Sample records for macular pigment levels

  1. Dietary Modification of Human Macular Pigment Density

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Billy R. Hammond; Elizabeth J. Johnson; Robert M. Russell; Norman I. Krinsky; Kyungjin Yeum; Ross B. Edwards; D. Max Snodderly

    Purpose. The retinal carotenoids lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) that form the macular pigment (MP) may help to prevent neovascular age-related macular degeneration. The purpose of this study was to determine whether MP density in the retina could be raised by increasing dietary intake of L and Z from foods. Methods. Macular pigment was measured psychophysically for 13 subjects. Serum

  2. [Atrophy of retinal pigment epithelium after macular hole surgery].

    PubMed

    Cerbulescu, Beatrice; Cârstocea, B; Buliga, Simona; Gheorghieva, Valeria; Taina, Ana-Lavinia

    2010-01-01

    We present three cases of macular hole. After macular surgery we observed good anatomical results (closed macular holes) but poor functional results. We try to identified the element who produced atrophy of retinal pigment epithelium. PMID:20540371

  3. Lutein, Zeaxanthin, and the Macular Pigment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John T Landrum; Richard A Bone

    2001-01-01

    The predominant carotenoids of the macular pigment are lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin. The regular distribution pattern of these carotenoids within the human macula indicates that their deposition is actively controlled in this tissue. The chemical, structural, and optical characteristics of these carotenoids are described. Evidence for the presence of minor carotenoids in the retina is cited. Studies of the dietary

  4. Fast assessment of the central macular pigment density with natural pupil using the macular pigment reflectometer.

    PubMed

    van de Kraats, Jan; Berendschot, Tos T J M; Valen, Suze; van Norren, Dirk

    2006-01-01

    We built a new macular pigment reflectometer (MPR) for fast and objective measuring of the optical density of macular pigment in the human eye, using the undilated eye. The design is based on the spectral reflectance from a spot of white light at the fovea. To evaluate its performance, we measured the macular pigment of 20 healthy subjects, ages 18 to 79 years, under four conditions: (1) natural pupil in the dark, (2) natural pupil with dim room light, (3) dilated pupil in the dark, and for comparison with a different technique, (4) heterochromatic flicker photometry (HFP) in dim room light with natural pupil. Condition 1 was repeated in a subset of 10 subjects after an interval of at least 3 days. Data analysis with a model of reflectors and absorbers in the eye provided the density of the macular pigment in conditions 1 to 3. Dim room light and pupil dilatation had no influence on measured density. Mean within subjects variation was typically 7%. Mean difference between test and retest after at least 3 days was 1%. Correlation between MPR and HFP was r=0.56 (p=0.012). Mean within subjects variation with HFP was 19%. The new instrument holds promise for specific applications such as epidemiological research. PMID:17212554

  5. Imaging system to assess objectively the optical density of the macular pigment in vivo

    E-print Network

    Dainty, Chris

    Imaging system to assess objectively the optical density of the macular pigment in vivo Andrew O in combination with various hardware and software tools to assess objectively the macular pigment (MP) optical.52.006201 1. Introduction A. Overview of the Macular Pigment Investigation of the macular pigment (MP

  6. Measurement of macular pigment optical density in a healthy chinese population sample

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Macular pigment may protect against age-related macular degeneration (AMD) by its capability to absorb blue light and scavenge free radicals. Current information on human macular pigment density has been largely from studies on Caucasians populations. The purpose of this study was to assess macular ...

  7. Central retinal thickness is positively correlated with macular pigment optical density

    E-print Network

    Central retinal thickness is positively correlated with macular pigment optical density S pigment (MP) has been suggested to have a protective role in age-related macular degeneration by reducing was to investigate the relationship between central retinal thickness and macular pigment optical density in a group

  8. Color Matching in Diabetes: Optical Density of the Crystalline Lens and Macular Pigments

    E-print Network

    Morland, Antony

    Color Matching in Diabetes: Optical Density of the Crystalline Lens and Macular Pigments Nigel lens and macular pigments in a group of patients with diabetes mellitus and compare the results. Wavelengths 420 and 515 nm were chosen, because they are absorbed equally by the macular pigment. To measure

  9. Interrelationships Between Maternal Carotenoid Status and Newborn Infant Macular Pigment Optical Density and Carotenoid Status

    PubMed Central

    Henriksen, Bradley S.; Chan, Gary; Hoffman, Robert O.; Sharifzadeh, Mohsen; Ermakov, Igor V.; Gellermann, Werner; Bernstein, Paul S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Deposition of the macular pigment carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin in the human retina occurs early in life. In this study, we examined the interrelationships of maternal carotenoid status and newborn infant macular pigment levels and systemic carotenoid status. As a secondary measure, we also evaluated the effects of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) on carotenoid status in term newborn infants. Methods. We measured mother and infant skin carotenoids using resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS), serum carotenoids by HPLC, and mother breast milk carotenoids by HPLC. We measured infant macular pigment levels using noninvasive blue light reflectometry. Results. We enrolled 30 healthy term infants, their mothers, and 10 IUGR infants and their mothers. A subset of 16 infants was imaged for macular pigment optical density (MPOD). Infant serum zeaxanthin levels correlated with MPOD (r = 0.68, P = 0.007). Mother serum zeaxanthin levels correlated with infant MPOD (r = 0.59, P = 0.032). Infant and mother serum lutein did not correlate with MPOD. Mother–infant correlations were found for total serum carotenoids (r = 0.42, P = 0.020) and skin carotenoids (r = 0.48, P = 0.001). No difference was seen between IUGR infants and controls in total serum or skin carotenoids. Mothers of IUGR infants had lower total serum carotenoids (P = 0.019) and breast milk carotenoids than controls (P = 0.006). Conclusions. Our findings suggest that maternal zeaxanthin status may play a more important role than lutein status in macular pigment deposition in utero. Controlled trials are needed to determine whether maternal zeaxanthin prenatal supplementation can raise infant macular pigment levels and/or improve ocular function. PMID:23838770

  10. Quantification of reduced macular pigment optical density in the central retina in macular telangiectasia type 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Charbel Issa; Rob L. P. van der Veen; Astrid Stijfs; Frank G. Holz; Hendrik P. N. Scholl; Tos T. J. M. Berendschot

    2009-01-01

    Recently, a unique distribution, namely a reduction of macular pigment optical density (MPOD) within the central retina with a surrounding ring-like structure of preserved MPOD at about 6 degrees eccentricity was suggested to be a common finding in macular telangiectasia (MacTel) type 2. In order to quantify this reduced MPOD, 28 eyes of 14 patients with MacTel type 2 were

  11. Blue-Light Reflectance Imaging of Macular Pigment in Infants and Children

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Paul S.; Sharifzadeh, Mohsen; Liu, Aihua; Ermakov, Igor; Nelson, Kelly; Sheng, Xiaoming; Panish, Cynthia; Carlstrom, Bonnie; Hoffman, Robert O.; Gellermann, Werner

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. While the role of the macular pigment carotenoids in the prevention of age-related macular degeneration has been extensively studied in adults, comparatively little is known about the physiology and function of lutein and zeaxanthin in the developing eye. We therefore developed a protocol using a digital video fundus camera (RetCam) to measure macular pigment optical density (MPOD) and distributions in premature infants and in children. Methods. We used blue light reflectance to image the macular pigment in premature babies at the time of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) screening and in children aged under 7 years who were undergoing examinations under anesthesia for other reasons. We correlated the MPOD with skin carotenoid levels measured by resonance Raman spectroscopy, serum carotenoids measured by HPLC, and dietary carotenoid intake. Results. We enrolled 51 infants and children ranging from preterm to age 7 years. MPOD correlated significantly with age (r = 0.36; P = 0.0142), with serum lutein + zeaxanthin (r = 0.44; P = 0.0049) and with skin carotenoid levels (r = 0.42; P = 0.0106), but not with dietary lutein + zeaxanthin intake (r = 0.13; P = 0.50). All premature infants had undetectable macular pigment, and most had unusually low serum and skin carotenoid concentrations. Conclusions. Our most remarkable finding is the undetectable MPOD in premature infants. This may be due in part to foveal immaturity, but the very low levels of serum and skin carotenoids suggest that these infants are carotenoid insufficient as a consequence of low dietary intake and/or severe oxidative stress. The potential value of carotenoid supplementation in the prevention of ROP and other disorders of prematurity should be a fruitful direction for further investigation. PMID:23652486

  12. A One Year Study of the Macular Pigment: The Effect of 140 Days of a Lutein Supplement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOHN T LANDRUM; RICHARD A BONE; HILDA JOA; MARK D KILBURN; LINDA L MOORE; KATHLEEN E SPRAGUE

    1997-01-01

    A low density of macular pigment may represent a risk factor for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) by permitting greater blue light damage. This study was carried out to determine the effects on macular pigment optical density of dietary supplementation with lutein, one of the pigment constituents. Two subjects consumed lutein esters, equivalent to 30 mg of free lutein per day,

  13. Macular pigment density in healthy subjects quantified with a modified confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henrike Wüstemeyer; Andreas Moessner; Cornelia Jahn; Sebastian Wolf

    2003-01-01

    BackgroundIn the industrialized world age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is the leading cause for legal blindness beyond the age of 65 years. Recent studies indicate that the density of the macular pigment (MP) may play a central role in the development and progression of age-related maculopathy (ARM). We present results of measurements of macular pigment density (MPD) with a modified confocal scanning

  14. Association of age and macular pigment optical density using dual-wavelength autofluorescence imaging

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Verônica Castro; Rosen, Richard B; Prata, Tiago Santos; Dorairaj, Syril; Spielberg, Leigh; Maia, Mauricio; Sallum, Juliana M

    2013-01-01

    Background Several lines of evidence suggest that macular pigment may play a protective role against age-related macular degeneration, but the influence of age on macular pigment density levels remains unclear. This study was designed to investigate the relationship between age and the normal distribution of macular pigment optical density (MPOD) values surrounding the fovea. Methods Consecutive healthy subjects with no evidence of ocular disease were enrolled in this study. After inclusion, MPOD values were measured at specific eccentricities (0.5, 1, and 2 degrees) from the foveal center using a dual-wavelength autofluorescence method employing a modified confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope. Whenever both eyes were eligible, one was randomly selected for analysis. The correlation between age and MPOD values was investigated using regression analysis. Results Thirty subjects (30 eyes) were included (mean age 48.6 ± 16.4 [range 23–77] years). Significant differences were found between MPOD values measured at 0.5, 1, and 2 degrees from the center of the fovea (0.49 ± 0.12 density units, 0.37 ± 0.11 density units, and 0.13 ± 0.05 density units, respectively, P < 0.05). Significant correlations between age and MPOD values at 0.5 and 1 degree were found (P ? 0.02). Values measured at 2 degrees did not correlate significantly with age (P = 0.06). Conclusion In healthy subjects, MPOD values were highest near the foveal center. These values appeared to increase during adulthood (peak at 45–50 years), followed by a gradual reduction after 60 years of age. PMID:23589675

  15. Macular function and morphology in acute retinal pigment epithelitis

    PubMed Central

    Gundogan, Fatih C; Diner, Oktay; Tas, Ahmet; Ilhan, Abdullah; Yolcu, Umit

    2014-01-01

    A 20-year-old man applied with vision loss in the left eye. Right eye examination was unremarkable. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in the left eye was 20/200. Fundus examination revealed a few yellow spots within a round-shaped macular lesion. Autofluorescence imaging showed hyperautofluorescence in the lesion. Central amplitudes in multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) were depressed. The patient reported a rhinopharyngitis 7–10 days before the visual loss. The patient was diagnosed as acute retinal pigment epithelitis. BCVA improved gradually up to 20/20 in 4 weeks. mfERG amplitudes returned to normal. A slight pigmentary distortion was the only residual fundus finding. PMID:25579361

  16. Macular pigment optical density is related to serum lutein in retinitis pigmentosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: To determine whether macular pigment optical density (MPOD) is related to the degree of cystoid macular edema (CME) in patients with retinitis pigmentosa. Methods: We measured MPOD with heterochromatic flicker photometry and central foveal retinal thickness with optical coherence tomography...

  17. Macular pigment densities derived from central and peripheral spectral sensitivity differences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lindsay T. Sharpe; Andrew Stockman; Holger Knau; Herbert Jägle

    1998-01-01

    Estimates of the density spectrum of the macular pigment (Wyszecki G, Stiles WS. Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulas. 1st ed. New York: Wiley, 1967); (Vos JJ. Literature review of human macular absorption in the visible and its consequences for the cone receptor primaries. Institute for Perception. Soesterberg, The Netherlands, 1972) are partially based on the difference

  18. Interocular agreement in melanin and macular pigment optical density.

    PubMed

    Kanis, Martijn J; Berendschot, Tos T J M; van Norren, Dirk

    2007-05-01

    Macular pigment (MP) and melanin possibly protect the macular area by absorbing blue light and acting as antioxidants. Because little is known about the interocular correlation of melanin, we determined its optical density (MOD) in both eyes of healthy subjects using fundus reflectometry. The measuring method also provided optical densities of MP (MPOD). In addition to evaluating its interocular correspondence we checked its dependency on central retinal thickness as measured with optical coherence tomography (OCT). Spectral fundus reflectance was measured in 69 eyes of 37 healthy participants. Both eyes of 32 subjects (15 males and 17 females, aged 57.9+/-14.6 years) were used to evaluate interocular correspondences. MPOD data from 35 right eyes of 18 males and 17 females, aged 55.7+/-15.7 years, was used to evaluate the relation between central retinal thickness and MPOD. MOD was 0.99+/-0.30 (range: 0.57-2.07) for the left eyes and 1.02+/-0.28 (range: 0.62-2.07) for the right eyes. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.89 (P<0.001). MPOD was 0.49+/-0.19 for the left eyes (range: 0.12-0.81) and 0.47+/-0.17 (range: 0.14-0.73) for the right eyes. The ICC was 0.91 (P<0.001). Macular retinal thickness (MRT), representing the average macular thickness in the central 1000 microm zone, was 210+/-28 microm. Foveal retinal thickness (FRT), representing the retinal thickness at the crossing of the 6 radial scan lines on OCT, was 175+/-34 microm. Pearson's correlation coefficient showed no significant linear association between MRT and MPOD (r=-0.04, P=0.82), and between FRT and MPOD (r=0.05, P=0.78). The optical density of melanin showed a high interocular correspondence in healthy white participants. Similar results were found for MPOD. Relative interocular differences of more than 32% in MOD, or more than 34% in MPOD, may point to pathology. No relation between central retinal thickness and MPOD was found. PMID:17382319

  19. Bimodal spatial distribution of macular pigment: evidence of a gender relationship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delori, François C.; Goger, Douglas G.; Keilhauer, Claudia; Salvetti, Paola; Staurenghi, Giovanni

    2006-03-01

    The spatial distribution of the optical density of the human macular pigment measured by two-wavelength autofluorescence imaging exhibits in over half of the subjects an annulus of higher density superimposed on a central exponential-like distribution. This annulus is located at about 0.7° from the fovea. Women have broader distributions than men, and they are more likely to exhibit this bimodal distribution. Maxwell's spot reported by subjects matches the measured distribution of their pigment. Evidence that the shape of the foveal depression may be gender related leads us to hypothesize that differences in macular pigment distribution are related to anatomical differences in the shape of the foveal depression.

  20. Iris Pigmentation and Extent of Disease in Patients With Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael A. Sandberg; Alexander R. Gaudio; Sumiko Miller; Asher Weiner

    Purpose. To determine whether (he extent of disease in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) varies with iris pigmentation. Methods. The authors assessed visual function and macular appearance in the fellow eye or both eyes of 132 white patients with unilateral neovascular AMD. All patients had a visual acuity of 20\\/(50 or better in the fellow eye. Eighty-nine of the patients were

  1. The utility of using customized heterochromatic flicker photometry (cHFP) to measure macular pigment in patients with age-related macular degeneration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Stringham; B. R. Hammond; J. M. Nolan; B. R. Wooten; A. Mammen; W. Smollon; D. M. Snodderly

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the utility and validity of using customized heterochromatic flicker photometry (cHFP) to measure macular pigment optical density (MPOD) in patients with intermediate stages of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The measurement procedure was optimized to accommodate individual differences in temporal vision related to age, disease, or other factors. The validity criteria were based

  2. N-tert-butyl hydroxylamine, a mitochondrial antioxidant, protects human retinal pigment epithelial cells from iron overload: relevance to macular degeneration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ludmila A. Voloboueva; David W. Killilea; Hani Atamna; Bruce N. Ames

    2007-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of severe visual impairment in the elderly in developed countries. AMD patients have ele- vated levels of iron within the retinal pigment epithelia (RPE), which may lead to oxidative damage to mitochon- dria, disruption of retinal metabolism, and vision impair- ment or loss. As a possible model for iron-induced AMD, we investigated

  3. Purpose. To evaluate the reliability and validity of a portable instrument for measuring macular pigment optical density.

    E-print Network

    macular pigment optical density. Methods. The instrument is small, uses light emitting diodes as light easier than eccentric fixation. Subjects with healthy eyes used the instrument to measure their pigment density in a number of eye clinics. Results. The mean pigment density in 124 eyes in 124 indi- viduals

  4. The Relationship between BCMO1 Gene Variants and Macular Pigment Optical Density in Persons with and without Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Feigl, Beatrix; Morris, C. Phillip; Voisey, Joanne; Kwan, Anthony; Zele, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent evidence indicates that gene variants related to carotenoid metabolism play a role in the uptake of macular pigments lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z). Moreover, these pigments are proposed to reduce the risk for advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD). This study provides the initial examination of the relationship between the gene variants related to carotenoid metabolism, macular pigment optical density (MPOD) and their combined expression in healthy humans and patients with AMD. Participants and Methods Forty-four participants were enrolled from a general population and a private practice including 20 healthy participants and 24 patients with advanced (neovascular) AMD. Participants were genotyped for the three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) upstream from BCMO1, rs11645428, rs6420424 and rs6564851 that have been shown to either up or down regulate beta-carotene conversion efficiency in the plasma. MPOD was determined by heterochromatic flicker photometry. Results Healthy participants with the rs11645428 GG genotype, rs6420424 AA genotype and rs6564851 GG genotype all had on average significantly lower MPOD compared to those with the other genotypes (p<0.01 for all three comparisons). When combining BCMO1 genotypes reported to have “high” (rs11645428 AA/rs6420424 GG/rs6564851 TT) and “low” (rs11645428 GG/rs6420424 AA/rs6564851 GG) beta-carotene conversion efficiency, we demonstrate clear differences in MPOD values (p<0.01). In patients with AMD there were no significant differences in MPOD for any of the three BCMO1 gene variants. Conclusion In healthy participants MPOD levels can be related to high and low beta-carotene conversion BCMO1 genotypes. Such relationships were not found in patients with advanced neovascular AMD, indicative of additional processes influencing carotenoid uptake, possibly related to other AMD susceptibility genes. Our findings indicate that specific BCMO1 SNPs should be determined when assessing the effects of carotenoid supplementation on macular pigment and that their expression may be influenced by retinal disease. PMID:24586510

  5. Influence of macular pigment and melanin on incident early AMD in a white population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martijn J. Kanis; Tos T. J. M. Berendschot; Dirk van Norren

    2007-01-01

    Background  The protective effect of macular pigment (MP) and melanin against age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is still controversial\\u000a from cross-sectional studies. In an attempt to clarify this issue, we performed a population-based longitudinal study.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  MP optical density (MPOD) and melanin optical density (MOD) data were collected during the second follow-up phase of the Rotterdam\\u000a Study in 1999 in a random subset

  6. Transplantation of fetal retinal pigment epithelium in age-related macular degeneration with subfoveal neovascularization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peep V. Algvere; Lennart Berglin; Peter Gouras; Yaohua Sheng

    1994-01-01

    Background: Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is caused by abnormal retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and may be complicated by choroidal neovascularization. The object of treatment would be to replace the diseased RPE with normal human RPE. • Method: Five patients with ARMD (preoperative visual acuity 0.08–0.2) underwent removal of subretinal fibrovascular membranes using pars plana vitrectomy techniques. Human fetal RPE (15–17

  7. The Effect of Modified Eggs and an Egg-Yolk Based Beverage on Serum Lutein and Zeaxanthin Concentrations and Macular Pigment Optical Density: Results from a Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Elton R.; Plat, Jogchum; Haenen, Guido R. M. M.; Kijlstra, Aize; Berendschot, Tos T. J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests a beneficial effect of lutein and zeaxanthin on the progression of age-related macular degeneration. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of lutein or zeaxanthin enriched eggs or a lutein enriched egg-yolk based buttermilk beverage on serum lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations and macular pigment levels. Naturally enriched eggs were made by increasing the levels of the xanthophylls lutein and zeaxanthin in the feed given to laying hens. One hundred healthy volunteers were recruited and randomized into 5 groups for 90 days. Group one added one normal egg to their daily diet and group two received a lutein enriched egg-yolk based beverage. Group three added one lutein enriched egg and group four one zeaxanthin enriched egg to their diet. Group five was the control group and individuals in this group did not modify their daily diet. Serum lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations and macular pigment densities were obtained at baseline, day 45 and day 90. Macular pigment density was measured by heterochromatic flicker photometry. Serum lutein concentration in the lutein enriched egg and egg yolk-based beverage groups increased significantly (p<0.001, 76% and 77%). A strong increase in the serum zeaxanthin concentration was observed in individuals receiving zeaxanthin enriched eggs (P< 0.001, 430%). No changes were observed in macular pigment density in the various groups tested. The results indicate that daily consumption of lutein or zeaxanthin enriched egg yolks as well as an egg yolk-based beverage show increases in serum lutein and zeaxanthin levels that are comparable with a daily use of 5 mg supplements. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00527553 PMID:24675775

  8. Lutein and zeaxanthin: Role as macular pigment and factors that control bioavailability from egg yolks and nanoemulsions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rohini Vishwanathan

    2010-01-01

    Lutein and zeaxanthin, two oxygenated carotenoids, exclusively accumulate in the macula, protecting the underlying photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelial cells from damaging blue radiation of sunlight. As macular pigment, lutein and zeaxanthin are also potent antioxidants protecting the vulnerable regions of retina from free radical injury. Oxidative stress and cumulative light damage play an important role in pathogenesis of age-related

  9. Analysis of the macular pigment by HPLC: retinal distribution and age study.

    PubMed

    Bone, R A; Landrum, J T; Fernandez, L; Tarsis, S L

    1988-06-01

    High performance liquid chromatography (HPCL) has been employed to study the distribution throughout the human retina of zeaxanthin and lutein, the two major components of the macular pigment. Differences between individuals have also been studied with a view to uncovering possible age-related effects. Both pigments were detected in prenatal eyes (approximately 20 weeks gestation) but did not form a visible yellow spot. Generally they were not easily discernible until about 6 months after birth. For 87 donors between the ages of 3 and 95, no dependence on age was observed in the quantity of either pigment. For approximately 90% of these, zeaxanthin was dominant. For the remaining 10%, as well as for the seven youngest donors, all below the age of 2, and in prenatal eyes, lutein was the major pigment. In individual retinas, the lutein:zeaxanthin ratio increased from an average of approximately 1:2.4 in the central 0-0.25 mm to over 2:1 in the periphery (8.7-12.2 mm). The variation in this ratio with eccentricity was linearly correlated with the corresponding rod:cone ratio. A selective mechanism of uptake, which results in cones and rods preferentially acquiring zeaxanthin and lutein, respectively, could explain this correlation. PMID:3372161

  10. The Effect of BCMO1 Gene Variants on Macular Pigment Optical Density in Young Healthy Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Kyle-Little, Zachary; Zele, Andrew J.; Morris, C. Phillip; Feigl, Beatrix

    2014-01-01

    Background: Serum lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) positively correlate with macular pigment optical density (MPOD); hence, the latter is a valuable indirect tool for measuring L and Z content in the macula. L and Z have been attributed antioxidant capacity and protection from certain retinal diseases but their uptake within the eye is thought to depend on genetic, age, and environmental factors. In particular, gene variants within beta-carotene monooxygenase (BCMO1) are thought to modulate MPOD in the macula. Objectives: To determine the effect of BCMO1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs11645428, rs6420424, and rs6564851 on MPOD in a cohort of young healthy participants of Caucasian origin with normal ocular health. Design: In this cohort study, MPOD was assessed in 46 healthy participants (22 male and 24 female) with a mean age of 23.8?±?4.0?years (range 19–33). The three SNPs, rs11645428, rs6420424, rs6564851 that have established associations with MPOD were determined using MassEXTEND (hME) Sequenom assay. One-way analysis of variance was performed on groups segregated into homozygous and heterozygous BCMO1 genotypes. Correlations between body mass index (BMI), iris color, gender, central retinal thickness (CRT), diet, and MPOD were investigated. Results: Macular pigment optical density neither significantly varied with BCMO1 rs11645428 (F2,41?=?0.70, p?=?0.503), rs6420424 (F2,41?=?0.21, p?=?0.801) nor rs6464851 homozygous or heterozygous genotypes (F2,41?=?0,13, p?=?0.88), in this young healthy cohort. The combination of these three SNPs into triple genotypes based on plasma conversion efficiency did not affect MPOD (F2,41?=?0.07, p?=?0.9). There was a significant negative correlation with MPOD and CRT (r?=??0.39, p?=?0.01) but no significant correlation between BMI, iris color, gender, and MPOD. Conclusion: Our results indicate that macular pigment deposition within the central retina is not dependent on BCMO1 gene variants in young healthy people. We propose that MPOD is saturated in younger persons and/or other gene variant combinations determine its deposition. PMID:25988124

  11. Macular pigment, photopigments, and melanin: distributions in young subjects determined by four-wavelength reflectometry

    PubMed Central

    Bone, Richard A.; Brener, Betty; Gibert, Jorge C.

    2007-01-01

    We have developed an objective procedure, using a modified retinal camera, to determine macular pigment (MP) optical density distributions in the human retina. Using two multi-band filters, reflectance maps of the retinas of young subjects (<25 years old) were obtained at 460, 528, 610 and 670 nm, without pupil dilation. The log-transformed maps were combined linearly to yield optical density maps of MP, cone and rod photopigments, and melanin. MP optical density and heterochromatic flicker photometry results for 22 subjects were in reasonable agreement. Cone photopigments, like MP, showed similar, well-defined peaks at the fovea, whereas rod photopigment showed a minimum. Melanin was more broadly distributed. PMID:17937965

  12. Resveratrol Suppresses Expression of VEGF by Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells: Potential Nutraceutical for Age-related Macular Degeneration.

    PubMed

    Nagineni, Chandrasekharam N; Raju, Raghavan; Nagineni, Krishnasai K; Kommineni, Vijay K; Cherukuri, Aswini; Kutty, R Krishnan; Hooks, John J; Detrick, Barbara

    2014-04-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a sight threating retinal eye disease that affects millions of aging individuals world-wide. Choroid-retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)-neuroretina axis in the posterior compartment of the eye is the primary site of AMD pathology. There are compelling evidence to indicate association of vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) to AMD. Here, we report the inhibitory actions of resveratrol (RSV) on inflammatory cytokine, TGF-? and hypoxia induced VEGF secretion by human retinal pigment epithelial cells (HRPE). HRPE cultures prepared from aged human donor eyes were used for the studies in this report. HRPE secreted both VEGF-A and VEGF-C in small quantities constitutively. Stimulation with a mixture of inflammatory cytokines (IFN-?, TNF-?, IL-1?), significantly increased the secretion of both VEGF-A and VEGF-C. RSV, in a dose dependent (10-50 uM) manner, suppressed VEGF-A and VEGF-C secretion induced by inflammatory cytokines significantly. RT-PCR analysis indicated that effects of RSV on VEGF secretion were possibly due to decreased mRNA levels. TGF-? and cobalt chloride (hypoxia mimic) also upregulated HRPE cell production of VEGF-A, and this was inhibited by RSV. In contrast, RSV had no effect on anti-angiogenic molecules, endostatin and pigment epithelial derived factor secretion. Studies using an in vitro scratch assay revealed that wound closure was also inhibited by RSV. These results demonstrate that RSV can suppress VEGF secretion induced by inflammatory cytokines, TGF-? and hypoxia. Under pathological conditions, over expression of VEGF is known to worsen AMD. Therefore, RSV may be useful as nutraceutical in controlling pathological choroidal neovascularization processes in AMD. PMID:24729934

  13. Resveratrol Suppresses Expression of VEGF by Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells: Potential Nutraceutical for Age-related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Nagineni, Chandrasekharam N.; Raju, Raghavan; Nagineni, Krishnasai K.; Kommineni, Vijay K.; Cherukuri, Aswini; Kutty, R. Krishnan; Hooks, John J.; Detrick, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a sight threating retinal eye disease that affects millions of aging individuals world-wide. Choroid-retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)-neuroretina axis in the posterior compartment of the eye is the primary site of AMD pathology. There are compelling evidence to indicate association of vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) to AMD. Here, we report the inhibitory actions of resveratrol (RSV) on inflammatory cytokine, TGF-? and hypoxia induced VEGF secretion by human retinal pigment epithelial cells (HRPE). HRPE cultures prepared from aged human donor eyes were used for the studies in this report. HRPE secreted both VEGF-A and VEGF-C in small quantities constitutively. Stimulation with a mixture of inflammatory cytokines (IFN-?, TNF-?, IL-1?), significantly increased the secretion of both VEGF-A and VEGF-C. RSV, in a dose dependent (10–50 uM) manner, suppressed VEGF-A and VEGF-C secretion induced by inflammatory cytokines significantly. RT-PCR analysis indicated that effects of RSV on VEGF secretion were possibly due to decreased mRNA levels. TGF-? and cobalt chloride (hypoxia mimic) also upregulated HRPE cell production of VEGF-A, and this was inhibited by RSV. In contrast, RSV had no effect on anti-angiogenic molecules, endostatin and pigment epithelial derived factor secretion. Studies using an in vitro scratch assay revealed that wound closure was also inhibited by RSV. These results demonstrate that RSV can suppress VEGF secretion induced by inflammatory cytokines, TGF-? and hypoxia. Under pathological conditions, over expression of VEGF is known to worsen AMD. Therefore, RSV may be useful as nutraceutical in controlling pathological choroidal neovascularization processes in AMD. PMID:24729934

  14. Effects of Lutein and Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation on Macular Pigment Optical Density in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    García-Layana, Alfredo; Recalde, Sergio; Alamán, Angel Salinas; Robredo, Patricia Fernández

    2013-01-01

    We studied the macular pigment ocular density (MPOD) in patients with early age macular degeneration (AMD) before and 1 year after nutritional supplementation with lutein and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Forty-four patients with AMD were randomly divided into two groups that received placebo (n = 21) or a nutritional supplement (n = 23, 12 mg of lutein and 280 mg of DHA daily). Heterochromatic flicker photometry was used to determine the MPOD. At baseline, the MPOD in AMD patients with placebo was 0.286 ± 0.017 meanwhile in AMD patients with supplementation it was 0.291 ± 0.016. One year later, the mean MPOD had increased by 0.059 in the placebo group and by 0.162 in patients receiving lutein and DHA. This difference between groups was significant (p < 0.05). Lutein and DHA supplementation is effective in increasing the MPOD and may aid in prevention of age related macular degeneration. PMID:23434908

  15. Simple and objective method for routine detection of the macular pigment xanthophyll

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweitzer, Dietrich; Jentsch, Susanne; Dawczynski, Jens; Hammer, Martin; Wolf-Schnurrbusch, Ute E. K.; Wolf, Sebastian

    2010-11-01

    A new simple method for two-dimensional determination of optical density of macular pigment xanthophyll (ODx) in clinical routine is based on a single blue-reflection fundus image. Individual different vignetting is corrected by a shading function. For its construction, nodes are automatically found in structureless image regions. The influence of stray light in elderly crystalline lenses is compensated by a correction function that depends on age. The reproducibility of parameters in a one-wavelength reflection method determined for three subjects (47, 61, and 78 years old) was: maxODx = 6.3%, meanODx = 4.6%, volume = 6%, and area = 6% already before stray-light correction. ODx was comparable in pseudophakic and in an eye with a crystalline lens of the same 11 subjects after stray-light correction. Significant correlation in ODx was found between the one-wavelength reflection method and the two-wavelength autofluorescence method for pseudophakic and cataract eyes of 19 patients suffering from dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD) (R2 = 0.855). In pseudophakic eyes, maxODx was significantly lower for dry AMD (n = 45) (ODx = 0.491+/-0.102 ODU) than in eyes with healthy fundus (n = 22) (ODx = 0.615+/-0.103 ODU) (p = 0.000033). Also in eyes with crystalline lens, maxODx was lower in AMD (n = 125) (ODx = 0.610+/-0.093 ODU) than in healthy subjects (n = 45) (ODx = 0.674+/-0.098 ODU) (p = 0.00019). No dependence on age was found in the pseudophakic eyes both of healthy subjects and AMD patients.

  16. Caspase-14 expression impairs retinal pigment epithelium barrier function: potential role in diabetic macular edema.

    PubMed

    Beasley, Selina; El-Sherbiny, Mohamed; Megyerdi, Sylvia; El-Shafey, Sally; Choksi, Karishma; Kaddour-Djebbar, Ismail; Sheibani, Nader; Hsu, Stephen; Al-Shabrawey, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    We recently showed that caspase-14 is a novel molecule in retina with potential role in accelerated vascular cell death during diabetic retinopathy (DR). Here, we evaluated whether caspase-14 is implicated in retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE) dysfunction under hyperglycemia. The impact of high glucose (HG, 30?mM D-glucose) on caspase-14 expression in human RPE (ARPE-19) cells was tested, which showed significant increase in caspase-14 expression compared with normal glucose (5?mM D-glucose + 25?mM L-glucose). We also evaluated the impact of modulating caspase-14 expression on RPE cells barrier function, phagocytosis, and activation of other caspases using ARPE-19 cells transfected with caspase-14 plasmid or caspase-14 siRNA. We used FITC-dextran flux assay and electric cell substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) to test the changes in RPE cell barrier function. Similar to HG, caspase-14 expression in ARPE-19 cells increased FITC-dextran leakage through the confluent monolayer and decreased the transcellular electrical resistance (TER). These effects of HG were prevented by caspase-14 knockdown. Furthermore, caspase-14 knockdown prevented the HG-induced activation of caspase-1 and caspase-9, the only activated caspases by HG. Phagocytic activity was unaffected by caspase-14 expression. Our results suggest that caspase-14 contributes to RPE cell barrier disruption under hyperglycemic conditions and thus plays a role in the development of diabetic macular edema. PMID:25121097

  17. Caspase-14 Expression Impairs Retinal Pigment Epithelium Barrier Function: Potential Role in Diabetic Macular Edema

    PubMed Central

    Megyerdi, Sylvia; El-Shafey, Sally; Choksi, Karishma; Kaddour-Djebbar, Ismail; Sheibani, Nader; Hsu, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    We recently showed that caspase-14 is a novel molecule in retina with potential role in accelerated vascular cell death during diabetic retinopathy (DR). Here, we evaluated whether caspase-14 is implicated in retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE) dysfunction under hyperglycemia. The impact of high glucose (HG, 30?mM D-glucose) on caspase-14 expression in human RPE (ARPE-19) cells was tested, which showed significant increase in caspase-14 expression compared with normal glucose (5?mM D-glucose + 25?mM L-glucose). We also evaluated the impact of modulating caspase-14 expression on RPE cells barrier function, phagocytosis, and activation of other caspases using ARPE-19 cells transfected with caspase-14 plasmid or caspase-14 siRNA. We used FITC-dextran flux assay and electric cell substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) to test the changes in RPE cell barrier function. Similar to HG, caspase-14 expression in ARPE-19 cells increased FITC-dextran leakage through the confluent monolayer and decreased the transcellular electrical resistance (TER). These effects of HG were prevented by caspase-14 knockdown. Furthermore, caspase-14 knockdown prevented the HG-induced activation of caspase-1 and caspase-9, the only activated caspases by HG. Phagocytic activity was unaffected by caspase-14 expression. Our results suggest that caspase-14 contributes to RPE cell barrier disruption under hyperglycemic conditions and thus plays a role in the development of diabetic macular edema. PMID:25121097

  18. Transplantation of autologous retinal pigment epithelium in eyes with foveal neovascularization resulting from age-related macular degeneration: a pilot study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susanne Binder; Ulrike Stolba; Ilse Krebs; Lukas Kellner; Christian Jahn; Hans Feichtinger; Margit Povelka; Ursula Frohner; Andreas Kruger; Ralf-Dieter Hilgers; Walter Krugluger

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe the indications, surgical technique, and clinical results of 14 eyes in 13 patients with age-related macular degeneration and foveal choroidal neovascularization, in which subretinal surgery was combined with simultaneous transplantation of autologous retinal pigment epithelial cells.METHODS: Between March 1999 and February 2000, in a prospective study, 14 eyes (13 patients) with age-related macular degeneration underwent subretinal surgery

  19. Progression of Retinal Pigment Epithelial Atrophy in Antiangiogenic Therapy of Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Schütze, Christopher; Wedl, Manuela; Baumann, Bernhard; Pircher, Michael; Hitzenberger, Christoph K.; Schmidt-Erfurth, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To monitor retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) atrophy progression during antiangiogenic therapy of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) over 2 years using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (OCT). Design Prospective interventional case series. Methods setting: Clinical practice. study population: Thirty patients (31 eyes) with treatment-naďve neovascular AMD. observation procedures: Standard intravitreal therapy (0.5 mg ranibizumab) was administered monthly during the first year and pro re nata (PRN; as-needed) during the second year. Spectral-domain (SD) OCT and polarization-sensitive OCT (selectively imaging the RPE) examinations were performed at baseline and at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months using a standardized protocol. RPE-related changes were evaluated using a semi-automated polarization-sensitive OCT segmentation algorithm and correlated with SD OCT and fundus autofluorescence (FAF) findings. main outcome measures: RPE response, geographic atrophy (GA) progression. Results Atrophic RPE changes included RPE thinning, RPE porosity, focal RPE atrophy, and development of GA. Early RPE loss (ie, RPE porosity, focal atrophy) increased progressively during initial monthly treatment and remained stable during subsequent PRN-based therapy. GA developed in 61% of eyes at month 24. Mean GA area increased from 0.77 mm2 at 12 months to 1.10 mm2 (standard deviation = 1.09 mm2) at 24 months. Reactive accumulation of RPE-related material at the lesion borders increased until month 3 and subsequently decreased. Conclusions Progressive RPE atrophy and GA developed in the majority of eyes. RPE migration signifies certain RPE plasticity. Polarization-sensitive OCT specifically images RPE-related changes in neovascular AMD, contrary to conventional imaging methods. Polarization-sensitive OCT allows for precisely monitoring the sequence of RPE-related morphologic changes. PMID:25769245

  20. Retinal pigment epithelium and choroid translocation in patients with exudative age-related macular degeneration: long-term results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristel Maaijwee; Heinrich Heimann; Tom Missotten; Paul Mulder; Antonia Joussen; Jan van Meurs

    2007-01-01

    Background  To study the results of the translocation of a free autologous retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)-choroid graft after removal\\u000a of a subfoveal choroidal neovascular membrane in patients with exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and to determine\\u000a whether preoperative variables may predict visual outcome at 1 year after surgery.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Prospective interventional case series of 84 eyes of 83 consecutive eligible patients with exudative

  1. NUTRITIONAL MANIPULATION OF PRIMATE RETINA, I: EFFECTS OF LUTEIN OR ZEAXANTHIN SUPPLEMENTS ON SERUM AND MACULAR PIGMENT IN XANTHOPHYLL-FREE RHESUS MONKEYS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The xanthophylls lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) are the primary components of macular pigment and may protect the macula from age-related degeneration (AMD). Rhesus monkeys represent a potential animal model to study mechanisms of protection from AMD. In this study, L or Z was fed to rhesus monkeys r...

  2. Vitreous estrogen levels in patients with an idiopathic macular hole

    PubMed Central

    Inokuchi, Naoki; Ikeda, Tsunehiko; Nakamura, Kimitoshi; Morishita, Seita; Fukumoto, Masanori; Kida, Teruyo; Oku, Hidehiro

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Estrogen, a female hormone, activates collagenase and might be associated with the pathogenesis of vitreoretinal collagen fiber disease. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the vitreous levels of estrone (E1) and estradiol (E2) in subjects with an idiopathic macular hole (IMH). Methods Vitreous samples were obtained from ten female patients with an IMH and from nine female patients with other retinal diseases (six with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment and three with age-related macular degeneration) as a control at the time of vitreous surgery. E1 and E2 levels in the vitreous samples were then determined using the Coat-A-Count® Estradiol Radioimmunoassay (RIA) Kit and the DSL-70 Estrone RIA Kit, respectively. Results The mean vitreous levels of E1 and E2 in the subjects with IMH were 1.83±2.00 pg/mL and 7.03±2.97 pg/mL, respectively, whereas in the control subjects they were 2.42±1.25 pg/mL and 4.90±2.90 pg/mL, respectively. Thus, the vitreous E2 levels in the subjects with IMH were significantly higher than in the controls (P<0.05). Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that E2 might be associated with the pathogenesis of IMH, but further investigation is needed to elucidate that association. PMID:25848205

  3. Treatment of macular degeneration using embryonic stem cell-derived retinal pigment epithelium: preliminary results in asian patients.

    PubMed

    Song, Won Kyung; Park, Kyung-Mi; Kim, Hyun-Ju; Lee, Jae Ho; Choi, Jinjung; Chong, So Young; Shim, Sung Han; Del Priore, Lucian V; Lanza, Robert

    2015-05-12

    Embryonic stem cells hold great promise for various diseases because of their unlimited capacity for self-renewal and ability to differentiate into any cell type in the body. However, despite over 3 decades of research, there have been no reports on the safety and potential efficacy of pluripotent stem cell progeny in Asian patients with any disease. Here, we report the safety and tolerability of subretinal transplantation of human embryonic-stem-cell (hESC)-derived retinal pigment epithelium in four Asian patients: two with dry age-related macular degeneration and two with Stargardt macular dystrophy. They were followed for 1 year. There was no evidence of adverse proliferation, tumorigenicity, ectopic tissue formation, or other serious safety issues related to the transplanted cells. Visual acuity improved 9-19 letters in three patients and remained stable (+1 letter) in one patient. The results confirmed that hESC-derived cells could serve as a potentially safe new source for regenerative medicine. PMID:25937371

  4. Treatment of Macular Degeneration Using Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Retinal Pigment Epithelium: Preliminary Results in Asian Patients

    PubMed Central

    Song, Won Kyung; Park, Kyung-Mi; Kim, Hyun-Ju; Lee, Jae Ho; Choi, Jinjung; Chong, So Young; Shim, Sung Han; Del Priore, Lucian V.; Lanza, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Summary Embryonic stem cells hold great promise for various diseases because of their unlimited capacity for self-renewal and ability to differentiate into any cell type in the body. However, despite over 3 decades of research, there have been no reports on the safety and potential efficacy of pluripotent stem cell progeny in Asian patients with any disease. Here, we report the safety and tolerability of subretinal transplantation of human embryonic-stem-cell (hESC)-derived retinal pigment epithelium in four Asian patients: two with dry age-related macular degeneration and two with Stargardt macular dystrophy. They were followed for 1 year. There was no evidence of adverse proliferation, tumorigenicity, ectopic tissue formation, or other serious safety issues related to the transplanted cells. Visual acuity improved 9–19 letters in three patients and remained stable (+1 letter) in one patient. The results confirmed that hESC-derived cells could serve as a potentially safe new source for regenerative medicine. PMID:25937371

  5. Genetic Determinants of Macular Pigments in Women of the Carotenoids in Age-Related Eye Disease Study

    PubMed Central

    Meyers, Kristin J.; Johnson, Elizabeth J.; Bernstein, Paul S.; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Engelman, Corinne D.; Karki, Chitra K.; Liu, Zhe; Igo, Robert P.; Truitt, Barbara; Klein, Michael L.; Snodderly, D. Max; Blodi, Barbara A.; Gehrs, Karen M.; Sarto, Gloria E.; Wallace, Robert B.; Robinson, Jennifer; LeBlanc, Erin S.; Hageman, Gregory; Tinker, Lesley; Mares, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate genetic determinants of macular pigment optical density in women from the Carotenoids in Age-Related Eye Disease Study (CAREDS), an ancillary study of the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. Methods. 1585 of 2005 CAREDS participants had macular pigment optical density (MPOD) measured noninvasively using customized heterochromatic flicker photometry and blood samples genotyped for 440 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 26 candidate genes related to absorption, transport, binding, and cleavage of carotenoids directly, or via lipid transport. SNPs were individually tested for associations with MPOD using least-squares linear regression. Results. Twenty-one SNPs from 11 genes were associated with MPOD (P ? 0.05) after adjusting for dietary intake of lutein and zeaxanthin. This includes variants in or near genes related to zeaxanthin binding in the macula (GSTP1), carotenoid cleavage (BCMO1), cholesterol transport or uptake (SCARB1, ABCA1, ABCG5, and LIPC), long-chain omega-3 fatty acid status (ELOVL2, FADS1, and FADS2), and various maculopathies (ALDH3A2 and RPE65). The strongest association was for rs11645428 near BCMO1 (?A = 0.029, P = 2.2 × 10?4). Conditional modeling within genes and further adjustment for other predictors of MPOD, including waist circumference, diabetes, and dietary intake of fiber, resulted in 13 SNPs from 10 genes maintaining independent association with MPOD. Variation in these single gene polymorphisms accounted for 5% of the variability in MPOD (P = 3.5 × 10?11). Conclusions. Our results support that MPOD is a multi-factorial phenotype associated with variation in genes related to carotenoid transport, uptake, and metabolism, independent of known dietary and health influences on MPOD. PMID:23404124

  6. Correspondence between retinal reflectometry and a flicker-based technique in the measurement of macular pigment spatial profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Veen, Rob L. P.; Berendschot, Tos T. J. M.; Makridaki, Maria; Hendrikse, Fred; Carden, David; Murray, Ian J.

    2009-11-01

    A comparison of macular pigment optical density (MPOD) spatial profiles determined by an optical and a psychophysical technique is presented. We measured the right eyes of 19 healthy individuals, using fundus reflectometry at 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 deg eccentricity; and heterochromatic flicker photometry (HFP) at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 deg, and a reference point at 8 deg eccentricity. We found a strong correlation between the two techniques. However, the absolute estimates obtained by fundus reflectometry data were higher than by HFP. These differences could partly be explained by the fact that at 8 deg eccentricity the MPOD is not zero, as assumed in HFP. Furthermore, when performing HFP for eccentricities of <1 deg, we had to assume that subjects set flicker thresholds at 0.4 deg horizontal translation when using a 1-deg stimulus. MPOD profiles are very similar for both techniques if, on average, 0.05 DU is added to the HFP data at all eccentricities. An additional correction factor, dependent on the steepness of the MPOD spatial distribution, is required for 0 deg.

  7. Detection of pigment epithelial detachment vascularization in age-related macular degeneration using phase-variance OCT angiography

    PubMed Central

    McClintic, Scott M; Kim, Dae Yu; Fingler, Jeff; Garcia, Susan; Zawadzki, Robert J; Morse, Lawrence S; Park, Susanna S; Fraser, Scott E; Werner, John S; Ruggiero, Jason P; Schwartz, Daniel M

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To demonstrate the use of phase-variance optical coherence tomography (PV-OCT) angiography for detection of pigment epithelial detachment (PED) vascularization in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Patients and methods Patients with PEDs and exudative AMD were evaluated by the Retina Services at the University of California, Davis, and the University of California, San Francisco. Each subject underwent fluorescein angiography and structural optical coherence tomography (OCT). Phase-variance OCT analysis was used to create angiographic images of the retinal and choroidal vasculature. PV-OCT-generated B-scans were superimposed on structural OCT B-scans to allow easy identification of perfused vascular structures. Results Three patients with vascularized PEDs were imaged with PV-OCT, and each was found to have a vascular signal extending from the choroid into the hyperreflective substance of the PED. Two patients who had no evidence of PED vascularization on fluorescein angiography did not have vascular signals within their PEDs on PV-OCT. Conclusion Structural OCT and PV-OCT images can be combined to create composite B-scans that offer high-resolution views of the retinal tissue along with dynamic vascular visualization. This technique offers a fast, noninvasive method for detecting vascularization of PEDs in AMD and may aid in the early detection of neovascular disease.

  8. Macular telangiectasia type 2.

    PubMed

    Charbel Issa, Peter; Gillies, Mark C; Chew, Emily Y; Bird, Alan C; Heeren, Tjebo F C; Peto, Tunde; Holz, Frank G; Scholl, Hendrik P N

    2013-05-01

    Macular telangiectasia type 2 is a bilateral disease of unknown cause with characteristic alterations of the macular capillary network and neurosensory atrophy. Its prevalence may be underestimated and has recently been shown to be as high as 0.1% in persons 40 years and older. Biomicroscopy may show reduced retinal transparency, crystalline deposits, mildly ectatic capillaries, blunted venules, retinal pigment plaques, foveal atrophy, and neovascular complexes. Fluorescein angiography shows telangiectatic capillaries predominantly temporal to the foveola in the early phase and a diffuse hyperfluorescence in the late phase. High-resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) may reveal disruption of the photoreceptor inner segment-outer segment border, hyporeflective cavities at the level of the inner or outer retina, and atrophy of the retina in later stages. Macular telangiectasia type 2 shows a unique depletion of the macular pigment in the central retina and recent therapeutic trials showed that such depleted areas cannot re-accumulate lutein and zeaxanthin after oral supplementation. There have been various therapeutic approaches with limited or no efficacy. Recent clinical trials with compounds that block vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) have established the role of VEGF in the pathophysiology of the disease, but have not shown significant efficacy, at least for the non-neovascular disease stages. Recent progress in structure-function correlation may help to develop surrogate outcome measures for future clinical trials. In this review article, we summarize the current knowledge on macular telangiectasia type 2, including the epidemiology, the genetics, the clinical findings, the staging and the differential diagnosis of the disease. Findings using retinal imaging are discussed, including fluorescein angiography, OCT, adaptive optics imaging, confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, and fundus autofluorescence, as are the findings using visual function testing including visual acuity and fundus-controlled microperimetry. We provide an overview of the therapeutic approaches for both non-neovascular and neovascular disease stages and provide a perspective of future directions including animal models and potential therapeutic approaches. PMID:23219692

  9. Macular telangiectasia type 2

    PubMed Central

    Issa, Peter Charbel; Gillies, Mark C.; Chew, Emily Y.; Bird, Alan C.; Heeren, Tjebo F.C.; Peto, Tunde; Holz, Frank G.; Scholl, Hendrik P.N.

    2013-01-01

    Macular telangiectasia type 2 is a bilateral disease of unknown cause with characteristic alterations of the macular capillary network and neurosensory atrophy. Its prevalence may be underestimated and has recently been shown to be as high as 0.1% in persons 40 years and older. Biomicroscopy may show reduced retinal transparency, crystalline deposits, mildly ectatic capillaries, blunted venules, retinal pigment plaques, foveal atrophy, and neovascular complexes. Fluorescein angiography shows telangiectatic capillaries predominantly temporal to the foveola in the early phase and a diffuse hyperfluorescence in the late phase. High-resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) may reveal disruption of the photoreceptor inner segment–outer segment border, hyporeflective cavities at the level of the inner or outer retina, and atrophy of the retina in later stages. Macular telangiectasia type 2 shows a unique depletion of the macular pigment in the central retina and recent therapeutic trials showed that such depleted areas cannot re-accumulate lutein and zeaxanthin after oral supplementation. There have been various therapeutic approaches with limited or no efficacy. Recent clinical trials with compounds that block vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) have established the role of VEGF in the pathophysiology of the disease, but have not shown significant efficacy, at least for the nonneovascular disease stages. Recent progress in structure–function correlation may help to develop surrogate outcome measures for future clinical trials. In this review article, we summarize the current knowledge on macular telangiectasia type 2, including the epidemiology, the genetics, the clinical findings, the staging and the differential diagnosis of the disease. Findings using retinal imaging are discussed, including fluorescein angiography, OCT, adaptive optics imaging, confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, and fundus autofluorescence, as are the findings using visual function testing including visual acuity and fundus-controlled microperimetry. We provide an overview of the therapeutic approaches for both non-neovascular and neovascular disease stages and provide a perspective of future directions including animal models and potential therapeutic approaches. PMID:23219692

  10. [Pigment epithelial detachment in exudative macular degeneration: clinical characteristics and therapeutic options].

    PubMed

    Lommatzsch, A

    2010-12-01

    Vascularized pigment epithelial detachment (PE detachment) can be viewed as a special form of occult choroidal neovascularization (CNV) owing to the natural course of the disease, its specific pathogenesis and its response to various forms of treatment. This applies to serous PE detachment associated with both occult CNV and also with retinal angiomatous proliferation (RAP). A tear in the retinal pigment epithelium (RIP) represents a serious complication of vascularized PE detachment and is often associated with acute vision deterioration that not uncommonly also involves massive subretinal hemorrhaging. The pathomechanism underlying the development of RIP has not yet been completely elucidated. The notion that the PED bursts as a result of the increased pressure stands in contrast to the theory that the CNV contracts and causes scarring which in turn causing secondary RIP. Anti-VEGF therapy is currently the preferred treatment. However, the initial stabilization of visual acuity after treatment could not be confirmed in long-term studies and after 2 years visual acuity deteriorated significantly. Furthermore, optimal VEGF treatment regimens have also not been defined and the criteria for repeated treatment have not been established as yet. Presently, visual deterioration and the presence of subretinal and intraretinal exudates seem to indicate that treatment will be effective. Here, high resolution OCT imaging should help to provide further insight into the matter. PMID:21153576

  11. Macular Pigment Optical Density and Ocular Pulse Amplitude in Subjects with Different Axial Lengths and Refractive Errors

    PubMed Central

    Czepita, Maciej; Karczewicz, Danuta; Safranow, Krzysztof; Czepita, Damian

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of our study was to: (1) investigate the macular pigment optical density (MPOD) and ocular pulse amplitude (OPA) in subjects with different axial lengths (AL) and refractive errors (RE); (2) determine if there is a correlation between MPOD and OPA; and (3) evaluate whether MPOD and OPA depend on intraocular pressure (IOP). Material/Methods This study included 140 eyes of 70 subjects – 17 men and 53 women, aged 18 to 29 years (mean: 22.5 years; SD=2.8). Every examined person underwent a thorough eye examination including: visual acuity, anterior segment and fundus examination, keratometry, auto-refractometry, and MPOD, OPA, AL, and IOP measurements. The obtained results were analyzed statistically using Statistica 10 software. P values of <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results The following refractive errors were selected: emmetropia (34 eyes), hyperopia (18 eyes), low myopia (60 eyes), medium myopia (19 eyes), and high myopia (9 eyes). It has been established that the OPA increases with the rise in the spherical equivalents (SE) (Rs=+0.38, P<0.001), while the increase in AL correlates with the decrease of OPA (Rs=–0.40, P<0.001). The increase in IOP correlates with the rise in the OPA (Rs=+0.20, P<0.05). There were no significant correlations between IOP and SE or AL. Conclusions (1) MPOD is not correlated with the OPA in subjects with different AL and RE; (2) OPA decreases with the rise of AL; (3) OPA decreases with the fall of the SE; and (4) OPA increases with the rise in IOP. PMID:26071973

  12. Macular Pigment Optical Density and Ocular Pulse Amplitude in Subjects with Different Axial Lengths and Refractive Errors.

    PubMed

    Czepita, Maciej; Karczewicz, Danuta; Safranow, Krzysztof; Czepita, Damian

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The purpose of our study was to: (1) investigate the macular pigment optical density (MPOD) and ocular pulse amplitude (OPA) in subjects with different axial lengths (AL) and refractive errors (RE); (2) determine if there is a correlation between MPOD and OPA; and (3) evaluate whether MPOD and OPA depend on intraocular pressure (IOP). MATERIAL AND METHODS This study included 140 eyes of 70 subjects - 17 men and 53 women, aged 18 to 29 years (mean: 22.5 years; SD=2.8). Every examined person underwent a thorough eye examination including: visual acuity, anterior segment and fundus examination, keratometry, auto-refractometry, and MPOD, OPA, AL, and IOP measurements. The obtained results were analyzed statistically using Statistica 10 software. P values of <0.05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS The following refractive errors were selected: emmetropia (34 eyes), hyperopia (18 eyes), low myopia (60 eyes), medium myopia (19 eyes), and high myopia (9 eyes). It has been established that the OPA increases with the rise in the spherical equivalents (SE) (Rs=+0.38, P<0.001), while the increase in AL correlates with the decrease of OPA (Rs=-0.40, P<0.001). The increase in IOP correlates with the rise in the OPA (Rs=+0.20, P<0.05). There were no significant correlations between IOP and SE or AL. CONCLUSIONS (1) MPOD is not correlated with the OPA in subjects with different AL and RE; (2) OPA decreases with the rise of AL; (3) OPA decreases with the fall of the SE; and (4) OPA increases with the rise in IOP. PMID:26071973

  13. Retinal pigment epithelial changes after macular hole surgery with indocyanine green-assisted internal limiting membrane peeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas E Engelbrecht; Jiong Freeman; Paul Sternberg Jr; Thomas M Aaberg Sr; Thomas M Aaberg Jr; Daniel F Martin; Brian D Sippy

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: To report the results of macular hole surgery using indocyanine green to improve visualization and facilitate peeling of the internal limiting membrane.METHODS: A retrospective noncomparative review of a consecutive series of 22 patients (22 eyes) who underwent macular hole repair using indocyanine green to facilitate visualization of the internal limiting membrane was performed. One patient was excluded because of

  14. Aqueous levels of erythropoietin in acute retinal vein occlusion with macular edema

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hyun Jin; Kim, Hyung Chan; Moon, Jun Woong

    2014-01-01

    AIM To investigate the aqueous erythropoietin (EPO) levels and associated factors in patients with acute retinal vein occlusion (RVO). METHODS The aqueous EPO level was measured in patients with macular edema (ME) secondary to acute branched retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) or central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). Aqueous fluid from cataract patients served as the control. We also evaluated whether aqueous level of EPO was associated with factors such as serum EPO level, non-perfusion area, central macular thickness (CMT), and arterio-venous (AV) transit time RESULTS Twenty-seven RVO patients (16 BRVO, 11 CRVO) and 9 control subjects were enrolled in the study. The aqueous EPO level (mU/mL) was higher in RVO (68.2±54.3) than that in the control subjects (12.9±5.9). More specifically, the aqueous EPO level was higher in CRVO (118.9±52.1) than that in BRVO (33.3±10.8). However, no differences were found in serum EPO levels among three groups. CMT in RVO patients had a positive correlation with the aqueous EPO level (r=0.66). Also, in terms of non-perfusion area, the aqueous EPO levels were more elevated in the ischemic subgroup than in the non-ischemic subgroup in both BRVO and CRVO. CONCLUSION Aqueous EPO levels are elevated in patients with macular edema secondary to recent onset RVO. Patients with CRVO have higher EPO levels than those with BRVO. The aqueous EPO level in RVO has a positive correlation with CMT and is associated with non-perfusion area. These results suggest that the aqueous EPO level could be associated with retinal ischemia and may be involved in the pathogenesis of macular edema secondary to RVO. PMID:24967199

  15. Autologous transplantation of genetically modified iris pigment epithelial cells: A promising concept for the treatment of age-related macular degeneration and other disorders of the eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semkova, Irina; Kreppel, Florian; Welsandt, Gerhard; Luther, Thomas; Kozlowski, Jolanta; Janicki, Hanna; Kochanek, Stefan; Schraermeyer, Ulrich

    2002-10-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is the leading cause for visual impairment and blindness in the elder population. Laser photocoagulation, photodynamic therapy and excision of neovascular membranes have met with limited success. Submacular transplantation of autologous iris pigment epithelial (IPE) cells has been proposed to replace the damaged retinal pigment epithelium following surgical removal of the membranes. We tested our hypothesis that the subretinal transplantation of genetically modified autologous IPE cells expressing biological therapeutics might be a promising strategy for the treatment of ARMD and other retinal disorders. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) has strong antiangiogenic and neuroprotective activities in the eye. Subretinal transplantation of PEDF expressing IPE cells inhibited pathological choroidal neovascularization in rat models of laser-induced rupture of Bruch's membrane and of oxygen induced ischemic retinopathy. PEDF expressing IPE transplants also increased the survival and preserved rhodopsin expression of photoreceptor cells in the RCS rat, a model of retinal degeneration. These findings suggest a promising concept for the treatment of ARMD and other retinal disorders.

  16. Genetics Home Reference: Stargardt macular degeneration

    MedlinePLUS

    ... people with Stargardt macular degeneration, a fatty yellow pigment (lipofuscin) builds up in cells underlying the macula. ... acids ; gene ; inheritance ; inherited ; juvenile ; lipofuscin ; macula ; photoreceptor ; pigment ; prevalence ; protein ; recessive ; retina ; tissue ; toxic You may ...

  17. Genetics Home Reference: Vitelliform macular dystrophy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... faces. Vitelliform macular dystrophy causes a fatty yellow pigment (lipofuscin) to build up in cells underlying the ... structures in these cells that contain light-sensing pigments. It is unclear why PRPH2 mutations affect only ...

  18. Soluble Mediators of Diabetic Macular Edema: The Diagnostic Role of Aqueous VEGF and Cytokine Levels in Diabetic Macular Edema

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Leah A.; Hartnett, M. Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic macular edema (DME) is a significant cause of vision loss and represents an important clinical and public health problem. It is characterized by breakdown of the blood retinal barrier with fluid accumulation in the sub-retinal and intra-retinal spaces. Although several hypotheses exist for the causes of diabetic macular edema, specific molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Current thinking includes the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and inflammatory cytokines in vascular permeability. We review studies showing a relationship between elevated aqueous VEGF, monocyte chemoattractant protein -1, interleukin 6, or interleukin 8 in association with DME and as predictors of DME. The presence of mediators in both the angiogenesis and inflammatory pathways data suggest a multifactorial model for the development of DME. Further studies targeting individual cytokine activity will be important to our understanding of the pathogenesis and treatment. PMID:23649946

  19. Effect of serum cytokines and VEGF levels on diabetic retinopathy and macular thickness

    PubMed Central

    Bozkurt, Banu; Kerimoglu, Hurkan; Okka, Mehmet; Kamis, Umit; Gunduz, Kemal

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the role of serum inflammatory cytokines and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in diabetic retinopathy (DR) and evaluate their relationship with macular thickness measurements obtained with optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods The study enrolled 28 healthy subjects (Group 1), 31 patients without DR (Group 2), 49 patients with nonproliferative DR (Group 3), and 46 patients with proliferative DR (Group 4). Macular profile was assessed with Stratus OCT-3 and the serum concentrations of VEGF and interleukin-1? (IL-1?), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), interleukin-10 (IL-10), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP-1?), monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1), and epidermal growth factor (EGF) were measured using multiplex bead immunoassay. Results The median value of the visual acuity was 20/20 (Groups 1 and 2), and 20/100 (Group 3), and 20/125 (Group 4). The median value of central subfield macular thickness was estimated as 165.50 ?m in Group 1, 202.5 ?m in Group 2, 318 ?m in Group 3, and 310 ?m in Group 4. The median serum VEGF level, which was 98.20 pg/ml in Group 1, demonstrated a progressive rise to 125.37 pg/ml in Group 2, to 153.07 pg/ml in Group 3, and to 149.12 pg/ml in Group 4. Statistical significance was found between all groups (p<0.05) except between Groups 3 and 4 (p=0.87). The median levels of IL-1? and IL-6 were zero in all groups. The median serum levels of IL-8, IL-10, MIP-1?, and EGF revealed a wide range within each group but no statistical significance between the groups (p>0.05). The median serum levels of IL-8, IL-10, MIP-1?, and EGF revealed a wide range within each group, however, no statistically significant relationship was found between the groups (p>0.05). The median values of the serum MCP-1 concentrations presented a statistically significant rise with the progression of DR (p=0.02). No correlation was found between macular thickness and serum cytokine and VEGF levels (p>0.05). Conclusions Increased serum levels of VEGF and MCP-1 may act as a key regulator of DR and provide a potential tool for risk assessment in diabetic patients. Further studies that evaluate both vitreous and serum levels in various stages of DR are needed to provide a better understanding of the interaction between systemic and local inflammatory and angiogenic factors. PMID:19784389

  20. RETINAL DEIMINATION AND PAD2 LEVELS IN RETINAS FROM DONORS WITH AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION (AMD)

    PubMed Central

    Bonilha, Vera L.; Shadrach, Karen G.; Rayborn, Mary E.; Li, Yong; Pauer, Gayle J. T.; Hagstrom, Stephanie A.; Bhattacharya, Sanjoy K.; Hollyfield, Joe G.

    2013-01-01

    Deimination is a form of protein posttranslational modification carried out by the peptidyl arginine deiminases (PADs) enzymes. PAD2 is the principal deiminase expressed in the retina. Elevated levels of PAD2 and protein deimination are present in a number of human neurological diseases, with or without ocular manifestation. To define the association of deimination with the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), we studied protein deimination and PAD2 levels in retinas of AMD donor eyes compared to age-matched non-AMD retinas. Eyes from non-AMD and AMD donors were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde and 0.5% glutaraldehyde in phosphate buffer. Retina and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) from donor eyes were processed for immunohistochemical detection and western blotting using antibodies to PAD2 and citrulline residues. The ganglion cell, inner plexiform, inner nuclear and outer nuclear layers were labeled by both PAD2 and citrulline antibodies. Changes in the localization of deiminated residues and PAD2 were evident as the retinal layers were remodeled coincident with photoreceptor degeneration in AMD retinas. Immunodetection of either PAD2 or citrulline residues could not be evaluated in the RPE layer due to the high autofluorescence levels in this layer. Interestingly, higher deimination immunoreactivity was detected in AMD retinal lysates. However, no significant changes in PAD2 were detected in the AMD and non-AMD retinas and RPE lysates. Our observations show increased levels of protein deimination but not PAD2 in AMD retinas and RPE, suggesting a reduced rate of turnover of deiminated proteins in these AMD retinas. PMID:23562679

  1. Toxicity and detoxification of lipid-derived aldehydes in cultured retinal pigmented epithelial cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Choudhary; T. Xiao; S. Srivastava; W. Zhang; L. L. Chan; L. A. Vergara; N. H. Ansari

    2005-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the developed world and yet its pathogenesis remains poorly understood. Retina has high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and functions under conditions of oxidative stress. To investigate whether peroxidative products of PUFAs induce apoptosis in retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells and possibly contribute to ARMD, human retinal pigmented

  2. Macular dystrophy associated with the mitochondrial DNA A3243G mutation: pericentral pigment deposits or atrophy? Report of two cases and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The A3243G point mutation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is associated with MELAS (mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes) and MIDD syndromes (maternally inherited diabetes and deafness). Both MELAS and MIDD patients can present with visual symptoms due to a retinopathy, sometimes before the genetic diagnosis is made. Case presentation Patient 1: 46 year-old woman with diabetes mellitus and hearing loss was referred for an unspecified maculopathy detected during screening evaluation for diabetic retinopathy. Visual acuity was 20/20 in both eyes. Fundus examination showed bilateral macular and peripapillary hyperpigmented/depigmented areas. Patient 2: 45 year-old woman was referred for recent vision loss in her left eye. History was remarkable for chronic fatigue, migraine and diffuse muscular pain. Visual acuity was 20/20 in her right eye and 20/30 in her left eye. Fundus exhibited several nummular perifoveal islands of retinal pigment epithelium atrophy and adjacent pale deposits in both eyes. Retinal anatomy was investigated with autofluorescence, retinal angiography and optical coherence tomography. Retinal function was assessed with automated static perimetry, full-field and multifocal electroretinography and electro-oculography. Genetic testing of mtDNA identified a point mutation at the locus 3243. Conclusion Observation of RPE abnormalities in the context of suggestive systemic findings should prompt mtDNA testing. PMID:24906873

  3. Vitreous levels of somatostatin in patients with chronic uveitic macular oedema

    PubMed Central

    Fonollosa, A; Coronado, E; Catalan, R; Gutierrez, M; Macia, C; Zapata, M A; Martinez-Alday, N; Simo, R; Garcia-Arumi, J

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Intravitreal somatostatin (SST) levels are decreased in patients with diabetic macular oedema. This deficit may be involved in the pathogenesis of this condition. The aim of the present study was to determine SST concentration in the vitreous fluid of patients with chronic uveitic macular oedema (CUMO) and quiescent intraocular inflammation. Methods Plasma and vitreous fluid samples were obtained during vitrectomy from 11 eyes of patients with CUMO and from 42 eyes of control subjects (idiopathic epiretinal membrane, macular hole). SST concentration was measured by radioimmunoassay. Statistics: ?2-square test, Mann–Whitney U-test, Wilcoxon test, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, and multivariant linear regression models. Results Plasma SST concentrations were similar in uveitic patients and controls (28.25?pg/ml (21.3–31) vs 28.7?pg/ml (22–29.5); P=0.869). A higher vitreous concentration of proteins was found in uveitic patients (1.59±0.38?mg/ml vs 0.73±0.32?mg/ml, P<0.0001). Vitreous SST was markedly lower in uveitic patients, both in absolute terms and after adjusting for total intravitreous protein concentration (39.37?pg/ml (6.16–172) vs 486.73?pg/ml (4.7–1833), P<0.0001; 33.1?pg/mg (3.9–215.74) vs 629.75?pg/mg (6.91–2024), P<0.0001). No correlations were found between plasma and vitreous concentration of SST in either group (?=0.191, P=0.57 and ?=0.49, P=0.66). There were no correlations between vitreous SST concentration and visual acuity or macular thickness in uveitic patients (?=0.302, P=0.31 and ?=0.45, P=0.13). Conclusions Intravitreous SST is decreased in patients with CUMO and quiescent intraocular inflammation. The deficit of SST may have a role in the pathogenesis of this condition. PMID:22878444

  4. Macular changes resulting from papilloedema.

    PubMed Central

    Morris, A T; Sanders, M D

    1980-01-01

    Six cases are presented with macular changes in association with papilloedema; 4 suffered permanent visual loss. The present paper emphasises this previously infrequent finding and discusses the haemodynamic and mechanical factors responsible. The macular changes consisted of haemorrhages situated in front, within, or behind the retina, and occasionally the results of neovascular membrane formation produced secondary visual loss. Changes in the pigment epithelium were seen in 3 cases associated with choroidal folds. Macular stars rarely produce visual loss. Recognition of these changes is important in the assessment of the visual loss in papilloedema. Images PMID:7387954

  5. Changes in endocannabinoid and palmitoylethanolamide levels in eye tissues of patients with diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Matias; J. W. Wang; A. Schiano Moriello; A. Nieves; D. F. Woodward; V. Di Marzo

    2006-01-01

    Cannabinoid receptors and the endocannabinoids (anandamide (N-arachidonoylethanolamine—AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG)), as well as the AEA congener, palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), are involved in ocular physiology. We measured endocannabinoid and PEA levels by isotope-dilution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis in post-mortem eye tissues of patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR) or age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In eyes with DR, significantly enhanced levels of AEA were

  6. Inactivity of human ?,?-carotene-9?,10?-dioxygenase (BCO2) underlies retinal accumulation of the human macular carotenoid pigment

    PubMed Central

    Li, Binxing; Vachali, Preejith P.; Gorusupudi, Aruna; Shen, Zhengqing; Sharifzadeh, Hassan; Besch, Brian M.; Nelson, Kelly; Horvath, Madeleine M.; Frederick, Jeanne M.; Baehr, Wolfgang; Bernstein, Paul S.

    2014-01-01

    The macula of the primate retina uniquely concentrates high amounts of the xanthophyll carotenoids lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin, but the underlying biochemical mechanisms for this spatial- and species-specific localization have not been fully elucidated. For example, despite abundant retinal levels in mice and primates of a binding protein for zeaxanthin and meso-zeaxanthin, the pi isoform of glutathione S-transferase (GSTP1), only human and monkey retinas naturally contain detectable levels of these carotenoids. We therefore investigated whether or not differences in expression, localization, and activity between mouse and primate carotenoid metabolic enzymes could account for this species-specific difference in retinal accumulation. We focused on ?,?-carotene-9?,10?-dioxygenase (BCO2, also known as BCDO2), the only known mammalian xanthophyll cleavage enzyme. RT-PCR, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) confirmed that BCO2 is expressed in both mouse and primate retinas. Cotransfection of expression plasmids of human or mouse BCO2 into Escherichia coli strains engineered to produce zeaxanthin demonstrated that only mouse BCO2 is an active zeaxanthin cleavage enzyme. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) binding studies showed that the binding affinities between human BCO2 and lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin are 10- to 40-fold weaker than those for mouse BCO2, implying that ineffective capture of carotenoids by human BCO2 prevents cleavage of xanthophyll carotenoids. Moreover, BCO2 knockout mice, unlike WT mice, accumulate zeaxanthin in their retinas. Our results provide a novel explanation for how primates uniquely concentrate xanthophyll carotenoids at high levels in retinal tissue. PMID:24982131

  7. Increased levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and interleukin-6 in the aqueous humor of diabetics with macular edema

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hideharu Funatsu; Hidetoshi Yamashita; Hidetaka Noma; Tatsuya Mimura; Tetsuji Yamashita; Sadao Hori

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship between diabetic macular edema and the levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in aqueous humor and plasma.DESIGN: Comparative cross-sectional study.METHODS: Fifty-four eyes from 54 diabetic patients were used. The concentrations of VEGF and IL-6 in undiluted aqueous specimens (obtained from the eyes during cataract surgery) and in plasma were measured by

  8. Pigmented paravenous retinochoroidal atrophy.

    PubMed

    Parafita, M; Diaz, A; Torrijos, I G; Gomez-Ulla, F

    1993-01-01

    Pigmented paravenous retinochoroidal atrophy is a rare disorder that is not well understood or classified. We examined a patient who had chorioretinal atrophy with pigment clusters located in the paravenous areas without macular involvement. Other conditions which may also present retinochoroidal atrophy and/or pigmentary degeneration are discussed. The electroretinography results were subnormal but the evoked potentials were not totally extinguished. Fluorescein angiography and retinography confirmed the relative and absolute scotomas corresponding to the atrophic paravenous areas. PMID:8430011

  9. Macular lutein and zeaxanthin are related to brain lutein and zeaxanthin in primates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The xanthophyll pigments lutein and zeaxanthin cross the blood-retina barrier to preferentially accumulate in the macular region of the neural retina. There they form macular pigment, protecting the retina from blue light damage and oxidative stress. Lutein and zeaxanthin also accumulate in brain t...

  10. Pegaptanib sodium as maintenance therapy in neovascular age-related macular degeneration: the LEVEL study

    PubMed Central

    Tolentino, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Aim To assess the efficacy of pegaptanib as maintenance therapy in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (NV-AMD) patients after induction therapy. Methods A phase IV, prospective, open-label, uncontrolled exploratory study including subjects with subfoveal NV-AMD who had had one to three induction treatments 30–120?days before entry and showed investigator-determined clinical/anatomical NV-AMD improvement. Lesions in the study eye were: any subtype, 12 or fewer disc areas; postinduction centre point thickness (CPT) 275??m or less or thinning of 100??m or more (optical coherence tomography); visual acuity (VA) 20/20–20/400. Intravitreal pegaptanib 0.3?mg was administered as maintenance every 6?weeks for 48?weeks with follow-up to week 54. Booster treatment additional unscheduled treatment for wet age-related macular degeneration, was allowed in the study eye at the investigators' discretion for clinical deterioration. Results Of 568 enrolled subjects, 86% completed 1?year of pegaptanib. Mean VA improvement during induction (49.6 to 65.5 letters) was well preserved (54-week mean 61.8 letters). Mean CPT was relatively stable during maintenance (20??m increase during the study). Fifty per cent did not receive unscheduled booster treatment to week 54; 46% did have one such booster (mean 147?days after maintenance initiation). Conclusions An induction-maintenance strategy, using non-selective then selective vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors, could be considered for NV-AMD. This approach may have particular relevance for patients with systemic comorbidities who require long-term anti-VEGF therapy for NV-AMD. PMID:20472746

  11. Convergence in pigmentation at multiple levels: mutations, genes and function

    PubMed Central

    Manceau, Marie; Domingues, Vera S.; Linnen, Catherine R.; Rosenblum, Erica Bree; Hoekstra, Hopi E.

    2010-01-01

    Convergence—the independent evolution of the same trait by two or more taxa—has long been of interest to evolutionary biologists, but only recently has the molecular basis of phenotypic convergence been identified. Here, we highlight studies of rapid evolution of cryptic coloration in vertebrates to demonstrate that phenotypic convergence can occur at multiple levels: mutations, genes and gene function. We first show that different genes can be responsible for convergent phenotypes even among closely related populations, for example, in the pale beach mice inhabiting Florida's Gulf and Atlantic coasts. By contrast, the exact same mutation can create similar phenotypes in distantly related species such as mice and mammoths. Next, we show that different mutations in the same gene need not be functionally equivalent to produce similar phenotypes. For example, separate mutations produce divergent protein function but convergent pale coloration in two lizard species. Similarly, mutations that alter the expression of a gene in different ways can, nevertheless, result in similar phenotypes, as demonstrated by sister species of deer mice. Together these studies underscore the importance of identifying not only the genes, but also the precise mutations and their effects on protein function, that contribute to adaptation and highlight how convergence can occur at different genetic levels. PMID:20643733

  12. [Morphological characteristics in macular telangiectasia type 2].

    PubMed

    Charbel Issa, P; Heeren, T F C; Krüger, E; Zeimer, M; Pauleikhoff, D; Holz, F G

    2014-09-01

    Macular telangiectasia type 2 is characterized by atrophic alterations of the central retina which is accompanied by a defined vascular phenotype. The disease manifests within an oval central retinal area the size of approximately two disc diameters, with a topographic predisposition temporal to the foveal center. Funduscopy reveals reduced retinal transparency, crystalline deposits, mildly ectatic capillaries, thickened venules and retinal pigment plaques. Secondary neovascularization and macular holes may occur during the disease course. Fluorescein angiography usually shows a diffuse leakage and often ectatic capillaries. On optical coherence tomography (OCT) examination, hyporeflective cavities and focal atrophy of the photoreceptor layer represent a frequent finding. A characteristic sign is an increased (para) central signal on fundus autofluorescence imaging due to a reduced density of macular pigment. PMID:25204527

  13. Correlation of Vitamin D Levels with Pigmentation in Vitiligo Patients Treated with NBUVB Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sehrawat, Manu; Arora, Tarlok Chand; Chauhan, Amrita; Kar, Hemanta Kumar; Poonia, Amitabh; Jairath, Vijayeeta

    2014-01-01

    Cholecalciferol (vitamin D) might play a physiological role in photo-induced melanogenesis in human skin. We estimated the levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] before, during, and after Narrow Band Ultraviolet B (NBUVB) radiation in patients of vitiligo and their correlation with NBUVB induced pigmentation. Thirty patients of vitiligo and equal number of age and sex matched controls were recruited for the study. Vitiligo patients were treated with NBUVB thrice weekly for 12 weeks. [25(OH)D] levels and Vitiligo Area and Severity Index (VASI) were calculated at 0 (baseline), 6, and 12 weeks. Baseline [25(OH)D] levels were measured in controls. Significant reduction in VASI score was observed after 12 weeks of therapy. Comparison and correlation between mean improvement in VASI and [25(OH)D] levels at 12 weeks showed moderate correlation, and the results were statistically insignificant. Mean reduction in VASI and increase in [25(OH)D] levels after 12 weeks of NBUVB showed moderate correlation. Thus, vitamin D might play a significant role in photo-induced melanogenesis. However, there might be additional effects of the phototherapy on melanogenesis. The complete mechanism of NBUVB induced pigmentation in vitiligo needs to be elucidated. PMID:25006488

  14. Understanding age-related macular degeneration (AMD): Relationships between the photoreceptor/retinal pigment epithelium/Bruch’s membrane/choriocapillaris complex

    PubMed Central

    Bhutto, Imran; Lutty, Gerard

    2012-01-01

    There is a mutualistic symbiotic relationship between the components of the photoreceptor/retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)/Bruch’s membrane (BrMb)/choriocapillaris (CC) complex that is lost in AMD. Which component in the photoreceptor/RPE/BrMb/CC complex is affected first appears to depend on the type of AMD. In atrophic AMD (~85–90% of cases), it appears that large confluent drusen formation and hyperpigmentation (presumably dysfunction in RPE) are the initial insult and the resorption of these drusen and loss of RPE (hypopigmentation) can be predictive for progression of geographic atrophy (GA). The death and dysfunction of photoreceptors and CC appear to be secondary events to loss in RPE. In neovascular AMD (~10–15% of cases), the loss of choroidal vasculature may be the initial insult to the complex. Loss of CC with an intact RPE monolayer in wet AMD has been observed. This may be due to reduction in blood supply because of large vessel stenosis. Furthermore, the environment of the CC, basement membrane and intercapillary septa, is a proinflammatory milieu with accumulation of complement components as well as proinflammatory molecules like CRP during AMD. In this toxic milieu, CC die or become dysfunction making adjacent RPE hypoxic. These hypoxic cells then produce angiogenic substances like VEGF that stimulate growth of new vessels from CC, resulting in choroidal neovascularization (CNV). The loss of CC might also be a stimulus for drusen formation since the disposal system for retinal debris and exocytosed material from RPE would be limited. Ultimately, the photoreceptors die of lack of nutrients, leakage of serum components from the neovascularization, and scar formation. Therefore, the mutualistic symbiotic relationship within the photoreceptor/RPE/BrMb/CC complex is lost in both forms of AMD. Loss of this functionally integrated relationship results in death and dysfunction of all of the components in the complex. PMID:22542780

  15. Pigmented casts.

    PubMed

    Miteva, Mariya; Romanelli, Paolo; Tosti, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Pigmented casts have been reported with variable frequency in scalp biopsies from alopecia areata, trichotillomania, chemotherapy-induced alopecia and postoperative (pressure induced) alopecia. Their presence and morphology in other scalp disorders has not been described. The authors assessed for the presence and morphology of pigmented casts in 308 transversely bisected scalp biopsies from nonscarring and scarring alopecia, referred to the Department of Dermatology, University of Miami within a year. The pigmented casts were present in 21 of 29 cases of alopecia areata (72%), 7 of 7 cases of trichotillomania (100%), 1 case of friction alopecia, 4 of 28 cases of central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia (14%), and 4 of 4 cases of dissecting cellulitis (100%). They did not show any distinguishing features except for the morphology in trichotillomania, which included twisted, linear (zip), and "button"-like pigment aggregation. The linear arrangement was found also in friction alopecia and dissecting cellulitis. Pigmented casts in the hair canals of miniaturized/vellus hairs was a clue to alopecia areata. Pigmented casts can be observed in biopsies of different hair disorders, but they are not specific for the diagnosis. Horizontal sections allow to better assess their morphology and the follicular level of presence of pigmented casts, which in the context of the other follicular findings may be a clue to the diagnosis. PMID:23823025

  16. Relation Between the Incidence and Level of Pigment Cell Antibodies and Disease Activity in Vitiligo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald Harning; Jian Cui; Jean-Claude Bystryn

    1991-01-01

    Patients with vitiligo often have antibodies to pigment cells. To examine whether is relation between the presence of such antibodies and disease activity, sera of 24 patients with vitiligo (10 with active and 14 with inactive disease) and 19 normal individual were tested for antibodies to pigment cell surface antigens using a live cell enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay. IgG pigment cell

  17. Macular Degeneration

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Patient Education Institute

    This patient education program discusses age-related macular degeneration including the causes, risks, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment options, and management of the disease. It also reviews the anatomy of the eye and vision. This resource is a MedlinePlus Interactive Health Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine, designed and developed by the Patient Education Institute. NOTE: This tutorial requires a special Flash plug-in, version 4 or above. If you do not have Flash, you will be prompted to obtain a free download of the software before you start the tutorial. You will also need an Acrobat Reader, available as a free download, in order to view the Reference Summary.

  18. Adhesive protein-free synthetic hydrogels for retinal pigment epithelium cell culture with low ROS level.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong Mei; Liu, Zhen Qi; Feng, Zhi Hui; Xu, Feng; Liu, Jian Kang

    2014-07-01

    Engineering of human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cell monolayer with low level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is important for regenerative RPE-based therapies. However, it is still challenging to culture RPE monolayer with low ROS level on soft substrates in vitro. To address this, we developed cytocompatible hydrogels to culture human RPE cell monolayer for future use in regenerative RPE-based therapies. The cell adhesion, proliferation, monolayer formation, morphology, survival, and ROS level of human ARPE-19 cells cultured on the surfaces of negatively charged poly (2-acrylamido-2-methyl propane sulfonic sodium) (PNaAMPS) and neutral poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide) (PDMAAm) hydrogels with different stiffness were investigated. The importance of hydrogel stiffness on the cell function was firstly highlighted on the base of determined optimal Young's modulus for cultivation of RPE cell monolayer with relatively low ROS level. The construction of RPE cell monolayer with low ROS level on the PNaAMPS hydrogel may hold great potential as promising candidates for transplantation of RPE cell monolayer-hydrogel construct into the subretinal space to repair retinal functions. PMID:23913900

  19. Macular Degeneration Partnership

    MedlinePLUS

    ... materials. Click Here AMD (Age Related Macular Degeneration) Partnership Listen Welcome! If you or a family member ... Use | Donor Bill of Rights | Disclaimer Macular Degeneration Partnership is an educational program of The Discovery Eye ...

  20. Elevated Plasma Levels of C3a Complement Compound in the Exudative Form of Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Violetta Dziedziejko; Katarzyna Mozolewska-Piotrowska; Danuta Karczewicz; Barbara Wiszniewska

    2009-01-01

    Aim: Recent findings suggest that chronic inflammatory processes play a role in the progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Here we asked whether the development of different forms of AMD is connected with the elevation of plasma C3a-desArg concentration. Methods: We recruited 30 subjects with a clinical diagnosis of exudative AMD with newly diagnosed choroidal neovascularization (CNV), 30 subjects with

  1. Macular Degeneration: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalifoux, L. M.

    1991-01-01

    This article presents information on macular degeneration for professionals helping persons with this disease adjust to their visual loss. It covers types of macular degeneration, the etiology of the disease, and its treatment. Also considered are psychosocial problems and other difficulties that persons with age-related macular degeneration face.…

  2. Pathophysiology of Macular Edema

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Scholl; Janna Kirchhof; Albert J. Augustin

    2010-01-01

    Macular edema is defined as an accumulation of fluid in the outer plexiform layer and the inner nuclear layer as well as a swelling of Müller cells of the retina. It consists of a localized expansion of the retinal extracellular space (sometimes associated with the intracellular space) in the macular area. Macular edema is a common cause of a sudden

  3. Sequential in-office vitreous aspirates demonstrate vitreous matrix metalloproteinase 9 levels correlate with the amount of subretinal fluid in eyes with wet age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Pfahler, Scott M.; Hines, Joshua C.; Lovelace, Ann S.; Glaser, Bert M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate levels of 37 native pathway proteins of the vitreous proteome from a subset of wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD) patients with and without subretinal fluid (SRF). Methods A total of 62 consecutive samples were aspirated from 12 patients with AMD, six who had SRF at baseline, and six who did not have SRF at any point during the study. Vitreous levels of the 37 native pathway proteins were analyzed in these patients using reverse phase protein microarray technology. At each visit, at which the 62 samples were taken, SRF and central retinal thickness were measured. These values were then compared to the relative intensity level of the 37 proteins screened. Results In the subset of AMD patients with SRF, the average matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), interleukin (IL)-12, Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1 (cABL) Thr735, heme oxygenase-1, Musashi, platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta Tyr751 (PDGFR?), IL-8, and BCL-2 associated death promoter (BAD) Ser112 levels in the vitreous were found to be significantly different with a 21%–82% increase in expression compared to those without SRF (p<0.0001). Within the SRF group, there was a positive correlation between the vitreous MMP-9 levels and the SRF level. MMP-9 levels in the vitreous proteome varied with the level of SRF but not retinal edema. Compared to patients without SRF, the patients with initial SRF had persistent or progressive disease. Conclusions This is the first prospective case series sequentially monitoring the vitreous proteome in patients with wet AMD. The results suggest that MMP-9 is a proteomic biomarker of SRF accumulation, separate from macular edema. PMID:22773904

  4. Visual prognosis and vitreous molecules after vitrectomy for macular edema with branch retinal vein occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Noma, Hidetaka; Funatsu, Hideharu; Mimura, Tatsuya; Eguchi, Shuichiro; Shimada, Katsunori

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), and pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) influence the visual prognosis of patients with macular edema and branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). In 47 consecutive patients (47 eyes) undergoing vitrectomy, retinal thickness was examined by optical coherence tomography. Best-corrected visual acuity and the vitreous fluid levels of VEGF, sICAM-1, and PEDF were also determined. Patients were followed for at least 6 months after surgery. Vitreous fluid levels of VEGF and sICAM-1 were significantly lower in the patients with more marked improvement of visual acuity after vitrectomy, while PEDF was significantly higher. VEGF and sICAM-1 levels were significantly higher in patients with greater postoperative improvement of macular edema, while PEDF was significantly lower. In BRVO patients, vitreous fluid levels of VEGF, sICAM-1, and PEDF may influence both the response of macular edema to vitrectomy and the visual prognosis. PMID:21386915

  5. Fundus autofluorescence imaging in age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Bat?o?lu, Figen; Demirel, Sibel; Özmert, Emin

    2015-01-01

    Fundus autofluorescence (FAF) is a noninvasive imaging technology that provides information on the distribution of lipofuscin within the retinal pigment epithelial cells. Progressive accumulation of lipofuscin within retinal pigment epithelial cells is involved in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Fundus autofluorescence imaging using a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope is a useful technique to identify high-risk characteristics in patients with nonexudative AMD. It gives also some valuable knowledge and clues in differantial diagnosis of exudative age-related macular degeneration. This review comprises an introduction to fundus autofluorescence, a review of FAF imaging in AMD, and the recent classification of geographic atrophy (GA) and early AMD phenotypes by the Fundus Autofluorescence in Age-related Macular Degeneration Study. The association of phenotype and atrophy progression and choroidal neovascularization development are also summarized. PMID:23952079

  6. Macular lymphocytic arteritis: first clinical presentation with ulcers.

    PubMed

    Llamas-Velasco, M; García-Martín, P; Sánchez-Pérez, J; Sotomayor, E; Fraga, J; García-Diez, A

    2013-04-01

    Macular lymphocytic arteritis describes a recently reported entity, clinically characterized by asymptomatic hyperpigmented macules on the lower limbs, without association of systemic diseases. Histopathologically it is characterized by a lymphocytic arteritis with a hyalinized fibrin ring. We report a new case presenting with ulceration, a finding not previously described. A 25-year-old Hispanic woman was evaluated for a 1-year history of a gradually progressive, asymptomatic eruption that begins at level of both knees and progressively affects both legs and feet. She also referred recently appeared ulcers on inner right ankle without previous traumatism. Physical examination revealed multiple fairly well-defined light brown and faint pink patches with petechiae on as well as retiform crusts and livedoid lesions on inner right ankle. Both types of lesions were biopsied showing lymphocytic arteritis with fibrinoid necrosis and thrombus. There were no relevant laboratory alterations. The clinical peculiarity of our case is the clinical image of the lesions mimicking a pigmented purpuric dermatosis and the presence of a non-traumatic ulcer which could be explained because chronic lymphocytic damage may cause ischemic damage. Ulceration in our case supports consideration of macular arteritis as a latent form of cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa. PMID:23384039

  7. Analysis of glutathione S -transferase Pi isoform (GSTP1) single-nucleotide polymorphisms and macular telangiectasia type 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joshua A. Szental; Paul N. Baird; Andrea J. Richardson; F. M. Amirul Islam; Hendrik P. N. Scholl; Peter Charbel Issa; Frank G. Holz; Mark Gillies; Robyn H. Guymer

    2010-01-01

    Recent imaging studies have suggested that macular pigment is decreased centrally in macular telangiectasia type 2 (MT2).\\u000a The uptake of xanthophyll pigment into the macula is thought to be facilitated by a xanthophyll-binding protein (XBP). The\\u000a Pi isoform of glutathione S-transferase (GSTP1) represents one such XBP with high binding affinity. This case–control study aimed to determine whether\\u000a two common single-nucleotide

  8. Inflammation in age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Ema; Campbell, Matthew; Kiang, Anna-Sophia; Humphries, Marian; Doyle, Sarah L; Humphries, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of legal blindness in elderly individuals in the developed world, affecting 30-50 million people worldwide. AMD primarily affects the macular region of the retina that is responsible for the majority of central, color and daytime vision. The presence of drusen, extracellular protein aggregates that accumulate under the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), is a major pathological hallmark in the early stages of the disease. The end stage 'dry' and 'wet' forms of the disease culminate in vision loss and are characterized by focal degeneration of the RPE and cone photoreceptors, and choroidal neovascularization (CNV), respectively. Being a multifactorial and genetically heterogeneous disease, the pathophysiology of AMD remains unclear, yet, there is ample evidence supporting immunological and inflammatory processes. Here, we review the recent literature implicating some of these immune processes in human AMD and in animal models. PMID:24664703

  9. Macular translocation for surgical management of subfoveal choroidal neovascularizations in patients with AMD: first results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sebastian Wolf; Alexandra Lappas; Andreas W. A. Weinberger; Bernd Kirchhof

    1999-01-01

    ·   Background: At present no satisfying treatment for subfoveal choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to age-related\\u000a macular degeneration (AMD) is available. Visual results after successful surgical removal of subfoveal CNV are disappointing.\\u000a This has been explained by a primary dysfunction of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in the macular region and the surgical\\u000a trauma to the RPE in patients with AMD.

  10. Cystoid macular edema

    PubMed Central

    Rotsos, Tryfon G; Moschos, Marilita M

    2008-01-01

    We review the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and etiology of cystoid macular edema (CME). Inflammatory, diabetic, post-cataract, and macular edema due to age-related macular degeneration is described. The role of chronic inflammation and hypoxia and direct macular traction is evaluated in each case according to different views from the literature. The different diagnostic methods for evaluating the edema are described. Special attention is given to fluoroangiography and the most modern methods of macula examination, such as ocular coherence tomography and multifocal electroretinography. Finally, we discuss the treatment of cystoid macular edema in relation to its etiology. In this chapter we briefly refer to the therapeutic value of laser treatment especially in diabetic maculopathy or vitrectomy in some selected cases. Our paper is focused mainly on recent therapeutic treatment with intravitreal injection of triamcinolone acetonide and anti-VEGF factors like bevacizumab (Avastin), ranibizumab (Lucentis), pegaptamid (Macugen), and others. The goal of this paper is to review the current status of this treatment for macular edema due to diabetic maculopathy, central retinal vein occlusion and post-cataract surgery. For this reason the results of recent multicenter clinical trials are quoted, as also our experience on the use of intravitreal injections of anti-VEGF factors and we discuss its value in clinical practice. PMID:19668445

  11. Rare genetic variants in the CFI gene are associated with advanced age-related macular degeneration and commonly result in reduced serum factor I levels

    PubMed Central

    Kavanagh, David; Yu, Yi; Schramm, Elizabeth C.; Triebwasser, Michael; Wagner, Erin K.; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Daly, Mark J.; Atkinson, John P.; Seddon, Johanna M.

    2015-01-01

    To assess a potential diagnostic and therapeutic biomarker for age-related macular degeneration (AMD), we sequenced the complement factor I gene (CFI) in 2266 individuals with AMD and 1400 without, identifying 231 individuals with rare genetic variants. We evaluated the functional impact by measuring circulating serum factor I (FI) protein levels in individuals with and without rare CFI variants. The burden of very rare (frequency <1/1000) variants in CFI was strongly associated with disease (P = 1.1 × 10?8). In addition, we examined eight coding variants with counts ?5 and saw evidence for association with AMD in three variants. Individuals with advanced AMD carrying a rare CFI variant had lower mean FI compared with non-AMD subjects carrying a variant (P < 0.001). Further new evidence that FI levels drive AMD risk comes from analyses showing individuals with a CFI rare variant and low FI were more likely to have advanced AMD (P = 5.6 × 10?5). Controlling for covariates, low FI increased the risk of advanced AMD among those with a variant compared with individuals without advanced AMD with a rare CFI variant (OR 13.6, P = 1.6 × 10?4), and also compared with control individuals without a rare CFI variant (OR 19.0, P = 1.1 × 10?5). Thus, low FI levels are strongly associated with rare CFI variants and AMD. Enhancing FI activity may be therapeutic and measuring FI provides a screening tool for identifying patients who are most likely to benefit from complement inhibitory therapy. PMID:25788521

  12. Rare genetic variants in the CFI gene are associated with advanced age-related macular degeneration and commonly result in reduced serum factor I levels.

    PubMed

    Kavanagh, David; Yu, Yi; Schramm, Elizabeth C; Triebwasser, Michael; Wagner, Erin K; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Daly, Mark J; Atkinson, John P; Seddon, Johanna M

    2015-07-01

    To assess a potential diagnostic and therapeutic biomarker for age-related macular degeneration (AMD), we sequenced the complement factor I gene (CFI) in 2266 individuals with AMD and 1400 without, identifying 231 individuals with rare genetic variants. We evaluated the functional impact by measuring circulating serum factor I (FI) protein levels in individuals with and without rare CFI variants. The burden of very rare (frequency <1/1000) variants in CFI was strongly associated with disease (P = 1.1 × 10(-8)). In addition, we examined eight coding variants with counts ?5 and saw evidence for association with AMD in three variants. Individuals with advanced AMD carrying a rare CFI variant had lower mean FI compared with non-AMD subjects carrying a variant (P < 0.001). Further new evidence that FI levels drive AMD risk comes from analyses showing individuals with a CFI rare variant and low FI were more likely to have advanced AMD (P = 5.6 × 10(-5)). Controlling for covariates, low FI increased the risk of advanced AMD among those with a variant compared with individuals without advanced AMD with a rare CFI variant (OR 13.6, P = 1.6 × 10(-4)), and also compared with control individuals without a rare CFI variant (OR 19.0, P = 1.1 × 10(-5)). Thus, low FI levels are strongly associated with rare CFI variants and AMD. Enhancing FI activity may be therapeutic and measuring FI provides a screening tool for identifying patients who are most likely to benefit from complement inhibitory therapy. PMID:25788521

  13. Pigmented lesions of the oral cavity: an update.

    PubMed

    Alawi, Faizan

    2013-10-01

    Oral pigmentation may be focal, multifocal, or diffuse. The lesions may be blue, purple, brown, gray, or black. They may be macular or tumefactive. Some are localized harmless accumulations of melanin, hemosiderin, or exogenous metal; others are harbingers of systemic or genetic disease; and some can be associated with life-threatening medical conditions that require immediate intervention. The differential diagnosis for any pigmented lesion is extensive, and can include examples of endogenous and exogenous pigmentation. Although biopsy is a helpful and necessary aid in the diagnosis of focally pigmented lesions, with diffuse presentations lesions require a thorough history and laboratory studies to establish a definitive diagnosis. PMID:24034073

  14. Immunopathological aspects of age-related macular degeneration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mrinali Patel; Chi-Chao Chan

    2008-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) represents a leading cause of blindness worldwide. While the clinical and histopathological\\u000a aspects of AMD are well characterized, its etiology and pathogenesis remain unclear. Recent findings suggest a role for immunologic\\u000a processes in AMD pathogenesis, including the age-related generation of extracellular deposits inside the Brusch membrane and\\u000a beneath the retinal pigment epithelium, recruitment of macrophages for

  15. Macular Thickness and Amblyopia

    PubMed Central

    Rajavi, Zhale; Moghadasifar, Hossein; Feizi, Mohadese; Haftabadi, Narges; Hadavand, Reza; Yaseri, Mehdi; Sheibani, Kourosh; Norouzi, Ghazal

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To compare macular thickness in children with functional amblyopia and those without amblyopia using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 93 children aged 3–10 years including 44 cases with unilateral amblyopia and 49 subjects without amblyopia. Amblyopic eyes were considered as the case group and their fellow eyes as internal controls; eyes of non-amblyopic children served as the external control. Macular thickness of all eyes were measured by optical coherence tomography in the center (foveola), 1 mm ring (fovea), and 3 and 6 mm rings and compared. Results: Although macular thickness was generally not different between the study groups, there was a significant difference in central macular thickness between eyes with moderate to severe amblyopia and the external controls (P = 0.037). Foveal thickness difference exceeding 10 microns between fellow eyes was detected in a larger number of amblyopic children as compared to non-amblyopic controls (P = 0.002). Mean foveal thickness was greater in boys (P = 0.037) but there was no significant difference in foveal thickness among various types of refractive errors. Conclusion: Although there was no significant relationship between macular thickness and amblyopia, foveolar thickness in eyes with moderate to severe amblyopia was significantly greater than the external controls. Further studies with more cases of moderate to severe amblyopia are recommended. PMID:25709774

  16. Levels of Aqueous Humor Trace Elements in Patients with Non-Exsudative Age-related Macular Degeneration: A Case-control Study

    PubMed Central

    Jünemann, Anselm G. M.; Stopa, Piotr; Michalke, Bernhard; Chaudhri, Anwar; Reulbach, Udo; Huchzermeyer, Cord; Schlötzer-Schrehardt, Ursula; Kruse, Friedrich E.; Zrenner, Eberhart; Rejdak, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Trace elements might play a role in the complex multifactorial pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The aim of this study was to measure alterations of trace elements levels in aqueous humor of patients with non-exsudative (dry) AMD. For this pilot study, aqueous humor samples were collected from patients undergoing cataract surgery. 12 patients with dry AMD (age 77.9±6.62, female 8, male 4) and 11 patients without AMD (age 66.6±16.7, female 7, male 4) were included. Aqueous levels of cadmium, cobalt, copper, iron, manganese, selenium, and zinc were measured by use of Flow-Injection-Inductively-Coupled-Plasma-Mass-Spectrometry (FI-ICP-MS), quality controlled with certified standards. Patients with AMD had significantly higher aqueous humor levels of cadmium (median: 0.70 µmol/L, IQR: 0.40–0.84 vs. 0.06 µmol/L; IQR: 0.01–.018; p?=?0.002), cobalt (median: 3.1 µmol/L, IQR: 2.62–3.15 vs. 1.17 µmol/L; IQR: 0.95–1.27; p<0.001), iron (median: 311 µmol/L, IQR: 289–329 vs. 129 µmol/L; IQR: 111–145; p<0.001) and zinc (median: 23.1 µmol/L, IQR: 12.9–32.6 vs. 5.1 µmol/L; IQR: 4.4–9.4; p?=?0.020) when compared with patients without AMD. Copper levels were significantly reduced in patients with AMD (median: 16.2 µmol/L, IQR: 11.4–31.3 vs. 49.9 µmol/L; IQR: 32.0–.142.0; p?=?0.022) when compared to those without. No significant differences were observed in aqueous humor levels of manganese and selenium between patients with and without AMD. After an adjustment for multiple testing, cadmium, cobalt, copper and iron remained a significant factor in GLM models (adjusted for age and gender of the patients) for AMD. Alterations of trace element levels support the hypothesis that cadmium, cobalt, iron, and copper are involved in the pathogenesis of AMD. PMID:23457607

  17. Diabetic Macular Edema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobo, Conceiçăo; Pires, Isabel; Cunha-Vaz, José

    The optical coherence tomography (OCT), a noninvasive and noncontact diagnostic method, was introduced in 1995 for imaging macular diseases. In diabetic macular edema (DME), OCT scans show hyporeflectivity, due to intraretinal and/or subretinal fluid accumulation, related to inner and/or outer blood-retinal barrier breakdown. OCT tomograms may also reveal the presence of hard exudates, as hyperreflective spots with a shadow, in the outer retinal layers, among others. In conclusion, OCT is a particularly valuable diagnostic tool in DME, helpful both in the diagnosis and follow-up procedure.

  18. Dependence of Photosynthetic Capacity, Photosynthetic Pigment Allocation, and Carbon Storage on Nitrogen Levels in Foliage of Aspen Stands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Sullivan, Joseph H.; Papagno, Andrea J.

    2000-01-01

    The role of foliar nitrogen (N) in the seasonal dynamics and vertical canopy distribution of photosynthetic pigments, photosynthetic capacity, and carbon (C) storage was investigated in boreal broadleaved species. The study was conducted at two different aged stands (60 y and 15 y) in 1994 and 1996 in Saskatchewan, Canada as part of the Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS). Foliage in upper and lower strata was examined for aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) and its associated hazelnut shrub (Corylus americana Walt.). We determined that C accumulation, expressed as dry mass per unit leaf area (mg C cm (exp -2)), was linearly dependent on N content (approximately 0.3- 3.5 mg N cm (exp -2))(r (exp 2) = 0.93, n=383, P less than 0.001) when eleven foliage groups were defined according to species, site, and developmental stage. C assembly was greatest in the upper aspen strata of both sites (seasonal average, 40.1 plus or minus 0.6 mg C cm (exp -2)), intermediate in the lower aspen strata (32.7 plus or minus 0.6), and considerably lower, and similar, in the hazelnut shrub layers (23.7 plus or minus 0.6) and in expanding aspen leaves (23.8 plus or minus 0.5); the lowest C assembly per unit N occurred in the two youngest, emerging leaf groups (17.1 plus or minus 0.6). Other relationships among physiological and biochemical variables were typically non-linear and were confounded by inclusion of the three groups of young (i.e., emerging or expanding) leaves, unless these were separately identified. Net C uptake, measured as photosynthetic capacity (A (sub max), micromole CO2 m (exp -2) s (exp -1)), was greater in aspen throughout the season, and optimal in mid-summer at a C:N ratio of approximately 18 (approximately 2.3 %N). When young leaves were excluded and logarithms of both variables were used, A (sub max) was approximately linearly dependent on N (mg N cm (exp-2) (r (exp 2) = 0.85, n= 193, P less than 0.001), attributed to incorporation of N into photosynthetic complexes and enzymes. In mature leaves, differences in pigment content vs. N among canopy strata were accentuated when N was expressed per unit leaf area (Mg cm (exp -2)) . However, the simplest log-linear relationship between a pigment variable and N was obtained for a ratio describing the relative allocation of photosynthetic pigment to Chl a (Chl a/[Chl b + carotenoids], microgram cm (exp -2)/ microgram cm-2) vs. %N (r (exp 2) = 0.90, n=343, P less than 0.001). Attainment of comparable A (sub max) Chl a content and relative Chl a allocation per unit N (mg cm (exp -2)) was achieved at different foliar N levels per canopy group: the lowest N requirement was for hazelnut leaves in the lowest, shaded stratum at the older, closed canopy site; the highest N requirement was in aspen leaves of the upper-most stratum at the younger, more open canopy site. These results highlight the differences in physiological responses between young and fully expanded leaves and show that sustaining those foliar constituents and processes important to C balance may require higher foliar N levels in leaves of establishing vs. mature aspen stands. There may be implications for remote-sensing assessments made for carbon balance in springtime, or over a landscape mosaic comprised of different aged stands.

  19. Retinal pigment epithelial tear after photodynamic therapy for choroidal neovascularization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Faik Gelisken; Werner Inhoffen; Michael Partsch; Ulrike Schneider; Ingrid Kreissig

    2001-01-01

    PURPOSE: To report a case of retinal pigment epithelial tear after photodynamic therapy for choroidal neovascularization.METHODS: Case report. A 74-year-old woman with exudative age-related macular degeneration and classic subfoveal choroidal neovascularization RE underwent photodynamic therapy with verteporfin.RESULTS: Ophthalmoscopy and fluorescein angiography RE disclosed a retinal pigment epithelial tear in the area of photodynamic therapy.CONCLUSION: This case presents the first report

  20. Zinc uptake and storage: the role of fundus pigmentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Despina Kokkinou; Haino Uwe Kasper; Tobias Schwarz; Karl Ulrich Bartz-Schmidt; Ulrich Schraermeyer

    2005-01-01

    Background  Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is associated with lower melanin pigmentation and is more prevalent among the elderly\\u000a Caucasian population than among Africans. A correlation between light iris colour, fundus pigmentation and the incidence of\\u000a AMD is reported. Moreover, melanin represents the main storage of zinc in the eye. Zinc enhances antioxidant capacity through\\u000a its function as a cofactor of important

  1. [Uveitic macular edema].

    PubMed

    Fardeau, C; Champion, E; Massamba, N; LeHoang, P

    2015-01-01

    Macular edema may complicate anterior, intermediate, and posterior uveitis, which may be due to various infectious, tumoral, or autoimmune etiologies. Breakdown of the internal or external blood-retinal barrier is involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory macular edema. Optical coherence tomography has become standard in confirming the diagnosis of macular thickening, due to its non-invasive, reproducible and sensitivity characteristics. Fluorescein and indocyanine green angiography allows for, in addition to study of the macula, screening for associated vasculitis, detection of ischemic areas, easy diagnosis of preretinal, prepaillary or choroidal neovascular complications, and it can provide etiological information and may be required to evaluate the therapeutic response. Treatment of inflammatory macular edema requires specific treatment in cases of infectious or tumoral etiologies. If it remains persistent, or occurs in other etiologies, anti-inflammatory treatments are needed. Steroid treatment, available in intravitreal, subconjunctival and sub-Tenon's routes, are widely used. Limitations of local use include induced cataract and glaucoma, and their short-lasting action. Such products may reveal retinal infection. Thus, bilateral chronic sight-threatening posterior uveitis often requires systemic treatment, and steroids represent the classic first-line therapy. In order to reduce the daily steroid dose, immunosuppressant or immunomodulatory drugs may be added. Certain of these compounds are now available intravitreally. PMID:25547721

  2. Prematurely senescent ARPE-19 cells display features of age-related macular degeneration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne-Lise Glotin; Florence Debacq-Chainiaux; Jean-Yves Brossas; Anne-Marie Faussat; Jacques Tréton; Anna Zubielewicz; Olivier Toussaint; Frédéric Mascarelli

    2008-01-01

    The etiology of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of blindness in the developed world, remains poorly understood, but may be related to cumulative oxidative stress. The prime target of the disease is the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE). To study the molecular mechanisms underlying RPE degeneration, we investigated whether repetitive oxidative stress induced premature senescence in RPE cells from

  3. Do nutritional supplements have a role in age macular degeneration prevention?

    PubMed

    Pinazo-Durán, Maria D; Gómez-Ulla, Francisco; Arias, Luis; Araiz, Javier; Casaroli-Marano, Ricardo; Gallego-Pinazo, Roberto; García-Medina, Jose J; López-Gálvez, Maria Isabel; Manzanas, Lucía; Salas, Anna; Zapata, Miguel; Diaz-Llopis, Manuel; García-Layana, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To review the proposed pathogenic mechanisms of age macular degeneration (AMD), as well as the role of antioxidants (AOX) and omega-3 fatty acids ( ? -3) supplements in AMD prevention. Materials and Methods. Current knowledge on the cellular/molecular mechanisms of AMD and the epidemiologic/experimental studies on the effects of AOX and ? -3 were addressed all together with the scientific evidence and the personal opinion of professionals involved in the Retina Group of the OFTARED (Spain). Results. High dietary intakes of ? -3 and macular pigments lutein/zeaxanthin are associated with lower risk of prevalence and incidence in AMD. The Age-Related Eye Disease study (AREDS) showed a beneficial effect of high doses of vitamins C, E, beta-carotene, and zinc/copper in reducing the rate of progression to advanced AMD in patients with intermediate AMD or with one-sided late AMD. The AREDS-2 study has shown that lutein and zeaxanthin may substitute beta-carotene because of its potential relationship with increased lung cancer incidence. Conclusion. Research has proved that elder people with poor diets, especially with low AOX and ? -3 micronutrients intake and subsequently having low plasmatic levels, are more prone to developing AMD. Micronutrient supplementation enhances antioxidant defense and healthy eyes and might prevent/retard/modify AMD. PMID:24672708

  4. Aging Is Not a Disease: Distinguishing Age-Related Macular Degeneration from Aging

    PubMed Central

    Ardeljan, Daniel; Chan, Chi-Chao

    2013-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a disease of the outer retina, characterized most significantly by atrophy of photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium accompanied with or without choroidal neovascularization. Development of AMD has been recognized as contingent on environmental and genetic risk factors, the strongest being advanced age. In this review, we highlight pathogenic changes that destabilize ocular homeostasis and promote AMD development. With normal aging, photoreceptors are steadily lost, Bruch's membrane thickens, the choroid thins, and hard drusen may form in the periphery. In AMD, many of these changes are exacerbated in addition to the development of disease-specific factors such as soft macular drusen. Para-inflammation, which can be thought of as an intermediate between basal and robust levels of inflammation, develops within the retina in an attempt to maintain ocular homeostasis, reflected by increased expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 coupled with shifts in macrophage plasticity from the pro-inflammatory M1 to the anti-inflammatory M2 polarization. In AMD, imbalances in the M1 and M2 populations together with activation of retinal microglia are observed and potentially contribute to tissue degeneration. Nonetheless, the retina persists in a state of chronic inflammation and increased expression of certain cytokines and inflammasomes is observed. Since not everyone develops AMD, the vital question to ask is how the body establishes a balance between normal age-related changes and the pathological phenotypes in AMD. PMID:23933169

  5. Aging is not a disease: distinguishing age-related macular degeneration from aging.

    PubMed

    Ardeljan, Daniel; Chan, Chi-Chao

    2013-11-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a disease of the outer retina, characterized most significantly by atrophy of photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium accompanied with or without choroidal neovascularization. Development of AMD has been recognized as contingent on environmental and genetic risk factors, the strongest being advanced age. In this review, we highlight pathogenic changes that destabilize ocular homeostasis and promote AMD development. With normal aging, photoreceptors are steadily lost, Bruch's membrane thickens, the choroid thins, and hard drusen may form in the periphery. In AMD, many of these changes are exacerbated in addition to the development of disease-specific factors such as soft macular drusen. Para-inflammation, which can be thought of as an intermediate between basal and robust levels of inflammation, develops within the retina in an attempt to maintain ocular homeostasis, reflected by increased expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 coupled with shifts in macrophage plasticity from the pro-inflammatory M1 to the anti-inflammatory M2 polarization. In AMD, imbalances in the M1 and M2 populations together with activation of retinal microglia are observed and potentially contribute to tissue degeneration. Nonetheless, the retina persists in a state of chronic inflammation and increased expression of certain cytokines and inflammasomes is observed. Since not everyone develops AMD, the vital question to ask is how the body establishes a balance between normal age-related changes and the pathological phenotypes in AMD. PMID:23933169

  6. Do Nutritional Supplements Have a Role in Age Macular Degeneration Prevention?

    PubMed Central

    Pinazo-Durán, Maria D.; Gómez-Ulla, Francisco; Arias, Luis; Araiz, Javier; Casaroli-Marano, Ricardo; Gallego-Pinazo, Roberto; García-Medina, Jose J.; López-Gálvez, Maria Isabel; Manzanas, Lucía; Salas, Anna; Zapata, Miguel; Diaz-Llopis, Manuel; García-Layana, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To review the proposed pathogenic mechanisms of age macular degeneration (AMD), as well as the role of antioxidants (AOX) and omega-3 fatty acids (?-3) supplements in AMD prevention. Materials and Methods. Current knowledge on the cellular/molecular mechanisms of AMD and the epidemiologic/experimental studies on the effects of AOX and ?-3 were addressed all together with the scientific evidence and the personal opinion of professionals involved in the Retina Group of the OFTARED (Spain). Results. High dietary intakes of ?-3 and macular pigments lutein/zeaxanthin are associated with lower risk of prevalence and incidence in AMD. The Age-Related Eye Disease study (AREDS) showed a beneficial effect of high doses of vitamins C, E, beta-carotene, and zinc/copper in reducing the rate of progression to advanced AMD in patients with intermediate AMD or with one-sided late AMD. The AREDS-2 study has shown that lutein and zeaxanthin may substitute beta-carotene because of its potential relationship with increased lung cancer incidence. Conclusion. Research has proved that elder people with poor diets, especially with low AOX and ?-3 micronutrients intake and subsequently having low plasmatic levels, are more prone to developing AMD. Micronutrient supplementation enhances antioxidant defense and healthy eyes and might prevent/retard/modify AMD. PMID:24672708

  7. [Forms of age-related macular degeneration].

    PubMed

    Schargus, M

    2015-04-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the major reason for blindness affecting about 50?% of blind people in Germany. Early forms of AMD with drusen and pigment epithelium changes can be detected in 20?% of patients over 65 years old. The dry form of AMD causes slow deterioration of visual acuity, which cannot currently be adequately treated. In contrast development of a choroidal neovascularization (CNV) membrane results in rapid visual loss which will become permanent if treatment is not started immediately. Using anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents stabilization and improvement of visual acuity is possible. Special types of AMD, such as retinal angiomatous proliferation and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy are much less common. The natural course of the diseases can be very different, end stages often result in scarring and anti-VEGF agents are only weakly effective. PMID:25837316

  8. Modulation of neutrophil superoxide response and intracellular diacylglyceride levels by the bacterial pigment pyocyanin.

    PubMed Central

    Muller, M; Sorrell, T C

    1997-01-01

    Low concentrations of pyocyanin are reported to enhance superoxide production by human neutrophils exposed to various stimuli, yet the mechanism remains unknown. Using lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence, we examined the kinetics of the neutrophil superoxide response in the presence of pyocyanin. At all concentrations (12.5 to 200 microM), pyocyanin decreased the peak superoxide response while prolonging the duration of the response. The prolonged response may be associated with an observed increase in intracellular diacylglyceride levels due to pyocyanin exposure. PMID:9169797

  9. Inflammatory cytokines regulate microRNA155 expression in human retinal pigment epithelial cells by activating JAK\\/STAT pathway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Krishnan Kutty; Chandrasekharam N. Nagineni; William Samuel; Camasamudram Vijayasarathy; John J. Hooks; T. Michael Redmond

    Inflammatory response of the retinal pigment epithelium plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of retinal degenerative diseases such as age-related macular degeneration. Our previous studies have shown that human retinal pigment epithelial (HRPE) cells, established from adult donor eyes, respond to inflammatory cytokines by enhancing the expression of a number of cytokines and chemokines. To investigate the role of

  10. Elevated plasma levels of pigment epithelium-derived factor correlated with inflammation and lung function in COPD patients

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoou; Wang, Tao; Yang, Ting; Shen, Yongchun; An, Jing; Liu, Lian; Dong, Jiajia; Guo, Lingli; Li, Diandian; Zhang, Xue; Chen, Lei; Xu, Dan; Wen, Fuqiang

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is a 50 kD small secreting glycoprotein that participates in multiple physiological and pathological processes. Recent studies have reported that PEDF plays an important role in inflammatory responses in several diseases. However, the role of PEDF in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains unclear. Objective The aim of the present study is to explore the potential relationship between PEDF and COPD. Methods We used differential proteomics – stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture – to investigate protein expression profile changes in cigarette smoke extract-treated pulmonary cells and found that the neurotrophic and antiangiogenic protein PEDF was abnormally expressed. Furthermore, Western blotting was used to detect the expression of PEDF in the lung tissue of rats that were exposed to cigarette smoke. Eighty subjects between the ages of 40–90 years, including 20 healthy nonsmokers, ten smoking volunteers, and 50 COPD patients, were recruited from September 2012 until August 2013 in Sichuan Province, People’s Republic of China. We measured the plasma PEDF concentration and classic proinflammatory cytokines by multiplex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, we performed a spirometry examination to diagnose COPD patients and we also analyzed the correlation between PEDF and lung function. Results First, we found that the expression of PEDF in cigarette smoke extract-treated cells increased 16.2-fold when compared with the control group. Next, we confirmed that 4 weeks’ exposure to cigarette smoke can upregulate PEDF levels in rat lung tissues. We also discovered that plasma PEDF in COPD patients was significantly increased when compared with either healthy nonsmoking or smoking subjects. Furthermore, circulating PEDF was correlated with inflammatory cytokine and blood neutrophil numbers, but it was reversely associated with a decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second percent predicted. Conclusion Our findings provide a novel link between PEDF and COPD. Elevated PEDF levels may be involved in promoting the development of COPD by performing proinflamma-tory functions. PMID:25844034

  11. Pigment dispersion in water-reducible paints

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshikatsu Kobayashi

    1996-01-01

    Pigment dispersion in water-reducible paints was discussed from the view points of wetting and stabilization. Stabilization was attained by resin adsorption on the pigment surface and the DLVO theory was not applicable to the actual paint systems. Hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions were the major driving forces of resin adsorption. Using the most suitable pigment surface hydrophobicity level, both wetting to

  12. Interleukin-1? Level Is Increased in Vitreous of Patients with Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration (nAMD) and Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy (PCV)

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Wankun; Shi, Xuan; Li, Fangting; Yang, Fei; Sun, Yaoyao; Huang, Lvzhen; Li, Xiaoxin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To examine the expression of pro-interleukin-1? (pro-IL-1?) and interleukin-1? (IL-1?) in the vitreous body of patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration(nAMD), polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV), proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), retinal vein occlusion (RVO) or Eales’ disease to further elucidate the role of IL-1? and inflammation in the pathogenesis of neovascular retinal disease. Design Prospective clinical laboratory investigation study. Methods All patients enrolled had vitreous hemorrhage due to nAMD, PCV, PDR, RVO or Eales’ disease that required vitrectomy. Patients were excluded for any history of active intraocular inflammation, or other ophthalmic surgery besides vitrectomy. Control samples were obtained from patients with idiopathic macular epiretinal membrane. A total of fifty vitreous samples were collected from patient during vitrectomy. Pro-IL-1? and IL-1? expression were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results were analyzed statistically using nonparametric tests. Results Expression of pro-IL-1? protein was increased by 2.83-fold and 9.19-fold in PCV and nAMD vitreous samples relative to control, respectively. Expression of IL-? protein was increased by 10-fold and 4.83-fold in PCV and nAMD vitreous samples relative to control, respectively. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that expression of pro-IL-1? and IL-1? proteins is higher in PCV and nAMD. The roles of pro-IL-1? and IL-1? as inflammatory mediators in the development of PCV and nAMD may be associated with photoreceptor degeneration and neovascularization which necessitates further study. PMID:25978536

  13. Pleiotropy in the melanocortin system: expression levels of this system are associated with melanogenesis and pigmentation in the tawny owl (Strix aluco).

    PubMed

    Emaresi, Guillaume; Ducrest, Anne-Lyse; Bize, Pierre; Richter, Hannes; Simon, Celine; Roulin, Alexandre

    2013-10-01

    The adaptive function of melanin-based coloration is a long-standing debate. A recent genetic model suggested that pleiotropy could account for covariations between pigmentation, behaviour, morphology, physiology and life history traits. We explored whether the expression levels of genes belonging to the melanocortin system (MC1R, POMC, PC1/3, PC2 and the antagonist ASIP), which have many pleiotropic effects, are associated with melanogenesis (through variation in the expression of the genes MITF, SLC7A11, TYR, TYRP1) and in turn melanin-based coloration. We considered the tawny owl (Strix aluco) because individuals vary continuously from light to dark reddish, and thus, colour variation is likely to stem from differences in the levels of gene expression. We measured gene expression in feather bases collected in nestlings at the time of melanin production. As expected, the melanocortin system was associated with the expression of melanogenic genes and pigmentation. Offspring of darker reddish fathers expressed PC1/3 to lower levels but tended to express PC2 to higher levels. The convertase enzyme PC1/3 cleaves the POMC prohormone to obtain ACTH, while the convertase enzyme PC2 cleaves ACTH to produce ?-melanin-stimulating hormone (?-MSH). ACTH regulates glucocorticoids, hormones that modulate stress responses, while ?-MSH induces eumelanogenesis. We therefore conclude that the melanocortin system, through the convertase enzymes PC1/3 and PC2, may account for part of the interindividual variation in melanin-based coloration in nestling tawny owls. Pleiotropy may thus account for the covariation between phenotypic traits involved in social interactions (here pigmentation) and life history, morphology, behaviour and physiology. PMID:24033481

  14. Microbial Pigments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sumathy Babitha

    Recent increasing concern regarding the use of edible coloring agents has banned various synthetic coloring agents, which\\u000a have a potential of carcinogenicity and terratogenicity. This circumstance has inevitably increased the demands for safe and\\u000a naturally occurring natural (edible) coloring agents, one of which is pigment from the fungus Monascus purpureus. It has long been known that the microorganisms of the

  15. Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    MedlinePLUS

    ... related Macular Degeneration: What is AMD? In This Topic What is AMD? Wet AMD Dry AMD Risk ... for More Information National Institute on Aging Related Topics Low Vision More Vision Topics The information in ...

  16. Mechanism of Inflammation in Age-Related Macular Degeneration: An Up-to-Date on Genetic Landmarks

    PubMed Central

    Parmeggiani, Francesco; Sorrentino, Francesco S.; Romano, Mario R.; Incorvaia, Carlo; D'Angelo, Sergio; Perri, Paolo; De Nadai, Katia; Bonomo Roversi, Elia; Franceschelli, Paola; Sebastiani, Adolfo

    2013-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of irreversible visual impairment among people over 50 years of age, accounting for up to 50% of all cases of legal blindness in Western countries. Although the aging represents the main determinant of AMD, it must be considered a multifaceted disease caused by interactions among environmental risk factors and genetic backgrounds. Mounting evidence and/or arguments document the crucial role of inflammation and immune-mediated processes in the pathogenesis of AMD. Proinflammatory effects secondary to chronic inflammation (e.g., alternative complement activation) and heterogeneous types of oxidative stress (e.g., impaired cholesterol homeostasis) can result in degenerative damages at the level of crucial macular structures, that is photoreceptors, retinal pigment epithelium, and Bruch's membrane. In the most recent years, the association of AMD with genes, directly or indirectly, involved in immunoinflammatory pathways is increasingly becoming an essential core for AMD knowledge. Starting from the key basic-research notions detectable at the root of AMD pathogenesis, the present up-to-date paper reviews the best-known and/or the most attractive genetic findings linked to the mechanisms of inflammation of this complex disease. PMID:24369445

  17. Immune function is related to adult carotenoid and bile pigment levels, but not to dietary carotenoid access during development, in female mallard ducks.

    PubMed

    Butler, Michael W; McGraw, Kevin J

    2013-07-15

    Immune function can be modulated by multiple physiological factors, including nutrition and reproductive state. Because these factors can vary throughout an individual's lifetime as a result of environmental conditions (affecting nutrition) or life-history stage (e.g. entering the adult reproduction stage), we must carefully examine the degree to which developmental versus adult conditions shape performance of the immune system. We investigated how variation in dietary access to carotenoid pigments - a class of molecules with immunostimulatory properties that females deposit into egg yolks - during three different developmental time points affected adult immunological and reproductive traits in female mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos). In males and females of other avian species, carotenoid access during development affects carotenoid assimilation ability, adult sexual ornamentation and immune function, while carotenoid access during adulthood can increase immune response and reproductive investment (e.g. egg-laying capacity, biliverdin deposition in eggshells). We failed to detect effects of developmental carotenoid supplementation on adult immune function [phytohemagglutinin-induced cutaneous immune response, antibody production in response to the novel antigen keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), or oxidative burst, assessed by changes in circulating nitric oxide levels], carotenoid-pigmented beak coloration, ovarian development, circulating carotenoid levels or concentration of bile pigments in the gall bladder. However, we did uncover positive relationships between circulating carotenoid levels during adulthood and KLH-specific antibody production, and a negative relationship between biliverdin concentration in bile and KLH-specific antibody production. These results are consistent with the view that adult physiological parameters better predict current immune function than do developmental conditions, and highlight a possible, previously unstudied relationship between biliverdin and immune system performance. PMID:23531827

  18. Retinal Temperature Increase during Transpupillary Thermotherapy: Effects of Pigmentation, Subretinal Blood, and Choroidal Blood Flow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael S. Ibarra; Jason Hsu; Naureen Mirza; I-Hui Wu; Gui-shuang Ying; Martin A. Mainster; Michael J. Tolentino

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE. To study the risk of adverse events in transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT) for age-related macular degeneration by measuring how laser-induced retinal temperature increase is affected experimentally by subretinal blood, choroidal blood flow, and chorioretinal pigmentation. METHODS. An ultrafine thermocouple technique was developed to measure retinal temperature increase during TTT in albino and pigmented rabbit eyes. TTT was performed with 60-sec-

  19. Idiopathic macular telangiectasia type 2 (idiopathic juxtafoveolar retinal telangiectasis type 2A, Mac Tel 2).

    PubMed

    Wu, Lihteh; Evans, Teodoro; Arevalo, J Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Macular telangiectasia type 2-also known as idiopathic perifoveal telangiectasia and juxtafoveolar retinal telangiectasis type 2A or Mac Tel 2-is an acquired bilateral neurodegenerative macular disease that usually manifests itself during the fourth to sixth decades of life and is characterized by minimal dilatation of the parafoveal capillaries with graying of the retinal area involved, a lack of lipid exudation, right-angled retinal venules, refractile deposits in the superficial retina, hyperplasia of the retinal pigment epithelium, foveal atrophy, and subretinal neovascularization (SRNV). Optical coherence tomography images typically demonstrate intraretinal hyporeflective spaces that are usually not related to retinal thickening or fluorescein leakage. The typical fluorescein angiographic finding is a deep intraretinal hyperfluorescent leakage in the temporal parafoveal area. With time the leakage may involve the whole parafovea, but does not extend to the center of the fovea. Long-term prognosis for central vision is variable and depends on the development of SRNV or macular atrophy. Pathogenesis remains unclear, but Müller cells and macular pigment appear to play a central role. Currently there is no known treatment for the underlying cause of this condition, but treatment of the SRNV may be beneficial. PMID:24160729

  20. Multimodality imaging in macular telangiectasia 2: A clue to its pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lihteh

    2015-05-01

    Macular telangiectasia type 2 also known as idiopathic perifoveal telangiectasia and juxtafoveolar retinal telangiectasis type 2A is an acquired bilateral neurodegenerative macular disease that manifests itself during the fifth or sixth decades of life. It is characterized by minimal dilatation of the parafoveal capillaries with graying of the retinal area involved, a lack of lipid exudation, right-angled retinal venules, refractile deposits in the superficial retina, hyperplasia of the retinal pigment epithelium, foveal atrophy, and subretinal neovascularization (SRNV). Our understanding of the disease has paralleled advances in multimodality imaging of the fundus. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) images typically demonstrate the presence of intraretinal hyporeflective spaces that are usually not related to retinal thickening or fluorescein leakage. The typical fluorescein angiographic (FA) finding is a deep intraretinal hyperfluorescent staining in the temporal parafoveal area. With time, the staining may involve the whole parafoveal area but does not extend to the center of the fovea. Long-term prognosis for central vision is poor, because of the development of SRNV or macular atrophy. Its pathogenesis remains unclear but multimodality imaging with FA, spectral domain OCT, adaptive optics, confocal blue reflectance and short wave fundus autofluorescence implicate Müller cells and macular pigment. Currently, there is no known treatment for this condition. PMID:26139799

  1. Latanoprost-associated cystoid macular edema

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Callanan; Ronald L Fellman; James A Savage

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To report two cases in which cystoid macular edema developed after initiation of topical latanoprost for glaucoma.Methods: Case reports. One pseudophakic eye in each of two patients treated with latanoprost for glaucoma developed decreased vision and cystoid macular edema. Latanoprost was discontinued, and the cystoid macular edema was treated with topical corticosteroids and ketorolac.Results: After discontinuing latanoprost and starting

  2. Systemic and Ocular Long Pentraxin 3 in Patients with Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Munthe-Fog, Lea; Bastrup-Birk, Simone; Reese-Petersen, Alexander Lynge; Falk, Mads Krüger; Singh, Amardeep; Sřrensen, Torben Lykke; Garred, Peter; Nissen, Mogens Holst

    2015-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) has been associated with both systemic and ocular alterations of the immune system. In particular dysfunction of complement factor H (CFH), a soluble regulator of the alternative pathway of the complement system, has been implicated in AMD pathogenesis. One of the ligands for CFH is long pentraxin 3 (PTX3), which is produced locally in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). To test the hypothesis that PTX3 is relevant to retinal immunohomeostasis and may be associated with AMD pathogenesis, we measured plasma PTX3 protein concentration and analyzed the RPE/choroid PTX3 gene expression in patients with AMD. To measure the ability of RPE cells to secrete PTX3 in vitro, polarized ARPE-19 cells were treated with activated T cells or cytokines (interferon (IFN)-gamma and/or tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha) from the basolateral side; then PTX3 protein concentration in supernatants and PTX3 gene expression in tissue lysates were quantified. Plasma levels of PTX3 were generally low and did not significantly differ between patients and controls (P=0.307). No statistically significant difference was observed between dry and exudative AMD nor was there any correlation with hsCRP or CFH genotype. The gene expression of PTX3 increased in RPE/choroid with age (P=0.0098 macular; P=0.003 extramacular), but did not differ between aged controls and AMD patients. In vitro, ARPE-19 cells increased expression of the PTX3 gene as well PTX3 apical secretions after stimulation with TNF-alpha or activated T cells (P<0.01). These findings indicate that PTX3 expressed in the eye cannot be detected systemically and systemic PTX3 may have little or no impact on disease progression, but our findings do not exclude that locally produced PTX3 produced in the posterior segment of the eye may be part of the AMD immunopathogenesis. PMID:26176960

  3. Effect of ultraviolet radiation on melanogenesis in four different types of cultured bovine ocular pigmented cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monika Sahm; Karin Ute Loeffler; Peter Seifert; Manfred Spitznas

    2001-01-01

    Background: Ultraviolet radiation is thought to play a causative role in various ocular diseases such as macular degeneration, cataract, and possibly melanomas. Since most of the energy is absorbed by pigmented cells, the aim of this study was to examine and compare the reactions of different ocular melanocytic cells to ultraviolet light in vitro. Materials and methods: Bovine iris melanocytes,

  4. Expression of the ETS Transcription Factor ELF3 in the Retinal Pigment Epithelium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Ian Jobling; Zhiping Fang; Daniela Koleski; Martin James Tymms

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE. The ETS family of transcription factors regulate sev- eral critical cellular functions. They have also been implicated in invertebrate ocular development. This work was undertaken to determine whether epithelium-specific ETS transcription factors are expressed in the retinal pigment epithelium and to investigate the possible role of these factors in retinal diseases such as age-related macular degeneration. METHODS. The expression

  5. Transplantation of Autologous Iris Pigment Epithelium After Removal of Choroidal Neovascular Membranes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriele Thumann; Sabine Aisenbrey; Ulrich Schraermeyer; Bart Lafaut; Peter Esser; Peter Walter; Karl Ulrich Bartz-Schmidt

    2000-01-01

    Background: Transplantation of autologous iris pig- ment epithelium (IPE) into the subretinal space has been suggested as one approach for the treatment of age-re- lated macular degeneration, as well as for other condi- tions in which loss of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) occurs. Surgical removal of choroidal neovascular mem- branes is associated with traumatic loss of the RPE cell layer,

  6. High glucose-induced barrier impairment of human retinal pigment epithelium is ameliorated by treatment with Goji berry extracts through modulation of cAMP levels.

    PubMed

    Pavan, Barbara; Capuzzo, Antonio; Forlani, Giuseppe

    2014-03-01

    Human retinal pigment epithelium cells were used to investigate the mechanisms underlying blood-retinal barrier disruption under conditions of chronic hyperglycemia. The treatment with 25 mM glucose caused a rapid drop in the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), which was reversed by the addition of either a methanolic extract from Goji (Lycium barbarum L.) berries or its main component, taurine. Intracellular cAMP levels increased concurrently with the high glucose-induced TEER decrease, and were correlated to an increased activity of the cytosolic isoform of the enzyme adenylyl cyclase. The treatment with plant extract or taurine restored control levels. Data are discussed in view of a possible prevention approach for diabetic retinopathy. PMID:24345371

  7. Statistical physics of age related macular degeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Family, Fereydoon; Mazzitello, K. I.; Arizmendi, C. M.; Grossniklaus, H. E.

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness beyond the age of 50 years. The most common pathogenic mechanism that leads to AMD is choroidal neovascularization (CNV). CNV is produced by accumulation of residual material caused by aging of retinal pigment epithelium cells (RPE). The RPE is a phagocytic system that is essential for renewal of photoreceptors (rods and cones). With time, incompletely degraded membrane material builds up in the form of lipofuscin. Lipofuscin is made of free-radical-damaged protein and fat, which forms not only in AMD, but also Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease. The study of lipofuscin formation and growth is important, because of their association with cellular aging. We introduce a model of non-equilibrium cluster growth and aggregation that we have developed for studying the formation and growth of lipofuscin in the aging RPE. Our results agree with a linear growth of the number of lipofuscin granules with age. We apply the dynamic scaling approach to our model and find excellent data collapse for the cluster size distribution. An unusual feature of our model is that while small particles are removed from the RPE the larger ones become fixed and grow by aggregation.

  8. Pigment vs cholesterol cholelithiasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Glenn L. Goodhart; Matthew E. Levison; Bruce W. Trotman; Roger D. Soloway

    1978-01-01

    Although pigment (calcium bilirubinate) gallstones in Japanese subjects are associated with bacterial infection, the role of infection in Americans with pigment gallstones has not been assessed. Anaerobic and aerobic cultures of gallbladder bile, stone, and wall were obtained at cholecystectomy from nine patients with pigment stones and 25 with cholesterol stones. Among pigment-stone subjects, only 1 of 9 grew organisms

  9. Macular oedema in idiopathic macular telangiectasia type 1 responsive to aflibercept but not bevacizumab.

    PubMed

    Shibeeb, O'Sam; Vaze, Anagha; Gillies, Mark; Gray, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    We report a patient with macular oedema due to type 1 macular telangiectasia responding to intravitreal aflibercept injection. A 51-year-old man was diagnosed with type 1 idiopathic macular telangiectasia (IMT) in the right eye. The macular oedema was refractory to initial treatment with intravitreal bevacizumab and argon laser photocoagulation. The patient was then treated with intravitreal aflibercept injections, following which the macular oedema was completely resolved and his vision was significantly improved. Intravitreal aflibercept injection appears to improve vision and reduce persistent macular oedema secondary to type 1 IMT and demonstrated promising anatomical and visual outcomes. PMID:25349755

  10. Macular Oedema in Idiopathic Macular Telangiectasia Type 1 Responsive to Aflibercept but Not Bevacizumab

    PubMed Central

    Shibeeb, O'Sam; Gillies, Mark; Gray, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    We report a patient with macular oedema due to type 1 macular telangiectasia responding to intravitreal aflibercept injection. A 51-year-old man was diagnosed with type 1 idiopathic macular telangiectasia (IMT) in the right eye. The macular oedema was refractory to initial treatment with intravitreal bevacizumab and argon laser photocoagulation. The patient was then treated with intravitreal aflibercept injections, following which the macular oedema was completely resolved and his vision was significantly improved. Intravitreal aflibercept injection appears to improve vision and reduce persistent macular oedema secondary to type 1 IMT and demonstrated promising anatomical and visual outcomes. PMID:25349755

  11. Macular corneal dystrophy in Iceland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F Jonasson; J H Johannsson; A Garner; N S C Rice

    1989-01-01

    This study includes the fourteen Icelanders who had penetrating keratoplasty for macular corneal dystrophy during 1974 through 1988, and a further five patients whose deterioration of vision has so far not led to surgery. The clinical presentation, mode of inheritance and the course of the disease were similar to those seen in other studies. The genealogical part of this study

  12. From The Cover: A common haplotype in the complement regulatory gene factor H (HF1\\/CFH) predisposes individuals to age-related macular degeneration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory S. Hageman; Don H. Anderson; Lincoln V. Johnson; Lisa S. Hancox; Andrew J. Taiber; Lisa I. Hardisty; Jill L. Hageman; Heather A. Stockman; James D. Borchardt; Karen M. Gehrs; Richard J. H. Smith; Giuliana Silvestri; Stephen R. Russell; Caroline C. W. Klaver; Irene Barbazetto; Stanley Chang; Lawrence A. Yannuzzi; Gaetano R. Barile; John C. Merriam; R. Theodore Smith; Adam K. Olsh; Julie Bergeron; Jana Zernant; Joanna E. Merriam; Bert Gold; Michael Dean; Rando Allikmets

    2005-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most frequent cause of irreversible blindness in the elderly in developed countries. Our previous studies implicated activation of complement in the formation of drusen, the hallmark lesion of AMD. Here, we show that factor H (HF1), the major inhibitor of the alternative complement pathway, accumulates within drusen and is synthesized by the retinal pigmented

  13. Iron upregulates melanogenesis in cultured retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wolkow, Natalie; Li, Yafeng; Maminishkis, Arvydas; Song, Ying; Alekseev, Oleg; Iacovelli, Jared; Song, Delu; Lee, Jennifer C; Dunaief, Joshua L

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of our studies was to examine the relationship between iron and melanogenesis in retinal pigment epithelial cells, as prior observations had suggested that iron may promote melanogenesis. This relationship has potential clinical importance, as both iron overload and hyperpigmentation are associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Human fetal retinal pigment epithelial cells and ARPE-19 cells were treated with iron in the form of ferric ammonium citrate, after which quantitative RT-PCR and electron microscopy were performed. Melanogenesis genes tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein 1, Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome 3, premelanosome protein and dopachrome tautomerase were upregulated, as was the melanogenesis-controlling transcription factor, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). Iron-treated cells had increased pigmentation and melanosome number. Multiple transcription factors upstream of MITF were upregulated by iron. PMID:25277027

  14. Decreased Visual Acuity Associated With Cystoid Macular Edema in Neovascular Age-related Macular Degeneration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Daniel Ting; Mila Oh; Terry A. Cox; Carsten H. Meyer; Cynthia A. Toth

    Objective: To determine the prevalence and visual sig- nificance of cystoid macular edema (CME) in eyes with subfoveal neovascular age-related macular degenera- tion using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Materials and Methods: The medical records of 61 consecutive patients initially seen with nondisciform sub- foveal neovascular age-related macular degeneration were retrospectively reviewed. All patients underwent fluo- rescein angiography and OCT imaging.

  15. Regulation of age-related macular degeneration-like pathology by complement factor H.

    PubMed

    Toomey, Christopher B; Kelly, Una; Saban, Daniel R; Bowes Rickman, Catherine

    2015-06-01

    Complement factor H (CFH) is a major susceptibility gene for age-related macular degeneration (AMD); however, its impact on AMD pathobiology is unresolved. Here, the role of CFH in the development of AMD pathology in vivo was interrogated by analyzing aged Cfh(+/-) and Cfh(-/-) mice fed a high-fat, cholesterol-enriched diet. Strikingly, decreased levels of CFH led to increased sub-retinal pigmented epithelium (sub-RPE) deposit formation, specifically basal laminar deposits, following high-fat diet. Mechanistically, our data show that deposits are due to CFH competition for lipoprotein binding sites in Bruch's membrane. Interestingly and despite sub-RPE deposit formation occurring in both Cfh(+/-) and Cfh(-/-) mice, RPE damage accompanied by loss of vision occurred only in old Cfh(+/-) mice. We demonstrate that such pathology is a function of excess complement activation in Cfh(+/-) mice versus complement deficiency in Cfh(-/-) animals. Due to the CFH-dependent increase in sub-RPE deposit height, we interrogated the potential of CFH as a previously unidentified regulator of Bruch's membrane lipoprotein binding and show, using human Bruch's membrane explants, that CFH removes endogenous human lipoproteins in aged donors. Thus, advanced age, high-fat diet, and decreased CFH induce sub-RPE deposit formation leading to complement activation, which contributes to RPE damage and visual function impairment. This new understanding of the complicated interactions of CFH in AMD-like pathology provides an improved foundation for the development of targeted therapies for AMD. PMID:25991857

  16. Simultaneous indocyanine green and fluorescein angiography in retinal pigment epithelium tear using the confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruth Axer-Siegel; Henia Lichter; Irit Rosenblatt; Ethan Priel; Yuval Yassur; Dov Weinberger

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE:To describe the indocyanine green angiographic pattern of retinal pigment epithelium tears in the setting of age-related macular degeneration compared with the fluorescein angiographic features.METHODS:Twelve consecutive patients (12 eyes) with a retinal pigment epithelium tear underwent simultaneous indocyanine green angiography and fluorescein angiography with the confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope. The findings for the two modes were compared.RESULTS:Choroidal neovascular membrane was

  17. Diabetic Macular Edema: Current and Emerging Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Wenick, Adam S.; Bressler, Neil M.

    2012-01-01

    Diabetic macular edema is a leading cause of vision impairment among people within the working- age population. This review discusses the pathogenesis of diabetic macular edema and the treatment options currently available for the treatment of diabetic macular edema, including for focal/grid photocoagulation, intravitreal corticosteroids and intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents. The biologic rationale for novel therapeutic agents, many of which are currently being evaluated in clinical trials, also is reviewed. PMID:22346109

  18. Evoked responses in patients with macular holes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard G. Smith; George M. Brimlow; Simon J. Hardman Lea; Nicholas R. Galloway

    1990-01-01

    Thirty-two eyes with idiopathic macular holes and one eye with a traumatic macular hole were assessed by pattern-reversal electroretinography, ganzfeld electroretinography and pattern-reversal visual evoked potentials. Results were inspected for qualitative abnormalities and then measured in comparison with fellow eyes and 41 control eyes of similar age. Qualitative abnormalities occurred in some eyes with macular holes, most commonly a reduction

  19. Macular Degeneration Prevention and Risk Factors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Alzheimer’s Disease Research Program Macular Degeneration Research Program National Glaucoma Research Program Molecular Neurodegeneration ... Foundation BrightFocus Foundation 22512 Gateway Center Drive Clarksburg, MD ...

  20. Retinal phagocytes in age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo-Young

    2015-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in industrial countries. Vision loss caused by AMD results from geographic atrophy (dry AMD) and/or choroidal neovascularization (wet AMD). Presently, the etiology and pathogenesis of AMD is not fully understood and there is no effective treatment. Oxidative stress in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells is considered to be one of the major factors contributing to the pathogenesis of AMD. Also retinal glia, as scavengers, are deeply related with diseases and could play a role. Therefore, therapeutic approaches for microglia and Müller glia, as well as RPE, may lead to new strategies for AMD treatment. This review summarizes the pathological findings observed in RPE cells, microglia and Müller glia of AMD murine models.

  1. [Treatment of serous macular retinal detachment with antihistamines].

    PubMed

    Kirschfeld, K

    2015-01-01

    The etiology of retinal detachment in central serous retinopathy (CSR) is unknown; however, three facts are generally accepted: (1) the serous exudate which raises the layers of the receptors/pigment epithelium is formed due to hyperpermeability in the choriocapillaries, (2) patients frequently suffer from headaches and (3) stress promotes the incidence of CSR. A high blood plasma histamine concentration can cause the abovementioned symptoms which suggests that histamine might provoke CSR. Within 1 week after administration of the antihistamine loratadin a considerable reduction in the retinal exudate and restoration of vision were observed. This supports the hypothesis that histamine could be involved in the process of retinal detachment. Further investigations and large scale clinical trials should clarify if this hypothesis can be proved or disproved and whether antihistamines can be used for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). PMID:25278347

  2. A Syndrome Resembling Acute Posterior Multifocal Placoid Pigment Epitheliopathy in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Taich, Alexander; Johnson, Mark W.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To describe clinical characteristics and visual and anatomic outcomes of a syndrome clinically similar to acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy (APMPPE) in older patients. Methods We retrospectively reviewed medical records and photographic studies of consecutive patients over the age of 50 who presented to an academic tertiary care center with acute-onset visual symptoms associated with flat, gray-white lesions at the level of the retinal pigment epithelium reminiscent of APMPPE. Main outcome measures were visual acuity and macular anatomic status at the final follow-up visit. Results The cohort included 4 men and 2 women with a median age of 72.5 (range, 58–82) years. The disease course was characterized by recurrent episodes in 6 of 11 eyes (55%), with initial or eventual bilaterality in all 5 binocular patients. Five of 6 patients were treated with corticosteroids, and all 6 patients experienced significant short-term improvement in visual acuity. However, 8 of 11 eyes (73%) developed progressive geographic atrophy, and 7 (64%) developed choroidal neovascularization. With a mean (± SD) follow-up time of 6.6 ± 5.5 years, the final visual acuity was 20/200 or worse in 8 of 11 eyes (73%). Conclusions Although older patients presenting with APMPPE-like lesions are likely to experience visual improvement as acute lesions resolve, progression to geographic atrophy and choroidal neovascular membrane formation is the usual long-term outcome. PMID:19277221

  3. Cental macular thickness in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus without clinical retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background An increase in macular thickness due to fluid accumulation in the macula in patients with diabetes mellitus. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been shown to be highly reproducible in measuring macular thickness in normal individuals and diabetic patients. OCT can detect subtle changes of macular thickness. The aim of this study is to compare central macular thickness (CMT) of diabetic patients with type 2 diabetes without clinical retinopathy and normal controls, in order to assess possible increased macular thickness associated with diabetes mellitus. Methods Optical coherence tomography (OCT) measurements were performed in 124 eyes of 62 subjects with diabetes mellitus without clinically retinopathy (study group: 39 female, 23 male, mean age: 55.06 ± 9.77 years) and in 120 eyes of 60 healthy subjects (control group: 35 female, 25 male, mean age: 55.78 ± 10.34 years). Blood biochemistry parameters were analyzed in all cases. The data for central macular thickness (at 1 mm) and the levels of the fasting plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were compared in both groups. Results The mean central macular thickness was 232.12 ±24.41 ?m in the study group and 227.19 ± 29.94 ?m in the control group. The mean HbA1c level was 8.92 ± 2.58% in the study group and 5.07 ± 0.70% in the control group (p=0.001). No statistically significant relationship was found between CMT, HbA1c, and fasting plasma glucose level in either group (p=0.05). Conclusions Central macular thickness was not significantly thicker in patients with type 2 diabetes without clinical retinopathy than in healthy subjects. PMID:23570310

  4. Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis (PVNS)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... What is pigmented villonodular synovitis? Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a joint problem that usually affects the ... ankle, elbow, hand or foot. When you have PVNS, the lining of a joint becomes swollen and ...

  5. Laser therapy and macular degeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menchini, Ugo; Virgili, Gianni; Giansanti, Fabrizio; Giacomelli, Giovanni; Cappelli, Stefania

    2001-10-01

    Among macular diseases, choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is one of the most common causes of visual loss, especially in the form associated with age-related macular degeneration and pathologic myopia. Research on these diseases has recently evaluated new treatment modalities that use laser light differently; among these, photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been introduced in the clinical practice, allowing us to expand the possibility of reducing visual loss in patients affected by CNV. With PDT, a photosensitizer (verteporfin, VisudyneTM) is injected intravenously, and it selectively binds to new vessels; low-power laser light exposure then activates the drug, leading to oxidative damage of the endothelium and new vessels thrombosis. Yet, other therapies, such as transpupillary termotherapy, or the use of photocoagulation to cause feeder-vessel occlusion, could proof effective, but they need further investigation.

  6. Combined hamartoma of the retina and retinal pigment epithelium in branchio-otic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kadaba, Priyanka; Arepalli, Sruthi; Shields, Jerry A; Shields, Carol L

    2014-04-01

    A 15-month-old boy with established branchio-otic syndrome was evaluated for decreased red reflex in the left eye. Fundus examination of left eye revealed a gray epiretinal membrane with retinal traction and ill-defined macular thickening, found on ultrasonography as a dense flat region 1.7 mm in thickness. Enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography revealed an epiretinal membrane with macular thickening, retinal folding, and full-thickness retinal disorganization, consistent with combined hamartoma of the retina and retinal pigment epithelium. Over 5 years of follow-up, the branchio-otic syndrome was unchanged and the combined hamartoma remained stable. PMID:24698626

  7. Plant Pigments and Photosynthesis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lesson will examine the two major classes of phototsynthetic pigments, chlorophylls and carotenoids, their biochemical structures and their biosynthesis. The organization of these pigments into photosynthetic pigment, which are protein complexes that harvest light and convert its energy into biochemical energy will be explained.

  8. Characterization of changes in Retinal Pigment Epithelium layer in Choroidal Neovascularization through analysis of Optical Coherence Tomographs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Prashanth; S. V. Paranjape; S. Ghosh; P. K. Dutta; J. Chatterjee

    2010-01-01

    Choroidal Neo-Vascularization (CNV) is a form of Age related Macular Degeneration (AMD) which leads to severe central vision loss. Therefore, it is needed to analyze the alterations that occur during CNV by quantification of the changing parameters. In CNV, the Retinal Pigment Epithelium (RPE) layer undergoes many changes and could be recorded by Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). The highly reflective

  9. The ERCC6 Gene and Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Bergeron-Sawitzke, Julie; Uitterlinden, André G.; Hofman, Albert; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Merriam, Joanna E.; Smith, R. Theodore; Barile, Gaetano R.; ten Brink, Jacoline B.; Vingerling, Johannes R.; Klaver, Caroline C. W.; Allikmets, Rando; Dean, Michael; Bergen, Arthur A. B.

    2010-01-01

    Background Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of irreversible visual loss in the developed countries and is caused by both environmental and genetic factors. A recent study (Tuo et al., PNAS) reported an association between AMD and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (rs3793784) in the ERCC6 (NM_000124) gene. The risk allele also increased ERCC6 expression. ERCC6 is involved in DNA repair and mutations in ERCC6 cause Cockayne syndrome (CS). Amongst others, photosensitivity and pigmentary retinopathy are hallmarks of CS. Methodology/Principal Findings Separate and combined data from three large AMD case-control studies and a prospective population-based study (The Rotterdam Study) were used to analyse the genetic association between ERCC6 and AMD (2682 AMD cases and 3152 controls). We also measured ERCC6 mRNA levels in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells of healthy and early AMD affected human donor eyes. Rs3793784 conferred a small increase in risk for late AMD in the Dutch population (The Rotterdam and AMRO-NL study), but this was not replicated in two non-European studies (AREDS, Columbia University). In addition, the AMRO-NL study revealed no significant association for 9 other variants spanning ERCC6. Finally, we determined that ERCC6 expression in the human RPE did not depend on rs3793784 genotype, but, interestingly, on AMD status: Early AMD-affected donor eyes had a 50% lower ERCC6 expression than healthy donor eyes (P?=?0.018). Conclusions/Significance Our meta-analysis of four Caucasian cohorts does not replicate the reported association between SNPs in ERCC6 and AMD. Nevertheless, our findings on ERCC6 expression in the RPE suggest that ERCC6 may be functionally involved in AMD. Combining our data with those of the literature, we hypothesize that the AMD-related reduced transcriptional activity of ERCC6 may be caused by diverse, small and heterogeneous genetic and/or environmental determinants. PMID:21072178

  10. Systemic bevacizumab (Avastin) therapy for exudative neovascular age-related macular degeneration. The BEAT-AMD-Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K E Schmid-Kubista; I Krebs; B Gruenberger; F Zeiler; J Schueller; S Binder

    2010-01-01

    Background: Double-blinded, randomised, prospective, pilot-study to determine the effect of systemic bevacizu- mab therapy. Methods: Subjects with fibrovascular pigment epithelial detachment, subfoveal choroidal neovascularisation extending under the geometric centre of the foveal avascular zone and\\/or macular thickness of at least 300 mm in both eyes were included. Sixteen eyes were included and randomised equally to receive either three infusions of

  11. Transcriptional regulation of bone morphogenetic protein 4 by tumor necrosis factor and its relationship with age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jing; Zhu, Danhong; He, Shikun; Spee, Christine; Ryan, Stephen J.; Hinton, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP4) may be involved in the molecular switch that determines which late form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) an individual develops. BMP4 expression is high in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells in late, dry AMD patients, while BMP4 expression is low in the wet form of the disease, characterized by choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Here, we sought to determine the mechanism by which BMP4 is down-regulated in CNV. BMP4 expression was decreased within laser-induced CNV lesions in mice at a time when tumor necrosis factor (TNF) expression was high (7 d postlaser) and was reexpressed in RPE when TNF levels declined (14 d postlaser). We found that TNF, an important angiogenic stimulus, significantly down-regulates BMP4 expression in cultured human fetal RPE cells, ARPE-19 cells, and RPE cells in murine posterior eye cup explants. We identified two specificity protein 1 (Sp1) binding sites in the BMP4 promoter that are required for basal expression of BMP4 and its down-regulation by TNF. Through c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) activation, TNF modulates Sp1 phosphorylation, thus decreasing its affinity to the BMP4 promoter. The down-regulation of BMP4 expression by TNF in CNV and mechanisms established might be useful for defining novel targets for AMD therapy.—Xu, J., Zhu, D., He, S., Spee, C., Ryan, S. J., Hinton, D. R. Transcriptional regulation of bone morphogenetic protein 4 by tumor necrosis factor and its relationship with age-related macular degeneration. PMID:21411747

  12. A primer on pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Greenhalgh, David G

    2015-01-01

    There is at least a temporary loss of skin pigmentation with all but first-degree burns. Commonly, pigment changes persist for months, and sometimes, permanent changes in skin color add to the ultimate change in appearance that commonly affects burn patients. There are many different treatment modalities for the treatment of pigment changes, but most of them have little scientific basis and often lead to disappointing results. The purpose of this review is to discuss the molecular and cellular mechanisms of skin pigmentation, mechanisms of repigmentation after burns, treatment options for dealing with pigmentation changes, and advice for dealing with the sun after burn injury. PMID:25501768

  13. Macular degeneration: recent advances and therapeutic opportunities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amir Rattner; Jeremy Nathans

    2006-01-01

    The central retina mediates high acuity vision, and its progressive dysfunction due to macular degeneration is the leading cause of visual disability among adults in industrialized societies. Here, we summarize recent progress in understanding the pathophysiology of macular degeneration and the implications of this new knowledge for treatment and prevention. The past decade has witnessed remarkable advances in this field,

  14. New Examination Methods for Macular Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akitoshi Yoshida

    2001-01-01

    To establish a diagnosis or evaluate the efficacy of treatment for macular disorders, we need methods to evaluate the anatomical and functional changes of these disorders. In this article, we describe several studies that we have conducted for 2 years. In section 1, we report our new methods for making a diagnosis and evaluating visual function in macular disorders. In

  15. Classification of wet aged related macular degeneration using optical coherence tomographic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haq, Anam; Mir, Fouwad Jamil; Yasin, Ubaid Ullah; Khan, Shoab A.

    2013-12-01

    Wet Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is a type of age related macular degeneration. In order to detect Wet AMD we look for Pigment Epithelium detachment (PED) and fluid filled region caused by choroidal neovascularization (CNV). This form of AMD can cause vision loss if not treated in time. In this article we have proposed an automated system for detection of Wet AMD in Optical coherence tomographic (OCT) images. The proposed system extracts PED and CNV from OCT images using segmentation and morphological operations and then detailed feature set are extracted. These features are then passed on to the classifier for classification. Finally performance measures like accuracy, sensitivity and specificity are calculated and the classifier delivering the maximum performance is selected as a comparison measure. Our system gives higher performance using SVM as compared to other methods.

  16. [Age-related macular degeneration].

    PubMed

    Budzinskaia, M V

    2014-01-01

    The review provides an update on the pathogenesis and new treatment modalities for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The impact of polymorphism in particular genes, including complement factor H (CFH), age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 (ARMS2/LOC387715), and serine peptidase (HTRA1), on AMD development is discussed. Clinical presentations of different forms of exudative AMD, that is classic, occult, or more often mixed choroidal neovascularization, retinal angiomatous proliferation, and choroidal polypoidal vasculopathy, are described. Particular attention is paid to the results of recent clinical trials and safety issues around the therapy. PMID:25715554

  17. Congenital high myopia and central macular atrophy: a report of 3 families.

    PubMed

    Hull, S; Kalhoro, A; Marr, J; Thompson, D A; Holder, G E; Robson, A G; Moore, A T

    2015-07-01

    AimsTo report the clinical phenotype in a series of four children from three families with the rare association of high myopia, central macular atrophy, and normal full-field electroretinography (ERG).MethodsFour male patients were ascertained with reduced vision, nystagmus, and atrophy of the macula from early childhood. Patients underwent full ophthalmic examination, electrophysiological testing, and retinal imaging.ResultsMinimum duration of follow-up was 8 years. At last review, visual acuity ranged from 0.22 to 1.20 logMAR (6/9.5-6/95 Snellen) at a mean age of 10.5 years (median 9.5 years, range 9-14 years). Refractive error ranged from a spherical equivalent of -7.40?D to -24.00?D. Three had convergent squint. Fundus examination and imaging demonstrated bilateral macular atrophy in all patients that varied from mild atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) to well-demarcated, punched-out atrophic lesions of retina, RPE, and choroid. Flash ERG was normal under photopic and scotopic conditions in all patients. Pattern ERG, performed in three patients, was consistent with mild to severe macular dysfunction. Progression of the area of atrophy was evident in one patient and of the myopia in two patients but all patients had stable visual acuity.ConclusionsPatients with congenital high myopia and macular atrophy present in infancy with reduced visual acuity and nystagmus. The macular atrophic lesions vary in size and severity but electrophysiological testing is consistent with dysfunction confined to the macula. There was no deterioration in visual acuity over 8-10 years of monitoring. PMID:25998941

  18. Vitreous Levels of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Stromal-Derived Factor 1 in Patients With Diabetic Retinopathy and Cystoid Macular Edema Before and After Intraocular Injection of Triamcinolone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Logan; Sergio Caballero; Charles K. Newell; Robert L. Steinmetz; Debbie Watson; Mark S. Segal; Jeffrey K. Harrison; Edward W. Scott; Maria B. Grant

    2004-01-01

    Background:Diffuse macular edema (DME) and\\/or ab- errantneovascularization(NV)cancausevisionlossindia- betic retinopathy (DR) and may be modulated by growth factorsandchemokines.Thechemokinestromal-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) is a potent stimulator of vascular endo- thelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, the main effec- tor of NV, and the key inducer of vascular permeability associatedwithDME.Circulatingendothelialcellprecur- sors migrating in response to SDF-1 participate in NV. Objective:ToinvestigatetherelationshipbetweenSDF-1 and (VEGF) in vitreous

  19. Hyperactivation of retina by light in mice leads to photoreceptor cell death mediated by VEGF and retinal pigment epithelium permeability

    PubMed Central

    Cachafeiro, M; Bemelmans, A-P; Samardzija, M; Afanasieva, T; Pournaras, J-A; Grimm, C; Kostic, C; Philippe, S; Wenzel, A; Arsenijevic, Y

    2013-01-01

    Light toxicity is suspected to enhance certain retinal degenerative processes such as age-related macular degeneration. Death of photoreceptors can be induced by their exposure to the visible light, and although cellular processes within photoreceptors have been characterized extensively, the role of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in this model is less well understood. We demonstrate that exposition to intense light causes the immediate breakdown of the outer blood–retinal barrier (BRB). In a molecular level, we observed the slackening of adherens junctions tying up the RPE and massive leakage of albumin into the neural retina. Retinal pigment epithelial cells normally secrete vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) at their basolateral side; light damage in contrast leads to VEGF increase on the apical side – that is, in the neuroretina. Blocking VEGF, by means of lentiviral gene transfer to express an anti-VEGF antibody in RPE cells, inhibits outer BRB breakdown and retinal degeneration, as illustrated by functional, behavioral and morphometric analysis. Our data show that exposure to high levels of visible light induces hyperpermeability of the RPE, likely involving VEGF signaling. The resulting retinal edema contributes to irreversible damage to photoreceptors. These data suggest that anti-VEGF compounds are of therapeutic interest when the outer BRB is altered by retinal stresses. PMID:23990021

  20. Differential Accumulation and Pigmenting Ability of Dietary Carotenoids in Colorful Finches

    E-print Network

    Navara, Kristen

    484 Differential Accumulation and Pigmenting Ability of Dietary Carotenoids in Colorful Finches carotenoid pigmentation that they use to attract mates. Colorful carotenoid pigments are acquired from sources, it is possible that these pigments are accumulated at different levels in the body and may play

  1. Celastrol regulates innate immunity response via NF-?B and Hsp70 in human retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Paimela, Tuomas; Hyttinen, Juha M T; Viiri, Johanna; Ryhänen, Tuomas; Karjalainen, Reijo O; Salminen, Antero; Kaarniranta, Kai

    2011-11-01

    Elevated nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) activity and interleukin-6 (IL-6) secretion participates in the pathology of several age and inflammatory-related diseases, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD), in which retinal pigment epithelial cells are the key target. Recent findings reveal that heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) may affect regulation of NF-?B. In the current study, effects of Hsp70 expression on NF-?B RelA/p65 activity were evaluated in human retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19) by using celastrol, a novel anti-inflammatory compound. Anti-inflammatory properties of celastrol were determined by measuring expression levels of IL-6 and endogenous NF-?B levels during lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Cell viability was measured by MTT and LDH assay, and Hsp70 expression levels were analyzed by Western blotting. ARPE-19 cells were transfected with hsp70 small interfering RNA (siRNA) in order to attenuate Hsp70 expression and activity of NF-?B RelA/p65 was measured using NF-?B consensus bound ELISA. Simultaneous exposures to LPS and celastrol reduced IL-6 expression levels as well as activity of phosphorylated NF-?B at serine 536 (Ser536) in ARPE-19 cells when compared to LPS exposure alone. In addition, inhibition of NF-?B RelA/p65 activity by celastrol was attenuated when Hsp70 response was silenced by siRNA. Favorable anti-inflammatory concentrations of celastrol showed no signs of cytotoxic response. Our findings reveal that celastrol is a novel plant compound which suppresses innate immunity response in human retinal pigment epithelial cells via NF-?B and Hsp70 regulation, and that Hsp70 is a critical regulator of NF-?B. PMID:21683142

  2. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor deficiency causes dysregulated cellular matrix metabolism and age-related macular degeneration-like pathology

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Peng; Herrmann, Rolf; Bednar, Amanda; Saloupis, Peter; Dwyer, Mary A.; Yang, Ping; Qi, Xiaoping; Thomas, Russell S.; Jaffe, Glenn J.; Boulton, Michael E.; McDonnell, Donald P.; Malek, Goldis

    2013-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a nuclear receptor that regulates xenobiotic metabolism and detoxification. Herein, we report a previously undescribed role for the AhR signaling pathway as an essential defense mechanism in the pathogenesis of early dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of vision loss in the elderly. We found that AhR activity and protein levels in human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, cells vulnerable in AMD, decrease with age. This finding is significant given that age is the most established risk factor for development of AMD. Moreover, AhR?/? mice exhibit decreased visual function and develop dry AMD-like pathology, including disrupted RPE cell tight junctions, accumulation of RPE cell lipofuscin, basal laminar and linear-like deposit material, Bruch’s membrane thickening, and progressive RPE and choroidal atrophy. High-serum low-density lipoprotein levels were also observed in AhR?/? mice. In its oxidized form, this lipoprotein can stimulate increased secretion of extracellular matrix molecules commonly found in deposits from RPE cells, in an AhR-dependent manner. This study demonstrates the importance of cellular clearance via the AhR signaling pathway in dry AMD pathogenesis, implicating AhR as a potential target, and the mouse model as a useful platform for validating future therapies. PMID:24106308

  3. Extreme retinal remodeling triggered by light damage: implications for age related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Jones, B.W.; Watt, C.B.; Vazquez-Chona, F.; Vaughan, D.K.; Organisciak, D.T.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Our objective was to comprehensively assess the nature and chronology of neural remodeling in retinal degenerations triggered by light-induced retinal damage (LIRD) in adult albino rodents. Our primary hypothesis is that all complete photoreceptor degenerations devolve to extensive remodeling. An hypothesis emergent from data analysis is that the LIRD model closely mimics late-stage atrophic age relared macular degeneration (AMD). Methods Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats received intense light exposures of varied durations and survival times ranging from 0 to 240 days. Remodeling was visualized by computational molecular phenotyping (CMP) of a small molecule library: 4-aminobutyrate (?), arginine (R), aspartate (D), glutamate (E), glutamine (Q), glutathione (J), glycine (G), and taurine (?). This library was augmented by probes for key proteins such as rod opsin, cone opsin and cellular retinal binding protein (CRALBP). Quantitative CMP was used to profile 160 eyes from 86 animals in over 6,000 sections. Results The onset of remodeling in LIRD retinas is rapid, with immediate signs of metabolic stress in photoreceptors, the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE), the choriocapillaris, and Müller cells. In particular, anomalous elevated aspartate levels appear to be an early stress marker in photoreceptors. After the stress phase, LIRD progresses to focal photoreceptor degeneration within 14 days and extensive remodeling by 60 days. RPE and choriocapillaris losses parallel Müller cell distal seal formation, with progressive neuronal migration, microneuroma evolution, fluid channel formation, and slow neuronal death. The remaining retina in advanced light damage can be classified as survivor, light damage (LD), or decimated zones where massive Müller cell and neuronal emigration into the choroid leaves a retina depleted of neurons and Müller cells. These zones and their transitions closely resemble human geographic atrophy. Across these zones, Müller cells manifest extreme changes in the definitive Müller cell ?QE signature, as well as CRALBP and arginine signals. Conclusions LIRD retinas manifest remodeling patterns of genetic retinal degeneration models, but involve no developmental complexities, and are ultimately more aggressive, devastating the remaining neural retina. The decimation of the neural retina via cell emigration through the perforated retina-choroid interface is a serious denouement. If focal remodeling in LIRD accurately profiles late stage atrophic age-related macular degenerations, it augurs poorly for simple molecular interventions. Indeed, the LIRD profile in the SD rat manifests more similarities to advanced human atrophic AMD than most genetically or immunologically induced murine models of AMD. PMID:18483561

  4. Macular full-thickness and lamellar holes in association with type 2 idiopathic macular telangiectasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P Charbel Issa; H P N Scholl; A Gaudric; P Massin; A E Kreiger; S Schwartz; F G Holz

    2009-01-01

    PurposeTo describe patients with full-thickness macular holes (FTMHs) and lamellar macular holes (LMHs) in association with type 2 idiopathic macular telangiectasia (type 2 IMT).MethodsSix patients with either FTMH or LMH and type 2 IMT were evaluated by means of optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging, funduscopy, and fluorescein angiography.ResultsThe age of the examined patients ranged from 57 to 70 years (mean

  5. Hydroxytyrosol protects retinal pigment epithelial cells from acrolein-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhongbo Liu; Lijuan Sun; Lu Zhu; Xu Jia; Xuesen Li; Haiqun Jia; Ying Wang; Peter Weber; Jiangang Long; Jiankang Liu

    2007-01-01

    Hydroxytyrosol (HTS) is a natural polyphenol abundant in olive oil. Increasing evidence indicates HTS has beneficial effect on human health for preventing various diseases. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of HTS on acrolein-induced toxicity in human retinal pigment epithelial cell line, ARPE-19, a cellular model of smoking- and age-related macular degeneration. Acrolein, a major compo- nent

  6. Original article Thoracic trident pigmentation

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Thoracic trident pigmentation in Drosophila melanogaster: latitudinal. Significant clines of increasing pigmentation were observed according to latitude and altitude. A multiple regression technique permitted improve- ment of the relationship between pigmentation and geographic

  7. Quantitative Fundus Autofluorescence and Optical Coherence Tomography in Best Vitelliform Macular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Duncker, Tobias; Greenberg, Jonathan P.; Ramachandran, Rithambara; Hood, Donald C.; Smith, R. Theodore; Hirose, Tatsuo; Woods, Russell L.; Tsang, Stephen H.; Delori, François C.; Sparrow, Janet R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Quantitative fundus autofluorescence (qAF), spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) segmentation, and multimodal imaging were performed to elucidate the pathogenesis of Best vitelliform macular dystrophy (BVMD) and to identify abnormalities in lesion versus nonlesion fundus areas. Methods. Sixteen patients with a clinical diagnosis of BVMD were studied. Autofluorescence images (30°, 488-nm excitation) were acquired with a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope equipped with an internal fluorescent reference to account for variable laser power and detector sensitivity. The grey levels (GLs) of each image were calibrated to the reference, zero GL, magnification, and normative optical media density, to yield qAF. Horizontal SD-OCT scans were obtained and retinal layers manually segmented. Additionally, color and near-infrared reflectance (NIR-R) images were registered to AF images. All patients were screened for mutations in BEST1. In three additional BVMD patients, in vivo spectrofluorometric measurements were obtained within the vitelliform lesion. Results. Mean nonlesion qAF was within normal limits for age. Maximum qAF within the lesion was markedly increased compared with controls. By SD-OCT segmentation, outer segment equivalent thickness was increased and outer nuclear layer thickness decreased in the lesion. Changes were also present in a transition zone beyond the lesion border. In subclinical patients, no abnormalities in retinal layer thickness were identified. Fluorescence spectra recorded from the vitelliform lesion were consistent with those of retinal pigment epithelial cell lipofuscin. Conclusions. Based on qAF, mutations in BEST1 do not cause increased lipofuscin levels in nonlesion fundus areas. PMID:24526438

  8. What Is Age-Related Macular Degeneration?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to Z Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) Allergies Amblyopia (Lazy Eye) Astigmatism Bacterial Keratitis Bell's Palsy Blepharitis ... Refractive Surgery & LASIK Sunglasses Living EyeSmart About Ophthalmologists Adults Under 40 Adults 40 to 60 Adults Over ...

  9. The use of pigment \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Bustillos-Guzmán; I. Gárate-Lizárraga; D. López-Cortés; F. Hernández-Sandoval

    2004-01-01

    Along the Mexican coast, harmful algae blooms (HAB) have become more frequent, and therefore, there is an urgent need to establish monitoring programs to avoid the undesired consequences of HAB in human and natural ecosystems. In this work, we analyzed the pigment signatures and the species composition from phy- toplankton samples to evaluate the utility of the specific pigment \\

  10. [Pathophysiology of macular diseases--morphology and function].

    PubMed

    Iida, Tomohiro

    2011-03-01

    Ophthalmic fundus imaging plays an important role in the advances in the pathophysiology of retinal diseases. Using fundus imaging, we studied morphological changes in the choroid, subretinal pathophysiology and photoreceptor and retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell damage, and functional abnormalities of photoreceptor cells in macular diseases. To evaluate the choroidal changes, we performed enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT) for macular diseases. Choroidal thickness both in the affected eyes and in the fellow eyes with choroidal vascular hyperpermeability was thicker in patients with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). Photodynamic therapy (PDT) reduced the hyperpermeability and led to choroidal thinning in eyes with CSC, whereas laser photocoagulation did not result in any change in choroidal thickness, suggesting different mechanism of action for these two forms of treatment. PDT also decreased choroidal thickness in eyes with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy. These findings will help to elucidate the pathophysiologic features of CSC as well as responses to treatment. Patients with acute Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease have markedly thickened choroids. Both the choroidal thickness and the retinal detachment in these patients decreased quickly with corticosteroid treatment. EDI-OCT can be used to evaluate the choroidal involvement in VKH disease in acute stages and may prove useful in the diagnosis and management of this disease. Dome-shaped macula is the result of a localized thickening of the sclera under the macula in highly myopic patients, and it cannot be categorized into any known type of staphyloma. EDI-OCT is helpful in monitoring the proposed site of pathophysiologic changes in the choroid and the sclera, and provides noninvasively information not available by other means. To clarify the subretinal changes and the mechanism of cell damage in macular detachment, we studied the clinical characteristics of yellow deposits (multiple dot-like yellow precipitates and subretinal yellow material) seen in CSC using fundus autofluorescence and OCT. The yellow deposits had highly reflective tissue in the intraretinal and subretinal spaces seen on OCT and hyperfluorescence on short-wave autofluorescence (SW-AF) examinations during the follow-up period. These findings may indicate that formations of yellow deposits are associated with the accumulation of the photoreceptor outer segments and metabolism and phagocytosis by macrophages or RPE cells. SW-AF also demonstrated a hypofluorescence corresponding to the accumulated areas of yellow deposits during the long term followup period. Another study using infrared autofluorescence examination demonstrated that the yellow deposits induced a decrease in melanin and the functional decline of RPE cells in CSC. These may indicate that the existence of depositions in eyes with CSC is associated with photoreceptor and RPE cells damage. Similar yellow deposits can also be seen in eyes with macular detachment, e. g. branch retinal vein occlusion. We report a new method of retinal densitometry using SW-AF examination by scanning laser ophthalmoscope. We named the technique autofluorescence densitometry (AFD). This technique can evaluate photopigment density from serial SW-AF images during exposure to excitation light. This new technique can examine a much broader macular area and create a distribution map of optical density of the photopigments. It is also easy to compare the distribution of the photopigment densities with other retinal imaging devices such as OCT. To investigate functional abnormalities in eyes with CSC, we measured the optical density of the photopigments using AFD in both the acute and quiescent phase. The photopigment density decreased at the serous retinal detachment. The density remained decreased immediately after resolution and showed delayed recovery. The photopigments decreased even in eyes with a morphologic recovery of the outer retina. AFD could identify the functional impairment of the outer retina as characterized by

  11. Systemically transferred hematopoietic stem cells home to the subretinal space and express RPE-65 in a mouse model of retinal pigment epithelium damage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pelin Atmaca-Sonmez; Yang Li; Yasuyuki Yamauchi; Carrie L. Schanie; Suzanne T. Ildstad; Henry J. Kaplan; Volker Enzmann

    2006-01-01

    Stem cell regeneration of damaged tissue has recently been reported in many different organs. Since the loss of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in the eye is associated with a major cause of visual loss – specifically, age-related macular degeneration – we investigated whether hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) given systemically can home to the damaged subretinal space and express markers of

  12. Optical Coherence Tomography of Bilateral Nanophthalmos with Macular Folds and High Hyperopia

    PubMed Central

    Kapran, Ziya; Sencan, Sadik; Uyar, Murat; Cam, Ozlem

    2014-01-01

    Importance. There is a conflict about the content of the macular folds in nanophthalmic eyes in the literature. Our study clearly demonstrated that papillomacular folds seen in nanophthalmos or posterior microphthalmos were only composed of neurosensory retina without involvement of retinal pigment epithelium and choroid. Observations. This is a report of two consecutive nanophthalmic patients with macular folds at Maltepe University School of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology, from January to June 2012. Anterior segment dimensions were near normal. The axial lengths of the eyes were short with markedly shortened posterior segment. A macular fold extending from the center of the fovea towards the optic nerve head was present in all eyes. Optic coherence tomography clearly demonstrated that folds were only composed of neurosensory retina. Binocular visual acuities and refractive errors of the cases were 0.3, 0.2 and +16.00, +15.75 diopters, respectively. Conclusions and Relevance. Our study proposes a surgical option to treat these folds like serous retinal detachments by showing the true content of the folds, although there is not any surgical operation accepted for this condition yet. Further studies dealing with the surgical interventions of these folds should be performed to support this option. PMID:25197593

  13. Regulation of age-related macular degeneration-like pathology by complement factor H

    PubMed Central

    Toomey, Christopher B.; Kelly, Una; Saban, Daniel R.; Bowes Rickman, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Complement factor H (CFH) is a major susceptibility gene for age-related macular degeneration (AMD); however, its impact on AMD pathobiology is unresolved. Here, the role of CFH in the development of AMD pathology in vivo was interrogated by analyzing aged Cfh+/? and Cfh?/? mice fed a high-fat, cholesterol-enriched diet. Strikingly, decreased levels of CFH led to increased sub-retinal pigmented epithelium (sub-RPE) deposit formation, specifically basal laminar deposits, following high-fat diet. Mechanistically, our data show that deposits are due to CFH competition for lipoprotein binding sites in Bruch’s membrane. Interestingly and despite sub-RPE deposit formation occurring in both Cfh+/? and Cfh?/? mice, RPE damage accompanied by loss of vision occurred only in old Cfh+/? mice. We demonstrate that such pathology is a function of excess complement activation in Cfh+/? mice versus complement deficiency in Cfh?/? animals. Due to the CFH-dependent increase in sub-RPE deposit height, we interrogated the potential of CFH as a previously unidentified regulator of Bruch’s membrane lipoprotein binding and show, using human Bruch’s membrane explants, that CFH removes endogenous human lipoproteins in aged donors. Thus, advanced age, high-fat diet, and decreased CFH induce sub-RPE deposit formation leading to complement activation, which contributes to RPE damage and visual function impairment. This new understanding of the complicated interactions of CFH in AMD-like pathology provides an improved foundation for the development of targeted therapies for AMD. PMID:25991857

  14. Common Origin of Pigment Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph T. Bagnara; Jiro Matsumoto; Wayne Ferris; Sally K. Frost; William A. Turner Jr.; T. T. Tchen; John D. Taylor

    1979-01-01

    The fundamentally diverse vertebrate pigment cells, melanophores, xanthophores, and iridophores, contain pigmentary organelles known, respectively, as melanosomes, pterinosomes, and reflecting platelets. Their pigments are melanins, pteridines, and purines. Mosaic pigment cells containing more than one type of organelle have been observed and mosaic organelles containing more than one type of pigment have been discovered. It is proposed that the various

  15. The pathogenesis and clinical presentation of macular edema in inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Guex-Crosier, Y

    1999-01-01

    Cystoid macular edema (CME) is a classical complication of ocular inflammation. This syndrome was already described by Irvine in 1953 but the pathogenesis of this condition remains unclear. Cystoid macular edema can result either from a rupture of the inner or from the outer blood ocular barrier. Clinical CME that is responsible for a low visual acuity must be differentiated from angiographic CME that can be present even without any decrease in visual acuity. Fluid progressively accumulates into the outer plexiform layer of the retina and pools into cystic spaces. Fluid accumulation can now be better seen with optical coherence tomography (OCT). In chronic CME fluid accumulation is associated with thinning of the retina and fibrosis. At this stage irreversible lesions are present and CME does not respond to medical therapies. Inflammatory CME must be differentiated from CME resulting from irreversible vascular damage such as in diabetic CME or due to vein occlusions. Experimental research on cystoid macular edema has been hampered by the lack of animal model: most of laboratory animals have no macula, monkeys appear to be highly resistant to macular edema. Five major causes have been suspected to be at the origin of CME: (1) photic retinopathy, (2) trauma of ocular tissue, (3) secondary irritation of the ciliary body, (4) vitreous traction and (5) pharmaceutically induced CME. Clinical experience has shown that pseudophakic CME usually responds well to local therapy of steroids and non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and/or in association with systemic acetazolamide. Acetazolamide is increasing fluid resorption through the retinal pigment epithelium. Postoperative CME rarely needs additional posterior subtenon's injections to resolve. But in CME occurring secondary to uveitis additional posterior sub-Tenon's steroid injections or systemic steroids may be necessary to decrease the constant release of inflammatory mediators. PMID:10896343

  16. Pigment-protein complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Siegelman, H W

    1980-01-01

    The photosynthetically-active pigment protein complexes of procaryotes and eucaryotes include chlorophyll proteins, carotenochlorophyll proteins, and biliproteins. They are either integral components or attached to photosynthetic membranes. Detergents are frequently required to solubilize the pigment-protein complexes. The membrane localization and detergent solubilization strongly suggest that the pigment-protein complexes are bound to the membranes by hydrophobic interactions. Hydrophobic interactions of proteins are characterized by an increase in entropy. Their bonding energy is directly related to temperature and ionic strength. Hydrophobic-interaction chromatography, a relatively new separation procedure, can furnish an important method for the purification of pigment-protein complexes. Phycobilisome purification and properties provide an example of the need to maintain hydrophobic interactions to preserve structure and function.

  17. DICER1 loss and Alu RNA induce age-related macular degeneration via the NLRP3 inflammasome and MyD88

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V Tarallo; Y Hirano; BD Gelfand; S Dridi; N Kerur; Y Kim; WG Cho; H Kaneko; BJ Fowler; S Bogdanovich; RJ Albuquerque; WW Hauswirth; VA Chiodo; JF Kugel; JA Goodrich; SL Ponicsan; G Chaudhuri; MP Murphy; JL Dunaief; BK Ambati; Y Ogura; JW Yoo; DK Lee; P Provost; Hinton; G Nunez; JZ Baffi; ME Kleinman; J Ambati

    2012-01-01

    Alu RNA accumulation due to DICER1 deficiency in the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) is implicated in geographic atrophy (GA), an advanced form of age-related macular degeneration that causes blindness in millions of individuals. The mechanism of Alu RNA-induced cytotoxicity is unknown. Here we show that DICER1 deficit or Alu RNA exposure activates the NLRP3 inflammasome and triggers TLR-independent MyD88 signaling

  18. Pigments Through the Ages

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This fascinating online exhibit deals with the use of pigment and provides visitors with an "Overview", "History of Use", "Making the Pigment" and "Technical Details" for dozens of pigments that are "some of the most historically important in art". Visitors can click on "Choose a Pigment" to see a 3D image of such beauties as Cerulean Blue, Ultramarine, Naples Yellow, and Orpiment. Visitors can see a timeline of when these pigments were discovered, if they have continued being used, and in what form, artificial or natural. Carbon Black and Bone Black were the earliest pigments, and are still used today, and Titanium White is the most recent discovery, and it came into existence in 1921. The "Make Paintings" link is where visitors will probably have the most fun on the site, as they can see the progress of a painting in watercolor, pastels, oil, acrylic and the now little used method of egg tempera. Additionally, each technique is explained in detail, highlighted by photos that visitors can zoom in on for closer scrutiny.

  19. Dynamics of the Macular Hole-Silicone Oil Tamponade Interface with Patient Positioning as Imaged by Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Oster, Stephen F.; Mojana, Francesca; Bartsch, Dirk-Uwe G.; Goldbaum, Michael; Freeman, William R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate with spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) the relationship between the retina and overlying silicone oil tamponade after macular hole surgery, and to evaluate how this relationship changes with patient positioning. Patients and Methods Retrospective consecutive case series of 10 eyes from 9 patients who underwent macular hole surgery with silicone oil tamponade and subsequent SD-OCT scans. Four of the included eyes were also imaged with patients in face-down posture to determine if the silicone-retina apposition changes with prone positioning. Finally, a single patient was additionally scanned in the lateral and supine positions. Results The posterior surface of the silicone oil bubble was well visualized in all 10 eyes. In the majority of eyes (7/10) the oil tamponade bridged across the macular hole creating a pre-foveal fluid space, but in 3 eyes the silicone oil filled the macular hole and was seen in touch with the underlying foveal depression or retinal pigment epithelium. In 75% of eyes (3/4) the silicone oil-retinal approximation did not vary with face-down position. Supine positioning clearly floated the silicone tamponade anteriorly and off of the retinal surface. Conclusions Silicone oil tamponade can either bridge across macular holes, or in a novel finding, can fill the underlying foveal depression or macular hole space. Generally, the oil position is stable between face-forward and prone SD-OCT images, suggesting that either of these patient positions allows waterproofing of the underlying macular hole. Finally, our images confirm that supine positioning should be avoided post-operatively as it leads to loss of oil-retinal tamponade. PMID:20531144

  20. The Impact of the Macular Photocoagulation Study Results on the Treatment of Exudative Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph Moisseiev; Amir Alhalel; Ronen Masuri; Giora Treister

    Objective: To determine the percent of cases with all pri- mary forms of exudative age-related macular degenera- tion that are eligible for treatment by the Macular Photo- coagulation Study (MPS) guidelines in a retina clinic serving both as a primary care center and as a referral center. Design: Fluorescein angiograms of patients with age- related macular degeneration examined at the

  1. Toxicity and detoxification of lipid-derived aldehydes in cultured retinal pigmented epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, S; Xiao, T; Srivastava, S; Zhang, W; Chan, L L; Vergara, L A; Van Kuijk, F J G M; Ansari, N H

    2005-04-15

    Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the developed world and yet its pathogenesis remains poorly understood. Retina has high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and functions under conditions of oxidative stress. To investigate whether peroxidative products of PUFAs induce apoptosis in retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells and possibly contribute to ARMD, human retinal pigmented epithelial cells (ARPE-19) were exposed to micromolar concentrations of H2O2, 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) and 4-hydroxyhexenal (HHE). A concentration- and time-dependent increase in H2O2-, HNE-, and HHE-induced apoptosis was observed when monitored by quantifying DNA fragmentation as determined by ELISA, flow cytometry, and Hoechst staining. The broad-spectrum inhibitor of apoptosis Z-VAD inhibited apoptosis. Treatment of RPE cells with a thionein peptide prior to exposure to H2O2 or HNE reduced the formation of protein-HNE adducts as well as alteration in mitochondrial membrane potential and apoptosis. Using 3H-HNE, various metabolic pathways to detoxify HNE by ARPE-19 cells were studied. The metabolites were separated by HPLC and characterized by ElectroSpray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MS) and gas chromatography-MS. Three main metabolic routes of HNE detoxification were detected: (1) conjugation with glutathione (GSH) to form GS-HNE, catalyzed by glutathione-S-transferase (GST), (2) reduction of GS-HNE catalyzed by aldose reductase, and (3) oxidation of HNE catalyzed by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). Preventing HNE formation by a combined strategy of antioxidants, scavenging HNE by thionein peptide, and inhibiting apoptosis by caspase inhibitors may offer a potential therapy to limit retinal degeneration in ARMD. PMID:15808518

  2. Macular grid laser photocoagulation in uveitis.

    PubMed Central

    Suttorp-Schulten, M S; Feron, E; Postema, F; Kijlstra, A; Rothova, A

    1995-01-01

    AIMS/BACKGROUND--The aim of this study was to evaluate whether grid laser photocoagulation of the macula is beneficial in the treatment of cystoid macular oedema in patients with uveitis. METHODS--Six eyes of five patients with long standing cystoid macular oedema due to chronic uveitis were treated by grid laser photocoagulation of the macula. RESULTS--In the first weeks after treatment a temporary increase of oedema and paracentral scotomas were observed. At the long term follow up of more than 18 months in all patients, macular oedema had been reduced significantly or disappeared in all eyes treated. One eye had a significant increase in Snellen acuity, three eyes more or less stabilised, and two eyes deteriorated. CONCLUSION--The beneficial effect of laser treatment on visual acuity in patients with uveitis might be more favourable if performed at an earlier stage of the disease. Images PMID:7488600

  3. Macular injury by an Nd:YAG rangefinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roider, Johann; Buesgen, Patrick; Hoerauf, Hans; Laqua, Horst; Birngruber, Reginald

    1999-06-01

    The authors report the clinical findings of a civilian patient who unintentionally looked into the laser beam of a British range finder, obtained on the black market. The patient was investigated by fluorescein angiography. Indocyanine green angiography (ICG) and microperimetry both in the acute stage (2 hours) and four weeks later. Hundred mg prednisone tapered over 9 days was prescribed. Additionally 50 ?g tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) and 0.5 ml pure C2F6 were injected in the vitreous. In the acute phase hemorrhage was located beneath the retina, primarily beneath the retinal pigment epithelium. Retinal defects as seen initially over the subretinal blood, were reduced after four weeks, but a retinal defect ranging from the lasered site towards the fovea remained. Visual acuity slightly increased from 20/100 to 20/63. ICG showed a large hypofluorescent spot in the macula. The technical parameters of the range finder were: Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), pulse duration 10 ns, beam divergence 1.5 mrad, energy 10 mJ. A range finder can produce severe macular injury. The primary laser tissue interaction mechanism seems to be explosive disruption of choroidal tissue. Intravitral injection of TPA and C2F6 may be an adjunct in the therapy of acute laser lesions. A late complication can be secondary choroidal neovascularization.

  4. Evidence for Baseline Retinal Pigment Epithelium Pathology in the Trp1-Cre Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Thanos, Aristomenis; Morizane, Yuki; Murakami, Yusuke; Giani, Andrea; Mantopoulos, Dimosthenis; Kayama, Maki; Roh, Mi In; Michaud, Norman; Pawlyk, Basil; Sandberg, Michael; Young, Lucy H.; Miller, Joan W.; Vavvas, Demetrios G.

    2012-01-01

    The increasing popularity of the Cre/loxP recombination system has led to the generation of numerous transgenic mouse lines in which Cre recombinase is expressed under the control of organ- or cell-specific promoters. Alterations in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), a multifunctional cell monolayer that separates the retinal photoreceptors from the choroid, are prevalent in the pathogenesis of a number of ocular disorders, including age-related macular degeneration. To date, six transgenic mouse lines have been developed that target Cre to the RPE under the control of various gene promoters. However, multiple lines of evidence indicate that high levels of Cre expression can be toxic to mammalian cells. In this study, we report that in the Trp1-Cre mouse, a commonly used transgenic Cre strain for RPE gene function studies, Cre recombinase expression alone leads to RPE dysfunction and concomitant disorganization of RPE layer morphology, large areas of RPE atrophy, retinal photoreceptor dysfunction, and microglial cell activation in the affected areas. The phenotype described herein is similar to previously published reports of conditional gene knockouts that used the Trp1-Cre mouse, suggesting that Cre toxicity alone could account for some of the reported phenotypes and highlighting the importance of the inclusion of Cre-expressing mice as controls in conditional gene targeting studies. PMID:22429967

  5. The effect of retinal pigment epithelial cell patch size on growth factor expression.

    PubMed

    Vargis, Elizabeth; Peterson, Cristen B; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L; Retterer, Scott T; Collier, Charles Patrick

    2014-04-01

    The spatial organization of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells grown in culture was controlled using micropatterning techniques in order to examine the effect of patch size on cell health and differentiation. Understanding this effect is a critical step in the development of multiplexed high throughput fluidic assays and provides a model for replicating disease states associated with the deterioration of retinal tissue during age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Microcontact printing of fibronectin on polystyrene and glass substrates was used to promote cell attachment, forming RPE patches of controlled size and shape. These colonies mimic the effect of atrophy and loss-of-function that occurs in the retina during degenerative diseases such as AMD. After 72 h of cell growth, levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), an important biomarker of AMD, were measured. Cells were counted and morphological indicators of cell viability and tight junction formation were assessed via fluorescence microscopy. Up to a twofold increase of VEGF expression per cell was measured as colony size decreased, suggesting that the local microenvironment of, and connections between, RPE cells influences growth factor expression leading to the initiation and progression of diseases such as AMD. PMID:24485792

  6. Claudin-19 and the Barrier Properties of the Human Retinal Pigment Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Shaomin; Rao, Veena S.; Adelman, Ron A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) separates photoreceptors from choroidal capillaries, but in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) capillaries breach the RPE barrier. Little is known about human RPE tight junctions or the effects of serum on the retinal side of the RPE. Methods. Cultured human fetal RPE (hfRPE) was assessed by the transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and the transepithelial diffusion of methylated polyethylene glycol (mPEG). Claudins and occludin were monitored by quantitative RT-PCR, immunoblotting, and immunofluorescence. Results. Similar to freshly isolated hfRPE, claudin-19 mRNA was 25 times more abundant than claudin-3. Other detectable claudin mRNAs were found in even lesser amounts, as little as 3000 times less abundant than claudin-19. Claudin-1 and claudin-10b were detected only in subpopulations of cells, whereas others were undetectable. Knockdown of claudin-19 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) eliminated the TER. siRNAs for other claudins had minimal effects. Serum affected tight junctions only when presented to the retinal side of the RPE. The TER increased 2 times, and the conductance of K+ relative to Na+ decreased without affecting the permeability of mPEG. These effects correlated with increased steady-state levels of occludin. Conclusions. Fetal human RPE is a claudin-19–dominant epithelium that has regional variations in claudin-expression. Apical serum decreases RPE permeability, which might be a defense mechanism that would retard the spread of edema due to AMD. PMID:21071746

  7. Controlling Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cell Patch Size Influences Growth Factor Expression

    SciTech Connect

    Vargis, Elizabeth A [ORNL; Peterson, Cristen B [ORNL; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L [ORNL; Retterer, Scott T [ORNL; Collier, Pat [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The spatial organization of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells grown in culture was controlled using micropatterning techniques in order to examine the effect of patch size on cell health and differentiation. Understanding this effect is a critical step in the development of multiplexed high throughput fluidic assays and provides a model for replicating disease states associated with the deterioration of retinal tissue during age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Microcontact printing of fibronectin on polystyrene and glass substrates was used to promote cell attachment, forming RPE patches of controlled size and shape. These colonies mimic the effect of atrophy and loss-of-function that occurs in the retina during degenerative diseases such as AMD. After 72 hours of cell growth, levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), an important biomarker of AMD, were measured. Cells were counted and morphological indicators of cell viability and tight junction formation were assessed via fluorescence microscopy. Up to a twofold increase of VEGF expression per cell was measured as colony size decreased, suggesting that the local microenvironment of, and connections between, RPE cells influences growth factor expression leading to the initiation and progression of diseases such as AMD.

  8. Traumatic macular hole from intentional basketball overinflation.

    PubMed

    Yonekawa, Yoshihiro; Miller, John B; Turalba, Angela V; Eliott, Dean

    2013-01-01

    We report a new mechanism of ocular trauma. A basketball was intentionally overinflated until it exploded, resulting in corneal edema, hyphema, iritis, vitreous hemorrhage, commotio retinae, and a macular hole. The macular hole did not close after observation and subsequent pars plana vitrectomy with posterior hyaloid removal, but a repeat vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling resulted in hole closure. Basketball overinflation to the point of explosion is a potentially blinding practice of which the public and manufacturers should be made aware. PMID:23676239

  9. Study of 27 Aqueous Humor Cytokines in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with or without Macular Edema

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Ning; Xu, Bing; Chu, Liqun; Tang, Xin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the changes in the levels of 27 aqueous humor cytokines between diabetic patients with macular edema (ME) and diabetic patients without ME. Undiluted aqueous humor samples were obtained from 68 consecutive type 2 diabetic patients without ME and 56 consecutive type 2 diabetic patients with ME. The concentrations of 27 cytokines in the aqueous humor samples were measured using a multiplex bead immunoassay. Compared with diabetic patients without ME, diabetic patients with ME had significantly higher concentrations of IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, IP-10, MCP-1, and VEGF in the aqueous humor. However, the concentrations of IL-10 and IL-12 were significantly lower in the diabetic patients with ME. The aqueous humor levels of IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, IP-10, and VEGF were closely correlated with retinal macular thickness, retinal macular volume and the severity of ME. In addition, the aqueous humor levels of IL-10 and IL-12 decreased with increasing the severity of ME. A variety of cytokines associated with inflammation and angiogenesis may contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetic macular edema, and both anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic agents should be included in the treatment of ME simultaneously. PMID:25923230

  10. ?B Crystallin Is Apically Secreted within Exosomes by Polarized Human Retinal Pigment Epithelium and Provides Neuroprotection to Adjacent Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Parameswaran G. Sreekumar; Ram Kannan; Mizuki Kitamura; Christine Spee; Ernesto Barron; Stephen J. Ryan; David R. Hinton

    2010-01-01

    ?B Crystallin is a chaperone protein with anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory functions and has been identified as a biomarker in age-related macular degeneration. The purpose of this study was to determine whether ?B crystallin is secreted from retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, the mechanism of this secretory pathway and to determine whether extracellular ?B crystallin can be taken up by adjacent

  11. Macular translocation for subfoveal choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration: a prospective study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hilel Lewis; Peter K Kaiser; Sharon Lewis; Marc Estafanous

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: To conduct a prospective study of macular translocation in patients with subfoveal choroidal neovascularization secondary to age-related macular degeneration.METHODS: In 10 eyes of 10 patients with subfoveal choroidal neovascularization and best-corrected visual acuity ranging from 20\\/50 to 20\\/800 (median, 20\\/111), the fovea was relocated by means of scleral imbrication, intentional retinal detachment with small posterior retinotomies, and partial fluid-air

  12. An Improved Method for Extraction and Separation of Photosynthetic Pigments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katayama, Nobuyasu; Kanaizuka, Yasuhiro; Sudarmi, Rini; Yokohama, Yasutsugu

    2003-01-01

    The method for extracting and separating hydrophobic photosynthetic pigments proposed by Katayama "et al." ("Japanese Journal of Phycology," 42, 71-77, 1994) has been improved to introduce it to student laboratories at the senior high school level. Silica gel powder was used for removing water from fresh materials prior to extracting pigments by a…

  13. Cholesterol-mediated activation of acid sphingomyelinase disrupts autophagy in the retinal pigment epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Toops, Kimberly A.; Tan, Li Xuan; Jiang, Zhichun; Radu, Roxana A.; Lakkaraju, Aparna

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is an essential mechanism for clearing damaged organelles and proteins within the cell. As with neurodegenerative diseases, dysfunctional autophagy could contribute to blinding diseases such as macular degeneration. However, precisely how inefficient autophagy promotes retinal damage is unclear. In this study, we investigate innate mechanisms that modulate autophagy in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), a key site of insult in macular degeneration. High-speed live imaging of polarized adult primary RPE cells and data from a mouse model of early-onset macular degeneration identify a mechanism by which lipofuscin bisretinoids, visual cycle metabolites that progressively accumulate in the RPE, disrupt autophagy. We demonstrate that bisretinoids trap cholesterol and bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate, an acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase) cofactor, within the RPE. ASMase activation increases cellular ceramide, which promotes tubulin acetylation on stabilized microtubules. Live-imaging data show that autophagosome traffic and autophagic flux are inhibited in RPE with acetylated microtubules. Drugs that remove excess cholesterol or inhibit ASMase reverse this cascade of events and restore autophagosome motility and autophagic flux in the RPE. Because accumulation of lipofuscin bisretinoids and abnormal cholesterol homeostasis are implicated in macular degeneration, our studies suggest that ASMase could be a potential therapeutic target to ensure the efficient autophagy that maintains RPE health. PMID:25378587

  14. BASIS FOR ENHANCED BARRIER FUNCTION OF PIGMENTED SKIN

    PubMed Central

    Man, Mao-Qiang; Lin, Tzu-Kai; Santiago, Juan Luis; Celli, Anna; Zhong, Lily; Huang, Zhi-Ming; Roelandt, Truus; Hupe, Melanie; Sundberg, John P.; Silva, Kathleen A.; Crumrine, Debra; Martin-Ezquerra, Gemma; Trullas, Carles; Sun, Richard; Wakefield, Joan S.; Wei, Maria L.; Feingold, Kenneth R.; Mauro, Theodora M.; Elias, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    Humans with darkly-pigmented skin display superior permeability barrier function in comparison to humans with lightly-pigmented skin. The reduced pH of the stratum corneum (SC) of darkly-pigmented skin could account for enhanced function, because acidifying lightly-pigmented human SC resets barrier function to darkly-pigmented levels. In SKH1 (non-pigmented) vs. SKH2/J (pigmented) hairless mice, we evaluated how a pigment-dependent reduction in pH could influence epidermal barrier function. Permeability barrier homeostasis is enhanced in SKH2/J vs. SKH1 mice, correlating with a reduced pH in the lower SC that co-localizes with the extrusion of melanin granules. Darkly-pigmented human epidermis also shows substantial melanin extrusion in the outer epidermis. Both acute barrier disruption and topical basic pH challenges accelerate re-acidification of SKH2/J (but not SKH1) SC, while inducing melanin extrusion. SKH2/J mice also display enhanced expression of the SC acidifying enzyme, secretory phospholipase A2f (sPLA2f). Enhanced barrier function of SKH2/J mice could be attributed to enhanced activity of two acidic pH-dependent, ceramide-generating enzymes, ?-glucocerebrosidase and acidic sphingomyelinase, leading to accelerated maturation of SC lamellar bilayers. Finally, organotypic cultures of darkly-pigmented-bearing human keratinocytes display enhanced barrier function in comparison to lightly-pigmented cultures. Together, these results suggest that the superior barrier function of pigmented epidermis can be largely attributed to the pH-lowering impact of melanin persistence/extrusion and enhanced sPLA2f expression. PMID:24732399

  15. Steroids and the Management of Macular Edema

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shani Golan; Anat Loewenstein

    2010-01-01

    Macular edema (ME) is a condition which is usually secondary to an underlying disease process. It is most commonly seen following venous occlusive disease, diabetic retinopathy and posterior segment inflammatory disease. The treatment of ME varies, depending upon the underlying etiology, and has led to varying degrees of success. Traditionally, the main treatment options have included topical and systemic steroids,

  16. Review Article Recent progress in macular function

    E-print Network

    Arizona, University of

    to self-monitor their vision for symptoms that may signal the presence of choroidal neovascularization of choroidal neovascularization to self-monitor their central visual field. Keywords: age-related macular hyperacuity perimetry Progress in the medical and surgical management of choroidal neovascularization (CNV

  17. Scotopic Microperimetry in the Early Diagnosis of Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Pescosolido, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Background. Recent clinical studies have shown that, in some degenerative retinal diseases, like age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the sensitivity of the rods decreases more rapidly than the sensitivity of the cones. The aim of this study was to evaluate if there is a correlation between the presence of hard drusen at the macular level and the rod damage responsible for the reduction in scotopic retinal sensitivity in subjects at risk for AMD. Methods. The authors selected 24 subjects (14 men and 10 women) with an average age of 67.25?±?5.7 years. Macular hard drusen were present in 50% of the subjects at the fundus oculi exam. The researchers evaluated the retinal sensitivity to light in mesopic and scotopic conditions of each subject with an MP-1 scotopic microperimeter (MP-1S). Results. In subjects with hard drusen in the fundus oculi examination, there was a statistically significant reduction in scotopic retinal sensitivity, while the mesopic retinal sensitivity was not compromised. Conclusion. This study revealed how the presence of hard drusen at the macular level is associated with a reduction in scotopic retinal sensitivity compared to a control group of healthy subjects. Retinal functionality in a scotopic setting examined with MP-1S could be useful in early diagnosis of AMD. PMID:25548774

  18. PIGMENTS OF THE RETINA

    PubMed Central

    Wald, George

    1936-01-01

    1. The interrelations of visual purple, retinene, and vitamin A in the bull frog retina are analyzed in simple experiments, the results of which are presented in a series of automatically recorded spectra. 2. Observations are reported upon the distributions, properties, and concentrations of xanthophyll, vitamin A, and flavine in the pigmented tissues of the eye. PMID:19872962

  19. Silk lutein extract and its combination with vitamin E reduce UVB-mediated oxidative damage to retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Aimjongjun, Sathid; Sutheerawattananonda, Manote; Limpeanchob, Nanteetip

    2013-07-01

    Increased exposure to solar ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation may promote age related macular degeneration (AMD). Lutein can protect retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells from various oxidative insults but its direct protection against UVB has not been reported. This study aimed to demonstrate protective effects of silk lutein extract against UVB-induced oxidative damage to RPE cells and compared with standard lutein and Trolox, a vitamin E analog. ARPE-19 cells were treated with luteins with and without Trolox prior to UVB exposure. Cell viability and apoptosis were determined by trypan blue staining and caspase-3 activity, respectively. Oxidative damage was evaluated by measuring intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation, and activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase). Levels of lutein remained in culture medium was determined by HPLC. Both luteins reduced cellular ROS levels and lipid peroxidation mediated by UVB, and subsequently increased cell viability and reduced apoptosis. They also restored activities of most tested antioxidant enzymes. Enhancement of lutein antioxidant efficacy was observed in the presence of Trolox. In all these effects, the two lutein preparations had similar effectivenesses. In cell free media, Trolox enhanced the protective effect of lutein probably by reducing its degradation and repairing the oxidized derivatives. Yellow silk cocoon is a potential candidate of lutein for further development as dietary supplement for the prevention of AMD. PMID:23651647

  20. A MODEL OF SPECTRAL FILTERING TO REDUCE PHOTOCHEMICAL DAMAGE IN AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION

    PubMed Central

    Meyers, Sanford M; Ostrovsky, Mikhail A; Bonner, Robert F

    2004-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background/Purpose Cumulative sunlight exposure and cataract surgery are reported risk factors for advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Laboratory studies suggest that accumulation and photochemical reactions of A2E (N-retinylidene-N-retinylethanolamine) and its epoxides, components of lipofuscin, are important in AMD. To relate this data to the clinical setting, we modeled the effects of macular irradiance and spectral filtering on production of A2E and reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) in pseudophakic eyes with a clear or “yellow” intraocular lens (IOL) and in phakic eyes. Methods We calculated relative changes of macular irradiance as a function of light (390 to 700 nm) intensity, pupil size, age, and lens status, and modeled resulting all-trans-retinal concentration and rates of production of A2E-related photochemicals and photon-induced ROIs in rods and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). We compared these photoproducts following cataract surgery and IOL implantation with and without spectral sunglasses to normal age-related nuclear sclerotic lens changes. Results Following cataract and IOL surgery, all-trans-retinal and lipofuscin photochemistry would theoretically increase average generation of 1) A2E-related photochemicals, 2) ROI in rods and 3) ROI in RPE, respectively, 2.6-, 15- and 6.6-fold with a clear IOL, and 2.1-, 4.1- and 2.6 fold with a yellow IOL, but decrease approximately 30-, approximately 20-and 4-fold with a vermillion filter sunglass and clear IOL compared to an average 70 year old phakic eye. Conclusion Sunglasses that strongly decrease both deep blue light and rod photobleaching, while preserving photopic sensitivity and color perception, would provide upstream protection from potential photochemical damage in subjects at risk for AMD progression after cataract surgery. PMID:15747748

  1. Full quantum dynamics of the electronic coupling between photosynthetic pigments

    E-print Network

    Oviedo, María Belén

    2015-01-01

    From studying the time evolution of the single electron density matrix within a density functional tight-binding formalism we study in a fully atomistic picture the electronic excitation transfer between two photosynthetic pigments in real time. This time-dependent quantum dynamics is based on fully atomistic structural models of the photosynthetic pigment. We analyze the dependence of the electronic excitation transfer with distance and orientation between photosynthetic pigments. We compare the results obtained from full quantum dynamics with analytical ones, based on a two level system model were the interaction between the pigments is dipolar. We observed that even when the distance of the photosynthetic pigment is about $30$ \\AA\\ the deviation of the dipolarity is of about $15$ percent.

  2. Spectral tuning of rhodopsin and visual cone pigments.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiuwen; Sundholm, Dage; Weso?owski, Tomasz A; Kaila, Ville R I

    2014-02-19

    Retinal is the light-absorbing biochromophore responsible for the activation of vision pigments and light-driven ion pumps. Nature has evolved molecular tuning mechanisms that significantly shift the optical properties of the retinal pigments to enable their absorption of visible light. Using large-scale quantum chemical calculations at the density functional theory level combined with frozen density embedding theory, we show here how the protein environment of vision pigments tunes the absorption of retinal by electrostatically dominated interactions between the chromophore and the surrounding protein residues. The calculations accurately reproduce the experimental absorption maxima of rhodopsin and the red, green, and blue color pigments. We further identify key interactions responsible for the color-shifting effects by mutating the rhodopsin structure in silico, and we find that deprotonation of the retinyl is likely to be responsible for the blue-shifted absorption in the blue cone vision pigment. PMID:24422511

  3. Stem cell-based therapies for age-related macular degeneration: current status and prospects

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Yalin; Zhao, Manli; Su, Guangming

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the major causes of irreversible blindness both in developed and developing countries. During the past decades, the managements of neovascular AMD (wet AMD) have dramatically progressed. However, still no effective treatment for non-neovascular AMD (dry AMD) which was characterized by geographic macular atrophy. Recent advances in stem cell sciences have demonstrated that retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells can be generated from several types of stem cells (including embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, et al) by cell co-culturing or defined factors. Additionally, studies also showed that visual function could be recovered by transplantation of these cells into subretinal space in vivo. Moreover, the United States Food and Drug Administration already approved several clinical trials to evaluate the efficiencies of stem cell based cell transplantation for dry AMD patients. Till now, a few patients enrolled in these studies achieved promising outcomes. This review will summarize recent advances in stem cell based RPE differentiation, transplantation, and the preliminary results of clinical trials. The obstacles and prospects in this field will also be discussed. PMID:25550892

  4. Defective Lipid Transport and Biosynthesis in Recessive and Dominant Stargardt Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Molday, Robert S.; Zhang, Kang

    2010-01-01

    Stargardt disease is a common inherited macular degeneration characterized by a significant loss in central vision in the first or second decade of life, bilateral atrophic changes in the central retina associated with degeneration of photoreceptors and underlying retinal pigment epithelial cells, and the presence of yellow flecks extending from the macula. Autosomal recessive Stargardt disease, the most common macular dystrophy, is caused by mutations in the gene encoding ABCA4, a photoreceptor ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter. Biochemical studies together with analysis of abca4 knockout mice and Stargardt patients have implicated ABCA4 as a lipid transporter that facilitates the removal of potentially toxic retinal compounds from photoreceptors following photoexcitation. An autosomal dominant form of Stargardt disease also known as Stargardt-like dystrophy is caused by mutations in a gene encoding ELOVL4, an enzyme that catalyzes the elongation of very long chain fatty acids in photoreceptors and other tissues. This review focuses on the molecular characterization of ABCA4 and ELOVL4 and their role in photoreceptor cell biology and the pathogenesis of Stargardt disease. PMID:20633576

  5. Limited inferior macular translocation for the treatment of subfoveal choroidal neovascularization secondary to age-related macular degeneration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dante J Pieramici; Eugene De Juan Jr; Gildo Y Fujii; Sandra M Reynolds; Michele Melia; Mark S Humayun; Andrew P Schachat; Craig D Hartranft

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: To review a series of patients with age-related macular degeneration undergoing limited macular translocation for the treatment of subfoveal choroidal neovascularization, to determine short-term visual acuity outcomes, to measure amounts of attainable retinal movement, and to identify prognostic factors.METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted on a consecutive series of patients undergoing inferior limited macular translocation with scleral imbrication for

  6. [Functional characteristics of macular telangiectasia type 2].

    PubMed

    Heeren, T F C; Krüger, E; Holz, F G; Charbel Issa, P

    2014-09-01

    The first symptoms of macular telangiectasia type 2 usually occur between 50 and 70 years of age. Functional alterations topographically correspond to the morphological changes. Characteristic paracentral scotomata due to focal photoreceptor atrophy can be detected using microperimetry. The predominant paracentral functional loss may cause reading difficulties despite visual acuity in the range between 20/20 and 20/50. Visual acuity around 20/200 may occur once the paracentral photoreceptor atrophy extends centrally, or due to the development of a macular hole or a secondary neovascular membrane. Progression of functional loss can often only be detected by mapping scotoma size or occurrence using microperimetry, while visual acuity may remain unchanged. PMID:25204528

  7. PIGMENT PRODUCTION IN BACTEROIDES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    OONAGH TRACY

    1969-01-01

    0 N E member of the genus Bacteroides-Bacteroides melaninogenicus-char- acteristically produces a jet-black pigment when grown on blood agar. This property was described by Oliver and Wherry (1921) in the original account of the organism, and has since been regarded as highly distinctive. The work described in this paper is based on the chance observation that other members of the

  8. Rifabutin-induced cystoid macular oedema.

    PubMed

    Vaudaux, J D; Guex-Crosier, Y

    2002-02-01

    Rifabutin is a semi-synthetic antimycobacterial agent mainly used in the treatment of Mycobacterium avium-complex (MAC) in AIDS patients. Rifabutin-induced anterior uveitis has been reported previously. We report the case of a rifabutin-induced cystoid macular oedema (CMO) in an immunocompetent patient with pulmonary MAC infection. As far as we know, CMO secondary to rifabutin therapy has not been described previously. PMID:11815593

  9. Progressive macular hypomelanosis among Egyptian patients: a clinicopathological study

    PubMed Central

    Selim, Mohamed Khaled; Ahmed, El-Shahat Farag; Abdelgawad, Mamdouh Morsy; El-Kamel, Mohammed Fawzy

    2011-01-01

    Background: Progressive macular hypomelanosis (PMH) is a disease of unclear etiology. Propionbacterium acnes (P. acnes) was claimed to be an etiological factor. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to document the clinicopathological features of PMH in Egyptian patients and to evaluate the therapeutic outcome. Methods: Patients with clinical features of PMH were recruited. Wood’s lamp examination, skin scrapings for fungi, and skin biopsy specimens were obtained. Biopsies were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, PAS, Fontana-Masson, and S100 protein. Patients received either narrow-band UVB (nbUVB) or nbUVB plus daily topical clindamycin 1% and benzoyl peroxide gel 5% (bcUVB). The period of active treatment was 14 weeks followed by a follow-up period of 24 weeks. Results: Twenty-nine patients were included. Microscopic evaluation of skin biopsy specimens showed no significant differences between lesional and normal skin. Fontana-Masson stained sections showed overall reduction of melanin granules in the basal layer of lesional skin only and S100 staining did not detect significant differences in the number of melanocytes in lesional and normal skin. Nearly complete repigmentation was reported in 10 patients treated with bcUVB compared to 9 patients treated with nbUVb with no significant differences between both groups after 14 weeks. Only 2 patients in each group retained the pigmentation and the remaining patients returned to the baseline color before treatment. Conclusions: This study documented the clinicopathological features of PMH among Egyptians. No permanently effective treatment is available. Further studies are needed to prove or disprove the pathogenic role of P. acnes in PMH. PMID:24396712

  10. Macular Bioaccelerometers on Earth and in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, M. D.; Cutler, L.; Meyer, G.; Vazin, P.; Lam, T.

    1991-01-01

    Space flight offers the opportunity to study linear bioaccelerometers (vestibular maculas) in the virtual absence of a primary stimulus, gravitational acceleration. Macular research in space is particularly important to NASA because the bioaccelerometers are proving to be weighted neural networks in which information is distributed for parallel processing. Neural networks are plastic and highly adaptive to new environments. Combined morphological-physiological studies of maculas fixed in space and following flight should reveal macular adaptive responses to microgravity, and their time-course. Ground-based research, already begun, using computer-assisted, 3-dimensional reconstruction of macular terminal fields will lead to development of computer models of functioning maculas. This research should continue in conjunction with physiological studies, including work with multichannel electrodes. The results of such a combined effort could usher in a new era in understanding vestibular function on Earth and in space. They can also provide a rational basis for counter-measures to space motion sickness, which may prove troublesome as space voyager encounter new gravitational fields on planets, or must re-adapt to 1 g upon return to earth.

  11. Nonphotosynthetic Pigments as Potential Biosignatures

    E-print Network

    Schwieterman, Edward W; Meadows, Victoria S

    2015-01-01

    Previous work on possible surface reflectance biosignatures for Earth-like planets has typically focused on analogues to spectral features produced by photosynthetic organisms on Earth, such as the vegetation red edge. Although oxygenic photosynthesis, facilitated by pigments evolved to capture photons, is the dominant metabolism on our planet, pigmentation has evolved for multiple purposes to adapt organisms to their environment. We present an interdisciplinary study of the diversity and detectability of nonphotosynthetic pigments as biosignatures, which includes a description of environments that host nonphotosynthetic biologically pigmented surfaces, and a lab-based experimental analysis of the spectral and broadband color diversity of pigmented organisms on Earth. We test the utility of broadband color to distinguish between Earth-like planets with significant coverage of nonphotosynthetic pigments and those with photosynthetic or nonbiological surfaces, using both 1-D and 3-D spectral models. We demonstr...

  12. 2-ethylpyridine, a cigarette smoke component, causes mitochondrial damage in human retinal pigment epithelial cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Mansoor, S; Gupta, N; Falatoonzadeh, P; Kuppermann, B D; Kenney, M C

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Our goal was to identify the cellular and molecular effects of 2-ethylpyridine (2-EP, a component of cigarette smoke) on human retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19) in vitro. Materials and Methods: ARPE-19 cells were exposed to varying concentrations of 2-EP. Cell viability (CV) was measured by a trypan blue dye exclusion assay. Caspase-3/7 and caspase-9 activities were measured by fluorochrome assays. The production of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) was detected with a 2’,7’-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate dye assay. The JC-1 assay was used to measure mitochondrial membrane potential (??m). Mitochondrial redox potential was measured using a RedoxSensor Red kit and mitochondria were evaluated with Mitotracker dye. Results: After 2-EP exposure, ARPE-19 cells showed significantly decreased CV, increased caspase-3/7 and caspase-9 activities, elevated ROS/RNS levels, decreased ??m value and decreased redox fluorescence when compared with control samples. Conclusions: These results show that 2-EP treatment induced cell death by caspase-dependent apoptosis associated with an oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. These data represent a possible mechanism by which smoking contributes to age-related macular degeneration and other retinal diseases and identify mitochondria as a target for future therapeutic interventions. PMID:24492497

  13. Subretinal transplantation of retinal pigment epithelium overexpressing fibulin-5 inhibits laser-induced choroidal neovascularization in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Fuliang; Zeng, Yuxiao; Xu, Haiwei; Yin, Zheng Qin

    2015-07-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is the abnormal angiogenesis that causes severe visual loss in AMD. Fibulin-5 (Fbln5), which functions as an angiogenesis inhibitor, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of AMD. Here, we investigated whether subretinal transplantation of Fbln5-overexpressing retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells can inhibit CNV in vivo. Adult Long-Evans rats were used in this study. CNV was induced by laser photocoagulation. One week after laser-induced CNV, RPE cells expressing pZlen-Fbln5-IRES-GFP or the control pZlen-IRES-GFP vectors were transplanted into the subretinal space of the right and left eyes, respectively. CNV was evaluated using fundus photography, fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA), and hematoxylin and eosin staining. We found that CNV occurred at 1 week after photocoagulation, reaching peak activity at 3 weeks and remaining at a high level at 4-5 weeks after photocoagulation. Transplanted RPE cells survived for at least 4 weeks and migrated toward the retina. Subretinal transplantation of Fbln5-overexpressing RPE cells resulted in a significant reduction in the total area of leakage and the number of leakage spots compared with transplantation of RPE cells expressing only green fluorescent protein. Our findings suggest that subretinal transplantation of Fbln5-overexpressing RPE cells inhibits laser-induced CNV in rats and thus represents a promising therapy for the treatment of AMD. PMID:25983185

  14. Photooxidative damage in retinal pigment epithelial cells via GRP78 and the protective role of grape skin polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhao; Sun, Tao; Jiang, Yun; Wu, Lijiang; Cai, Xiangzhong; Sun, Xiaodong; Sun, Xiangjun

    2014-12-01

    Blue light induced oxidative damage and ER stress are related to the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). However, the mechanism of blue light-induced damage remained obscure. The objective of this work is to assess the photooxidative damage to retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE) and oxidation-induced changes in expression of ER stress associated apoptotic proteins, and investigate the mechanism underlying the protective effects of grape skin extracts. To mimic lipofuscin-mediated photooxidation in vivo, ARPE-19 cells that accumulated A2E, one of lipofuscin fluorophores, were used as a model system to investigate the mechanism of photooxidative damage and the protective effects of grape skin polyphenols. Exposure of A2E containing ARPE-19 cells to blue light resulted in significant apoptosis and increases in levels of GRP78, CHOP, p-JNK, Bax, cleaved caspase-9, and cleaved caspase-3, indicating that photooxidative damage to RPE cells is mediated by the ER-stress-induced intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Cells in which GRP78 had been knocked down with shRNA were more vulnerable to photooxidative damage. Pre-treatment of blue-light-exposed A2E containing ARPE-19 cells, with grape skin extracts, inhibited apoptosis, in a dose dependent manner. Knockdown GRP78 blocked the protective effect of grape skin extracts. PMID:25447759

  15. Conjunctival Pigmentation Following Minocycline Therapy.

    PubMed

    Khan, Tanya T; Reddy, Usha P

    2014-09-15

    Minocycline is a tetracycline antibiotic commonly used to treat acne and rosacea. Although pigmentation of the skin, nails, teeth, oral mucosa, and sclera is a well-recognized adverse outcome associated with minocycline, ocular pigmentation may be missed on routine examination. The authors present a case of a 43-year-old Caucasian woman who demonstrated bilateral pigmented palpebral conjunctival cysts after 12 months of minocycline therapy for cystic acne. To date, only 5 cases of minocycline-induced conjunctival pigmentation have been reported. After drug discontinuation, the patient's examination remained stable and no new ocular lesions were noted. PMID:25226094

  16. Nonphotosynthetic Pigments as Potential Biosignatures

    PubMed Central

    Cockell, Charles S.; Meadows, Victoria S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Previous work on possible surface reflectance biosignatures for Earth-like planets has typically focused on analogues to spectral features produced by photosynthetic organisms on Earth, such as the vegetation red edge. Although oxygenic photosynthesis, facilitated by pigments evolved to capture photons, is the dominant metabolism on our planet, pigmentation has evolved for multiple purposes to adapt organisms to their environment. We present an interdisciplinary study of the diversity and detectability of nonphotosynthetic pigments as biosignatures, which includes a description of environments that host nonphotosynthetic biologically pigmented surfaces, and a lab-based experimental analysis of the spectral and broadband color diversity of pigmented organisms on Earth. We test the utility of broadband color to distinguish between Earth-like planets with significant coverage of nonphotosynthetic pigments and those with photosynthetic or nonbiological surfaces, using both 1-D and 3-D spectral models. We demonstrate that, given sufficient surface coverage, nonphotosynthetic pigments could significantly impact the disk-averaged spectrum of a planet. However, we find that due to the possible diversity of organisms and environments, and the confounding effects of the atmosphere and clouds, determination of substantial coverage by biologically produced pigments would be difficult with broadband colors alone and would likely require spectrally resolved data. Key Words: Biosignatures—Exoplanets—Halophiles—Pigmentation—Reflectance spectroscopy—Spectral models. Astrobiology 15, 341–361. PMID:25941875

  17. Nonphotosynthetic pigments as potential biosignatures.

    PubMed

    Schwieterman, Edward W; Cockell, Charles S; Meadows, Victoria S

    2015-05-01

    Previous work on possible surface reflectance biosignatures for Earth-like planets has typically focused on analogues to spectral features produced by photosynthetic organisms on Earth, such as the vegetation red edge. Although oxygenic photosynthesis, facilitated by pigments evolved to capture photons, is the dominant metabolism on our planet, pigmentation has evolved for multiple purposes to adapt organisms to their environment. We present an interdisciplinary study of the diversity and detectability of nonphotosynthetic pigments as biosignatures, which includes a description of environments that host nonphotosynthetic biologically pigmented surfaces, and a lab-based experimental analysis of the spectral and broadband color diversity of pigmented organisms on Earth. We test the utility of broadband color to distinguish between Earth-like planets with significant coverage of nonphotosynthetic pigments and those with photosynthetic or nonbiological surfaces, using both 1-D and 3-D spectral models. We demonstrate that, given sufficient surface coverage, nonphotosynthetic pigments could significantly impact the disk-averaged spectrum of a planet. However, we find that due to the possible diversity of organisms and environments, and the confounding effects of the atmosphere and clouds, determination of substantial coverage by biologically produced pigments would be difficult with broadband colors alone and would likely require spectrally resolved data. Key Words: Biosignatures-Exoplanets-Halophiles-Pigmentation-Reflectance spectroscopy-Spectral models. Astrobiology 15, 341-361. PMID:25941875

  18. Macular thickness measurements in healthy Norwegian volunteers: an optical coherence tomography study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexandra Wexler; Trond Sand; Tor B Elsĺs

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ethnic, intersubject, interoperator and intermachine differences in measured macular thickness seem to exist. Our purpose was to collect normative macular thickness data in Norwegians and to evaluate the association between macular thickness and age, gender, parity, and contraception status. METHODS: Retinal thickness was measured by Stratus Optical Coherence Tomography in healthy subjects. Mean macular thickness (MMT) was analyzed by

  19. [Pigmented villonodular synovitis].

    PubMed

    Court, S; Nissen, M J; Gabay, C

    2014-03-12

    Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS), also known as tenosynovial giant cell tumour is an articular pathology that occurs predominantly in young adults and is caused by an abnormal proliferation of the synovial membrane. The clinical presentation includes pain and joint swelling. MRI represents the best imaging modality to investigate this disease but the histopathology of synovial tissue provides the definitive diagnosis. The management of PVNS is often difficult due to the high risk of relapse after treatment. The objective of this article is to review the literature regarding the diagnosis and therapy of this poorly understood condition. PMID:24701714

  20. Alpha-Lipoic Acid for the Prevention of Diabetic Macular Edema

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christos Haritoglou; Joachim Gerss; Hans P. Hammes; Anselm Kampik; Michael W. Ulbig

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: To evaluate the effect of ?-lipoic acid (ALA) on the occurrence of diabetic macular edema. Methods: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter, multinational study. Patients were randomized to the treatment group with 600 mg ALA per day or the placebo group. Every 6 months stereo fundus photographs, HbA1c levels, and an ophthalmological examination were documented. The primary endpoint was the occurrence

  1. Temsirolimus Inhibits Proliferation and Migration in Retinal Pigment Epithelial and Endothelial Cells via mTOR Inhibition and Decreases VEGF and PDGF Expression

    PubMed Central

    Siedlecki, Jakob; Haritoglou, Christos; Kampik, Anselm; Kernt, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Due to their high prevalence, retinal vascular diseases including age related macular degeneration (AMD), retinal vein occlusions (RVO), diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic macular edema have been major therapeutic targets over the last years. The pathogenesis of these diseases is complex and yet not fully understood. However, increased proliferation, migration and angiogenesis are characteristic cellular features in almost every retinal vascular disease. The introduction of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) binding intravitreal treatment strategies has led to great advances in the therapy of these diseases. While the predominant part of affected patients benefits from the specific binding of VEGF by administering an anti-VEGF antibody into the vitreous cavity, a small number of non-responders exist and alternative or additional therapeutic strategies should therefore be evaluated. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a central signaling pathway that eventually triggers up-regulation of cellular proliferation, migration and survival and has been identified to play a key role in angiogenesis. In the present study we were able to show that both retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells as wells as human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) are inhibited in proliferating and migrating after treatment with temsirolimus in non-toxic concentrations. Previous studies suggest that the production of VEGF, platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) and other important cytokines is not only triggered by hypoxia but also by mTOR itself. Our results indicate that temsirolimus decreases VEGF and PDGF expression on RNA and protein levels significantly. We therefore believe that the mTOR inhibitor temsirolimus might be a promising drug in the future and it seems worthwhile to evaluate complementary therapeutic effects with anti-VEGF drugs for patients not profiting from mono anti-VEGF therapy alone. PMID:24586308

  2. 21 CFR 73.352 - Paracoccus pigment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Paracoccus pigment. 73.352 Section 73.352 Food...CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.352 Paracoccus pigment. (a) Identity . (1) The color additive paracoccus pigment consists of the heat-killed,...

  3. 21 CFR 73.352 - Paracoccus pigment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2013-04-01 false Paracoccus pigment. 73.352 Section 73.352 Food...CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.352 Paracoccus pigment. (a) Identity . (1) The color additive paracoccus pigment consists of the heat-killed,...

  4. 21 CFR 73.352 - Paracoccus pigment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 false Paracoccus pigment. 73.352 Section 73.352 Food...CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.352 Paracoccus pigment. (a) Identity . (1) The color additive paracoccus pigment consists of the heat-killed,...

  5. 21 CFR 73.352 - Paracoccus pigment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 2014-04-01 false Paracoccus pigment. 73.352 Section 73.352 Food...CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.352 Paracoccus pigment. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive paracoccus pigment consists of the heat-killed,...

  6. 21 CFR 73.352 - Paracoccus pigment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2012-04-01 false Paracoccus pigment. 73.352 Section 73.352 Food...CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.352 Paracoccus pigment. (a) Identity . (1) The color additive paracoccus pigment consists of the heat-killed,...

  7. Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    E-print Network

    Bezrukov, Sergey M.

    loss makes it difficult to recognize faces, drive a car, read, print, or do close work, such as sewing and cholesterol levels · Eating a healthy diet rich in green, leafy vegetables and fish #12;4 4 How is AMD

  8. Effect of Amaranthus Pigments on Quality Characteristics of Pork Sausages

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Cunliu; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Hui; Chen, Conggui

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the possibility of substituting Amaranthus pigments for nitrates in the of manufacture pork sausage. Five treatments of pork sausages (5% fat) with two levels of sodium nitrite (0 and 0.015%), or three levels (0.1%, 0.2% and 0.3%) of pigments extracted from red Amaranthus were produced. The addition of Amaranthus pigments resulted in the significant increase of a* values, sensory color, flavor and overall acceptance scores, but the significant reduction of b* values, TBA values and VBN values (p<0.05). Based mainly on the results of overall acceptance during 29 d storage, it could be concluded that Amaranthus pigments showed a potential as nitrite alternative for pork sausage manufacture. PMID:25049507

  9. A2E Induces IL-1ß Production in Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells via the NLRP3 Inflammasome

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Owen A.; Finkelstein, Arthur; Shima, David T.

    2013-01-01

    Aims With ageing extracellular material is deposited in Bruch’s membrane, as drusen. Lipofuscin is deposited in retinal pigment epithelial cells. Both of these changes are associated with age related macular degeneration, a disease now believed to involve chronic inflammation at the retinal-choroidal interface. We hypothesise that these molecules may act as danger signals, causing the production of inflammatory chemokines and cytokines by the retinal pigment epithelium, via activation of pattern recognition receptors. Methods ARPE-19 cells were stimulated in vitro with the following reported components of drusen: amyloid-ß (1-42), Carboxyethylpyrrole (CEP) modified proteins (CEP-HSA), N?-(Carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) modified proteins and aggregated vitronectin. The cells were also stimulated with the major fluorophore of lipofuscin: N-retinylidene-N-retinylethanolamine (A2E). Inflammatory chemokine and cytokine production was assessed using Multiplex assays and ELISA. The mechanistic evaluation of the NLRP3 inflammasome pathway was assessed in a stepwise fashion. Results Of all the molecules tested only A2E induced inflammatory chemokine and cytokine production. 25 µM A2E induced the production of significantly increased levels of the chemokines IL-8, MCP-1, MCG and MIP-1?, the cytokines IL-1ß, IL-2, IL-6, and TNF-?, and the protein VEGF-A. The release of IL-1ß was studied further, and was determined to be due to NLRP3 inflammasome activation. The pathway of activation involved endocytosis of A2E, and the three inflammasome components NLRP3, ASC and activated caspase-1. Immunohistochemical staining of ABCA4 knockout mice, which show progressive accumulation of A2E levels with age, showed increased amounts of IL-1ß proximal to the retinal pigment epithelium. Conclusions A2E has the ability to stimulate inflammatory chemokine and cytokine production by RPE cells. The pattern recognition receptor NLRP3 is involved in this process. This provides further evidence for the link between A2E, inflammation, and the pathogenesis of AMD. It also supports the recent discovery of NLRP3 inflammasome activation in AMD. PMID:23840644

  10. Melanocyte biology and skin pigmentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer Y. Lin; David E. Fisher

    2007-01-01

    Melanocytes are phenotypically prominent but histologically inconspicuous skin cells. They are responsible for the pigmentation of skin and hair, and thereby contribute to the appearance of skin and provide protection from damage by ultraviolet radiation. Pigmentation mutants in various species are highly informative about basic genetic and developmental pathways, and provide important clues to the processes of photoprotection, cancer predisposition

  11. Nonphotosynthetic Pigments as Potential Biosignatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwieterman, Edward W.; Cockell, Charles S.; Meadows, Victoria S.

    2015-05-01

    Previous work on possible surface reflectance biosignatures for Earth-like planets has typically focused on analogues to spectral features produced by photosynthetic organisms on Earth, such as the vegetation red edge. Although oxygenic photosynthesis, facilitated by pigments evolved to capture photons, is the dominant metabolism on our planet, pigmentation has evolved for multiple purposes to adapt organisms to their environment. We present an interdisciplinary study of the diversity and detectability of nonphotosynthetic pigments as biosignatures, which includes a description of environments that host nonphotosynthetic biologically pigmented surfaces, and a lab-based experimental analysis of the spectral and broadband color diversity of pigmented organisms on Earth. We test the utility of broadband color to distinguish between Earth-like planets with significant coverage of nonphotosynthetic pigments and those with photosynthetic or nonbiological surfaces, using both 1-D and 3-D spectral models. We demonstrate that, given sufficient surface coverage, nonphotosynthetic pigments could significantly impact the disk-averaged spectrum of a planet. However, we find that due to the possible diversity of organisms and environments, and the confounding effects of the atmosphere and clouds, determination of substantial coverage by biologically produced pigments would be difficult with broadband colors alone and would likely require spectrally resolved data.

  12. Exogenous pigment in Peyer's patches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. A. Shepherd; P. R. Crocker; A. P. Smith; D. A. Levison

    1987-01-01

    Dark brown granular pigment was found consistently in macrophages in the deep aspect of adult Peyer's patches. Tissue sections from intestinal resections of 35 patients with a variety of pathologic diagnoses and of seven postmortem cases with no evidence of gastrointestinal disease were examined for the presence of this pigment. It was found in all patients over the age of

  13. [Morphological features of myopic choroidal neovascularization: differences to neovascular age-related macular degeneration].

    PubMed

    Inhoffen, W; Ziemssen, F

    2012-08-01

    Choroidal neovascularization due to pathological myopia (mCNV) differs in important characteristics from lesions seen in age-related macular degeneration (ARMD). Myopic CNV is associated with typical phenomena, such as lacquer cracks or patchy atrophy drusen or pigment epithelium detachment are rare occurrences. The dimensions of mCNV and the extent of leakage are substantially smaller. The heterogeneous combination of thinning and concomitant staphyloma often complicates the early detection of neovascular lesions. Diagnosis and evaluation of the clinical progress are only possible using the combination of different imaging modalities, e.g. funduscopy, fluorescein angiography (FLA) and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Special forms, such as periconal mCNV or dome-shaped variants exhibit a typical progression and response to therapy. In the course of the disease a progressive pigmentation and secondary atrophy occur and later, depigmentation of the mCNV complicates the demarcation of the original mCNV within the zone of atrophy. Extensive information and counselling seem to be mandatory in order to allow a better self-assessment. Sometimes, patients notice the first symptoms of recurrent mCNV activity before confirmation is possible by objective diagnostics. PMID:22911352

  14. Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Use in Macular Diseases: A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sebastian Wolf; Ute Wolf-Schnurrbusch

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) has improved the clinical value for assessment of the eyes with macular disease. This article reviews the advances of SD-OCT for the diagnostic of various macular diseases. These include vitreomacular traction syndrome, cystoid macular edema\\/diabetic macular edema, epiretinal membranes, full-thickness macular holes, lamellar holes, pseudoholes, microholes, and schisis from myopia. Besides offering

  15. Intravitreal bevacizumab therapy for idiopathic macular telangiectasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoko Matsumoto; Mitsuko Yuzawa

    2010-01-01

    Purpose  To investigate the efficacy of intravitreal bevacizumab for the treatment of idiopathic macular telangiectasia (IMT).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Ten eyes of eight consecutive patients with IMT were studied. Four eyes had type 1, and six had type 2 IMT according to Yannuzzi’s\\u000a classification. All patients were treated with intravitreal bevacizumab (1.25 mg) injections at baseline. Monthly fundus and\\u000a optical coherence tomography (OCT) examinations

  16. [Pharmacological treatment for diabetic macular edema].

    PubMed

    Fukumoto, Masanori; Ikeda, Tsunehiko

    2015-03-01

    Diabetic macular edema(DME) is a major cause of vision loss and has a remarkable impact on the quality of life of diabetic patients. New pharmacological approaches based on the use of intravitreal drugs, such as corticosteroids and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor, have recently been developed for the treatment of DME. Even though laser therapy has been the standard treatment for DME, the results of several clinical trials have shown the superiority of some of these new agents to laser therapy. The purpose of this review is to briefly summarize the currently available new pharmacological treatments for DME in Japan. PMID:25812378

  17. [Uveitic macular edema and the pharmacotherapy].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinshu; Zhang, Meifen

    2015-02-01

    Macular edema represents a major cause of visual loss in uveitis and its adequate management is crucial for the maintenance of useful vision in patients with uveitis. Corticosteroid is the first choice for UME treatment.Long term and sustained release implantation is the newest administration for medical therapy. The immunosuppressant such as cyclosporine, methotrexate, azathioprine and mycophenolate mofetil can be used specially for chronic and intractable UME. Moreover, these years, some newly developed biological agents, for example, anti-VEGF, interferon-?, anti-TNF and acetazolamide will provide new options for UME pharmacotherapy. PMID:25908007

  18. New directions in phthalocyanine pigments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, Diep VO

    1994-01-01

    Phthalocyanines have been used as a pigment in coatings and related applications for many years. These pigments are some of the most stable organic pigments known. The phthalo blue and green pigments have been known to be ultraviolet (UV) stable and thermally stable to over 400 C. These phthalocyanines are both a semiconductor and photoconductor, exhibiting catalytic activity and photostabilization capability of polymers. Many metal free and metallic phthalocyanine derivatives have been prepared. Development of the new classes of phthalocyanine pigment could be used as coating on NASA spacecraft material such as glass to decrease the optical degradation from UV light, the outside of the space station modules for UV protection, and coating on solar cells to increase lifetime and efficiency.

  19. SirT1 and STAT3 protect retinal pigmented epithelium cells against oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Li, Langen; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Yufeng; Tu, Gerile; Zhang, Yanmei; Yang, Jia; Xing, Yiqiao

    2015-08-01

    It has been previously demonstrated that there are interactions between sirtuin 1 (SirT1) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), which have versatile roles in various microenvironments. However, whether or not there is crosstalk between these two molecules during oxidative stress, and what mechanism of crosstalk occurs in retinal pigmented epithelium cells (RPEs), the protection of which may delay the process of age?related macular degeneration (AMD), has required further elucidation. The present study aimed to investigate the interactions between SirT1 and STAT3 in RPEs, following exposure to oxidative stress. The rates of proliferation and apoptosis, levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species and cell senescence of RPEs, induced by oxidants [H2O2 and oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL)], were evaluated. The results revealed a downregulation of SirT1 expression, and an upregulation of STAT3 expression during oxidative stress. Further investigation indicated that SirT1 protected RPEs from oxidative stress?induced damage. Furthermore, gain? and loss?of?function experiments indicated that SirT1 had negative effects on the regulation of STAT3 expression in RPEs during oxidative stress. Notably, STAT3 directly protected the cells from oxidative stress, rather than depending on SirT1. Additionally, the protective effects of STAT3 had no association with the modulation of cell senescence during oxidative stress. In conclusion, SirT1 had negative effects on the regulation of STAT3 expression during oxidative stress. However, SirT1 and STAT3 demonstrated protective roles against oxidative stress in RPEs. These results therefore suggested that there was an equilibrium mechanism between SirT1 and STAT3 against oxidative stress, meaning that an equilibrium mechanism is required to be considered when combined application of STAT3 and SirT1 were performed to treat AMD. PMID:25847123

  20. Idiopathic macular telangiectasia type 2: ?the progressive vasculopathy.

    PubMed

    Engelbert, Michael; Yannuzzi, Lawrence A

    2012-11-01

    Purpose. To describe the complete sequence of the progressive vasculopathy in macular telangiectasia type 2.?Methods. This is a report of a case demonstrating the complete vasogenic sequence in macular telangiectasia type 2 over the course of 15 years, and representative images from a collective of 150 patients with macular telangiectasia type 2 employing fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, and optical coherence tomography.?Results. Macular telangiectasia may progress along a predictable vasogenic sequence which consists of nonproliferative stages, characterized by temporal loss of macular luteopigment and inner retinal volume loss in the absence of vascular changes, followed by a progressive proliferative vasculopathy, first involving the deep capillary plexus with eventual extension of the vascular changes circumferentially in the inner retinal capillary plexus. Late proliferative stages may become indistinguishable from advanced neovascular age-related macular degeneration.?Conclusions. While it is rare to observe the complete vasogenic sequence of macular telangiectasia type 2, a classification into nonproliferative and proliferative stages can be established, and may prove helpful as the mechanisms driving the pathogenic process through those stages are identified. PMID:23138663

  1. Macular assessment using optical coherence tomography for glaucoma diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Sung, Kyung Rim; Wollstein, Gadi; Kim, Na Rae; Na, Jung Hwa; Nevins, Jessica E; Kim, Chan Yun; Schuman, Joel S

    2012-12-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an interferometry-based imaging modality that generates high-resolution cross-sectional images of the retina. Circumpapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (cpRNFL) and optic disc assessments are the mainstay of glaucomatous structural measurements. However, because these measurements are not always available or precise, it would be useful to have another reliable indicator. The macula has been suggested as an alternative scanning location for glaucoma diagnosis. Using time-domain (TD) OCT, macular measurements have been shown to provide good glaucoma diagnostic capabilities. Performance of cpRNFL measurement was generally superior to macular assessment. However, macular measurement showed better glaucoma diagnostic performance and progression detection capability in some specific cases, which suggests that these two measurements may be combined to produce a better diagnostic strategy. With the adoption of spectral-domain OCT, which allows a higher image resolution than TD-OCT, segmentation of inner macular layers becomes possible. The role of macular measurements for detection of glaucoma progression is still under investigation. Improvement of image quality would allow better visualisation, development of various scanning modes would optimise macular measurements, and further refining of the analytical algorithm would provide more accurate segmentation. With these achievements, macular measurement can be an important surrogate for glaucomatous structural assessment. PMID:23018425

  2. Natural pigments and sacred art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelekian, Lena, ,, Lady

    2010-05-01

    Since the dawn of mankind, cavemen has expressed himself through art. The earliest known cave paintings date to some 32,000 years ago and used 4 colours derived from the earth. These pigments were iron oxides and known as ochres, blacks and whites. All pigments known by the Egyptians, the Greeks, the Romans and Renaissance man were natural and it was not until the 18th century that synthetic pigments were made and widely used. Until that time all art, be it sacred or secular used only natural pigments, of which the preparation of many have been lost or rarely used because of their tedious preparation. As a geologist, a mineralogist and an artist specializing in iconography, I have been able to rediscover 89 natural pigments extracted from minerals. I use these pigments to paint my icons in the traditional Byzantine manner and also to restore old icons, bringing back their glamour and conserving them for years to come. The use of the natural pigments in its proper way also helps to preserve the traditional skills of the iconographer. In the ancient past, pigments were extremely precious. Many took an exceedingly long journey to reach the artists, and came from remote countries. Research into these pigments is the work of history, geography and anthropology. It is an interesting journey in itself to discover that the blue aquamarines came from Afghanistan, the reds from Spain, the greens Africa, and so on. In this contribution I will be describing the origins, preparation and use of some natural pigments, together with their history and provenance. Additionally, I will show how the natural pigments are used in the creation of an icon. Being a geologist iconographer, for me, is a sacrement that transforms that which is earthly, material and natural into a thing of beauty that is sacred. As bread and wine in the Eucharist, water during baptism and oil in Holy Union transmit sanctification to the beholder, natural pigments do the same when one considers an icon. The iconographer uses earthly creations to create divine images: "Thine own of Thine own we offer unto Thee." (Byzantine Liturgy). Thus, by combining geology with art and religion, I can render homage to God through His creation by using minerals of the Planet Earth, as natural pigments in painting His image.

  3. Characterization of an hyperpigmenting mutant of Monascus purpureus IB1: identification of two novel pigment chemical structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sonia Campoy; Angel Rumbero; Juan F. Martín; Paloma Liras

    2006-01-01

    Monascus purpureus IB1 produces about 50-fold higher levels of azaphilone pigments than M. purpureus NRRL1596. Differently pigmented mutants were obtained from M. purpureus IB1 by nitrosoguanidine treatment. A highly pigmented strain, M. purpureus HP14, was found to lack the formation of the classical yellow and orange azaphilones and was found to produce only about\\u000a 10% of the red azaphilone pigments.

  4. Novel compstatin family peptides inhibit complement activation by drusen-like deposits in human retinal pigmented epithelial cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Gorham, Ronald D; Forest, David L; Tamamis, Phanourios; López de Victoria, Aliana; Kraszni, Márta; Kieslich, Chris A; Banna, Christopher D; Bellows-Peterson, Meghan L; Larive, Cynthia K; Floudas, Christodoulos A; Archontis, Georgios; Johnson, Lincoln V; Morikis, Dimitrios

    2013-11-01

    We have used a novel human retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cell-based model that mimics drusen biogenesis and the pathobiology of age-related macular degeneration to evaluate the efficacy of newly designed peptide inhibitors of the complement system. The peptides belong to the compstatin family and, compared to existing compstatin analogs, have been optimized to promote binding to their target, complement protein C3, and to enhance solubility by improving their polarity/hydrophobicity ratios. Based on analysis of molecular dynamics simulation data of peptide-C3 complexes, novel binding features were designed by introducing intermolecular salt bridge-forming arginines at the N-terminus and at position -1 of N-terminal dipeptide extensions. Our study demonstrates that the RPE cell assay has discriminatory capability for measuring the efficacy and potency of inhibitory peptides in a macular disease environment. PMID:23954241

  5. Granulomatous pigmented purpuric dermatosis.

    PubMed

    Battle, L R; Shalin, S C; Gao, L

    2015-06-01

    The granulomatous variant of the pigmented purpuric dermatoses (PPDs) is a rare and infrequently described condition, with a total of 16 cases published to date. We report a case of granulomatous PPD in a 59-year-old white woman who demonstrated involvement of the arms, legs, chest and back with concurrent hyperlipidaemia. Histopathological examination revealed a lymphohistiocytic infiltrate obscuring the dermoepidermal junction, and loose granuloma formation in the superficial dermis, with extravasated erythrocytes. Other conditions within the differential diagnosis such as atypical infection, papular sarcoidosis and generalized granuloma annulare were excluded on clinical and histological grounds. Our patient represents the ninth patient reported to have granulomatous PPD with coexisting hyperlipidaemia, and the fifth patient with granulomatous PPD and a lichenoid infiltrate. PMID:25522174

  6. Low wintertime vitamin D levels in a sample of healthy young adults of diverse ancestry living in the Toronto area: associations with vitamin D intake and skin pigmentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Agnes Gozdzik; Jodi Lynn Barta; Hongyu Wu; Dennis Wagner; David E Cole; Reinhold Vieth; Susan Whiting; Esteban J Parra

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vitamin D plays a critical role in bone metabolism and many cellular and immunological processes. Recent research indicates that concentrations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], the main indicator of vitamin D status, should be in excess of 75 nmol\\/L. Low levels of 25(OH)D have been associated with several chronic and infectious diseases. Previous studies have reported that many otherwise

  7. Reduced Levels of UV-induced Unscheduled DNA Synthesis in Epidermal Kerati locytes of Patients with Xeroderma Pigment osurn and Correlation with Development of Skin Neoplasms1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seiji Kondo; Yoshiaki Satoh; Toshio Kuroki

    Primary epidermal keratinocytes obtained from 25 patients with xeroderma ligmentosum (XP) (nine with XP-A, one with XP-C, two with XP-D, five with XP-E, and eight with XP-variant) exhibited less UV- induced unscheduled DNA synthesis (IDS) than did those from 34 normal sub.ects. Levels of UDS depended greatly on the type of XP; i.e., 3-17% of the control in XP-A, 14%

  8. A novel clinical sign in macular telangiectasia type 2.

    PubMed

    Jindal, Animesh; Choudhury, Himadri; Pathengay, Avinash; Flynn, Harry W

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study is to report, and propose a hypothesis for, a novel clinical sign in patients with macular telangiectasia type 2. Nine consecutive patients with macular telangiectasia and visible parafoveal graying were examined. The parafoveal graying decreased in intensity with continuous light exposure from an indirect ophthalmoscope. After dark adaptation for 15 minutes, the intensity of parafoveal graying increased again. This phenomenon appears to be a novel and global sign in patients with macular telangiectasia type 2. It could be a possible photochemical reaction occurring due to the release of chromophores from the abnormal Müller cells. PMID:25559527

  9. Bilateral macular injury from a green laser pointer

    PubMed Central

    Dirani, Ali; Chelala, Elias; Fadlallah, Ali; Antonios, Rafic; Cherfan, George

    2013-01-01

    We report the case of a 13-year-old boy who had a bilateral macular injury after playing with a green laser pointer for a duration of 1 minute. Clinical examination revealed a decrease in visual acuity and macular injury in both eyes, and imaging investigations revealed a bilateral macular lesion due to exposure to the laser pointer. At 3 months’ follow up, visual function had improved but remained partially impaired. This case emphasizes the importance of cautious and appropriate use of laser pointer devices because of the potential vision-threatening hazards induced by mishandling of these devices. PMID:24204114

  10. 3,3'-Diindolylmethane inhibits VEGF expression through the HIF-1? and NF-?B pathways in human retinal pigment epithelial cells under chemical hypoxic conditions.

    PubMed

    Park, Hongzoo; Lee, Dae-Sung; Yim, Mi-Jin; Choi, Yung Hyun; Park, Saegwang; Seo, Su-Kil; Choi, Jung Sik; Jang, Won Hee; Yea, Sung Su; Park, Won Sun; Lee, Chang-Min; Jung, Won-Kyo; Choi, Il-Whan

    2015-07-01

    Oxidative stress in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) can lead to the pathological causes of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Hypoxia induces oxidative damage in retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE cells). In this study, we investigated the capacity of 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) to reduce the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) under hypoxic conditions, as well as the molecular mechanisms involved. Human RPE cells (ARPE-19 cells) were treated with cobalt chloride (CoCl2, 200 µM) and/or DIM (10 and 20 µM). The production of VEGF was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The translocation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) and nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) was determined by western blot analysis. The binding activity of HIF-1? and NF-?B was analyzed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. The phosphorylation levels of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) were measured by western blot analysis. The levels of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) were detected by fluorescence microplate assay. The results revealed that DIM significantly attenuated the CoCl2-induced expression of VEGF in the ARPE-19 cells. The CoCl2-induced translocation and activation of HIF-1? and NF-?B were also attenuated by treatment with DIM. In addition, DIM inhibited the CoCl2-induced activation of p38 MAPK in the ARPE-19 cells. Pre-treatment with YCG063, a mitochondrial ROS inhibitor, led to the downregulation of the CoCl2-induced production of VEGF by suppressing HIF-1? and NF-?B activity. Taken together, the findings of our study demonstrate that DIM inhibits the CoCl2-induced production of VEGF by suppressing mitochondrial ROS production, thus attenuating the activation of HIF-1? and p38 MAPK/NF-?B. PMID:25955241

  11. p62/sequestosome 1 as a regulator of proteasome inhibitor-induced autophagy in human retinal pigment epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Viiri, Johanna; Hyttinen, Juha M. T.; Ryhänen, Tuomas; Rilla, Kirsi; Paimela, Tuomas; Kuusisto, Erkki; Siitonen, Ari; Urtti, Arto; Salminen, Antero

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration involves impaired protein degradation in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and the lysosomal pathway including autophagy are the major proteolytic systems in eukaryotic cells. Prior to proteolysis, heat shock proteins (HSPs) attempt to refold stress-induced misfolded proteins and thus prevent the accumulation of cytoplasmic protein aggregates. Recently, p62/sequestosome 1 (p62) has been shown to be a key player linking the proteasomal and lysosomal clearance systems. In the present study, the functional roles of p62 and HSP70 were evaluated in conjunction with proteasome inhibitor–induced autophagy in human RPE cells (ARPE-19). Methods The p62, HSP70, and ubiquitin protein levels and localization were analyzed by western blotting and immunofluorescense. Confocal and transmission electron microscopy were used to detect cellular organelles and to evaluate the morphological changes. The p62 and HSP70 levels were modulated using RNA interference and overexpression techniques. Cell viability was measured by colorimetric assay. Results Proteasome inhibition evoked the accumulation of perinuclear aggregates that strongly colocalized with p62 and HSP70. The p62 perinuclear accumulation was time- and concentration-dependent after MG-132 proteasome inhibitor loading. The silencing of p62, rather than Hsp70, evoked suppression of autophagy, when related to decreased LC3-II levels after bafilomycin treatment. In addition, the p62 silencing decreased the ubiquitination level of the perinuclear aggregates. Recently, we showed that hsp70 mRNA depletion increased cell death in ARPE-19 cells. Here, we demonstrate that p62 mRNA silencing has similar effects on cellular viability. Conclusions Our findings open new avenues for understanding the mechanisms of proteolytic processes in retinal cells, and could be useful in the development of novel therapies targeting p62 and HSP70. PMID:20680098

  12. Macular oedema related to idiopathic macular telangiectasia type 1 treated with dexamethasone intravitreal implant (ozurdex).

    PubMed

    Loutfi, Mohamed; Papathomas, Thomas; Kamal, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    A 65-year-old female presented with visual disturbance in her right eye lasting for over 2 months. Following investigations, she was diagnosed with MacTel type 1 in the right eye. Visual symptoms were refractory to initial treatment with intravitreal bevacizumab and thereafter intravtireal triamicinolone. The patient was then treated with Ozurdex, following which central macular thickness (CMT) decreased (from 397??m to 286??m) and visual acuity deteriorated (from logMAR 0.48 to 0.59). At 14 weeks posttreatment with Ozurdex, a recurrence of cystoid macular oedema (CMO) was observed. Following a second Ozurdex, visual acuity improved (from logMAR 0.7 to 0.64) and CMT decreased (from 349??m to 279??m). An additional recurrence of CMO was observed at eighteen weeks following the second Ozurdex. Following a third Ozurdex injection visual acuity deteriorated (from logMAR 0.74 to 0.78) and CMT decreased (from 332??m to 279??m). Conclusion. Treatment of macular oedema secondary to MacTel with Ozurdex demonstrated promising anatomical outcomes. However, visual outcomes continued to gradually deteriorate. PMID:25045562

  13. Macular Oedema Related to Idiopathic Macular Telangiectasia Type 1 Treated with Dexamethasone Intravitreal Implant (Ozurdex)

    PubMed Central

    Kamal, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    A 65-year-old female presented with visual disturbance in her right eye lasting for over 2 months. Following investigations, she was diagnosed with MacTel type 1 in the right eye. Visual symptoms were refractory to initial treatment with intravitreal bevacizumab and thereafter intravtireal triamicinolone. The patient was then treated with Ozurdex, following which central macular thickness (CMT) decreased (from 397??m to 286??m) and visual acuity deteriorated (from logMAR 0.48 to 0.59). At 14 weeks posttreatment with Ozurdex, a recurrence of cystoid macular oedema (CMO) was observed. Following a second Ozurdex, visual acuity improved (from logMAR 0.7 to 0.64) and CMT decreased (from 349??m to 279??m). An additional recurrence of CMO was observed at eighteen weeks following the second Ozurdex. Following a third Ozurdex injection visual acuity deteriorated (from logMAR 0.74 to 0.78) and CMT decreased (from 332??m to 279??m). Conclusion. Treatment of macular oedema secondary to MacTel with Ozurdex demonstrated promising anatomical outcomes. However, visual outcomes continued to gradually deteriorate. PMID:25045562

  14. Human skin pigmentation as an adaptation to UV radiation

    PubMed Central

    Jablonski, Nina G.; Chaplin, George

    2010-01-01

    Human skin pigmentation is the product of two clines produced by natural selection to adjust levels of constitutive pigmentation to levels of UV radiation (UVR). One cline was generated by high UVR near the equator and led to the evolution of dark, photoprotective, eumelanin-rich pigmentation. The other was produced by the requirement for UVB photons to sustain cutaneous photosynthesis of vitamin D3 in low-UVB environments, and resulted in the evolution of depigmented skin. As hominins dispersed outside of the tropics, they experienced different intensities and seasonal mixtures of UVA and UVB. Extreme UVA throughout the year and two equinoctial peaks of UVB prevail within the tropics. Under these conditions, the primary selective pressure was to protect folate by maintaining dark pigmentation. Photolysis of folate and its main serum form of 5-methylhydrofolate is caused by UVR and by reactive oxygen species generated by UVA. Competition for folate between the needs for cell division, DNA repair, and melanogenesis is severe under stressful, high-UVR conditions and is exacerbated by dietary insufficiency. Outside of tropical latitudes, UVB levels are generally low and peak only once during the year. The populations exhibiting maximally depigmented skin are those inhabiting environments with the lowest annual and summer peak levels of UVB. Development of facultative pigmentation (tanning) was important to populations settling between roughly 23° and 46° , where levels of UVB varied strongly according to season. Depigmented and tannable skin evolved numerous times in hominin evolution via independent genetic pathways under positive selection. PMID:20445093

  15. Effects of ambient and elevated CO2 on growth, chlorophyll fluorescence, photosynthetic pigments, antioxidants, and secondary metabolites of Catharanthus roseus (L.) G Don. grown under three different soil N levels.

    PubMed

    Singh, Aradhana; Agrawal, Madhoolika

    2015-03-01

    Catharanthus roseus L. plants were grown under ambient (375?±?30 ppm) and elevated (560?±?25 ppm) concentrations of atmospheric CO2 at different rates of N supply (without supplemental N, 0 kg N ha(-1); recommended N, 50 kg N ha(-1); and double recommended N, 100 kg N ha(-1)) in open top chambers under field condition. Elevated CO2 significantly increased photosynthetic pigments, photosynthetic efficiency, and organic carbon content in leaves at recommended (RN) and double recommended N (DRN), while significantly decreased total nitrogen content in without supplemental N (WSN). Activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase were declined, while glutathione reductase, peroxidase, and phenylalanine-ammonia lyase were stimulated under elevated CO2. However, the responses of the above enzymes were modified with different rates of N supply. Elevated CO2 significantly reduced superoxide production rate, hydrogen peroxide, and malondialdehyde contents in RN and DRN. Compared with ambient, total alkaloids content increased maximally at recommended level of N, while total phenolics in WSN under elevated CO2. Elevated CO2 stimulated growth of plants by increasing plant height and numbers of branches and leaves, and the magnitude of increment were maximum in DRN. The study suggests that elevated CO2 has positively affected plants by increasing growth and alkaloids production and reducing the level of oxidative stress. However, the positive effects of elevated CO2 were comparatively lesser in plants grown under limited N availability than in moderate and higher N availability. Furthermore, the excess N supply in DRN has stimulated the growth but not the alkaloids production under elevated CO2. PMID:25304238

  16. Aflibercept versus ranibizumab for treating persistent diabetic macular oedema.

    PubMed

    Roa Vandekerckhove, Kristof

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of intravitreal aflibercept versus ranibizumab for treating therapy-resistant diabetic macular oedema (DME). A 69-year-old man presented with persistent bilateral DME despite previous ranibizumab treatment. Bilateral study treatment comprised one cycle of three monthly ranibizumab injections (0.5 mg), followed by one cycle of three aflibercept injections (2.0 mg), a second ranibizumab cycle and a second aflibercept cycle. Baseline visual acuity (ETDRS score) was 60 letters for the right eye and 65 letters for the left eye. Baseline central foveal thickness (CFT) was 305 ?m for the right eye and 453 ?m for the left eye. Substantially improved outcomes were observed during the first aflibercept cycle. CFT was reduced by 150 ?m (mean) in both the eyes and decreased below the lowest level achieved during the previous 2.5-year ranibizumab treatment. Visual acuity was improved by 17.5 letters (mean) in both the eyes. Reintroduction of ranibizumab immediately worsened the status of both eyes back to the baseline level. During the final aflibercept cycle, visual acuity and CFT improved to the same levels achieved during the first aflibercept cycle. In this case study, we prospectively switched the treatment three times and observed a dramatic and consistent treatment advantage for aflibercept. PMID:25989873

  17. Tissue factor with age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guan-Feng; Zou, Xiu-Lan

    2012-01-01

    Wet age-related macular degeneration which incidence increases year by year is a blinding eye disease, but current clinical methods of treatment on this disease are limited and the outcome is not ideal. Recent studies have found abnormally high expression of tissue factors which are targets for the treatment of wet age-related macular degeneration to achieve a certain effect in the choroidal neovascularization. Related literatures are reviewed as following. PMID:23166874

  18. Patterns of diabetic macular edema with optical coherence tomography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomohiro Otani; Shoji Kishi; Yasuhiro Maruyama

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: We report cross-sectional images of diabetic macular edema and correlation between tomographic features and visual acuity with best correction by means of optical coherence tomography.METHOD: In a prospective study, optical coherence tomography was performed in 59 eyes of 42 patients with diabetic macular edema and in 10 eyes of 10 normal control subjects.RESULTS: Optical coherence tomography showed three patterns

  19. Automated diagnosis of Age-related Macular Degeneration using greyscale features from digital fundus images.

    PubMed

    Mookiah, Muthu Rama Krishnan; Acharya, U Rajendra; Koh, Joel E W; Chandran, Vinod; Chua, Chua Kuang; Tan, Jen Hong; Lim, Choo Min; Ng, E Y K; Noronha, Kevin; Tong, Louis; Laude, Augustinus

    2014-10-01

    Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) is one of the major causes of vision loss and blindness in ageing population. Currently, there is no cure for AMD, however early detection and subsequent treatment may prevent the severe vision loss or slow the progression of the disease. AMD can be classified into two types: dry and wet AMDs. The people with macular degeneration are mostly affected by dry AMD. Early symptoms of AMD are formation of drusen and yellow pigmentation. These lesions are identified by manual inspection of fundus images by the ophthalmologists. It is a time consuming, tiresome process, and hence an automated diagnosis of AMD screening tool can aid clinicians in their diagnosis significantly. This study proposes an automated dry AMD detection system using various entropies (Shannon, Kapur, Renyi and Yager), Higher Order Spectra (HOS) bispectra features, Fractional Dimension (FD), and Gabor wavelet features extracted from greyscale fundus images. The features are ranked using t-test, Kullback-Lieber Divergence (KLD), Chernoff Bound and Bhattacharyya Distance (CBBD), Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve-based and Wilcoxon ranking methods in order to select optimum features and classified into normal and AMD classes using Naive Bayes (NB), k-Nearest Neighbour (k-NN), Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN), Decision Tree (DT) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifiers. The performance of the proposed system is evaluated using private (Kasturba Medical Hospital, Manipal, India), Automated Retinal Image Analysis (ARIA) and STructured Analysis of the Retina (STARE) datasets. The proposed system yielded the highest average classification accuracies of 90.19%, 95.07% and 95% with 42, 54 and 38 optimal ranked features using SVM classifier for private, ARIA and STARE datasets respectively. This automated AMD detection system can be used for mass fundus image screening and aid clinicians by making better use of their expertise on selected images that require further examination. PMID:25127409

  20. Macular optical coherence tomography findings and GPR143 mutations in patients with ocular albinism.

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda-Vázquez, H E; Villanueva-Mendoza, C; Zenteno, J C; Villegas-Ruiz, V; Pelcastre-Luna, E; García-Aguirre, G

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to describe macular findings using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in patients with ocular albinism (OA) and their carrier mothers, and to identify the frequency of GPR143 gene mutations in these patients. The study included five patients with a clinical diagnosis of OA. SD-OCT of the macular area was performed in both patients and their mothers. The anatomical characteristics of the macula and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), patterns of autofluorescence and infrared imaging were analyzed. Polymerase chain reaction amplification of the complete coding sequence of GPR 143 was performed and subsequently analyzed by direct sequencing in patients and their possible carrier mothers. SD-OCT images revealed the presence of inner retinal layers in the fovea, an abnormal disposition of the Henle layer and a lack of thickening in the perifoveal area. We found increased thickness in the RPE to the outer segment and in the outer segment to the outer nuclear layer that is associated with increased visual acuity. Autofluorescence images revealed an absence of normal hipoautofluorescence in the fovea. No changes were observed in the images of their carrier mothers. Mutation screening and sequence analysis of the GPR 143 gene revealed a novel pathological mutation in two patients. Abnormalities in the macula were observed in all patients. SD-OCT is a useful tool for the assessment of patients with OA. No changes were observed in the SD-OCT of carrier mothers. Only two patients had the GPR143 gene mutation. PMID:24526317

  1. Macular dazzling test on normal subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Ulla, F; Louro, O; Mosquera, M

    1986-01-01

    The macular dazzling test was performed on 240 healthy eyes, classified into six groups according to the ages of the subjects. The test was used to assess both long distance and short distance vision with a simultaneous study of the influence of mydriasis and miosis. The MDT is a test easy to perform, requires a minimum of co-operation by the subject, and gives repeatable results. The MDT values increase significantly as the age of the subject increases. The sex of the subject has no influence on it, and there are no significant differences between a subject's right and left eyes. Mydriasis does not affect the MDT, but miosis reduces the recovery period. All the values are statistically greater for long distance vision than for short distance vision. PMID:3954979

  2. Optical coherence tomography imaging of macular oedema

    PubMed Central

    Trichonas, George; Kaiser, Peter K

    2014-01-01

    Macular oedema (ME) occurs in a wide variety of pathological conditions and accounts for different degrees of vision loss. Early detection of ME is therefore critical for diagnosis and therapeutic management. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-contact, diagnostic method that uses infrared light, which allows the analysis of the retinal structure by means of high-resolution tomographic cross sections. The identification, localisation, quantification and long-term follow-up of fluid collections are the most important capabilities of OCT. Since the introduction of OCT in clinical practice, it has become an invaluable diagnostic tool and different patterns of ME have been reported. The purpose of this manuscript is to review OCT profiles of ME according to the aetiology and describe what has been reported regarding intraretinal features in vivo. PMID:24934220

  3. Retinal vessel dilatation and elongation precedes diabetic macular oedema

    PubMed Central

    Kristinsson, J. K.; Gottfredsdottir, M. S.; Stefansson, E.

    1997-01-01

    AIMS/BACKGROUND—Retinal vessel dilatation is a well known phenomenon in diabetes. In this study, the theory of whether excessive changes in diameter and length of retinal vessels occur in the development of diabetic macular oedema was tested, supporting a hypothesis that the development of diabetic macular oedema may be linked to hydrostatic pressure changes described in Starling's law.?METHODS—From fundus photographs of diabetic patients attending a regular eye screening programme, the diameter and segment length of retinal vessels were measured in three retinopathy groups (12 patients each) with diabetic macular oedema (DMO), background retinopathy and no retinopathy, over a period of approximately 4 years, ending at the time of diagnosis of diabetic macular oedema in the DMO group.?RESULTS—A statistically significant dilatation and elongation of retinal arterioles, venules, and their macular branches was found before the diagnosis of macular oedema in the DMO group. No significant changes were found in the other two groups.?CONCLUSION—It is suggested that Starling's law applies to the formation of oedema in the retina as in other tissues.?? PMID:9215053

  4. Macular microcirculation in cystoid maculopathy of diabetic patients.

    PubMed Central

    Arend, O; Remky, A; Harris, A; Bertram, B; Reim, M; Wolf, S

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--In patients with diabetic macular oedema and central cysts ischaemia of the retina appears to be an important contributing factor in the pathogenesis of cysts. This study was performed to further elucidate the role of the inner retinal microcirculation in diabetic cystoid macular oedema (CMO). METHODS--Video fluorescein angiography allows visualisation of the macular microvasculature and measurements of the capillary blood velocity (CBV), foveal avascular zone (FAZ), and perifoveal intercapillary area (PIA, characterising capillary density). RESULTS--Twenty three diabetic subjects with CMO, matched diabetic patients without macular oedema (n = 23), and healthy subjects (n = 23) were included. CBV, PIA, and FAZ did not differ significantly among diabetic groups regardless of presence of cystoid changes. CBV was significantly reduced (p < 0.0001) and PIA was more than doubled in both diabetic groups (p < 0.0001) when compared with healthy subjects. Furthermore, FAZ showed a nearly doubled size in diabetic patients without macular oedema (p < 0.01) and a less pronounced enlargement (by 29%) in diabetics with CMO (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION--The results indicate that the retinal microcirculation in diabetic patients is markedly altered when compared with healthy subjects, regardless of CMO presence. In CMO patients the microcirculatory changes are similar to those of diabetic patients without macular oedema. Thus inner retinal perfusion does not contribute to tissue ischaemia leading to cystoid formations in diabetic maculopathy. Images PMID:7662623

  5. Altered gene expression in dry age-related macular degeneration suggests early loss of choroidal endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Whitmore, S. Scott; Braun, Terry A.; Skeie, Jessica M.; Haas, Christine M.; Sohn, Elliott H.; Stone, Edwin M.; Scheetz, Todd E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of blindness in developed countries. The molecular pathogenesis of early events in AMD is poorly understood. We investigated differential gene expression in samples of human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and choroid from early AMD and control maculas with exon-based arrays. Methods Gene expression levels in nine human donor eyes with early AMD and nine control human donor eyes were assessed using Affymetrix Human Exon ST 1.0 arrays. Two controls did not pass quality control and were removed. Differentially expressed genes were annotated using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID), and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was performed on RPE-specific and endothelium-associated gene sets. The complement factor H (CFH) genotype was also assessed, and differential expression was analyzed regarding high AMD risk (YH/HH) and low AMD risk (YY) genotypes. Results Seventy-five genes were identified as differentially expressed (raw p value <0.01; ?50% fold change, mean log2 expression level in AMD or control ? median of all average gene expression values); however, no genes were significant (adj. p value <0.01) after correction for multiple hypothesis testing. Of 52 genes with decreased expression in AMD (fold change <0.5; raw p value <0.01), 18 genes were identified by DAVID analysis as associated with vision or neurologic processes. The GSEA of the RPE-associated and endothelium-associated genes revealed a significant decrease in genes typically expressed by endothelial cells in the early AMD group compared to controls, consistent with previous histologic and proteomic studies. Analysis of the CFH genotype indicated decreased expression of ADAMTS9 in eyes with high-risk genotypes (fold change = –2.61; raw p value=0.0008). Conclusions GSEA results suggest that RPE transcripts are preserved or elevated in early AMD, concomitant with loss of endothelial cell marker expression. These results are consistent with the notion that choroidal endothelial cell dropout or dedifferentiation occurs early in the pathogenesis of AMD. PMID:24265543

  6. The effects of polymer pigmentation on fingermark development techniques.

    PubMed

    Bacon, Simon R; Ojeda, Jesus J; Downham, Rory; Sears, Vaughn G; Jones, Benjamin J

    2013-11-01

    The effectiveness of latent fingerprint development techniques is heavily influenced by the physical and chemical properties of the deposition surface. The use of powder suspensions is increasing for development of prints on a range of surfaces. We demonstrate that carbon powder suspension development on polymers is detrimentally affected by the presence of common white pigment, titanium dioxide. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrates that patches of the compound are clearly associated with increased levels of powder adhesion. Substrates with nonlocalized titanium dioxide content also exhibit increased levels of carbon powder staining on a surface-wide basis. Secondary ion mass spectrometry and complementary techniques demonstrate the importance of levels of the pigment within the top 30 nm. The association is independent of fingermark deposition and may be related to surface energy variation. The detrimental effect of the pigment is not observed with small-particle reagent (MoS2 SPR) or cyanoacrylate (superglue) fuming techniques that exploit different development mechanisms. PMID:23822671

  7. Segmentation and quantification of retinal lesions in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, Bernhard; Götzinger, Erich; Pircher, Michael; Sattmann, Harald; Schütze, Christopher; Schlanitz, Ferdinand; Ahlers, Christian; Schmidt-Erfurth, Ursula; Hitzenberger, Christoph K.

    2010-11-01

    We present polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) for quantitative assessment of retinal pathologies in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). On the basis of the polarization scrambling characteristics of the retinal pigment epithelium, novel segmentation algorithms were developed that allow one to segment pathologic features such as drusen and atrophic zones in dry AMD as well as to determine their dimensions. Results from measurements in the eyes of AMD patients prove the ability of PS-OCT for quantitative imaging based on the retinal features polarizing properties. Repeatability measurements were performed in retinas diagnosed with drusen and geographic atrophy in order to evaluate the performance of the described methods. PS-OCT appears as a promising imaging modality for three-dimensional retinal imaging and ranging with additional contrast based on the structures' tissue-inherent polarization properties.

  8. A non-linear irreversible thermodynamic perspective on organic pigment proliferation and biological evolution

    E-print Network

    Michaelian, Karo

    2013-01-01

    The most important thermodynamic work performed by life today is the dissipation of the solar photon flux into heat through organic pigments in water. From this thermodynamic perspective, biological evolution is thus just the dispersal of organic pigments and water throughout Earth's surface, while adjusting the gases of Earth's atmosphere to allow the most intense part of the solar spectrum to penetrate the atmosphere and reach the surface to be intercepted by these pigments. The covalent bonding of atoms in organic pigments provides excited levels compatible with the energies of these photons. Internal conversion through vibrational relaxation to the ground state of these excited molecules when in water leads to rapid dissipation of the solar photons into heat, and this is the major source of entropy production on Earth. A non-linear irreversible thermodynamic analysis shows that the proliferation of organic pigments on Earth is a direct consequence of the pigments catalytic properties in dissipating the so...

  9. Evaluation of the Macular, Peripapillary Nerve Fiber Layer and Choroid Thickness Changes in Behçet's Disease with Spectral-Domain OCT

    PubMed Central

    Ata?, Mustafa; Yuvac?, ?sa; Demircan, Süleyman; Güler, Emel; Altunel, Orhan; Pangal, Emine; Gökta?, Altan; Sütbeyaz, Serap; Zarars?z, Gökmen

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the macular, choroid, and peripapillary nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFL) in Behçet's disease (BD) patients with and without ocular involvement by means of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and compare these findings with healthy controls. Design. Eighty patients with BD and 40 healthy controls who were followed up at the Uveitis and Retina Clinic of the Kayseri Research and Education Hospital in Turkey were enrolled in this prospective study. Subjects and Controls. The patients with BD were divided into two groups according to the presence of ocular involvement. Group 1 consisted of 40 eyes of 40 patients with ocular involvement and group 2 consisted of 40 eyes of 40 patients without ocular involvement. Methods. All of the patients and controls underwent macular, choroid, and peripapillary nerve fiber layer thickness analysis with Spectralis domain OCT (Spectralis OCT Heidelberg Engineering, Dossenheim, Germany). Main Outcome Measures. The differences in macular, choroid, and peripapillary nerve fiber layer thicknesses between groups were analyzed statistically. Results. Macular thickness was thinner in patients with BD than in the control group; this result was statistically significant (P = 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in thickness between RNFL analysis of the patients with BD and control subjects. However, the BD patients with ocular involvement had statistically significant thinning in RNFL compared with BD patients without ocular involvement. Although the choroid was thicker in patients with BD than in the control group, it did not reach a statistically significant level (P = 0.382). Conclusions. BD with ocular involvement may be associated with decreased macular and RNFL thickness measured with spectral-domain OCT. PMID:24868459

  10. Prevalence of Age-related Macular Degeneration in Old Persons. Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility Reykjavik Study

    PubMed Central

    Jonasson, Fridbert; Arnarsson, Arsaell; Eiríksdottir, Gudny; Harris, Tamara B.; Launer, Lenore J.; Meuer, Stacy M; Klein, Barbara E; Klein, Ronald; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Cotch, Mary Frances

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To describe the prevalence and signs of early and late age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in an old cohort. Design Population based cohort study Participants We included 5,272 persons 66 years and older, randomly sampled from the Reykjavik area. Methods Fundus images were taken through dilated pupils using a 45°digital camera and were graded for drusen size, type, area, increased retinal pigment, retinal pigment epithelial depigmentation, neovascular lesions and geographic atrophy using the modified Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading System. Main outcome measure Age-related macular degenerationin an old cohort. Results Mean age of participants was 76 years. The prevalence of early AMD was 12.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] 11.0–13.9) for those 66–74 year old and 36% (95% CI 30.9–41.1) for those 85 years and older. The prevalence of exudative AMD was 3.3% (95% CI 2.8–3.8) and for pure geographic atrophy 2.4% (95% CI 2.0–2.8). The highest prevalence for late AMD was among those 85 years and older 11.4% (95% CI 8.2–14.5) for exudative AMD and 7.6% (95% CI 4.8–10.4) for pure geographic atrophy. Conclusion Persons 85 years and older have 10-fold higher prevalence of late AMD than those 70–74 years old. The high prevalence of late AMD in the oldest age-group and expected increase of old people in the western world in coming years call for improved preventive measures and novel treatments. PMID:21126770

  11. Patient selection for macular translocation surgery using the scanning laser ophthalmoscope

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gildo Y Fujii; Eugene de Juan; Janet Sunness; Mark S Humayun; Dante J Pieramici; Tom S Chang

    2002-01-01

    ObjectivesTo evaluate the use of the scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO) as a predictor for potential visual improvement in eyes with subfoveal choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) undergoing limited macular translocation.

  12. Age-related macular degeneration: beyond anti-angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kent, David L

    2014-01-01

    Recently, anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapies for neovascular age-related macular degeneration have been developed. These agents, originally developed for their anti-angiogenic mechanism of action, probably also work through an anti-permeability effect in preventing or reducing the amount of leakage from submacular neovascular tissue. Other treatment modalities include laser photocoagulation, photodynamic therapy with verteporfin, and submacular surgery. In reality, these latter treatments can be similarly categorized as anti-angiogenic because their sole aim is destroying or removing choroidal neovascularization (CNV). At the cellular level, CNV resembles stereotypical tissue repair that consists of several matricellular components in addition to neovascularization. In the retina, the clinical term CNV is a misnomer since the term may more appropriately be referred to as aberrant submacular repair. Furthermore, CNV raises a therapeutic conundrum: To complete or correct any reparative process in the body, angiogenesis becomes an essential component. Anti-angiogenic therapy, in all its guises, arrests repair and causes the hypoxic environment to persist, thus fueling pro-angiogenesis and further development of CNV as a component of aberrant repair. However, we realize that anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy preserves vision in patients with age-related macular degeneration, albeit temporarily and therefore, repeated treatment is needed. More importantly, however, anti-angiogenic therapy demonstrates that we can at the very least tolerate neovascular tissue beneath the macula and preserve vision in contrast to our historical approach of total vascular destruction. In this clinical scenario, it may be possible to look beyond anti-angiogenesis if our goal is facilitating submacular repair without destroying the neurosensory retina. Thus, in this situation of neovascular tolerance, it may be timely to consider treatments that facilitate vascular maturation, rather than its arrest or destruction. This would neutralize hypoxia, thus removing the stimulus that drives neovascularization and in turn the need for repeated lifelong intravitreal therapy. A pro-angiogenic approach would eliminate neovascular leakage and ultimately complete repair and preserve the neurosensory retina. PMID:24426775

  13. Exogenous pigment in Peyer's patches

    SciTech Connect

    Shepherd, N.A.; Crocker, P.R.; Smith, A.P.; Levison, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    Dark brown granular pigment was found consistently in macrophages in the deep aspect of adult Peyer's patches. Tissue sections from intestinal resections of 35 patients with a variety of pathologic diagnoses and of seven postmortem cases with no evidence of gastrointestinal disease were examined for the presence of this pigment. It was found in all patients over the age of 6 years (34 cases) but was not found in any children below that age (eight cases). Scanning electron microscopy with secondary and backscattered electron imaging and x-ray energy spectroscopy were performed on routine histologic sections. The pigmented macrophages contained aluminum and silicon, diffusely present throughout the cytoplasm, and numerous discrete foci of titanium. Pigment containing these same elements has also been found around dilated submucosal lymphatics, in mesenteric lymph nodes, and in some transmural inflammatory aggregates of Crohn's disease. The pigment probably is derived from the diet and actively taken up by Peyer's patches, which are able to incorporate inert particulate matter.

  14. [Characteristics of genetically pigmented skins].

    PubMed

    Morand, J J; Lightburn, E

    2003-01-01

    The analysis shows that apart from the relative hyperpigmentation of the "black" skin (genetically determined and variable according to ethnic group, age, sex and solar exposure), which determines the secondary dyschromic reactions to the majority of the dermatosis, and, except the differences of frequency of diseases related especially to geographical or epidemiologic determinisms, there is no true specificity although some entities are little or not described on "white" skin (dermatosis papulosa nigra, acral punctuated hyperkeratosis, progressive macular hypomelanosis of the trunk, acne keloidalis, pseudofolliculitis barbae, aďnhum...). PMID:15015846

  15. Screening, prevention, and ambitious management of diabetic macular edema in patients with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Tarantola, Ryan M; Maturi, Raj K; Kushal, Shalesh; Gupta, Sunil

    2013-10-01

    Diabetic macular edema results from progressive retinopathy related to chronic hyperglycemic and inflammatory vascular damage. Loss of vision secondary to diabetic macular edema is the most common cause of vision loss in patients with diabetes. Blood glucose control remains the main means of preventing progression of retinopathy and macular edema. Recent advancements allowing more efficient mechanisms for screening patients and emerging treatments for macular edema have led to improved visual outcomes in this group of patients. PMID:23959793

  16. Intraocular injection of crystalline cortisone as adjunctive treatment of diabetic macular edema

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jost B Jonas; Antje Söfker

    2001-01-01

    PURPOSE: To report the clinical outcome of a diabetic patient with macular edema treated with an intravitreal injection of crystalline cortisone.METHODS: Interventional case report. A 73-year-old patient with diabetes mellitus presented with clinically significant diffuse macular edema caused by nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy. Despite grid laser coagulation in the macular region, cystoid macular edema progressed, and within 6 months before the

  17. Computational assessment of effective dose and patient specific doses for kilovoltage stereotactic radiosurgery of wet age-related macular degeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanlon, Justin Mitchell

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of vision loss and a major health problem for people over the age of 50 in industrialized nations. The current standard of care, ranibizumab, is used to help slow and in some cases stabilize the process of AMD, but requires frequent invasive injections into the eye. Interest continues for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), an option that provides a non-invasive treatment for the wet form of AMD, through the development of the IRay(TM) (Oraya Therapeutics, Inc., Newark, CA). The goal of this modality is to destroy choroidal neovascularization beneath the pigment epithelium via delivery of three 100 kVp photon beams entering through the sclera and overlapping on the macula delivering up to 24 Gy of therapeutic dose over a span of approximately 5 minutes. The divergent x-ray beams targeting the fovea are robotically positioned and the eye is gently immobilized by a suction-enabled contact lens. Device development requires assessment of patient effective dose, reference patient mean absorbed doses to radiosensitive tissues, and patient specific doses to the lens and optic nerve. A series of head phantoms, including both reference and patient specific, was derived from CT data and employed in conjunction with the MCNPX 2.5.0 radiation transport code to simulate treatment and evaluate absorbed doses to potential tissues-at-risk. The reference phantoms were used to evaluate effective dose and mean absorbed doses to several radiosensitive tissues. The optic nerve was modeled with changeable positions based on individual patient variability seen in a review of head CT scans gathered. Patient specific phantoms were used to determine the effect of varying anatomy and gaze. The results showed that absorbed doses to the non-targeted tissues were below the threshold levels for serious complications; specifically the development of radiogenic cataracts and radiation induced optic neuropathy (RON). The effective dose determined (0.29 mSv) is comparable to diagnostic procedures involving the head, such as an x-ray or CT scan. Thus, the computational assessment performed indicates that a previously established therapeutic dose can be delivered effectively to the macula with IRay(TM) without the potential for secondary complications.

  18. Protocol optimization for enhanced production of pigments in Spirulina.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Devendra; Kumar, Neeraj; Pabbi, Sunil; Walia, Suresh; Dhar, Dolly Wattal

    2013-01-01

    Spirulina has attracted special attention due to its importance as human foodstuff and natural colours with specific functional properties. These functional properties have been attributed to phycobilins, carotenoids, phenolics and unsaturated fatty acids. Present study was conducted under controlled phytotron conditions to identify the efficient strains of Spirulina in terms of pigment synthesis and to optimize their enhanced production. Methodology for enhanced production was standardized by varying specific environmental parameters (light intensity, temperature, carbon dioxide concentration, pH and NaCl level). Different strains of Spirulina depicted variability and environmental parameters showed distinct influence on pigments. Growth and pigment production was recorded to be most efficient under optimized conditions of light intensity (70 ?mol m(-2) s(-1)), temperature (30 °C), CO2 concentration (550 ppm and 750 ppm), pH (10.5) and NaCl level (2 g L(-1)). PMID:24764599

  19. Interocular Symmetry in Macular Choroidal Thickness in Children

    PubMed Central

    Al-Haddad, Christiane; El Chaar, Lama; Noureddin, Baha'

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To report interocular differences in choroidal thickness in children using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and correlate findings with biometric data. Methods. This observational cross-sectional study included 91 (182 eyes) healthy children aged 6 to 17 years with no ocular abnormality except refractive error. After a comprehensive eye exam and axial length measurement, high definition macular scans were performed using SD-OCT. Two observers manually measured the choroidal thickness at the foveal center and at 1500?µm nasally, temporally, inferiorly, and superiorly. Interocular differences were computed; correlations with age, gender, refractive error, and axial length were performed. Results. Mean age was 10.40 ± 3.17 years; mean axial length and refractive error values were similar between fellow eyes. There was excellent correlation between the two observers' measurements. No significant interocular differences were observed at any location. There was only a trend for right eyes to have higher values in all thicknesses, except the superior thickness. Most of the choroidal thickness measurements correlated positively with spherical equivalent but not with axial length, age, or gender. Conclusion. Choroidal thickness measurements in children as performed using SD-OCT revealed a high level of interobserver agreement and consistent interocular symmetry. Values correlated positively with spherical equivalent refraction. PMID:25525509

  20. Ultrastructure and Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of Several Macular and Papular Telangiectases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irwin M. Braverman; Agnes Keh-Yen

    1983-01-01

    Eight types of telangiectases were studied by light and electron microscopy and by 3-dimensional reconstruction from photomicrographs. Five were macular: mat telangiectasia of scleroderma, generalized essential telangiectasia, nevus flammeus, and 2 macular types not previously described. Three were papular: cherry angioma, angiokeratoma (Fabry), and angiokeratoma (Fordyce). The macular telangiectases were produced by dilatation of postcapillary venules of the upper horizontal

  1. Vitrectomy for diffuse diabetic macular edema associated with a taut premacular posterior hyaloid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott D Pendergast; Tarek S Hassan; George A Williams; Morton S Cox; Raymond R Margherio; Philip J Ferrone; Bruce R Garretson; Michael T Trese

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the role of vitrectomy in eyes with diffuse diabetic macular edema associated with a taut posterior hyaloid.METHODS: Records of 55 eyes of 50 patients with diabetic retinopathy and diffuse clinically significant diabetic macular edema who underwent vitrectomy with stripping of the premacular posterior hyaloid were reviewed. In all 55 eyes, diffuse diabetic macular edema was present on

  2. Clinicopathological correlation in exudative age related macular degeneration: histological differentiation between classic and occult choroidal neovascularisation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B A Lafaut; K U Bartz-Schmidt; C Vanden Broecke; S Aisenbrey; J J De Laey; K Heimann

    2000-01-01

    AIMSTo analyse the histopathology of classic and occult choroidal neovascular membrane surgical specimens in age related macular degeneration.METHODS35 membranes, from a consecutive series of surgically removed choroidal neovascular membranes in age related macular degeneration, were classified as classic or occult following the guidelines of the Macular Photocoagulation Study. Membranes with classic as well as occult components were considered as mixed

  3. Melanocyte biology and skin pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jennifer Y; Fisher, David E

    2007-02-22

    Melanocytes are phenotypically prominent but histologically inconspicuous skin cells. They are responsible for the pigmentation of skin and hair, and thereby contribute to the appearance of skin and provide protection from damage by ultraviolet radiation. Pigmentation mutants in various species are highly informative about basic genetic and developmental pathways, and provide important clues to the processes of photoprotection, cancer predisposition and even human evolution. Skin is the most common site of cancer in humans. Continued understanding of melanocyte contributions to skin biology will hopefully provide new opportunities for the prevention and treatment of skin diseases. PMID:17314970

  4. DNA Forensics and Color Pigments

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Science Foundation GK-12 and Research Experience for Teachers (RET) Programs,

    Students perform DNA forensics using food coloring to enhance their understanding of DNA fingerprinting, restriction enzymes, genotyping and DNA gel electrophoresis. They place small drops of different food coloring ("water-based paint") on strips of filter paper and then place one paper strip end in water. As water travels along the paper strips, students observe the pigments that compose the paint decompose into their color components. This is an example of the chromatography concept applied to DNA forensics, with the pigments in the paint that define the color being analogous to DNA fragments of different lengths.

  5. A novel proteotoxic stress associated mechanism for macular corneal dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Kaarniranta, Kai; Szalai, Eszter; Smedowski, Adrian; Hegyi, Zoltán; Kivinen, Niko; Viiri, Johanna; Wowra, Bogumil; Dobrowolski, Dariusz; Módis, László; Berta, András; Wylegala, Edward; Felszeghy, Szabolcs

    2015-08-01

    Macular corneal dystrophy is a rare autosomal recessive eye disease affecting primarily the corneal stroma. Abnormal accumulation of proteoglycan aggregates has been observed intra- and extracellularly in the stromal layer. In addition to the stromal keratocytes and corneal lamellae, deposits are also present in the basal epithelial cells, endothelial cells and Descemet's membrane. Misfolding of proteins has a tendency to gather into aggregating deposits. We studied interaction of molecular chaperones and proteasomal clearance in macular dystrophy human samples and in human corneal HCE-2 epithelial cells. Seven cases of macular corneal dystrophy and four normal corneal buttons collected during corneal transplantation were examined for their expression patterns of heat shock protein 70, ubiquitin protein conjugates and SQSTM1/p62. In response to proteasome inhibition the same proteins were analyzed by western blotting. Slit-lamp examination, in vivo confocal cornea microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used for morphological analyses. Heat shock protein 70, ubiquitin protein conjugates and SQSTM1/p62 were upregulated in both the basal corneal epithelial cells and the stromal keratocytes in macular corneal dystrophy samples that coincided with an increased expression of the same molecules under proteasome inhibition in the HCE-2 cells in vitro. We propose a novel regulatory mechanism that connects the molecular chaperone and proteasomal clearance system in the pathogenesis of macular corneal dystrophy. PMID:25597745

  6. Expression of pigment epithelium-derived factor and thrombospondin-1 regulate proliferation and migration of retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Farnoodian, Mitra; Kinter, James B; Yadranji Aghdam, Saeed; Zaitoun, Ismail; Sorenson, Christine M; Sheibani, Nader

    2015-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss among elderly. Although the pathogenesis of AMD is associated with retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) dysfunction and abnormal neovascularization the detailed mechanisms remain unresolved. RPE is a specialized monolayer of epithelial cells with important functions in ocular homeostasis. Pathological RPE damage contributes to major ocular conditions including retinal degeneration and irreversible loss of vision in AMD. RPE cells also assist in the maintenance of the ocular angiogenic balance by production of positive and negative regulatory factors including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), thrombospondin-1 (TSP1), and pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF). The altered production of PEDF and TSP1, as endogenous inhibitors of angiogenesis and inflammation, by RPE cells have been linked to pathogenesis of AMD and choroidal and retinal neovascularization. However, lack of simple methods for isolation and culture of mouse RPE cells has resulted in limited knowledge regarding the cell autonomous role of TSP1 and PEDF in RPE cell function. Here, we describe a method for routine isolation and propagation of RPE cells from wild-type, TSP1, and PEDF-deficient mice, and have investigated their impact on RPE cell function. We showed that expression of TSP1 and PEDF significantly impacted RPE cell proliferation, migration, adhesion, oxidative state, and phagocytic activity with minimal effect on their basal rate of apoptosis. Together, our results indicated that the expression of PEDF and TSP1 by RPE cells play crucial roles not only in regulation of ocular vascular homeostasis but also have significant impact on their cellular function. PMID:25602019

  7. Acute Retinal Pigment Epitheliitis: Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography, Fluorescein Angiography, and Autofluorescence Findings

    PubMed Central

    Aydo?an, Tu?ba; Güney, Esra; Akçay, Betül ?lkay Sezgin; Bozkurt, Tahir Kansu; Ünlü, Cihan; Ergin, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    A 17-year-old presented with central and paracentral scotomas in his right eye for one week. There was no remarkable medical or ocular history. Blood analyses were within normal range. At presentation both eyes' best-corrected visual acuities were 20/20. Slit-lamp examination result was normal. Fundus examination revealed yellow-white hypopigmented areas in the macula. Fluorescein angiography (FA) showed hypofluorescence surrounded by ring of hyperfluorescence. Fundus autofluorescence (FAF) was slightly increased. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) showed disruption of IS/OS junction with expansion of abnormal hyperreflectivity from retinal pigment epithelium to the outer nuclear layer (ONL). One month later fundus examination showed disappearance of the lesions. FA revealed transmission hyperfluorescence. FAF showed increased autofluorescence and pigment clumping. Hyperreflective band in SD-OCT disappeared. Loss of photoreceptor segment layers was observed in some of the macular lesions. The diagnosis of acute retinal pigment epitheliitis can be challenging after disappearance of fundus findings. FA, FAF, and SD-OCT are important tests for diagnosis after resolution of the disease. PMID:25767511

  8. The role of pigmentation in face perception

    E-print Network

    Russell, Richard (Richard P.)

    2005-01-01

    Faces each have distinct pigmentation as well as shape, which suggests that both cues may play a role in the perception of faces. However, there is a common implicit assumption that pigmentation cues are relatively ...

  9. Optimal number of pigments in photosynthetic complexes

    E-print Network

    Simon Jesenko; Marko Znidaric

    2012-09-17

    We study excitation energy transfer in a simple model of photosynthetic complex. The model, described by Lindblad equation, consists of pigments interacting via dipole-dipole interaction. Overlapping of pigments induces an on-site energy disorder, providing a mechanism for blocking the excitation transfer. Based on the average efficiency as well as robustness of random configurations of pigments, we calculate the optimal number of pigments that should be enclosed in a pigment-protein complex of a given size. The results suggest that a large fraction of pigment configurations are efficient as well as robust if the number of pigments is properly chosen. We compare optimal results of the model to the structure of pigment-protein complexes as found in nature, finding good agreement.

  10. Optimal number of pigments in photosynthetic complexes

    E-print Network

    Jesenko, Simon

    2012-01-01

    We study excitation energy transfer in a simple model of photosynthetic complex. The model, described by Lindblad equation, consists of pigments interacting via dipole-dipole interaction. Overlapping of pigments induces an on-site energy disorder, providing a mechanism for blocking the excitation transfer. Based on the average efficiency as well as robustness of random configurations of pigments, we calculate the optimal number of pigments that should be enclosed in a pigment-protein complex of a given size. The results suggest that a large fraction of pigment configurations are efficient as well as robust if the number of pigments is properly chosen. We compare optimal results of the model to the structure of pigment-protein complexes as found in nature, finding good agreement.

  11. Is pigmentation important for face recognition? Is pigmentation important for face recognition?

    E-print Network

    Sinha, Pawan

    Is pigmentation important for face recognition? Is pigmentation important for face recognition into two general sources: a) shape and b) surface reflectance, here termed "pigmentation.". To determine whether negation differentially affects the processing of shape or pigmentation, we made two sets of faces

  12. Animal models of age related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Pennesi, Mark E.; Neuringer, Martha; Courtney, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss of those over the age of 65 in the industrialized world. The prevalence and need to develop effective treatments for AMD has lead to the development of multiple animal models. AMD is a complex and heterogeneous disease that involves the interaction of both genetic and environmental factors with the unique anatomy of the human macula. Models in mice, rats, rabbits, pigs and non-human primates have recreated many of the histological features of AMD and provided much insight into the underlying pathological mechanisms of this disease. In spite of the large number of models developed, no one model yet recapitulates all of the features of human AMD. However, these models have helped reveal the roles of chronic oxidative damage, inflammation and immune dysregulation, and lipid metabolism in the development of AMD. Models for induced choroidal neovascularization have served as the backbone for testing new therapies. This article will review the diversity of animal models that exist for AMD as well as their strengths and limitations. PMID:22705444

  13. New Computer Simulations of Macular Neural Functioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Muriel D.; Doshay, D.; Linton, S.; Parnas, B.; Montgomery, K.; Chimento, T.

    1994-01-01

    We use high performance graphics workstations and supercomputers to study the functional significance of the three-dimensional (3-D) organization of gravity sensors. These sensors have a prototypic architecture foreshadowing more complex systems. Scaled-down simulations run on a Silicon Graphics workstation and scaled-up, 3-D versions run on a Cray Y-MP supercomputer. A semi-automated method of reconstruction of neural tissue from serial sections studied in a transmission electron microscope has been developed to eliminate tedious conventional photography. The reconstructions use a mesh as a step in generating a neural surface for visualization. Two meshes are required to model calyx surfaces. The meshes are connected and the resulting prisms represent the cytoplasm and the bounding membranes. A finite volume analysis method is employed to simulate voltage changes along the calyx in response to synapse activation on the calyx or on calyceal processes. The finite volume method insures that charge is conserved at the calyx-process junction. These and other models indicate that efferent processes act as voltage followers, and that the morphology of some afferent processes affects their functioning. In a final application, morphological information is symbolically represented in three dimensions in a computer. The possible functioning of the connectivities is tested using mathematical interpretations of physiological parameters taken from the literature. Symbolic, 3-D simulations are in progress to probe the functional significance of the connectivities. This research is expected to advance computer-based studies of macular functioning and of synaptic plasticity.

  14. Aqueous Cytokines as Predictors of Macular Edema in Patients with Diabetes following Uncomplicated Phacoemulsification Cataract Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Ning; Xu, Bing; Wang, Bingsong; Chu, Liqun; Tang, Xin

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to ascertain whether cytokines in the aqueous humor can predict macular edema (ME) in diabetic patients following uncomplicated phacoemulsification cataract surgery. Undiluted aqueous humor samples were obtained from 136 consecutive type 2 diabetic patients who underwent cataract surgery. The concentrations of 27 cytokines were measured in aqueous humor using the multiplex bead immunoassay. At the final follow-up examination, 116 patients completed 4 weeks of follow-up, and the incidence of macular edema was 29.31% (34 patients) 4 weeks after cataract surgery. Compared to the ME (?) patients, the concentrations of interleukin-1? (IL-1?) (P < 0.001), IL-6 (P < 0.001), IL-8 (P < 0.001), interferon-induced protein-10 (IP-10) (P = 0.003), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) (P < 0.001), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) (P < 0.001) in the ME (+) patients were significantly higher. In addition, the aqueous levels of IL-1? (r = 0.288), IL-6 (r = 0.345), IL-8 (r = 0.256), IP-10 (r = 0.377), MCP-1 (r = 0.423), and VEGF (r = 0.279) were positively correlated with the postoperative foveal center point thickness (FCPT). However, the aqueous levels of IL-10 (P = 0.003) and IL-12 (P = 0.017) were significantly lower in patients with ME. These results suggest IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IP-10, MCP-1, and VEGF may be potential predictors of postoperative macular thickness in patients with diabetes following uncomplicated phacoemulsification cataract surgery. PMID:25811020

  15. 21 CFR 178.3725 - Pigment dispersants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pigment dispersants. 178.3725 Section 178...Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3725 Pigment dispersants. Subject to the provisions...listed in this section may be safely used as pigment dispersants in food-contact...

  16. Developmental Integration of Feather Growth and Pigmentation

    E-print Network

    Badyaev, Alex

    Developmental Integration of Feather Growth and Pigmentation and its Implications for the Evolution by coordinated pigmentation of thousands of growing feathers that vary in shape and size. Although the functional, specifically, the rules that link feather growth to pigment uptake and synthesis. Here, we combine biochemical

  17. 21 CFR 178.3725 - Pigment dispersants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pigment dispersants. 178.3725 Section 178...Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3725 Pigment dispersants. Subject to the provisions...listed in this section may be safely used as pigment dispersants in food-contact...

  18. Modeling Pigmented Materials for Realistic Image Synthesis

    E-print Network

    Meyer, Gary

    Modeling Pigmented Materials for Realistic Image Synthesis CHET S. HAASE and GARY W. MEYER University of Oregon This article discusses and applies the Kuhelka Munk theory of pigment mixing to computer]xing arc discussed and are shown to be insufficient for pigmented materials. The Kubclka Munk theory

  19. 21 CFR 178.3725 - Pigment dispersants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pigment dispersants. 178.3725 Section 178...Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3725 Pigment dispersants. Subject to the provisions...listed in this section may be safely used as pigment dispersants in food-contact...

  20. Gntique formelle des pigmentations humaines variations continues

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Génétique formelle des pigmentations humaines ŕ variations continues : beaucoup d'hypothčses, peu et de mesures sont actuellement disponibles concer- nant la biochimie des pigments humains, leur génétique physiologique, les répartitions mondiales des pigmentations de la peau et des cheveux. La

  1. FISH PIGMENTATION Local reorganization of xanthophores

    E-print Network

    Napp, Nils

    FISH PIGMENTATION Local reorganization of xanthophores fine-tunes and colors the striped pattern of pigment cells: black melanophores, yellow xanthophores, and silvery-blue iridophores. We analyzed of mutants lacking one or two of the three pigment cell types has revealed that interac- tions between all

  2. 21 CFR 178.3725 - Pigment dispersants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Pigment dispersants. 178.3725 Section 178...Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3725 Pigment dispersants. Subject to the provisions...listed in this section may be safely used as pigment dispersants in food-contact...

  3. 21 CFR 178.3725 - Pigment dispersants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pigment dispersants. 178.3725 Section 178...Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3725 Pigment dispersants. Subject to the provisions...listed in this section may be safely used as pigment dispersants in food-contact...

  4. Juvenile-Onset Macular Degeneration and Allied Disorders

    PubMed Central

    North, Victoria; Gelman, Rony; Tsang, Stephen H.

    2015-01-01

    While age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of central vision loss among the elderly, many inherited diseases that present earlier in life share features of AMD. These diseases of juvenile-onset macular degeneration include Stargardt disease, Best disease, retinitis pigmentosa, X-linked retinoschisis, and other allied disorders. In particular, they can be accompanied by the appearance of drusen, geographic atrophy, macular hyperpigmentation, choroidal neovascularization, and disciform scarring just as in AMD, and often may be confused for the adult form of the disease. Diagnosis based on funduscopic findings alone can be challenging. However, the use of diagnostic studies such as electroretinography, electrooculography, optical coherence tomography, and fundus autofluorescence in conjunction with genetic testing can lead to an accurate diagnosis. PMID:24732760

  5. Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Current Treatment and Future Options

    PubMed Central

    Moutray, Tanya; Chakravarthy, Usha

    2011-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration is the leading cause of visual impairment among older adults in the developed world. Epidemiological studies have revealed a number of genetic, ocular and environmental risk factors for this condition, which can be addressed by disease reduction strategies. We discuss the various treatment options for dry and exudative age-related macular degeneration available and explain how the recommended treatment depends on the exact type, location and extent of the degeneration. Currently, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibition therapy is the best available treatment for exudative age-related macular degeneration but is limited by the need for repeated intravitreal injections. The current treatment regime is being refined through research on optimal treatment frequency and duration and type of anti-VEGF drug. Different modes of drug delivery are being developed and in the future other methods of VEGF inhibition may be used. PMID:23251758

  6. Cystoid macular edema induced by low doses of nicotinic Acid.

    PubMed

    Domanico, Daniela; Carnevale, Carmela; Fragiotta, Serena; Verboschi, Francesca; Altimari, Simona; Vingolo, Enzo Maria

    2013-01-01

    Cystoid macular edema (CME) is a condition that involves the macula, causing painless vision loss. In this paper, we report a case of niacin-induced bilateral cystoid macular edema (CME) in a middle-age woman taking low dose of niacin (18?mg of nicotinic acid). Optical coherence tomography (OCT) showed retinal thickening and cystoid spaces in both eyes, whereas fluorescein angiography (FA; HRA 2, Heidelberg Engineering) revealed the absence of fluorescein leakage also in later phases. Four weeks after discontinuation of therapy there were a complete disappearance of macular edema at funduscopic examination and an improvement of visual acuity in both eyes. Furthermore OCT showed a normal retinal profile in both eyes. In our opinion considering the wide availability of niacin, medical monitoring and periodical examination should be considered during niacin administration. To our knowledge, this is the first report in the literature that described the very low-dose niacin-induced bilateral niacin maculopathy. PMID:23662229

  7. Cystoid Macular Edema Induced by Low Doses of Nicotinic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Domanico, Daniela; Carnevale, Carmela; Fragiotta, Serena; Verboschi, Francesca; Altimari, Simona; Vingolo, Enzo Maria

    2013-01-01

    Cystoid macular edema (CME) is a condition that involves the macula, causing painless vision loss. In this paper, we report a case of niacin-induced bilateral cystoid macular edema (CME) in a middle-age woman taking low dose of niacin (18?mg of nicotinic acid). Optical coherence tomography (OCT) showed retinal thickening and cystoid spaces in both eyes, whereas fluorescein angiography (FA; HRA 2, Heidelberg Engineering) revealed the absence of fluorescein leakage also in later phases. Four weeks after discontinuation of therapy there were a complete disappearance of macular edema at funduscopic examination and an improvement of visual acuity in both eyes. Furthermore OCT showed a normal retinal profile in both eyes. In our opinion considering the wide availability of niacin, medical monitoring and periodical examination should be considered during niacin administration. To our knowledge, this is the first report in the literature that described the very low-dose niacin-induced bilateral niacin maculopathy. PMID:23662229

  8. Management of Pediatric Traumatic Macular Holes – Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Azevedo, S.; Ferreira, N.; Meireles, A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To report and describe the clinical course of four pediatric traumatic macular hole (TMH) cases and respective management. Case Report Four pediatric patients with macular hole following blunt ocular trauma underwent early pars plana vitrectomy, with consecutive hole closure. Initial visual acuity was <20/400 or worse in all patients. After surgery, all patients had visual acuity improvement, with final visual acuity being <20/50 in 2 of the patients by the end of the follow-up. Macular hole closure was achieved in all patients with a single procedure, and anatomical success was confirmed by optical coherence tomography until the end of the follow-up. Conclusions Although spontaneous closure of TMH is not uncommon, especially in pediatric patients, early pars plana vitrectomy seems to be a safe and effective choice in pediatric TMH management. The risk/benefit ratio of surgery seems to be better than observation. PMID:23898288

  9. Age-related macular degeneration-associated variants at chromosome 10q26 do not significantly alter ARMS2 and HTRA1

    E-print Network

    Abecasis, Goncalo

    of Ophthalmology and Human Genetics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA; 3Center for Statistical GeneticsAge-related macular degeneration-associated variants at chromosome 10q26 do not significantly alter ARMS2 and HTRA1 transcript levels in the human retina Atsuhiro Kanda,1 Dwight Stambolian,2 Wei Chen,3

  10. Stem cell therapies for age-related macular degeneration: the past, present, and future

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Yalong; Zhang, Chun; Zhu, Yu

    2015-01-01

    In the developed world, age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the major causes of irreversible blindness in the elderly. Although management of neovascular AMD (wet AMD) has dramatically progressed, there is still no effective treatment for nonneovascular AMD (dry AMD), which is characterized by retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell death (or dysfunction) and microenvironmental disruption in the retina. Therefore, RPE replacement and microenvironmental regulation represent viable treatments for dry AMD. Recent advances in cell biology have demonstrated that RPE cells can be easily generated from several cell types (pluripotent stem cells, multipotent stem cells, or even somatic cells) by spontaneous differentiation, coculturing, defined factors or cell reprogramming, respectively. Additionally, in vivo studies also showed that the restoration of visual function could be obtained by transplanting functional RPE cells into the subretinal space of recipient. More importantly, clinical trials approved by the US government have shown promising prospects in RPE transplantation. However, key issues such as implantation techniques, immune rejection, and xeno-free techniques are still needed to be further investigated. This review will summarize recent advances in cell transplantation for dry AMD. The obstacles and prospects in this field will also be discussed. PMID:25609937

  11. Ultrastructural and clinical evidence of subretinal debris accumulation in type 2 macular telangiectasia

    PubMed Central

    Cherepanoff, Svetlana; Killingsworth, Murray C; Zhu, Meidong; Nolan, Timothy; Hunyor, Alex P; Young, Stephanie H; Hageman, Gregory S; Gillies, Mark C

    2012-01-01

    Aims To describe subretinal debris found on ultrastructural examination in an eye with macular telangiectasia (MacTel) type 2 and on optical coherence tomography (OCT) in a subset of patients with MacTel type 2. Methods Blocks from the mid-periphery and temporal perifovea of an eye with clinically documented MacTel type 2 were examined with electron microscopy (EM). Cases came from the Sydney centre of the MacTel project and the practices of the authors. Results On EM examination, subretinal debris was found in the perifovea with accumulation of degenerate photoreceptor elements in the subretinal space. Despite the substantial subretinal debris, there was minimal retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) reaction. Focal defects were seen in the inner limiting membrane in the perifovea. Of the 65 Sydney MacTel project participants, three (5%) had prominent yellow material at the fovea. OCT revealed smooth mounds between the RPE and the ellipsoid region. The material was hyperautofluorescent. Conclusions This study suggests that subretinal accumulation of photoreceptor debris may be a feature of MacTel type 2. Ultrastructural and OCT evidence of disease beyond the vasculature, involving photoreceptors and Muller cells, is presented. PMID:22976584

  12. NLRP3 Inflammasome: Activation and Regulation in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jiangyuan; Liu, Ruozhou Tom; Cui, Jing Z.; Matsubara, Joanne A.

    2015-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of legal blindness in the elderly in industrialized countries. AMD is a multifactorial disease influenced by both genetic and environmental risk factors. Progression of AMD is characterized by an increase in the number and size of drusen, extracellular deposits, which accumulate between the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and Bruch's membrane (BM) in outer retina. The major pathways associated with its pathogenesis include oxidative stress and inflammation in the early stages of AMD. Little is known about the interactions among these mechanisms that drive the transition from early to late stages of AMD, such as geographic atrophy (GA) or choroidal neovascularization (CNV). As part of the innate immune system, inflammasome activation has been identified in RPE cells and proposed to be a causal factor for RPE dysfunction and degeneration. Here, we will first review the classic model of inflammasome activation, then discuss the potentials of AMD-related factors to activate the inflammasome in both nonocular immune cells and RPE cells, and finally introduce several novel mechanisms for regulating the inflammasome activity. PMID:25698849

  13. Diminished foveal sensitivity may predict the development of advanced age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Sunness, J S; Massof, R W; Johnson, M A; Bressler, N M; Bressler, S B; Fine, S L

    1989-03-01

    Visual function testing was performed on one eye with drusen from each of 18 elderly patients in 1984. Eleven patients had advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in the fellow eye, and seven had only bilateral drusen. These patients were all followed prospectively (median, 45 months), at which time one eye had a new vessel membrane, three eyes had pigment epithelial detachments, and one eye had geographic atrophy. Only two of these five eyes had AMD-related visual loss in the fellow eye in 1984. The degree of loss of foveal dark-adapted sensitivity in 1984 predicted which patients developed advanced AMD with 100% sensitivity and 92% specificity. The presence of high-risk drusen characteristics in 1984 predicted the development of advanced AMD with 100% sensitivity but only 55% specificity. For this small group of patients, foveal dark-adapted sensitivity loss was an excellent predictor of the subsequent development of advanced AMD in eyes with drusen. A prospective study of a large group of patients with drusen is being undertaken to validate this finding. PMID:2710529

  14. Physics of Lipofuscin Formation and Growth in Age Related Macular Degeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Family, Fereydoon; Mazzitello, K. I.; Arizmendi, C. M.; Grossniklaus, Hans E.

    2010-02-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness beyond the age of 50 years. The most common pathogenic mechanism that leads to AMD is choroidal neovascularization (CNV). CNV is produced by accumulation of residual material caused by aging of retinal pigment epithelium cells (RPE). With time, incompletely degraded membrane material builds up in the RPE in the form of lipofuscin. Lipofuscin is made of free-radical-damaged protein and fat, which forms not only in AMD, but also Alzheimer disease, and Parkinson disease. We will present the results of a study of the kinetics of lipofuscin growth in RPE cells using Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations and scaling theory on a cluster aggregation model. The model captures the essential physics of lipofuscin growth in the cells. A remarkable feature is that small particles may be removed from the cells while the larger ones become fixed and grow by aggregation. We compare our results to the number of lipofuscin granules in eyes with early age-related degeneration. )

  15. Relationship between Outer Retinal Layers Thickness and Visual Acuity in Diabetic Macular Edema

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Raymond L. M.; Lee, Jacky W. Y.; Yau, Gordon S. K.; Wong, Ian Y. H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the correlation of outer retinal layers (ORL) thickness and visual acuity (VA) in patients with diabetic macular edema (DME). Methods. Consecutive DME patients seen at the Retina Clinic of The University of Hong Kong were recruited for OCT assessment. The ORL thickness was defined as the distance between external limiting membrane (ELM) and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) at the foveal center. The correlation between total retinal thickness, ORL thickness, and vision was calculated. Results. 78 patients with DME were recruited. The mean age was 58.1 years (±11.5 years) and their mean visual acuity measured with Snellen chart was 0.51 (±0.18). The correlation coefficient between total retinal thickness and visual acuity was 0.34 (P < 0.001) whereas the correlation coefficient was 0.65 between ORL thickness and visual acuity (P < 0.001). Conclusion. ORL thickness correlates better with vision than the total retinal thickness. It is a novel OCT parameter in the assessment of DME. Moreover, it could be a potential long term visual prognostic factor for patients with DME.

  16. Oxidative Stress, Hypoxia, and Autophagy in the Neovascular Processes of Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Veréb, Zoltán; Facskó, Andrea; Kaarniranta, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of severe and irreversible loss of vision in the elderly in developed countries. AMD is a complex chronic neurodegenerative disease associated with many environmental, lifestyle, and genetic factors. Oxidative stress and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) seem to play a pivotal role in AMD pathogenesis. It is known that the macula receives the highest blood flow of any tissue in the body when related to size, and anything that can reduce the rich blood supply can cause hypoxia, malfunction, or disease. Oxidative stress can affect both the lipid rich retinal outer segment structure and the light processing in the macula. The response to oxidative stress involves several cellular defense reactions, for example, increases in antioxidant production and proteolysis of damaged proteins. The imbalance between production of damaged cellular components and degradation leads to the accumulation of detrimental products, for example, intracellular lipofuscin and extracellular drusen. Autophagy is a central lysosomal clearance system that may play an important role in AMD development. There are many anatomical changes in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), Bruch's membrane, and choriocapillaris in response to chronic oxidative stress, hypoxia, and disturbed autophagy and these are estimated to be crucial components in the pathology of neovascular processes in AMD. PMID:24707498

  17. Candidate gene analysis of anthocyanin pigmentation loci in the Solanaceae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. S. De Jong; N. T. Eannetta; D. M. De Jong; M. Bodis

    2004-01-01

    Crop species in the Solanaceae, which includes tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum), potato ( Solanum tuberosum), pepper ( Capsicum spp.), and eggplant ( S. melongena), exhibit natural variation in the types, levels, and tissue-specific expression patterns of anthocyanin pigments. While the identities of the genes underpinning natural variation in anthocyanin traits in these crops are largely unknown, many structural genes and

  18. Human pigmentation genetics: the difference is only skin deep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard A. Sturm; Neil F. Box; Michele Ramsay

    1998-01-01

    Summary There is no doubt that visual impressions of body form and color are important in the interactions within and between human communities. Remarkably, it is the levels of just one chemically inert and stable visual pigment known as melanin that is responsible for producing all shades of humankind. Major human genes involved in its formation have been identified largely

  19. Use of antivascular endothelial growth factor for diabetic macular edema

    PubMed Central

    Karim, Rushmia; Tang, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Background Diabetic macular edema (DME) is one of the manifestations of diabetic retinopathy leading to loss of central vision and visual acuity. It manifests itself with swelling around the central part of the retina, the area responsible for sharp vision. Current treatment includes laser therapy and intravitreal steroids with preventative measures including diabetes control. No one treatment has guaranteed control of diabetic macular edema which leads to deteriorating visual acuity, function and quality of life in patients. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been shown to be a critical stimulus in the pathogenesis of macular edema secondary to diabetes.1 Antiangiogenic therapy encompassed treatment with anti-VEGF which inhibits VEGF-driven neovascularization hence macular edema leading to decreased visual acuity. Objective For this review, we evaluated the effectiveness of intravitreal anti-VEGF in treating DME. Data sources We identified five trials (n = 525) using electronic databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials [Central], Medline®, and Excerpta Medica Database [EMBASE®]) in October 2008, supplemented by hand searching of reference lists, review articles, and conference abstracts. Methods We included all randomized clinical trials (RCTs) evaluating any form of intravitreal anti-VEGF for treating DME. The main outcome factor was change in best-corrected visual acuity and central macular thickness. One author assessed eligibility, methodological quality, and extracted data. Meta analysis was performed when appropriate. Results We included three trials of adequate methodological quality in our meta-analysis. Patients treated with anti-VEGF showed improvement in visual acuity of ?0.17 (95% confidence interval [CI]: ?0.23, ?0.10) and central macular thickness ?84.69 (95% CI: ?117.09, ?52.30). Patients treated with combined anti-VEGF and intravitreal triamcinolone showed improvement of visual acuity of ?0.19 (95% CI: ?0.27, ?0.11) and central macular thickness mean change being –111.20 (95% CI: ?148.13, ?74.28). Conclusions Anti-VEGF has been associated with an improvement in visual acuity and central macular thickness in the analysis, however trial analysis was of a short duration and further research is needed to determine long-term benefits. PMID:20535227

  20. Macular hole formation associated with idiopathic parafoveal telangiectasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey L. Olson; Naresh Mandava

    2006-01-01

    Background  To report the occurrence of a full thickness macular hole in association with idiopathic parafoveal telangiectasia.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Observational case report.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  A 60-year-old female with a history of bilateral idiopathic parafoveal telangiectasia presented with acute complaints of decreased\\u000a vision and metamorphopsia in her right eye. The patient's retinal examination was significant for idiopathic parafoveal telangiectasia\\u000a bilaterally, and a new, full-thickness macular hole

  1. Epiretinal membrane formation associated with idiopathic macular telangiectasia: case report.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Flávia Cid; Felix, Joăo Paulo Fernandes; Nascimento, Maurício Abujamra; Lira, Rodrigo Pessoa Cavalcanti

    2014-08-01

    A 46-year-old woman complained of blurred and distorted vision in both eyes. Ophthalmic examination showed that visual acuity was 20/200 for the right eye and counting fingers left eye. Fundoscopy revealed perimacular hemorrhages, aneurismal dilatation of the vessels in the posterior pole, and a white and elevated lesion adjacent to vascular changes. We report a case of idiopathic macular telangiectasia and epiretinal membrane that occurs concomitantly. To our knowledge, this is the first report that describes an association between idiopathic macular telangiectasia and epiretinal membrane formation. PMID:25410182

  2. Bilateral macular colobomata: Temporal dragging of optic disc

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, David J

    2015-01-01

    A 13-year-old male presented with decreased vision and squint from childhood. He had bilateral large colobomata at the macula in each eye, the one on the right being larger than the left. The disc was dragged temporally with straightening of the temporal retinal vessels. This is a case report of bilateral large macular coloboma and serves to report its association with a temporally dragged disc and straightened temporal retinal vessels. A dragged disc if present with a colobomatous defect at the macula may strengthen the case for diagnosis of macular coloboma and help exclude other differentials. PMID:26044479

  3. Whole-exome sequencing implicates UBE3D in age-related macular degeneration in East Asian populations.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lv-Zhen; Li, Ying-Jie; Xie, Xue-Feng; Zhang, Jing-Jing; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Yamashiro, Kenji; Chen, Li-Jia; Ma, Xiao-Yun; Cheung, Chui Ming G; Wang, Yu-Sheng; Zhang, Chun-Fang; Bai, Yu-Jing; Hou, Jing; Chen, Xiao-Li; Qi, Yun; Li, Shan-Shan; Sun, Yao-Yao; Mei, Jun-Pu; Cheng, Yong; Yu, Wen-Zhen; Hu, Xiong-Bing; Zhuang, Feng-Feng; Fan, Lei; Lu, Yi; Sun, Xing-Huai; Zhu, Xiang-Jia; Shen, De-Fen; Chan, Chi-Chao; Zhao, Ming-Wei; Yoshimura, Nagahisa; Pang, Chi Pui; Wong, Tien Yin; Khor, Chiea Chuen; Zhang, Kang; Zhou, Peng; Li, Xiao-Xin

    2015-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of irreversible central blindness among the elderly worldwide. We use exome sequencing to analyse nonsynonymous single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) across the whole genome of 216 neovascular AMD cases and 1,553 controls. As a follow-up validation, we evaluate 3,772 neovascular AMD cases and 6,942 controls from five independent cohorts in the East Asian population. Here we show strong evidence of an association at a novel, missense SNV, rs7739323, which is located in the ubiquitin protein ligase E3D (UBE3D) gene (Pmeta=1.46 × 10(-9), odds ratio (OR)=0.74, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.63-0.88). Furthermore, ablation of the UBE3D protein lead to an abnormal amount of pigment granules deposited in retinal pigment epithelium microvilli area and an abnormal response on electroretinography (ERG) in UBE3D(+/-) heterozygous mice. Our findings indicate that the ubiquitin-proteasome system may play a role in the pathogenesis of neovascular AMD. PMID:25872646

  4. Macroscopic pigmentation in a dematiaceous fungal keratitis.

    PubMed

    Berger, S T; Katsev, D A; Mondino, B J; Pettit, T H

    1991-05-01

    The diagnosis of fungal keratitis can be difficult and is often delayed. The distinction between moniliaceous and dematiaceous (pigmented) keratomycoses is not commonly possible on clinical examination. We report a case of a Curvularia lunata fungal keratitis in a 40-year-old patient who presented with diffuse brown pigmentation throughout the ulcer bed. Histologic staining and growth on Sabourad's dextrose agar demonstrated the brown pigmentation characteristic of this pigmented fungus. We call attention to this clinical pigmentation as a helpful clue in the detection of dematiaceous fungal keratitis. PMID:2055034

  5. Retinitis pigmentosa and macular degeneration in a patient with ataxia with isolated vitamin E deficiency with a novel c.717 del C mutation in the TTPA gene.

    PubMed

    Iwasa, Kazuo; Shima, Keisuke; Komai, Kiyonobu; Nishida, Yoichiro; Yokota, Takanori; Yamada, Masahito

    2014-10-15

    Ataxia with isolated vitamin E deficiency (AVED) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by a mutation in the ?-tocopherol transfer protein gene (TTPA). The clinical features of the disease resemble Friedreich's ataxia. However, AVED is associated with low plasma vitamin E levels, which results in compromised antioxidant function. Dysregulation of this lipid-soluble antioxidant vitamin plays a major role in the neurodegeneration observed in AVED. Some AVED patients experience decreased visual acuity. Retinitis pigmentosa is thought to be the main cause of this visual impairment. Although antioxidant levels are important for the prevention of macular degeneration, there have been no reports of macular degeneration in AVED. Here, we describe a patient with AVED with progressive macular degeneration, who carried a novel truncating mutation-c.717 del C (p.D239EfsX25)-in exon 5 of the TTPA gene. These findings suggest that this newly identified mutation results in severely low serum vitamin E levels, which may be associated with the development of retinitis pigmentosa and macular degeneration. PMID:25066259

  6. Statins for age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Gehlbach, Peter; Li, Tianjing; Hatef, Elham

    2013-01-01

    Background Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a progressive late onset disorder of the macula affecting central vision. Age-related macular degeneration is the leading cause of blindness in people over 65 years in industrialized countries (Congdon 2003). Recent epidemiologic, genetic and pathological evidence has shown AMD shares a number of risk factors with atherosclerosis, leading to the hypothesis that statins may exert protective effects in AMD. Objectives To examine the effectiveness of statins compared with other treatments, no treatment, or placebo in delaying the onset and/or progression of AMD. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 9), MEDLINE (January 1950 to September 2011), EMBASE (January 1980 to September 2011), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database (LILACS) (January 1982 to September 2011), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). There were no date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. The electronic databases were last searched on 16 September 2011. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared statins with other treatments, no treatment, or placebo in participants who were either susceptible to or diagnosed as having early stages of AMD. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently evaluated the search results against the selection criteria. Two Italian speaking colleagues extracted data. One author entered data. We did not perform a meta-analysis because only one completed RCT was identified. Main results Two studies met the selection criteria. One trial reported insufficient details to assess the risk of bias; the other trial is ongoing. Of the completed trial, the analyses of 30 participants did not show a statistically significant difference between the simvastatin and the placebo arm in visual acuity at three months of treatment (decimal visual acuity 0.21± 0.56 in simvastatin and 0.19± 0.40 in placebo arm) or 45 days after the completion of treatment (decimal visual acuity 0.20± 0.50 in simvastatin and 0.19± 0.48 in placebo arm). The lens and retina status were unchanged during and after the treatment period for both groups. Of the ongoing trial, the preliminary analyses of 42 participants who completed 12 months follow-up did not show a statistically significant difference between the simvastatin and the placebo arm in visual acuity, drusen score or visual function (effect estimates and confidence intervals were not available). We contacted the investigators and will update the review as data become available. Authors' conclusions Evidence from currently available RCTs was insufficient to conclude that statins have any role in preventing or delaying the onset or progression of AMD. PMID:22419318

  7. In vivo optical coherence tomography of light-driven melanosome translocation in retinal pigment epithelium.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiu-Xiang; Lu, Rong-Wen; Messinger, Jeffrey D; Curcio, Christine A; Guarcello, Vincenzo; Yao, Xin-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) may revolutionize fundamental investigation and clinical management of age-related macular degeneration and other eye diseases. However, quantitative OCT interpretation is hampered due to uncertain sub-cellular correlates of reflectivity in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and photoreceptor. The purpose of this study was twofold: 1) to test OCT correlates in the RPE, and 2) to demonstrate the feasibility of longitudinal OCT monitoring of sub-cellular RPE dynamics. A high resolution OCT was constructed to achieve dynamic imaging of frog eyes, in which light-driven translocation of RPE melanosomes occurred within the RPE cell body and apical processes. Comparative histological examination of dark- and light-adapted eyes indicated that the RPE melanin granule, i.e., melanosome, was a primary OCT correlate. In vivo OCT imaging of RPE melanosomes opens the opportunity for quantitative assessment of RPE abnormalities associated with disease, and enables longitudinal investigation of RPE kinetics correlated with visual function. PMID:24025778

  8. Vestibular dysfunction, altered macular structure and trait localization in A/J inbred mice.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, Sarath; Lever, Teresa E; Pierce, Jessica; Zhao, Xing; Bergstrom, David; Lundberg, Yunxia Wang; Jones, Timothy A; Jones, Sherri M

    2015-04-01

    A/J mice develop progressive hearing loss that begins before 1 month of age and is attributed to cochlear hair cell degeneration. Screening tests indicated that this strain also develops early onset vestibular dysfunction and has otoconial deficits. The purpose of this study was to characterize the vestibular dysfunction and macular structural pathology over the lifespan of A/J mice. Vestibular function was measured using linear vestibular evoked potentials (VsEPs). Macular structural pathology was evaluated using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, confocal microscopy and Western blotting. Individually, vestibular functional deficits in mice ranged from mild to profound. On average, A/J mice had significantly reduced vestibular sensitivity (elevated VsEP response thresholds and smaller amplitudes), whereas VsEP onset latency was prolonged compared to age-matched controls (C57BL/6). A limited age-related vestibular functional loss was also present. Structural analysis identified marked age-independent otoconial abnormalities in concert with some stereociliary bundle defects. Macular epithelia were incompletely covered by otoconial membranes with significantly reduced opacity and often contained abnormally large or giant otoconia as well as normal-appearing otoconia. Elevated expression of key otoconins (i.e., otoconin 90, otolin and keratin sulfate proteoglycan) ruled out the possibility of reduced levels contributing to otoconial dysgenesis. The phenotype of A/J was partially replicated in a consomic mouse strain (C57BL/6J-Chr 17(A/J)/NaJ), thus indicating that Chr 17(A/J) contained a trait locus for a new gene variant responsible to some extent for the A/J vestibular phenotype. Quantitative trait locus analysis identified additional epistatic influences associated with chromosomes 1, 4, 9 and X. Results indicate that the A/J phenotype represents a complex trait, and the A/J mouse strain presents a new model for the study of mechanisms underlying otoconial formation and maintenance. PMID:25645995

  9. Broiler skin pigmentation based on bioavailability of specific oxycarotenoid pigments 

    E-print Network

    Gamboa Garcia, David Angel

    1992-01-01

    (Laboratory model) Page 84 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1 Chemical structures of the most common Page xanthophylls. 2 Chromaticity diagram (x, y), CIE 1931. . 25 3 Three dimensional color system. 28 4 Color tone specifications. . 28 5 L, a, b color... (1986b) reported lutein to be the major integumentary pigment of chicken skin being absorbed in the duodenum and jejunum or upper region of the intestine, whereas, zeacarotene was absorbed in the middle region of the instestine. Schaeffer et al...

  10. Pigmented paravenous retinochoroidal atrophy (Review)

    PubMed Central

    HUANG, HOU-BIN; ZHANG, YI-XIN

    2014-01-01

    Pigmented paravenous retinochoroidal atrophy (PPRCA) is an uncommon disease characterized by perivenous aggregations of pigment clumps associated with peripapillary and radial zones of retinochoroidal atrophy that are distributed along the retinal veins. Patients are usually asymptomatic and the disease process is non-progressive or slow and subtly progressive. It is commonly bilateral and symmetric. The cause of the condition may be unknown or idiopathic, although a dysgenetic, degenerative, hereditary etiology or even an inflammatory cause has been hypothesized. A non-inflammatory cause is referred to as primary, while inflammation-associated PPRCA is referred to as secondary or pseudo PPRCA. The present study reviewed and summarized the features of PPRCA. PMID:24926324

  11. Pigmented villonodular synovitis: extrasynovial recurrence.

    PubMed

    Jobe, Christopher M; Raza, Anwar; Zuckerman, Lee

    2011-10-01

    A 32-year-old female athlete underwent arthroscopy for a second recurrence of pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS), which was extrasynovial, seen on magnetic resonance imaging. It was noted on arthroscopy that (1) the nodules moved medially with joint insufflation, (2) the nodules were less prominent than on magnetic resonance imaging, and (3) more than 95% of the recurrent tumor was hidden by neosynovium. We believe that the extrasynovial location is because of the more rapid proliferation of the neosynovium relative to the growth of the remaining tumor cells after the previous resection. In resecting pigmented villonodular synovitis with a high risk of recurrence, a layer of periarticular fat should be removed and the surgeon should be wary of change in position with insufflation. PMID:21889289

  12. Holographic films from carotenoid pigments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toxqui-López, S.; Lecona-Sánchez, J. F.; Santacruz-Vázquez, C.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2014-02-01

    Carotenoids pigments presents in pineapple can be more than just natural dyes, which is one of the applications that now at day gives the chemical industry. In this research shown that can be used in implementing of holographic recording Films. Therefore we describe the technique how to obtain this kind of pigments trough spay drying of natural pineapple juice, which are then dissolved with water in a proportion of 0.1g to 1mL. The obtained sample is poured into glass substrates using the gravity method, after a drying of 24 hours in laboratory normal conditions the films are ready. The films are characterized by recording transmission holographic gratings (LSR 445 NL 445 nm) and measuring the diffraction efficiency holographic parameter. This recording material has good diffraction efficiency and environmental stability.

  13. Treatment of dry age-related macular degeneration with dobesilate

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas, P; Outeirińo, L A; Angulo, J; Giménez-Gallego, G

    2012-01-01

    The authors present anatomical and functional evidences of dry age-macular degeneration improvement, after intravitreal treatment with dobesilate. Main outcomes measures were normalisation of retinal structure and function, assessed by optical coherence tomography, fundus-monitored microperimetry, electrophysiology and visual acuity. The effect might be related to the normalisation of the outer retinal architecture. PMID:22729337

  14. Technology needs for tomorrow's treatment and diagnosis of macular diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soubrane, Gisčle

    2008-02-01

    Retinal imaging is the basis of macular disease's diagnosis. Currently available technologies in clinical practice are fluorescein and indocyanin green (ICG) angiographies, in addition to optical coherence tomography (OCT), which is an in vivo "histology-like" cross-sectional images of the retina. Recent developments in the field of OCT imaging include Spectral-Domain OCT. However OCT remains a static view of the macula with no direct link with dynamic observation obtained by angiographies. Adaptative optics is an encouraging perspective for fundus analysis in the future, and could be linked to OCT or angiographies. Treatments of macular disease have exploded these past few years. Pharmacologic inhibition of angiogenesis represents a novel approach in the treatment of choroidal neovascularization in eyes with age-related macular degeneration. The major action explored is the direct inhibition of the protein VEGF with antibody-like products. New anti-VEGF drugs are in development aiming at the VEGF receptors or synthesis of VEGF. But various components of the neovascular cascade, including growth factor expression, extracellular matrix modulation, integrin inhibition represent potential targets for modulation with drugs. Intra-vitreal injections are nowadays the main route of administration for these new treatments but they are potentially responsible of side effects such as endophtalmitis. Development of other routes of treatment would require new formulation of used drugs. The improvement of retinal imaging leads to a better understanding of macular disease mechanisms and will help to develop new routes and targets of treatment.

  15. The Experience of Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Elaine Y. H.; Guymer, Robyn H.; Hassell, Jennifer B.; Keeffe, Jill E.

    2004-01-01

    This qualitative article describes the impact of age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) among 15 participants: how a person makes sense of ARMD, the effect of ARMD on the person's quality of life, the psychological disturbances associated with the limitations of ARMD, and the influence of ARMD on social interactions. Such in-depth appreciation of…

  16. Spectrum of ABCR gene mutations in autosomal recessive macular dystrophies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Michel Rozet; Sylvie Gerber; Eric Souied; Isabelle Perrault; Sophie Châtelin; Imad Ghazi; Corinne Leowski; Jean-Louis Dufier; Arnold Munnich; Josseline Kaplan; J-M Rozet

    1998-01-01

    Stargardt disease (STGD) and late-onset fundus flavimaculatus (FFM) are autosomal recessive conditions leading to macular degenerations in childhood and adulthood, respectively. Recently, mutations of the photoreceptor cell-specific ATP binding transporter gene (ABCR) have been reported in Stargardt disease. Here, we report on the screening of the whole coding sequence of the ABCR gene in 40 unrelated STGD and 15 FFM

  17. Early Detection and Treatment of Neovascular Age related Macular Degeneration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neil M. Bressler

    Background: The neovascular form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) can rapidly lead to se- vere loss of central vision and adversely affect the patient's quality of life. During the 1990s the only proven treatment for neovascular AMD was laser photocoagulation. Only a minority of patients are eligi- ble to receive this treatment, however, and the treatment itself can cause acute

  18. Visual Pigments of Goldfish Cones

    PubMed Central

    Hárosi, Ferenc I.; MacNichol, Edward F.

    1974-01-01

    Freshly isolated retinal photoreceptors of goldfish were studied microspectrophotometrically. Absolute absorptance spectra obtained from dark-adapted cone outer segments reaffirm the existence of three spectrally distinct cone types with absorption maxima at 455 ± 3,530 ± 3, and 625 ± 5 nm. These types were found often recognizable by gross cellular morphology. Side-illuminated cone outer segments were dichroic. The measured dichroic ratio for the main absorption band of each type was 2–3:1. Rapidly bleached cells revealed spectral and dichroic transitions in regions near 400–410, 435–455, and 350–360 nm. These photoproducts decay about fivefold as fast as the intermediates in frog rods. The spectral maxima of photoproducts, combined with other evidence, indicate that retinene2 is the chromophore of all three cone pigments. The average specific optical density for goldfish cone outer segments was found to be 0.0124 ± 0.0015/µm. The spectra of the blue-, and green-absorbing cones appeared to match porphyropsin standards with half-band width ?? = 4,832 ± 100 cm–1. The red-absorbing spectrum was found narrower, having ?? = 3,625 ± 100 cm–1. The results are consistent with the notion that visual pigment concentration within the outer segments is about the same for frog rods and goldfish cones, but that the blue-, and green-absorbing pigments possess molar extinctions of 30,000 liter/mol cm. The red-absorbing pigment was found to have extinction of 40,000 liter/mol cm, assuming invariance of oscillator strength among the three cone spectra. PMID:4817352

  19. Quantitative genetics of pigmentation development in 2 populations of the common garter snake, Thamnophis sirtalis.

    PubMed

    Westphal, Michael F; Morgan, Theodore J

    2010-01-01

    The evolutionary importance of ontogenetic change has been noted since Darwin. However, most analyses of phenotypic evolution focus on single landmark ages. Here, we present an inheritance study that quantifies genetic variation in pigmentation across early-age (i.e., birth to 180 days) development in 2 populations of the common garter snake, Thamnophis sirtalis. The populations are phenotypically distinct and geographically isolated (Manitoba, CA and Northern California, USA). There were highly significant differences between populations for the developmental trajectory of mean pigmentation, with the Manitoba population exhibiting a mean pigmentation level that increased across ontogeny, whereas the California population exhibited mean pigmentation that was invariant across ontogeny. Subsequent quantitative genetic analyses revealed heritable variation at all ages in Manitoba but low levels of phenotypic and genetic variation in California at all ages. A quantitative genetic decomposition of the longitudinal genetic variance-covariance matrix for the age-specific pigmentation phenotypes in the Manitoba population revealed 2 primary orthogonal axes that explained most ( approximately 100%) of the pigmentation variation across ontogeny. The primary axis, explaining 93% of the genetic variation, is an axis of genetic variation whose principal value loadings change from positive to negative across development, suggesting that the most rapid evolutionary response to selection on pigmentation variation will occur in the direction characterized by a tradeoff in early-age versus late-age pigmentation phenotypes. Pigmentation is known to be ecologically important and subject to rapid evolution under selection. Our study shows that significant differences exist between these 2 populations for their capacity to respond to selection on pigmentation which is not only influenced by the population of origin but also by the developmental process. We suggest that developmental timing may be a potential explanatory mechanism for the difference between the populations. PMID:20453034

  20. Intravitreal diclofenac versus intravitreal bevacizumab in naive diabetic macular edema: a randomized double-masked clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Soheilian, Masoud; Karimi, Saeed; Ramezani, Alireza; Montahai, Talieh; Yaseri, Mehdi; Soheilian, Roham; Peyman, Gholam A

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of the study is to compare single injection of intravitreal diclofenac (IVD) with intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) in the treatment of eyes with naďve diabetic macular edema (DME). In this randomized clinical trial, 57 eyes of 57 patients were randomly assigned to IVD group (30 eyes), cases who received a single intravitreal injection of diclofenac (500 ?g/0.1 ml), and IVB group (27 eyes), cases who received a single intravitreal injection of bevacizumab (1.25 mg). Change in best-corrected visual acuity in logMAR at week 12 was the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcomes included changes in central macular thickness, macular leakage, and potential injection-related complications. Best-corrected visual acuity improved significantly more in the IVD group than in the IVB group (P = 0.033), from 0.57 ± 0.25 to 0.49 ± 0.31 versus 0.55 ± 0.24-0.59 ± 0.27 logMAR at 12 weeks, respectively. However, the difference of macular thickness changes was in favor of IVB, but not to a significant level. The amount of change in leakage was not significantly different between the groups either. None of the eyes, in either group, developed ocular hypertension (?23 mmHg) or cataract progression. No important injection-related complication was observed during the study period. This study demonstrated the superiority of IVD over IVB in the treatment of naďve DME regarding functional, but not anatomical outcomes. Therefore, using IVD as an adjunct or even alternative to other treatments might enhance the functional outcomes in such cases. Further studies are warranted to confirm potential benefit of IVD observed in this study. PMID:25037243

  1. Macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer thinning in patients with visual field defect that respects the vertical meridian.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hye-Young; Park, Hae-Young Lopilly; Choi, Jin-A; Park, Chan Kee

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this work is to compare the thinning patterns of the ganglion cell inner-plexiform layer (GCIPL) and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) as measured using Cirrus high-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT) in patients with visual field (VF) defects that respect the vertical meridian. Twenty eyes of 11 patients with VF defects that respect the vertical meridian were enrolled retrospectively. The thicknesses of the macular GCIPL and pRNFL were measured using Cirrus HD-OCT. The 5 and 1% thinning area index (TAI) was calculated as the proportion of abnormally thin sectors at the 5 and 1% probability level within the area corresponding to the affected VF. The 5 and 1% TAI were compared between the GCIPL and pRNFL measurements. The color-coded GCIPL deviation map showed a characteristic vertical thinning pattern of the GCIPL, which is also seen in the VF of patients with brain lesions. The 5 and 1% TAI were significantly higher in the GCIPL measurements than in the pRNFL measurements (all p?Macular GCIPL analysis clearly visualized a characteristic topographic pattern of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss in patients with VF defects that respect the vertical meridian, unlike pRNFL measurements. Macular GCIPL measurements provide more valuable information than pRNFL measurements for detecting the loss of RGCs in patients with retrograde degeneration of the optic nerve fibers. PMID:25104464

  2. Initial experience of inferior limited macular translocation for subfoveal choroidal neovascularization resulting from causes other than age-related macular degeneration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gildo Y Fujii; Mark S Humayun; Dante J Pieramici; Andrew P Schachat; Kah-Guan Au Eong; Eugene de Juan Jr

    2001-01-01

    PURPOSE: To report our initial experience of inferior limited macular translocation in patients with subfoveal choroidal neovascularization resulting from causes other than age-related macular degeneration.METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of 23 eyes of 22 patients with choroidal neovascularization involving the foveal center secondary to pathologic myopia (11 eyes), ocular histoplasmosis syndrome (four eyes), angioid streaks (four eyes), idiopathic neovascularization

  3. Self-stratifying coatings containing barrier and active anticorrosive pigments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ewa Langer; Helena Kuczy?ska; El?bieta Kami?ska-Tarnawska; Jan ?ukaszczyk

    2011-01-01

    The influence of decorative and anticorrosive pigments on the distribution of pigments and protective properties of self-stratifying epoxy\\/acrylic coating systems was investigated. The separation of pigments was determined basing on their properties and the type of additives used and was expressed as a factor determining the separation of the pigments between the upper and bottom layer. The pigment distribution coefficient

  4. Avian eggshell pigments and their variability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Mikšík; V. Holá?; Z. Deyl

    1996-01-01

    Eggshell pigment constituents were determined by a high-performance liquid chromatography method. Most of the work was done on whole clutches of red-backed shrike (Lanius collurio). In addition to the known pigments (protoporphyrin IX, biliverdin), a new pigment, zinc-containing protoporphyrin IX, was found as well. Its content was highly variable—from 0% to 100%. The content of total protoporphyrin IX (with and

  5. Phytochemistry: structure of the blue cornflower pigment.

    PubMed

    Shiono, Masaaki; Matsugaki, Naohiro; Takeda, Kosaku

    2005-08-11

    The same anthocyanin pigment makes roses red but cornflowers blue, a phenomenon that has so far not been entirely explained. Here we describe the X-ray crystal structure of the cornflower pigment, which reveals that its blue colour arises from a complex of six molecules each of anthocyanin and flavone, with one ferric iron, one magnesium and two calcium ions. We believe that this tetrametal complex may represent a previously undiscovered type of supermolecular pigment. PMID:16094358

  6. Continental variation in wing pigmentation in Calopteryx damselflies is related to the presence of heterospecifics

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Wing pigmentation in Calopteryx damselflies, caused by the deposition of melanin, is energetically expensive to produce and enhances predation risk. However, patterns of melanisation are used in species identification, greater pigmentation is an accurate signal of male immune function in at least some species, and there may be a role for pigment in thermoregulation. This study tested two potential hypotheses to explain the presence of, and variation in, this pigmentation based on these three potential benefits using 907 male specimens of Calopteryx maculata collected from 49 sites (34 discrete populations) across the geographical range of the species in North America: (i) pigmentation varies with the presence of the closely related species, Calopteryx aequabilis, and (ii) pigment increases at higher latitudes as would be expected if it enhances thermoregulatory capacity. No gradual latitudinal pattern was observed, as might be expected if pigmentation was involved in thermoregulation. However, strong variation was observed between populations that were sympatric or allopatric with C. aequabilis. This variation was characterised by dark wings through allopatry in the south of the range and then a step change to much lighter wings at the southern border of sympatry. Pigmentation then increased further north into the sympatric zone, finally returning to allopatry levels at the northern range margin. These patterns are qualitatively similar to variation in pigmentation in C. aequabilis, meaning that the data are consistent with what would be expected from convergent character displacement. Overall, the results corroborate recent research that has suggested sexual selection as a primary driver behind the evolution of wing pigmentation in this group. PMID:24949250

  7. Non-photosynthetic pigments as potential biosignatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwieterman, E. W.; Cockell, C. S.; Meadows, V. S.

    2014-03-01

    Photosynthetic organisms on Earth produce potentially detectable surface reflectance biosignatures due in part to the spectral location and strength of pigment absorption. However, life on Earth uses pigments for a multitude of purposes other than photosynthesis, including coping with extreme environments. Macroscopic environments exist on Earth where the surface reflectance is significantly altered by a nonphotosynthetic pigment, such as the case of hypersaline lakes and ponds (Oren et al. 1992). Here we explore the nature and potential detectability of non-photosynthetic pigments in disk-averaged planetary observations using a combination of laboratory measurements and archival reflectance spectra, along with simulated broadband photometry and spectra. The in vivo visible reflectance spectra of a cross section of pigmented microorganisms are presented to illustrate the spectral diversity of biologically produced pigments. Synthetic broadband colors are generated to show a significant spread in color space. A 1D radiative transfer model (Meadows & Crisp 1996; Crisp 1997) is used to approximate the spectra of scenarios where pigmented organisms are widespread on planets with Earth-like atmospheres. Broadband colors are revisited to show that colors due to surface reflectivity are not robust to the addition of scattering and absorption effects from the atmosphere. We consider a čbest case' plausible scenario for the detection of nonphotosynthetic pigments by using the Virtual Planetary Laboratory's 3D spectral Earth model (Robinson et al. 2011) to explore the detectability of the surface biosignature produced by pigmented halophiles that are widespread on an Earth-analog planet.

  8. Photodynamic Therapy and Intravitreal Bevacizumab with Versus without Triamcinolone for Neovascular Age-related Macular Degeneration; a Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Piri, Niloofar; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Taei, Ramin; Soheilian, Masoud; Karkhaneh, Reza; Lashay, Alireza; Golbafian, Faegheh; Yaseri, Mehdi; Riazi-Esfahani, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the outcomes of photodynamic therapy (PDT) combined with intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) with versus without intravitreal triamcinolone (IVT) in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods: Eighty-four eyes with active CNV secondary to AMD with no prior treatment were enrolled and followed for 1-year. Eligible eyes were randomly assigned to either PDT/IVB or PDT/IVB/IVT. The main outcome measure was change in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA). Results: Mean patient age was 71 ± 9 years. BCVA changes from baseline were statistically significant in both study arms at all follow-up intervals, however no significant difference was observed between the two groups regarding BCVA changes at week 12 (95% CI:-0.11–0.12 LogMAR) and other time points (all P > 0.6). Mixed model analysis revealed a significant effect from age (P < 0.001), pigment epithelial detachment (P = 0.009) and baseline BCVA (P < 0.001) on visual improvement. Significant central macular thickness (CMT) reduction occurred at all-time points as compared to baseline in both groups which was comparable between the study arms. There was no significant difference between the study arms in terms of retreatment rate (P = 0.1) and survival to the first repeat IVB injection (P = 0.065). Conclusion: Additional low-dose IVT to a PDT/IVB regimen for neovascular AMD provided no beneficial effects in terms BCVA or CMT, yet demonstrated a trend toward extending the injection-free period. PMID:25709773

  9. Social stress effects on pigmentation and monoamines in Arctic charr.

    PubMed

    Backström, Tobias; Heynen, Martina; Brännäs, Eva; Nilsson, Jan; Winberg, Svante; Magnhagen, Carin

    2015-09-15

    Pigmentation often signals status and in general melanin-based pigmentation is indicative of aggression and stress resilience in vertebrates. This is evident in the salmonids Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) where more melanin spotted individuals are more stress resilient. However, in the salmonid Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) it seems as if it is carotenoid-based pigmentation that signals aggression and stress resilience. In our study, social stress effects on carotenoid-based spots, and behavioural and physiological stress responses were investigated. Socially stressed individuals have more spots, and behavioural stress responses were associated with spots. Some of the results concerning physiological stress responses, such as plasma cortisol levels and monoaminergic activity, are associated with spottiness. Further, the earlier proposed lateralization of spots, with left side connected to stress responsiveness and right side to aggression, is to some extent validated although not conclusively. In conclusion, this study provides further evidence that more stressed charr have more carotenoid spots, and for the first time monoaminergic activity is shown to be connected with carotenoid pigmentation. PMID:25997582

  10. Variability of surface pigment concentrations in the South Atlantic Bight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclain, Charles R.; Yoder, James A.; Blanton, J. O.; Atkinson, L. P.; Lee, T. N.

    1988-01-01

    A time sequence of surface pigment images of the South Atlantic Bight (SAB), derived from the Nimbus 7 CZCS for the period between November 1978 and October 1979, was correlated with in situ observations of hydrographic parameters, fresh-water discharge, sea level, coastal winds, and currents in order to couple physical processes and the spatial and temporal variability of the surface pigment fields. A definite seasonal modulation of the surface pigment fields was found, with the concentrations in the Georgia Bight being highest in summer, and those north of Cape Romain highest in winter. This phase difference was found to be the result of variations in wind fields, Gulf Stream-shelf interactions, and fresh-water discharge patterns. At some locations (e.g., near Charleston) the alongshore band of high pigment concentrations increased in width throughout the year; at other locations (near Jacksonville), the alongsore band exhibited a minimum width in the summer and a maximum width in the fall of 1979.

  11. Accelerated and EIS tests for anticorrosive paints pigmented with ecological pigments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. S. Hernández; B. del Amo; R. Romagnoli

    1999-01-01

    Substitution of zinc chromate or zinc yellow, traditionally used as anticorrosive pigment, for other phosphate-based pigments that are not hazardous to health and have the same anticorrosive behaviour or even better, is studied in this paper. Four alkyd paints were specially prepared; two of them contained calcium acid phosphate or micronised zinc phosphate as anticorrosive pigments respectively. A paint containing

  12. Five-year visual outcome following laser photocoagulation of diabetic macular oedema

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Jyothi; S Sivaprasad

    2011-01-01

    ObjectiveTo evaluate the 5-year visual outcome associated with laser photocoagulation treatment of diabetic macular oedema (DMO), and to investigate the relationship between systemic factors and visual outcomes in a real-life setting.MethodsThe mean annual visual outcomes and systemic parameters of 100 consecutive subjects with type 2 diabetes who underwent the first session of focal\\/grid macular laser photocoagulation for clinically significant macular

  13. Cystoid macular edema associated with latanoprost in aphakic and pseudophakic eyes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramesh S Ayyala; Denise A Cruz; Curtis E Margo; Lynn E Harman; Scott E Pautler; David M Misch; Jonathan A Mines; David W Richards

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe four patients who developed cystoid macular edema shortly after onset of treatment with latanoprost.METHOD: Retrospective review of medical records of patients with open-angle glaucoma who developed cystoid macular edema shortly after starting latanoprost.RESULTS: The use of topical latanoprost was temporally related to the development of cystoid macular edema in four patients (six eyes; two aphakic eyes and

  14. Pathology Case Study: Pigmented Lesion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ejadi, Samuel

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 69-year-old man has a pigmented lesion on his right ear. Visitors are given the patient history and microscopic description, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in dermatologic pathology.

  15. Dissection of Genomewide-Scan Data in Extended Families Reveals a Major Locus and Oligogenic Susceptibility for Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Iyengar, Sudha K.; Song, Danhong; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Klein, Ronald; Schick, James H.; Humphrey, Jennifer; Millard, Christopher; Liptak, Rachel; Russo, Karlie; Jun, Gyungah; Lee, Kristine E.; Fijal, Bonnie; Elston, Robert C.

    2004-01-01

    To examine the genetic basis of age-related macular degeneration (ARMD), a degenerative disease of the retinal pigment epithelium and neurosensory retina, we conducted a genomewide scan in 34 extended families (297 individuals, 349 sib pairs) ascertained through index cases with neovascular disease or geographic atrophy. Family and medical history was obtained from index cases and family members. Fundus photographs were taken of all participating family members, and these were graded for severity by use of a quantitative scale. Model-free linkage analysis was performed, and tests of heterogeneity and epistasis were conducted. We have evidence of a major locus on chromosome 15q (GATA50C03 multipoint P=1.98×10-7; empirical P?1.0×10-5; single-point P=3.6×10-7). This locus was present as a weak linkage signal in our previous genome scan for ARMD, in the Beaver Dam Eye Study sample (D15S659, multipoint P=.047), but is otherwise novel. In this genome scan, we observed a total of 13 regions on 11 chromosomes (1q31, 2p21, 4p16, 5q34, 9p24, 9q31, 10q26, 12q13, 12q23, 15q21, 16p12, 18p11, and 20q13), with a nominal multipoint significance level of P?.01 or LOD ?1.18. Family-by-family analysis of the data, performed using model-free linkage methods, suggests that there is evidence of heterogeneity in these families. For example, a single family (family 460) individually shows linkage evidence at 8 loci, at the level of P<.0001. We conducted tests for heterogeneity, which suggest that ARMD susceptibility loci on chromosomes 9p24, 10q26, and 15q21 are not present in all families. We tested for mutations in linked families and examined SNPs in two candidate genes, hemicentin-1 and EFEMP1, in subsamples (145 and 189 sib pairs, respectively) of the data. Mutations were not observed in any of the 11 exons of EFEMP1 nor in exon 104 of hemicentin-1. The SNP analysis for hemicentin-1 on 1q31 suggests that variants within or in very close proximity to this gene cause ARMD pathogenesis. In summary, we have evidence for a major ARMD locus on 15q21, which, coupled with numerous other loci segregating in these families, suggests complex oligogenic patterns of inheritance for ARMD. PMID:14691731

  16. 5'-Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase--mammalian target of rapamycin axis as therapeutic target for age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Hyttinen, Juha M T; Petrovski, Goran; Salminen, Antero; Kaarniranta, Kai

    2011-12-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common reason for blindness in developed countries. AMD essentially involves chronic oxidative stress, increased accumulation of lipofuscin in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, and extracellular drusen formation, as well as presence of chronic inflammation in the retina. The capacity to prevent the accumulation of cellular cytotoxic protein aggregates is decreased in senescent cells, which may evoke lipofuscin accumulation into lysosomes in postmitotic RPE cells. The formation of lipofuscin, in turn, decreases the lysosomal enzyme activity and impairs the autophagic clearance of damaged proteins destined for cellular removal. 5'-Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a well-known inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) that subsequently evokes induction of autophagy. This review examines the novel potential therapeutic targets on the AMPK-mTOR axis and the ways in which autophagy clearance can suppress or prevent RPE degeneration and development of AMD. PMID:22007913

  17. Drosophila pigmentation evolution: Divergent genotypes underlying convergent phenotypes

    E-print Network

    Gruber, Jonathan

    Drosophila pigmentation evolution: Divergent genotypes underlying convergent phenotypes Patricia J. Myriad pigment patterns in the genus Drosophila offer numerous opportunities to address this question of pigmentation in selected species. Here, we ex- amine Drosophila americana and Drosophila novamexicana, inter

  18. Thoracic trident pigmentation in Drosophila melanogaster : Differentiation of geographical populations

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Thoracic trident pigmentation in Drosophila melanogaster : Differentiation of geographical A phenotypic classification of trident pigmentation allowed the characterization ol any natural population by a pigmentation score, ranging from 0 to 3. After some training, independent observers could produce very similar

  19. Development of gene therapy for treatment of age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Askou, Anne Louise

    2014-07-01

    Intraocular neovascular diseases are the leading cause of blindness in the Western world in individuals over the age of 50. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of these diseases. Exudative AMD, the late-stage form, is characterized by abnormal neovessel development, sprouting from the choroid into the avascular subretinal space, where it can suddenly cause irreversible damage to the vulnerable photoreceptor (PR) cells essential for our high-resolution, central vision. The molecular basis of AMD is not well understood, but several growth factors have been implicated including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and the advent of anti-VEGF therapy has markedly changed the outcome of treatment. However, common to all current therapies for exudative AMD are the complications of repeated monthly intravitreal injections, which must be continued throughout one's lifetime to maintain visual benefits. Additionally, some patients do not benefit from established treatments. Strategies providing long-term suppression of inappropriate ocular angiogenesis are therefore needed, and gene therapy offers a potential powerful technique. This study aimed to develop a strategy based on RNA interference (RNAi) for the sustained attenuation of VEGF. We designed a panel of anti-VEGF short hairpin RNAs (shRNA), and based on the most potent shRNAs, microRNA (miRNA)-mimicked hairpins were developed. We demonstrated an additive VEGF silencing effect when we combined the miRNAs in a tricistronic miRNA cluster. To meet the requirements for development of medical treatments for AMD with long-term effects, the shRNA/miRNA is expressed from vectors based on adeno-associated virus (AAV) or lentivirus (LV). Both vector systems have been found superior in terms of transduction efficiency and persistence in gene expression in retinal cells. The capacity of AAV-encoded RNAi effector molecules to silence endogenous VEGF gene expression was evaluated in mouse models, including the model of laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV), and we found that subretinal administration of self-complementary (sc)-AAV2/8 encoding anti-VEGF shRNAs can impair vessel formation. In parallel, a significant reduction of endogenous VEGF was demonstrated following injection of scAAV2/8 vectors expressing multiple anti-VEGF miRNAs into murine hind limb muscles. Furthermore, in an ongoing project we have designed versatile, multigenic LV vectors with combined expression of multiple miRNAs and proteins, including pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), a multifunctional, secreted protein that has anti-angiogenic and neurotrophic functions. Co-expression of miRNAs and proteins from a single viral vector increases safety by minimizing the viral load necessary to obtain a therapeutic effect and thereby reduces the risk of insertional mutagenesis as well as the immune response against viral proteins. Our results show co-expression of functional anti-VEGF-miRNAs and PEDF in cell studies, and in vivo studies reveal an efficient retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)-specific gene expression following the incorporation of the vitelliform macular dystrophy 2 (VMD2) promoter, demonstrating the potential applicability of our multigenic LV vectors in ocular anti-VEGF gene therapy, including combination therapy for treatment of exudative AMD. In conclusion, these highly promising data clearly demonstrate that viral-encoded RNAi effector molecules can be used for the inhibition of neovascularization and will, in combination with the growing interest of applying DNA- or RNA-based technologies in the clinic, undoubtedly contribute to the development of efficacious long-term gene therapy treatment of intraocular neovascular diseases. PMID:24953666

  20. Pegaptanib for Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evangelos S. Gragoudas; Anthony P. Adamis; Emmett T. Cunningham; Matthew Feinsod; David R. Guyer

    2010-01-01

    background Pegaptanib, an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy, was evaluated in the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration. methods We conducted two concurrent, prospective, randomized, double-blind, multicenter, dose-ranging, controlled clinical trials using broad entry criteria. Intravitreous injec- tion into one eye per patient of pegaptanib (at a dose of 0.3 mg, 1.0 mg, or 3.0 mg) or sham injections were

  1. Metamorphopsia in patients with macular telangiectasia type 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Charbel Issa; Frank G. Holz; Hendrik P. N. Scholl

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To assess metamorphopsia in patients with macular telangiectasia (MacTel) type 2. Methods In a prospective observational cohort study, 40 eyes of 20 patients with MacTel type 2 were investigated by funduscopy, fluorescein\\u000a angiography, optical coherence tomography and microperimetry. Metamorphopsia was assessed using Amsler grids following a standard\\u000a protocol and standardized questionnaire. Results Metamorphopsia was present in 30 (83%) out

  2. Intravitreal bevacizumab for type 1 idiopathic macular telangiectasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Takayama; S Ooto; H Tamura; K Yamashiro; A Otani; A Tsujikawa; N Yoshimura

    2010-01-01

    PurposeTo evaluate the effect of intravitreal bevacizumab injection for treating type 1 idiopathic macular telangiectasia (IMT).MethodsRetrospective case series of five eyes of five male patients with type 1 IMT that were treated with 2–3 injections of intravitreal bevacizumab. Best-corrected visual acuity, foveal thickness obtained by optical coherence tomography, and fluorescein angiography (FA) were monitored over a period of up to

  3. The Future of Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chirag P. Shah; Jeffrey S. Heier

    \\u000a The treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) will continue to evolve dramatically. Researchers are\\u000a working to find new therapeutics targeting important pathways involved in angiogenesis, including: Vascular endothelial growth\\u000a factor (VEGF) inhibition Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor inhibition\\u000a (PDGFR), including tyrosine kinase inhibitors, RNA interference, and vaccine therapy Radiation therapy utilizing novel local

  4. Intravitreal bevacizumab for neovascular age-related macular

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junn R. Pajarillo; Harvey S. Uy; Milagros H. Arroyo

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) drugs delivered intravitreally have been proven effective and safe for the treatment of patients diagnosed with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (ARMD). This study evaluated the short-term biologic efficacy and safety of multiple intravitreal injections of bevacizumab in patients with neovascular ARMD. Methods A prospective, interventional, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial was done involving patients with

  5. Smoking and Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Review and Update

    PubMed Central

    Velilla, Sara; García-Medina, José Javier; García-Layana, Alfredo; Pons-Vázquez, Sheila; Pinazo-Durán, M. Dolores; Gómez-Ulla, Francisco; Arévalo, J. Fernando; Díaz-Llopis, Manuel; Gallego-Pinazo, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the main socioeconomical health issues worldwide. AMD has a multifactorial etiology with a variety of risk factors. Smoking is the most important modifiable risk factor for AMD development and progression. The present review summarizes the epidemiological studies evaluating the association between smoking and AMD, the mechanisms through which smoking induces damage to the chorioretinal tissues, and the relevance of advising patients to quit smoking for their visual health. PMID:24368940

  6. Therapy of Nonexudative Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annal D. Meleth; Veena R. Raiji; Nupura Krishnadev; Emily Y. Chew

    \\u000a Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness among adults over the age of 65 in the Western world.\\u000a The prevalence of AMD is expected to increase dramatically, from 1.75 million in 2000 to 2.95 million in 2020, due to the\\u000a rapidly aging population. Given the large and now increasing burden of disease, the identification of modifiable

  7. Propionibacterium acnes and the Pathogenesis of Progressive Macular Hypomelanosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wiete Westerhof; Germaine N. Relyveld; Melanie M. Kingswijk; Peter de Man; Henk E. Menke

    Background: Progressive macular hypomelanosis is a common hypopigmentation mainly on the central parts of the trunk, predominantly in young adults, especially women. It is often mistaken for pityriasis versicolor and pityriasis alba. It occurs in all races and has been de- scribed in many parts of the world. We discovered fol- licularredfluorescencerestrictedtolesionalskin.Wesus- pected a relation with a porphyrin-producing bacteria residinginsebumofthepilosebaceousduct,andwethere-

  8. A non-linear irreversible thermodynamic perspective on organic pigment proliferation and biological evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaelian, K.

    2013-12-01

    The most important thermodynamic work performed by life today is the dissipation of the solar photon flux into heat through organic pigments in water. From this thermodynamic perspective, biological evolution is thus just the dispersal of organic pigments and water throughout Earth's surface, while adjusting the gases of Earth's atmosphere to allow the most intense part of the solar spectrum to penetrate the atmosphere and reach the surface to be intercepted by these pigments. The covalent bonding of atoms in organic pigments provides excited levels compatible with the energies of these photons. Internal conversion through vibrational relaxation to the ground state of these excited molecules when in water leads to rapid dissipation of the solar photons into heat, and this is the major source of entropy production on Earth. A non-linear irreversible thermodynamic analysis shows that the proliferation of organic pigments on Earth is a direct consequence of the pigments catalytic properties in dissipating the solar photon flux. A small part of the energy of the photon goes into the production of more organic pigments and supporting biomass, while most of the energy is dissipated and channeled into the hydrological cycle through the latent heat of vaporization of surface water. By dissipating the surface to atmosphere temperature gradient, the hydrological cycle further increases the entropy production of Earth. This thermodynamic perspective of solar photon dissipation by life has implications to the possibility of finding extra-terrestrial life in our solar system and the Universe.

  9. Pigments, Parasites and Personalitiy: Towards a Unifying Role for Steroid Hormones?

    PubMed Central

    Kittilsen, Silje; Johansen, Ida Beitnes; Braastad, Bjarne Olai; Řverli, Řyvind

    2012-01-01

    A surging interest in the evolution of consistent trait correlations has inspired research on pigment patterns as a correlate of behavioural syndromes, or “animal personalities”. Associations between pigmentation, physiology and health status are less investigated as potentially conserved trait clusters. In the current study, lice counts performed on farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar naturally infected with ectoparasitic sea lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis showed that individual fish with high incidence of black melanin-based skin spots harboured fewer female sea lice carrying egg sacs, compared to less pigmented fish. There was no significant association between pigmentation and lice at other developmental stages, suggesting that host factors associated with melanin-based pigmentation may modify ectoparasite development to a larger degree than settlement. In a subsequent laboratory experiment a strong negative correlation between skin spots and post-stress cortisol levels was revealed, with less pigmented individuals showing a more pronounced cortisol response to acute stress. The observation that lice prevalence was strongly increased on a fraction of sexually mature male salmon which occurred among the farmed fish further supports a role for steroid hormones as mediators of reduced parasite resistance. The data presented here propose steroid hormones as a proximate cause for the association between melanin-based pigmentation and parasites. Possible fundamental and applied implications are discussed. PMID:22493685

  10. Detecting abnormalities in choroidal vasculature in a mouse model of age-related macular degeneration by time-course indocyanine green angiography.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Berriochoa, Zachary; Jones, Alex D; Fu, Yingbin

    2014-01-01

    Indocyanine Green Angiography (or ICGA) is a technique performed by ophthalmologists to diagnose abnormalities of the choroidal and retinal vasculature of various eye diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD). ICGA is especially useful to image the posterior choroidal vasculature of the eye due to its capability of penetrating through the pigmented layer with its infrared spectrum. ICGA time course can be divided into early, middle, and late phases. The three phases provide valuable information on the pathology of eye problems. Although time-course ICGA by intravenous (IV) injection is widely used in the clinic for the diagnosis and management of choroid problems, ICGA by intraperitoneal injection (IP) is commonly used in animal research. Here we demonstrated the technique to obtain high-resolution ICGA time-course images in mice by tail-vein injection and confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. We used this technique to image the choroidal lesions in a mouse model of age-related macular degeneration. Although it is much easier to introduce ICG to the mouse vasculature by IP, our data indicate that it is difficult to obtain reproducible ICGA time course images by IP-ICGA. In contrast, ICGA via tail vein injection provides high quality ICGA time-course images comparable to human studies. In addition, we showed that ICGA performed on albino mice gives clearer pictures of choroidal vessels than that performed on pigmented mice. We suggest that time-course IV-ICGA should become a standard practice in AMD research based on animal models. PMID:24637497

  11. Adult pigment type (Peiffer) of sudanophilic leukodystrophy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Okeda; T. Matsuo; Y. Kawahara; Y. Eishi; Y. Tamai; M. Tanaka; M. Kamaki; N. Tsubota; H. Yamadera

    1989-01-01

    Two autopsy cases of siblings with the adult pigment (Peiffer) type of sudanophilic leukodystrophy (SLD), which demonstrated the full-blown stage (case 1) and early stage (case 2) of demyelination, were examined. Numerous brown pigments deposited in demyelinated cerebral areas were characterized histochemically and ultrastructurally as lipofuscin and ceroid. Under the electron microscope formation of blebs due to myelin splitting associated

  12. Phytochemistry: Structure of the blue cornflower pigment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masaaki Shiono; Naohiro Matsugaki; Kosaku Takeda

    2005-01-01

    The same anthocyanin pigment makes roses red but cornflowers blue, a phenomenon that has so far not been entirely explained. Here we describe the X-ray crystal structure of the cornflower pigment, which reveals that its blue colour arises from a complex of six molecules each of anthocyanin and flavone, with one ferric iron, one magnesium and two calcium ions. We

  13. ORGANIC DYES AND PIGMENTS DATA BASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this research program was to compile a data base covering all the commercially significant dyes and pigments produced or imported in the United States. The Organic Dyes and Pigments Data Base (ODPDB) contains the following data elements: chemical-related data (co...

  14. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) of Chlorophyll Pigments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foote, Jerry

    1984-01-01

    Background information, list of materials needed, procedures used, and discussion of typical results are provided for an experiment on the thin layer chromatography of chlorophyll pigments. The experiment works well in high school, since the chemicals used are the same as those used in paper chromatography of plant pigments. (JN)

  15. Cholesterol and pigment gallstones in Northern India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shiv K. Sarin; Brij M. L. Kapur; Rakesh K. Tandon

    1986-01-01

    Two hundred one consecutive patients with gallstone disease who had undergone cholecystectomy were analyzed to determine the relative frequency of occurrence of cholesterol and pigment gallstones and to identify distinguishing features of the two stone types. Cholesterol stones (CS) formed the majority (94%) of gallstones. There were no distinctive clinical, biochemical, or radiological features of CS or pigment stones (PS).

  16. Evolution of pigment composition in Chlorella vulgaris

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Gouveia; V. Veloso; A. Reis; H. Fernandes; J. Novais; J. Empis

    1996-01-01

    The onset of carotenogenesis in Chlorella vulgaris and the change in nature and concentration of pigments with time was studied. The succession of pigments observed was interpreted in terms of relative efficiencies of carotenoid interconversion pathways, and this might be used to monitor the progress of the carotenogenic process. This work is relevant to the use of dry Chlorella biomass,

  17. Inflammatory cytokines regulate microRNA-155 expression in human retinal pigment epithelial cells by activating JAK/STAT pathway.

    PubMed

    Kutty, R Krishnan; Nagineni, Chandrasekharam N; Samuel, William; Vijayasarathy, Camasamudram; Hooks, John J; Redmond, T Michael

    2010-11-12

    Inflammatory response of the retinal pigment epithelium plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of retinal degenerative diseases such as age-related macular degeneration. Our previous studies have shown that human retinal pigment epithelial (HRPE) cells, established from adult donor eyes, respond to inflammatory cytokines by enhancing the expression of a number of cytokines and chemokines. To investigate the role of microRNA (miRNA) in regulating this response, we performed microarray analysis of miRNA expression in HRPE cells exposed to inflammatory cytokine mix (IFN-?+TNF-?+IL-1?). Microarray analysis revealed ?11-fold increase in miR-155 expression, which was validated by real-time PCR analysis. The miR-155 expression was enhanced when the cells were treated individually with IFN-?, TNF-? or IL-1?, but combinations of the cytokines exaggerated the effect. The increase in miR-155 expression by the inflammatory cytokines was associated with an increase in STAT1 activation as well as an increase in protein binding to putative STAT1 binding elements present in the MIR155 gene promoter region. All these activities were effectively blocked by JAK inhibitor 1. Our results show that the inflammatory cytokines increase miR-155 expression in human retinal pigment epithelial cells by activating the JAK/STAT signaling pathway. PMID:20950585

  18. Age-related macular degeneration: clinical findings, histopathology and imaging techniques.

    PubMed

    Zarbin, Marco A; Casaroli-Marano, Ricardo P; Rosenfeld, Philip J

    2014-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of blindness among people over age 55 years in industrialized countries. Known major risk factors for AMD include: age >55 years, history of smoking, white race, and mutations in various components of the complement system. Early AMD is characterized by the presence of drusen and pigmentary abnormalities. Late AMD is associated with central visual loss and is characterized by the presence of choroidal neovascularization and/or geographic atrophy. Early AMD is associated with a number of biochemical abnormalities including oxidative damage to retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells, complement deposition in the RPE-Bruch's membrane-choriocapillaris complex, lipidization of Bruch's membrane, and extracellular matrix abnormalities (e.g. collagen crosslinking, advanced glycation end product formation). Antiangiogenic drugs block the vascular leakage associated with choroidal new vessels, thus reducing retinal edema and stabilizing or restoring vision. At this time, there are no proven effective treatments for the nonexudative complications of AMD. Modern ocular imaging technologies (including spectral domain and phase variance optical coherence tomography, short- and long-wavelength fundus autofluorescence, adaptive optics-scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, and near-infrared reflectance) enable one to follow changes in the RPE, photoreceptors, and choriocapillaris quantitatively as the disease progresses. In addition, one can quantitatively assess the volume of drusen and areas of atrophy. These data, when correlated with the known histopathology of AMD, may provide useful measures of treatment efficacy that are likely to be more sensitive and reproducible than conventional end points such as visual acuity and rate of enlargement of geographic atrophy. As a result, these imaging technologies may be valuable in assessing the effects of cell-based therapy for patients with AMD. PMID:24732758

  19. Biallelic Mutations in the Autophagy Regulator DRAM2 Cause Retinal Dystrophy with Early Macular Involvement.

    PubMed

    El-Asrag, Mohammed E; Sergouniotis, Panagiotis I; McKibbin, Martin; Plagnol, Vincent; Sheridan, Eamonn; Waseem, Naushin; Abdelhamed, Zakia; McKeefry, Declan; Van Schil, Kristof; Poulter, James A; Johnson, Colin A; Carr, Ian M; Leroy, Bart P; De Baere, Elfride; Inglehearn, Chris F; Webster, Andrew R; Toomes, Carmel; Ali, Manir

    2015-06-01

    Retinal dystrophies are an overlapping group of genetically heterogeneous conditions resulting from mutations in more than 250 genes. Here we describe five families affected by an adult-onset retinal dystrophy with early macular involvement and associated central visual loss in the third or fourth decade of life. Affected individuals were found to harbor disease-causing variants in DRAM2 (DNA-damage regulated autophagy modulator protein 2). Homozygosity mapping and exome sequencing in a large, consanguineous British family of Pakistani origin revealed a homozygous frameshift variant (c.140delG [p.Gly47Valfs(?)3]) in nine affected family members. Sanger sequencing of DRAM2 in 322 unrelated probands with retinal dystrophy revealed one European subject with compound heterozygous DRAM2 changes (c.494G>A [p.Trp165(?)] and c.131G>A [p.Ser44Asn]). Inspection of previously generated exome sequencing data in unsolved retinal dystrophy cases identified a homozygous variant in an individual of Indian origin (c.64_66del [p.Ala22del]). Independently, a gene-based case-control association study was conducted via an exome sequencing dataset of 18 phenotypically similar case subjects and 1,917 control subjects. Using a recessive model and a binomial test for rare, presumed biallelic, variants, we found DRAM2 to be the most statistically enriched gene; one subject was a homozygote (c.362A>T [p.His121Leu]) and another a compound heterozygote (c.79T>C [p.Tyr27His] and c.217_225del [p.Val73_Tyr75del]). DRAM2 encodes a transmembrane lysosomal protein thought to play a role in the initiation of autophagy. Immunohistochemical analysis showed DRAM2 localization to photoreceptor inner segments and to the apical surface of retinal pigment epithelial cells where it might be involved in the process of photoreceptor renewal and recycling to preserve visual function. PMID:25983245

  20. Prospects for clinical use of reprogrammed cells for autologous treatment of macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Alvarez Palomo, Ana Belen; McLenachan, Samuel; Chen, Fred K; Da Cruz, Lyndon; Dilley, Rodney J; Requena, Jordi; Lucas, Michaela; Lucas, Andrew; Drukker, Micha; Edel, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Since the discovery of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) in 2006, the symptoms of many human diseases have been reversed in animal models with iPSC therapy, setting the stage for future clinical development. From the animal data it is clear that iPSC are rapidly becoming the lead cell type for cell replacement therapy and for the newly developing field of iPSC-derived body organ transplantation. The first human pathology that might be treated in the near future with iPSC is age-related macular degeneration (AMD), which has recently passed the criteria set down by regulators for phase I clinical trials with allogeneic human embryonic stem cell-derived cell transplantation in humans. Given that iPSC are currently in clinical trial in Japan (RIKEN) to treat AMD, the establishment of a set of international criteria to make clinical-grade iPSC and their differentiated progeny is the next step in order to prepare for future autologous cell therapy clinical trials. Armed with clinical-grade iPSC, we can then specifically test for their threat of cancer, for proper and efficient differentiation to the correct cell type to treat human disease and then to determine their immunogenicity. Such a rigorous approach sets a far more relevant paradigm for their intended future use than non-clinical-grade iPSC. This review focuses on the latest developments regarding the first possible use of iPSC-derived retinal pigment epithelial cells in treating human disease, covers data gathered on animal models to date and methods to make clinical-grade iPSC, suggests techniques to ensure quality control and discusses possible clinical immune responses. PMID:25984235

  1. Retinal layer segmentation of macular OCT images using boundary classification

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Andrew; Carass, Aaron; Hauser, Matthew; Sotirchos, Elias S.; Calabresi, Peter A.; Ying, Howard S.; Prince, Jerry L.

    2013-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has proven to be an essential imaging modality for ophthalmology and is proving to be very important in neurology. OCT enables high resolution imaging of the retina, both at the optic nerve head and the macula. Macular retinal layer thicknesses provide useful diagnostic information and have been shown to correlate well with measures of disease severity in several diseases. Since manual segmentation of these layers is time consuming and prone to bias, automatic segmentation methods are critical for full utilization of this technology. In this work, we build a random forest classifier to segment eight retinal layers in macular cube images acquired by OCT. The random forest classifier learns the boundary pixels between layers, producing an accurate probability map for each boundary, which is then processed to finalize the boundaries. Using this algorithm, we can accurately segment the entire retina contained in the macular cube to an accuracy of at least 4.3 microns for any of the nine boundaries. Experiments were carried out on both healthy and multiple sclerosis subjects, with no difference in the accuracy of our algorithm found between the groups. PMID:23847738

  2. Pigment apparatus in Ajuga reptans plants as affected by adaptation to light growth conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. V. Dymova; T. K. Golovko

    2007-01-01

    Mechanisms of adaptation of the photosynthetic apparatus at the level of pigment complex in a shade-tolerant bugle plant (Ajuga reptans L.) grown at full solar irradiation in an open plot were studied. In “sun” plants, the content of photosynthetic pigments\\u000a decreased markedly as compared to “shade” plants grown under a forest canopy at 5–10% of the full solar irradiation. In

  3. Effect of TiO 2 pigment type on the UV degradation of filled coatings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deborah L. Wang; Stephanie S. Watson; Li-Piin Sung; I-Hsiang Tseng; Craig J. Bouis; Raymond Fernando

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the photoreactivity of titanium dioxide (TiO2) pigments on the photodegradation of polymeric coatings used in exterior applications. Two polymer matrices, an amine-cured\\u000a epoxy (EP) and an acrylic urethane (AU), containing three types of TiO2 pigments, classified by different levels of photoreactivity, were studied. Specimens were exposed on an ultraviolet

  4. Genetic Analysis of Pigmentation in Cordyceps militaris.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Bhushan; Choi, Sung-Keun; Kim, Ho-Kyoung; Kim, Tae-Woong; Sung, Jae-Mo

    2005-09-01

    Pigmentation of ascospore-derived isolates from seven different natural specimens of Cordyceps militaris EFCC C-5888, EFCC C-7159, EFCC C-7833, EFCC C-7991, EFCC C-8021, EFCC C-8023 and EFCC C-8179 was observed on the plates of Sabouraud Dextrose agar plus Yeast Extract at 25? under continuous illumination (500 lux). Pigmentation of the wild-type isolates of C. militaris was diverse ranging from yellowish white to orange, while white color was believed as a mutant. Inheritance of pigmentation was found to be controlled by both parental isolates when F1 progeny were analyzed. Pigmentation and mating type were shown to be either independent or distantly linked each other due to the high percentage of non-parental phenotypes among F1 progeny. Crosses between white mutant isolates of C. militaris yielded progeny with wild type pigmentations, indicating that the albino mutations in the parents were unlinked to each other. PMID:24049487

  5. Iron-induced Local Complement Component 3 (C3) Up-regulation via Non-canonical Transforming Growth Factor (TGF)-? Signaling in the Retinal Pigment Epithelium.

    PubMed

    Li, Yafeng; Song, Delu; Song, Ying; Zhao, Liangliang; Wolkow, Natalie; Tobias, John W; Song, Wenchao; Dunaief, Joshua L

    2015-05-01

    Dysregulation of iron homeostasis may be a pathogenic factor in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Meanwhile, the formation of complement-containing deposits under the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell layer is a pathognomonic feature of AMD. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which complement component 3 (C3), a central protein in the complement cascade, is up-regulated by iron in RPE cells. Modulation of TGF-? signaling, involving ERK1/2, SMAD3, and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-?, is responsible for iron-induced C3 expression. The differential effects of spatially distinct SMAD3 phosphorylation sites at the linker region and at the C terminus determined the up-regulation of C3. Pharmacologic inhibition of either ERK1/2 or SMAD3 phosphorylation decreased iron-induced C3 expression levels. Knockdown of SMAD3 blocked the iron-induced up-regulation and nuclear accumulation of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-?, a transcription factor that has been shown previously to bind the basic leucine zipper 1 domain in the C3 promoter. We show herein that mutation of this domain reduced iron-induced C3 promoter activity. In vivo studies support our in vitro finding of iron-induced C3 up-regulation. Mice with a mosaic pattern of RPE-specific iron overload demonstrated co-localization of iron-induced ferritin and C3d deposits. Humans with aceruloplasminemia causing RPE iron overload had increased RPE C3d deposition. The molecular events in the iron-C3 pathway represent therapeutic targets for AMD or other diseases exacerbated by iron-induced local complement dysregulation. PMID:25802332

  6. Efficient delivery and functional expression of transfected modified mRNA in human embryonic stem cell-derived retinal pigmented epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Magnus L; Albert, Silvia; González Somermeyer, Louisa; Peco, Rubén; Mejía-Ramírez, Eva; Montserrat, Núria; Izpisua Belmonte, Juan Carlos

    2015-02-27

    Gene- and cell-based therapies are promising strategies for the treatment of degenerative retinal diseases such as age-related macular degeneration, Stargardt disease, and retinitis pigmentosa. Cellular engineering before transplantation may allow the delivery of cellular factors that can promote functional improvements, such as increased engraftment or survival of transplanted cells. A current challenge in traditional DNA-based vector transfection is to find a delivery system that is both safe and efficient, but using mRNA as an alternative to DNA can circumvent these major roadblocks. In this study, we show that both unmodified and modified mRNA can be delivered to retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells with a high efficiency compared with conventional plasmid delivery systems. On the other hand, administration of unmodified mRNA induced a strong innate immune response that was almost absent when using modified mRNA. Importantly, transfection of mRNA encoding a key regulator of RPE gene expression, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), confirmed the functionality of the delivered mRNA. Immunostaining showed that transfection with either type of mRNA led to the expression of roughly equal levels of MITF, primarily localized in the nucleus. Despite these findings, quantitative RT-PCR analyses showed that the activation of the expression of MITF target genes was higher following transfection with modified mRNA compared with unmodified mRNA. Our findings, therefore, show that modified mRNA transfection can be applied to human embryonic stem cell-derived RPE cells and that the method is safe, efficient, and functional. PMID:25555917

  7. Rescue of compromised lysosomes enhances degradation of photoreceptor outer segments and reduces lipofuscin-like autofluorescence in retinal pigmented epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Guha, Sonia; Liu, Ji; Baltazar, Gabe; Laties, Alan M; Mitchell, Claire H

    2014-01-01

    Healthful cell maintenance requires the efficient degradative processing and removal of waste material. Retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells have the onerous task of degrading both internal cellular debris generated through autophagy as well as phagocytosed photoreceptor outer segments. We propose that the inadequate processing material with the resulting accumulation of cellular waste contributes to the downstream pathologies characterized as age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The lysosomal enzymes responsible for clearance function optimally over a narrow range of acidic pH values; elevation of lysosomal pH by compounds like chloroquine or A2E can impair degradative enzyme activity and lead to a lipofuscin-like autofluorescence. Restoring acidity to the lysosomes of RPE cells can enhance activity of multiple degradative enzymes and is therefore a logical target in early AMD. We have identified several approaches to reacidify lysosomes of compromised RPE cells; stimulation of beta-adrenergic, A2A adenosine and D5 dopamine receptors each lowers lysosomal pH and improves degradation of outer segments. Activation of the CFTR chloride channel also reacidifies lysosomes and increases degradation. These approaches also restore the lysosomal pH of RPE cells from aged ABCA4(-/-) mice with chronically high levels of A2E, suggesting that functional signaling pathways to reacidify lysosomes are retained in aged cells like those in patients with AMD. Acidic nanoparticles transported to RPE lysosomes also lower pH and improve degradation of outer segments. In summary, the ability of diverse approaches to lower lysosomal pH and enhance outer segment degradation support the proposal that lysosomal acidification can prevent the accumulation of lipofuscin-like material in RPE cells. PMID:24664687

  8. Inhibition of APE1/Ref-1 redox activity rescues human retinal pigment epithelial cells from oxidative stress and reduces choroidal neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    Li, Y.; Liu, X.; Zhou, T.; Kelley, M.R.; Edwards, P.; Gao, H.; Qiao, X.

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of current treatment for age related macular degeneration (AMD) by targeting one molecule is limited due to its multifactorial nature and heterogeneous pathologies. Treatment strategy to target multiple signaling pathways or pathological components in AMD pathogenesis is under investigation for better clinical outcome. Inhibition of the redox function of apurinic endonuclease 1/redox factor-1 (APE1) was found to suppress endothelial angiogenesis and promote neuronal cell recovery, thereby may serve as a potential treatment for AMD. In the current study, we for the first time have found that a specific inhibitor of APE1 redox function by a small molecule compound E3330 regulates retinal pigment epithelium (RPEs) cell response to oxidative stress. E3330 significantly blocked sub-lethal doses of oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) induced proliferation decline and senescence advancement of RPEs. At the same time, E3330 remarkably decreased the accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and down-regulated the productions of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), as well as attenuated the level of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) p65 in RPEs. A panel of stress and toxicity responsive transcription factors that were significantly upregulated by oxLDL was restored by E3330, including Nrf2/Nrf1, p53, NF-?B, HIF1, CBF/NF-Y/YY1, and MTF-1. Further, a single intravitreal injection of E3330 effectively reduced the progression of laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in mouse eyes. These data revealed that E3330 effectively rescued RPEs from oxidative stress induced senescence and dysfunctions in multiple aspects in vitro, and attenuated laser-induced damages to RPE–Bruch?s membrane complex in vivo. Together with its previously established anti-angiogenic and neuroprotection benefits, E3330 is implicated for potential use for AMD treatment. PMID:24624338

  9. Epigalloccatechin-3-gallate inhibits ocular neovascularization and vascular permeability in human retinal pigment epithelial and human retinal microvascular endothelial cells via suppression of MMP-9 and VEGF activation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hak Sung; Jun, Jae-Hyun; Jung, Eun-Ha; Koo, Bon Am; Kim, Yeong Shik

    2014-01-01

    Epigalloccatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the main polyphenol component of green tea (leaves of Camellia sinensis). EGCG is known for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and anti-carcinogenic properties. Here, we identify EGCG as a new inhibitor of ocular angiogenesis and its vascular permeability. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) play a key role in the processes of extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling and microvascular permeability during angiogenesis. We investigated the inhibitory effects of EGCG on ocular neovascularization and vascular permeability using the retina oriented cells and animal models induced by VEGF and alkaline burn. EGCG treatment significantly decreased mRNA and protein expression levels of MMP-9 in the presence of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) in human retinal pigment epithelial cells (HRPECs). EGCG also effectively protected ARPE-19 cells from cell death and attenuated mRNA expressions of key angiogenic factors (MMP-9, VEGF, VEGF Receptor-2) by inhibiting generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). EGCG significantly inhibited proliferation, vascular permeability, and tube formation in VEGF-induced human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMECs). Furthermore, EGCG significantly reduced vascular leakage and permeability by blood-retinal barrier breakdown in VEGF-induced animal models. In addition, EGCG effectively limited upregulation of MMP-9 and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM/CD31) on corneal neovascularization (CNV) induced by alkaline burn. Our data suggest that MMP-9 and VEGF are key therapeutic targets of EGCG for treatment and prevention of ocular angiogenic diseases such as age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and corneal neovascularization. PMID:25123184

  10. Molecular and pharmacological characterization of muscarinic receptors in retinal pigment epithelium: role in light-adaptive

    E-print Network

    Aspbury, Andrea S. - Department of Biology, Texas State University

    Molecular and pharmacological characterization of muscarinic receptors in retinal pigment epithelium: role in light-adaptive pigment movements Prasad V. Phatarpekar, Simon F. Durdan, Chad M. Copeland pigment granule dispersion in retinal pigment epithelium isolated from bluegill fish. Pigment granule

  11. Structure of plant bile pigments

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenleber, R.W.

    1983-12-01

    Selective peptide cleavage has provided a general procedure for the study of the structure, including stereochemistry, of plant bile pigments. The information derived from the synthesis and spectral analysis of a series of 2,3-dihydrodioxobilins allows the determination of the trans relative stereochemistry for ring A of the ..beta../sub 1/-phycocyanobilin from C-phycocyanin as well as for ring A of phytochrome. A complete structure proof of the five phycoerythrobilins attached to the ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. subunits of B-phycoerythrin is described. One of these tetrapyrroles is doubly-peptide linked to a single peptide chain through two thioethers at the C-3' and C-18' positions. The four remaining phycoerythrobilins are singly-linked to the protein through thioethers at the C-3' position and all possess the probable stereochemistry C-2(R), C-3(R), C-3'(R), and C-16(R).

  12. Missense Variations in the Fibulin 5 Gene and Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edwin M. Stone; Terry A. Braun; Stephen R. Russell; Markus H. Kuehn; Andrew J. Lotery; Paula A. Moore; Christopher G. Eastman; Thomas L. Casavant; Val C. Sheffield

    2004-01-01

    background Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of irreversible vi- sion loss in the developed world. The study of a rare mendelian form of macular degen- eration implicated fibulin genes in the pathogenesis of more common forms of this disease. We evaluated five fibulin genes in a large series of patients with AMD. methods We studied 402

  13. Scotoma and fixation patterns using scanning laser ophthalmoscope microperimetry in patients with macular dystrophy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fumihiko Mori; Satoshi Ishiko; Norihiko Kitaya; Akira Takamiya; Eiichi Sato; Taiichi Hikichi; Akitoshi Yoshida

    2001-01-01

    PURPOSE: We used scanning laser ophthalmoscope microperimetry to evaluate the retinal scotoma and the fixation points in the patients with macular dystrophy.METHODS: We studied 10 eyes of five patients with macular dystrophy (three patients with cone dystrophy and two patients with Stargardt disease). The mean patient age was 37 years (range, 13 to 64 years). An estimation of scotoma and

  14. Scanning laser ophthalmoscope fundus perimetry before and after laser photocoagulation for clinically significant diabetic macular edema

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Klaus Rohrschneider; Stefan Bültmann; Roland Glück; Friedrich E Kruse; Thomas Fendrich; Hans E Völcker

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: To prospectively evaluate functional and funduscopic changes after laser treatment in patients with diabetic retinopathy and clinically significant macular edema by scanning laser ophthalmoscope fundus perimetry.METHODS: Thirty eyes of 30 patients with clinically significant macular edema as a result of diabetic retinopathy were prospectively examined before and at least 3 months after focal laser treatment with automatic fundus threshold

  15. Fundus autofluorescence in patients with macular holes imaged with a laser scanning ophthalmoscope

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea von Rückmann; Fredrick W Fitzke; Zdenek J Gregor

    1998-01-01

    AIMTo demonstrate the usefulness of a recently developed technique of imaging fundus autofluorescence and to compare it with the results of fluorescein angiography in the diagnosis and staging of macular holes.METHODSThe intensity and distribution of fundus autofluorescence was studied in 51 patients with idiopathic macular holes and pseudoholes using a confocal laser scanning ophthalmoscope (cLSO) and the images were compared

  16. Intravitreal Reinjection of Triamcinolone for Exudative Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jost B. Jonas; Imren Akkoyun; Wido M. Budde; Ingrid Kreissig; Robert F. Degenring

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the outcome of repeated intra- vitreal injections of triamcinolone acetonide for the treat- ment of exudative age-related macular degeneration. Methods: This prospective, comparative nonrandom- ized clinical interventional study included 13 patients with progressive exudative age-related macular degeneration with occult, or predominantly occult, subfoveal neovas- cularization. All patients had shown an increase or sta- bilization of visual acuity

  17. Prognostic phenotypic and genotypic factors associated with photodynamic therapy response in patients with age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Tsuchihashi, Takashi; Mori, Keisuke; Horie-Inoue, Kuniko; Okazaki, Yasushi; Awata, Takuya; Inoue, Satoshi; Yoneya, Shin

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to demonstrate the phenotypic and genotypic factors associated with photodynamic therapy (PDT) for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods The study included 149 patients with exudative AMD treated by PDT. Eight phenotypic factors and ten genotypic factors for three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; rs800292, rs1061170, rs1410996) in the complement factor H (CFH) gene, rs 11200638-SNP in the high temperature requirement A-1 (HTRA1) gene, two SNPs (rs699947, rs2010963) in the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene, and four SNPs (rs12948385, rs12150053, rs9913583, rs1136287) in the pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) gene were evaluated. Results A significant association with best-corrected visual acuity change was demonstrated in the greatest linear dimension, presence or absence of pigment epithelial detachment, and HTRA1-rs11200638 genotype statistically (P=3.67×10?4, 1.95×10?2, 1.24×10?3, respectively). Best-corrected visual acuity in patients with AA genotype of HTRA1-rs11200638 significantly decreased compared with that in patients with GG genotype (P=1.33×10?3). Logistic regression analyses demonstrated HTRA1-rs11200638 genotype was most strongly associated with best-corrected visual acuity outcome from baseline at 12 months after photodynamic therapy (P=4.60×10?3; odds ratio 2.363; 95% confidence interval 1.303–4.285). Conclusion The HTRA1-rs11200638 variant showed the most significant association. Therefore, this variant may be used as a prognostic factor to estimate the PDT response with significant predictive power. PMID:25525324

  18. Formulae for Determination of Chlorophyllous Pigments Extracted with N,N-Dimethylformamide 1

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Rami

    1982-01-01

    The extraction of chlorophylls in higher plant tissue using N,N-dimethylformamide expedites the process and enables the determination of small samples with low pigment level. Absorption spectra of Chl a, Chl b, and Pchl and of their acidified derivatives, the phaeophytins, were recorded. Conversion of Chl b to its corresponding acidified product occurs much more slowly than that of Chl a and Pchl. When acidified, Pchl differs from Chl a and Chl b by the disappearance of the red band in the absorption spectrum. Specific extinction coefficients were determined and formulae for quantitative determination of pigments concentrations were developed. When concentrations of pigments are low, as in etiolated plant material, the absorption spectra of the chlorophylls can be distorted due to the presence of other substances simultaneously extracted; formulae for pigment determination under such circumstances were also derived. PMID:16662407

  19. Study of Biological Pigments by Single Specimen Derivative Spectrophotometry

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Jack M.

    1970-01-01

    The single specimen derivative (SSD) method provides an absolute absorption spectrum of a substance in the absence of a suitable reference. Both a reference and a measuring monochromatic beam pass through a single sample, and the specimen itself acts as its own reference. The two monochromatic beams maintain a fixed wavelength difference upon scanning, and the difference in absorbance of the two beams is determined. Thus, the resulting spectrum represents the first derivative of the conventional type absorption spectrum. Tissues and cell fractions have been examined at room and liquid N2 temperature and chromophoric molecules such as the mitochondrial cytochromes and blood pigments have been detectable in low concentrations. In the case of isolated cellular components, the observed effects of substrates and inhibitors confirm similar studies by conventional spectrophotometry. The extension of the SSD concept to the microscopic level has permitted the study of the tissue compartmentalization and function of cytochromes and other pigments within layered tissue. PMID:4392452

  20. Evaluation of cardiovascular biomarkers in patients with age-related wet macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Keles, Sadullah; Ates, Orhan; Kartal, Baki; Alp, Hamit Hakan; Ekinci, Metin; Ceylan, Erdinc; Ondas, Osman; Arpali, Eren; Dogan, Semih; Yildirim, Kenan; Keles, Mevlut Sait

    2014-01-01

    Aim To evaluate levels of homocysteine, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), and nitric oxide (NO), as well as activity of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods The levels of homocysteine, ADMA, and NO and activity of eNOS in patients who were diagnosed with wet AMD by fundus fluorescein angiography (n=30) were compared to a control group with no retinal pathology (n=30). Results Levels of homocysteine and ADMA were found to be significantly higher in the wet AMD group than in the control group (P<0.001), whereas NO levels and eNOS activity were higher in the control group (P<0.001). In the wet AMD group, we detected a 2.64- and 0.33-fold increase in the levels of ADMA and homocysteine, respectively, and a 0.49- and 2.41-fold decrease in the eNOS activity and NO level, respectively. Conclusion Elevated levels of homocysteine and ADMA were observed in patients with wet AMD. Increased ADMA may be responsible for the diminished eNOS activity found in these patients, which in turn contributes to the decrease in NO levels, which likely plays a role in the pathogenesis of AMD. PMID:25210424

  1. Fixation stability as a goal in the treatment of macular disease.

    PubMed

    Mandelcorn, Mark S; Podbielski, Dominik W; Mandelcorn, Efrem D

    2013-10-01

    Recent advances in the treatment of macular diseases have improved macular anatomy and function as measured and quantified by visual acuity, retinal thickness, and vascular changes detailed by fluorescein angiography. Such observed changes do not always explain improvement in visual function and do not always correlate with patient satisfaction. In some cases, there is poor correlation between anatomic changes and functional improvement. Microperimetry studies on fixation stability after treatment of macular diseases have shown a strong correlation between better fixation stability and visual acuity. Furthermore, achieving better fixation stability facilitates low-vision rehabilitation. These microperimetry findings suggest that fixation stability should be regarded as an important outcome measure in studies of macular disease treatment and should be considered in clinical and research studies of low-vision rehabilitation in cases of treated macular diseases. PMID:24093181

  2. The retinal-pigment epithelial interface.

    PubMed Central

    Foulds, W S

    1979-01-01

    The interdependence of the outer retina and pigment epithelium is illustrated by the functional changes and structural alterations which occur in each in response to choroidal ischaemia, retinal detachment, vitamin A deficiency, and other causes. The pluripotential role of the pigment epithelium is stressed, particularly in relation to the phagocytosis of outer segment material and the ability of this layer to undergo metaplasia into a variety of different cell types. Similarities of all disturbances of the retinal-pigment epithelial interface to retinitis pigmentosa are pointed out, and the significance of the findings in relation to this disease is discussed. Images PMID:427074

  3. Exosomes released by keratinocytes modulate melanocyte pigmentation

    PubMed Central

    Cicero, Alessandra Lo; Delevoye, Cédric; Gilles-Marsens, Floriane; Loew, Damarys; Dingli, Florent; Guéré, Christelle; André, Nathalie; Vié, Katell; van Niel, Guillaume; Raposo, Graça

    2015-01-01

    Cells secrete extracellular vesicles (EVs), exosomes and microvesicles, which transfer proteins, lipids and RNAs to regulate recipient cell functions. Skin pigmentation relies on a tight dialogue between keratinocytes and melanocytes in the epidermis. Here we report that exosomes secreted by keratinocytes enhance melanin synthesis by increasing both the expression and activity of melanosomal proteins. Furthermore, we show that the function of keratinocyte-derived exosomes is phototype-dependent and is modulated by ultraviolet B. In sum, this study uncovers an important physiological function for exosomes in human pigmentation and opens new avenues in our understanding of how pigmentation is regulated by intercellular communication in both healthy and diseased states. PMID:26103923

  4. Quantitative assessment of macular thickness in normal subjects and patients with diabetic retinopathy by scanning retinal thickness analyser

    PubMed Central

    Oshima, Y.; Emi, K.; Yamanishi, S.; Motokura, M.

    1999-01-01

    AIMS—To evaluate the scanning retinal thickness analyser (RTA), a novel non-invasive imaging instrument, in diagnosing and quantitatively characterising diabetic macular oedema, and to investigate the relation between central macula thickness measured by RTA and other clinical examinations.?METHODS—Central macular thickness was measured using the RTA in 40 normal subjects and 60 patients with diabetic retinopathy. The reproducibility of the retinal thickness measurements was evaluated by calculating the mean of the inter- and intrasession variations. Central macular thickness was correlated with the results of visual acuity measurements, biomicroscopy, and fluorescein angiography.?RESULTS—Intra- and intersession reproducibility of the RTA in normal subjects was plus or minus 5.2% (16 µm) and plus or minus 6.1% (19 µm), respectively. The mean central macular thickness was 182 (SD 16) µm in normal subjects, 283 (116) µm in diabetic eyes without clinically significant macular oedema (CSMO), and 564 (168) µm in diabetic eyes with CSMO. Central macular thickness was significantly greater (p<0.001) in eyes with diabetic retinopathy than in normal subjects, even when macular thickening did not meet the standard for CSMO (p=0.019) measured by biomicroscopy. Although greater fluorescein leakage at the macula results in greater central macular thickness, only eyes with diffuse leakage had statistically significant macular thickening compared with normal subjects (p=0.022). Central macular thickness measured with the RTA was significantly correlated with the logarithmic converted visual acuity (r2= 0.76) in diabetic eyes.?CONCLUSION—Scanning RTA, which has good reproducibility, might be useful to quantitatively detect and monitor macular thickening in diabetic retinopathy. Central macular thickness was highly correlated with logarithmic converted visual acuity in diabetic macular oedema.?? Keywords: scanning retinal thickness analyser; macular thickness; diabetic retinopathy; macular oedema PMID:10209436

  5. Trade-Offs between Predation Risk and Growth Benefits in the Copepod Eurytemora affinis with Contrasting Pigmentation

    PubMed Central

    Gorokhova, Elena; Lehtiniemi, Maiju; Motwani, Nisha H.

    2013-01-01

    Intraspecific variation in body pigmentation is an ecologically and evolutionary important trait; however, the pigmentation related trade-offs in marine zooplankton are poorly understood. We tested the effects of intrapopulation phenotypic variation in the pigmentation of the copepod Eurytemora affinis on predation risk, foraging, growth, metabolic activity and antioxidant capacity. Using pigmented and unpigmented specimens, we compared (1) predation and selectivity by the invertebrate predator Cercopagis pengoi, (2) feeding activity of the copepods measured as grazing rate in experiments and gut fluorescence in situ, (3) metabolic activity assayed as RNA:DNA ratio in both experimental and field-collected copepods, (4) reproductive output estimated as egg ratio in the population, and (5) total antioxidant capacity. Moreover, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) COI gene variation was analysed. The pigmented individuals were at higher predation risk as evidenced by significantly higher predation rate by C. pengoi on pigmented individuals and positive selection by the predator fed pigmented and unpigmented copepods in a mixture. However, the antioxidant capacity, RNA:DNA and egg ratio values were significantly higher in the pigmented copepods, whereas neither feeding rate nor gut fluorescence differed between the pigmented and unpigmented copepods. The phenotypic variation in pigmentation was not associated with any specific mtDNA genotype. Together, these results support the metabolic stimulation hypothesis to explain variation in E. affinis pigmentation, which translates into beneficial increase in growth via enhanced metabolism and antioxidant protective capacity, together with disadvantageous increase in predation risk. We also suggest an alternative mechanism for the metabolic stimulation via elevated antioxidant levels as a primary means of increasing metabolism without the increase in heat absorbance. The observed trade-offs are relevant to evolutionary mechanisms underlying plasticity and adaptation and have the capacity to modify strength of complex trophic interactions. PMID:23940745

  6. Color me bad: microbial pigments as virulence factors

    E-print Network

    Nizet, Victor

    Color me bad: microbial pigments as virulence factors George Y. Liu1 and Victor Nizet2 1 Division is the distinctive color of their colonies when propagated in the clinical laboratory. Such pigmentation comes in microbial pigment biochemistry and the genetic basis of pigment production have sometimes revealed a more

  7. PIGMENT CELL Research Volume 25 . Number 4 . July 2012

    E-print Network

    Monteiro, Antónia

    PIGMENT CELL & MELANOMA Research Volume 25 . Number 4 . July 2012 The official journal of INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF PIGMENT CELL SOCIETIES . SOCIETY FOR MELANOMA RESEARCH www.pigment.org PKC in melanoma Diversity and convergence in animal pigmentation #12;Unraveling the thread of nature's tapestry

  8. ORIGINAL PAPER Detrimental effects of carotenoid pigments: the dark side

    E-print Network

    Navara, Kristen

    ORIGINAL PAPER Detrimental effects of carotenoid pigments: the dark side of bright coloration Carotenoid pigments produce yellow, orange, and red integumentary color displays that can serve as reliable by ingest- ing and utilizing large quantities of carotenoid pigments. Carotenoid pigments serve

  9. BIOLOGY IN PICTURES FLOWER PIGMENTATION Colouring the snapdragon

    E-print Network

    Jackson, David

    BIOLOGY IN PICTURES FLOWER PIGMENTATION Colouring the snapdragon Pigmentation pattern, one '· ·. . : Whereas the flower buds of wild-type Antirrhinum majus show a pattern of anthocyanin pigmentation that is stongest at the base of the petal tube and in the lobes (a), there is no pigment in the petal tube

  10. DICER1/Alu RNA dysmetabolism induces Caspase-8-mediated cell death in age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Kim, Younghee; Tarallo, Valeria; Kerur, Nagaraj; Yasuma, Tetsuhiro; Gelfand, Bradley D; Bastos-Carvalho, Ana; Hirano, Yoshio; Yasuma, Reo; Mizutani, Takeshi; Fowler, Benjamin J; Li, Shengjian; Kaneko, Hiroki; Bogdanovich, Sasha; Ambati, Balamurali K; Hinton, David R; Hauswirth, William W; Hakem, Razqallah; Wright, Charles; Ambati, Jayakrishna

    2014-11-11

    Geographic atrophy, an advanced form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) characterized by death of the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE), causes untreatable blindness in millions worldwide. The RPE of human eyes with geographic atrophy accumulates toxic Alu RNA in response to a deficit in the enzyme DICER1, which in turn leads to activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and elaboration of IL-18. Despite these recent insights, it is still unclear how RPE cells die during the course of the disease. In this study, we implicate the involvement of Caspase-8 as a critical mediator of RPE degeneration. Here we show that DICER1 deficiency, Alu RNA accumulation, and IL-18 up-regulation lead to RPE cell death via activation of Caspase-8 through a Fas ligand-dependent mechanism. Coupled with our observation of increased Caspase-8 expression in the RPE of human eyes with geographic atrophy, our findings provide a rationale for targeting this apoptotic pathway in this disease. PMID:25349431

  11. Dynamics of Blood Count after Rheohemapheresis in Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Possible Association with Clinical Changes

    PubMed Central

    Koš?ál, Milan; Bláha, Milan; Rencová, Eva; Lánská, Miriam; Rozsíval, Pavel; Kratochvilová, Vera

    2014-01-01

    Background. Rheohemapheresis (RHF) is a method that can stop the activity of the dry form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The pathophysiologic mechanisms are not well understood, and the effects of the RHF procedures extend beyond the time of the individual procedures. Patients and Methods. We present the data for 46 patients with AMD treated with a series of 8 rheohemapheretic procedures. Blood count parameters were measured before the first and the last procedures. The clinical effect was judged by changes in the drusenoid pigment epithelium detachment (DPED) area before and after the rheopheretic sessions. Results. Rheopheresis caused a decrease in hemoglobin (P < 0.001), a decrease in leukocytes (P < 0.034), and an increase in platelets (P < 0.005). We found a negative correlation between the amount of platelets and their volume (P < 0.001, Pearson correlation coefficient: ?0.509). We identified the platelet/MPV ratio as a good predictor of the clinical outcome. Patients with a platelet/MPV ratio greater than 21.5 (before the last rheopheresis) had a significantly better outcome (P = 0.003, sensitivity of 76.9% and specificity of 80%). Conclusion. Several basic blood count parameters after RHF can be concluded to significantly change, with some of those changes correlating with the clinical results (reduction of the DPED area). PMID:24734249

  12. Clinical and differential utility of VEGF inhibitors in wet age-related macular degeneration: focus on aflibercept

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Michael W

    2012-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) has become a major public health problem and a leading cause of blindness in industrialized nations. AMD results from the ageing eye’s inability to metabolize and dispose completely of photoreceptor outer segments and other waste products. As a result, lipids, particularly apolipoproteins, accumulate within Bruch’s membrane, leading to chronic ischemia and inflammation. The subsequent upregulation of inflammatory cytokines and growth factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), induces the growth of neovascular membranes from the choriocapillaris into the subretinal or subretinal pigment epithelium spaces. To counter this, intravitreally administered drugs (pegaptanib, bevacizumab, ranibizumab) that specifically target VEGF have become the standard treatment for exudative AMD. Aflibercept, a recently approved fusion protein, binds to all isoforms of both VEGF-A and placental growth factor with high affinity. Phase III trials showed that monthly or every other month injections of aflibercept prevent vision loss (fewer than 15 letters) in 95% of patients. Additionally, aflibercept injections every 4 or 8 weeks produce average vision gains of 6.9 letters to 10.9 letters, comparable with those achieved with monthly ranibizumab. After one year of regularly administered aflibercept injections, patients required an average of only 4.2 injections during the second year. Aflibercept promises to decrease the injection frequency required for many patients and appears to serve as an effective “salvage” therapy for patients who respond poorly to other anti-VEGF drugs. PMID:22973088

  13. Pathway activation profiling reveals new insights into Age-related Macular Degeneration and provides avenues for therapeutic interventions

    PubMed Central

    Makarev, Evgeny; Cantor, Charles; Zhavoronkov, Alex; Buzdin, Anton; Aliper, Alexander; Csoka, Antonei Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of blindness in older people and is caused by loss of the central region of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Conventional methods of gene expression analysis have yielded important insights into AMD pathogenesis, but the precise molecular pathway alterations are still poorly understood. Therefore we developed a new software program, “AMD Medicine”, and discovered differential pathway activation profiles in samples of human RPE/choroid from AMD patients and controls. We identified 29 pathways in RPE-choroid AMD phenotypes: 27 pathways were activated in AMD compared to controls, and 2 pathways were activated in controls compared to AMD. In AMD, we identified a graded activation of pathways related to wound response, complement cascade, and cell survival. Also, there was downregulation of two pathways responsible for apoptosis. Furthermore, significant activation of pro-mitotic pathways is consistent with dedifferentiation and cell proliferation events, which occur early in the pathogenesis of AMD. Significantly, we discovered new global pathway activation signatures of AMD involved in the cell-based inflammatory response: IL-2, STAT3, and ERK. The ultimate aim of our research is to achieve a better understanding of signaling pathways involved in AMD pathology, which will eventually lead to better treatments. PMID:25543336

  14. Crystal structure of the globular domain of C1QTNF5: Implications for late-onset retinal macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Tu, Xiongying; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2012-12-01

    Autosomal dominant late-onset retinal macular degeneration (L-ORMD) is caused by a single S163R mutation in the C1q and tumor necrosis factor-related protein 5 (C1QTNF5) gene. The C1QTNF5 gene encodes a secreted and membrane-associated protein involved in adhesion of retinal pigmented epithelial cells (RPE) to Bruch's membrane. The crystal structure of the trimeric globular domain of human C1QTNF5 at 1.34Ĺ resolution reveals unique features of this novel C1q family member. It lacks a Ca˛?-binding site, displays a remarkable non-uniform distribution of surface electrostatic potentials and possesses a unique sequence (F???F???G???G???W???P???) that forms a hydrophobic plateau surrounded by Lys and Arg residues with a solvent cavity underneath. S??? forms a hydrogen bond with F??? in a hydrophobic area extending to the hydrophobic plateau. The pathogenic mutation S163R disrupts this hydrogen bonding and positively charges these hydrophobic areas. Thus, our analysis provides insights into the structural basis of the L-ORMD disease mechanism. PMID:22892318

  15. Progress and perspectives on the role of RPE cell inflammatory responses in the development of age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Suofu; Rodrigues, Gerard A

    2008-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in developed countries. The etiology of AMD remains poorly understood and no treatment is currently available for the atrophic form of AMD. Atrophic AMD has been proposed to involve abnormalities of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), which lies beneath the photoreceptor cells and normally provides critical metabolic support to these light-sensing cells. Cumulative oxidative stress and local inflammation are thought to represent pathological processes involved in the etiology of atrophic AMD. Studies of tissue culture and animal models reveal that oxidative stress-induced injury to the RPE results in a chronic inflammatory response, drusen formation, and RPE atrophy. RPE degeneration in turn causes a progressive degeneration of photoreceptors, leading to the irreversible loss of vision. This review describes some of the potential major molecular and cellular events contributing to RPE death and inflammatory responses. In addition, potential target areas for therapeutic intervention will be discussed and new experimental therapeutic strategies for atrophic AMD will be presented. PMID:22096347

  16. Relationships between pigment composition variation and reflectance for plant species from a coastal savannah in California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ustin, Susan L.; Sanderson, Eric W.; Grossman, Yaffa; Hart, Quinn J.

    1993-01-01

    Advances in imaging spectroscopy have indicated that remotely sensed reflectance measurements of the plant canopy may be used to identify and qualify some classes of canopy biochemicals; however, the manner in which differences in biochemical compositions translate into differences is not well understood. Most frequently, multiple linear regression routines have been used to correlate narrow band reflectance values with measured biochemical concentrations. Although some success has been achieved with such methods for given data sets, the bands selected by multiple regression are not consistent between data sets, nor is it always clear what physical or biological basis underlies the correlation. To examine the relationship between biochemical concentration and leaf reflectance signal we chose to focus on the visible spectrum where the primary biochemical absorbances are due to photosynthetic pigments. Pigments provide a range of absorbance features, occur over a range of concentrations in natural samples, and are ecophysiologically important. Concentrations of chlorophyll, for example, have been strongly correlated to foliar nitrogen levels within a species and to photosynthetic capacity across many species. In addition pigments effectively absorb most of the photosynthetically active radiation between 400-700 nm, a spectral region for which silicon detectors have good signal/noise characteristics. Our strategy has been to sample a variety of naturally occurring species to measure leaf reflectance and pigment compositions. We hope to extend our understanding of pigment reflectance effects to interpret small overlapping absorbances of other biochemicals in the infrared region. For this reason, selected samples were also tested to determine total nitrogen, crude protein, cellulose, and lignin levels. Leaf reflectance spectra measured with AVIRIS bandwidths and wavelengths were compared between species and within species and for differences between seasons, for changes in the the shape of the spectra. We attempt to statistically correlate these shape changes with differences in pigment compositions. In parallel with our comparisons of pigment composition and leaf reflectance, we have modified the PROSPECT leaf reflectance model to test the contributions of pigments or pigment group concentrations. PROSPECT considers a leaf as a multi-layer dielectric plane with an uneven surface. Jacquemoud adapted the basic analysis of Allen for surface effects, a leaf thickness factor, and the absorption of water and chlorophyll (actually all pigments) and the plant matrix. Our modifications to PROSPECT in the forward direction include breaking out the pigment concentration parameter into separate components for chlorophyll a and b and a number of xanthophylls and carotenes, and introducing a shift and convolution function to model the spread and shift from their in vitro measurements to their in vivo state. Further, we have considered how the matrix elements (i.e., all biochemicals and structural effects not modeled explicity) vary with species.

  17. Activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors elicits pigment granule dispersion in retinal pigment epithelium isolated from bluegill

    PubMed Central

    González, Alfredo; Crittenden, Elizabeth L; García, Dana M

    2004-01-01

    Background In fish, melanin pigment granules in the retinal pigment epithelium disperse into apical projections as part of the suite of responses the eye makes to bright light conditions. This pigment granule dispersion serves to reduce photobleaching and occurs in response to neurochemicals secreted by the retina. Previous work has shown that acetylcholine may be involved in inducing light-adaptive pigment dispersion. Acetylcholine receptors are of two main types, nicotinic and muscarinic. Muscarinic receptors are in the G-protein coupled receptor superfamily, and five different muscarinic receptors have been molecularly cloned in human. These receptors are coupled to adenylyl cyclase, calcium mobilization and ion channel activation. To determine the receptor pathway involved in eliciting pigment granule migration, we isolated retinal pigment epithelium from bluegill and subjected it to a battery of cholinergic agents. Results The general cholinergic agonist carbachol induces pigment granule dispersion in isolated retinal pigment epithelium. Carbachol-induced pigment granule dispersion is blocked by the muscarinic antagonist atropine, by the M1 antagonist pirenzepine, and by the M3 antagonist 4-DAMP. Pigment granule dispersion was also induced by the M1 agonist 4-[N-(4-chlorophenyl) carbamoyloxy]-4-pent-2-ammonium iodide. In contrast the M2 antagonist AF-DX 116 and the M4 antagonist tropicamide failed to block carbachol-induced dispersion, and the M2 agonist arecaidine but-2-ynyl ester tosylate failed to elicit dispersion. Conclusions Our results suggest that carbachol-mediated pigment granule dispersion occurs through the activation of Modd muscarinic receptors, which in other systems couple to phosphoinositide hydrolysis and elevation of intracellular calcium. This conclusion must be corroborated by molecular studies, but suggests Ca2+-dependent pathways may be involved in light-adaptive pigment dispersion. PMID:15251036

  18. Evaluation of Macular Retinal Ganglion Cell-Inner Plexiform Layer Thickness after Vitrectomy with Internal Limiting Membrane Peeling for Idiopathic Macular Holes

    PubMed Central

    Velázquez-Villoria, Álvaro; Zapata, Miguel A.; Figueroa, Marta S.; Suárez-Leoz, Marta; Arrevola, Luis; Teijeiro, María-Ángeles; García-Layana, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate macular retinal ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) thickness changes after Brilliant Blue G-assisted internal limiting membrane peeling for idiopathic macular hole repair using a high-resolution spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods. 32 eyes from 32 patients with idiopathic macular holes who underwent vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling between January 2011 and July 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. GCIPL thickness was measured before surgery, and at one month and at six months after surgery. Values obtained from automated and semimanual SD-OCT segmentation analysis were compared (Cirrus HD-OCT, Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA). Results. No significant differences were found between average GCIPL thickness values between preoperative and postoperative analysis. However, statistical significant differences were found in GCIPL thickness at the temporal macular quadrants at six months after surgery. Quality measurement analysis performed by automated segmentation revealed a significant number of segmentation errors. Semimanual segmentation slightly improved the quality of the results. Conclusion. SD-OCT analysis of GCIPL thickness found a significant reduction at the temporal macular quadrants at 6 months after Brilliant Blue G-assisted internal limiting membrane peeling for idiopathic macular hole. PMID:25110679

  19. Pigment granule migration in isolated cells of the teleost retinal pigment epithelium.

    PubMed

    Bruenner, U; Burnside, B

    1986-11-01

    In the teleost eye, the melanin granules of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) move in response to changes in light conditions. In the dark, pigment granules aggregate toward the cell base, and in the light, they disperse into long apical projections. Isolated RPE cells from the green sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus) were used to investigate the mechanism and regulation of pigment movement. Changing light conditions did not elicit pigment migration in isolated cells. However, pigment aggregation was induced by 3',5' cyclic-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), dibutyryl cAMP (dbcAMP), and forskolin (an adenylate cyclase activator). The effectiveness of forskolin suggests that an endogenous adenylate cyclase participates in regulating aggregation. Pigment dispersal was induced by the catecholamines epinephrine, phenylephrine, clonidine, dopamine, and apomorphine. Together the authors' studies suggest: that RPE cells contain the necessary motile machinery to support pigment granule transport in the absence of retina, but not the ability to respond to light; that elevating cAMP induces pigment aggregation; and that catecholamines induce dispersion by binding to receptors on the RPE cell. The authors' observations are consistent with previous suggestions that light regulation of RPE pigment migration is mediated by the retina. PMID:3021648

  20. [Pigmented lesions of the oral mucosa].

    PubMed

    Beck-Mannagetta, J; Hutarew, G

    2012-09-01

    The oral mucosa contains melanocytes, even though one might not suspect this when examining white subjects. Drug-induced pigmentation is usually irregularly distributed over the oral mucosa; typical causes are contraceptives and tetracyclines. Localized traumatic pigmentation can be due to injuries contaminated by foreign material (dust). Not infrequently an amalgam tattoo can be seen, caused by introduction of amalgam during dental treatment with rotating instruments. Focal melanosis is harmless. Neoplastic pigmentation is rare. Melanotic nevi are small with indistinct borders. Malignant melanoma occurs predominantly on the maxilla or hard palate. Frequently it has already metastasized by the time of diagnosis. Verification by biopsy is essential if a lesion has suddenly appeared, is extensive, elevated, with irregular pigmentation and has no obvious cause. PMID:22956033

  1. Effect pigments—past, present and future

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank J. Maile; Gerhard Pfaff; Peter Reynders

    2005-01-01

    Driven by trends in fashion, automotive and other consumer markets, pigments that generate special effects like angle-dependent color or decorative texture have a growing economic significance and can be found in various industrial products and end-user applications [G. Pfaff, K.D. Franz, R. Emmert, K. Nitta, R. Besold, Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry: Pigments, Inorganic, Section 4.3, sixth ed., VCH Verlagsgesellschaft,

  2. Drug-induced chronic pigmented purpura.

    PubMed

    Nishioka, K; Katayama, I; Masuzawa, M; Yokozeki, H; Nishiyama, S

    1989-06-01

    A close correlation between purpuric reaction and drugs was observed in seven cases of chronic pigmented purpura. The patients developed purpuric lesions after taking certain drugs for more than 3 years, were thiamine propyldisulfide in 2 cases, and chlordiazepoxide in 1 case. The purpuric lesions stopped recurring after removal of the drugs in the rest of the cases. It is suggested that drugs are among the etiological factors in chronic pigmented purpura. PMID:2507607

  3. Formation of Green Pigment in Grasshoppers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Selahattin Okay

    1951-01-01

    THE factors which lead to the production of green pigment in grasshoppers are still in doubt. Some authors1-3 claim that the deposition of green pigment, like that of grey, orange and brown, is determined by the background; others4-6 have found that the background is without effect. Faure5 obtained green individuals only when they were fed on growing grass in a

  4. Bevacizumab in the treatment of idiopathic macular telangiectasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria-Andreea Gamulescu; Andreas Walter; Helmut Sachs; Horst Helbig

    2008-01-01

    Background  To describe functional and morphological long-term follow-up results in patients with idiopathic macular telangiectasia (IMT)\\u000a treated with intravitreal bevacizumab.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Retrospective case series of three consecutive male patients with IMT who were treated with intravitreal bevacizumab injections.\\u000a Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) as well as fluorescein angiography (FA) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) were monitored\\u000a over the period of up to

  5. Present and possible therapies for age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad; Agarwal, Ketan; Loutfi, Mohamed; Kamal, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of blindness in the elderly population worldwide and is defined as a chronic, progressive disorder characterized by changes occurring within the macula reflective of the ageing process. At present, the prevalence of AMD is currently rising and is estimated to increase by a third by 2020. Although our understanding of the several components underpinning the pathogenesis of this condition has increased significantly, the treatment options for this condition remain substantially limited. In this review, we outline the existing arsenal of therapies available for AMD and discuss the additional role of further novel therapies currently under investigation for this debilitating disease. PMID:25097787

  6. Focal Choroidal Excavation in Best Vitelliform Macular Dystrophy: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Esfahani, Mohammad Riazi; Esfahani, Hamid Riazi; Mahmoudi, Alireza; Johari, Mohammad Karim

    2015-01-01

    Focal choroidal excavation (FCE) was first reported as a choroidal posteriorly excavated zone without any scleral change. Choroidal excavation also divided into conforming and nonconforming type. Numerous reports demonstrated association between FCE and other disease such as choroidal neovascularization and central serous choroidoretinopathy. Here, we report a rare case of FCE in a patient with Best disease. The patient was diagnosed by spectoral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). To the best of our knowledge, our patient is the second report of choroidal excavation in Best vitelliform macular dystrophy.

  7. Present and Possible Therapies for Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Kamal, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of blindness in the elderly population worldwide and is defined as a chronic, progressive disorder characterized by changes occurring within the macula reflective of the ageing process. At present, the prevalence of AMD is currently rising and is estimated to increase by a third by 2020. Although our understanding of the several components underpinning the pathogenesis of this condition has increased significantly, the treatment options for this condition remain substantially limited. In this review, we outline the existing arsenal of therapies available for AMD and discuss the additional role of further novel therapies currently under investigation for this debilitating disease. PMID:25097787

  8. Inflammation and Macular Oedema after Pars Plana Vitrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Vito; Angi, Martina; del Grosso, Renata; Romano, Davide; Vinciguerra, Paolo; Romano, Mario R.

    2013-01-01

    Cystoid macular oedema (CMO) is a major cause of reduced vision following intraocular surgery. Although the aetiology of CMO is not completely clarified, intraocular inflammation is known to play a major role in its development. The macula may develop cytotoxic oedema when the primary lesion and fluid accumulation occur in the parenchymatous cells (intracellular oedema) or vasogenic oedema when the primary defect occurs in the blood-retinal barrier and leads to extracellular fluid accumulation (extracellular oedema). We report on the mechanisms of CMO formation after pars plana vitrectomy and associated surgical procedures and discuss possible therapeutic approaches. PMID:24288446

  9. Zeo-pigment for traditional ceramic industry

    SciTech Connect

    Valdes, J.J.P.; Rodriguez, A.V.; Caraballo, M.M. [Havana Univ. (Cuba)

    1996-12-31

    In the present work the possibility of using natural zeolites mixed with soluble salts for ceramic pigment elaboration (further named zeo-pigment) is studied. The mixture of zeolite with salts is thermally treated to produce the pigment, this procedure was followed by x-ray diffraction (XRD) method. The obtained zeo-pigments were used to colour the porcelanized ceramic stoneware tiles at the experimental production. As it is known, it is possible to prepare a wide range of colours in these type of tiles by adding specific stains to the mixture of raw materials during grinding in the amount of 0.5 to 5 %, in this way any product called marbleized, mottled, granite, etc. ware is obtained. It is important to remember that when stains are added to the basic white body in order to produce one-color porcelanized ceramic stoneware, this does not involve great problems for the production. The physical properties of experimental produced ceramics, coloured by zeo-pigments, were studied according to European standard test. The present work is intended to be useful from the point of view of pollution prevention and waste minimization, regarding the utilization of soluble salts contained in some industrial wastes for the elaboration of ceramic pigments.

  10. Spectral tuning in salamander visual pigments studied with dihydroretinal chromophores.

    PubMed Central

    Makino, C L; Groesbeek, M; Lugtenburg, J; Baylor, D A

    1999-01-01

    In visual pigments, opsin proteins regulate the spectral absorption of a retinal chromophore by mechanisms that change the energy level of the excited electronic state relative to the ground state. We have studied these mechanisms by using photocurrent recording to measure the spectral sensitivities of individual red rods and red (long-wavelength-sensitive) and blue (short-wavelength-sensitive) cones of salamander before and after replacing the native 3-dehydro 11-cis retinal chromophore with retinal analogs: 11-cis retinal, 3-dehydro 9-cis retinal, 9-cis retinal, and 5,6-dihydro 9-cis retinal. The protonated Schiff's bases of analogs with unsaturated bonds in the ring had broader spectra than the same chromophores bound to opsins. Saturation of the bonds in the ring reduced the spectral bandwidths of the protonated Schiff's bases and the opsin-bound chromophores and made them similar to each other. This indicates that torsion of the ring produces spectral broadening and that torsion is limited by opsin. Saturating the 5,6 double bond in retinal reduced the perturbation of the chromophore by opsin in red and in blue cones but not in red rods. Thus an interaction between opsin and the chromophoric ring shifts the spectral maxima of the red and blue cone pigments, but not that of the red rod pigment. PMID:10423447

  11. Diversities in Virulence, Antifungal Activity, Pigmentation and DNA Fingerprint among Strains of Burkholderia glumae

    PubMed Central

    Karki, Hari S.; Shrestha, Bishnu K.; Han, Jae Woo; Groth, Donald E.; Barphagha, Inderjit K.; Rush, Milton C.; Melanson, Rebecca A.; Kim, Beom Seok; Ham, Jong Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Burkholderia glumae is the primary causal agent of bacterial panicle blight of rice. In this study, 11 naturally avirulent and nine virulent strains of B. glumae native to the southern United States were characterized in terms of virulence in rice and onion, toxofalvin production, antifungal activity, pigmentation and genomic structure. Virulence of B. glumae strains on rice panicles was highly correlated to virulence on onion bulb scales, suggesting that onion bulb can be a convenient alternative host system to efficiently determine the virulence of B. glumae strains. Production of toxoflavin, the phytotoxin that functions as a major virulence factor, was closely associated with the virulence phenotypes of B. glumae strains in rice. Some strains of B. glumae showed various levels of antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani, the causal agent of sheath blight, and pigmentation phenotypes on casamino acid-peptone-glucose (CPG) agar plates regardless of their virulence traits. Purple and yellow-green pigments were partially purified from a pigmenting strain of B. glumae, 411gr-6, and the purple pigment fraction showed a strong antifungal activity against Collectotrichum orbiculare. Genetic variations were detected among the B. glumae strains from DNA fingerprinting analyses by repetitive element sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) for BOX-A1R-based repetitive extragenic palindromic (BOX) or enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) sequences of bacteria; and close genetic relatedness among virulent but pigment-deficient strains were revealed by clustering analyses of DNA fingerprints from BOX-and ERIC-PCR. PMID:23028972

  12. Light absorption efficiencies of photosynthetic pigments: the dependence on spectral types of central stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsu, Yu; Umemura, Masayuki; Shoji, Mitsuo; Kayanuma, Megumi; Yabana, Kazuhiro; Shiraishi, Kenji

    2015-07-01

    For detecting life from reflection spectra on extrasolar planets, trace of photosynthesis is one of the indicators. However, it is not yet clear what kind of radiation environments is acceptable for photosynthesis. Light absorption in photosystems on the Earth occurs using limited photosynthetic pigments such as chlorophylls (Chls) and bacteriochlorophylls (BChls). Efficiencies of light absorption for the pigments were evaluated by calculating the specific molecular absorption spectra at the high accuracy-quantum mechanical level. We used realistic stellar radiation spectra such as F, G, K and M-type stars to investigate the efficiencies. We found that the efficiencies are increased with the temperature of stars, from M to F star. Photosynthetic pigments have two types of absorption bands, the Q y and Soret. In higher temperature stars like F star, contributions from the Soret region of the pigments are dominant for the efficiency. On the other hand, in lower temperature stars like M stars, the Q y band is crucial. Therefore, differences on the absorption intensity and the wavelength between the Q y and Soret band are the most important to characterize the photosynthetic pigments. Among photosynthetic pigments, Chls tend to be efficient in higher temperature stars, while BChls are efficient for M stars. Blueward of the 4000 Ĺ break, the efficiencies of BChls are smaller than Chls in the higher temperature stars.

  13. Carotenoid pigments and the selectivity of psittacofulvin-based coloration systems in parrots.

    PubMed

    McGraw, K J; Nogare, M C

    2004-07-01

    Carotenoid pigments are commonly used as colorants of feathers and bare parts by birds. However, parrots (Aves: Psittaciformes) use a novel class of plumage pigments (called psittacofulvins) that, like carotenoids, are lipid-soluble and red, orange, or yellow in color. To begin to understand how and why parrots use these pigments and not carotenoids in their feathers, we must first describe the distribution of these two types of pigments in the diet, tissues, and fluids of these birds. Here, we studied the carotenoid content of blood in five species of parrots with red in their plumage to see if they show the physiological ability to accumulate carotenoids in the body. Although Scarlet (Ara macao) and Greenwing Macaws (Ara chloroptera) and Eclectus (Eclectus roratus), African Gray (Psittacus erithacus) and Blue-fronted Amazon (Amazona aestiva) Parrots all use psittacofulvins to color their feathers red, we found that they also circulated high concentrations of both dietary (lutein, zeaxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin) and metabolically derived (anhydrolutein, dehydrolutein) carotenoids through blood at the time of feather growth, at levels comparable to those found in many other carotenoid-colored birds. These results suggest that parrots have the potential to use carotenoids for plumage pigmentation, but preferentially avoid depositing them in feathers, which is likely under the control of the maturing feather follicle. As there is no evidence of psittacofulvins in parrot blood at the tune of feather growth, we presume that these pigments are locally synthesized by growing feathers within the follicular tissue. PMID:15253871

  14. Shining Light on Skin Pigmentation: The Darker and the Brighter Side of Effects of UV Radiation†

    PubMed Central

    Maddodi, Nityanand; Jayanthy, Ashika; Setaluri, Vijayasaradhi

    2012-01-01

    The term barrier function as applied to human skin often connotes the physical properties of this organ that provide protection from its surrounding environment. This term does not generally include skin pigmentation. However, skin pigmentation, which is the result of melanin produced in melanocytes residing the basal layer of the skin and exported to the keratinocytes in the upper layers, serves equally important protective function. Indeed, changes in skin pigmentation are often the most readily recognized indicators of exposure of skin to damaging agents, especially to natural and artificial radiation in the environment. Several recent studies have shed new light on a) the mechanisms of involved in selective effects of subcomponents of UV radiation on human skin pigmentation and b) the interactive influences between keratinocytes and melanocytes, acting as ‘epidermal melanin unit’, that manifest as changes in skin pigmentation in response to exposure to various forms of radiation. This article provides a concise review of our current understanding of the effects of the non-ionizing solar radiation, at cellular and molecular levels, on human skin pigmentation. PMID:22404235

  15. New Directions in Phthalocyanine Pigments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandemark, Michael R.

    1992-01-01

    The objectives were the following: (1) investigation of the synthesis of new phthalocyanines; (2) characterization of the new phthalocyanines synthesized; (3) investigate the properties of the newly synthesized phthalocyanines with emphasis on UV protection of plastics and coatings; and (4) utilize quantum mechanics to evaluate the structural relationships with possible properties and synthetic approaches. The proposed research targeted the synthesis of phthalocyanines containing an aromatic bridge between two phthalocyanine rings. The goal was to synthesize pigments which would protect plastics when exposed to the photodegradation effects of the sun in space. The stability and extended conjugation of the phthalocyanines offer a unique opportunity for energy absorption and numerous radiative and non-radiative energy loss mechanisms. Although the original targeted phthalocyanines were changed early in the project, several new and unique phthalocyanine compounds were prepared. The basic goals of this work were met and some unique and unexpected outcomes of the work were the result of the integral use of quantum mechanics and molecular modeling with the synthetic effort.

  16. Lutein and zeaxanthin supplementation reduces photo-oxidative damage and modulates the expression of inflammation related genes in retinal pigment epithelial cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxidative damage and inflammation are related to the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Epidemiologic studies suggest that insufficient dietary lutein and zeaxanthin intake or lower serum zeaxanthin levels are associated with increased risk for AMD. The objective of this work w...

  17. Macular Function in Macular Degenerations: Repeatability of Microperimetry as a Potential Outcome Measure for ABCA4-Associated Retinopathy Trials

    PubMed Central

    Swider, Malgorzata; Aleman, Tomas S.; Feuer, Willam J.; Schwartz, Sharon B.; Russell, Robert C.; Steinberg, Janet D.; Stone, Edwin M.; Jacobson, Samuel G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To measure macular visual function in patients with unstable fixation, to define the photoreceptor source of this function, and to estimate its test-retest repeatability as a prerequisite to clinical trials. Methods. Patients (n = 38) with ABCA4-associated retinal degeneration (RD) or with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) were studied with retina-tracking microperimetry along the foveo-papillary profile between the fovea and the optic nerve head, and point-by-point test-retest repeatability was estimated. A subset with foveal fixation was also studied with dark-adapted projection perimetry using monochromatic blue and red stimuli along the horizontal meridian. Results. Macular function in ABCA4-RD patients transitioned from lower sensitivity at the parafovea to higher sensitivity in the perifovea. RP patients had the inverse pattern. Red-on-red microperimetric sensitivities successfully avoided ceiling effects and were highly correlated with absolute sensitivities. Point-by-point test-retest limits (95% confidence intervals) were ±4.2 dB; repeatability was not related to mean sensitivity, eccentricity from the fovea, age, fixation location, or instability. Repeatability was also not related to the local slope of sensitivity and was unchanged in the parapapillary retina. Conclusions. Microperimetry allows reliable testing of macular function in RD patients without foveal fixation in longitudinal studies evaluating natural disease progression or efficacy of therapeutic trials. A single estimate of test-retest repeatability can be used to determine significant changes in visual function at individual retinal loci within diseased regions that are homogeneous and those that are heterogeneous and also in transition zones at high risk for disease progression. PMID:22247458

  18. Macular and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in children with hyperopic anisometropic amblyopia

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shuang-Qing; Zhu, Li-Wei; Xu, Qi-Bin; Xu, Jun-Li; Zhang, Yu

    2013-01-01

    AIM To compare the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness and macular thickness in the amblyopic eye with that in the sound eye of children with hyperopic anisometropic amblyopia using optical coherence tomography (OCT). METHODS A prospective, nonrandom, intraindividual comparative cohort study includes 72 children with hyperopic anisometropic amblyopia in a single center. Macular thickness, macular foveola thickness, and peripapillary RNFL thickness were compared between the amblyopia eyes and the contralateral sound eyes. RESULTS There were 38 male and 34 female patients, with a mean age as 9.7±1.9 years (range, 5–16 years). Hyperopic was +3.62±1.16D (range +2.00D to +6.50D) in the amblyopic eyes, which was significantly higher in the control eyes with +0.76±0.90D (range 0D to +2.00D) (P < 0.01). The mean peripapillary RNFL thickness was 113.9±7.2µm and 109.2±6.9µm in the amblyopic eye and the normal eye, respectively, reaching statistical significance (P = 0.02). The mean macular foveola thickness was significantly thicker in the amblyopic eyes than the contralateral sound eyes (181.4±14.2µm vs 175.2±13.3µm, P < 0.01), but the 1mm, 3mm or 6mm macular thickness central macular thickness was not significantly different. Degree of anisometropia in the contralateral eyes was not significantly correlated with differences of peripapillary RNFL, macular foveola thickness or central macular thickness. CONCLUSION Eyes with hyperopic anisometropic amblyopia are found thicker macular foveola and peripapillary RNFL than the contralateral eyes in children. PMID:23550031

  19. Analysis of macular OCT images using deformable registration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Min; Lang, Andrew; Ying, Howard S; Calabresi, Peter A; Prince, Jerry L; Carass, Aaron

    2014-07-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) of the macula has become increasingly important in the investigation of retinal pathology. However, deformable image registration, which is used for aligning subjects for pairwise comparisons, population averaging, and atlas label transfer, has not been well-developed and demonstrated on OCT images. In this paper, we present a deformable image registration approach designed specifically for macular OCT images. The approach begins with an initial translation to align the fovea of each subject, followed by a linear rescaling to align the top and bottom retinal boundaries. Finally, the layers within the retina are aligned by a deformable registration using one-dimensional radial basis functions. The algorithm was validated using manual delineations of retinal layers in OCT images from a cohort consisting of healthy controls and patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS). We show that the algorithm overcomes the shortcomings of existing generic registration methods, which cannot be readily applied to OCT images. A successful deformable image registration algorithm for macular OCT opens up a variety of population based analysis techniques that are regularly used in other imaging modalities, such as spatial normalization, statistical atlas creation, and voxel based morphometry. Examples of these applications are provided to demonstrate the potential benefits such techniques can have on our understanding of retinal disease. In particular, included is a pilot study of localized volumetric changes between healthy controls and MS patients using the proposed registration algorithm. PMID:25071959

  20. Macular Development in Aggressive Posterior Retinopathy of Prematurity

    PubMed Central

    Pandya, Hemang K.; Faia, Lisa J.; Robinson, Joshua; Drenser, Kimberly A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To report anatomic outcomes after early and confluent laser photocoagulation of the entire avascular retina, including areas in close proximity to the fovea, in patients with APROP. We aspire to demonstrate fundoscopic evidence of transverse growth and macular development following laser treatment in APROP. Methods. Retrospective review of 6 eyes with APROP that underwent confluent laser photocoagulation of the entire avascular retina. Photographic fundoscopic imaging was performed using the RetCam to compare outcomes after treatment. Results. Mean birth weight and gestational age were 704.8?g and 24.33 weeks, respectively. There were 2 females and 1 male. The average time to laser was 9.3 weeks after birth, with the mean postmenstrual age of 34 weeks. Two eyes had zone 1 and 4 eyes had posterior zone 2 disease. Three eyes developed 4A detachments, which were successfully treated. All 6 eyes experienced transverse growth, with expansion of the posterior pole and anterior displacement of the laser treatment. Conclusion. Confluent photocoagulation of the entire avascular retina, regardless of foveal proximity, should be the mainstay for treating APROP. Examination should be conducted within 5–10 days to examine areas previously hidden by neovascularization to ensure prudent therapy. Macular development involves both transverse and anterior-posterior growth.

  1. Analysis of macular OCT images using deformable registration

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Min; Lang, Andrew; Ying, Howard S.; Calabresi, Peter A.; Prince, Jerry L.; Carass, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) of the macula has become increasingly important in the investigation of retinal pathology. However, deformable image registration, which is used for aligning subjects for pairwise comparisons, population averaging, and atlas label transfer, has not been well–developed and demonstrated on OCT images. In this paper, we present a deformable image registration approach designed specifically for macular OCT images. The approach begins with an initial translation to align the fovea of each subject, followed by a linear rescaling to align the top and bottom retinal boundaries. Finally, the layers within the retina are aligned by a deformable registration using one-dimensional radial basis functions. The algorithm was validated using manual delineations of retinal layers in OCT images from a cohort consisting of healthy controls and patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS). We show that the algorithm overcomes the shortcomings of existing generic registration methods, which cannot be readily applied to OCT images. A successful deformable image registration algorithm for macular OCT opens up a variety of population based analysis techniques that are regularly used in other imaging modalities, such as spatial normalization, statistical atlas creation, and voxel based morphometry. Examples of these applications are provided to demonstrate the potential benefits such techniques can have on our understanding of retinal disease. In particular, included is a pilot study of localized volumetric changes between healthy controls and MS patients using the proposed registration algorithm. PMID:25071959

  2. Macular diseases: update on diagnostic and therapeutic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortunato, P.; De Libero, C.; Donati, C.; La Torre, A.

    2004-09-01

    Purpose of this course is to review the principles that guide the diagnosis and the classification of macular diseases, and the new options available for this purpose. Among new treatments modalities, photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been recently introduced in the clinical practice for treating subfoveal choroidal neovascularization (CNV). In age-related macular degeneration (AMD), eyes in which the classic CNV components covers at least 50% of the entire lesion, called predominantly classic lesions, benefit from a substantial reduction of the rate of moderate visual loss during the first year. Preliminary results in other types of CNV also indicate a possible efficacy. We will present the theoretical basis and mechanisms of action of PDT and then comment on the main results of the TAP study; the preliminary results available from the VIP will also be displayed. Numerous cases treated with PDT, one year after its introduction in the clinical practice, will be shown and discussed. The introduction of PDT has probably reduced the applicability of surgical techniques for treating CNV. Yet, surgeons are developing less invasive techniques to minimize the complications associated with membrane removal and the various types of translocation. This innovation will be illustrated, as well as the criteria for patients selection in the era of PDT.

  3. Anti-VEGF for the management of diabetic macular edema.

    PubMed

    Stefanini, Francisco Rosa; Badaró, Emmerson; Falabella, Paulo; Koss, Michael; Farah, Michel Eid; Maia, Maurício

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is an important cause of vision loss around the world, being the leading cause in the population between 20 and 60 years old. Among patients with DR, diabetic macular edema (DME) is the most frequent cause of vision impairment and represents a significant public health issue. Macular photocoagulation has been the standard treatment for this condition reducing the risk of moderate visual loss by approximately 50%. The role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in DR and DME pathogenesis has been demonstrated in recent studies. This review addresses and summarizes data from the clinical trials that investigated anti-VEGF for the management of DME and evaluates their impact on clinical practice. The literature searches were conducted between August and October 2013 in PubMed and Cochrane Library with no date restrictions and went through the most relevant studies on pegaptanib, ranibizumab, bevacizumab, and aflibercept for the management of DME. The efficacy and safety of intravitreal anti-VEGF as therapy for DME have recently been proved by various clinical trials providing significantly positive visual and anatomical results. Regarding clinical practice, those outcomes have placed intravitreal injection of anti-VEGF as an option that must be considered for the treatment of DME. PMID:24741610

  4. Severe early bilateral macular edema following fingolimod therapy.

    PubMed

    Coppes, Oscar Jim Michael; Gutierrez, Ismael; Reder, Anthony T; Ksiazek, Susan; Bernard, Jacqueline

    2013-07-01

    We report a case of bilateral macular edema (ME) within 10 days of starting fingolimod 0.5mg therapy in a patient with Multiple Sclerosis (MS). The complication resolved without treatment as demonstrated by sequential Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). Fingolimod is a sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor modulator that reduces lymphocyte presence in the CNS. In pivotal trials, ME, a known complication of fingolimod, typically occurred unilaterally with onset at approximately 3 months. A 60y/o AA female, diagnosed with MS in 1977, started oral fingolimod treatment on 05/31/2011. Baseline screening with OCT and ophthalmology evaluation showed no ME. On 06/10, she developed bilateral blurry vision and discontinued fingolimod. On 06/27, OCT revealed severe bilateral ME. Later OCT exams showed a progressive decrease in Central Foveal Thickness (CFT) and Macular Volume (MV), without specific treatment other than discontinuation of fingolimod. On 7/27, CFT, MV, and Visual Acuity (VA) were similar to baseline. This is the first reported case of bilateral, early onset ME following fingolimod treatment at the current FDA-approved dose of 0.5mg. Diabetes, a known risk factor for ME, may have contributed to her early, bilateral involvement. Our case provides further support for earlier OCT, in conjunction with ophthalmic examinations, for at-risk patients on fingolimod, and suggests that cessation of fingolimod may be associated with resolution of ME. PMID:25877733

  5. Present and future treatment possibilities in macular degeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, E.; Wegner, A.; Pfeiler, T.; Mertz, M.

    2005-11-01

    Purpose: To discuss present and future treatment possibilities in different types of choroidal neovascularisation. Methods: Presented are angiographic- and OCT-findings in patients with macular degeneration of different origin. Choroidal neovascularisations, which are not likely to respond positively to established procedures like thermal laser coagulation or photodynamic therapy will be discussed. Results and conclusions: Present study-guidelines and new methods of pharmacological intervention are analysed in different patterns of macular degeneration. Conventional laser coagulation in the treatment of classic, extrafoveal CNV and photodynamic therapy of predominantly classic subfoveal CNV still represent a gold standard. There are new recommendations, loosening the tight criteria of the TAP and VIP-guidelines, which cover, for instance, wider visual acuity ranges and the treatment of juxtafoveally located choroidal neovascularisations. Positive findings in literature confirm the role of PDT in pathologic myopia and other non-AMD CNV. Studies about surgical procedures, like macula- or RPE-translocation after surgical removal or thermal laser destruction of the CNV are in progress and are expected to show promising results. Phase II/III studies will soon point out the effect of anti-VEGF agents. The application of intravitreal (triamcinolone) or peribulbar (anecortave acetat) steroids could be useful. The combination with surgical or laser techniques could bring further benefit to the patient.

  6. WASTES FROM MANUFACTURE OF DYES AND PIGMENTS. VOLUME 8. PHTHALOCYANINE DYES AND PIGMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A preliminary study of the manufacture of phthalocyanine dyes and pigments was conducted to determine if process waste streams might contain hazardous material. The study first identifies the dyes and pigments that belong to this segment of the industry, the amounts produced, and...

  7. Dietary Restriction Slows Age Pigment Accumulation in the Retinal Pigment Epithelium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin L. Katz; Heather A. White; Chun-Lan Gao; George S. Roth; Donald K. Ingram

    1993-01-01

    Purpose. The accumulation of age pigment, or lipofuscin, in postmitotic cells appears to be a universal feature of the aging process in animals. In mammals, the lipofuscin content of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) increases progressively during senescence. Dietary restric- tion has been shown to slow the rate at which many biologic parameters change during aging. Experiments were conducted to

  8. Betalain: a particular class of antioxidant pigment.

    PubMed

    El Gharras, Hasna

    2011-10-01

    We have analyzed the stability of betalains in juices prepared from Moroccan yellow cactus pears (Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill.) as a function of temperature and pH. The experiments were carried out at temperatures ranging from 80 to 100 degrees C with juices at pH 3.5, 5 and 6.5. The degree of pigment retention decreased when the temperature increased. The degradation constant rates were determined for thermal degradation rates of pseudo-first order. The Arrhenius plot obtained for the degradation of betaxanthin from the yellow fruits was not linear. Regardless of the temperature of treatment, the lowest degradation was obtained for pH 5. When some stabilizers were tested for the protection of pigments, the results showed that ascorbic acid was a better protective agent at pH 3.5, increasing the protection by 40%. The inhibitive action of betalain pigments extracted from cactus pears towards corrosion of stainless steel in phosphoric acid was investigated using electrochemical polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) methods. It was found that the presence of natural pigments reduces the corrosion rate of the tested metal, especially on addition of the red pigments (97%). The inhibition efficiency increases as the pigment concentration of extracts increases. It was also found that the pigments tested act as mixed inhibitors. The inhibitive action of the extracts is discussed in term of adsorption and that such adsorption follows a Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The calculated values of the free energy of adsorption indicated that the adsorption process is spontaneous. PMID:22164774

  9. Pigmentation in vitamin B12 deficiency masquerading Addison's pigmentation: A rare presentation.

    PubMed

    Agrawala, Ritesh Kumar; Sahoo, Srikanta Kumar; Choudhury, Arun Kumar; Mohanty, Binoy Kumar; Baliarsinha, Anoj Kumar

    2013-10-01

    A 35-year-female presented with generalized weakness, weight loss, and progressive pigmentation was worked up for suspicion of Addisons disease. On examination hyper pigmentation was noted on both palmar and dorsal aspect of hands involving knuckles, creases, feet, tongue, oral mucosa and gluteal region. There was no evidence of hypocortisolemia as initially suspected, and literature search revealed a possibility of vitamin B12 deficiency. She had megaloblastic anemia with a low serum vitamin B12, mostly due to poor dietary intake. Her hyper pigmentation resolved with vitamin B12 supplementation. Skin biopsy showed increased pigmentation at stratum spinosum and basal-layer. The mechanism of hyper pigmentation in vitamin B12 deficiency was due to an increase in melanin synthesis. PMID:24251178

  10. Anti-Correlated Pigment Fluctuations of Allophycocyanin for Highly Efficient Photosynthetic Light Harvesting in Cyanobacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, Andrew; Nome, Rene; Scherer, Norbert

    2008-03-01

    The phycobiliprotein, allophycocyanin (APC), is an excellent model system for the study of light harvesting pigment interactions with a protein bath. This work investigates the relaxation of electronic excitations in APC with electric field-resolved transient grating and photon echo spectroscopies. Transient grating experiments observe a 35 fs internal conversion process between single exciton levels. Most importantly, our analysis shows that anti-correlated phycocyanobilin pigment energy level fluctuations cause the anti-diagonal orientation of the node in the measured dispersive photon echo spectrum. We believe this novel observation to reflect concerted protein bath fluctuations over the 2 nm length scale that separates the pigments. Consideration of the Forster energy transfer rate theory suggests that APC has evolved with this property to enhance its photosynthetic light harvesting efficiency.

  11. Vitrectomy and internal limiting membrane peeling for macular folds secondary to hypotony in myopes

    PubMed Central

    Nadal, Jeroni; Carreras, Elisa; Canut, Maria Isabel; Barraquer, Rafael I

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypotony maculopathy (HM) changes may persist, and visual acuity remains poor, despite normalization of intraocular pressure (IOP). The aim of this study was to evaluate the visual and anatomical results of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV), internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling, and 20% SF6 gas tamponade in five myopic patients with HM. Methods This retrospective interventional study was conducted at the Barraquer Center of Ophthalmology, a tertiary care center in Barcelona, Spain, and included five eyes from five consecutive patients (aged 55.4±13.1 years) with HM caused by different conditions. All the patients were treated with 23-gauge PPV, ILM peeling, and 20% SF6 gas tamponade. Preoperative and postoperative evaluation was performed using anterior and posterior biomicroscopy and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) by logMAR charts. Results Before surgery, median spherical equivalent was ?13.1 (range ?7, ?19) diopters of myopia. Preoperatively, four cases presented IOP <6.5 mmHg for 3 (range 2–8) weeks. In three of these four cases, IOP >6.5 mmHg was achieved over 16 (range 16–28) weeks, without resolution of HM; increased IOP was not achieved in the remaining case treated 2 weeks after diagnosis of HM. One case presented IOP >6.5 mmHg with HM for 28 weeks before surgery. Preoperative BCVA was 0.7 (range 0.26–2.3) logMAR, and 0.6 (range 0.3–0.7) logMAR and 0.5 (range 0.2–1) logMAR, respectively, at 4 and 12 months after surgery. There was no statistically significant difference between preoperative and postoperative BCVA. Hyper-pigmentation lines in the macular area were observed in three cases with hypotony. These lines progressed after surgery despite resolution of the retinal folds in the three cases, and BCVA decreased in parallel in two of these cases. Conclusion PPV with ILM peeling followed by gas tamponade is a good alternative for the treatment of HM in myopic patients. However, persistent choroidal folds may compromise BCVA. We therefore recommend initiating treatment as early as possible.

  12. Salinity impacts photosynthetic pigmentation and cellular morphology changes by distinct mechanisms in Fremyella diplosiphon.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shailendra P; Montgomery, Beronda L

    2013-03-29

    Fremyella diplosiphon is a freshwater cyanobacterium that exhibits complementary chromatic adaptation (CCA), which allows the organism to alter its pigmentation and cellular morphology to maximally harvest available green light (GL) and red light (RL) at different depth levels in its aquatic ecosystem. We tested the effect of salinity on CCA-associated pigment and morphological changes in F. diplosiphon. Sodium chloride (NaCl) salt at a concentration of 200mM was found to maximally inhibit growth, chlorophyll levels, and accumulation of phycoerythrin (PE) and phycocyanin (PC) under GL and RL, respectively. NaCl also affected cellular morphology resulting in a larger cell size under both light conditions. Cell length decreased while width increased under GL in the presence of salt, and both cell length and width were increased under RL with salt. The addition of osmoprotectant glycine betaine (GB) to the growth medium in the presence of salt resulted in a reversion of the morphology to that of cells growing in the absence of salt, whereas GB treatment in the presence of salt did not have a major effect on growth or on PE and PC biosynthesis or accumulation. Thus, salt affects cellular morphology due to osmotic stress, while pigmentation is likely affected by ionic toxicity. Understanding the distinct mechanisms of salt-mediated changes on pigmentation and morphology may increase the suitability of strains such as F. diplosiphon, which harbor pigments that allow growth in low light and shaded environments, for adaptation as energy strains. PMID:23454384

  13. A dominant negative mutant of an Arabidopsis R2R3 Myb (AtMyb90) blocks flower pigment production in tobacco

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A spontaneous mutation converted a hyper-pigmented (anthocyanins), CaMV-35S-pro::AtMYB90 containing, transgenic tobacco line into one displaying wild-type pigmentation in all tissues except for flower petals, which, counter-intuitively, showed anthocyanin levels dramatically below wild-type in the p...

  14. Comparison of Spectral/Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Instruments for Assessment of Normal Macular Thickness

    E-print Network

    Sull, Alan C.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to report normal macular thickness measurements and assess reproducibility of retinal thickness measurements acquired by a time-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) (Stratus, ...

  15. Spontaneous closure of macular holes secondary to posterior uveitis: case series and a literature review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of a macular hole due to posterior uveitis is infrequently reported. We report the evolution of three cases of macular holes secondary to posterior segment inflammation. A complete inflammatory and infectious assessment found one case of toxocariasis, one of sarcoidosis, and one of syphilis. After medical etiological treatment, macular hole closure was rapidly obtained in all the cases and confirmed by spectral domain optic coherence tomography, with visual acuity improvement. Fibrous scarring developed in two cases, and foveal photoreceptor complex normalization was observed in the sarcoidosis case. These observations demonstrate that macular holes secondary to posterior uveitis frequently resolve without surgical intervention and so could be underdiagnosed if the patient is not evaluated at the time of onset before spontaneous hole closure. PMID:23514634

  16. Investigating the genetic and molecular basis of age-related macular degeneration 

    E-print Network

    Stanton, Chloe May

    2012-06-30

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness worldwide, affecting an estimated 50 million individuals aged over 65 years. Environmental and genetic risk-factors contribute to the development ...

  17. Reorganization of Visual Processing in Macular Degeneration Is Not Specific to the "Preferred Retinal Locus"

    E-print Network

    Baker, Chris I.

    Recent work has shown that foveal cortex, deprived of its normal bottom-up input as a result of macular degeneration (MD), begins responding to stimuli presented to a peripheral retinal location. However, these studies ...

  18. Factors Associated with Macular Thickness in the COMET Myopic Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Harb, Elise; Hyman, Leslie; Fazzari, Melissa; Gwiazda, Jane; Marsh-Tootle, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether macular thickness is associated with ethnicity, gender, axial length and severity of myopia in a cohort of young adults from the Correction of Myopia Evaluation Trial (COMET). Methods Eleven years after their baseline visit, 387/469 (83%) subjects returned for their annual visit. In addition to the protocol-specific measures of spherical equivalent refractive error (SER) and axial length (AL), high-resolution macular imaging also was performed with Optical Coherence Tomography (RTVue). From these scans, full thickness values for the central (1 mm), para- (1–3 mm), and peri-foveal (3–5 mm) annular regions were calculated. Gender, ethnicity, AL, and SER were examined for associations with macular thickness using univariate and multivariable linear regression analyses. Results In the 377 subjects with usable data (mean age=21.0 ±1.3 years) the mean SER±SD was ?5.0±1.9 D and mean AL was 25.4±0.9 mm. Mean foveal thickness was 252.0± 20.1 µm in the center, 315.6±14.0 µm in the para-fovea, and 284.4±12.9 µm in the peri-fovea. In the best-fit multivariable model that adjusted for gender, ethnicity, and AL, females had significantly thinner maculas than males for all three regions (p<0.0001), with the largest difference in the center (12.8 µm, 95%CI: 9.2 to 16.4). The effect of ethnicity was strongest in the central fovea, with African-Americans, Asians, Hispanics, and mixed ethnic groups thinner maculas than whites (all p-values < 0.005). Increased AL was significantly associated with slightly thicker central foveas (p=0.001) and thinner para- (p=0.02) and peri-foveal (p< 0.0001) regions. Conclusions In this ethnically diverse cohort of moderate and high myopes, females and African-Americans were found to have the thinnest central foveas. Whether such thinning in the macula as a young adult is a risk factor for future disease remains to be determined. PMID:22525127

  19. Pigments which reflect infrared radiation from fire

    DOEpatents

    Berdahl, P.H.

    1998-09-22

    Conventional paints transmit or absorb most of the intense infrared (IR) radiation emitted by fire, causing them to contribute to the spread of fire. The present invention comprises a fire retardant paint additive that reflects the thermal IR radiation emitted by fire in the 1 to 20 micrometer ({micro}m) wavelength range. The important spectral ranges for fire control are typically about 1 to about 8 {micro}m or, for cool smoky fires, about 2 {micro}m to about 16 {micro}m. The improved inventive coatings reflect adverse electromagnetic energy and slow the spread of fire. Specific IR reflective pigments include titanium dioxide (rutile) and red iron oxide pigments with diameters of about 1 {micro}m to about 2 {micro}m and thin leafing aluminum flake pigments. 4 figs.

  20. Pigments which reflect infrared radiation from fire

    DOEpatents

    Berdahl, Paul H. (Oakland, CA)

    1998-01-01

    Conventional paints transmit or absorb most of the intense infrared (IR) radiation emitted by fire, causing them to contribute to the spread of fire. The present invention comprises a fire retardant paint additive that reflects the thermal IR radiation emitted by fire in the 1 to 20 micrometer (.mu.m) wavelength range. The important spectral ranges for fire control are typically about 1 to about 8 .mu.m or, for cool smoky fires, about 2 .mu.m to about 16 .mu.m. The improved inventive coatings reflect adverse electromagnetic energy and slow the spread of fire. Specific IR reflective pigments include titanium dioxide (rutile) and red iron oxide pigments with diameters of about 1 .mu.m to about 2 .mu.m and thin leafing aluminum flake pigments.

  1. The gecko visual pigments: a microspectrophotometric study

    PubMed Central

    Crescitelli, Frederick; Dartnall, H. J. A.; Loew, E. R.

    1977-01-01

    1. A dual system of visual pigments having absorbance maxima in the green and blue respectively has been found in the retinas of geckos both by single cell microspectrophotometry and by the method of extraction. Microspectrophotometry has shown the system to be present in four species of geckos representing four genera. Along with previous work with extracts (Crescitelli, 1972) this indicates a fundamental property in this family of lizards. No other photopigments have been detected. 2. For Gekko gekko, the species most intensively studied, the two pigments have absorbance maxima at 521 and 467 nm respectively. Both are based on vitamin A1 and both are characterized by absorbance spectra that nearly conform to the Dartnall nomogram. 3. In situ, the 521-pigment is not temperature-sensitive, and has virtually the same absorbance spectrum at 23° C as at 5° C. On extraction into digitonin solution, however, the absorbance spectrum of the pigment becomes temperature-dependent and, though identical when measured at low temperature (2-5° C) with the constant in situ curve, is displaced to shorter wave-lengths at higher temperatures (10-25° C). Thus the extract spectrum is relevant to the in situ spectrum only at low temperature (and in the presence of chloride ions). 4. Unlike the rhodopsins of several vertebrates, the gecko 521-pigment displays no evidence of a meta-III stage in the sequence of products following photic bleaching, even at low temperatures. This is true for the pigment in situ as well as in the extracted condition. PMID:874921

  2. The Role of Inflammation in the Pathogenesis of Macular Edema Secondary to Retinal Vascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ascaso, Francisco J.

    2014-01-01

    Macular edema (ME) is a nonspecific sign of numerous retinal vascular diseases. This paper is an updated overview about the role of inflammatory processes in the genesis of both diabetic macular edema (DME) and ME secondary to retinal vein occlusion (RVO). We focus on the inflammatory mediators implicated, the effect of the different intravitreal therapies, the recruitment of leukocytes mediated by adhesion molecules, and the role of retinal Müller glial (RMG) cells. PMID:25152567

  3. Interventions for the treatment of uveitic macular edema: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Karim, Rushmia; Sykakis, Evripidis; Lightman, Susan; Fraser-Bell, Samantha

    2013-01-01

    Background Uveitic macular edema is the major cause of reduced vision in eyes with uveitis. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of interventions in the treatment of uveitic macular edema. Search strategy Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, and Embase. There were no language or data restrictions in the search for trials. The databases were last searched on December 1, 2011. Reference lists of included trials were searched. Archives of Ophthalmology, Ophthalmology, Retina, the British Journal of Ophthalmology, and the New England Journal of Medicine were searched for clinical trials and reviews. Selection criteria Participants of any age and sex with any type of uveitic macular edema were included. Early, chronic, refractory, or secondary uveitic macular edema were included. We included trials that compared any interventions of any dose and duration, including comparison with another treatment, sham treatment, or no treatment. Data collection and analysis Best-corrected visual acuity and central macular thickness were the primary outcome measures. Secondary outcome data including adverse effects were collected. Conclusion More results from randomized controlled trials with long follow-up periods are needed for interventions for uveitic macular edema to assist in determining the overall long-term benefit of different treatments. The only intervention with sufficiently robust randomized controlled trials for a meta-analysis was acetazolamide, which was shown to be ineffective in improving vision in eyes with uveitic macular edema, and is clinically now rarely used. Interventions showing promise in this disease include dexamethasone implants, immunomodulatory drugs and anti-vascular endothelial growth-factor agents. When macular edema has become refractory after multiple interventions, pars plana vitrectomy could be considered. The disease pathophysiology is uncertain and the course of disease unpredictable. As there are no clear guidelines from the literature, interventions should be tailored to the individual patient. PMID:23807831

  4. Correlation of quantitative three-dimensional measurements of macular hole size with visual acuity after vitrectomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Kobayashi; Kaori Kobayashi

    1999-01-01

    · Objective: The purpose of the study was to study the relationship of postoperative visual outcome with anatomical parameters\\u000a of macular holes using confocal scanning laser tomography and to predict the postoperative visual results. · Design: Cohort\\u000a study. · Intervention and participants: We evaluated the eyes of 44 patients undergoing macular hole surgery (10 men and 34\\u000a women aged 40–76

  5. Decreased choriocapillaris perfusion following surgical excision of choroidal neovascular membranes in age-related macular degeneration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ma’an A Nasir; Ilene Sugino; Marco A Zarbin

    1997-01-01

    AIMS\\/BACKGROUNDTo evaluate macular changes following surgical excision of subfoveal choroidal neovascular membranes (CNVs) in age-related macular degeneration (AMD).METHODSThe clinical records, fluorescein angiograms, and CNV histopathology of 12 patients with AMD who underwent surgical excision of subfoveal CNV were reviewed.RESULTSNew areas of decreased choriocapillaris perfusion were noted by fluorescein angiography in the previous location of the CNV in 8\\/12 (75%) cases.

  6. A MODEL OF SPECTRAL FILTERING TO REDUCE PHOTOCHEMICAL DAMAGE IN AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanford M. Meyers; Mikhail A. Ostrovsky; Robert F. Bonner

    2004-01-01

    Background\\/Purpose: Cumulative sunlight exposure and cataract surgery are reported risk factors for advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Laboratory studies suggest that accumulation and photochemical reactions of A2E (N-retinylidene-N-retinylethanolamine) and its epoxides, components of lipofuscin, are important in AMD. To relate this data to the clinical setting, we modeled the effects of macular irradiance and spectral filtering on production of A2E

  7. Natural outcomes of stage 1, 2, 3, and 4 idiopathic macular holes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T Hikichi; A Yoshida; J Akiba; C L Trempe

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--A study was carried out to ascertain the natural outcome of each stage of idiopathic macular hole. METHODS--One hundred and fifty four eyes with different stages of idiopathic macular holes were retrospectively studied: stage 1 (40 eyes), 2 (25 eyes), 3 (58 eyes), and 4 (31 eyes). RESULTS--Of 27 of 40 eyes with a stage 1 lesion with posterior vitreous

  8. Green pigments of the Pompeian artists' palette

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliatis, Irene; Bersani, Danilo; Campani, Elisa; Casoli, Antonella; Lottici, Pier Paolo; Mantovan, Silvia; Marino, Iari-Gabriel; Ospitali, Francesca

    2009-08-01

    Green colored samples on wall paintings and green powder from a pigment pot found in Pompeii area are investigated by micro-Raman, FT-IR and, for one sample, SEM-EDX. To obtain the green color, green earths and malachite were used, together with mixture of Egyptian blue and yellow ochre. The mineralogical identification of the green earths has been attempted through the comparison of the vibrational features, discriminating between celadonite and glauconite spectra. Traces of a modern synthetic pigment containing copper phthalocyanine were found in a fresco fragment.

  9. Evolutionary redeployment of a biosynthetic module: expression of eye pigment genes vermilion, cinnabar, and white in butterfly wing development.

    PubMed

    Reed, Robert D; Nagy, Lisa M

    2005-01-01

    Ommochromes are common among insects as visual pigments; however, in some insect lineages ommochromes have evolved novel functions such as integument coloration and tryptophan secretion. One role of ommochromes, as butterfly wing pigments, can apparently be traced to a single origin in the family Nymphalidae. The synthesis and storage of ommochrome pigments is a complex process that requires the concerted activity of multiple enzyme and transporter molecules. To help understand how this subcellular process appeared in a novel context during evolution, we explored aspects of ommochrome pigment development in the wings of the nymphalid butterfly Vanessa cardui. Using chromatography and radiolabeled precursor incorporation studies we identified the ommochrome xanthommatin as a V. cardui wing pigment. We cloned fragments of two ommochrome enzyme genes, vermilion and cinnabar, and an ommochrome precursor transporter gene, white, and found that these genes were transcribed in wing tissue at relatively high levels during wing scale development. Unexpectedly, however, the spatial patterns of transcription were not associated in a simple way with adult pigment patterns. Although our results suggest that the evolution of ommochrome synthesis in butterfly wings likely arose in part through novel regulation of vermilion, cinnabar, and white transcription, they also point to a complex relationship between transcriptional prepatterns and pigment synthesis in V. cardui. PMID:15982367

  10. Uptake of 3H-cAMP by retinal pigment epithelium isolated from bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus)

    PubMed Central

    Keith, Thomas A; Radhakrishnan, Varsha; Moredock, Steve; García, Dana M

    2006-01-01

    Background In bluegill sunfish, the melanin-containing pigment granules of the retinal pigment epithelium undergo cyclic movements in response both to ambient lighting and circadian cues. Pigment granules aggregate into the cell body at night (in the dark), and disperse into apical processes during the day (in the light). Regulation of pigment granule aggregation in a number of fishes depends on modulating the intracellular levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate. Results Here we show isolated RPE takes up cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) in a saturable manner, exogenously applied cAMP induces pigment granule aggregation in retinal pigment epithelium isolated from bluegill, and aggregation induced in this manner is inhibited by treatment with probenecid, an organic anion transport inhibitor. Conclusion Our results raise the possibility that cAMP functions as a messenger secreted from the neural retina to signal darkness to the RPE, which takes it up. It further suggests that organic anion transport systems are the route by which cAMP crosses RPE cell membranes since probenecid inhibits extracellular cAMP from causing pigment granule aggregation. PMID:17196104

  11. Real-time quantitative monitoring of hiPSC-based model of macular degeneration on Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing microelectrodes.

    PubMed

    Gamal, W; Borooah, S; Smith, S; Underwood, I; Srsen, V; Chandran, S; Bagnaninchi, P O; Dhillon, B

    2015-09-15

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the developed world. Humanized disease models are required to develop new therapies for currently incurable forms of AMD. In this work, a tissue-on-a-chip approach was developed through combining human induced pluripotent stem cells, Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS) and reproducible electrical wounding assays to model and quantitatively study AMD. Retinal Pigment Epithelium (RPE) cells generated from a patient with an inherited macular degeneration and from an unaffected sibling were used to test the model platform on which a reproducible electrical wounding assay was conducted to model RPE damage. First, a robust and reproducible real-time quantitative monitoring over a 25-day period demonstrated the establishment and maturation of RPE layers on the microelectrode arrays. A spatially controlled RPE layer damage that mimicked cell loss in AMD disease was then initiated. Post recovery, significant differences (P<0.01) in migration rates were found between case (8.6±0.46?m/h) and control cell lines (10.69±0.21?m/h). Quantitative data analysis suggested this was achieved due to lower cell-substrate adhesion in the control cell line. The ECIS cell-substrate adhesion parameter (?) was found to be 7.8±0.28?(1/2)cm for the case cell line and 6.5±0.15?(1/2)cm for the control. These findings were confirmed using cell adhesion biochemical assays. The developed disease model-on-a-chip is a powerful platform for translational studies with considerable potential to investigate novel therapies by enabling real-time, quantitative and reproducible patient-specific RPE cell repair studies. PMID:25950942

  12. Locally differentiated cryptic pigmentation in the freshwater isopod Asellus aquaticus.

    PubMed

    Hargeby, A; Stoltz, J; Johansson, J

    2005-05-01

    A repeated pattern of background colour matching in animals is an indication that pigmentation may be cryptic. Here, we examine the relationship between pigmentation of the freshwater isopod Asellus aquaticus and background darkness in 29 lakes, wetlands and ponds in Southern Sweden. The results show that Asellus pigmentation was correlated with substrate darkness across all localities. In seven localities, in which two contrasting substrate types were noted, Asellus populations were differentiated with respect to pigmentation. These findings thus provide phenomenological support for cryptic pigmentation in Asellus. Pigmentation generally increased with body size, but the relationship between pigmentation and size differed among localities, possibly as a result of differences in correlational selection on pigmentation and size. Selection thus appears to have resulted in local differentiation over a small spatial scale, even within lakes and wetlands. This differentiation is a likely cause behind elevated phenotype variation noted in localities with two substrate types, suggesting that habitat heterogeneity promotes genetic diversity. PMID:15842500

  13. Separation of Chloroplast Pigments Using Reverse Phase Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, R. Neil

    1997-01-01

    Presents a protocol that uses reverse phase chromatography for the separation of chloroplast pigments. Provides a simple and relatively safe procedure for use in teaching laboratories. Discusses pigment extraction, chromatography, results, and advantages of the process. (JRH)

  14. Pigmentation and the cutaneous response to ultraviolet radiation 

    E-print Network

    Wong, Terence Hawkin

    2009-01-01

    Variation in pigmentation of hair and skin is one of the most striking forms of human diversity. Human pigmentation and sun sensitivity is a complex trait. The melanocortin 1 receptor gene (MC1R) (OMIM 15555) has been ...

  15. Pigment oligomers as natural and artificial photosynthetic antennas

    SciTech Connect

    Blankenship, R.E. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Green photosynthetic bacteria contain antenna complexes known as chlorosomes. These complexes are appressed to the cytoplasmic side of the inner cell membrane and function to absorb light and transfer the energy to the photochemical reaction center, where photochemical energy storage takes place. Chlorosomes differ from all other known photosynthetic antenna complexes in that the geometrical arrangement of pigments is determined primarily by pigment-pigment interactions instead of pigment-protein interactions. The bacteriochlorophyll c, d or e pigments found in chlorosomes form large oligomers with characteristic spectral properties significantly perturbed from those exhibited by monomeric pigments. Because of their close spatial interaction, the pigments are thought to be strongly coupled electronically, and many of the optical properties result from exciton interactions. This presentation will summarize existing knowledge on the chemical composition and properties of chlorosomes, the evidence for the oligomeric nature of chlorosome pigment organization and proposed structures for the oligomers, and the kinetics and mechanisms of energy transfer in chlorosomes.

  16. Cystoid macular edema in a patient with Danon disease

    PubMed Central

    Mack, Heather G

    2014-01-01

    To report a patient with Danon retinopathy with cystoid macular edema treated with topical dorzolamide 2% eye drops and oral acetazolamide. A 37-year-old Caucasian man with Danon disease treated with topical and oral carbonic anhydrase inhibitors participated in the study. Examinations performed before and during treatment included visual acuity (VA), spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, and electroretinography. Following total 48 weeks of treatment, VA decreased from 20/30 OD, 20/200 OS, to 20/40 OD, CF OS. The mean central retinal thickness was unchanged from baseline 263 ?m OD, 226 ?m OS, after treatment 283 ?m OD and 202 ?m OS. In our case, carbonic anydrase inhibitors were not effective. However, a general recommendation cannot be given based on a single case. PMID:23571262

  17. Managing diabetic macular edema: The leading cause of diabetes blindness.

    PubMed

    Romero-Aroca, Pedro

    2011-06-15

    Diabetic macular edema (DME) is the leading cause of blindness in young adults in developed countries, affecting 12% of type 1 and 28% of type 2 diabetic patients. The gold standard DME treatment should be based on a good control of glycemia along with control of lipids and renal function. However, despite the systemic metabolic control values being essential for patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR), it has proven to be insufficient for DME if it appears. With these patients, additional measures are needed in order to avoid the subsequent loss of vision. While laser treatment of DME has been the only valid treatment so far, it has been inadequate in chronic cases. The introduction of new treatments, such as intravitreal corticosteroids or anti-VEGF drugs, have recently shown their safety and efficacy and together with laser photocoagulation are becoming the treatments of choice in the management of DME. PMID:21860693

  18. Diabetic Macular Edema: Pathophysiology and Novel Therapeutic Targets.

    PubMed

    Das, Arup; McGuire, Paul G; Rangasamy, Sampathkumar

    2015-07-01

    Diabetic macular edema (DME) is the major cause of vision loss in diabetic persons. Alteration of the blood-retinal barrier is the hallmark of this disease, characterized by pericyte loss and endothelial cell-cell junction breakdown. Recent animal and clinical studies strongly indicate that DME is an inflammatory disease. Multiple cytokines and chemokines are involved in the pathogenesis of DME, with multiple cellular involvement affecting the neurovascular unit. With the introduction of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents, the treatment of DME has been revolutionized, and the indication for laser therapy has been limited. However, the response to anti-VEGF drugs in DME is not as robust as in proliferative diabetic retinopathy, and many patients with DME do not show complete resolution of fluid despite multiple intravitreal injections. Potential novel therapies targeting molecules other than VEGF and using new drug-delivery systems currently are being developed and evaluated in clinical trials. PMID:25935789

  19. Postoperative cystoid macular oedema in a patient on fingolimod.

    PubMed

    Fan Gaskin, Jennifer Chen-Chia; Coote, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We describe the first case of fingolimod-associated bilateral cystoid macular oedema (CMO) following uncomplicated cataract surgery. A 57-year-old woman has been on fingolimod for the past 2?years for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. She underwent uneventful consecutive cataract surgery 2?weeks apart. Three weeks following the second cataract operation, she reported gradual-onset blurred vision bilaterally. Examination revealed mildly reduced visual acuity and bilateral CMO. Treatment with topical corticosteroids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory eye drops, as well as cessation of fingolimod in collaboration with the neurologist, resulted in complete resolution of the CMO. Patients on fingolimod are likely to be at increased risk of developing postoperative CMO. PMID:25969500

  20. Differential Gene Expression in Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Denise J; DeAngelis, Margaret M

    2014-10-23

    Gene expression is the first step in ascribing function between an associated gene and disease. Understanding how variation in a gene influences expression, particularly in tissues affected by the disease, may help elucidate what influences the phenotypic outcome of that disease. Previous studies of the genetics of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) have identified several risk factors, but have not yet bridged the gap between gene association and identifying a specific mechanism or function that is involved in the pathogenesis of AMD. Advances in genomic technologies, such as RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), single cell RNA-seq, bilsulfite sequencing, and/or whole genome methylation, will be powerful tools for identifying genes/pathways that are differentially expressed in those with AMD versus those without AMD. These technologies should advance the field of AMD research so that appropriate preventive and therapeutic targets can be developed. PMID:25342062

  1. Therapeutic targets in age-related macular disease

    PubMed Central

    Bird, Alan C.

    2010-01-01

    Age-related macular disease (AMD) accounts for more than 50% of blind registration in Western society. Patients with AMD are classified as having early disease, in which visual function is well preserved, or late disease, in which central vision is lost. Until recently, there was no therapy available by which the course of the disorder could be modified. Now, the most common form of late-stage AMD — choroidal neovascularization — responds to treatment with anti-VEGF therapies; although visual loss is modified in a portion of these cases, no therapeutic approach exists that alters the evolution from early to late disease. However, as discussed in this Review, research over the last few years has demonstrated several features of AMD that are likely to be amenable to treatment. Potential targets for treatment are described, and possible therapeutic approaches are discussed. PMID:20811159

  2. Next generation therapeutic solutions for age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Cunnsamy, Khrishen; Ufret-Vincenty, Rafael; Wang, Shusheng

    2013-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the primary cause of blindness among the elderly worldwide. To date, no cure is available, and the available palliative treatments only showed limited efficacy in improving visual acuity. The etiology of AMD remains elusive but research over the past decade has uncovered characteristic features of the disease. Known as the hallmarks of AMD, these features include (A) oxidative stress and RPE cytotoxicity; (B) loss of macromolecular permeability and hydraulic conductivity: (C) inflammation; (D) choroidal neovascularization and vascular leakage; and (E) loss of neuroprotection. Recent breakthrough in understanding the pathogenesis of AMD has spawned an array of novel therapeutic agents designed to address these hallmarks. Here we review the features of AMD and highlight the most promising therapeutic and diagnostic approaches based on the patents published from 2008 to 2011. Most likely, a next generation treatment for AMD will be developed from these emerging efforts. PMID:24040506

  3. Pharmacogenetics and nutritional supplementation in age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Hampton, Blake M; Kovach, Jaclyn L; Schwartz, Stephen G

    2015-01-01

    The Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) recommended treatment with antioxidants plus zinc in patients with intermediate or advanced age-related macular degeneration in order to reduce progression risks. Recent pharmacogenetic studies have reported differences in treatment outcomes with respect to variants in genes for CFH and ARMS2, although the treatment recommendations based on these differences are controversial. Different retrospective analyses of subsets of patients from the same AREDS trial have drawn different conclusions. The practicing clinician, who is not an expert on genetics, clinical trial design, or statistical analysis, may be uncertain how to interpret these results. Based on the balance of the available literature, we suggest not changing established practice recommendations until additional evidence from clinical trials becomes available.

  4. Genetic factors of age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Tuo, Jingsheng; Bojanowski, Christine M.; Chan, Chi-Chao

    2007-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of blindness in the United States and developed countries. Although the etiology and pathogenesis of AMD remain unknown, a complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors is thought to exist. The incidence and progression of all of the features of AMD are known to increase significantly with age. The tendency for familial aggregation and the findings of gene variation association studies implicate a significant genetic component in the development of AMD. This review summarizes in detail the AMD-related genes identified by studies on genetically engineered and spontaneously gene-mutated (naturally mutated) animals, AMD chromosomal loci identified by linkage studies, AMD-related genes identified through studies of monogenic degenerative retinal diseases, and AMD-related gene variation identified by association studies. PMID:15094132

  5. Bestrophin 1 is indispensable for volume regulation in human retinal pigment epithelium cells

    PubMed Central

    Milenkovic, Andrea; Brandl, Caroline; Milenkovic, Vladimir M.; Jendryke, Thomas; Sirianant, Lalida; Wanitchakool, Potchanart; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Reiff, Charlotte M.; Horling, Franziska; Schrewe, Heinrich; Schreiber, Rainer; Kunzelmann, Karl; Wetzel, Christian H.; Weber, Bernhard H. F.

    2015-01-01

    In response to cell swelling, volume-regulated anion channels (VRACs) participate in a process known as regulatory volume decrease (RVD). Only recently, first insight into the molecular identity of mammalian VRACs was obtained by the discovery of the leucine-rich repeats containing 8A (LRRC8A) gene. Here, we show that bestrophin 1 (BEST1) but not LRRC8A is crucial for volume regulation in human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in RPE derived from human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) exhibit an outwardly rectifying chloride current with characteristic functional properties of VRACs. This current is severely reduced in hiPSC-RPE cells derived from macular dystrophy patients with pathologic BEST1 mutations. Disruption of the orthologous mouse gene (Best1?/?) does not result in obvious retinal pathology but leads to a severe subfertility phenotype in agreement with minor endogenous expression of Best1 in murine RPE but highly abundant expression in mouse testis. Sperm from Best1?/? mice showed reduced motility and abnormal sperm morphology, indicating an inability in RVD. Together, our data suggest that the molecular identity of VRACs is more complex—that is, instead of a single ubiquitous channel, VRACs could be formed by cell type- or tissue-specific subunit composition. Our findings provide the basis to further examine VRAC diversity in normal and diseased cell physiology, which is key to exploring novel therapeutic approaches in VRAC-associated pathologies. PMID:25941382

  6. Resveratrol attenuates CXCL11 expression induced by proinflammatory cytokines in retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kutty, R Krishnan; Samuel, William; Abay, Rebecca; Cherukuri, Aswini; Nagineni, Chandrasekharam N; Duncan, Todd; Jaworski, Cynthia; Vijayasarathy, Camasamudram; Redmond, T Michael

    2015-08-01

    Dysfunction of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) resulting from chronic inflammation is implicated in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). RPE cells adjacent to drusen deposits in the AMD eye are known to contain CXCL11, a chemokine involved in inflammatory cell recruitment. We investigated the CXCL11 production by the human RPE (ARPE-19) cells under inflammatory conditions and tested its response to resveratrol, a naturally occurring anti-inflammatory antioxidant. A proinflammatory cytokine mixture consisting of IFN-?, IL-1? and TNF-? highly increased CXCL11 mRNA expression and CXCL11 protein secretion by ARPE-19 cells. Resveratrol substantially inhibited the proinflammatory cytokines-induced CXCL11 production while partially blocking nuclear factor-?B activation. This inhibitory action of resveratrol was also observed for the cytokines-induced expression of chemokines CXCL9, CCL2 and CCL5. Our results indicate that resveratrol could potentially attenuate RPE inflammatory response implicated in the pathogenesis of AMD. PMID:25890876

  7. Beta cyclodextrins bind, stabilize, and remove lipofuscin bisretinoids from retinal pigment epithelium.

    PubMed

    Nociari, Marcelo M; Lehmann, Guillermo L; Perez Bay, Andres E; Radu, Roxana A; Jiang, Zhichun; Goicochea, Shelby; Schreiner, Ryan; Warren, J David; Shan, Jufang; Adam de Beaumais, Ségolčne; Ménand, Mickaël; Sollogoub, Matthieu; Maxfield, Frederick R; Rodriguez-Boulan, Enrique

    2014-04-01

    Accumulation of lipofuscin bisretinoids (LBs) in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is the alleged cause of retinal degeneration in genetic blinding diseases (e.g., Stargardt) and a possible etiological agent for age-related macular degeneration. Currently, there are no approved treatments for these diseases; hence, agents that efficiently remove LBs from RPE would be valuable therapeutic candidates. Here, we show that beta cyclodextrins (?-CDs) bind LBs and protect them against oxidation. Computer modeling and biochemical data are consistent with the encapsulation of the retinoid arms of LBs within the hydrophobic cavity of ?-CD. Importantly, ?-CD treatment reduced by 73% and 48% the LB content of RPE cell cultures and of eyecups obtained from Abca4-Rdh8 double knock-out (DKO) mice, respectively. Furthermore, intravitreal administration of ?-CDs reduced significantly the content of bisretinoids in the RPE of DKO animals. Thus, our results demonstrate the effectiveness of ?-CDs to complex and remove LB deposits from RPE cells and provide crucial data to develop novel prophylactic approaches for retinal disorders elicited by LBs. PMID:24706818

  8. Vitamin A dimers trigger the protracted death of retinal pigment epithelium cells

    PubMed Central

    Mihai, D M; Washington, I

    2014-01-01

    Cellular events responsible for the initiation of major neurodegenerative disorders of the eye leading to blindness, including age-related macular degeneration, Stargardt and Best diseases, are poorly understood. Accumulation of vitamin A dimers, such as N-retinylidene-N-retinylethanolamine (A2E) in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), is one of the earliest measurable events preceding retinal degeneration. However, the extent to which these dimers contribute to tissue degeneration is not clear. To determine if A2E could trigger morphological changes associated with the degenerating RPE and subsequent cell death, we evaluated its toxicity to cultured human RPE cells (ARPE-19). We show that A2E triggered the accumulation of debris followed by a protracted death. A2E was up to?14-fold more toxic than its precursor, retinaldehyde. Measurements reveal that the concentration of A2E in the aged human eye could exceed the concentration of all other retinoids, opening the possibility of A2E-triggered cell death by several reported mechanisms. Findings suggest that accumulation of vitamin A dimers such as A2E in the human eye might be responsible for the formation of ubiquitous RPE debris, an early indication of retinal degeneration, and that preventing or reducing the accumulation of vitamin A dimers is a prudent strategy to prevent blindness. PMID:25058422

  9. High Concentration of Zinc in Sub-retinal Pigment Epithelial Deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Lengyel,I.; Flinn, J.; Peto, T.; Linkous, D.; Cano, K.; Bird, A.; Lanzirotti, A.; Frederickson, C.; van Kuijk, F.

    2007-01-01

    One of the hallmarks of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of blindness in the elderly in Western societies, is the accumulation of sub-retinal pigment epithelial deposits (sub-RPE deposits), including drusen and basal laminar deposits, in Bruch's membrane (BM). The nature and the underlying mechanisms of this deposit formation are not fully understood. Because we know that zinc contributes to deposit formation in neurodegenerative diseases, we tested the hypothesis that zinc might be involved in deposit formation in AMD. Using zinc specific fluorescent probes and microprobe synchrotron X-ray fluorescence we showed that sub-RPE deposits in post-mortem human tissues contain unexpectedly high concentrations of zinc, including abundant bio-available (ionic and/or loosely protein bound) ions. Zinc accumulation was especially high in the maculae of eyes with AMD. Internal deposit structures are especially enriched in bio-available zinc. Based on the evidence provided here we suggest that zinc plays a role in sub-RPE deposit formation in the aging human eye and possibly also in the development and/or progression of AMD.

  10. Retinal pigment epithelium development, plasticity, and tissue homeostasis (Invited review for Experimental Eye Research)

    PubMed Central

    Fuhrmann, Sabine; Zou, ChangJiang; Levine, Edward M.

    2014-01-01

    The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a simple epithelium interposed between the neural retina and the choroid. Although only 1 cell-layer in thickness, the RPE is a virtual workhorse, acting in several capacities that are essential for visual function and preserving the structural and physiological integrities of neighboring tissues. Defects in RPE function, whether through chronic dysfunction or age-related decline, are associated with retinal degenerative diseases including age-related macular degeneration. As such, investigations are focused on developing techniques to replace RPE through stem cell-based methods, motivated primarily because of the seemingly limited regeneration or self-repair properties of mature RPE. Despite this, RPE cells have an unusual capacity to transdifferentiate into various cell types, with the particular fate choices being highly context-dependent. In this review, we describe recent findings elucidating the mechanisms and steps of RPE development and propose a developmental framework for understanding the apparent contradiction in the capacity for low self-repair versus high transdifferentiation. PMID:24060344

  11. Comparison of aqueous concentrations of angiogenic and inflammatory cytokines based on optical coherence tomography patterns of diabetic macular edema

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Moosang; Kim, Yonguk; Lee, Seung-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose was to compare aqueous inflammatory and angiogenic cytokine levels in diabetic macular edema (DME). Materials and Methods: Aqueous samples were obtained from 50 eyes with DME and 12 normal eyes (control group). DME was classified according to the morphologic pattern based on optical coherence tomography: Diffuse retinal thickening (DRT; n = 19), cystoid macular edema (CME; n = 17), or serous retinal detachment (SRD; n = 14). Aqueous samples were collected just before intravitreal injection and at the beginning of cataract surgery in the control group. Interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, interferon-induced protein (IP)-10, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-AA, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels were measured by multiplex bead assay. Results: The IL-6, IL-8, IP-10, and PDGF-AA levels differed significantly among the three groups of DME (P = 0.014, P = 0.038, P = 0.021, and P = 0.041, respectively). However, there were no differences between groups in aqueous concentration levels of MCP-1 and VEGF (P = 0.205 and P = 0.062, respectively). IL-6 (P = 0.026) and IL-8 (P = 0.023) correlated positively with central foveal thickness (CFT) in the CME group. None of the cytokine levels correlated significantly with CFT in any of the DRT and SRD groups. Conclusions: Aqueous concentrations of cytokines varied according to the morphologic pattern of DME, which might explain the variable response to treatments such as intravitreal bevacizumab or triamcinolone injection. PMID:26044469

  12. Stealth virus culture pigments: a potential source of cellular energy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. John Martin

    2003-01-01

    The cytopathic effect (CPE) induced in human MRC-5 fibroblasts by blood mononuclear cells of patients infected with stealth-adapted viruses is characterized by the formation of clusters of foamy vacuolated cells that commonly become heavily pigmented. The pigmented material coalesces into discrete structures of varying shapes and sizes, including solid particles, flat ribbons, and long, thin threads. Pigmented material can also

  13. Neurotized congenital melanocytic nevus resembling a pigmented neurofibroma.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nidhi; Chandrashekar, Laxmisha; Kar, Rakhee; Sylvia, Mary Theresa; Thappa, Devinder Mohan

    2015-01-01

    Neurotized congenital melanocytic nevus and pigmented neurofibroma (PNF) are close mimics and pose a clinicopathological challenge. We present a case of pigmented hypertrichotic plaque over lumbosacral region and discuss the differential diagnosis and its clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemistry features which may aid in differentiation. We highlight the difficulties faced in differentiating neurotized congenital melanocytic nevus from pigmented neurofibroma. PMID:25657396

  14. Pigment vs cholesterol cholelithiasis: Comparison of stone and bile composition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce W. Trotman; J. Donald Ostrow; Roger D. Soloway; Eleanor B. Cheong; Regina B. Longyear

    1974-01-01

    This report presents a comparative study of gallstone and gallbladder bile composition from 100 unselected American patients, 23 with pigment and 77 with cholesterol cholelithiasis. Cholesterol stones were predominantly composed of cholesterol, whereas pigment stones were mainly composed of an unidentified residue, bilirubin, and bile salts. The residue in pigment stones was not calcium bilirubinate, which sharply contrasts with the

  15. A Histochemical Study of the Pigment Cells of the Leech

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. BRADBURY

    SUMMARY Glossiphonia complanata was found to contain two types of pigment cell. One is very large, usually globular in section, and is found in the deeper layers of connective tissue near the intestinal caeca. The second type is smaller and occurs only in the sub- cutaneous region of the body. The large pigment cell contains very many, regular, pigmented spheres,

  16. Color me bad: microbial pigments as virulence factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George Y. Liu; Victor Nizet

    2009-01-01

    A hallmark feature of several pathogenic microbes is the distinctive color of their colonies when propagated in the clinical laboratory. Such pigmentation comes in a variety of hues, and has often proven useful in presump- tive clinical diagnosis. Recent advances in microbial pigment biochemistry and the genetic basis of pigment production have sometimes revealed a more sinister aspect to these

  17. Pigment chemistry: The red sweat of the hippopotamus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoko Saikawa; Kimiko Hashimoto; Masaya Nakata; Masato Yoshihara; Kiyoshi Nagai; Motoyasu Ida; Teruyuki Komiya

    2004-01-01

    Within a few minutes of perspiration, the colourless, viscous sweat of the hippopotamus gradually turns red, and then brown as the pigment polymerizes. Here we isolate and characterize the pigments responsible for this colour reaction. The unstable red and orange pigments turn out to be non-benzenoid aromatic compounds that are unexpectedly acidic and have antibiotic as well as sunscreen activity.

  18. Pigment chemistry: the red sweat of the hippopotamus.

    PubMed

    Saikawa, Yoko; Hashimoto, Kimiko; Nakata, Masaya; Yoshihara, Masato; Nagai, Kiyoshi; Ida, Motoyasu; Komiya, Teruyuki

    2004-05-27

    Within a few minutes of perspiration, the colourless, viscous sweat of the hippopotamus gradually turns red, and then brown as the pigment polymerizes. Here we isolate and characterize the pigments responsible for this colour reaction. The unstable red and orange pigments turn out to be non-benzenoid aromatic compounds that are unexpectedly acidic and have antibiotic as well as sunscreen activity. PMID:15164051

  19. Transcriptome analysis and molecular signature of human retinal pigment epithelium

    E-print Network

    Abecasis, Goncalo

    Transcriptome analysis and molecular signature of human retinal pigment epithelium N.V. Strunnikova December 14, 2009; Revised March 3, 2010; Accepted March 30, 2010 Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE is an aging-associated multifactorial disease that affects the photoreceptor-retinal pigment epithelium (RPE

  20. 21 CFR 73.3128 - Mica-based pearlescent pigments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Mica-based pearlescent pigments. 73.3128 Section 73.3128 Food...73.3128 Mica-based pearlescent pigments. (a) Identity and specifications...restrictions. (1) Mica-based pearlescent pigments listed in paragraph (a) of...