MetS subjects (11.1(8.2, 14.2) vs. 10.1(7.6, 12.4) ?g/mL; P?levels, and serum PEDF was independently positively correlated with CAD. Conclusions Serum PEDF levels are independently positively associated with CAD in a Chinese population. Elevated PEDF may act as a protective response against vascular damage and subsequent CAD. PMID:23547730

2013-01-01

132

Mitochondrial DNA Variants Mediate Energy Production and Expression Levels for CFH, C3 and EFEMP1 Genes: Implications for Age-Related Macular Degeneration  

PubMed Central

Background Mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with the development and progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Recent studies using populations from the United States and Australia have demonstrated that AMD is associated with mitochondrial (mt) DNA haplogroups (as defined by combinations of mtDNA polymorphisms) that represent Northern European Caucasians. The aim of this study was to use the cytoplasmic hybrid (cybrid) model to investigate the molecular and biological functional consequences that occur when comparing the mtDNA H haplogroup (protective for AMD) versus J haplogroup (high risk for AMD). Methodology/Principal Findings Cybrids were created by introducing mitochondria from individuals with either H or J haplogroups into a human retinal epithelial cell line (ARPE-19) that was devoid of mitochondrial DNA (Rho0). In cybrid lines, all of the cells carry the same nuclear genes but vary in mtDNA content. The J cybrids had significantly lower levels of ATP and reactive oxygen/nitrogen species production, but increased lactate levels and rates of growth. Q-PCR analyses showed J cybrids had decreased expressions for CFH, C3, and EFEMP1 genes, high risk genes for AMD, and higher expression for MYO7A, a gene associated with retinal degeneration in Usher type IB syndrome. The H and J cybrids also have comparatively altered expression of nuclear genes involved in pathways for cell signaling, inflammation, and metabolism. Conclusion/Significance Our findings demonstrate that mtDNA haplogroup variants mediate not only energy production and cell growth, but also cell signaling for major molecular pathways. These data support the hypothesis that mtDNA variants play important roles in numerous cellular functions and disease processes, including AMD. PMID:23365660

Kenney, M. Cristina; Chwa, Marilyn; Atilano, Shari R.; Pavlis, Janelle M.; Falatoonzadeh, Payam; Ramirez, Claudio; Malik, Deepika; Hsu, Tiffany; Woo, Grace; Soe, Kyaw; Nesburn, Anthony B.; Boyer, David S.; Kuppermann, Baruch D.; Jazwinski, S. Michal; Miceli, Michael V.; Wallace, Douglas C.; Udar, Nitin

2013-01-01

133

Genetic Variability for Lutein Concentrations in Leafy Vegetable Crops Can Influence Serum Carotenoid Levels and Macular Pigment Optical Density in Human Subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leafy vegetables are important sources of dietary carotenoids and rank highest for reported lutein concentrations. We have shown previously that lutein concentrations can range from 4.8 to 13.4 mg\\/100 g fresh weight (FW) for kale (Brassica oleracea L.), from 6.5 to 13.0 mg\\/100 g FW for spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.), and from 4.1 to 8.3 mg\\/100 g FW for basil

Dean A. Kopsell; D. E. Kopsell; J. Curran-Celentano; A. J. Wenzel

2009-01-01

134

Surgical management of macular holes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The document describes macular hole surgery and examines the available evidence to address questions about the efficacy of the procedure for different stages of macular hole, complications during and after surgery, and modifications to the technique.

William E Benson; Karen C Cruickshanks; Donald S Fong; George A Williams; Michael A Bloome; Donald Allen Frambach; Allan E Kreiger; Robert P Murphy

2001-01-01

135

Serum levels of matrix metalloproteinase 2 and matrix metalloproteinase 9 elevated in polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy but not in age-related macular degeneration  

PubMed Central

Purpose Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) are the leading causes of vision loss in the elderly Asian population. Previous studies have confirmed that abnormal extracellular matrix (ECM) metabolism plays an important role in the pathogenesis of AMD and PCV. However, the dynamic metabolism of the ECM is closely regulated by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue metalloproteinase inhibitors (TIMPs). Whether MMPs and TIMPs participate in the pathogenesis of AMD and PCV remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between circulating MMP and TIMP levels and AMD and PCV. Methods The serum levels of MMPs (MMP1, MMP2, MMP3, and MMP9) and TIMPs (TIMP1 and TIMP3) were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in four groups of subjects (n=342): early AMD (group 1, n=75), neovascular AMD (group 2, n=89), PCV (group 3, n=98), and age- and gender-matched controls (group 4, n=80). Results The mean concentrations of the two gelatinases, MMP2 and MMP9, in the PCV group were significantly higher than that of the control (p=0.001, p<0.001, respectively), early AMD (both p<0.001), and neovascular AMD (p=0.005, p=0.001, respectively) groups. Moreover, the serum MMP2 concentration was positively correlated with the serum MMP9 concentration in the PCV group (r=0.822, p<0.001). However, the mean concentrations of MMP2 and MMP9 in the early AMD and neovascular AMD groups were not significantly different from that of the control group (p>0.05). The mean serum levels of MMP1, MMP3, TIMP1, and TIMP3 were not significantly different among the four groups. Conclusions This pilot study first reveals a link between increased levels of circulating gelatinases (MMP2 and MMP9) and PCV but not AMD, which may provide a biologically relevant marker of ECM metabolism in patients with PCV. This finding suggests that the two disorders may have different molecular mechanisms. PMID:23559867

Zeng, Renpan; Zhang, Xiongze; Su, Yu

2013-01-01

136

[Pseudophakic cystoid macular oedema].  

PubMed

Pseudophakic cystoid macular oedema is still a relevant clinical disease entity although major progress in modern cataract surgery has been made within the last decades. The relevance is attributed to the large number of cases that are performed each year. Even after uneventful surgery, a pseudophakic cystoid macular oedema can develop and may lead to severe and lasting visual impairments. In respect to the pathophysiology, four consecutive steps have to be considered: (i) surgical procedure-related induction and release of various inflammation mediators into the anterior chamber; (ii) removal of the physiological lens barrier between the anterior and posterior segments of the eye, leading consecutively to an increase in diffusion rate in either direction; (iii) local action of the inflammation mediators towards the macular area; and (iv) increased vitreoretinal traction due to the anteriorly oriented drive of the vitreous. To prevent the development of a pseudophakic cystoid macular oedema, systemic and ocular pathologies should be treated consequently prior to surgery. Furthermore, an individual risk profile of each patient needs to be evaluated to define the best pre- and postsurgical medical treatment. A less traumatic surgical approach can help to prevent macular oedema development additionally. The diagnosis is made by performing biomicroscopy, fluorescence angiography and optical coherence tomography as well as by evaluating the patients' major complaints. Standard operation procedures or recommended guidelines by the specialised eye associations to prevent and treat pseudophakic cystoid macular oedema are not available up to date. A synopsis of recommendations in the literature suggests a step-wise treatment regimen, including topical medical treatment on the one hand and a surgical approach on the other hand as well as a combination of both, if needed. Topical medical treatment options include the use of non-steroidal, corticosteroid and/or carbonic anhydrase inhibitor eye drops. Surgical interventions include pars plana vitrectomy. PMID:22422145

Bertelmann, T; Witteborn, M; Mennel, S

2012-08-01

137

Diabetic Macular Edema  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optical coherence tomography (OCT), a noninvasive and noncontact diagnostic method, was introduced in 1995 for imaging macular diseases. In diabetic macular edema (DME), OCT scans show hyporeflectivity, due to intraretinal and/or subretinal fluid accumulation, related to inner and/or outer blood-retinal barrier breakdown. OCT tomograms may also reveal the presence of hard exudates, as hyperreflective spots with a shadow, in the outer retinal layers, among others. In conclusion, OCT is a particularly valuable diagnostic tool in DME, helpful both in the diagnosis and follow-up procedure.

Lobo, Conceição; Pires, Isabel; Cunha-Vaz, José

138

Do Nutritional Supplements Have a Role in Age Macular Degeneration Prevention?  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To review the proposed pathogenic mechanisms of age macular degeneration (AMD), as well as the role of antioxidants (AOX) and omega-3 fatty acids (?-3) supplements in AMD prevention. Materials and Methods. Current knowledge on the cellular/molecular mechanisms of AMD and the epidemiologic/experimental studies on the effects of AOX and ?-3 were addressed all together with the scientific evidence and the personal opinion of professionals involved in the Retina Group of the OFTARED (Spain). Results. High dietary intakes of ?-3 and macular pigments lutein/zeaxanthin are associated with lower risk of prevalence and incidence in AMD. The Age-Related Eye Disease study (AREDS) showed a beneficial effect of high doses of vitamins C, E, beta-carotene, and zinc/copper in reducing the rate of progression to advanced AMD in patients with intermediate AMD or with one-sided late AMD. The AREDS-2 study has shown that lutein and zeaxanthin may substitute beta-carotene because of its potential relationship with increased lung cancer incidence. Conclusion. Research has proved that elder people with poor diets, especially with low AOX and ?-3 micronutrients intake and subsequently having low plasmatic levels, are more prone to developing AMD. Micronutrient supplementation enhances antioxidant defense and healthy eyes and might prevent/retard/modify AMD. PMID:24672708

Pinazo-Durán, Maria D.; Gómez-Ulla, Francisco; Arias, Luis; Araiz, Javier; Casaroli-Marano, Ricardo; Gallego-Pinazo, Roberto; García-Medina, Jose J.; López-Gálvez, Maria Isabel; Manzanas, Lucía; Salas, Anna; Zapata, Miguel; Diaz-Llopis, Manuel; García-Layana, Alfredo

2014-01-01

139

Aging Is Not a Disease: Distinguishing Age-Related Macular Degeneration from Aging  

PubMed Central

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a disease of the outer retina, characterized most significantly by atrophy of photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium accompanied with or without choroidal neovascularization. Development of AMD has been recognized as contingent on environmental and genetic risk factors, the strongest being advanced age. In this review, we highlight pathogenic changes that destabilize ocular homeostasis and promote AMD development. With normal aging, photoreceptors are steadily lost, Bruch's membrane thickens, the choroid thins, and hard drusen may form in the periphery. In AMD, many of these changes are exacerbated in addition to the development of disease-specific factors such as soft macular drusen. Para-inflammation, which can be thought of as an intermediate between basal and robust levels of inflammation, develops within the retina in an attempt to maintain ocular homeostasis, reflected by increased expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 coupled with shifts in macrophage plasticity from the pro-inflammatory M1 to the anti-inflammatory M2 polarization. In AMD, imbalances in the M1 and M2 populations together with activation of retinal microglia are observed and potentially contribute to tissue degeneration. Nonetheless, the retina persists in a state of chronic inflammation and increased expression of certain cytokines and inflammasomes is observed. Since not everyone develops AMD, the vital question to ask is how the body establishes a balance between normal age-related changes and the pathological phenotypes in AMD. PMID:23933169

Ardeljan, Daniel; Chan, Chi-Chao

2013-01-01

140

Prematurely senescent ARPE-19 cells display features of age-related macular degeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The etiology of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of blindness in the developed world, remains poorly understood, but may be related to cumulative oxidative stress. The prime target of the disease is the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE). To study the molecular mechanisms underlying RPE degeneration, we investigated whether repetitive oxidative stress induced premature senescence in RPE cells from

Anne-Lise Glotin; Florence Debacq-Chainiaux; Jean-Yves Brossas; Anne-Marie Faussat; Jacques Tréton; Anna Zubielewicz; Olivier Toussaint; Frédéric Mascarelli

2008-01-01

141

Low-level night-time light therapy for age-related macular degeneration (ALight): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness among older adults in the developed world. The only treatments currently available, such as ranibizumab injections, are for neovascular AMD, which accounts for only 10 to 15% of people with the condition. Hypoxia has been implicated as one of the primary causes of AMD, and is most acute at night when the retina is most metabolically active. By increasing light levels at night, the metabolic requirements of the retina and hence the hypoxia will be considerably reduced. This trial seeks to determine whether wearing a light mask that emits a dim, green light during the night can prevent the progression of early AMD. Methods/design ALight is a Phase I/IIa, multicentre, randomized controlled trial. Sixty participants (55 to 88 years old) with early AMD in one eye and neovascular AMD (nAMD) in the fellow eye will be recruited from nAMD clinics. They will be randomized (in the ratio 1:1), either to receive the intervention or to be in the untreated control group, stratified according to risk of disease progression. An additional 40 participants with healthy retinal appearance, or early AMD only, will be recruited for a baseline cross-sectional analysis. The intervention is an eye mask that emits a dim green light to illuminate the retina through closed eyelids at night. This is designed to reduce the metabolic activity of the retina, thereby reducing the potential risk of hypoxia. Participants will wear the mask every night for 12 months. Ophthalmologists carrying out monthly assessments will be masked to the treatment group, but participants will be aware of their treatment group. The primary outcome measure is the proportion of people who show disease progression during the trial period in the eye with early AMD. A co-primary outcome measure is the rate of retinal adaptation. As this is a trial of a CE-marked device for an off-label indication, a further main aim of this trial is to assess safety of the mask in the cohort of participants with AMD. Trial registration International Standard Randomised Controlled Trials Register: ISRCTN82148651 PMID:24965385

2014-01-01

142

Immune function is related to adult carotenoid and bile pigment levels, but not to dietary carotenoid access during development, in female mallard ducks.  

PubMed

Immune function can be modulated by multiple physiological factors, including nutrition and reproductive state. Because these factors can vary throughout an individual's lifetime as a result of environmental conditions (affecting nutrition) or life-history stage (e.g. entering the adult reproduction stage), we must carefully examine the degree to which developmental versus adult conditions shape performance of the immune system. We investigated how variation in dietary access to carotenoid pigments - a class of molecules with immunostimulatory properties that females deposit into egg yolks - during three different developmental time points affected adult immunological and reproductive traits in female mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos). In males and females of other avian species, carotenoid access during development affects carotenoid assimilation ability, adult sexual ornamentation and immune function, while carotenoid access during adulthood can increase immune response and reproductive investment (e.g. egg-laying capacity, biliverdin deposition in eggshells). We failed to detect effects of developmental carotenoid supplementation on adult immune function [phytohemagglutinin-induced cutaneous immune response, antibody production in response to the novel antigen keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), or oxidative burst, assessed by changes in circulating nitric oxide levels], carotenoid-pigmented beak coloration, ovarian development, circulating carotenoid levels or concentration of bile pigments in the gall bladder. However, we did uncover positive relationships between circulating carotenoid levels during adulthood and KLH-specific antibody production, and a negative relationship between biliverdin concentration in bile and KLH-specific antibody production. These results are consistent with the view that adult physiological parameters better predict current immune function than do developmental conditions, and highlight a possible, previously unstudied relationship between biliverdin and immune system performance. PMID:23531827

Butler, Michael W; McGraw, Kevin J

2013-07-15

143

Macular hole in juvenile X-linked retinoschisis  

PubMed Central

An 18 year-old male with no antecedent of trauma, systemic syndrome or myopia was referred for surgical treatment of a full thickness macular hole in the left eye. A more careful inspection revealed discrete foveal cystic changes in the fellow eye and subtle peripheral depigmented retinal pigment epithelial changes in both eyes. A spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) scan confirmed, in addition to the full thickness macular hole in the left eye, microcystic spaces in the nuclear layers of both retinae. The diagnosis of X-linked retinoschisis was confirmed with a full field electroretinogram displaying the typical negative ERG. Macular holes are uncommon in the young and those complicating X-linked retinoschisis are rare. This report highlights the importance of investigating the presence of a macular hole in a young patient and illustrates the clinical and SD-OCT clues beyond the foveal center which led to the correct diagnosis of X-linked juvenile retinoschisis. PMID:24409088

Al-Swaina, Nayef; Nowilaty, Sawsan R.

2013-01-01

144

Expression of human complement factor h prevents age-related macular degeneration-like retina damage and kidney abnormalities in aged cfh knockout mice.  

PubMed

Complement factor H (CFH) is an important regulatory protein in the alternative pathway of the complement system, and CFH polymorphisms increase the genetic risk of age-related macular degeneration dramatically. These same human CFH variants have also been associated with dense deposit disease. To mechanistically study the function of CFH in the pathogenesis of these diseases, we created transgenic mouse lines using human CFH bacterial artificial chromosomes expressing full-length human CFH variants and crossed these to Cfh knockout (Cfh(-/-)) mice. Human CFH protein inhibited cleavage of mouse complement component 3 and factor B in plasma and in retinal pigment epithelium/choroid/sclera, establishing that human CFH regulates activation of the mouse alternative pathway. One of the mouse lines, which express relatively higher levels of CFH, demonstrated functional and structural protection of the retina owing to the Cfh deletion. Impaired visual function, detected as a deficit in the scotopic electroretinographic response, was improved in this transgenic mouse line compared with Cfh(-/-) mice, and transgenics had a thicker outer nuclear layer and less sub-retinal pigment epithelium deposit accumulation. In addition, expression of human CFH also completely protected the mice from developing kidney abnormalities associated with loss of CFH. These humanized CFH mice present a valuable model for study of the molecular mechanisms of age-related macular degeneration and dense deposit disease and for testing therapeutic targets. PMID:25447048

Ding, Jin-Dong; Kelly, Una; Landowski, Michael; Toomey, Christopher B; Groelle, Marybeth; Miller, Chelsey; Smith, Stephanie G; Klingeborn, Mikael; Singhapricha, Terry; Jiang, Haixiang; Frank, Michael M; Bowes Rickman, Catherine

2015-01-01

145

Macular hole formation, progression, and surgical repair: case series of serial optical coherence tomography and time lapse morphing video study  

PubMed Central

Background To use a new medium to dynamically visualize serial optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans in order to illustrate and elucidate the pathogenesis of idiopathic macular hole formation, progression, and surgical closure. Case Presentations Two patients at the onset of symptoms with early stage macular holes and one patient following repair were followed with serial OCTs. Images centered at the fovea and at the same orientation were digitally exported and morphed into an Audiovisual Interleaving (avi) movie format. Morphing videos from serial OCTs allowed the OCTs to be viewed dynamically. The videos supported anterior-posterior vitreofoveal traction as the initial event in macular hole formation. Progression of the macular hole occurred with increased cystic thickening of the fovea without evidence of further vitreofoveal traction. During cyst formation, the macular hole enlarged as the edges of the hole became elevated from the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) with an increase in subretinal fluid. Surgical repair of a macular hole revealed initial closure of the macular hole with subsequent reabsorption of the sub-retinal fluid and restoration of the foveal contour. Conclusions Morphing videos from serial OCTs are a useful tool and helped illustrate and support anterior-posterior vitreofoveal traction with subsequent retinal hydration as the pathogenesis of idiopathic macular holes. PMID:20849638

2010-01-01

146

Age-related macular degeneration and the aging eye  

PubMed Central

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is an ocular disease that causes damage to the retinal macula, mostly in the elderly. Normal aging processes can lead to structural and blood flow changes that can predispose patients to AMD, although advanced age does not inevitably cause AMD. In this review, we describe changes that occur in the macular structure, such as the retinal pigment epithelium and Bruch’s membrane, with advancing age and in AMD. The role of genetics in AMD and age-related changes in ocular blood flow that may play a role in the pathogenesis of AMD are also discussed. Understanding the pathophysiology of AMD development can help guide future research to further comprehend this disease and to develop better treatments to prevent its irreversible central vision loss in the elderly. PMID:18982917

Ehrlich, Rita; Harris, Alon; Kheradiya, Nisha S; Winston, Diana M; Ciulla, Thomas A; Wirostko, Barbara

2008-01-01

147

Occult choroidal neovascularization after successful macular hole surgery treated with ranibizumab  

PubMed Central

Purpose To report on a case that developed an atypical form of occult choroidal neovascularization (CNV) after successful macular hole surgery. Methods Visual acuity change, color fundus photographs, fluorescein and indocyanine green angiograms, and optical coherence tomography results were compared throughout the follow-up duration. Patients A 64-year-old woman with a macular hole in the right eye and drusen in both eyes underwent pars plana vitrectomy, internal limiting membrane peeling, and gas tamponade. One month after the operation she developed occult CNV, in which pigment epithelial detachment and fine retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) layer wrinkles were observed under the completely sealed macular hole. After 3-monthly intravitreal injections of ranibizumab, the lesion did not change significantly. Conclusion CNV can develop after otherwise successful macular hole surgery, especially in patients with pre-existing aging changes in the macula, such as drusen. Care should be taken in such patients, to prevent the development of CNV after macular hole surgery. PMID:22927741

Oh, Ha Na; Lee, Joo Eun; Kim, Hyun Woong; Yang, Jae Wook; Yun, Il Han

2012-01-01

148

Idiopathic macular hole.  

PubMed

Idiopathic macular hole is a disease that arises from adhesion in the vitreomacular interface and can theoretically be treated by vitrectomy surgery. Surgical techniques include removal of the vitreous with or without simultaneous peeling of the internal limiting membrane (ILM), fluid-air exchange, and gas tamponade. Since the advent of microincision vitrectomy surgery, macular hole surgery has been performed with minimal invasiveness, and significant visual improvement is a common outcome. This chapter describes the pathology of this disease, including presurgical evaluation using optical coherence tomography (OCT), and then shows the fundamental techniques required for the surgery. Also important is the understanding of the postsurgical 'healing' process of the disease, which may confirm the fact that the subjective improvement is closely related to the retinal imaging obtained by OCT. More recent advances are the inverted ILM peeling technique for larger macular holes and 27-gauge vitrectomy that can potentially minimize the surgical invasiveness mainly by smaller wound construction and the reduced volume of irrigation during surgery. PMID:25196764

Oh, Hideyasu

2014-01-01

149

Transcriptomic analysis across nasal, temporal, and macular regions of human neural retina and RPE/choroid by RNA-Seq.  

PubMed

Proper spatial differentiation of retinal cell types is necessary for normal human vision. Many retinal diseases, such as Best disease and male germ cell associated kinase (MAK)-associated retinitis pigmentosa, preferentially affect distinct topographic regions of the retina. While much is known about the distribution of cell types in the retina, the distribution of molecular components across the posterior pole of the eye has not been well-studied. To investigate regional difference in molecular composition of ocular tissues, we assessed differential gene expression across the temporal, macular, and nasal retina and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)/choroid of human eyes using RNA-Seq. RNA from temporal, macular, and nasal retina and RPE/choroid from four human donor eyes was extracted, poly-A selected, fragmented, and sequenced as 100 bp read pairs. Digital read files were mapped to the human genome and analyzed for differential expression using the Tuxedo software suite. Retina and RPE/choroid samples were clearly distinguishable at the transcriptome level. Numerous transcription factors were differentially expressed between regions of the retina and RPE/choroid. Photoreceptor-specific genes were enriched in the peripheral samples, while ganglion cell and amacrine cell genes were enriched in the macula. Within the RPE/choroid, RPE-specific genes were upregulated at the periphery while endothelium associated genes were upregulated in the macula. Consistent with previous studies, BEST1 expression was lower in macular than extramacular regions. The MAK gene was expressed at lower levels in macula than in extramacular regions, but did not exhibit a significant difference between nasal and temporal retina. The regional molecular distinction is greatest between macula and periphery and decreases between different peripheral regions within a tissue. Datasets such as these can be used to prioritize candidate genes for possible involvement in retinal diseases with regional phenotypes. PMID:25446321

Whitmore, S Scott; Wagner, Alex H; DeLuca, Adam P; Drack, Arlene V; Stone, Edwin M; Tucker, Budd A; Zeng, Shemin; Braun, Terry A; Mullins, Robert F; Scheetz, Todd E

2014-12-01

150

[Change in biochemical composition of amaranth leaves as a result of selection for increased level of amaranthine pigment].  

PubMed

The composition and content of secondary compounds produced by the shikimate pathway and the contents of protein and cellulose were determined in leaves of amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor L.) K-99 and the cultivar Valentina raised from it by family selection and enriched in the pigment amaranthine. It was found that intense biosynthesis of amaranthine, tyrosine, and phenylalanine resulted in a decrease in the contents of lignin, protein, and cellulose in leaves of Valentina by comparison with K-99 and in changed the morphological traits: color deepening and a decrease in leaf density. It is concluded that amaranth biosynthesis is related to nitrogen metabolism and amaranthine is an intermediate involved in conversion of nitrogen compounds in the cell. PMID:12391759

Gins, M S; Gins, V K; Kononkov, P F

2002-01-01

151

Photosensitization of retinal pigment epithelium by protoporphyrin IX  

Microsoft Academic Search

•   Background: Clinical evidence of injury to the retinal pigment epithelium is an important feature of age-related macular\\u000a degeneration, but the mechanism of this injury is unknown. Blue-light-dependent activation of the blood-borne photosensitizer\\u000a protoporphyrin IX is known to produce free radicals which may damage cells and tissues. This study was undertaken to determine\\u000a the effect of blue light and protoporphyrin

Leon A. Bynoe; Lucian V. Del Priore; Russell Hornbeck

1998-01-01

152

The Impact of Macular Laser Photocoagulation on Contrast Sensitivity Function in Patients with Clinically  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Contrast sensitivity is an important aspect of visual function and is even more important for ordinary daily tasks than visual acuity. Contrast sensitivity function may be deteriorated to a significant level in diabetic retinopathy, especially in diabetic macular edema. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of macular laser photocoagulation—as the standard treatment of clinically significant

Significant Macular Edema; Mohammad-Sadegh Farahvash; Amir-Hossein Mahmoudi; Mohammad-Mehdi Farahvash; Ali Tabatabaee; Mohammad Riazi; Shiva Mohammadzadeh; Houshang Faghihi; Mehdi Nilli-Ahmadabadi; Ahmad Mirshahi; Reza Karkhaneh; Zahra Aalami-Harandi; Ahmad Javadian; Ali Abdolahi; Alireza Lashey

2008-01-01

153

Macular Pigment and Percentage of Body Fat John Nolan,1  

E-print Network

. MP optical density was measured psychophysically, serum lutein and zeaxanthin were quantified by HPLC, and dietary intake of lutein and zeaxanthin was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Body

154

The 3895-bp mitochondrial DNA deletion in the human eye: a potential involvement in corneal ageing and macular degeneration.  

PubMed

In human skin, the 3895-bp deletion of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA(3895)) is catalysed by ultraviolet (UV) light through the generation of reactive oxygen species. Given its function in vision, the human eye is exposed to oxidising UV and blue light in its anterior (cornea, iris) and posterior (retina) structures. In this study, we employed a highly sensitive quantitative PCR technique to determine mtDNA(3895) occurrence in human eye. Our analysis shows that the mtDNA(3895) is concentrated in both the cornea and the retina. Within the cornea, the highest mtDNA(3895) level is found in the stroma, the cellular layer conferring transparency and rigidity to the human cornea. Moreover, mtDNA(3895) accumulates with age in the stroma, suggesting a role of this deletion in corneal ageing. Within the retina, mtDNA(3895) is concentrated in the macular region of both the neural retina and the retinal pigment epithelium, supporting the hypothesis that this deletion is implicated in retinal pathologies such as age-related macular degenerescence. Taken together, our results imply that UV and blue light catalyse mtDNA(3895) induction in the human eye. PMID:23408842

Gendron, Sébastien P; Bastien, Nathalie; Mallet, Justin D; Rochette, Patrick J

2013-03-01

155

Macular xanthophylls, lipoprotein-related genes, and age-related macular degeneration.  

PubMed

Plant-based macular xanthophylls (MXs; lutein and zeaxanthin) and the lutein metabolite meso-zeaxanthin are the major constituents of macular pigment, a compound concentrated in retinal areas that are responsible for fine-feature visual sensation. There is an unmet need to examine the genetics of factors influencing regulatory mechanisms and metabolic fates of these 3 MXs because they are linked to processes implicated in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In this work we provide an overview of evidence supporting a molecular basis for AMD-MX associations as they may relate to DNA sequence variation in AMD- and lipoprotein-related genes. We recognize a number of emerging research opportunities, barriers, knowledge gaps, and tools offering promise for meaningful investigation and inference in the field. Overviews on AMD- and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-related genes encoding receptors, transporters, and enzymes affecting or affected by MXs are followed with information on localization of products from these genes to retinal cell types manifesting AMD-related pathophysiology. Evidence on the relation of each gene or gene product with retinal MX response to nutrient intake is discussed. This information is followed by a review of results from mechanistic studies testing gene-disease relations. We then present findings on relations of AMD with DNA sequence variants in MX-associated genes. Our conclusion is that AMD-associated DNA variants that influence the actions and metabolic fates of HDL system constituents should be examined further for concomitant influence on MX absorption, retinal tissue responses to MX intake, and the capacity to modify MX-associated factors and processes implicated in AMD pathogenesis. PMID:24829491

Koo, Euna; Neuringer, Martha; SanGiovanni, John Paul

2014-05-14

156

Skin Pigmentation Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

Pigmentation means coloring. Skin pigmentation disorders affect the color of your skin. Your skin gets its color from a pigment called melanin. Special cells in ... damaged or unhealthy, it affects melanin production. Some pigmentation disorders affect just patches of skin. Others affect ...

157

In vivo evidence of epiretinal membrane formation secondary to acute macular microhole after posterior vitreous detachment.  

PubMed

The authors present the case of an idiopathic epiretinal membrane (ERM) secondary to an acute self-repaired macular microhole documented by optical coherence tomography (OCT). A 65-year-old phakic woman presenting with acute onset of light flashes, myodesopsia, and central negative scotoma in the right eye was diagnosed with age-related posterior vitreous detachment. Spectral-domain OCT showed a tiny defect of the outer retina, consistent with the diagnosis of macular microhole, which spontaneously closed after 4 weeks. Six months later, the patient developed a contracting ERM, and her visual acuity significantly worsened. This case represents the first in vivo documentation of retinal pigment epithelium cell migration through a macular microhole, highlighting the importance of OCT in understanding idiopathic ERM pathogenesis. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2014;45:596-597.]. PMID:25347828

Furino, Claudio; Cicinelli, Maria Vittoria; Boscia, Francesco; Alessio, Giovanni

2014-11-01

158

Intraocular lens iris fixation. Clinical and macular OCT outcomes  

PubMed Central

Background To assess the efficacy, clinical outcomes, visual acuity (VA), incidence of adverse effects, and complications of peripheral iris fixation of 3-piece acrylic IOLs in eyes lacking capsular support. Thirteen patients who underwent implantation and peripheral iris fixation of a 3-piece foldable acrylic PC IOL for aphakia in the absence of capsular support were followed after surgery. Clinical outcomes and macular SD-OCT (Cirrus OCT; Carl Zeiss Meditec, Germany) were analyzed. Findings The final CDVA was 20/40 or better in 8 eyes (62%), 20/60 or better in 12 eyes (92%), and one case of 20/80 due to corneal astigmatism and mild persistent edema. No intraoperative complications were reported. There were seven cases of medically controlled ocular hypertension after surgery due to the presence of viscoelastic in the AC. There were no cases of cystoid macular edema, chronic iridocyclitis, IOL subluxation, pigment dispersion, or glaucoma. Macular edema did not develop in any case by means of SD-OCT. Conclusions We think that this technique for iris suture fixation provides safe and effective results. Patients had substantial improvements in UDVA and CDVA. This surgical strategy may be individualized however; age, cornea status, angle structures, iris anatomy, and glaucoma are important considerations in selecting candidates for an appropriate IOL fixation method. PMID:23050659

2012-01-01

159

Spontaneous closure of macular hole.  

PubMed

We report a case of spontaneous closure of stage-II macular hole. A 66 years old lady presented with decreased vision in her left eye for the last 3 months. Her vision was 6/18 in right eye and finger counting at 3 feet in left eye. Optical coherence tomography showed stage-II macular hole in left eye. There was attachment of vitreous at the edge of the hole. Minimal hole diameter was 119 ?. Macular hole surgery was planned. During follow-up, hole started closing spontaneously. Nine months later, the hole closed and posterior hyaloid membrane separated from the macula. Visual acuity improved to 6/24. The purpose of this case report is to show that stage-II macular hole may close spontaneously with relief of vitreomacular traction. PMID:24906260

Jamil, Ahmad Zeeshan; Aqil, Amash; Khaliq, Javed; Mirza, Khurram Azam

2014-05-01

160

Idiopathic macular telangiectasia type 2 (idiopathic juxtafoveolar retinal telangiectasis type 2A, Mac Tel 2).  

PubMed

Macular telangiectasia type 2-also known as idiopathic perifoveal telangiectasia and juxtafoveolar retinal telangiectasis type 2A or Mac Tel 2-is an acquired bilateral neurodegenerative macular disease that usually manifests itself during the fourth to sixth decades of life and is characterized by minimal dilatation of the parafoveal capillaries with graying of the retinal area involved, a lack of lipid exudation, right-angled retinal venules, refractile deposits in the superficial retina, hyperplasia of the retinal pigment epithelium, foveal atrophy, and subretinal neovascularization (SRNV). Optical coherence tomography images typically demonstrate intraretinal hyporeflective spaces that are usually not related to retinal thickening or fluorescein leakage. The typical fluorescein angiographic finding is a deep intraretinal hyperfluorescent leakage in the temporal parafoveal area. With time the leakage may involve the whole parafovea, but does not extend to the center of the fovea. Long-term prognosis for central vision is variable and depends on the development of SRNV or macular atrophy. Pathogenesis remains unclear, but Müller cells and macular pigment appear to play a central role. Currently there is no known treatment for the underlying cause of this condition, but treatment of the SRNV may be beneficial. PMID:24160729

Wu, Lihteh; Evans, Teodoro; Arevalo, J Fernando

2013-01-01

161

Macular protection with IOLs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The clinical outcome within one month after phacoemulsification cataract extraction with implantation of the blue-blocking SN60AT IOL was examined prospectively and compared to a retrospectively examined material of implantations of the equivalent SA30AL without blue-blocker. There was no difference in best corrected visual acuity gain between the two lenses. In addition, the subjective color perception was examined for with a questionnaire after the first implantation of blue-blocking IOL and after the second implantation of blue-blocking IOL. Only one patient noted a changed color perception. There are thus strong theoretical reasons to block blue light in IOLs and no short term clinical inconvenience. But, it remains to be proven in long term follow up studies that the blue-blocking IOL protects against macular degeneration.

Soderberg, Per G.; Lofgren, Stefan; Ayala, Marcelo; Dong, Xiuqin; Kakar, Manoj; Mody, Vino; Meyer, Linda; Laurell, Carl-Gustaf

2004-07-01

162

DICER1 deficit induces Alu RNA toxicity in age-related macular degeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geographic atrophy (GA), an untreatable advanced form of age-related macular degeneration, results from retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) cell degeneration. Here we show that the microRNA (miRNA)-processing enzyme DICER1 is reduced in the RPE of humans with GA, and that conditional ablation of Dicer1, but not seven other miRNA-processing enzymes, induces RPE degeneration in mice. DICER1 knockdown induces accumulation of Alu

Hiroki Kaneko; Sami Dridi; Valeria Tarallo; Bradley D. Gelfand; Benjamin J. Fowler; Won Gil Cho; Mark E. Kleinman; Steven L. Ponicsan; William W. Hauswirth; Vince A. Chiodo; Katalin Karikó; Jae Wook Yoo; Dong-Ki Lee; Majda Hadziahmetovic; Ying Song; Smita Misra; Gautam Chaudhuri; Frank W. Buaas; Robert E. Braun; David R. Hinton; Qing Zhang; Hans E. Grossniklaus; Jan M. Provis; Michele C. Madigan; Ann H. Milam; Nikki L. Justice; Romulo J. C. Albuquerque; Alexander D. Blandford; Sasha Bogdanovich; Yoshio Hirano; Jassir Witta; Elaine Fuchs; Dan R. Littman; Balamurali K. Ambati; Charles M. Rudin; Mark M. W. Chong; Patrick Provost; Jennifer F. Kugel; James A. Goodrich; Joshua L. Dunaief; Judit Z. Baffi; Jayakrishna Ambati

2011-01-01

163

Treatment of idiopathic macular hole with silicone oil tamponade  

PubMed Central

Purpose We analyzed the anatomical and visual outcomes after surgical treatment of idiopathic macular holes with pars plana vitrectomy, internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling using Brilliant Blue dye, and silicone oil tamponade without postoperative posturing. Methods This was a retrospective interventional study of 10 eyes in eight patients who underwent surgical treatment of idiopathic macular holes using pars plana vitrectomy, ILM peeling using Brilliant Blue dye, and silicone oil tamponade without postoperative posturing. The preoperative staging of macular holes and postoperative anatomic outcomes were assessed using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Results All patients were women with a mean age of 66.86 ± 4.8 years. In two patients, bilateral macular holes were present and both eyes were operated on. Stage 2 macular hole was diagnosed in three eyes, three eyes had stage 3, and four eyes had stage 4 macular holes. Anatomical success and closure of the macular hole was achieved in nine eyes (90%) after one operation. In one eye, the macular hole was closed after reoperation. The preoperative mean best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 0.15 decimal units (0.8 logMAR units). Until the end of the follow-up period, BCVA was 0.25 decimal units (0.6 logMAR units). Visual acuity was improved in seven patients (70%). In two patients (20%), visual acuity remained at the same level, and in one eye (10%), visual acuity decreased. Postoperatively, all patients reported a significant reduction of metamorphopsia. Conclusion Initial results after 20G pars plana vitrectomy with peeling of the ILM, use of dye (Brilliant Blue), and tamponade with silicone oil without postoperative posturing gave good anatomical and functional outcome in terms of visual acuity and reduction of metamorphopsia. Taking into account the age of the patients, this method, which does not require prolonged postoperative face-down posturing, was well tolerated by the patients. Because the anatomical and visual outcome as well as the rate of postoperative complications are comparable to those when gas is used as a tamponading agent, silicone oil tamponade can also be safely used as a first option in surgery of macular holes. However, a longer period of follow-up of the operated eyes, as well as a larger group of operated eyes, will be required to identify long-term outcomes of this surgical treatment. PMID:23055662

Ivanovska-Adjievska, Biljana; Boskurt, Salih; Semiz, Faruk; Yuzer, Hakan; Dimovska-Jordanova, Vesna

2012-01-01

164

Apolipoprotein E promotes subretinal mononuclear phagocyte survival and chronic inflammation in age-related macular degeneration  

PubMed Central

Physiologically, the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) expresses immunosuppressive signals such as FAS ligand (FASL), which prevents the accumulation of leukocytes in the subretinal space. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is associated with a breakdown of the subretinal immunosuppressive environment and chronic accumulation of mononuclear phagocytes (MPs). We show that subretinal MPs in AMD patients accumulate on the RPE and express high levels of APOE. MPs of Cx3cr1?/? mice that develop MP accumulation on the RPE, photoreceptor degeneration, and increased choroidal neovascularization similarly express high levels of APOE. ApoE deletion in Cx3cr1?/? mice prevents pathogenic age- and stress-induced subretinal MP accumulation. We demonstrate that increased APOE levels induce IL-6 in MPs via the activation of the TLR2-CD14-dependent innate immunity receptor cluster. IL-6 in turn represses RPE FasL expression and prolongs subretinal MP survival. This mechanism may account, in part, for the MP accumulation observed in Cx3cr1?/? mice. Our results underline the inflammatory role of APOE in sterile inflammation in the immunosuppressive subretinal space. They provide rationale for the implication of IL-6 in AMD and open avenues toward therapies inhibiting pathogenic chronic inflammation in late AMD. PMID:25604058

Levy, Olivier; Calippe, Bertrand; Lavalette, Sophie; Hu, Shulong J; Raoul, William; Dominguez, Elisa; Housset, Michael; Paques, Michel; Sahel, José-Alain; Bemelmans, Alexis-Pierre; Combadiere, Christophe; Guillonneau, Xavier; Sennlaub, Florian

2015-01-01

165

Apolipoprotein E promotes subretinal mononuclear phagocyte survival and chronic inflammation in age-related macular degeneration.  

PubMed

Physiologically, the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) expresses immunosuppressive signals such as FAS ligand (FASL), which prevents the accumulation of leukocytes in the subretinal space. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is associated with a breakdown of the subretinal immunosuppressive environment and chronic accumulation of mononuclear phagocytes (MPs). We show that subretinal MPs in AMD patients accumulate on the RPE and express high levels of APOE. MPs of Cx3cr1(-/-) mice that develop MP accumulation on the RPE, photoreceptor degeneration, and increased choroidal neovascularization similarly express high levels of APOE. ApoE deletion in Cx3cr1(-/-) mice prevents pathogenic age- and stress-induced subretinal MP accumulation. We demonstrate that increased APOE levels induce IL-6 in MPs via the activation of the TLR2-CD14-dependent innate immunity receptor cluster. IL-6 in turn represses RPE FasL expression and prolongs subretinal MP survival. This mechanism may account, in part, for the MP accumulation observed in Cx3cr1(-/-) mice. Our results underline the inflammatory role of APOE in sterile inflammation in the immunosuppressive subretinal space. They provide rationale for the implication of IL-6 in AMD and open avenues toward therapies inhibiting pathogenic chronic inflammation in late AMD. PMID:25604058

Levy, Olivier; Calippe, Bertrand; Lavalette, Sophie; Hu, Shulong J; Raoul, William; Dominguez, Elisa; Housset, Michael; Paques, Michel; Sahel, José-Alain; Bemelmans, Alexis-Pierre; Combadiere, Christophe; Guillonneau, Xavier; Sennlaub, Florian

2015-01-01

166

Spontaneous closure of a fully developed macular hole in a severely myopic eye.  

PubMed

Purpose. Myopic macular holes can be difficult to close with surgery and are frequently associated with retinal detachment. We report on a case of a macular hole in a severely myopic eye that underwent spontaneous closure. Methods. An observational case study. Results. A 55-year-old female was referred to Ophthalmology for a central scotoma and metamorphopsia in the right eye. Visual acuity was 1/20 in both eyes. Fundus examination showed loss of the foveal depression, with a small yellow ring in the center of the fovea in the right eye, and a tilted optic disc and peripapillary staphyloma bilaterally. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) revealed a fully developed macular hole with a rim of thickened and slightly elevated retina in the right eye. The patient refused surgery. After 4 years of follow-up, her visual acuity improved to 20/40 in the right eye, and SD-OCT revealed spontaneous sealing of the macular hole without bare retinal pigment epithelium. Conclusions. Myopic macular holes represent a challenge regarding their management, and the prognosis is often poor. PMID:24744932

Bruè, C; Rossiello, I; Guidotti, J M; Mariotti, C

2014-01-01

167

Spontaneous Closure of a Fully Developed Macular Hole in a Severely Myopic Eye  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Myopic macular holes can be difficult to close with surgery and are frequently associated with retinal detachment. We report on a case of a macular hole in a severely myopic eye that underwent spontaneous closure. Methods. An observational case study. Results. A 55-year-old female was referred to Ophthalmology for a central scotoma and metamorphopsia in the right eye. Visual acuity was 1/20 in both eyes. Fundus examination showed loss of the foveal depression, with a small yellow ring in the center of the fovea in the right eye, and a tilted optic disc and peripapillary staphyloma bilaterally. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) revealed a fully developed macular hole with a rim of thickened and slightly elevated retina in the right eye. The patient refused surgery. After 4 years of follow-up, her visual acuity improved to 20/40 in the right eye, and SD-OCT revealed spontaneous sealing of the macular hole without bare retinal pigment epithelium. Conclusions. Myopic macular holes represent a challenge regarding their management, and the prognosis is often poor. PMID:24744932

Bruè, C.; Rossiello, I.; Guidotti, J. M.; Mariotti, C.

2014-01-01

168

Pigmented Bowen's disease.  

PubMed

Pigmented Bowen's disease is rare, though more prevalent in men. It presents as a well-delineated plaque in areas unexposed to sun. There are reports of association with seborrheic keratosis, solar lentigo or exuberant pigmentation of genital and intertriginous regions. A specific dermoscopy finding is the presence of brown or gray dots in regular arrangement and coiled or dotted vessels. Thus, we aim to raise awareness of the diagnosis of pigmented Bowen's disease in pigmented lesions. PMID:25184929

Mota, Amanda Nascimento Cavalleiro de Macedo; Piñeiro-Maceira, Juan; Alves, Maria de Fatima Guimarães Scotelaro; Tarazona, Mónica Jidid Mateus

2014-01-01

169

Pigmented Bowen's disease*  

PubMed Central

Pigmented Bowen's disease is rare, though more prevalent in men. It presents as a well-delineated plaque in areas unexposed to sun. There are reports of association with seborrheic keratosis, solar lentigo or exuberant pigmentation of genital and intertriginous regions. A specific dermoscopy finding is the presence of brown or gray dots in regular arrangement and coiled or dotted vessels. Thus, we aim to raise awareness of the diagnosis of pigmented Bowen's disease in pigmented lesions. PMID:25184929

Mota, Amanda Nascimento Cavalleiro de Macedo; Piñeiro-Maceira, Juan; Alves, Maria de Fatima Guimarães Scotelaro; Tarazona, Mónica Jidid Mateus

2014-01-01

170

Plant Pigments and Photosynthesis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson will examine the two major classes of phototsynthetic pigments, chlorophylls and carotenoids, their biochemical structures and their biosynthesis. The organization of these pigments into photosynthetic pigment, which are protein complexes that harvest light and convert its energy into biochemical energy will be explained.

171

Origins and consequences of hyperosmolar stress in retinal pigmented epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

The retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) is composed of retinal pigmented epithelial cells joined by tight junctions and represents the outer blood-retinal barrier (BRB). The inner BRB is made of endothelial cells joined by tight junctions and glial extensions surrounding all the retinal blood vessels. One of the functions of the RPE is to maintain an osmotic transepithelial gradient created by ionic pumps and channels, avoiding paracellular flux. Under such physiological conditions, transcellular water movement follows the osmotic gradient and flows normally from the retina to the choroid through the RPE. Several diseases, such as diabetic retinopathy, are characterized by the BRB breakdown leading to leakage of solutes, proteins, and fluid from the retina and the choroid. The prevailing hypothesis explaining macular edema formation during diabetic retinopathy incriminates the inner BRB breakdown resulting in increased osmotic pressure leading in turn to massive water accumulation that can affect vision. Under these conditions, it has been hypothesized that RPE is likely to be exposed to hyperosmolar stress at its apical side. This review summarizes the origins and consequences of osmotic stress in the RPE. Ongoing and further research advances will clarify the mechanisms, at the molecular level, involved in the response of the RPE to osmotic stress and delineate potential novel therapeutic targets and tools. PMID:24910616

Willermain, François; Libert, Sarah; Motulsky, Elie; Salik, Dany; Caspers, Laure; Perret, Jason; Delporte, Christine

2014-01-01

172

Cell cycle regulation by bevacizumab in ARPE-19 human retinal pigment epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Bevacizumab, a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody, binds vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and inhibits its interaction with receptors found on endothelial cells. Bevacizumab has been increasingly used as an off-label treatment for exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Whether or not bevacizumab is capable of arresting the growth of human retinal pigment epithelial cells remains to be clarified. In this study, flow cytometry was used to evaluate whether bevacizumab markedly induced the G1/S phase arrest. The G1/S phase cycle-related protein analysis demonstrated that the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)2, 4 and 6 and of cyclin D and E, as well as the phosphorylation of retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (ppRB) production were found to be markedly reduced by bevacizumab. By contrast, the protein levels of p53, p16, p21 and p27 were increased in bevacizumab-treated ARPE-19 cells (a human retinal pigment epithelial cell line). These events of G1/S arrest induced by bevacizumab in ARPE-19 cells suggest that a preventive effect of bevacizumab exists in AMD. PMID:22798045

Kuo, Chien-Neng; Chen, Chung-Yi; Lai, Chien-Hsiung; Lai, Li-Ju; Wu, Pei-Chen; Hung, Chia-Hui; Chen, Ching-Hsein

2012-10-01

173

Statistical physics of age related macular degeneration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness beyond the age of 50 years. The most common pathogenic mechanism that leads to AMD is choroidal neovascularization (CNV). CNV is produced by accumulation of residual material caused by aging of retinal pigment epithelium cells (RPE). The RPE is a phagocytic system that is essential for renewal of photoreceptors (rods and cones). With time, incompletely degraded membrane material builds up in the form of lipofuscin. Lipofuscin is made of free-radical-damaged protein and fat, which forms not only in AMD, but also Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease. The study of lipofuscin formation and growth is important, because of their association with cellular aging. We introduce a model of non-equilibrium cluster growth and aggregation that we have developed for studying the formation and growth of lipofuscin in the aging RPE. Our results agree with a linear growth of the number of lipofuscin granules with age. We apply the dynamic scaling approach to our model and find excellent data collapse for the cluster size distribution. An unusual feature of our model is that while small particles are removed from the RPE the larger ones become fixed and grow by aggregation.

Family, Fereydoon; Mazzitello, K. I.; Arizmendi, C. M.; Grossniklaus, H. E.

174

Combined hamartoma of the retina and retinal pigment epithelium in branchio-otic syndrome.  

PubMed

A 15-month-old boy with established branchio-otic syndrome was evaluated for decreased red reflex in the left eye. Fundus examination of left eye revealed a gray epiretinal membrane with retinal traction and ill-defined macular thickening, found on ultrasonography as a dense flat region 1.7 mm in thickness. Enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography revealed an epiretinal membrane with macular thickening, retinal folding, and full-thickness retinal disorganization, consistent with combined hamartoma of the retina and retinal pigment epithelium. Over 5 years of follow-up, the branchio-otic syndrome was unchanged and the combined hamartoma remained stable. PMID:24698626

Kadaba, Priyanka; Arepalli, Sruthi; Shields, Jerry A; Shields, Carol L

2014-04-01

175

Macular oedema in idiopathic macular telangiectasia type 1 responsive to aflibercept but not bevacizumab.  

PubMed

We report a patient with macular oedema due to type 1 macular telangiectasia responding to intravitreal aflibercept injection. A 51-year-old man was diagnosed with type 1 idiopathic macular telangiectasia (IMT) in the right eye. The macular oedema was refractory to initial treatment with intravitreal bevacizumab and argon laser photocoagulation. The patient was then treated with intravitreal aflibercept injections, following which the macular oedema was completely resolved and his vision was significantly improved. Intravitreal aflibercept injection appears to improve vision and reduce persistent macular oedema secondary to type 1 IMT and demonstrated promising anatomical and visual outcomes. PMID:25349755

Shibeeb, O'Sam; Vaze, Anagha; Gillies, Mark; Gray, Timothy

2014-01-01

176

Macular Oedema in Idiopathic Macular Telangiectasia Type 1 Responsive to Aflibercept but Not Bevacizumab  

PubMed Central

We report a patient with macular oedema due to type 1 macular telangiectasia responding to intravitreal aflibercept injection. A 51-year-old man was diagnosed with type 1 idiopathic macular telangiectasia (IMT) in the right eye. The macular oedema was refractory to initial treatment with intravitreal bevacizumab and argon laser photocoagulation. The patient was then treated with intravitreal aflibercept injections, following which the macular oedema was completely resolved and his vision was significantly improved. Intravitreal aflibercept injection appears to improve vision and reduce persistent macular oedema secondary to type 1 IMT and demonstrated promising anatomical and visual outcomes. PMID:25349755

Shibeeb, O'Sam; Gillies, Mark; Gray, Timothy

2014-01-01

177

From The Cover: A common haplotype in the complement regulatory gene factor H (HF1\\/CFH) predisposes individuals to age-related macular degeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most frequent cause of irreversible blindness in the elderly in developed countries. Our previous studies implicated activation of complement in the formation of drusen, the hallmark lesion of AMD. Here, we show that factor H (HF1), the major inhibitor of the alternative complement pathway, accumulates within drusen and is synthesized by the retinal pigmented

Gregory S. Hageman; Don H. Anderson; Lincoln V. Johnson; Lisa S. Hancox; Andrew J. Taiber; Lisa I. Hardisty; Jill L. Hageman; Heather A. Stockman; James D. Borchardt; Karen M. Gehrs; Richard J. H. Smith; Giuliana Silvestri; Stephen R. Russell; Caroline C. W. Klaver; Irene Barbazetto; Stanley Chang; Lawrence A. Yannuzzi; Gaetano R. Barile; John C. Merriam; R. Theodore Smith; Adam K. Olsh; Julie Bergeron; Jana Zernant; Joanna E. Merriam; Bert Gold; Michael Dean; Rando Allikmets

2005-01-01

178

Zinc Deficiency Leads to Lipofuscin Accumulation in the Retinal Pigment Epithelium of Pigmented Rats  

PubMed Central

Background Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is associated with lipofuscin accumulation whereas the content of melanosomes decreases. Melanosomes are the main storage of zinc in the pigmented tissues. Since the elderly population, as the most affected group for AMD, is prone to zinc deficit, we investigated the chemical and ultrastructural effects of zinc deficiency in pigmented rat eyes after a six-month zinc penury diet. Methodology/Principal Findings Adult Long Evans (LE) rats were investigated. The control animals were fed with a normal alimentation whereas the zinc-deficiency rats (ZD-LE) were fed with a zinc deficient diet for six months. Quantitative Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis yielded the zinc mole fractions of melanosomes in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). The lateral resolution of the analysis was 100 nm. The zinc mole fractions of melanosomes were significantly smaller in the RPE of ZD-LE rats as compared to the LE control rats. Light, fluorescence and electron microscopy, as well as immunohistochemistry were performed. The numbers of lipofuscin granules in the RPE and of infiltrated cells (Ø>3 µm) found in the choroid were quantified. The number of lipofuscin granules significantly increased in ZD-LE as compared to control rats. Infiltrated cells bigger than 3 µm were only detected in the choroid of ZD-LE animals. Moreover, the thickness of the Bruch's membrane of ZD-LE rats varied between 0.4–3 µm and thin, rangy ED1 positive macrophages were found attached at these sites of Bruch's membrane or even inside it. Conclusions/Significance In pigmented rats, zinc deficiency yielded an accumulation of lipofuscin in the RPE and of large pigmented macrophages in the choroids as well as the appearance of thin, rangy macrophages at Bruch's membrane. Moreover, we showed that a zinc diet reduced the zinc mole fraction of melanosomes in the RPE and modulated the thickness of the Bruch's membrane. PMID:22216222

Kokkinou, Despina; Eibl, Oliver; Schraermeyer, Ulrich

2011-01-01

179

Pigmented condyloma acuminatum.  

PubMed

We herein report a case of pigmented condyloma acuminatum in the genital region. A histopathological examination revealed keratinocyte proliferation, papillomatosis and basal pigmentation. Cellular atypia was rarely observed. The patient also had ordinary skin-colored nodules on the coronal sulcus. Polymerase chain reaction amplification with consensus primers for human papillomavirus (HPV) and subsequent sequencing confirmed an infection of HPV type 6. Pigmented condyloma acuminatum is not rare; however, making the differential diagnosis between bowenoid papulosis and seborrheic keratosis is sometimes difficult. The mechanism of pigmentation in such cases remains unknown and requires further investigation. HPV typing is a useful method for diagnosing the disease. PMID:24611994

Shimizu, Akira; Kato, Madoka; Ishikawa, Osamu

2014-04-01

180

[Treatment of serous macular retinal detachment with antihistamines.  

PubMed

The etiology of retinal detachment in central serous retinopathy (CSR) is unknown; however, three facts are generally accepted: (1) the serous exudate which raises the layers of the receptors/pigment epithelium is formed due to hyperpermeability in the choriocapillaries, (2) patients frequently suffer from headaches and (3) stress promotes the incidence of CSR. A high blood plasma histamine concentration can cause the abovementioned symptoms which suggests that histamine might provoke CSR. Within 1 week after administration of the antihistamine loratadin a considerable reduction in the retinal exudate and restoration of vision were observed. This supports the hypothesis that histamine could be involved in the process of retinal detachment. Further investigations and large scale clinical trials should clarify if this hypothesis can be proved or disproved and whether antihistamines can be used for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). PMID:25278347

Kirschfeld, K

2014-10-01

181

[Age-related macular degeneration (AMD): etiopathogenesis and therapeutic strategies].  

PubMed

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a disease leading to severe visual loss and legal blindness in the population over 60 years of age. Its pathogenesis is likely multifactorial, involving a complex interaction of metabolic, functional, genetic, and environmental factors, and remains poorly understood. For these reasons, currently used therapeutic approaches are insufficiently effective. Although major abnormalities are seen in four functionally interrelated tissues, i.e. photoreceptors, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), Bruch's membrane, and choriocapillaries, the impairment of RPE cell functions is an early and crucial event in the molecular pathways leading to clinical relevant AMD changes. The RPE progressively degenerates, which results in an irreversible degeneration of photoreceptors. Four processes: lipofuscinogenesis, drusogenesis, inflammation, and neovascularization, specifically contribute to the development of the disease. Two types of AMD are distinguished: the dry and the wet form. This paper briefly describes major molecular and cellular events leading to AMD, and presents currently used and new, forthcoming therapeutic strategies. PMID:17369776

Nowak, Jerzy Z; Bienias, Wojciech

2007-01-01

182

Macular hole surgery following accidental laser injury with a military rangefinder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An active duty marine corps service member had bilateral full thickness macular holes induced following accidental Q-switched laser exposure from a hand held Neodymium range finder (ANGVS-5). The right eye had a large hole nasal to the fovea, while the left eye had a much smaller hole closer to the fovea centralis. Over the 18 months following the injury, the left eye demonstrated mild progressive degradation in visual function, but retained 20/20 final visual acuity. In contrast, the hole in the right eye increased in size, developed a localized retinal detachment with cystic changes in the fovea, and had atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium. Within 6 months after injury, acuity declined to 20/100. Macular hole surgery was performed with a goal of sealing the edges of the hole in order to allow resolution of the localized detachment and cystic changes in the fovea. In spite of surgical techniques that are generally successful in the treatment of macular holes associated with other etiologies, the fundus findings remained unchanged and visual acuity declined to 20/400. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of macular hole surgery for this condition.

Custis, Peter H.; Gagliano, Donald A.; Zwick, Harry; Schuschereba, Steven T.; Regillo, Carl D.

1996-04-01

183

Original article Thoracic trident pigmentation  

E-print Network

Original article Thoracic trident pigmentation in Drosophila melanogaster: latitudinal. Significant clines of increasing pigmentation were observed according to latitude and altitude. A multiple regression technique permitted improve- ment of the relationship between pigmentation and geographic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

184

Pigment Granule Transport in Chromatophores  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource describes protocols and gives instructional information for carrying out an undergraduate laboratory exercise in vertebrate physiology. Students learn and analyze the dynamics of pigment granule transport in the chromatorphores of fishes. This exercise may be used as a stand alone exercise suitable for lower division undergraduate courses, or may be expanded as a scientific-inquiry based exercise for upper-level undergraduate courses. It includes student outlines, instructor's notes, and suggested questions for laboratory reports.

Kathryn B. Toner (;); Sally E. Nyquist (Bucknell University;)

1997-01-01

185

Laser therapy and macular degeneration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among macular diseases, choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is one of the most common causes of visual loss, especially in the form associated with age-related macular degeneration and pathologic myopia. Research on these diseases has recently evaluated new treatment modalities that use laser light differently; among these, photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been introduced in the clinical practice, allowing us to expand the possibility of reducing visual loss in patients affected by CNV. With PDT, a photosensitizer (verteporfin, VisudyneTM) is injected intravenously, and it selectively binds to new vessels; low-power laser light exposure then activates the drug, leading to oxidative damage of the endothelium and new vessels thrombosis. Yet, other therapies, such as transpupillary termotherapy, or the use of photocoagulation to cause feeder-vessel occlusion, could proof effective, but they need further investigation.

Menchini, Ugo; Virgili, Gianni; Giansanti, Fabrizio; Giacomelli, Giovanni; Cappelli, Stefania

2001-10-01

186

[Tear in the retinal pigment epithelium by intravitreal injection of aflibercept].  

PubMed

Development of tears in the retinal pigment epithelium (RIP) has been described as a possible complication following anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antibody therapy with substances which have been available for years when treating pigment epithelium detachment (PED) in eyes affected by age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Aflibercept has become available for the treatment of exsudative AMD since December 2012. This case report describes a further patient in addition to the only other case published so far who developed RIP after aflibercept treatment for PED. Patients have to be thoroughly informed about this potential side effect before initiation of intravitreal aflibercept injection therapy. PMID:24062151

Bertelmann, T; Sekundo, W; Wenner, Y

2014-08-01

187

Hydroxytyrosol protects retinal pigment epithelial cells from acrolein-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydroxytyrosol (HTS) is a natural polyphenol abundant in olive oil. Increasing evidence indicates HTS has beneficial effect on human health for preventing various diseases. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of HTS on acrolein-induced toxicity in human retinal pigment epithelial cell line, ARPE-19, a cellular model of smoking- and age-related macular degeneration. Acrolein, a major compo- nent

Zhongbo Liu; Lijuan Sun; Lu Zhu; Xu Jia; Xuesen Li; Haiqun Jia; Ying Wang; Peter Weber; Jiangang Long; Jiankang Liu

2007-01-01

188

Surgery for full-thickness macular hole in patients with idiopathic macular telangiectasia type 2.  

PubMed

The authors report surgical outcomes of full-thickness macular hole repair in two patients with idiopathic macular telangiectasia in a non-comparative case series. Both patients underwent pars plana vitrectomy with indocyanine green-assisted internal limiting membrane peeling and injection of 16% C(3)F(8) gas. Patients were imaged with optical coherence tomography (OCT) before and after surgery. The first patient demonstrated macular hole closure on examination and OCT with visual improvement from 20/50 preoperatively to 20/30 after macular hole surgery and subsequent cataract surgery. The second patient's hole closed per OCT immediately after surgery but reopened 4 months later, and visual acuity remained 20/70. Macular hole surgery may be an effective treatment in patients with idiopathic macular telangiectasia and full-thickness macular holes and should be further investigated. PMID:21158375

Gregori, Ninel; Flynn, Harry W

2010-01-01

189

Cigarette smoking and retinal carotenoids: implications for age-related macular degeneration.  

PubMed

The foveal region of the retina has a yellow pigmentation composed primarily of the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin. Past studies have shown that cigarette smoking depresses carotenoid concentrations in the blood. This is the first report on the effects of cigarette smoking on carotenoids in the retina. Macular pigment optical density (MP) was measured psychophysically by comparing foveal and parafoveal sensitivities to light of 460 and 550 nm. General dietary patterns, smoking frequency (cigaretts/day) and personal data were collected by questionnaire. Thirty-four smokers and 34 nonsmokers were compared. Subjects were matched with respect to age, sex, dietary patterns and overall pigmentation (i.e., eye, skin and hair color). The smoking group had a mean MP of 0.16 (SD = 0.12) compared to a mean MP of 0.34 (SD = 0.15) for nonsmokers (P < 0.0001). MP density and smoking frequency were inversely related (r = -0.498 P < 0.001) in a dose-response relationship. A variety of evidence suggests that MP protects the macula from actinic damage both passively (by screening potentially harmful short-wave light) and actively as an antioxidant (e.g., by quenching reactive oxygen species). If smoking causes a reduction in MP density, then smokers may be at risk. Epidemiologic data identifying smoking as a risk factor for the neovascular form of age-related macular degeneration are consistent with this hypothesis. PMID:8917800

Hammond, B R; Wooten, B R; Snodderly, D M

1996-09-01

190

Ion transport in pigmentation.  

PubMed

Skin melanocytes and ocular pigment cells contain specialized organelles called melanosomes, which are responsible for the synthesis of melanin, the major pigment in mammals. Defects in the complex mechanisms involved in melanin synthesis and regulation result in vision and pigmentation deficits, impaired development of the visual system, and increased susceptibility to skin and eye cancers. Ion transport across cellular membranes is critical for many biological processes, including pigmentation, but the molecular mechanisms by which it regulates melanin synthesis, storage, and transfer are not understood. In this review we first discuss ion channels and transporters that function at the plasma membrane of melanocytes; in the second part we consider ion transport across the membrane of intracellular organelles, with emphasis on melanosomes. We discuss recently characterized lysosomal and endosomal ion channels and transporters associated with pigmentation phenotypes. We then review the evidence for melanosomal channels and transporters critical for pigmentation, discussing potential molecular mechanisms mediating their function. The studies investigating ion transport in pigmentation physiology open new avenues for future research and could reveal novel molecular mechanisms underlying melanogenesis. PMID:25034214

Bellono, Nicholas W; Oancea, Elena V

2014-12-01

191

The genetics of inherited macular dystrophies  

PubMed Central

The aim of this paper is to review current knowledge relating to the monogenic macular dystrophies, with discussion of currently mapped genes, chromosomal loci and genotype-phenotype relationships. Inherited systemic disorders with a macular dystrophy component will not be discussed. PMID:12960208

Michaelides, M; Hunt, D; Moore, A

2003-01-01

192

Bilateral Macular Hole Following Myopic Photorefractive Keratectomy  

PubMed Central

A 42-year-old man was admitted to our clinic complaining of visual distortion in his left eye two months after bilateral myopic photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). Macular optical coherence tomography (OCT) showed a stage II macular hole in the left eye. Simultaneous OCT in the right eye showed vitreous traction and distortion of the outer retina. One month later, the patient underwent vitrectomy for the left eye, and the macular hole was closed. Two months after that, the patient complained of visual distortion in the right eye, and OCT revealed increased traction and accentuated outer retinal distortion indicating a stage IB macular hole. Traction attenuated later without any intervention. The short interval between PRK and hole formation, bilateral involvement, and the moderate refractive error in this case highlight the possible role of PRK in aggravating vitreoretinal interface abnormalities. We recommend the addition of PRK to the list of procedures that may be associated with the formation of a macular hole. PMID:24882962

Shoeibi, Nasser; Abrishami, Majid; Ansari-Astaneh, Mohammad-reza

2014-01-01

193

Bilateral macular hole following myopic photorefractive keratectomy.  

PubMed

A 42-year-old man was admitted to our clinic complaining of visual distortion in his left eye two months after bilateral myopic photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). Macular optical coherence tomography (OCT) showed a stage II macular hole in the left eye. Simultaneous OCT in the right eye showed vitreous traction and distortion of the outer retina. One month later, the patient underwent vitrectomy for the left eye, and the macular hole was closed. Two months after that, the patient complained of visual distortion in the right eye, and OCT revealed increased traction and accentuated outer retinal distortion indicating a stage IB macular hole. Traction attenuated later without any intervention. The short interval between PRK and hole formation, bilateral involvement, and the moderate refractive error in this case highlight the possible role of PRK in aggravating vitreoretinal interface abnormalities. We recommend the addition of PRK to the list of procedures that may be associated with the formation of a macular hole. PMID:24882962

Shoeibi, Nasser; Jabbarpoor Bonyadi, Mohammad Hossein; Abrishami, Majid; Ansari-Astaneh, Mohammad-Reza

2014-06-01

194

Spontaneous closure of traumatic macular hole  

PubMed Central

Macular hole formation is a well-known complication following ocular trauma. Less commonly recognised is the spontaneous closure of such holes. A 27-year-old man presented with a history of blunt trauma to his left eye. Eye evaluation showed conjunctival laceration, diffuse retinal oedema and multiple retinal haemorrhages in that eye. A month later, he developed a full thickness macular hole. Two months later, there was spontaneous complete closure of the full-thickness macular hole in the left eye as confirmed on optical coherence tomography. Spontaneous closure of hole is not uncommon. Observation for a period of up to 12 months is a reasonable management option. Macular hole surgery for traumatic macular holes may be delayed in such cases. PMID:23961017

Sanjay, Srinivasan; Yeo, Tun Kuan; Au Eong, Kah-Guan

2012-01-01

195

Common Origin of Pigment Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fundamentally diverse vertebrate pigment cells, melanophores, xanthophores, and iridophores, contain pigmentary organelles known, respectively, as melanosomes, pterinosomes, and reflecting platelets. Their pigments are melanins, pteridines, and purines. Mosaic pigment cells containing more than one type of organelle have been observed and mosaic organelles containing more than one type of pigment have been discovered. It is proposed that the various

Joseph T. Bagnara; Jiro Matsumoto; Wayne Ferris; Sally K. Frost; William A. Turner Jr.; T. T. Tchen; John D. Taylor

1979-01-01

196

Pigment-protein complexes  

SciTech Connect

The photosynthetically-active pigment protein complexes of procaryotes and eucaryotes include chlorophyll proteins, carotenochlorophyll proteins, and biliproteins. They are either integral components or attached to photosynthetic membranes. Detergents are frequently required to solubilize the pigment-protein complexes. The membrane localization and detergent solubilization strongly suggest that the pigment-protein complexes are bound to the membranes by hydrophobic interactions. Hydrophobic interactions of proteins are characterized by an increase in entropy. Their bonding energy is directly related to temperature and ionic strength. Hydrophobic-interaction chromatography, a relatively new separation procedure, can furnish an important method for the purification of pigment-protein complexes. Phycobilisome purification and properties provide an example of the need to maintain hydrophobic interactions to preserve structure and function.

Siegelman, H W

1980-01-01

197

Pigments Through the Ages  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This fascinating online exhibit deals with the use of pigment and provides visitors with an "Overview", "History of Use", "Making the Pigment" and "Technical Details" for dozens of pigments that are "some of the most historically important in art". Visitors can click on "Choose a Pigment" to see a 3D image of such beauties as Cerulean Blue, Ultramarine, Naples Yellow, and Orpiment. Visitors can see a timeline of when these pigments were discovered, if they have continued being used, and in what form, artificial or natural. Carbon Black and Bone Black were the earliest pigments, and are still used today, and Titanium White is the most recent discovery, and it came into existence in 1921. The "Make Paintings" link is where visitors will probably have the most fun on the site, as they can see the progress of a painting in watercolor, pastels, oil, acrylic and the now little used method of egg tempera. Additionally, each technique is explained in detail, highlighted by photos that visitors can zoom in on for closer scrutiny.

198

Macular hole in Behçet's disease  

PubMed Central

Objective: To investigate the clinical features, prevalence, role of surgical intervention and the visual prognosis of macular holes (MH) in patients with Behcet's disease (BD). Materials and Methods: Retrospective study of patients with BD and MH from January 1998 to November 2008. Results: Out of 159 patients, 21 eyes of 17 patients were identified with MH. The mean age was 38.59 (range 23-61) years and the mean follow-up period was 5.1 years (range 13-164 months). The prevalence of MH was 7%. Visual acuity (VA) at the time of presentation ranged from 20/70 to hand-motion. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings revealed intraretinal cysts at the edge of the MH. The mean size of MH was 983.6 um; 52% had elevated edges, 43% had flat edges and only one eye (5%) was closed postoperatively. Fluorescein angiography (FA) was consistent with macular ischemia in 76% of the cases. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) B51 association was found in 14 of the 15 patients investigated. Six patients (out of 17) underwent pars plana vitrectomy. The final VA on their last follow-up ranged from 20/70 to 2/200. Surgical intervention for MH did not result in any visual improvement as compared to non-operated eyes. One patient lost vision completely due to elevated intraocular pressure post vitrectomy and silicon oil tamponade. Conclusions: MH in patients with BD may lead to significant visual disability. Surgical intervention does not seem to have any potential beneficial effect on the VA, probably due to significant macular ischemia and sequelae from the ocular inflammation. PMID:21836340

Al-Dhibi, Hassan; Abouammoh, Marwan; Al-Harthi, Essam; Al-Gaeed, Abdulrahman; Larsson, Jorgen; Abboud, Emad; Chaudhry, Imtiaz

2011-01-01

199

Ranibizumab in diabetic macular edema  

PubMed Central

By 2050 the prevalence of diabetes will more than triple globally, dramatically increasing the societal and financial burden of this disease worldwide. As a consequence of this growth, it is anticipated that there will be a concurrent rise in the numbers of patients with diabetic macular edema (DME), already among the most common causes of severe vision loss worldwide. Recent available therapies for DME target the secreted cytokine, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). This review focuses on the treatment of DME using the first humanized monoclonal antibody targeting VEGF that has been Food and Drug Administration-approved for the use in the eye, ranibizumab (Lucentis®). PMID:24379922

Krispel, Claudia; Rodrigues, Murilo; Xin, Xiaoban; Sodhi, Akrit

2013-01-01

200

Mutation in a short-chain collagen gene, CTRP5, results in extracellular deposit formation in late-onset retinal degeneration: a genetic model for age-related macular degeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A primary feature of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the presence of extracellular deposits between the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and underlying Bruch's membrane, leading to RPE dysfunction, photoreceptor death and severe visual loss. AMD accounts for about 50% of blind registrations in Western countries and is a common, genetically complex disorder. Very little is known regarding its molecular basis.

Caroline Hayward; Xinhua Shu; Artur V. Cideciyan; Alan Lennon; Perdita Barran; Sepideh Zareparsi; Lindsay Sawyer; Grace Hendry; Baljean Dhillon; Ann H. Milam; Philip J. Luthert; Anand Swaroop; Nicholas D. Hastie; Samuel G. Jacobson; Alan F. Wright

2003-01-01

201

Pigment chemistry and colour of Pelargonium flowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major factors responsible for colour variation in a range of Pelargonium species and cultivars were shown to be the types and relative levels of pigments present. Variations in pH and copigment levels were not found to contribute significantly. Flowers with colours ranging from cream and pink through to deep purple, including salmon, orange and red, were studied. While either

Kevin A. Mitchell; Kenneth R. Markham; Murray R. Boase

1998-01-01

202

Macular full-thickness and lamellar holes in association with type 2 idiopathic macular telangiectasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeTo describe patients with full-thickness macular holes (FTMHs) and lamellar macular holes (LMHs) in association with type 2 idiopathic macular telangiectasia (type 2 IMT).MethodsSix patients with either FTMH or LMH and type 2 IMT were evaluated by means of optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging, funduscopy, and fluorescein angiography.ResultsThe age of the examined patients ranged from 57 to 70 years (mean

P Charbel Issa; H P N Scholl; A Gaudric; P Massin; A E Kreiger; S Schwartz; F G Holz

2009-01-01

203

Advances in the management of macular degeneration  

PubMed Central

Current management of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) can be divided into two categories: first, anti-vasoendothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) injection for wet macular degeneration; second, anti-oxidant vitamins for dry macular degeneration. New therapies are being developed for both of these diseases using novel technologies and different modes of administration. The hope is that some of these therapies will achieve significant improvement to current management and prevent future loss of vision in this devastating eye condition. PMID:24860651

2014-01-01

204

Bilateral Simultaneous Stage 1 Macular Hole  

PubMed Central

The authors describe two cases of bilateral simultaneous stage 1 macular hole diagnosed via optical coherence tomography (OCT). Vitreomacular traction, foveal pseudo cysts, and outer retinal changes were present initially. Resolution of the foveal pseudo cysts and outer retinal changes occurred in cases where a complete posterior vitreous detachment was noted. The initial step in the pathogenesis of macular holes is “traction” from the detaching posterior hyaloid. However, there are missing links in the exact inciting events and in the progression of the disease. The development of bilateral stage 1 macular holes simultaneously is unique and interesting because an unknown common inciting factor might be at play in these cases. PMID:23053850

Alwassia, Ahmad A.; Adhi, Mehreen; Duker, Jay S.

2014-01-01

205

An Improved Method for Extraction and Separation of Photosynthetic Pigments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The method for extracting and separating hydrophobic photosynthetic pigments proposed by Katayama "et al." ("Japanese Journal of Phycology," 42, 71-77, 1994) has been improved to introduce it to student laboratories at the senior high school level. Silica gel powder was used for removing water from fresh materials prior to extracting pigments by a…

Katayama, Nobuyasu; Kanaizuka, Yasuhiro; Sudarmi, Rini; Yokohama, Yasutsugu

2003-01-01

206

Pathological Consequences of Long-Term Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress in the Mouse Retinal Pigment Epithelium  

PubMed Central

Oxidative stress in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is hypothesized to be a major contributor to the development of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is a critical antioxidant protein that scavenges the highly reactive superoxide radical. We speculated that specific reduction of MnSOD in the RPE will increase the level of reactive oxygen species in the retina/RPE/choroid complex leading to pathogenesis similar to geographic atrophy. To test this hypothesis, an Sod2-specific hammerhead ribozyme (Rz), delivered by AAV2/1 and driven by the human VMD2 promoter was injected subretinally into C57BL/6J mice. Dark-adapted full field electroretinogram (ERG) detected a decrease in the response to light. We investigated the age-dependent phenotypic and morphological changes of the outer retina digital fundus imaging and SD-OCT measurement of ONL thickness. Fundus microscopy revealed pigmentary abnormalities in the retina and these corresponded to sub-retinal and sub-RPE deposits seen in SD-OCT B-scans. Light and electron microscopy documented the localization of apical deposits and thickening of the RPE. In RPE flat-mounts we observed abnormally displaced nuclei and regions of apparent fibrosis in the central retina of the oldest mice. This region was surrounded by enlarged and irregular RPE cells that have been observed in eyes donated by AMD patients and in other mouse models of AMD. PMID:22687918

Seo, Soo-jung; Krebs, Mark P.; Mao, Haoyu; Jones, Kyle; Conners, Mandy; Lewin, Alfred S.

2012-01-01

207

Enzymatic Degradation of A2E, a Retinal Pigment Epithelial Lipofuscin Bisretinoid  

PubMed Central

Some forms of blinding macular disease are associated with excessive accumulation of bisretinoid lipofuscin in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells of the eye. This material is refractory to lysosomal enzyme degradation. In addition to gene and drug-based therapies, treatments that reverse the accumulation of bisretinoid would be beneficial. Thus, we have examined the feasibility of degrading the bisretinoids by delivery of exogenous enzyme. As proof of principle we report that horseradish peroxidase (HRP) can cleave the RPE bisretinoid A2E. In both cell-free and cell-based assays, A2E levels were decreased in the presence of HRP. HRP-associated cleavage products were detected by ultraperformance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, and the structures of the aldehyde-bearing cleavage products were elucidated by 18O-labeling and 1H NMR spectroscopy and by recording UV-vis absorbance spectra. These findings indicate that RPE bisretinoids such as A2E can be degraded by appropriate enzyme activities. PMID:21166406

Wu, Yalin; Zhou, Jilin; Fishkin, Nathan; Rittmann, Bruce E.; Sparrow, Janet R.

2014-01-01

208

Broiler skin pigmentation based on bioavailability of specific oxycarotenoid pigments  

E-print Network

BROILER SKIN PIGMENTATION BASED ON BIOAVAILABILITY OF SPECIFIC OXYCAROTENOID PIGMENTS A Thesis by DAVID ANGEL GANBOA GARCIA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1992 Major Subject: Nutrition BROILER SKIN PIGMENTATION BASED ON BIOAVAILABILITY OP SPECIFIC OXYCAROTENOID PIGMENTS A Thesis by DAVID ANGEL GAMBOA GARCIA Approved as to style and content by: C. A. Bai, ley...

Gamboa Garcia, David Angel

2012-06-07

209

Optical Coherence Tomography of Bilateral Nanophthalmos with Macular Folds and High Hyperopia  

PubMed Central

Importance. There is a conflict about the content of the macular folds in nanophthalmic eyes in the literature. Our study clearly demonstrated that papillomacular folds seen in nanophthalmos or posterior microphthalmos were only composed of neurosensory retina without involvement of retinal pigment epithelium and choroid. Observations. This is a report of two consecutive nanophthalmic patients with macular folds at Maltepe University School of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology, from January to June 2012. Anterior segment dimensions were near normal. The axial lengths of the eyes were short with markedly shortened posterior segment. A macular fold extending from the center of the fovea towards the optic nerve head was present in all eyes. Optic coherence tomography clearly demonstrated that folds were only composed of neurosensory retina. Binocular visual acuities and refractive errors of the cases were 0.3, 0.2 and +16.00, +15.75 diopters, respectively. Conclusions and Relevance. Our study proposes a surgical option to treat these folds like serous retinal detachments by showing the true content of the folds, although there is not any surgical operation accepted for this condition yet. Further studies dealing with the surgical interventions of these folds should be performed to support this option. PMID:25197593

Kapran, Ziya; Sencan, Sadik; Uyar, Murat; Cam, Ozlem

2014-01-01

210

Age-related macular degeneration and changes in the extracellular matrix.  

PubMed

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of permanent, irreversible, central blindness (scotoma in the central visual field that makes reading and writing impossible, stereoscopic vision, recognition of colors and details) in patients over the age of 50 years in European and North America countries, and an important role is attributed to disorders in the regulation of the extracellular matrix (ECM). The main aim of this article is to present the crucial processes that occur on the level of Bruch's membrane, with special consideration of the metalloproteinase substrates, metalloproteinase, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP). A comprehensive review of the literature was performed through MEDLINE and PubMed searches, covering the years 2005-2012, using the following keywords: AMD, extracellular matrix, metalloproteinases, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases, Bruch's membrane, collagen, elastin. In the pathogenesis of AMD, a significant role is played by collagen type I and type IV; elastin; fibulin-3, -5, and -6; matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, MMP-14, and MMP-1; and TIMP-3. Other important mechanisms include: ARMS2 and HTR1 proteins, the complement system, the urokinase plasminogen activator system, and pro-renin receptor activation. Continuous rebuilding of the extracellular matrix occurs in both early and advanced AMD, simultaneously with the dysfunction of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells and endothelial cells. The pathological degradation or accumulation of ECM structural components are caused by impairment or hyperactivity of specific MMPs/TIMPs complexes, and is also endangered by the influence of other mechanisms connected with both genetic and environmental factors. PMID:24938626

Nita, Ma?gorzata; Strza?ka-Mrozik, Barbara; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Mazurek, Urszula; Romaniuk, Wanda

2014-01-01

211

Age-related macular degeneration and changes in the extracellular matrix  

PubMed Central

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of permanent, irreversible, central blindness (scotoma in the central visual field that makes reading and writing impossible, stereoscopic vision, recognition of colors and details) in patients over the age of 50 years in European and North America countries, and an important role is attributed to disorders in the regulation of the extracellular matrix (ECM). The main aim of this article is to present the crucial processes that occur on the level of Bruch’s membrane, with special consideration of the metalloproteinase substrates, metalloproteinase, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP). A comprehensive review of the literature was performed through MEDLINE and PubMed searches, covering the years 2005–2012, using the following keywords: AMD, extracellular matrix, metalloproteinases, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases, Bruch’s membrane, collagen, elastin. In the pathogenesis of AMD, a significant role is played by collagen type I and type IV; elastin; fibulin-3, -5, and -6; matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, MMP-14, and MMP-1; and TIMP-3. Other important mechanisms include: ARMS2 and HTR1 proteins, the complement system, the urokinase plasminogen activator system, and pro-renin receptor activation. Continuous rebuilding of the extracellular matrix occurs in both early and advanced AMD, simultaneously with the dysfunction of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells and endothelial cells. The pathological degradation or accumulation of ECM structural components are caused by impairment or hyperactivity of specific MMPs/TIMPs complexes, and is also endangered by the influence of other mechanisms connected with both genetic and environmental factors. PMID:24938626

Nita, Ma?gorzata; Strza?ka-Mrozik, Barbara; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Mazurek, Urszula; Romaniuk, Wanda

2014-01-01

212

Unilateral Idiopathic Macular Telangiectasia with Choroidal Neovascularization.  

PubMed

A 40-year-old man with decreasing visual acuity in his left eye over 1 year, diagnosed elsewhere as vein occlusion and treated unsuccessfully by systemic steroids was reported. Retrospective analysis of available previous imaging studies was undertaken, and a retrospective diagnosis of idiopathic macular telangiectasia (IMT) was made. Examination revealed subfoveal neovascularization and retinochoroidal anastomosis (RCA) in his left eye with macular edema and exudates surrounding it. The right eye was normal. Current fluorescein angiography (FA) confirmed the presence of choroidal neovascularization and RCA, and optical coherence tomography (OCT) demonstrated cystoid macular edema and subfoveal neovascularization.The patient was diagnosed with unilateral idiopathic macular telangiectasia complicated by subretinal neovascularization. The presences of a choroidal neovascularization process and an RCA have not, to our knowledge, been reported in this type of IMT. PMID:20337307

Mezad-Koursh, Daphna; Zayit-Soudry, Shiri; Barak, Adiel; Loewenstein, Anat

2010-03-01

213

Macular Degeneration Prevention and Risk Factors  

MedlinePLUS

... Individuals with diets high in fat, cholesterol and sugar, and low in antioxidants are more likely to be affected by age-related macular degeneration. Obesity - Overweight individuals are more likely to be affected ...

214

Biology of pigmentation  

SciTech Connect

The many factors involved in the normal pigmentation of human skin are highly complex involving anatomic, biochemical, and genetic aspects of melanocytes in the skin and the influence of UV light and various hormones on the melanocytes. It is probably more than just coincidence that the melanocytes, which are of neurogenic origin, are so responsive to several trophic hormones produced in the brain. Understanding of the various factors involved in the normal pigmentary process is crucial to explaining the many alterations and anomalies in human pigmentation.

Parker, F.

1981-01-01

215

Age related macular degeneration and visual disability.  

PubMed

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of central blindness or low vision among the elderly in industrialized countries. AMD is caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Among modifiable environmental risk factors, cigarette smoking has been associated with both the dry and wet forms of AMD and may increase the likelihood of worsening pre-existing AMD. Despite advances, the treatment of AMD has limitations and affected patients are often referred for low vision rehabilitation to help them cope with their remaining eyesight. The characteristic visual impairment for both forms of AMD is loss of central vision (central scotoma). This loss results in severe difficulties with reading that may be only partly compensated by magnifying glasses or screen-projection devices. The loss of central vision associated with the disease has a profound impact on patient quality of life. With progressive central visual loss, patients lose their ability to perform the more complex activities of daily living. Common vision aids include low vision filters, magnifiers, telescopes and electronic aids. Low vision rehabilitation (LVR) is a new subspecialty emerging from the traditional fields of ophthalmology, optometry, occupational therapy, and sociology, with an ever-increasing impact on the usual concepts of research, education, and services for visually impaired patients. Relatively few ophthalmologists practise LVR and fewer still routinely use prismatic image relocation (IR) in AMD patients. IR is a method of stabilizing oculomotor functions with the purpose of promoting better function of preferred retinal loci (PRLs). The aim of vision rehabilitation therapy consists in the achievement of techniques designed to improve PRL usage. The use of PRLs to compensate for diseased foveae has offered hope to these patients in regaining some function. However, in a recently published meta-analysis, prism spectacles were found to be unlikely to be of substantial benefit in people with age-related macular degeneration. Prescription filters are one of the most beneficial visual aids that people with macular degeneration. In principle, one aims both at reducing short-wavelength light to reduce glare and at identifying light with specific wavelengths (colours) preferred by the patient for viewing. In both instances, such interventions result in apparent improved contrast sensitivity and better visual acuity. Although specific tests are performed to determine the best colour, tint, lens material, and type of frame for the patient's need, no scientific protocol has been developed so far to assist in prescribing tinted or selective transmission lenses . Magnifying optical lenses are available in a wide range of dioptric powers and are made from materials that correct for weight (plastic), thickness (high index), spherical aberrations (aspherical), and variable light intensities (photochromatic). These lenses can be used as loose lenses, mounted on optical frames, or used with a wide variety of attachments. As the dioptric power of plus lenses increases, the viewing distance of the target decreases, hence their usefulness mainly for tasks requiring near resolution acuity, like reading. Magnification can also be achieved with the use of telescopic devices that are built of two or more plus and (or) minus (minifying) optical lenses. Normal resolution acuity levels can be achieved with these devices for all viewing distances. Therefore, all telescopic devices are useful only for stationary patient tasks that do not require mobility and orientation. Electronic magnification has the great advantage over plus lenses of producing an acuity reserve enabling reading skills for almost all levels of visual acuity. The additional benefit provided is preservation of binocularity, even at high levels of visual disparity between the two eyes. Vision rehabilitation can help patients to maximize their remaining vision and adapt to activities of daily living. The support of the patient's social network is critical to patient's well-bei

Christoforidis, John B; Tecce, Nicola; Dell'Omo, Roberto; Mastropasqua, Rodolfo; Verolino, Marco; Costagliola, Ciro

2011-02-01

216

INTRODUCTION Ommochrome pigments are a class of pigments that is  

E-print Network

of tryptophan metabolism (e.g. Han et al., 2007; Kato et al., 2006). The eye pigmentation pathway of Drosophila pigments (eyes, integument), but also as an electron accepting or donating system and as metabolic end as screening pigments in the accessory cells of the eyes and are also present in the retinula cells (Linzen

Giron, David - Institut de Recherche sur la Biologie de l'Insecte, Université François Rabelais

217

Cystoid macular edema associated with acitretin  

PubMed Central

Summary Cystoid macular edema represents a “final common pathway” response of the retina to a variety of insults. It has been reported in association with vascular problems, inflammatory conditions, inherited diseases, tractional problems, intraocular surgery and medications. We report a case of cystoid macular edema associated with acitretin in a 65-year-old woman and document its resolution with optical coherence tomography (OCT). PMID:24459457

Yap, Joel; Buller, Alex

2013-01-01

218

Anthocyanin pigments in strawberry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anthocyanin composition was analysed in strawberry fruits from five different cultivars (cv. Eris, Oso Grande, Carisma, Tudnew and Camarosa). Twenty-five defined anthocyanin pigments were detected, most of them containing Pelargonidin (Pg) as aglycone; some cyanidin (Cy) derivatives were also found. Glucose and rutinose were the usual substituting sugars, although arabinose and rhamnose were also tentatively identified; some minor anthocyanins

Fátima Lopes da Silva; María Teresa Escribano-Bailón; José Joaquín Pérez Alonso; Julián C. Rivas-Gonzalo; Celestino Santos-Buelga

2007-01-01

219

?B Crystallin Is Apically Secreted within Exosomes by Polarized Human Retinal Pigment Epithelium and Provides Neuroprotection to Adjacent Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

?B Crystallin is a chaperone protein with anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory functions and has been identified as a biomarker in age-related macular degeneration. The purpose of this study was to determine whether ?B crystallin is secreted from retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, the mechanism of this secretory pathway and to determine whether extracellular ?B crystallin can be taken up by adjacent

Parameswaran G. Sreekumar; Ram Kannan; Mizuki Kitamura; Christine Spee; Ernesto Barron; Stephen J. Ryan; David R. Hinton

2010-01-01

220

Pigment dispersion syndrome and pigmented pattern dystrophy of retinal pigment epithelium.  

PubMed Central

The 2 rare entities, pigmentary dispersion syndrome and pigmented pattern dystrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium, were found in a young male patient. Visual function was undisturbed. Images PMID:6871146

Chew, E Y; Deutman, A F

1983-01-01

221

Early structural changes during spontaneous closure of idiopathic full-thickness macular hole determined by optical coherence tomography: a case report  

PubMed Central

Background Spontaneous closure of an idiopathic full-thickness macular hole has been reported to occasionally occur. However, the cells involved in plugging the macular hole have not been determined conclusively. We aimed to report the early structural changes that occur during a spontaneous closure of an idiopathic full-thickness macular hole determined by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Case presentation A 71-year-old Japanese man with an idiopathic full-thickness macular hole and subclinical posterior vitreous detachment in the left eye was followed. Three weeks after the identification of the macular hole, optical coherence tomography showed tissue that protruded from the interior wall of the macular hole at the level of the external limiting membrane toward the center of the macular hole. Five months after the first examination, he returned with improvements of his visual symptoms, and the macular hole was closed by a thin retinal tissue which included the restored external limiting membrane that bridged across the macular hole. However, the inner segment/outer segment junction line was not intact and the fovea was detached. Two months later, optical coherence tomography showed an almost normal foveal configuration with an essentially restored inner segment/outer segment junction line and foveal reattachment. Conclusion Our results suggest that Müller cells proliferate and/or extend at the level of the end of the external limiting membrane to form a tissue bridge across the macular hole associated with the external limiting membrane restoration first of all. This leads to the adhesion of other retinal layers and resolution of the foveal detachment. PMID:24083650

2013-01-01

222

Cholesterol-mediated activation of acid sphingomyelinase disrupts autophagy in the retinal pigment epithelium.  

PubMed

Autophagy is an essential mechanism for clearing damaged organelles and proteins within the cell. As with neurodegenerative diseases, dysfunctional autophagy could contribute to blinding diseases such as macular degeneration. However, precisely how inefficient autophagy promotes retinal damage is unclear. In this study, we investigate innate mechanisms that modulate autophagy in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), a key site of insult in macular degeneration. High-speed live imaging of polarized adult primary RPE cells and data from a mouse model of early-onset macular degeneration identify a mechanism by which lipofuscin bisretinoids, visual cycle metabolites that progressively accumulate in the RPE, disrupt autophagy. We demonstrate that bisretinoids trap cholesterol and bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate, an acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase) cofactor, within the RPE. ASMase activation increases cellular ceramide, which promotes tubulin acetylation on stabilized microtubules. Live-imaging data show that autophagosome traffic and autophagic flux are inhibited in RPE with acetylated microtubules. Drugs that remove excess cholesterol or inhibit ASMase reverse this cascade of events and restore autophagosome motility and autophagic flux in the RPE. Because accumulation of lipofuscin bisretinoids and abnormal cholesterol homeostasis are implicated in macular degeneration, our studies suggest that ASMase could be a potential therapeutic target to ensure the efficient autophagy that maintains RPE health. PMID:25378587

Toops, Kimberly A; Tan, Li Xuan; Jiang, Zhichun; Radu, Roxana A; Lakkaraju, Aparna

2015-01-01

223

Dynamics of the Macular Hole-Silicone Oil Tamponade Interface with Patient Positioning as Imaged by Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate with spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) the relationship between the retina and overlying silicone oil tamponade after macular hole surgery, and to evaluate how this relationship changes with patient positioning. Patients and Methods Retrospective consecutive case series of 10 eyes from 9 patients who underwent macular hole surgery with silicone oil tamponade and subsequent SD-OCT scans. Four of the included eyes were also imaged with patients in face-down posture to determine if the silicone-retina apposition changes with prone positioning. Finally, a single patient was additionally scanned in the lateral and supine positions. Results The posterior surface of the silicone oil bubble was well visualized in all 10 eyes. In the majority of eyes (7/10) the oil tamponade bridged across the macular hole creating a pre-foveal fluid space, but in 3 eyes the silicone oil filled the macular hole and was seen in touch with the underlying foveal depression or retinal pigment epithelium. In 75% of eyes (3/4) the silicone oil-retinal approximation did not vary with face-down position. Supine positioning clearly floated the silicone tamponade anteriorly and off of the retinal surface. Conclusions Silicone oil tamponade can either bridge across macular holes, or in a novel finding, can fill the underlying foveal depression or macular hole space. Generally, the oil position is stable between face-forward and prone SD-OCT images, suggesting that either of these patient positions allows waterproofing of the underlying macular hole. Finally, our images confirm that supine positioning should be avoided post-operatively as it leads to loss of oil-retinal tamponade. PMID:20531144

Oster, Stephen F.; Mojana, Francesca; Bartsch, Dirk-Uwe G.; Goldbaum, Michael; Freeman, William R.

2010-01-01

224

Management of macular epiretinal membrane by vitrectomy and intravitreal triamcinolone  

PubMed Central

A patient underwent successful vitrectomy for macular epiretinal membrane with anatomical and functional improvement. 10 weeks later, there was a recurrence of macular edema with corresponding visual decline. An intravitreal injection of triamcinolone acetonide not only restored the macular anatomy but also improved the visual outcome beyond that achieved after surgery. PMID:23571236

Shukla, Dhananjay

2014-01-01

225

Clinical risk factors for age-related macular degeneration: a systematic review and meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in Western countries. Numerous risk factors have been reported but the evidence and strength of association is variable. We aimed to identify those risk factors with strong levels of evidence which could be easily assessed by physicians or ophthalmologists to implement preventive interventions or address current behaviours. METHODS: A

Usha Chakravarthy; Tien Y Wong; Astrid Fletcher; Elisabeth Piault; Christopher Evans; Gergana Zlateva; Ronald Buggage; Andreas Pleil; Paul Mitchell

2010-01-01

226

Macular thickness measured by stratus optical coherence tomography in patients with diabetes type 2 and mild nonproliferative retinopathy without clinical evidence of macular edema.  

PubMed

To evaluate macular thickness in eyes with mild nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR), patients with diabetes type 2, NPDR level 20 or 35, and without evidence of clinical macular edema underwent best-corrected visual acuity assessment, color fundus photography and Stratus optical coherence tomography. Mean center point thickness (CPT) and mean central subfield (CSF) thickness were compared with those of a healthy control population. 410 eyes/patients aged 61.2 ± 8.3 years, and with glycosylated hemoglobin of 7.9 ± 1.5% were included. Mean CPT and CSF were 186.6 ± 28.4 and 215.2 ± 25 µm, respectively, significantly increased compared to healthy subjects (p < 0.001). CSF thickness was abnormally increased in 17.6% of the patients, with values within the normal range in 79.5%, and abnormally decreased in 2.9%. CPT and CSF thickness were significantly thicker in men. No systemic factors showed a significant association. A significant increase in the macular thickness was found in eyes/patients with mild NPDR without clinical macular edema; however, only 17.6% of the eyes/patients had abnormally increased values and less than 3% abnormally decreased values. PMID:23614970

Pires, Isabel; Santos, Ana Rita; Nunes, Sandrina; Lobo, Conceição

2013-01-01

227

VISUAL OUTCOME CORRELATES WITH INNER MACULAR VOLUME IN EYES WITH SURGICALLY CLOSED MACULAR HOLE  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine the macular morphologic features that correlate best with visual outcome in eyes with surgically closed idiopathic macular hole. Methods Transversal observational case series of 24 eyes (22 subjects) imaged postoperatively using high-resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT). Total and inner macular volume for central 3 mm area, central foveal thickness, and size of foveal inner segment–outer segment junction abnormality were correlated with best-corrected visual acuity. Microperimetry (MP-1) test was performed in a subset of 18 eyes. Results Mean postoperative best-corrected visual acuity was 20/36 (range, 20/25–20/70). Postoperative follow-up mean was 32.97 ± 24.68 months (range, 5–96 months). Eighteen eyes underwent internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling. Among FD-OCT parameters, logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution best-corrected visual acuity and mean total microperimetry-1 sensitivity correlated best with inner macular volume in all eyes and ILM-peeled eyes (P < 0.05). Macular surface irregularities were noted in 12 eyes (66.7%) with ILM peeling but in none of the non–ILM-peeled eyes (P = 0.02). No significant correlation was found between microperimetry-1 sensitivity and other FD-OCT parameters. Conclusion Because inner macular volume strongly correlated with visual outcome in eyes with surgically closed macular hole, the possible effect of ILM peeling on visual outcome needs to be further investigated. PMID:23095727

PILLI, SUMAN; ZAWADZKI, ROBERT J.; WERNER, JOHN S.; PARK, SUSANNA S.

2013-01-01

228

Treatment of unwanted pigment.  

PubMed

Disorders of skin pigmentation pose significant challenges to both patients and physicians, as they have the unfortunate duality of being both common and difficult to treat conditions. This article reviews the etiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and treatment options for melasma and postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. A thorough understanding of the disease process itself, expected agent efficacy, risks, and benefits of various treatments is crucial while treating these complex conditions. PMID:24488633

Chance, Elizabeth W

2014-02-01

229

Silk lutein extract and its combination with vitamin E reduce UVB-mediated oxidative damage to retinal pigment epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Increased exposure to solar ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation may promote age related macular degeneration (AMD). Lutein can protect retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells from various oxidative insults but its direct protection against UVB has not been reported. This study aimed to demonstrate protective effects of silk lutein extract against UVB-induced oxidative damage to RPE cells and compared with standard lutein and Trolox, a vitamin E analog. ARPE-19 cells were treated with luteins with and without Trolox prior to UVB exposure. Cell viability and apoptosis were determined by trypan blue staining and caspase-3 activity, respectively. Oxidative damage was evaluated by measuring intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation, and activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase). Levels of lutein remained in culture medium was determined by HPLC. Both luteins reduced cellular ROS levels and lipid peroxidation mediated by UVB, and subsequently increased cell viability and reduced apoptosis. They also restored activities of most tested antioxidant enzymes. Enhancement of lutein antioxidant efficacy was observed in the presence of Trolox. In all these effects, the two lutein preparations had similar effectivenesses. In cell free media, Trolox enhanced the protective effect of lutein probably by reducing its degradation and repairing the oxidized derivatives. Yellow silk cocoon is a potential candidate of lutein for further development as dietary supplement for the prevention of AMD. PMID:23651647

Aimjongjun, Sathid; Sutheerawattananonda, Manote; Limpeanchob, Nanteetip

2013-07-01

230

Structural Changes in Individual Retinal Layers in Diabetic Macular Edema  

PubMed Central

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has enabled objective measurement of the total retinal thickness in diabetic macular edema (DME). The central retinal thickness is correlated modestly with visual impairment and changes paradoxically after treatments compared to the visual acuity. This suggests the clinical relevance of the central retinal thickness in DME and the presence of other factors that affect visual disturbance. Recent advances in spectral-domain (SD) OCT have provided better delineation of the structural changes and fine lesions in the individual retinal layers. Cystoid spaces in the inner nuclear layer and outer plexiform layer are related to quantitative and qualitative parameters in fluorescein angiography. OCT often shows vitreoretinal interface abnormalities in eyes with sponge-like retinal swelling. Serous retinal detachment is sometimes accompanied by hyperreflective foci in the subretinal fluid, which exacerbates the pathogenesis at the interface of the photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium. Photoreceptor damage at the fovea is thought to be represented by disruption of the external limiting membrane or the junction between the inner and outer segment lines and is correlated with visual impairment. Hyperreflective foci in the outer retinal layers on SD-OCT images, another marker of visual disturbance, are associated with foveal photoreceptor damage. PMID:24073417

Yoshimura, Nagahisa

2013-01-01

231

sA population-based study of macular choroidal neovascularization using optical coherence tomography in Eastern China  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to investigate the pathomorphological and functional variations of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in a Chinese population using optical coherence tomography (OCT). This population-based study enrolled 59 patients (age, >45 years; eyes, 70) with early and intermediate-stage AMD from Youyi Road Community, Baoshan District, Shanghai, China. Comprehensive standardized ophthalmic examinations included visual acuity, anterior segment analysis using a slit lamp, dilated fundus evaluation by direct ophthalmoscopy, 90D handheld lens analysis, fundus photography, fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA) and fast optic disk scans using OCT. The macular CNV characteristic profiles in early and intermediate-stage AMD were determined by OCT. Data were obtained on the first visit and the follow-up period ranged between 6 and 24 months, where FFA and OCT outcomes of early and intermediate-stage AMD patients were analyzed. Three profiles of early and intermediate-stage AMD were created from the OCT and FFA results, each with a different prognosis. Firstly, drusens with unclear boundaries and evident pigment proliferation, as well as hypofluorescence around the drusens, was observed via FFA. A slight small arch field located in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)/choriocapillary layer (CCL) was shown on OCT scans, indicating exudative AMD. Secondly, RPE detachments of >1 pupillary distance, without CNV in the macular area, indicated geographic chorioretinitis atrophy. Finally, drusens with clear boundaries and few pigment proliferations and no certain surrounding fluorescence was observed via FFA, while a clear RPE/CCL band on the OCT scans indicated slow progress. The results of the present study demonstrated that combined OCT and FFA was the most efficient method for identifying CNV and diagnosing AMD. If the two techniques are not available concurrently, then OCT is a safer and more reliable technique to follow-up early and intermediate-stage AMD patients. PMID:25009585

ZHAO, JIE; HU, JUN; LU, HAO; YANG, LEI

2014-01-01

232

Acute serous macular detachment and cystoid macular edema after uncomplicated phacoemulsification using standard dose subconjunctival cefuroxime.  

PubMed

Acute toxic serous macular detachment after cataract surgery is very rare, and has been described previously with the use of high concentrations of intra-cameral cefuroxime. We report a case of serous macular detachment and cystoid macular edema 1 day after uncomplicated phacoemulsification using standard dose subconjunctival cefuroxime at the end of surgery. Our case demonstrates that subconjunctival cefuroxime may cause retinal toxicity in a similar fashion to intra-cameral cefuroxime, possibly due to entry of the drug into the anterior chamber through the section or trans-scleral absorption. To our knowledge, this is the first report of this complication with subconjunctival administration of cefuroxime. PMID:24147948

Kontos, Andreas; Mitry, Danny; Althauser, Susanne; Jain, Saurabh

2014-09-01

233

[Epidemiology and development of macular edema in the diabetic].  

PubMed

Macular edema is the first cause of blindness in diabetics. Macular edema is defined by macular thickening or deposits of hard exudates. On 1000 diabetics examined over 2 years, 60 patients had a macular edema of which we retained 38 cases(54 eyes). All the patients had an ophthalmologic examination with a retinal angiography. Laser photocoagulation with green Argon laser was instituted in 50 eyes. 63% had background rethinopathy. Total or partial regression of the edema happened in 84.4%. Laser photocoagulation decrease by the half vision loss risk. Interest of early detection and treatment to decrease blindness incidence of macular edema in diabetics. PMID:11892440

Zghal-Mokni, I; Jeddi, A; Boujemaa, C; Ben Hadj Alouane, W; Gaigi, S; Ayed, S

2001-12-01

234

Diabetic macular edema: New promising therapies.  

PubMed

The treatment of diabetic macular edema is rapidly evolving. The era of laser therapy is being quickly replaced by an era of pharmacotherapy. Several pharmacotherapies have been recently developed for the treatment of retinal vascular diseases such as diabetic macular edema. Several intravitreal injections or sustained delivery devices have undergone phase 3 testing while others are currently being evaluated. The results of clinical trials have shown the superiority of some of these agents to laser therapy. However, with the availability of several of these newer agents, it may be difficult to individualize treatment options especially those patients respond differently to various therapies. As such, more effort is still needed in order to determine the best treatment regimen for a given patient. In this article, we briefly summarize the major new therapeutic additions for the treatment of diabetic macular edema and allude to some future promising therapies. PMID:24379924

Shamsi, Hanan N Al; Masaud, Jluwi S; Ghazi, Nicola G

2013-12-15

235

Macular Hole Progression following Ocriplasmin Intravitreal Injection  

PubMed Central

Ocriplasmin is a protease which has been approved for the treatment of symptomatic vitreomacular adhesion (VMA). A 63-year-old presented with blurred vision in the left eye and a best corrected visual acuity of 6/18. Optical coherence tomography revealed VMA with an underlying macular hole and she subsequently underwent a left intravitreal ocriplasmin injection. One week after the injection, VMA had been released but with enlargement of the macular hole and a drop in her BCVA to 6/60. This persisted at 1 month after the injection. It is important to warn patients that ocriplasmin may lead to an enlargement of their macular hole with resultant loss in visual acuity.

Casswell, Edward; Fernandez-Sanz, Guillermo; Mitry, Danny; Luk, Sheila; Zakir, Rahila

2014-01-01

236

Macular Hole Progression following Ocriplasmin Intravitreal Injection.  

PubMed

Ocriplasmin is a protease which has been approved for the treatment of symptomatic vitreomacular adhesion (VMA). A 63-year-old presented with blurred vision in the left eye and a best corrected visual acuity of 6/18. Optical coherence tomography revealed VMA with an underlying macular hole and she subsequently underwent a left intravitreal ocriplasmin injection. One week after the injection, VMA had been released but with enlargement of the macular hole and a drop in her BCVA to 6/60. This persisted at 1 month after the injection. It is important to warn patients that ocriplasmin may lead to an enlargement of their macular hole with resultant loss in visual acuity. PMID:25580329

Casswell, Edward; Fernandez-Sanz, Guillermo; Mitry, Danny; Luk, Sheila; Zakir, Rahila

2014-01-01

237

Diabetic macular edema: New promising therapies  

PubMed Central

The treatment of diabetic macular edema is rapidly evolving. The era of laser therapy is being quickly replaced by an era of pharmacotherapy. Several pharmacotherapies have been recently developed for the treatment of retinal vascular diseases such as diabetic macular edema. Several intravitreal injections or sustained delivery devices have undergone phase 3 testing while others are currently being evaluated. The results of clinical trials have shown the superiority of some of these agents to laser therapy. However, with the availability of several of these newer agents, it may be difficult to individualize treatment options especially those patients respond differently to various therapies. As such, more effort is still needed in order to determine the best treatment regimen for a given patient. In this article, we briefly summarize the major new therapeutic additions for the treatment of diabetic macular edema and allude to some future promising therapies. PMID:24379924

Shamsi, Hanan N Al; Masaud, Jluwi S; Ghazi, Nicola G

2013-01-01

238

Recurrence of Macular Hole Retinal Detachment after Intravitreal Ranibizumab Injection for the Treatment of Choroidal Neovascularization from the Remaining Macular Hole Edge  

PubMed Central

Purpose To report a case who had recurrence of macular hole retinal detachment (MHRD) after intravitreal ranibizumab injection (IVR) for the treatment of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) that arose from the damaged retinal pigment epithelium of the remaining macular hole (MH) edge, which had been successfully treated by pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) 15 years previously. Case Report A 67-year-old man with previous PPV for MHRD secondary to high myopia in the right eye had been under observation for 15 years after surgery. The retina had been successfully attached, but the MH remained open. He had CNV which arose from the remaining MH edge. IVR was performed for the treatment of CNV. One month after the injection, CNV was contracted but recurrence of MHRD occurred. PPV with an additional internal limiting membrane peeling, removal of the CNV membrane and 20% SF6 gas tamponade was performed. One year after the last surgery, his right retina was attached and the MH was closed successfully. Conclusion We propose that patients who undergo IVR should be carefully maintained and followed up for possible complications including the recurrence of MHRD. PMID:23341819

Otsuka, Keiko; Imai, Hisanori; Shimoyama, Tsuyoshi; Nagai, Takayuki; Honda, Shigeru; Azumi, Atsushi

2012-01-01

239

The response of human retinal pigmented epithelial cells in vitro to changes in nitric oxide concentration stimulated by low levels of red light  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this project is to explore the role of nitric oxide (NO) in regulating the response of hTERT-RPE to low-level exposures to red light. Exposure to low-level red light has been shown to positively affect wound healing, reduce pain, and encourage cell proliferation. The current explanation for this effect is described as an interaction between the photons and cytochrome c oxidase (Cco), which plays a role in regulation of intracellular NO levels in addition to being the mitochondrial protein complex where reduction of oxygen occurs in the process of oxidative phosphorylation. Exposure to 2.88 J/cm2 of 671-nm and 637-nm light shows a two-fold increase in NO immediately after exposure, and a 56% increase in ATP measured at ~5 h post exposure. Levels of NF-?B mRNA and protein were measured at six and 24 h, respectively, and found to increase six fold, correlating with increases in NO levels. Light-stimulated increased levels of NO also correlated with an 11-fold increase in Bcl-2 and a 70% decrease in Bax mRNA levels, relative to controls. NF-?B promotes cell growth and Bcl-2 is an apoptosis suppressor protein. Bax is a positive apoptotic effector protein. These results support the hypothesis that light-induced changes in the intracellular levels of NO play a role in the beneficial effects of low-level light photobiomodulation

Lavey, Brent J.; Estlack, Larry E.; Schuster, Kurt J.; Rockwell, Benjamin A.; Wigle, Jeffrey C.

2013-03-01

240

Pigmentation disorders: hyperpigmentation and hypopigmentation.  

PubMed

Pigmentation disorders include a large number of heterogeneous conditions that are usually characterized by altered melanocyte density, melanin concentration, or both, and result in altered pigmentation of the skin. Some of these disorders are extremely common (melasma, vitiligo), whereas others are rare. In this contribution, we review the most common pigmentation disorders that appear on the face. These lesions, even though mostly asymptomatic, have a great impact on a patient's quality of life. PMID:24314378

Nicolaidou, Electra; Katsambas, Andreas D

2014-01-01

241

Raman Spectroscopy of Microbial Pigments  

PubMed Central

Raman spectroscopy is a rapid nondestructive technique providing spectroscopic and structural information on both organic and inorganic molecular compounds. Extensive applications for the method in the characterization of pigments have been found. Due to the high sensitivity of Raman spectroscopy for the detection of chlorophylls, carotenoids, scytonemin, and a range of other pigments found in the microbial world, it is an excellent technique to monitor the presence of such pigments, both in pure cultures and in environmental samples. Miniaturized portable handheld instruments are available; these instruments can be used to detect pigments in microbiological samples of different types and origins under field conditions. PMID:24682303

Edwards, Howell G. M.; Oren, Aharon

2014-01-01

242

Conjunctival Pigmentation Following Minocycline Therapy.  

PubMed

Minocycline is a tetracycline antibiotic commonly used to treat acne and rosacea. Although pigmentation of the skin, nails, teeth, oral mucosa, and sclera is a well-recognized adverse outcome associated with minocycline, ocular pigmentation may be missed on routine examination. The authors present a case of a 43-year-old Caucasian woman who demonstrated bilateral pigmented palpebral conjunctival cysts after 12 months of minocycline therapy for cystic acne. To date, only 5 cases of minocycline-induced conjunctival pigmentation have been reported. After drug discontinuation, the patient's examination remained stable and no new ocular lesions were noted. PMID:25226094

Khan, Tanya T; Reddy, Usha P

2014-09-15

243

Scotopic Microperimetry in the Early Diagnosis of Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Preliminary Study  

PubMed Central

Background. Recent clinical studies have shown that, in some degenerative retinal diseases, like age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the sensitivity of the rods decreases more rapidly than the sensitivity of the cones. The aim of this study was to evaluate if there is a correlation between the presence of hard drusen at the macular level and the rod damage responsible for the reduction in scotopic retinal sensitivity in subjects at risk for AMD. Methods. The authors selected 24 subjects (14 men and 10 women) with an average age of 67.25?±?5.7 years. Macular hard drusen were present in 50% of the subjects at the fundus oculi exam. The researchers evaluated the retinal sensitivity to light in mesopic and scotopic conditions of each subject with an MP-1 scotopic microperimeter (MP-1S). Results. In subjects with hard drusen in the fundus oculi examination, there was a statistically significant reduction in scotopic retinal sensitivity, while the mesopic retinal sensitivity was not compromised. Conclusion. This study revealed how the presence of hard drusen at the macular level is associated with a reduction in scotopic retinal sensitivity compared to a control group of healthy subjects. Retinal functionality in a scotopic setting examined with MP-1S could be useful in early diagnosis of AMD.

Pescosolido, Nicola

2014-01-01

244

The Intravitreal Autologous Platelet Concentrate Injection as an Adjunct of Vitrectomy for the Treatment of Refractory Macular Holes  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Macular Hole With High Myopia (Spherical Equivalent ? -6.0 Diopters) or,; Large Size Macular Hole (Diameter > 600 Microns) or; Recurred or Failed Macular Hole From Previous Surgery; or Chronic Macular Hole (Symptom Duration > 6 Months)

2014-03-06

245

Age-related macular degeneration.  

PubMed

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly, and the prevalence of the disease increases exponentially with every decade after age 50 years. It is a multifactorial disease involving a complex interplay of genetic, environmental, metabolic, and functional factors. Besides smoking, hypertension, obesity, and certain dietary habits, a growing body of evidence indicates that inflammation and the immune system may play a key role in the development of the disease. AMD may progress from the early form to the intermediate form and then to the advanced form, where two subtypes exist: the nonneovascular (dry) type and the neovascular (wet) type. The results from the Age-Related Eye Disease Study have shown that for the nonneovascular type of AMD, supplementation with high-dose antioxidants (vitamin C, vitamin E, and ?-carotene) and zinc is recommended for those with the intermediate form of AMD in one or both eyes or with advanced AMD or vision loss due to AMD in one eye. As for the neovascular type of the advanced AMD, the current standard of therapy is intravitreal injections of vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors. In addition, lifestyle and dietary modifications including improved physical activity, reduced daily sodium intake, and reduced intake of solid fats, added sugars, cholesterol, and refined grain foods are recommended. To date, no study has demonstrated that AMD can be cured or effectively prevented. Clearly, more research is needed to fully understand the pathophysiology as well as to develop prevention and treatment strategies for this devastating disease. PMID:23580402

Cheung, Lily K; Eaton, Angie

2013-08-01

246

Subtype Specific Estrogen Receptor Action Protects Against changes in MMP-2 Activation in Mouse Retinal Pigmented Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Eyes with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) demonstrate accumulation of specific deposits and extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules under the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). AMD is about two times more prevalent in aging postmenopausal women. Therefore we studied whether 17?-estradiol (E2) modulates the expression and activity of the trimolecular complex (MMP-2, TIMP-2 and MMP-14), molecules which are of major importance for ECM turnover in RPE. We used cell lines isolated from estrogen receptor knockout mice (ERKO) to determine which ER (estrogen receptor) subtype was important for ECM regulation in RPE cells. We found that mouse RPE sheets had higher baseline MMP-2 activity in the presence of ER?. This correlated with higher MMP-2 activity in RPE cell lines isolated from ERKO? mice. Exposure to E2 increased MMP-2 activity in mouse RPE cell lines. In addition E2 increased transcriptional activation of the MMP-2 promoter through a functional Sp1 site which required the presence of ER?, but not ER?. E2 also maintained levels of pro MMP-2, and MMP-14 and TIMP-2 activity after oxidant injury. Since the direct effects of E2 on MMP-2 transcriptional activation and the regulation of the trimolecular complex after oxidant induced injury requires ER?, this receptor subtype may have a role as a potential therapeutic target to prevent changes in activation of MMP-2. PMID:18313050

Elliot, Sharon; Catanuto, Paola; Fernandez, Pedro; Espinosa-Heidmann, Diego; Karl, Michael; Korach, Kenneth; Cousins, Scott W.

2008-01-01

247

2-ethylpyridine, a cigarette smoke component, causes mitochondrial damage in human retinal pigment epithelial cells in vitro  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Our goal was to identify the cellular and molecular effects of 2-ethylpyridine (2-EP, a component of cigarette smoke) on human retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19) in vitro. Materials and Methods: ARPE-19 cells were exposed to varying concentrations of 2-EP. Cell viability (CV) was measured by a trypan blue dye exclusion assay. Caspase-3/7 and caspase-9 activities were measured by fluorochrome assays. The production of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) was detected with a 2’,7’-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate dye assay. The JC-1 assay was used to measure mitochondrial membrane potential (??m). Mitochondrial redox potential was measured using a RedoxSensor Red kit and mitochondria were evaluated with Mitotracker dye. Results: After 2-EP exposure, ARPE-19 cells showed significantly decreased CV, increased caspase-3/7 and caspase-9 activities, elevated ROS/RNS levels, decreased ??m value and decreased redox fluorescence when compared with control samples. Conclusions: These results show that 2-EP treatment induced cell death by caspase-dependent apoptosis associated with an oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. These data represent a possible mechanism by which smoking contributes to age-related macular degeneration and other retinal diseases and identify mitochondria as a target for future therapeutic interventions. PMID:24492497

Mansoor, S; Gupta, N; Falatoonzadeh, P; Kuppermann, B D; Kenney, M C

2014-01-01

248

Effect of Amaranthus Pigments on Quality Characteristics of Pork Sausages  

PubMed Central

The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the possibility of substituting Amaranthus pigments for nitrates in the of manufacture pork sausage. Five treatments of pork sausages (5% fat) with two levels of sodium nitrite (0 and 0.015%), or three levels (0.1%, 0.2% and 0.3%) of pigments extracted from red Amaranthus were produced. The addition of Amaranthus pigments resulted in the significant increase of a* values, sensory color, flavor and overall acceptance scores, but the significant reduction of b* values, TBA values and VBN values (p<0.05). Based mainly on the results of overall acceptance during 29 d storage, it could be concluded that Amaranthus pigments showed a potential as nitrite alternative for pork sausage manufacture. PMID:25049507

Zhou, Cunliu; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Hui; Chen, Conggui

2012-01-01

249

Involvement of endoplasmic reticulum stress in all-trans-retinal-induced retinal pigment epithelium degeneration.  

PubMed

Excess accumulation of endogenous all-trans-retinal (atRAL) contributes to degeneration of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and photoreceptor cells, and plays a role in the etiologies of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and Stargardt's disease. In this study, we reveal that human RPE cells tolerate exposure of up to 5?µM atRAL without deleterious effects, but higher concentrations are detrimental and induce cell apoptosis. atRAL treatment significantly increased production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and up-regulated mRNA expression of Nrf2, HO-1, and ?-GCSh within RPE cells, thereby causing oxidative stress. ROS localized to mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). ER-resident molecular chaperone BiP, a marker of ER stress, was up-regulated at the translational level, and meanwhile, the PERK-eIF2?-ATF4 signaling pathway was activated. Expression levels of ATF4, CHOP, and GADD34 in RPE cells increased in a concentration-dependent manner after incubation with atRAL. Salubrinal, a selective inhibitor of ER stress, alleviated atRAL-induced cell death. The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) effectively blocked RPE cell loss and ER stress activation, suggesting that atRAL-induced ROS generation is responsible for RPE degeneration and is an early trigger of ER stress. Furthermore, the mitochondrial transmembrane potential was lost after atRAL exposure, and was followed by caspase-3 activation and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage. The results demonstrate that atRAL-driven ROS overproduction-induced ER stress is involved in cellular mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis of RPE cells. PMID:25331497

Li, Jie; Cai, Xianhui; Xia, Qingqing; Yao, Ke; Chen, Jingmeng; Zhang, Yanli; Naranmandura, Hua; Liu, Xin; Wu, Yalin

2015-01-01

250

Role of Unfolded Protein Response Dysregulation in Oxidative Injury of Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Abstract Aims: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a major cause of legal blindness in the elderly, is associated with genetic and environmental risk factors, such as cigarette smoking. Recent evidence shows that cigarette smoke (CS) that contains high levels of potent oxidants preferably targets retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) leading to oxidative damage and apoptosis; however, the mechanisms are poorly understood. The present study aimed to investigate the role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) in CS-related RPE apoptosis. Results: ER stress and proapoptotic gene C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) were induced in the RPE/choroid complex from mice exposed to CS for 2 weeks and in human RPE cells treated with hydroquinone, a potent oxidant found at high concentrations in CS. Suppressing ER stress or inhibiting CHOP activation by pharmacological chaperones or genetic approaches attenuated hydroquinone-induced RPE cell apoptosis. In contrast to enhanced CHOP activation, protein level of active X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1), a major regulator of the adaptive UPR, was reduced in hydroquinone-treated cells. Conditional knockout of XBP1 gene in the RPE resulted in caspase-12 activation, increased CHOP expression, and decreased antiapoptotic gene Bcl-2. Furthermore, XBP1-deficient RPE cells are more sensitive to oxidative damage induced by hydroquinone or NaIO3, a CS-unrelated chemical oxidant. Conversely, overexpressing XBP1 protected RPE cells and attenuated oxidative stress-induced RPE apoptosis. Innovation and Conclusion: These findings provide strong evidence suggesting an important role of ER stress and the UPR in CS-related oxidative injury of RPE cells. Thus, the modulation of the UPR signaling may provide a promising target for the treatment of AMD. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 2091–2106. PMID:24053669

Chen, Chen; Cano, Marisol; Wang, Joshua J.; Li, Jingming; Huang, Chuangxin; Yu, Qiang; Herbert, Terence P.; Handa, James T.

2014-01-01

251

Driving and Age-Related Macular Degeneration  

PubMed Central

This article reviews the research literature on driving and age-related macular degeneration, which is motivated by the link between driving and the quality of life of older adults and their increased collision rate. It addresses the risk of crashes, driving performance, driving difficulty, self-regulation, and interventions to enhance, safety, and considers directions for future research. PMID:20046818

Owsley, Cynthia; McGwin, Gerald

2009-01-01

252

Genetic susceptibility to age related macular degeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of visual impairment in the elderly and a major cause of blindness in the developed world. The disease can take two forms, geographic atrophy and choroidal neovascularisation. The pathogenesis of AMD is poorly understood. There are undoubtedly environmental and other risk factors involved and the adverse effect of smoking is well

John R W Yates; Anthony T Moore

2000-01-01

253

Lamellar macular hole after intravitreal ocriplasmin injection.  

PubMed

Intravitreal ocriplasmin was recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration to achieve medical vitreolysis in the setting of vitreomacular adhesion (VMA). We report a case of a 76-year-old woman who developed a lamellar macular hole following treatment with intravitreal ocriplasmin injection for VMA. A pathophysiological mechanism to explain this previously unreported complication of ocriplasmin injection is proposed. PMID:25576512

Chod, Ross Bronson; Goodrich, Clifford; Saxena, Sandeep; Akduman, Levent

2015-01-01

254

Race, iris color, and age-related macular degeneration.  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE: While most observers agree that age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is much more common in white persons than in persons of black African ancestry, the influence of iris color has been more controversial. We reexamined relationships between race, iris color, and AMD in a series of patients from our retina clinic. METHODS: We evaluated, in masked fashion, stereoscopic photographs of the retinas and irides in 306 sequential patients 60 years of age or older from our retina clinics. Four readers judged whether AMD was present, absent, or questionable in the retinal photographs and labeled iris color as blue, hazel, or brown. Presence or absence of AMD and presence and severity of the various macular lesions were determined by "majority vote" of the readers. We evaluated inter-rater agreement using the kappa statistic. We compared the prevalence of AMD and of specific AMD lesions as a function of race, sex, and iris color by contingency table analysis. RESULTS: The kappa statistic showed good inter-observer agreement, being 0.466 (P < 10(-6)) for definite or questionable AMD and ranging from 0.185 to 0.522 (P = 0.0047 to P < 10(-6)) for most lesions. We found significantly more AMD in white patients than in black patients (X2 = 27.54, P < 10(-4)). There was no significant difference in AMD prevalence by sex. In white patients, AMD was significantly more prevalent in individuals with blue or hazel irides than in those with brown irides (X2 = 15.04, P = .02). CONCLUSIONS: We confirm previous findings of a higher prevalence of AMD in white persons than in black persons. We also agree with those observers who claim that white subjects with light-colored irides have a higher prevalence of AMD than those with dark-colored irides. We suggest that differences in the association between iris pigmentation and AMD in different studies using different research methods may reflect genetic difference in the groups being studied. PMID:11190014

Frank, R N; Puklin, J E; Stock, C; Canter, L A

2000-01-01

255

Comparative chromatography of chloroplast pigment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods for isolation of low concentration pigments of the cocklebur species are described. The methods entail two step chromatography so that the different sorption properties of the various pigments in varying column parameters can be utilized. Columnar and thin layer methods are compared. Many conditions influence separability of the chloroplasts.

Grandolfo, M.; Sherma, J.; Strain, H. H.

1969-01-01

256

Outcomes of 23-gauge pars plana vitrectomy and internal limiting membrane peeling with brilliant blue in macular hole  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The evaluation of anatomic and visual outcomes in macular hole cases treated with internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling, brilliant blue (BB), and 23-gauge pars plana vitrectomy (PPV). Materials and methods: Fifty eyes of 48 patients who presented between July 2007 and December 2009 with the diagnosis of stage 2, 3, or 4 macular holes according to Gass Classification who had undergone PPV and ILM peeling were included in this study. Pre- and postoperative macular examinations were assessed with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. 23 G sutureless PPV and ILM peeling with BB was performed on all patients. Results: The mean age of patients was 63.34 ± 9.6 years. Stage 2 macular hole was determined in 17 eyes (34%), stage 3 in 24 eyes (48%), and stage 4 in 9 eyes (18%). The mean follow-up time was 13.6 ± 1.09 months. Anatomic closure was detected in 46/50 eyes (92%), whereas, in four cases, macular hole persisted and a second operation was not required due to subretinal fluid drainage. At follow-up after 2 months, persistant macular hole was detected in one case and it was closed with reoperation. At 12 months, an increase in visual acuity in 41 eyes was observed, while it remained at the same level in six eyes. In three eyes visual acuity decreased. There was a postoperative statistically significant increase in visual acuity in stage 2 and 3 cases (P < 0.05), however, no increase in visual acuity in stage 4 cases was observed. Conclusion: PPV and ILM peeling in stage 2, 3, and 4 macular hole cases provide successful anatomic outcomes, however, in delayed cases, due to photoreceptor loss, it has no effect on functional recovery. BB, used for clarity of ILM, may be beneficial due to its low retinal toxicity. PMID:21887101

Sanisoglu, Huseyin; Sevim, Mehmet Sahin; Aktas, Betul; Sevim, Semra; Nohutcu, Ahmet

2011-01-01

257

Novel Rodent Models for Macular Research  

PubMed Central

Background Many disabling human retinal disorders involve the central retina, particularly the macula. However, the commonly used rodent models in research, mouse and rat, do not possess a macula. The purpose of this study was to identify small laboratory rodents with a significant central region as potential new models for macular research. Methodology/Principal Findings Gerbillus perpallidus, Meriones unguiculatus and Phodopus campbelli, laboratory rodents less commonly used in retinal research, were subjected to confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (cSLO), fluorescein and indocyanine green angiography, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) using standard equipment (Heidelberg Engineering HRA1 and Spectralis™) adapted to small rodent eyes. The existence of a visual streak-like pattern was assessed on the basis of vascular topography, retinal thickness, and the topography of retinal ganglion cells and cone photoreceptors. All three species examined showed evidence of a significant horizontal streak-like specialization. cSLO angiography and retinal wholemounts revealed that superficial retinal blood vessels typically ramify and narrow into a sparse capillary net at the border of the respective area located dorsal to the optic nerve. Similar to the macular region, there was an absence of larger blood vessels in the streak region. Furthermore, the thickness of the photoreceptor layer and the population density of neurons in the ganglion cell layer were markedly increased in the visual streak region. Conclusions/Significance The retinal specializations of Gerbillus perpallidus, Meriones unguiculatus and Phodopus campbelli resemble features of the primate macula. Hence, the rodents reported here may serve to study aspects of macular development and diseases like age-related macular degeneration and diabetic macular edema, and the preclinical assessment of therapeutic strategies. PMID:20976212

Huber, Gesine; Heynen, Severin; Imsand, Coni; vom Hagen, Franziska; Muehlfriedel, Regine; Tanimoto, Naoyuki; Feng, Yuxi; Hammes, Hans-Peter; Grimm, Christian; Peichl, Leo; Seeliger, Mathias W.; Beck, Susanne C.

2010-01-01

258

New directions in phthalocyanine pigments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Phthalocyanines have been used as a pigment in coatings and related applications for many years. These pigments are some of the most stable organic pigments known. The phthalo blue and green pigments have been known to be ultraviolet (UV) stable and thermally stable to over 400 C. These phthalocyanines are both a semiconductor and photoconductor, exhibiting catalytic activity and photostabilization capability of polymers. Many metal free and metallic phthalocyanine derivatives have been prepared. Development of the new classes of phthalocyanine pigment could be used as coating on NASA spacecraft material such as glass to decrease the optical degradation from UV light, the outside of the space station modules for UV protection, and coating on solar cells to increase lifetime and efficiency.

Trinh, Diep VO

1994-01-01

259

Low wintertime vitamin D levels in a sample of healthy young adults of diverse ancestry living in the Toronto area: associations with vitamin D intake and skin pigmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Vitamin D plays a critical role in bone metabolism and many cellular and immunological processes. Recent research indicates that concentrations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], the main indicator of vitamin D status, should be in excess of 75 nmol\\/L. Low levels of 25(OH)D have been associated with several chronic and infectious diseases. Previous studies have reported that many otherwise

Agnes Gozdzik; Jodi Lynn Barta; Hongyu Wu; Dennis Wagner; David E Cole; Reinhold Vieth; Susan Whiting; Esteban J Parra

2008-01-01

260

Microperimetry and optical coherence tomography in a case of traumatic macular hole and associated macular detachment with spontaneous resolution  

PubMed Central

The association of macular detachment with posttraumatic macular hole is a known but rare occurrence. Spontaneously occurring resolution of the detachment and closure of the macular hole has been reported only once in the literature. We describe a similar rare event in a young male, the documentation of which was done serially by microperimetry (MP) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). A 17-year-old male presented with a decrease in vision following a closed globe injury to the left eye. A coexisting macular hole and macular detachment were detected in the affected eye. Serial follow-up with OCT and MP documented complete resolution of the macular hole and the macular detachment within 1 week of presentation. The case highlights that spontaneous resolution of traumatic macular hole and related macular detachment may occur and a waiting period is advisable before undertaking any corrective surgical procedure. The pathophysiologic mechanisms of causation and the resolution of posttraumatic macular hole-related retinal detachment are discussed. PMID:22218253

Aalok, Lalit; Azad, Rajvardhan; Sharma, Yog R; Phuljhele, Swati

2012-01-01

261

A2E Induces IL-1ß Production in Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells via the NLRP3 Inflammasome  

PubMed Central

Aims With ageing extracellular material is deposited in Bruch’s membrane, as drusen. Lipofuscin is deposited in retinal pigment epithelial cells. Both of these changes are associated with age related macular degeneration, a disease now believed to involve chronic inflammation at the retinal-choroidal interface. We hypothesise that these molecules may act as danger signals, causing the production of inflammatory chemokines and cytokines by the retinal pigment epithelium, via activation of pattern recognition receptors. Methods ARPE-19 cells were stimulated in vitro with the following reported components of drusen: amyloid-ß (1-42), Carboxyethylpyrrole (CEP) modified proteins (CEP-HSA), N?-(Carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) modified proteins and aggregated vitronectin. The cells were also stimulated with the major fluorophore of lipofuscin: N-retinylidene-N-retinylethanolamine (A2E). Inflammatory chemokine and cytokine production was assessed using Multiplex assays and ELISA. The mechanistic evaluation of the NLRP3 inflammasome pathway was assessed in a stepwise fashion. Results Of all the molecules tested only A2E induced inflammatory chemokine and cytokine production. 25 µM A2E induced the production of significantly increased levels of the chemokines IL-8, MCP-1, MCG and MIP-1?, the cytokines IL-1ß, IL-2, IL-6, and TNF-?, and the protein VEGF-A. The release of IL-1ß was studied further, and was determined to be due to NLRP3 inflammasome activation. The pathway of activation involved endocytosis of A2E, and the three inflammasome components NLRP3, ASC and activated caspase-1. Immunohistochemical staining of ABCA4 knockout mice, which show progressive accumulation of A2E levels with age, showed increased amounts of IL-1ß proximal to the retinal pigment epithelium. Conclusions A2E has the ability to stimulate inflammatory chemokine and cytokine production by RPE cells. The pattern recognition receptor NLRP3 is involved in this process. This provides further evidence for the link between A2E, inflammation, and the pathogenesis of AMD. It also supports the recent discovery of NLRP3 inflammasome activation in AMD. PMID:23840644

Anderson, Owen A.; Finkelstein, Arthur; Shima, David T.

2013-01-01

262

Temsirolimus Inhibits Proliferation and Migration in Retinal Pigment Epithelial and Endothelial Cells via mTOR Inhibition and Decreases VEGF and PDGF Expression  

PubMed Central

Due to their high prevalence, retinal vascular diseases including age related macular degeneration (AMD), retinal vein occlusions (RVO), diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic macular edema have been major therapeutic targets over the last years. The pathogenesis of these diseases is complex and yet not fully understood. However, increased proliferation, migration and angiogenesis are characteristic cellular features in almost every retinal vascular disease. The introduction of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) binding intravitreal treatment strategies has led to great advances in the therapy of these diseases. While the predominant part of affected patients benefits from the specific binding of VEGF by administering an anti-VEGF antibody into the vitreous cavity, a small number of non-responders exist and alternative or additional therapeutic strategies should therefore be evaluated. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a central signaling pathway that eventually triggers up-regulation of cellular proliferation, migration and survival and has been identified to play a key role in angiogenesis. In the present study we were able to show that both retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells as wells as human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) are inhibited in proliferating and migrating after treatment with temsirolimus in non-toxic concentrations. Previous studies suggest that the production of VEGF, platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) and other important cytokines is not only triggered by hypoxia but also by mTOR itself. Our results indicate that temsirolimus decreases VEGF and PDGF expression on RNA and protein levels significantly. We therefore believe that the mTOR inhibitor temsirolimus might be a promising drug in the future and it seems worthwhile to evaluate complementary therapeutic effects with anti-VEGF drugs for patients not profiting from mono anti-VEGF therapy alone. PMID:24586308

Siedlecki, Jakob; Haritoglou, Christos; Kampik, Anselm; Kernt, Marcus

2014-01-01

263

Expression of reverse cholesterol transport proteins ATP-binding cassette A1 (ABCA1) and scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI) in the retina and retinal pigment epithelium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims:Excessive lipid accumulation in Bruch’s membrane (BrM) is a hallmark of ageing, the major risk factor for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells may utilise reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) activity to move lipid into BrM, mediated through ATP-binding cassette A1 (ABCA1) and scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI).Methods:ABCA1 expression was assessed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and

K G Duncan; K Hosseini; K R Bailey; H Yang; R J Lowe; M T Matthes; J P Kane; M M LaVail; D M Schwartz; J L Duncan

2009-01-01

264

Effect of change in macular birefringence imaging protocol on retinal nerve fiber layer thickness parameters using GDx VCC in eyes with macular lesions.  

PubMed

This study evaluates the effect of two macular birefringence protocols (bow-tie retardation and irregular macular scan) using GDx VCC on the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness parameters in normal eyes and eyes with macular lesions. In eyes with macular lesions, the standard protocol led to significant overestimation of RNFL thickness which was normalized using the irregular macular pattern protocol. In eyes with normal macula, absolute RNFL thickness values were higher in irregular macular pattern protocols with the difference being statistically significant for all parameters except for inferior average thickness. This has implications for monitoring glaucoma patients who develop macular lesions during the course of their follow-up. PMID:24469116

Dada, Tanuj; Tinwala, Sana I; Dave, Vivek; Agarwal, Anand; Sharma, Reetika; Wadhwani, Meenakshi

2014-08-01

265

Three-dimensional ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography imaging of age-related macular degeneration?  

PubMed Central

Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) enhances the ability to visualize different intra retinal layers. In age-related macular degeneration (AMD), pathological changes in individual retinal layers, including photoreceptor inner and outer segments and retinal pigment epithelium, can be detected. OCT using spectral / Fourier domain detection enables high speed, volumetric imaging of the macula, which provides comprehensive three-dimensional tomographic and morphologic information. We present a case series of AMD patients, from mild drusen to more advanced geographic atrophy and exudative AMD. Patients were imaged with a research prototype, ultrahigh resolution spectral / Fourier domain OCT instrument with 3.5 ?m axial image resolution operating at 25,000 axial scans per second. These cases provide representative volumetric datasets of well-documented AMD pathologies which could be used for the development of visualization and imaging processing methods and algorithms. PMID:19259245

Chen, Yueli; Vuong, Laurel N.; Liu, Jonathan; Ho, Joseph; Srinivasan, Vivek J.; Gorczynska, Iwona; Witkin, Andre J.; Duker, Jay S.; Schuman, Joel; Fujimoto, James G.

2009-01-01

266

Estrogen signalling in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration.  

PubMed

Abstract Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a multifactorial eye disease that is associated with aging, family history, smoking, obesity, cataract surgery, arteriosclerosis, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and unhealthy diet. Gender has commonly been classified as a weak or inconsistent risk factor for AMD. This disease is characterized by degeneration of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, Bruch's membrane, and choriocapillaris, which secondarily lead to damage and death of photoreceptor cells and central visual loss. Pathogenesis of AMD involves constant oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, and increased accumulation of lipofuscin and drusen. Estrogen has both anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory capacity and it regulates signaling pathways that are involved in the pathogenesis of AMD. In this review, we discuss potential cellular signaling targets of estrogen in retinal cells and AMD pathology. PMID:24911983

Kaarniranta, Kai; Machali?ska, Anna; Veréb, Zoltán; Salminen, Antero; Petrovski, Goran; Kauppinen, Anu

2015-02-01

267

Quantitative spatiotemporal image analysis of fluorescein angiography in age-related macular degeneration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interpretation and analysis of retinal angiographic studies has been largely qualitative. Quantitative analysis of pathologic fundus features will facilitate interpretation and potentiate clinical studies where precise image metrology is vital. Fluorescein angiography studies of patients with age- related macular degeneration were digitized. Sequential temporal images were spatially-registered with polynomial warping algorithms, allowing for the construction of a three- dimensional (two spatial and one temporal) angiogram vector. Temporal profiles through spatially-registered, temporally- sequential pixels were computed. Characteristic temporal profiles for fundus background, retinal vasculature, retinal pigment epithelial atrophy, and choroidal neovascular (CNV) membranes were observed, allowing for pixel assignment and fundus feature quantitation. Segmentation and quantitation of fundus features including geographic atrophy and CNV is facilitated by spatio-temporal image analysis.

Berger, Jeffrey W.

1998-06-01

268

Defective Lipid Transport and Biosynthesis in Recessive and Dominant Stargardt Macular Degeneration  

PubMed Central

Stargardt disease is a common inherited macular degeneration characterized by a significant loss in central vision in the first or second decade of life, bilateral atrophic changes in the central retina associated with degeneration of photoreceptors and underlying retinal pigment epithelial cells, and the presence of yellow flecks extending from the macula. Autosomal recessive Stargardt disease, the most common macular dystrophy, is caused by mutations in the gene encoding ABCA4, a photoreceptor ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter. Biochemical studies together with analysis of abca4 knockout mice and Stargardt patients have implicated ABCA4 as a lipid transporter that facilitates the removal of potentially toxic retinal compounds from photoreceptors following photoexcitation. An autosomal dominant form of Stargardt disease also known as Stargardt-like dystrophy is caused by mutations in a gene encoding ELOVL4, an enzyme that catalyzes the elongation of very long chain fatty acids in photoreceptors and other tissues. This review focuses on the molecular characterization of ABCA4 and ELOVL4 and their role in photoreceptor cell biology and the pathogenesis of Stargardt disease. PMID:20633576

Molday, Robert S.; Zhang, Kang

2010-01-01

269

Stem cell-based therapies for age-related macular degeneration: current status and prospects  

PubMed Central

Abstract: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the major causes of irreversible blindness both in developed and developing countries. During the past decades, the managements of neovascular AMD (wet AMD) have dramatically progressed. However, still no effective treatment for non-neovascular AMD (dry AMD) which was characterized by geographic macular atrophy. Recent advances in stem cell sciences have demonstrated that retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells can be generated from several types of stem cells (including embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, et al) by cell co-culturing or defined factors. Additionally, studies also showed that visual function could be recovered by transplantation of these cells into subretinal space in vivo. Moreover, the United States Food and Drug Administration already approved several clinical trials to evaluate the efficiencies of stem cell based cell transplantation for dry AMD patients. Till now, a few patients enrolled in these studies achieved promising outcomes. This review will summarize recent advances in stem cell based RPE differentiation, transplantation, and the preliminary results of clinical trials. The obstacles and prospects in this field will also be discussed.

Mu, Yalin; Zhao, Manli; Su, Guangming

2014-01-01

270

Effects of ambient and elevated CO2 on growth, chlorophyll fluorescence, photosynthetic pigments, antioxidants, and secondary metabolites of Catharanthus roseus (L.) G Don. grown under three different soil N levels.  

PubMed

Catharanthus roseus L. plants were grown under ambient (375?±?30 ppm) and elevated (560?±?25 ppm) concentrations of atmospheric CO2 at different rates of N supply (without supplemental N, 0 kg N ha(-1); recommended N, 50 kg N ha(-1); and double recommended N, 100 kg N ha(-1)) in open top chambers under field condition. Elevated CO2 significantly increased photosynthetic pigments, photosynthetic efficiency, and organic carbon content in leaves at recommended (RN) and double recommended N (DRN), while significantly decreased total nitrogen content in without supplemental N (WSN). Activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase were declined, while glutathione reductase, peroxidase, and phenylalanine-ammonia lyase were stimulated under elevated CO2. However, the responses of the above enzymes were modified with different rates of N supply. Elevated CO2 significantly reduced superoxide production rate, hydrogen peroxide, and malondialdehyde contents in RN and DRN. Compared with ambient, total alkaloids content increased maximally at recommended level of N, while total phenolics in WSN under elevated CO2. Elevated CO2 stimulated growth of plants by increasing plant height and numbers of branches and leaves, and the magnitude of increment were maximum in DRN. The study suggests that elevated CO2 has positively affected plants by increasing growth and alkaloids production and reducing the level of oxidative stress. However, the positive effects of elevated CO2 were comparatively lesser in plants grown under limited N availability than in moderate and higher N availability. Furthermore, the excess N supply in DRN has stimulated the growth but not the alkaloids production under elevated CO2. PMID:25304238

Singh, Aradhana; Agrawal, Madhoolika

2014-10-12

271

A Model of Best Vitelliform Macular Dystrophy in Rats  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE The VMD2 gene, mutated in Best macular dystrophy (BMD) encodes bestrophin, a 68-kDa basolateral plasma membrane protein expressed in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. BMD is characterized by a depressed light peak (LP) in the electro-oculogram. Bestrophin is thought to be the Cl channel that generates the LP. The goal was to generate an animal model of BMD and to determine the effects of bestrophin overexpression on the RPE-generated components of the ERG. METHODS Bestrophin or bestrophin mutants (W93C or R218C) were overexpressed in the RPE of rats by injection of replication-defective adenovirus. Immunofluorescence microscopy and ERG recordings were used to study subsequent effects. RESULTS Bestrophin was confined to the basolateral plasma membrane of the RPE. Neither wild-type (wt) nor mutant bestrophin affected the a- or b-waves of the ERG. Wt bestrophin, however, increased the c-wave and fast oscillation (FO), but not the LP. In contrast, both mutants had little or no effect on the c-wave and FO, but did reduce LP amplitude. LP amplitudes across a range of stimuli were not altered by wt bestrophin, though the luminance response function was desensitized. LP response functions were unaffected by bestrophin R218C but were significantly altered by bestrophin W93C. CONCLUSIONS A model of BMD was developed in the present study. Because overexpression of wt bestrophin shifted luminance response but did not alter the range of LP response amplitudes, the authors conclude that the rate-limiting step for generating LP amplitude occurs before activation of bestrophin or that bestrophin does not directly generate the LP conductance. PMID:15452084

Marmorstein, Alan D.; Stanton, J. Brett; Yocom, John; Bakall, Benjamin; Schiavone, Marc T.; Wadelius, Claes; Marmorstein, Lihua Y.; Peachey, Neal S.

2010-01-01

272

Inhibitors of intracellular signaling pathways that lead to stimulated epidermal pigmentation: perspective of anti-pigmenting agents.  

PubMed

Few anti-pigmenting agents have been designed and developed according to their known hyperpigmentation mechanisms and corresponding intracellular signaling cascades. Most anti-pigmenting agents developed so far are mechanistically involved in the interruption of constitutional melanogenic mechanisms by which skin color is maintained at a normal and unstimulated level. Thus, owing to the difficulty of confining topical application to a specific hyperpigmented skin area, potent anti-pigmenting agents capable of attenuating the natural unstimulated pigmentation process have the risk of leading to hypopigmentation. Since intracellular signaling pathways within melanocytes do not function substantially in maintaining normal skin color and are activated only by environmental stimuli such as UV radiation, specifically down-regulating the activation of melanogenesis to the constitutive level would be an appropriate strategy to develop new potent anti-pigmenting agents with a low risk of hypopigmentation. In this article, we review the hyperpigmentation mechanisms and intracellular signaling pathways that lead to the stimulation of melanogenesis. We also discuss a screening and evaluation system to select candidates for new anti-melanogenic substances by focusing on inhibitors of endothelin-1 or stem cell factor-triggered intracellular signaling cascades. From this viewpoint, we show that extracts of the herbs Withania somnifera and Melia toosendan and the natural chemicals Withaferin A and Astaxanthin are new candidates for potent anti-pigmenting substances that avoid the risk of hypopigmentation. PMID:24823877

Imokawa, Genji; Ishida, Koichi

2014-01-01

273

Inhibitors of Intracellular Signaling Pathways that Lead to Stimulated Epidermal Pigmentation: Perspective of Anti-Pigmenting Agents  

PubMed Central

Few anti-pigmenting agents have been designed and developed according to their known hyperpigmentation mechanisms and corresponding intracellular signaling cascades. Most anti-pigmenting agents developed so far are mechanistically involved in the interruption of constitutional melanogenic mechanisms by which skin color is maintained at a normal and unstimulated level. Thus, owing to the difficulty of confining topical application to a specific hyperpigmented skin area, potent anti-pigmenting agents capable of attenuating the natural unstimulated pigmentation process have the risk of leading to hypopigmentation. Since intracellular signaling pathways within melanocytes do not function substantially in maintaining normal skin color and are activated only by environmental stimuli such as UV radiation, specifically down-regulating the activation of melanogenesis to the constitutive level would be an appropriate strategy to develop new potent anti-pigmenting agents with a low risk of hypopigmentation. In this article, we review the hyperpigmentation mechanisms and intracellular signaling pathways that lead to the stimulation of melanogenesis. We also discuss a screening and evaluation system to select candidates for new anti-melanogenic substances by focusing on inhibitors of endothelin-1 or stem cell factor-triggered intracellular signaling cascades. From this viewpoint, we show that extracts of the herbs Withania somnifera and Melia toosendan and the natural chemicals Withaferin A and Astaxanthin are new candidates for potent anti-pigmenting substances that avoid the risk of hypopigmentation. PMID:24823877

Imokawa, Genji; Ishida, Koichi

2014-01-01

274

Management of pseudophakic cystoid macular edema.  

PubMed

Pseudophakic cystoid macular edema (PCME) is a common complication following cataract surgery. Acute PCME may resolve spontaneously, but some patients will develop chronic macular edema that affects vision and is difficult to treat. This disease was described more than 50 years ago, and there are multiple options for clinical management. We discuss mechanisms, clinical efficacy, and adverse effects of these treatment modalities. Topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents and corticosteroids are widely used and, when combined, may have a synergistic effect. Intravitreal corticosteroids and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) agents have shown promise when topical medications either fail or have had limited effects. Randomized clinical studies evaluating anti-VEGF agents are needed to fully evaluate benefits and risks. When PCME is either refractory to medical therapy or is associated with significant vitreous involvement, pars plana vitrectomy has been shown to improve outcomes, though it is associated with additional risks. PMID:25438734

Guo, Suqin; Patel, Shriji; Baumrind, Ben; Johnson, Keegan; Levinsohn, Daniel; Marcus, Edward; Tannen, Brad; Roy, Monique; Bhagat, Neelakshi; Zarbin, Marco

2014-09-01

275

Increased resolution macular thickness mapping by OCT.  

PubMed

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) poor mapping resolution has been pointed out as the biggest disadvantage of this technique when compared to others, e.g., retinal thickness analyzer. In this work we were able to solve this problem by developing an atlas of macular thickness of the human retina into which OCT scans were thereafter registered. This atlas is used to allow registering OCT scans from the Fast Macular Protocol, thus bringing OCT scans into the atlas coordinates, therefore correcting for misfixations, while simultaneously allowing to perform OCT inter-scan registration. From this initial registration, we were able to compute a thickness map into which Fast RNFL Protocol scans were merged, thus allowing for increased OCT mapping resolution. PMID:17946646

Bernardes, Rui; Santos, Torcato; Cunha-Vaz, José

2006-01-01

276

PERIFOVEAL VITREOUS DETACHMENT AND ITS MACULAR COMPLICATIONS  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the vitreoretinal relationship in eyes with idiopathic macular disorders putatively caused by vitreomacular traction associated with early stages of age-related posterior vitreous detachment (PVD). Methods Retrospective observational case series of 43 eyes of 40 patients diagnosed with one of several idiopathic vitreomacular conditions. Included patients had no biomicroscopic evidence for complete PVD on presentation and underwent a specific clinical assessment of the vitreoretinal relationship. Affected eyes were evaluated with slit-lamp biomicroscopy, B-scan ultrasonography, optical coherence tomography, and/or intraoperative examination of the posterior hyaloid. Results By one or more examination techniques, 41 (95.3%) of the 43 study eyes had evidence of vitreous detachment from the perifoveal macular region and the remaining two eyes had complete PVD. When measurable, the size of the vitreomacular adhesion varied by diagnosis. Of 31 eyes with perifoveal vitreous detachment seen in follow-up, only three (9.7%) showed progression to complete PVD over an average preoperative or total follow-up period of 30.0 months (range, 2 to 237 months). Surgical or spontaneous separation of the residual vitreomacular adhesion in 16 eyes was followed in 15 (93.8%) by partial or complete resolution of the symptoms and signs of macular traction. Conclusions Age-related PVD appears to be an insidious, chronic event that begins in the perifoveal macula and evolves over a prolonged period of time prior to vitreopapillary separation. Though usually asymptomatic, its early (perifoveal) stages may be complicated by one of several macular pathologies, determined in part by the size of the residual vitreomacular adhesion. PMID:17057817

Johnson, Mark W

2005-01-01

277

Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of blindness, with an increasing incidence as the elderly population expands. Large, multi-center, randomized, clinical trials have been conducted exploring the safety and efficacy of anti-VEGF treatments. This paper aims to discuss the safety and efficacy of pegaptanib, ranibizumab, aflibercept and bevacizumab. New therapeutic agents and treatment strategies are also

Daniele Veritti; Valentina Sarao; Paolo Lanzetta

2012-01-01

278

Genetics Home Reference: Vitelliform macular dystrophy  

MedlinePLUS

... controls the movement of charged chlorine atoms (chloride ions) into or out of cells in the retina. ... chloride ; epithelium ; gene ; incidence ; inheritance ; inheritance pattern ; inherited ; ions ; juvenile ; lipofuscin ; macula ; peripheral ; photoreceptor ; pigment ; protein ; retina ; ...

279

Macular Bioaccelerometers on Earth and in Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space flight offers the opportunity to study linear bioaccelerometers (vestibular maculas) in the virtual absence of a primary stimulus, gravitational acceleration. Macular research in space is particularly important to NASA because the bioaccelerometers are proving to be weighted neural networks in which information is distributed for parallel processing. Neural networks are plastic and highly adaptive to new environments. Combined morphological-physiological studies of maculas fixed in space and following flight should reveal macular adaptive responses to microgravity, and their time-course. Ground-based research, already begun, using computer-assisted, 3-dimensional reconstruction of macular terminal fields will lead to development of computer models of functioning maculas. This research should continue in conjunction with physiological studies, including work with multichannel electrodes. The results of such a combined effort could usher in a new era in understanding vestibular function on Earth and in space. They can also provide a rational basis for counter-measures to space motion sickness, which may prove troublesome as space voyager encounter new gravitational fields on planets, or must re-adapt to 1 g upon return to earth.

Ross, M. D.; Cutler, L.; Meyer, G.; Vazin, P.; Lam, T.

1991-01-01

280

Genetic susceptibility to age related macular degeneration  

PubMed Central

Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of visual impairment in the elderly and a major cause of blindness in the developed world. The disease can take two forms, geographic atrophy and choroidal neovascularisation. The pathogenesis of AMD is poorly understood. There are undoubtedly environmental and other risk factors involved and the adverse effect of smoking is well established. Several studies have shown that genetic factors are important but leave uncertainty about the magnitude and nature of the genetic component and whether it varies with the type of AMD. Several hereditary retinal dystrophies show similarities to AMD and these genes are potential candidate susceptibility genes. Particular interest has focused on the ABCR gene which is responsible for autosomal recessive Stargardt macular dystrophy. It has been claimed that heterozygotes for ABCR mutations are predisposed to AMD but the data are conflicting. Studies of the genes responsible for autosomal dominant Sorsby fundus dystrophy, Doyne honeycomb retinal dystrophy, and Best disease have given negative results. In one large AMD family, linkage has been reported to markers in 1q25-q31. Recent data suggest that the ApoE ?4 allele may be associated with reduced risk of AMD. A better understanding of the genetic factors in AMD would contribute to understanding the pathogenesis. If those at risk could be identified it may be possible to modify lifestyle or develop novel therapies in the presymptomatic stage to prevent disease or decrease its severity.???Keywords: age related macular degeneration; genetic susceptibility PMID:10662806

Yates, J.; Moore, A.

2000-01-01

281

Identification of a Novel Lipofuscin Pigment (iisoA2E) in Retina and Its Effects in the Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells*  

PubMed Central

Lipofuscin accumulation in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells of the eye implicates the etiologies of Stargardt disease and age-related macular degeneration, a leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Here, we have identified a previously unknown RPE lipofuscin component. By one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques and mass spectrometry, we confirmed that this compound is a new type of pyridinium bisretinoid presenting an unusual structure, in which two polyenic side chains are attached to adjacent carbons of a pyridinium ring. This pigment is a light-induced isomer of isoA2E, rather than A2E, referred to as iisoA2E. This pigment is a fluorescent lipofuscin compound with absorbance maxima at ?430 and 352 nm detected in human, pig, mouse, and bovine eyes. Formation of iisoA2E was found in reaction mixtures of all-trans-retinal and ethanolamine. Excess intracellular accumulation of this adduct in RPE cells in vitro leads to a significant loss of cell viability and caused membrane damage. Phospholipase D-mediated phosphodiester cleavage of the A2PE series generated isoA2E and iisoA2E, in addition to A2E, thus corroborating the presence of isoA2PE and iisoA2PE that may serve as biosynthetic precursors of isoA2E and iisoA2E. PMID:24169698

Li, Jie; Yao, Ke; Yu, Xiaoning; Dong, Xinran; Gan, Lishe; Luo, Chenqi; Wu, Yalin

2013-01-01

282

Wogonin modulates hydroperoxide-induced apoptosis via PI3K/Akt pathway in retinal pigment epithelium cells.  

PubMed

BackgroundOxidative stress causes the defects of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells that contribute to age-related macular degeneration (AMD). This study was conducted to determine whether wogonin could prevent H2O2-induced oxidative stress in RPE cells.MethodsA RPE cell line, ARPE-19, was obtained for the cell model. ARPE-19 cells were pre-treated with various concentrations of wogonin for 24 h before being exposed to H2O2 for 2 h to induce oxidative stress. Cell metabolic activity was measured using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Cellular apoptosis was quantified by the flow cytometry. Protein level was assed by western blot.ResultsThe RPE cells exposed to to 200 mM H2O2 demonstrated a significant depression in the cell viability; whereas pre-treatment with 50 and 100 mmol/l wogonin could significantly improve the cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. The proportion of PI-positive cells was increased significantly in RPE cells treated with H2O2 alone; whereas pretreatment with 100 mM wogonin significantly reduced H2O2 -induced RPE cell death rate. In protein level, the wogonin use could reduce the level of p-Akt significantly and this is the possible mechanism of the antioxidant effect of wogonin.ConclusionsOur study showed that wogonin pre-treatment can protect RPE cells from H2O2-induced apoptosis. This suggests potential effect of wogonin in the prevention of retinal diseases associated with H2O2-induced oxidative stress such as AMD.Virtual SlidesThe virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/13000_2014_154. PMID:25432585

Yan, Yanqin; Bi, Hongsheng; Wang, Xingrong

2014-11-29

283

A non-linear irreversible thermodynamic perspective on organic pigment proliferation and biological evolution  

E-print Network

The most important thermodynamic work performed by life today is the dissipation of the solar photon flux into heat through organic pigments in water. From this thermodynamic perspective, biological evolution is thus just the dispersal of organic pigments and water throughout Earth's surface, while adjusting the gases of Earth's atmosphere to allow the most intense part of the solar spectrum to penetrate the atmosphere and reach the surface to be intercepted by these pigments. The covalent bonding of atoms in organic pigments provides excited levels compatible with the energies of these photons. Internal conversion through vibrational relaxation to the ground state of these excited molecules when in water leads to rapid dissipation of the solar photons into heat, and this is the major source of entropy production on Earth. A non-linear irreversible thermodynamic analysis shows that the proliferation of organic pigments on Earth is a direct consequence of the pigments catalytic properties in dissipating the so...

Michaelian, Karo

2013-01-01

284

Visual Field Loss Progression after Macular Hole Surgery  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To report a patient who experienced visual field loss progression after vitrectomy for an idiopathic stage II macular hole. Methods. Case report. A 68-year-old woman, with no history of glaucoma or any neuroophthalmological diseases, underwent a vitrectomy for a macular hole. Results. The patient showed macular hole closure and a resulting central visual acuity of 20/20. However, two months after surgery, she developed an inferotemporal visual field defect. Moreover, seven months after surgery, the patient noticed an enlargement of the temporal blind area: a nearly complete temporal defect was confirmed on visual field testing. Conclusions. Although the beneficial results of successfully treated macular holes are unquestionable, this report raises the possibility that visual field defects following macular hole surgery may be progressive. PMID:20339458

Tosi, Gian Marco; Martone, Gianluca; Balestrazzi, Angelo; Malandrini, Alex; Alegente, Marco; Pichierri, Patrizia

2009-01-01

285

Episcleral macular buckling for posterior retinal detachment in silicone oil filled eyes associated with myopic macular hole  

PubMed Central

AIM To evaluate anatomical and visual outcomes of episcleral macular buckling (EMB) for posterior retinal detachment in silicone oil filled eyes associated with myopic macular hole. METHODS Five cases of EMB for initial failure of retinal reattachment after internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling and silicone oil tamponade caused by myopic macular hole were retrospectively reviewed. A silicone sponge sutured directly across the macular region was performed on the silicone oil filled eyes. Silicone oil was removed no sooner than 1 month post-EMB. The duration of follow-up time after removal of silicone oil was more than 3 months. RESULTS Retinas of five eyes were all reattached at the last follow-up. The postoperative vision ranged from counting fingers to 0.08. CONCLUSION Anatomical results improved after EBM for posterior retinal detachment in silicone oil filled eyes associated with myopic macular hole, which was not evident for visual outcome. PMID:23638417

Tian, Jiao; Tang, Luo-Sheng; Guo, Xiao-Jian; Luo, Yong-Heng

2013-01-01

286

Microprobe analysis of chlorpromazine pigmentation  

SciTech Connect

We describe the histochemical, ultrastructural, and microanalytical features of a skin biopsy specimen obtained from a patient with chlorpromazine pigmentation. Golden-brown pigment granules were present in the dermis, predominantly in a perivascular arrangement. The granules stained positively with the Fontana-Masson stain for silver-reducing substances and negatively with Perl's stain for iron. Electron microscopy revealed dense inclusion bodies in dermal histiocytes, pericytes, endothelial cells, and Schwann cells, as well as lying free in the extracellular matrix. These ''chlorpromazine bodies'' were quite dense even in unosmicated, unstained ultrathin sections, indicating that the pigmentation is related, at least in part, to the inclusions. Microprobe analysis of the chlorpromazine bodies revealed a striking peak for sulfur, which strongly suggests the presence of the drug or its metabolite within these inclusions.

Benning, T.L.; McCormack, K.M.; Ingram, P.; Kaplan, D.L.; Shelburne, J.D.

1988-10-01

287

Outcomes of chronic macular hole surgical repair  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To report visual and anatomic outcomes of chronic macular hole surgery, with analysis of pre-operative OCT-based hole size and post-operative closure type. Settings and Design: An IRB-approved, retrospective case series of 26 eyes of 24 patients who underwent surgery for stage 3 or 4 idiopathic chronic macular holes at a tertiary care referral center. Statistical Analysis: Student's t-test. Results: Nineteen of 26 eyes (73%) had visual improvement after surgery on most recent exam. Twenty-one of 26 eyes (81%) achieved anatomic closure; 16 of 26 eyes (62%) achieved type 1, and five of 26 eyes (19%) achieved type 2 closure. Post-operative LogMAR VA for type 1 closure holes (0.49) was significantly greater than for type 2 closure and open holes (1.26, P < 0.003 and 1.10, P < 0.005, respectively), despite similar pre-operative VA (P = 0.51 and 0.68, respectively). Mean pre-operative hole diameter for eyes with type 1 closure, type 2 closure, and holes that remained open were 554, 929, and 1205 microns, respectively. Mean pre-operative hole diameter was significantly larger in eyes that remained open as compared to eyes with type 1 closure (P = 0.015). Conclusion: Vitrectomy to repair chronic macular holes can improve vision and achieve long-term closure. Holes of greater than 3.4 years duration were associated with a greater incidence of remaining open and type 2 closure. Larger holes (mean diameter of 1205 microns) were more likely to remain open after repair. PMID:25116773

Shukla, Shripaad Y; Afshar, Armin R; Kiernan, Daniel F; Hariprasad, Seenu M

2014-01-01

288

Estrogen Antagonist and Development of Macular Hole  

PubMed Central

To describe the clinical and optical coherence tomography (OCT) features of a macular hole (MH) or its precursor lesion in patients treated with systemic antiestrogen agents. We reviewed the medical history of the patient, ophthalmic examination, and both fundus and OCT findings. Three female patients receiving antiestrogen therapy sought treatment for visual disturbance. All of the patients showed foveal cystic changes with outer retinal defect upon OCT. Visual improvement was achieved through surgery for the treatment of MH in two patients. Antiestrogen therapy may result in MH or its precursor lesion, in addition to perifoveal refractile deposits. OCT examination would be helpful for early detection in such cases. PMID:21052512

Chung, Song Ee; Kim, Seong Wook; Chung, Hye Won

2010-01-01

289

Effect of Hemodialysis on Retinal Thickness in Patients with Diabetic Retinopathy, with and without Macular Edema, Using Optical Coherence Tomography  

PubMed Central

Background. Effects of hemodialysis (HD) treatment on retinal thickness and macular edema are unclear. Objective. To evaluate changes in retinal thickness using optical coherence tomography (OCT) in end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR), with and without diabetic macular edema (DME), undergoing HD. Methods. Nonrandomized prospective study. Forty eyes of DR patients with ESRD treated with HD were divided into two groups: patients with macular edema and patients without macular edema. Both eyes were analyzed. Patients underwent an ophthalmic examination including OCT measurements of retinal thickness, blood albumin and hemoglobin A1C levels, blood pressure, and body weight, 30 minutes before and after HD. Results. We found no significant effects of HD on retinal thickness among patients both with and without DME. The former showed a trend towards reduction in retinal thickness in foveal area following HD, while the latter showed an increase. There was no correlation between retinal thickness and mean blood pressure, weight, kinetic model value—Kt/V, glycemic hemoglobin, or albumin levels before and after HD. Conclusions. HD has no significant effect on retinal thickness among patients with or without DME. Further studies on larger cohorts and repeated OCT examinations are needed to confirm the preliminary findings in this study. PMID:25298889

Azem, Nur; Spierer, Oriel; Shaked, Meital; Neudorfer, Meira

2014-01-01

290

DNA Forensics and Color Pigments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students perform DNA forensics using food coloring to enhance their understanding of DNA fingerprinting, restriction enzymes, genotyping and DNA gel electrophoresis. They place small drops of different food coloring ("water-based paint") on strips of filter paper and then place one paper strip end in water. As water travels along the paper strips, students observe the pigments that compose the paint decompose into their color components. This is an example of the chromatography concept applied to DNA forensics, with the pigments in the paint that define the color being analogous to DNA fragments of different lengths.

National Science Foundation GK-12 and Research Experience for Teachers (RET) Programs,

291

Topical Application of PPADS Inhibits Complement Activation and Choroidal Neovascularization in a Model of Age-Related Macular Degeneration  

PubMed Central

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of blindness among the elderly. AMD patients have elevated levels of membrane attack complex (MAC) in their choroidal blood vessels and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). MAC forms pores in cell membranes. Low levels of MAC result in an elevation of cytokine release such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) that promotes the formation of choroidal neovascularization (CNV). High levels of MAC result in cell lysis and RPE degeneration is a hallmark of advanced AMD. The current standard of care for CNV associated with wet AMD is intravitreal injection of anti-VEGF molecules every 4 to 12 weeks. Such injections have significant side effects. Recently, it has been found that membrane pore-forming proteins such as ?-haemolysin can mediate their toxic effects through auto- and paracrine signaling and that complement-induced lysis is amplified through ATP release followed by P2X receptor activation. We hypothesized that attenuation of P2X receptor activation may lead to a reduction in MAC deposition and consequent formation of CNV. Hence, in this study we investigated topical application of the purinergic P2X antagonist Pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulphonic acid (PPADS) as a potential treatment for AMD. We found that 4.17 µM PPADS inhibited formation of HUVEC master junctions and master segments by 74.7%. In a human complement mediated cell lysis assay, 104 µM PPADS enabled almost complete protection of Hepa1c1c7 cells from 1% normal human serum mediated cell lysis. Daily topical application of 4.17 mM PPADS for 3 days attenuated the progression of laser induced CNV in mice by 41.8% and attenuated the deposition of MAC at the site of the laser injury by 19.7%. Our data have implications for the future treatment of AMD and potentially other ocular disorders involving CNV such as angioid streaks, choroidal rupture and high myopia. PMID:24130789

Birke, Kerstin; Lipo, Erion; Birke, Marco T.; Kumar-Singh, Rajendra

2013-01-01

292

Idiopathic macular telangiectasia type 2: ?the progressive vasculopathy.  

PubMed

Purpose. To describe the complete sequence of the progressive vasculopathy in macular telangiectasia type 2.?Methods. This is a report of a case demonstrating the complete vasogenic sequence in macular telangiectasia type 2 over the course of 15 years, and representative images from a collective of 150 patients with macular telangiectasia type 2 employing fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, and optical coherence tomography.?Results. Macular telangiectasia may progress along a predictable vasogenic sequence which consists of nonproliferative stages, characterized by temporal loss of macular luteopigment and inner retinal volume loss in the absence of vascular changes, followed by a progressive proliferative vasculopathy, first involving the deep capillary plexus with eventual extension of the vascular changes circumferentially in the inner retinal capillary plexus. Late proliferative stages may become indistinguishable from advanced neovascular age-related macular degeneration.?Conclusions. While it is rare to observe the complete vasogenic sequence of macular telangiectasia type 2, a classification into nonproliferative and proliferative stages can be established, and may prove helpful as the mechanisms driving the pathogenic process through those stages are identified. PMID:23138663

Engelbert, Michael; Yannuzzi, Lawrence A

2012-11-01

293

Role of inflammation in previously untreated macular edema with branch retinal vein occlusion  

PubMed Central

Background The association of inflammatory factors and the aqueous flare value with macular edema in branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) patients remains unclear. The relationship between the aqueous flare value and the vitreous fluid levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin (IL)-6, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1), and soluble VEGF receptor-2 (sVEGFR-2) was evaluated to investigate the role of inflammation in BRVO associated with macular edema. Aqueous flare values and the vitreous levels of VEGF, IL-6, MCP-1, sICAM-1, and sVEGFR-2 were compared between previously untreated patients with BRVO and patients with macular hole (MH). Methods Vitreous samples were obtained from 45 patients during vitreoretinal surgery (28 patients with BRVO and 17 with MH), and the levels of VEGF, IL-6, MCP-1, sICAM-1, and sVEGFR-2 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Retinal ischemia was evaluated by measuring the area of capillary non-perfusion using fluorescein angiography and the Scion Image program. Aqueous flare values were measured with a laser flare meter and macular edema was examined by optical coherence tomography. Results The median aqueous flare value was significantly higher in the BRVO group (12.1 photon counts/ms) than in the MH group (4.5 photon counts/ms, P?levels of VEGF, IL-6, MCP-1, and sICAM-1 in the BRVO group (??=?0.54, P?=?0.005; ??=?0.56, P?=?0.004; ??=?0.52, P?=?0.006; and ??=?0.47, P?=?0.015, respectively). The aqueous flare value was also significantly correlated with the foveal thickness in the BRVO group (??=?0.40, P?=?0.037). Conclusions Inflammation may induce an increase of vascular permeability and disrupt the blood-aqueous barrier via release of inflammatory factors (VEGF, IL-6, MCP-1, and sICAM-1) in BRVO patients with macular edema. PMID:24884703

2014-01-01

294

Optical modulation of transgene expression in retinal pigment epithelium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over a million people in US alone are visually impaired due to the neovascular form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The current treatment is monthly intravitreal injections of a protein which inhibits Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, thereby slowing progression of the disease. The immense financial and logistical burden of millions of intravitreal injections signifies an urgent need to develop more long-lasting and cost-effective treatments for this and other retinal diseases. Viral transfection of ocular cells allows creation of a "biofactory" that secretes therapeutic proteins. This technique has been proven successful in non-human primates, and is now being evaluated in clinical trials for wet AMD. However, there is a critical need to down-regulate gene expression in the case of total resolution of retinal condition, or if patient has adverse reaction to the trans-gene products. The site for genetic therapy of AMD and many other retinal diseases is the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). We developed and tested in pigmented rabbits, an optical method to down-regulate transgene expression in RPE following vector delivery, without retinal damage. Microsecond exposures produced by a rapidly scanning laser vaporize melanosomes and destroy a predetermined fraction of the RPE cells selectively. RPE continuity is restored within days by migration and proliferation of adjacent RPE, but since the transgene is not integrated into the nucleus it is not replicated. Thus, the decrease in transgene expression can be precisely determined by the laser pattern density and further reduced by repeated treatment without affecting retinal structure and function.

Palanker, D.; Lavinsky, D.; Chalberg, T.; Mandel, Y.; Huie, P.; Dalal, R.; Marmor, M.

2013-03-01

295

The role of pigmentation in face perception  

E-print Network

Faces each have distinct pigmentation as well as shape, which suggests that both cues may play a role in the perception of faces. However, there is a common implicit assumption that pigmentation cues are relatively ...

Russell, Richard (Richard P.)

2005-01-01

296

Optimal number of pigments in photosynthetic complexes  

E-print Network

We study excitation energy transfer in a simple model of photosynthetic complex. The model, described by Lindblad equation, consists of pigments interacting via dipole-dipole interaction. Overlapping of pigments induces an on-site energy disorder, providing a mechanism for blocking the excitation transfer. Based on the average efficiency as well as robustness of random configurations of pigments, we calculate the optimal number of pigments that should be enclosed in a pigment-protein complex of a given size. The results suggest that a large fraction of pigment configurations are efficient as well as robust if the number of pigments is properly chosen. We compare optimal results of the model to the structure of pigment-protein complexes as found in nature, finding good agreement.

Simon Jesenko; Marko Znidaric

2012-04-20

297

Optimal number of pigments in photosynthetic complexes  

E-print Network

We study excitation energy transfer in a simple model of photosynthetic complex. The model, described by Lindblad equation, consists of pigments interacting via dipole-dipole interaction. Overlapping of pigments induces an on-site energy disorder, providing a mechanism for blocking the excitation transfer. Based on the average efficiency as well as robustness of random configurations of pigments, we calculate the optimal number of pigments that should be enclosed in a pigment-protein complex of a given size. The results suggest that a large fraction of pigment configurations are efficient as well as robust if the number of pigments is properly chosen. We compare optimal results of the model to the structure of pigment-protein complexes as found in nature, finding good agreement.

Jesenko, Simon

2012-01-01

298

6 Nondestructive Estimation of Foliar Pigment  

E-print Network

141 6 Nondestructive Estimation of Foliar Pigment (Chlorophylls, Carotenoids, and Anthocyanins, carotenoids, and anthocyanins. The chlorophyll-a and chlorophyll-b are essential pigments for the conversion............................................................................................................... 143 6.2.3 Anthocyanins

Gitelson, Anatoly

299

Induced pigmentation in zooplankton: a trade-off between threats from predation and ultraviolet radiation.  

PubMed Central

Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is harmful to all life, and the ongoing depletion of the ozone layer is likely to affect interactions among both terrestrial and aquatic organisms. Some organisms have evolved adaptations to reduce radiation damage, such as the various types of protective pigmentation of freshwater zooplankton. However, strong pigmentation also increases vulnerability to visually hunting predators. Hence, where both UV radiation and predation are intense, zooplankton may be sandwiched between conflicting selective pressures: to be pigmented and to be transparent at the same time. Here, I show that the level of pigmentation in copepods is up to ten times higher in lakes without predatory fishes than where fishes are present. Moreover, animals from the same population exposed to either UV light or predator scent showed a 10% difference in pigmentation after only four days, suggesting that pigmentation is an inducible trait. Hence, individual copepods are not passive victims of selective predation or radiation damage, but adjust the level of pigmentation according to the prevailing threat. The ability to adjust pigmentation level rapidly may be especially useful in situations where risk assessment is difficult due to strong seasonal and spatial variation in risk variables, such as in Arctic regions. With progressive thinning of the ozone layer, the ability of some but not other organisms to adjust protection against UV radiation may lead to counter-intuitive, large-scale alterations in freshwater food webs. PMID:11413651

Hansson, L A

2000-01-01

300

Is pigmentation important for face recognition? Is pigmentation important for face recognition?  

E-print Network

Is pigmentation important for face recognition? Is pigmentation important for face recognition into two general sources: a) shape and b) surface reflectance, here termed "pigmentation.". To determine whether negation differentially affects the processing of shape or pigmentation, we made two sets of faces

Sinha, Pawan

301

Expression of pigment epithelium-derived factor and thrombospondin-1 regulate proliferation and migration of retinal pigment epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss among elderly. Although the pathogenesis of AMD is associated with retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) dysfunction and abnormal neovascularization the detailed mechanisms remain unresolved. RPE is a specialized monolayer of epithelial cells with important functions in ocular homeostasis. Pathological RPE damage contributes to major ocular conditions including retinal degeneration and irreversible loss of vision in AMD. RPE cells also assist in the maintenance of the ocular angiogenic balance by production of positive and negative regulatory factors including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), thrombospondin-1 (TSP1), and pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF). The altered production of PEDF and TSP1, as endogenous inhibitors of angiogenesis and inflammation, by RPE cells have been linked to pathogenesis of AMD and choroidal and retinal neovascularization. However, lack of simple methods for isolation and culture of mouse RPE cells has resulted in limited knowledge regarding the cell autonomous role of TSP1 and PEDF in RPE cell function. Here, we describe a method for routine isolation and propagation of RPE cells from wild-type, TSP1, and PEDF-deficient mice, and have investigated their impact on RPE cell function. We showed that expression of TSP1 and PEDF significantly impacted RPE cell proliferation, migration, adhesion, oxidative state, and phagocytic activity with minimal effect on their basal rate of apoptosis. Together, our results indicated that the expression of PEDF and TSP1 by RPE cells play crucial roles not only in regulation of ocular vascular homeostasis but also have significant impact on their cellular function. PMID:25602019

Farnoodian, Mitra; Kinter, James B; Yadranji Aghdam, Saeed; Zaitoun, Ismail; Sorenson, Christine M; Sheibani, Nader

2015-01-01

302

Dominance and stress signalling of carotenoid pigmentation in Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus): Lateralization effects?  

PubMed

Social conflicts are usually solved by agonistic interactions where animals use cues to signal dominance or subordinance. Pigmentation change is a common cue used for signalling. In our study, the involvement of carotenoid-based pigmentation in signalling was investigated in juvenile Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). Size-matched pairs were analysed for pigmentation both before and after being tested for competitive ability. We found that dominant individuals had fewer carotenoid-based spots on the right and left sides as well as lower plasma cortisol levels compared to subordinate individuals. Further, the number of spots on both sides was positively associated with plasma cortisol levels. These results indicate that carotenoid-based pigmentation in Arctic charr signals dominance and stress coping style. Further, it also appears as if carotenoid-based pigmentation is lateralized in Arctic charr, and that the right side signals aggression and dominance whereas the left side signals stress responsiveness. PMID:25447479

Backström, Tobias; Heynen, Martina; Brännäs, Eva; Nilsson, Jan; Magnhagen, Carin

2015-01-01

303

21 CFR 178.3725 - Pigment dispersants.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pigment dispersants. 178.3725 Section 178...Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3725 Pigment dispersants. Subject to the provisions...listed in this section may be safely used as pigment dispersants in food-contact...

2014-04-01

304

21 CFR 178.3725 - Pigment dispersants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pigment dispersants. 178.3725 Section 178...Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3725 Pigment dispersants. Subject to the provisions...listed in this section may be safely used as pigment dispersants in food-contact...

2013-04-01

305

Gntique formelle des pigmentations humaines variations continues  

E-print Network

Génétique formelle des pigmentations humaines à variations continues : beaucoup d'hypothèses, peu et de mesures sont actuellement disponibles concer- nant la biochimie des pigments humains, leur génétique physiologique, les répartitions mondiales des pigmentations de la peau et des cheveux. La

Boyer, Edmond

306

Developmental Integration of Feather Growth and Pigmentation  

E-print Network

Developmental Integration of Feather Growth and Pigmentation and its Implications for the Evolution by coordinated pigmentation of thousands of growing feathers that vary in shape and size. Although the functional, specifically, the rules that link feather growth to pigment uptake and synthesis. Here, we combine biochemical

Badyaev, Alex

307

FISH PIGMENTATION Local reorganization of xanthophores  

E-print Network

FISH PIGMENTATION Local reorganization of xanthophores fine-tunes and colors the striped pattern of pigment cells: black melanophores, yellow xanthophores, and silvery-blue iridophores. We analyzed of mutants lacking one or two of the three pigment cell types has revealed that interac- tions between all

Napp, Nils

308

21 CFR 178.3725 - Pigment dispersants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pigment dispersants. 178.3725 Section 178...Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3725 Pigment dispersants. Subject to the provisions...listed in this section may be safely used as pigment dispersants in food-contact...

2012-04-01

309

Modeling Pigmented Materials for Realistic Image Synthesis  

E-print Network

Modeling Pigmented Materials for Realistic Image Synthesis CHET S. HAASE and GARY W. MEYER University of Oregon This article discusses and applies the Kuhelka Munk theory of pigment mixing to computer]xing arc discussed and are shown to be insufficient for pigmented materials. The Kubclka Munk theory

Meyer, Gary

310

21 CFR 178.3725 - Pigment dispersants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Pigment dispersants. 178.3725 Section 178.3725...Production Aids § 178.3725 Pigment dispersants. Subject to the provisions of...section may be safely used as pigment dispersants in food-contact materials. Substances...this chapter. Phosphorylated tall oil fatty acids (CAS Reg. No....

2010-04-01

311

21 CFR 178.3725 - Pigment dispersants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Pigment dispersants. 178.3725 Section 178.3725...Production Aids § 178.3725 Pigment dispersants. Subject to the provisions of...section may be safely used as pigment dispersants in food-contact materials. Substances...this chapter. Phosphorylated tall oil fatty acids (CAS Reg. No....

2011-04-01

312

Clofazimine-induced Hair Pigmentation.  

PubMed

A 45-year-old man was treated with WHO multibacillary multidrug therapy for borderline leprosy and high dose daily Clofazimine for lepra reaction. Along with the expected side effect of skin pigmentation, the patient also noticed darkening of previously grey hair. This colour persisted eight months after completing multibacillary multidrug therapy. PMID:23180930

Philip, Mariam; Samson, Joan Felicita; Simi, Puthenveedu Salahudeen

2012-07-01

313

Evaluation of circulating miRNAs in wet age-related macular degeneration  

PubMed Central

Purpose In the present study, we aimed to investigate the changes in plasma miRNA in patients with wet age-related macular degeneration. Methods The expression profiles of 384 miRNAs in plasma from 33 patients (22 male, 11 female) who were diagnosed with wet age-related macular degeneration with fundus examination, fundus fluorescein angiography, and optical coherence tomography and 31 controls (17 male, 14 female) were evaluated using high-throughput quantitative real-time PCR. Results Our results demonstrated that the expression level of five miRNAs (miR-17-5p, miR-20a-5p, miR-24-3p, miR-106a-5p, and miR-223-3p) was significantly upregulated in patients with age-related macular degeneration when compared to the control group (p<0.05). The expression level of 11 miRNAs (miR-21-5p, miR-25-3p, miR-140-3p, miR-146b-5p, miR-192-5p, miR-335-5p, miR-342-3p, miR-374a-5p, miR-410, miR-574-3p, and miR-660-5p) was significantly downregulated in patients (p<0.05). In addition, ten miRNAs (miR-26b-5p, miR-27b-3p, miR-29a-3p, miR-139-3p, miR-212–3p, miR-324-3p, miR-324-5p, miR-532-3p, miR-744-5p, and miR-Let-7c) were expressed only in the patient group. Conclusions Our results suggest that plasma miRNA levels may change in wet age-related macular degeneration. These molecules may have an important therapeutic target in patients who are unresponsive to antivascular endothelial growth factor therapy. However, further studies must be conducted for possible effects of miRNAs in vascular disorders of eye such as age-related macular degeneration. PMID:25221421

Y?ld?r?m, Özlem; Dinç, Erdem; Ayaz, Lokman; Fidanc?, ?enay Balc?; Tamer, Lülüfer

2014-01-01

314

Changes in spectral properties and composition of lipofuscin fluorophores from human-retinal-pigment epithelium with age and pathology.  

PubMed

Fundus autofluorescence mostly originates from bisretinoid fluorophores in lipofuscin granules, which accumulate in retinal-pigment-epithelium cells with age. The dynamics of accumulation, photo-oxidation, and photodegradation of bisretinoids during aging or in the presence of pathology have been insufficiently investigated. Changes in spectral properties and composition of human lipofuscin-granule fluorophores with age and pathology have now been investigated by a high-performance liquid chromatography method using spectrophotometric and fluorescent detectors connected in series. It was found that: (i) N-retinylidene-N-retinylethanolamine (A2E) fluorescence intensity is not predominant in the chloroform extract of human-cadaver-eye retinal pigment epithelium studied; bisretinoid photo-oxidation and photodegradation products have much higher fluorescent properties; (ii) the relative emission maximum in the fluorescence spectrum of suspended retinal-pigment-epithelium cells obtained from an individual human-cadaver eye without pathology is irrespective of donor age and falls within the range 575?±?15 nm; in two cadaver eyes with signs of age-related macular degeneration, emission maxima were shifted by 23-36 nm towards the shortwave region; and (iii) the ratio of bisretinoid photo-oxidation and photodegradation products to unoxidized bisretinoids in the chloroform extract of cadaver-eye retinal pigment epithelium increases with donor age, from 0.69?±?0.03 to 1.32?±?0.04. The differences in fluorescence properties between chloroform extracts obtained from cadaver eyes with and without signs of age-related macular degeneration could be used to increase the potential of fundus autofluorescence imaging as a noninvasive diagnostic method. PMID:25471291

Feldman, Tatiana B; Yakovleva, Marina A; Arbukhanova, Patimat M; Borzenok, Sergey A; Kononikhin, Alexey S; Popov, Igor A; Nikolaev, Evgeny N; Ostrovsky, Mikhail A

2015-02-01

315

Stem cells as source for retinal pigment epithelium transplantation.  

PubMed

Inherited maculopathies, age related macular degeneration and some forms of retinitis pigmentosa are associated with impaired function or loss of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Among potential treatments, transplantation approaches are particularly promising. The arrangement of RPE cells in a well-defined tissue layer makes the RPE amenable to cell or tissue sheet transplantation. Different cell sources have been suggested for RPE transplantation but the development of a clinical protocol faces several obstacles. The source should provide a sufficient number of cells to at least recover the macula area. Secondly, cells should be plastic enough to be able to integrate in the host tissue. Tissue sheets should be considered as well, but the substrate on which RPE cells are cultured needs to be carefully evaluated. Immunogenicity can also be an obstacle for effective transplantation as well as tumorigenicity of not fully differentiated cells. Finally, ethical concerns may represent drawbacks when embryo-derived cells are proposed for RPE transplantation. Here we discuss different cell sources that became available in recent years and their different properties. We also present data on a new source of human RPE. We provide a protocol for RPE differentiation of retinal stem cells derived from adult ciliary bodies of post-mortem donors. We show molecular characterization of the in vitro differentiated RPE tissue and demonstrate its functionality based on a phagocytosis assay. This new source may provide tissue for allogenic transplantation based on best matches through histocompatibility testing. PMID:24933042

Bertolotti, Evelina; Neri, Alberto; Camparini, Monica; Macaluso, Claudio; Marigo, Valeria

2014-09-01

316

In vitro inhibition of pigmentation and fiber development in colored cotton*  

PubMed Central

Colored cotton has naturally pigmented fibers. The mechanism of pigmentation in cotton fiber is not well documented. This experiment was conducted to study the effects of respiratory chain inhibitors, i.e., rotenone and thiourea, on pigmentation and fiber development in colored cotton. After 1 d post-anthesis, ovaries were harvested and developing ovules were cultured on the liquid medium containing different concentrations of rotenone and thiourea for 30 d. The results demonstrate that both respiratory inhibitors reduced fiber length and ovule development under ovule culture conditions, and the inhibition efficiency of rotenone was much higher than that of thiourea. Rotenone and thiourea also showed significant effects on fiber pigment (color) development in colored cotton. In green cotton fiber, rotenone advanced fiber pigment development by 7 d at 200 ?mol/L, while thiourea inhibited fiber pigmentation at all treatment levels (400, 600, 800, 1 000, and 2 000 ?mol/L). Both respiratory inhibitors, however, had no significant effects on pigmentation of brown cotton fibers. The activities of cytochrome c oxidase (COX) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) decreased significantly with increasing levels of both respiratory inhibitors. It is suggested that both respiratory inhibitors have important roles in deciphering the mechanism of pigmentation and fiber development in colored cotton. PMID:22661210

Yuan, Shu-na; Malik, Waqas; Hua, Shui-jin; Bibi, Noreen; Wang, Xue-de

2012-01-01

317

Macular Hole following Intravitreal Bevacizumab Injection in Choroidal Neovascularization Caused by Age-Related Macular Degeneration  

PubMed Central

This report describes formation of a full-thickness macular hole subsequent to an injection of bevacizumab for the treatment of neovascular AMD. This complication may be caused by focal tractional forces on the retinal surface due to either vitreous incarceration at the injection site or contraction of the choroidal neovascularization membrane. Alternatively, it may be due to a toxic effect of bevacizumab on a previously compromised retina. PMID:21369348

Moisseiev, Elad; Goldstein, Michaela; Loewenstein, Anat; Moisseiev, Joseph

2010-01-01

318

Foveal slope measurements in subjects with high-risk of age-related macular degeneration  

PubMed Central

Background: Recent reports indicated that the slope of the foveal depression influences the macular pigment (MP) spatial profile. MP has been shown to confer possible protection against age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) because of its antioxidant properties. Aims: To study the configuration of foveal slope and the foveal thickness in fellow eyes of subjects with unilateral neovascular ARMD. Settings and design: Case-control series. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 30 cases aged >50, who had unilateral choroidal neovascular membrane (CNVM) or disciform scar in the fellow eye and 29 controls aged >50, who had no sign of ARMD in the either eye. Using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, foveal thickness at different locations including the central subfield foveal thickness (CSFT) was noted. The foveal slopes were calculated in the six radial scans (between 0.25° and 1° retinal eccentricity) as well as the 3D scan. Results: Cases had a significantly higher CSFT when compared to controls (215.1 ± 36.19 ? vs. 193.0 ± 17.38 ?, P = 0.004). On the 3D scan, the cases had shallower superior (cases 1.32 ± 0.32 vs. controls 1.45 ± 0.13, P = 0.04) and temporal slopes (cases 1.27 ± 0.21 vs. controls 1.39 ± 0.12, P = 0.01) in comparison to the controls. Conclusions: We noted a shallower superior and temporal foveal slope and a higher CSFT in the fellow eyes of subjects with a unilateral neovascular ARMD. Prospective studies observing the development of CNVM in subjects with altered foveal slope might provide more information on this optical coherence tomography finding. PMID:24104710

Raman, Rajiv; Lahane, Sayalee; Gupta, Aditi; Sandeep, D; Sharma, Tarun

2013-01-01

319

Automatic Detection of Diabetic Retinopathy and Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Digital Fundus Images  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To describe and evaluate the performance of an algorithm that automatically classifies images with pathologic features commonly found in diabetic retinopathy (DR) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods. Retinal digital photographs (N = 2247) of three fields of view (FOV) were obtained of the eyes of 822 patients at two centers: The Retina Institute of South Texas (RIST, San Antonio, TX) and The University of Texas Health Science Center San Antonio (UTHSCSA). Ground truth was provided for the presence of pathologic conditions, including microaneurysms, hemorrhages, exudates, neovascularization in the optic disc and elsewhere, drusen, abnormal pigmentation, and geographic atrophy. The algorithm was used to report on the presence or absence of disease. A detection threshold was applied to obtain different values of sensitivity and specificity with respect to ground truth and to construct a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Results. The system achieved an average area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.89 for detection of DR and of 0.92 for detection of sight-threatening DR (STDR). With a fixed specificity of 0.50, the system's sensitivity ranged from 0.92 for all DR cases to 1.00 for clinically significant macular edema (CSME). Conclusions. A computer-aided algorithm was trained to detect different types of pathologic retinal conditions. The cases of hard exudates within 1 disc diameter (DD) of the fovea (surrogate for CSME) were detected with very high accuracy (sensitivity = 1, specificity = 0.50), whereas mild nonproliferative DR was the most challenging condition (sensitivity= 0.92, specificity = 0.50). The algorithm was also tested on images with signs of AMD, achieving a performance of AUC of 0.84 (sensitivity = 0.94, specificity = 0.50). PMID:21666234

Barriga, E. Simon; Murray, Victor; Nemeth, Sheila; Crammer, Robert; Bauman, Wendall; Zamora, Gilberto; Pattichis, Marios S.; Soliz, Peter

2011-01-01

320

Automated diagnosis of Age-related Macular Degeneration using greyscale features from digital fundus images.  

PubMed

Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) is one of the major causes of vision loss and blindness in ageing population. Currently, there is no cure for AMD, however early detection and subsequent treatment may prevent the severe vision loss or slow the progression of the disease. AMD can be classified into two types: dry and wet AMDs. The people with macular degeneration are mostly affected by dry AMD. Early symptoms of AMD are formation of drusen and yellow pigmentation. These lesions are identified by manual inspection of fundus images by the ophthalmologists. It is a time consuming, tiresome process, and hence an automated diagnosis of AMD screening tool can aid clinicians in their diagnosis significantly. This study proposes an automated dry AMD detection system using various entropies (Shannon, Kapur, Renyi and Yager), Higher Order Spectra (HOS) bispectra features, Fractional Dimension (FD), and Gabor wavelet features extracted from greyscale fundus images. The features are ranked using t-test, Kullback-Lieber Divergence (KLD), Chernoff Bound and Bhattacharyya Distance (CBBD), Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve-based and Wilcoxon ranking methods in order to select optimum features and classified into normal and AMD classes using Naive Bayes (NB), k-Nearest Neighbour (k-NN), Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN), Decision Tree (DT) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifiers. The performance of the proposed system is evaluated using private (Kasturba Medical Hospital, Manipal, India), Automated Retinal Image Analysis (ARIA) and STructured Analysis of the Retina (STARE) datasets. The proposed system yielded the highest average classification accuracies of 90.19%, 95.07% and 95% with 42, 54 and 38 optimal ranked features using SVM classifier for private, ARIA and STARE datasets respectively. This automated AMD detection system can be used for mass fundus image screening and aid clinicians by making better use of their expertise on selected images that require further examination. PMID:25127409

Mookiah, Muthu Rama Krishnan; Acharya, U Rajendra; Koh, Joel E W; Chandran, Vinod; Chua, Chua Kuang; Tan, Jen Hong; Lim, Choo Min; Ng, E Y K; Noronha, Kevin; Tong, Louis; Laude, Augustinus

2014-10-01

321

Early initial clinical experience with intravitreal aflibercept for wet age-related macular degeneration  

PubMed Central

Background Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a degenerative process that leads to severe vision loss. Wet AMD is defined by choroidal neovascularisation, leading to the accumulation of subretinal fluid (SRF), macular oedema (ME), and pigment epithelium detachments (PED). Purpose To evaluate the initial clinical experience of conversion from bevacizumab or ranibizumab to aflibercept in wet AMD patients. Methods Records of 250 consecutive wet AMD patients were retrospectively reviewed. Of 250 patients, 29 were naive (with no previous treatment), and 221 were previously treated with bevacizumab (1/3) or ranibizumab (2/3). On average, converted patients received 14 injections every 6?weeks on a treat-and-extend regimen with Avastin or Lucentis before being converted to aflibercept every 7?weeks on average (no loading dose) for three doses. For the purposes of this study, we concentrated on the patients converted to aflibercept since the number of naive patients was too small to draw any conclusion from. Snellen (as logMar) visual acuities, and optical coherence tomography (OCT) were compared predrug and postdrug conversion. Results Converted patients did not show a significant difference in visual acuity or average OCT thickness from preconversion values; however, small improvements in ME (p=0.0001), SRF (p=0.0001), and PED (p=0.008) grading were noted on average after conversion to aflibercept. Conclusions No significant difference in visual outcome or average OCT thickness was observed when switched from bevacizumab or ranibizumab q6?week to aflibercept 7-week dosing, on average. Mild anatomic improvements did occur in converted patients with regard to ME, SRF and PED improvement, on average, after conversion to aflibercept, and aflibercept was injected less frequently. No serious adverse reactions, including ocular infections or inflammation, as well as ocular and systemic effects were noted. PMID:24795335

Ferrone, Philip J; Anwar, Farihah; Naysan, Jonathan; Chaudhary, Khurram; Fastenberg, David; Graham, Kenneth; Deramo, Vincent

2014-01-01

322

Bacterial endotoxin activates retinal pigment epithelial cells and induces their degeneration through IL-6 and IL-8 autocrine signaling.  

PubMed

Inflammation is a major contributing factor to many blinding disorders including uveitis, diabetic retinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration. Here we examined the response of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) to physiological levels of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to understand the role of this epithelium in inflammatory retinal conditions. Expression of a group of inflammatory mediators was identified by gene array analysis and confirmed by PCR and immunocytochemistry in primary human RPE cultures and ARPE19. The effects of LPS on the expression of these cytokines and RPE survival were examined by PCR, Luminex bead, and MTT assays. RPE cells express many cytokine receptors including IL-1R, -4R, -6R, -8RA, IFNAR1, IFNGR1/2 and secrete a range of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines including IL-4, -6, -8, -10, -17, IFN-gamma, MCP-1, and VEGF. LPS increases IL-13RA1 and IFNAR1, and decreases IL-7R receptor expression. It also increases RPE secretion of IL-4, -6, -8, -10, IFN-gamma and MCP-1, and is toxic to RPE cells at LC(50)=17.7 microg/ml. LPS toxicity is mediated by IL-6 and IL-8 through an autocrine feedback loop. Silencing IL-6R and IL-8RA gene expression by siRNA blocks death by their respective ligands or LPS. These findings imply that RPE cells are acutely sensitive to inflammatory stress and that over secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 by this epithelium during inflammatory stimulus may be an underlying factor in the progression of some retinal pathologies. PMID:19157552

Leung, Kar Wah; Barnstable, Colin J; Tombran-Tink, Joyce

2009-04-01

323

Macular oedema related to idiopathic macular telangiectasia type 1 treated with dexamethasone intravitreal implant (ozurdex).  

PubMed

A 65-year-old female presented with visual disturbance in her right eye lasting for over 2 months. Following investigations, she was diagnosed with MacTel type 1 in the right eye. Visual symptoms were refractory to initial treatment with intravitreal bevacizumab and thereafter intravtireal triamicinolone. The patient was then treated with Ozurdex, following which central macular thickness (CMT) decreased (from 397??m to 286??m) and visual acuity deteriorated (from logMAR 0.48 to 0.59). At 14 weeks posttreatment with Ozurdex, a recurrence of cystoid macular oedema (CMO) was observed. Following a second Ozurdex, visual acuity improved (from logMAR 0.7 to 0.64) and CMT decreased (from 349??m to 279??m). An additional recurrence of CMO was observed at eighteen weeks following the second Ozurdex. Following a third Ozurdex injection visual acuity deteriorated (from logMAR 0.74 to 0.78) and CMT decreased (from 332??m to 279??m). Conclusion. Treatment of macular oedema secondary to MacTel with Ozurdex demonstrated promising anatomical outcomes. However, visual outcomes continued to gradually deteriorate. PMID:25045562

Loutfi, Mohamed; Papathomas, Thomas; Kamal, Ahmed

2014-01-01

324

Macular Oedema Related to Idiopathic Macular Telangiectasia Type 1 Treated with Dexamethasone Intravitreal Implant (Ozurdex)  

PubMed Central

A 65-year-old female presented with visual disturbance in her right eye lasting for over 2 months. Following investigations, she was diagnosed with MacTel type 1 in the right eye. Visual symptoms were refractory to initial treatment with intravitreal bevacizumab and thereafter intravtireal triamicinolone. The patient was then treated with Ozurdex, following which central macular thickness (CMT) decreased (from 397??m to 286??m) and visual acuity deteriorated (from logMAR 0.48 to 0.59). At 14 weeks posttreatment with Ozurdex, a recurrence of cystoid macular oedema (CMO) was observed. Following a second Ozurdex, visual acuity improved (from logMAR 0.7 to 0.64) and CMT decreased (from 349??m to 279??m). An additional recurrence of CMO was observed at eighteen weeks following the second Ozurdex. Following a third Ozurdex injection visual acuity deteriorated (from logMAR 0.74 to 0.78) and CMT decreased (from 332??m to 279??m). Conclusion. Treatment of macular oedema secondary to MacTel with Ozurdex demonstrated promising anatomical outcomes. However, visual outcomes continued to gradually deteriorate. PMID:25045562

Kamal, Ahmed

2014-01-01

325

Laser-induced macular holes demonstrate impaired choroidal perfusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Choroidal perfusion was evaluated following the creation of a laser induced macular hole in a nonhuman primate model. Two Rhesus monkeys underwent macular exposures delivered by a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. The lesions were evaluated with fluorescein angiography and indocyanine green (ICG) angiography . Each lesion produced vitreous hemorrhage and progressed to a full thickness macular hole. ICG angiography revealed no perfusion of the choriocapillaris beneath the lesion centers. Histopathologic evaluation showed replacement of the choriocapillaris with fibroblasts and connective tissue. Nd:YAG, laser-induced macular holes result in long term impairment of choroidal perfusion at the base of the hole due to choroidal scarring and obliteration of the choriocapillaris.

Brown, Jeremiah, Jr.; Allen, Ronald D.; Zwick, Harry; Schuschereba, Steven T.; Lund, David J.; Stuck, Bruce E.

2003-06-01

326

Treatment of cystic macular lesions in hereditary retinal dystrophies.  

PubMed

Cystic macular lesions frequently contribute to impaired visual acuity in hereditary retinal dystrophies. Their pathogenesis varies and is not entirely understood. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors have proven to be potentially efficacious, although not in all cases. We discuss the various factors and mechanisms implicated in the etiology of cystic macular lesions (anatomical abnormalities, impairment of the blood-retinal barrier, tangential vitreous traction, and mutations in retinoschin, etc.) and the various treatments that have been proposed. PMID:24160730

Salvatore, Serena; Fishman, Gerald A; Genead, Mohamed A

2013-01-01

327

Optical coherence tomography imaging of macular oedema.  

PubMed

Macular oedema (ME) occurs in a wide variety of pathological conditions and accounts for different degrees of vision loss. Early detection of ME is therefore critical for diagnosis and therapeutic management. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-contact, diagnostic method that uses infrared light, which allows the analysis of the retinal structure by means of high-resolution tomographic cross sections. The identification, localisation, quantification and long-term follow-up of fluid collections are the most important capabilities of OCT. Since the introduction of OCT in clinical practice, it has become an invaluable diagnostic tool and different patterns of ME have been reported. The purpose of this manuscript is to review OCT profiles of ME according to the aetiology and describe what has been reported regarding intraretinal features in vivo. PMID:24934220

Trichonas, George; Kaiser, Peter K

2014-07-01

328

Optical coherence tomography imaging of macular oedema  

PubMed Central

Macular oedema (ME) occurs in a wide variety of pathological conditions and accounts for different degrees of vision loss. Early detection of ME is therefore critical for diagnosis and therapeutic management. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-contact, diagnostic method that uses infrared light, which allows the analysis of the retinal structure by means of high-resolution tomographic cross sections. The identification, localisation, quantification and long-term follow-up of fluid collections are the most important capabilities of OCT. Since the introduction of OCT in clinical practice, it has become an invaluable diagnostic tool and different patterns of ME have been reported. The purpose of this manuscript is to review OCT profiles of ME according to the aetiology and describe what has been reported regarding intraretinal features in vivo. PMID:24934220

Trichonas, George; Kaiser, Peter K

2014-01-01

329

Evaluation of the Macular, Peripapillary Nerve Fiber Layer and Choroid Thickness Changes in Behçet's Disease with Spectral-Domain OCT.  

PubMed

Purpose. To assess the macular, choroid, and peripapillary nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFL) in Behçet's disease (BD) patients with and without ocular involvement by means of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and compare these findings with healthy controls. Design. Eighty patients with BD and 40 healthy controls who were followed up at the Uveitis and Retina Clinic of the Kayseri Research and Education Hospital in Turkey were enrolled in this prospective study. Subjects and Controls. The patients with BD were divided into two groups according to the presence of ocular involvement. Group 1 consisted of 40 eyes of 40 patients with ocular involvement and group 2 consisted of 40 eyes of 40 patients without ocular involvement. Methods. All of the patients and controls underwent macular, choroid, and peripapillary nerve fiber layer thickness analysis with Spectralis domain OCT (Spectralis OCT Heidelberg Engineering, Dossenheim, Germany). Main Outcome Measures. The differences in macular, choroid, and peripapillary nerve fiber layer thicknesses between groups were analyzed statistically. Results. Macular thickness was thinner in patients with BD than in the control group; this result was statistically significant (P = 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in thickness between RNFL analysis of the patients with BD and control subjects. However, the BD patients with ocular involvement had statistically significant thinning in RNFL compared with BD patients without ocular involvement. Although the choroid was thicker in patients with BD than in the control group, it did not reach a statistically significant level (P = 0.382). Conclusions. BD with ocular involvement may be associated with decreased macular and RNFL thickness measured with spectral-domain OCT. PMID:24868459

Ata?, Mustafa; Yuvac?, Isa; Demircan, Süleyman; Güler, Emel; Altunel, Orhan; Pangal, Emine; Gökta?, Altan; Sütbeyaz, Serap; Zarars?z, Gökmen

2014-01-01

330

Evaluation of the Macular, Peripapillary Nerve Fiber Layer and Choroid Thickness Changes in Behçet's Disease with Spectral-Domain OCT  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To assess the macular, choroid, and peripapillary nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFL) in Behçet's disease (BD) patients with and without ocular involvement by means of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and compare these findings with healthy controls. Design. Eighty patients with BD and 40 healthy controls who were followed up at the Uveitis and Retina Clinic of the Kayseri Research and Education Hospital in Turkey were enrolled in this prospective study. Subjects and Controls. The patients with BD were divided into two groups according to the presence of ocular involvement. Group 1 consisted of 40 eyes of 40 patients with ocular involvement and group 2 consisted of 40 eyes of 40 patients without ocular involvement. Methods. All of the patients and controls underwent macular, choroid, and peripapillary nerve fiber layer thickness analysis with Spectralis domain OCT (Spectralis OCT Heidelberg Engineering, Dossenheim, Germany). Main Outcome Measures. The differences in macular, choroid, and peripapillary nerve fiber layer thicknesses between groups were analyzed statistically. Results. Macular thickness was thinner in patients with BD than in the control group; this result was statistically significant (P = 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in thickness between RNFL analysis of the patients with BD and control subjects. However, the BD patients with ocular involvement had statistically significant thinning in RNFL compared with BD patients without ocular involvement. Although the choroid was thicker in patients with BD than in the control group, it did not reach a statistically significant level (P = 0.382). Conclusions. BD with ocular involvement may be associated with decreased macular and RNFL thickness measured with spectral-domain OCT. PMID:24868459

Ata?, Mustafa; Yuvac?, ?sa; Demircan, Süleyman; Güler, Emel; Altunel, Orhan; Pangal, Emine; Gökta?, Altan; Sütbeyaz, Serap; Zarars?z, Gökmen

2014-01-01

331

Pigmented paravenous retinochoroidal atrophy (Review)  

PubMed Central

Pigmented paravenous retinochoroidal atrophy (PPRCA) is an uncommon disease characterized by perivenous aggregations of pigment clumps associated with peripapillary and radial zones of retinochoroidal atrophy that are distributed along the retinal veins. Patients are usually asymptomatic and the disease process is non-progressive or slow and subtly progressive. It is commonly bilateral and symmetric. The cause of the condition may be unknown or idiopathic, although a dysgenetic, degenerative, hereditary etiology or even an inflammatory cause has been hypothesized. A non-inflammatory cause is referred to as primary, while inflammation-associated PPRCA is referred to as secondary or pseudo PPRCA. The present study reviewed and summarized the features of PPRCA. PMID:24926324

HUANG, HOU-BIN; ZHANG, YI-XIN

2014-01-01

332

Pigmented paravenous retinochoroidal atrophy (Review).  

PubMed

Pigmented paravenous retinochoroidal atrophy (PPRCA) is an uncommon disease characterized by perivenous aggregations of pigment clumps associated with peripapillary and radial zones of retinochoroidal atrophy that are distributed along the retinal veins. Patients are usually asymptomatic and the disease process is non-progressive or slow and subtly progressive. It is commonly bilateral and symmetric. The cause of the condition may be unknown or idiopathic, although a dysgenetic, degenerative, hereditary etiology or even an inflammatory cause has been hypothesized. A non-inflammatory cause is referred to as primary, while inflammation-associated PPRCA is referred to as secondary or pseudo PPRCA. The present study reviewed and summarized the features of PPRCA. PMID:24926324

Huang, Hou-Bin; Zhang, Yi-Xin

2014-06-01

333

Visual loss related to macular subretinal fluid and cystoid macular edema in HIV-related optic neuropathy.  

PubMed

Optic nerve involvement may occur in various infectious diseases, but is rarely reported after infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We report the atypical case of a 38-year-old patient in whom the presenting features of HIV infection were due to a bilateral optic neuropathy associated with macular subretinal fluid and cystoid macular edema, which responded well to antiretroviral therapy. PMID:22581321

Gautier, David; Rabier, Valérie; Jallet, Ghislaine; Milea, Dan

2012-08-01

334

Perceptual learning in patients with macular degeneration  

PubMed Central

Patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) or hereditary macular dystrophies (JMD) rely on an efficient use of their peripheral visual field. We trained eight AMD and five JMD patients to perform a texture-discrimination task (TDT) at their preferred retinal locus (PRL) used for fixation. Six training sessions of approximately one hour duration were conducted over a period of approximately 3 weeks. Before, during and after training twelve patients and twelve age-matched controls (the data from two controls had to be discarded later) took part in three functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) sessions to assess training-related changes in the BOLD response in early visual cortex. Patients benefited from the training measurements as indexed by significant decrease (p = 0.001) in the stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) between the presentation of the texture target on background and the visual mask, and in a significant location specific effect of the PRL with respect to hit rate (p = 0.014). The following trends were observed: (i) improvement in Vernier acuity for an eccentric line-bisection task; (ii) positive correlation between the development of BOLD signals in early visual cortex and initial fixation stability (r = 0.531); (iii) positive correlation between the increase in task performance and initial fixation stability (r = 0.730). The first two trends were non-significant, whereas the third trend was significant at p = 0.014, Bonferroni corrected. Consequently, our exploratory study suggests that training on the TDT can enhance eccentric vision in patients with central vision loss. This enhancement is accompanied by a modest alteration in the BOLD response in early visual cortex. PMID:25368597

Plank, Tina; Rosengarth, Katharina; Schmalhofer, Carolin; Goldhacker, Markus; Brandl-Rühle, Sabine; Greenlee, Mark W.

2014-01-01

335

Visual Pigments of Goldfish Cones  

PubMed Central

Freshly isolated retinal photoreceptors of goldfish were studied microspectrophotometrically. Absolute absorptance spectra obtained from dark-adapted cone outer segments reaffirm the existence of three spectrally distinct cone types with absorption maxima at 455 ± 3,530 ± 3, and 625 ± 5 nm. These types were found often recognizable by gross cellular morphology. Side-illuminated cone outer segments were dichroic. The measured dichroic ratio for the main absorption band of each type was 2–3:1. Rapidly bleached cells revealed spectral and dichroic transitions in regions near 400–410, 435–455, and 350–360 nm. These photoproducts decay about fivefold as fast as the intermediates in frog rods. The spectral maxima of photoproducts, combined with other evidence, indicate that retinene2 is the chromophore of all three cone pigments. The average specific optical density for goldfish cone outer segments was found to be 0.0124 ± 0.0015/µm. The spectra of the blue-, and green-absorbing cones appeared to match porphyropsin standards with half-band width ?? = 4,832 ± 100 cm–1. The red-absorbing spectrum was found narrower, having ?? = 3,625 ± 100 cm–1. The results are consistent with the notion that visual pigment concentration within the outer segments is about the same for frog rods and goldfish cones, but that the blue-, and green-absorbing pigments possess molar extinctions of 30,000 liter/mol cm. The red-absorbing pigment was found to have extinction of 40,000 liter/mol cm, assuming invariance of oscillator strength among the three cone spectra. PMID:4817352

Hárosi, Ferenc I.; MacNichol, Edward F.

1974-01-01

336

Identification of the antivasopermeability effect of pigment epithelium-derived factor and its active site  

PubMed Central

Vascular permeability plays a key role in a wide array of life-threatening and sight-threatening diseases. Vascular endothelial growth factor can increase vascular permeability. Using a model system for nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy, we found that pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) effectively abated vascular endothelial growth factor-induced vascular permeability. A 44-amino acid region of PEDF was sufficient to confer the antivasopermeability activity. Additionally, we identified four amino acids (glutamate-101, isoleucine-103, leucine-112, and serine-115) critical for this activity. PEDF, or a derivative, could potentially abate or restore vision loss from diabetic macular edema. Furthermore, PEDF may represent a superior therapeutic approach to sepsis-associated hypotension, nephrotic syndrome, and other sight-threatening and life-threatening diseases resulting from excessive vascular permeability. PMID:15096582

Liu, Hua; Ren, Jian-Guo; Cooper, William L.; Hawkins, Charles E.; Cowan, Mitra R.; Tong, Patrick Y.

2004-01-01

337

Histamine is involved in ultraviolet B-induced pigmentation of guinea pig skin.  

PubMed

We previously reported that histamine induced melanogenesis in cultured human melanocytes and that the stimulatory effect was mediated by protein kinase A activation via H2 receptors. It is well-known that ultraviolet B irradiation causes acute inflammation, known as erythema, and subsequent pigmentation, and there are several reports demonstrating an elevation of the histamine levels in ultraviolet B-irradiated skin. Thus, to evaluate the involvement of histamine in ultraviolet B-induced skin pigmentation, we examined the effect of an H2 antagonist in brownish guinea pig skin. Daily exposure to 200 mJ per cm2 ultraviolet B for 3 d evoked erythema and subsequent pigmentation in the skin samples tested. Moreover, a remarkable increase in dopa-positive melanocytes was observed in the pigmented area, which showed an increase in melanin synthesis. Topical application of famotidine, an H2 antagonist, significantly reduced pigmentation and moderated the increase of dopa-positive melanocytes in the ultraviolet B-irradiated skin. Even when the initiation of famotidine application was delayed to day 2 after irradiation, an inhibitory activity on ultraviolet B-induced pigmentation was observed; however, the ultraviolet B-induced erythema was not suppressed by topically applied famotidine. Thus, we concluded that histamine is involved in ultraviolet B-induced pigmentation and that famotidine suppressed the pigmentation by the prevention of histamine binding to H2 receptors in melanocytes but not by prevention of ultraviolet B permeability and inflammation. PMID:11841541

Yoshida, Masaki; Hirotsu, Sachiyo; Nakahara, Michio; Uchiwa, Hideyo; Tomita, Yasushi

2002-02-01

338

Quantitative genetics of pigmentation development in 2 populations of the common garter snake, Thamnophis sirtalis.  

PubMed

The evolutionary importance of ontogenetic change has been noted since Darwin. However, most analyses of phenotypic evolution focus on single landmark ages. Here, we present an inheritance study that quantifies genetic variation in pigmentation across early-age (i.e., birth to 180 days) development in 2 populations of the common garter snake, Thamnophis sirtalis. The populations are phenotypically distinct and geographically isolated (Manitoba, CA and Northern California, USA). There were highly significant differences between populations for the developmental trajectory of mean pigmentation, with the Manitoba population exhibiting a mean pigmentation level that increased across ontogeny, whereas the California population exhibited mean pigmentation that was invariant across ontogeny. Subsequent quantitative genetic analyses revealed heritable variation at all ages in Manitoba but low levels of phenotypic and genetic variation in California at all ages. A quantitative genetic decomposition of the longitudinal genetic variance-covariance matrix for the age-specific pigmentation phenotypes in the Manitoba population revealed 2 primary orthogonal axes that explained most ( approximately 100%) of the pigmentation variation across ontogeny. The primary axis, explaining 93% of the genetic variation, is an axis of genetic variation whose principal value loadings change from positive to negative across development, suggesting that the most rapid evolutionary response to selection on pigmentation variation will occur in the direction characterized by a tradeoff in early-age versus late-age pigmentation phenotypes. Pigmentation is known to be ecologically important and subject to rapid evolution under selection. Our study shows that significant differences exist between these 2 populations for their capacity to respond to selection on pigmentation which is not only influenced by the population of origin but also by the developmental process. We suggest that developmental timing may be a potential explanatory mechanism for the difference between the populations. PMID:20453034

Westphal, Michael F; Morgan, Theodore J

2010-01-01

339

Temporal Macular Thinning Associated With X-Linked Alport Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Importance Optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings of temporal macular thinning are important in the diagnosis and prognosis of X-linked Alport syndrome (XLAS). Objectives To report OCT findings and severity of temporal macular thinning in a cohort with XLAS and to correlate these and other ocular findings with mutation genotype. Design Patients with XLAS underwent genotyping for COL4A5 mutations and complete eye examinations with retinal imaging using spectral domain OCT and fundus photography. Temporal macular thinning was calculated from OCT measurements by comparing the ratio of the retinal thickness of the temporal to the nasal subfields with a published normative database. Setting University departments of ophthalmology and nephrology. Participants Thirty-two patients from 24 families. Main Outcome and Measures Temporal thinning index calculated from spectral domain OCT scans. Results All study patients had a mutation associated with the X-linked COL4A5 gene. Eleven different mutations were identified. Eleven of 32 patients (34%) expressed the L1649R mutation. Of a total of 63 eyes with available OCT scans, 44 (70%) had severe pathological temporal macular thinning. The L1649R mutation was associated with the least amount of severe temporal macular thinning and later onset of renal failure. Conclusions and Relevance Temporal macular thinning is a prominent sign associated with XLAS, suggesting that OCT measurements are essential in the diagnosis and prognosis of the disease. The L1649R mutation in the COL4A5 gene causes a relatively mild form of XLAS characterized by late-onset renal failure and less frequent, severe temporal macular thinning relative to other COL4A5 mutations. The pathological basis for the retinal abnormalities of XLAS remains to be established. PMID:23572034

Ahmed, Faisal; Kamae, Kandon K.; Jones, Denise J.; DeAngelis, Margaret M.; Hageman, Gregory S.; Gregory, Martin C.; Bernstein, Paul S.

2013-01-01

340

Interocular Symmetry in Macular Choroidal Thickness in Children  

PubMed Central

Objective. To report interocular differences in choroidal thickness in children using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and correlate findings with biometric data. Methods. This observational cross-sectional study included 91 (182 eyes) healthy children aged 6 to 17 years with no ocular abnormality except refractive error. After a comprehensive eye exam and axial length measurement, high definition macular scans were performed using SD-OCT. Two observers manually measured the choroidal thickness at the foveal center and at 1500?µm nasally, temporally, inferiorly, and superiorly. Interocular differences were computed; correlations with age, gender, refractive error, and axial length were performed. Results. Mean age was 10.40 ± 3.17 years; mean axial length and refractive error values were similar between fellow eyes. There was excellent correlation between the two observers' measurements. No significant interocular differences were observed at any location. There was only a trend for right eyes to have higher values in all thicknesses, except the superior thickness. Most of the choroidal thickness measurements correlated positively with spherical equivalent but not with axial length, age, or gender. Conclusion. Choroidal thickness measurements in children as performed using SD-OCT revealed a high level of interobserver agreement and consistent interocular symmetry. Values correlated positively with spherical equivalent refraction. PMID:25525509

Al-Haddad, Christiane; El Chaar, Lama; Noureddin, Baha'

2014-01-01

341

Cistoid macular edema as first manifestation of sarcoidosis.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to report a case of cystoid macular edema (CME) as a rare first manifestation of ocular sarcoidosis after cataract surgery. A 60-year-old male developed a CME following uneventful phacoemulsification cataract extraction on his left eye. It resolved with conventional medical therapy. One year later the patient was diagnosed with bilateral CME. Oral corticosteroid therapy produced a significant regression. His medical and ocular histories were unremarkable and all tests for etiological diagnosis were negative. There were inflammation recurrences in his left eye, which were also treated with steroids. Optical coherence tomography showed complete resolution of foveal thickening without improvement in vision. Four years later, the patient presented with CME in both eyes. The laboratory tests included high angiotensin-converting enzyme levels and a gallium scan which were also consistent with sarcoidosis. Azathioprine was needed for management of ocular involvement, but it was withheld due to side-effects. At the present time, the CME is controlled with low-dose corticoids. Ocular involvement in sarcoidosis occurs in 20-50 % of patients. CME is not often the initial manifestation of the disease, but ocular sarcoidosis may present with a wide variety of ocular symptoms in all parts of the eye. Therefore, sarcoidosis should be kept in mind when evaluating a patient with ocular inflammation. PMID:24322273

Cabrillo-Estevez, Lucia; de Juan-Marcos, Lourdes; Kyriakou, Danai; Hernández-Galilea, Emiliano

2014-08-01

342

Cytokines in neovascular age-related macular degeneration: fundamentals of targeted combination therapy.  

PubMed

The neovascular form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), called wet-AMD or choroidal neovascularisation, begins with damage to the outer retinal cells and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), which elicits a cascade of inflammatory and angiogenic responses leading to neovascularisation under the macula. Studies showed that oxidative damage, chronic inflammation of the RPE and complement misregulation work at different steps of this disease. After established neovascularisation, several pro- and antiangiogenic agents start to play an important role. Vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) are the most specific and potent regulators of angiogenesis, which are inhibited by intravitreal injections of ranibizumab, bevacizumab, VEGF Trap, pegaptanib sodium and other agents under investigation. Pigment epithelium-derived factor, on the other hand, shows neuroprotective and antiangiogenic activities. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) has a mitogenic effect on a wide range of epithelial and endothelial cells, and it is inhibited by an anti-HGF monoclonal antibody. Platelet-derived growth factor is a potent chemoattractant and mitogen for both fibroblasts and retinal RPE cells, which has been inhibited experimentally by VEGF Trap and human anti-platelet-derived growth factor-D monoclonal antibody. Fibroblast growth factor-2 has pleiotropic effects in different cell and organ systems, and it is blocked by anti-FGF antibodies, with a greater benefit regarding antiangiogenesis when combined treatment with anti-VEGF is performed. Tumour necrosis factor alpha is expressed in the retina and the choroid, and its blockade in choroidal neovascularisation includes the use of monoclonals such as infliximab. This paper reviews the most important cytokines involved in the pathogenesis of wet-AMD, with emphasis on potential combined therapies for disease control. PMID:21546514

de Oliveira Dias, João Rafael; Rodrigues, Eduardo Büchele; Maia, Mauricio; Magalhães, Octaviano; Penha, Fernando Marcondes; Farah, Michel Eid

2011-12-01

343

Unilateral Full-thickness Macular Hole Formation Following Low-Energy Nd: Yag Peripheral Iridotomy.  

PubMed

Macular hole formation is a rare complication after YAG peripheral iridotomy. We report a case of post-YAG peripheral iridotomy macular hole in 1 eye of a patient with preexisting vitreomacular adhesion in that eye. Possibly because of the vitreomacular adhesion, a single-shot low-energy YAG laser shot resulted in macular hole formation. PMID:25110955

Sar, Suchanda; Sinha, Sourav; Mitra, Santanu

2014-08-01

344

Bilateral macular folds as a diagnostic clue to late-presenting posterior microphthalmos.  

PubMed

Posterior microphthalmos with macular folds is a very uncommon condition. We report such an unusual late-presenting case of posterior microphthalmos where macular folds uncovered the diagnosis and discuss the possibility of worsening of macular folds with advancing age. PMID:23947423

Takkar, Brijesh; Bhatia, Indrish; Chandra, Parijat; Ganguly, Anasua; Azad, Rajvardhan

2014-05-01

345

Nonphotosynthetic pigmented bacteria in a potable water treatment and distribution system.  

PubMed Central

The occurrence of pigmented bacteria in potable water, from raw source water through treatment to distribution water, including dead-end locations, was compared at sample sites in a large municipal water system. Media used to enumerate heterotrophic bacteria and differentiate pigmented colonies were standard method plate count (SPC), m-SPC, and R2A agars, incubated up to 7 days at 35 degrees C. The predominant pigmented bacteria at most sample locations were yellow and orange, with a small incidence of pink organisms at the flowing distribution site. Seasonal variations were seen, with the yellow and orange organisms shifting in dominance. SPC agar was the least productive medium for both heterotroph counts and pigmented bacteria differentiation. At the flowing distribution site, percentages of pigmented bacteria on SPC medium ranged from 2.3 to 9.67 times less than on m-SPC and from 2.3 to 9.86 times less than on R2A. At the same site, seasonal trends in the percentage of pigmented bacteria were the same for m-SPC and R2A media, and the highest and lowest percentages occurred in the fall and winter, respectively. At site 6, there appeared to be an inverse relationship between the yellow and orange pigmented groups, but upon analysis, this did not hold and all correlations between yellow and orange pigmented bacteria were positive. The study results indicate that pigmented bacteria could readily be detected by using plate counting media developed for heterotroph enumeration in potable waters with incubation periods of 7 days. Pigmented bacteria can be used as an additional marker for monitoring changes in water quality. High numbers of heterotrophs, including pigmented forms, were found at dead-end locations, usually in the absence of a free chlorine residual and when the water temperature was greater than 16 degrees C. The association of some pigmented bacteria with nosocomial and other infections raises concern that the organisms may have originated from the potable water supply. High levels of pigmented bacteria could pose an increased health risk to immunologically compromised individuals. Therefore, the bacterial quality of the distribution water should be controlled to prevent the development of high concentrations of heterotrophic plate count bacteria, including the pigmented forms. PMID:2729990

Reasoner, D J; Blannon, J C; Geldreich, E E; Barnick, J

1989-01-01

346

Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Composition of Surgically Removed Hard Exudates in Diabetic Macular Edema.  

PubMed

Three eyes of 2 patients with diabetic macular edema underwent a vitrectomy to remove subfoveal hard exudates. Fatty acid compositions of hard exudates and plasma phospholipids (PL) as an objective estimation of dietary intake were analyzed. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were relatively consistent in hard exudates and PL, but were less abundant in hard exudates. The hard exudates had lower levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5 omega3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6 omega3), which oxidized more readily than other PUFA. Dietary PUFA may be associated with the composition of retinal hard exudates. PMID:20337342

Byeon, Suk Ho; Chung, Hae-Yun; Kwon, Oh W

2010-03-01

347

Nitisinone improves eye and skin pigmentation defects in a mouse model of oculocutaneous albinism  

PubMed Central

Mutation of the tyrosinase gene (TYR) causes oculocutaneous albinism, type 1 (OCA1), a condition characterized by reduced skin and eye melanin pigmentation and by vision loss. The retinal pigment epithelium influences postnatal visual development. Therefore, increasing ocular pigmentation in patients with OCA1 might enhance visual function. There are 2 forms of OCA1, OCA-1A and OCA-1B. Individuals with the former lack functional tyrosinase and therefore lack melanin, while individuals with the latter produce some melanin. We hypothesized that increasing plasma tyrosine concentrations using nitisinone, an FDA-approved inhibitor of tyrosine degradation, could stabilize tyrosinase and improve pigmentation in individuals with OCA1. Here, we tested this hypothesis in mice homozygous for either the Tyrc-2J null allele or the Tyrc-h allele, which model OCA-1A and OCA-1B, respectively. Only nitisinone-treated Tyrc-h/c-h mice manifested increased pigmentation in their fur and irides and had more pigmented melanosomes. High levels of tyrosine improved the stability and enzymatic function of the Tyrc-h protein and also increased overall melanin levels in melanocytes from a human with OCA-1B. These results suggest that the use of nitisinone in OCA-1B patients could improve their pigmentation and potentially ameliorate vision loss. PMID:21968110

Onojafe, Ighovie F.; Adams, David R.; Simeonov, Dimitre R.; Zhang, Jun; Chan, Chi-Chao; Bernardini, Isa M.; Sergeev, Yuri V.; Dolinska, Monika B.; Alur, Ramakrishna P.; Brilliant, Murray H.; Gahl, William A.; Brooks, Brian P.

2011-01-01

348

One year follow up of macular translocation with 360 degree retinotomy in patients with age related macular degeneration  

PubMed Central

Aim: To evaluate the benefits of macular translocation with 360 degree retinotomy in patients with exudative age related macular degeneration (ARMD). Methods: A consecutive interventional case series was performed on patients who underwent macular translocation between June 1997 and January 2000 at the department of ophthalmology, University of Aachen, Germany. A retrospective pilot study was set up with a minimum follow up of 12 months in 39 consecutive patients with subfoveal choroidal neovascularisation secondary to ARMD. The surgical technique included pars plana vitrectomy, induction of retinal detachment, 360 degree retinotomy, removal of the choroidal neovascular membranes (CNVM), macular translocation, peripheral laser retinopexy, and silicone oil endotamponade. Results: 18 patients showed predominantly occult CNVM, six patients had predominantly classic CNVM, and 15 showed subretinal haemorrhage. At the 12 month follow up 13 patients (33%) showed an improvement in visual acuity of more than three lines (logMAR scale), 18 patients (46%) retained stable visual acuity with a change of equal or less than three lines (logMAR scale), and eight patients (21%) showed a decrease in visual acuity of more than three lines (logMAR scale). Recurrence of CNVM was observed in three (8%) eyes at 5–11 months postoperatively. Other complications included proliferative vitreoretinopathy with retinal detachment (n=10), peripheral epiretinal membranes (n=9), macular pucker (n=2), corneal decompensation (n=2), and hypotony (n=11). 18 patients (46%) complained about persistent diplopia. Conclusion: Macular translocation surgery is able to maintain or improve distant vision in the majority of patients with exudative ARMD. Proliferative vitreoretinopathy and diplopia are the two major complications. A prospective randomised controlled trial comparing macular translocation with observation for patients with the occult form of exudative ARMD may be justified. PMID:12714406

Abdel-Meguid, A; Lappas, A; Hartmann, K; Auer, F; Schrage, N; Thumann, G; Kirchhof, B

2003-01-01

349

Intravitreal injection of Bevacizumab in diabetic macular edema  

PubMed Central

Objective: To assess the effectiveness of intravitreal injection of Bevacizumab in the treatment of diabetic macular edema. Methods: This case series was conducted at Department of Ophthalmology, Jinnah Post Graduate Medical Centre (JPMC), Karachi. The duration of study was six months from May 26, 2011 to November 25, 2011. The study group comprised of 54 patients of the Diabetic Macular Edema (DME). Intravitreal injection of 1.25 mg of bevacizumab (Avastin) was injected 3.5 mm from the limbus under topical anaesthetic drops. Post procedure follow up was scheduled on 1st post procedure day and after one month. Post procedure Optical Coherence tomography (OCT) was performed in all patients 1 week before and 1st month after 1st injection. The results were statistically analyzed through SPSS 17. Results: Out of the 54 Eyes of 54 Patients who were given the Intravitreal injection of Avastin (Bevacizumab), 43 Eyes (79.6%) showed more than ten percent decrease in macular thickness from pre-injection thickness, 10 Eyes (18.5%) showed less than ten percent decrease and 1 Eye (1.9%) showed increase in macular thickness post operatively after one month. Conclusions: Intravitreal injection of Bevacizumab (Avastin) is effective in the treatment of diabetic macular edema.

Ateeq, Asim; Tahir, Muhammad Ali; Cheema, Alyscia; Dahri, Arif; Tareen, Saifullah

2014-01-01

350

Characteristics of Fixational Eye Movements in People With Macular Disease  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Fixation stability is known to be poor for people with macular disease and has been suggested as a contributing factor for the poor visual performance of these individuals. In this study, we examined the characteristics of the different components of fixational eye movements and determined the component that plays a major role in limiting fixation stability in people with macular disease. Methods. Sixteen observers with macular disease and 14 older adults with normal vision (control observers) monocularly fixated a small cross presented using a Rodenstock scanning laser ophthalmoscope, for trials of 30 seconds. The retinal image and the position of the cross on the retina were recorded digitally. Eye movements were extracted from the recorded videos at a sampling rate of 540 Hz using a cross-correlation technique. A velocity criterion of 8°/s was used to differentiate between slow drifts and microsaccades. Results. Observers with macular disease demonstrated higher fixation instability, larger amplitudes of slow drifts and microsaccades, and lower drift velocities, when compared with older adults with normal vision. The velocity and the rate of microsaccades were comparable between the two groups of observers. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the amplitude of microsaccades, and to a smaller extent, the amplitude of slow drifts, play a major role in limiting fixation stability. Conclusions. Fixation stability in people with macular disease is primarily limited by the amplitude of microsaccades, implying that rehabilitative strategies targeted at reducing the amplitude of microsaccades should improve fixation stability, and may lead to improved visual functions. PMID:25074769

Kumar, Girish; Chung, Susana T. L.

2014-01-01

351

Efficacy of autologous platelets in macular hole surgery  

PubMed Central

The introduction of optical coherence tomography has allowed accurate measurement of the size of macular holes. A retrospective consecutive review was performed of 21 patients undergoing macular hole repair with vitrectomy, gas tamponade, and autologous platelet injection and we assessed the effect of macular hole parameters on anatomic and functional outcomes. We looked at the demographic features, final visual outcome, and anatomical closure. Twenty-one patients were included in the study. They underwent routine vitrectomy with gas tamponade (C3F8) and injection of autologous platelets. All patients were advised to maintain a facedown posture for 2 weeks. Anatomical closure was confirmed in all cases and 20 out of 21 of patients had improved postoperative visual acuity by two or more lines. In our series, the macular hole dimensions did not have much effect on the final results. The use of autologous platelets and strict facedown posture seems to be the deciding factor in good anatomical and visual outcome irrespective of macular hole dimensions. PMID:23626459

Konstantinidis, Aristeidis; Hero, Mark; Nanos, Panagiotis; Panos, Georgios D

2013-01-01

352

Pathology Case Study: Pigmented Lesion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 69-year-old man has a pigmented lesion on his right ear. Visitors are given the patient history and microscopic description, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in dermatologic pathology.

Ejadi, Samuel

2007-09-12

353

NLRP3 Inflammasome: Activation and Regulation in Age-Related Macular Degeneration  

PubMed Central

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of legal blindness in the elderly in industrialized countries. AMD is a multifactorial disease influenced by both genetic and environmental risk factors. Progression of AMD is characterized by an increase in the number and size of drusen, extracellular deposits, which accumulate between the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and Bruch's membrane (BM) in outer retina. The major pathways associated with its pathogenesis include oxidative stress and inflammation in the early stages of AMD. Little is known about the interactions among these mechanisms that drive the transition from early to late stages of AMD, such as geographic atrophy (GA) or choroidal neovascularization (CNV). As part of the innate immune system, inflammasome activation has been identified in RPE cells and proposed to be a causal factor for RPE dysfunction and degeneration. Here, we will first review the classic model of inflammasome activation, then discuss the potentials of AMD-related factors to activate the inflammasome in both nonocular immune cells and RPE cells, and finally introduce several novel mechanisms for regulating the inflammasome activity.

Gao, Jiangyuan; Liu, Ruozhou Tom; Cui, Jing Z.; Matsubara, Joanne A.

2015-01-01

354

Ultrastructural and clinical evidence of subretinal debris accumulation in type 2 macular telangiectasia  

PubMed Central

Aims To describe subretinal debris found on ultrastructural examination in an eye with macular telangiectasia (MacTel) type 2 and on optical coherence tomography (OCT) in a subset of patients with MacTel type 2. Methods Blocks from the mid-periphery and temporal perifovea of an eye with clinically documented MacTel type 2 were examined with electron microscopy (EM). Cases came from the Sydney centre of the MacTel project and the practices of the authors. Results On EM examination, subretinal debris was found in the perifovea with accumulation of degenerate photoreceptor elements in the subretinal space. Despite the substantial subretinal debris, there was minimal retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) reaction. Focal defects were seen in the inner limiting membrane in the perifovea. Of the 65 Sydney MacTel project participants, three (5%) had prominent yellow material at the fovea. OCT revealed smooth mounds between the RPE and the ellipsoid region. The material was hyperautofluorescent. Conclusions This study suggests that subretinal accumulation of photoreceptor debris may be a feature of MacTel type 2. Ultrastructural and OCT evidence of disease beyond the vasculature, involving photoreceptors and Muller cells, is presented. PMID:22976584

Cherepanoff, Svetlana; Killingsworth, Murray C; Zhu, Meidong; Nolan, Timothy; Hunyor, Alex P; Young, Stephanie H; Hageman, Gregory S; Gillies, Mark C

2012-01-01

355

Stem cell therapies for age-related macular degeneration: the past, present, and future  

PubMed Central

In the developed world, age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the major causes of irreversible blindness in the elderly. Although management of neovascular AMD (wet AMD) has dramatically progressed, there is still no effective treatment for nonneovascular AMD (dry AMD), which is characterized by retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell death (or dysfunction) and microenvironmental disruption in the retina. Therefore, RPE replacement and microenvironmental regulation represent viable treatments for dry AMD. Recent advances in cell biology have demonstrated that RPE cells can be easily generated from several cell types (pluripotent stem cells, multipotent stem cells, or even somatic cells) by spontaneous differentiation, coculturing, defined factors or cell reprogramming, respectively. Additionally, in vivo studies also showed that the restoration of visual function could be obtained by transplanting functional RPE cells into the subretinal space of recipient. More importantly, clinical trials approved by the US government have shown promising prospects in RPE transplantation. However, key issues such as implantation techniques, immune rejection, and xeno-free techniques are still needed to be further investigated. This review will summarize recent advances in cell transplantation for dry AMD. The obstacles and prospects in this field will also be discussed. PMID:25609937

Dang, Yalong; Zhang, Chun; Zhu, Yu

2015-01-01

356

Inflammation and Cell Death in Age-Related Macular Degeneration: An Immunopathological and Ultrastructural Model  

PubMed Central

The etiology of Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) remains elusive despite the characterization of many factors contributing to the disease in its late-stage phenotypes. AMD features an immune system in flux, as shown by changes in macrophage polarization with age, expression of cytokines and complement, microglial accumulation with age, etc. These point to an allostatic overload, possibly due to a breakdown in self vs. non-self when endogenous compounds and structures acquire the appearance of non-self over time. The result is inflammation and inflammation-mediated cell death. While it is clear that these processes ultimately result in degeneration of retinal pigment epithelium and photoreceptor, the prevalent type of cell death contributing to the various phenotypes is unknown. Both molecular studies as well as ultrastructural pathology suggest pyroptosis, and perhaps necroptosis, are the predominant mechanisms of cell death at play, with only minimal evidence for apoptosis. Herein, we attempt to reconcile those factors identified by experimental AMD models and integrate these data with pathology observed under the electron microscope—particularly observations of mitochondrial dysfunction, DNA leakage, autophagy, and cell death.

Ardeljan, Christopher P.; Ardeljan, Daniel; Abu-Asab, Mones; Chan, Chi-Chao

2015-01-01

357

DICER1 deficit induces Alu RNA toxicity in age-related macular degeneration  

PubMed Central

Geographic atrophy (GA), an untreatable advanced form of age-related macular degeneration, results from retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) cell death. Here we show that the microRNA (miRNA)-processing enzyme DICER1 is reduced in the RPE of humans with GA, and that conditional ablation of Dicer1, but not seven other miRNA-processing enzymes, induces RPE degeneration in mice. DICER1 knockdown induces accumulation of Alu RNA in human RPE cells and Alu-like B1 and B2 RNAs in mouse RPE. Alu RNA is increased in the RPE of humans with GA, and this pathogenic RNA induces human RPE cytotoxicity and RPE degeneration in mice. Antisense oligonucleotides targeting Alu/B1/B2 RNAs prevent DICER1 depletion-induced RPE degeneration despite global miRNA downregulation. DICER1 degrades Alu RNA, and this digested Alu RNA cannot induce RPE degeneration in mice. These findings reveal a miRNA-independent cell survival function for DICER1 involving retrotransposon transcript degradation, show that Alu RNA can directly cause human pathology, and identify new targets for a major cause of blindness. PMID:21297615

Kaneko, Hiroki; Dridi, Sami; Tarallo, Valeria; Gelfand, Bradley D.; Fowler, Benjamin J.; Cho, Won Gil; Kleinman, Mark E.; Ponicsan, Steven L.; Hauswirth, William W.; Chiodo, Vince A.; Karikó, Katalin; Yoo, Jae Wook; Lee, Dong-ki; Hadziahmetovic, Majda; Song, Ying; Misra, Smita; Chaudhuri, Gautam; Buaas, Frank W.; Braun, Robert E.; Hinton, David R.; Zhang, Qing; Grossniklaus, Hans E.; Provis, Jan M.; Madigan, Michele C.; Milam, Ann H.; Justice, Nikki L.; Albuquerque, Romulo J.C.; Blandford, Alexander D.; Bogdanovich, Sasha; Hirano, Yoshio; Witta, Jassir; Fuchs, Elaine; Littman, Dan R.; Ambati, Balamurali K.; Rudin, Charles M.; Chong, Mark M.W.; Provost, Patrick; Kugel, Jennifer F.; Goodrich, James A.; Dunaief, Joshua L.; Baffi, Judit Z.; Ambati, Jayakrishna

2011-01-01

358

Age-related macular degeneration: a target for nanotechnology derived medicines  

PubMed Central

Despite the fact that the retina is a fairly accessible portion of the central nervous system, there are virtually no treatments for early age-related macular degeneration (AMD). AMD is a degenerative retinal disease that causes progressive loss of central vision and is the leading cause of irreversible vision loss and legal blindness in individuals over the age of 50. Both environmental and genetic components play a role in its development. AMD is a multifactorial disease with characteristics that include drusen, hyperpigmentation and/or hypopigmentation of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), geographic atrophy and, in a subset of patients, late-stage choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Drugs that inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) have proven effective in treating late-stage CNV, but optimal means of drug delivery remains to be determined. Microscopic particles, whose size is on the nanometer scale, show considerable promise for drug delivery to the retina, for gene therapy, and for powering prosthetic “artificial retinas.” This article summarizes the pathophysiology of AMD stressing potential applications from nanotechnology. PMID:17722514

Birch, David G; Liang, Fong Qi

2007-01-01

359

Choriocapillaris breakdown precedes retinal degeneration in age-related macular degeneration.  

PubMed

This work presents a combined light and electron microscopical approach to investigate the initial breakdown of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and choriocapillaris (CC) in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Perimacular sections of 12 dry and wet AMD eyes (82 ± 15 years) and 7 age-matched controls (75 ± 10 years) without retinal pathology were investigated. Disease progression was classified into 5 stages of retinal degeneration to investigate the concurrent CC breakdown. Special emphasis was laid on transitions where intact CC-RPE-retina complexes went over into highly atrophied areas. AMD sections showed elevated loss of photoreceptors, RPE and CC (p < 0.01), and thickened Bruch's membrane with increased basal laminar and linear deposits compared with controls. Up to 27% of the CC was lost in controls although RPE and retina were still intact. This primary loss of CC further increased with AMD (up to 100%). The data implicate that CC breakdown already occurs during normal aging and precedes degeneration of the RPE and retina with AMD, defining AMD as a vascular disease. Particular attention should be given to the investigation of early AMD stages and transitional stages to the late stage that reveal a possible sequence of degenerative steps with aging and AMD. PMID:24925811

Biesemeier, Antje; Taubitz, Tatjana; Julien, Sylvie; Yoeruek, Efdal; Schraermeyer, Ulrich

2014-11-01

360

Surgical outcomes of inverted internal limiting membrane flap technique for large macular hole  

PubMed Central

We are presenting the initial results of inverted internal limiting membrane (ILM) flap technique for large macular hole. Five eyes of five patients with large diameter macular hole (>700 ?m) were selected. All patients underwent inverted ILM flap technique for macular hole. Anatomical closure and functional success were achieved in all patients. There was no loss of best-corrected visual acuity in any of the patients. Inverted ILM flap technique in macular hole surgery seems to have a better hole closure rates, especially in large diameter macular holes. Larger case series is required to assess the efficacy and safety of this technique. PMID:24212316

Mahalingam, Prabhushanker; Sambhav, Kumar

2013-01-01

361

Copper deficiency in potato dextrose agar causes reduced pigmentation in cultures of various fungi.  

PubMed

Potato dextrose agar (PDA) is one of the most commonly used media for the isolation and cultivation of fungi, with morphological features and pigmentation in culture often being important for identification of cultures. Cultivation of various fungi on different brands and batches of powdered (commercial) potato dextrose media revealed deficient pigmentation in five of 10 media tested. Reduced pigmentation on these media was correlated with low levels of copper and colony colour was restored by the addition of copper. Deficient pigmentation was most pronounced when copper levels in the medium were below 50 ng mL(-1) (50 p.p.b.; 0.8 microM). Differences in pigmentation and laccase activity of spore and mycelial preparations were quantified for representative species belonging to the genera Aspergillus, Fusarium, Trichoderma, Cladosporium and Penicillium grown on PDA containing different amounts of copper. A strong positive correlation between laccase activity and copper levels was observed. Differences were also found between batches of raw potatoes, with organically cultivated tubers having higher copper levels than those grown by conventional methods, possibly because of the use of copper-based fungicides in the former case. Routine addition of 1000 ng mL(-1) copper (or standard trace element solutions) to PDA and other undefined media is advised to avoid atypical culture pigmentation and possibly other consequences of reduced activity of copper-requiring enzymes. PMID:17956422

Griffith, Garth W; Easton, Gary L; Detheridge, Andrew; Roderick, Kevin; Edwards, Arwyn; Worgan, Hilary J; Nicholson, Jean; Perkins, William T

2007-11-01

362

Drosophila pigmentation evolution: Divergent genotypes underlying convergent phenotypes  

E-print Network

Drosophila pigmentation evolution: Divergent genotypes underlying convergent phenotypes Patricia J. Myriad pigment patterns in the genus Drosophila offer numerous opportunities to address this question of pigmentation in selected species. Here, we ex- amine Drosophila americana and Drosophila novamexicana, inter

Gruber, Jonathan

363

Thoracic trident pigmentation in Drosophila melanogaster : Differentiation of geographical populations  

E-print Network

Thoracic trident pigmentation in Drosophila melanogaster : Differentiation of geographical A phenotypic classification of trident pigmentation allowed the characterization ol any natural population by a pigmentation score, ranging from 0 to 3. After some training, independent observers could produce very similar

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

364

Macular hole secondary to toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis.  

PubMed

Ocular toxoplasmosis causes abnormalities in the vitreous that are responsible for several types of well-known complications including retinal detachment and epiretinal membranes. We report on a patient who developed toxoplasmic panuveitis with a full-thickness macular hole (MH) and was successfully treated with vitreoretinal surgery. A 35-year-old Hispanic female presented with a 2-week history of loss of visual acuity and metamorphopsia in her right eye. Funduscopy revealed a typical toxoplasmosis lesion and a MH, which was confirmed by optical coherence tomography. After 8 weeks of medical treatment with sulfamethoxazole (800 mg)/trimethoprim (160 mg) and steroids, the intraocular inflammation was considered inactive. Pars plana vitrectomy with inner limiting membrane peeling and injection of 24 % sulphur hexafluoride gas were performed to treat the MH, without success. Repeat pars plana vitrectomy was then performed with injection of 14 % perfluoropropane (C3F8). Closure of the MH was achieved after this second procedure. Vitreoretinal surgery may be safe and effective for treating MHs secondary to toxoplasmosis lesions, a very uncommon complication of this disease. PMID:23479051

Arana, Begoña; Fonollosa, Alex; Artaraz, Joseba; Martinez-Berriotxoa, Agustin; Martinez-Alday, Nerea

2014-02-01

365

Partial posterior hyaloidectomy for macular disorders  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the effect of partial posterior hyaloidectomy (PPH) in preventing iatrogenic retinal breaks related to the induction of a posterior vitreous detachment (IPVD) Methods Fifty-nine patients who necessitated IPVD for an epiretinal membrane or macular hole were included in this prospective, interventional case series. Extensive removal of vitreous gel, close to the retina, was conducted before IPVD under 23?G (gauge)-vitrectomy system. The PPH involved the limited extent of IPVD and limited removal of the outermost vitreous cortex to an area slightly beyond the margin of the temporal major vascular arcade. The incidence of retinal breaks related to the surgery was compared with 57 eyes that had undergone conventional 23-G total vitrectomy accompanied by extensive IPVD using ?2-test. Results Patients were followed-up for a mean of 14.3 months (6–30 months) after the surgery. The incidence of peripheral retinal breaks after the PPH was 3.4% (2/59 eyes), which was significantly lower than that in the eyes that underwent conventional 23?G vitrectomy (15.8%, 9/57 eyes, P=0.023) for the same disorders that required an IPVD. No patient complained of postoperative floaters, postoperatively. Conclusions PPH would be an efficient procedure to prevent iatrogenic peripheral retinal breaks related to an IPVD. PMID:23743531

Kim, J H; Kang, S W; Kim, Y T; Kim, S J; Chung, S E

2013-01-01

366

Age-related macular degeneration: choroidal ischaemia?  

PubMed Central

Aim Our aim is to use ultrasound to non-invasively detect differences in choroidal microarchitecture possibly related to ischaemia among normal eyes and those with wet and dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Design Prospective case series of subjects with dry AMD, wet AMD and age-matched controls. Methods Digitised 20?MHz B-scan radiofrequency ultrasound data of the region of the macula were segmented to extract the signal from the retina and choroid. This signal was processed by a wavelet transform, and statistical modelling was applied to the wavelet coefficients to examine differences among dry, wet and non-AMD eyes. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to evaluate a multivariate classifier. Results In the 69 eyes of 52 patients, 18 did not have AMD, 23 had dry AMD and 28 had wet AMD. Multivariate models showed statistically significant differences between groups. Multiclass ROC analysis of the best model showed an excellent volume-under-curve of 0.892±0.17. The classifier is consistent with ischaemia in dry AMD. Conclusions Wavelet augmented ultrasound is sensitive to the organisational elements of choroidal microarchitecture relating to scatter and fluid tissue boundaries such as seen in ischaemia and inflammation, allowing statistically significant differentiation of dry, wet and non-AMD eyes. This study further supports the association of ischaemia with dry AMD and provides a rationale for treating dry AMD with pharmacological agents to increase choroidal perfusion. ClinicalTrials.gov registration NCT00277784. PMID:23740965

Coleman, D Jackson; Silverman, Ronald H; Rondeau, Mark J; Lloyd, Harriet O; Khanifar, Aziz A; Chan, R V Paul

2013-01-01

367

Macular pseudohaemorrhage secondary to Allen Dot artefact.  

PubMed

A 34-year-old highly myopic (-11.00 D) woman presented to eye clinic with a 3?day history of right eye paracentral blurring. Visual acuities were 6/6 bilaterally. Clinical examination was normal. Fundus photography showed the classic appearance of a macular haemorrhage. This is a recognised complication of high myopia and would have accounted for the patient's symptoms. However, further photography showed that the haemorrhage seemed to 'jump' around the fundus and was even present in the fellow eye. The apparent haemorrhage was revealed to be an imaging artefact. The 'Allen Dot' is a 6?mm black mask incorporated into retinal cameras to reduce reflection. Rarely, in highly myopic eyes, optical artefact can result. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first in the literature to report artefacts from the Allen Dot masquerading as ophthalmic disease. This case re-iterates the importance of clinical examination, especially in high myopes, given the current trend towards virtual clinics. PMID:25564595

Michaels, Luke; Alexander, Philip; Newsom, Richard

2015-01-01

368

Economic Considerations of Macular Edema Therapies  

PubMed Central

Purpose To relate costs and treatment benefits for macular edema due to diabetes (DME) and branch and central retinal vein occlusion (BRVO, CRVO). Design A model of resource utilization, outcomes, and cost effectiveness and utility. Participants none Methods Results from published clinical trials (index studies) of laser, intravitreal corticosteroids, intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents, and vitrectomy trials were used to ascertain visual benefit and clinical protocols. Calculations followed from the costs of one year of treatment for each treatment modality and the visual benefits as ascertained. Main Outcome measures Visual acuity (VA) saved, cost of therapy, cost per line saved, cost per line-year saved, and costs per quality adjusted life years (QALYs). Results The lines saved for DME (0.26 to 2.02), BRVO (0.74 to 4.92), and CRVO (1.2 to 3.75) yielded calculations of costs/line of saved VA for DME ($1329 to 11609), BRVO ($494 to 13039), and CRVO ($704 to 7611), costs/line-year for DME ($60 to 561), BRVO ($25 to 754), and CRVO ($45 to 473), and costs/QALY of $824 to $25566. Conclusion Relative costs and benefits should be considered in perspective when applying and developing treatment strategies. PMID:21507488

Smiddy, William E.

2012-01-01

369

Polarized human embryonic stem cell-derived retinal pigment epithelial cell monolayers have higher resistance to oxidative stress-induced cell death than nonpolarized cultures.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress-mediated injury to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a major factor involved in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived RPE cells are currently being evaluated for their potential for cell therapy in AMD patients through subretinal injection of cells in suspension and subretinal placement as a polarized monolayer. To gain an understanding of how transplanted RPE cells will respond to the highly oxidatively stressed environment of an AMD patient eye, we compared the survival of polarized and nonpolarized RPE cultures following oxidative stress treatment. Polarized, nonpolarized/confluent, nonpolarized/subconfluent hESC-RPE cells were treated with H2O2. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling stains revealed the highest amount of cell death in subconfluent hESC-RPE cells and little cell death in polarized hESC-RPE cells with H2O2 treatment. There were higher levels of proapoptotic factors (phosphorylated p38, phosphorylated c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase, Bax, and cleaved caspase 3 fragments) in treated nonpolarized RPE-particularly subconfluent cells-relative to polarized cells. On the other hand, polarized RPE cells had constitutively higher levels of cell survival and antiapoptotic signaling factors such as p-Akt and Bcl-2, as well as antioxidants superoxide dismutase 1 and catalase relative to nonpolarized cells, that possibly contributed to polarized cells' higher tolerance to oxidative stress compared with nonpolarized RPE cells. Subconfluent cells were particularly sensitive to oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. These results suggest that implantation of polarized hESC-RPE monolayers for treating AMD patients with geographic atrophy should have better survival than injections of hESC-RPE cells in suspension. PMID:25411476

Hsiung, Jamie; Zhu, Danhong; Hinton, David R

2015-01-01

370

Bilateral choroidal excavation in best vitelliform macular dystrophy.  

PubMed

Focal choroidal excavation (FCE) has recently been described as one or more localized areas of choroidal excavation on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). The authors describe a case of bilateral FCE in Best vitelliform macular dystrophy (VMD). SD-OCT revealed FCE in both eyes characterized by interruption of the internal segment-outer segment junction and the presence of subretinal hyporeflective space. This is the first report describing bilateral FCE in a distinct macular disorder and specifically with VMD. Future investigations are warranted to ascertain the involvement of other macular dystrophies with atrophic evolution and the impact of FCE on the clinical course. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2014;45:e8-e10.]. PMID:24512759

Parodi, Maurizio Battaglia; Zucchiatti, Ilaria; Fasce, Francesco; Bandello, Francesco

2014-01-01

371

ORGANIC DYES AND PIGMENTS DATA BASE  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this research program was to compile a data base covering all the commercially significant dyes and pigments produced or imported in the United States. The Organic Dyes and Pigments Data Base (ODPDB) contains the following data elements: chemical-related data (co...

372

Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) of Chlorophyll Pigments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background information, list of materials needed, procedures used, and discussion of typical results are provided for an experiment on the thin layer chromatography of chlorophyll pigments. The experiment works well in high school, since the chemicals used are the same as those used in paper chromatography of plant pigments. (JN)

Foote, Jerry

1984-01-01

373

Nanoscale porosity in pigments for chemical sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Porous pigments in which chemically responsive dyes have been immobilized in a matrix of organically modified siloxanes (ormosils) have been prepared and characterized by AFM, TEM, EDS, and optical analysis. In typical chemical sensing applications, an array of 36 different porous ormosil pigments are deposited on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film.

Kemling, Jonathan W.; Suslick, Kenneth S.

2011-05-01

374

Phenolic Compounds and Bioactivities of Pigmented Rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pigmented rice has been consumed in China, Japan and Korea for a long time. It has been used for strengthening kidney function, treating anemia, promoting blood circulation, removing blood stasis, treating diabetes, and ameliorating sight in traditional Chinese medicine. The extracts from pigmented rice are used as natural food colorants in bread, ice cream, and liquor as well as

Gui-Fang Deng; XIANG-RONG XU; Yuan Zhang; Dan Li; Ren-You Gan; Hua-Bin Li

2011-01-01

375

Spontaneous resolution of macular edema after silicone oil removal  

PubMed Central

AIM To investigate the macular changes in eyes filled with silicone oil (SO) and course of these changes after SO removal. METHODS A retrospective optical coherence tomography scan review was conducted for twenty-four patients who underwent uncomplicated pars plana vitrectomy with SO tamponade for complex retinal detachments were detected with optical coherence tomography before, and one week, one month and three months after SO removal. RESULTS Mean duration of SO tamponade was 3.6±1.0mo (range: 3-7mo). Cystoid macular edema (CME) was detected in 3 eyes before SO removal. Submacular fluid was represented in 1 eye before silicone SO removal. Resolution of CME and submacular fluid was achieved 1mo after SO removal in all eyes. Mean best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 1.15±0.65 (range, hand movement to 0.2) before SO removal in the eyes without macular changes. After SO removal, the mean BCVA values at 1wk and 1 and 3mo, and 0.82±0.23, 0.76±0.21, and 0.70±0.19, all of which were significantly better than baseline (P=0.030, 0.017, 0.006 respectively). In the eyes with macular CME and subretinal fluid the mean BCVA was significantly improved at 3mo after SO removal compared with baseline (P=0.037). CONCLUSION Decreased visual acuity in eyes filled with SO could be caused by macular complications due to SO. CME and subretinal fluid may resolve without any additional macular surgery after SO removal.

Karahan, Eyyup; Tuncer, Ibrahim; Zengin, Mehmet Ozgur; Kucukerdonmez, Cem; Kaynak, Suleyman

2014-01-01

376

Treatment of retinal pigment epithelial detachment with antiangiogenic therapy  

PubMed Central

Purpose Evaluate the efficacy of pegaptanib, a selective anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agent, and bevacizumab, a nonselective anti-VEGF agent, for retinal pigment epithelial detachment (PED) associated with occult choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods Prospective, comparative, nonrandomized pilot study included patients with PED comprising >50% of total lesion in subfoveal location with visual acuity (VA) 20/40–20/400 and lesions either previously untreated or treated only with photodynamic therapy/verteporfin. Seven patients received pegaptanib 0.3 mg intravitreally (IVT); eight received IVT bevacizumab 1.25 mg. Follow-up occurred every 4–6 weeks for 6 months. Reinjection of initial medication occurred if there was intra- or subretinal fluid observed by optical coherence tomography (OCT) or increased PED. Endpoints were mean changes from baseline to month 6 in VA (ETDRS) and foveal thickness. Results At baseline, mean VA was lower, and mean foveal thickness was greater in pegaptanib versus bevacizumab-treated patients (36.1 vs 49.5 letters; 470.4 vs 321.1 ?m). Mean improvements to month 6 in VA and foveal thickness were greater for pegaptanib (VA: +9.1 vs +7.2 letters; foveal thickness: ?88.2 vs ?52.9 ?m). On average, pegaptanib-treated patients had slower but more sustained improvement in VA and foveal thickness; bevacizumab-treated patients showed rapid improvement with a slow return towards baseline. Both agents were well tolerated. Conclusion Intravitreal injections of pegaptanib or bevacizumab are both efficacious and safe treatments for PED associated with occult CNV secondary to AMD. PMID:20463807

Arias, Luis

2010-01-01

377

Nutritional Modulation of Age-Related Macular Degeneration  

PubMed Central

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly worldwide. It affects 30–50 million individuals and clinical hallmarks of AMD are observed in at least one third of persons over the age of 75 in industrialized countries (Gehrs et al., 2006). Costs associated with AMD are in excess of $340 billion US (American-Health-Assistance-Foundation, 2012). The majority of AMD patients in the United States are not eligible for clinical treatments (Biarnes et al., 2011; Klein et al., 2011). Preventive interventions through dietary modulation are attractive strategies because many studies suggest a benefit of micro and macronutrients with respect to AMD, as well as other age-related debilities, and with few, if any, adverse effects (Chiu, 2011). Preservation of vision would enhance quality of life for millions of elderly people, and alleviate the personal and public health financial burden of AMD (Frick et al., 2007; Wood et al., 2011). Observational studies indicate that maintaining adequate levels of omega-3 fatty acids (i.e. with 2 servings/wk of fish) or a low glycemic index diet may be particularly beneficial for early AMD and that higher levels of carotenoids may be protective, most probably, against neovascular AMD. Intervention trials are needed to better understand the full effect of these nutrients and/or combinations of nutrients on retinal health. Analyses that describe effects of a nutrient on onset and/or progress of AMD are valuable because they indicate the value of a nutrient to arrest AMD at the early stages. This comprehensive summary provides essential information about the value of nutrients with regard to diminishing risk for onset or progress of AMD and can serve as a guide until data from ongoing intervention trials are available. PMID:22503690

Weikel, Karen A; Taylor, Allen

2012-01-01

378

Complement Factor H, Vitronectin, and Opticin Are Tyrosine-Sulfated Proteins of the Retinal Pigment Epithelium  

PubMed Central

Lack of tyrosine sulfation of ocular proteins results in disorganized photoreceptor structure and drastically reduced visual function, demonstrating the importance of this post-translational modification to vision. To understand the role that tyrosine sulfation plays in the function of ocular proteins, we identified some tyrosine-sulfated proteins in the retinal pigment epithelium using two independent methods, immuno-affinity column purification with an anti-sulfotyrosine specific antibody and computer-based sequence analysis of retinal pigment epithelium secretome by means of the prediction program Sulfinator. Radioactive labeling followed by thin layer electrophoresis revealed that three proteins, vitronectin, opticin, and complement factor H (CFH), were post-translationally modified by tyrosine sulfation. The identification of vitronectin and CFH as tyrosine-sulfated proteins is significant, since both are deposited in drusen in the eyes of patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Furthermore, mutations in CFH have been determined to be a major risk factor in the development of AMD. Future studies that seek to understand the role of CFH in the development of AMD should take into account the role that tyrosine sulfation plays in the interaction of this protein with its partners, and examine whether modulating sulfation provides a potential therapeutic target. PMID:25136834

Kanan, Yogita; Siefert, Joseph C.; Kinter, Michael; Al-Ubaidi, Muayyad R.

2014-01-01

379

Complement factor H, vitronectin, and opticin are tyrosine-sulfated proteins of the retinal pigment epithelium.  

PubMed

Lack of tyrosine sulfation of ocular proteins results in disorganized photoreceptor structure and drastically reduced visual function, demonstrating the importance of this post-translational modification to vision. To understand the role that tyrosine sulfation plays in the function of ocular proteins, we identified some tyrosine-sulfated proteins in the retinal pigment epithelium using two independent methods, immuno-affinity column purification with an anti-sulfotyrosine specific antibody and computer-based sequence analysis of retinal pigment epithelium secretome by means of the prediction program Sulfinator. Radioactive labeling followed by thin layer electrophoresis revealed that three proteins, vitronectin, opticin, and complement factor H (CFH), were post-translationally modified by tyrosine sulfation. The identification of vitronectin and CFH as tyrosine-sulfated proteins is significant, since both are deposited in drusen in the eyes of patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Furthermore, mutations in CFH have been determined to be a major risk factor in the development of AMD. Future studies that seek to understand the role of CFH in the development of AMD should take into account the role that tyrosine sulfation plays in the interaction of this protein with its partners, and examine whether modulating sulfation provides a potential therapeutic target. PMID:25136834

Kanan, Yogita; Siefert, Joseph C; Kinter, Michael; Al-Ubaidi, Muayyad R

2014-01-01

380

Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy for diabetic macular edema  

PubMed Central

Diabetes mellitus is a serious health problem that affects over 350 million individuals worldwide. Diabetic retinopathy (DR), which is the most common microvascular complication of diabetes, is the leading cause of new cases of blindness in working-aged adults. Diabetic macular edema (DME) is an advanced, vision-limiting complication of DR that affects nearly 30% of patients who have had diabetes for at least 20 years and is responsible for much of the vision loss due to DR. The historic standard of care for DME has been macular laser photocoagulation, which has been shown to stabilize vision and reduce the rate of further vision loss by 50%; however, macular laser leads to significant vision recovery in only 15% of treated patients. Mechanisms contributing to the microvascular damage in DR and DME include the direct toxic effects of hyperglycemia, sustained alterations in cell signaling pathways, and chronic microvascular inflammation with leukocyte-mediated injury. Chronic retinal microvascular damage results in elevation of intraocular levels of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF), a potent, diffusible, endothelial-specific mitogen that mediates many important physiologic processes, including but not limited to the development and permeability of the vasculature. The identification of VEGF as an important pathophysiologic mediator of DME suggested that anti-VEGF therapy delivered to the eye might lead to improved visual outcomes in this disease. To date, four different inhibitors of VEGF, each administered by intraocular injection, have been tested in prospective, randomized phase II or phase III clinical trials in patients with DME. The results from these trials demonstrate that treatment with anti-VEGF agents results in substantially improved visual and anatomic outcomes compared with laser photocoagulation, and avoid the ocular side effects associated with laser treatment. Thus, anti-VEGF therapy has become the preferred treatment option for the management of DME in many patients. PMID:24324855

Hopkins, J. Jill; Sorof, Jonathan; Ehrlich, Jason S.

2013-01-01

381

The bioefficacy of microemulsified natural pigments in egg yolk pigmentation.  

PubMed

1. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that microemulsified carotenoid products show improved bioavailability over corresponding regular preparations, leading to greater yolk pigmentation at lower dosages. 2. The first trial was conducted using a maize-soya bean basal diet supplemented with either 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.25 g/kg of microemulsified Red or non-microemulsified Red. The second trial involved feeding microemulsified Yellow or non-microemulsified Yellow using a similar dosage range. The layers were divided into 4 replicates of 8 layers each (32 layers per treatment). The 8 cages of layers were fed from a single feed trough. Feed and water were provided ad libitum throughout the trial. Each week, the eggs were collected. The whole liquid egg colour was determined by means of a commercially available yolk colour fan. Where required, HPLC-(high-performance liquid chromatography) based analysis of trans-capsanthin or trans-lutein equivalents using the Association of Analytical Communities method was carried out. Data were statistically analysed by one-way ANOVA method using Statgraphics. 3. Results showed that the colour and carotenoid content of the egg yolk increased with increasing amount of carotenoids in the diet. The colour of egg yolks from layers fed similar concentrations of microemulsified versus the regular preparation was significantly different. At the commercial recommended dose of one g/kg regular Yellow or Red product, the microemulsified pigmenter is able to provide the equivalent yolk colour at a 20-30% lower dose. 4. In conclusion, the trial results supported the hypothesis that a desired yolk colour score is achievable at a significantly lower inclusion rate when carotenoid molecules are emulsified using the microemulsion nanotechnology. PMID:24783946

Chow, P Y; Gue, S Z; Leow, S K; Goh, L B

2014-01-01

382

Chitosan microspheres containing the natural urucum pigment.  

PubMed

An increasing trend in the food and pharmaceutical industries is toward replacing synthetic additives with natural products. However, in this regard, difficulties may be encountered due to the instability of such compounds. Encapsulation has become an important process to protect natural pigments. This paper reports on the encapsulation of the natural urucum pigment with chitosan using different techniques and its release under different pH conditions. The material loaded with pigment was evaluated by infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and thermal analysis. Chitosan was found to be an effective encapsulating agent for urucum pigment. No investigations have previously been reported on the relation of chitosan to the stability of encapsulated natural pigments. PMID:16361194

Souza, T C R; Parize, A L; Brighente, I M C; Fávere, V T; Laranjeira, M C M

2005-08-01

383

Developing fungal pigments for "painting" vascular plants.  

PubMed

The use of fungal pigments as color additives to wood as a method to increase forest revenue is a relatively new, but quickly developing field. Sugar maple (Acer saccharum) is currently the primary utilized hardwood for spalting and appears to be the best suited North American hardwood for such purposes. The combination of Trametes versicolor and Bjerkandera adusta has been identified in several instances as a strong fungal pairing for zone line production; however, Xylaria polymorpha is capable of creating zone lines without the antagonism of a secondary fungus. Few fungal pigments have been developed for reliable use; Scytalidium cuboideum is capable of producing a penetrating pink/red stain, as well as a blue pigment after extended incubation, and Chlorociboria sp. produces a blue/green pigment if grown on aspen (Populus tremuloides). Several opportunities exist for stimulation of fungal pigments including the use of copper sulfate and changes in wood pH. PMID:22237673

Robinson, Sara C

2012-02-01

384

Granulomatous pigmented purpura: an unusual histological variant.  

PubMed

Pigmented purpuric dermatoses (PPDs) tend to vary clinically, yet share a similar histology. Granulomas are only rarely seen, with 4 prior reported cases, designated granulomatous pigmented purpura. Historically, granulomatous pigmented purpura has been seen in Asians. In this article, we report the case of a 42-year-old, white female with granulomatous pigmented purpura, the fifth such reported case in the literature. Histopathological examination revealed a granulomatous dermatitis with eosinophils, extravasated erythrocytes, melanophages, and vascular proliferation. These findings were consistently reported on subsequent biopsy 6 months later. This case illustrates a rare histological finding in PPDs. Medications associated with PPD are reviewed and the patient's use of mesalamine and balsalazide for ulcerative colitis are deemed potential triggers, given their relative similarity to aspirin, a known trigger of PPD. Although other granulomatous processes must be excluded in such patients, one must consider the possibility of granulomatous pigmented purpura in the appropriate setting. PMID:19155731

Kerns, Mary Jo J; Mallatt, Bruce Douglas; Shamma, H Nicholas

2009-02-01

385

Imaging of diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema.  

PubMed

Imaging of the retinal complications of diabetes mellitus is rapidly changing from the emergence of new technology such as optical coherence tomography. In particular, the characterization of diabetic macular edema is much easier for the clinician and there are new, more sensitive clinical research end points. However, our understanding of structure-functional relationships remains suboptimal and the classification of macular edema by optical coherence tomography continues to evolve. The classification of diabetic retinopathy severity continues to rely upon fundus photography, although the transition from film to digital photography presents both challenges and advantages. PMID:21607565

Danis, Ronald P; Hubbard, Larry D

2011-08-01

386

Epiretinal membrane formation associated with idiopathic macular telangiectasia: case report.  

PubMed

A 46-year-old woman complained of blurred and distorted vision in both eyes. Ophthalmic examination showed that visual acuity was 20/200 for the right eye and counting fingers left eye. Fundoscopy revealed perimacular hemorrhages, aneurismal dilatation of the vessels in the posterior pole, and a white and elevated lesion adjacent to vascular changes. We report a case of idiopathic macular telangiectasia and epiretinal membrane that occurs concomitantly. To our knowledge, this is the first report that describes an association between idiopathic macular telangiectasia and epiretinal membrane formation. PMID:25410182

Gomes, Flávia Cid; Felix, João Paulo Fernandes; Nascimento, Maurício Abujamra; Lira, Rodrigo Pessoa Cavalcanti

2014-08-01

387

Resolution of macular edema in idiopathic juxtafoveal telangiectasis using PDT.  

PubMed

A 57-year-old woman was treated by photodynamic therapy for macular edema due to idiopathic juxtafoveal telangiectasis (presumed type 1A) without subretinal neovascularization. Initial visual acuity of the treated eye was 20/200 and it improved to 20/40 by 3 months after the photodynamic therapy session. Visual acuity remained stable 32 months after the treatment. Color photographs and fundus fluorescein angiography before and after photodynamic therapy revealed regression of hemorrhages, exudates, and fluorescein leakage. Photodynamic therapy has long-term benefits for the patient with idiopathic juxtafoveal telangiectasis, presumed type 1A, because it can improve visual acuity and macular edema. PMID:19205501

Kotoula, Maria G; Chatzoulis, Dimitrios Z; Karabatsas, Constantinos H; Tsiloulis, Aristoteles; Tsironi, Evangelia E

2009-01-01

388

Ranibizumab in neovascular age-related macular degeneration.  

PubMed

Neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a visually devastating condition resulting from choroidal neovascularization and secondary photoreceptor loss. Ranibizumab and bevacizumab are medications that target vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). While other therapies have demonstrated some ability to reduce the risk of losing vision from neovascular AMD, most patients continue to lose some degree of central visual acuity. There is growing evidence that intravitreal administration of ranibizumab and bevacizumab is effective in significantly improving the visual acuity in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration. PMID:18046922

Kenneth, T Eng; Kertes, Peter J

2006-01-01

389

Use of antivascular endothelial growth factor for diabetic macular edema  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetic macular edema (DME) is one of the manifestations of diabetic retinopathy leading to loss of central vision and visual acuity. It manifests itself with swelling around the central part of the retina, the area responsible for sharp vision. Current treatment includes laser therapy and intravitreal steroids with preventative measures including diabetes control. No one treatment has guaranteed control of diabetic macular edema which leads to deteriorating visual acuity, function and quality of life in patients. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been shown to be a critical stimulus in the pathogenesis of macular edema secondary to diabetes.1 Antiangiogenic therapy encompassed treatment with anti-VEGF which inhibits VEGF-driven neovascularization hence macular edema leading to decreased visual acuity. Objective For this review, we evaluated the effectiveness of intravitreal anti-VEGF in treating DME. Data sources We identified five trials (n = 525) using electronic databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials [Central], Medline®, and Excerpta Medica Database [EMBASE®]) in October 2008, supplemented by hand searching of reference lists, review articles, and conference abstracts. Methods We included all randomized clinical trials (RCTs) evaluating any form of intravitreal anti-VEGF for treating DME. The main outcome factor was change in best-corrected visual acuity and central macular thickness. One author assessed eligibility, methodological quality, and extracted data. Meta analysis was performed when appropriate. Results We included three trials of adequate methodological quality in our meta-analysis. Patients treated with anti-VEGF showed improvement in visual acuity of ?0.17 (95% confidence interval [CI]: ?0.23, ?0.10) and central macular thickness ?84.69 (95% CI: ?117.09, ?52.30). Patients treated with combined anti-VEGF and intravitreal triamcinolone showed improvement of visual acuity of ?0.19 (95% CI: ?0.27, ?0.11) and central macular thickness mean change being –111.20 (95% CI: ?148.13, ?74.28). Conclusions Anti-VEGF has been associated with an improvement in visual acuity and central macular thickness in the analysis, however trial analysis was of a short duration and further research is needed to determine long-term benefits. PMID:20535227

Karim, Rushmia; Tang, Benjamin

2010-01-01

390

Topical Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs for Macular Edema  

PubMed Central

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are nowadays widely used in ophthalmology to reduce eye inflammation, pain, and cystoid macular edema associated with cataract surgery. Recently, new topical NSAIDs have been approved for topical ophthalmic use, allowing for greater drug penetration into the vitreous. Hence, new therapeutic effects can be achieved, such as reduction of exudation secondary to age-related macular degeneration or diabetic maculopathy. We provide an updated review on the clinical use of NSAIDs for retinal diseases, with a focus on the potential future applications. PMID:24227908

Parmeggiani, Francesco; Romano, Mario R.; dell'Omo, Roberto

2013-01-01

391

Spontaneous closure of stage IV idiopathic full-thickness macular hole and late reopening as a lamellar macular hole: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Spontaneous closure of traumatic macular holes is described as a common event in the peer-reviewed literature. However, the spontaneous closure of stage III and IV full-thickness idiopathic macular holes has been reported in less than 15 cases in the literature, this being an extremely rare event, with their reopening being even more infrequent. We report a case of a spontaneous closure of stage IV idiopathic full-thickness macular hole and late reopening as a lamellar macular hole. Case presentation A 67-year-old Spanish man was referred to our hospital with a complaint of decreased vision in his right eye and metamorphopsia for approximately 11?months. He did not report any trauma. Diagnosis was based on fundoscopic and optical coherence tomography. They revealed a stage IV full-thickness idiopathic macular hole and a small epiretinal membrane. Three months later the hole spontaneously closed, and two years later we appreciated its reopening as a lamellar macular hole. Conclusions The contraction of the epiretinal membrane could have contributed to cystic spaces and their fusion, subsequently, to the formation of a lamellar macular hole. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report in the literature of a spontaneously closed full-thickness idiopathic macular hole with reopening as a partial thickness macular defect. PMID:22742449

2012-01-01

392

Primary structures of chicken cone visual pigments: vertebrate rhodopsins have evolved out of cone visual pigments.  

PubMed Central

The chicken retina contains rhodopsin (a rod visual pigment) and four kinds of cone visual pigments. The primary structures of chicken red (iodopsin) and rhodopsin have been determined previously. Here we report isolation of three cDNA clones encoding additional pigments from a chicken retinal cDNA library. Based on the partial amino acid sequences of the purified chicken visual pigments together with their biochemical and spectral properties, we have identified these clones as encoding the chicken green, blue, and violet visual pigments. Chicken violet was very similar to human blue not only in absorption maximum (chicken violet, 415 nm; human blue, 419 nm) but also in amino acid sequence (80.6% identical). Interestingly, chicken green was more similar (71-75.1%) than any other known cone pigment (42.0-53.7%) to vertebrate rhodopsins. The fourth additional cone pigment, chicken blue, had relatively low similarity (39.3-54.6%) in amino acid sequence to those of the other vertebrate visual pigments. A phylogenetic tree of vertebrate visual pigments constructed on the basis of amino acid identity indicated that an ancestral visual pigment evolved first into four groups (groups L, S, M1, and M2), each of which includes one of the chicken cone pigments, and that group Rh including vertebrate rhodopsins diverged from group M2 later. Thus, it is suggested that the gene for scotopic vision (rhodopsin) has evolved out of that for photopic vision (cone pigments). The divergence of rhodopsin from cone pigments was accompanied by an increase in negative net charge of the pigment. Images PMID:1385866

Okano, T; Kojima, D; Fukada, Y; Shichida, Y; Yoshizawa, T

1992-01-01

393

Comparison of Modified-ETDRS and Mild Macular Grid Laser Photocoagulation Strategies for Diabetic Macular Edema  

PubMed Central

Purpose To compare two laser photocoagulation techniques for treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME): modified-ETDRS direct/grid photocoagulation (mETDRS) and a, potentially milder, but potentially more extensive, mild macular grid (MMG) laser technique in which small mild burns are placed throughout the macula, whether or not edema is present, and microaneurysms are not treated directly. Methods 263 subjects (mean age 59 years) with previously untreated DME were randomly assigned to receive laser photocoagulation by mETDRS (N=162 eyes) or MMG (N=161 eyes) technique. Visual acuity, fundus photographs and OCT measurements were obtained at baseline and after 3.5, 8, and 12 months. Treatment was repeated if DME persisted. Main Outcome Measure Change in OCT measures at 12-months follow up. Results From baseline to 12 months, among eyes with baseline central subfield thickness ? 250 microns, central subfield thickening decreased by an average of 88 microns in the mETDRS group and decreased by 49 microns in the MMG group (adjusted mean difference: 33 microns, 95% confidence interval 5 to 61 microns, P=0.02). Weighted inner zone thickening by OCT decreased by 42 and 28 microns, respectively (adjusted mean difference: 14 microns, 95% confidence interval 1 to 27 microns, P=0.04), maximum retinal thickening (maximum of the central and four inner subfields) decreased by 66 and 39 microns, respectively (adjusted mean difference: 27 microns, 95% confidence interval 6 to 47 microns, P=0.01), and retinal volume decreased by 0.8 and 0.4 mm3, respectively (adjusted mean difference: 0.3 mm3, 95% confidence interval 0.02 to 0.53 mm3, P=0.03). At 12 months, the mean change in visual acuity was 0 letters in the mETDRS group and 2 letters worse in the MMG group (adjusted mean difference: 2 letters, 95% confidence interval ?0.5 to 5 letters, P=0.10). Conclusions At 12 months after treatment, the MMG technique is less effective at reducing OCT measured retinal thickening than the more extensively evaluated current mETDRS laser photocoagulation approach. However, the visual acuity outcome with both approaches is not substantially different. Given these findings a larger long-term trial of the MMG technique is not justified. Application to Clinical Practice Modified ETDRS focal photocoagulation should continue as a standard approach for treating diabetic macular edema. PMID:17420366

2008-01-01

394

Inflammatory Cytokines Regulate MicroRNA-155 Expression in Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells by Activating JAK/STAT Pathway  

PubMed Central

Inflammatory response of the retinal pigment epithelium plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of retinal degenerative diseases such as age-related macular degeneration. Our previous studies have shown that human retinal pigment epithelial (HRPE) cells, established from adult donor eyes, respond to inflammatory cytokines by enhancing the expression of a number of cytokines and chemokines. To investigate the role of microRNA (miRNA) in regulating this response, we performed microarray analysis of miRNA expression in HRPE cells exposed to inflammatory cytokine mix (IFN-? + TNF-? + IL-1?). Microarray analysis revealed ~11-fold increase in miR-155 expression, which was validated by real-time PCR analysis. The miR-155 expression was enhanced when the cells were treated individually with IFN-?, TNF-? or IL-1?, but combinations of the cytokines exaggerated the effect. The increase in miR-155 expression by the inflammatory cytokines was associated with an increase in STAT1 activation as well as an increase in protein binding to putative STAT1 binding elements present in the MIR155 gene promoter region. All these activities were effectively blocked by JAK inhibitor 1. Our results show that the inflammatory cytokines increase miR-155 expression in human retinal pigment epithelial cells by activating the JAK/STAT signaling pathway. PMID:20950585

Kutty, R. Krishnan; Nagineni, Chandrasekharam N.; Samuel, William; Vijayasarathy, Camasamudram; Hooks, John J.; Redmond, T. Michael

2010-01-01

395

Inflammatory cytokines regulate microRNA-155 expression in human retinal pigment epithelial cells by activating JAK/STAT pathway.  

PubMed

Inflammatory response of the retinal pigment epithelium plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of retinal degenerative diseases such as age-related macular degeneration. Our previous studies have shown that human retinal pigment epithelial (HRPE) cells, established from adult donor eyes, respond to inflammatory cytokines by enhancing the expression of a number of cytokines and chemokines. To investigate the role of microRNA (miRNA) in regulating this response, we performed microarray analysis of miRNA expression in HRPE cells exposed to inflammatory cytokine mix (IFN-?+TNF-?+IL-1?). Microarray analysis revealed ?11-fold increase in miR-155 expression, which was validated by real-time PCR analysis. The miR-155 expression was enhanced when the cells were treated individually with IFN-?, TNF-? or IL-1?, but combinations of the cytokines exaggerated the effect. The increase in miR-155 expression by the inflammatory cytokines was associated with an increase in STAT1 activation as well as an increase in protein binding to putative STAT1 binding elements present in the MIR155 gene promoter region. All these activities were effectively blocked by JAK inhibitor 1. Our results show that the inflammatory cytokines increase miR-155 expression in human retinal pigment epithelial cells by activating the JAK/STAT signaling pathway. PMID:20950585

Kutty, R Krishnan; Nagineni, Chandrasekharam N; Samuel, William; Vijayasarathy, Camasamudram; Hooks, John J; Redmond, T Michael

2010-11-12

396

Molecular and pharmacological characterization of muscarinic receptors in retinal pigment epithelium: role in light-adaptive  

E-print Network

Molecular and pharmacological characterization of muscarinic receptors in retinal pigment epithelium: role in light-adaptive pigment movements Prasad V. Phatarpekar, Simon F. Durdan, Chad M. Copeland pigment granule dispersion in retinal pigment epithelium isolated from bluegill fish. Pigment granule

Aspbury, Andrea S. - Department of Biology, Texas State University

397

Breaking the Covalent Bond—A Pigment Property that Contributes to Desensitization in Cones  

PubMed Central

Summary Retinal rod and cone pigments consist of an apoprotein, opsin, covalently linked to a chromophore, 11-cis retinal. Here we demonstrate that the formation of the covalent bond between opsin and 11-cis retinal is reversible in darkness in amphibian red cones, but essentially irreversible in red rods. This dissociation, apparently a general property of cone pigments, results in a surprisingly large amount of free opsin—about 10% of total opsin—in dark-adapted red cones. We attribute this significant level of free opsin to the low concentration of intracellular free 11-cis retinal, estimated to be only a tiny fraction (~0.1 %) of the pigment content in red cones. With its constitutive transducin-stimulating activity, the free cone opsin produces an ~2-fold desensitization in red cones, equivalent to that produced by a steady light causing 500 photoisomerizations s?1. Cone pigment dissociation therefore contributes to the sensitivity difference between rods and cones. PMID:15953417

Kefalov, Vladimir J.; Estevez, Maureen E.; Kono, Massahiro; Goletz, Patrice W.; Crouch, Rosalie K.; Cornwall, M. Carter; Yau, King-Wai

2010-01-01

398

Formulae for Determination of Chlorophyllous Pigments Extracted with N,N-Dimethylformamide 1  

PubMed Central

The extraction of chlorophylls in higher plant tissue using N,N-dimethylformamide expedites the process and enables the determination of small samples with low pigment level. Absorption spectra of Chl a, Chl b, and Pchl and of their acidified derivatives, the phaeophytins, were recorded. Conversion of Chl b to its corresponding acidified product occurs much more slowly than that of Chl a and Pchl. When acidified, Pchl differs from Chl a and Chl b by the disappearance of the red band in the absorption spectrum. Specific extinction coefficients were determined and formulae for quantitative determination of pigments concentrations were developed. When concentrations of pigments are low, as in etiolated plant material, the absorption spectra of the chlorophylls can be distorted due to the presence of other substances simultaneously extracted; formulae for pigment determination under such circumstances were also derived. PMID:16662407

Moran, Rami

1982-01-01

399

Study of Biological Pigments by Single Specimen Derivative Spectrophotometry  

PubMed Central

The single specimen derivative (SSD) method provides an absolute absorption spectrum of a substance in the absence of a suitable reference. Both a reference and a measuring monochromatic beam pass through a single sample, and the specimen itself acts as its own reference. The two monochromatic beams maintain a fixed wavelength difference upon scanning, and the difference in absorbance of the two beams is determined. Thus, the resulting spectrum represents the first derivative of the conventional type absorption spectrum. Tissues and cell fractions have been examined at room and liquid N2 temperature and chromophoric molecules such as the mitochondrial cytochromes and blood pigments have been detectable in low concentrations. In the case of isolated cellular components, the observed effects of substrates and inhibitors confirm similar studies by conventional spectrophotometry. The extension of the SSD concept to the microscopic level has permitted the study of the tissue compartmentalization and function of cytochromes and other pigments within layered tissue. PMID:4392452

Goldstein, Jack M.

1970-01-01

400

Inhibition of APE1/Ref-1 redox activity rescues human retinal pigment epithelial cells from oxidative stress and reduces choroidal neovascularization  

PubMed Central

The effectiveness of current treatment for age related macular degeneration (AMD) by targeting one molecule is limited due to its multifactorial nature and heterogeneous pathologies. Treatment strategy to target multiple signaling pathways or pathological components in AMD pathogenesis is under investigation for better clinical outcome. Inhibition of the redox function of apurinic endonuclease 1/redox factor-1 (APE1) was found to suppress endothelial angiogenesis and promote neuronal cell recovery, thereby may serve as a potential treatment for AMD. In the current study, we for the first time have found that a specific inhibitor of APE1 redox function by a small molecule compound E3330 regulates retinal pigment epithelium (RPEs) cell response to oxidative stress. E3330 significantly blocked sub-lethal doses of oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) induced proliferation decline and senescence advancement of RPEs. At the same time, E3330 remarkably decreased the accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and down-regulated the productions of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), as well as attenuated the level of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) p65 in RPEs. A panel of stress and toxicity responsive transcription factors that were significantly upregulated by oxLDL was restored by E3330, including Nrf2/Nrf1, p53, NF-?B, HIF1, CBF/NF-Y/YY1, and MTF-1. Further, a single intravitreal injection of E3330 effectively reduced the progression of laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in mouse eyes. These data revealed that E3330 effectively rescued RPEs from oxidative stress induced senescence and dysfunctions in multiple aspects in vitro, and attenuated laser-induced damages to RPE–Bruch?s membrane complex in vivo. Together with its previously established anti-angiogenic and neuroprotection benefits, E3330 is implicated for potential use for AMD treatment. PMID:24624338

Li, Y.; Liu, X.; Zhou, T.; Kelley, M.R.; Edwards, P.; Gao, H.; Qiao, X.

2014-01-01

401

Surface modification for aluminium pigment inhibition.  

PubMed

This review concerns surface treatment of aluminium pigments for use in water borne coatings. Aluminium pigments are commonly used in coatings to give a silvery and shiny lustre to the substrate. Such paints and inks have traditionally been solvent borne, since aluminium pigment particles react with water. For environmental and health reasons solvent borne coatings are being replaced by water borne and the aluminium pigments then need to be surface modified in order to stand exposure to water. This process is called inhibition and both organic and inorganic substances are used as inhibiting agents. The organic inhibiting agents range from low molecular weight substances, such as phenols and aromatic acids, via surfactants, in particular alkyl phosphates and other anionic amphiphiles, to high molecular weight compounds, such as polyelectrolytes. A common denominator for them all is that they contain a functional group that interacts specifically with aluminium at the surface. A particularly strong interaction is obtained if the inhibiting agent contains functional groups that form chelating complex with surface Al(III). Encapsulation of the pigment can be made by in situ polymerization at the surface of the pigment and a recent approach is to have the polymerization occur within a double layer of adsorbed surfactant. The inorganic route is dominated by coating with silica, and recent progress has been made using an alkoxide, such as tetraethoxysilane as silica precursor. Such silica coated aluminium pigments are comparable in performance to chromate inhibited pigments and thus offer a possible heavy metal-free alternative. There are obvious connections between surface modifications made to prevent the pigment to react with water and inhibition of corrosion of macroscopic aluminium surfaces. PMID:17239333

Karlsson, Philip; Palmqvist, Anders E C; Holmberg, Krister

2006-12-21

402

Spectrum of ABCR gene mutations in autosomal recessive macular dystrophies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stargardt disease (STGD) and late-onset fundus flavimaculatus (FFM) are autosomal recessive conditions leading to macular degenerations in childhood and adulthood, respectively. Recently, mutations of the photoreceptor cell-specific ATP binding transporter gene (ABCR) have been reported in Stargardt disease. Here, we report on the screening of the whole coding sequence of the ABCR gene in 40 unrelated STGD and 15 FFM

Jean-Michel Rozet; Sylvie Gerber; Eric Souied; Isabelle Perrault; Sophie Châtelin; Imad Ghazi; Corinne Leowski; Jean-Louis Dufier; Arnold Munnich; Josseline Kaplan; J-M Rozet

1998-01-01

403

Genetic factors of age-related macular degeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of blindness in the United States and developed countries. Although the etiology and pathogenesis of AMD remain unknown, a complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors is thought to exist. The incidence and progression of all of the features of AMD are known to increase significantly with age. The tendency for familial

Jingsheng Tuo; Christine M. Bojanowski; Chi-Chao Chan

2004-01-01

404

Nutritional modulation of age-related macular degeneration  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly worldwide. It affects 30-50 million individuals and clinical hallmarks of AMD are observed in at least one third of persons over the age of 75 in industrialized countries (Gehrs et al., 2006). Costs associated wi...

405

Topical indomethacin in the treatment of chronic cystoid macular edema  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighty percent of 30 eyes with chronic cystoid macular edema (CME) after cataract extraction achieved improved visual acuity of three or more lines when treated with 1% indomethacin eye drops. Of these patients 53% demonstrated an “on\\/off” phenomenon induced by the initiation and cessation of treatment documented by visual acuity measurements and fluorescein angiography. This “on\\/off” phenomenon suggests that there

Michael Peterson; Marc O. Yoshizumi; Robert Hepler; Bartly Mondino; Allan Kreiger

1992-01-01

406

The Evolving Treatment Options for Diabetic Macular Edema  

PubMed Central

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of vision loss in working-age adults, and diabetic macular edema (DME) is the most common cause of visual impairment in individuals with DR. This review focuses on the pathophysiology, previous treatment paradigms, and emerging treatment options in the management of DME. PMID:24106640

Jain, Atul; Varshney, Neeta; Smith, Colin

2013-01-01

407

Key Regulatory Role of Dermal Fibroblasts in Pigmentation as Demonstrated Using a Reconstructed Skin Model: Impact of Photo-Aging  

PubMed Central

To study cutaneous pigmentation in a physiological context, we have previously developed a functional pigmented reconstructed skin model composed of a melanocyte-containing epidermis grown on a dermal equivalent comprising living fibroblasts. The present studies, using the same model, aimed to demonstrate that dermal fibroblasts influence skin pigmentation up to the macroscopic level. The proof of principle was performed with pigmented skins differing only in the fibroblast component. First, the in vitro system was reconstructed with or without fibroblasts in order to test the global influence of the presence of this cell type. We then assessed the impact of the origin of the fibroblast strain on the degree of pigmentation using fetal versus adult fibroblasts. In both experiments, impressive variation in skin pigmentation at the macroscopic level was observed and confirmed by quantitative parameters related to skin color, melanin content and melanocyte numbers. These data confirmed the responsiveness of the model and demonstrated that dermal fibroblasts do indeed impact the degree of skin pigmentation. We then hypothesized that a physiological state associated with pigmentary alterations such as photo-aging could be linked to dermal fibroblasts modifications that accumulate over time. Pigmentation of skin reconstructed using young unexposed fibroblasts (n?=?3) was compared to that of tissues containing natural photo-aged fibroblasts (n?=?3) which express a senescent phenotype. A stimulation of pigmentation in the presence of the natural photo-aged fibroblasts was revealed by a significant increase in the skin color (decrease in Luminance) and an increase in both epidermal melanin content and melanogenic gene expression, thus confirming our hypothesis. Altogether, these data demonstrate that the level of pigmentation of the skin model is influenced by dermal fibroblasts and that natural photo-aged fibroblasts can contribute to the hyperpigmentation that is associated with photo-aging. PMID:25490395

Duval, Christine; Cohen, Catherine; Chagnoleau, Corinne; Flouret, Virginie; Bourreau, Emilie; Bernerd, Françoise

2014-01-01

408

Diabetic macular edema: new concepts in patho-physiology and treatment  

PubMed Central

Diabetic macular edema (DME), a serious eye complication caused primarily by hyperglycemia, is one of the major causes of blindness. DME, which is characterized by cystic retinal thickening or lipid deposition, is prone to relapse after successful treatment. DME is a complex pathological process caused by multiple factors, including breakdown of the inner and outer blood-retinal barriers, oxidative stress, and elevated levels of vascular endothelial growth factor which have been demonstrated in both preclinical and clinical studies. Starling’s law theory explains many of the features of DME. Early detection and treatment of DME can prevent vision loss. Current effective interventions for DME include treatment of systemic risk factors, such as elevated blood glucose, blood pressure and dyslipidemia. Ophthalmic treatments include laser photocoagulation, surgery and intraocular pharmacotherapy. New drugs, which are given by intraocular injection, have emerged in recent years to become first line treatment for DME that affects the central macula with loss of vision. Laser photocoagulation is still the gold standard of treatment for DME which does not involve the central macular. This review outlines these new treatments with particular emphasis on the optimal timing of how they are given. PMID:24955234

2014-01-01

409

Quantitative analysis of macular contraction in idiopathic epiretinal membrane  

PubMed Central

Background We aimed to quantify the displacement of macular capillaries using infrared fundus photographs and image processing software (ImageJ) in patients with idiopathic epiretinal membrane (ERM) who have undergone vitrectomy and to analyze the correlation between vessel displacement and retinal thickness. Methods This prospective study included 16 patients who underwent vitrectomy for idiopathic ERM. Ophthalmic examination and optical coherence tomography (OCT) were performed before and 3 months after surgery. The length of radial vessel segment included in each area (VLA) and the length from the foveola to the vessel branching point (FBL) depending on the superior, inferior, nasal, and temporal areas of the macula were measured using infrared fundus images and image processing software (ImageJ). Preoperative and postoperative parameters were compared and correlations between VLA, FBL, macular thickness, and visual acuity were assessed. Results The VLA of superior, inferior, and temporal areas showed a significant postoperative reduction. VLA differences showed a positive correlation with differences in macular thickness, which corresponded to the superior, inferior, and temporal areas; however, no correlation was observed in the nasal area. The FBL of the superior and inferior areas was significantly increased postoperatively. A positive correlation was observed between FBL differences and macular thickness differences in the superior area. Postoperative change in VLA and FBL did not show a significant correlation with postoperative best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and BCVA differences. Conclusions Infrared fundus photographs and image processing software can be useful for quantifying progressive changes in retinal surface distortion after surgical removal of ERM. Macular edema and vascular distortion showed significant improvement after surgery. Furthermore, a correlation was observed between topographic and tomographic changes. PMID:24735324

2014-01-01

410

Trade-Offs between Predation Risk and Growth Benefits in the Copepod Eurytemora affinis with Contrasting Pigmentation  

PubMed Central

Intraspecific variation in body pigmentation is an ecologically and evolutionary important trait; however, the pigmentation related trade-offs in marine zooplankton are poorly understood. We tested the effects of intrapopulation phenotypic variation in the pigmentation of the copepod Eurytemora affinis on predation risk, foraging, growth, metabolic activity and antioxidant capacity. Using pigmented and unpigmented specimens, we compared (1) predation and selectivity by the invertebrate predator Cercopagis pengoi, (2) feeding activity of the copepods measured as grazing rate in experiments and gut fluorescence in situ, (3) metabolic activity assayed as RNA:DNA ratio in both experimental and field-collected copepods, (4) reproductive output estimated as egg ratio in the population, and (5) total antioxidant capacity. Moreover, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) COI gene variation was analysed. The pigmented individuals were at higher predation risk as evidenced by significantly higher predation rate by C. pengoi on pigmented individuals and positive selection by the predator fed pigmented and unpigmented copepods in a mixture. However, the antioxidant capacity, RNA:DNA and egg ratio values were significantly higher in the pigmented copepods, whereas neither feeding rate nor gut fluorescence differed between the pigmented and unpigmented copepods. The phenotypic variation in pigmentation was not associated with any specific mtDNA genotype. Together, these results support the metabolic stimulation hypothesis to explain variation in E. affinis pigmentation, which translates into beneficial increase in growth via enhanced metabolism and antioxidant protective capacity, together with disadvantageous increase in predation risk. We also suggest an alternative mechanism for the metabolic stimulation via elevated antioxidant levels as a primary means of increasing metabolism without the increase in heat absorbance. The observed trade-offs are relevant to evolutionary mechanisms underlying plasticity and adaptation and have the capacity to modify strength of complex trophic interactions. PMID:23940745

Gorokhova, Elena; Lehtiniemi, Maiju; Motwani, Nisha H.

2013-01-01

411

PIGMENT CELL Research Volume 25 . Number 4 . July 2012  

E-print Network

PIGMENT CELL & MELANOMA Research Volume 25 . Number 4 . July 2012 The official journal of INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF PIGMENT CELL SOCIETIES . SOCIETY FOR MELANOMA RESEARCH www.pigment.org PKC in melanoma Diversity and convergence in animal pigmentation #12;Unraveling the thread of nature's tapestry

Monteiro, Antónia

412

BIOLOGY IN PICTURES FLOWER PIGMENTATION Colouring the snapdragon  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY IN PICTURES FLOWER PIGMENTATION Colouring the snapdragon Pigmentation pattern, one '· ·. . : Whereas the flower buds of wild-type Antirrhinum majus show a pattern of anthocyanin pigmentation that is stongest at the base of the petal tube and in the lobes (a), there is no pigment in the petal tube

Jackson, David

413

Color me bad: microbial pigments as virulence factors  

E-print Network

Color me bad: microbial pigments as virulence factors George Y. Liu1 and Victor Nizet2 1 Division is the distinctive color of their colonies when propagated in the clinical laboratory. Such pigmentation comes in microbial pigment biochemistry and the genetic basis of pigment production have sometimes revealed a more

Nizet, Victor

414

ORIGINAL PAPER Detrimental effects of carotenoid pigments: the dark side  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Detrimental effects of carotenoid pigments: the dark side of bright coloration Carotenoid pigments produce yellow, orange, and red integumentary color displays that can serve as reliable by ingest- ing and utilizing large quantities of carotenoid pigments. Carotenoid pigments serve

Navara, Kristen

415

Relationships between pigment composition variation and reflectance for plant species from a coastal savannah in California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advances in imaging spectroscopy have indicated that remotely sensed reflectance measurements of the plant canopy may be used to identify and qualify some classes of canopy biochemicals; however, the manner in which differences in biochemical compositions translate into differences is not well understood. Most frequently, multiple linear regression routines have been used to correlate narrow band reflectance values with measured biochemical concentrations. Although some success has been achieved with such methods for given data sets, the bands selected by multiple regression are not consistent between data sets, nor is it always clear what physical or biological basis underlies the correlation. To examine the relationship between biochemical concentration and leaf reflectance signal we chose to focus on the visible spectrum where the primary biochemical absorbances are due to photosynthetic pigments. Pigments provide a range of absorbance features, occur over a range of concentrations in natural samples, and are ecophysiologically important. Concentrations of chlorophyll, for example, have been strongly correlated to foliar nitrogen levels within a species and to photosynthetic capacity across many species. In addition pigments effectively absorb most of the photosynthetically active radiation between 400-700 nm, a spectral region for which silicon detectors have good signal/noise characteristics. Our strategy has been to sample a variety of naturally occurring species to measure leaf reflectance and pigment compositions. We hope to extend our understanding of pigment reflectance effects to interpret small overlapping absorbances of other biochemicals in the infrared region. For this reason, selected samples were also tested to determine total nitrogen, crude protein, cellulose, and lignin levels. Leaf reflectance spectra measured with AVIRIS bandwidths and wavelengths were compared between species and within species and for differences between seasons, for changes in the the shape of the spectra. We attempt to statistically correlate these shape changes with differences in pigment compositions. In parallel with our comparisons of pigment composition and leaf reflectance, we have modified the PROSPECT leaf reflectance model to test the contributions of pigments or pigment group concentrations. PROSPECT considers a leaf as a multi-layer dielectric plane with an uneven surface. Jacquemoud adapted the basic analysis of Allen for surface effects, a leaf thickness factor, and the absorption of water and chlorophyll (actually all pigments) and the plant matrix. Our modifications to PROSPECT in the forward direction include breaking out the pigment concentration parameter into separate components for chlorophyll a and b and a number of xanthophylls and carotenes, and introducing a shift and convolution function to model the spread and shift from their in vitro measurements to their in vivo state. Further, we have considered how the matrix elements (i.e., all biochemicals and structural effects not modeled explicity) vary with species.

Ustin, Susan L.; Sanderson, Eric W.; Grossman, Yaffa; Hart, Quinn J.

1993-01-01